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Sample records for flamanville manche decret

  1. Expertise of safety of the Flamanville EPR reactor. Manche inhabitants worry, the Institute answer them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    A first article gives some examples of activities and of the influence of experts who, at each step of the construction of the EPR in Flamanville and until its operation, check whether safety requirements are met. For example, strain gauges are used to control the behaviour of the containment all along its construction. Safety objectives for the EPR have been defined by French and German authorities who decided some design evolutions: number of emergency generators, use of a new water resource to cool the fuel in case of accident, safety systems. In a brief interview, the EDF technical manager evokes the lessons learned from Fukushima from a technical point of view as well as in terms of personnel, and evokes some modifications of the EPR project. A brief article evokes the participation of the IRSN to the Finnish EPR project. A last article addresses the cooperative activities of the local information commissions and other involved actors (IRSN, ASN, EDF, Areva) about the safety of the installation

  2. Manche centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    After a general presentation of radioactivity and radioactive wastes and of the French national agency for the management of radioactive wastes (ANDRA), this brochure gives a general overview of the Manche low- and medium-level radioactive waste disposal centre: principles of storage safety, waste containers (first confinement barrier), storage facility and cover (second confinement barrier), the underground (third confinement barrier), the impact of the centre on its environment, and the control of radioactivity in the vicinity of the centre. (J.S.)

  3. The Flamanville 3 EPR reactor; Le reacteur EPR Flamanville 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    On April 10. 2007, the french government authorized EDF to create on the site of Flamanville ( La Manche) a nuclear base installation containing a pressurized water EPR type reactor. This nuclear reactor, conceived by AREVA NP and EDF, is the first copy of a generation susceptible to replace later, at least partly, the French nuclear reactors at present in operation.Within the framework of its mission of technical support of the Authority of Nuclear Safety ( A.S.N.), the I.R.S.N. widely contributed successively: to define the general objectives of safety assigned to this new generation of pressurized water nuclear reactors; to analyze the options of safety proposed by EDF for the EPR project; To deepen, upstream to the authorization of creation, the evaluation of the step of safety and the measures of conception retained by EDF that have to allow to respect the objectives of safety which were notified to it. (N.C.)

  4. Flamanville 3. A new power plant to prepare the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This brochure presents the Flamanville-3 nuclear power plant project (Flamanville, Manche, France). This new power generation unit is based on the European Pressurized water Reactor (EPR) concept. The construction started in 2007 and the plant will be put into service in 2012. The Flamanville-3 reactor will be the forehead of an eventual series of a new generation of reactors devoted to replace the actual French reactors that are close to the end of their service life. The reactor is a 1650 MWe PWR which complements the two existing units already in operation since 1985 and 1986. The safety characteristics of this new generation of reactor and the socio-economical fallouts of its construction are briefly presented. (J.S.)

  5. The nuclear industry and the risk of cancer in the Manche district - Cancer epidemiology and nuclear industry in the Manche district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, Michel; Collignon, Albert; Bara, Simona; Degre, Delphine; Mouchel, Dominique; Poncet, Jean-Marc; Troussard, Xavier

    2013-12-01

    This document proposed a summarized version and a full version of a study on cancer epidemiology in the Manche district in which are located four nuclear sites of different nature and with different potential risks: the Flamanville nuclear plant (with the EPR under construction), the La Hague Areva nuclear fuel processing plant, the Manche storage site, and the Cherbourg arsenal. It describes the missions of the two cancer registries regarding the Manche region population (the general cancer registry for the Manche district, and the specialized registry of hematologic malignancies for the Basse-Normandie region), discusses the post-accidental management of a nuclear accident, presents the levels of the various basic indicators of cancer epidemiology survey (share of cancers in global mortality and factors of risk cancer, radio-induced cancers), compares cancer occurrence in the Manche district and in France and outlines some peculiarities of cancer occurrence in the Manche district, comments the cartography of cancer occurrence in the Manche district over the 1999-2010 period (solid cancers, hematologic malignancies)

  6. EPR Flamanville 3, Site Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menager, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    Antoine Menager, the EPR Flamanville 3 Site Manager described the organization and the management of the Flamanville site during the construction phase. He placed emphasis on Health and Safety, Environmental and Social Responsibility and on Nuclear Safety and Quality

  7. The Flamanville mess; Le bourbier de Flamanville

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupin, L.; James, O.

    2011-09-15

    This article draws a rather negative picture of the construction of the French EPR in Flamanville: a too short construction planning (with, in the end, a four year delay), a too large number of subcontractors with recruitment problems for some of them and insufficiently skilled personnel, problems in concrete structure constructions, and above all a very bad social context and climate. In an interview, the president of the French Parliament office of assessment of scientific and technological choices comments these problems

  8. The Flamanville mess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupin, L.; James, O.

    2011-01-01

    This article draws a rather negative picture of the construction of the French EPR in Flamanville: a too short construction planning (with, in the end, a four year delay), a too large number of subcontractors with recruitment problems for some of them and insufficiently skilled personnel, problems in concrete structure constructions, and above all a very bad social context and climate. In an interview, the president of the French Parliament office of assessment of scientific and technological choices comments these problems

  9. Public debate about the EPR nuclear power plant at Flamanville

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The project of building of he EPR reactor at Flamanville (Manche, France) has been submitted to the public debate. This document includes a presentation of the project and of the rules of the public debate, a synthesis of the file made by the prime contractor (EDF), a synthesis of the collective book of national actors concerned by the project (a group of associations for environment protection, Areva company, the ministries of economy and ecology, Global Chance, association of pro-nuclear ecologists (AEPN), 'Sortir du Nucleaire' (out-of nuclear) network, group of scientists for the information about nuclear (GSIEN), association for the promotion of the Flamanville site (Proflam), French nuclear energy society (SFEN) in association with 'Sauvons le Climat' (let's save climate), regional collective association 'EPR non merci, ni ailleurs, ni ici' (EPR, no thanks, neither elsewhere, nor here), NegaWatt), and 5 detailed books of actors: ACRO (association for the control of radioactivity in Western France), CFDT and CGT syndicates, the economic and social council of Basse Normandie region, and Proflam. (J.S.)

  10. Public debate about the EPR nuclear power plant at Flamanville; Debat public sur la centrale nucleaire EPR a Flamanville

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The project of building of he EPR reactor at Flamanville (Manche, France) has been submitted to the public debate. This document includes a presentation of the project and of the rules of the public debate, a synthesis of the file made by the prime contractor (EDF), a synthesis of the collective book of national actors concerned by the project (a group of associations for environment protection, Areva company, the ministries of economy and ecology, Global Chance, association of pro-nuclear ecologists (AEPN), 'Sortir du Nucleaire' (out-of nuclear) network, group of scientists for the information about nuclear (GSIEN), association for the promotion of the Flamanville site (Proflam), French nuclear energy society (SFEN) in association with 'Sauvons le Climat' (let's save climate), regional collective association 'EPR non merci, ni ailleurs, ni ici' (EPR, no thanks, neither elsewhere, nor here), NegaWatt), and 5 detailed books of actors: ACRO (association for the control of radioactivity in Western France), CFDT and CGT syndicates, the economic and social council of Basse Normandie region, and Proflam. (J.S.)

  11. Public debate about the EPR nuclear power plant at Flamanville; Debat public sur la centrale nucleaire EPR a Flamanville

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The project of building of he EPR reactor at Flamanville (Manche, France) has been submitted to the public debate. This document includes a presentation of the project and of the rules of the public debate, a synthesis of the file made by the prime contractor (EDF), a synthesis of the collective book of national actors concerned by the project (a group of associations for environment protection, Areva company, the ministries of economy and ecology, Global Chance, association of pro-nuclear ecologists (AEPN), 'Sortir du Nucleaire' (out-of nuclear) network, group of scientists for the information about nuclear (GSIEN), association for the promotion of the Flamanville site (Proflam), French nuclear energy society (SFEN) in association with 'Sauvons le Climat' (let's save climate), regional collective association 'EPR non merci, ni ailleurs, ni ici' (EPR, no thanks, neither elsewhere, nor here), NegaWatt), and 5 detailed books of actors: ACRO (association for the control of radioactivity in Western France), CFDT and CGT syndicates, the economic and social council of Basse Normandie region, and Proflam. (J.S.)

  12. Decision No. 2008-DC-0114 of 26 September 2008 by the French Nuclear Safety Authority Setting Forth Specific Requirements to Be Met by Electricite de France - Societe anonyme (EDF-SA) at the Flamanville Nuclear site Regarding the Design and Construction of the Flamanville-3 (INB No. 167) NPP and the Operation of Flamanville-1 (INB No. 108) and Flamanville-2 (INB No. 109) NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This decision sets forth the requirements to be met by Electricite de France (EDF-SA), the operator, regarding the design and construction of Basic Nuclear Installation ('installation nucleaire de base' - INB) No. 167 and the operation of INBs Nos. 108 and 109 on the Flamanville Site, Manche Department. The specific requirements applicable to INB No. 167 (Flamanville-3) are described in Annex 1. Common requirements applicable to INBs Nos. 167 (Flamanville 3), 108 (Flamanville 1) and 109 (Flamanville 2) are described in Annex 2. Content of the annex 1 (Requirements applicable to INB No. 167 - Flamanville-3): Organisation and management: Organisation and management, Operations to be declared to or approved by ASN; Accident-risk management: Process control (Nuclear safety demonstration, Compliance of operations, Analysis of internal and external hazards leading to hostile conditions or damages to structures, systems and components, Analysis of hazards caused by the environment of the installation that may induced hostile conditions or damages to structures, systems and components, Probabilistic studies, Specific studies, Environmental qualification of systems, equipment, material and components, Controls or tests performed to comply with the hypotheses used in safety demonstration); Prevention of accident conditions that may lead to large early releases (Core-meltdown situations occurring while the primary circuit is at high pressure, Fuel-meltdown situations in the spent-fuel cooling pool, Reactivity accidents resulting from the rapid introduction in the primary circuit of cold water or of water with an insufficient concentration of soluble neutron absorber, Core-meltdown situations with containment bypass, Global hydrogen detonations and steam explosions likely to compromise the integrity of the reactor containment), Basic nuclear safety functions of the installation (Common provisions, Reactivity control, Cooling of nuclear fuel, Containment of radioactive

  13. Annual report 2007 Manche center; Rapport annuel 2007 Centre Manche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The National Agency for the Radioactive Wastes Management (ANDRA), is public company, with an industrial and commercial status. This document presents the activities of the year 2007 for the Manche center. It details the installations, the safety and radiation protection policy, the main events of the tear, the radioactive wastes management and the public information mission. (A.L.B.)

  14. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Flamanville nuclear facilities - 2010; Rapport sur la surete nucleaire et la radioprotection des installations nucleaires de Flamanville - 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-06-15

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Flamanville nuclear power plant (Manche (FR)): 2 PWR reactors in operation (INB 108 and 109), and 1 PWR under construction (Flamanville 3, INB 167). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2010, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise, water consumption and waste management at Flamanville 3 construction site) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  15. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Flamanville nuclear facilities - 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Flamanville nuclear power plant (Manche (FR)): 2 PWR reactors in operation (INB 108 and 109), and 1 PWR under construction (Flamanville 3, INB 167). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2011, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise, water consumption and waste management at Flamanville 3 construction site) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  16. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Flamanville nuclear facilities - 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-06-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Flamanville nuclear power plant (Manche (FR)): 2 PWR reactors in operation (INB 108 and 109), and 1 PWR under construction (Flamanville 3, INB 167). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2010, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise, water consumption and waste management at Flamanville 3 construction site) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  17. Particular intervention plan of the Flamanville Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The Particular intervention plan (PPI in French) is an emergency plan which foresees the measures and means to be implemented to address the potential risks of the presence and operation of a nuclear facility. This plan is implemented and developed by the Prefect in case of nuclear accident (or incident leading to a potential accident), the impact of which extending beyond the facility perimeter. It represents a special section of the organisation plan for civil protection response (ORSEC plan). The PPI foresees the necessary measures and means for crisis management during the first hours following the accident and is triggered by the Department Prefect according to the information provided by the facility operator. Its aim is to protect the populations leaving within 10 km of the facility against a potential radiological hazard. The PPI describes: the facility, the intervention area, the protection measures for the population, the conditions of emergency plan triggering, the crisis organisation, the action forms of the different services, and the post-accident stage. This document is the public version of the Particular intervention plan of the Flamanville NPP (Manche, France)

  18. The Manche Storage Centre: 2009 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    After a brief presentation of the ANDRA (the French national agency for the management of radioactive wastes), this report presents the CSM installations (CSM stands for Centre de Stockage de la Manche, the Manche storage centre), recalls results and actions in the field of nuclear safety and in the field of radioprotection. It indicates incidents and accidents which occurred in the installations, presents data about the Centre's releases. It presents the waste management and evokes other pollution. It indicates the various actions undertaken for information transparency

  19. Manche centre. Environment surveillance. Measurement results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-11-01

    This booklet reports on the environmental radioactivity measurements performed around the Manche plant (France) during the third quarter of 1998 in rainwater, surface and underground waters, air and grass. Measurements concern the alpha and beta activity, tritium, 137 Cs, 241 Am, 7 Be and 40 K. Other pollutant (metals) measurements on rainwater, rivers surface water and sediments are given. (J.S.)

  20. Survey commission of the Manche center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The subjects discussed during the Survey commission of the storage center of the Manche CSCM, held in october 2001, are presented in this document. They deal with the site survey, the maintenance facilities realized on this installations, the tritium survey in the water and the CSCM operating. (A.L.B.)

  1. Memory provisions for the Manche Surface Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumont, Jean-Noel; Espiet-Subert, Florence

    2015-01-01

    The French La Manche repository site received its last radioactive waste package in 1994. In 2003, the official surveillance phase of the closed repository started under the supervision of Andra (the national industrial operator), the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) and society (e.g. the local municipalities). Florence Espiet explained that information on the existence of the repository, its content, how it was operated and how it works needs to be preserved. It also is planned to review the information periodically for a minimum of 300 years. She described the creation of two documents on memory (a detailed and a summary one), both on permanent paper, and the preservation of the land registration. The latter constitutes 'passive' provisions for preserving memory. In addition, a number of 'active' provisions are and will be put in place: guided visits, exhibitions, partnerships with organisations dealing with memory preservation, and the creation of a think tank. The latter consists of local citizens and politicians, retired employees from Andra and artists that meet several times a year and reflect on memory preservation from the perspective of, for instance, local history, education, arts and rituals. Finally, two types of markers will be used to preserve the repository's memory: i) three herbaria cataloguing the plants growing on the site of the repository, including a very short description of the repository, will be stored at different sites in France; ii) a stele indicating the main characteristics of the repository, potentially linked to an art work, will be erected at the repository

  2. Present issues for centre de la Manche disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutzer, M.; Vervialle, J.P.; Charton, P.

    2006-01-01

    Centre de la Manche disposal facility officially entered its institutional control period in January 2003. Andra performs monitoring of the environment and of the capping system in order to prepare further phases that should become more and more passive. A detailed 'long term memory' has been established in order to provide future generations with the relevant information about the facility. (author)

  3. A.S.N. regulation of Flamanville 3 EPR construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limousin, S.

    2009-01-01

    The EPR authorization decree for Flamanville 3 was issued by the French government (decree no. 2007-534) on the 10 April 2007. The construction activities are going on in the manufacturer workshops and at Flamanville site. The decree published in November 2007, and related to the so called TSN law (the nuclear transparency and safety nuclear law published in 2006), specifies that the commissioning licence (the agreement for first fuel load) has to be granted by an ASN decision on the basis of the assessment of the demonstration of the plant safety. In this aim, one part of ASN's work is to review, with its technical sup-port organisation (IRSN), the reactor construction in order to appreciate the safety level of the construction activities. This paper describes ASN's strategy for the regulation of Flamanville 3 EPR construction activities, endorsed by ASN commission at the end of November 2007, and the main events which have occurred on Flamanville site since the beginning of the construction. The article presents the main ASN conclusions of this regulation at this time. (author)

  4. EPC projects for EPR Flamanville 3 NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, J.I.; Polo, J.; Aymerich, E.; Cubian, B.

