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Sample records for flammability level evaluation

  1. STEADY STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION AND LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HU TA

    2009-10-26

    Assess the steady-state flammability level at normal and off-normal ventilation conditions. The hydrogen generation rate was calculated for 177 tanks using the rate equation model. Flammability calculations based on hydrogen, ammonia, and methane were performed for 177 tanks for various scenarios.

  2. Steady-State Flammable Gas Release Rate Calculation And Lower Flammability Level Evaluation For Hanford Tank Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, T.A.

    2007-01-01

    Assess the steady-state flammability level at normal and off-normal ventilation conditions. The methodology of flammability analysis for Hanford tank waste is developed. The hydrogen generation rate model was applied to calculate the gas generation rate for 177 tanks. Flammability concentrations and the time to reach 25% and 100% of the lower flammability limit, and the minimum ventilation rate to keep from 100 of the LFL are calculated for 177 tanks at various scenarios.

  3. Steady-State Flammable Gas Release Rate Calculation And Lower Flammability Level Evaluation For Hanford Tank Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meacham, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    This report assesses the steady state flammability level under off normal ventilation conditions in the tank headspace for 28 double-shell tanks (DST) and 149 single shell-tanks (SST) at the Hanford Site. Flammability was calculated using estimated gas release rates, Le Chatelier's rule, and lower flammability limits of fuels in an air mixture. This revision updates the hydrogen generation rate input data for al1 177 tanks using waste composition information from the Best Basis Inventory Detail Report (data effective as of August 4,2008). Assuming only barometric breathing, the shortest time to reach 25% of the lower flammability limit is 13 days for DSTs (i.e., tank 241-AZ-102) and 36 days for SSTs (i.e., tank 241-B-203). Assuming zero ventilation, the shortest time to reach 25% of the lower flammability limit is 12 days for DSTs (i.e., tank 241-AZ-102) and 34 days for SSTs (i.e., tank 241-B-203).

  4. Steady-State Flammable Gas Release Rate Calculation And Lower Flammability Level Evaluation For Hanford Tank Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meacham, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    This report assesses the steady state flammability level under off normal ventilation conditions in the tank headspace for 28 double-shell tanks (DST) and 149 single shell-tanks (SST) at the Hanford Site. Flammability was calculated using estimated gas release rates, Le Chatelier's rule, and lower flammability limits of fuels in an air mixture. This revision updates the hydrogen generation rate input data for all 177 tanks using waste composition information from the Best Basis Inventory Detail Report (data effective as of August 4,2008). Assuming only barometric breathing, the shortest time to reach 25% of the lower flammability limit is 11 days for DSTs (i.e., tank 241-AZ-10l) and 36 days for SSTs (i.e., tank 241-B-203). Assuming zero ventilation, the shortest time to reach 25% of the lower flammability limit is 10 days for DSTs (i.e., tank 241-AZ-101) and 34 days for SSTs (i.e., tank 241-B-203).

  5. Methodology for flammable gas evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, J.D., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-12

    There are 177 radioactive waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site. The waste generates flammable gases. The waste releases gas continuously, but in some tanks the waste has shown a tendency to trap these flammable gases. When enough gas is trapped in a tank`s waste matrix, it may be released in a way that renders part or all of the tank atmosphere flammable for a period of time. Tanks must be evaluated against previously defined criteria to determine whether they can present a flammable gas hazard. This document presents the methodology for evaluating tanks in two areas of concern in the tank headspace:steady-state flammable-gas concentration resulting from continuous release, and concentration resulting from an episodic gas release.

  6. Flammable gas data evaluation. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitney, P.D.; Meyer, P.A.; Miller, N.E.

    1996-10-01

    The Hanford Site is home to 177 large, underground nuclear waste storage tanks. Numerous safety and environmental concerns surround these tanks and their contents. One such concern is the propensity for the waste in these tanks to generate, retain, and periodically release flammable gases. This report documents some of the activities of the Flammable Gas Project Data Evaluation Task conducted for Westinghouse Hanford Company during fiscal year 1996. Described in this report are: (1) the results of examining the in-tank temperature measurements for insights into gas release behavior; (2) the preliminary results of examining the tank waste level measurements for insights into gas release behavior; and (3) an explanation for the observed hysteresis in the level/pressure measurements, a phenomenon observed earlier this year when high-frequency tank waste level measurements came on-line

  7. Flammable gas tank waste level reconciliation tank 241-SX-105

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddie, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    Fluor Daniel Northwest was authorized to address flammable gas issues by reconciling the unexplained surface level increases in Tank 241-SX-105 (SX-105, typical). The trapped gas evaluation document states that Tank SX-105 exceeds the 25% of the lower flammable limit criterion, based on a surface level rise evaluation. The Waste Storage Tank Status and Leak Detection Criteria document, commonly referred to as the Welty Report is the basis for this letter report. The Welty Report is also a part of the trapped gas evaluation document criteria. The Welty Report contains various tank information, including: physical information, status, levels, and dry wells. The unexplained waste level rises were attributed to the production and retention of gas in the column of waste corresponding to the unaccounted for surface level rise. From 1973 through 1980, the Welty Report tracked Tank SX-105 transfers and reported a net cumulative change of 20.75 in. This surface level increase is from an unknown source or is unaccounted for. Duke Engineering and Services Hanford and Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation are interested in determining the validity of unexplained surface level changes reported in the Welty Report based upon other corroborative sources of data. The purpose of this letter report is to assemble detailed surface level and waste addition data from daily tank records, logbooks, and other corroborative data that indicate surface levels, and to reconcile the cumulative unaccounted for surface level changes as shown in the Welty Report from 1973 through 1980. Tank SX-105 initially received waste from REDOX starting the second quarter of 1955. After June 1975, the tank primarily received processed waste (slurry) from the 242-S Evaporator/Crystallizer and transferred supernate waste to Tanks S-102 and SX-102. The Welty Report shows a cumulative change of 20.75 in. from June 1973 through December 1980

  8. Flammable gas tank waste level reconcilliation tank 241-SX-102

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddie, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    Fluoro Dynel Northwest (FDNW) was authorized to address flammable gas issues by reconciling the unexplained surface level increases in Tank 24 1-S-1 1 1 (S-I 1 1, typical). The trapped gas evaluation document (ref 1) states that Tank SX-102 exceeds the 25% of the lower flammable limit (FL) criterion (ref 2), based on a surface level rise evaluation. The Waste Storage Tank Status and Leak Detection Criteria document, commonly referred to as the ''Wallet Report'' is the basis for this letter report (ref 3). The Wallet Report is also a part of the trapped gas evaluation document criteria. The Wallet Report contains various tank information, including: physical information, status, levels, and dry wells, see Appendix A. The unexplained waste level rises were attributed to the production and retention of gas in the column of waste corresponding to the unacquainted for surface level rise. From 1973 through 1980, the Wallet Report tracked Tank S- 102 transfers and reported a net cumulative change of 19.95 in. This surface level increase is from an unknown source or is unacquainted for. Duke Engineering and Services Hanford (DASH) and Leached Martin Hanford Corporation (LMHC) are interested in determining the validity of the unexplained surface level changes reported in the 0611e Wallet Report based upon other corroborative sources of data. The purpose of this letter report is to assemble detailed surface level and waste addition data from daily tank records, logbooks, and other corroborative data that indicate surface levels, and to reconcile the cumulative unacquainted for surface level changes as shown in the Wallet Report from 1973 through 1980

  9. Evaluation of Flammable Gas Monitoring and Ventilation System Alternatives for Double-Contained Receiver Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GUSTAVSON, R.D.

    1999-01-01

    This study identifies possible flammable gas monitoring and ventilation system alternatives to ensure adequate removal of flammable gases from the Double-Contained Receiver Tank (DCRT) primary tanks during temporary storage of small amounts of waste. The study evaluates and compares these alternatives to support closure of the Flammable Gas Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ TF-96-04330)

  10. An approximate-reasoning-based method for screening high-level waste tanks for flammable gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenhawer, S.W.; Bott, T.F.; Smith, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    The in situ retention of flammable gas produced by radiolysis and thermal decomposition in high-level waste can pose a safety problem if the gases are released episodically into the dome space of a storage tank. Screening efforts at Hanford have been directed at identifying tanks in which this situation could exist. Problems encountered in screening motivated an effort to develop an improved screening methodology. Approximate reasoning (AR) is a formalism designed to emulate the kinds of complex judgments made by subject matter experts. It uses inductive logic structures to build a sequence of forward-chaining inferences about a subject. AR models incorporate natural language expressions known as linguistic variables to represent evidence. The use of fuzzy sets to represent these variables mathematically makes it practical to evaluate quantitative and qualitative information consistently. The authors performed a pilot study to investigate the utility of AR for flammable gas screening. They found that the effort to implement such a model was acceptable and that computational requirements were reasonable. The preliminary results showed that important judgments about the validity of observational data and the predictive power of models could be made. These results give new insights into the problems observed in previous screening efforts

  11. An approximate reasoning-based method for screening high-level-waste tanks for flammable gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenhawer, S.W.; Bott, T.F.; Smith, R.E.

    2000-01-01

    The in situ retention of flammable gas produced by radiolysis and thermal decomposition in high-level waste can pose a safety problem if the gases are released episodically into the dome space of a storage tank. Screening efforts at the Hanford site have been directed at identifying tanks in which this situation could exist. Problems encountered in screening motivated an effort to develop and improved screening methodology. Approximate reasoning (AR) is a formalism designed to emulate the kinds of complex judgments made by subject matter experts. It uses inductive logic structures to build a sequence of forward-chaining inferences about a subject. Approximate-reasoning models incorporate natural language expressions known as linguistic variables to represent evidence. The use of fuzzy sets to represent these variables mathematically makes it practical to evaluate quantitative and qualitative information consistently. In a pilot study to investigate the utility of AR for flammable gas screening, the effort to implement such a model was found to be acceptable, and computational requirements were found to be reasonable. The preliminary results showed that important judgments about the validity of observational data and the predictive power of models could be made. These results give new insights into the problems observed in previous screening efforts

  12. An Approximate Reasoning-Based Method for Screening High-Level-Waste Tanks for Flammable Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenhawer, Stephen W.; Bott, Terry F.; Smith, Ronald E.

    2000-01-01

    The in situ retention of flammable gas produced by radiolysis and thermal decomposition in high-level waste can pose a safety problem if the gases are released episodically into the dome space of a storage tank. Screening efforts at the Hanford site have been directed at identifying tanks in which this situation could exist. Problems encountered in screening motivated an effort to develop an improved screening methodology. Approximate reasoning (AR) is a formalism designed to emulate the kinds of complex judgments made by subject matter experts. It uses inductive logic structures to build a sequence of forward-chaining inferences about a subject. Approximate-reasoning models incorporate natural language expressions known as linguistic variables to represent evidence. The use of fuzzy sets to represent these variables mathematically makes it practical to evaluate quantitative and qualitative information consistently. In a pilot study to investigate the utility of AR for flammable gas screening, the effort to implement such a model was found to be acceptable, and computational requirements were found to be reasonable. The preliminary results showed that important judgments about the validity of observational data and the predictive power of models could be made. These results give new insights into the problems observed in previous screening efforts

  13. An approximate reasoning-based method for screening high-level-waste tanks for flammable gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenhawer, S.W.; Bott, T.F.; Smith, R.E.

    2000-06-01

    The in situ retention of flammable gas produced by radiolysis and thermal decomposition in high-level waste can pose a safety problem if the gases are released episodically into the dome space of a storage tank. Screening efforts at the Hanford site have been directed at identifying tanks in which this situation could exist. Problems encountered in screening motivated an effort to develop and improved screening methodology. Approximate reasoning (AR) is a formalism designed to emulate the kinds of complex judgments made by subject matter experts. It uses inductive logic structures to build a sequence of forward-chaining inferences about a subject. Approximate-reasoning models incorporate natural language expressions known as linguistic variables to represent evidence. The use of fuzzy sets to represent these variables mathematically makes it practical to evaluate quantitative and qualitative information consistently. In a pilot study to investigate the utility of AR for flammable gas screening, the effort to implement such a model was found to be acceptable, and computational requirements were found to be reasonable. The preliminary results showed that important judgments about the validity of observational data and the predictive power of models could be made. These results give new insights into the problems observed in previous screening efforts.

  14. Flammable gas project topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, G.D.

    1997-01-29

    The flammable gas safety issue was recognized in 1990 with the declaration of an unreviewed safety question (USQ) by the U. S. Department of Energy as a result of the behavior of the Hanford Site high-level waste tank 241-SY-101. This tank exhibited episodic releases of flammable gas that on a couple of occasions exceeded the lower flammability limit of hydrogen in air. Over the past six years there has been a considerable amount of knowledge gained about the chemical and physical processes that govern the behavior of tank 241-SY-1 01 and other tanks associated with the flammable gas safety issue. This report was prepared to provide an overview of that knowledge and to provide a description of the key information still needed to resolve the issue. Items covered by this report include summaries of the understanding of gas generation, retention and release mechanisms, the composition and flammability behavior of the gas mixture, the amounts of stored gas, and estimated gas release fractions for spontaneous releases. `Me report also discusses methods being developed for evaluating the 177 tanks at the Hanford Site and the problems associated with these methods. Means for measuring the gases emitted from the waste are described along with laboratory experiments designed to gain more information regarding rates of generation, species of gases emitted and modes of gas storage and release. Finally, the process for closing the USQ is outlined as are the information requirements to understand and resolve the flammable gas issue.

  15. FLAMMABLE GAS TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRIPPS, L.J.

    2005-02-18

    This document describes the qualitative evaluation of frequency and consequences for double shell tank (DST) and single shell tank (SST) representative flammable gas accidents and associated hazardous conditions without controls. The evaluation indicated that safety-significant SSCs and/or TSRS were required to prevent or mitigate flammable gas accidents. Discussion on the resulting control decisions is included. This technical basis document was developed to support of the Tank Farms Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) and describes the risk binning process for the flammable gas representative accidents and associated represented hazardous conditions. The purpose of the risk binning process is to determine the need for safety-significant structures, systems, and components (SSC) and technical safety requirement (TSR)-level controls for a given representative accident or represented hazardous condition based on an evaluation of the event frequency and consequence.

  16. FLAMMABLE GAS TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRIPPS, L.J.

    2005-03-03

    This document describes the qualitative evaluation of frequency and consequences for DST and SST representative flammable gas accidents and associated hazardous conditions without controls. The evaluation indicated that safety-significant structures, systems and components (SSCs) and/or technical safety requirements (TSRs) were required to prevent or mitigate flammable gas accidents. Discussion on the resulting control decisions is included. This technical basis document was developed to support WP-13033, Tank Farms Documented Safety Analysis (DSA), and describes the risk binning process for the flammable gas representative accidents and associated represented hazardous conditions. The purpose of the risk binning process is to determine the need for safety-significant structures, systems, and components (SSC) and technical safety requirement (TSR)-level controls for a given representative accident or represented hazardous condition based on an evaluation of the event frequency and consequence.

  17. Evaluation of the generation and release of flammable gases in tank 241-SY-101

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babad, H.; Johnson, G.D.; Lechelt, J.A.; Reynolds, D.A. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)); Pederson, L.R.; Strachan, D.M. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Meisel, D.; Jonah, C. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Ashby, E.C. (Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States))

    1991-11-01

    Tank 241-SY-101 is a double shell, high-level waste tank located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This tank contains about 1 million gallons of waste that was concentrated at the 242-S Evaporator. Shortly after the waste was put in the tank, the waste began to expand because the generation of gases. In 1990 this tank was declared to have an unreviewed safety question because of the periodic release of hydrogen and nitrous oxide. A safety program was established to conduct a characterization of the waste and vented gases and to determine an effective means to prevent the accumulation of flammable gases in the tank dome space and ventilation system. Results of the expanded characterization conducted in fiscal year 1991 are presented. The use of gas chromatographs, mass spectrometers, and hydrogen-specific monitors provided a greater understanding of the vented gases. Additional instrumentation placed in the tank also helped to provide more detailed information on tank temperatures, gas pressure, and gas flow rates. An extensive laboratory study involving the Westinghouse Hanford Company, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and the Georgia Institute of Technology was initiated for the purpose of determining the mechanisms responsible for the generation of various gases. These studies evaluate both radiolytic and thermochemical processes. Results of the first series of experiments are described.

  18. Action plan for response to abnormal conditions in Hanford high level radioactive liquid waste storage tanks containing flammable gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, D.J.

    1994-03-01

    Radioactive liquid waste tends to produce hydrogen as a result of the interaction of gamma radiation and water. In tanks containing organic chelating agents, additional hydrogen gas as well as nitrous oxide and ammonia can be produced by thermal and radiolytic decomposition of these organics. Several high-level radioactive liquid waste storage tanks, located underground at the Hanford Site, contain waste that retains the gases produced in them until large quantities are released rapidly to the tank vapor space. Tanks filled to near capacity have relatively little vapor space; therefore, if the waste suddenly releases a large amount of hydrogen and nitrous oxide, a flammable gas mixture may result. The most notable waste tank with a flammable gas problem is tank 241-SY-101. Waste in this tank has occasionally released enough flammable gas to burn if an ignition source had been present inside of the tank. Several other waste tanks exhibit similar behavior to a lesser magnitude. Administrative controls have been developed to assure that these Flammable Gas Watch List tanks are safely maintained. Responses have also been developed for off-normal conditions which might develop in these tanks. In addition, scientific and engineering studies are underway to further understand and mitigate the behavior of the Flammable Gas Watch List tanks

  19. Program plan for evaluation and remediation of the generation and release of flammable gases in Hanford Site waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.D.

    1991-08-01

    This program plan describes the activities being conducted for the resolution of the flammable gas problem that is associated with 23 high-level waste tanks at the Hanford Site. The classification of the wastes in all of these tanks is not final and some wastes may not be high-level wastes. However, until the characterization and classification is complete, all the tanks are treated as if they contain high-level waste. Of the 23 tanks, Tank 241-SY-101 (referred to as Tank 101-SY) has exhibited significant episodic releases of flammable gases (hydrogen and nitrous oxide) for the past 10 years. The major near-term focus of this program is for the understanding and stabilization of this tank. An understanding of the mechanism for gas generation and the processes for the episodic release will be obtained through sampling of the tank contents, laboratory studies, and modeling of the tank behavior. Additional information will be obtained through new and upgraded instrumentation for the tank. A number of remediation, or stabilization, concepts will be evaluated for near-term (2 to 3 years) applications to Tank 101-SY. Detailed safety assessments are required for all activities that will occur in the tank (sampling, removal of equipment, and addition of new instruments). This program plan presents a discussion of each task, provides schedules for near-term activities, and gives a summary of the expected work for fiscal years 1991, 1992, and 1993. 16 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs

  20. Program plan for evaluation and remediation of the generation and release of flammable gases in Hanford Site waste tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, G.D. (comp.)

    1991-08-01

    This program plan describes the activities being conducted for the resolution of the flammable gas problem that is associated with 23 high-level waste tanks at the Hanford Site. The classification of the wastes in all of these tanks is not final and some wastes may not be high-level wastes. However, until the characterization and classification is complete, all the tanks are treated as if they contain high-level waste. Of the 23 tanks, Tank 241-SY-101 (referred to as Tank 101-SY) has exhibited significant episodic releases of flammable gases (hydrogen and nitrous oxide) for the past 10 years. The major near-term focus of this program is for the understanding and stabilization of this tank. An understanding of the mechanism for gas generation and the processes for the episodic release will be obtained through sampling of the tank contents, laboratory studies, and modeling of the tank behavior. Additional information will be obtained through new and upgraded instrumentation for the tank. A number of remediation, or stabilization, concepts will be evaluated for near-term (2 to 3 years) applications to Tank 101-SY. Detailed safety assessments are required for all activities that will occur in the tank (sampling, removal of equipment, and addition of new instruments). This program plan presents a discussion of each task, provides schedules for near-term activities, and gives a summary of the expected work for fiscal years 1991, 1992, and 1993. 16 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs.

  1. Flammability Indices for Refrigerants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Osami

    This paper introduces a new index to classify flammable refrigerants. A question on flammability indices that ASHRAE employs arose from combustion test results of R152a and ammonia. Conventional methods of not only ASHRAE but also ISO and Japanese High-pressure gas safety law to classify the flammability of refrigerants are evaluated to show why these methods conflict with the test results. The key finding of this paper is that the ratio of stoichiometric concentration to LFL concentration (R factor) represents the test results most precisely. In addition, it has excellent correlation with other flammability parameters such as flame speed and pressure rise coefficient. Classification according to this index gives reasonable flammability order of substances including ammonia, R152a and carbon monoxide. Theoretical background why this index gives good correlation is also discussed as well as the insufficient part of this method.

  2. Flammable refrigerants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerwen, R.J.M. van; Verwoerd, M.; Oostendorp, P.A.

    1999-01-01

    Hydrocarbons are promising alternatives for CFC, HCFC and HFC refrigerants. Due to their flammable nature, safety aspects have to be considered carefully. The world-wide situation concerning acceptability and practical application of flammable refrigerants is becoming more and more complex and

  3. Comparison and evaluation of methods for the determination of flammability limits, applied to methane/hydrogen/air mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoor, F. van den; Hermanns, R.T.E.; Oijen, J.A. van; Verplaetsen, F.; Goey, L.P.H. de

    2008-01-01

    Different methods, both experimental and numerical, to determine the flammability limits are compared and evaluated, exemplified by a determination of the flammability limits of methane/hydrogen/air mixtures for hydrogen fuel molar fractions of 0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6, at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature. Two different experimental methods are used. The first method uses a glass tube with visual observation of the flame, whereas the second method uses a closed spherical vessel with a pressure rise criterion to determine whether flame propagation has occurred. In addition to these experiments, the flammability limits are determined numerically. Unsteady planar and spherically expanding flames are calculated with a one-dimensional flame code with the inclusion of radiation heat loss in the optically thin limit. Comparison of the experimental results with the results of the planar flame calculations shows large differences, especially for lean mixtures. These differences increase with increasing hydrogen content in the fuel. Better agreement with the experimental results is found for the spherically expanding flame calculations. A limiting burning velocity of 5 cm/s is found to predict the upper flammability limit determined with the tube method very well, whereas the limiting flame temperature approach was found to give poorer agreement. Further analysis indicates that the neglect of flame front instabilities is the probable cause of the large differences between experimental and numerical results at the lower flammability limit

  4. Evaluation of the synergistic interaction between Decarbomobiphenyl Oxide and alumina on the flammability and thermal behavior of unsaturated polyester resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Owias, A.; Al-Haizan, A.; Khattab, M. A.

    2005-01-01

    The bromine performance of decarbomobiphenyl oxide (DBBO) as a flame retardant for unsaturated polyester resin (UP) had been investigated in its own and in the presence of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) using UL-94V and Limiting Oxygen Index (LOI). Thermal behaviors of the resulted systems were evaluated using thermal analysis technique. DBBO showed a satisfactory fire retardant performance for UP, particularly when used at a loading higher than 30 wt%. In contrast aluminum oxide has no significant effect on the reduction of the flammability. Treatment of UP with mixtures containing different portioned of DBBO and alumina showed that, the best performance of these mixtures as a flame retardant occurred when the mixture is rich in DBBO. The maximum synergism between the two additives has been observed to occur at a weight ratio of DBBO to Al2O3 of 5:6. A possible explanation for the observed synergism between the two additives was given. The synergism was partly attributed to the formation of aluminum halide species which enhance the rate of halogen released from the halogenated compound and consequently reduce the flammability of the resin. (author)

  5. Evaluation of mitigation strategies in Facility Group 1 double-shell flammable-gas tanks at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unal, C.; Sadasivan, P.; Kubic, W.L.; White, J.R.

    1997-11-01

    Radioactive nuclear waste at the Hanford Site is stored in underground waste storage tanks at the site. The tanks fall into two main categories: single-shell tanks (SSTs) and double-shell tanks (DSTs). There are a total of 149 SSTs and 28 DSTs. The wastes stored in the tanks are chemically complex. They basically involve various sodium salts (mainly nitrite, nitrate, carbonates, aluminates, and hydroxides), organic compounds, heavy metals, and various radionuclides, including cesium, strontium, plutonium, and uranium. The waste is known to generate flammable gas (FG) [hydrogen, ammonia, nitrous oxide, hydrocarbons] by complex chemical reactions. The process of gas generation, retention, and release is transient. Some tanks reach a quasi-steady stage where gas generation is balanced by the release rate. Other tanks show continuous cycles of retention followed by episodic release. There currently are 25 tanks on the Flammable Gas Watch List (FGWL). The objective of this report is to evaluate possible mitigation strategies to eliminate the FG hazard. The evaluation is an engineering study of mitigation concepts for FG generation, retention, and release behavior in Tanks SY-101, AN-103, AN 104, An-105, and Aw-101. Where possible, limited quantification of the effects of mitigation strategies on the FG hazard also is considered. The results obtained from quantification efforts discussed in this report should be considered as best-estimate values. Results and conclusions of this work are intended to help in establishing methodologies in the contractor's controls selection analysis to develop necessary safety controls for closing the FG unreviewed safety question. The general performance requirements of any mitigation scheme are discussed first

  6. An Approach to the Flammability Testing of Aerospace Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, David B.

    2012-01-01

    Presentation reviews: (1) Current approach to evaluation of spacecraft materials flammability (2) The need for and the approach to alternative routes (3) Examples of applications of the approach recommended a) Crew Module splash down b) Crew Module depressurization c) Applicability of NASA's flammability test data to other sample configurations d) Applicability of NASA's ground flammability test data to spacecraft environments

  7. Remote flammable gas detection/measuring device.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kononov, VA

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available This research report presents the results of an evaluation of the existing open path remote flammable gas detection/monitoring technology and provides recommendations on possible limited implementation of this technology and future development...

  8. Evaluation of Burning Test Rate Method for Flammable Solids to Increase air-Cargo Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukežič, Marjan; Marinšek, Marjan; Faganeli, Jadran

    2010-03-01

    This paper deals with a standard classification procedure for readily combustible solids and their assignment to the relevant packing groups according to international air-cargo legislation and regulations. The current International Air Transport Association and United Nations Orange Book regulations were used on chemically similar substances: hexamethylenetetramine and Dancook ignition briquettes, which are both assigned into the same Packing Group III. To critically evaluate the degree of hazard both chemicals present, a standard burning test rate as well as thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry and evolved gas analysis measurements were performed. It was shown that relatively small changes in the chemical composition of the material may have essential influence on the package group determination. Taking into account all the facts collected in the experimental work, it was concluded that ignition briquettes will undergo spontaneous combustion if exposed to elevated temperatures and, from this point of view, represent higher risk than hexamethylenetetramine during air transportation. Therefore, ignition briquettes should be classified into Packing Group II.

  9. Flammable gas program topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.D.

    1996-01-01

    The major emphasis of this report is to describe what has been learned about the generation, retention, and release of flammable gas mixtures in high-level waste tanks. A brief overview of efforts to characterize the gas composition will be provided. The report also discusses what needs to be learned about the phenomena, how the Unreviewed Safety Question will be closed, and the approach for removing tanks from the Watch List

  10. Flammability characteristics of LPG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardillo, Paolo

    2005-01-01

    The use of LPG is continuous increase not only in the domestic field but also in the field of the transports. Consequently, there is a renewed interest for its flammability characteristics in order to decide the necessary conditions of safety. The main components of LPG are hydrocarbons containing three or four carbon atoms. The normal components of LPG are propane and butane; small concentrations of other hydrocarbons (isobutene, propylene, butane, ethane, pentane) may also be present. Different mixtures of LGP have different and physical characteristics with a different behavior during the use. Also flammability characteristics can be different according to the composition. In this paper at firsts the flammability characteristics of the main components of LGP, taken singularly, are examinated; subsequently some examples of calculation of the flammability limits of different mixture are reported [it

  11. Interstage Flammability Analysis Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Jeffrey K.; Eppard, William M.

    2011-01-01

    The Interstage of the Ares I launch platform houses several key components which are on standby during First Stage operation: the Reaction Control System (ReCS), the Upper Stage (US) Thrust Vector Control (TVC) and the J-2X with the Main Propulsion System (MPS) propellant feed system. Therefore potentially dangerous leaks of propellants could develop. The Interstage leaks analysis addresses the concerns of localized mixing of hydrogen and oxygen gases to produce deflagration zones in the Interstage of the Ares I launch vehicle during First Stage operation. This report details the approach taken to accomplish the analysis. Specified leakage profiles and actual flammability results are not presented due to proprietary and security restrictions. The interior volume formed by the Interstage walls, bounding interfaces with the Upper and First Stages, and surrounding the J2-X engine was modeled using Loci-CHEM to assess the potential for flammable gas mixtures to develop during First Stage operations. The transient analysis included a derived flammability indicator based on mixture ratios to maintain achievable simulation times. Validation of results was based on a comparison to Interstage pressure profiles outlined in prior NASA studies. The approach proved useful in the bounding of flammability risk in supporting program hazard reviews.

  12. Experimental investigation of n-butanol/diesel fuel blends and n-butanol fumigation – Evaluation of engine performance, exhaust emissions, heat release and flammability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Şahin, Zehra; Durgun, Orhan; Aksu, Orhan N.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • n-Butanol/diesel fuel blends and n-butanol fumigation investigated experimentally. • Flammability analysis of n-butanol performed. • Smoke decreases significantly for n-butanol/diesel fuel blends and n-butanol fumigation. • HC emission increases significantly for n-butanol/diesel fuel blends and n-butanol fumigation. • 2% n-Butanol/diesel fuel blend decreases slightly BSFC. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is to investigate and compare the effects of n-butanol/diesel fuel blends (nBDFBs) and n-butanol fumigation (nBF) on the engine performance and exhaust emissions in a turbocharged automobile diesel engine. Also, evaluations based on heat release and flammability analysis have been done. Experiments have been performed for various n-nBDFBs and nBF at different engine speeds and loads. For nBDFBs and nBF tests; nB2, nB4 and nB6 and nBF2, nBF4 and nBF6n-butanol percentages were selected. Here, for example nB2 and nBF2 contains 2% n-butanol and 98% diesel fuel by volume respectively. The test results showed that smoke decreases significantly by applying both of these two methods. However, decrement ratios of smoke for fumigation method are higher than that of blend method. NO x emission decreases for nB2, but it increases for nB4 and nB6 at selected engine speeds and loads. NO x emission decreases generally for nBF. For nB2 and nB4, BSFC decreases slightly but it increases for nB6. For nBF, BSFC increases at all of the test conditions. Adding n-butanol to diesel fuel becomes expensive for two methods. For nBDFBs, heat release rate (HRR) diagrams exhibit similar typical characteristic to NDF. However, for nBF, HRR shows slightly different pattern from NDF and a double peak is observed in the HRR diagram. The first peak occurs earlier than NDF and the second peak takes places later. In addition, this diagram shows that the first peak becomes larger and the second peak diminishes as n-butanol ratio is increased. Because of pilot injection of

  13. Evaluation of the Thermophysical Properties of Poly(MethylMethacrylate): A Reference Material for the Development of a flammability Test for Micro-Gravity Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Steinhaus, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    A study has been conducted using PMMA (Poly(methyl methacrylate)) as a reference material in the development process of the Forced Flow and flame Spread Test (FIST). This test attempts to establish different criteria for material flammability for micro-gravity environments. The FIST consists of two tests, ignition and flame spread tests, that provide a series of material “fire” properties that jointly provide important information on the flammability of a material. This work de...

  14. The Efficiency of Non-Flammable Functional Underwear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glombikova Viera

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the efficiency of non-flammable functional underwear used as a secondary heat barrier in extreme conditions. Five groups of knitted fabrics were analysed for flame resistance and selected physiological properties (water vapour permeability, air permeability, thermal resistance and liquid moisture transport by moisture management transport. The results indicated similar levels of flame resistance for the materials tested but show important differences in terms of physiological characteristics, namely liquid moisture transport, which influences the safety and comfort of protective clothing.

  15. Assessment of gas flammability in transuranic waste container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, M.J.; Loehr, C.A.; Djordjevic, S.M.; Spangler, L.R.

    1995-01-01

    The Safety Analysis Report for the TRUPACT-II Shipping Package [Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) SARP] set limits for gas generation rates, wattage limits, and flammable volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in transuranic (TRU) waste containers that would be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Based on existing headspace gas data for drums stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), over 30 percent of the contact-handled TRU waste drums contain flammable VOC concentrations greater than the limit. Additional requirements may be imposed for emplacement of waste in the WIPP facility. The conditional no-migration determination (NMD) for the test phase of the facility required that flame tests be performed if significant levels of flammable VOCs were present in TRU waste containers. This paper describes an approach for investigating the potential flammability of TRU waste drums, which would increase the allowable concentrations of flammable VOCS. A flammability assessment methodology is presented that will allow more drums to be shipped to WIPP without treatment or repackaging and reduce the need for flame testing on drums. The approach includes experimental work to determine mixture lower explosive limits (MLEL) for the types of gas mixtures observed in TRU waste, a model for predicting the MLEL for mixtures of VOCS, hydrogen, and methane, and revised screening limits for total flammable VOCs concentrations and concentrations of hydrogen and methane using existing drum headspace gas data and the model predictions

  16. An approximate-reasoning-based method for screening flammable gas tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenhawer, S.W.; Bott, T.F.; Smith, R.E.

    1998-03-01

    High-level waste (HLW) produces flammable gases as a result of radiolysis and thermal decomposition of organics. Under certain conditions, these gases can accumulate within the waste for extended periods and then be released quickly into the dome space of the storage tank. As part of the effort to reduce the safety concerns associated with flammable gas in HLW tanks at Hanford, a flammable gas watch list (FGWL) has been established. Inclusion on the FGWL is based on criteria intended to measure the risk associated with the presence of flammable gas. It is important that all high-risk tanks be identified with high confidence so that they may be controlled. Conversely, to minimize operational complexity, the number of tanks on the watchlist should be reduced as near to the true number of flammable risk tanks as the current state of knowledge will support. This report presents an alternative to existing approaches for FGWL screening based on the theory of approximate reasoning (AR) (Zadeh 1976). The AR-based model emulates the inference process used by an expert when asked to make an evaluation. The FGWL model described here was exercised by performing two evaluations. (1) A complete tank evaluation where the entire algorithm is used. This was done for two tanks, U-106 and AW-104. U-106 is a single shell tank with large sludge and saltcake layers. AW-104 is a double shell tank with over one million gallons of supernate. Both of these tanks had failed the screening performed by Hodgson et al. (2) Partial evaluations using a submodule for the predictor likelihood for all of the tanks on the FGWL that had been flagged previously by Whitney (1995)

  17. [Forensic medical evaluation of a burn injury from combustion of flammable fluids on the human body based on morphological changes in internal organs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khushkadamov, Z K

    2009-01-01

    The author describes morphological features of splanchnic organs in the patients that suffered an injury from combustion of flammable fluids at the body surface. The burn injury is a specific form of trauma originating from a combination of several injurious factors including thermoinhalation and intoxication with combustion products in the absence of oxygen in the centre of the hot spot. A rather specific combination of morphological changes in internal organs along with results of laboratory studies provides the most reliable criterion for forensic medical diagnosis of burn injuries from combustion of flammable fluids on the human body.

  18. Electrical safety in flammable gas/vapor laden atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Korver, WOE

    1992-01-01

    This book provides comprehensive coverage of electrical system installation within areas where flammable gases and liquids are handled and processed. The accurate hazard evaluation of flammability risks associated with chemical and petrochemical locations is critical in determining the point at which the costs of electrical equipment and installation are balanced with explosion safety requirements. The book offers the most current code requirements along with tables and illustrations as analytic tools. Environmental characteristics are covered in Section 1 along with recommended electrical ins

  19. Flammable gas safety program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.A.; Clauss, S.; Grant, K.; Hoopes, V.; Lerner, B.; Lucke, R.; Mong, G.; Rau, J.; Steele, R.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the status of developing analytical methods to account for the organic constituents in Hanford waste tanks, with particular emphasis on those tanks that have been assigned to the Flammable Gas Watch List. Six samples of core segments from Tank 101-SY, obtained during the window E core sampling, have been analyzed for organic constituents. Four of the samples were from the upper region, or convective layer, of the tank and two were from the lower, nonconvective layer. The samples were analyzed for chelators, chelator fragments, and several carboxylic acids by derivatization gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The major components detected were ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), nitroso-iminodiacetic acid (NIDA), nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), citric acid (CA), succinic acid (SA), and ethylenediaminetriacetic acid (ED3A). The chelator of highest concentration was EDTA in all six samples analyzed. Liquid chromatography (LC) was used to quantitate low molecular weight acids (LMWA) including oxalic, formic, glycolic, and acetic acids, which are present in the waste as acid salts. From 23 to 61% of the total organic carbon (TOC) in the samples analyzed was accounted for by these acids. Oxalate constituted approximately 40% of the TOC in the nonconvective layer samples. Oxalate was found to be approximately 3 to 4 times higher in concentration in the nonconvective layer than in the convective layer. During FY 1993, LC methods for analyzing LWMA, and two chelators N-(2-hydroxyethyl) ethylenediaminetriacetic acid and EDTA, were transferred to personnel in the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory and the 222-S laboratory

  20. The role of quantitative uncertainty in the safety analysis of flammable gas accidents in Hanford waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratzel, D.R.

    1998-01-01

    Following a 1990 investigation into flammable gas generation, retention, and release mechanisms within the Hanford Site high-level waste tanks, personnel concluded that the existing Authorization Basis documentation did not adequately evaluate flammable gas hazards. The US Department of Energy Headquarters subsequently declared the flammable gas hazard as an unresolved safety issue. Although work scope has been focused on resolution of the issue, it has yet to be resolved due to considerable uncertainty regarding essential technical parameters and associated risk. Resolution of the Flammable Gas Safety Issue will include the identification of a set of controls for the Authorization Basis for the tanks which will require a safety analysis of flammable gas accidents. A traditional nuclear facility safety analysis is based primarily on the analysis of a set of bounding accidents to represent the risks of the possible accidents and hazardous conditions at a facility. While this approach may provide some indication of the bounding consequences of accidents for facilities, it does not provide a satisfactory basis for identification of facility risk or safety controls when there is considerable uncertainty associated with accident phenomena and/or data as is the case with potential flammable gas accidents at the Hanford Site. This is due to the difficulties in identifying the bounding case and reaching consensus among safety analysts, facility operations and engineering, and the regulator on the implications of the safety analysis results. In addition, the bounding cases are frequently based on simplifying assumptions that make the analysis results insensitive to variations among facilities or the impact of alternative safety control strategies. The existing safety analysis of flammable gas accidents for the Tank Waste Remediation system (TWRS) at the Hanford Site has these difficulties. However, Hanford Site personnel are developing a refined safety analysis approach

  1. Flammable Gas Safety Self-Study 52827

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, George [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2016-03-17

    This course, Flammable Gas Safety Self-Study (COURSE 52827), presents an overview of the hazards and controls associated with commonly used, compressed flammable gases at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  2. Progress toward mitigation of flammable gas Tank 241-SY-101

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentsch, J.W.; Babad, H.; Hanson, C.E.; Kirch, N.W.

    1994-01-01

    The mixing pump installed in Hanford Site tank 241-SY-101 has been shown to be effective in releasing flammable gases in a controlled manner. This controlled release of gas prevents the accumulation and episodic release above flammable limits. More work needs to be done to optimize the pumping operation, and to evaluate the long-term effects of mixing so as to assure that no undesirable changes have occurred to the waste. Other alternative mitigation concepts are still being evaluated as a backup to mixing

  3. Species mixture effects on flammability across plant phylogeny: the importance of litter particle size and the special role for non-Pinus Pinaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weiwei; Cornwell, William K; van Pomeren, Marinda; van Logtestijn, Richard S P; Cornelissen, Johannes H C

    2016-11-01

    Fire affects and is affected by plants. Vegetation varies in flammability, that is, its general ability to burn, at different levels of ecological organization. To scale from individual plant traits to community flammability states, understanding trait effects on species flammability variation and their interaction is important. Plant traits are the cumulative result of evolution and they show, to differing extents, phylogenetic conservatism. We asked whether phylogenetic distance between species predicts species mixture effects on litterbed flammability. We conducted controlled laboratory burns for 34 phylogenetically wide-ranging species and 34 random two-species mixtures from them. Generally, phylogenetic distance did not predict species mixture effects on flammability. Across the plant phylogeny, most species were flammable except those in the non- Pinus Pinaceae, which shed small needles producing dense, poorly ventilated litterbeds above the packing threshold and therefore nonflammable. Consistently, either positive or negative dominance effects on flammability of certain flammable or those non-flammable species were found in mixtures involving the non- Pinus Pinaceae. We demonstrate litter particle size is key to explaining species nonadditivity in fuelbed flammability. The potential of certain species to influence fire disproportionately to their abundance might increase the positive feedback effects of plant flammability on community flammability state if flammable species are favored by fire.

  4. A refined safety analysis approach for closure of the Hanford Site flammable gas unreviewed safety question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratzel, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    Following a 1990 investigation into flammable gas generation, retention, and release mechanisms within the Hanford Site high-level waste tanks, personnel concluded that the existing Authorization Basis documentation did not adequately evaluate flammable gas hazards. This declaration was based primarily on the fact that personnel did not adequately consider hydrogen and nitrous oxide evolution within the material in certain waste tanks and subsequent hypothetical ignition in the development of safety documentation for the waste tanks. The US Department of Energy-Headquarters subsequently declared an Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ). Although work scope has been focused on closure of the USQ since 1990, the DOE has yet to close the USQ because of considerable uncertainty regarding essential technical parameters and associated risk. The DOE recently approved a Basis for Interim Operation to revise the Authorization Basis for managing the tank farms, however, the USQ remains open. The two fundamental requirements for closure of the flammable gas USQ are as follows: development of a defensible technical basis for existing controls; development of a process to assess the adequacy of controls as the waste tank mission progresses

  5. A summary description of the flammable gas tank safety program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.D.; Sherwood, D.J.

    1994-10-01

    Radioactive liquid waste may produce hydrogen as result of the interaction of gamma radiation and water. If the waste contains organic chelating agents, additional hydrogen as well as nitrous oxide and ammonia may be produced by thermal and radiolytic decomposition of these organics. Several high-level radioactive liquid waste storage tanks, located underground at the Hanford Site in Washington State, are on a Flammable Gas Watch List. Some contain waste that produces and retains gases until large quantities of gas are released rapidly to the tank vapor space. Tanks nearly-filled to capacity have relatively little vapor space; therefore if the waste suddenly releases a large amount of hydrogen and nitrous oxide, a flammable gas mixture could result. The most notable example of a Hanford waste tank with a flammable gas problem is tank 241-SY-101. Upon occasion waste stored in this tank has released enough flammable gas to burn if an ignition source had been present inside of the tank. Several, other Hanford waste tanks exhibit similar behavior although to a lesser magnitude. Because this behavior was hot adequately-addressed in safety analysis reports for the Hanford Tank Farms, an unreviewed safety question was declared, and in 1990 the Flammable Gas Tank Safety Program was established to address this problem. The purposes of the program are a follows: (1) Provide safety documents to fill gaps in the safety analysis reports, and (2) Resolve the safety issue by acquiring knowledge about gas retention and release from radioactive liquid waste and developing mitigation technology. This document provides the general logic and work activities required to resolve the unreviewed safety question and the safety issue of flammable gas mixtures in radioactive liquid waste storage tanks

  6. FLAMMABILITY OF HERBICIDE-TREATED GUAVA FOLIAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guava leaves treated with herbicide were found to be less flammable than untreated green leaves or dead leaves . Differences in flammability were...determined by small-scale laboratory fires, differential thermal analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis. The herbicide-treated leaves had a higher ash

  7. 16 CFR 1611.4 - Flammability test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FLAMMABILITY OF VINYL PLASTIC FILM The Standard § 1611.4 Flammability test. (a) Apparatus and materials. The.... The center section of the rack contains an open U-shaped area in which burning of the specimen takes... fan is turned off during the test. (4) Timing mechanism. The burning rate shall be determined by a...

  8. Estimation of lower flammability limits of C-H compounds in air at atmospheric pressure, evaluation of temperature dependence and diluent effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendiburu, Andrés Z; de Carvalho, João A; Coronado, Christian R

    2015-03-21

    Estimation of the lower flammability limits of C-H compounds at 25 °C and 1 atm; at moderate temperatures and in presence of diluent was the objective of this study. A set of 120 C-H compounds was divided into a correlation set and a prediction set of 60 compounds each. The absolute average relative error for the total set was 7.89%; for the correlation set, it was 6.09%; and for the prediction set it was 9.68%. However, it was shown that by considering different sources of experimental data the values were reduced to 6.5% for the prediction set and to 6.29% for the total set. The method showed consistency with Le Chatelier's law for binary mixtures of C-H compounds. When tested for a temperature range from 5 °C to 100 °C, the absolute average relative errors were 2.41% for methane; 4.78% for propane; 0.29% for iso-butane and 3.86% for propylene. When nitrogen was added, the absolute average relative errors were 2.48% for methane; 5.13% for propane; 0.11% for iso-butane and 0.15% for propylene. When carbon dioxide was added, the absolute relative errors were 1.80% for methane; 5.38% for propane; 0.86% for iso-butane and 1.06% for propylene. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Operational experience in mitigating flammable gas releases from Hanford Site Tank 241-SY-101

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentsch, J.W.; Babad, H.; Kirch, N.W.

    1995-01-01

    Flammable gases consisting of hydrogen, nitrous oxide, ammonia, and methane are periodically released from Hanford Site waste tank 241-SY-101 at concentrations above the flammable limit. A large mixer pump installed in the tank in 1993 has effectively mitigated this problem by continuously releasing small amounts of the flammable gases at the rate they are generated. Tank 241-SY-101 is also equipped with multiple high-sensitivity gas monitoring systems and level detection systems to measure the quantity of gas that is retained in and released from the waste

  10. Seasonal and local differences in leaf litter flammability of six Mediterranean tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauf, Zorica; Fangmeier, Andreas; Rosavec, Roman; Španjol, Željko

    2015-03-01

    One of the suggested management options for reducing fire danger is the selection of less flammable plant species. Nevertheless, vegetation flammability is both complex and dynamic, making identification of such species challenging. While large efforts have been made to connect plant traits to fire behavior, seasonal changes and within species variability of traits are often neglected. Currently, even the most sophisticated fire danger systems presume that intrinsic characteristics of leaf litter stay unchanged, and plant species flammability lists are often transferred from one area to another. In order to assess if these practices can be improved, we performed a study examining the relationship between morphological characteristics and flammability parameters of leaf litter, thereby taking into account seasonal and local variability. Litter from six Mediterranean tree species was sampled throughout the fire season from three different locations along a climate gradient. Samples were subjected to flammability testing involving an epiradiator operated at 400 °C surface temperature with 3 g sample weight. Specific leaf area, fuel moisture content, average area, and average mass of a single particle had significant influences on flammability parameters. Effects of sampling time and location were significant as well. Due to the standardized testing conditions, these effects could be attributed to changes in intrinsic characteristics of the material. As the aforementioned effects were inconsistent and species specific, these results may potentially limit the generalization of species flammability rankings. Further research is necessary in order to evaluate the importance of our findings for fire danger modeling.

  11. Flammable gas tank safety program: Technical basis for gas analysis and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    Flammable gases generated in radioactive liquids. Twenty-five high level radioactive liquid waste storage tanks located underground at the Hanford Site are on a Flammable Gas Watch List because they contain waste which tends to retain the gases generated in it until rather large quantities are available for sudden release to the tank head space; if a tank is full it has little dome space, and a flammable concentration of gases could be produced--even if the tank is ventilated. If the waste has no tendency to retain gas generated in it then a continual flammable gas concentration in the tank dome space is established by the gas production rate and the tank ventilation rate (or breathing rate for unventilated tanks); this is also a potential problem for Flammable Gas Watch List tanks, and perhaps other Hanford tanks too. All Flammable Gas Watch List tanks will be fitted with Standard Hydorgen Monitoring Systems so that their behavior can be observed. In some cases, such as tank 241-SY-101, the data gathered from such observations will indicate that tank conditions need to be mitigated so that gas release events are either eliminated or rendered harmless. For example, a mixer pump was installed in tank 241-SY-101; operating the pump stirs the waste, replacing the large gas release events with small releases of gas that are kept below twenty-five percent of the lower flammability limit by the ventilation system. The concentration of hydrogen measured in Hanford waste tanks is greater than that of any other flammable gas. Hydrogen levels measured with a Standard Hydrogen Monitoring System in excess of 0.6 volume percent will cause Westinghouse Hanford Company to consider actions which will decrease the amount of flammable gas in the tank

  12. Fixed target flammable gas upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, R.; Squires, B.; Gasteyer, T.; Richardson, R.

    1996-12-01

    In the past, fixed target flammable gas systems were not supported in an organized fashion. The Research Division, Mechanical Support Department began to support these gas systems for the 1995 run. This technical memo describes the new approach being used to supply chamber gasses to fixed target experiments at Fermilab. It describes the engineering design features, system safety, system documentation and performance results. Gas mixtures provide the medium for electron detection in proportional and drift chambers. Usually a mixture of a noble gas and a polyatomic quenching gas is used. Sometimes a small amount of electronegative gas is added as well. The mixture required is a function of the specific chamber design, including working voltage, gain requirements, high rate capability, aging and others. For the 1995 fixed target run all the experiments requested once through gas systems. We obtained a summary of problems from the 1990 fixed target run and made a summary of the operations logbook entries from the 1991 run. These summaries primarily include problems involving flammable gas alarms, but also include incidents where Operations was involved or informed. Usually contamination issues were dealt with by the experimenters. The summaries are attached. We discussed past operational issues with the experimenters involved. There were numerous incidents of drift chamber failure where contaminated gas was suspect. However analyses of the gas at the time usually did not show any particular problems. This could have been because the analysis did not look for the troublesome component, the contaminant was concentrated in the gas over the liquid and vented before the sample was taken, or that contaminants were drawn into the chambers directly through leaks or sub-atmospheric pressures. After some study we were unable to determine specific causes of past contamination problems, although in argon-ethane systems the problems were due to the ethane only

  13. Evaluations of average level spacings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liou, H.I.

    1980-01-01

    The average level spacing for highly excited nuclei is a key parameter in cross section formulas based on statistical nuclear models, and also plays an important role in determining many physics quantities. Various methods to evaluate average level spacings are reviewed. Because of the finite experimental resolution, to detect a complete sequence of levels without mixing other parities is extremely difficult, if not totally impossible. Most methods derive the average level spacings by applying a fit, with different degrees of generality, to the truncated Porter-Thomas distribution for reduced neutron widths. A method that tests both distributions of level widths and positions is discussed extensivey with an example of 168 Er data. 19 figures, 2 tables

  14. Tank 241-C-103 headspace flammability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    Information regarding flammable vapors, gases, and aerosols is presented for the purpose of resolving the tank 241-C-103 headspace flammability issue. Analyses of recent vapor and liquid samples, as well as visual inspections of the tank headspace, are discussed in the context of tank dynamics. This document is restricted to issues regarding the flammability of gases, vapors, and an aerosol that may exist in the headspace of tank 241-C-103. While discussing certain information about the organic liquid present in tank 241-C-103, this document addresses neither the potential for, nor consequences of, a pool fire involving this organic liquid; they will be discussed in a separate report

  15. Tank 241-C-103 headspace flammability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    Information regarding flammable vapors, gases, and aerosols is presented for the purpose of resolving the tank 241-C-103 headspace flammability issue. Analyses of recent vapor and liquid samples, as well as visual inspections of the tank headspace, are discussed in the context of tank dynamics. This document is restricted to issues regarding the flammability of gases, vapors, and an aerosol that may exist in the headspace of tank 241-C-103. While discussing certain information about the organic liquid present in tank 241-C-103, this document addresses neither the potential for, nor consequences of, a pool fire involving this organic liquid; they will be discussed in a separate report.

  16. An Earth-Based Equivalent Low Stretch Apparatus to Assess Material Flammability for Microgravity & Extraterrestrial Fire-Safety Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, S. L.; Beeson, H.; Haas, J.

    2001-01-01

    One of the performance goals for NASA's enterprise of Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) is to develop methods, data bases, and validating tests for material flammability characterization, hazard reduction, and fire detection/suppression strategies for spacecraft and extraterrestrial habitats. This work addresses these needs by applying the fundamental knowledge gained from low stretch experiments to the development of a normal gravity low stretch material flammability test method. The concept of the apparatus being developed uses the low stretch geometry to simulate the conditions of the extraterrestrial environment through proper scaling of the sample dimensions to reduce the buoyant stretch in normal gravity. The apparatus uses controlled forced-air flow to augment the low stretch to levels which simulate Lunar or Martian gravity levels. In addition, the effect of imposed radiant heat flux on material flammability can be studied with the cone heater. After breadboard testing, the apparatus will be integrated into NASA's White Sands Test Facility's Atmosphere-Controlled Cone Calorimeter for evaluation as a new materials screening test method.

  17. Retained Gas Sampling Results for the Flammable Gas Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, J.M.; Mahoney, L.A.; Dahl, M.E.; Antoniak, Z.I.

    1999-01-01

    The key phenomena of the Flammable Gas Safety Issue are generation of the gas mixture, the modes of gas retention, and the mechanisms causing release of the gas. An understanding of the mechanisms of these processes is required for final resolution of the safety issue. Central to understanding is gathering information from such sources as historical records, tank sampling data, tank process data (temperatures, ventilation rates, etc.), and laboratory evaluations conducted on tank waste samples

  18. Retained Gas Sampling Results for the Flammable Gas Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.M. Bates; L.A. Mahoney; M.E. Dahl; Z.I. Antoniak

    1999-11-18

    The key phenomena of the Flammable Gas Safety Issue are generation of the gas mixture, the modes of gas retention, and the mechanisms causing release of the gas. An understanding of the mechanisms of these processes is required for final resolution of the safety issue. Central to understanding is gathering information from such sources as historical records, tank sampling data, tank process data (temperatures, ventilation rates, etc.), and laboratory evaluations conducted on tank waste samples.

  19. Flammable gas issues in double-contained receiver tanks. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peurrung, L.M.; Mahoney, L.A.; Stewart, C.W.; Gauglitz, P.A.; Pederson, L.R.; Bryan, S.A.; Shepard, C.L.

    1998-08-01

    Four double-contained receiver tanks (DCRTs) at Hanford will be used to store salt-well pumped liquids from tanks on the Flammable Gas Watch List. This document was created to serve as a reference document describing the current knowledge of flammable gas issues in DCRTs. The document identifies, describes, evaluates, and attempts to quantify potential gas carryover and release mechanisms. It estimates several key parameters needed for these calculations, such as initial aqueous concentrations and ventilation rate, and evaluates the uncertainty in those estimates. It justifies the use of the Schumpe model for estimating vapor-liquid equilibrium constants. It identifies several potential waste compatibility issues (such as mixing and pH or temperature changes) that could lead to gas release and provides a basis for calculating their effects. It evaluates the potential for gas retention in precipitated solids within a DCRT and whether retention could lead to a buoyant displacement instability (rollover) event. It discusses rates of radiolytic, thermal, and corrosive hydrogen generation within the DCRT. It also describes in detail the accepted method of calculating the lower flammability limit (LFL) for mixtures of flammable gases. The report incorporates these analyses into two models for calculating headspace flammability, one based on instantaneous equilibrium between dissolved gases and the headspace and one incorporating limited release rates based on mass-transfer considerations. Finally, it demonstrates the use of both models to estimate headspace flammable gas concentrations and minimum ventilation rates required to maintain concentrations below 25% of the LFL

  20. Estimation and Uncertainty Analysis of Flammability Properties of Chemicals using Group-Contribution Property Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frutiger, Jerome; Abildskov, Jens; Sin, Gürkan

    Process safety studies and assessments rely on accurate property data. Flammability data like the lower and upper flammability limit (LFL and UFL) play an important role in quantifying the risk of fire and explosion. If experimental values are not available for the safety analysis due to cost...... or time constraints, property prediction models like group contribution (GC) models can estimate flammability data. The estimation needs to be accurate, reliable and as less time consuming as possible. However, GC property prediction methods frequently lack rigorous uncertainty analysis. Hence....... In this study, the MG-GC-factors are estimated using a systematic data and model evaluation methodology in the following way: 1) Data. Experimental flammability data is used from AIChE DIPPR 801 Database. 2) Initialization and sequential parameter estimation. An approximation using linear algebra provides...

  1. 16 CFR 1500.44 - Method for determining extremely flammable and flammable solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Method for determining extremely flammable and flammable solids. 1500.44 Section 1500.44 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES AND ARTICLES; ADMINISTRATION AND...

  2. Hazard assessments of double-shell flammable gas tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, G.L.; Stepnewski, D.D.

    1994-01-01

    This report is the fourth in a series of hazard assessments performed on the double-shell flammable gas watch list tanks. This report focuses on hazards associated with the double-shell watch list tanks (101-AW, 103-AN, 104-AN, and 105-AN). While a similar assessment has already been performed for tank 103-SY, it is also included here to incorporate a more representative slurry gas mixture and provide a consistent basis for comparing results for all the flammable gas tanks. This report is intended to provide an in-depth assessment by considering the details of the gas release event and slurry gas mixing as the gas is released from the waste. The consequences of postulated gas ignition are evaluated using a plume burn model and updated ignition frequency predictions. Tank pressurization which results from a gas burn, along with the structural response, is also considered. The report is intended to support the safety basis for work activities in flammable gas tanks by showing margins to safety limits that are available in the design and procedures

  3. Unmanned Vehicle Material Flammability Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, David; Ruff, Gary A.; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; T’ien, James S.; Torero, Jose L.; Cowlard, Adam; Rouvreau, Sebastian; Minster, Olivier; Toth, Balazs; Legros, Guillaume; hide

    2013-01-01

    Microgravity combustion phenomena have been an active area of research for the past 3 decades however, there have been very few experiments directly studying spacecraft fire safety under low-gravity conditions. Furthermore, none of these experiments have studied sample and environment sizes typical of those expected in a spacecraft fire. All previous experiments have been limited to samples of the order of 10 cm in length and width or smaller. Terrestrial fire safety standards for all other habitable volumes on earth, e.g. mines, buildings, airplanes, ships, etc., are based upon testing conducted with full-scale fires. Given the large differences between fire behavior in normal and reduced gravity, this lack of an experimental data base at relevant length scales forces spacecraft designers to base their designs using 1-g understanding. To address this question a large scale spacecraft fire experiment has been proposed by an international team of investigators. This poster presents the objectives, status and concept of this collaborative international project to examine spacecraft material flammability at realistic scales. The concept behind this project is to utilize an unmanned spacecraft such as Orbital Cygnus vehicle after it has completed its delivery of cargo to the ISS and it has begun its return journey to earth. This experiment will consist of a flame spread test involving a meter scale sample ignited in the pressurized volume of the spacecraft and allowed to burn to completion while measurements are made. A computer modeling effort will complement the experimental effort. Although the experiment will need to meet rigorous safety requirements to ensure the carrier vehicle does not sustain damage, the absence of a crew removes the need for strict containment of combustion products. This will facilitate the examination of fire behavior on a scale that is relevant to spacecraft fire safety and will provide unique data for fire model validation. This will be

  4. Fires in the Cenozoic: a late flowering of flammable ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William John Bond

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern flammable ecosystems include tropical and subtropical savannas, steppe grasslands, boreal forests and temperate sclerophyll shrublands. Despite the apparent fiery nature of much contemporary vegetation, terrestrial fossil evidence would suggest we live in a time of low fire activity relative to the deep past. The inertinite content of coal, fossil charcoal, is strikingly low from the Eocene to the Pleistocene and no charcoalified mesofossils have been reported for the Cenozoic. Marine cores have been analysed for charcoal in the North Pacific, the north and south Atlantic off Africa, and the south China sea. These tell a different story with the oldest records indicating low levels of fire activity from the Eocene but a surge of fire from the late Miocene (~7 Ma. Phylogenetic studies of woody plants adapted to frequent savanna fires show them beginning to appear from the Late Miocene with peak origins in the late Pliocene in both South American and African lineages. Phylogenetic studies indicate ancient origins (60 Ma+ for clades characteristic of flammable sclerophyll vegetation from Australia and the Cape region of South Africa. However, as for savannas, there was a surge of speciation from the Late Miocene associated with the retreat of closed fire-intolerant forests. The wide geographic spread of increased fire activity in the last few million years suggests a global cause. However none of the potential global factors (oxygen, rainfall seasonality, CO2 , novel flammable growth forms provides an adequate explanation as yet. The global patterns and processes of fire and flammable vegetation in the Cenozoic, especially since the Late Miocene, deserve much more attention to better understand fire in the earth system.

  5. Fires in the Cenozoic: a late flowering of flammable ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, William J

    2014-01-01

    Modern flammable ecosystems include tropical and subtropical savannas, steppe grasslands, boreal forests, and temperate sclerophyll shrublands. Despite the apparent fiery nature of much contemporary vegetation, terrestrial fossil evidence would suggest we live in a time of low fire activity relative to the deep past. The inertinite content of coal, fossil charcoal, is strikingly low from the Eocene to the Pleistocene and no charcoalified mesofossils have been reported for the Cenozoic. Marine cores have been analyzed for charcoal in the North Pacific, the north and south Atlantic off Africa, and the south China sea. These tell a different story with the oldest records indicating low levels of fire activity from the Eocene but a surge of fire from the late Miocene (~7 Ma). Phylogenetic studies of woody plants adapted to frequent savanna fires show them beginning to appear from the Late Miocene with peak origins in the late Pliocene in both South American and African lineages. Phylogenetic studies indicate ancient origins (60 Ma+) for clades characteristic of flammable sclerophyll vegetation from Australia and the Cape region of South Africa. However, as for savannas, there was a surge of speciation from the Late Miocene associated with the retreat of closed fire-intolerant forests. The wide geographic spread of increased fire activity in the last few million years suggests a global cause. However, none of the potential global factors (oxygen, rainfall seasonality, CO2, novel flammable growth forms) provides an adequate explanation as yet. The global patterns and processes of fire and flammable vegetation in the Cenozoic, especially since the Late Miocene, deserve much more attention to better understand fire in the earth system.

  6. Method of burning flammable radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahata, Taneaki.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To completely oxidize flammable radioactive wastes such as organic compounds, ion exchange materials or oils. Method: Contaminated flammable radioactive wastes are heated and pyrolytically decomposed in the range 400 0 to 500 0 C in the presence of oxygen under lower pressure than atmospheric pressure. Volatile organic substance, hydrogen and soot subsequently produced are passed over oxidation catalyst. The catalysts such as copper oxide, iron oxide, cobalt oxide, nickel oxide, chromium oxide are heated in the range 600 0 to 700 0 C to produce stable oxides. (J.P.N.)

  7. 16 CFR 423.9 - Conflict with flammability standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conflict with flammability standards. 423.9... TEXTILE WEARING APPAREL AND CERTAIN PIECE GOODS AS AMENDED § 423.9 Conflict with flammability standards. If there is a conflict between this regulation and any regulations issued under the Flammable Fabrics...

  8. 16 CFR 1500.133 - Extremely flammable contact adhesives; labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Extremely flammable contact adhesives... REGULATIONS § 1500.133 Extremely flammable contact adhesives; labeling. (a) Extremely flammable contact adhesives, also known as contact bonding cements, when distributed in containers intended or suitable for...

  9. 46 CFR 154.1350 - Flammable gas detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flammable gas detection system. 154.1350 Section 154... Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1350 Flammable gas detection system. (a) The vessel must have a fixed flammable gas detection system that has sampling points in: (1) Each cargo pump room; (2) Each cargo...

  10. Microgravity Flammability Experiments for Spacecraft Fire Safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legros, Guillaume; Minster, Olivier; Tóth, Balazs

    2012-01-01

    As fire behaviour in manned spacecraft still remains poorly understood, an international topical team has been created to design a validation experiment that has an unprecedented large scale for a microgravity flammability experiment. While the validation experiment is being designed for a re-sup...

  11. Review on flammability of biofibres and biocomposites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mngomezulu, ME

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The subject on flammability properties of natural fibre-reinforced biopolymer composites has not been broadly researched. This is not only evidenced by the minimal use of biopolymer composites and/or blends in different engineering areas where fire...

  12. Position paper on flammability concerns associated with TRU waste destined for WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), in southeastern New Mexico,is an underground repository, designed for the safe geologic disposal of transuranic (TRU) wastes generated from defense-related activities of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The WIPP storage rooms are mined in a bedded salt (halite) formation, and are located 2150 feet below the surface. After the disposal of waste in the storage rooms, closure of the repository is expected to occur by creep (plastic flow) of the salt formation, with the waste being permanently isolated from the surrounding environment. This paper has evaluated the issue of flammability concerns associated with TRU waste to be shipped to WIPP, including a review of possible scenarios that can potentially contribute to the flammability. The paper discusses existing regulations that address potential flammability concerns, presents an analysis of previous flammability-related incidents at DOE sites with respect to the current regulations, and finally, examines the degree of assurance these regulations provide in safeguarding against flammability concerns during transportation and waste handling. 50 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs

  13. A risk-based approach to flammable gas detector spacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defriend, Stephen; Dejmek, Mark; Porter, Leisa; Deshotels, Bob; Natvig, Bernt

    2008-11-15

    Flammable gas detectors allow an operating company to address leaks before they become serious, by automatically alarming and by initiating isolation and safe venting. Without effective gas detection, there is very limited defense against a flammable gas leak developing into a fire or explosion that could cause loss of life or escalate to cascading failures of nearby vessels, piping, and equipment. While it is commonly recognized that some gas detectors are needed in a process plant containing flammable gas or volatile liquids, there is usually a question of how many are needed. The areas that need protection can be determined by dispersion modeling from potential leak sites. Within the areas that must be protected, the spacing of detectors (or alternatively, number of detectors) should be based on risk. Detector design can be characterized by spacing criteria, which is convenient for design - or alternatively by number of detectors, which is convenient for cost reporting. The factors that influence the risk are site-specific, including process conditions, chemical composition, number of potential leak sites, piping design standards, arrangement of plant equipment and structures, design of isolation and depressurization systems, and frequency of detector testing. Site-specific factors such as those just mentioned affect the size of flammable gas cloud that must be detected (within a specified probability) by the gas detection system. A probability of detection must be specified that gives a design with a tolerable risk of fires and explosions. To determine the optimum spacing of detectors, it is important to consider the probability that a detector will fail at some time and be inoperative until replaced or repaired. A cost-effective approach is based on the combined risk from a representative selection of leakage scenarios, rather than a worst-case evaluation. This means that probability and severity of leak consequences must be evaluated together. In marine and

  14. Safety basis for selected activities in single-shell tanks with flammable gas concerns. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlosser, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    This is full revision to Revision 0 of this report. The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of analyses done to support activities performed for single-shell tanks. These activities are encompassed by the flammable gas Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ). The basic controls required to perform these activities involve the identification, elimination and/or control of ignition sources and monitoring for flammable gases. Controls are implemented through the Interim Safety Basis (ISB), IOSRs, and OSDs. Since this report only provides a historical compendium of issues and activities, it is not to be used as a basis to perform USQ screenings and evaluations. Furthermore, these analyses and others in process will be used as the basis for developing the Flammable Gas Topical Report for the ISB Upgrade

  15. Slurry growth, gas retention, and flammable gas generation by Hanford radioactive waste tanks: Synthetic waste studies, FY 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, S.A.; Pederson, L.R.; Ryan, J.L.; Scheele, R.D.; Tingey, J.M.

    1992-08-01

    Of 177 high-level waste storage tanks on the Hanford Site, 23 have been placed on a safety watch list because they are suspected of producing flammable gases in flammable or explosive concentrate. One tankin particular, Tank 241-SY-101 (Tank 101-SY), has exhibited slow increases in waste volume followed by a rapid decrease accompanied by venting of large quantities of gases. The purpose of this study is to help determine the processes by which flammable gases are produced, retained, and eventually released from Tank 101-SY. Waste composition data for single- and double-shell waste tanks on the flammable gas watch listare critically reviewed. The results of laboratory studies using synthetic double-shell wastes are summarized, including physical and chemical properties of crusts that are formed, the stoichiometry and rate ofgas generation, and mechanisms responsible for formation of a floating crust

  16. The Chemistry of Flammable Gas Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZACH, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    The document collects information from field instrumentation, laboratory tests, and analytical models to provide a single source of information on the chemistry of flammable gas generation at the Hanford Site. It considers the 3 mechanisms of formation: radiolysis, chemical reactions, and thermal generation. An assessment of the current models for gas generation is then performed. The results are that the various phenomena are reasonably understood and modeled compared to field data

  17. The Chemistry of Flammable Gas Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ZACH, J.J.

    2000-10-30

    The document collects information from field instrumentation, laboratory tests, and analytical models to provide a single source of information on the chemistry of flammable gas generation at the Hanford Site. It considers the 3 mechanisms of formation: radiolysis, chemical reactions, and thermal generation. An assessment of the current models for gas generation is then performed. The results are that the various phenomena are reasonably understood and modeled compared to field data.

  18. Method for Predicting Hypergolic Mixture Flammability Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    of all these phases. 15.  SUBJECT TERMS EOARD, rocket propulsion, combustion chemistry , energetic ionic liquids, flammability limits, fuel/oxidizer...Chemical Engineering Lab(UCP) This report is in support of the Integrated High Payoff Rocket Propulsion Technology (IHPRPT) Demonstration Program, which...formation at 298.15 K have been proposed by Osmont and co-workers [Osmont, 2007 and Osmont et al., 2007] by using quantum chemistry computations at

  19. Using a rainforest-flame forest mosaic to test the hypothesis that leaf and litter fuel flammability is under natural selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Peter J; Prior, Lynda D; French, Ben J; Vincent, Ben; Knox, Kirsten J E; Bowman, David M J S

    2014-12-01

    We used a mosaic of infrequently burnt temperate rainforest and adjacent, frequently burnt eucalypt forests in temperate eastern Australia to test whether: (1) there were differences in flammability of fresh and dried foliage amongst congeners from contrasting habitats, (2) habitat flammability was related to regeneration strategy, (3) litter fuels were more flammable in frequently burnt forests, (4) the severity of a recent fire influenced the flammability of litter (as this would suggest fire feedbacks), and (5) microclimate contributed to differences in fire hazard amongst habitats. Leaf-level comparisons were made among 11 congeneric pairs from rainforest and eucalypt forests. Leaf-level ignitability, combustibility and sustainability were not consistently higher for taxa from frequently burnt eucalypt forests, nor were they higher for species with fire-driven recruitment. The bulk density of litter-bed fuels strongly influenced flammability, but eucalypt forest litter was not less dense than rainforest litter. Ignitability, combustibility and flame sustainability of community surface fuels (litter) were compared using fuel arrays with standardized fuel mass and moisture content. Forests previously burned at high fire severity did not have consistently higher litter flammability than those burned at lower severity or long unburned. Thus, contrary to the Mutch hypothesis, there was no evidence of higher flammability of litter fuels or leaves from frequently burnt eucalypt forests compared with infrequently burnt rainforests. We suggest the manifest pyrogenicity of eucalypt forests is not due to natural selection for more flammable foliage, but better explained by differences in crown openness and associated microclimatic differences.

  20. Tank 24-C-103 headspace flammability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1994-05-01

    Information regarding flammable vapors, gases, and aerosols is presented and interpreted to help resolve the tank 241-C-103 headspace flammability issue. Analyses of recent vapor and liquid samples, as well as visual inspections of the tank headspace, are discussed in the context of tank dynamics. Concern that the headspace of tank 241-C-103 may contain a flammable mixture of organic vapors and an aerosol of combustible organic liquid droplets arises from the presence of a layer of organic liquid in the tank. This organic liquid is believed to have originated in the plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) process, having been stored initially in tank 241-C-102 and apparently transferred to tank 241-C-103 in 1975 (Carothers 1988). Analyses of samples of the organic liquid collected in 1991 and 1993 indicate that the primary constituents are tributyl phosphate (TBP) and several semivolatile hydrocarbons (Prentice 1991, Pool and Bean 1994). This is consistent with the premise that the organic waste came from the PUREX process, because the PUREX process used a solution of TBP in a diluent composed of the n-C 11 H 24 to n-C 15 H 32 normal paraffinic hydrocarbons (NPH)

  1. BFR Electrolyte Additive Safety and Flammability Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allcorn, Eric [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-10-13

    Lithium-ion battery safety is a critical issue in the adoption of the chemistry to larger scale applications such as transportation and stationary storage. One of the critical components impacting the safety of lithium-ion batteries is their use of highly flammable organic electrolytes. In this work, brominated flame retardants (BFR’s) – an existing class of flame retardant materials – are incorporated as additives to lithium-ion battery electrolytes with the intention to reduce the electrolyte flammability and thereby improve safety. There are a few critical needs for a successful electrolyte additive: solubility in the electrolyte, electrochemical stability over the range of battery operation, and minimal detrimental effects on battery performance. Those detrimental effects can take the form of electrolyte specific impacts, such as a reduction in conductivity, or electrode impacts, such as SEI-layer modification or chemical instability to the active material. In addition to these needs, the electrolyte additive also needs to achieve its intended purpose, which in this case is to reduce the flammability of the electrolyte. For the work conducted as part of this SPP agreement three separate BFR materials were provided by Albemarle to be tested by Sandia as additives in a traditional lithium-ion battery electrolyte. The provided BFR materials were tribromo-neopentyl alcohol, tetrabromo bisphenol A, and tribromoethylene. These materials were incorporated as separate 4 wt.% additives into a traditional lithium-ion battery electrolyte and compared to said traditional electrolyte, designated Gen2.

  2. Assessing and ranking the flammability of some ornamental plant species to select firewise plants for landscaping in WUI (SE France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganteaume, A.; Jappiot, M.; Lampin, C.

    2012-04-01

    The increasing urbanization of Wildland-Urban Interfaces (WUI) as well as the high fire occurrence in these areas requires the assessment and the ranking of the flammability of the ornamental vegetation surrounding houses especially that planted in hedges. Thus, the flammability of seven species, among those most frequently planted in hedges in Provence (South-Eastern France), were studied at particle level and at dead surface fuel level (litters) under laboratory conditions. The flammability parameters (ignition frequency, time-to-ignition, flaming duration) of the very fine particles (live leaves and particles fire bench. Burning experiments using the epiradiator showed that live leaves of Phyllostachys sp., Photinia frasei and Prunus laurocerasus had the shortest time-to-ignition and the highest ignition frequency and flaming duration whereas Pittosporum tobira and Nerium oleander were the longest to ignite with a low frequency. Phyllostachys sp. and Nerium oleander litters were the shortest to ignite while Prunus laurocerasus litter had the lowest bulk density and long time-to-ignition, but high flame propagation. Photinia fraseri litter ignited frequently and had a high flame spread while Pittosporum tobira litter ignited the least frequently and for the shortest duration. Cupressus sempervirens litter had the highest bulk density and the longest flaming duration but the lowest flame propagation. Pyracantha coccinea litter was the longest to ignite and flame propagation was low but lasted a long time. Hierarchical cluster analysis performed on the flammability parameters of live leaves and of litters ranked the seven species in four distinct clusters from the most flammable (Prunus laurocerasus and Pyracantha coccinea) to the least flammable (Pittosporum tobira and Nerium oleander); the other species displaying two groups of intermediate flammabilities (Phyllostachys sp.- Photinia fraseri and Cupressus sempervirens ). The species with highly flammable

  3. Flammable gas issues in double-contained receiver tanks. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peurrung, L.M.; Mahoney, L.A.; Stewart, C.W.; Gauglitz, P.A.; Pederson, L.R.; Bryan, S.A.; Shepard, C.L.

    1998-06-01

    Four double-contained receiver tanks (DCRTs) at Hanford will be used to store salt-well pumped liquids from tanks on the Flammable Gas Watch List. This document was created to serve as a technical basis or reference document for flammable gas issues in DCRTs. The document identifies, describes, evaluates, and attempts to quantify potential gas carryover and release mechanisms. It estimates several key parameters needed for these calculations, such as initial aqueous concentrations and ventilation rate, and evaluates the uncertainty in those estimates. It justifies the use of the Schumpe model for estimating vapor-liquid equilibrium constants. It identifies several potential waste compatibility issues (such as mixing and pH or temperature changes) that could lead to gas release and provides a basis for calculating their effects. It evaluates the potential for gas retention in precipitated solids within a DCRT and whether retention could lead to a buoyant displacement instability (rollover) event. It discusses rates of radiolytic, thermal, and corrosive hydrogen generation within the DCRT. It also describes in detail the accepted method of calculating the lower flammability limit (LFL) for mixtures of flammable gases

  4. Flammable gas issues in double-contained receiver tanks. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peurrung, L.M.; Mahoney, L.A.; Stewart, C.W.; Gauglitz, P.A.; Pederson, L.R.; Bryan, S.A.; Shepard, C.L.

    1998-06-01

    Four double-contained receiver tanks (DCRTs) at Hanford will be used to store salt-well pumped liquids from tanks on the Flammable Gas Watch List. This document was created to serve as a technical basis or reference document for flammable gas issues in DCRTs. The document identifies, describes, evaluates, and attempts to quantify potential gas carryover and release mechanisms. It estimates several key parameters needed for these calculations, such as initial aqueous concentrations and ventilation rate, and evaluates the uncertainty in those estimates. It justifies the use of the Schumpe model for estimating vapor-liquid equilibrium constants. It identifies several potential waste compatibility issues (such as mixing and pH or temperature changes) that could lead to gas release and provides a basis for calculating their effects. It evaluates the potential for gas retention in precipitated solids within a DCRT and whether retention could lead to a buoyant displacement instability (rollover) event. It discusses rates of radiolytic, thermal, and corrosive hydrogen generation within the DCRT. It also describes in detail the accepted method of calculating the lower flammability limit (LFL) for mixtures of flammable gases.

  5. Flammability characteristics of combustible gases and vapors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabetakis, M. G. [Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1964-05-01

    This is a summary of the available limit of flammability, autoignition and burning-rate data for more than 200 combustible gases and vapors in air and other oxidants, as well as of empirical rules and graphs that can be used to predict similar data for thousands of other combustibles under a variety of environmental conditions. Spec$c data are presented on the paraffinic, unsaturated, aromatic, and alicyclic hydrocarbons, alcohols, ethers, aldehydes, ketones, and sulfur compounds, and an assortment of fuels, fuel blends, hydraulic fluids, engine oils, and miscellaneous combustible gases and vapors.

  6. Flammability tests for regulation of building and construction materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. Sumathipala

    2006-01-01

    The regulation of building materials and products for flammability is critical to ensure the safety of occupants in buildings and other structures. The involvement of exposed building materials and products in fires resulting in the loss of human life often spurs an increase in regulation and new test methods to address the problem. Flammability tests range from those...

  7. Flammability of litter from southeastern trees: a preliminary assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Morgan Varner; Jeffrey M. Kane; Erin M. Banwell; Jesse K. Kreye

    2015-01-01

    The southeastern United States possesses a great diversity of woody species and an equally impressive history of wildland fires. Species are known to vary in their flammability, but little is known about southeastern species. We used published data and our own collections to perform standard litter flammability tests on a diverse suite of 25 native overstory trees from...

  8. Strategy for resolution of the flammable gas safety issue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, G.D.

    1997-05-23

    This document provides a strategy for resolution of the Flammable Gas Safety Issue. It defines the key elements required for the following: Closing the Flammable Gas Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ); Providing the administrative basis for resolving the safety issue; Defining the data needed to support these activities; and Providing the technical and administrative path for removing tanks from the Watch List.

  9. Strategy for resolution of the flammable gas safety issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.D.

    1997-01-01

    This document provides a strategy for resolution of the Flammable Gas Safety Issue. It defines the key elements required for the following: Closing the Flammable Gas Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ); Providing the administrative basis for resolving the safety issue; Defining the data needed to support these activities; and Providing the technical and administrative path for removing tanks from the Watch List

  10. An Exploratory Study on a High-Energy Flux (HEF) Calorimeter to Characterize Flammability of Advanced Engineered Polymers: Phase 1 - Ignition and Mass Loss Rate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tewarson, A

    1999-01-01

    This report describes a newly designed high-energy flux (HEF) calorimeter for the flammability evaluation of high fire resistant plastics exposed to high heat flux typical of combat field scenarios and large-scale fires...

  11. A study on flammability limits of fuel mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Shigeo; Takizawa, Kenji; Takahashi, Akifumi; Tokuhashi, Kazuaki; Sekiya, Akira

    2008-07-15

    Flammability limit measurements were made for various binary and ternary mixtures prepared from nine different compounds. The compounds treated are methane, propane, ethylene, propylene, methyl ether, methyl formate, 1,1-difluoroethane, ammonia, and carbon monoxide. The observed values of lower flammability limits of mixtures were found to be in good agreement to the calculated values by Le Chatelier's formula. As for the upper limits, however, some are close to the calculated values but some are not. It has been found that the deviations of the observed values of upper flammability limits from the calculated ones are mostly to lower concentrations. Modification of Le Chatelier's formula was made to better fit to the observed values of upper flammability limits. This procedure reduced the average difference between the observed and calculated values of upper flammability limits to one-third of the initial value.

  12. 75 FR 49379 - Correction to Internal Citation of “Extremely Flammable Solid” and “Flammable Solid”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1500 Correction to Internal Citation of ``Extremely... to correct internal citations to the definitions of ``extremely flammable solid'' and ``flammable... citation for part 1500 continues to read as follows: Authority: 15 U.S.C. 1261-1277. 0 2. In Sec. 1500.83...

  13. 16 CFR 1500.45 - Method for determining extremely flammable and flammable contents of self-pressurized containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Method for determining extremely flammable and flammable contents of self-pressurized containers. 1500.45 Section 1500.45 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES AND...

  14. Flammability of Gas-Filled Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ushkov Valentin Anatol'evich

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The regularities of flame propagation on the horizontal surface of gas-filled polymers are considered depending on the concentration of oxygen in the oxidizer flow. The values of the coefficients in the expression describing relationship between the rate of flame propagation on the surface of foams and oxygen concentration are obtained. It was shown that with the mass content of reactive organophosphorus compounds reaching 4.0...5.9%, non-smoldering resole foam plastics with high performance characteristics are obtained. It was found that in order to obtain moderately combustible polyurethane foams based on oxyethylated phosphorus-containing polyols, the phosphorus concentration should not exceed 3 % of mass. To obtain flame-retardant urea-formaldehyde foam cellular plastics, the concentration of phosphorus should not exceed 0.3 % of mass. Physical-mechanical properties and flammability indices of developed gas-filled polymers based on reactive oligomers are presented.

  15. Experimental and numerical investigation of kerosene flammability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sochet, I. [Orleans Univ., ENSIB, Lab. Energetique Explosions Structures, 18 - Bourges (France); Pascaud, J.M.; Gillard, P. [Orleans Univ., IUTde Bourges, Lab. Energetique Explosions Structures, 18 - Bourges (France)

    2002-08-01

    In an attempt to contribute to aircraft safety, it is fundamental to define the explosions conditions of kerosene vapor in an aircraft tank. Flammability properties of kerosene F-34 and F-35 have been determined experimentally. The flash point and the vapor pressure have been measured by means of an appropriate apparatus. A first analysis of the composition by GC-MS analysis shows four essential compounds: decane, dodecane, 1,2,4 trimethylbenzene and butyl-cyclohexane. The evolution of maximum pressure is compared with the theoretical values obtained with a simple model based on the theory of molecule collisions. A simple modelling has been developed as part of a novel study on ignition and combustion of classical propulsive powders and transposed to liquid kerosene droplets in order to predict the main characteristics of these explosions in a closed vessel. (authors)

  16. Flammability of polypropylene/organoclay nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Tatianny Soares; Barbosa, Renata; Carvalho, Laura Hecker de; Canedo, Eduardo Luis

    2014-01-01

    The flammabilities of nanocomposites made with three polypropylene grades (homo and copolymers) with 5 wt % of organoclay (Cloisite 20A), 5 or 15 wt % of maleated polypropylene as compatibilizer, and 0, 0.5 or 1 wt % of cis-13-docosenamide (Erucamide) as co-intercalant, were studied using the horizontal burning test UL94HB. Masterbatches prepared in an internal mixer were diluted in the polypropylene matrix using a corotating twin-screw extruder, with different screw configurations and operating at 240 or 480 rpm. Results indicate that the high burning rate of the composites was not affected by the processing conditions. For all formulations was observed a significant reduction in smoke release, lack of dripping and the formation of a char surface layer, that protected the core of the samples. (author)

  17. Genetic component of flammability variation in a Mediterranean shrub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, B; Castellanos, M C; Pausas, J G

    2014-03-01

    Recurrent fires impose a strong selection pressure in many ecosystems worldwide. In such ecosystems, plant flammability is of paramount importance because it enhances population persistence, particularly in non-resprouting species. Indeed, there is evidence of phenotypic divergence of flammability under different fire regimes. Our general hypothesis is that flammability-enhancing traits are adaptive; here, we test whether they have a genetic component. To test this hypothesis, we used the postfire obligate seeder Ulex parviflorus from sites historically exposed to different fire recurrence. We associated molecular variation in potentially adaptive loci detected with a genomic scan (using AFLP markers) with individual phenotypic variability in flammability across fire regimes. We found that at least 42% of the phenotypic variation in flammability was explained by the genetic divergence in a subset of AFLP loci. In spite of generalized gene flow, the genetic variability was structured by differences in fire recurrence. Our results provide the first field evidence supporting that traits enhancing plant flammability have a genetic component and thus can be responding to natural selection driven by fire. These results highlight the importance of flammability as an adaptive trait in fire-prone ecosystems. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Flammability Assessment Methodology Program Phase I: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. A. Loehr; S. M. Djordjevic; K. J. Liekhus; M. J. Connolly

    1997-09-01

    The Flammability Assessment Methodology Program (FAMP) was established to investigate the flammability of gas mixtures found in transuranic (TRU) waste containers. The FAMP results provide a basis for increasing the permissible concentrations of flammable volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in TRU waste containers. The FAMP results will be used to modify the ''Safety Analysis Report for the TRUPACT-II Shipping Package'' (TRUPACT-II SARP) upon acceptance of the methodology by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Implementation of the methodology would substantially increase the number of drums that can be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) without repackaging or treatment. Central to the program was experimental testing and modeling to predict the gas mixture lower explosive limit (MLEL) of gases observed in TRU waste containers. The experimental data supported selection of an MLEL model that was used in constructing screening limits for flammable VOC and flammable gas concentrations. The MLEL values predicted by the model for individual drums will be utilized to assess flammability for drums that do not meet the screening criteria. Finally, the predicted MLEL values will be used to derive acceptable gas generation rates, decay heat limits, and aspiration time requirements for drums that do not pass the screening limits. The results of the program demonstrate that an increased number of waste containers can be shipped to WIPP within the flammability safety envelope established in the TRUPACT-II SARP.

  19. FLAMMABLE GAS DIFFUSION THROUGH SINGLE SHELL TANK (SST) DOMES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MEACHAM, J.E.

    2003-11-10

    This report quantified potential hydrogen diffusion through Hanford Site Single-Shell tank (SST) domes if the SSTs were hypothetically sealed airtight. Results showed that diffusion would keep headspace flammable gas concentrations below the lower flammability limit in the 241-AX and 241-SX SST. The purpose of this document is to quantify the amount of hydrogen that could diffuse through the domes of the SSTs if they were hypothetically sealed airtight. Diffusion is assumed to be the only mechanism available to reduce flammable gas concentrations. The scope of this report is limited to the 149 SSTs.

  20. Influence of natural or organophilic bentonite for flammable of the poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyder, Eduardo T.; Kloss, Juliana R.; Morita, Reinaldo Y.; Barbosa, Ronilson V.

    2015-01-01

    The manufacture polymeric applied in electrical sector in general use additives which act as flame retardants, for example, some borates, phosphates, and halogenated hydroxides. An alternative material for this purpose frequently reported in the literature because the flame resistance or flame retardancy is organoclay. Thus, the objective of this study is to evaluate the flammability of mixtures of EVA/natural bentonite and EVA/organoclay containing modifier as a species free of quaternary ammonium ions. The natural bentonite and organoclay were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy and materials were evaluated by X-ray diffraction and the flammability test. Regarding the combustion rate values, there was a reduction of flame propagation in EVA/natural bentonite (3.0%), showing that in this case the clay without modifier acted as a physical barrier and promoted retardant action of flame. (author)

  1. 14 CFR Appendix M to Part 25 - Fuel Tank System Flammability Reduction Means

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel Tank System Flammability Reduction... 25—Fuel Tank System Flammability Reduction Means M25.1Fuel tank flammability exposure requirements. (a) The Fleet Average Flammability Exposure of each fuel tank, as determined in accordance with...

  2. 46 CFR 182.480 - Flammable vapor detection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 100 GROSS TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 182.480 Flammable vapor... permit calibration in a vapor free atmosphere. (g) Electrical connections, wiring, and components for a...

  3. 46 CFR 105.10-15 - Flammable liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Definition of Terms Used in This Part § 105.10-15 Flammable... vapor pressure of 14 pounds or more. 1 American Society of Testing Materials Standard D 323...

  4. DOE/DOE Tight Oil Flammability & Transportation Spill Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lord, David L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This presentation describes crude oils, their phase behavior, the SPR vapor pressure program, and presents data comparisons from various analytical techniques. The overall objective is to describe physical properties of crude oil relevant to flammability and transport safety

  5. Chemical Safety Alert: Lightning Hazard to Facilities Handling Flammable Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raises awareness about lightning strikes, which cause more death/injury and damage than all other environmental elements combined, so industry can take proper precautions to protect equipment and storage or process vessels containing flammable materials.

  6. 16 CFR 1611.3 - Flammability-general requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF VINYL PLASTIC FILM The Standard § 1611.3 Flammability—general requirement. The rate of burning shall not exceed 1.2 in./sec as judged by the average of five determinations...

  7. Development of Large-Format Lithium-Ion Cells with Silicon Anode and Low Flammable Electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, James J.; Hernandez-Lugo, D. M.; Smart, M. C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Miller, T. B.; Lvovich, V. F.; Lytle, J. K.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is developing safe, high energy and high capacity lithium-ion cell designs and batteries for future missions under NASAs Advanced Space Power System (ASPS) project. Advanced cell components, such as high specific capacity silicon anodes and low-flammable electrolytes have been developed for improving the cell specific energy and enhancing safety. To advance the technology readiness level, we have developed large-format flight-type hermetically sealed battery cells by incorporating high capacity silicon anodes, commercially available lithium nickel, cobalt, aluminum oxide (NCA) cathodes, and low-flammable electrolytes. In this report, we will present the performance results of these various battery cells. In addition, we will also discuss the post-test cell analysis results as well.

  8. Mixed low-level waste form evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl, P.I.; Cheng, Wu-Ching; Wheeler, T.; Waters, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    A scoping level evaluation of polyethylene encapsulation and vitreous waste forms for safe storage of mixed low-level waste was performed. Maximum permissible radionuclide concentrations were estimated for 15 indicator radionuclides disposed of at the Hanford and Savannah River sites with respect to protection of the groundwater and inadvertent intruder pathways. Nominal performance improvements of polyethylene and glass waste forms relative to grout are reported. These improvements in maximum permissible radionuclide concentrations depend strongly on the radionuclide of concern and pathway. Recommendations for future research include improving the current understanding of the performance of polymer waste forms, particularly macroencapsulation. To provide context to these estimates, the concentrations of radionuclides in treated DOE waste should be compared with the results of this study to determine required performance

  9. Flammability of self-extinguishing kenaf/ABS nanoclays composite for aircraft secondary structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunakaran, S.; Majid, D. L.; Mohd Tawil, M. L.

    2016-10-01

    This study investigates the flammability properties of kenaf fiber reinforced acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) with nanoclays composites. Natural fiber is one of the potential materials to be used with thermoplastic as a composite due to its attractive properties such as lightweight and strong. In this paper, flammability properties of this material are evaluated through Underwriters Laboratory 94 Horizontal Burning (UL94 HB), which has been conducted for both controlled and uncontrolled conditions, smoke density and limiting oxygen index tests (LOI). These flammability tests are in compliance with the Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) requirement. The results from UL94 HB and smoke density tests show that the presence of nanoclays with effective composition of kenaf fiber reinforced ABS has enhanced the burning characteristics of the material by hindering propagation of flame spread over the surface of the material through char formation. Consequently, this decreases the burning rate and produces low amount of smoke during burning. On contrary, through LOI test, this material requires less oxygen to burn when exposed to fire, which hinders the enhancement of burning characteristics. This is due to burning mechanism exhibited by nanoclays that catalyzes barrier formation and flame propagation rate over the surface of the biocomposite material. Overall, these experimental results suggest that this biocomposite material is capable of self-extinguishing and possesses effective fire extinction. The observed novel synergism from the result obtained is promising to be implemented in secondary structures of aircraft with significant benefits such as cost-effective, lightweight and biodegradable self-extinguishing biocomposite.

  10. Equipment design guidance document for flammable gas waste storage tank new equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smet, D.B.

    1996-01-01

    This document is intended to be used as guidance for design engineers who are involved in design of new equipment slated for use in Flammable Gas Waste Storage Tanks. The purpose of this document is to provide design guidance for all new equipment intended for application into those Hanford storage tanks in which flammable gas controls are required to be addressed as part of the equipment design. These design criteria are to be used as guidance. The design of each specific piece of new equipment shall be required, as a minimum to be reviewed by qualified Unreviewed Safety Question evaluators as an integral part of the final design approval. Further Safety Assessment may be also needed. This guidance is intended to be used in conjunction with the Operating Specifications Documents (OSDs) established for defining work controls in the waste storage tanks. The criteria set forth should be reviewed for applicability if the equipment will be required to operate in locations containing unacceptable concentrations of flammable gas

  11. On the temperature dependence of flammability limits of gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Shigeo; Takizawa, Kenji; Takahashi, Akifumi; Tokuhashi, Kazuaki

    2011-03-15

    Flammability limits of several combustible gases were measured at temperatures from 5 to 100 °C in a 12-l spherical flask basically following ASHRAE method. The measurements were done for methane, propane, isobutane, ethylene, propylene, dimethyl ether, methyl formate, 1,1-difluoroethane, ammonia, and carbon monoxide. As the temperature rises, the lower flammability limits are gradually shifted down and the upper limits are shifted up. Both the limits shift almost linearly to temperature within the range examined. The linear temperature dependence of the lower flammability limits is explained well using a limiting flame temperature concept at the lower concentration limit (LFL)--'White's rule'. The geometric mean of the flammability limits has been found to be relatively constant for many compounds over the temperature range studied (5-100 °C). Based on this fact, the temperature dependence of the upper flammability limit (UFL) can be predicted reasonably using the temperature coefficient calculated for the LFL. However, some compounds such as ethylene and dimethyl ether, in particular, have a more complex temperature dependence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Flammability of kerosene in civil and military aviation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sochet, I.; Gillard, P. [Universite d' Orleans, Lab. Energetique Explosions Structures, Bourges cedex, 18 (France)

    2002-09-01

    The investigation of the ignition conditions of kerosene vapors in the air contained in an aircraft fuel tank contributes to the definition of onboard safety requirements. Civil and military kerosene are characterized by specification. The specification of civil aviation kerosene is based upon usage requirements and property limits, while military kerosene is primarily controlled by specific chemical composition. Characterization of the flammability properties is a first step for the establishment of aircraft safety conditions. Flash point, vapor pressure, gas chromatography analysis, and flammability properties of the kerosene used by the French Military aviation (F-34 and F-35 kerosene) are compared with the flammability properties of civil kerosene. The empirical law established by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in 1998, expressing the ignition energy in terms of fuel, temperature, flash point and altitude is modified and expressed in terms of fuel temperature, flash point and pressure. (Author)

  13. Flammability on textile of flight crew professional clothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Santos, M. C.; Oliveira, M. S.; Giacomin, A. M.; Laktim, M. C.; Baruque-Ramos, J.

    2017-10-01

    The issue about flammability of textile materials employed in passenger cabins of commercial aircrafts is an important part of safety routines planning. Once an in-flight emergency initiated with fire or smoke aboard, time becomes critical and the entire crew must be involved in the solution. It is part of the crew functions, notably the attendants, the in-flight firefighting. This study compares the values of textile material of flight attendant working cloths and galley curtain fabric with regard to flammability and Limiting Oxygen Index (LOI). Values to the professional clothing material indicate that they are flammable and the curtains, self-extinguishing. Thus, despite of the occurrences of fire outbreaks in aircrafts are unexceptional, the use of other materials and technologies for uniforms, such as alternative textile fibers and flame retardant finishes should be considered as well as the establishment of performance limits regarding flame and fire exposing.

  14. Textiles: Some technocal information and data III: Low flammable and other high performance fibres

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hunter, L

    1978-07-01

    Full Text Available What it meant by the flammability of a texttile material? What exactly are the meaning of such term as "non-burning", "fire resistant", "self-extinquishing","non-combustible","flameproof",etc? Unfortunately the flammability properties to which...

  15. A highly conductive, non-flammable polymer–nanoparticle hybrid electrolyte

    KAUST Repository

    Agrawal, Akanksha; Choudhury, Snehashis; Archer, Lynden A.

    2015-01-01

    liquid media as the electrolyte solvent. Remarkably, we also find that even in highly flammable liquid media, the bidisperse nanoparticle hybrid electrolytes can be formulated to exhibit low or no flammability without compromising their favorable room

  16. 14 CFR Appendix N to Part 25 - Fuel Tank Flammability Exposure and Reliability Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Definitions). A non-flammable ullage is one where the fuel-air vapor is too lean or too rich to burn or is... Office for approval the fuel tank flammability analysis, including the airplane-specific parameters...

  17. 10 CFR 36.69 - Irradiation of explosive or flammable materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Irradiation of explosive or flammable materials. 36.69... IRRADIATORS Operation of Irradiators § 36.69 Irradiation of explosive or flammable materials. (a) Irradiation... cause radiation overexposures of personnel. (b) Irradiation of more than small quantities of flammable...

  18. 14 CFR 26.37 - Pending type certification projects: Fuel tank flammability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pending type certification projects: Fuel tank flammability. 26.37 Section 26.37 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AIRPLANES Fuel Tank Flammability § 26.37 Pending type certification projects: Fuel tank flammability. (a...

  19. 49 CFR 174.304 - Class 3 (flammable liquid) materials in tank cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class 3 (flammable liquid) materials in tank cars... (flammable liquid) materials in tank cars. A tank car containing a Class 3 (flammable liquid) material, other... the liquid from the tank car to permanent storage tanks of sufficient capacity to receive the entire...

  20. Responding to Terrorist Incidents in Your Community: Flammable-Liquid Fire Fighting Techniques for Municipal and Rural Firefighters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denise Baclawski

    2010-03-08

    The University of Nevada, Reno Fire Science Academy (FSA) applied for grant funding to develop and deliver programs for municipal, rural, and volunteer firefighters. The FSA specializes in preparing responders for a variety of emergency events, including flammable liquid fires resulting from accidents, intentional acts, or natural disasters. Live fire training on full scale burnable props is the hallmark of FSA training, allowing responders to practice critical skills in a realistic, yet safe environment. Unfortunately, flammable liquid live fire training is often not accessible to municipal, rural, or volunteer firefighters due to limited department training budgets, even though most department personnel will be exposed to flammable liquid fire incidents during the course of their careers. In response to this training need, the FSA developed a course during the first year of the grant (Year One), Responding to Terrorist Incidents in Your Community: Flammable-Liquid Fire Fighting Techniques for Municipal and Rural Firefighters. During the three years of the grant, a total of 2,029 emergency responders received this training. In Year Three, two new courses, a train-the-trainer for Responding to Terrorist Incidents in Your Community and Management of Large-Scale Disasters for Public Officials were developed and pilot tested during the Real-World Disaster Management Conference held at the FSA in June of 2007. Two research projects were conducted during Years Two and Three. The first, conducted over a two year period, evaluated student surveys regarding the value of the flammable liquids training received. The second was a needs assessment conducted for rural Nevada. Both projects provided important feedback and a basis for curricula development and improvements.

  1. Integration of the Uncertainties of Anion and TOC Measurements into the Flammability Control Strategy for Sludge Batch 8 at the DWPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, T. B.

    2013-01-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been working with the Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) in the development and implementation of a flammability control strategy for DWPF's melter operation during the processing of Sludge Batch 8 (SB8). SRNL's support has been in response to technical task requests that have been made by SRR's Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) organization. The flammability control strategy relies on measurements that are performed on Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) samples by the DWPF Laboratory. Measurements of nitrate, oxalate, formate, and total organic carbon (TOC) standards generated by the DWPF Laboratory are presented in this report, and an evaluation of the uncertainties of these measurements is provided. The impact of the uncertainties of these measurements on DWPF's strategy for controlling melter flammability also is evaluated. The strategy includes monitoring each SME batch for its nitrate content and its TOC content relative to the nitrate content and relative to the antifoam additions made during the preparation of the SME batch. A linearized approach for monitoring the relationship between TOC and nitrate is developed, equations are provided that integrate the measurement uncertainties into the flammability control strategy, and sample calculations for these equations are shown to illustrate the impact of the uncertainties on the flammability control strategy

  2. Control Decisions for Flammable Gas Hazards in Waste Transfer Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KRIPPS, L.J.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the control decisions for flammable gas hazards in waste transfer systems (i.e., waste transfer piping and waste transfer-associated structures) made at control decision meetings on November 30, 1999a and April 19, 2000, and their basis. These control decisions, and the analyses that support them, will be documented in an amendment to the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) (CHG 2000a) and Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) (CHG 2000b) to close the Flammable Gas Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) (Bacon 1996 and Wagoner 1996). Following the Contractor Tier I review of the FSAR and TSR amendment, it will be submitted to the US. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) for review and approval. The control decision meeting on November 30, 1999 to address flammable gas hazards in waste transfer systems followed the control decision process and the criteria for control decisions described in Section 3.3.1.5 of the FSAR. The control decision meeting agenda, attendance list, and introductory and background presentations are included in Attachments 1 through 4. The control decision discussions on existing and other possible controls for flammable gas hazards in waste transfer systems and the basis for selecting or not selecting specific controls are summarized in this report

  3. Controlling the ignition and flammability of magnesium for aerospace applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czerwinski, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The perceived easy ignition and flammability of magnesium alloys create a detrimental safety feature that overshadows their high strength-to-weight ratio and hinders the aerospace application opportunities. To overcome the existing barriers a progress in understanding and controlling the reactivity of magnesium at high temperatures is required. This report describes fundamentals of magnesium ignition and flammability along with laboratory testing procedures and correlations with full scale fire scenarios, related in particular to the aircraft cabin. The influence of alloying elements on high temperature reactivity of magnesium and global efforts to develop ignition resistant and non-flammable magnesium alloys are reviewed. Although ignition and flammability represent quite different quantities, both are controlled by an oxidation resistance of the alloy and its capability to form a dense and protective surface oxide after exposures to an open flame or other heat source. Since surface oxide, composed of pure MgO, does not offer a sufficient protection, the research strategy is focused on modification of its chemistry and microstructure by micro-alloying the substrate with rare earths and other elements having high affinity to oxygen

  4. 30 CFR 77.1103 - Flammable liquids; storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... storage tanks shall be mounted securely on firm foundations. Outlet piping shall be provided with flexible connections or other special fittings to prevent adverse effects from tank settling. (c) Fuel lines shall be... hazards. (d) Areas surrounding flammable-liquid storage tanks and electric substations and transformers...

  5. Project W-030 flammable gas verification monitoring test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BARKER, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    This document describes the verification monitoring campaign used to document the ability of the new ventilation system to mitigate flammable gas accumulation under steady state tank conditions. This document reports the results of the monitoring campaign. The ventilation system configuration, process data, and data analysis are presented

  6. Resolve. Version 2.5: Flammable Gas Accident Analysis Tool Acceptance Test Plan and Test Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LAVENDER, J.C.

    2000-01-01

    RESOLVE. Version 2 .5 is designed to quantify the risk and uncertainty of combustion accidents in double-shell tanks (DSTs) and single-shell tanks (SSTs). The purpose of the acceptance testing is to ensure that all of the options and features of the computer code run; to verify that the calculated results are consistent with each other; and to evaluate the effects of the changes to the parameter values on the frequency and consequence trends associated with flammable gas deflagrations or detonations

  7. Results of vapor space monitoring of flammable gas Watch List tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, N.E.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the measurement of headspace gas concentrations and monitoring results from the Hanford tanks that have continuous flammable gas monitoring. The systems used to monitor the tanks are Standard Hydrogen Monitoring Systems. Further characterization of the tank off-gases was done with Gas Characterization Systems and vapor grab samples. The background concentrations of all tanks are below the action level of 6250 ppm. Other information which can be derived from the measurements (such as generation rate, release rate, and ventilation rate) is also discussed

  8. Results of Vapor Space Monitoring of Flammable Gas Watch List Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCCAIN, D.J.

    2000-09-27

    This report documents the measurement of headspace gas concentrations and monitoring results from the Hanford tanks that have continuous flammable gas monitoring. The systems used to monitor the tanks are Standard Hydrogen Monitoring Systems. Further characterization of the tank off-gases was done with Gas Characterization systems and vapor grab samples. The background concentrations of all tanks are below the action level of 6250 ppm. Other information which can be derived from the measurements (such as generation rate, released rate, and ventilation rate) is also discussed.

  9. Overview of the Flammability of Gases Generated in Hanford Waste Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Huckaby, James L.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Johnson, Gerald D.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents an overview of what is known about the flammability of the gases generated and retained in Hanford waste tanks in terms of the gas composition, flammability and detonability limits of the gas constituents, and availability of ignition sources. The intrinsic flammability (or non-flammability) of waste gas mixtures is one major determinant of whether a flammable region develops in the tank headspace; other factors are the rate, surface area, and volume of the release and the tank ventilation rate, which are not covered in this report

  10. Performance evaluation of laser guided leveler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Hoque

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted at Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI farm on clay loam soil during Rabi season of 2010-2011. The treatments consisted of laser land leveling (T1 and control (non-leveled (T2. A preliminary field survey was done using staff gage. Initially a base station was established to dispense laser ray uniformly. The laser ray erected from base station guided the sensor of the stuff gage and the leveler. Elevation data was collected from the different points of the field and made an average. The maximum gage reading were 247.0 cm and the minimum gage reading was 219.2 cm. Average gage readings of the laser leveled plot was 235.66 cm that was settled for auto adjustment. Therefore, huge amount of soils (16.46 cm high was cut from the highest point and subsequently had to fill to the low points. Finally, an equal gage reading of 235.66 cm was observed after leveling the plot. The laser leveler (Leica MLS700 was used hitching with a TAFE tractor. The field was leveled with manual control initially and finally it was operated with auto adjustment. Two operators, 25 litter diesels and total 6 hours time were required during this leveling. Wheat was cultivated in leveled land (T1 and non-leveled land (T2. Laser leveling was insured for improvement in nutrient use efficiencies, option for precision farming, reduces weed problems, and improves uniformity of crop maturity. There was better distribution of water in leveled plot, which helped to reduce irrigation application time 1 hour. Due to uniformity of moisture content improved germination and crop establishment was found which reflected in higher plant population (239 m-2. Maximum yield (3.41 t ha-1 was obtained in T1 due to longer panicle (10.89 cm, more grain per plant (27.47 and 1000 grain weight (47.38 g compared to yield of T2 (2.62 t ha-1.

  11. An Earth-Based Equivalent Low Stretch Apparatus to Assess Material Flammability for Microgravity and Extraterrestrial Fire-Safety Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, S. L.; Beeson, H.; Haas, J. P.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this project is to modify the standard oxygen consumption (cone) calorimeter (described in ASTM E 1354 and NASA STD 6001 Test 2) to provide a reproducible bench-scale test environment that simulates the buoyant or ventilation flow that would be generated by or around a burning surface in a spacecraft or extraterrestrial gravity level. This apparatus will allow us to conduct normal gravity experiments that accurately and quantitatively evaluate a material's flammability characteristics in the real-use environment of spacecraft or extra-terrestrial gravitational acceleration. The Equivalent Low Stretch Apparatus (ELSA) uses an inverted cone geometry with the sample burning in a ceiling fire configuration that provides a reproducible bench-scale test environment that simulates the buoyant or ventilation flow that would be generated by a flame in a spacecraft or extraterrestrial gravity level. Prototype unit testing results are presented in this paper. Ignition delay times and regression rates for PMMA are presented over a range of radiant heat flux levels and equivalent stretch rates which demonstrate the ability of ELSA to simulate key features of microgravity and extraterrestrial fire behavior.

  12. Evaluating 239Pu levels using field detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahl, L.E.; Smith, W.J. II; Martin, B.

    1996-01-01

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory, cleanup was planned at three septic tanks where surface soil in the outfall drainage areas was found to be contaminated with 239 Pu. To meet budget and deadline constraints, a technique was developed that used field instruments to verify 239 Pu soil contamination at levels less than 2.8 Bq g -1 , the established cleanup level. The drainage areas were surveyed using a low-energy gamma probe to identify likely areas of 239 Pu contamination. Between 40 and 135 0.1-min gamma radiation measurements were obtained from each drainage area. From these data, locations were identified for subsequent screening for alpha radioactivity. Soil samples from between 11 and 18 locations at each drainage area were placed in petri dishes, dried, and counted for 10 minutes using an alpha probe. Alpha counts were then related to 239 Pu concentrations using a curve developed from local soils containing known concentrations of 239 Pu. Up to six soil samples from each drainage area, representing a range of alpha radioactivity levels, were sent for laboratory analysis of isotopic plutonium to confirm field measurement results. Analytical and field results correlated well at all but one outfall area. At this area, field measurements predicted more 239 Pu than was measured in the laboratory, indicating the presence of another alpha-emitting radionuclide that might have been missed if only laboratory analyses for plutonium had been used. This technique, which combined a large number of gamma radioactivity measurements, a moderate number of alpha radioactivity measurements, and a few isotopic plutonium measurements, allowed quick and inexpensive comparison of 239 Pu with the cleanup level

  13. Characterization strategy for the flammable gas safety issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, C.W.; Brewster, M.E.; Roberts, J.S.

    1997-06-01

    The characterization strategy for resolving the flammable gas safety issue for Hanford waste tanks is based on a structured logic diagram (SLD) that displays the outcomes necessary to reach the desired goal of making flammable gas risk acceptable. The diagram provides a structured path that can identify all information inputs, data as well as models, needed to achieve the goal. Tracing the path from need to outcome provides an immediate and clear justification and defense of a specific need. The diagram itself is a open-quote picture of a risk calculation close-quote and forms the basis for a quantitative model of risk. The SLID, with the risk calculation, identifies options for characterization, mitigation, and controls that have the maximum effect in reducing risk. It provides quantitative input to risk-based decision making so that options are chosen for maximum impact at least cost

  14. A flammability and combustion model for integrated accident analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plys, M.G.; Astleford, R.D.; Epstein, M.