    2010-01-01

    IBERDROLA Ingenieria y Construccion is carrying out a handful of activities in the EPR Flamanville 3 -FA3 NPP- context since 2007 matching oriented to position the company in the emerging marketplace of new nuclear power plants Generation III+, whose expectation for the next years is highly promising. IBERDROLA Ingenieria y Construccion leads 5 EPC -Engineering, Procurement and Commissioning- projects for FA3 NPP from the Nuclear Island till Sea Water Pumping Station as follows: - Design, procurement. fabrication, installation and testing of 21 shell and tubes heat-exchangers for the nuclear island. 12 out of these 17 HXs are conventional and will be designed according to ASME BPV code Section VIII and have to comply with PED 97/23/CE and ESPN. The remaining 5 HXs are nuclear and will be designed according to ASME BPV code Section III and have also to comply with PED and ESPN. - Design, procurement, fabrication and assembly of 9 demineralizers for different plant systems. Three of these Important To Safety (IPS) equipments have been manufactured according with ASME VIII codes and six of them with EN 13445 code plus additional requirements to comply with PED and final client requirements for nuclear island. - Design, fabrication and installation of qualified travelling water screening filters. The equipments furnished will be two nuclear safety qualified filters and associated equipment (cleaning water system and control system). Additionally some auxiliary devices such as grids, automatic trash rakes and stop gates are included in the contract. - Engineering, procurement, fabrication, erection and commissioning for the condensate treatment plant. This system includes a demineralizer tank, 5 filters, reactive injection mixer, pneumatic and manual valves, piping and instrumentation and control systems. - Engineering, procurement erection and commissioning for the electro-chlorination plant to protect the IPS piping for Condensate Water System for FA3. This system

  5. EPC projects for EPR Flamanville 3 NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, J.I.; Polo, J.; Aymerich, E.; Cubian, B. [Nuclear Generation Department, Iberdrola Ingenieria y Construccion, Avda. Manoteras 20, 28050 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    IBERDROLA Ingenieria y Construccion is carrying out a handful of activities in the EPR Flamanville 3 -FA3 NPP- context since 2007 matching oriented to position the company in the emerging marketplace of new nuclear power plants Generation III+, whose expectation for the next years is highly promising. IBERDROLA Ingenieria y Construccion leads 5 EPC -Engineering, Procurement and Commissioning- projects for FA3 NPP from the Nuclear Island till Sea Water Pumping Station as follows: - Design, procurement. fabrication, installation and testing of 21 shell and tubes heat-exchangers for the nuclear island. 12 out of these 17 HXs are conventional and will be designed according to ASME BPV code Section VIII and have to comply with PED 97/23/CE and ESPN. The remaining 5 HXs are nuclear and will be designed according to ASME BPV code Section III and have also to comply with PED and ESPN. - Design, procurement, fabrication and assembly of 9 demineralizers for different plant systems. Three of these Important To Safety (IPS) equipments have been manufactured according with ASME VIII codes and six of them with EN 13445 code plus additional requirements to comply with PED and final client requirements for nuclear island. - Design, fabrication and installation of qualified travelling water screening filters. The equipments furnished will be two nuclear safety qualified filters and associated equipment (cleaning water system and control system). Additionally some auxiliary devices such as grids, automatic trash rakes and stop gates are included in the contract. - Engineering, procurement, fabrication, erection and commissioning for the condensate treatment plant. This system includes a demineralizer tank, 5 filters, reactive injection mixer, pneumatic and manual valves, piping and instrumentation and control systems. - Engineering, procurement erection and commissioning for the electro-chlorination plant to protect the IPS piping for Condensate Water System for FA3. This system

  6. Lessons learned form IRSN review of Flamanville 3 Level PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgescu, G.; Corenwinder, F.

    2012-01-01

    In the frame of the construction and licensing of Flamanville 3 NPP the PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment)plays an important role for the EPR Project assessment. The PSA was used for early design verification of EPR Reactor, several design improvement being defined based on these PSA insights and following the discussions with the French and German safety authorities. IRSN, as the French Safety Authority (ASN) technical support organization, performs the review of the PSA developed by the plant operator (EDF). The paper presents the main issues regarding the using of 'design PSA', identified by IRSN following the review of the internal events Level 1 PSA transmitted by EDF in the frame of the anticipated instruction of the application for operating license of the Flamanville 3 reactor. (authors)

  7. France: Improvement measures implemented at the Centre de la Manche

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The French repository at the Centre de la Manche was the first near surface disposal facility in France. It underwent numerous operational improvements from 1969 to 1994. For example, WAC were introduced in 1979 after a number of operating years with a very simple set of proper disposal requirements and conditions. The long term safety objectives have been continuously improved and were formalized in 1985 in the 'Basic Safety Rules'. Initially and according to its activity, the waste, packaged in various forms (drums, etc.), was either buried in earth trenches or placed in concrete lined trenches. Rainwater was collected in a sump located at the downgradient end of each trench, and then conveyed to a retention tank. Depending on its activity it was either sent to the adjacent Sainte-Helene River or discharged into the sea via the COGEMA installations. After one year of operation, the earth trenches were deemed unsafe and abandoned. In 1976, the Sainte-Helene River adjacent to the centre was contaminated with tritium at values that were high yet below the regulatory limit. The structures responsible for the tritium leak were old concreted trenches in which the waste was immobilized by sand. These concreted trenches were opened, modified and rebuilt. The faulty packages were retrieved and reconditioned in special drums. Acceptance thresholds for tritiated waste were then reduced and inspections conducted at the generators. This incident nevertheless left a trace that persists today in the groundwater table and in the streams around the Centre. During the 25 years of operation of the Centre de la Manche, from 1969 to 1994, long term safety principles have been gradually developed and consolidated. These principles were reflected in the Fundamental Safety Rules that serve as reference for the WAC. By the end of its operation in 1994 the repository, with an area of 600 x 300 m, had accepted 527 214 m 3 of waste. When disposal activities were terminated, a final cover

  8. Annual environment report 2012 - EDF Flamanville (annual report 2012 of environment survey)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delauge, A.

    2013-01-01

    After a presentation of the Flamanville site (history, operation principle of a nuclear plant, life of both units, impacts on the environment, organization, legislation, actions performed in 2012, ability management and communication regarding the management of the environment), this report presents the activity of Flamanville: production, events and incidents. It gives an overview of issues related to the control of impacts on the environment: radioactive releases, chemical and thermal releases, water resource management, dredging operations, conventional and nuclear wastes, radiological cleanliness, noise. Controls and inspections are indicated and briefly reported

  9. Projects of Iberdrola Engineering and Construction on the Flamanville 3 EPR; Proyectos de Iberdrola Ingenieria y construccion en el EPR de Flamanville 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zornoza, J.; Dumas, H.; Sesma, J. L.; Cubian, B.; Diaz, J. I.

    2013-06-01

    Iberdrola Engineering and Construction is participating during the last 5 years in 5 projects on the Flamanville 3 EPR, both in the nuclear island and conventional island and the pump house. These projects represent a challenge from the technical point of view due to the high requirements applicable to the project because of the experience feedback of the operator EDF and of compliance with new regulations that have emerged since the completion of the last nuclear power station in France. This paper presents the description of these projects, as well as its current status. (Author)

  10. The covered distance for twenty five years of the Manche waste storage 1969 - 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourden, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    The twenty five years of the Manche plant,are narrated with the difficulties of the beginning, the problems coming from leaks or runoff that have led to improvement in the knowledge of radioactive waste behaviour and the solutions that have been brought. It is from the building of the plant until the radioactive waste management that is related in this book. (N.C.)

  11. France. The Centre de la Manche disposal facility: Entering into the institutional control period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The Centre de la Manche disposal facility, created by decree in 1969, is the first French near-surface radioactive waste disposal facility. It lies at the northwest end of the Cotentin peninsula, next to the COGEMA-La Hague fuel reprocessing plant. The Centre de la Manche facility occupies an area of about 150,000 m 2 . Its operation was terminated in late June 1994 with about 500,000 m 3 of packages disposed of. Operating feedback from the Centre de la Manche was used to design the second French disposal facility, located in the Aube, which has been receiving LILW since 1992. Since the end of the operating period, ANDRA has been preparing the statutory files to prepare the Centre de la Manche for its entry into the institutional control period. A new government decree will set the framework in which the Centre will evolve in this period. The regulatory process includes the filing of an application with the ministries concerned, containing a file with the requisite statutory documents, including an impact study of the facility on its environment as well as a hazard study. The file will then be submitted to a public inquiry, an essential informative period of the project designed to make a compilation of criticisms and suggestions from the public. In support of the application, a safety report has been sent to the Nuclear Installation Safety Directorate (DSIN) for a decision on the admissibility of the application. Recently, the Group of experts appointed by the DSIN which examined it has come out in favor of the creation of a new basic nuclear installation (i.e., a new government agency) for the institutional control period. A draft decree will then be submitted to the approval of the Interministerial Commission for Basic Nuclear Installations. This process, initiated in 1994, is nearing completion

  12. Construction project of Flamanville 3 NPP. The participation of Iberdrola engineering and Construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Prada, J. I.; Cubian, B.

    2014-01-01

    Iberdrola Engineering and Construction (IIC) leads several projects mini EPC for the EPR Flamanville 3 NPP for providing important for safety components and auxiliary systems in the pump house and in the turbine island. The realization of this new nuclear project has been a challenge from the technical and organizational perspective because the plant is the first of the new nuclear station (FDAKE) type EPR 1700 MWe series in a highly restrictive environment due to to the large number of particular requirements from the final customer and the meager degree of progress of the design to the date of commencement of construction. (Author)

  13. Projects of Iberdrola Engineering and Construction on the Flamanville 3 EPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zornoza, J.; Dumas, H.; Sesma, J. L.; Cubian, B.; Diaz, J. I.

    2013-01-01

    Iberdrola Engineering and Construction is participating during the last 5 years in 5 projects on the Flamanville 3 EPR, both in the nuclear island and conventional island and the pump house. These projects represent a challenge from the technical point of view due to the high requirements applicable to the project because of the experience feedback of the operator EDF and of compliance with new regulations that have emerged since the completion of the last nuclear power station in France. This paper presents the description of these projects, as well as its current status. (Author)

  14. Chemical decontamination of the residual heat removal system (RHRS) of Flamanville 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinkuhler, Claude; Coomans, Reginald; Koen, Lenie

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the decontamination of the RHRS at Flamanville 1 was the reduction of the general dosimetry and the elimination of hot spots. This was done to allow the maintenance on the RHRS equipment. The main challenge of this project was the execution of a complicated operation on the critical path of a shutdown. The redox attack of the oxides at the surface of the circuit in Flamanville, was performed by an EDF qualified process of the EMMAC family. The functions required by the decontamination system were very diverse and therefore an existing decontamination loop, which was previously developed for the decontamination of small system volumes, was re-developed and adapted for bigger circuits. Due to different reasons, an important delay on the planning happened. Therefore, only one cycle EMMAg was performed, totalling 2 hours of decontamination. Despite this, a DRRF (dose rate reduction factor) of 3,7 average was reached. The re-designed equipment and a shortened process were validated during this project. An acceptable DRRF was reached with no delay on the critical path. The capability of maintenance on the RHRS equipment is recovered with a gain of factor 5 on dosimetry. (authors)

  15. Inventory of tritium concentration of waters in the Manche department; Inventaire des concentrations en tritium des eaux du Departement de La Manche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    For the inventory of water tritium concentration in the Manche department, it is the complementarity that animated the work opened during year 2001. To answer to a commune sensitivity such water quality, particularly drinking water at tap, the A.C.R.O. laboratory brought its know how to make and its technical means in the area of tritium analysis and the general council brought its know how to make and its logistics means in matter of sanitary control. This collaboration has allowed to supply an indication on the tritium content of the distribution waters of thirty of the most important cities of the department. Then, it allowed to inform on the radiological situation (in relation with the tritium presence) of coast waters and principal rivers waters. More than 160 controls have been realised between the months of march 2001 and february 2002. Only the tritium under the shape of tritiated water has been measured. The measures have been made by liquid scintillation according to the regulatory agreement. (N.C.)

  16. Manche storage Centre. Information report on nuclear safety and radiation protection 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    After a presentation of the Manche Storage Centre (CSM), the first French center of surface storage of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes, of its history, its buildings and activities, of the multi-layer cover, of the water management system (installation, controls, sampling), this report then describes the measures related to nuclear safety, the management of conventional and nuclear wastes produced by the Centre, the other impacts, the control, maintenance and follow-up of installations, the radiation protection and security of the center, the incidents and accidents that occurred at the facility, and the public information and communication actions. Recommendations of the Health and safety Committee (CHSCT) are reported at the end

  17. The life cycles of Be viscous decretion discs: The case of ω CMa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoreyshi, M. R.; Carciofi, A. C.; Rímulo, L. R.; Vieira, R. G.; Faes, D. M.; Baade, D.; Bjorkman, J. E.; Otero, S.; Rivinius, Th

    2018-06-01

    We analyzed V-band photometry of the Be star ω CMa, obtained during the last four decades, during which the star went through four complete cycles of disc formation and dissipation. The data were simulated by hydrodynamic models based on a time-dependent implementation of the viscous decretion disc (VDD) paradigm, in which a disc around a fast-spinning Be star is formed by material ejected by the star and driven to progressively larger orbits by means of viscous torques. Our simulations offer a good description of the photometric variability during phases of disc formation and dissipation, which suggests that the VDD model adequately describes the structural evolution of the disc. Furthermore, our analysis allowed us to determine the viscosity parameter α, as well as the net mass and angular momentum (AM) loss rates. We find that α is variable, ranging from 0.1 to 1.0, not only from cycle to cycle but also within a given cycle. Additionally, build-up phases usually have larger values of α than the dissipation phases. Furthermore, during dissipation the outward AM flux is not necessarily zero, meaning that ω CMa does not experience a true quiescence but, instead, switches between a high to a low AM loss rate during which the disc quickly assumes an overall lower density but never zero. We confront the average AM loss rate with predictions from stellar evolution models for fast-rotating stars, and find that our measurements are smaller by more than one order of magnitude.

  18. The life cycles of Be viscous decretion discs: fundamental disc parameters of 54 SMC Be stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rímulo, L. R.; Carciofi, A. C.; Vieira, R. G.; Rivinius, Th; Faes, D. M.; Figueiredo, A. L.; Bjorkman, J. E.; Georgy, C.; Ghoreyshi, M. R.; Soszyński, I.

    2018-05-01

    Be stars are main-sequence massive stars with emission features in their spectrum, which originates in circumstellar gaseous discs. Even though the viscous decretion disc model can satisfactorily explain most observations, two important physical ingredients, namely the magnitude of the viscosity (α) and the disc mass injection rate, remain poorly constrained. The light curves of Be stars that undergo events of disc formation and dissipation offer an opportunity to constrain these quantities. A pipeline was developed to model these events that use a grid of synthetic light curves, computed from coupled hydrodynamic and radiative transfer calculations. A sample of 54 Be stars from the OGLE survey of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) was selected for this study. Because of the way our sample was selected (bright stars with clear disc events), it likely represents the densest discs in the SMC. Like their siblings in the Galaxy, the mass of the disc in the SMC increases with the stellar mass. The typical mass and angular momentum loss rates associated with the disc events are of the order of ˜10-10 M⊙ yr-1 and ˜5 × 1036 g cm2 s-2, respectively. The values of α found in this work are typically of a few tenths, consistent with recent results in the literature and with the ones found in dwarf novae, but larger than current theory predicts. Considering the sample as a whole, the viscosity parameter is roughly two times larger at build-up ( = 0.63) than at dissipation ( = 0.26). Further work is necessary to verify whether this trend is real or a result of some of the model assumptions.

  19. Structures for the release of sea water from the nuclear plants of Paluel and Flamanville

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pliskin, Lucien

    1981-01-01

    Nuclear plants necessitate large amounts of cooling water. This explains why Electricite de France, the French Electricity Authority, is currently building several such plants along the Channel coast, using sea water. This paper describes the design and the beginning of the construction of the discharge outlets of the nuclear plants of Paluel and Flamanville. These outlets consist in vertical shafts 40 to 60 m deep bored at a distance of about 1000 m from the shore in the open sea. The shafts are covered with a light concrete diffusor whose function is to spread out the hot water flow into sea water. The paper puts emphasis on the tool used for the construction of these shafts which is a small movable gravity platform made of a concrete caisson supporting a self-elevating steel deck [fr

  20. The CNEN, Flamanville 3 and the English project of Hinkley Point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reber, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    The CNEN is the National Centre of Nuclear Equipment. It's an engineering unit of EDF. After a brief presentation of this department which is one of the six engineering departments of EDF, the CNEN manager presents the Flamanville EPR, its design characteristics and objectives (notably in terms of safety and availability). He comments the status of the construction, gives some explanations to the difficulties faced during this construction. He outlines the greater importance given to safety with respect to reactors of previous generations. Then, he addresses the British Hinkley Point project, its context, the requirements expressed by the British nuclear safety authority. As studies must be performed in the host country, the British nuclear engineering organisation is indicated. The content of the contract between EDF and the British is summarized

  1. Construction of the effluent shaft at the Flamanville EPR plant. An example where electronic detonators are used

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couvrat, Jean-Francois

    2012-01-01

    This paper gives some details on the mining procedure using electronic detonators for the mining of the effluent shaft on a highly sensitive site, the EPR reactor of Flamanville in France. The special constraints and issues associated with the use of electronic detonators are reviewed (close explosive charges, humidity and marine atmosphere, connection and current leaks, sensitization phenomena). The main advantage of electronic detonators is limiting the vibration levels

  2. Centre de la Manche institutional control period: after the first safety review - 59236

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutzer, Michel; Vervialle, Jean Pierre; Andre, Alain; Marchiol, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Centre de la Manche disposal facility is the first French surface disposal facility dedicated to low and intermediate level short lived radioactive waste. It started up in 1969. After a continuous improvement, in the design of disposal vaults, in operational modes, in the whole process of waste management, in the safety approach, the last packages were received in 1994. 527, 000 m 3 of waste packages have been disposed during the 25 years of operation. The facility was licensed for the institutional control period in 2003. The disposal vaults are covered with a multilayer capping system that includes a bituminous membrane to provide protection against rainwater infiltration. Water that might infiltrate through the membrane is collected by the bottom slab of the vaults to a pipe network implemented in an underground gallery. Measurements show an overall infiltration rate of about 3 l/m 2 /year that complies with the objective of Andra of a few liters per square meter and per year. Investigations are performed in order to assess the behavior of the membrane in the long term. For this purpose periodically samples of the bituminous membrane are taken and measurements are performed. As at the beginning of the operational period waste packages were not conditioned in accordance with the specifications that are presently prescribed to waste generators, some settlements can be observed on the ancient part or the facilities. At the end of 2009 some excavation works were performed in an area where a settlement of few tens of centimeters was observed. The integrity of the membrane could be observed and the adequacy of the selection of this option for the water-tightness of the capping system was so confirmed. Environmental monitoring includes radiological and chemical measurements for discharge, underground water and surface water. In the particular framework of Centre de la Manche, a contamination of groundwater by tritiated wastes occurred in 1976. Theses wastes were

  3. Manche storage Centre. Information report on nuclear safety and radiation protection 2014. Annual report 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-06-01

    After a presentation of the Manche Storage Centre (CSM), the first French centre of surface storage of weakly and moderately radioactive wastes, of its history, its buildings and activities, of the multi-layer cover, of the water management system (installation, controls, sampling), this report then describes the measures related to nuclear safety (principles and objectives), the management of conventional and nuclear wastes produced by the Centre and its other environmental impacts. The follow up of the installations and of their effluents and releases are then addressed: origin, locations and results of radiological controls of rainfalls, of risky effluents, of underground waters, of rivers, impacts of the Centre on its environment (releases in the sea, in rivers, in sediments). The measures related to radiation protection are described: principles, staff dosimetry, and personnel safety. The next part presents the nuclear event scale (INES) and indicates that no incident occurred in 2014. Finally the actions related to public information and transparency are summarized. Recommendations of the CHSCT are reported at the end

  4. Information report on nuclear safety and radiation protection of the Manche storage Centre - 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-06-01

    After a presentation of the Manche Storage Centre (CSM), the first French centre of surface storage of weakly and moderately radioactive wastes, of its history, its buildings and activities, of the multi-layer cover, of the water management system (installation, controls, sampling), this report describes the measures related to nuclear safety (principles and objectives, prevention measures, technical measures, regulatory plan of control of the Centre and of its environment, control of releases from storage installations, quality organisation, archiving system). It describes measures related to radiation protection: principles, staff dosimetry, and personnel safety. The next part presents the nuclear event scale (INES) and indicates that no incident occurred. The effluents and releases from the Centre are then addressed: origin, locations and results of radiological controls of rainfalls, of risky effluents, of underground waters, of rivers, impacts of the Centre on its environment (releases in the sea, in rivers). The management of conventional and nuclear wastes produced by the Centre is reviewed as well as the actions related to information and transparency. Recommendations of the CHSCT are reported

  5. Decree no. 2003-30 of the 10 january 2003 authorizing the national agency for the radioactive wastes management (ANDRA) to modify, for the survey step, the radioactive wastes storage center of the Manche (base nuclear installation no. 66), located on the Digulleville municipality territory (Manche)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document, took out from the Official Journal, is the law text relative to the decree no. 2003-30 of the 10 january 2003 authorizing the national agency for the radioactive wastes management (ANDRA) to modify, for the survey step, the radioactive wastes storage center of the Manche (base nuclear installation no. 66), located on the Digulleville municipality territory (Manche). (A.L.B.)

  6. Construction project of Flamanville 3 NPP. The participation of Iberdrola engineering and Construction; El proyecto de construccion de la central nuclear de Flamanville 3. La participacion de Iberdrola Ingenieria y Construccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Prada, J. I.; Cubian, B.

    2014-10-01

    Iberdrola Engineering and Construction (IIC) leads several projects mini EPC for the EPR Flamanville 3 NPP for providing important for safety components and auxiliary systems in the pump house and in the turbine island. The realization of this new nuclear project has been a challenge from the technical and organizational perspective because the plant is the first of the new nuclear station (FDAKE) type EPR 1700 MWe series in a highly restrictive environment due to to the large number of particular requirements from the final customer and the meager degree of progress of the design to the date of commencement of construction. (Author)

  7. Synthèse des études écologique et halieutique du site de Flamanville de 1983 à 1991

    OpenAIRE

    Angely, C; Bordet, F

    1994-01-01

    Située sur la côte ouest du Cotentin, la centrale de Flamanville comporte deux tranches de puissance électrique nette nominale de 1300 MWe environ, mises en service en décembre 1986 pour la tranche 1 et en mars 1987 pour la tranche 2. Depuis 1976, de nombreuses études écologiques et halieutiques ont été réalisées pour connaitre le milieu marin au voisinage du site de Flamanville, et surveiller l'évolution de la flore et de la faune aquatiques après la mise en service de la centrale.

  8. Evaluation du stock de coquilles Saint-Jacques de la Manche-Est - Campagne COMOR XXIV N.O. Thalia

    OpenAIRE

    Vigneau, Joel; Lemoine, Michel

    1994-01-01

    Tous les ans depuis 1976, le laboratoire "RESSOURCES HALIEUTIQUES" de PORT-EN-BESSIN effectue une campagne d'évaluation sur les coquilles Saint-Jacques en Manche-Est; Les objectifs en sont une évaluation des stocks avec estimation de la biomasse exploitable, de la qualité du recrutement (prochaine génération à entrer dans les captures) et du pré-recrutement (dernière génération née, non encore accessible aux engins par la taille), et des paramètres de croissance. Toutes ces données servent de...

  9. Note related to the examination of fitness to service of the vessel bottom and cover of the Flamanville EPR reactor. Pedagogical sheet: Analysis of consequences of the fabrication anomaly of the Flamanville EPR reactor vessel bottom and cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    After having recalled the context related to the discovery of a fabrication anomaly in the chemical composition of the steel used in the central part of the vessel cover and bottom of the Flamanville EPR reactor, this report presents the approach proposed and adopted by Areva for the justification of the mechanical strength of the vessel cover and bottom. It indicates the main conclusions of the IRSN and ASN on various issues addressed by the audit performed by AREVA: fabrication controls, material characterisation, thermal-mechanical loadings, mechanical analysis of a risk of sudden failure. The next part proposes a pedagogical sheet of consequences of a fabrication anomaly: presentation of vessel structure and specificities, report of the discovery of this anomaly and main consequence (steel embrittlement), expertise approach, expertise conclusions (control of the absence of any deleterious defect, characterisation of material mechanical properties, assessment of thermal-mechanical loadings, assessment of a risk of sudden failure, and in-service follow-up)

  10. Energies and media nr 31. The EPR. Its role in the nuclear sector. Finland, Flamanville, Abu Dhabi. The reactor range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-02-01

    After some comments on recent events in the nuclear sector in different countries (energy policy and projects in the USA, China, Italy, UK, Germany), this publication discusses the role of the EPR. It briefly outlines the characteristics of the third generation reactors compared with that of the first and second ones, evokes the influence of September 11 on design specifications, and evokes the international discussions about the project of fourth-generation reactors and the researches on nuclear fusion. It outlines the current context and the role of nuclear energy in the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, briefly describes the opportunities offered by the use of thorium, and by fast neutron reactors. It comments the construction of the EPRs in Finland and in Flamanville, some characteristics of the EPR control system, and how France failed in selling the EPR to Abu Dhabi. It finally evokes the French offer in terms of nuclear reactors

  11. Decision no 2010-DC-0188 by the Nuclear Safety Authority on the 7. of July 2010 specifying to Electricite de France-Societe Anonyme (EDF-SA) the limits of releases in the environment of liquid and gaseous effluents for the operation of Flamanville 1 (IBN n 108), Flamanville 2 (INB n 109) and Flamanville 3 (INB n 167) reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This document contains references to the different legal and official documents (codes, orders, minister's opinion, public surveys, administrative authorizations, local community opinion) at the root of this specification of limits related to releases in the environment of liquid and gaseous effluents by the three Flamanville nuclear reactors operated by Electricite de France-Societe Anonyme (EDF-SA). Tables present the limits for different gaseous and liquid radioactive emissions (carbon 14, hydrogen 3, iodine, radioactive rare earths, and other beta and gamma emitters) from these different installations, but also the maximum admitted concentrations for gaseous chemical effluents (boric acid, hydrazine hydrate, morpholine, phosphates, nitrates, various metals, and so on). The limits for thermal releases are also specified

  12. Synthesis of the IRSN report on the control-command architecture of the Flamanville 3 EPR reactor and the associated platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-06-01

    This document briefly reports the IRSN's comments on the robustness of the control-command architecture of the Flamanville 3 EPR (European pressurized reactor), that is of the equipment which, to various extent, contribute to the installation safety. This report identifies the equipment the robustness of which should be improved, outlines the problems created by the complexity of computerized systems. Notably, the authors comment the ability of the off-the-shelf computer platforms acquired by EDF to deal with the nuclear context

  13. Early-Middle Pleistocene benthic turnover and oxygen isotope stratigraphy from the Central Mediterranean (Valle di Manche, Crotone Basin, Italy): Data and trends

    OpenAIRE

    Michele Azzarone; Patrizia Ferretti; Veronica Rossi; Daniele Scarponi; Luca Capraro; Patrizia Macrì; John W. Huntley; Costanza Faranda

    2018-01-01

    Ostracod faunal turnover and oxygen isotope data (foraminifera) along the Valle di Manche (VdM) section are herein compiled. Specifically, the material reported in this work includes quantitative palaeoecological data and patterns of ostracod fauna framed within a high-resolution oxygen isotope stratigraphy (δ18O) from Uvigerina peregrina. In addition, the multivariate ostracod faunal stratigraphic trend (nMDS axis-1 sample score) is calibrated using bathymetric distributions of extant mollus...

  14. Authorization Decree Application for the creation of the Flamanville-3 Basic Nuclear Installation. Executive Summary of the Technical Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    On 9 May 2006, Electricite de France (EDF) submitted to the Ministers for Nuclear Safety an authorization decree application for an EPR-type reactor on the site of the Flamanville Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). Article 29 of Act No. 2006-686 of 13 June 2006 on Transparency and Security in the Nuclear Field prescribes that the creation of any basic nuclear installation shall be issued by a decree taken after consultation with the Nuclear Safety Authority (Autorite de surete nucleaire - ASN). The purpose of this report is to provide ASN's Board with a summary of the technical review led by ASN services and carried out by their technical support agencies, namely the IRSN, the GPR and the Standing Nuclear Section of the CCAP between 2001 and 2006. After summing up the conclusions of the review on the safety options of the European Pressurized Reactor (EPR) Project, as carried out between 1993 and 2000, this report describes the process and modalities of the review conducted from 2001 to 2006. Besides providing the opinion of ASN's services on the creation-licence application, it also outlines the further review to be carried out, if the authorization decree is issued. (authors)

  15. Flamanville plant - Report on the complementary safety assessment of nuclear facilities in the light of the Fukushima accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This CSA (Complementary Safety Assessment) analyses the robustness of the Flamanville plant to extreme situations such as those that led to the Fukushima accident and proposes a series of improvements. Robustness is the ability for the plant to withstand events beyond the level for which the plant was designed. Robustness is linked to safety margins but also to the situations leading to a sudden deterioration of the accident sequence. Safety is not only a matter of design or of engineered systems, it is also a matter of organization. So issues like EDF's crisis organization, the organization of radiation protection, and work organization via subcontracting are also taken into consideration. The creation of a nuclear rapid action force (FARN) is proposed: this will be a national emergency force made up of specialized teams equipped to intervene in less than 24 hours on a nuclear site hit by an accident. This report is divided into 2 parts: one part dedicated to the first 2 reactors of the plant and the second part to the EPR that is being built. Each part is divided into 8 main chapters: 1) features of the site, 2) earthquake risk, 3) flooding risk, 4) risks due to other extreme natural disasters, 5) the loss of electrical power supplies and of heat sink, 6) management of severe accidents (accidents with core melt), 7) task subcontracting policy, 8) synthesis and list of improvements. 4 following appendices review: EDF's crisis organization, the FARN, radiation protection organization and accidental event trees. (A.C.)

  16. Order of the 10 january 2003 authorizing the national agency for the radioactive wastes management to follow the gaseous and liquid effluents release for the exploitation of the radioactive wastes storage center of the Manche

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document, took out from the Official Journal, is the law text relative to the order of the 10 january 2003 authorizing the national agency for the radioactive wastes management to follow the gaseous and liquid effluents release for the exploitation of the radioactive wastes storage center of the Manche. (A.L.B.)

  17. Order of the 10 january 2003 authorizing the national agency for the radioactive wastes management to follow the gaseous and liquid effluents release for the exploitation of the radioactive wastes storage center of the Manche; Arrete du 10 janvier 2003 autorisant l'Agence nationale pour la gestion des dechets radioactifs a poursuivre les rejets d'effluents gazeux et liquides pour l'exploitation du centre de stockage de dechets radioactifs de la Manche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-01-01

    This document, took out from the Official Journal, is the law text relative to the order of the 10 january 2003 authorizing the national agency for the radioactive wastes management to follow the gaseous and liquid effluents release for the exploitation of the radioactive wastes storage center of the Manche. (A.L.B.)