    1988-01-01

    A model for flammability characteristics and combustion of hydrogen and carbon monoxide mixtures is presented for application to severe accident analysis of Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWR's). Flammability of general mixtures for thermodynamic conditions anticipated during a severe accident is quantified with a new correlation technique applied to data for several fuel and inertant mixtures and using accepted methods for combining these data. Combustion behavior is quantified by a mechanistic model consisting of a continuity and momentum balance for the burned gases, and considering an uncertainty parameter to match the idealized process to experiment. Benchmarks against experiment demonstrate the validity of this approach for a single recommended value of the flame flux multiplier parameter. The models presented here are equally applicable to analysis of current LWR's. 21 refs., 16 figs., 6 tabs

  15. Fires in the Cenozoic: a late flowering of flammable ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Bond, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Modern flammable ecosystems include tropical and subtropical savannas, steppe grasslands, boreal forests, and temperate sclerophyll shrublands. Despite the apparent fiery nature of much contemporary vegetation, terrestrial fossil evidence would suggest we live in a time of low fire activity relative to the deep past. The inertinite content of coal, fossil charcoal, is strikingly low from the Eocene to the Pleistocene and no charcoalified mesofossils have been reported for the Cenozoic. Marine...

  16. Predicting the flammable region reach of propane vapor clouds

    OpenAIRE

    Vílchez Sánchez, Juan Antonio; Villafañe, Diana; Casal Fàbrega, Joaquim

    2014-01-01

    Liquified gas fuels are widely used around the world, and the growth of LNG and LPG consumption continues to increase. However, using these fuels can lead to accidents if they are released to the environment. Consequently, the challenge to control and predict such hazards has become an objective in emergency planning and risk analysis. In a previous article the “Dispersion Safety Factor” (DSF) was proposed, defined as the ratio between the distance at which the lower flammability limit concen...

  17. Effect of Meltable Triazine-DOPO Additive on Rheological, Mechanical, and Flammability Properties of PA6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Butnaru

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Through a straightforward approach, a new meltable, halogen-free, nitrogen-phosphorus-based flame retardant (FR, 6-(2-(4,6-diamino-1,3,5-triazin-2-ylethyl dibenzo[c,e][1,2]oxaphosphinine 6-oxide (DTE-DOPO was synthesized and incorporated in polyamide 6 (PA6. It was proved that a very low phosphorus content of 1.46 wt% for DTE-DOPO additive improved the flame retardancy of PA6, leading to a non-flammable material. The performance of the new additive was compared to that of the commercially-available Exolit® OP 1230. The PA6 formulations were evaluated by measuring the rheological, mechanical, and flammability behavior. Using compounding by melt extrusion, 17 wt% additives was introduced into PA6 matrix and the corresponding formulations were characterized. The results evidenced a higher homogeneity of DTE-DOPO with PA6, a high thermal stability with a catalyzing decomposition effect on PA6 caused by the presence of the new developed FR, enhanced elasticity for the PA6/DTE-DOPO formulation and a V0 rating for both formulations. Thermal and fire analysis indicated a primary gas-phase activity, combined with a complete suppression of the self-sustained burning for the PA6/DTE-DOPO formulation.

  18. A Study of KHNP Nuclear Power Plant Technology Level Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Seung Han; Lee, Sung Jin; Kim, Yo Han

    2016-01-01

    KHNP's 2030 mid and long term plan goal in technology field is securing global No. 1 NPP technology level. Quantifying technology level for this purpose, technology level at present should be surveyed. Technology level of South Korea has been surveyed by KISTEP (Korea Institute of S and T Evaluation and Planning) every two year but the technology level of KHNP has not been surveyed by any organization including KHNP itself. Also the size of technology surveyed by KISTEP was too broad to quantifying technology level of KHNP. In this paper, technology level of KHNP and South Korea are presented. In this study, NPP related technologies were divided into Level I and Level II technologies and conducted a survey for each Level II technologies using Delphi questionnaire survey that is widely used in technology level evaluation. The results of technology level and gap will be used from strategic point of view and also as a reference data for technology improvement planning

  19. A Study of KHNP Nuclear Power Plant Technology Level Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Seung Han; Lee, Sung Jin; Kim, Yo Han [KHNP, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    KHNP's 2030 mid and long term plan goal in technology field is securing global No. 1 NPP technology level. Quantifying technology level for this purpose, technology level at present should be surveyed. Technology level of South Korea has been surveyed by KISTEP (Korea Institute of S and T Evaluation and Planning) every two year but the technology level of KHNP has not been surveyed by any organization including KHNP itself. Also the size of technology surveyed by KISTEP was too broad to quantifying technology level of KHNP. In this paper, technology level of KHNP and South Korea are presented. In this study, NPP related technologies were divided into Level I and Level II technologies and conducted a survey for each Level II technologies using Delphi questionnaire survey that is widely used in technology level evaluation. The results of technology level and gap will be used from strategic point of view and also as a reference data for technology improvement planning.

  20. A Simple Technique to Estimate the Flammability Index of Moroccan Forest Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M'Hamed Hachmi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A formula to estimate forest fuel flammability index (FI is proposed, integrating three species flammability parameters: time to ignition, time of combustion, and flame height. Thirty-one (31 Moroccan tree and shrub species were tested within a wide range of fuel moisture contents. Six species flammability classes were identified. An ANOVA of the FI-values was performed and analyzed using four different sample sizes of 12, 24, 36, and 50 flammability tests. Fuel humidity content is inversely correlated to the FI-value, and the linear model appears to be the most adequate equation that may predict the hypothetical threshold-point of humidity of extinction. Most of the Moroccan forest fuels studied are classified as moderately flammable to flammable species based on their average humidity content, calculated for the summer period from July to September.

  1. A safety assessment of rotary mode core sampling in flammable gas single shell tanks: Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, R.E.

    1996-04-15

    This safety assessment (SA) addresses each of the required elements associated with the installation, operation, and removal of a rotary-mode core sampling (RMCS) device in flammable-gas single-shell tanks (SSTs). The RMCS operations are needed in order to retrieve waste samples from SSTs with hard layers of waste for which push-mode sampling is not adequate for sampling. In this SA, potential hazards associated with the proposed action were identified and evaluated systematically. Several potential accident cases that could result in radiological or toxicological gas releases were identified and analyzed and their consequences assessed. Administrative controls, procedures and design changes required to eliminate or reduce the potential of hazards were identified. The accidents were analyzed under nine categories, four of which were burn scenarios. In SSTS, burn accidents result in unacceptable consequences because of a potential dome collapse. The accidents in which an aboveground burn propagates into the dome space were shown to be in the ``beyond extremely unlikely`` frequency category. Given the unknown nature of the gas-release behavior in the SSTS, a number of design changes and administrative controls were implemented to achieve these low frequencies. Likewise, drill string fires and dome space fires were shown to be very low frequency accidents by taking credit for the design changes, controls, and available experimental and analytical data. However, a number of Bureau of Mines (BOM) tests must be completed before some of the burn accidents can be dismissed with high confidence. Under the category of waste fires, the possibility of igniting the entrapped gases and the waste itself were analyzed. Experiments are being conducted at the BOM to demonstrate that the drill bit is not capable of igniting the trapped gas in the waste. Laboratory testing and thermal analysis demonstrated that, under normal operating conditions, the drill bit will not create high

  2. A safety assessment of rotary mode core sampling in flammable gas single shell tanks: Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    This safety assessment (SA) addresses each of the required elements associated with the installation, operation, and removal of a rotary-mode core sampling (RMCS) device in flammable-gas single-shell tanks (SSTs). The RMCS operations are needed in order to retrieve waste samples from SSTs with hard layers of waste for which push-mode sampling is not adequate for sampling. In this SA, potential hazards associated with the proposed action were identified and evaluated systematically. Several potential accident cases that could result in radiological or toxicological gas releases were identified and analyzed and their consequences assessed. Administrative controls, procedures and design changes required to eliminate or reduce the potential of hazards were identified. The accidents were analyzed under nine categories, four of which were burn scenarios. In SSTS, burn accidents result in unacceptable consequences because of a potential dome collapse. The accidents in which an aboveground burn propagates into the dome space were shown to be in the ''beyond extremely unlikely'' frequency category. Given the unknown nature of the gas-release behavior in the SSTS, a number of design changes and administrative controls were implemented to achieve these low frequencies. Likewise, drill string fires and dome space fires were shown to be very low frequency accidents by taking credit for the design changes, controls, and available experimental and analytical data. However, a number of Bureau of Mines (BOM) tests must be completed before some of the burn accidents can be dismissed with high confidence. Under the category of waste fires, the possibility of igniting the entrapped gases and the waste itself were analyzed. Experiments are being conducted at the BOM to demonstrate that the drill bit is not capable of igniting the trapped gas in the waste. Laboratory testing and thermal analysis demonstrated that, under normal operating conditions, the drill bit will not create high

  3. Overview of the Flammability of Gases Generated in Hanford Waste Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahoney, L.A.; Huckaby, J.L.; Bryan, S.A.; Johnson, G.D.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents an overview of what is known about the flammability of the gases generated and retained in Hanford waste tanks in terms of the gas composition, the flammability and detonability limits of the gas constituents, and the availability of ignition sources. The intrinsic flammability (or nonflammability) of waste gas mixtures is one major determinant of whether a flammable region develops in the tank headspace; other factors are the rate, surface area, volume of the release, and the tank ventilation rate, which are not covered in this report

  4. Low-Flammability PTFE for High-Oxygen Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walle, E.; Fallon, B.; Sheppard, A.

    1986-01-01

    Modified forming process removes volatile combustible materials. Flammability of cable-wrapping tape reduced by altering tape-manufacturing process. In new manufacturing process, tape formed by proprietary process of screw extrusion, followed by washing in solvent and drying. Tape then wrapped as before. Spectrogram taken after extrusion, washing, and drying shows lower hydrocarbon content. PTFE formed by new process suited to oxygen-rich environments. Safe in liquid oxygen of Space Shuttle tank and in medical uses; thin-wall shrinkable tubing in hospital test equipment, surgical instruments, and implants.

  5. Evaluation and comparison of predictive individual-level general surrogates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Erin E; Sachs, Michael C; Halloran, M Elizabeth

    2018-07-01

    An intermediate response measure that accurately predicts efficacy in a new setting at the individual level could be used both for prediction and personalized medical decisions. In this article, we define a predictive individual-level general surrogate (PIGS), which is an individual-level intermediate response that can be used to accurately predict individual efficacy in a new setting. While methods for evaluating trial-level general surrogates, which are predictors of trial-level efficacy, have been developed previously, few, if any, methods have been developed to evaluate individual-level general surrogates, and no methods have formalized the use of cross-validation to quantify the expected prediction error. Our proposed method uses existing methods of individual-level surrogate evaluation within a given clinical trial setting in combination with cross-validation over a set of clinical trials to evaluate surrogate quality and to estimate the absolute prediction error that is expected in a new trial setting when using a PIGS. Simulations show that our method performs well across a variety of scenarios. We use our method to evaluate and to compare candidate individual-level general surrogates over a set of multi-national trials of a pentavalent rotavirus vaccine.

  6. Evaluation of the levels of phthalate ester plasticizers in surface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the levels of phthalate ester plasticizers in surface water of Ethiope ... Gas chromatography (GC) coupled with mass spectrometer (MS) was used to ... with their common use in plastic materials and other industrial chemicals.

  7. Evaluation of Hydrocarbons Level and Identification of Indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    Auto-Mechanic Workshops along Ikokwu Mechanic Village, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. *1AKOMAH, ON .... The study was aimed at evaluating the levels of hydrocarbon and ..... tropical countries, Cambridge University Press. United Kingdom 2: ...

  8. Strategy for resolution of the Flammable Gas Safety Issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.D.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the general strategy for resolution of the flammable gas safety issue; it is not a detailed description of program activities. budgets and schedules. Details of the program activities have been issued (Johnson and Sherwood, 1994) and the information pertaining to budgets is provided in the FY 1995-1997 Multi-Year Work Plan for Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) (Program Element 1.1.1.2.02.). The key element in this strategy is to provide an understanding of the behavior of each of the Flammable Gas Watch List tanks. While a review of historical information does provide some insight, it is necessary to gather current information about the gases, behavior and nature of the waste,. and about the control systems that maintain and monitor the waste. Analysis of this information will enable TWRS to determine the best approach to place any tank in a safe condition, if it is found to be in an unsafe state

  9. Influence of Knits Structure on Flammability and Comfortability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikučionienė D.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of the influence of the knit structure, i.e. the loop length and the number of yarns in a loop, on flammability and comfortability are presented in this paper. The investigations were carried out using single jersey knits from Delta TA 18 tex × 2 yarns with five variants of a loop length. Single yarn as well as folded yarn from two single yarns was used in the investigations. Comparison of the results of single-layer knits flammability and air permeability with those of multilayer packet was made. The results obtained show that an increase in the loop length of the knit increases their permeability to air and decreases the burning time as well as increase in the number of layers decreases the air permeability and increases the burning time. Moreover, the similar burning time with significantly different permeability to air can be achieved changing the basic knitting parameters, i.e. the loop length and/or the yarn linear density.

  10. 46 CFR 111.105-32 - Bulk liquefied flammable gas and ammonia carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bulk liquefied flammable gas and ammonia carriers. 111... gas and ammonia carriers. (a) Each vessel that carries bulk liquefied flammable gases or ammonia as a.... (2) The term “gas-dangerous” does not include the weather deck of an ammonia carrier. (c) Each...

  11. Safe Handling and Use of Flammable and Combustible Materials. Module SH-30. Safety and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This student module on safe handling and use of flammable and combustible materials is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module introduces the student to the hazards of flammable and combustible materials and the measures necessary to control those hazards. Following the introduction, 14 objectives (each keyed to a page…

  12. 14 CFR 26.33 - Holders of type certificates: Fuel tank flammability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Holders of type certificates: Fuel tank... Tank Flammability § 26.33 Holders of type certificates: Fuel tank flammability. (a) Applicability. This... part 25 of this chapter. (2) Exception. This paragraph (b) does not apply to— (i) Fuel tanks for which...

  13. 14 CFR 26.39 - Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank flammability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank... Tank Flammability § 26.39 Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank flammability. (a) Applicability: This... Series 767 Series (b) Any fuel tank meeting all of the criteria stated in paragraphs (b)(1), (b)(2) and...

  14. Outlier treatment for improving parameter estimation of group contribution based models for upper flammability limit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frutiger, Jerome; Abildskov, Jens; Sin, Gürkan

    2015-01-01

    Flammability data is needed to assess the risk of fire and explosions. This study presents a new group contribution (GC) model to predict the upper flammability limit UFL oforganic chemicals. Furthermore, it provides a systematic method for outlier treatment inorder to improve the parameter...

  15. The ring of fire: the relative importance of fuel packing versus intrinsic leaf flammability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootemaat, S.; Wright, I.J.; Cornelissen, J.H.C.; Viegas, D.X.

    2014-01-01

    Two different experimental set-ups were used to disentangle the relative importance of intrinsic leaf traits versus fuel packing for the flammability in fuel beds. Dried leaves from 25 Australian perennial species were burnt in fuel bed rings under controlled conditions. The flammability parameters

  16. Flammable gas project expert elicitation results for Hanford Site double-shell tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratzel, D.R.

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the results of the second phase of parameter quantification by the flammable gas expert panel. This second phase is focused on the analysis of flammable gas accidents in the Hanford Site double-shell tanks. The first phase of parameter quantification, performed in 1997 was focused on the analysis of Hanford single-shell tanks

  17. A Method for Assessing Material Flammability for Micro-Gravity Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhaus, T.; Olenick, S. M.; Sifuentes, A.; Long, R. T.; Torero, J. L.

    1999-01-01

    On a spacecraft, one of the greatest fears during a mission is the outbreak of a fire. Since spacecraft are enclosed spaces and depend highly on technical electronics, a small fire could cause a large amount of damage. NASA uses upward flame spread as a "worst case scenario" evaluation for materials and the Heat and Visible Smoke Release Rates Test to assess the damage potential of a fire. Details of these tests and the protocols followed are provided by the "Flammability, Odor, Offgassing, and Compatibility Requirements and Test Procedures for Materials in Environments that Support Combustion" document. As pointed by Ohlemiller and Villa, the upward flame spread test does not address the effect of external radiation on ignition and spread. External radiation, as that coming from an overheated electrical component, is a plausible fire scenario in a space facility and could result in a reversal of the flammability rankings derived from the upward flame spread test. The "Upward Flame Propagation Test" has been the subject of strong criticism in the last few years. In many cases, theoretical exercises and experimental results have demonstrated the possibility of a reversal in the material flammability rankings from normal to micro-gravity. Furthermore, the need to incorporate information on the effects of external radiation and opposed flame spread when ranking materials based on their potential to burn in micro-gravity has been emphasized. Experiments conducted in a 2.2 second drop tower with an ethane burner in an air cross flow have emphasized that burning at the trailing edge is deterred in micro-gravity due to the decreased oxygen transport. For very low air flow velocities (U0.01 m/s). Only for U>0.l m/s extinction is observed at the leading edge (blow-off). Three dimensional numerical calculations performed for thin cellulose centrally ignited with an axisymmetric source have shown that under the presence of a forced flow slower than 0.035 m/s flames spreads

  18. Evaluation of the Agility Level of the Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linkevics Gusts

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Organizations and teams are switching to agile methodology more and more often. The problem lies in the fact that organizations and teams are not certain at which agility level they currently are and at which agility domains they fail. This research focuses on creating a new method and tool for evaluation of the agility level of the company. The proposed method is based on the agility model of the company with agility domains, subdomains and attributes. Expert evaluation of domains, subdomains and attributes is the core of this method. The result of this research is the agility assessment method and blueprint of the architecture for the agility evaluation tool.

  19. Methods development for measuring and classifying flammability/combustibility of refrigerants. Interim report, task 2 - test plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinonen, E.W.; Tapscott, R.E. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-07-01

    Regulations on alternative refrigerants and concerns for the environment are forcing the refrigeration industry to consider the use of potentially flammable fluids to replace CFC fluids currently in use. The objectives of this program are to establish the conditions under which refrigerants and refrigerant blends exhibit flammability and to develop appropriate methods to measure flammability.

  20. 16 CFR 1145.3 - Extremely flammable contact adhesives; risk of burns from explosive vapor ignition and flashback...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Extremely flammable contact adhesives; risk... TO OTHER ACTS UNDER THE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT § 1145.3 Extremely flammable contact adhesives... associated with certain extremely flammable contact adhesives under the Consumer Product Safety Act rather...

  1. Evaluation of the Automatic Density Compensation for Pressurizer Level Measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Insoo; Min, Seohong; Ahn, Myunghoon

    2014-01-01

    When using two transmitters, it is difficult for the operators to identify the correct level of the pressurizer (PZR) upon failure of one of the two transmitters. For this reason, Korean Utility Requirements Document (KURD) requires that the operators to use three independent level indicators. Two hot calibrated transmitters and one cold calibrated transmitter compose PZR level transmitters in APR1400. In this paper, the deviation between cold calibration and hot calibration is evaluated, and the application of compensated PZR level measurement and uncompen-sated PZR level measurement during the normal operation of APR1400 are introduced. The PZR level signals for APR1400 come in three channels. To satisfy the KURD requirements for PZR level measurement, and at the same time to accomplish correction design and implementation, applicability and differences between hot calibration and cold calibration, compensated level and uncompensated level were evaluated as follows: For proper indication of PZR levels under normal operating condition, two of the three transmitters went through hot calibration and the remaining one transmitter went through cold calibration. This was to allow indicating entire regions of PZR regardless of the plant operation modes. For automatic density compensation per KURD requirements, the algorithm of the density compensated PZR level implemented in the DCS controller and PRV logic is adopted as a signal validation method

  2. Towards a Generic Method of Evaluating Game Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liapis, Antonios; Yannakakis, Georgios N.; Togelius, Julian

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of evaluating the quality of game levels across different games and even genres, which is of key importance for making procedural content generation and assisted game design tools more generally applicable. Three game design patterns are identified for having high...... generality while being easily quantifiable: area control, exploration and balance. Formulas for measuring the extent to which a level includes these concepts are proposed, and evaluation functions are derived for levels in two different game genres: multiplayer strategy game maps and single-player roguelike...... dungeons. To illustrate the impact of these evaluation functions, and the similarity of impact across domains, sets of levels for each function are generated using a constrained genetic algorithm. The proposed measures can easily be extended to other game genres....

  3. Evaluation and selection of candidate high-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-03-01

    Seven candidate waste forms being developed under the direction of the Department of Energy's National High-Level Waste (HLW) Technology Program, were evaluated as potential media for the immobilization and geologic disposal of high-level nuclear wastes. The evaluation combined preliminary waste form evaluations conducted at DOE defense waste-sites and independent laboratories, peer review assessments, a product performance evaluation, and a processability analysis. Based on the combined results of these four inputs, two of the seven forms, borosilicate glass and a titanate based ceramic, SYNROC, were selected as the reference and alternative forms for continued development and evaluation in the National HLW Program. Both the glass and ceramic forms are viable candidates for use at each of the DOE defense waste-sites; they are also potential candidates for immobilization of commercial reprocessing wastes. This report describes the waste form screening process, and discusses each of the four major inputs considered in the selection of the two forms

  4. Method of evaluation of diagnostics reference levels in computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega, Walter Flores

    1999-04-01

    Computerized tomography is a complex technique with several selectable exposition parameters delivering high doses to the patient. In this work it was developed a simple methodology to evaluate diagnostic reference levels in computerized tomography, using the concept of Multiple Scan Average Dose (MSAD), recently adopted by the Health Ministry. For evaluation of the MSAD, a dose distribution was obtained through a measured dose profile on the axial axis of a water phantom with thermoluminescence dosemeters, TLD-100, for different exam technique. The MSAD was evaluated hrough two distinct methods. First, it was evaluated by the integration of the dose profile of a single slice and, second, obtained by the integration on central slice of the profile of several slices. The latter is in of accordance with the ionization chamber method, suggesting to be the most practical method of dose evaluation to be applied in the diagnostic reference level assessment routine for CT, using TLDs. (author)

  5. Using Population Dose to Evaluate Community-level Health Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harner, Lisa T; Kuo, Elena S; Cheadle, Allen; Rauzon, Suzanne; Schwartz, Pamela M; Parnell, Barbara; Kelly, Cheryl; Solomon, Loel

    2018-05-01

    Successful community-level health initiatives require implementing an effective portfolio of strategies and understanding their impact on population health. These factors are complicated by the heterogeneity of overlapping multicomponent strategies and availability of population-level data that align with the initiatives. To address these complexities, the population dose methodology was developed for planning and evaluating multicomponent community initiatives. Building on the population dose methodology previously developed, this paper operationalizes dose estimates of one initiative targeting youth physical activity as part of the Kaiser Permanente Community Health Initiative, a multicomponent community-level obesity prevention initiative. The technical details needed to operationalize the population dose method are explained, and the use of population dose as an interim proxy for population-level survey data is introduced. The alignment of the estimated impact from strategy-level data analysis using the dose methodology and the data from the population-level survey suggest that dose is useful for conducting real-time evaluation of multiple heterogeneous strategies, and as a viable proxy for existing population-level surveys when robust strategy-level evaluation data are collected. This article is part of a supplement entitled Building Thriving Communities Through Comprehensive Community Health Initiatives, which is sponsored by Kaiser Permanente, Community Health. Copyright © 2018 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A highly conductive, non-flammable polymer–nanoparticle hybrid electrolyte

    KAUST Repository

    Agrawal, Akanksha

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 The Royal Society of Chemistry. We report on the physical properties of lithium-ion conducting nanoparticle-polymer hybrid electrolytes created by dispersing bidisperse mixtures of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-functionalized silica nanoparticles in an aprotic liquid host. At high particle contents, we find that the ionic conductivity is a non-monotonic function of the fraction of larger particles xL in the mixtures, and that for the nearly symmetric case xL ≈ 0.5 (i.e. equal volume fraction of small and large particles), the room temperature ionic conductivity is nearly ten-times larger than in similar nanoparticle hybrid electrolytes comprised of the pure small (xL ≈ 0) or large (xL ≈ 1) particle components. Complementary trends are seen in the activation energy for ion migration and effective tortuosity of the electrolytes, which both exhibit minima near xL ≈ 0.5. Characterization of the electrolytes by dynamic rheology reveals that the maximum conductivity coincides with a distinct transition in soft glassy properties from a jammed to partially jammed and back to jammed state, as the fraction of large particles is increased from 0 to 1. This finding implies that the conductivity enhancement arises from purely entropic loss of correlation between nanoparticle centers arising from particle size dispersity. As a consequence of these physics, it is now possible to create hybrid electrolytes with MPa elastic moduli and mS cm-1 ionic conductivity levels at room temperature using common aprotic liquid media as the electrolyte solvent. Remarkably, we also find that even in highly flammable liquid media, the bidisperse nanoparticle hybrid electrolytes can be formulated to exhibit low or no flammability without compromising their favorable room temperature ionic conductivity and mechanical properties.

  7. Thermoplastic Polyurethane Elastomer Nanocomposites: Morphology, Thermophysical, and Flammability Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai K. Ho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel materials based on nanotechnology creating nontraditional ablators are rapidly changing the technology base for thermal protection systems. Formulations with the addition of nanoclays and carbon nanofibers in a neat thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer (TPU were melt-compounded using twin-screw extrusion. The TPU nanocomposites (TPUNs are proposed to replace Kevlar-filled ethylene-propylene-diene-monomer rubber, the current state-of-the-art solid rocket motor internal insulation. Scanning electron microscopy analysis was conducted to study the char characteristics of the TPUNs at elevated temperatures. Specimens were examined to analyze the morphological microstructure during the pyrolysis reaction and in fully charred states. Thermophysical properties of density, specific heat capacity, thermal diffusivity, and thermal conductivity of the different TPUN compositions were determined. To identify dual usage of these novel materials, cone calorimetry was employed to study the flammability properties of these TPUNs.

  8. Biogas utilization as flammable for internal combustion engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas, H.

    1995-01-01

    In this work the energetic potential stored in form of generated biogas of organic industrial wastes treatment is analyzed. Biogas utilization as flammable at internal combustion engine coupled to electrical energy generating is studied in the Wastewater Treatment Plant of Bucaramanga city (Colombia). This Plant was designed for 160.000 habitants treatment capacity, 1300 m3/h wealth, 170 BDO/m3 residues concentration and 87% process efficiency. The plant generate 2.000 m3/d of biogas. In laboratory trials was worked with biogas originating from Treatment Plant, both without purifying and purified, and the obtained results were compared with both yields determined with 86-octanes gasoline and natural gas. The analysis of pollutant by-products generated in combustion process as leak gases, present corrosive compounds and not desirable. elements in biogas composition are included

  9. Evaluation of yield and water-level relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cushman, R.L.; Purtymun, W.D.

    1975-10-01

    Yield and water relations in the Los Alamos supply wells were evaluated because of the increasing demand for water. Water-level declines were extrapolated for 10 yr, to 1983, on the basis of past records. On the basis of current pumpage, the extrapolations indicate that nonpumping water levels in individual wells will decline from 10 to 30 ft. Well characteristics were compiled to provide an individual history of each well, and recommendations for improving water production are presented

  10. Extended Le Chatelier's formula for carbon dioxide dilution effect on flammability limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Shigeo; Takizawa, Kenji; Takahashi, Akifumi; Tokuhashi, Kazuaki

    2006-11-02

    Carbon dioxide dilution effect on the flammability limits was measured for various flammable gases. The obtained values were analyzed using the extended Le Chatelier's formula developed in a previous study. As a result, it has been found that the flammability limits of methane, propane, propylene, methyl formate, and 1,1-difluoroethane are adequately explained by the extended Le Chatelier's formula using a common set of parameter values. Ethylene, dimethyl ether, and ammonia behave differently from these compounds. The present result is very consistent with what was obtained in the case of nitrogen dilution.

  11. Evaluation of the Impact That PARs Have on the Hydrogen Risk in the Reactor Containment: Methodology and Application to PSA Level 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Bentaib

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology and its application to a Level 2 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA-2, to evaluate the impact of the Passive Autocatalytic Recombiners (PARs on the hydrogen risk in the reactor containment in case of a severe accident. Among the whole set of accidental scenarios calculated in the framework of the PSA-2, nine have been selected as representative in terms of the in-vessel hydrogen production rate and in-vessel total produced hydrogen mass. Five complementary scenarios have been added as representative of the core reflooding situations. For this set of selected scenarios the evolution of the conditions in the containment (i.e., pressure, temperature, and composition during the in-vessel phase of the accident has been evaluated by means of a lumped parameter approach. The use of spray systems in the containment has also been considered as well as the presence of recombiners. Moreover, the ignition by recombiners of the flammable atmosphere has been considered.

  12. High-level waste-form-product performance evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernadzikowski, T.A.; Allender, J.S.; Stone, J.A.; Gordon, D.E.; Gould, T.H. Jr.; Westberry, C.F. III.

    1982-01-01

    Seven candidate waste forms were evaluated for immobilization and geologic disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. The waste forms were compared on the basis of leach resistance, mechanical stability, and waste loading. All forms performed well at leaching temperatures of 40, 90, and 150 0 C. Ceramic forms ranked highest, followed by glasses, a metal matrix form, and concrete. 11 tables

  13. Structure versus level: A unified approach to campaign evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2001-01-01

    Based on a modified version of the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1985), a general model for the evaluation of social interventions is developed. Whilst common practice defines campaign success in terms of absolute levels of the target variables, the present approach stresses changes...

  14. Evaluating M.D.-Level Competence in Internal Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Alexander S.; Botticelli, Max G.

    1981-01-01

    The implementation of a clinical clerkship in internal medicine that was flexible in time required that a new evaluation program be developed to assess the progress of students. The progress of the classes of 1979 and 1980 toward achievement of predetermined levels of mastery is presented. (Author/MLW)

  15. Evaluation of the Level of air Microbial Contamination in some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The level of air microbial contamination in some teaching hospitals waste dump site in South Eastern Nigeria was evaluated using the standard microbiological techniques. Passive air sampling was performed using settle plates. The microbial load of the air around the hospitals waste dumpsite, showed high microbial load ...

  16. Evaluation of hydrocarbons level and identification of indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of hydrocarbons level and identification of indigenous bacteria in soil from auto-mechanic workshops along Ikokwu Mechanic Village, Port Harcourt, ... (ii) it is essential that the metagenomics of spent engine oil contaminated soil at auto-mechanic workshop be studied for optimum utilization of their potentials.

  17. Self-Flammability of Gases Generated by Hanford Tank Waste and the Potential of Nitrogen Inerting to Eliminate Flammability Safety Concerns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, Lenna A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-10-12

    Through radiolytic and thermolytic reactions, Hanford tank wastes generate and retain a variety of gases, including hydrogen, nitrous oxide, methane (and other hydrocarbons), ammonia, and nitrogen. This gas generation can be expected to continue during processing in the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The generation rates in the WTP will change from those for the in-situ tank waste because of different process temperatures, different dose rates produced by in-process changes in the proportions of solid and liquid, and dilution of the waste liquid. The flammability of the generated gas that is continuously released, and of any retained gas that might be released into a vessel headspace in quantity due to a spontaneous release, depends on the concentrations not only of the fuel gases—primarily hydrogen (H2), methane, other hydrocarbons, and ammonia—but of the oxidizer nitrous oxide (N2O). As a result of high concentrations of N2O, some gas mixtures are “self-flammable” (i.e., ignition can occur when no air is present because N2O provides the only oxidizer needed). Self-flammability could potentially reduce the effectiveness of using a nitrogen (N2) purge in the headspace as a flammability control, if its effects are not accounted for. A given amount of inertant gas (N2) can accommodate only a certain amount of a generated self-flammable gas before the mixture with inertant gas becomes flammable.

  18. Evaluation of conditioned high-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendel, J.E.; Turcotte, R.P.; Chikalla, T.D.; Hench, L.L.

    1983-01-01

    The evaluation of conditioned high-level waste forms requires an understanding of radiation and thermal effects, mechanical properties, volatility, and chemical durability. As a result of nuclear waste research and development programs in many countries, a good understanding of these factors is available for borosilicate glass containing high-level waste. The IAEA through its coordinated research program has contributed to this understanding. Methods used in the evaluation of conditioned high-level waste forms are reviewed. In the US, this evaluation has been facilitated by the definition of standard test methods by the Materials Characterization Center (MCC), which was established by the Department of Energy (DOE) in 1979. The DOE has also established a 20-member Materials Review Board to peer-review the activities of the MCC. In addition to comparing waste forms, testing must be done to evaluate the behavior of waste forms in geologic repositories. Such testing is complex; accelerated tests are required to predict expected behavior for thousands of years. The tests must be multicomponent tests to ensure that all potential interactions between waste form, canister/overpack and corrosion products, backfill, intruding ground water and the repository rock, are accounted for. An overview of the status of such multicomponent testing is presented

  19. Non-Flammable Crew Clothing Utilizing Phosphorus-Based Fire Retardant Polymers, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For maintaining U.S. leadership role in space exploration, there is an urgent need to develop non-flammable shirts, shorts, sweaters, and jackets without...

  20. LBA-ECO LC-02 Forest Flammability Data, Catuaba Experimental Farm, Acre, Brazil: 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides the results of controlled burns conducted to assess the flammability of mature forests on the Catuaba Experimental Farm of the Federal...

  1. LBA-ECO LC-02 Forest Flammability Data, Catuaba Experimental Farm, Acre, Brazil: 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides the results of controlled burns conducted to assess the flammability of mature forests on the Catuaba Experimental Farm of the...

  2. Evaluation of solidified high-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    One of the objectives of the IAEA waste management programme is to coordinate and promote development of improved technology for the safe management of radioactive wastes. The Agency accomplished this objective specifically through sponsoring Coordinated Research Programmes on the ''Evaluation of Solidified High Level Waste Products'' in 1977. The primary objectives of this programme are to review and disseminate information on the properties of solidified high-level waste forms, to provide a mechanism for analysis and comparison of results from different institutes, and to help coordinate future plans and actions. This report is a summary compilation of the key information disseminated at the second meeting of this programme

  3. Examination of State-Level Nuclear Security Evaluation Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chan Kim; Yim, Man-Sung

    2015-01-01

    An effective global system for nuclear materials security needs to cover all materials, employing international standards and best practices, to reduce risks by reducing weapons-usable nuclear material stocks and the number of locations where they are found. Such a system must also encourage states to accept peer reviews by outside experts in order to demonstrate that effective security is in place. It is thus critically important to perform state-level evaluation of nuclear security based on an integrative framework of risk assessment. Such evaluation provides a basis of measuring the level and progress of international effort to secure and control all nuclear materials. sensitivity test by differentiating weight factors of each of the indicators and categories will be performed in the future as well

  4. Hanford high-level waste melter system evaluation data packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, M.L.; Shafer, P.J.; Lamar, D.A.; Merrill, R.A.; Grunewald, W.; Roth, G.; Tobie, W.

    1996-03-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System is selecting a reference melter system for the Hanford High-Level Waste vitrification plant. A melter evaluation was conducted in FY 1994 to narrow down the long list of potential melter technologies to a few for testing. A formal evaluation was performed by a Melter Selection Working Group (MSWG), which met in June and August 1994. At the June meeting, MSWG evaluated 15 technologies and selected six for more thorough evaluation at the Aug. meeting. All 6 were variations of joule-heated or induction-heated melters. Between the June and August meetings, Hanford site staff and consultants compiled data packages for each of the six melter technologies as well as variants of the baseline technologies. Information was solicited from melter candidate vendors to supplement existing information. This document contains the data packages compiled to provide background information to MSWG in support of the evaluation of the six technologies. (A separate evaluation was performed by Fluor Daniel, Inc. to identify balance of plant impacts if a given melter system was selected.)

  5. The Evaluation of Burnout Levels of Sports Sciences Faculty Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaeksi, Serdar

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to evaluate the burnout levels of sports sciences faculty students in terms of some other variables. 46 Female (Age, M: 20.88 ± 1.86) and 107 male (Age, M: 22.15 ± 2.15) in total 153 students participated in this research. Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Form (MBI-SF) was used for data collection. Descriptive…

  6. Clothing Flammability and Burn Injuries: Public Opinion Concerning an Overlooked, Preventable Public Health Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frattaroli, Shannon; Spivak, Steven M; Pollack, Keshia M; Gielen, Andrea C; Salomon, Michele; Damant, Gordon H

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe knowledge of clothing flammability risk, public support for clothing flammability warning labels, and stronger regulation to reduce the risk. As part of a national survey of homeowners about residential sprinkler systems, the authors included questions about clothing flammability. The authors used an online web panel to sample homeowners and descriptive methods to analyze the resulting data. The sample included 2333 homeowners. Knowledge of clothing flammability and government oversight of clothing flammability risk was low. Homeowners were evenly split about the effectiveness of current standards; however, when presented with clothing-related burn injury and death data, a majority (53%) supported stricter standards. Most homeowners (64%) supported warning labels and indicated that such labels would either have no effect on their purchasing decisions (64%) or be an incentive (24%) to purchase an item. Owners of sprinkler-equipped homes were more likely to support these interventions than owners of homes without sprinkler systems. Public knowledge about clothing flammability risks is low. Most homeowners supported clothing labels to inform consumers of this risk and increased government intervention to reduce the risk.

  7. Prediction methods for the calculation of the flammability properties of gases and vapors: CHETAH and ASTM software. Part 1. Esters and Ethers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gigante, L.; Dellavedova, M.; Pasturenzi, C.; Lunghi, A.; Cardillo, P.

    2008-01-01

    After the law by decree of the 12. June 2003, N 233 (ATEX Directive) and REACH regulation (Regulation EC n. 2907/2006 of the European Parliament), several industrial fields, also not chemical, need the flammability data for the substances used. Perhaps, many of these data, especially for compounds with not common uses, are not easy to collect. It would be helpful to provide prediction methods in order to calculate these data without any experimentation that sometimes results time consuming, expensive and practically impossible for all the commercial compounds. In this research the ASTM software CHETAH (CHEmical Thermodynamic And Hazard evaluation) has been used in order to compute the lower flammability limit (L i ), the limiting oxygen concentration (LOC, using nitrogen as inert gas) as a function of temperature, the adiabatic flame temperature T flame , the fundamental burning velocity (S u ), the quenching distance (Q d ), the minimum ignition energy (MIE) for esters and ethers, substances highly used in industry. [it

  8. Evaluate prevailing climate change on Great Lakes water levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.

    2009-01-01

    'Full text:'In this paper, results of a comprehensive water mass balance modeling for the Great Lakes against prevailing and different anticipated climate change scenarios would be presented. Modeling is done in evaluating the changes in the lake storages and then changes in the lake's water level considering present condition, uncertainty and variability of climate and hydrologic conditions in the future. Inflow-outflow and consequent changes in the five Great Lake's storages are simulated for the last 30 years and then projected to evaluate the changes in the lake storages for the next 50 years. From the predicted changes in the lake storage data, water level is calculated using mass to linear conversion equation. Modeling and analysis results are expected to be helpful in understanding the possible impacts of the climate change on the Great Lakes water environment and preparing strategic plan for the sustainable management of lake's water resources. From the recent past, it is observed that there is a depleting trend in the lakes water level and hence there is a potential threat to lake's water environment and uncertainty of the availability of quality and quantity of water for the future generations, especially against prevailing and anticipated climate changes. For this reason, it is an urgent issue of understanding and quantifying the potential impacts of climate change on the Great Lake's water levels and storages. (author)

  9. TRU waste transportation -- The flammable gas generation problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, M.J.; Kosiewicz, S.T.

    1997-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has imposed a flammable gas (i.e., hydrogen) concentration limit of 5% by volume on transuranic (TRU) waste containers to be shipped using the TRUPACT-II transporter. This concentration is the lower explosive limit (LEL) in air. This was done to minimize the potential for loss of containment during a hypothetical 60 day period. The amount of transuranic radionuclide that is permissible for shipment in TRU waste containers has been tabulated in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP, 1) to conservatively prevent accumulation of hydrogen above this 5% limit. Based on the SARP limitations, approximately 35% of the TRU waste stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab (INEEL), Los Alamos National Lab (LANL), and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) cannot be shipped in the TRUPACT-II. An even larger percentage of the TRU waste drums at the Savannah River Site (SRS) cannot be shipped because of the much higher wattage loadings of TRU waste drums in that site's inventory. This paper presents an overview of an integrated, experimental program that has been initiated to increase the shippable portion of the Department of Energy (DOE) TRU waste inventory. In addition, the authors will estimate the anticipated expansion of the shippable portion of the inventory and associated cost savings. Such projection should provide the TRU waste generating sites a basis for developing their TRU waste workoff strategies within their Ten Year Plan budget horizons

  10. Model of ASTM Flammability Test in Microgravity: Iron Rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Theodore A; Stoltzfus, Joel M.; Fries, Joseph (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    There is extensive qualitative results from burning metallic materials in a NASA/ASTM flammability test system in normal gravity. However, this data was shown to be inconclusive for applications involving oxygen-enriched atmospheres under microgravity conditions by conducting tests using the 2.2-second Lewis Research Center (LeRC) Drop Tower. Data from neither type of test has been reduced to fundamental kinetic and dynamic systems parameters. This paper reports the initial model analysis for burning iron rods under microgravity conditions using data obtained at the LERC tower and modeling the burning system after ignition. Under the conditions of the test the burning mass regresses up the rod to be detached upon deceleration at the end of the drop. The model describes the burning system as a semi-batch, well-mixed reactor with product accumulation only. This model is consistent with the 2.0-second duration of the test. Transient temperature and pressure measurements are made on the chamber volume. The rod solid-liquid interface melting rate is obtained from film records. The model consists of a set of 17 non-linear, first-order differential equations which are solved using MATLAB. This analysis confirms that a first-order rate, in oxygen concentration, is consistent for the iron-oxygen kinetic reaction. An apparent activation energy of 246.8 kJ/mol is consistent for this model.

  11. Test plan for measuring ventilation rates and combustible gas levels in TWRS active catch tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NGUYEN, D.M.

    1999-05-20

    The purpose of this test is to provide an initial screening of combustible gas concentrations in catch tanks that currently are operated by Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). The data will be used to determine whether or not additional data will be needed for closure of the flammable gas unreviewed safety question for these facilities. This test will involve field measurements of ammonia, organic vapor, and total combustible gas levels in the headspace of the catch tanks. If combustible gas level in a tank exceeds an established threshold, gas samples will be collected in SUMMA canisters for more extensive laboratory analysis. In addition, ventilation rates of some catch tanks will be measured to evaluate removal of flammable gas by air flow through the tanks.

  12. Test plan for measuring ventilation rates and combustible gas levels in RPP active catch tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NGUYEN, D.M.

    1999-06-03

    The purpose of this test is to provide an initial screening of combustible gas concentrations in catch tanks that currently are operated by River Protection Project (RPP). The data will be used to determine whether or not additional data will be needed for closure of the flammable gas unreviewed safety question for these facilities. This test will involve field measurements of ammonia, organic vapor, and total combustible gas levels in the headspace of the catch tanks. If combustible gas level in a tank exceeds an established threshold, gas samples will be collected in SUMMA canisters for more extensive laboratory analysis. In addition, ventilation rates of some catch tanks will be measured to evaluate removal of flammable gas by air flow through the tanks.

  13. Evaluating forensic biology results given source level propositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Duncan; Abarno, Damien; Hicks, Tacha; Champod, Christophe

    2016-03-01

    The evaluation of forensic evidence can occur at any level within the hierarchy of propositions depending on the question being asked and the amount and type of information that is taken into account within the evaluation. Commonly DNA evidence is reported given propositions that deal with the sub-source level in the hierarchy, which deals only with the possibility that a nominated individual is a source of DNA in a trace (or contributor to the DNA in the case of a mixed DNA trace). We explore the use of information obtained from examinations, presumptive and discriminating tests for body fluids, DNA concentrations and some case circumstances within a Bayesian network in order to provide assistance to the Courts that have to consider propositions at source level. We use a scenario in which the presence of blood is of interest as an exemplar and consider how DNA profiling results and the potential for laboratory error can be taken into account. We finish with examples of how the results of these reports could be presented in court using either numerical values or verbal descriptions of the results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluating natural radiation level by existing airborne radioactive data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mingkao, Hu; Changqing, Han; Jiangqi, Fang; Zhengxin, Shen

    2002-01-01

    Airborne Survey and Remote Sensing Center of Nuclear Industry, founded in the middle of 1950s, is a unique unit specialized in uranium exploration by airborne radioactive survey in China. Large numbers of airborne data of radioactivity and abundant experience have been accumulated for more than 40 years. All-round detailed investigation of environmental radiation levels in our country will not be completed in the near future. Thus, at present it is considered to evaluate natural radiation levels using the existing radioactive data. This paper introduces the results of analysis and study comparing airborne radioactive data for radiation environmental evaluation obtained from survey area in Gansu, China, in the 2001 with the measurement results by ground gamma ray radiation dose-rate instrument for environment. The air-earth inter-comparison error does not exceed 30% at radiation fields with a definite area, and the air-earth inter-comparison error does not exceed 60% at outcrop of granite. In 6km long profile that has various circumstances, such as desert, Gobi, farmland and residential area, minimum of air absorbed dose rate is 47nGy/h at an altitude of 1 meter above the soil plane, maximum is 68nGy/h. The inter-comparison errors are usually less than 20%, and maximum is 25.38%. This shows that it is feasible to obtain natural radiation levels rapidly if we could use the existing radioactive data adequately and make some correction, such as geology factor

  15. Analysis of flammability limits for the liquefaction process of oxygen-bearing coal-bed methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Q.Y.; Wang, L.; Ju, Y.L.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A novel liquefaction and distillation process is designed for oxygen bearing coal-bed methane. → Oxygen contained in coal-bed methane is removed in distillation process. → Flammability limits are analyzed for the whole operation process. → We find explosion hazard may exist in distillation tower. → Effective measures are proposed to ensure the operation safety in distillation tower. - Abstract: A novel liquefaction and distillation process has been proposed and designed for the typical oxygen-bearing coal-bed methane (CBM), in which the impurities of the oxygen and nitrogen components are removed in the distillation column. The flammability limit theory combining with HYSYS simulation results are employed to analyze and calculate the flammability limits and the results indicate that no flammability hazard exists in the stages of compression, liquefaction and throttling. However, flammability hazard exists at the top the distillation column because the methane mole fraction decreases to the value below the upper flammability limit (UFL). The safety measures of initially removing oxygen content from the feed gas combining with the control of the bottom flowrate (flowrate of the liquid product at column bottom) are proposed to ensure the operation safety of the liquefaction process. The results reveal that the operation safety of the whole process can be guaranteed, together with high methane recovery rate and high purity of the liquid product. The applicability of the liquefaction process has also been analyzed in this paper. The simulation results can offer references for the separation of oxygen from CBM, the analysis of flammability limits and the safety measures for the whole process.

  16. Modelling leaf, plant and stand flammability for ecological and operational decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zylstra, Philip

    2014-05-01

    Numerous factors have been found to affect the flammability of individual leaves and plant parts; however the way in which these factors relate to whole plant flammability, fire behaviour and the overall risk imposed by fire is not straightforward. Similarly, although the structure of plant communities is known to affect the flammability of the stand, a quantified, broadly applicable link has proven difficult to establish and validate. These knowledge gaps have presented major obstacles to the integration into fire behaviour science of research into factors affecting plant flammability, physiology, species succession and structural change, so that the management of ecosystems for fire risk is largely uninformed by these fields. The Forest Flammability Model (Zylstra, 2011) is a process-driven, complex systems model developed specifically to address this disconnect. Flame dimensions and position are calculated as properties emerging from the capacity for convective heat to propagate flame between horizontally and vertically separated leaves, branches, plants and plant strata, and this capacity is determined dynamically from the ignitability, combustibility and sustainability of those objects, their spatial arrangement and a vector-based model of the plume temperature from each burning fuel. All flammability properties as well as the physics of flame dimensions, angle and temperature distributions and the vertical structure of wind within the plant array use published sub-models which can be replaced as further work is developed. This modular structure provides a platform for the immediate application of new work on any aspect of leaf flammability or fire physics. Initial validation of the model examined its qualitative predictions for trends in forest flammability as a function of time since fire. The positive feedback predicted for the subalpine forest examined constituted a 'risky prediction' by running counter to the expectations of the existing approach, however

  17. Evaluation of ploidy level and endoreduplication in carnation (Dianthus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agulló-Antón, María Ángeles; Olmos, Enrique; Pérez-Pérez, José Manuel; Acosta, Manuel

    2013-03-01

    Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) is one of the fifth most important ornamental species worldwide. Many desirable plant characteristics, such as big size, adaptation under stress, and intra or interspecific hybridization capability, are dependent on plant ploidy level. We optimized a quick flow cytometry method for DNA content determination in wild and cultivated carnation samples that allowed a systematic evaluation of ploidy levels in Dianthus species. The DNA content of different carnation cultivars and wild Dianthus species was determined using internal reference standards. The precise characterization of ploidy, endoreduplication and C-value of D. caryophyllus 'Master' makes it a suitable standard cultivar for ploidy level determination in other carnation cultivars. Mixoploidy was rigorously characterized in different regions of several organs from D. caryophyllus 'Master', which combined with a detailed morphological description suggested some distinctive developmental traits of this species. Both the number of endoreduplication cycles and the proportion of endopolyploid cells were highly variable in the petals among the cultivars studied, differently to the values found in leaves. Our results suggest a positive correlation between ploidy, cell size and petal size in cultivated carnation, which should be considered in breeding programs aimed to obtain new varieties with large flowers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The selection of skin care products for use in hyperbaric chamber may depend on flammability acceptability indices score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, Darlene E; Newton, Barry E; Fore, Jane; Chiffoleau, Gwenael

    2008-02-01

    Current protocols call for stopping adjunctive skin care treatments during hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) because the hyperbaric environment is considered unsafe for skin care products. The elevated oxygen fraction and the increased pressure in the hyperbaric chamber dramatically increase the flammability potential of materials, leading to the need for rigorous standards to prevent flame ignition. A scientific method of evaluating the flammability risks associated with skin care products would be helpful. Several skin care products were tested, using established industrial techniques for determining flammability potential with some modification. The information obtained from these tests can help clinicians make more rational decisions about which topical products can be used safely on patients undergoing HBOT. Wendell Hull & Associates conducted independent studies, comparing the oxygen compatibility for leading skin care products. Oxygen compatibility was determined using autogenous ignition temperature (AIT), oxygen index (OI), and heat of combustion (HoC) testing. AIT, a relative indication of a material's propensity for ignition, is the minimum temperature needed to cause a sample to self-ignite at a given pressure and oxygen concentration. OI, a relative indication of a material's flammability, is the minimum oxygen percentage that, when mixed with nitrogen, will sustain burning. HoC is the absolute value of a material's energy release when burning, if ignition occurs. Products with a high AIT, a high OI, and a low HoC are more compatible in an oxygen-enriched atmosphere (OEA). An acceptability index (AI) based on these 3 factors was calculated for the products, so the testers could rank overall material compatibility in OEAs (Lapin A. Oxygen Compatibility of Materials. International Institute of Refrigeration Commission Meeting; Brighton, England; 1973). Test results for the skin products varied widely. The AIT, OI, HoC, and AI were determined for each

  19. The effect of hydrogen enrichment towards the flammability limits of natural gas in conventional combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izirwan Izhab; Nur Syuhada Mohd Shokri; Nurul Saadah Sulaiman; Mohd Zulkifli Mohamad Noor; Siti Zubaidah Sulaiman; Rosmawati Naim; Norida Ridzuan, Mohd Masri Razak; Abdul Halim Abdul Razik; Zulkafli Hassan

    2010-01-01

    The use of hydrogenated fuels shows a considerable promise for the applications in gas turbines and internal combustion engines. The aims of this study are to determine the flammability limits of natural gas/ air mixtures and to investigate the effect of hydrogen enrichment on the flammability limits of natural gas/ air mixtures up to 60 vol % of hydrogen/fuel volume ratio at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature. The experiments were performed in a 20 L closed explosion vessel where the mixtures were ignited by using a spark permanent wire that was placed at the centre of the vessel. The pressure-time variations during explosions of natural gas/ air mixtures in an explosion vessel were recorded. Moreover, the explosion pressure data is used to determine the flammability limits that flame propagation is considered to occur if explosion pressure is greater than 0.1 bar. Therefore, in this study, the results show that the range of flammability limits are from 6 vol % to 15 vol % and by the addition of hydrogen in natural gas proved to extend the initial lower flammability limit of 6 vol % to 2 vol % of methane. (author)

  20. Evaluating the AS-level Internet models: beyond topological characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Zheng-Ping

    2012-01-01

    A surge number of models has been proposed to model the Internet in the past decades. However, the issue on which models are better to model the Internet has still remained a problem. By analysing the evolving dynamics of the Internet, we suggest that at the autonomous system (AS) level, a suitable Internet model, should at least be heterogeneous and have a linearly growing mechanism. More importantly, we show that the roles of topological characteristics in evaluating and differentiating Internet models are apparently over-estimated from an engineering perspective. Also, we find that an assortative network is not necessarily more robust than a disassortative network and that a smaller average shortest path length does not necessarily mean a higher robustness, which is different from the previous observations. Our analytic results are helpful not only for the Internet, but also for other general complex networks. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  1. High level waste (HLW) steam reducing station evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gannon, R.E.

    1993-01-01

    Existing pressure equipment in High Level Waste does not have a documented technical baseline. Based on preliminary reviews, the existing equipment seems to be based on system required capacity instead of system capability. A planned approach to establish a technical baseline began September 1992 and used the Works Management System preventive maintenance schedule. Several issues with relief valves being undersized on steam reducing stations created a need to determine the risk of maintaining the steam in service. An Action Plan was developed to evaluate relief valves that did not have technical baselines and provided a path forward for continued operation. Based on Action Plan WER-HLE-931042, the steam systems will remain in service while the designs are being developed and implemented

  2. Evaluation of a high-level waste radiological maintenance facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, K.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Savannah River Site''s (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) near Aiken, SC is the nation''s first and world''s largest high level waste vitrification facility. DWPF began, operations in March 1996 to process radioactive waste, consisting of a matrixed predominantly 137 Cs precipitate and a predominately 90 Sr and alpha emitting sludge, into boro-silicate glass for long term storage. Presently, DWPF is processing only sludge waste and is preparing to process a combination of sludge and precipitate waste. During precipitate operations, canister dose rates are expected to exceed 10 Sv hr -1 (1000 rem hr -1 ). In sludge-only operations, canister contact gamma dose rates are approximately 15 mSv hr -1 (1500 mrem hr -1 ). Transferable contamination levels have been greater than 10 mSv hr -1 (100 cm 2 ) -1 for beta-gamma emitters and into the millions of Bq (100 cm 2 ) -1 for the alpha emitting radionuclides. This paper presents an evaluation of the radiological maintenance areas and their ability to support radiological work

  3. Evaluation of the level of domestic hygiene in household kitchens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, A; Carraro, V; Sanna, C; Cabiddu, C; Brandas, V; Coroneo, V

    2014-01-01

    Each year in industrialized countries, 30-40% or more cases of food poisoning occur in the household. The aims of this study are to describe the aspects related to food safety in households by carrying out a microbiological characterization of the kitchens in residential dwellings and to increase consumers' awareness concerning the importance of good hygienic practices, which are required for preventing foodborne diseases at household level. The collection of data involved taking 760 analytical samples of kitchen-counter tops and food from 80 kitchens of private dwellings; the manner in which food was treated was evaluated from the moment of purchase to its transformation and storage by means of a checklist; the questionnaire enabled us to determine the extent of consumers' knowledge concerning the food sector. Overall, the results showed a good level of hygiene concerning both food and kitchen-counter top food surfaces. The respondents of the questionnaire did not appear to be aware of various health risks especially concerning the management of the temperature and compartments of refrigerators as well as food storage times and the cooking or heating of food. The data indicate that final consumers should take more care when cleaning kitchen-counter tops and washing salad; special training programmes should be included in school curricular in order to increase citizens' awareness and knowledge concerning food risks within the household.

  4. Evaluating the Development Levels of Rural Areas in Koohrang County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    saleh shahrokhi sardo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A better understanding of geographical phenomena and scientific comprehending of geographical locations requires comprehensive information about these areas. In addition, the awareness of the spatial distribution and development levels are considered as prerequisites for rural development plans and programs. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the development levels of rural areas in Koohrang County. Statistical population was over ten households selected among rural areas (132 villages in Koohrang County. The required secondary data were collected and designed from the statistical yearbook of Koohrang County in 2011. In this study, a combination method of VIKOR-AHP was used to measure level of development in the villages. In addition, in order to determine the optimal distribution of indices, the Gini coefficient was used. Data processing was conducted using MATLAB7.10 and Expert Choice software. Results showed that the highest and lowest degrees of development (0.994 and 0.005 were related to "Castle of Ali-Abad" and "Dezak-Cheshmeh" villages, respectively. Moreover, results indicated that there was the unfavorable development in the study area (with average of 0. 217 in the range 0-1 in a way that most of the villages (21.46% with 53.39% of the population in the area were completely undeveloped. Furthermore, the results based on Gini coefficient and coefficient of variability revealed that the conventional indices of rural development weren't distributed properly. Therefore, it is necessary to have special review and reconsider to determine the main service centers based on settlements hierarchical system.

  5. Flammable gas tank safety program: Technical basis for gas analysis and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estey, S.D.

    1998-01-01

    Several Hanford waste tanks have been observed to exhibit periodic releases of significant quantities of flammable gases. Because potential safety issues have been identified with this type of waste behavior, applicable tanks were equipped with instrumentation offering the capability to continuously monitor gases released from them. This document was written to cover three primary areas: (1) describe the current technical basis for requiring flammable gas monitoring, (2) update the technical basis to include knowledge gained from monitoring the tanks over the last three years, (3) provide the criteria for removal of Standard Hydrogen Monitoring System(s) (SHMS) from a waste tank or termination of other flammable gas monitoring activities in the Hanford Tank farms

  6. Engineering task plan for flammable gas atmosphere mobile color video camera systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohlman, E.H.

    1995-01-01

    This Engineering Task Plan (ETP) describes the design, fabrication, assembly, and testing of the mobile video camera systems. The color video camera systems will be used to observe and record the activities within the vapor space of a tank on a limited exposure basis. The units will be fully mobile and designed for operation in the single-shell flammable gas producing tanks. The objective of this tank is to provide two mobile camera systems for use in flammable gas producing single-shell tanks (SSTs) for the Flammable Gas Tank Safety Program. The camera systems will provide observation, video recording, and monitoring of the activities that occur in the vapor space of applied tanks. The camera systems will be designed to be totally mobile, capable of deployment up to 6.1 meters into a 4 inch (minimum) riser

  7. A preliminary study on the thermal conductivity and flammability of WPC based on some tropical woods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chia, L.H.L.; Chua, P.H.; Lee, E.E.N.

    1985-01-01

    Selected local woods and their wood-polymer combinations or composites (WPC) were tested for their thermal conductivity and their fire resistance. WPC were prepared by polymerizing monomers 'in situ' in oven dried woods by gamma radiation. The monomers included acrylonitrile (AN), 60% styrene-40% acrylonitrile (STAN), methyl methacrylate (MMA), 95% methyl methacrylate-5% dioxane (MD), and vinylidene chloride (VDC). A reduction in thermal conductivity was exhibited by all the composites prepared. W-PAN showed the greatest reduction in thermal conductivity and W-PSTAN in general showed the least. An explanation is suggested for this behaviour. The polymers PMMA and PMD were found to enhance flammability of the woods while PVDC, PAN, and PSTAN imparted fire resistance to the woods. Of the six local woods studied, Ramin-and-Keruing-polymer composites showed the highest flammable tendencies obtained. The correlation of thermal conductivity to flammability is discussed. (author)

  8. Evaluation of Esophageal Anastomotic Integrity With Serial Pleural Amylase Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Daniel L; Helms, Gerald A; Mayfield, William R

    2018-01-01

    An anastomotic leak is the most devastating and potentially fatal complication after esophagectomy. Current detection methods can be inaccurate and place patients at risk of other complications. Analysis of pleural fluid for amylase may be more accurate and place patients at less of a risk for evaluating the integrity of an esophageal anastomosis. We retrospectively reviewed prospective data of 45 consecutive patients who underwent an Ivor Lewis esophagectomy over an 18-month period and evaluated their anastomotic integrity with serial pleural amylase levels (PAL). There were 40 men (89%), and median age was 63 years (range, 35 to 79). Indication for esophagectomy was cancer in 38 patients (84%); 27 (71%) underwent neoadjuvant chemoradiation. A barium swallow was performed in the first 25 patients at median postoperative day (POD) 5 (range, 5 to 10); the swallow was negative in 23 patients (93%). Serial PALs were obtained starting on POD 3 and stopped 1 day after toleration of clear liquids. The PALs in the no-leak patients were highest on POD 3 (median 42 IU/L; range, 20 to 102 IU/L) and decreased (median 15 IU/L; range, 8 to 34 IU/L) to the lowest levels 1 day after clear liquid toleration (p = 0.04). Two patients had a leak and had peak PALs of 227 IU/L and 630 IU/L, respectively; both leaks occurred on POD 4, 1 day before their scheduled swallow test. The last 20 patients underwent serial PALs only, without a planned swallow test or computed tomography scan for anastomotic integrity evaluation. One of these patients had a leak on POD 5 with a low PAL of 55 IU/L the day before the spike of more than 4,000 IU/L. Two of the leaks were treated with esophageal stent placement and intravenous antibiotics, and the remaining patient's leak resolved with intravenous antibiotics, no oral intake, and observation only. None of the leak patients required transthoracic esophageal repair or drainage of an empyema. There was 1 postoperative death (2%) secondary to aspiration

  9. Flow Effects on the Flammability Diagrams of Solid Fuels: Microgravity Influence on Ignition Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordova, J. L.; Walther, D. C.; Fernandez-Pello, A. C.; Steinhaus, T.; Torero, J. L.; Quintere, J. G.; Ross, H. D.

    1999-01-01

    The possibility of an accidental fire in space-based facilities is a primary concern of space exploration programs. Spacecraft environments generally present low velocity air currents produced by ventilation and heating systems (of the order of 0.1 m/s), and fluctuating oxygen concentrations around that of air due to CO2 removal systems. Recent experiments of flame spread in microgravity show the spread rate to be faster and the limiting oxygen concentration lower than in normal-gravity. To date, there is not a material flammability-testing protocol that specifically addresses issues related to microgravity conditions. The present project (FIST) aims to establish a testing methodology that is suitable for the specific conditions of reduced gravity. The concepts underlying the operation of the LIFT apparatus, ASTM-E 1321-93, have been used to develop the Forced-flow Ignition and flame-Spread Test (FIST). As in the LIFT, the FIST is used to obtain the flammability diagrams of the material, i.e., graphs of ignition delay time and flame spread rate as a function of the externally applied radiant flux, but under forced flow rather than natural convection conditions, and for different oxygen concentrations. Although the flammability diagrams are similar, the flammability properties obtained with the FIST are found to depend on the flow characteristics. A research program is currently underway with the purpose of implementing the FIST as a protocol to characterize the flammability performance of solid materials to be used in microgravity facilities. To this point, tests have been performed with the FIST apparatus in both normal-gravity and microgravity conditions to determine the effects of oxidizer flow characteristics on the flammability diagrams of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) fuel samples. The experiments are conducted at reduced gravity in a KC- 135 aircraft following a parabolic flight trajectory that provides up to 25 seconds of low gravity. The objective of the

  10. 16 CFR 1500.46 - Method for determining flashpoint of extremely flammable contents of self-pressurized containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... extremely flammable contents of self-pressurized containers. 1500.46 Section 1500.46 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES AND... extremely flammable contents of self-pressurized containers. Use the apparatus described in § 1500.43a. Use...

  11. Risk Evaluation of Railway Coal Transportation Network Based on Multi Level Grey Evaluation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Wei; Wang, Xifu

    2018-01-01

    The railway transport mode is currently the most important way of coal transportation, and now China’s railway coal transportation network has become increasingly perfect, but there is still insufficient capacity, some lines close to saturation and other issues. In this paper, the theory and method of risk assessment, analytic hierarchy process and multi-level gray evaluation model are applied to the risk evaluation of coal railway transportation network in China. Based on the example analysis of Shanxi railway coal transportation network, to improve the internal structure and the competitiveness of the market.

  12. Non-Toxic, Non-Flammable, -80 C Phase Change Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutbirth, J. Michael

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this effort was to develop a non-toxic, non-flammable, -80 C phase change material (PCM) to be used in NASA's ICEPAC capsules for biological sample preservation in flight to and from Earth orbit. A temperature of about -68 C or lower is a critical temperature for maintaining stable cell, tissue, and cell fragment storage.

  13. Flammable gas safety program. Analytical methods development: FY 1994 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.A.; Clauss, S.; Grant, K.; Hoopes, V.; Lerner, B.; Lucke, R.; Mong, G.; Rau, J.; Wahl, K.; Steele, R.

    1994-09-01

    This report describes the status of developing analytical methods to account for the organic components in Hanford waste tanks, with particular focus on tanks assigned to the Flammable Gas Watch List. The methods that have been developed are illustrated by their application to samples obtained from Tank 241-SY-101 (Tank 101-SY)

  14. 16 CFR 1500.43a - Method of test for flashpoint of volatile flammable materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Method of test for flashpoint of volatile flammable materials. 1500.43a Section 1500.43a Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION... shall intersect the plane of the underside of the cover. The cover is also provided with an orifice...

  15. Effect of melamine phosphate on the thermal stability and flammability of bio-based polyurethanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakushin, Vladimir; Sevastyanova, Irina; Vilsone, Dzintra; Avots, Andris

    2016-01-01

    The effect of melamine phosphate (MP) on the thermal stability of bio-based polyurethane and the flammability parameters of wood samples with polyurethane coatings was studied. Thermogravimetric analysis and cone calorimeter test at a heat flux of 35 kW/m 2 were used for this purpose. The main characteristics of the thermal stability and flammability of the coating with addition of MP were compared with the characteristics of analogous coatings with addition of ammonium polyphosphate (APP), as well as APP in combination with melamine. It was found that the use of MP as an intumescent additive allows a considerable decrease of most of the flammability parameters of the polyurethane based on tall oil fatty acids, like APP. To reach the maximum effect, it is enough to load in the polyurethane 20% of MP. In contrast to APP, MP reduces also the smoke release of the samples. Using MP in combination with APP at definite weight ratios, it is possible to essentially reduce the flammability parameters of polyurethane coatings, such as PHRR, THR and MARHE. (paper)

  16. Fleet Composition of Rail Tank Cars That Transport Flammable Liquids: 2013-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-05

    Section 7308 of the Fixing America's Surface Transportation Act (FAST Act; P. L. 114-94; December 4, 2015) requires the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) to assemble and collect data on rail tank cars transporting Class 3 flammable liquids (box...

  17. 29 CFR 1910.107 - Spray finishing using flammable and combustible materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... drying apparatus and electrical connections and wiring thereto shall not be located within spray... apparatus, the drying apparatus, and the ventilating system of the spray enclosure shall be equipped with... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Spray finishing using flammable and combustible materials...

  18. System acceptance and operability test report for the RMCS exhauster C on flammable gas tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldo, E.J.

    1998-01-01

    This test report documents the completion of acceptance and operability testing of the rotary mode core sampling (RMCS) exhauster C, as modified for use as a major stack (as defined by the Washington State Department of Health) on flammable gas tanks

  19. 30 CFR 35.22 - Test to determine effect of evaporation on flammability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test to determine effect of evaporation on... § 35.22 Test to determine effect of evaporation on flammability. (a) Purpose. The purpose of this test shall be to determine the effect of evaporation on the reduction of fire resistance of a hydraulic fluid...

  20. Analysis of flammability in the attached buildings to containment under severe accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, J.C. de la, E-mail: juan-carlos.de-la-rosa-blul@ec.europa.eu [European Commission Joint Research Centre (Netherlands); Fornós, Joan, E-mail: jfornosh@anacnv.com [Asociación Nuclear Ascó-Vandellós (Spain)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Analysis of flammability conditions in buildings outside containment. • Stepwise approach easily applicable for any kind of containment and attached buildings layout. • Detailed application for real plant conditions has been included. - Abstract: Right after the events unfolded in Fukushima Daiichi, the European Union countries agreed in subjecting Nuclear Power Plants to Stress Tests as developed by WENRA and ENSREG organizations. One of the results as implemented in many European countries derived from such tests consisted of mandatory technical instructions issued by nuclear regulatory bodies on the analysis of potential risk of flammable gases in attached buildings to containment. The current study addresses the key aspects of the analysis of flammable gases leaking to auxiliary buildings attached to Westinghouse large-dry PWR containment for the specific situation where mitigating systems to prevent flammable gases to grow up inside containment are available, and containment integrity is preserved – hence avoiding isolation system failure. It also provides a full practical exercise where lessons learned derived from the current study – hence limited to the imposed boundary conditions – are applied. The leakage of gas from the containment to the support buildings is based on separate calculations using the EPRI-owned Modular Accident Analysis Program, MAAP4.07. The FATE™ code (facility Flow, Aerosol, Thermal, and Explosion) was used to model the transport and distribution of leaked flammable gas (H{sub 2} and CO) in the penetration buildings. FATE models the significant mixing (dilution) which occurs as the released buoyant gas rises and entrains air. Also, FATE accounts for the condensation of steam on room surfaces, an effect which acts to concentrate flammable gas. The results of the analysis show that during a severe accident, flammable conditions are unlikely to occur in compartmentalized buildings such as the one used in the

  1. Analysis of flammability in the attached buildings to containment under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, J.C. de la; Fornós, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Analysis of flammability conditions in buildings outside containment. • Stepwise approach easily applicable for any kind of containment and attached buildings layout. • Detailed application for real plant conditions has been included. - Abstract: Right after the events unfolded in Fukushima Daiichi, the European Union countries agreed in subjecting Nuclear Power Plants to Stress Tests as developed by WENRA and ENSREG organizations. One of the results as implemented in many European countries derived from such tests consisted of mandatory technical instructions issued by nuclear regulatory bodies on the analysis of potential risk of flammable gases in attached buildings to containment. The current study addresses the key aspects of the analysis of flammable gases leaking to auxiliary buildings attached to Westinghouse large-dry PWR containment for the specific situation where mitigating systems to prevent flammable gases to grow up inside containment are available, and containment integrity is preserved – hence avoiding isolation system failure. It also provides a full practical exercise where lessons learned derived from the current study – hence limited to the imposed boundary conditions – are applied. The leakage of gas from the containment to the support buildings is based on separate calculations using the EPRI-owned Modular Accident Analysis Program, MAAP4.07. The FATE™ code (facility Flow, Aerosol, Thermal, and Explosion) was used to model the transport and distribution of leaked flammable gas (H_2 and CO) in the penetration buildings. FATE models the significant mixing (dilution) which occurs as the released buoyant gas rises and entrains air. Also, FATE accounts for the condensation of steam on room surfaces, an effect which acts to concentrate flammable gas. The results of the analysis show that during a severe accident, flammable conditions are unlikely to occur in compartmentalized buildings such as the one used in the

  2. Permeability and flammability study of composite sandwich structures for cryogenic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubacz, Monika

    Fiber reinforced plastics offer advantageous specific strength and stiffness compared to metals and has been identified as candidates for the reusable space transportation systems primary structures including cryogenic tanks. A number of carbon and aramid fiber reinforced plastics have been considered for the liquid hydrogen tanks. Materials selection is based upon mechanical properties and containment performance (long and short term) and upon manufacturing considerations. The liquid hydrogen tank carries shear, torque, end load, and bending moment due to gusts, maneuver, take-off, landing, lift, drag, and fuel sloshing. The tank is pressurized to about 1.5 atmosphere (14.6psi or 0.1 MPa) differential pressure and on ascent maintains the liquid hydrogen at a temperature of 20K. The objective of the research effort into lay the foundation for developing the technology required for reliable prediction of the effects of various design, manufacturing, and service parameters on the susceptibility of composite tanks to develop excessive permeability to cryogenic fuels. Efforts will be expended on developing the materials and structural concepts for the cryogenic tanks that can meet the functional requirements. This will include consideration for double wall composite sandwich structures, with inner wall to meet the cryogenic requirements. The structure will incorporate nanoparticles for properties modifications and developing barriers. The main effort will be extended to tank wall's internal skin design. The main requirements for internal composite stack are: (1) introduction of barrier film (e.g. honeycomb material paper sheet) to reduce the wall permeability to hydrogen, (2) introduction of nanoparticles into laminate resin to prevent micro-cracking or crack propagation. There is a need to characterize and analyze composite sandwich structural damage due to burning and explosion. Better understanding of the flammability and blast resistance of the composite structures

  3. Comparison of economic evaluation methodology between levelized method and the evaluation system in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shengli

    2005-01-01

    Different methodology would bring different results. This paper includes an introduction of levelized discounted generation cost methodology as well as that of Chinese system, respectively. In general, there have two key indices in Chinese evaluation system, they are generation cost and electricity sales price to the grid. This paper contains a description of cost breakdown and calculation procedure for each index. Comparison between these two methods and the primary differences are also included. For the first time, equations for calculating generation cost and selling price to the grid based on Chinese system have been derived, and its accuracy has been shown through running the special computer program. The two systems are quite different in many aspects. Firstly, levelized generation cost is always calculated with discounted method that excluded in Chinese system. Secondly, levelized generation cost is a single and constant value that would not change over the economic life while generation cost in Chinese system is estimated on a year by year base. Thirdly, the makeup of generation cost in Chinese system is different from that of levelized system since taxes and dividend share removed. Finally, the electricity sales price in Chinese system is more similar to levelized generation cost. (authors)

  4. Summary of tank information relating salt well pumping to flammable gas safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caley, S.M.; Mahoney, L.A.; Gauglitz, P.A.

    1996-09-01

    The Hanford Site has 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) containing radioactive wastes that are complex mixes of radioactive and chemical products. Active use of these SSTs was phased out completely by November 1980, and the first step toward final disposal of the waste in the SSTs is interim stabilization, which involves removing essentially all of the drainable liquid from the tank. Stabilization can be achieved administratively, by jet pumping to remove drainable interstitial liquid, or by supernatant pumping. To date, 116 tanks have been declared interim stabilized; 44 SSTs have had drainable liquid removed by salt well jet pumping. Of the 149 SSTs, 19 are on the Flammable Gas Watch List (FGWL) because the waste in these tanks is known or suspected, in all but one case, to generate and retain mixtures of flammable gases, including; hydrogen, nitrous oxide, and ammonia. Salt well pumping to remove the drainable interstitial liquid from these SSTs is expected to cause the release of much of the retained gas, posing a number of safety concerns. The scope of this work is to collect and summarize information, primarily tank data and observations, that relate salt well pumping to flammable gas safety issues. While the waste within FGWL SSTs is suspected offering flammable gases, the effect of salt well pumping on the waste behavior is not well understood. This study is being conducted for the Westinghouse Hanford Company as part of the Flammable Gas Project at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Understanding the historical tank behavior during and following salt well pumping will help to resolve the associated safety issues

  5. Evaluation of radionuclide concentrations in high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehringer, D.J.

    1985-10-01

    This report describes a possible approach for development of a numerical definition of the term ''high-level radioactive waste.'' Five wastes are identified which are recognized as being high-level wastes under current, non-numerical definitions. The constituents of these wastes are examined and the most hazardous component radionuclides are identified. This report suggests that other wastes with similar concentrations of these radionuclides could also be defined as high-level wastes. 15 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs

  6. Evaluation of a method to measure long term cortisol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manenschijn, Laura; Koper, Jan W; Lamberts, Steven W J; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C

    2011-01-01

    Elevated levels of cortisol are known to induce various symptoms and diseases, e.g. abdominal obesity, type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease. Measuring serum, saliva and urine cortisol is limited to one time point. Measurement of cortisol in scalp hair is a recently developed method to measure long term cortisol levels. The aim of this study was to investigate whether hair cortisol is a feasible parameter to measure cortisol exposure. We collected hair samples of 195 healthy individuals, 9 hypercortisolemic and one hypocortisolemic patient and measured hair cortisol levels. Cortisol was extracted from scalp hair using methanol and cortisol levels were measured using a salivary ELISA kit. Measurement of waist and hip circumferences and blood pressure was performed in 46 healthy subjects. We found a positive correlation between hair cortisol and both waist circumference (r=0.392, p=0.007) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (r=0.425, p=0.003). No correlations were found between hair cortisol levels and BMI, blood pressure or age. There was no decline in cortisol levels in six consecutive hair segments. Hair cortisol levels were elevated in patients with known hypercortisolism (pcortisol was positively correlated with WHR, suggesting that hair cortisol reflects cortisol exposure at tissue level, which was also supported by elevated hair cortisol levels in hypercortisolemic patients and concordance between hair cortisol levels and clinical disease course. Cortisol levels in hair are slightly influenced by hair treatment but not by natural hair colour, use of hair products, gender or age. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of the serum zinc level in patients with vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Rostami Mogaddam

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Vitiligo is an acquired, idiopathic disorder characterized by circumscribed depigmented macules and patches, which affects approximately 0.1–2% of the general population worldwide. Zinc is an essential trace element that is necessary for growth and development at all stages of life. Some studies have reported an association between serum zinc levels and vitiligo. Aim : To measure the serum zinc level in patients with vitiligo compared to healthy subjects. Material and methods : One hundred patients with vitiligo and 100 healthy controls were referred to our clinic. The two groups were matched for age and sex. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used to measure serum zinc levels. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software. Results : The mean serum level of zinc in vitiligo patients and controls was 80.11 ±17.10 µg/dl and 96.10 ±16.16 µg/dl, respectively. The serum zinc level in patients with vitiligo was significantly lower than in healthy controls (p = 0.0001. Conclusions : The results of our study revealed a significant association between vitiligo and serum zinc levels. A relative decrease in the serum zinc level in vitiligo patients can highlight the role of zinc in the pathogenesis of vitiligo, and large-scale studies need to be conducted to confirm these findings and assess the effect of oral zinc supplements in patients with low zinc levels.

  8. Evaluation of serum osteopontin level and gene polymorphism as biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasmickaite, Lina; Berge, Gisle; Bettum, Ingrid J

    2015-01-01

    samples from 275 high-risk melanoma patients enrolled in the Nordic Adjuvant IFN Melanoma trial were analyzed for circulating OPN concentrations and OPN promoter polymorphisms in position -443. The potential relation between serum OPN levels, the genotypes and survival in non-treated patients and patients...... receiving adjuvant IFN-α was investigated. Although slightly better survival was observed in the treated patients that had high levels of OPN, the difference was not statistically significant. In conclusion, serum OPN (its level or the genotype) cannot distinguish melanoma patients with poor prognosis...

  9. Influence of natural or organophilic bentonite for flammable of the poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate); Influencia da bentonita natural ou organofilica na inflamabilidade do poli(etileno-co-acetato de vinila)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyder, Eduardo T.; Kloss, Juliana R.; Morita, Reinaldo Y., E-mail: yomorita1@gmail.com [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba,PR (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica e Biologia; Caetano, Elenice H.; Andrade, Andre Vitor C. de [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa (UEPG), Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Barbosa, Ronilson V. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica

    2015-07-01

    The manufacture polymeric applied in electrical sector in general use additives which act as flame retardants, for example, some borates, phosphates, and halogenated hydroxides. An alternative material for this purpose frequently reported in the literature because the flame resistance or flame retardancy is organoclay. Thus, the objective of this study is to evaluate the flammability of mixtures of EVA/natural bentonite and EVA/organoclay containing modifier as a species free of quaternary ammonium ions. The natural bentonite and organoclay were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy and materials were evaluated by X-ray diffraction and the flammability test. Regarding the combustion rate values, there was a reduction of flame propagation in EVA/natural bentonite (3.0%), showing that in this case the clay without modifier acted as a physical barrier and promoted retardant action of flame. (author)

  10. Study on a quantitative evaluation method of equipment maintenance level and plant safety level for giant complex plant system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Takayuki

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a quantitative method on maintenance level which is determined by the two factors, maintenance plan and field work implementation ability by maintenance crew is discussed. And also a quantitative evaluation method on safety level for giant complex plant system is discussed. As a result of consideration, the following results were obtained. (1) It was considered that equipment condition after maintenance work was determined by the two factors, maintenance plan and field work implementation ability possessed by maintenance crew. The equipment condition determined by the two factors was named as 'equipment maintenance level' and its quantitative evaluation method was clarified. (2) It was considered that CDF in a nuclear power plant, evaluated by using a failure rate counting the above maintenance level was quite different from CDF evaluated by using existing failure rates including a safety margin. Then, the former CDF was named as 'plant safety level' of plant system and its quantitative evaluation method was clarified. (3) Enhancing equipment maintenance level means an improvement of maintenance quality. That results in the enhancement of plant safety level. Therefore, plant safety level should be always watched as a plant performance indicator. (author)

  11. External evaluation in municipal level: The impacts of an experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Ferrarotto

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The external evaluation is a consolidated reality in our country. Besides the state and federal ones, there are some municipalities that develop their own evaluation programs. To contribute with the debate about the external evaluations, this article presents data from a research which aim was to identify the actions from the Educational Secretariat from a city in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, opposite to the results of PROMASE (Municipal Assessment of the Educational System and its impact in school’s units. It is still being analyzed the path taken by the program with the aim of explaining its conception of the teaching quality. This way, the qualitative research was chosen based on the interviews with the Educational Secretary, teachers and school’s managers. Accordingly with the Secretary, after PROMASE, actions since improvements in the buildings to curricular restructuring and continuing educational were made. Even without the rankings and performance payments, it is noticeable in schools the built of what is called “hidden” and “adjustment” rankings of the pedagogical and evaluative practices to the matrix and to the evaluative instrument of the program to improve the teaching quality and improve the index. For an evaluative system to bring contributions to the network, it is noticeable that the quality must be anchored to the social quality, which more than the index, establishes its own scale as a protagonist in the process of looking to itself, adverse to the blaming of the teachers for the standards tests results and that, consequently, favors the social, political, cultural and human formation of the students.

  12. Spreaders, igniters, and burning shrubs: plant flammability explains novel fire dynamics in grass-invaded deserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Ramirez, Andres; Veldman, Joseph W; Holzapfel, Claus; Moloney, Kirk A

    2016-10-01

    Novel fire regimes are an important cause and consequence of global environmental change that involve interactions among biotic, climatic, and human components of ecosystems. Plant flammability is key to these interactions, yet few studies directly measure flammability or consider how multiple species with different flammabilities interact to produce novel fire regimes. Deserts of the southwestern United States are an ideal system for exploring how novel fire regimes can emerge when fire-promoting species invade ecosystems comprised of species that did not evolve with fire. In these deserts, exotic annual grasses provide fuel continuity across landscapes that did not historically burn. These fires often ignite a keystone desert shrub, the fire-intolerant creosote bush, Larrea tridentata (DC.) Coville. Ignition of Larrea is likely catalyzed by fuels produced by native plants that grow beneath the shrubs. We hypothesize that invasive and native species exhibit distinct flammability characteristics that in combination determine spatial patterns of fire spread and intensity. We measured flammability metrics of Larrea, two invasive grasses, Schismus arabicus and Bromus madritensis, and two native plants, the sub-shrub Ambrosia dumosa and the annual herb Amsinckia menziesii. Results of laboratory experiments show that the grasses carry fire quickly (1.32 cm/s), but burn for short duration (0.5 min) at low temperatures. In contrast, native plants spread fire slowly (0.12 cm/s), but burn up to eight times longer (4 min) and produced hotter fires. Additional experiments on the ignition requirements of Larrea suggest that native plants burn with sufficient temperature and duration to ignite dead Larrea branches (time to ignition, 2 min; temperature at ignition 692°C). Once burning, these dead branches ignite living branches in the upper portions of the shrub. Our study provides support for a conceptual model in which exotic grasses are "spreaders" of fire and native

  13. Evaluating the Organizational Interoperability Maturity Level in ICT Research Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manijeh Haghighinasab

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Interoperability refers to the ability to provide services and to accept services from other systems or devices. Collaborative enterprises face additional challenges to interoperate seamlessly within a networked organization. The major task here is to assess the maturity level of interoperating organizations. For this purpose the maturity models for enterprise were reviewed based on vendors’ reliability and advantages versus disadvantages. Interoperability maturity model was deduced from ATHENA project as European Integrated Project in 2005, this model named as EIMM was examined in Iran information and Communication Institute as a leading Telecommunication organization. 115 questionnaires were distributed between staff of 4 departments: Information Technology, Communication Technology, Security and Strategic studies regarding six areas of concern: Enterprise Modeling, Business Strategy Process, Organization and Competences, Products and Services, Systems and Technology, Legal Environment, Security and Trust at five maturity levels: Performed, Modeled , Integrated, Interoperable and Optimizing maturity. The findings showed different levels of maturity in this Institute. To achieve Interoperability level, appropriate practices are proposed for promotion to the higher levels.

  14. Evaluation of EGM2008 by means of GPS Levelling Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Personal

    The global gravity model EGM2008 is evaluated in various regions of ... two so that the computed difference [0.118m] in datum offset for the two states does tell us .... GAMIT is a collection of programs to process GPS phase data to estimate ...

  15. Practical evaluations of low-level waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, V.C.

    1989-01-01

    In general, there have been about four main tools that have been used to assist in selecting a disposal technology and in evaluating that technology: Legislative direction; Operator selection; Multiattribute utility estimation; and Risk assessment and cost benefit evaluation. The first technique, legislative direction, is an important factor in determining the range of disposal technologies that may be considered. Some host state entities have chosen not to participate in the disposal technology selection, but will let the facility operator propose and defend his preferred facility concept in the license application. Multiattribute utility estimation is a widely used tool for evaluating technologies, particularly in the preliminary stages of selecting a disposal technology when significant technical and institutional information is missing. Many factors, including a range of technical, safety, environmental, societal, political, and economic concerns must be considered in the selection process. Many of these are hard to quantify and not all are of equal importance. Multiattrubute utility estimation allows for these factors to be considered in selecting a technology with incomplete information. This chapter provides description of two analysis techniques: multiattribute utility estimation and cost benefit evaluation. Both can be used to help profile disposal alternatives in relation to specific factors or criteria

  16. Evaluation of the activity levels in fusion reactor blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, J.

    1977-05-01

    The activation of a fusion reactor blanket (316 SS or V-10Cr-10Ti as structure) with a minimum lithium inventory has been calculated for 0.83 MW/m 2 wall load. The resulting radiation levels and waste problems are discussed. The dose rate near the steel structure will always be higher than 0.1 rem/h due to its niobium content. After 200 to 100,000 years of decay the potential biological hazard originating from this high level fusion reactor waste (with plutonium recyclation). (orig.) [de

  17. An Evaluation on Levels of Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim was to determine the knowledge, attitude and behavioral levels of people at and above 65 years of age, living in Ankara (Turkey) about alternative medicine. The study was carried out between March – April 2010 through survey application of 200 participants by selective random sampling from the population.

  18. evaluation of the environmental noise levels in abuja municipality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Background: Noise remains a nuisance which impacts negatively on the ..... Furthermore, Erikson et al postulated that a persistent noise level .... Hessel PA, Sluis-Cremer G K. Hearing loss in ... Ear & Hearing 2006; 27(1): 1-19. 13.

  19. Evaluation of excitation functions for isomeric levels in neutron reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grudzevich, O.T.; Zelenetskij, A.V.; Zolotarev, K.I.; Kornilov, N.V.; Pashchenko, A.B.

    1993-07-01

    The authors consider the use of theoretical models to describe experimental excitation functions for isomeric levels in neutron reactions and to predict the cross-sections when no experimental data are available. It is shown that, in many cases, experimental data can be described quite satisfactorily by calculations without adjustment of parameters. For threshold reactions at a neutron energy of ∼ 14 MeV the agreement between calculated and experimental isomeric ratios is ∼ 20%, and is determined mainly by errors in the experimental ratios. However, for some reactions there are considerable differences between experimental and calculated data, which are due, in the authors' opinion, to uncertainties in the schemes of the low-lying levels and of gamma transitions between levels and to the spin dependence of level density. The small isomeric ratio values R<0.1 are described with the lowest accuracy. A formula is suggested for the energy dependence of the isomeric ratio in the (n,γ) reaction. (author)

  20. A Research into Evaluation of Basketball Athletes' Risk Perception Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, Ozgur

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the risk perception levels of Basketball athletes in Turkish League teams according to some variables. In this research the "general screening model," which is one of the descriptive screening methods, was used. While the population of the study consists of athletes actively engaged in the Turkish…

  1. Evaluation of the environmental noise levels in Abuja Municipality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To assess the equivalent noise level (Leq) in Abuja municipality and promote a simple method for regular assessment of Leq within our environment. Methods: This is a cross-sectional community based study of the environmental Leq of Abuja municipality conducted between January 2014 and January 2016.

  2. Type Directed Partial Evaluation for Level-1 Shift and Reset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danko Ilik

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We present an implementation in the Coq proof assistant of type directed partial evaluation (TDPE algorithms for call-by-name and call-by-value versions of shift and reset delimited control operators, and in presence of strong sum types. We prove that the algorithm transforms well-typed programs to ones in normal form. These normal forms can not always be arrived at using the so far known equational theories. The typing system does not allow answer-type modification for function types and allows delimiters to be set on at most one atomic type. The semantic domain for evaluation is expressed in Constructive Type Theory as a dependently typed monadic structure combining Kripke models and continuation passing style translations.

  3. Cycling performance of lithium polymer cells assembled by in situ polymerization of a non-flammable ionic liquid monomer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yoon-Sung; Kim, Dong-Won

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Gel polymer electrolytes were synthesized by in situ polymerization of ionic liquid in the lithium polymer cells. • Flammability of the electrolyte was significantly reduced by polymerizing electrolyte containing a non-flammable ionic liquid monomer. • The cells assembled with polymeric ionic liquid-based electrolytes exhibited reversible cycling behavior with good capacity retention. -- Abstract: Lithium polymer cells composed of a lithium negative electrode and a LiCoO 2 positive electrode were assembled with a gel polymer electrolyte obtained by in situ polymerization of an electrolyte solution containing an ionic liquid monomer with vinyl groups. The polymerization of the electrolyte solution containing the non-flammable ionic liquid monomer resulted in a significant reduction of the flammability of the gel polymer electrolytes. The lithium polymer cell assembled with the stable gel polymer electrolyte delivered a discharge capacity of 134.3 mAh g −1 at ambient temperature and exhibited good capacity retention

  4. Flammable Gas Refined Safety Analysis Tool Software Verification and Validation Report for Resolve Version 2.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BRATZEL, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document all software verification and validation activities, results, and findings related to the development of Resolve Version 2.5 for the analysis of flammable gas accidents in Hanford Site waste tanks

  5. Alternate Reductant Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace Phase II Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, F. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Stone, M. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Miller, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-09-03

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) conducted a Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) to determine the optimum alternate reductant flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Specifically, two proposed flowsheets (nitric–formic–glycolic and nitric–formic–sugar) were evaluated based upon results from preliminary testing. Comparison of the two flowsheets among evaluation criteria indicated a preference towards the nitric–formic–glycolic flowsheet. Further research and development of this flowsheet eliminated the formic acid, and as a result, the nitric–glycolic flowsheet was recommended for further testing. Based on the development of a roadmap for the nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet, Waste Solidification Engineering (WS-E) issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) to address flammability issues that may impact the implementation of this flowsheet. Melter testing was requested in order to define the DWPF flammability envelope for the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF), a 1/12th scale DWPF melter, was selected by the SRR Alternate Reductant project team as the melter platform for this testing. The overall scope was divided into the following sub-tasks as discussed in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP): Phase I - A nitric–formic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled) to baseline the CEF cold cap and vapor space data to the benchmark melter flammability models; Phase II - A nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled and bubbled) to: Define new cold cap reactions and global kinetic parameters in support of the melter flammability model development; Quantify off-gas surging potential of the feed; Characterize off-gas condensate for complete organic and inorganic carbon species. After charging the CEF with cullet from Phase I CEF testing, the melter was slurry-fed with glycolic flowsheet based SB6-Frit 418 melter feed at 36% waste

  6. Dynamic evaluation of the levelized cost of wind power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Díaz, Guzmán; Gómez-Aleixandre, Javier; Coto, José

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Conventional levelized cost of energy is static and does not consider flexibility. • This paper defines a dynamic version by means of stochastic programming. • A penalty for early exercising is proposed to differentiate static and dynamic. • Results show the effects of feed-in tariff support in low wind sites. • Policy implications are derived on the basis of the static and dynamic measures. - Abstract: This paper discusses an alternative computation method of the levelized cost of energy of distributed wind power generators. Unlike in the conventional procedures, it includes time of commencement as an optimization variable. For that purpose, a methodology from Longstaff and Schwartz’s dynamic program for pricing financial American options is derived, which provides the ability to find the optimum time and value while coping with uncertainty revenues from energy sales and variable capital costs. The results obtained from the analysis of wind records of 50 sites entail that the conventional levelized cost of energy can be broken down into an optimum, minimum (time-dependent) value and a penalty for early exercising, which can be employed to define investment strategies and support policies

  7. Flammability and thermal properties studies of nonwoven flax reinforced acrylic based polyester composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasyid, M. F. Ahmad; Salim, M. S.; Akil, H. M.; Ishak, Z. A. Mohd.

    2017-12-01

    In the pursuit of green and more sustainable product, natural fibre reinforced composites originating from renewable resources has gained interest in recent years. These natural fibres exhibit good mechanical properties, low production costs, and good environmental properties. However, one of the disadvantages of natural fibre reinforced composites is their high flammability that limits their application in many fields. Within this research, the effect of sodium silicate on the flammability and thermal properties of flax reinforced acrylic based polyester composites has been investigated. Sodium silicate is applied as binder and flame retardant system in impregnation process of the natural flax fiber mats. The addition of sodium silicate significantly improved the flame retardant efficiency but reduced the degree of crosslinking of the composites.

  8. A Review of the Flammability Factors of Kenaf and Allied Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural fibre is a well-known reinforcement fibre in polymer-matrix Composites (PMC lately. Natural fibre has fast growing and abundance properties which make it available at very low cost. For kenaf fibre there is long lists of research projects which have been done regarding its behaviour, and properties and modification made to it. In this paper, fire flammability is the main concern for natural fibre reinforced polymer (NFRP composites especially kenaf fibre. To estimate its flammability, a wide range of factors can be considered such as fibre content, type of matrices, pH conditions, treatment, and fire retardant (FR filler’s type. The most important criteria are the ignition time, rate of propagation, and fire behavior. thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, different scanning calorimetric (DSC, and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA are the three most famous methods used to investigate the fire behaviour of composites.

  9. Control Decisions for Flammable Gas Hazards in Double Contained Receiver Tanks (DCRTs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRIPPS, L.J.

    2000-06-28

    This report describes the control decisions for flammable gas hazards in double-contained receiver tanks (DCRTs) made at control decision meetings on November 16, 17, and 18, 1999, on April 19,2000, and on May 10,2000, and their basis. These control decisions, and the analyses that support them, will be documented in an amendment to the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) (CHG 2000a) and Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) (CHG 2000b) to close the Flammable Gas Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) (Bacon 1996 and Wagoner 1996) for DCRTs. Following the contractor Tier I review of the FSAR and TSR amendment, it will be submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) for review and approval.

  10. Reference Material Kydex(registered trademark)-100 Test Data Message for Flammability Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Carl D.; Richardson, Erin; Davis, Eddie

    2003-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Materials and Processes Technical Information System (MAPTIS) database contains, as an engineering resource, a large amount of material test data carefully obtained and recorded over a number of years. Flammability test data obtained using Test 1 of NASA-STD-6001 is a significant component of this database. NASA-STD-6001 recommends that Kydex 100 be used as a reference material for testing certification and for comparison between test facilities in the round-robin certification testing that occurs every 2 years. As a result of these regular activities, a large volume of test data is recorded within the MAPTIS database. The activity described in this technical report was undertaken to mine the database, recover flammability (Test 1) Kydex 100 data, and review the lessons learned from analysis of these data.

  11. Evaluation of level of impregnation monomers in hydrotalcite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmo, Danieli M. do; Machado, Jacson S.C.; Oliveira, Marcelo F.L.; Oliveira, Marcia G.; Soares, Bluma G.

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the impregnation degree of 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate and 1,4-butanediol monomers in hydrotalcite clays it was prepared dispersions with mixing ratio 1:100 (clay/monomer), using the Ultraturrax and Ultrasound. Subsequently the samples were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and X-ray Diffraction. Swelling tests and Tyndall effect were used to illustrate the different dispersions. The results indicated a strong interaction between the hydrotalcite with 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate, favoring the formation of intercalated structures. (author)

  12. Effect of Environmental Variables on the Flammability of Fire Resistant Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Osorio, Andres Felipe

    2014-01-01

    This work investigates the effects of external radiation, ambient pressure and microgravity on the flammability limits of fire-resistant (FR) materials. Future space missions may require spacecraft cabin environments different than those used in the International Space Station, 21%O2, 101.3kPa. Environmental variables include flow velocity, oxygen concentration, ambient pressure, micro or partial-gravity, orientation, presence of an external radiant flux, etc. Fire-resistant materials are use...

  13. Flammable gas double shell tank expert elicitation presentations (Part A and Part B)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratzel, D.R.

    1998-04-17

    This document is a compilation of presentation packages and white papers for the Flammable Gas Double Shell Tank Expert Elicitation Workshop {number_sign}2. For each presentation given by the different authors, a separate section was developed. The purpose for issuing these workshop presentation packages and white papers as a supporting document is to provide traceability and a Quality Assurance record for future reference to these packages.

  14. Results of gas monitoring of double-shell flammable gas watch list tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, N.E.

    1995-01-01

    Tanks 103-SY; 101-AW; 103-, 104-, and 105-AN are on the Flammable Gas Watch List. Recently, standard hydrogen monitoring system (SHMS) cabinets have been installed in the vent header of each of these tanks. Grab samples have been taken once per week, and a gas chromatograph was installed on tank 104-AN as a field test. The data that have been collected since gas monitoring began on these tanks are summarized in this document

  15. Operation of the multigap resistive plate chamber using a gas mixture free of flammable components

    CERN Document Server

    Akindinov, A; Antonioli, P; Arcelli, S; Basile, M; Cara Romeo, G; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; De Caro, A; De Pasquale, S; Di Bartolomeo, A; Fusco-Girard, M; Golovine, V; Guida, M; Hatzifotiadou, D; Kaidalov, A B; Kim, D H; Kim, D W; Kisselev, S M; Laurenti, G; Lee, K; Lee, S C; Lioublev, E; Luvisetto, M L; Margotti, A; Martemyanov, A N; Nania, R; Noferini, F; Otiougova, P; Pesci, A; Pinazza, O; Polozov, P A; Scapparone, E; Scioli, G; Sellitto, S B; Semeria, F; Smirnitsky, A V; Tchoumakov, M M; Usenko, E; Valenti, G; Voloshin, K G; Williams, M C S; Zagreev, B V; Zampolli, C; Zichichi, A

    2004-01-01

    We have investigated the operation of the multigap resistive plate chamber (MRPC) for the ALICE-TOF system with a gas mixture free of flammable components. Two different gas mixtures, with and without iso-C//4H//1//0 have been used to measure the performance of the MRPC. The efficiency, time resolution, total charge, and the fast to total charge ratio have been found to be comparable.

  16. Potential Flammable Gas Explosion in the TRU Vent and Purge Machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincent, A

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the analysis was to determine the failure of the Vent and Purge (V and P) Machine due to potential explosion in the Transuranic (TRU) drum during its venting and/or subsequent explosion in the V and P machine from the flammable gases (e.g., hydrogen and Volatile Organic Compounds [VOCs]) vented into the V and P machine from the TRU drum. The analysis considers: (a) increase in the pressure in the V and P cabinet from the original deflagration in the TRU drum including lid ejection, (b) pressure wave impact from TRU drum failure, and (c) secondary burns or deflagrations resulting from excess, unburned gases in the cabinet area. A variety of cases were considered that maximized the pressure produced in the V and P cabinet. Also, cases were analyzed that maximized the shock wave pressure in the cabinet from TRU drum failure. The calculations were performed for various initial drum pressures (e.g., 1.5 and 6 psig) for 55 gallon TRU drum. The calculated peak cabinet pressures ranged from 16 psig to 50 psig for various flammable gas compositions. The blast on top of cabinet and in outlet duct ranged from 50 psig to 63 psig and 12 psig to 16 psig, respectively, for various flammable gas compositions. The failure pressures of the cabinet and the ducts calculated by structural analysis were higher than the pressure calculated from potential flammable gas deflagrations, thus, assuring that V and P cabinet would not fail during this event. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 68 calculations showed that for a failure pressure of 20 psig, the available vent area in the V and P cabinet is 1.7 to 2.6 times the required vent area depending on whether hydrogen or VOCs burn in the V and P cabinet. This analysis methodology could be used to design the process equipment needed for venting TRU waste containers at other sites across the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex

  17. The effect of the environment conditions on the prediction of flammable cloud dispersion

    OpenAIRE

    Schleder, Adriana; Martins, Marcelo; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa; Planas Cuchi, Eulàlia

    2014-01-01

    In order to quantify the damage caused by undesired events involving leakages of flammable materials, specific models are used to analyze the spills or jets of gas and liquid, gas dispersion, explosions and fires. The main step of this analysis is to estimate the concentration, in space and time, of the vapor cloud of hazardous substances released into the atmosphere; the purpose is to determine the area where a fire or explosion might occur and the quantity of flam...

  18. The effect of the computational grid size on the prediction of a flammable cloud dispersion

    OpenAIRE

    Schleder, Adriana; Martins, Marcelon; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa; Planas Cuchi, Eulàlia

    2014-01-01

    The consequence analysis is used to define the extent and nature of effects caused by undesired events being of great help when quantifying the damage caused by such events. For the case of leaking of flammable and/or toxic materials, effects are analyzed for explosions, fires and toxicity. Specific models are used to analyze the spills or jets of gas or liquids, gas dispersions, explosions and fires. The central step in the analysis of consequences in such cases is to de...

  19. Flammable gas double shell tank expert elicitation presentations (Part A and Part B)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratzel, D.R.

    1998-01-01

    This document is a compilation of presentation packages and white papers for the Flammable Gas Double Shell Tank Expert Elicitation Workshop number-sign 2. For each presentation given by the different authors, a separate section was developed. The purpose for issuing these workshop presentation packages and white papers as a supporting document is to provide traceability and a Quality Assurance record for future reference to these packages

  20. Development and evaluation of candidate high-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernadzikowski, T.A.

    1981-01-01

    Some seventeen candidate waste forms have been investigated under US Department of Energy programs as potential media for the immobilization and geologic disposal of the high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) resulting from chemical processing of nuclear reactor fuels and targets. Two of these HLW forms were selected at the end of fiscal year (FY) 1981 for intensive development if FY 1982 to 1983. Borosilicate glass was continued as the reference form. A crystalline ceramic waste form, SYNROC, was selected for further product formulation and process development as the alternative to borosilicate glass. This paper describes the bases on which this decision was made

  1. Flammability limits: A review with emphasis on ethanol for aeronautical applications and description of the experimental procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coronado, Christian J.R.; Carvalho, João A.; Andrade, José C.; Cortez, Ely V.; Carvalho, Felipe S.; Santos, José C.; Mendiburu, Andrés Z.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Develops a comprehensive literature review on ethanol flammability limits. ► Difference in standard procedures lead to different experimental values of the flammability limits. ► Methodology for experiments to find the FL's of ethanol for aeronautical applications. - Abstract: The lower and upper flammability limits of a fuel are key tools for predicting fire, assessing the possibility of explosion, and designing protection systems. Knowledge about the risks involved with the explosion of both gaseous and vaporized liquid fuel mixtures with air is very important to guarantee safety in industrial, domestic, and aeronautical applications. Currently, most countries use various standard experimental tests, which lead to different experimental values for these limits. A comprehensive literature review of the flammability limits of combustible mixtures is developed here in order to organize the theoretical and practical knowledge of the subject. The main focus of this paper is the review of the flammability data of ethanol–air mixtures available in the literature. In addition, the description of methodology for experiments to find the upper and lower limits of flammability of ethanol for aeronautical applications is discussed. A heated spherical 20 L vessel was used. The mixtures were ignited with electrode rods placed in the center of the vessel, and the spark gap was 6.4 mm. LFL and the UFL were determined for ethanol (hydrated ethanol 96% °INPM) as functions of temperature for atmospheric pressure to compare results with data published in the scientific literature.

  2. Approach to evaluating health level and adaptation possibilities in schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Andrieieva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: substantiate the results of theoretical and practical investigations aimed at improving the health of students. Material: the study involved 187 children including 103 boys and 84 girls aged 7-10 years. Results: through a rapid assessment of physical health it was found that pupils of primary school age have an average level of the functional state of the organism, with a minimum resistance to risk factors (chronic non-infective diseases, etc.. For the first time, a technique for determining the level of adaptation and reserve capacity of school students proposed by Ukrainian hygienists was used in physical culture and sports practice. Conclusions: the technique reveals strain in adaptation mechanisms that corresponds to donozological condition. An idea is proposed that Nordic walking, through the positive impact on the body of aerobic mode of energy supply, is able to increase the reserve-adaptive capabilities of primary school students by improvement of their health as well as to solve the problems of health formation and health care in the physical education of youth.

  3. Evaluation of radiation protection educational level of professional exposed workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinkovic, O.; Krstev, S.; Jovanovic, S.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Serbia and Montenegro legislation concerning with radiation protection was upgrading after publication ICRP- 60 and B.S.S., No.115. Present Law on the Protection against Ionizing Radiation is in force from 1996. Among quite new issues in radiation protection regulations there was article relate to obligatory refresher training. Due to adverse political and economic situation through many years radiation protection regulations were not fulfill completely. The aim of this investigation was to get real view to education level of professional exposed workers. In Serbia and Montenegro the most of ionizing radiation sources are in medical use and the most exposed workers are radiographers and radiologists. The test was passed by 200 radiographers and 50 radiologists. Main groups of questions were: Radiation protection and safety; difference between safety and security; legislation: law and regulations; incidents, accidents and operational failures: recording, learning. Usually, knowledge from school pales. New quantities (as ambient and personal dose equivalent) are mostly unknown. It is easier to understand the real difference between safety and security than to understand linguistic differences. Discussing regulations workers are more interesting in syndicate regulations than radiation protection ones. Operational failures and incidents are hidden. Better to say: nobody dare to speak about them. The results imposed conclusion that regulatory body has to pay more attention to upraise safety culture and radiation protection education level of professional exposed workers. (authors)

  4. DWPF Melter Off-Gas Flammability Assessment for Sludge Batch 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, A. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2016-07-11

    The slurry feed to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter contains several organic carbon species that decompose in the cold cap and produce flammable gases that could accumulate in the off-gas system and create potential flammability hazard. To mitigate such a hazard, DWPF has implemented a strategy to impose the Technical Safety Requirement (TSR) limits on all key operating variables affecting off-gas flammability and operate the melter within those limits using both hardwired/software interlocks and administrative controls. The operating variables that are currently being controlled include; (1) total organic carbon (TOC), (2) air purges for combustion and dilution, (3) melter vapor space temperature, and (4) feed rate. The safety basis limits for these operating variables are determined using two computer models, 4-stage cold cap and Melter Off-Gas (MOG) dynamics models, under the baseline upset scenario - a surge in off-gas flow due to the inherent cold cap instabilities in the slurry-fed melter.

  5. Condensation heat transfer coefficients of flammable refrigerants on various enhanced tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ki Jung; Jung, Dong Soo

    2005-01-01

    In this study, external condensation Heat Transfer Coefficients (HTCs) of six flammable refrigerants of propylene (R1270), propane (R290), isobutane (R600a), butane (R600), dimethylether (RE170), and HFC32 were measured at the vapor temperature of 39 .deg. C on a 1023 fpm low fin and turbo-C tubes. All data were taken under the heat flux of 32∼116 and 42∼142 kW/m 2 for the low fin and turbo-C tubes respectively. Flammable refrigerants' data obtained on enhanced tubes showed a typical trend that external condensation HTCs decrease with increasing wall subcooling. HFC32 and DME showed up to 30% higher HTCs than those of HCFC22 due to their excellent thermophysical properties. Propylene, propane, isobutane, and butane showed similar or lower HTCs than those of HCFC22. Beatty and Katz' correlation predicted the HTCs of the flammable refrigerants obtained on a low fin tube within a mean deviation of 7.3%. Turbo-C tube showed the best performance due to its 3 dimensional surface geometry for fast removal of condensate

  6. Hanford high level waste: Sample Exchange/Evaluation (SEE) Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, A.G.

    1994-08-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL)/Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) and the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC)/Process Analytical Laboratory (PAL) provide analytical support services to various environmental restoration and waste management projects/programs at Hanford. In response to a US Department of Energy -- Richland Field Office (DOE-RL) audit, which questioned the comparability of analytical methods employed at each laboratory, the Sample Exchange/Exchange (SEE) program was initiated. The SEE Program is a selfassessment program designed to compare analytical methods of the PAL and ACL laboratories using sitespecific waste material. The SEE program is managed by a collaborative, the Quality Assurance Triad (Triad). Triad membership is made up of representatives from the WHC/PAL, PNL/ACL, and WHC Hanford Analytical Services Management (HASM) organizations. The Triad works together to design/evaluate/implement each phase of the SEE Program

  7. Frequency of Evaluation as a Measure of Links Between Levels in School Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utande, Emmanuel A.; Dornbusch, Sanford M.

    The frequency of evaluation across organizational levels (i.e., evaluation of inferiors by superiors) is related to three variables: the existence of bureaucratic rules, availability of information across levels, and interaction among participants. In a processual perspective, as opposed to a structural one, evaluation is viewed as a key mechanism…

  8. A preliminary evaluation of alternatives for disposal of INEL low-level waste and low-level mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, T.H.; Roesener, W.S.; Jorgenson-Waters, M.J.