  18. Order of the 15. of September 2010 approving the decision no 2010-DC-0188 by the Nuclear Safety Authority on the 7. of July 2010 specifying to Electricite de France-Societe Anonyme (EDF-SA) the limits of releases in the environment of liquid and gaseous effluents for the operation of Flamanville 1 (INB n 108), Flamanville 2 (INB n 109) and Flamanville 3 (INB n 167) reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This legal publication contains references to the different legal and official documents (codes, orders, minister's opinion, public surveys, administrative authorizations, local community opinion) at the root of this specification of limits related to releases in the environment of liquid and gaseous effluents by the three Flamanville nuclear reactors operated by Electricite de France-Societe Anonyme (EDF-SA). Tables present the limits for different gaseous and liquid radioactive emissions (carbon 14, hydrogen 3, iodine, radioactive rare earths, and other beta and gamma emitters) from these different installations, but also the maximum admitted concentrations for gaseous chemical effluents (boric acid, hydrazine hydrate, morpholine, phosphates, nitrates, various metals, and so on). The limits for thermal releases are also specified

  19. The ANDRA, two years after the June 2006, 28 programming law. Assessment and perspectives for the Manche storage centre. Press conference of June 2008, 27

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This report first presents the main activities of ANDRA (the French national agency for radioactive waste management), describes and comments the legal frame built up by the programming law of the June 2006, 28. It presents the Manche waste storage centre, its waste types, storage concept, cover and control, and actions to keep the memory of this site for the next generations. It gives an overview of ANDRA's missions, role as industrial operator, and financing, describes the three general interest missions (national inventory of radioactive materials and wastes, collection and processing of common usage radioactive objects, and decontamination of sites polluted by radioactivity), discusses the results obtained for the inventory. It presents the project of reversible deep storage of high and intermediate level and long life wastes (a facility is foreseen to operate in 2025), and the project of a hollow storage site for low level and long life wastes

  20. Synthesis of the IRSN report related to severe accidents and to the probabilistic level-2 safety study for the Flamanville EPR reactor. Referral of the Permanent Group of Experts for nuclear reactors (GPR), examination of probabilistic level-2 safety studies (EPS 2) and severe accidents (AG) of the Flamanville reactor nr 3. Opinion related to severe accidents and to the probabilistic level-2 safety study for the Flamanville EPR reactor (FA3). Electronuclear reactors - EDF - Flamanville 3 EPR reactor. Severe accidents and probabilistic level 2 studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This document gathers several documents. The first one recalls the main arrangements implemented on the FA3 EPR reactor regarding accidents with core fusion, reports the analysis made by the IRSN about the sizing of these arrangements to reach a controlled status of the installation after a severe accident, regarding the probabilistic level-2 safety assessment, regarding the radiological impact of a severe accident on the population and on the environment, regarding those aimed at facing a total and long duration loss of electric power sources and cold sources, and about the situation of the reactor with respect to WENRA positions on severe accidents for new reactors. The second document is a letter sent by the ASN to the Permanent Group of Experts for nuclear reactors (GPR) to address probabilistic level-2 safety studies (EPS2) and severe accidents for the Flamanville 3 reactor. The third one reports the opinion of the GPR on these both issues and proposes a set of recommendations. The next document is a letter sent by the ASN to the Flamanville 3 project manager at EDF which recalls the related objectives, the ASN opinion on the implemented arrangements for severe accidents (de-pressurization of the primary circuit, management of hydrogen-related risks, corium recovery and cooling outside the vessel, limitation of vapour explosion risks outside the vessel, heat evacuation system, containment enclosure, management of the risk of a return to criticality), to face a total and long duration loss of electricity sources and cold sources, and other aspects addressed in the IRSN analysis. Requests and remarks formulated by the ASN are provided in an appendix to this last document

  1. Nuclear wastes management: the lessons from the C.S.M. disposal site (Centre de Stockage de la Manche. Memory-less Centre, Future-less Centre?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-05-01

    With its 527 217 m 3 of low and medium activity wastes put in storage between 1969 and 1994, the C.S.M.( center of storage of Manche) is and remains to this day a necessary element to understand the problems posed by the eternal storage of nuclear materials and the limits of the notion of reversibility. There are therefore teachings to be drawn. We cannot repeat past mistakes in particular with high activity wastes which we wish to bury deep underground. This report is based on the analysis of the existing bibliography, of the internal A.N.D.R.A. documents which we released to the public, of the lessons drawn from our participation in the official concerting and work groups, and finally of the data obtained after inquiries were done in the region in the framework of R.I.V.I.E;R.E. (citizens network of radioecological surveillance, information and evaluation). In spite of all efforts produced, many questions remain unanswered regarding this site so it is sometimes difficult to be more precise. (N.C.)

  2. The reproduction of sea birds of La Hague and of the Nez-de-Jobourg: The search for reasons of decline (Manche)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, Jean-Baptiste

    2001-11-01

    Since 1965, the site of the Nez-de-Jobourg, in the Manche district and at the vicinity of the La Hague plant, has been a site of ornithological follow-up, notably because it harbours different population of nesting sea birds. Since 1990, it has been noticed that the population of European shags has been keeping on decreasing, with abnormally low birth rate, while the European herring gull has totally disappeared. If the relationship between this decline and the releases of the La Hague nuclear waste processing plant is easily and quickly suspected, other reasons are also plausible. The authors report a study of this decline and an investigation of its possible origins. After a presentation of the site, of its status regarding hunting and specie protection, and a presentation of other close sites (small islands, bay), the report addresses the case of the European shag. It gives information on its biology, characteristics, location and population, reproduction sites and nesting cycle. It presents the method adopted to test the various hypotheses of origin of the noticed decline: contamination by radioactive materials or by chemical substances, problems of disturbance by fishers, tourists or others, problems of predation, parasitism or lack of food resources. Samplings have been performed within the studied site and also within reference sites located some miles away. Based on data and observations, hypotheses are then discussed. An analytical report of measurement of artificial radio-elements performed by gamma spectrometry is provided

  3. The Valle di Manche section (Calabria, Southern Italy): A high resolution record of the Early-Middle Pleistocene transition (MIS 21-MIS 19) in the Central Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capraro, Luca; Ferretti, Patrizia; Macrì, Patrizia; Scarponi, Daniele; Tateo, Fabio; Fornaciari, Eliana; Bellini, Giulia; Dalan, Giorgia

    2017-06-01

    The on-land marine Valle di Manche section (Crotone Basin, Calabria, Southern Italy), one of the candidates to host the GSSP of the Middle Pleistocene (;Ionian;) Stage, preserves a manifold record of independent chronological, paleoclimatic and stratigraphic proxies that permit a straightforward correlation with marine and terrestrial reference records at the global scale. In particular, the section holds an excellent record of the Matuyama-Brunhes magnetic reversal, which occurs in the midst of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 19. We report on a complete revision of the section that improves dramatically the available dataset, especially in the stratigraphic interval straddling the Lower-Middle Pleistocene boundary. Our benthic δ18O record provides evidence that the Matuyama-Brunhes transition, the stratigraphic position of which is marked by a prominent tephra (the ;Pitagora ash;), occurred during full MIS 19, in agreement with many records worldwide. We obtained an age of 786.9 ± 5 ka for the Matuyama-Brunhes magnetic reversal and pinpointed the paleomagnetic transition of to a 3 cm-thick interval, indicating that the event was very fast. Since the section fulfills all the requirements to host the GSSP of the Ionian Stage, we propose that the boundary should be placed at the base of the ;Pitagora ash;, ca. 12.5 cm below the midpoint of the Matuyama-Brunhes reversal.

  4. Analysis of the procedure proposed by AREVA to prove adequate toughness of the domes of the Flamanville 3 EPR reactor pressure vessel (RPV) lower head and closure head. Session of 30 September 2015. Public version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catteau, R.; Cadet-Mercier, S.

    2015-01-01

    AREVA has asked ASN to evaluate the conformity of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) for the Flamanville 3 EPR in application of the order reference [6]. The domes of the Flamanville 3 RPV closure head and lower head were manufactured in 2006 and 2007. AREVA identified that these components displayed a risk of heterogeneity of their characteristics and therefore carried out a technical qualification. At the end of 2014, AREVA informed ASN of lower-than-expected results of impact tests conducted as part of this technical qualification on test specimens taken from a dome representative of those intended for Flamanville 3. The values measured on two series of three test specimens give a mean value of 52 joules which does not attain the quality standard expected by AREVA. This mean value is also lower than the bending rupture energy value of 60 joules mentioned in point 4 of appendix 1 of the order reference [6], with which compliance would have been sufficient to prove the toughness of the material. AREVA carried out investigations to determine the origin of these noncompliant values. The carbon concentration measurements taken at the surface of the representative dome by portable spectrometry revealed the presence of a zone of major positive segregation (high concentration of carbon) over a diameter of about one meter. Furthermore, the examinations show that the segregation extends to a depth exceeding a quarter of the thickness of the dome. AREVA explains the non-compliance with the bending rupture energy criterion by the presence of this major positive segregation which came from the ingot used for the forging and was not completely eliminated by the cropping operations. To deal with this deviation, AREVA plans proving that the material is sufficiently tough by conducting new tests on a material that is representative of the lower and upper domes of the Flamanville EPR reactor. The body of the Flamanville 3 RPV, of which the lower dome is a part, has already

  5. A high-resolution record of the Matuyama-Brunhes transition from the Mediterranean region: The Valle di Manche section (Calabria, Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrì, Patrizia; Capraro, Luca; Ferretti, Patrizia; Scarponi, Daniele

    2018-05-01

    High-resolution palaeomagnetic and rock magnetic investigations on the Valle di Manche section (Crotone Basin, Calabria, Southern Italy) provide a detailed record of the Matuyama-Brunhes (M-B) reversal that, to our best knowledge, is the only available record of the last geomagnetic reversal for the Mediterranean on-land marine stratigraphy. The M-B transition can be pinpointed precisely, as it develops within a 3-cm-thick interval located just above a prominent tephra layer (the "Pitagora ash") where the sedimentation rates are about 27 cm/kyr. Demagnetization analyses indicate a stable palaeomagnetic behaviour throughout the section for both normal and reversed polarity directions, with demagnetization vectors aligned toward the origin of Zijderveld diagrams after the removal of a small viscous low-coercivity remanence component. In the lower part of the studied interval, some samples acquired a spurious gyromagnetic remanent magnetization (GRM) during AF demagnetization in high fields. Rock magnetic analyses confirm that magnetite is the main magnetic carrier for all measured specimens, which also have an abundant paramagnetic fraction. Only the lower part of the record, well below the M-B boundary, is characterized by a downward-increasing presence of iron sulphides (greigite). According to our chronology, which is based on a robust, cross-validated age model, the final reverse-to-normal directional change of the M-B transition occurred at ca. 786.9 ± 5 ka (error includes uncertainty in orbital tuning) and was very rapid, of the order of 100 years or less.

  6. Nuclear wastes management: the lessons from the C.S.M. disposal site (Centre de Stockage de la Manche). Memory-less Centre, Future-less Centre?; Gestion des dechets radioactifs: les lecons du Centre de Stockage de la Manche (C.S.M.). Centre Sans Memoire, Centre Sans Avenir?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-05-15

    With its 527 217 m{sup 3} of low and medium activity wastes put in storage between 1969 and 1994, the C.S.M.( center of storage of Manche) is and remains to this day a necessary element to understand the problems posed by the eternal storage of nuclear materials and the limits of the notion of reversibility. There are therefore teachings to be drawn. We cannot repeat past mistakes in particular with high activity wastes which we wish to bury deep underground. This report is based on the analysis of the existing bibliography, of the internal A.N.D.R.A. documents which we released to the public, of the lessons drawn from our participation in the official concerting and work groups, and finally of the data obtained after inquiries were done in the region in the framework of R.I.V.I.E;R.E. (citizens network of radioecological surveillance, information and evaluation). In spite of all efforts produced, many questions remain unanswered regarding this site so it is sometimes difficult to be more precise. (N.C.)

  7. La sélection des objets à protéger dans les églises de la Reconstruction : l’exemple de la Manche (1944-1974

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élisabeth Marie

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Plus de trois cents églises de la Manche ont été détruites ou gravement endommagées en 1944. La Reconstruction, étalée sur une trentaine d’années, est devenue une composante du patrimoine départemental. La Conservation des antiquités et objets d’art a entrepris un inventaire de ce patrimoine qui concerne cent soixante édifices et environ cent trente objets, auxquels s’ajoutent les ensembles de vitraux. Dans un premier temps, trente édifices ont été inventoriés, parallèlement à l’étude menée sur les édifices par le service des Monuments historiques de Basse-Normandie. Ces deux enquêtes ont été suivies de mesures de protection concernant quarante objets ou ensembles mobiliers conservés dans les églises de la Manche. Les critères généraux de protection au titre des monuments historiques ont été débattus, affinés et précisés lors de deux commissions départementales des objets mobiliers thématiques.In 1944 more than three hundred churches in the Manche department were destroyed or badly damaged. The reconstruction of these churches took over thirty years, and these reconstructed churches are now recognised as an integral part of the department’s heritage. The services of the Conservation des antiquités et objets d’art has undertaken an inventory of these churches, focussed on 160 buildings and about 130 religious artefacts, along with a collection of stained glass. To begin with, the contents of thirty churches were surveyed in an operation running alongside an inventory of religious buildings carried out by the Historic monuments service of the Basse-Normandie region. These two surveys were followed by measures of statutory protection for forty objects or furnishing ensembles conserved in the department’s churches. There was considerable debate as to the criteria appropriate for the protection of these objects, and two meetings of the departmental commission on the protection of the movable heritage

  8. Marine ostracod turnover tracks orbitally forced palaeoenvironmental changes at the Lower-Middle Pleistocene transition: the case study of the Valle di Manche section (Calabria, southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Veronica; Scarponi, Daniele; Capraro, Luca; Ferretti, Patrizia; Macrì, Patrizia

    2017-04-01

    Ostracods, small crustaceans living in almost every aquatic depositional setting, are widely used in palaeoenvironmental reconstructions due to their well-known ecological sensitivity. A close connection between the composition of ostracod fauna and the Milankovitch climate-eustatic variability has been documented in several Plio-Pleistocene marine sections of the Central Mediterranean area. The Valle di Manche section (VdM; Calabria, southern Italy), one of the suitable candidates to host the Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) of the Ionian Stage-Middle Pleistocene, represents an ideal venue where to investigate ostracod turnover in relation to orbitally forced palaeoenvironmental changes, being firmly constrained in time and well documented by a number of independent climatic proxy. A high-resolution, quantitative analysis of the ostracod fauna has been undertaken on the middle part of the VdM, ca. 30 m-thick and showing two T-R cycles developed at the Lower-Middle Pleistocene transition (late MIS 21 to early MIS 18). Within each cycle, a relatively thin, fining-upward transgressive muddy unit is overlain by gradually coarsening upward and more expanded regressive silty to sand packages. A total of 40 samples have been selected to characterise the whole spectrum of lithofacies and detect high-frequency palaeoenvironmental variations especially within homogeneous clayey stratigraphic intervals. Taxa typical of circalittoral (>70/100 m) depths (e.g., Bosquetina dentata, Cytherella vulgatella, Cytheropteron monoceros, Pterygocythereis ceratoptera and Krithe species), commonly accompanied by the lower circalittoral-bathyal species Henryhowella sarsii, occur within the fine-grained units developed during the full interglacials of MIS 21 and MIS 19. Furthermore, ostracod assemblages document that the oxygen availability at the sea floor changed during MIS 19. In contrast, a less-diversified ostracod fauna dominated by Aurila convexa, a species preferring

  9. Nuclear. Getting out of the EPR deadlock: the EPR's evil star; Under the Flamanville vessel; United-Kingdom: Hinkley Point, stop or more? A nuclear which we will be able to finance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupin, Ludovic

    2016-01-01

    A first article outlines and comments the difficulties faced in the development and construction of the EPR which seems to be born under an evil star, and which resulted in a loss of credibility for the French nuclear industry. The author evokes various steps in the design and test of various components which finally produced important delays and high costs. Moreover, the reactor high power seems not to be adapted to current market status and needs. The reorganisation of the French nuclear sector also produced an unfavourable environment (the dismantling of Areva into two companies is briefly evoked). Now, the objective for EDF is to try to optimize the reactor production and reduce costs by 25 to 30 per cent. A second article addresses the situation of the Flamanville EPR construction which is now six years late. The author proposes an overview of the differences between the various parts and components of the power station: the control room is operational whereas many parts and rooms are still under construction. A new management of construction organisation has been set up. The third article addresses the situation of the British Hinkley Point EPR project. Due to the difficulties met in Finland and in Flamanville, a new financial drift would be a catastrophe, and as many aspects of the project are already well defined, EDF keeps on stating that the decision to build these two EPRs is about to be taken, as it is in fact always delayed. The last article is an interview in which a manager of an important nuclear engineering company comments the role of the French nuclear reactor model in the world, the development of concepts of small modular reactors, and the impact of EPR construction difficulties on the image of the French nuclear industry in the world

  10. Analysis of the consequences of the anomaly in the Flamanville EPR reactor pressure vessel head domes on their serviceability. Report to the Advisory Committee of Experts for Nuclear Pressure Equipment. Public version. Session of 26 and 27 June 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CATTEAU, R.; HERVIOU, K.