    1993-07-01

    The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility (MLLWDF) project was established in 1992 by the US Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office to provide enhanced disposal capabilities for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) low-level mixed waste and low-level waste. This Preliminary Evaluation of Alternatives for Disposal of INEL Low-Level Waste and Low-Level Mixed Waste identifies and evaluates-on a preliminary, overview basis-the alternatives for disposal of that waste. Five disposal alternatives, ranging from of no-action'' to constructing and operating the MLLWDF, are identified and evaluated. Several subalternatives are formulated within the MLLWDF alternative. The subalternatives involve various disposal technologies as well as various scenarios related to the waste volumes and waste forms to be received for disposal. The evaluations include qualitative comparisons of the projected isolation performance for each alternative, and facility, health and safety, environmental, institutional, schedule, and rough order-of-magnitude life-cycle cost comparisons. The performance of each alternative is evaluated against lists of ''musts'' and ''wants.'' Also included is a discussion of other key considerations for decisionmaking. The analysis of results indicated further study is necessary to obtain the best estimate of long-term future waste volume and characteristics from the INEL Environmental Restoration activities and the expanded INEL Decontamination and Decommissioning Program

  9. Multiple-level defect species evaluation from average carrier decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debuf, Didier

    2003-10-01

    An expression for the average decay is determined by solving the the carrier continuity equations, which include terms for multiple defect recombination. This expression is the decay measured by techniques such as the contactless photoconductance decay method, which determines the average or volume integrated decay. Implicit in the above is the requirement for good surface passivation such that only bulk properties are observed. A proposed experimental configuration is given to achieve the intended goal of an assessment of the type of defect in an n-type Czochralski-grown silicon semiconductor with an unusually high relative lifetime. The high lifetime is explained in terms of a ground excited state multiple-level defect system. Also, minority carrier trapping is investigated.

  10. Evaluation of hydrogen and oxygen impurity levels on silicon surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenny, M J; Wielunski, L S; Netterfield, R P; Martin, P J; Leistner, A [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Lindfield, NSW (Australia). Div. of Applied Physics

    1997-12-31

    This paper reports on surface analytical techniques used to quantify surface concentrations of impurities such as oxygen and hydrogen. The following analytical techniques were used: Rutherford and Backscattering, elastic recoil detection, time-of-flight SIMS, spectroscopic ellipsometry, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results have shown a spread in thickness of oxide layer, ranging from unmeasurable to 1.6 nm. The data must be considered as preliminary at this stage, but give some insight into the suitability of the techniques and a general idea of the significance of impurities at the monolayer level. These measurements have been carried out on a small number of silicon surfaces both semiconductor grade <111> crystalline material and silicon which has been used in sphere fabrication. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  11. Evaluation of hydrogen and oxygen impurity levels on silicon surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenny, M.J.; Wielunski, L.S.; Netterfield, R.P.; Martin, P.J.; Leistner, A. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Lindfield, NSW (Australia). Div. of Applied Physics

    1996-12-31

    This paper reports on surface analytical techniques used to quantify surface concentrations of impurities such as oxygen and hydrogen. The following analytical techniques were used: Rutherford and Backscattering, elastic recoil detection, time-of-flight SIMS, spectroscopic ellipsometry, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results have shown a spread in thickness of oxide layer, ranging from unmeasurable to 1.6 nm. The data must be considered as preliminary at this stage, but give some insight into the suitability of the techniques and a general idea of the significance of impurities at the monolayer level. These measurements have been carried out on a small number of silicon surfaces both semiconductor grade <111> crystalline material and silicon which has been used in sphere fabrication. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  12. Evaluation of the radiation levels in different surgical procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Santos, M.C.P. da; Almeida, A. de; Belluci, A.D.; Ghilardi Neto, T.

    1989-01-01

    The exposure of a medical team to radiation during surgical procedures evidently depends on the duration and difficulties of the particular procedure. We have made a dosimetric study of the average equivalent doses received by the surgical teams during 10 different surgical procedures over a period of one month. Our results demonstrate that the levels of ionizing radiation that the members of the teams receive typically do not surpass the limits stipulated for the following surgical procedures: nefrolithotomy, percutaneous ureterolithomy, ureteroscoy connected with removal of stones in the inferior third of the ureter, osteosynthesis of the tibial plateau together with a articular toalet and minireconstruction of the knee. For compound surgical procedures, for example, osteosynthesis of a femur fracture together with biopsy of an exposed femur or percutaneous nefrolithotomy (complex cases), the dose limits have been surpassed owing to the additional fluoroscopy needed in those p rocedures. (author) [pt

  13. Performance Evaluation at the Hardware Architecture Level and the Operating System Kernel Design Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-12-01

    program utilizing kernel semaphores for synchronization . The Hydra kernel instructions were sampled at random using the hardware monitor. The changes in...thatf r~i~h olvrAt- 1,o;lil armcrl han itf,. own sell of primitive func ions; and c onparinoms acrosns dif fc’rnt opt ratieg ; .emsf is riot possiblc...kcrnel dcsign level is complicated by the fact that each operating system kernel ha. its own set of primitive functions and compari!ons across

  14. Galvanizing industry: evaluation of exposure levels using biomonitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C.; Sabino, Claudia de V.S.; Amaral, Angela Maria; Mattos, Silvania V. de M.; S. Filho, Serafim; Maia, Elene Cristina P.

    1999-01-01

    In Brazil, statistical surveys concerning occupational diseases refer to accidents and damages. The surveys do not refer to the occupational diseases developed through long exposures to hazardous work conditions, involving physical risk and toxic chemical substances. The Program of Medical Control of Occupational Health determines the Maximum Biological Levels Allowed and the Values of Normality References. But concerning metal and toxic inorganic, values of only few elements are established. In Belo Horizonte and surroundings areas, which is an important industrial centre in the country, there are different industries distributed over various areas. There are about 80 galvanizing industries which are responsible for the majority of the metal contamination hospitalities. A preliminary sampling was performed in order to conduct a survey of the exposures to elements related to occupational diseases in galvanizing industry. The preliminary results for toxic and non-toxic elements obtained using hair and fingernails as biomonitors are shown. The K 0 parametric neutron activation analysis method was applied and the elements determined were: Ag, Al, Au, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, I, Mn, Na, Ti, V, Ta, and Zn. (author)

  15. Evaluating nicotine dependence levels in e-cigarette users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Roz, Alba; Secades Villa, Roberto; Weidberg, Sara

    2017-01-11

    Despite the fact that electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are rapidly growing in popularity and use worldwide, there is scarce scientific data on abuse liability among e-cigarette users, and about whether e-cigarette use is related to nicotine dependence or not. The aim of this study is to explore nicotine dependence levels in a sample of experienced e-cigarette users (n= 39) and to compare them with current tobacco cigarette smokers (n=42). We conducted several face-to-face interviews in order to assess sociodemographic and dependence related characteristics in both e-cigarette users and in smokers. Adapted versions of both the Fagerström test for nicotine dependence (FTND) and the nicotine dependence syndrome scale (NDSS) were used to analyze nicotine dependence in each of the groups. Biochemical markers of carbon monoxide and urinary cotinine analysis were also collected. Results showed that e-cigarette users scored lower than cigarette smokers in both FTND and all NDSS subscales. Our findings extend previous research on e-cigarette use and nicotine addiction and suggest that e-cigarette users are less dependent on nicotine than current tobacco cigarette smokers. Further prospective studies are needed to better ascertain their addictiveness potential, comparing those smokers who switched to e-cigarettes from smoking cigarettes, and those who had never been tobacco cigarette smokers.

  16. Risk evaluation - conventional and low level effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, V.P.; Varma, M.N.

    1984-04-01

    Any discussion of the risk of exposure to potentially-hazardous agents in the environment inevitably involves the question of whether the dose effect curve is of the threshold or linear, non-threshold type. A principal objective of this presentation is to show that the function is actually two separate relationships, each representing distinctly different functions with differing variables on the axes, and each characteristic of quite different functions with differing variables on the axes, and each characteristic of quite different disciplines (i.e., the threshold function, of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Medicine [PTM]; the linear, non-threshold function, of Public Health including safety and accident statistics [PHS]). It is shown that low-level exposure (LLE) to radiation falls clearly in the PHS category. A function for cell dose vs. the fraction of single cell quantal responses is characterized, which reflects the absolute and relative sensitivities of cells. Acceptance of this function would obviate any requirement for the use in Radiation Protection of the concepts of a standard radiation, Q, dose equivalent and rem. 9 references, 4 figures

  17. Galvanizing industry: evaluation of exposure levels using biomonitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C.; Sabino, Claudia de V.S.; Amaral, Angela Maria [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Mattos, Silvania V. de M. [FUNED, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Div. de Bromatologia e Toxicologia; S. Filho, Serafim [Secretaria Municipal de Saude de Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Coordenacao de Saude do Trabalhador; Maia, Elene Cristina P. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    1999-11-01

    In Brazil, statistical surveys concerning occupational diseases refer to accidents and damages. The surveys do not refer to the occupational diseases developed through long exposures to hazardous work conditions, involving physical risk and toxic chemical substances. The Program of Medical Control of Occupational Health determines the Maximum Biological Levels Allowed and the Values of Normality References. But concerning metal and toxic inorganic, values of only few elements are established. In Belo Horizonte and surroundings areas, which is an important industrial centre in the country, there are different industries distributed over various areas. There are about 80 galvanizing industries which are responsible for the majority of the metal contamination hospitalities. A preliminary sampling was performed in order to conduct a survey of the exposures to elements related to occupational diseases in galvanizing industry. The preliminary results for toxic and non-toxic elements obtained using hair and fingernails as biomonitors are shown. The K{sub 0} parametric neutron activation analysis method was applied and the elements determined were: Ag, Al, Au, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, I, Mn, Na, Ti, V, Ta, and Zn. (author) 8 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.; e-mail: menezes at urano.cdtn.br

  18. Considerations for evaluating proposed low-level radioactive waste compacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-02-01

    Thirty-nine States have enacted legislation related to this Act, and five compacts have been submitted to Congress for consent. Other compacts are being negotiated, one in the West and several in the Midwest and Northeast. The Department of Energy has identified a number of items, which if included in the congressional review of each compact, would be likely to increase the possibility that new disposal sites will be developed and properly supported. The Department is providing additional perspectives that have not been previously included in testimony or reports. By suggesting examination of several general elements of a compact proposal, the Department hopes to provide a common focus that may be useful to the Congress in integrating all available information. The Department believes that the Congress should consider the following key items when reviewing the compacts: Commitments that assure the provision of new disposal capacity in the form of a host-State and site selection process with schedules and a target date for new sites to be opened; Commitments that provide short-term measures for storage, treatment, or disposal during an interim period when such new capacity may not be available; Consistency of definitions with 10 CFR Part 61 to assure the compact plan presents a total solution for all low-level waste generated within the region; Periodic review of the compacts by the Congress to examine concerns that are more easily assessed after a compact becomes operational, e.g., economic viability and long-term institutional control; and Economic viability of a compact, when reviewed in the future, in terms of the benefits and the costs specific to that region

  19. Evaluation of Uniform Cost Accounting System to Fully Capture Depot Level Repair Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    RD-RI65 522 EVALUATION OF UNIFORM COST ACCOUNTING SYSTEM TO FULLY i/I CAPTURE DEPOT LEVEL REPAIR COSTS (U) NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA D R...8217.LECTE B ,- THESIS EVALUATION OF UNIFORM COST ACCOUNTING SYSTEM 0TO FULLY CAPTURE DEPOT LEVEL REPAIR COSTS Jby __jDavid Richmond O’Brien lj,,, December...Include Security Classification) EVALUATION OF UNIFORM COST ACCOUNTING SYSTEM TO FULLY CAPTURE DEPOT LEVEL REPAIR COSTS 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) O’Brien- David

  20. Developing a network-level structural capacity index for structural evaluation of pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a structural index for use in network-level pavement evaluation to facilitate : the inclusion of the pavements structural condition in pavement management applications. The primary goal of network-level...

  1. Comparative Evaluation for Assessing Oratest as a Diagnostic Tool for Evaluation of Plaque Levels & Gingivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahasweta Joshi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims & Objectives: Periodontal disease comprises a group of inflammatory conditions of the supporting tissues of the teeth that are caused by bacteria. The present study was undertaken to evaluate whether Oratest could be used as a sensitive indicator of plaque levels and gingivitis. Material and Methods: Hundred caries free patients visiting the out-patient department of A.E.C.S. Maaruti College of Dental Sciences and Research Centre, Banglore were selected according to predetermined selection criteria. The study consisted of two clinical stages: Stage 1. Recording of Plaque Index (Loe, 1967 and Gingival Index (Loe & Silness 1963 in the subjects. Stage 2. Performance of the Oratest and recording the scores in the same subjects. The Oratest was performed by rinsing the mouth with sterilized UHT (Ultra high temperature milk. About 3 ml of expectorated milk was added to a test tube containing the 0.12 ml of 0.1% methylene blue. The time required for colour change from blue to white attained at the bottom of the tube was recorded. Plaque Index, Gingival Index and Oratest scores were compared using Student t test. Pearson correlation test was applied to assess correlation between the indices and Oratest scores. Results:The results of the study showed that as age increased plaque and Gingival Indexes also increased whereas Oratest scores decreased. No significant difference between males and females was found in mean values of Plaque Index, Gingival Index and Oratest scores. Negative correlation was seen between Plaque Index and Oratest scores (r = 0.724 and also between Gingival Index and Oratest scores (r = 0.728. Conclusions: The study showed high correlation between the plaque and gingival indices and Oratest scores. This study validates Oratest as a predictable & sensitive test to assess periodontal disease.

  2. A high level implementation and performance evaluation of level-I asynchronous cache on FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansi Jhamb

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To bridge the ever-increasing performance gap between the processor and the main memory in a cost-effective manner, novel cache designs and implementations are indispensable. Cache is responsible for a major part of energy consumption (approx. 50% of processors. This paper presents a high level implementation of a micropipelined asynchronous architecture of L1 cache. Due to the fact that each cache memory implementation is time consuming and error-prone process, a synthesizable and a configurable model proves out to be of immense help as it aids in generating a range of caches in a reproducible and quick fashion. The micropipelined cache, implemented using C-Elements acts as a distributed message-passing system. The RTL cache model implemented in this paper, comprising of data and instruction caches has a wide array of configurable parameters. In addition to timing robustness our implementation has high average cache throughput and low latency. The implemented architecture comprises of two direct-mapped, write-through caches for data and instruction. The architecture is implemented in a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA chip using Very High Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description Language (VHSIC HDL along with advanced synthesis and place-and-route tools.

  3. Flammability Analysis For Actinide Oxides Packaged In 9975 Shipping Containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurinat, James E.; Askew, Neal M.; Hensel, Steve J.

    2013-03-21

    Packaging options are evaluated for compliance with safety requirements for shipment of mixed actinide oxides packaged in a 9975 Primary Containment Vessel (PCV). Radiolytic gas generation rates, PCV internal gas pressures, and shipping windows (times to reach unacceptable gas compositions or pressures after closure of the PCV) are calculated for shipment of a 9975 PCV containing a plastic bottle filled with plutonium and uranium oxides with a selected isotopic composition. G-values for radiolytic hydrogen generation from adsorbed moisture are estimated from the results of gas generation tests for plutonium oxide and uranium oxide doped with curium-244. The radiolytic generation of hydrogen from the plastic bottle is calculated using a geometric model for alpha particle deposition in the bottle wall. The temperature of the PCV during shipment is estimated from the results of finite element heat transfer analyses.

  4. Short Communication. Comparing flammability traits among fire-stricken (low elevation and non fire-stricken (high elevation conifer forest species of Europe: A test of the Mutch hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Dimitrakopoulos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study. The flammability of the main coniferous forest species of Europe, divided into two groups according to their fire regime and altitudinal distribution, was tested in an effort to detect species-specific differences that may have an influence on community-wide fire regimes.Area of study. Conifer species comprising low- and high-elevation forests in Europe.Materials and Methods. The following conifer species were tested: low elevation; Pinus halepensis (Aleppo pine, Pinus brutia (Turkish pine, Pinus pinaster (maritime pine, Pinus pinea (stone pine and Cupressus sempervirens (cypress, high elevation (i.e., above 600 m a.s.l.; Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine, Abies alba (white fir, Picea excelsa (Norway spruce, Abies borissii regis (Macedonian fir and Pinus nigra (black pine. Flammability assessment (time-to-ignition and ignition temperature was conducted by an innovative ignition apparatus, heat content was measured with an IKA Adiabatic Bomb Calorimeter and ash content by heating 5 g of plant material in a muffle furnace at 650ºC for 1 h. Differences among species was statistically analysed by Duncan’s multiple comparison test.Main results. The results did not distinguish separate groups among traits between fire- and non-fire-stricken communities at the individual species level.Research highlights. Differences in fire regimes among low and high elevation conifer forests could be attributed either to differences in flammability of the plant communities as a whole (i.e., fuelbed or canopy properties vs. individual fuel properties or to other factors (climatic or anthropogenic.Key words: flammability; ignitability; heat content; ash content; conifer species; Mutch hypothesis.

  5. Assessment of alternative mitigation concepts for Hanford flammable gas tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, C.W.; Schienbein, L.A.; Hudson, J.D.; Eschbach, E.J.; Lessor, D.L.

    1994-09-01

    This report provides a review and assessment of four selected mitigation concepts: pump jet mixing, sonic vibration, dilution, and heating. Though the relative levels of development of these concepts are quite different, some definite conclusions are made on their comparative feasibility. Key findings of this report are as follows. A mixer pump has proven to be a safe and effective active mitigation method in Tank 241-SY-101, and the authors are confident that mixer pumps will effectively mitigate other tanks with comparable waste configurations and properties. Low-frequency sonic vibration is also predicted to be effective for mitigation. Existing data cannot prove that dilution can mitigate gas release event (GRE) behavior. However, dilution is the only concept of the four that potentially offers passive mitigation. Like dilution, heating the waste cannot be proven with available information to mitigate GRE behavior. The designs, analyses, and data from which these conclusions are derived are presented along with recommendations.

  6. Assessment of alternative mitigation concepts for Hanford flammable gas tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, C.W.; Schienbein, L.A.; Hudson, J.D.; Eschbach, E.J.; Lessor, D.L.

    1994-09-01

    This report provides a review and assessment of four selected mitigation concepts: pump jet mixing, sonic vibration, dilution, and heating. Though the relative levels of development of these concepts are quite different, some definite conclusions are made on their comparative feasibility. Key findings of this report are as follows. A mixer pump has proven to be a safe and effective active mitigation method in Tank 241-SY-101, and the authors are confident that mixer pumps will effectively mitigate other tanks with comparable waste configurations and properties. Low-frequency sonic vibration is also predicted to be effective for mitigation. Existing data cannot prove that dilution can mitigate gas release event (GRE) behavior. However, dilution is the only concept of the four that potentially offers passive mitigation. Like dilution, heating the waste cannot be proven with available information to mitigate GRE behavior. The designs, analyses, and data from which these conclusions are derived are presented along with recommendations

  7. Evaluating the Level of Degree Programmes in Higher Education: Conceptual Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rexwinkel, Trudy; Haenen, Jacques; Pilot, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Evaluating the level of degree programmes became crucial with the Bologna Agreement in 1999 when European ministers agreed to implement common bachelor's and master's degree programmes and a common system of quality assurance. The European Quality Assurance system demands evaluation of the degree programme level based on valid and reliable…

  8. An Analysis of Grades, Class Level and Faculty Evaluation Scores in the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Lee

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the results of a student evaluation of faculty against the grades awarded and the level of the course for a higher education institution in the United Arab Emirates. The purpose of the study was to determine if the grades awarded in the course and/or level of the course impacted the evaluation scores awarded to the faculty…

  9. Evaluating the level of degree programmes in higher education: The case of nursing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rexwinkel, G.B.; Haenen, J.P.P.; Pilot, A.

    2013-01-01

    The European Quality Assurance system demands that the degree programme level is represented in terms of quantitative outcomes to be valid and reliable. To meet this need the Educational Level Evaluator (ELE) was devised. This conceptually designed procedure with instrumentation aiming to evaluate

  10. Method of levelized discounted costs applied in economic evaluation of nuclear power plant project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Li; Wang Yongqing; Liu Jingquan; Guo Jilin; Liu Wei

    2000-01-01

    The main methods of economic evaluation of bid which are in common use are introduced. The characteristics of levelized discounted cost method and its application are presented. The method of levelized discounted cost is applied to the cost calculation of a 200 MW nuclear heating reactor economic evaluation. The results indicate that the method of levelized discounted costs is simple, feasible and which is considered most suitable for the economic evaluation of various case. The method is suggested which is used in the national economic evaluation

  11. TECHNICAL JUSTIFICATION FOR CHOOSING PROPANE AS A CALIBRATION AGENT FOR TOTAL FLAMMABLE VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND (VOC) DETERMINATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOUGLAS, J.G.

    2006-01-01

    This document presents the technical justification for choosing and using propane as a calibration standard for estimating total flammable volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in an air matrix. A propane-in-nitrogen standard was selected based on a number of criteria: (1) has an analytical response similar to the VOCs of interest, (2) can be made with known accuracy and traceability, (3) is available with good purity, (4) has a matrix similar to the sample matrix, (5) is stable during storage and use, (6) is relatively non-hazardous, and (7) is a recognized standard for similar analytical applications. The Waste Retrieval Project (WRP) desires a fast, reliable, and inexpensive method for screening the flammable VOC content in the vapor-phase headspace of waste containers. Table 1 lists the flammable VOCs of interest to the WRP. The current method used to determine the VOC content of a container is to sample the container's headspace and submit the sample for gas chromatography--mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The driver for the VOC measurement requirement is safety: potentially flammable atmospheres in the waste containers must be allowed to diffuse prior to processing the container. The proposed flammable VOC screening method is to inject an aliquot of the headspace sample into an argon-doped pulsed-discharge helium ionization detector (Ar-PDHID) contained within a gas chromatograph. No actual chromatography is performed; the sample is transferred directly from a sample loop to the detector through a short, inert transfer line. The peak area resulting from the injected sample is proportional to the flammable VOC content of the sample. However, because the Ar-PDHID has different response factors for different flammable VOCs, a fundamental assumption must be made that the agent used to calibrate the detector is representative of the flammable VOCs of interest that may be in the headspace samples. At worst, we desire that calibration with the selected calibrating

  12. Document Level Assessment of Document Retrieval Systems in a Pairwise System Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, Prabha; Ravana, Sri Devi

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The use of averaged topic-level scores can result in the loss of valuable data and can cause misinterpretation of the effectiveness of system performance. This study aims to use the scores of each document to evaluate document retrieval systems in a pairwise system evaluation. Method: The chosen evaluation metrics are document-level…

  13. Evaluation of mobile phone addiction level and sleep quality in university students

    OpenAIRE

    Sahin, Sevil; Ozdemir, Kevser; Unsal, Alaattin; Temiz, Nazen

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the mobile phone addiction level in university students, to examine several associated factors and to evaluate the relation between the addiction level and sleep quality. Methods: The study is a cross-sectional research conducted on the students of the Sakarya University between 01 November 2012 and 01 February 2013. The study group included 576 students. The Problematic Mobile Phone Use Scale was used for evaluating the mobile phone addiction level and the Pittsburgh ...

  14. Group-Contribution based Property Estimation and Uncertainty analysis for Flammability-related Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frutiger, Jerome; Marcarie, Camille; Abildskov, Jens

    2016-01-01

    regression and outlier treatment have been applied to achieve high accuracy. Furthermore, linear error propagation based on covariance matrix of estimated parameters was performed. Therefore, every estimated property value of the flammability-related properties is reported together with its corresponding 95......%-confidence interval of the prediction. Compared to existing models the developed ones have a higher accuracy, are simple to apply and provide uncertainty information on the calculated prediction. The average relative error and correlation coefficient are 11.5% and 0.99 for LFL, 15.9% and 0.91 for UFL, 2...

  15. Modelling of hot surface ignition within gas turbines subject to flammable gas in the intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lea Duedahl; Nielsen, Kenny Krogh; Yin, Chungen

    2017-01-01

    Controlling risks associated with fires and explosions from leaks of flammable fluids at oil and gas facilities is paramount to ensuring safe operations. The gas turbine is a significant potential source of ignition; however, the residual risk is still not adequately understood. A model has been...... but decreases with increase in initial mixture temperature and pressure. The model shows a great potential in reliable prediction of the risk of hot surface ignition within gas turbines in the oil and gas industry. In the future, a dedicated experimental study will be performed not only to improve...

  16. ASTM Committee G-4 metals flammability test program - Data and discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltzfus, Joel M.; Homa, John M.; Williams, Ralph E.; Benz, Frank J.

    1988-01-01

    Results of metals flammability tests performed on twenty-six metals in the NASA/White Sands Test Facility are discussed together with the test systems. The promoted combustion and ignition characteristics of these metals are described, and the metals are ranked according to their suitability for use in oxygen systems. In general, alloys with high copper and nickel contents and low iron content were found to rank higher than those that had high iron content, while alloys that had high aluminum content were ranked the lowest.

  17. Laminar burning velocities of near-flammability-limit H{sub 2}-air-steam mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loesel Sitar, J V; Chan, C K; Torchia, F; Guerrero, A

    1996-12-31

    Laminar burning velocities of lean H{sub 2}-air-steam mixtures near the flammability limit were measured by using the pressure-time history of an expanding flame kernel. Although flames in these mixtures are inherently unstable, this difficulty was avoided by using the early pressure rise of the burn. A comparison of results from that method with burning velocities determined from schlieren photographs of the expanding flame kernel gave good agreement. Despite the difficulties, it is believed that the pressure trace method gives results that are useful in modelling reactor accident scenarios. 8 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Laminar burning velocities of near-flammability-limit H2-air-steam mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loesel Sitar, J.V.; Chan, C.K.; Torchia, F.; Guerrero, A.

    1995-01-01

    Laminar burning velocities of lean H 2 -air-steam mixtures near the flammability limit were measured by using the pressure-time history of an expanding flame kernel. Although flames in these mixtures are inherently unstable, this difficulty was avoided by using the early pressure rise of the burn. A comparison of results from that method with burning velocities determined from schlieren photographs of the expanding flame kernel gave good agreement. Despite the difficulties, it is believed that the pressure trace method gives results that are useful in modelling reactor accident scenarios. 8 refs., 4 figs

  19. Influence of dispersion degree of water drops on efficiency of extinguishing of flammable liquids

    OpenAIRE

    Korolchenko Dmitriy; Voevoda Sergey

    2016-01-01

    Depending on the size of water drops, process of fire extinguishing is focused either in a zone of combustion or on a burning liquid surface. This article considers two alternate solutions of a heat balance equation. The first solution allows us to trace decrease of temperature of a flammable liquid (FL) surface to a temperature lower than fuel flash point at which combustion is stopped. And the second solution allows us to analyze decrease of burnout rate to a negligible value at which steam...

  20. Using Bloom's Taxonomy to Evaluate the Cognitive Levels of Master Class Textbook's Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaly, Ibtihal R.; Smadi, Oqlah M.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the cognitive levels of the questions following the reading texts of Master Class textbook. A checklist based on Bloom's Taxonomy was the instrument used to categorize the cognitive levels of these questions. The researchers used proper statistics to rank the cognitive levels of the comprehension questions. The…

  1. Methods of Off-Gas Flammability Control for DWPF Melter Off-Gas System at Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, A.S.; Iverson, D.C.

    1996-01-01

    Several key operating variables affecting off-gas flammability in a slurry-fed radioactive waste glass melter are discussed, and the methods used to prevent potential off-gas flammability are presented. Two models have played a central role in developing such methods. The first model attempts to describe the chemical events occurring during the calcining and melting steps using a multistage thermodynamic equilibrium approach, and it calculates the compositions of glass and calcine gases. Volatile feed components and calcine gases are fed to the second model which then predicts the process dynamics of the entire melter off-gas system including off-gas flammability under both steady state and various transient operating conditions. Results of recent simulation runs are also compared with available data

  2. Dynamic probability evaluation of safety levels of earth-rockfill dams using Bayesian approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi-wu Fan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to accurately predict and control the aging process of dams, new information should be collected continuously to renew the quantitative evaluation of dam safety levels. Owing to the complex structural characteristics of dams, it is quite difficult to predict the time-varying factors affecting their safety levels. It is not feasible to employ dynamic reliability indices to evaluate the actual safety levels of dams. Based on the relevant regulations for dam safety classification in China, a dynamic probability description of dam safety levels was developed. Using the Bayesian approach and effective information mining, as well as real-time information, this study achieved more rational evaluation and prediction of dam safety levels. With the Bayesian expression of discrete stochastic variables, the a priori probabilities of the dam safety levels determined by experts were combined with the likelihood probability of the real-time check information, and the probability information for the evaluation of dam safety levels was renewed. The probability index was then applied to dam rehabilitation decision-making. This method helps reduce the difficulty and uncertainty of the evaluation of dam safety levels and complies with the current safe decision-making regulations for dams in China. It also enhances the application of current risk analysis methods for dam safety levels.

  3. [Influence of education level on self-evaluation and control of patients with bronchial asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hai-jin; Cai, Shao-xi; Tong, Wan-cheng; Li, Wen-jun; Fu, Liang

    2008-05-01

    To investigate the effect of education on self-evaluation and control level in patients with bronchial asthma. Seventy-five asthmatic patients with the initial diagnosis in line with the American Thoracic Society criteria, including 46 with junior high school education or below (group A) and 29 with senior high school education or above (group B), were asked to complete a survey to assess their symptoms and asthma attacks. Asthma control test (ACT) and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) evaluation were performed 8, 12 and 24 weeks after salmeterol/fluticasone therapy. Step-down treatment was administered according to GINA guidelines. The self-evaluation of the patients was assessed according to ACT score, physical signs and pulmonary function. An ACT score over 19 indicate well controlled condition. The effect of education on the self-evaluation and control level of bronchial asthma was assessed. The two groups had similar basal level of pulmonary function (FEV1). Eight weeks after the therapy, 29 patients in group A had ACT score over 19, including 11 with high control level; in group B, 17 had ACT score over 19, of whom 4 showed high control level. There was no significant difference between the two groups in control levels and self-evaluation (P>0.05). At 12 weeks, 37 patients in group A had ACT score over 19, with 17 having high control level; 22 patients in group B had ACT score over 19, 4 showing high control level; the two groups were similar in the control levels (P>0.05) but showed significant difference in self-evaluation (Pevaluation (Peducation level may play a role in self-evaluation and control level of bronchial asthma, but its impact differs in the course of the treatment.

  4. Mechanical, Thermal Degradation, and Flammability Studies on Surface Modified Sisal Fiber Reinforced Recycled Polypropylene Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of surface treated sisal fiber on the mechanical, thermal, flammability, and morphological properties of sisal fiber (SF reinforced recycled polypropylene (RPP composites was investigated. The surface of sisal fiber was modified with different chemical reagent such as silane, glycidyl methacrylate (GMA, and O-hydroxybenzene diazonium chloride (OBDC to improve the compatibility with the matrix polymer. The experimental results revealed an improvement in the tensile strength to 11%, 20%, and 31.36% and impact strength to 78.72%, 77%, and 81% for silane, GMA, and OBDC treated sisal fiber reinforced recycled Polypropylene (RPP/SF composites, respectively, as compared to RPP. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, differential scanning calorimeter (DSC, and heat deflection temperature (HDT results revealed improved thermal stability as compared with RPP. The flammability behaviour of silane, GMA, and OBDC treated SF/RPP composites was studied by the horizontal burning rate by UL-94. The morphological analysis through scanning electron micrograph (SEM supports improves surface interaction between fiber surface and polymer matrix.

  5. Tests of Flammability of Cotton Fabrics and Expected Skin Burns in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Jane M.; Torvi, David A.; Gabriel, Kamiel S.; Ruff, Gary A.

    2004-01-01

    During a shuttle launch and other portions of space flight, astronauts wear specialized flame resistant clothing. However during most of their missions on board the Space Shuttle or International Space Station, astronauts wear ordinary clothing, such as cotton shirts and pants. As the behaviour of flames is considerably different in microgravity than under earth s gravity, fabrics are expected to burn in a different fashion in microgravity than when tested on earth. There is interest in determining how this change in burning behaviour may affect times to second and third degree burn of human skin, and how the results of standard fabric flammability tests conducted under earth s gravity correlate with the expected fire behaviour of textiles in microgravity. A new experimental apparatus was developed to fit into the Spacecraft Fire Safety Facility (SFSF), which is used on NASA s KC-135 low gravity aircraft. The new apparatus was designed to be similar to the apparatus used in standard vertical flammability tests of fabrics. However, rather than using a laboratory burner, the apparatus uses a hot wire system to ignite 200 mm high by 80 mm wide fabric specimens. Fabric temperatures are measured using thermocouples and/or an infrared imaging system, while flame spread rates are measured using real time observations or video. Heat flux gauges are placed between 7 and 13 mm away from the fabric specimen, so that heat fluxes from the burning fabric to the skin can be estimated, along with predicted times required to produce skin burns.

  6. Operability test report for core sample truck number one flammable gas modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akers, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    This report primarily consists of the original test procedure used for the Operability Testing of the flammable gas modifications to Core Sample Truck No. One. Included are exceptions, resolutions, comments, and test results. This report consists of the original, completed, test procedure used for the Operability Testing of the flammable gas modifications to the Push Mode Core Sample Truck No. 1. Prior to the Acceptance/Operability test the truck No. 1 operations procedure (TO-080-503) was revised to be more consistent with the other core sample truck procedures and to include operational steps/instructions for the SR weather cover pressurization system. A draft copy of the operations procedure was used to perform the Operability Test Procedure (OTP). A Document Acceptance Review Form is included with this report (last page) indicating the draft status of the operations procedure during the OTP. During the OTP 11 test exceptions were encountered. Of these exceptions four were determined to affect Acceptance Criteria as listed in the OTP, Section 4.7 ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA

  7. Estimation of the lower flammability limit of organic compounds as a function of temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, J R; Rowley, R L; Wilding, W V

    2011-02-15

    A new method of estimating the lower flammability limit (LFL) of general organic compounds is presented. The LFL is predicted at 298 K for gases and the lower temperature limit for solids and liquids from structural contributions and the ideal gas heat of formation of the fuel. The average absolute deviation from more than 500 experimental data points is 10.7%. In a previous study, the widely used modified Burgess-Wheeler law was shown to underestimate the effect of temperature on the lower flammability limit when determined in a large-diameter vessel. An improved version of the modified Burgess-Wheeler law is presented that represents the temperature dependence of LFL data determined in large-diameter vessels more accurately. When the LFL is estimated at increased temperatures using a combination of this model and the proposed structural-contribution method, an average absolute deviation of 3.3% is returned when compared with 65 data points for 17 organic compounds determined in an ASHRAE-style apparatus. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Redirecting fire-prone Mediterranean ecosystems toward more resilient and less flammable communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Victor M; Baeza, M Jaime; Valdecantos, Alejandro; Vallejo, V Ramón

    2018-06-01

    The extensive abandonment of agricultural lands in the Mediterranean basin has led to large landscapes being dominated by early-successional species, characterized by high flammability and an increasing fire risk. This fact promotes fire occurrence and places ecosystems in a state of arrested succession. In this work, we assessed the effectiveness of several restoration actions in redirecting these ecosystems toward more resilient communities dominated by resprouting species. These actions included the mechanical clearing of early-successional species, the plantation of resprouting species, and the combination of both treatments. For 13 years, we assessed shifts in the successional trajectory and ecosystem flammability by changes in: species composition, species richness, ecosystem evenness, the natural colonization of resprouting species, total biomass and proportion of dead biomass. We observed that the plantation and clearing combination was a suitable strategy to promote resilience. Species richness increased as well as the presence of the resprouting species introduced by planting. The natural colonization of the resprouting species was also enhanced. These changes in the successional trajectory were accompanied by a possible reduction of fire risk by reducing dead fuel proportion. These findings are relevant for the management of Mediterranean basin areas, but also suggest new tools for redirecting systems in fire-prone areas worldwide. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Design review report for rotary mode core sample truck (RMCST) modifications for flammable gas tanks, preliminary design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, J.E.

    1996-02-01

    This report documents the completion of a preliminary design review for the Rotary Mode Core Sample Truck (RMCST) modifications for flammable gas tanks. The RMCST modifications are intended to support core sampling operations in waste tanks requiring flammable gas controls. The objective of this review was to validate basic design assumptions and concepts to support a path forward leading to a final design. The conclusion reached by the review committee was that the design was acceptable and efforts should continue toward a final design review

  10. The Evaluation of Steam Generator Level Measurement Model for OPR1000 Using RETRAN-3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doo Yong Lee; Soon Joon Hong; Byung Chul Lee; Heok Soon Lim

    2006-01-01

    Steam generator level measurement is important factor for plant transient analyses using best estimate thermal hydraulic computer codes since the value of steam generator level is used for steam generator level control system and plant protection system. Because steam generator is in the saturation condition which includes steam and liquid together and is the place that heat exchange occurs from primary side to secondary side, computer codes are hard to calculate steam generator level realistically without appropriate level measurement model. In this paper, we prepare the steam generator models using RETRAN-3D that include geometry models, full range feedwater control system and five types of steam generator level measurement model. Five types of steam generator level measurement model consist of level measurement model using elevation difference in downcomer, 1D level measurement model using fluid mass, 1D level measurement model using fluid volume, 2D level measurement model using power and fluid mass, and 2D level measurement model using power and fluid volume. And we perform the evaluation of the capability of each steam generator level measurement model by simulating the real plant transient condition, the title is 'Reactor Trip by The Failure of The Deaerator Level Control Card of Ulchin Unit 3'. The comparison results between real plant data and RETRAN-3D analyses for each steam generator level measurement model show that 2D level measurement model using power and fluid mass or fluid volume has more realistic prediction capability compared with other level measurement models. (authors)

  11. ASPECT (Automated System-level Performance Evaluation and Characterization Tool), Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SSCI has developed a suite of SAA tools and an analysis capability referred to as ASPECT (Automated System-level Performance Evaluation and Characterization Tool)....

  12. Evaluation of the Level of ICT Integration in Sciences Subjects at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the Level of ICT Integration in Sciences Subjects at the Namibian ... The study was informed by Rogers' theory of diffusion and adopted a qualitative ... A semi- structured interview guide and an observation schedule were used to ...

  13. Evaluation of the 2039 keV level property in {sup 124}Te

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katakura, J. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    One of the purposes of the mass chain evaluation is to provide reliable level properties of isobars based on available experimental data. In the work of A=124 mass chain evaluation, we have faced some confusing data relating to confirming the level properties of the 2039 keV level in {sup 124}Te: (1) inconsistent intensity ratios of emitted gamma rays between reaction gamma ray and decay gamma ray data, (2) placement of 2039 keV gamma ray transition and (3) gamma ray angular correlation data relating to the level. In the evaluation work, we have to reconcile the confusing data and to provide the adopted ones derived from the available data. In this report, the problems relating to the level properties are described and the reanalyses of the measured data are presented for providing the adopted data. (author)

  14. An evaluation of an interprofessional master's level programme in children's palliative care. Part 1 the students' evaluation of the programme.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nicholl, Honor

    2014-04-01

    In 2010\\/12 an innovative children\\'s palliative care interprofessional educational project funded by the Irish Hospice Foundation was undertaken in a University faculty (Trinity College Dublin). This initiative responded to international educational recommendations to meet the palliative care needs of children. The project involved the development and delivery of 3 standalone modules at Master\\'s level and a substantive research evaluation of the project to examine stakeholders and students perspectives to provide an insight into their experiences and to gather data for future developments. The research evaluation was conducted in two parts, part one sought students\\' evaluation and part two sought stakeholders\\

  15. Evaluation of mid-level management training in immunisation in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The Mid-Level Management (MLM) training course provides managers of immunisation programmes with new, advanced skills in planning, management, monitoring and evaluation. An evaluation was conducted of the MLM training courses held between 2000 and 2004 in the African Region, in order to assess its ...

  16. Evaluation of very low-level waste disposal based on fuzzed method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yongli; Ni Shijun; Duo Tianhui; Huang Zhigang

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the geology conditions at a very low-level waste disposal site in southwest China, including geology, hydrogeology, and geologic hazards. On the basis of investigation this waste disposal site is evaluated using fuzzed method. Evaluation results prove that site A is better than site B. (authors)

  17. Evaluating the level of degree programmes in higher education: Conceptual design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rexwinkel, G.B.; Haenen, J.P.P.; Pilot, A.

    2013-01-01

    Evaluating the level of degree programmes became crucial with the Bologna Agreement in 1999 when European ministers agreed to implement common bachelor’s and master’s degree programmes and a common system of quality assurance. The European Quality Assurance system demands evaluation of the degree

  18. THE EVALUATION OF LEARNING BASED ON SKILLS AT THE PRESCHOOL LEVEL

    OpenAIRE

    Oralia Ortiz Varela; Efrén Viramontes Anaya; Alma Delia Campos Arroyo

    2013-01-01

    The research is about learning evaluation based on competencies in a mixed group of Preschool level: Melchor Ocampo in Delicias Chihuahua city. The most important theoretical foundations were provided by Casanova (1998), in relation to the assessment, and Diaz Barriga (2003 and 2006), with teaching in competencies and didactic strategies. The research objective is to track systematically the evaluation of competencies as well as design and experiment alternatives for evaluation in pres...

  19. 77 FR 58416 - Comparative Environmental Evaluation of Alternatives for Handling Low-Level Radioactive Waste...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... for Handling Low-Level Radioactive Waste Spent Ion Exchange Resins From Commercial Nuclear Power... Radioactive Waste Spent Ion Exchange Resins from Commercial Nuclear Power Reactors. DATES: Please submit... Evaluation of Alternatives for Handling Low-Level Radioactive Waste Spent Ion Exchange Resins from Commercial...

  20. Application of a visual soil examination and evaluation technique at site and farm level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, M.P.W.; Heuvelink, G.B.M.; Moolenaar, S.W.

    2014-01-01

    Visual soil examination and evaluation (VSEE) techniques are semi-quantitative methods that provide rapid and cost-effective information on soil quality. These are mostly applied at site or field level, but there is an increased need for soil quality indicators at farm level to allow integration

  1. A Comparative Evaluation of Procedural Level Generators in the Mario AI Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Britton; Dahlskog, Steve; Shaker, Noor

    dierent from another in terms of its output. To remedy this, we have conducted a large-scale comparative evaluation of level generators for the Mario AI Benchmark, a research-friendly clone of the classic platform game Super Mario Bros. In all, we compare the output of seven dierent level generators from...

  2. Evaluation of levels of select toxic metals in commonly used herbal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Even at low concentrations or levels of exposure, toxic metals have also been reported to pose health risks to man. Aim: To ... Materials/Methods :Herbal medicines (n=8) were purchased from on-the-street vendors and evaluated for levels of five toxic metals (Lead, Nickel, Mercury, Cadmium and Arsenic).Analysis of toxic ...

  3. Global Climate targets and future consumption level: An evaluation of the required GHG intensity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girod, B.; van Vuuren, D.P.; Hertwich, E.G.

    2013-01-01

    Discussion and analysis on international climate policy often focuses on the rather abstract level of total national and regional greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. At some point, however, emission reductions need to be translated to consumption level. In this article, we evaluate the implications of

  4. Evaluation of noise pollution level based upon community exposure and response data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmiston, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    The results and procedures are reported from an evaluation of noise pollution level as a predictor of annoyance, based on aircraft noise exposure and community response data. The measures of noise exposure presented include composite noise rating, noise exposure forecast, noise and number index. A proposed measure as a universal noise exposure measure for noise pollution level (L sub NP) is discussed.

  5. Using the Concept of "Population Dose" in Planning and Evaluating Community-Level Obesity Prevention Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheadle, Allen; Schwartz, Pamela M.; Rauzon, Suzanne; Bourcier, Emily; Senter, Sandra; Spring, Rebecca; Beery, William L.

    2013-01-01

    When planning and evaluating community-level initiatives focused on policy and environment change, it is useful to have estimates of the impact on behavioral outcomes of particular strategies (e.g., building a new walking trail to promote physical activity). We have created a measure of estimated strategy-level impact--"population dose"--based on…

  6. Homelessness Outcome Reporting Normative Framework: Systems-Level Evaluation of Progress in Ending Homelessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austen, Tyrone; Pauly, Bernie

    2012-01-01

    Homelessness is a serious and growing issue. Evaluations of systemic-level changes are needed to determine progress in reducing or ending homelessness. The report card methodology is one means of systems-level assessment. Rather than solely establishing an enumeration, homelessness report cards can capture pertinent information about structural…

  7. Tank 241-SY-101 surface level rise remediation test and evaluation plan for transfer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BAUER, R.E.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this testing and evaluation plan (TEP) is to provide the high level guidance on testing requirements for ensuring that the equipment and systems to be implemented for remediation of the SY-101 waste level rise USQ are effective

  8. [Evaluation of leptin levels in plasma and their reliance on other hormonal factors affecting tissue fat levels in people with various levels of endogenous cotisol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robaczyk, Maciej G

    2002-01-01

    The discovery of leptin (LEP) shed new light on mechanisms regulating body fat mass (BFM). In this aspect, interactions between LEP and glucocorticoids at hypothalamic level may be of great importance. Factors that influence plasma LEP levels have not been fully recognized and available data on LEP levels are often inconsistent. The aim of this study was to evaluate absolute and BFM-corrected plasma LEP levels and their diurnal variation, as well as to assess the relationship between LEP levels, body fat distribution, and hormones influencing body fat in subjects with various levels of endogenous cortisol and different nutritional status. Group I was composed of 14 women aged 14-58 yrs, BMI of 23.9-37.1 kg/m2, with hypercortisolism due to ACTH-dependent and ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome (CUS). 17 women with visceral obesity (OTY) and normal or disturbed carbohydrate metabolism, i.e. impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and diabetes mellitus (DM), aged 24 do 50 yrs, BMI 30.0-46.1 kg/m2, were included in group II. Group III consisted of 14 women with Addison's disease (AD), aged 18 do 63 yrs, BMI 15.4-31.6 kg/m2. The control group IV (KON) included 17 healthy women with normal BMI. BMI, WHR, body composition, and body fat distribution (DEXA method) were assessed in all subjects. Basal plasma levels of LEP, beta-endorphin (B-EP), cortisol (F), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were measured with RIA test kits. Plasma adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH) levels, serum levels of insulin (IRI) and growth hormone (GH) were measured with IRMA test kits. Blood glucose (G) concentration was determined with an enzymatic method. Adiposity-corrected LEP levels were expressed as LEP/BFM and LEP/%BF indices. Fasting insulin resistance index (FIRI) was also calculated. Higher BFM and %BF values were found in the OTY group as compared with CUS KON and AD groups. BFM distribution did not differ in KON and AD groups whereas CUS subjects exhibited a higher accumulation of fat in the trunk

  9. Development of the clearance level verification evaluation system. 2. Construction of the clearance data management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Shintaro; Usui, Hideo; Kawagoshi, Hiroshi

    2014-06-01

    Clearance is defined as the removal of radioactive materials or radioactive objects within authorized practices from any further regulatory control by the regulatory body. In Japan, clearance level and a procedure for its verification has been introduced under the Laws and Regulations, and solid clearance wastes inspected by the national authority can be handled and recycled as normal wastes. The most prevalent type of wastes have generated from the dismantling of nuclear facilities, so the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been developing the Clearance Level Verification Evaluation System (CLEVES) as a convenient tool. The Clearance Data Management System (CDMS), which is a part of CLEVES, has been developed to support measurement, evaluation, making and recording documents with clearance level verification. In addition, validation of the evaluation result of the CDMS was carried out by inputting the data of actual clearance activities in the JAEA. Clearance level verification is easily applied by using the CDMS for the clearance activities. (author)

  10. 16 CFR 1500.43 - Method of test for flashpoint of volatile flammable materials by Tagliabue open-cup apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... flammable materials by Tagliabue open-cup apparatus. 1500.43 Section 1500.43 Commercial Practices CONSUMER... horizontal plane above the liquid may be used, as follows: (1) Guide wire, 3/32-inch in diameter and 31/2... the thermometer, and in a plane 1/8-inch above the upper edge of the cup. The taper should be kept in...

  11. 75 FR 5578 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request-Flammability Standards for Clothing Textiles and Vinyl...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... Standards for Clothing Textiles and Vinyl Plastic Film AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. Chapter 35), the Consumer... Commission's flammability standards for clothing textiles and vinyl plastic film. DATES: Written comments on...

  12. Report on the handling of safety information concerning flammable gases and ferrocyanide at the Hanford waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    This report discusses concerns safety issues, and management at Hanford Tank Farm. Concerns center on the issue of flammable gas generation which could ignite, and on possible exothermic reactions of ferrocyanide compounds which were added to single shell tanks in the 1950's. It is believed that information concerning these issues has been mis-handled and the problems poorly managed

  13. 14 CFR 25.1182 - Nacelle areas behind firewalls, and engine pod attaching structures containing flammable fluid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nacelle areas behind firewalls, and engine...: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 25.1182 Nacelle areas behind firewalls... immediately behind the firewall, and each portion of any engine pod attaching structure containing flammable...

  14. Report on the handling of safety information concerning flammable gases and ferrocyanide at the Hanford waste tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-07-01

    This report discusses concerns safety issues, and management at Hanford Tank Farm. Concerns center on the issue of flammable gas generation which could ignite, and on possible exothermic reactions of ferrocyanide compounds which were added to single shell tanks in the 1950's. It is believed that information concerning these issues has been mis-handled and the problems poorly managed. (CBS)

  15. Mass loss and flammability of insulation materials used in sandwich panels during the pre-flashover phase of fire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giunta d'Albani, A.W.; de Kluiver, L.L.; de Korte, A.C.J.; van Herpen, R.; Weewer, R.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, buildings contain more and more synthetic insulation materials in order to meet the increasing energy-performance demands. These synthetic insulation materials have a different response to fire. In this study, the mass loss and flammability limits of different sandwich panels and their

  16. Test Plan for Measuring Ventilation Rates and Combustible Gas Levels in TWRS Active Catch Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NGUYEN, D.M.

    1999-10-25

    The purpose of this sampling activity is to obtain data to support an initial evaluation of potential hazards due to the presence of combustible gas in catch tanks that are currently operated by the River Protection Project (RPP). Results of the hazard analysis will be used to support closure of the flammable gas unreviewed safety question for these facilities. The data collection will be conducted in accordance with the Tank Safety Screening Data Quality Objective (Dukelow et al. 1995). Combustible gas, ammonia, and organic vapor levels in the headspace of the catch tanks will be field-measured using hand-held instruments. If a combustible gas level measurement in a tank exceeds an established threshold, gas samples will he collected in SUMMA' canisters for more extensive laboratory analysis. In addition, ventilation rates of some catch tanks will be measured to evaluate removal of flammable gas by air flowing through the tanks. This test plan identifies the sample collection, laboratory analysis, quality assurance, and reporting objectives for this data collection effort. The plan also provides the procedures for field measurement of combustible gas concentrations and ventilation rates.

  17. EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTS OF THE QUALITY OF LIFE LEVELS OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS UPON THEIR DEPRESSION LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozkan ISIK

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was planned to evaluate the effects of the quality of life levels of university students upon their depression levels. The students of School of Physical Education and Sports who took physical activity courses (n=148 and students of other academ ic branches who did not take physical activity courses (n=180 participated in the study voluntarily. To the participant individuals; SF - 36 quality of life scale (8 subscales, 2 summary scores, Beck Depression Inventory (Total scores and a personal infor mation form (about age, height, weight, sportive age, marital status and income status were administered. When intergroup quality of life subscale differences were examined; it was found out that there was a statistically significant difference in physic al functioning (t=6.810; p0.05. As for the quality of life summary scores; a statistically significant difference exist ed in physical health summary scores (t=3.580; p0.05. Again; intergroup depression scores were investigated; it was found out that students who stud ied at other academic departments had higher depression scores than those who studied at School of Physical Education and Sports (t= - 6.855; p<0.001. It was concluded that physical activities had positive effects upon both quality of life and depression le vels and that there was an inverse relationship between quality of life and depression levels.

  18. Evaluation of BWROG EPG level/power control strategy for Vermont Yankee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandola, V.; Robichaud, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    The current Boiling Water Reactor Owner's Group (BWROG) emergency procedure guidelines (EPGs) direct reactor operators to manually lower the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) water level to the top of active fuel (TAF) during an anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) event. Lowering the water level reduces the core inlet flow, thereby reducing core power. However, reducing water level is contrary to current operator training, which requires that normal RPV water level be maintained to assure core cooling. In addition, the indicated water level near TAF using cold calibrated level instrumentation may not be reliable, which could potentially result in uncovering the core. This paper evaluates the EPGs' level/power control strategy for the Vermont Yankee plant and proposes alternative to the BWROG guidelines as applied to ATWS response

  19. Experimental Studies on the Flammability and Fire Hazards of Photovoltaic Modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong-Yun; Zhou, Xiao-Dong; Yang, Li-Zhong; Zhang, Tao-Lin

    2015-07-09

    Many of the photovoltaic (PV) systems on buildings are of sufficiently high voltages, with potential to cause or promote fires. However, research about photovoltaic fires is insufficient. This paper focuses on the flammability and fire hazards of photovoltaic modules. Bench-scale experiments based on polycrystalline silicon PV modules have been conducted using a cone calorimeter. Several parameters including ignition time ( t ig ), mass loss, heat release rate (HRR), carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO₂) concentration, were investigated. The fire behaviours, fire hazards and toxicity of gases released by PV modules are assessed based on experimental results. The results show that PV modules under tests are inflammable with the critical heat flux of 26 kW/m². This work will lead to better understanding on photovoltaic fires and how to help authorities determine the appropriate fire safety provisions for controlling photovoltaic fires.

  20. Flammability of polypropylene/organoclay nanocomposites; Inflamabilidade de nanocompositos de polipropileno/argila organofilica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Tatianny Soares; Barbosa, Renata [Universidade Federal do Piaui (UFPI), Teresina (Brazil); Carvalho, Laura Hecker de [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil); Canedo, Eduardo Luis [Instituto de Tecnologia de Pernambuco, Recife (Brazil)

    2014-11-01

    The flammabilities of nanocomposites made with three polypropylene grades (homo and copolymers) with 5 wt % of organoclay (Cloisite 20A), 5 or 15 wt % of maleated polypropylene as compatibilizer, and 0, 0.5 or 1 wt % of cis-13-docosenamide (Erucamide) as co-intercalant, were studied using the horizontal burning test UL94HB. Masterbatches prepared in an internal mixer were diluted in the polypropylene matrix using a corotating twin-screw extruder, with different screw configurations and operating at 240 or 480 rpm. Results indicate that the high burning rate of the composites was not affected by the processing conditions. For all formulations was observed a significant reduction in smoke release, lack of dripping and the formation of a char surface layer, that protected the core of the samples. (author)

  1. Experimental Studies on the Flammability and Fire Hazards of Photovoltaic Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Yun Yang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Many of the photovoltaic (PV systems on buildings are of sufficiently high voltages, with potential to cause or promote fires. However, research about photovoltaic fires is insufficient. This paper focuses on the flammability and fire hazards of photovoltaic modules. Bench-scale experiments based on polycrystalline silicon PV modules have been conducted using a cone calorimeter. Several parameters including ignition time (tig, mass loss, heat release rate (HRR, carbon monoxide (CO and carbon dioxide (CO2 concentration, were investigated. The fire behaviours, fire hazards and toxicity of gases released by PV modules are assessed based on experimental results. The results show that PV modules under tests are inflammable with the critical heat flux of 26 kW/m2. This work will lead to better understanding on photovoltaic fires and how to help authorities determine the appropriate fire safety provisions for controlling photovoltaic fires.

  2. Influence of dispersion degree of water drops on efficiency of extinguishing of flammable liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korolchenko Dmitriy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Depending on the size of water drops, process of fire extinguishing is focused either in a zone of combustion or on a burning liquid surface. This article considers two alternate solutions of a heat balance equation. The first solution allows us to trace decrease of temperature of a flammable liquid (FL surface to a temperature lower than fuel flash point at which combustion is stopped. And the second solution allows us to analyze decrease of burnout rate to a negligible value at which steam-air mixture becomes nonflammable. As a result of solve of a heat balance equation it was made the following conclusion: water drops which size is equal to 100 μm will completely evaporate in a zone of combustion with extent of 1 m if the flying speed of drops is even 16 mps (acc. to Stokes v = 3 mps; whereas drops of larger size will evaporate only partially.

  3. Data Observations on Double Shell Tank (DST) Flammable Gas Watch List Tank Behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HEDENGREN, D.C.

    2000-09-28

    This report provides the data from the retained gas sampler, void fraction instrument, ball rheometer, standard hydrogen monitoring system, and other tank data pertinent to gas retention and release behavior in the waste stored in double-shelled Flammable Gas Watch List tanks at Hanford. These include tanks 241-AN-103,241-AN-104, 241-AN-105, 241-AW-101, 241-SY-101, and 241-SY-103. The tanks and the waste they contain are described in terms of fill history and chemistry. The results of mixer pump operation and recent waste transfers and back-dilution in SY-101 are also described. In-situ measurement and monitoring systems are described and the data are summarized under the categories of thermal behavior, waste configuration and properties, gas generation and composition, gas retention and historical gas release behavior.

  4. A survey to assess the educational-level interference on self-evaluation of acute pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labronici, Pedro José; Pires, Robinson Esteves Santos; Bastos Filho, Ricardo Pinheiro dos Santos; Pires-e-Albuquerque, Rodrigo Sattamini; Palma, Idemar Monteiro de; Giordano, Vincenzo; Franco, José Sérgio

    2015-08-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate whether patient education level interferes in the percentage of pain relief or increase using visual analogue scale (VAS) and subjective pain perception. Ninety-five patients presenting acute shoulder pain due to enthesitis were evaluated. They were asked to quantify the pain using VAS before steroid articular infiltration. One week later, patients reevaluated the pain using VAS and orally stated the percentage of perceived pain increase or relief. The information gathered was then compared among three patient educational levels (elementary, high school, and university). Percentages of improvement stated orally and utilizing VAS presented no statistically significant differences among the three educational status levels (p = 0.804). Patient educational status caused no impact in the results of acute pain self-assessment with VAS and oral evaluation.

  5. Criticality Safety Evaluation of Hanford Site High Level Waste Storage Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROGERS, C.A.

    2000-02-17

    This criticality safety evaluation covers operations for waste in underground storage tanks at the high-level waste tank farms on the Hanford site. This evaluation provides the bases for criticality safety limits and controls to govern receipt, transfer, and long-term storage of tank waste. Justification is provided that a nuclear criticality accident cannot occur for tank farms operations, based on current fissile material and operating conditions.

  6. Criticality Safety Evaluation of Hanford Site High-Level Waste Storage Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ROGERS, C.A.

    2000-01-01

    This criticality safety evaluation covers operations for waste in underground storage tanks at the high-level waste tank farms on the Hanford site. This evaluation provides the bases for criticality safety limits and controls to govern receipt, transfer, and long-term storage of tank waste. Justification is provided that a nuclear criticality accident cannot occur for tank farms operations, based on current fissile material and operating conditions

  7. Evaluating public involvement in the National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The Department of Energy contracted with the Keystone Center to evaluate the effectiveness of the National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program's public-involvement efforts. The Center chose six evaluators with diverse training and experience related to low-level waste management and public-participation programs. Keystone's evaluation was based on (a) observations by the evaluators who attended the National Program-sponsored strategy review meetings and fairs; (b) interviews with low-level waste generators, local government officials, state legislators, public-interest groups, and members of the general public; and (c) observations of the final National Program strategy task force meeting. The evaluators concluded that, overall, the public-participation processes yielded some very positive results - for policy development and for DOE and the EG and G staff. They judged the strategy document to be complete, concise, and helpful to public dialogue on low-level waste issues. They also made specific recommendations for improvements to the public-participation program

  8. CESARR V.2 manual: Computer code for the evaluation of surface storage of low and medium level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moya Rivera, J.A.; Bolado Lavin, R.

    1997-01-01

    CESARR (Code for the safety evaluation of low and medium level radioactive waste storage). This code was developed for the safety probabilistic evaluations in the facilities of low-and medium level radioactive waste storage

  9. Evaluation of S-type fiberglass composites for use in high-level radioactive waste environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    Two types of S-type fiberglass materials were evaluated for use in a high-level radioactive waste environment. The S-type fiberglass composites tested were in the form of tubes and were exposed to a simulated high-level radioactive waste environment consisting of corrosive chemicals, high gamma radiation, and elevated temperatures. The physical properties of the exposed and unexposed tube samples were compared to determine the effects of the simulated environment on the S-type fiberglass composites

  10. Evaluation of strategies for end storage of high-level reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This report evaluates a national strategy for end-storage of used high-level reactor fuel from the research reactors at Kjeller and in Halden. This strategy presupposes that all the important phases in handling the high-level material, including temporary storage and deposition, are covered. The quantity of spent fuel from Norwegian reactors is quite small. In addition to the technological issues, ethical, environmental, safety and economical requirements are emphasized

  11. The Retrieval Knowledge Center Evaluation Of Low Tank Level Mixing Technologies For DOE High Level Waste Tank Retrieval 10516

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellinger, A.

    2009-01-01

    technology have proven to be difficult. Through the RKC, DOE-EM funded an evaluation of adaptable commercial technologies that could assist with the removal of the tank heels. This paper will discuss the efforts and results of developing the RKC to improve communications and discussion of tank waste retrieval through a series of meetings designed to identify technical gaps in retrieval technologies at the DOE Hanford and Savannah River Sites. This paper will also describe the results of an evaluation of commercially available technologies for low level mixing as they might apply to HLW tank heel retrievals.

  12. Bi-Level Optimization for Available Transfer Capability Evaluation in Deregulated Electricity Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beibei Wang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Available transfer capability (ATC is the transfer capability remaining in the physical transmission network for further commercial activity over and above already committed uses which needs to be posted in the electricity market to facilitate competition. ATC evaluation is a complicated task including the determination of total transfer capability (TTC and existing transfer capability (ETC. In the deregulated electricity market, ETC is decided by the independent system operator’s (ISO’s economic dispatch (ED. TTC can then be obtained by a continuation power flow (CPF method or by an optimal power flow (OPF method, based on the given ED solutions as well as the ETC. In this paper, a bi-level optimization framework for the ATC evaluation is proposed in which ATC results can be obtained simultaneously with the ED and ETC results in the deregulated electricity market. In this bi-level optimization model, ATC evaluation is formulated as the upper level problem and the ISO’s ED is the lower level problem. The bi-level model is first converted to a mathematic program with equilibrium constraints (MPEC by recasting the lower level problem as its Karush-Kuhn-Tucher (KKT optimality condition. Then, the MPEC is transformed into a mixed-integer linear programming (MILP problem, which can be solved with the help of available optimization software. In addition, case studies on PJM 5-bus, IEEE 30-bus, and IEEE 118-bus systems are presented to demonstrate the proposed methodology.

  13. Evaluation of Metalloproteinase-8 Levels in Crevicular Fluid of Patients with Healthy Implants or Periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Aleksandrowicz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of periodontal and peri-implant tissue condition is mainly based on clinical examination and imaging diagnostics. Some data imply that Metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8 level examination in peri-implant sulcular fluid (PISF might be useful for evaluating the condition of peri-implant tissues and monitoring a development of peri-implant inflammation, including both mucositis and peri-implantitis. Hence, in this study, we decided to evaluate the level of MMP-8 in PISF obtained from patients without clinical symptoms of mucositis or peri-implantitis and compare it with MMP-8 level in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF obtained from patients with healthy periodontium and those with varying severity of periodontitis. A total of 189 subjects were included in the study, and GCF/PISF samples were analysed for MMP-8 level by ELISA test. We documented that MMP-8 level in PISF obtained from patients without symptoms of mucositis or peri-implantitis was significantly higher not only than in GCF of periodontally healthy patients but also, which seems to be very interesting, than in GCF of patients with varying degrees of periodontal inflammation, consistent with earlier studies. Our observation might imply that monitoring of MMP-8 level in PISF could help to diagnose mucositis/peri-implantitis in an early stage, prior to clinical manifestations, which may allow for quick start of appropriate therapy.

  14. Prognostic Value of Thyroid Hormone Levels in Patients Evaluated for Liver Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Thiel, David H.; Udani, Mahendra; Schade, Robert R.; Sanghvi, Agit; Starzl, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    The thyroid hormones T4, T3, rT3 and TSH were assayed in 134 adult patients evaluated and accepted as potential liver transplant candidates at the University of Pittsburgh from March, 1981 to December, 1983. The subsequent course of these patients was evaluated with respect to the levels of these hormones obtained at the time of acceptance for transplantation. T4 levels were increased significantly while their T3 levels were reduced (both p < 0.01) in those who survived and were discharged home as compared to either those who died waiting to be transplanted or died following the procedure. As a result, the ratio of T3/T4 was reduced markedly (p < 0.01) in those who were transplanted and survived as compared to those not transplanted or dying following transplantation. Importantly, the rT3 levels clearly separated (p < 0.01) those who would die prior to transplantation from those who would survive to be transplanted. Finally, the ratio rT3/T3 even more clearly separates those who will die prior to transplantation (p < 0.01) from the other two groups. These data suggest that thyroid hormone levels, particularly rT3 levels, might be useful in setting priorities for which patients referred for a transplantation evaluation should be accepted into the program and in determining who among accepted patients should be operated upon in preference to others also accepted and waiting to be transplanted. PMID:2993148

  15. Evaluating healthcare priority setting at the meso level: A thematic review of empirical literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waithaka, Dennis; Tsofa, Benjamin; Barasa, Edwine

    2018-01-01

    Background: Decentralization of health systems has made sub-national/regional healthcare systems the backbone of healthcare delivery. These regions are tasked with the difficult responsibility of determining healthcare priorities and resource allocation amidst scarce resources. We aimed to review empirical literature that evaluated priority setting practice at the meso (sub-national) level of health systems. Methods: We systematically searched PubMed, ScienceDirect and Google scholar databases and supplemented these with manual searching for relevant studies, based on the reference list of selected papers. We only included empirical studies that described and evaluated, or those that only evaluated priority setting practice at the meso-level. A total of 16 papers were identified from LMICs and HICs. We analyzed data from the selected papers by thematic review. Results: Few studies used systematic priority setting processes, and all but one were from HICs. Both formal and informal criteria are used in priority-setting, however, informal criteria appear to be more perverse in LMICs compared to HICs. The priority setting process at the meso-level is a top-down approach with minimal involvement of the community. Accountability for reasonableness was the most common evaluative framework as it was used in 12 of the 16 studies. Efficiency, reallocation of resources and options for service delivery redesign were the most common outcome measures used to evaluate priority setting. Limitations: Our study was limited by the fact that there are very few empirical studies that have evaluated priority setting at the meso-level and there is likelihood that we did not capture all the studies. Conclusions: Improving priority setting practices at the meso level is crucial to strengthening health systems. This can be achieved through incorporating and adapting systematic priority setting processes and frameworks to the context where used, and making considerations of both process

  16. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons levels evaluation in urban area after October 23rd 1998 promulgation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galimberti, E.; Baroni, R.; Villa, V.; Sesana, G.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports the result concerning the air quality evaluation in an urban centre in the hinterland of Milan., with an high population density and an intense road traffic, relatively to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) concentration levels. The data, referred to the annual season, indicate that, near high traffic road, the above compounds are always present in the concentration level analytically detectable and that the concentration of benzo(a)pyrene is 2.7 ng/m 3 . The reported study is an useful instruments both for a road town planning, in order to people disease prevention, and for monitoring the evolution of PAH concentration levels in the future [it

  17. Evaluation of different jumping tests in defining position-specific and performance-level differences in high level basketball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Pehar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The importance of jumping ability in basketball is well known, but there is an evident lack of studies that have examined different jumping testing protocols in basketball players at advanced levels. The aim of this study was to assess the applicability of different tests of jumping capacity in identifying differences between (i playing position and (ii competitive levels of professional players. Participants were 110 male professional basketball players (height: 194.92±8.09 cm; body mass: 89.33±10.91 kg; 21.58±3.92 years of age; Guards, 49; Forwards, 22; Centres, 39 who competed in the first (n = 58 and second division (n = 52. The variables included anthropometrics and jumping test performance. Jumping performances were evaluated by the standing broad jump (SBJ, countermovement jump (CMJ, reactive strength index (RSI, repeated reactive strength ability (RRSA and four running vertical jumps: maximal jump with (i take-off from the dominant leg and (ii non-dominant leg, lay-up shot jump with take-off from the (iii dominant leg and (iv non-dominant leg. First-division players were taller (ES: 0.76, 95%CI: 0.35-1.16, moderate differences, heavier (0.69, 0.29-1.10, had higher maximal reach height (0.67, 0.26-1.07, moderate differences, and had lower body fat % (-0.87, -1.27-0.45, moderate differences than second-division players. The playing positions differed significantly in three of four running jump achievements, RSI and RRSA, with Centres being least successful. The first-division players were superior to second-division players in SBJ (0.63, 0.23-1.03; 0.87, 0.26-1.43; 0.76, 0.11-1.63, all moderate differences, for total sample, Guards, and Forwards, respectively. Running vertical jumps and repeated jumping capacity can be used as valid measures of position-specific jumping ability in basketball. The differences between playing levels in vertical jumping achievement can be observed by assessing vertical jump scores together with differences

  18. Evaluation of different jumping tests in defining position-specific and performance-level differences in high level basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehar, Miran; Sekulic, Damir; Sisic, Nedim; Spasic, Miodrag; Uljevic, Ognjen; Krolo, Ante; Milanovic, Zoran; Sattler, Tine

    2017-09-01

    The importance of jumping ability in basketball is well known, but there is an evident lack of studies that have examined different jumping testing protocols in basketball players at advanced levels. The aim of this study was to assess the applicability of different tests of jumping capacity in identifying differences between (i) playing position and (ii) competitive levels of professional players. Participants were 110 male professional basketball players (height: 194.92±8.09 cm; body mass: 89.33±10.91 kg; 21.58±3.92 years of age; Guards, 49; Forwards, 22; Centres, 39) who competed in the first (n = 58) and second division (n = 52). The variables included anthropometrics and jumping test performance. Jumping performances were evaluated by the standing broad jump (SBJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), reactive strength index (RSI), repeated reactive strength ability (RRSA) and four running vertical jumps: maximal jump with (i) take-off from the dominant leg and (ii) non-dominant leg, lay-up shot jump with take-off from the (iii) dominant leg and (iv) non-dominant leg. First-division players were taller (ES: 0.76, 95%CI: 0.35-1.16, moderate differences), heavier (0.69, 0.29-1.10), had higher maximal reach height (0.67, 0.26-1.07, moderate differences), and had lower body fat % (-0.87, -1.27-0.45, moderate differences) than second-division players. The playing positions differed significantly in three of four running jump achievements, RSI and RRSA, with Centres being least successful. The first-division players were superior to second-division players in SBJ (0.63, 0.23-1.03; 0.87, 0.26-1.43; 0.76, 0.11-1.63, all moderate differences, for total sample, Guards, and Forwards, respectively). Running vertical jumps and repeated jumping capacity can be used as valid measures of position-specific jumping ability in basketball. The differences between playing levels in vertical jumping achievement can be observed by assessing vertical jump scores together with differences

  19. A first-level evaluation of a family intervention for adolescent social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is a first-level evaluation of a family intervention targeted at adolescents with social, emotional and behavioural difficulties (SEBD) attending Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) in Ireland. It is a combined implementation of the Working Things Out adolescent programmeand the Parents Plus ...

  20. Simplified methods of evaluating colonies for levels of Varroa Sensitive Hygiene (VSH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH) is a trait of honey bees, Apis mellifera, that supports resistance to varroa mites, Varroa destructor. Components of VSH were evaluated to identify simple methods for selection of the trait. Varroa mite population growth was measured in colonies with variable levels of...

  1. IAEA coordinated research program on the evaluation of solidified high-level radioactive waste products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grover, J.R.; Schneider, K.J.

    1979-01-01

    A coordinated research program on the evaluation of solidified high-level radioactive waste products has been active with the IAEA since 1976. The program's objectives are to integrate research and to provide a data bank on an international basis in this subject area. Results and considerations to date are presented

  2. The Artemis workbench for system-level performance evaluation of embedded systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pimentel, A.D.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present an overview of the Artemis workbench, which provides modelling and simulation methods and tools for efficient performance evaluation and exploration of heterogeneous embedded multimedia systems. More specifically, we describe the Artemis system-level modelling methodology,

  3. Assessment of Student Achievement: Evaluation of Student Achievement at the Intermediate Level. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlstrom, M.; And Others

    Evaluation and assessment procedures of Ontario, Canada principals and teachers at the Intermediate level (grades 7 and 8) were examined. Extensive questionnaires were returned by 134 principals and 225 teachers divided across the subject areas of English, Mathematics, Science, Languages, History, Home Economics or Shop, Arts, and Physical…

  4. Evaluation of the City and Guilds Level 3 Adult 8umeracy Support ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper looks at the evaluation of the Level 3 Certificate in Adult Numeracy Support (City and Guilds 9484) course at Merton College. The latter is a general further education (FE) college and the main provider of post-16 education and training in the London Borough of Merton. The College also runs a number of higher ...

  5. Web-Based Museum Trails on PDAs for University-Level Design Students: Design and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, R.; Walker, K.; Speight, C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the development and evaluation of web-based museum trails for university-level design students to access on handheld devices in the Victoria and Albert Museum (V&A) in London. The trails offered students a range of ways of exploring the museum environment and collections, some encouraging students to interpret objects and…

  6. Two-Level Evaluation on Sensor Interoperability of Features in Fingerprint Image Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Shuo Li

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Features used in fingerprint segmentation significantly affect the segmentation performance. Various features exhibit different discriminating abilities on fingerprint images derived from different sensors. One feature which has better discriminating ability on images derived from a certain sensor may not adapt to segment images derived from other sensors. This degrades the segmentation performance. This paper empirically analyzes the sensor interoperability problem of segmentation feature, which refers to the feature’s ability to adapt to the raw fingerprints captured by different sensors. To address this issue, this paper presents a two-level feature evaluation method, including the first level feature evaluation based on segmentation error rate and the second level feature evaluation based on decision tree. The proposed method is performed on a number of fingerprint databases which are obtained from various sensors. Experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively evaluate the sensor interoperability of features, and the features with good evaluation results acquire better segmentation accuracies of images originating from different sensors.

  7. Evaluation of the thermodynamics of a four level system using canonical density matrix method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awoga Oladunjoye A.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We consider a four-level system with two subsystems coupled by weak interaction. The system is in thermal equilibrium. The thermodynamics of the system, namely internal energy, free energy, entropy and heat capacity, are evaluated using the canonical density matrix by two methods. First by Kronecker product method and later by treating the subsystems separately and then adding the evaluated thermodynamic properties of each subsystem. It is discovered that both methods yield the same result, the results obey the laws of thermodynamics and are the same as earlier obtained results. The results also show that each level of the subsystems introduces a new degree of freedom and increases the entropy of the entire system. We also found that the four-level system predicts a linear relationship between heat capacity and temperature at very low temperatures just as in metals. Our numerical results show the same trend.

  8. Setting Healthcare Priorities at the Macro and Meso Levels: A Framework for Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barasa, Edwine W; Molyneux, Sassy; English, Mike; Cleary, Susan

    2015-09-16

    Priority setting in healthcare is a key determinant of health system performance. However, there is no widely accepted priority setting evaluation framework. We reviewed literature with the aim of developing and proposing a framework for the evaluation of macro and meso level healthcare priority setting practices. We systematically searched Econlit, PubMed, CINAHL, and EBSCOhost databases and supplemented this with searches in Google Scholar, relevant websites and reference lists of relevant papers. A total of 31 papers on evaluation of priority setting were identified. These were supplemented by broader theoretical literature related to evaluation of priority setting. A conceptual review of selected papers was undertaken. Based on a synthesis of the selected literature, we propose an evaluative framework that requires that priority setting practices at the macro and meso levels of the health system meet the following conditions: (1) Priority setting decisions should incorporate both efficiency and equity considerations as well as the following outcomes; (a) Stakeholder satisfaction, (b) Stakeholder understanding, (c) Shifted priorities (reallocation of resources), and (d) Implementation of decisions. (2) Priority setting processes should also meet the procedural conditions of (a) Stakeholder engagement, (b) Stakeholder empowerment, (c) Transparency, (d) Use of evidence, (e) Revisions, (f) Enforcement, and (g) Being grounded on community values. Available frameworks for the evaluation of priority setting are mostly grounded on procedural requirements, while few have included outcome requirements. There is, however, increasing recognition of the need to incorporate both consequential and procedural considerations in priority setting practices. In this review, we adapt an integrative approach to develop and propose a framework for the evaluation of priority setting practices at the macro and meso levels that draws from these complementary schools of thought. © 2015

  9. Setting Healthcare Priorities at the Macro and Meso Levels: A Framework for Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barasa, Edwine W.; Molyneux, Sassy; English, Mike; Cleary, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Priority setting in healthcare is a key determinant of health system performance. However, there is no widely accepted priority setting evaluation framework. We reviewed literature with the aim of developing and proposing a framework for the evaluation of macro and meso level healthcare priority setting practices. Methods: We systematically searched Econlit, PubMed, CINAHL, and EBSCOhost databases and supplemented this with searches in Google Scholar, relevant websites and reference lists of relevant papers. A total of 31 papers on evaluation of priority setting were identified. These were supplemented by broader theoretical literature related to evaluation of priority setting. A conceptual review of selected papers was undertaken. Results: Based on a synthesis of the selected literature, we propose an evaluative framework that requires that priority setting practices at the macro and meso levels of the health system meet the following conditions: (1) Priority setting decisions should incorporate both efficiency and equity considerations as well as the following outcomes; (a) Stakeholder satisfaction, (b) Stakeholder understanding, (c) Shifted priorities (reallocation of resources), and (d) Implementation of decisions. (2) Priority setting processes should also meet the procedural conditions of (a) Stakeholder engagement, (b) Stakeholder empowerment, (c) Transparency, (d) Use of evidence, (e) Revisions, (f) Enforcement, and (g) Being grounded on community values. Conclusion: Available frameworks for the evaluation of priority setting are mostly grounded on procedural requirements, while few have included outcome requirements. There is, however, increasing recognition of the need to incorporate both consequential and procedural considerations in priority setting practices. In this review, we adapt an integrative approach to develop and propose a framework for the evaluation of priority setting practices at the macro and meso levels that draws from these

  10. Setting Healthcare Priorities at the Macro and Meso Levels: A Framework for Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwine W. Barasa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Priority setting in healthcare is a key determinant of health system performance. However, there is no widely accepted priority setting evaluation framework. We reviewed literature with the aim of developing and proposing a framework for the evaluation of macro and meso level healthcare priority setting practices. Methods We systematically searched Econlit, PubMed, CINAHL, and EBSCOhost databases and supplemented this with searches in Google Scholar, relevant websites and reference lists of relevant papers. A total of 31 papers on evaluation of priority setting were identified. These were supplemented by broader theoretical literature related to evaluation of priority setting. A conceptual review of selected papers was undertaken. Results Based on a synthesis of the selected literature, we propose an evaluative framework that requires that priority setting practices at the macro and meso levels of the health system meet the following conditions: (1 Priority setting decisions should incorporate both efficiency and equity considerations as well as the following outcomes; (a Stakeholder satisfaction, (b Stakeholder understanding, (c Shifted priorities (reallocation of resources, and (d Implementation of decisions. (2 Priority setting processes should also meet the procedural conditions of (a Stakeholder engagement, (b Stakeholder empowerment, (c Transparency, (d Use of evidence, (e Revisions, (f Enforcement, and (g Being grounded on community values. Conclusion Available frameworks for the evaluation of priority setting are mostly grounded on procedural requirements, while few have included outcome requirements. There is, however, increasing recognition of the need to incorporate both consequential and procedural considerations in priority setting practices. In this review, we adapt an integrative approach to develop and propose a framework for the evaluation of priority setting practices at the macro and meso levels that draws from

  11. Anatomy of a decision III: Evaluation of national disposal at sea program action level efficacy considering 2 chemical action levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apitz, Sabine E; Vivian, Chris; Agius, Suzanne

    2017-11-01

    The potential performance (i.e., ability to separate nontoxic from toxic sediments) of a range of international Disposal at Sea (DaS) chemical Action Levels (ALs) was compared using a sediment chemical and toxicological database. The use of chemistry alone (without the use of further lines of evidence) did not perform well at reducing costs and protecting the environment. Although some approaches for interpreting AL1 results are very effective at filtering out the majority of acutely toxic sediments, without subsequent toxicological assessment, a large proportion of nontoxic sediments would be unnecessarily subjected to treatment and containment, and a number of sublethally toxic sediments would be missed. Even the best tiered systems that collect and evaluate information sequentially resulted in the failure to catch at least some sublethally or acutely toxic sediments. None of the AL2s examined were particularly effective in distinguishing between non-, sublethally, or acutely toxic sediments. Thus, this review did not support the use of chemical AL2s to predict the degree to which sediments will be toxic. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:1086-1099.© 2017 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (SETAC). © 2017 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (SETAC).

  12. Methodology of safety evaluation about land disposal of low level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Atsuyuki

    1986-01-01

    Accompanying the progress of the construction project of low level radioactive waste storage facilities in Aomori Prefecture, the full scale land disposal of low level radioactive wastes shows its symptom also in Japan. In this report, the scientific methodology to explain the safety about the land disposal of low level radioactive wastes is discussed. The land disposal of general wastes by shallow burying has already had sufficient results. In the case of low level radioactive wastes, also the land disposal by shallow burying is considered. Low level radioactive wastes can be regarded as one form of industrial wastes, as there are many common parts in the scientific and theoretical base of the safety. Attention is paid most to the contamination of ground water. Low level radioactive wastes are solid wastes, accordingly the degree of contamination should be less. The space in which ground water existes, the phenomena of ground water movement, the phenomena of ground water dispersion and Fick's law, the adsorption effect of strata, and the evaluation of source term are explained. These are the method to analyze the degree of contamination from safety evaluation viewpoint. (Kako, I.)

  13. Evaluation of mobile phone addiction level and sleep quality in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Sevil; Ozdemir, Kevser; Unsal, Alaattin; Temiz, Nazen

    2013-07-01

    To determine the mobile phone addiction level in university students, to examine several associated factors and to evaluate the relation between the addiction level and sleep quality. The study is a cross-sectional research conducted on the students of the Sakarya University between 01 November 2012 and 01 February 2013. The study group included 576 students. The Problematic Mobile Phone Use Scale was used for evaluating the mobile phone addiction level and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index for assessing the sleep quality. Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis test and Spearman's Correlation Analysis were used for analyzing the data. The study group consisted of 296 (51.4%) females and 208 (48.6%) males. The mean age was 20.83 ± 1.90 years (min:17, max:28). The addiction level was determined to be higher in the second-year students, those with poor family income, those with type A personality, those whose age for first mobile phone is 13 and below and those whose duration of daily mobile phone use is above 5 hours (p phone addiction level (p addiction level. It was concluded that referring the students with suspected addiction to advanced healthcare facilities, performing occasional scans for early diagnosis and informing the students about controlled mobile phone use would be useful.

  14. A comparison and evaluation between ICESat/GLAS altimetry and mean sea level in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naksen, Didsaphan; Yang, Dong Kai

    2015-10-01

    Surface elevation is one of the importance information for GIS. Usually surface elevation can acquired from many sources such as satellite imageries, aerial photograph, SAR data or LiDAR by photogrammetry, remote sensing methodology. However the most trust information describe the actual surface elevation is Leveling from terrestrial survey. Leveling is giving the highest accuracy but in the other hand is also long period process spending a lot of budget and resources, moreover the LiDAR technology is new era to measure surface elevation. ICESat/GLAS is spaceborne LiDAR platform, a scientific satellite lunched by NASA in 2003. The study area was located at the middle part of Thailand between 12. ° - 14° North and 98° -100° East Latitude and Longitude. The main idea is to compare and evaluate about elevation between ICESat/GLAS Altimetry and mean sea level of Thailand. Data are collected from various sources, including the ICESat/GLAS altimetry data product from NASA, mean sea level from Royal Thai Survey Department (RTSD). For methodology, is to transform ICESat GLA14 from TOPX/Poseidon-Jason ellipsoid to WGS84 ellipsoid. In addition, ICESat/GLAS altimetry that extracted form centroid of laser footprint and mean sea level were compared and evaluated by 1st Layer National Vertical Reference Network. The result is shown that generally the range of elevation between ICESat/GLAS and mean sea level is wildly from 0. 8 to 25 meters in study area.

  15. A framework for outcome-level evaluation of in-service training of health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Gabrielle; Perdue, Thomas; Petracca, Frances

    2013-10-01

    In-service training is a key strategic approach to addressing the severe shortage of health care workers in many countries. However, there is a lack of evidence linking these health care worker trainings to improved health outcomes. In response, the United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief's Human Resources for Health Technical Working Group initiated a project to develop an outcome-focused training evaluation framework. This paper presents the methods and results of that project. A general inductive methodology was used for the conceptualization and development of the framework. Fifteen key informant interviews were conducted to explore contextual factors, perceived needs, barriers and facilitators affecting the evaluation of training outcomes. In addition, a thematic analysis of 70 published articles reporting health care worker training outcomes identified key themes and categories. These were integrated, synthesized and compared to several existing training evaluation models. This formed an overall typology which was used to draft a new framework. Finally, the framework was refined and validated through an iterative process of feedback, pilot testing and revision. The inductive process resulted in identification of themes and categories, as well as relationships among several levels and types of outcomes. The resulting framework includes nine distinct types of outcomes that can be evaluated, which are organized within three nested levels: individual, organizational and health system/population. The outcome types are: (1) individual knowledge, attitudes and skills; (2) individual performance; (3) individual patient health; (4) organizational systems; (5) organizational performance; (6) organizational-level patient health; (7) health systems; (8) population-level performance; and (9) population-level health. The framework also addresses contextual factors which may influence the outcomes of training, as well as the ability of evaluators to

  16. The Evaluation of Anxiety Levels and Determinant Factors in Preoperative Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Cevik

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Preoperative anxiety is a prevalent concern with negative effects on perioperative period but is usually ignored. The objectives of this study are to identify the preoperative anxiety levels of surgical patients and to evaluate the associated factors affecting this level. Methods: One hundred volunteer patients scheduled for elective surgery were included the study. Data were collected by using “Personal Information Form “and “State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-I”. Evaluations were based on a significance level of p<0.05. Results: The percentage of female to male patients was 48% and 52%. The mean anxiety levels of both gender were 42.46 ± 8.95 and 42.10 ± 9.49 respectively (p=0.85. There was no difference between females and males in terms of anxiety. Age, occupational condition, marital status, and education level was not found as determinant factors on preoperative anxiety levels. Male individuals of large families were more anxious than the others, but this difference was not significant (p=0.11. Previous surgical experience was not a predictive factor for preoperative anxiety. The anxiety level was significantly high in men using cigarette and alcohol (p<0.01. Fear, apprehension, and stress was highly related with high level of anxiety, but insecurity and inexperience were not a predicting factor. The anxiety levels of cool patients were significantly lower than the others (p<0.01. Conclusions: Preoperative anxiety is a multifactorial issue and must be good handled. The aim must be based on reduction strategies. It must be considered that preoperative information is the best way to decrease preoperative anxiety.

  17. Method for including detailed evaluation of daylight levels in Be06

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Steffen

    2008-01-01

    Good daylight conditions in office buildings have become an important issue due to new European regulatory demands which include energy consumption for electrical lighting in the building energy frame. Good daylight conditions in offices are thus in increased focus as an energy conserving measure....... In order to evaluate whether a certain design is good daylight design or not building designers must perform detailed evaluation of daylight levels, including the daylight performance of dynamic solar shadings, and include these in the energy performance evaluation. However, the mandatory national...... calculation tool in Denmark (Be06) for evaluating the energy performance of buildings is currently using a simple representation of available daylight in a room and simple assumptions regarding the control of shading devices. In a case example, this is leading to an overestimation of the energy consumption...

  18. Evaluation of blood zinc, calcium and blood lead levels among children aged 1-36 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiaojun; He, Hong; Ren, Lisheng; Liu, Ji; Han, Chunhua

    2014-09-01

    Early childhood lead exposure is associated with numerous adverse health effects. Biomonitoring among susceptible populations, such as children, has not been previously conducted. The aim of the study is to evaluate the blood lead (Pb) and total blood calcium (Ca) levels; blood zinc (Zn) levels. A cross-sectional study was designed to collect healthy children age 1- 36 months (Mean ± SD: 1.5 ± 0.6 age, 60% boys) in the study from January 2010 to September 2011. The overall mean blood Pb levels were 42.18 ± 12.13 μg/L, the overall mean blood Zn and total blood Ca concentrations were 62.18 ± 12.33 μmol/L and 1.78 ± 0.13 mmol/L, respectively. The prevalence of elevated blood Pb levels in all children was 1.3%. A significant difference was found between female and male subjects for the blood Pb and Zn. After controlling for gender and age, there was a weak positive correlation between total blood Ca and Zn level. The blood Pb levels had a significant negative correlation with total blood Ca level after adjusting for age and gender, and these findings suggest that Pb had effect on positive blood Zn and total blood Ca levels; parents should pay more attention to the nutrition of girls. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation and association of serum iron and ferritin levels in children with dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh Babu, N S; Bhanushali, Parin Vasant

    2017-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia accounts for 90% of all types of anemia in the world. Although the prevalence has declined in recent years, it remains an important pediatric public health problem. Iron deficiency has also been associated with dental caries. It impairs salivary gland function causing reduced salivary secretion and buffering capacity leading to increased caries activity. The aim of the study is to explore an association between dental caries and serum levels of iron and ferritin in children aged 3-12 years. Subjectsand Methods: The study group included 120 children, hospitalized for uncomplicated medical problems. Blood reports were evaluated to determine serum iron and ferritin levels. Dental caries experience was assessed using deft index. The collected data were tabulated and analyzed using Student's t-test and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Out of 120 children, 38 children showed low serum iron levels of which 31 children had dental caries and nine out of 15 children in the high serum iron level group showed dental caries. High ferritin levels were seen in three children among which two children were caries-free and only one child had a low ferritin level who also had a positive deft score. Based on the results, it was concluded that there is an inverse association between serum iron levels and dental caries whereas there is no association between serum ferritin levels and dental caries.

  20. Flammability of radiation cross-linked low density polyethylene as an insulating material for wire and cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basfar, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    Various formulations of low-density polyethylene blended with ethylene vinyl acetate were prepared to improve the flame retardancy for wire and cable applications. The prepared formulations were cross-linked by γ-rays to 50, 100, 150 and 200 kGy in the presence of trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA). The effect of thermal aging on mechanical properties of these formulations were investigated. In addition, the influence of various combinations of aluminum trihydroxide and zinc borate as flame retardant fillers on the flammability was explored. Limiting oxygen index (LOI) and average extent of burning were used to characterize the flammability of investigated formulations. An improved flame retardancy of low density polyethylene was achieved by various combinations of flame ratardant fillers and cross-linking by gamma radiation

  1. Effect of swelling behavior of organoclays in styrene on flammability of polystyrene nanocomposites obtained through in situ incorporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timochenco, Licinia; Sayer, Claudia; Machado, Ricardo A.F.; Araujo, Pedro H.H.

    2009-01-01

    In this work the effect of the interaction between organoclays and styrene on the flammability of polystyrene/clay nanocomposites obtained through in-situ incorporation was investigated. The reactions were carried out in bulk polymerization. The interaction between organoclays and styrene was inferred by swelling of the organoclay in styrene. The nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction and Transmission Electron Microscopy. The heat release rate was obtained by Cone Calorimeter and the nanocomposites were tested through UL94 horizontal burn test. Thermogravimetric analysis were also performed. Results showed that intercalated and partially exfoliated nanocomposites were obtained depending on the swelling behavior of the organoclay in styrene. It was also observed an increase of the higher decomposition temperature and an accentuated decrease on the peak of heat release of the nanocomposites when comparing to the virgin polymer. No remarkable effect between the swelling behavior of the organoclay in styrene and the flammability properties was observed. (author)

  2. Preliminary evaluation of 222Rn levels in homes and offices in two different regions in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Hushari, M.A.; Raja, G.

    1993-01-01

    Evaluation of Rn levels was carried out in homes and offices in Damascus and phosphate mining areas near Palmyra city in Syria. The AEOI radon diffusion dosimeters were used in this study. Electrochemical etching of polycarbonate detectors was used to develop the tracks. A standard source of radon was used for calibration. Radon levels were measured in 98 homes of workers in the phosphate mining areas and 29 homes in the Damascus region. The radon diffusion chambers were placed in offices and laboratories of AEC for about four months in average. The results gave an indication of Rn level in Damascus dwellings in spite of the necessity for further comprehensive studies for the city. The radon levels were high in some offices and laboratories where phosphate analyses are carried out or buildings near phosphate storage areas or near surface phosphate rocks occurrence, in comparison with homes. (author). 7 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  3. Evaluating the Level of the Export-Import Potential of Industrial Enterprises: Methodical Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otenko Vasyl I.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a detailed description of the methodical support for evaluating the level of development and use of the export-import potential of industrial enterprises. The place of evaluation in the system of management of the enterprise’s export-import potential (EIPE, as well as its conceptual content have been defined. An implementation of the proposed methodical support for evaluation of the EIPE has been displayed on the example of the major industrial enterprises of the city of Kharkiv. It has been substantiated that the objectivity and effectiveness of evaluation of the level of export-import potential of industrial enterprises is methodically ensured by: the system of partial indicators allowing for regular monitoring and diagnosing tendencies in the status and the use of the EIPE; the analytical tool – i.e. cluster, factor, and canonical analyzes to identify causal relationships in the components of potential and to determine the indicators of impact; the development and use of the EIPE, as well as the evaluation procedure itself, which is recommended for implementation in accordance with the appropriate stages.

  4. Evaluating public involvement in the national low-level radioactive-waste-management program. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    An extensive public involvement approach has been developed to obtain the views and assistance of state and local governments, citizen groups, industry, professional societies and other organizations in the preparation and review of a national strategy document on low-level radioactive wastes. Six evaluators who have a wide diversity of backgrounds were selected to evaluate the effectiveness of this approach. This final report presents findings discussed under the headings: Introduction to the Recent History of Low-level Waste Policy Development (LLWMP) and the Role of Public Participation; Public Participation Mechanisms Employed in Preparing the National Strategy Document; the Keystone's Evaluation Process; and Findings. The overall evaluation of the process was very positive. It was clear that the LLWMP staff was seriously committed to building a credible public participation process. The evaluation team was provided rough cost figures for the various components of the LLWMP effort and concluded that, in its opinion, the public participation process provided benefits to the federal government that exceeded its costs. Moreover, the costs of the individual components were not out of line with each one's usefulness and contribution to the overall effort

  5. Conversion of transuranic waste to low level waste by decontamination: a technical and economic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, R.P.; Hazelton, R.F.

    1984-12-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of using in-situ decontamination techniques to convert glove boxes and other large TRU-contaminated components directly into LLW. The results of the technical evaluation indicate that in-situ decontamination of these types of components to non-TRU levels is technically feasible. Applicable decontamination techniques include electropolishing, hand scrubbing, chemical washes/sprays, strippable coatings and Freon spray-cleaning. The removal of contamination from crevices and other holdup areas remains a problem, but may be solved through further advances in decontamination technology. Also, the increase in the allowable maximum TRU level from 10 nCi/g to 100 nCi/g as defined in DOE Order 5820.2 reduces the removal requirement and facilitates measurement of the remaining quantities. The major emphasis of the study was on a cost/benefit evaluation that included a review and update of previous analyses and evaluations of TRU-waste volume reduction and conversion options. The results of the economic evaluation show, for the assumptions used, that there is a definite cost incentive to size reduce large components, and that decontamination of sectioned material has become cost competitive with the size reduction options. In-situ decontamination appears to be the lowest cost option when based on routine-type operations conducted by well-trained and properly equipped personnel. 16 references, 1 figure, 7 tables

  6. Vitamin D status is associated with anxiety levels in postmenopausal women evaluated for osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Martino

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D status has been previously associated with a wide range of acute and chronic diseases. The nervous system express vitamin D receptors and thus vitamin D may be involved in mental health. Poor data exist about the correlation between vitamin D and anxiety levels.Our aim was to investigate the association of vitamin D status with anxiety severity. A group of 177 postmenopausal women (mean age 65.5±8.22 yr. referring to an outpatients clinic for the prevention of osteoporosis were evaluated. Severity of perceived anxiety symptoms was measured by the Hamilton Anxiety rating scale (HAMA. Depression levels were also evaluated using the Beck Depression Inventory-second edition scale (BDI-II.  25(OHD serum levels, indicative of vitamin D status, were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography. 25(OHD levels were significantly related HAMA-score (r=-0.15, p=0.04; particularly a deep association was observed between 25(OHD levels and somatic symptoms (r=-0.195, p=0.009. HAMA score was associated with BDI-II score (r=0.487, p=<0.001; HAMA psychic symptom score was also related with age and time since menopause (r=0.149, p=0.039 and r=0.222, p=0.003, respectively. At a multiple regression analysis, after correcting for age and depression levels, 25(OHD was predictive of HAMA score (β =-0,05961, p= 0.02, SE=-2.206, but the strength of association was lost further correcting for time since menopause.  In conclusion, in a setting of postmenopausal women, we observed a significant association between anxiety levels and serum 25(OHD concentrations irrespective of age and depression levels.

  7. Preliminary evaluation of the control of indoor radon daughter levels in new structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzgerald, J.E. Jr.; Guimond, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    As part of its assessment of the radiological impact of the phosphate industry in Florida, the US Environmental Protection Agency has surveyed residences built atop uraniferous reclaimed phosphate mining land. These surveys have shown elevated radon daughter levels to exist in structures built on this land. In order to allow safer use of this land for residential construction, various state-of-the-art radon daughter control technologies were evaluated by the Agency. These included forced ventilation, polymeric sealants, excavation, crawl space construction, and improved slab quality. From a cost-effectiveness evaluation, improved slab quality and crawl space construction were determined to best satisfy the criteria for optimal radon daughter control

  8. An evaluation of internal event Level 1 PRA methods used in NUREG-1150

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camp, A.L.; Cramond, W.R.

    1989-01-01

    As part of the effort to support NUREG-1150, Sandia National Laboratories and its subcontractors have developed innovative techniques for efficiently performing internal event Level I probabilistic risk assessments. This methodology is one of the alternatives for industry to use in performing individual plant evaluations in the future. While this new methodology was very successful, there are some areas where improvements can be made. This paper evaluates the strengths and weaknesses of the methodology and makes some important recommendations for modifications in order to provide insights to future users

  9. Evaluation of instructional material while in use: Welcome to Brazil, Level 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angela Masin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate the use of the instructional material Welcome to Brazil - Level 1 (Fenton and McLarty, 2011 in a technological course in Tourism Management in the city of São Paulo. The textbook content was evaluated according to Ramos (2009 and a questionnaire was used to collect the students’ impressions.  It was concluded that the textbook needs to be complemented for an effective result with the students. The theoretical foundation is based on Cunningsworth (1984, Hutchinson and Waters (1987, Dudley-Evans and St. John (1998, Tomlinson (1998, 2001, Ramos (2009.

  10. Preliminary evaluation of alternative forms for immobilization of Savannah River Plant high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, J.A.; Goforth, S.T. Jr.; Smith, P.K.

    1979-12-01

    An evaluation of available information on eleven alternative solid forms for immobilization of SRP high-level waste has been completed. Based on the assessment of both product and process characteristics, four forms were selected for more detailed evaluation: (1) borosilicate glass made in the reference process, (2) a high-silica glass made from a porous glass matrix, (3) crystalline ceramics such as supercalcine or SYNROC, and (4) ceramics coated with an impervious barrier. The assessment includes a discussion of product and process characteristics for each of the eleven forms, a cross comparison of these characteristics for the forms, and the bases for selecting the most promising forms for further study

  11. Environmental variables evaluation on concrete structures corrosion for medium level activities repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Requena, Carlos; Alvarez, Marta G.; Duffo, Gustavo S.

    2000-01-01

    The main purpose of this work was to evaluate the long term durability of reinforced concrete structures as medium-level waste container material. Electrochemical techniques have been used to evaluate the corrosion behaviour of steel rebars in several solutions simulating the liquid present in the pores of both alkaline and carbonated concrete in the presence of sulphate ions. Results shown that a decrease in p H has an adverse effect on the critical sulphate concentration. The inhibition effect of high carbonate/bicarbonate concentration is also shown. (author)

  12. Seismic scoping evaluation of high level liquid waste tank vaults at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, P.S.; Uldrich, E.D.; McGee, W.D.

    1991-01-01

    A seismic scoping evaluation of buried vaults enclosing high level liquid waste storage tanks at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant has been performed. The objective of this evaluation was to scope out which of the vaults could be demonstrated to be seismically adequate against the Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE). Using approximate analytical methods, earthquake experience data, and engineering judgement, this study determined that one vault configuration would be expected to meet ICPP seismic design criteria, one would not be considered seismically adequate against the SSE, and one could be shown to be seismically adequate against the SSE using nonlinear analysis

  13. FLIGHT SAFETY MANAGEMENT PROBLEMS AND EVALUATION OF FLIGHT SAFETY LEVEL OF AN AVIATION ENTERPRISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. Zubkov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to studying the problem of safety management system (SMS and evaluating safety level of an aviation enterprise.This article discusses the problems of SMS, presented at the 41st meeting of the Russian Aviation Production Commanders Club in June 2014 in St. Petersburg in connection with the verification of the status of the CA of the Russian Federation by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO in the same year, a set of urgent measures to eliminate the deficiencies identified in the current safety management system by participants of this meeting were proposed.In addition, the problems of evaluating flight safety level based on operation data of an aviation enterprise were analyzed. This analysis made it possible to take into account the problems listed in this article as a tool for a comprehensive study of SMS parameters and allows to analyze the quantitative indicators of the flights safety level.The concepts of Acceptable Safety Level (ASL indicators are interpreted differently depending on the available/applicable methods of their evaluation and how to implement them in SMS. However, the indicators for assessing ASL under operational condition at the aviation enterprise should become universal. Currently, defined safety levels and safety indicators are not yet established functionally and often with distorted underrepresented models describing their contextual contents, as well as ways of integrating them into SMS aviation enterprise.The results obtained can be used for better implementation of SMS and solving problems determining the aviation enterprise technical level of flight safety.

  14. [Evaluation of hearing loss parameters in workers and its relationship with fasting blood glucose levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Herrero, M Teofila; Lladosa Marco, Silvia; Ramírez-Iñiguez de La Torre, M Victoria; Terradillos-García, M Jesús; López-González, Ángel Arturo

    2014-05-01

    Hearing loss due to noise is considered within the prevention plans of the most common occupational diseases. In addition to evaluation of working conditions, other personal factors increasing the risk of hypoacusis, such as diabetes, should be taken into account. To explore hearing loss in the workplace and its relationship to impaired fasting baseline blood glucose levels. An observational, cross-sectional study enrolling 1636 workers from service companies was conducted. Full audiometric evaluation was performed at different frequencies: high frequency (HF), early loss index (ELI), speech average loss (SAL), and monaural and binaural loss. Results were categorized by baseline blood glucose levels: G1 (125mg/dl). Based on both HF and ELI, 11% of workers had clear indication of deafness. Women with G3 levels showed significant differences in the results of HF and ELI indexes as compared to the G1 group (P=.038 and .046, respectively). A positive association was found between hearing loss and G3 blood glucose levels in HF (OR: .338; p=.002), ELI (OR: .407; p=.007), and the monaural test in the left ear (OR: 4.77×10-5; p=.006). Despite the methodological limitations of this study, there is evidence for an increased risk of high frequency hearing loss in workers with high baseline blood glucose levels. Copyright © 2013 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. [Evaluation of adiponectin level in children and adolescents with diabetes type 1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peczyńska, Jadwiga; Urban, Mirosława; Głowińska, Barbara; Florys, Bozena

    2008-01-01

    Adipose tissue is not only an energy storage place, but it also secretes numerous "adipocytokines" - substances that have systemic influence. Adiponectin has an anti-inflammatory, antiatherogenic properties and increases insulin sensitivity. It is emphasized that adiponectin levels are different in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. was to evaluate adiponectin levels in young patients with diabetes type 1, and to analyse of the correlation between adiponectin and: BMI, lipid parameters, glomerular filtration rate and microalbuminuria. The study group was formed by 95 patients from the Outpatient Diabetology Department 2nd Department of Children's Diseases, 45 girls and 50 boys, aged from 7 to 20 years (mean - 14.97 yrs) suffering from diabetes from 1 to 17 years (mean 6.68 yrs). Control group consisted of healthy children, age matched, without family history of cardiovascular diseases. In all patients anthropometric measurements were performed (BMI was calculated), metabolic control was evaluated on the basis of HbA1c level, microalbuminuria was studied in 24 hour urine sample. We assessed glomerular filtration rate (endogenous creatinine clearance), lipid parameters and adiponectin level. In children and adolescents with diabetes type 1 we found significantly higher levels of adiponectin compared to control group: 32.72+/-13.49 vs. 26.53+/-7.63 ug/ml; p=0.024. Adiponectin level was higher in girls than in boys (33.56 vs. 28.75 ug/ml; p=0.036). Adiponectin level did not depend on metabolic control and on diabetes duration. We found a statistically significant negative correlation between adiponectin and creatinine (r=-0.26; p=0.011). In patients with diabetic complications we found insignificantly lower adiponectin level compared to patients without complications (30.99+/-14.29 vs. 33.67+/-11.68 ug/ml; p=0.35). 1. In patients with diabetes type 1 significantly higher level of adiponectin was found compared to healthy control group. 2. Adiponectin level correlated

  16. Evaluation of the Global Mean Sea Level Budget between 1993 and 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chambers, Don P.; Cazenave, Anny; Champollion, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Evaluating global mean sea level (GMSL) in terms of its components—mass and steric—is useful for both quantifying the accuracy of the measurements and understanding the processes that contribute to GMSL rise. In this paper, we review the GMSL budget over two periods—1993 to 2014 and 2005 to 2014......—using multiple data sets of both total GMSL and the components (mass and steric). In addition to comparing linear trends, we also compare the level of agreement of the time series. For the longer period (1993–2014), we find closure in terms of the long-term trend but not for year-to-year variations...

  17. Evaluation of multiple scan average dose (MSAD) levels in computerized tomography in Minas Gerais state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, Thessa C.; Vieira, Leandro de A.; Barbosa, Nayra V.; Oliveira, Jeyselaine R. de; Cesar, Adriana C.Z.; Silva, Teogenes A. da

    2014-01-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) grows every year and is a diagnostic method that has revolutionized radiology with advances in procedures for obtaining image. However, the indiscriminate use of this method generates relatively high doses in patients. The diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) is a practical tool to promote the evaluation of existing protocols. The optimization and the periodic review of the protocols are important to balance the risk of radiation. The present study aims to conduct a survey of levels of MSAD of Minas Gerais following the procedures recommended by current Brazilian law. (author)

  18. Development of a cost efficient methodology to perform allocation of flammable and toxic gas detectors applying CFD tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storch, Rafael Brod; Rocha, Gean Felipe Almeida [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Nalvarte, Gladys Augusta Zevallos [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Novik (Norway)

    2012-07-01

    This paper is aimed to present a computational procedure for flammable and toxic gas detector allocation and quantification developed by DNV. The proposed methodology applies Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations as well as operational and safety characteristics of the analyzed region to assess the optimal number of toxic and flammable gas detectors and their optimal location. A probabilistic approach is also used when applying the DNV software ThorEXPRESSLite, following NORSOK Z013 Annex G and presented in HUSER et al. 2000 and HUSER et al. 2001, when the flammable gas detectors are assessed. A DNV developed program, DetLoc, is used to run in an iterative way the procedure described above leading to an automatic calculation of the gas detectors location and number. The main advantage of the methodology presented above is the independence of human interaction in the gas detector allocation leading to a more precise and free of human judgment allocation. Thus, a reproducible allocation is generated when comparing several different analyses and a global criteria appliance is guaranteed through different regions in the same project. A case study is presented applying the proposed methodology. (author)

  19. Statistical Evaluation of the Emissions Level Of CO, CO2 and HC Generated by Passenger Cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Ursu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to make an evaluation of differences emission level of CO, CO2 and HC generated by passenger cars in different walking regimes and times, to identify measures of reducing pollution. Was analyzed a sample of Dacia Logan passenger cars (n = 515, made during the period 2004-2007, equipped with spark ignition engines, assigned to emission standards EURO 3 (E3 and EURO4 (E4. These cars were evaluated at periodical technical inspection (ITP by two times in the two walk regimes (slow idle and accelerated idle. Using the t test for paired samples (Paired Samples T Test, the results showed that there are significant differences between emissions levels (CO, CO2, HC generated by Dacia Logan passenger cars at both assessments, and regression analysis showed that these differences are not significantly influenced by turnover differences.

  20. Evaluation of Service Level Agreement Approaches for Portfolio Management in the Financial Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontz, Tobias; Grauer, Manfred; Kuebert, Roland; Tenschert, Axel; Koller, Bastian

    The idea of service-oriented Grid computing seems to have the potential for fundamental paradigm change and a new architectural alignment concerning the design of IT infrastructures. There is a wide range of technical approaches from scientific communities which describe basic infrastructures and middlewares for integrating Grid resources in order that by now Grid applications are technically realizable. Hence, Grid computing needs viable business models and enhanced infrastructures to move from academic application right up to commercial application. For a commercial usage of these evolutions service level agreements are needed. The developed approaches are primary of academic interest and mostly have not been put into practice. Based on a business use case of the financial industry, five service level agreement approaches have been evaluated in this paper. Based on the evaluation, a management architecture has been designed and implemented as a prototype.

  1. How to evaluate PCR assays for the detection of low-level DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banch-Clausen, Frederik; Urhammer, Emil; Rieneck, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    distribution describing parameters for singleplex real-time PCR-based detection of low-level DNA. The model was tested against experimental data of diluted cell-free foetal DNA. Also, the model was compared with a simplified formula to enable easy predictions. The model predicted outcomes that were...... not significantly different from experimental data generated by testing of cell-free foetal DNA. Also, the simplified formula was applicable for fast and accurate assay evaluation. In conclusion, the model can be applied for evaluation of sensitivity of real-time PCR-based detection of low-level DNA, and may also......High sensitivity of PCR-based detection of very low copy number DNA targets is crucial. Much focus has been on design of PCR primers and optimization of the amplification conditions. Very important are also the criteria used for determining the outcome of a PCR assay, e.g. how many replicates...