    2017-06-01

    The Flamanville EPR reactor pressure vessel closure and bottom head domes were manufactured in 2006 and 2007 by forging in the Areva NP Creusot Forge plant. These components are subject to the technical qualification requirement of the ESPN order in reference because they present a risk of heterogeneity in their properties. For the purposes of this technical qualification, Areva NP measured bending rupture energy values lower than those mentioned in point 4 of appendix I to the ESPN order in reference [3], which led it in 2015 to propose an approach to ASN to demonstrate the adequate toughness of the material of these components, based on a program of testing on scale-one replica domes and mechanical assessments of the risk of fast fracture. This approach was examined by ASN and the French institute for radiation protection and nuclear safety (IRSN) and written up in the report in reference, was the subject of an opinion in reference of the Advisory Committee of experts for nuclear pressure equipment (GP ESPN), which met on 30 September 2015, and of ASN requests, more specifically concerning the in-service inspection provisions, in its letter in reference. Subject to these requests being taken into account, ASN considered that the demonstration approach is appropriate, provided that the phenomenon in question is identified and explained and that the data acquired through the test program are sufficient to characterise it. The first test results, in April 2016, led Areva NP to change its demonstration approach, notably the test program on scale-one replica domes, which gave rise to an information meeting with the GP ESPN on 24 June 2016, on the basis of the summary report drawn up by ASN and IRSN in reference. On the basis of the observations of the GP ESPN in reference, ASN informed Areva NP of additional requests in its letter in reference. The Areva NP test program was conducted for the most part in 2016. On 16 December 2016, Areva NP sent ASN a file in reference

  11. The Manche (50) Centre of storage of radioactive wastes, located on the Diguleville village. Memory report for future generations (aimed at maintaining a minimum knowledge for next generations and all the succeeding ones until at least 2500)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charton, Patrick; Cahen, Bruno; Chastagner, Francis

    2007-01-01

    This document gathers two succeeding releases (2007 and 2008) of a report written for future generations in order to present and describe them the Manche centre of storage of radioactive wastes. It first presents some elements of context about radioactivity, nuclear reactors, nuclear fuel, the use of radioactivity outside of electric power generation, and the different types of radioactive wastes according to their activity. The second part presents the natural and human context of the storage centre: location, socio-economic context, meteorological and climatological contexts, geological and seismic contexts, hydrological context, hydro-geological context, physical-chemical context of underground waters, maritime context. It also presents the reference radiological situation. The third part addresses various aspects of the radioactive waste storage: origin and volume of stored wastes, radioactive waste parcels (waste packaging, parcel types, radiological inventory of stored parcels, inventory of chemical toxic products, report of the tritium incident of 1976, specific case of alpha activities after 300 hundred years of surveillance), storage works (history, trenches and platforms of first generation, works of second generation, other specific works, works distribution on the site), the covering of the site and the associated works, and the release management system. It describes safety principles for the surveillance phase and reports the safety analysis, presents the different aspects of the surveillance phase (monitoring of the environment, guarding of the centre, maintenance of installations, population information). It analyses the provisional impact of the storage centre on its environment in a normal situation in terms of sustainable development (impact on soils, waters, sea environment, and public health). It gives indications about the various available memory documents, and about the possible and organised evolution of this documentation

  12. ANCCLI Scientific Committee - Examination of the authorization request for the creation of the Flamanville 3 Power Production Nuclear Plant. Performed on the request of the ANCCLI (National Association of Local Information Commissions)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-07-01

    After a synthetic and critical comment, this report proposes a critical analysis of the content of the different volumes of the authorization request made by EDF for the creation of the Flamanville 3 nuclear plant. The volume 1 gathers elements related to information from the public inquiry and for general public. It addresses various aspects which are herein commented: a presentation note, project presentation and location, installation operation principles, site environment, water takings, gaseous and liquid radioactive releases, chemical releases in the Channel, conventional and radioactive waste management, noise, landscape and local economy, management of risks related to the installation, consequences of potential accidents, measures planned at the end of exploitation for dismantling. The other documents of the first volume of the request file address hazards related to the creation of the electric power production unit, and an impact study related to this creation. The volume 2 addresses the identification of potential risks related to the installation, measures adopted to face risks and to limit the consequences of a possible accident during exploitation (safety objectives and principles, safety approach, design principles and evolution), the management of risks of nuclear origin (fuel criticality, loss of control of reactivity, loss of fuel cooling means, risk of dissemination), the management of internal risks of non-nuclear origin, and the management of external risks. The volume 3 addresses the presentation of the studied area and of the impact assessment, the impact on the environment and on health, the background of the choice of the EPR technology, measures to suppress, reduce and, if possible, compensate the consequences and impacts of the project on the environment and health, and the analysis of methods used to assess the project effects on the environment and health

  13. The G8 summit of Gleneagles (July 6-8, 2005) - the energy-climate action plan - the France-Algeria cooperation. The works of the national commission of the public debate about energy - the management of nuclear wastes - the EPR at Flamanville - the Cotentin-Maine VHV line. The oil prices surge during summer 2005, national and international reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamy, J.; Locufier, A.; Vincent, C.; Bros, Th.; Delmestre, N.; Noilban, F.; Quintaine, Th.; Perrin, J.L.; Branche, Th.; Barthe, F.

    2006-01-01

    This issue of Energies et matieres premieres newsletter comprises five articles dealing with: 1 - the energy-climate action plan adopted by the presidents of the 8 more industrialized countries of the world (G8) during the Gleneagles summit (Scotland) in July 6-8, 2005. This action plan was discussed in association with five emerging countries, among the biggest energy consumers in the world; 2 - the works carried out by the national commission of the public debate on energy about the management of radioactive wastes. The article recalls the 3 axes of research (separation-transmutation, underground disposal and surface or sub-surface storage) and the planning of the preparation of the future project of radioactive management law which will be examined by the European parliament during the second quarter of 2006; 3 - the public debate about the setting up of the European pressurized reactor (EPR) at Flamanville (Cotentin, France); 4 - the public debate about the project of very-high voltage power line between Flamanville and Maine region for the reinforcement of the regional power grid; and 5 - the national and international reactions in front of the surge of oil prices during summer 2005. (J.S.)

  14. Should the EPR be financed by industrialists?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jemain, A.

    2005-01-01

    As a reciprocal arrangement, the industrialists should be invited to contribute to the financing of the new generation reactor EPR (European pressurized reactor) which will be built in Flamanville (Manche, France). In exchange to their financial participation, the industrialists will receive the contractual warranty of stable electricity prices during 10 to 15 years periods. This short paper presents the opposite opinion of two representative of French industries concerning this proposal. Short paper. (J.S.)

  15. Inter-CLI work-group: safety after Fukushima; GT inter-CLI 'surete post Fukushima'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-03

    This document contains a whole set of questions asked about nuclear safety and security by a work-group made of members of associations belonging to local information commissions. These questions are asked either to the French State, or to EDF, or to AREVA. They bear on general issues common to La Hague and Flamanville nuclear installations, notably public information, emergency plans, post-accident management, subcontracting, loss of electricity supply, public health, governance, computer hacking, extreme meteorological events. A set of questions concerns the AREVA processing plant in La Hague (warehousing, pools for irradiated fuels, plutonium oxide storage and warehousing, and so on), and another set concerns the Flamanville nuclear power plant (different aspects of the management of a crisis situation). The last set of questions concerns the Manche nuclear waste storage centre

  16. The EPR reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacoste, A.C.; Dupuy, Ph.; Gupta, O.; Perez, J.R.; Emond, D.; Cererino, G.; Rousseau, J.M.; Jeffroy, F.; Evrard, J.M.; Seiler, J.M.; Azarian, G.; Chaumont, B.; Dubail, A.; Fischer, M.; Tiippana, P.; Hyvarinen, J.; Zaleski, C.P.; Meritet, S.; Iglesias, F.; Vincent, C.; Massart, S.; Graillat, G.; Esteve, B.; Mansillon, Y.; Gatinol, C.; Carre, F.

    2005-01-01

    This document reviews economical and environmental aspects of the EPR project. The following topics are discussed: role and point of view of the French Nuclear Safety Authority on EPR, control of design and manufacturing of EPR by the French Nuclear Safety Authority, assessment by IRSN of EPR safety, research and development in support of EPR, STUK safety review of EPR design, standpoint on EPR, the place of EPR in the French energy policy, the place of EPR in EDF strategy, EPR spearhead of nuclear rebirth, the public debate, the local stakes concerning the building of EPR in France at Flamanville (Manche) and the research on fourth generation reactors. (A.L.B.)

  17. Flamanville 3 EPR, Safety Assessment and On-site Inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piedagnel, Corinne; Tarallo, Francois; Monnot, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    As a Technical Support Organisation of the French Safety Authority (ASN), the IRSN carries out the safety assessment of EPR project design and participates in the ASN inspections performed at the construction site and in factories. The design assessment consists in defining the safety functions which should be ensured by civil structures, evaluating the EPR Technical Code for Civil works (ETC-C) in which EdF has defined design criteria and construction rules, and carrying out a detailed assessment of a selection of safety-related structures. Those detailed assessments do not consist of a technical control but of an analysis whose objectives are to ensure that design and demonstrations are robust, in accordance with safety and regulatory rules. Most assessments led IRSN to ask EdF to provide additional justification sometimes involving significant modifications. In the light of those complementary justifications and modifications, IRSN concluded that assessments carried out on design studies were globally satisfactory. The participation of IRSN to the on-site inspections led by ASN is a part of the global control of the compliance of the reactor with its safety objectives. For that purpose IRSN has defined a methodology and an inspection program intended to ASN: based on safety functions associated with civil works (confinement and resistance to aggressions), the corresponding behaviour requirements are identified and linked to a list of main civil works elements. During the inspections, deviations to the project's technical specifications or to the rules of the art were pointed out by IRSN. Those deviations cover various items, such as concrete fabrication, concrete pouring methodology, lack of reinforcement in some structures, unadapted welding procedures of the containment leak-tight steel liner and unsatisfactory treatment of concreting joints. The analysis of those problems has revealed flaws in the organisation of the contractors teams together with an unsatisfactory control of the contractor's activities by EDF. However, some three years after the beginning of construction, the organization and strictness of the main civil contractor and of EDF construction team have improved. (authors)

  18. Inventory of chemical releases of nuclear installations in the North-Cotentin; Inventaire des rejets chimiques des installations nucleaires du Nord-Cotentin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-05-15

    The nuclear installations concerned by this study are Cogema La Hague, the Flamanville nuclear power plant, the Manche plant and the National Navy of Cherbourg.The objective followed by the ' source term ' work group has consisted in counting and examining the whole of existing measures relative to the releases of chemical substances in the liquid and gaseous effluents. Then because of the lack of measures for the operation first years of installations, the work group has estimated the order of magnitude of these chemical releases (essentially for Cogema La Hague). This report presents a review of the literature looking at the background levels of chemicals in different environmental compartments: air, soil, plants and animals products. these values have been summarized here to be available for comparisons with concentrations input by the North Cotentin nuclear installations, calculated by the G.R.N.C. (radioecology group of Nord Cotentin)

  19. Inventory of chemical releases of nuclear installations in the North-Cotentin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-05-01

    The nuclear installations concerned by this study are Cogema La Hague, the Flamanville nuclear power plant, the Manche plant and the National Navy of Cherbourg.The objective followed by the ' source term ' work group has consisted in counting and examining the whole of existing measures relative to the releases of chemical substances in the liquid and gaseous effluents. Then because of the lack of measures for the operation first years of installations, the work group has estimated the order of magnitude of these chemical releases (essentially for Cogema La Hague). This report presents a review of the literature looking at the background levels of chemicals in different environmental compartments: air, soil, plants and animals products. these values have been summarized here to be available for comparisons with concentrations input by the North Cotentin nuclear installations, calculated by the G.R.N.C. (radioecology group of Nord Cotentin)

  20. Stick and feel system design: Systèmes de restitution des efforts au manche

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gibson, J. C; Hess, R. A

    1997-01-01

    Since the earliest days of manned flight, designers have to sought to assist the pilot in the performance of tasks by using stick and feel systems to bring these tasks within the bounds of human physical capabilities...

  1. Electrical installations of the Channel tunnel; Installations electriques du Tunnel sous la Manche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kersabiec, G. de [Eurotunnel, Folkestone (United Kingdom)

    2002-08-01

    Like an underground factory, the railway and auxiliary equipments of the Channel tunnel between France and UK, need a reliable and redundant power supply with a high quality maintenance. This article presents: the design criteria of the power distribution systems, the installation itself and the organisation of its exploitation: 1 - transportation system of the Channel tunnel (loads to supply, exploitation imperatives, fundamental criteria); 2 - external power sources (connection to the UK and French grids, values used by the national grids); 3 - exploitation criteria, tunnel design; 4 - description (main UK and French power stations, 25 kV traction network, 21 kV distribution network, tunnels, lighting in railway tunnels, supply of terminals, earthing network); 5 - exploitation; 6 - maintenance and quality. (J.S.)

  2. Design improvements related to chemistry for the Evolutionary Power reactor (EPR) unit at Flamanville 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, Christophe; Alves-Vieira, Maria; Jutel, Laurent

    2012-09-01

    A significant number of improvements, including for chemistry, have been made for the design of the EPR turbine hall as a result of the considerable wealth of experience and feedback drawn from the EDF fleet. To reduce issues associated with flow accelerated corrosion, as well as Steam Generator (SG) fouling or clogging, appropriate materials for the piping and the exchangers, and an adequate chemical conditioning, were chosen to ensure a 60 year lifespan of the main components of the circuit. The condenser technology was also improved to mitigate the risks of raw water ingress. A dedicated local sampling line was added at feedwater (FW) to monitor the iron concentration. EPR includes a polishing system at start-up to ensure the purification of feedwater in a short time (less than 16 hours) along with reduced discharged effluents. Comprehensive studies were carried out, taking into account costs (investment, operation, and maintenance), consumption and discharge of chemical reagents, or risks of pollutions during the process. This lead to the choice of system dedicated to start-up only, similar to the mobile system used in some French Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs), instead of a condensate polishing plant. Emphasis was also placed on providing a flexible and secure injection system for the chemical reagents (SIR). Indeed, it will be possible to inject two amines and hydrazine, and to perform tailored injection in many parts of the circuit. Furthermore, the room was design to facilitate future design changes, such as if dispersant injection is required as a preventative solution for SG fouling. In addition to that, close attention was applied to mitigate chemical hazards, especially regarding the hydrazine CMR effect or explosive atmosphere. This paper describes the technical and the economical choices that lead to these improvements related to chemistry in the turbine hall design, along with a comprehensive overview of the chosen designs. (authors)

  3. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Flamanville nuclear facilities - 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 108, 109 and 167 (under construction)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2013, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  4. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of Flamanville nuclear facilities - 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 108, 109 and 167 (under construction)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2012, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix. (J.S.)

  5. The Flamanville EPR: an EDF third generation reactor to prepare the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-11-01

    This document presents the EPR reactor as an evolution of the currently operated nuclear reactors, but with a reinforced safety. It incorporates technological improvements which enable the number of incidents, the core fusion risk, the consequences of an accident, and workers' exposure to be reduced, the releases and the quantities of radioactive wastes to be limited, and the ecosystem to be preserved. It indicates the planning from public debate in 2004 to electricity production in 2016. It outlines the industrial cooperation for the plant construction, and economic consequences for the area

  6. The construction of the first EPR (European Pressurized water Reactor) in France in Flamanville

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This document outlines the importance of nuclear energy for France which is a way to guarantee energy independence, energy security, to struggle against climate change, and to answer to fossil energy depletion. It presents the EDF's electricity production stock and outlines on the one hand the major role it has in the French energy mix, and on the other hand the investments it requires. It presents the EPR as an industrial challenge for the future (an essential step in preparing the electricity production stock renewal, a demonstration of an industrial know-how, a reinforced competitiveness, a high security level, a reinforced protection of the environment, enhanced performance). Then, it presents the construction project from August 2006, and outlines that this project will promote regional development. Some key figures are given in appendix

  7. Water content monitoring for Flamanville 3 EPR trademark prestressed concrete containment. An application for TDR techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtois, Alexis; Clauzon, Timothee [EDF DPIH DTG, Lyon (France); Taillade, Frederic [EDF R and D, Chatou (France); Martin, Gregoire [EDF CNEN, Montrouge (France)

    2015-07-01

    Long term operation of nuclear power plant requires an appropriate monitoring of containment structures. For prestressed concrete containment vessels, a key parameter for ageing analysis is the evolution of the amount of water remaining within the concrete pores. EDF decides to launch a development program, in order to determine what sensor technologies are able to achieve such kind of monitoring on large concrete structures. One of the main parts of this program is to determine the maximum allowable uncertainty for the measurement. Another stake is the calibration process of sensors dedicated to water content measurement in concrete structures and the management of the parameters which have the largest influence on the measurement process.

  8. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Flamanville nuclear facilities - 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 108, 109 and 167 (under construction)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2014, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  9. Design requirements for the radiological zoning and waste cleanliness of the Flamanville 3 PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, S.; Abela, G.

    2009-01-01

    Dealing with a reactor under construction, the authors outline its challenges regarding radioprotection (optimization of the collective dose, accessibility to the reactor building during operation). They discuss zoning requirements and studies performed for radioprotection and for waste cleanliness. They present the personnel monitoring system which comprises the 'individual and collective radioprotection measurements' KRC system, and the radioprotection supervision station (PSRP, poste de supervision de la radioprotection)

  10. Demand of authorization to create the 'Flamanville 3' Basis Nuclear Installation. Synthesis report of the technical examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-02-01

    The present report has for objective to present to the College of Asn a synthesis of the technical instruction piloted by the services of Asn and realized by their technical supports (I.R.S.N., G.P.R., S.P.N.) during the period 2001-2006. After a reminder of the conditions of the examination of the safety options of the project EPR made between 1993 and 2000, this report explains the progress and the modalities of the instruction realized from 2001 till 2006. It draws up then, besides a notice of the Asn services at request of creation authorization, a synthesis of the technical examination realized according to axes presented on the fig 1. Finally, it presents the main lines of the examination that it would stay to realize if the creation authorization was delivered. (N.C.)

  11. Revision of by-laws about effluents of EdF's nuclear power plants; Revision des arretes de rejets des centrales nucleaires d'EDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    In France, in application of the clean water law from January 3, 1992 and since the decree 95-540 from May 4, 1995, each basic nuclear facility receives a single permission which covers both its water takes and its radioactive and non-radioactive effluents. This decree, initially dedicated to new facilities has been enlarged to all existing installations for which the prefectorial by-laws have reached their date-line. Thus, up to now, five inter-ministerial by-laws have renewed the permissions of water takes and effluents evacuation of the power plants of Saint-Laurent-des-Eaux (Loir-et-Cher), Flamanville (Manche), Paluel (Seine-Maritime), Belleville (Cher) and Saint-Alban (Isere). These by-laws foresee an important abatement of the effluents and concern more particularly the tritium, {sup 14}C, the iodine isotopes and also some other non-radioactive chemical compounds. This document is a compilation of all revised by-laws about effluents and concerning the nuclear power plants listed above. (J.S.)

  12. Revision of by-laws about effluents of EdF's nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    In France, in application of the clean water law from January 3, 1992 and since the decree 95-540 from May 4, 1995, each basic nuclear facility receives a single permission which covers both its water takes and its radioactive and non-radioactive effluents. This decree, initially dedicated to new facilities has been enlarged to all existing installations for which the prefectorial by-laws have reached their date-line. Thus, up to now, five inter-ministerial by-laws have renewed the permissions of water takes and effluents evacuation of the power plants of Saint-Laurent-des-Eaux (Loir-et-Cher), Flamanville (Manche), Paluel (Seine-Maritime), Belleville (Cher) and Saint-Alban (Isere). These by-laws foresee an important abatement of the effluents and concern more particularly the tritium, 14 C, the iodine isotopes and also some other non-radioactive chemical compounds. This document is a compilation of all revised by-laws about effluents and concerning the nuclear power plants listed above. (J.S.)

  13. Methodological approach of the North-Cotentin radioecological group in charge of the evaluation of doses and risks due to the radiations exposure of the North-Cotentin population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugierr, A.

    1999-01-01

    The group has evaluated and validated the list and quantities of radioelements release(source term) for each of the four nuclear installations of the North Cotentin since their beginning of operation (the reprocessing plant of Cogema la Hague, the Flamanville nuclear power plant, the Manche storage plant and the arsenal of the Cherbourg harbour). The gathering of data relative to radionuclides in environment of the north Cotentin has allowed from one hand the publication of samples inventory and types of radioactivity measurements and in an other hand an analysis of the results. The intercomparison of transfer models in environment and the confrontation of their results with the measures have been used for the doses calculations to the references groups and to the children troop from the Beaumont-Hague district. Finally, the elements necessary to the doses and risks estimation have been itemized and validated. One of the questions that stands out of these works is this one of the aims of the surveillance and measurements in environment according to the different organisms that realize them. It is important to make the distinction between the routine measurements ( to be sure of the correct operation of the facility and that the authorized release limits are well respected) and the measurements that allow to reconstitute the dose to population groups. (N.C.)

  14. Multitechnique Testing of the Viscous Decretion Disk Model. 1. The Stable and Tenuous Disk of the Late-Type Be Star Beta CMi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-05

    4) and the INCT- A. Support for CARMA construction was derived from the states of Califor- nia , Illinois, and Maryland, the James S. McDonnell...C. 2009, A&A, 505 , 687 Meilland, A., Stee, P., Vannier, M., et al. 2007, A&A, 464, 59 Monnier, J. D., Pedretti, E., Thureau, N., et al. 2006, in

  15. Decret 454/006 it approves offer presentation award contracts regulations to prospection stage as well as hydrocarbons exploration and exploitation in Republica Oriental del Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Then and the efforts of the National Fuel Alcohol and Portland (ANCAP), to achieve fitness to the actual circumstances of the oil industry, the Resolution of the Executive no.930/993 determining the regime for the presentation offers for the award of exploration and exploitation contratosde of hydrocarbons in the Oriental Republic of Uruguay

  16. Vegetation cover and long-term conservation of radioactive waste packages: the case study of the CSM waste disposal facility (Manche District, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit-Berghem, Yves; Lemperiere, Guy

    2012-03-01

    The CSM is the first French waste disposal facility for radioactive waste. Waste material is buried several meters deep and protected by a multi-layer cover, and equipped with a drainage system. On the surface, the plant cover is a grassland vegetation type. A scientific assessment has been carried out by the Géophen laboratory, University of Caen, in order to better characterize the plant cover (ecological groups and associated soils) and to observe its medium and long term evolution. Field assessments made on 10 plots were complemented by laboratory analyses carried out over a period of 1 year. The results indicate scenarios and alternative solutions which could arise, in order to passively ensure the long-term safety of the waste disposal system. Several proposals for a blanket solution are currently being studied and discussed, under the auspices of international research institutions in order to determine the most appropriate materials for the storage conditions. One proposal is an increased thickness of these materials associated with a geotechnical barrier since it is well adapted to the forest plants which are likely to colonize the site. The current experiments that are carried out will allow to select the best option and could provide feedback for other waste disposal facility sites already being operated in France (CSFMA waste disposal facility, Aube district) or in other countries.

  17. Dust extraction from gas in cement kilns, using bag filters; Depoussierage des gaz de four cimentier par les filtres a manches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmegnies, M. [CALCIA, 78 - Guerville (France). Direction Technique

    1996-12-31

    After a review of regulations concerning cement plant emissions, the two main cement production techniques (dry and semi-dry processes) are described and the electrostatic and bag filter de-dusting techniques are compared. Examples of pilot applications of these techniques in two French cement plants are presented and operating results (performances, transient procedures, costs) are discussed

  18. El Estado Autonómico y el procedimiento electoral en España: Reforma de la Ley Electoral de Castilla-La Manch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Martín Sánchez

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available El Sistema Electoral de Castilla-La Mancha es un sistema de listas cerradas y bloqueadas, en el que la circunscripción es la provincia, y que se rige por un criterio mixto de representación territorial y poblacional, en atención a la exigencia constitucional del artículo 152.CE. Está regulado en su norma institucional básica, Estatuto de Autonomía de Castilla-La Mancha, y desarrollado mediante la Ley Electoral de 23 de diciembre de Castilla-La Mancha, reformada recientemente por Ley 12/2007, de 8 de noviembre.

  19. Move towards bag filter units in kiln dedusting; Vers l'utilisation de filtres a manches en four a ciment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schobesberger, M.

    2000-02-01

    Dedusting of kiln gases has become a major concern for cement companies worldwide due to the more and more stringent environmental standards. This short paper draws out an overview of the recent trends in dedusting techniques using bag filters. A comparison is made between different factories and their experience in the use of bag filters made of different materials or used in different operating conditions. The lifetime of these filters is the main problem to deal with and depends on various factors such as the the material used, the air to cloth ratio, the flow rate, temperature, and moisture of the flue gases. (J.S.)

  20. Decision no 2010-DC-0189 by the Nuclear Safety Authority on the 7. of July 2010 specifying to Electricite de France-Societe Anonyme (EDF-SA) instructions related to modalities of water sampling and consumption, and of release in the environment of liquid and gaseous effluents for the operation of the Flamanville 1 (IBN n 108), Flamanville 2 (INB n 109) and Flamanville 3 (INB n 167) reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    After references to the different legal and official documents (codes, orders, minister's opinion, public surveys, administrative authorizations, local community opinion), this document specifies the instructions related to modalities of water sampling and consumption, and of release in the environment of liquid and gaseous effluents from three nuclear reactors. These instructions and provisions concern the general means implemented by the operator, records, the control by authorities, the limits of water sampling and consumption, the water sampling process, the sampling works and their maintenance and control, the release of liquid, gaseous and radioactive effluents, their control, the control of the environment (air, soil, surface and underground water, sampling point implantation), the information of authorities and of population

  1. Restitution report of the working group called 'access to the information' implemented in the framework of the public debate EPR ''head of series'' at Flamanville

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-10-01

    The works realized by this working group show some strong conclusions. The citizen confidence in the information access availability must be reinforced. The existence of secrets protecting the industrialists and the Nation interests seems all the more legitimate since they are well limited.The respect of the industrial and commercial secret is not an opposition to a better access to the nuclear safety documents. The defense secret is an indispensable element of the nuclear safety but its role and limits must be debated. (A.L.B.)

  2. Opinion on the examination of the control-command general architecture of the Flamanville 3 EPR reactor and of its associated platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-06-01

    This report first recalls the different technical and hardware elements and components discussed by the ISRN (Nuclear Radioprotection and Safety Institute) in front of the Expert Permanent Group for nuclear reactors. These elements and components are concerning the control-command architecture as a whole, and the technical ability of networks, computers, and robots. It outlines the main principles which the control-and-command must comply with: compliance of each component of the retained technological solution with the design requirements corresponding to the safety classification, robustness of the whole control-command architecture. Then, it comments and sometimes criticizes the status of the various components of the control-command platforms with respect to this compliance. Eight recommendations are given for the SPPA T2000 control-command platform and for the robustness of the control-command architecture

  3. Demand of authorization to create the 'Flamanville 3' Basis Nuclear Installation. Synthesis report of the technical examination; Demande d'autorisation de creation de l'INB 'Flamanville 3'. Rapport de synthese de l'examen technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-02-15

    The present report has for objective to present to the College of Asn a synthesis of the technical instruction piloted by the services of Asn and realized by their technical supports (I.R.S.N., G.P.R., S.P.N.) during the period 2001-2006. After a reminder of the conditions of the examination of the safety options of the project EPR made between 1993 and 2000, this report explains the progress and the modalities of the instruction realized from 2001 till 2006. It draws up then, besides a notice of the Asn services at request of creation authorization, a synthesis of the technical examination realized according to axes presented on the fig 1. Finally, it presents the main lines of the examination that it would stay to realize if the creation authorization was delivered. (N.C.)

  4. Les végétations des côtes Manche-Atlantique françaises : essai de typologie et de cartographie dynamico-caténales

    OpenAIRE

    Demartini , Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Since 2011, the French Ministry of Environment, Energy and Sea has launched a national program aimed on habitats and vegetation mapping (CarHAB), based on the dynamic-catenal phytosociological approach. The purpose of this program is to produce a 1: 25 000 scaled map of the natural and semi-natural vegetation of metropolitan France by 2025. The dynamiccatenal phytosociology, which originated in 1973, has emerged as the most appropriate method to fulfill these objectives. Even though the princ...

  5. ``Distribution and behaviour of plutonium in the waters of the channel and of the seine estuary``; ``Distribution et comportement du plutonium dans les eaux de la manche et de l`estuaire de la seine``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, K

    1998-12-31

    Excess dissolved plutonium has been measured in the coastal waters of the Channel, from Granville to Boulogne, probably due to sorption-desorption processus. In the Seine estuary, in situ measurements and experimental studies showed that the plutonium desorbs himself from particles in low salinity waters. The desorbed plutonium originates in marine and/or fluvial dissolved Pu. Marine dissolved Pu(V), originating from La Hague plant discharges and from atlantic waters, is reduced and sorbed when the salinity decreases onto estuarial particles: Isotopic Activity Ration {sup 238}Pu/{sup 239}, Pu(IR) of marine dissolved Pu(V) is about 0.7. Fluvial dissolved plutonium originates from atmospheric fallout and from an internal river source: fallout plutonium (IR=0.05) is unreactive with salinity while 45% of river plutonium (IR>1.7) flocculates at 0.5 g l{sup -1}. Desorbed plutonium may have various origins, depending on the Seine liquid discharges and on the tidal coefficient. When the marine waters do not migrate upstream, the low salinity waters encounters particles marked essentially with marine plutonium and the IR of desorbed Pu is about 0.7. The activities of desorbed plutonium are too low to have any influence on the distribution of plutonium in the coastal waters on the Seine Bay. When the marine waters migrate upstream, the low salinity waters meet particles marked essentially with river plutonium (IR>1.7) and desorbed plutonium has a very high IR. These estuarine conditions are encountered five to seven month a year and implicate an increase of the IR of 0.1 of the plutonium present in the coastal waters of the Seine bay (1.2.-1.3.). (author).

  6. C. Marcigny, E. Ghesquière, dir., L'île de Tatihou (Manche à l'âge du Bronze. Habitats et occupation du sol, DAF n° 96

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Yves Milcent

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available L'ouvrage consacré à l'îlot de Tatihou illustre l'efficacité de la politique d'archéologie préventive initiée en Basse-Normandie ces dernières années. Il n'est pas inutile de se souvenir que la Protohistoire dans cette région faisait figure de parent pauvre par le passé, au point qu'il était extrêmement difficile d'articuler les données archéologiques armoricaines à celles que l'on connaissait pour le centre et le nord du Bassin parisien. En limite du Massif armoricain et près de la pointe no...

  7. Size graded sediment dynamics: from the processes characterization to the transport modelling in the English Channel; Dynamique sedimentaire multiclasse: de l'etude des processus a la modelisation en Manche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanpain, O.

    2009-10-15

    The purpose of this work is the implementation of a sediment transport model in the English Channel. The design of such a model requires the identification of the physical processes, their modelling and their in-situ validation. Because of the sedimentary particularities of the study area, modelling of the mechanical behaviour of a non uniform mixture of sediments and particularly of the fine grains within a coarse matrix is required. This study focused on the characterization of the relevant processes by acquisition of experimental and in-situ data. Data acquired in hydro-sedimentary conditions comparable to those found in the English Channel are scarce. A new instrument and image processing technique were specifically conceived and implemented in-situ to observe and measure, with a high temporal resolution, the dynamics of a strongly heterogeneous mixture of particles in a grain-size scale. The data collected compared well with several existing formulations. One of these formulations was chosen to be adapted. The transfer dynamics of fine grains in coarse sediments and their depth of penetration were acquired from stratigraphic samples. The sediment transport model deals with multi-size grains and multi sedimentary layers, it is forced by swell and currents, and accounts for bead load and suspended load transports. It was applied to realistic scenarios for the English Channel. (author)

  8. Annual public information report about the Flamanville nuclear facilities - 2015. This report is written in compliance with articles L. 125-15 and L125-16 of the French environment code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 108, 109 and 167 (under construction)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2015, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  9. Restitution report of the working group called 'access to the information' implemented in the framework of the public debate EPR ''head of series'' at Flamanville; Rapport de restitution du groupe de travail dit ''Acces a l'information'' Groupe de travail mis en place dans le cadre du debat public EPR ''tete de serie'' a Flamanville

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-02-15

    The works realized by this working group show some strong conclusions. The citizen confidence in the information access availability must be reinforced. The existence of secrets protecting the industrialists and the Nation interests seems all the more legitimate since they are well limited.The respect of the industrial and commercial secret is not an opposition to a better access to the nuclear safety documents. The defense secret is an indispensable element of the nuclear safety but its role and limits must be debated. (A.L.B.)

  10. INQUISITIO, FAMA, EVIDENTIA: LA CONTRIBUCIÓN DE INOCENCIO III A LA TEORIA DE LA NOTORIEDAD DEL DELITO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Gutiérrez Masson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Study of the inquisitorial canonical process and of the delictum notorium facti or notoriety of fact of the fault in some decretals of Pope Inocent III, and its influence over the later canonical doctrine.