  2. An evaluation of G-protein coupled membrane estrogen receptor-1 level in stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Nagihan; Kurutas, Ergül Belge; Orhan, Israfil

    2018-02-01

    Stuttering is a widespread but little understood disease. There has been a recent increase in neuropathophysiological, genetic, and biochemical studies related to the etiopathogenesis. As developmental stuttering continues in adult males, hormonal factors are thought to have an effect. In this study, an evaluation was made for the first time of serum GPER-1 level in patients with a stutter. Prospective case control. The study included 30 patients with a stutter, aged < 18 years, and 35 age-matched children as the control group. The Stuttering Severity Instrument-3 form was administered to the patients. Evaluations were made of serum GPER-1, TSH, estradiol, prolactin, and progesterone and testosterone levels. GPER-1 level was determined as 0.51 (0.42-0.67) ng/mL in the patients and as 0.19 (0.13-0.25) ng/mL in the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.001). A statistically significant difference was determined between genders with GPER-1 level of 0.56 (0.44-0.68) ng/mL in the male stuttering patient group and 0.44 (0.35-0.49) ng/mL in the female patient group (p = 0.026). Differential diagnosis with ROC analysis for the serum GPER-1 levels was statistically significant [Area under the ROC curve (AUC): 0.998, confidence interval, CI 0.992-1.000, p < 0.001]. The GPER-1 levels of the stuttering patients were found to be higher than those of the control group and GPER-1 levels of male patients were higher than those of females. As GPER-1 has high sensitivity and sensitivity, it could be considered important in the diagnosis and treatment of stuttering.

  3. Towards source level evaluation of the evidential value of fibre examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vooijs, Cees; Vergeer, Peter; van der Weerd, Jaap

    2015-05-01

    This paper aims to provide the first steps towards a numerical source level evaluation of fibre evidence. For that purpose, likelihood ratio equations are derived for four generic scenarios, in which the source frequency, the number of references and trace types investigated, and the number of matches vary. Previous experimental studies into the evaluation of fibre evidence are reviewed and we demonstrate how the results of these studies, as well as other data, can be used to evaluate the derived equations for the four scenarios. Evaluation is not straightforward and requires a number of assumptions. This is mainly because the relevant population under consideration in a specific case cannot be sufficiently evaluated. In addition, the subjective match-criterion in current forensic fibre examinations makes it impossible to implement a good evaluation of the within-variation of samples. As a result, the discrimination power, currently calculated for discrimination studies, is only valid for samples with negligible heterogeneity. We conclude that reporting a numerical evidential value for forensic fibre examinations is not yet feasible as the data are available for only a few types of fibres and cannot be used without several assumptions. We propose a number of developments that are required to improve the accuracy and numerical analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. FLIGHT SAFETY MANAGEMENT PROBLEMS AND EVALUATION OF FLIGHT SAFETY LEVEL OF AN AVIATION ENTERPRISE

    OpenAIRE

    B. V. Zubkov; H. E. Fourar

    2017-01-01

    This article is devoted to studying the problem of safety management system (SMS) and evaluating safety level of an aviation enterprise.This article discusses the problems of SMS, presented at the 41st meeting of the Russian Aviation Production Commanders Club in June 2014 in St. Petersburg in connection with the verification of the status of the CA of the Russian Federation by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) in the same year, a set of urgent measures to eliminate the def...

  5. DELPHI expert panel evaluation of Hanford high level waste tank failure modes and release quantities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunford, G.L.; Han, F.C.

    1996-09-30

    The Failure Modes and Release Quantities of the Hanford High Level Waste Tanks due to postulated accident loads were established by a DELPHI Expert Panel consisting of both on-site and off-site experts in the field of Structure and Release. The Report presents the evaluation process, accident loads, tank structural failure conclusion reached by the panel during the two-day meeting.

  6. A Comprehensive Quantitative Evaluation of New Sustainable Urbanization Level in 20 Chinese Urban Agglomerations

    OpenAIRE

    Cong Xu; Shixin Wang; Yi Zhou; Litao Wang; Wenliang Liu

    2016-01-01

    On 16 March 2014, the State Council of China launched its first urbanization planning initiative dubbed “National New Urbanization Planning (2014–2020)” (NNUP). NNUP put forward 20 urban agglomerations and a sustainable development approach aiming to transform traditional Chinese urbanization to sustainable new urbanization. This study quantitatively evaluates the level of sustainability of the present new urbanization process in 20 Chinese urban agglomerations and provides some positive sugg...

  7. Survey of radiofrequency radiation levels around GSM base stations and evaluation of measurement uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vulević Branislav D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a summary of broadband measurement values of radiofrequency radiation around GSM base stations in the vicinity of residential areas in Belgrade and 12 other cities in Serbia. It will be useful for determining non-ionizing radiation exposure levels of the general public in the future. The purpose of this paper is also an appropriate representation of basic information on the evaluation of measurement uncertainty.

  8. Clinical evaluation of the stability of implants placed at different supracrestal levels

    OpenAIRE

    Gultekin, B. Alper; Sirali, Ali; Gultekin, Pinar; Ersanli, Selim

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the stability during healing and before loading of implants placed at two different supracrestal levels according to their collar texture. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study included patients who received posterior implants with the same macro design. Implants with a machined collar were placed 0.3 mm above the crestal bone (M group), while those with a laser-microtextured collar were placed 1 mm above the crestal bone (L group). ...

  9. Effect of Spacecraft Environmental Variables on the Flammability of Fire Resistant Fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, A. F.; Fernandez-Pello, C.; Takahashi, S.; Rodriguez, J.; Urban, D. L.; Ruff, G.

    2012-01-01

    Fire resistant fabrics are used for firefighter, racecar drivers as well as astronaut suits. However, their fire resistant characteristics depend on the environment conditions and require study. Particularly important is the response of these fabrics to elevated oxygen concentration environments and radiant heat from a source such as an adjacent fire. In this work, experiments using two fire resistant fabrics were conducted to study the effect of oxygen concentration, external radiant flux and oxidizer flow velocity in concurrent flame spread. Results show that for a given fabric the minimum oxygen concentration for flame spread depends strongly on the magnitude of the external radiant flux. At increased oxygen concentrations the external radiant flux required for flame spread decreases. Oxidizer flow velocity influences the external radiant flux only when the convective heat flux from the flame has similar values to the external radiant flux. The results of this work provide further understanding of the flammability characteristics of fire resistant fabrics in environments similar to those of future spacecrafts.

  10. THERMAL DECOMPOSITION AND FLAMMABILITY OF ACRYLONITRILE-BUTADIENE-STYRENE/MULTI-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBES COMPOSITES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-fang Tong; Hai-yun Ma; Zheng-ping Fang

    2008-01-01

    Thermal and flammability properties of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer (ABS) with the addition of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were studied. ABS/MWNTs composites were prepared via melt blending with the MWNTs content varied from 0.2% to 4.0% by mass. Thermogravimetry results showed that the addition of MWNTs accelerated the degradation of ABS during the whole process under air atmosphere, and both onset and maximum degradation temperature were lower than those of pure ABS. The destabilization effect of MWNTs on the thermal stability of the composites became unobvious under nitrogen, and the addition of MWNTs could improve the maximum degradation temperature. The heat release rate and time of ignition (tign) for the composites reduced greatly with the addition of MWNTs especially when the concentration of nanotubes was higher than 1.0%. The accumulation of carbon nanotubes with a network structure was observed and the char layer became thicker with increasing nanotubes concentration. Results from Raman spectra showed a higher degree of graphitization for the residues of ABS/MWNTs composites.

  11. Independent design review report for truck number 1 modifications for flammable gas tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, G.W.

    1997-01-01

    The East and West Tank Farm Standing Order 97-01 requires that the PMST be modified to include purging of the enclosed space underneath the shielded receiver weather cover per National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 496, Purged and Pressurized Enclosures for Electrical Equipment. The Standing Order also requires that the PMST be modified by replacing the existing electrical remote latch (RLU) unit with a mechanical remote latch unit. As the mechanical remote latch unit was exactly like the RLU installed on the Rotary Mode Core Sampler Trucks (RMCST) and the design for the RMCST went through formal design review, replacing the RLU was done utilizing informal design verification and was completed per work package ES-97-0028. As the weather cover purge was similar to the design for the RMCSTS, this design was reviewed using the independent review method with multiple independent reviewers. A function design criteria (WHC-SD-WM-FDC-048, Functional Design Criteria for Core Sampling in Flammable Gas Watch List Tanks) provided the criteria for the modifications. The review consisted of distributing the design review package to the reviewers and collecting and dispositioning the RCR comments. The review package included the ECNs for review, the Design Compliance Matrix, copies of all drawings affected, and copies of outstanding ECNs against these drawings. A final meeting was held to ensure that all reviewers were aware of the changes to ECNs from incorporation of RCR comments

  12. Flammable gas safety program. Analytical methods development: FY 1993 progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J.A.; Clauss, S.; Grant, K.; Hoopes, V.; Lerner, B.; Lucke, R.; Mong, G.; Rau, J.; Steele, R.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the status of developing analytical methods to account for the organic constituents in Hanford waste tanks, with particular emphasis on those tanks that have been assigned to the Flammable Gas Watch List. Six samples of core segments from Tank 101-SY, obtained during the window E core sampling, have been analyzed for organic constituents. Four of the samples were from the upper region, or convective layer, of the tank and two were from the lower, nonconvective layer. The samples were analyzed for chelators, chelator fragments, and several carboxylic acids by derivatization gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The major components detected were ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), nitroso-iminodiacetic acid (NIDA), nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), citric acid (CA), succinic acid (SA), and ethylenediaminetriacetic acid (ED3A). The chelator of highest concentration was EDTA in all six samples analyzed. Liquid chromatography (LC) was used to quantitate low molecular weight acids (LMWA) including oxalic, formic, glycolic, and acetic acids, which are present in the waste as acid salts. From 23 to 61% of the total organic carbon (TOC) in the samples analyzed was accounted for by these acids. Oxalate constituted approximately 40% of the TOC in the nonconvective layer samples. Oxalate was found to be approximately 3 to 4 times higher in concentration in the nonconvective layer than in the convective layer. During FY 1993, LC methods for analyzing LWMA, and two chelators N-(2-hydroxyethyl) ethylenediaminetriacetic acid and EDTA, were transferred to personnel in the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory and the 222-S laboratory.

  13. The deforestation story: testing for anthropogenic origins of Africa's flammable grassy biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, William; Zaloumis, Nicholas P

    2016-06-05

    Africa has the most extensive C4 grassy biomes of any continent. They are highly flammable accounting for greater than 70% of the world's burnt area. Much of Africa's savannas and grasslands occur in climates warm enough and wet enough to support closed forests. The combination of open grassy systems and the frequent fires they support have long been interpreted as anthropogenic artefacts caused by humans igniting frequent fires. True grasslands, it was believed, would be restricted to climates too dry or too cold to support closed woody vegetation. The idea that higher-rainfall savannas are anthropogenic and that fires are of human origin has led to initiatives to 'reforest' Africa's open grassy systems paid for by carbon credits under the assumption that the net effect of converting these system to forests would sequester carbon, reduce greenhouse gases and mitigate global warming. This paper reviews evidence for the antiquity of African grassy ecosystems and for the fires that they sustain. Africa's grassy biomes and the fires that maintain them are ancient and there is no support for the idea that humans caused large-scale deforestation. Indicators of old-growth grasslands are described. These can help distinguish secondary grasslands suitable for reforestation from ancient grasslands that should not be afforested.This article is part of the themed issue 'The interaction of fire and mankind'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  14. Experimental study of hydrogen combustion in a flammable atmosphere in presence of water drops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheikhravat, Homan

    2009-01-01

    This thesis is part of safety studies on Pressurized Water Reactors for nuclear power plants. Scenarios including a release of hydrogen predict to trigger spraying in order to reduce the pressure and collect the aerosols towards the bottom. However spraying involves lowering the temperature and, consequently, the content of water vapor initially sufficient to render the atmosphere inert. The purpose of this thesis is to study the de-inerting conditions of premixed hydrogen / air / water vapor in presence of fogs and then to analyze the interaction between the water spray and the flame which can initially be laminar or turbulent. For this purpose two facilities have been designed: a spherical one of 56 L with central ignition that can be heated to 200 C and a large one optimised for flame acceleration (ENACCEF). With these tools have been determined the flammability limits of H 2 /air/water vapor as a function of pressure and temperature, the behavior of flames close to the limits, the effect of sprinkling on de-inerting and finally the interaction between the flame front and the droplets considering different mean droplets sizes. The influence of a hydrogen concentration gradient on the acceleration criterion and the role of sprinkling on the propagation of a turbulent flame have also been studied. It appears that the spray can cause not only de-inerting but also be ineffective in extinguishing the flame and, in some cases, can even increase the turbulence rate and consequently the flame acceleration process. (author)

  15. A novel intumescent flame retardant-functionalized graphene: Nanocomposite synthesis, characterization, and flammability properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Guobo; Chen, Suqing; Tang, Shouwan; Gao, Jianrong

    2012-01-01

    An intumescent flame retardant, poly(piperazine spirocyclic pentaerythritol bisphosphonate) (PPSPB), has been covalently grafted onto the surfaces of graphene oxide (GO) to obtain GO–PPSPB and according nanocomposites were prepared via solvent blending. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results show that the chemically reduced GO–PPSPB (CRG–PPSPB) can achieve better dispersion in the ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) matrix and exfoliated EVA/CRG–PPSPB nanocomposites are formed. The results from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and cone calorimeter tests indicate that CRG–PPSPB improve thermal stability and reduce obviously the flammability (including peak heat release rate (PHRR), total heat release (THR), average mass loss rate (AMLR), etc.) of EVA. Compared with pure EVA resin, the PHRR of the EVA/CRG–PPSPB nanocomposites filled with 1 wt% CRG–PPSPB is reduced by about 56%. The SEM images show that a compact, dense and uniform intumescent char is formed for EVA/CRG–PPSPB nanocomposites after combustion. The functionalization of graphene by intumescent flame retardant PPSPB can improve both the dispersion of graphene sheets in the polymer matrix and flame retardancy of the nanocomposites. -- Highlights: ► Graphene oxide were modified with intumescent flame retardant PPSPB. ► EVA/CRG–PPSPB nanocomposites were prepared via solvent blending. ► CRG–PPSPB improved the flame retardancy of EVA nanocomposites.

  16. Evaluation of comfort level in desks equipped with two personalized ventilation systems in slightly warm environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conceicao, Eusebio Z.E. [Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia - Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Lucio, Manuela J.R. [Agrupamento Vertical Professor Paula Nogueira, R. Comunidade Lusiada, 8700-000 Olhao (Portugal); Rosa, Silvia P.; Custodio, Ana L.V.; Andrade, Renata L.; Meira, Maria J.P.A. [Faculdade de Ciencias do Mar e do Ambiente - Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal)

    2010-03-15

    In this work the comfort level, namely the thermal comfort, local thermal discomfort and air quality levels, in a classroom with desks equipped with two personalized ventilation systems, in slightly warm environments, is evaluated. A manikin, a ventilated classroom desk, two indoor climate analyzers, a multi-nodal human thermal comfort numerical model and a computational fluid dynamic numerical model, are used. The classroom desk, with double occupation capacity, is used by a student, located in the right side seat. Each personalized ventilation system is equipped with one air terminal device located above the desk writing area, in front to the trunk area, and an other located below the desk writing area, in front to the legs area. The thermal comfort level is evaluated by the developed multi-nodal human thermal comfort numerical model, using a PMV value, the local thermal discomfort level, namely the draught risk and the air velocity fluctuation equivalent frequencies, is evaluated by empirical models, while the air quality level and the detailed airflow around the manikin are evaluated by the computational fluid dynamic numerical model. In the experimental tests the mean air velocity and the turbulence intensity in the upper air terminal device are 3.5 m/s and 9.7%, while in the lower air terminal device are 2.6 m/s and 15.2%. The mean air temperature in the air terminal devices is around 28 C, while the mean radiant temperature in the occupation area, the mean air temperature far from the occupation area and the internal mean air relative humidity were, respectively, 28 C, 28 C and 50%. The air velocity and temperature around the occupant are measured around 15 human body sections. The actual personalized ventilation system, which promotes an ascendant airflow around the occupant with highest air renovation rate in the respiration area, promotes acceptable thermal comfort conditions and air quality in the respiration area in accord to the present standards. The

  17. PERCEPTION LEVEL EVALUATION OF RADIO ELECTRONIC MEANS TO A PULSE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The method for evaluating the perception level of electronic means to pulsed electromagnetic radiation is consid- ered in this article. The electromagnetic wave penetration mechanism towards the elements of electronic systems and the impact on them are determined by the intensity of the radiation field on the elements of electronic systems. The impact of electromagnetic radiation pulses to the electronic systems refers to physical and analytical parameters of the relationship between exposure to pulses of electromagnetic radiation and the sample parameters of electronic systems. A physical and mathematical model of evaluating the perception level of electronic means to pulsed electromagnetic radiation is given. The developed model was based on the physics of electronics means failure which represents the description of electro- magnetic, electric and thermal processes that lead to the degradation of the original structure of the apparatus elements. The conditions that lead to the total equation electronic systems functional destruction when exposed to electromagnetic radia- tion pulses are described. The internal characteristics of the component elements that respond to the damaging effects are considered. The ratio for the power failure is determined. A thermal breakdown temperature versus pulse duration of expo- sure at various power levels is obtained. The way of evaluation the reliability of electronic systems when exposed to pulses of electromagnetic radiation as a destructive factor is obtained.

  18. Evaluating the Level of Internal Control System in the Management of Financial Security of Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pidvysotska Lyudmyla J.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying the organization and technology of evaluation process of the internal control system of bank in order to ensure financial security management of its activities. The work of the internal audit service on monitoring and evaluating the performance of the bank’s internal control system was analyzed. It has been found that improving the level of financial security of commercial banks is conditional upon improvements in the quality of audits and the provision of sound and objective conclusions. The interrelation of the tasks of internal audit service and the tasks of bank’s financial security management has been determined. Methodological recommendations on evaluation of the bank’s internal control system on the basis of results of audit have been proposed.

  19. Evaluation of power commissioning of the Mochovce Unit 1 power level up to 100 % Nnom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarvaic, I.; Mickolci, M.

    1998-01-01

    The document contains an evaluation of the power phase of power commissioning of the Mochovce Unit 1 in the phase up to the power level of 100 % N nom .In the document, the courses and results of tests in this phase of power commissioning are summarized, evaluation of the performance of important systems and equipment of the unit is carried out, and the compliance with Limits and Conditions in the course of the phase is assessed. On this basis, conclusions are drawn and recommendations for the unit to be ready for subsequent phases of the power commissioning. The evaluation was developed by the scientific management of the Mochovce commissioning providing an independent support for the operators for supervising the commissioning tasks from the point of nuclear safety

  20. Evaluating biological transport of radionuclides at low-level waste burial sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwell, L.L.; Kennedy, W.E.; McKenzie, D.H.

    1983-08-01

    The purpose of the work reported here is to develop and demonstrate methods for evaluating the long-term impact of biological processes at low-level waste (LLW) disposal sites. As part of this effort, we developed order-of-magnitude estimates of dose-to-man resulting from animal burrowing activity and plant translocation of radionuclides. Reference low-level waste sites in both arid and humid areas of the United States were examined. The results of our evaluation for generalized arid LLW burial site are presented here. Dose-to-man estimates resulting from biotic transport are compared with doses calculated from human intrusion exposure scenarios. Dose-to-man estimates, as a result of biotic transport, are of the same order of magnitude as those resulting from a more commonly evaluated human intrusion scenario. The reported lack of potential importance of biotic transport at LLW sites in earlier assessment studies is not confirmed by our findings. These results indicate that biotic transport has the long-term potential to mobilize radionuclides. Therefore, biotic transport should be carefully evaluated during burial site assessment

  1. Evaluation of basal sex hormone levels for activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yu; Li, Juan; Yu, Yongguo; Yang, Peirong; Li, Huaiyuan; Shen, Yongnian; Huang, Xiaodong; Liu, Shijian

    2018-03-28

    This study aimed to identify the predictive value of basal sex hormone levels for activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in girls. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulation tests were performed and evaluated in a total of 1750 girls with development of secondary sex characteristics. Correlation analyses were conducted between basal sex hormones and peak luteinizing hormone (LH) levels ≥5 IU/L during the GnRH stimulation test. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for basal levels of LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), LH/FSH, and estradiol (E2) before the GnRH stimulation test were plotted. The area under the curve (AUC) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were measured for each curve. The maximum AUC value was observed for basal LH levels (0.77, 95% CI: 0.74-0.79), followed by basal FSH levels (0.73, 95% CI: 0.70-0.75), the basal LH/FSH ratio (0.68, 95% CI: 0.65-0.71), and basal E2 levels (0.61, 95% CI: 0.59-0.64). The appropriate cutoff value of basal LH levels associated with a positive response of the GnRH stimulation test was 0.35 IU/L, with a sensitivity of 63.96% and specificity of 76.3% from the ROC curves when Youden's index showed the maximum value. When 100% of patients had peak LH levels ≥5 IU/L, basal LH values were >2.72 IU/L, but the specificity was only 5.45%. Increased basal LH levels are a significant predictor of a positive response during the GnRH stimulation test for assessing activation of the HPG axis in most girls with early pubertal signs.

  2. [Evaluation of Suicide Risk Levels in Hospitals: Validity and Reliability Tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macagnino, Sandro; Steinert, Tilman; Uhlmann, Carmen

    2018-05-01

    Examination of in-hospital suicide risk levels concerning their validity and their reliability. The internal suicide risk levels were evaluated in a cross sectional study of in 163 inpatients. A reliability check was performed via determining interrater-reliability of senior physician, therapist and the responsible nurse. Within the scope of the validity check, we conducted analyses of criterion validity and construct validity. For the total sample an "acceptable" to "good" interrater-reliability (Kendalls W = .77) of suicide risk levels were obtained. Schizophrenic disorders showed the lowest values, for personality disorders we found the highest level of interrater-reliability. When examining the criterion validity, Item-9 of the BDI-II is substantial correlated to our suicide risk levels (ρ m  = .54, p validity check, affective disorders showed the highest correlation (ρ = .77), compatible also with "convergent validity". They differed with schizophrenic disorders which showed the least concordance (ρ = .43). In-hospital suicide risk levels may represent an important contribution to the assessment of suicidal behavior of inpatients experiencing psychiatric treatment due to their overall good validity and reliability. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Evaluation of some essential element levels in thalassemia major patients in Mosul district, Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Samarrai, Abdulmunaim H; Adaay, Mohaisen H; Al-Tikriti, Khudhair A; Al-Anzy, Muayed M

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the levels of some essential elements in thalassemic patients in Mosul, Iraq. One hundred and five thalassemic blood transfusion dependent children, 2.5-18 years of age attending Ibn-Al-Atheer teaching hospital in Mosul City, Iraq, during 2005, were used in this study. Fifty-four healthy subjects served as a control group. Patients were allocated in a non-randomized prospective cross-sectional hospital based study. Essential elements levels were estimated. The mean, standard deviation, correlation coefficient, and z-test were used. P-values copper, and potassium levels were found among the 105 thalassemic patients compared to the 54 controls. Levels of calcium, phosphate, and sodium were within normal limits. Fluctuations in the essential elements levels seem to be related to the different complications associated with the disease. Zinc deficiency may be attributed to hyperzincuria resulted from the release of Zn from hemolyzed red cells. Hypercupremia occurs in acute and chronic infections and hemochromatosis, which is a principal complication of thalassemia. Increased Na levels may be due to renal damage. Hypomagnesemia may occur due to hypoparathyroidism.

  4. Biochemical Evaluation of Serum Adiponectin Level in Egyptian Breast Cancer Patients before and after Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Shepiny, M.S.El.M.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, serum adiponectin level was evaluated in 35 primary breast cancer patients and 10 healthy females, before and after treatment to assess if there is a relation between it and breast cancer, and to find out if it has a prognostic value. Serum adiponectin level was significantly lower in all and postmenopausal breast cancer patients before taking any type of treatment, and non-significantly lower in locally advanced breast cancer patients after treatment by 4 cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy than healthy controls. Non-significant elevations was shown after treatment by surgery, and also after completing treatment by surgery followed by taking 2 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy followed by treatment by radiotherapy in case of premenopausal locally advanced breast cancer patients. Triglycerides showed significantly higher level in all groups of patients. There was statistical negative correlation between serum adiponectin level and body mass index (BMI) in postmenopausal healthy controls, and between serum adiponectin level and BMI, triglycerides in all and postmenopausal breast cancer patients before taking any type of treatment. In conclusion, this study suggests that low serum adiponectin level is likely to be associated with increased breast cancer risk, particularly among postmenopausal women. The association between obesity and breast cancer risk might be partly explained by adiponectin

  5. Global climate targets and future consumption level: an evaluation of the required GHG intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girod, Bastien; Van Vuuren, Detlef Peter; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2013-01-01

    Discussion and analysis on international climate policy often focuses on the rather abstract level of total national and regional greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. At some point, however, emission reductions need to be translated to consumption level. In this article, we evaluate the implications of the strictest IPCC representative concentration pathway for key consumption categories (food, travel, shelter, goods, services). We use IPAT style identities to account for possible growth in global consumption levels and indicate the required change in GHG emission intensity for each category (i.e. GHG emission per calorie, person kilometer, square meter, kilogram, US dollar). The proposed concept provides guidance for product developers, consumers and policymakers. To reach the 2 °C climate target (2.1 tCO 2 -eq. per capita in 2050), the GHG emission intensity of consumption has to be reduced by a factor of 5 in 2050. The climate targets on consumption level allow discussion of the feasibility of this climate target at product and consumption level. In most consumption categories products in line with this climate target are available. For animal food and air travel, reaching the GHG intensity targets with product modifications alone will be challenging and therefore structural changes in consumption patterns might be needed. The concept opens up possibilities for further research on potential solutions on the consumption and product level to global climate mitigation. (letter)

  6. Evaluation of some essential elements levels in thalassemia patients in Mosul, Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Samarrai, Abdulmunaim H.; Al-Tikriti, Khudhair A.; Al-Anzy, Muayed M.; Adaay, Mohaisen H.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to evaluate the levels of some essential elements in thalassemic patients in Mousel, Iraq. One hundred and five thalassemic blood transfusion dependent children, 2.5-18 years of age attending Ibn-Al-Atheer teaching hospital in Mosul City, Iraq, during 2005, were used in this study. Fifty-four healthy subjects served as a control group. Patients were allocated in a non-randomized prospective cross-sectional hospital study. Essential elements levels were estimated. The mean, standard deviation, correction coefficient and z-test were used. P-values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Low serum Zinc, Magnesium, high serum copper and potassium levels were found among the 105 thalassemic patients compared to the 54 controls. Levels of calcium, phosphate and sodium were within normal limits. Fluctuations in the essential elements levels seem to be related to the different complications associated with the disease. Zinc deficiency may be attributed to hyperzincuria resulted from the release of Zn from hemolyzed red cells. Hypercupremia occurs in acute and chronic infections and hemochromatosis, which is a principal complication of thalassemia. Increased Na levels may be due to renal damage. Hypomagnesemia may occur due to hypoparathyroidism. (author)

  7. Evaluation of noise pollution level in the operating rooms of hospitals: A study in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giv, Masoumeh Dorri; Sani, Karim Ghazikhanlou; Alizadeh, Majid; Valinejadi, Ali; Majdabadi, Hesamedin Askari

    2017-06-01

    Noise pollution in the operating rooms is one of the remaining challenges. Both patients and physicians are exposed to different sound levels during the operative cases, many of which can last for hours. This study aims to evaluate the noise pollution in the operating rooms during different surgical procedures. In this cross-sectional study, sound level in the operating rooms of Hamadan University-affiliated hospitals (totally 10) in Iran during different surgical procedures was measured using B&K sound meter. The gathered data were compared with national and international standards. Statistical analysis was performed using descriptive statistics and one-way ANOVA, t -test, and Pearson's correlation test. Noise pollution level at majority of surgical procedures is higher than national and international documented standards. The highest level of noise pollution is related to orthopedic procedures, and the lowest one related to laparoscopic and heart surgery procedures. The highest and lowest registered sound level during the operation was 93 and 55 dB, respectively. Sound level generated by equipments (69 ± 4.1 dB), trolley movement (66 ± 2.3 dB), and personnel conversations (64 ± 3.9 dB) are the main sources of noise. The noise pollution of operating rooms are higher than available standards. The procedure needs to be corrected for achieving the proper conditions.

  8. National evaluation of Chinese coastal erosion to sea level rise using a Bayesian approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhan, Q; Fan, X; Du, X; Zhu, J

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a Causal Bayesian network is developed to predict decadal-scale shoreline evolution of China to sea-level rise. The Bayesian model defines relationships between 6 factors of Chinese coastal system such as coastal geomorphology, mean tide range, mean wave height, coastal slope, relative sea-level rise rate and shoreline erosion rate. Using the Bayesian probabilistic model, we make quantitative assessment of china's shoreline evolution in response to different future sea level rise rates. Results indicate that the probability of coastal erosion with high and very high rates increases from 28% to 32.3% when relative sea-level rise rates is 4∼6mm/a, and to 44.9% when relative sea-level rise rates is more than 6mm/a. A hindcast evaluation of the Bayesian model shows that the model correctly predicts 79.3% of the cases. Model test indicates that the Bayesian model shows higher predictive capabilities for stable coasts and very highly eroding coasts than moderately and highly eroding coasts. This study demonstrates that the Bayesian model is adapted to predicting decadal-scale Chinese coastal erosion associated with sea-level rise

  9. Evaluation of the FIR Example using Xilinx Vivado High-Level Synthesis Compiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Zheming [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Finkel, Hal [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Yoshii, Kazutomo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cappello, Franck [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-07-28

    Compared to central processing units (CPUs) and graphics processing units (GPUs), field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) have major advantages in reconfigurability and performance achieved per watt. This development flow has been augmented with high-level synthesis (HLS) flow that can convert programs written in a high-level programming language to Hardware Description Language (HDL). Using high-level programming languages such as C, C++, and OpenCL for FPGA-based development could allow software developers, who have little FPGA knowledge, to take advantage of the FPGA-based application acceleration. This improves developer productivity and makes the FPGA-based acceleration accessible to hardware and software developers. Xilinx Vivado HLS compiler is a high-level synthesis tool that enables C, C++ and System C specification to be directly targeted into Xilinx FPGAs without the need to create RTL manually. The white paper [1] published recently by Xilinx uses a finite impulse response (FIR) example to demonstrate the variable-precision features in the Vivado HLS compiler and the resource and power benefits of converting floating point to fixed point for a design. To get a better understanding of variable-precision features in terms of resource usage and performance, this report presents the experimental results of evaluating the FIR example using Vivado HLS 2017.1 and a Kintex Ultrascale FPGA. In addition, we evaluated the half-precision floating-point data type against the double-precision and single-precision data type and present the detailed results.

  10. Evaluation of trait and state anxiety levels in a group of peri- and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Ramos, Mónica; Silvestri Tomassoni, Roberto; Guerrero-López, José Benjamín; Salinas, Margus

    2018-03-01

    Our objective was to evaluate levels of trait and state anxiety in a group of peri- and postmenopausal women and to explore the relation of hormonal therapy to levels of anxiety. Peri- (n = 63) and postmenopausal (n = 236) women were evaluated between March and September 2013. The assessed variables were menopausal status, anxiety (using the state and trait anxiety inventory), and sociodemographic and clinical variables. Use of psychotropic medications and hormone therapy was also ascertained. The mean age of the participants was 51.9 years, ranging from 31 to 69 years. The mean state anxiety scores, as well as the mean trait anxiety scores, were higher in perimenopausal than postmenopausal women. High state anxiety (above the 75th percentile), but not high trait anxiety, was related to perimenopausal status. Anxiety levels appeared to be higher among perimenopausal than postmenopausal women, as also occurs with depressive symptoms. Anxiety state provides data about recent anxiety symptoms in women; however, anxiety trait could be present in some women before perimenopause. Our findings suggest that perimenopause is a period with increased anxiety levels in some women.

  11. Evaluation of serum Malondialdehyde level in patients with oral lichen planus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Mehdipour

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Malondialdehyde (MDA is a useful determinant to show high level of lipid peroxidation which lead to impaired cell function. Previous studies have mentioned there is a relationship between high oxidative stress and low anti-oxidant activity in patients with oral lichen planus. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum level of Malondialdehyde as an indicator of oxidative stress in patients with oral lichen planus which is a chronic inflammatory disease with unknown etiology. Materials & Methods: This descriptive-comparative study evaluated the oxidative stress status on twenty patients with oral lichen planus and 20 control healthy individuals based on serum level of Malondialdehyde. Results: The mean serum Malondialdehyde levels in oral lichen planus patients and control individuals were 2.9 (±2 and 2.4 (±1.3 µg/ml, respectively, indicating no significant difference (P=0.6. Conclusion: According to the results, role of Malondialdehyde in cellular damage and pathogenesis of oral lichen planus was not proved.

  12. Performance Evaluation of Three-Level Z-Source Inverters Under Semiconductor-Failure Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Feng; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates and proposes various compensation methods for three-level Z-source inverters under semiconductor-failure conditions. Unlike the fault-tolerant techniques used in traditional three-level inverters, where either an extra phase-leg or collective switching states are used......, the proposed methods for three-level Z-source inverters simply reconfigure their relevant gating signals so as to ride-through the failed semiconductor conditions smoothly without any significant decrease in their ac-output quality and amplitude. These features are partly attributed to the inherent boost...... under semiconductor-failure conditions. For verifying these described performance features, PLECS simulation and experimental testing were performed with some results captured and shown in a later section for visual confirmation....

  13. Evaluation of oxidant, antioxidant, and S100B levels in patients with conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyükaslan, Hasan; Kandemir, Sultan Basmacı; Asoğlu, Mehmet; Kaya, Halil; Gökdemir, Mehmet Tahir; Karababa, İbrahim Fatih; Güngörmez, Fatih; Kılıçaslan, Fethiye; Şavik, Emin

    2016-01-01

    Various psychodynamic, neurobiological, genetic, and sociocultural factors are believed to be involved in the etiology of conversion disorder (CD). Oxidative metabolism has been shown to deteriorate in association with many health problems and psychiatric disorders. We evaluated oxidative metabolism and S100B levels in the context of this multifactorial disease. Thirty-seven patients with CD (25 females and 12 males) and 42 healthy volunteers (21 females and 21 males), all matched for age and sex, were included in this study. The total oxidant status, total antioxidant status, oxidative stress index, and S100B levels were compared between the two groups. The total oxidant status, oxidative stress index, and S100B levels were significantly higher in patients with CD than in the control group, whereas the total antioxidant status was significantly lower. CD is associated with deterioration of oxidative metabolism and increased neuronal damage.

  14. Defects level evaluation of LiTiZn ferrite ceramics using temperature dependence of initial permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyshev, A. V.; Petrova, A. B.; Sokolovskiy, A. N.; Surzhikov, A. P.

    2018-06-01

    The method for evaluating the integral defects level and chemical homogeneity of ferrite ceramics based on temperature dependence analysis of initial permeability is suggested. A phenomenological expression for the description of such dependence was suggested and an interpretation of its main parameters was given. It was shown, that the main criterion of the integral defects level of ferrite ceramics is relation of two parameters correlating with elastic stress value in a material. An indicator of structural perfection can be a maximum value of initial permeability close to Curie point as well. The temperature dependences of initial permeability have analyzed for samples sintered in laboratory conditions and for the ferrite industrial product. The proposed method allows controlling integral defects level of the soft ferrite products and has high sensitivity compare to typical X-ray methods.

  15. Evaluation of the levels of stress in the elderly living at home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Ladeira Garbaccio

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the stress level of the elderly assisted by the Primary Health Care of Piumhi, in the Midwest of Minas Gerais, Brazil, in 2010. This was a cross-sectional research with of 64 elderly residents in households. There was a predominance of older women. Regarding chronic diseases 81.3% were bearers of chronic diseases, 75% were cardiac and 29.7% had depression. In the Inventory of Symptoms of Stress for Adults, seniors kept the average 7 (low stress, being more frequent cognitive stress. Female gender was associated with stress level (p<0.05. The elderly showed a good physical and mental status, and we identified low levels of stress, predominantly the cognitive stress type.

  16. Visual privacy by context: proposal and evaluation of a level-based visualisation scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-López, José Ramón; Chaaraoui, Alexandros Andre; Gu, Feng; Flórez-Revuelta, Francisco

    2015-06-04

    Privacy in image and video data has become an important subject since cameras are being installed in an increasing number of public and private spaces. Specifically, in assisted living, intelligent monitoring based on computer vision can allow one to provide risk detection and support services that increase people's autonomy at home. In the present work, a level-based visualisation scheme is proposed to provide visual privacy when human intervention is necessary, such as at telerehabilitation and safety assessment applications. Visualisation levels are dynamically selected based on the previously modelled context. In this way, different levels of protection can be provided, maintaining the necessary intelligibility required for the applications. Furthermore, a case study of a living room, where a top-view camera is installed, is presented. Finally, the performed survey-based evaluation indicates the degree of protection provided by the different visualisation models, as well as the personal privacy preferences and valuations of the users.

  17. Combining urbanization and hydrodynamics data to evaluate sea level rise impacts on coastal water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, C. R.; Martin, J. B.

    2016-02-01

    Assessments of the potential for salt water intrusion due to sea level rise require consideration of both coastal hydrodynamic and human activity thresholds. In siliciclastic systems, sea level rise may cause salt intrusion to coastal aquifers at annual or decadal scales, whereas in karst systems salt intrudes at the tidal scalse. In both cases, human activity impacts the freshwater portion of the system by altering the water demand on the aquifer. We combine physicochemical and human activity data to evaluate impact of sea level rise on salt intrusion to siliclastic (Indian River Lagoon, Fl, USA) and karst (Puerto Morelos, Yucatan, Mexico) systems under different sea level rise rate scenarios. Two hydrodynamic modeling scenarios are considered; flux controlled and head controlled. Under a flux controlled system hydraulic head gradients remain constant during sea level rise while under a head controlled system hydraulic graidents diminish, allowing saltwater intrusion. Our model contains three key terms; aquifer recharge, groundwater discharge and hydraulic conductivity. Groundwater discharge and hydraulic conductivity were calculated based on high frequency (karst system) and decadal (siliciclastic system) field measurements. Aquifer recharge is defined as precipitation less evapotranspiration and water demand was evaluated based on urban planning data that provided the regional water demand. Water demand includes agricultural area, toursim, traffic patterns, garbage collection and total population. Water demand was initially estimated using a partial leaset squares regression based on these variables. Our model indicates that water demand depends most on agricultural area, which has changed significantly over the last 30 years. In both systems, additional water demand creates a head controlled scenario, thus increaseing the protential fo salt intrusion with projected sea level rise.

  18. Quantitative evaluation of waste prevention on the level of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laner, David; Rechberger, Helmut

    2009-01-01

    Waste prevention is a principle means of achieving the goals of waste management and a key element for developing sustainable economies. Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) contribute substantially to environmental degradation, often not even being aware of their environmental effects. Therefore, several initiatives have been launched in Austria aimed at supporting waste prevention measures on the level of SMEs. To promote the most efficient projects, they have to be evaluated with respect to their contribution to the goals of waste management. It is the aim of this paper to develop a methodology for evaluating waste prevention measures in SMEs based on their goal orientation. At first, conceptual problems of defining and delineating waste prevention activities are briefly discussed. Then an approach to evaluate waste prevention activities with respect to their environmental performance is presented and benchmarks which allow for an efficient use of the available funds are developed. Finally the evaluation method is applied to a number of former projects and the calculated results are analysed with respect to shortcomings and limitations of the model. It is found that the developed methodology can provide a tool for a more objective and comprehensible evaluation of waste prevention measures

  19. Quantitative evaluation of waste prevention on the level of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laner, David; Rechberger, Helmut

    2009-02-01

    Waste prevention is a principle means of achieving the goals of waste management and a key element for developing sustainable economies. Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) contribute substantially to environmental degradation, often not even being aware of their environmental effects. Therefore, several initiatives have been launched in Austria aimed at supporting waste prevention measures on the level of SMEs. To promote the most efficient projects, they have to be evaluated with respect to their contribution to the goals of waste management. It is the aim of this paper to develop a methodology for evaluating waste prevention measures in SMEs based on their goal orientation. At first, conceptual problems of defining and delineating waste prevention activities are briefly discussed. Then an approach to evaluate waste prevention activities with respect to their environmental performance is presented and benchmarks which allow for an efficient use of the available funds are developed. Finally the evaluation method is applied to a number of former projects and the calculated results are analysed with respect to shortcomings and limitations of the model. It is found that the developed methodology can provide a tool for a more objective and comprehensible evaluation of waste prevention measures.

  20. Development, evaluation, and selection of candidate high-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernadzikowski, T.A.; Allender, J.S.; Gordon, D.E.; Gould, T.H. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The seven candidate waste forms, evaluated as potential media for the immobilization and gelogic disposal of high-level nuclear wastes were borosilicate glass, SYNROC, tailored ceramic, high-silica glass, FUETAP concrete, coated sol-gel particles, and glass marbles in a lead matrix. The evaluation, completed on August 1, 1981, combined preliminary waste form evaluations conducted at Department of Energy (DOE) defense waste-sites and at independent laboratories, peer review assessments, a product performance evaluation, and a processability analysis. Based on the combined results of these four inputs, two of the seven forms, borosilicate glass and a titanate-based ceramic, SYNROC, were selected as the reference and alternative forms, respectively, for continued development and evaluation in the National HLW Program. The borosilicate glass and ceramic forms were further compared during FY-1982 on the basis of risk assessments, cost comparisons, properties comparisons, and conformance with proposed regulatory and repository criteria. Both the glass and ceramic forms are viable candidates for use at DOE defense HLW sites; they are also candidates for immobilization of commercial reprocessing wastes. This paper describes the waste form screening process, discusses each of the four major inputs considered in the selection of the two forms in 1981, and presents a brief summary of the comparisons of the two forms during 1982 and the selection process to determine the final form for SRP defense HLW

  1. Multi-Level Experimental and Analytical Evaluation of Two Composite Energy Absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Karen E.; Littell, Justin D.; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Annett, Martin S.; Seal, Michael D., II

    2015-01-01

    Two composite energy absorbers were developed and evaluated at NASA Langley Research Center through multi-level testing and simulation performed under the Transport Rotorcraft Airframe Crash Testbed (TRACT) research program. A conical-shaped energy absorber, designated the conusoid, was evaluated that consisted of four layers of hybrid carbon-Kevlar plain weave fabric oriented at [+45 deg/-45 deg/-45 deg/+45 deg] with respect to the vertical, or crush, direction. A sinusoidal-shaped energy absorber, designated the sinusoid, was developed that consisted of hybrid carbon-Kevlar plain weave fabric face sheets, two layers for each face sheet oriented at +/-45deg with respect to the vertical direction and a closed-cell ELFOAM P200 polyisocyanurate (2.0-lb/cu ft) foam core. The design goal for the energy absorbers was to achieve average floor-level accelerations of between 25- and 40-g during the full-scale crash test of a retrofitted CH-46E helicopter airframe, designated TRACT 2. Variations in both designs were assessed through dynamic crush testing of component specimens. Once the designs were finalized, subfloor beams of each configuration were fabricated and retrofitted into a barrel section of a CH-46E helicopter. A vertical drop test of the barrel section was conducted onto concrete to evaluate the performance of the energy absorbers prior to retrofit into TRACT 2. The retrofitted airframe was crash tested under combined forward and vertical velocity conditions onto soil, which is characterized as a sand/clay mixture. Finite element models were developed of all test articles and simulations were performed using LS-DYNA, a commercial nonlinear explicit transient dynamic finite element code. Test-analysis results are presented for each energy absorber as comparisons of time-history responses, as well as predicted and experimental structural deformations and progressive damage under impact loading for each evaluation level.

  2. Evaluation of leptin, adiponectin, and ghrelin levels in patients with acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozuguz, P; Kacar, S D; Asik, G; Ozuguz, U; Karatas, S

    2016-02-09

    The research evaluating adipokines are very few in patients with acne vulgaris. The hypothesis that hyperinsulinemic and high glycemic index diet plays a role in the pathogenesis of acne is still controversial. In this study, we aimed to evaluate adipokines such as leptin (L), adiponectin (A), ghrelin and A levels, and A/L rates that indicate insulin resistance in nonobese patients with severe acne vulgaris. Thirty patients who are nonobese with moderate acne vulgaris, aged 18 to 25 years, and 15 age-sex compatible controls were included in our study. The acne lesions were assessed using the Global Acne Grading Scale (GAGS). All participants were evaluated for the parameters that may affect the metabolism of serum L, A, and ghrelin levels in blood, and their body mass index were calculated. The significance level was determined as p ≤ 0.05. Of the 30 patients, 17 were women and 13 were men. The mean age was 20.60 years and the mean duration of the disease were 2.8 years. All of patients had moderate acne vulgaris (GAGS 19-30). Of the 15 controls, 11 were women and 4 were men. The mean age was 21.20 years. There were not a statistically significant difference in L, ghrelin, A levels, and A/L ratio between the two groups. Adipokines may have a role in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. L, A, ghrelin, and insulin resistance may not participate in the responsible mechanisms in nonobese patients with moderate acne vulgaris. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. THE EVALUATION OF LEARNING BASED ON SKILLS AT THE PRESCHOOL LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oralia Ortiz Varela

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The research is about learning evaluation based on competencies in a mixed group of Preschool level: Melchor Ocampo in Delicias Chihuahua city. The most important theoretical foundations were provided by Casanova (1998, in relation to the assessment, and Diaz Barriga (2003 and 2006, with teaching in competencies and didactic strategies. The research objective is to track systematically the evaluation of competencies as well as design and experiment alternatives for evaluation in preschool level. The research methodology was conducted from the qualitative approach, dialectical critical paradigm and an action research method; integral assessment projects were designed, implemented and analyzed. Inquiry processes were performed using the techniques of observation and interview, instruments like the field diary and questionnaire (Hernández et. Al., 2006 and the method of systematization of practice proposed by Gagneten (1987. In the results it was observed that the instruments and techniques used to assess competencies were: observation, field notes, checklists, interviews with children, identification cards, children’s work, immediate group records and other evidence of work. The theoretical knowledge of the assessment of a variety of techniques and instruments to particularize the process, made clear that every teacher requires not only theoretical knowledge, the use of the range of possibilities to get information of the process that children have in their learning, not limited to one of them. It is also needed to develop both the skill and creativity of use, and the vision of what can potentially contribute. It concludes that it is possible to evaluate the 50 competencies that raises the curriculum, by using a evolution folder for each child, making a general school cycle plan, considering the assessment from teaching situations and apply the techniques and instruments at different points in the process, as well as create an awareness of self

  4. Evaluation of the molecular level visualisation approach for teaching and learning chemistry in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenglengdi, Butsari

    This research evaluates the use of a molecular level visualisation approach in Thai secondary schools. The goal is to obtain insights about the usefulness of this approach, and to examine possible improvements in how the approach might be applied in the future. The methodology used for this research used both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Data were collected in the form of pre- and post-intervention multiple choice questions, open-ended-questions, drawing exercises, one-to-one interviews and video recordings of class activity. The research was conducted in two phases, involving a total of 261 students from the 11th Grade in Thailand. The use of VisChem animations in three studies was evaluated in Phase I. Study 1 was a pilot study exploring the benefits of incorporating VisChem animations to portray the molecular level. Study 2 compared test results between students exposed to these animations of molecular level events, and those not. Finally, in Study 3, test results were gathered from different types of schools (a rural school, a city school, and a university school). The results showed that students (and teachers) had misconceptions at the molecular level, and VisChem animations could help students understand chemistry concepts at the molecular level across all three types of schools. While the animation treatment group had a better score on the topic of states of water, the non-animation treatment group had a better score on the topic of dissolving sodium chloride in water than the animation group. The molecular level visualisation approach as a learning design was evaluated in Phase II. This approach involved a combination of VisChem animations, pictures, and diagrams together with the seven-step VisChem learning design. The study involved three classes of students, each with a different treatment, described as Class A - Traditional approach; Class B - VisChem animations with traditional approach; and Class C - Molecular level visualisation approach

  5. Retrospective evaluation of patients with elevated digoxin levels at an emergency department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulsum Limon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We investigated the demographic characteristics, clinical and laboratory findings, treatment strategies and clinical outcomes of patients presenting at emergency department (ED with digoxin levels at or above 1.2 ng/ml. Materials and methods: The demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with serum digoxin levels at or above 1.2 ng/ml admitted to an ED between January 2010 and July 2011 were investigated in this cross-sectional descriptive study. Patients with ECG and clinical findings consistent with digoxin toxicity and no additional explanation of their symptoms were evaluated for digoxin toxicity. Results: In this study 137 patients were included, and 68.6% of patients were women with mean age 76.1 ± 12.2. There was no significant difference between gender and digoxin intoxication. The mean age of intoxicated group was significantly higher than the non-intoxicated group (P = 0.03. The most common comorbidities were congestive heart failure (n = 91 and atrial fibrillation (n = 74. The most common symptoms were nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain. The levels of hospitalization and mortality in this group were significantly higher. Conclusion: Digoxin intoxication must be suspected in patients present in the ED, particularly those with complaints that include nausea and vomiting, as well as new ECG changes; serum digoxin levels must be determined. Keywords: Digoxin, Digoxin level, Intoxication, Emergency department

  6. Evaluation of Fathers\\' Anxiety Level in the First 8 Weeks after Mothers\\' Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Maleki

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Pregnancy and transition to parenthood lead to major psychological and social changes in women and men. This study was conducted with the purpose of determining the fathers' anxiety level in the first 8 weeks after mothers' delivery. Methods: In a descriptive cross-sectional study with stratified random sampling method, the anxiety level was evaluated in 403 fathers. The data collection tools were demographic characteristics questionnaire and standard State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S with cutoff of 45, which were completed after obtaining a written informed consent from each participant. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test and logistic regression model at 95% level of confidence. Results: The mean state and trait anxiety scores of fathers' were 34.04±9.24 and 34.57±9.80, respectively. Approximately 14% of the fathers had state and 15% had trait anxiety. There was a significant relationship between state anxiety of fathers and their income, and between trait anxiety and age, occupation, and having insurance. Fathers' anxiety level decreased with increasing age. the odds of having trait anxiety was higher in men with low education and no insurance. Conclusion: Considering the increasing level of fathers’ anxiety after mothers' delivery compared to the general population and its relationship with individual and social factors, it seems necessary to improve social supports, especially for young men.

  7. Evaluation of Serum IgA level in nontreated and treated oral squamous cell carcinoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa Mishra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Research in early cancer detection has led to discovery of many immunological tumor markers that contribute considerably to supplement the method of diagnosis. High serum immunoglobulin A (IgA values in patients with cancer have been used as tumor markers. Aims and Objectives: To evaluate and compare the serum IgA levels in nontreated, treated oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC patients, and control group. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 patients were included in the study. 20 biopsy confirmed oral SCC patients, who have received no medical treatment, 20 oral SCC patients treated with surgery and/or radiotherapy and 20 normal healthy individuals. Venous blood samples were collected from anterior cubital vein and were delivered to the biochemistry laboratory for the estimation of serum IgA level by nephelometry method. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical method employed were the Pearson's Chi-square test and One-way analysis of variance (Welch followed by Games-Howell post-hoc test. Results: We observed significant difference for serum IgA between study subjects in control, nontreated and treated oral SCC patients (P < 0.001. Serum IgA level in nontreated group was significantly higher than treated group and there was an approximately two-fold increase in serum IgA level in nontreated oral SCC patients when compared to that of the normal healthy individuals. Conclusion: Serum level of IgA might be employed as diagnostic and prognostic indicators in oral cancer.

  8. Performance Evaluation of Fusing Protected Fingerprint Minutiae Templates on the Decision Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond N. J. Veldhuis

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In a biometric authentication system using protected templates, a pseudonymous identifier is the part of a protected template that can be directly compared. Each compared pair of pseudonymous identifiers results in a decision testing whether both identifiers are derived from the same biometric characteristic. Compared to an unprotected system, most existing biometric template protection methods cause to a certain extent degradation in biometric performance. Fusion is therefore a promising way to enhance the biometric performance in template-protected biometric systems. Compared to feature level fusion and score level fusion, decision level fusion has not only the least fusion complexity, but also the maximum interoperability across different biometric features, template protection and recognition algorithms, templates formats, and comparison score rules. However, performance improvement via decision level fusion is not obvious. It is influenced by both the dependency and the performance gap among the conducted tests for fusion. We investigate in this paper several fusion scenarios (multi-sample, multi-instance, multi-sensor, multi-algorithm, and their combinations on the binary decision level, and evaluate their biometric performance and fusion efficiency on a multi-sensor fingerprint database with 71,994 samples.

  9. An evaluation of primary school students' views about noise levels in school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nermin Bulunuz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Effective education and teaching requires keeping classroom noise levels within specific limits. The purpose of this study is to evaluate students’ views about the noise level in school, its effects, and control of it at two primary schools (one public school and one private school located in a district of Bursa - within the scope of the TÜBİTAK 1001 project numbered 114K738. The research sample consists of 432 third and fourth graders, 223 of whom are from the public school and 209 of whom are from the private school. To collect data, a 20-question survey was administered to the students, and noise measurements were carried out in the schools. According to the findings obtained from the analysis of the answers from the student questionnaire, the students think that the noise level is high especially during break times. In parallel with the student views, the average noise level at break time during recess was found to be 74.56 dBA at the private primary school and 82.18 dBA at the public primary school. These values are much higher than the limits prescribed in the Regulation on Assessment and Management of Environmental Noise in Turkey (RAMEN European Union Harmonization Laws. The research findings show that this important problem must be dealt with urgently, and substantive efforts and activities must be launched to reduce high noise levels in schools.

  10. Performance Evaluation of Fusing Protected Fingerprint Minutiae Templates on the Decision Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bian; Busch, Christoph; de Groot, Koen; Xu, Haiyun; Veldhuis, Raymond N. J.

    2012-01-01

    In a biometric authentication system using protected templates, a pseudonymous identifier is the part of a protected template that can be directly compared. Each compared pair of pseudonymous identifiers results in a decision testing whether both identifiers are derived from the same biometric characteristic. Compared to an unprotected system, most existing biometric template protection methods cause to a certain extent degradation in biometric performance. Fusion is therefore a promising way to enhance the biometric performance in template-protected biometric systems. Compared to feature level fusion and score level fusion, decision level fusion has not only the least fusion complexity, but also the maximum interoperability across different biometric features, template protection and recognition algorithms, templates formats, and comparison score rules. However, performance improvement via decision level fusion is not obvious. It is influenced by both the dependency and the performance gap among the conducted tests for fusion. We investigate in this paper several fusion scenarios (multi-sample, multi-instance, multi-sensor, multi-algorithm, and their combinations) on the binary decision level, and evaluate their biometric performance and fusion efficiency on a multi-sensor fingerprint database with 71,994 samples. PMID:22778583

  11. Management of low level wastes at Rokkasho reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriya, N.; Ochi, E.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: At Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP), after start-up of the commercial operation, radioactive wastes will be generated. Wastes generated from a reprocessing plant generally consist of many kinds of characteristics in view of ''activity level'', ''nuclide composition'', ''chemical properties'', ''physical properties'', and so on. For stable operation of a reprocessing plant, we should t reat , ''condition'' and ''dispose'' these wastes considering these wastes characteristics. To contribute to the nuclear fuel cycle project, it is important to evaluate technologies such as, ''Treatment'', ''Conditioning'' and ''Final Disposal'', not only for technical but also for economical aspects. Considering the final disposal in the future, the basic policy in ''Treatment'' and ''Conditioning'' at RRP is shown below: Recover and reuse chemicals (such as nitric acid and TBP, etc.) in plant; Radioactive waste shall be divided, classified and managed according to activity level, nuclide composition, the radiation level, its physical properties, chemical properties, etc.; Treat them based on ''classification'' management with proper combination; Condition them as intermediate forms in order to keep flexibility in the future disposal method; Original volume of annually generated wastes at RRP is estimated as 5600m3 except highly radioactive vitrified waste, and these wastes shall be treated in the following units, which are now under commisioning, in order to reduce and stabilize wastes. Low-level concentrated liquid waste to be treated with a ''Drying and peptization'' unit; Spent solvent to be treated with a ''Pyrolysis and hydrothermal solidification'' unit; Relatively low-level non-alfa flammable wastes to be treated with a ''Incineration and hydrothermal solidification'' unit; CB/BP (Channel Box and Burnable Poison) to be processed with a ''Cutting'' unit; Other wastes to be kept as their generated state with a ''Intermediate storage''. As a result of these

  12. Evaluating model simulations of 20th century sea-level rise. Part 1: global mean sea-level change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slangen, A.B.A.; Meyssignac, B.; Agosta, C.; Champollion, N.; Church, J.A.; Fettweis, X.; Ligtenberg, S.R.M.; Marzeion, B.; Melet, A.; Palmer, M.D.; Richter, K.; Roberts, C.D.; Spada, G.