  11. J.O. no. 10 of the 13 january 2004, page 991, text no. 14. Decrees, orders. General texts. Decree no. 2004-47 of the 12 january 2004 modifying the decree no. 96-978 of the 31 october 1996 relative to the creation of the nuclear installation no. 162 named EL4-D, installation of storage for the Monts d'Arree power plants materials; J.O. no. 10 du 13 janvier 2004, page 991, texte no. 14. Decrets, arretes, circulaires. Textes generaux. Decret no. 2004-47 du 12 janvier 2004 modifiant le decret no. 96-978 du 31 octobre 1996 relatif a la creation de l'installation nucleaire de base no. 162 denommee EL4-D, installation d'entreposage de materiels de la centrale nucleaire des monts d'Arree

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-06-01

    The reactor EL4, implemented in december 1966, has definitely shutdown on the 31 july 1985. This reactor was an industrial prototype, built and exploited by Cea and EDF. In the framework of the partial dismantling of the installation, the decree 96-978 of the 31 october 1996 agreed the Cea to modify the installation to become a storage installation. (A.L.B.)

  12. Practical guidebook relative to the classification of a district heating or cooling network according to the enforcement of decree no. 81-542 from May 13, 1981 modified by decree no. 99-360 from May 5, 1999. DGEMP-DIDEME, October 2004; Le guide pratique relatif a la procedure de classement d'un reseau de chaleur ou de froid en application du decret no. 81-542 du 13 mai 1981 modifie par le decret no. 99-360 du 5 mai 1999. DGEMP-DIDEME, octobre 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This document describes the procedure to follow to classify a district heating and cooling network: classification demand, instruction of the demand, decision of classification, obligation of connection to the classified network, derogations to this obligation, obligations of the local organizations generated by the classification. The aim of the classification is to warrant that the energy and economic efficiency of the network are conformable with the criteria and requirements imposed by the regulation. The consequence of the classification is the definition of one or several areas of priority development inside which the connection to the network can be imposed. (J.S.)

  13. Decree no.2003-270 on the 24. of march 2003 relative to the protection of persons exposed to ionizing radiations in medical and medico-legal aims and modifying the health code of public health (second part: decrees in Council of State); Decret no. 2003-270 du 24 mars 2003 relatif a la protection des personnes exposees a des rayonnements ionisants a des fins medicales et medico-legales et modifiant le code de la sante publique (deuxieme partie: decrets en Conseil d'Etat)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This decree concerns the protection of persons exposed to ionizing radiation in medical aims. Three principal points are debated, the justification, the optimization and the procedures to use in practice. The justification requires that it exists an indisputable advantage compared with the risk it can present and no other technique with a comparable efficiency and less risks is available. The optimization needs to use ionizing radiations at the lowest level as reasonably achievable, the third part is devoted to the procedures, the guides and the training of the person who practices the examinations. (N.C.)

  14. The EPR operators are trained on simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maincent, G.

    2009-01-01

    Three years before the EPR reactor of Flamanville (Normandie, France) is generating its very first kilowatt hours, Electricite de France has started to train its teams on a simulator which reproduces the man-machine interface of the future nuclear power plant. The simulator used is an evolutive tool specific to the Flamanville reactor and capable to test about 20 different accidental situations. (J.S.)

  15. Report to the prime minister relative to the decree no 2002-560 from April 18, 2002 and approving the collective service schemes; Rapport au Premier ministre relatif au decret no. 2002-560 du 18 avril 2002 approuvant les schemas de services collectifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The collective service schemes have been implemented by the French government in order to encourage the decentralization and a complementary development of urban and rural areas in all regions of France and in the domains of high school teaching and research, culture, health, information and communication, goods and public transportation, energy, natural and rural environments, and sports. This ambitious organization requires the joint action of the government, of the local authorities, and of the overall economical and social actors of the country. This document presents the objectives of the collective service schemes and the decree written by the prime minister for their approval. (J.S.)

  16. Decree no 2007-1557 from November 2, 2007, relative to basic nuclear facilities and to the nuclear safety control of nuclear materials transport; Decret no 2007-1557 du 2 novembre 2007 relatif aux installations nucleaires de base et au controle, en matiere de surete nucleaire, du transport de substances radioactives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-15

    This decree concerns the enforcement of articles 5, 17 and 36 of the law 2006-686 from June 13, 2006, relative to the transparency and safety in the nuclear domain. A consultative commission of basic nuclear facilities is established. The decree presents the general dispositions relative to basic nuclear facilities, the dispositions relative to their creation and operation, to their shutdown and dismantling. It precises the dispositions in the domain of public utility services, administrative procedures and sanctions. It stipulates also the particular dispositions relative to other facilities located in the vicinity of nuclear facilities, relative to the use of pressure systems, and relative to the transport of radioactive materials. (J.S.)

  17. Project of decree relative to the licensing and statement system of nuclear activities and to their control and bearing various modifications of the public health code and working code; Projet de decret relatif au regime d'autorisation et de declaration des activites nucleaires et a leur controle et portant diverses modifications du code de la sante publique et du code du travail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This decree concerns the control of high level sealed radioactive sources and orphan sources. It has for objective to introduce administrative simplification, especially the radiation sources licensing and statement system, to reinforce the control measures planed by the public health code and by the employment code, to bring precision and complements in the editing of several already existing arrangements. (N.C.)

  18. Decree no. 2003-296 on the 31 of march 2003 relative to the workers protection against the ionizing radiations; Decret no. 2003-296 du 31 mars 2003 relatif a la protection des travailleurs contre les dangers des rayonnements ionisants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The different conditions modifying the Labour code in relation with the radiation protection of workers are exposed in detail, from the occupational exposure in normal conditions, the organisation of radiation protection, the abnormal working conditions until the medical examinations and medical follow up. (N.C.)

  19. Study of the {sup 60}Co speciation in the aqueous radioactive waste of the la Hague nuclear reprocessing plant; environmental behaviour after discharges in the waters of the channel; Etude de la speciation du {sup 60}Co dans les effluents de l'usine de retraitement de combustibles irradies de la Hague; devenir apres rejet dans les eaux de la Manche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudaire, J.M

    1999-07-01

    {sup 60}Co is produced as an activation product and is present in the low-level aqueous radioactive waste released from the La Hague plant. At present, the concentration in the sea (non filtered at 0.45 {mu}m) at the Goury site are close to or even below, the detection limit: 0.2 mBq.l{sup -1}. The {sup 60}Co speciation depends on the type of effluent considered: in the effluent A ('active'), the cobalt is in the form of a stable trivalent complex; in the effluent V (to be checked), the cobalt is in majority (50% of the activity release) in the form of particles (>0.45 {mu}m), and then in the form of two soluble species: ionic divalent (Co{sup 2+}) and some stable complexes. The evolution of the reprocessing techniques used does not affect the speciation. So, since the nuclear reprocessing plant started at the La Hague plant in 1966, the chemical species discharged in the sea shows time variation related to the evolution of the type of effluent discharged. Thus, since 1994, the particles of cobalt are the main species discharged in the Channel (the V effluents represent more than 85% of the total {sup 60}Co activity released). The effect of instantaneous dilution into the marine conditions involving a variation of pH, oxido-reduction, ionic strength, a gradient of salinity, does not interfere with the evolution of the chemical species discharged. Nevertheless, during the discharge of the V effluent, the main constituents of the sea water (Mg{sup 2+} and Ca{sup 2+}) go through a precipitation. This comes with the coprecipitation of the ion Co{sup 2+} and with the particles of cobalt (complexes are not affected), and it can be responsible for an increase in the concentration in the particles. The chemical behaviour of the cobalt in the Channel is different from those of conservative element such as antimony. The ionic cobalt and the particles have a small dispersion in the water (cobalt has a very high particle/dissolved distribution factor, it is a non-conservative radionuclide). This sedimentary stock can involve a second source of activity. The power of complexation of the Channel's filtered water is very small (contrary to the rivers like the Seine which has a lot of organic material). Because of the weak activity of the dissolved phase and the weak percentage of complexes, insufficient evidence (even if the reactivity between the complexes and the sedimentary particles are small) has, as yet, been obtained to confirm that the presence of stable complex significantly increases the mobility and dispersion of {sup 60}Co arising from the discharge. However, with a strong dilution, 99% of complexes disappear (conversion of trivalent complex to the divalent ionic form which is more particle-reactive form) between 9 and 44 months. (author)

  20. Study of the {sup 60}Co speciation in the aqueous radioactive waste of the la Hague nuclear reprocessing plant; environmental behaviour after discharges in the waters of the channel; Etude de la speciation du {sup 60}Co dans les effluents de l'usine de retraitement de combustibles irradies de la Hague; devenir apres rejet dans les eaux de la Manche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudaire, J M

    1999-07-01

    {sup 60}Co is produced as an activation product and is present in the low-level aqueous radioactive waste released from the La Hague plant. At present, the concentration in the sea (non filtered at 0.45 {mu}m) at the Goury site are close to or even below, the detection limit: 0.2 mBq.l{sup -1}. The {sup 60}Co speciation depends on the type of effluent considered: in the effluent A ('active'), the cobalt is in the form of a stable trivalent complex; in the effluent V (to be checked), the cobalt is in majority (50% of the activity release) in the form of particles (>0.45 {mu}m), and then in the form of two soluble species: ionic divalent (Co{sup 2+}) and some stable complexes. The evolution of the reprocessing techniques used does not affect the speciation. So, since the nuclear reprocessing plant started at the La Hague plant in 1966, the chemical species discharged in the sea shows time variation related to the evolution of the type of effluent discharged. Thus, since 1994, the particles of cobalt are the main species discharged in the Channel (the V effluents represent more than 85% of the total {sup 60}Co activity released). The effect of instantaneous dilution into the marine conditions involving a variation of pH, oxido-reduction, ionic strength, a gradient of salinity, does not interfere with the evolution of the chemical species discharged. Nevertheless, during the discharge of the V effluent, the main constituents of the sea water (Mg{sup 2+} and Ca{sup 2+}) go through a precipitation. This comes with the coprecipitation of the ion Co{sup 2+} and with the particles of cobalt (complexes are not affected), and it can be responsible for an increase in the concentration in the particles. The chemical behaviour of the cobalt in the Channel is different from those of conservative element such as antimony. The ionic cobalt and the particles have a small dispersion in the water (cobalt has a very high particle/dissolved distribution factor, it is a non-conservative radionuclide). This sedimentary stock can involve a second source of activity. The power of complexation of the Channel's filtered water is very small (contrary to the rivers like the Seine which has a lot of organic material). Because of the weak activity of the dissolved phase and the weak percentage of complexes, insufficient evidence (even if the reactivity between the complexes and the sedimentary particles are small) has, as yet, been obtained to confirm that the presence of stable complex significantly increases the mobility and dispersion of {sup 60}Co arising from the discharge. However, with a strong dilution, 99% of complexes disappear (conversion of trivalent complex to the divalent ionic form which is more particle-reactive form) between 9 and 44 months. (author)

  1. By-law no 056/PRES/PM/MECV/MEF from 12 february 2008 on the role, organisation and functioning of l'Autorite Nationale de radioprotection et de surete nucleaire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The text called Decret approaches in its general provisions the organization, attributions of the various parts (secretariat and various services) and their operation. The provisions emphasize the institutional anchoring of the Authority as well as the details of implementation of its mechanisms of operation [fr

  2. Decree no. 2003-885 from September 10, 2003 enforcing the article 8 bis of law no. 46-628 from April 8, 1946 about the nationalization of electricity and gas; Decret no. 2003-885 du 10 septembre 2003 portant application de l'article 8 bis de la loi no. 46-628 du 8 avril 1946 sur la nationalisation de l'electricite et du gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-09-01

    This decree concerns the enforcement of the law from April 8, 1946 about the nationalization of gas and electricity, in order to regularize the situation of some autonomous power generation facilities which have not been requisitioned so far. The decree treats more particularly of the abrogation and suspension of the contracts in progress with the power purchasers. (J.S.)

  3. Decree no. 2003-588 from June 27, 2003, relative to the general technical prescriptions of design and operation to which the facilities must fulfill for their connection to the public power transportation grid; Decret no. 2003-588 du 27 juin 2003 relatif aux prescriptions techniques generales de conception et de fonctionnement auxquelles doivent satisfaire les installations en vue de leur raccordement au reseau public de transport de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-09-01

    This decree fixes the general technical prescriptions of design and operation as foreseen in the article no. 14 of the law from February 10, 2000 and to which the power consuming or power generating facilities must fulfill for their connection to the public power grid. The prescriptions concern the voltage level, the capacity and the power of the facility, the connection scheme, the possible disturbances, the protection systems, the metering etc.. (J.S.)

  4. Decree no. 2001-1176 of the 5 december publishing the convention on the environmental impacts evaluation in a transfrontier context (seven appendix), signed at Espoo (Finland) the 25 february 1991; Decret no. 2001-1176 du 5 decembre 2001 portant publication de la convention sur l'evaluation de l'impact sur l'environnement dans un contexte transfrontiere (ensemble sept appendices), signee a Espoo (Finlande) le 25 fevrier 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This decree concerns the transfrontier environmental impacts evaluation of all activities. The environment concerns the land, water and air and also consequences on the public health. It presents the cooperation, the research programs, the rules and the implementation of the evaluation and provides seven appendix which detail the concerned activities and a reference evaluation document contain. (A.L.B.)

  5. Decree no. 2005-18 from January 5, 2005, providing publication of the framework-agreement for a multilateral environmental program in the nuclear domain in the Russian Federations, made at Stockholm on May 21, 2003; Decret n. 2005-18 du 5 janvier 2005 portant publication de l'accord-cadre pour un programme multilateral environnemental dans le domaine nucleaire en Federation de Russie, fait a Stockholm le 21 mai 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This decree announces the official participation of France in a multilateral program of environmental cooperation with the Russian Federations for the management of spent fuels and nuclear wastes in Russia. The agreement of cooperation is attached to the decree. It defines the conditions of this cooperation, the creation of an organization committee, the multilateral financing, the specific commitments and legal procedures, the tax exemption of the assistance works, the control of the book-keeping, the intellectual property aspects, the personnel status, the settlement of disputes, the assignment of markets, the changes and amendments to the agreement, its ratification, duration, withdrawal and termination. (J.S.)

  6. Collection of legislative and regulatory arrangements relative to radiation protection. Part 1: laws and decrees of the Public Health Code and Labour Code concerning the protection of populations, patients and workers against the risks of ionizing radiations; Recueil des dispositions legislatives et reglementaires relatives a la radioprotection. Partie 1: lois et decrets du code de la sante publique et du code du travail concernant la protection de la population, des patients et des travailleurs contre les dangers des rayonnements ionisants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-05-15

    This collection concerns on one hand the protection of the population and on the other hand the protection of the workers against ionizing radiations. As regards the protection of the populations, there is a quality control of waters, a control of the medical devices for the protection of patients. For the protection of the workers it is the employment law which serves as reference. (N.C.)

  7. EPR trademark project delivery. The value of experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leverenz, Ruediger

    2013-01-01

    We are building the EPR trademark reactor fleet. Together. With four EPR trademark projects under construction in the world, AREVA has unrivalled experience in the delivery of large-scale nuclear projects, including more than a thousand lessons learned captured from Olkiluoto 3 and Flamanville 3 projects. This book of knowledge as well as the return of experience of AREVA's and EDF's teams are now being fully leveraged on ongoing projects, especially on Flamanville 3 and Taishan, and will be incorporated in all future EPR TM projects.

  8. LA DONNA GIUDICE, INNOCENZO III E IL SISTEMA DEL DIRITTO COMUNE1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Minnucci

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This work illustrates the women’s juridical condition during the Middle Ages, with specific reference to their processual status. Despite the prohibitions contained in the Corpus iuris civilis and Decretum Gratiani, the jurists active from the second half of the 12th century to the beginning of the 13th century, allow the women’s exercise of judicial functions ex licentia principis or because of their personal status. With the decretal “Dilecti filii” of 4 November 1202, Innocent III recognizes the women’s potestas iudicandi et arbitrandi when it is exercised on the basis of a consuetudo approbata. The papal decretal and the thought of the jurists can be fully understood looking at the relationship between ius commune and iura propria, and give us the opportunity to reflect again about the system of the ius commune.