    2017-01-01

    Sea level change is one of the major consequences of climate change and is projected to affect coastal communities around the world. Here, global mean sea level (GMSL) change estimated by 12 climate models from phase 5 of the World Climate Research Programme’s Climate Model Intercomparison Project

  13. Compulsory Project-Level Involvement and the Use of Program-Level Evaluations: Evaluating the Local Systemic Change for Teacher Enhancement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kelli; Weiss, Iris R.

    2011-01-01

    In 1995, the National Science Foundation (NSF) contracted with principal investigator Iris Weiss and an evaluation team at Horizon Research, Inc. (HRI) to conduct a national evaluation of the Local Systemic Change for Teacher Enhancement program (LSC). HRI conducted the core evaluation under a $6.25 million contract with NSF. This program…

  14. Evaluating the relationship between education level and cognitive impairment with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancar Demir, Esra; Özcan, Tuba

    2015-09-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is defined as 'a cognitive decline greater than that expected for an individual's age and education level but that does not interfere notably with activities of daily life'. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is a screening test for MCI. We investigated the performance of the Turkish version of the MoCA in detecting MCI among elderly persons in a rural area, the majority of whom have a low level of education. We evaluated 50 consecutive men referred from an outpatient clinic. Educational level was divided into three categories: group 1, less than primary (5 years). We evaluated the effect of education on MoCA scores and compared subjects' test performance among the different categories of education level. A total of 50 male patients with MCI (mean age: 70.74 ± 7.87) met the inclusion criteria. There were no differences in the total scores based on education or in the subscores for visuospatial/executive function, naming, attention, abstraction and delayed recall. Language was the only domain that showed significant differences between the groups. In post-hoc analysis, differences were found between groups 1 and 3 and between groups 1 and 2. Group 1 had significantly lower scores for language. The repeat subscore for language was significantly lower in group 1 than in group 2. In fluency, there were significant differences between groups 2 and 3 and between group 1 and 3. To our knowledge, this is the first study to analyze the applicability of the Turkish version of MoCA in populations with little education. Our results emphasize the need to adapt the language sections of this test, so it can be easily used in populations with low education levels. © 2014 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2014 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  15. Trauma surgeon becomes consultant: evaluation of a protocol for management of intermediate-level trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Sara C; Delemos, David; Christopher, Daniel; Frost, Mary; Wesson, David E; Naik-Mathuria, Bindi

    2014-01-01

    At our level 1 pediatric trauma center, 9-54 intermediate-level ("level 2") trauma activations are received per month. Previously, the surgery team was required to respond to and assume responsibility for all patients who had "level 2" trauma activations. In 8/2011, we implemented a protocol where the emergency room (ER) physician primarily manages these patients with trauma consultation for surgical evaluation or admission. The purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate the effects of the new protocol to ensure that patient safety and quality of care were maintained. We compared outcomes of patients treated PRE-implementation (10/2010-7/2011) and POST-implementation (9/2011-5/2012), including surgeon consultation rate, utilization of imaging and laboratory testing, ER length of stay, admission rate, and missed injuries or readmissions. Statistical analysis included chi-square and Student's t-test. We identified 472 patients: 179 in the PRE and 293 in the POST period. The populations had similar baseline clinical characteristics. The surgical consultation rate in the POST period was only 42%, with no missed injuries or readmissions. The ER length of stay did not change. However, in the POST period there were significant decreases in the admission rate (73% to 44%) and the mean number of CT scans (1.4 to 1), radiographs (2.4 to 1.7), and laboratory tests (5.1 to 3.3) ordered in the emergency room (all p<0.001). Intermediate-level pediatric trauma patients can be efficiently and safely managed by pediatric emergency room physicians, with surgical consultation only as needed. The protocol change improved resource utilization by decreasing testing and admissions and streamlining resident utilization in an era of reduced duty hours. © 2014.

  16. Storytelling as an approach to evaluate the child's level of speech development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Marjanovič Umek

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Both in developmental psychology and in linguistics, the child's storytelling is an interesting topic of research from the point of view of evaluating the child's level of speech development, especially of its pragmatic component, and from the point of view of teaching and learning in the preschool period. In the present study, children's storytelling in different situational contexts was analyzed and evaluated: with a picture book without any text, after listening to a text from a picture book, and after a suggested story beginning (ie., with the introductory sentence given to them. The sample included children of three age groups, approximately 4, 6 and 8 years; each age group had approximately the same numbers of boys and girls. A total of over 300 stories were collected, which were subsequently analyzed and evaluated using a set of story developmental level criteria. Two key criteria were used: story coherence and cohesion. Comparisons by age and gender, as well as by context of storytelling, show significant developmental differences in story content and structure for different age groups, and the important role of storytelling context. Differences in storytelling between boys and girls did not prove statistically significant. The findings also suggest new options and approaches for further stimulations of speech development within preschool and primary school curricula might be considered.

  17. Evaluation of low-level waste analysis using the MADAM system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, L.A.; Wachter, J.R.; Hagan, R.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Nuclear Materials Measurement and Accountability

    1994-08-01

    Previously, the important hardware features and capabilities for the Multiple Assay Dual Analysis Measurement (MADAM) system were reported. MADAM is a combined low-level and transuranic waste assay system. The system integrated commercially available Segmented Gamma Scanner (SGS) capability together with multienergy X-ray and gamma-ray analysis to measure these two waste forms. In addition, the system incorporated a small neutron slab detector to satisfy safeguards concerns and high resolution gamma-ray isotopics analysis proficiency. Since delivery of the system to this facility, an evaluation of its low-level waste measurement performance has been conducted using a set of specially constructed NIST-traceable standards. The evaluation studied existing analysis algorithms, matrix and attenuation effects, source position as a function of detector response, instrument stability, and sensitivity. Based on these studies, several modifications to the existing analysis algorithms have been performed, new correction factors for matrix attenuation have been devised, and measurement error estimates have been calculated and incorporated into the software. This report discusses the results of the evaluation program and the software modifications that have been developed.

  18. Economic Evaluation of the Information Security Levels Achieved by Electric Energy Providers in North Arctic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushko, O. P.; Kaznin, A. A.; Babkin, A. V.; Bogdanov, D. A.

    2017-10-01

    The study we are conducting involves the analysis of information security levels achieved by energy providers operating in the North Arctic Region. We look into whether the energy providers’ current information security levels meet reliability standards and determine what further actions may be needed for upgrading information security in the context of the digital transformation that the world community is undergoing. When developing the information security systems for electric energy providers or selecting the protection means for them, we are governed by the fact that the assets to be protected are process technologies. While information security risk can be assessed using different methods, the evaluation of the economic damage from these risks appears to be a difficult task. The most probable and harmful risks we have identified when evaluating the electric energy providers’ information security will be used by us as variables. To provide the evaluation, it is necessary to calculate the costs relating to elimination of the risks identified. The final stage of the study will involve the development of an operation algorithm for the North Arctic Region’s energy provider’s business information protection security system - a set of information security services, and security software and hardware.

  19. Evaluation of low-level waste analysis using the MADAM system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, L.A.; Wachter, J.R.; Hagan, R.C.

    1994-01-01

    Previously, the important hardware features and capabilities for the Multiple Assay Dual Analysis Measurement (MADAM) system were reported. MADAM is a combined low-level and transuranic waste assay system. The system integrated commercially available Segmented Gamma Scanner (SGS) capability together with multienergy X-ray and gamma-ray analysis to measure these two waste forms. In addition, the system incorporated a small neutron slab detector to satisfy safeguards concerns and high resolution gamma-ray isotopics analysis proficiency. Since delivery of the system to this facility, an evaluation of its low-level waste measurement performance has been conducted using a set of specially constructed NIST-traceable standards. The evaluation studied existing analysis algorithms, matrix and attenuation effects, source position as a function of detector response, instrument stability, and sensitivity. Based on these studies, several modifications to the existing analysis algorithms have been performed, new correction factors for matrix attenuation have been devised, and measurement error estimates have been calculated and incorporated into the software. This report discusses the results of the evaluation program and the software modifications that have been developed

  20. Evaluation of Dynamic Coastal Response to Sea-level Rise Modifies Inundation Likelihood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, Erika E.; Thieler, E. Robert; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Stippa, Sawyer R.; Horton, Radley M.; Gesch, Dean B.

    2016-01-01

    Sea-level rise (SLR) poses a range of threats to natural and built environments, making assessments of SLR-induced hazards essential for informed decision making. We develop a probabilistic model that evaluates the likelihood that an area will inundate (flood) or dynamically respond (adapt) to SLR. The broad-area applicability of the approach is demonstrated by producing 30x30m resolution predictions for more than 38,000 sq km of diverse coastal landscape in the northeastern United States. Probabilistic SLR projections, coastal elevation and vertical land movement are used to estimate likely future inundation levels. Then, conditioned on future inundation levels and the current land-cover type, we evaluate the likelihood of dynamic response versus inundation. We find that nearly 70% of this coastal landscape has some capacity to respond dynamically to SLR, and we show that inundation models over-predict land likely to submerge. This approach is well suited to guiding coastal resource management decisions that weigh future SLR impacts and uncertainty against ecological targets and economic constraints.

  1. Evaluation of serum sialic acid, fucose levels and their ratio in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnannavar, Sangamesh Ningappa; Ashok, Lingappa; Vidya, Kodige Chandrashekhar; Setty, Sunil Mysore Kantharaja; Narasimha, Guru Eraiah; Garg, Ranjana

    2015-01-01

    Detection of cancer at the early stage is of utmost importance to decrease the morbidity and mortality of the disease. Apart from the conventional biopsy, minimally invasive methods like serum evaluation are used for screening large populations. Thus, this study aimed to estimate serum levels of sialic acid and fucose and their ratio in oral cancer patients and in healthy control group to evaluate their role in diagnosis. Serum samples were collected from 52 healthy controls (group I) and 52 squamous cell carcinoma patients (group II). Estimation of serum levels of sialic acid and fucose and their ratio was performed. This was correlated histopathologically with the grades of carcinoma. Statistical analysis was done by using analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and unpaired "t" test. Results showed that serum levels of sialic acid and fucose were significantly higher in oral cancer patients compared to normal healthy controls (P ratio was significantly lower in cancer patients than in normal controls (P ratio showed decreasing trend from controls to malignant group. The ratio of sialic acid to fucose can be a useful diagnostic aid for oral cancer patients.

  2. A Comprehensive Quantitative Evaluation of New Sustainable Urbanization Level in 20 Chinese Urban Agglomerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available On 16 March 2014, the State Council of China launched its first urbanization planning initiative dubbed “National New Urbanization Planning (2014–2020” (NNUP. NNUP put forward 20 urban agglomerations and a sustainable development approach aiming to transform traditional Chinese urbanization to sustainable new urbanization. This study quantitatively evaluates the level of sustainability of the present new urbanization process in 20 Chinese urban agglomerations and provides some positive suggestions for the achievement of sustainable new urbanization. A three-level index system which is based on six fundamental elements in a city and a Full Permutation Polygon Synthetic Indicator evaluation method are adopted. The results show that China is undergoing a new urbanization process with a low level of sustainability and there are many problems remaining from traditional urbanization processes. There exists a polarized phenomenon in the urbanization of 20 urban agglomerations. Based on their own development patterns, the 20 urban agglomerations can be divided into seven categories. Every category has its own development characteristics. The analyses also show that waste of water resources, abuse of land resources, and air pollution are three big problems that are closely linked to traditional Chinese urbanization processes. To achieve sustainable new urbanization in China, four relevant suggestions and comments have been provided.

  3. Lack of a relationship between serum ferritin levels and coronary atherosclerosis evaluated by coronary arteriography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.C. Manfroi

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Many clinical and epidemiological studies have demonstrated the relationship between serum ferritin and ischemic heart disease. In the present study we evaluated the relationship between coronary heart disease (CHD and serum ferritin levels in patients submitted to coronary arteriography. We evaluated 307 patients (210 (68.7% males; median age: 60 years who were submitted to coronary angiography, measurement of serum ferritin and identification of clinical events of ischemic heart disease. Serum ferritin is reported as quartiles. Ninety-six patients (31.27% had normal coronary angiography (group 1 and 211 (68.73% had coronary heart disease (group 2. Of the patients with CHD, 61 (28.9% had serum ferritin levels higher than 194 ng/ml (4th quartile, as opposed to only 14 (14.58% of those without CHD (P = 0.0067. In the 2nd quartile, 39 patients (18.48% had CHD, while 35 patients (36.46% had normal coronary arteries (P = 0.00064. Multivariate analysis of the data showed that the difference between groups was not statistically significant (P = 0.33. We conclude that there is no independent relationship between coronary heart disease and increased levels of serum ferritin.

  4. Sudomotor Function as a Tool for Cardiorespiratory Fitness Level Evaluation: Comparison with Maximal Exercise Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Raisanen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular (CV and metabolic disorders. VO2max is the best method to assess cardio-respiratory fitness level but it is poorly adopted in clinical practice. Sudomotor dysfunction may develop early in metabolic diseases. This study aimed at comparing established CV risk evaluation techniques with SUDOSCAN; a quick and non-invasive method to assess sudomotor function. A questionnaire was filled-in; physical examination and VO2max estimation using a maximal test on a bicycle ergometer were performed on active Finish workers. Hand and foot electrochemical skin conductance (ESC were measured to assess sudomotor function. Subjects with the lowest fitness level were involved in a 12 month training program with recording of their weekly physical activity and a final fitness level evaluation. Significant differences in BMI; waist and body fat were seen according to SUDOSCAN risk score classification. Correlation between the risk score and estimated VO2max was r = −0.57, p < 0.0001 for women and −0.48, p < 0.0001 for men. A significant increase in estimated VO2max, in hand and foot ESC and in risk score was observed after lifestyle intervention and was more important in subjects with the highest weekly activity. SUDOSCAN could be used to assess cardio-metabolic disease risk status in a working population and to follow individual lifestyle interventions.

  5. Cardiac valve evaluation and adipokine levels in obese women treated with sibutramine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraç, Sefa; Saraç, Fulden

    2010-06-01

    The aims of present study were 1) to evaluate cardiac valve characteristics, 2) to determine the plasma concentrations of fibrinogen, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), adiponectin, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in the obese women before and after 19 months sibutramine treatment in the obese women. Sixty obese women were enrolled in this prospective, randomized study. Thirty women received 10 mg once daily dose of sibutramine for 19 months. The rest of the obese women received 15 mg once daily dose of sibutramine for 19 months. All patients were evaluated with echocardiography. Plasma levels of adiponectin and TNF-alpha were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and hsCRP by immunoturbimetric assay. Student paired and unpaired t tests were used to compare the 10 mg or 15 mg dose sibutramine effects either in groups or between the groups. There were no signs of significant regurgitation or thickening of the mitral and aortic valves on echocardiographic evaluation performed after 19 months of treatment. Parameters of systolic function after 10 or 15 mg treatment were not different from pretreatment characteristics. Minimal tricuspid regurgitation was found in one (1/27) patient treated with 10 mg sibutramine after 19 months. Among obese patients treated with 15 mg sibutramine one patient (1/28) had minimal mitral valve regurgitation and 2 patients (2/28) had minimal aortic insufficiency. Stage II diastolic dysfunction in the 15 obese treated with 15 mg regressed to stage I diastolic dysfunction (50%). Stage II diastolic dysfunction in the 10 obese treated with 10 mg regressed to stage I diastolic dysfunction (33.3%). Mean levels of TNF-alpha(p=0.04), fibrinogen (p=0.03) and hsCRP (p=0.04)i decreased and adiponectin (p=0.03) levels increased in the obese treated with 10 mg sibutramine. Likewise, in the patients treated with 15 mg sibutramine, mean levels of TNF- alpha(p=0.01), fibrinogen (p= 0.02), and hsCRP (p= 0.04) decreased

  6. Novel synthesis of magnesium hydroxide nanoparticles modified with organic phosphate and their effect on the flammability of acrylonitrile-butadiene styrene nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attia, Nour F., E-mail: drnour2005@yahoo.com [Fire Protection Laboratory, Chemistry Division, National Institute of Standards, 136, Giza 12211 (Egypt); Goda, Emad S.; Nour, M.A. [Fire Protection Laboratory, Chemistry Division, National Institute of Standards, 136, Giza 12211 (Egypt); Sabaa, M.W. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, NahdetMisr Street, Giza 12613 (Egypt); Hassan, M.A., E-mail: Mohamed_a_hassan@hotmail.com [Fire Protection Laboratory, Chemistry Division, National Institute of Standards, 136, Giza 12211 (Egypt)

    2015-11-15

    New and facile method for the synthesis and modification of magnesium hydroxide nanoparticles has been developed. The organic phosphate was used to facilitate the synthesis and wrapping of magnesium hydroxide nanoparticles with organic phosphate shell. The size of the nanoparticles wrapped with phosphate has an average diameter range from 46 to 125 nm. The preparation method has governed the nanoparticles diameter based on reaction time. Thermal stability and morphological properties of the new nanoparticles coated phosphates were investigated. The developed magnesium hydroxide nanoparticles-organic phosphate achieved a very good compatibility when dispersed in acrylonitrile-butadiene styrene polymer (ABS) produced dispersed nanocomposites. The flammability and thermal properties of the new polymer nanocomposites were studied. The rate of burning of the nanocomposites was reduced to 9.8 mm/min compared to 15, 21.9 and 42.5 mm/min for polymer-conventional magnesium hydroxide composite, polymer-conventional magnesium hydroxide-organic phosphate composite and virgin polymer, respectively. The peak heat release rate (PHRR) and total heat release (THR) of the new nanocomposites were recorded as 243.4 kW/m{sup 2} and 19.2 MJ/m{sup 2}, respectively, achieved 71% reduction for PHRR and 55% for THR. The synergism between magnesium hydroxide nanoparticles and organic phosphates shell was also studied. The developed nanoparticles suppressed the emission of toxic gases. The different materials were characterized using thermal gravimetric analysis, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy. The flammability properties were evaluated using UL94 horizontal method and cone calorimeter. The dispersion of magnesium hydroxide nanoparticles-organic phosphate in ABS was studied using scanning electron microscope. - Highlights: • Novel and facile nanoparticles synthesis and modification have developed. • Magnesium hydroxide nanoparticles size has

  7. Evaluation of the level of social responsibility of the state in the field of employment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernobay Liana Ivanivna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of public authorities in the development of society was grounded in terms of the Welfare State. The priority of employment policies was proved to ensure a sufficient level of social responsibility of the state. Qualitative and quantitative characteristics of human resources were investigated at the current stage of development of Ukraine. Evaluation of the efficiency of the social state was proposed by means of the Social Responsibility Index (SRI. The method of selection of state policy was developed in the light of the evaluation of the social responsibility of the state in employment using the SRI and The Map of states of partial indicators. Measures were proposed on the base of method to enhance the functioning of Ukraine as a Social State.

  8. Farm level evaluation of biomass energy operated seed dryer at selected sites of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, S.M.M.; Bhuiyan, M.G.K.; Rahman, M.A.; Baqui, M.A.; Bala, B.K.

    2006-01-01

    Drying is one of the major problem in post harvest and processing of farm produce specially paddy seed in Bangladesh resulting tremendous shortage of quality seed. Evaluation through demonstrations was undertaken for the resource poor farmers at the selected sites to have practical experience of the IRRI-BRRI seed dryer. Viability of the dried paddy was more than 90% after six months of storage. The farmers were satisfied on the performance of the dryer. 68-100% farmers were motivated to hire the dyer during Boro and Aus seasons. Thus, the farm level evaluation and adoption of seed dryer will give a better alternative, aware and motivate the farmers on producing quality seed through proper drying and will contribute increased production

  9. Interim radiological safety standards and evaluation procedures for subseabed high-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klett, R.D.

    1997-06-01

    The Seabed Disposal Project (SDP) was evaluating the technical feasibility of high-level nuclear waste disposal in deep ocean sediments. Working standards were needed for risk assessments, evaluation of alternative designs, sensitivity studies, and conceptual design guidelines. This report completes a three part program to develop radiological standards for the feasibility phase of the SDP. The characteristics of subseabed disposal and how they affect the selection of standards are discussed. General radiological protection standards are reviewed, along with some new methods, and a systematic approach to developing standards is presented. The selected interim radiological standards for the SDP and the reasons for their selection are given. These standards have no legal or regulatory status and will be replaced or modified by regulatory agencies if subseabed disposal is implemented. 56 refs., 29 figs., 15 tabs

  10. Level 3 baseline risk evaluation for Building 3506 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golden, K.M.; Robers, S.K.; Cretella, F.M.

    1994-12-01

    This report presents the results of the Level 3 Baseline Risk Evaluation (BRE) performed on Building 3506 located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This BRE is intended to provide an analysis of the potential for adverse health effects (current or future) posed by contaminants at the facility. The decision was made to conduct a Level 3 (least rigorous) BRE because only residual contamination exists in the building. Future plans for the facility (demolition) also preclude a rigorous analysis. Site characterization activities for Building 3506 were conducted in fall of 1993. Concrete core samples were taken from the floors and walls of both the cell and the east gallery. These cores were analyzed for radionuclides and organic and inorganic chemicals. Smear samples and direct radiation measurements were also collected. Sediment exists on the floor of the cell and was also analyzed. To adequately characterize the risks posed by the facility, receptors for both current and potential future land uses were evaluated. For the current land use conditions, two receptors were evaluated. The first receptor is a hypothetical maintenance worker who spends 250 days (8 hours/day) for 25 years working in the facility. The remaining receptor evaluated is a hypothetical S and M worker who spends 2 days (8 hours/day) per year for 25 years working within the facility. This particular receptor best exemplifies the current worker scenario for the facility. The two current exposure scenarios and parameters of exposure (e.g., inhalation and ingestion rates) have been developed to provide a conservative (i.e. health protective) estimate of potential exposure.

  11. Level 3 baseline risk evaluation for Building 3506 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golden, K.M.; Robers, S.K.; Cretella, F.M.

    1994-12-01

    This report presents the results of the Level 3 Baseline Risk Evaluation (BRE) performed on Building 3506 located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This BRE is intended to provide an analysis of the potential for adverse health effects (current or future) posed by contaminants at the facility. The decision was made to conduct a Level 3 (least rigorous) BRE because only residual contamination exists in the building. Future plans for the facility (demolition) also preclude a rigorous analysis. Site characterization activities for Building 3506 were conducted in fall of 1993. Concrete core samples were taken from the floors and walls of both the cell and the east gallery. These cores were analyzed for radionuclides and organic and inorganic chemicals. Smear samples and direct radiation measurements were also collected. Sediment exists on the floor of the cell and was also analyzed. To adequately characterize the risks posed by the facility, receptors for both current and potential future land uses were evaluated. For the current land use conditions, two receptors were evaluated. The first receptor is a hypothetical maintenance worker who spends 250 days (8 hours/day) for 25 years working in the facility. The remaining receptor evaluated is a hypothetical S and M worker who spends 2 days (8 hours/day) per year for 25 years working within the facility. This particular receptor best exemplifies the current worker scenario for the facility. The two current exposure scenarios and parameters of exposure (e.g., inhalation and ingestion rates) have been developed to provide a conservative (i.e. health protective) estimate of potential exposure

  12. Performance evaluation of Compton suppression gamma spectrometer for low level environmental measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baburajan, A.; Sudheendran, V.; Rao, D.D.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental Survey Laboratory (ESL), Tarapur has started its environmental monitoring programme way back in 1964. Over the last four decades there was considerable improvement in the monitoring methodology and nuclear instrumentation techniques used in the laboratory. When the discharges from the nuclear facilities have reduced considerably; and global fall out level have became negligibly low, there is a need to upgrade our instrumental technique, to detect incremental changes in the environmental radioactivity however small it may be. As part of fulfilling this objective a Compton Suppression Gamma spectrometry system has been commissioned and the salient features and performance evaluation are discussed in this paper

  13. Canada's high-level nuclear waste disposal concept and its evaluation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng, Grant; Shemilt, L.W.

    2004-01-01

    The concept of disposing high-level nuclear waste in granitic rocks in the Canadian Shield, developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), is anticipated to undergo a national public review within two years. The disposal concept, its documentation, and its process of evaluation, including the role of the public, government and the scientific/engineering community, are summarized. A Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) has provided external peer review of the Program since 1979 and its findings are published in annual reports which are publicly available. (author)

  14. Evaluation of forms for the immobilization of high-level and transuranic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuman, R.P.; Cox, N.D.; Gibson, G.W.; Kelsey, P.V. Jr.

    1982-08-01

    A figure-of-merit (FOM) analysis has been made of a number of waste forms for solidifying both defense and commercial high-level reprocessing waste (HLW) and transuranic (TRU) wastes. The evaluation includes iron-enriched basalt (IEB), a fusion-produced glass-ceramic, which has not been included in other assessments. For HLW, concrete receives the highest FOM, but may not meet regulatory requirements; IEB and glass are the best choices of the materials that should easily meet regulatory requirements. Concrete waste forms are the best choice for TRU wastes, with IEB a close contender. 116 references, 3 figures, 112 tables

  15. Hydrological evaluation of five sedimentary rocks for high-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomenick, T.F.; Kanehiro, B.Y.

    1986-01-01

    Utilizing performance criteria that are based upon siting guidelines issued by DOE for postclosure as well as preclosure conditions, a preliminary hydrologic evaluation and ranking is being conducted to determine the suitability of five sedimentary rocks as potential host rocks for a high-level radioactive waste repository. Based upon both quantitative and qualitative considerations, the hydrological ranking of the rocks in order of their potential as a host rock for the disposal of radioactive wastes would be shale, anhydrock, sandstone, chalk, and carbonates, with the first three rocks being significantly better than the remaining two types

  16. The risk evaluation of a model of a high-level waste solidification plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruecher, H.

    1977-02-01

    In this report the risk associated with the operation of a plant for vitrification of high-level liquid waste is evaluated. Considerung risk assessment it turns out that the important accidents occur during off-gas cleaning. On the other hand effects of explosions in the process equipment don't contribute very much to the overall risk. These data are compared with the risk resulting from routine discharge of the plant. It is of the same magnitude as or greater than the most important accident risks. (orig.) [de

  17. Evaluation of higher order statistics parameters for multi channel sEMG using different force levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Ganesh R; Kumar, Dinesh K

    2011-01-01

    The electromyograpy (EMG) signal provides information about the performance of muscles and nerves. The shape of the muscle signal and motor unit action potential (MUAP) varies due to the movement of the position of the electrode or due to changes in contraction level. This research deals with evaluating the non-Gaussianity in Surface Electromyogram signal (sEMG) using higher order statistics (HOS) parameters. To achieve this, experiments were conducted for four different finger and wrist actions at different levels of Maximum Voluntary Contractions (MVCs). Our experimental analysis shows that at constant force and for non-fatiguing contractions, probability density functions (PDF) of sEMG signals were non-Gaussian. For lesser MVCs (below 30% of MVC) PDF measures tends to be Gaussian process. The above measures were verified by computing the Kurtosis values for different MVCs.

  18. Evaluation of the LASL automated spectrophotometer for uranium determination at submilligram levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollen, R.M.; Jackson, D.D.; Rein, J.E.

    1977-07-01

    The LASL automated spectrophotometer, designed for determination of 1 to 14 mg of uranium and 0.5 to 14 mg of plutonium, has been evaluated for determination of lower levels of uranium to 0.12 mg. The essentially linear response of absorbance is maintained and the standard deviation for a single measurement is constant at about 0.013 mg of uranium, corresponding to a maximum uncertainty of about 10 percent at the 0.12-mg limit. The instrument was applied to the analysis of a series of low-level-concentration, 0.07- to 0.8-mg/ml uranium samples. The results were not statistically different from those obtained by a manual spectrophotometric method

  19. Contribution to internal pressure and flammable gas concentration in RAM [radioactive material] transport packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warrant, M.M.; Brown, N.

    1989-01-01

    Various facilities in the US generate wastes contaminated with transuranic (TRU) isotopes (such as plutonium and americium) that decay primarily by emission of alpha particles. The waste materials consist of a wide variety of commercially available plastics, paper, cloth, and rubber; concreted or sludge wastes containing water; and metals, glass, and other solid inorganic materials. TRU wastes that have surface dose rates of 200 mrem/hr or less are typically packaged in plastic bags placed inside metal drums or boxes that are vented through high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. These wastes are to be transported from waste generation or storage sites to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the TRUPACT-II, a Type B package. Radiolysis of organic wastes or packaging materials, or wastes containing water generates gas which may be flammable or simply contribute to the internal pressure of the radioactive material (RAM) transport package. This paper discusses the factors that affect the amount and composition of this gas, and summarizes maximum radiolytic G values (number of molecules produced per 100 eV absorbed energy) found in the technical literature for many common materials. These G values can be used to determine the combination of payload materials and decay heats that are safe for transport. G values are established for categories of materials, based on chemical functional groups. It is also shown using transient diffusion and quasi-equilibrium statistical mechanics methods that hydrogen, if generated, will not stratify at the top of the transport package void space. 9 refs., 1 tab

  20. From Fireproof Desert to Flammable Grassland: Buffelgrass Invasion in the Sonoran Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, J. L.

    2007-12-01

    Only a few decades ago, the Sonoran Desert of northwestern Mexico and southern Arizona was considered mostly fireproof, a case of not enough fine fuel to connect the dominant shrubs and cacti. This has changed with invasions by non-native, winter annual and summer-flower perennial grasses that are rapidly transforming fireproof desert into flammable grassland. Of particular concern is buffelgrass, Pennisetum ciliare, a fire-prone and invasive African perennial grass that has already converted millions of hectares across Sonora since the mid-1960s and has made quick headway in southern and central Arizona beginning in the 1980s. Near Tucson and Phoenix, AZ, buffelgrass invasion is proceeding exponentially, with population expansion (and the costs of mitigation) more than doubling every year. As this conversion progresses, there will be increased fire risks, lost tourist revenue, diminished property values, insurmountable setbacks to conservation efforts, and the threat of large ignition fronts in desert valleys routinely spreading into the mountains. Although somewhat belated, an integrated, multi-jurisdictional effort is being organized to reduce ecological and economic impacts. My presentation will summarize the history and context of buffelgrass introduction and invasion, the disconnect in attitudes and policies across state and international boundaries, ongoing management efforts, the role of science and responsibilities of scientists, accelerated spread with changing climate, and impacts to regional ecosystems and economies. This narrative may serve as a template for other semi-arid lands where buffelgrass and similar grasses have become invasive, including Australia, South America, and many islands in the Pacific Ocean (including Hawaii), Indian Ocean, and Caribbean Sea.

  1. Evaluation of the melatonin and oxidative stress markers level in serum of fertile and infertile women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Soleimani Rad

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infertility is defined as the inability to achieve the pregnancy within a year of unprotected intercourse. Infertility is a complex issue and different factors such as stress oxidative can be involved in this problem. So, any attempt to neutralize oxidative stress would be helpful in the treatment of infertility. Melatonin is a known scavenger of free radicals. Objective: The aim of our study was to evaluate the level of melatonin and its correlation with oxidative biomarkers in fertile and infertile women. Materials and Methods: The participants including fertile and infertile women were divided into two groups of 30 people. Blood sampling was performed and sera were collected. The level of Malondialdehyde (MDA, total antioxidant capacity (TAC and melatonin were detected. Data were analyzed using T-test and their correlation was assessed using Spearman test. Results: Serum melatonin from fertile women was higher than infertile women but the difference was not significant (p= 0.46. MDA level in fertile women was significantly lower than infertile women (p<0.001 and the level of TAC in fertile women was significantly higher than infertile women (p<0.001. Spearman test revealed a significant and direct correlation between melatonin and TAC in fertile and infertile women and a significant but reverse correlation between melatonin and MDA in infertile and fertile women. Conclusion: Differences in the level of oxidative stress biomarkers in fertile and infertile individuals have been reported. This study revealed a significant correlation between melatonin and oxidative stress biomarkers, concluding that melatonin level could be involved in infertility.

  2. Evaluation of oxidative status with exhaled breath 8-isoprostane levels in patients with hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastug, Emrah; Tasliyurt, Turker; Kutluturk, Faruk; Sahin, Safak; Yilmaz, Ayse; Sivgin, Hakan; Yelken, Berna Murat; Ozturk, Banu; Yilmaz, Abdulkerim; Sahin, Semsettin

    2013-12-01

    Studies conducted so far on the effect of hyperthyroidism on oxidative stress (OS) have employed blood and urine samples. Exhaled Breath Condensate (EBC) is a non-invasive technique used to take sample from lungs to determine many biological indications. The aim of the present study was determine the possibility of using 8- isoprostane levels in EBC as an indicator of OS in hyperthyroid patients. The present study was performed on 42 patients with hyperthyroidism and 42 healthy control subjects. Hyperthyroid patients included patients with newly diagnosed Graves' disease, toxic multinodular goiter and toxic adenoma. Exhaled breath condensates were collected from patients in each group using a condensing device. 8- isoprostane levels as an indicator of OS in EBC were detected via immunoassay method. Hyperthyroid patients and control groups had 8-isoprostane levels of 6.08±6.31 and 1.56±0.88 pg/ml, respectively. The difference between patient and control groups was statistically significant (phyperthyroid patients, eleven had Graves', 21 multinodular goiter, and 10 toxic adenoma diagnosis. There were no significant differences among patients of different diagnoses for 8-isoprostane levels (p=0.541). No significant correlations were found between 8-isoprostane and free thyroxine (fT4) or thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. In the present study, 8-isoprostane levels in EBC of hyperthyroid patients were found to be significantly higher than that in healthy control group. This study is important in that it is the first to evaluate the effects on respiratory system of elevated OS of hyperthyroidism in EBC.

  3. Evaluation of BAG3 levels in healthy subjects, hypertensive patients, and hypertensive diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derosa, Giuseppe; Maffioli, Pamela; Rosati, Alessandra; M, De Marco; Basile, Anna; D'Angelo, Angela; Romano, Davide; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Falco, Antonia; Turco, Maria C

    2018-03-01

    BAG3 is a member of human BAG (Bcl-2-associated athanogene) proteins and plays a role in apoptosis, cell adhesion, cytoskeleton remodeling, and autophagy. The aim of this study was to evaluate BAG3 levels in healthy subjects, hypertensive patients, and hypertensive diabetic patients. We enrolled 209 Caucasian adults, of both sex, 18-75 years of age, 77 were healthy controls, 62 were affected by hypertension, and 70 were affected by hypertension and type 2 diabetes. All patients underwent an assessment that included medical history, physical examination, vital signs, a 12-lead electrocardiogram, measurements of systolic (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA 1c ), triglycerides (TG), transaminases, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP), and BAG3. We observed higher blood pressure values in hypertensive, and hypertensive diabetic patients compared to controls. As expected, FPG and HbA 1c were higher in diabetic hypertensive patients, compared to the other two groups. No Tg levels differences were recorded among the three groups. Hs-CRP was higher in diabetic hypertensive patients compared to healthy subjects. Finally, BAG3 levels were higher in hypertensives, and hypertensive diabetic patients compared to controls. We observed higher levels of BAG3 in hypertensive patients compared to healthy controls, and even higher levels in hypertensive diabetic patients compared to healthy subjects. This paper could be the first of a long way to identify potential involvement of deregulated BAG3 levels in cardiometabolic diseases. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Evaluation of dairy cows intake behavior grazing Brachiaria brizantha fed different levels of concentrate at diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Bacelar Lima Mendes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective with this research was to evaluate the dairy cows intake behavior grazing Brachiaria brizantha submitted to different levels of concentrate supplementation in the diet. Used 16 lactating cows ½ Holstein x ½ Zebu, with an average of 80 ±10.14 days of lactation and body weight of 454.7 ± 54.51 kg. The animals were distributed in four treatments, using a 4x4 Latin square. The evaluation of behavior was done every ten minutes, during 24 hours on the 16th day of period. We used analysis of variance and regression probability of 0.05. The time spent grazing, ruminating and other activities, the numbers of grazing, ruminating, of bites per day and chews per cake, the grazing times, total power and total chewing, bit rate, time to swallow; time per bolus ruminated; chewing speed and power efficiency for NDF were not altered by increased levels of concentrate. The time of trough, the trough period, the bit size, the chews time for bolus, feeding efficiency for DM, NFC, and TDN and rumination efficiency linearly increased. Periods of rumination, deglutition bits, number of rumination chews per day, decreased linearly with increasing levels of concentrate. Significant quadratic effect of concentrate level on the number of periods in other activities and over time on other activities. Supplementation with 33.8% concentrate in the diet of cows grazing not promote changes in the activity of grazing, ruminating and other activities, but increases the time of trough. The increase in concentrate diet improves the efficiencies of feeding and rumination

  5. Effect of Cutting Pattern and Fertilization Level on Species Diversity and Evaluation of Grassland Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Raus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of fertilization level and cutting pattern on the species diversity and quality of a meadow stand were assessed in 2004–2012 in the small plot trial established in 2003 in Vatín, Vysočina Region, Czech Republic. Four levels of fertilization (none; N0 + P30 + K60 kg∙ha−1; N90 + P30 + K60 kg∙ha−1; N180 + P30 + K60 kg∙ha−1 were combined with four treatments of exploitation intensity (4 cuts per year, first cut on 15th May, every next after 45 days; 3 cuts per year, first cut on 30th May, every next after 60 days; 2 cuts per year, first cut on 15th June, next after 90 days; 2 cuts per year, first cut on 30th June, next after 90 days. Numbers of species, Simpson’s diversity index and evaluation of grassland quality according to Novák (2004 were evaluated. Numbers of species and Simpson’s diversity index were significantly affected by both fertilization level and cutting pattern. Species richness decreased along with increasing fertilization rates from 29.4 (no fertilization to 27.8 (N180PK. When comparing cutting pattern treatments the highest species richness was found in four-cut swards (29.6 in average of fertilization levels and it declines towards late double-cut regime (27.2. The Simpson’s index generally increased from two-cut swards to four-cut and from fertilized treatments to control. Grassland quality was significantly affected by cutting pattern. Values increased from four-cut swards (38.1 to two-cut ones (43.8 and 44.0 in early and late harvest respectively.

  6. Evaluation of C-Reactive Protein Level in Patients with Pain Form of Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata Pihut

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Temporomandibular joint dysfunction is a functional disorder concerned with the abnormal functioning of the muscles of the stomatognathic system and temporomandibular joints involved in the dynamic movements of the jaw and surrounding structures. The aim of the study was to compare the level of C-reactive protein in patients with pain and painless forms of temporomandibular joint dysfunction. Materials and methods. The study group consisted of 72 patients who reported to the prosthetic treatment because of temporomandibular joint dysfunction. The study group included 36 patients with pain form of dysfunction, and the control group included 36 patients with painless form of disorder. Each patient underwent specialized examination of functional disorders in order to diagnose the type of dysfunction and was commissioned to carry out a study of the blood test concerned with evaluation of the C-reactive protein (CRP level in the same analytical laboratory. The results of the investigation were subjected to statistical analysis. The research obtained approval from the Ethics Committee of the Jagiellonian University (KBET/125/L/2013. Level of Evidence for primary research was established as type V. Results. The mean values of C-reactive protein levels in both groups were in the normal range and did not differ statistically significantly, which indicates the fact that the pain form of the temporomandibular joint disorders is not associated with inflammation of the soft tissues of the joint. Conclusion. Painful form of the temporomandibular joint dysfunctions is not connected with the inflammation of joints.

  7. Examination of the Current Approaches to State-Level Nuclear Security Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chan; Yim, Mansung; Kim, So Young

    2014-01-01

    An effective global nuclear materials security system will cover all materials, employ international standards and best practices, and reduce risks by reducing weapons-usable nuclear material stocks and the number of locations where they are found. Such a system must also encourage states to accept peer reviews by outside experts in order to demonstrate that effective security is in place. It is thus critically important to create an integrative framework of state-level evaluation of nuclear security as a basis for measuring the level and progress of international effort to secure and control all nuclear materials. There have been studies to represent state-level nuclear security with a quantitative metric. A prime example is the Nuclear Materials Security Index (NMSI) by the Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI). Another comprehensive study is the State Level Risk Metric by Texas A and M University (TAMU). This paper examines the current methods with respect to their strengths and weaknesses and identifies the directions for future research to improve upon the existing approaches

  8. Evaluation of testosterone serum levels in testicular interstitial fluid under thyroxine influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Isvania Maria S. da; Pereira, Simey de L.S.; Souza, Grace Mary L.; Carvalho, Elaine F.M.B.; Catanho, Maria Teresa J. de A.; Silveira, Maria de Fatima G. da; Lima Filho, Guilherme L.

    2000-01-01

    The thyroid hormones possibly exert a reciprocal action between testicular steroids and Sertoli's cells during the premature period. This work aims to evaluate thyroxine effect on testosterone serum levels and in the testicular interstitial fluid (TIF) in rats. Wistar males rats, 22 days old, 80g of body weight, were induced to hyperthyroidism with thyroxine (20μg/kg) in periods of 5, 10, 15 and 20 consecutive days. After the treatment the animals were weighed and sacrificed for blood and testis collection. From the blood serum and from the TIF drained from the testis were performed testes in order to obtain testosterone attached to 125 I with a specific activity of 36,86 MBq/ig. The results have shown a testosterone significant lineal increase in both - serum and TIF - in the group treated with thyroxine as a time function. In the control group, testosterone levels remained low in both serum and TIF dosages. As a result, we were able to verify that the testosterone levels could be modified by thyroxine in serum and TIF. And so, it could affect luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels in hypophysis. (author)

  9. Center-Within-Trial Versus Trial-Level Evaluation of Surrogate Endpoints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renfro, Lindsay A.; Shi, Qian; Xue, Yuan; Li, Junlong; Shang, Hongwei; Sargent, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of candidate surrogate endpoints using individual patient data from multiple clinical trials is considered the gold standard approach to validate surrogates at both patient and trial levels. However, this approach assumes the availability of patient-level data from a relatively large collection of similar trials, which may not be possible to achieve for a given disease application. One common solution to the problem of too few similar trials involves performing trial-level surrogacy analyses on trial sub-units (e.g., centers within trials), thereby artificially increasing the trial-level sample size for feasibility of the multi-trial analysis. To date, the practical impact of treating trial sub-units (centers) identically to trials in multi-trial surrogacy analyses remains unexplored, and conditions under which this ad hoc solution may in fact be reasonable have not been identified. We perform a simulation study to identify such conditions, and demonstrate practical implications using a multi-trial dataset of patients with early stage colon cancer. PMID:25061255

  10. Evaluation of health and safety impacts of defense high-level waste in geologic repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.D.; Kocher, D.C.; Witherspoon, J.P.

    1985-02-01

    Pursuant to the requirement of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 that the President evaluate the use of commercial high-level waste repositories for the disposal of defense high-level wastes, a comparative assessment has been performed of the potential health and safety impacts of disposal of defense wastes in commercial or defense-only repositories. Simplified models were used to make quantitative estimates of both long- and short-term health and safety impacts of several options for defense high-level waste disposal. The results indicate that potential health and safety impacts are not likely to vary significantly among the different disposal options for defense wastes. Estimated long-term health and safety impacts from all defense-waste disposal options are somewhat less than those from commercial waste disposal, while short-term health and safety impacts appear to be insensitive to the differences between defense and commercial wastes. In all cases, potential health and safety impacts are small because of the need to meet stringent standards promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. We conclude that health and safety impacts should not be a significant factor in the choice of a disposal option for defense high-level wastes. 20 references, 14 tables

  11. Evaluation and correlation of stress scores with blood pressure, endogenous cortisol levels, and homocysteine levels in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy and comparison with age-matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Abhishek; Garg, Monika; Dixit, Nikhil; Godara, Rohini

    2016-11-01

    Stress had been associated with the development of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). The study was designed to evaluate the effect of stress on other risk factors of CSC such as serum cortisol levels, serum homocysteine levels, and blood pressure (BP) in CSC patients. To compare stress scores, serum cortisol and serum homocysteine levels, and BP of CSC patients with that of control population and to correlate stress scores of CSC patients with BP, serum cortisol levels, and serum homocysteine levels. Stress scores, serum morning and evening cortisol levels, serum homocysteine levels, systolic and diastolic BP of 54 CSC patients were measured and compared with that of 54 age- and sex-related controls using Student's t-test. Stress scores of CSC patients were correlated with systolic and diastolic BP, serum morning and evening cortisol levels and serum homocysteine levels and Pearson correlation coefficient (r) were calculated. Stress scores, serum homocysteine levels, serum morning and evening cortisol levels, and systolic and diastolic BP were all elevated in CSC patients as compared with age- and sex-related controls (P Stress scores of CSC patients were found to correlate strongly with serum homocysteine levels, serum morning and evening cortisol levels, and systolic and diastolic BP, with r values 0.82, 0.8, 0.8, 0.8, and 0.81, respectively (P Stress scores were elevated in CSC patients and were strongly correlated with serum homocysteine and cortisol levels and BP.

  12. Evaluation of the effects of various sound pressure levels on the level of serum aldosterone concentration in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Nassiri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Noise exposure may have anatomical, nonauditory, and auditory influences. Considering nonauditory impacts, noise exposure can cause alterations in the automatic nervous system, including increased pulse rates, heightened blood pressure, and abnormal secretion of hormones. The present study aimed at examining the effect of various sound pressure levels (SPLs on the serum aldosterone level among rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 45 adult male rats with an age range of 3 to 4 months and a weight of 200 ± 50 g were randomly divided into 15 groups of three. Three groups were considered as the control groups and the rest (i.e., 12 groups as the case groups. Rats of the case groups were exposed to SPLs of 85, 95, and 105 dBA. White noise was used as the noise to which the rats were exposed. To measure the level of rats’ serum aldosterone, 3 mL of each rat’s sample blood was directly taken from the heart of anesthetized animals by using syringes. The taken blood samples were put in labeled test tubes that contained anticoagulant Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. In the laboratory, the level of aldosterone was assessed through Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay protocol. The collected data were analyzed by the use of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 18. Results: The results revealed that there was no significant change in the level of rats’ serum aldosterone as a result of exposure to SPLs of 65, 85, and 95 dBA. However, the level of serum aldosterone experienced a remarkable increase after exposure to the SPL of 105 dBA (P < 0.001. Thus, the SPL had a significant impact on the serum aldosterone level (P < 0.001. In contrast, the exposure time and the level of potassium in the used water did not have any measurable influence on the level of serum aldosterone (P = 0.25 and 0.39. Conclusion: The findings of this study demonstrated that serum aldosterone can be used as a biomarker in the face of sound

  13. Performance evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste: Volume 3, Site evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waters, R.D.; Gruebel, M.M. [eds.

    1996-03-01

    A team of analysts designed and conducted a performance evaluation to estimate the technical capabilities of fifteen Department of Energy sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste (i.e., waste that contains both low-level radioactive materials and hazardous constituents). Volume 1 summarizes the process for selecting the fifteen sites, the methodology used in the evaluation, and the conclusions derived from the evaluation. Volume 2 provides details about the site-selection process, the performance-evaluation methodology, and the overall results of the analysis. Volume 3 contains detailed evaluations of the fifteen sites and discussion of the results for each site.

  14. Performance evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste: Volume 3, Site evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, R.D.; Gruebel, M.M.

    1996-03-01

    A team of analysts designed and conducted a performance evaluation to estimate the technical capabilities of fifteen Department of Energy sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste (i.e., waste that contains both low-level radioactive materials and hazardous constituents). Volume 1 summarizes the process for selecting the fifteen sites, the methodology used in the evaluation, and the conclusions derived from the evaluation. Volume 2 provides details about the site-selection process, the performance-evaluation methodology, and the overall results of the analysis. Volume 3 contains detailed evaluations of the fifteen sites and discussion of the results for each site

  15. Background radon levels in Germany and how to take them into account in radiological evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehrcke, K.; Kuemmel, M.; Dushe, C.

    2008-01-01

    A mean background radon level of 9 ±, 1 Bq/m 3 was determined for Germany as a whole. This value is lower by about 5 Bq/m3 compared to previous, less representative measurements. For 17 former mining areas in the east of Germany representative regional background levels were derived. Characteristic limits (decision thresholds and detection limits) were determined for these areas to facilitate statistically sound decisions in the radiological evaluation of mining legacies. The detection limits for the anthropogenic contribution to the radon concentration vary from 10 to more than 20 Bq/m 3 in the different mining areas. Especially the higher values are governed by the spatial and temporal variability of the background concentrations rather than measurement uncertainties. The fact that man-made contributions of partly more than 20 Bq/m3 cannot be detected with sufficient statistical accuracy has to be taken into account in radiological investigations and evaluations of mining legacies. (author)(tk)

  16. Environmental-pathways analysis for evaluation of a low-level waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.W.; Ketelle, R.H.; Pin, F.G.; Hill, G.S.

    1983-01-01

    The suitability of a site for the shallow land burial of low-level waste is evaluated by an environmental-pathways analysis. The environmental-pathways analysis considers the probable paths for the transport of contamination to man and models the long-term transport of contamination to determine the resulting dose-to-man. The model of the long-term transport of contamination is developed for a proposed site using data obtained from a comprehensive laboratory and field investigation. The proposed site is located at the US Department of Energy Portsmouth Reservation, Piketon, Ohio and is planned to accept low-level radioactive waste generated by the enrichment of uranium. Laboratory studies were performed to characterize the waste and determine the wastes' leaching and retardation characteristics with site soils and groundwater. Comprehensive drilling, sampling and laboratory investigations were performed to provide the necessary information for interpreting the site's geology and hydrology. Field tests were performed to further quantify the site's hydrology. The pathway of greatest concern is the migration of contaminated groundwater and subsequent consumption by man. This pathway was modeled using a numerical simulation of the long-term transport of contamination. Conservative scenarios were developed for leachate generation and migration through the geohydrologic system. The dose-to-man determined from the pathways analysis formed the basis for evaluating site acceptability and providing recommendations for site design and development

  17. In-Use Evaluation of Peracetic Acid for High-Level Disinfection of Endoscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenjiao, Wu; Hongyan, Zhang; Qing, Gu; Xiaoqi, Zhong; Liying, Gu; Ying, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Many high-level disinfectants have been used for disinfection of endoscopes such as 2% glutaraldehyde (GA), 0.55% ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPA), and peracetic acid (PAA). Both GA and OPA are widely used in disinfection of endoscopes and have been previously discussed, but there is little research on the practical use of PAA as an endoscope disinfectant. An experimental model of a flexible gastrointestinal endoscope being contaminated with 9 strains of microorganism was designed. After the cleaning and disinfecting procedure was completed, we evaluated the biocidal activity (850 ppm PAA, 2% GA, and 0.55% OPA) on our flexible gastrointestinal endoscope model. We also evaluated sterilization effectiveness of PAA on other bacteria, including some antibiotic-resistant bacteria (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, and Clostridium difficile). The residual bacterial colony count number of the PAA-disinfected endoscope was significantly lower than that of the GA- and OPA-disinfected endoscopes. The biocidal effect and efficiency of the endoscope disinfection by PAA appeared to be better than either the GA- or OPA-disinfected endoscope. PAA has demonstrated a good sterilization effect on other bacterial species; of particular note are common antibiotic-resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, and Clostridium difficile. The results of this study demonstrate that PAA is a fast and effective high-level disinfectant for use in the reprocessing of flexible endoscopes.

  18. The residuals analysis project: Evaluating disposal options for treated mixed low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, R.D.; Gruebel, M.M.; Case, J.T.; Letourneau, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    For almost four years, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through its Federal Facility Compliance Act Disposal Workgroup has been working with state regulators and governors' offices to develop an acceptable configuration for disposal of its mixed low-level waste (MLLW). These interactions have resulted in screening the universe of potential disposal sites from 49 to 15 and conducting ''performance evaluations'' for those fifteen sites to estimate their technical capabilities for disposal of MLLW. In the residuals analysis project, we estimated the volume of DOE's MLLW that will require disposal after treatment and the concentrations of radionuclides in the treated waste. We then compared the radionuclide concentrations with the disposal limits determined in the performance evaluation project for each of the fifteen sites. The results are a scoping-level estimate of the required volumetric capacity for MLLW disposal and the identification of waste streams that may pose problems for disposal based on current treatment plans. The analysis provides technical information for continued discussions between the DOE and affected States about disposal of MLLW and systematic input to waste treatment developers on disposal issues

  19. Evaluation of environmental education at higher secondary level in the model schools of Islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, F.; Ahmad, U.

    2000-01-01

    Environmental education (EE) has emerged as a new dimension in the dimensional sphere. It is a process aimed at the developing world's population, which should be well aware and concerned about the total environment and its associated problems and which should have knowledge, attitudes, skills, motivation and commitment to work, individually and collectively, towards the solution of current problems and the prevention of new ones. Evaluation is a process that provides feedback for the improvement of any project. The present study has been designed to investigate the current performance of EE at higher secondary level. Data were collected from Biology teachers and F. Sc. students of Islamabad Model Colleges, through separate questionnaires. The information collected from teachers was regarding their qualifications and involvement, institutional provisions and their opinion about EE. Students were evaluated on the basis of EE. The results showed that Biology is the only subject that contains a considerable content of EE at higher secondary level. In these institutions, although there is no deficiency of competent teaching staff, A/V aids and other physical facilities , the teacher's involvement and utility of teaching aids is not up to the mark, Book/magazines relevant to EE are not available in most of the institutions. Although students have enough knowledge and awareness about environmental issues, there is a need to produce appropriate skills and attitudes for making them 'environment-friendly'. (author)

  20. Environmental pathways analysis for evaluation of a low-level waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.W.; Ketelle, R.H.; Pin, F.G.; Hill, G.S.

    1984-01-01

    The suitability of a site for the shallow land burial of low-level waste is evaluated by an environmental pathways analysis. The environmental pathways analysis considers the probable paths for the transport of contamination to man and models the long-term transport of contamination to determine the resulting dose to man. The model of the long-term transport of contamination is developed for a proposed site using data obtained from a comprehensive laboratory and field investigation. The proposed site is located at the US Department of Energy Portsmouth Reservation, Piketon, Ohio, and is planned to accept low-level radioactive waste generated by the enrichment of uranium. Laboratory studies were performed to characterize the waste and determine the wastes' leaching and retardation characteristics with site soils and groundwater. Comprehensive drilling, sampling and laboratory investigations were performed to provide the necessary information for interpreting the site's geology and hydrology. Field tests were performed to further quantify the site's hydrology. The pathway of greatest concern is the migration of contaminated groundwater and subsequent consumption by man. This pathway was modelled using a numerical simulation of the long-term transport of contamination. Conservative scenarios were developed for leachate generation and migration through the geohydrologic system. The dose to man determined from the pathways analysis formed the basis for evaluating site acceptability and providing recommendations for site design and development. (author)