  9. Inquisitorial bulls : Ad Abolendam (1184 and Vergentis in Senium (1199

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Duarte Rust

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present two important medieval documents, the decretals Ad Abolendam (1184 and Vergentis in Senium (1199, in a bilingual edition, Latin-Portuguese. Usually described as "the founding texts of Inquisition", these bulls record the political scene at the end of the 12th century. Unpublished in Portuguese, the translation comes to public with a brief introductory text and some notes for historical information.

  10. Mortalité du tourteau Cancer pagurus provoquée par le dinoflagelle parasite : Hematodinium sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Latrouite, Daniel; Morizur, Yvon; Noel, Philippe; Chagot, Dominique; Wilhelm, G

    1988-01-01

    Suite à des mortalités hivernales inhabituelles, des recherches d'agent pathogène chez des tourteaux, Cancer pagurus, ont conduit à l'identification d'un dinoflagellé parasite du genre Hematodinium dans le sang de ces crustacés. Des tourteaux en provenance de divers secteurs de pêche (Manche, Iroise, Golfe de Gascogne, Ecosse) et de la zone intertidale de la Manche ont été examinés. Le parasite a été trouvé partout et quelle que soit la saison. Le taux d'infection serait plus faible au large ...

  11. Shallow land disposal, the french system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthoux, A.; Marque, Y.

    1986-01-01

    Since 1969, low and medium activity waste are disposed of in France at the Centre Manche. The management system set up covers the whole of the operations, from the sorting of the wastes and their conditioning to the final disposal. Safety standards and technical issues were found satisfactory by the National Safety Authority and they are the basis of the program for the realization of two new disposal sites which should take over from the Centre Manche loaded towards 1990. ANDRA, a National Agency, is responsible for the long term management of radioactive waste, in France [fr

  12. The nuclear in the Cotentin: a successful industrial adventure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatignol, C.

    1993-01-01

    The nuclear power plant of Flamanville did not be constructed without fighting, fears, but the ferocity of contestants reduced. The population accompanied the construction of this castle of nuclear era and its presence is estimated for public equipments it allowed (swimming-pools, sport grounds, tennis courts, colleges, schools, common rooms) and it will allow again

  13. Computerized hydraulic and thermal laboratory investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepetit, J.P.; Manoha, B.

    1981-02-01

    The paper presents the principles and capabilities of a computer controlled tank performed by the L.N.H. to assume an automatic reproduction of non steady currents. It gives a description of the tank and its equipment for model control, measurement and treatment of data; it shows an example of results obtained on the site of the Flamanville nuclear plant [fr

  14. France under a microscope - Nuclear power in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The first French nuclear power plant was built in 1956, but it was only after the 1970's oil shock that nuclear power gained an important place in the French energy sector. Planning Act 2005-781 of 13 July 2005 laying down French energy policy orientations confirmed that nuclear energy was to remain the primary source of electricity supply in France. The Act also encourages diversification of sources of electricity production through renewable energies (wind power, biomass) and the security of electricity supply from oil, gas and coal. Nuclear energy accounted for 78.4% of electricity production in France in 2006. French nuclear capacity includes 58 pressurized water reactors (PWRs) that produced 450 billion nuclear kilowatt-hours (kWh) in 2006, i.e. 78.4% of total electricity production which is of 574 billion kWh. The lifetime of a third of currently operating nuclear plants will end in around 2020 and, with a view to the renewal of its nuclear capacity, France is about to deploy new-generation reactors that meet requirements in terms of production, environmental protection and enhanced nuclear safety. In April 2007, France started building a third-generation EPR reactor at Flamanville in the Manche Department. The EPR is to be operational by 2012. France is also devoting research programmes to fourth generation reactor technology with a view to those reactors being operational by 2040. There are a number of reasons for choosing nuclear power: it enables France to ensure its national energy independence (France imports less than 50% of its energy resources) and environmental protection (France is one of the European countries which emits the least greenhouse gases) at a stable and competitive price. Decree 2008-378 of 21 April 2008 instituted a council on nuclear policy presided by the President of the Republic. The council will define the broad lines of nuclear policy and monitor their implementation, particularly with regard to exports and international

  15. Press book presentation progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-07-01

    This document presents four french sites of the ANDRA concerning the radioactive waste disposal. The concerned site are the underground research laboratory of Meuse/Haute-Marne, the Aube Center, the TFA Center and the Manche Center. For each sites, data and information on the geophysics, the capacity, the management or the research programs are analysed. (A.L.B.)

  16. Nitrogen uptake by size-fractionated plankton in permanently well-mixed temperate coastal waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wafar, M.V.M.; L'Helguen, S.; Raikar, V.; Maguernd, J.-F.; Le Corre, P.

    ’absorption de l’azote dans un syste`me brasse´ peu profound (Manche occidentale). Oceanol. Acta., 19, 529–537. Malone, T. C. (1980) Algal size. In Morris, I. (ed.), The Physiological Ecology of Phytoplankton. Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 433–463. Platt, T. and Li, W...

  17. Marketing in der Postmoderne

    OpenAIRE

    Löbler, Helge

    2017-01-01

    Das Marketing befindet sich in einem fundamentalen Umbruch. Es entwickelt sich von einem modernen Verständnis zu einer postmodernen Arena. Wer das postmoderne Marketing nicht versteht und nicht anwendet, wird definitiv ins Hintertreffen geraten. Dies zeigt sich bereits heute, da manche Unternehmen sehr erfolgreich in das postmoderne Marketing eingetreten sind. Wodurch zeichnet sich nun das postmoderne Marketing aus?

  18. Food supply from Tauric Chersonesos. Products and Transportation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čechová, Martina

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2013), s. 73-80 ISSN 1436-3372. [Annual conference on underwater archaeology of the DEGUWA IN POSEIDON’S REALM XVIII. Manching, 15.03.2013-17.03.2013] Institutional support: RVO:68378017 Keywords : Crimea * Antiquity * Food Supply * Chersonesos * Byzantium Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  19. The storage center of short life low and intermediate level radioactive wastes; Le centre de stockage des dechets de faible et moyenne activite a vie courte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Situated at 50 km of Troyes, the Aube Center was opened in 1992 in order to take over from the Manche Center, for the surface storage of low life low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. It offers an answer to manage safely theses wastes at an industrial scale during 50 years. (A.L.B.)

  20. Champagne for France's second low level [radioactive] waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevrier, G.P.

    1992-01-01

    Located in the southern Champagne region, France's new million m 3 low level radioactive waste near surface repository, the Centre de l'Aube, will by 1995 completely take over from the country's first repository, Centre de la Manche (capacity 500 000 m 3 ), which has been operating since 1969. The design of the repository is described. (Author)

  1. Champagne for France's second low level [radioactive] waste disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevrier, G P [ANDRA, Fontenay aux Roses (France)

    1992-10-01

    Located in the southern Champagne region, France's new million m[sup 3] low level radioactive waste near surface repository, the Centre de l'Aube, will by 1995 completely take over from the country's first repository, Centre de la Manche (capacity 500 000 m[sup 3]), which has been operating since 1969. The design of the repository is described. (Author).

  2. Decree no. 2005-78 from January 26, 2005, authorizing the Atomic Energy Commission to proceed to the definitive shutdown and dismantling operations of the nuclear facility no.20, named Siloe reactor, in the Grenoble city territory (Isere); Decret no. 2005-78 du 26 janvier 2005, autorisant le Commissariat a l'energie atomique a proceder aux operations de mise a l'arret definitif et de demantelement de l'installation nucleaire de base no.20 denommee reacteur Siloe sur le territoire de la commune de Grenoble (Isere)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-02-15

    On March 19, 2003, the French atomic energy commission (CEA) addressed an authorization demand for the definitive shutdown and dismantling of the Siloe reactor. After a technical and administrative instruction of this demand by the French nuclear safety authority (ASN), a project of decree has been presented on July 6, 2004 at the permanent section of the inter-ministry commission of basic nuclear facilities. The commission gave its favourable judgment which is the object of this decree. (J.S.)

  3. Decree no. 2004-48 from January 12, 2004 authorizing the French atomic energy commission to proceed to the definitive decommissioning and dismantling operations of the nuclear facility no. 43, named Saclay linear accelerator (ALS), on the territory of Saint-Aubin town (Essonne); Decret no. 2004-48 du 12 janvier 2004 autorisant le Commissariat a l'energie atomique a proceder aux operations de mise a l'arret definitif et de demantelement de l'installation nucleaire de base no. 43 denommee accelerateur lineaire de Saclay (ALS) sur le territoire de la Commune de Saint-Aubin (Essonne)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-01-01

    The linear accelerator of Saclay (ALS) has been the object of a commissioning permission given by decree by the French prime minister in October 8, 1965. It is submitted to the regime of basic nuclear facilities as defined in the decree no. 63-1228 from December 11, 1963. The French atomic energy commission (CEA) put down a request for the definitive decommissioning and dismantling of this facility on May 30, 2002. The duration foreseen for these operations is of 4 years. After the safety examination of the request by the DGSNR and the institute of radioprotection and nuclear safety (IRSN), a favorable and conformable advice has been given by the different ministries (health, finances and industry, ecology and sustainable development) and has led to this decree which precises the different protection measures to be implemented during the dismantling work. (J.S.)

  4. Decree no. 2005-79 from January 26, 2005, authorizing the Atomic Energy Commission to proceed to the definitive shutdown and dismantling operations of the nuclear facility no.21, named Siloette research reactor, in the Grenoble city territory (Isere); Decret no. 2005-79 du 26 janvier 2005, autorisant le Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique a proceder aux operations de mise a l'arret definitif et de demantelement de l'installation nucleaire de base no.21 denommee reacteur de recherche Siloette sur le territoire de la commune de Grenoble (Isere)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-02-15

    On May 26, 2003, the French atomic energy commission (CEA) addressed an authorization demand for the definitive shutdown and dismantling of the Siloette research reactor. After a technical and administrative instruction of this demand by the French nuclear safety authority (ASN), a project of decree has been presented on July 6, 2004 at the permanent section of the inter-ministry commission of basic nuclear facilities. The commission gave its favourable judgment which is the object of this decree. (J.S.)

  5. Model of contract of purchase of the electric power produced by methanation, and benefiting from the electricity purchase obligation. Established after enforcement of the article 5 of the decree from May 10, 2001 and approved by the minister attended to electric power; Modele de contrat d'achat de l'energie electrique produite par methanisation, et beneficiant de l'obligation d'achat d'electricite. Etablie en application de l'article 5 du decret du 10 mai 2001 et approuve par le Ministre charge de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This model of contract comprises 2 parts. The first part describes the general conditions of electric power purchase: aim of the contract, connection to the grid and delivery point, producer's facility, reciprocal commitments and stoppages for maintenance purpose, energy and power metering and control, energy delivery, payment for the purchased power (tariffs, energy efficiency incentives, conditions, control, tariffs indexing), taxes, payments, contract enforcement, date line, suspension, modification or cancellation, conciliation in case of dispute. A recall of the tariffs mentioned in the by-law from April 16, 2002, of the approximation rules and some models of certificates are given in appendixes. The second part gives some complements to the general conditions (purchaser and producer corporate, characteristics of the facility, details about the connection and delivery point, description of the metering system, tariffs of purchase and indexing, payment of bills, contract characteristics, subscription for a power supply contract). (J.S.)

  6. Model of contract of purchase of the electric power produced by cogeneration facilities and benefiting from the electricity purchase obligation. Established after enforcement of the article 5 of the decree from May 10, 2001 and approved by the minister attended to energy; Modele de contrat d'achat de l'energie electrique produite par les installations de cogeneration et beneficiant de l'obligation d'achat d'electricite. Etablie en application de l'article 5 du decret du 10 mai 2001 et approuve par le Ministre charge de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This model of contract comprises 3 parts. The first part describes the general conditions of electric power purchase: aim of the contract, connection to the grid and delivery point, producer's facility, reciprocal commitments and stoppages for maintenance purpose, energy and power metering and control, tariffing periods and energy delivery, payment for the purchased power (tariffs, energy efficiency incentives, conditions, controls, tariffs indexing), taxes, payments, contract enforcement, date line, suspension, modification or cancellation, conciliation in case of dispute. A recall of the tariffs mentioned in the by-law from July 31, 2001, of the approximation rules and a model of certificate are given in appendixes. The second part gives some complements to the general conditions (purchaser and producer corporate, characteristics of the facility, details about the connection and delivery point, description of the metering system, tariffs of purchase and indexing, payment of bills, contract characteristics, subscription for a power supply contract). The third part is an additional clause concerning the operation and tariffs of purchase when the cogeneration facility is in a dispatch mode. (J.S.)

  7. Decree no. 2002-447 of the 27 march 2002 authorizing the Normandy society of preserve and sterilization to realize definitive shutdowns and dismantling operations of the nuclear installation no. 152 situated on the territory of Osmanville (Calvados); Decret no. 2002-447 du 27 mars 2002 autorisant le Societe normande de conserve et sterilisation a proceder aux operations de mise a l'arret definitif et de demantelement de l'installation nucleaire de base no. 152 situee sur le territoire de la commune d'Osmanville (Calvados)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The decree presents the shutdown preliminary obligations, the installation quality, the prevention of radioactivity dissemination risk, the workers protection, the wastes management, the fire prevention. (A.L.B.)

  8. Decree no. 2001-1199 of the 10 december 2001 publishing the resolution MSC. 88 (71) notifying adoption of the international compilation of safety rules for the spent nuclear fuels, plutonium and high level radioactive wastes transport in casks on ships (compilation INF) (annexes), adopted at London the 27 may 1999; Decret no. 2001-1199 du 10 decembre 2001 portant publication de la resolution MSC.88 (71) portant adoption du recueil international de regles de securite pour le transport de combustible nucleaire irradie, de plutonium et de dechets hautement radioactifs en colis a bord de navires (recueil INF) (ensemble une annexe), adoptee a Londres le 27 mai 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This legislative text concerns the safety rules of spent nuclear fuels, plutonium and high level radioactive wastes transport, in casks on ships. Rules, fire prevention, temperature control of casks, electric supply, radioprotection, management and emergency plans are detailed. (A.L.B.)

  9. Deliberations of the 29. of December 2010 bearing opinion of the order project setting electricity purchase conditions; Deliberation du 29 decembre 2010 portant avis sur le projet d'arrete fixant les conditions d'achat de l'electricite produite par les installations utilisant a titre principal l'energie degagee par la combustion de matieres non fossiles d'origine vegetale ou animale telles que visees au 4 de l'article 2 du decret n 2000-1196 du 6 decembre 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This document reports deliberations of the Energy Regulation Commission about purchase conditions of electricity produced by installations using mainly the energy released by the combustion of vegetal or animal non fossil materials. As this project aims at decreasing by 3,6% the current purchase tariffs, this document discusses the profitability analysis of projects of more than 5 MW for which the projected decrease still leaves some profitability margin. It comments the case of projects from 1 to 5 MW aimed at supplying sawmills with heat, comments the possible adoption of a winter-summer pricing principle and the impact of the tariff structure on public service expenses

  10. Decree of January 11, 2016 bearing homologation of the decision nr 2015-DC-0536 by the Nuclear Safety Authority of December 22, 2015 defining threshold values of releases in the environment of liquid and gaseous effluents from base nuclear installations nr 33 (UP2-400), 38 (STE2 et AT1), 47 (ELAN II B), 80 (HAO), 116 (UP3-A), 117 (UP2-800) and 118 (STE3 effluent processing station) exploited by AREVA NC on the La Hague site (Manche district)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortureux, M.

    2016-01-01

    After having mentioned the various related and reference legal texts, this legal publication specifies the various threshold values which must be applied to liquid and gaseous releases of nuclear installations located in La Hague for a better control and management of pollutions and of the impact of these installations on the environment. Threshold values are thus specified for various compounds and species, and the document also mentions AREVA's publications which indicate the actual release levels and state that these levels are within the accepted limits

  11. Pressurized water reactors: the EPR project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Py, J.P.; Yvon, M.

    2007-01-01

    EPR (originally 'European pressurized water reactor', and now 'evolutionary power reactor') is a model of reactor initially jointly developed by French and German engineers which fulfills the particular safety specifications of both countries but also the European utility requirements jointly elaborated by the main European power companies under the initiative of Electricite de France (EdF). Today, two EPR-based reactors are under development: one is under construction in Finland and the other, Flamanville 3 (France), received its creation permit decree on April 10, 2007. This article presents, first, the main objectives of the EPR, and then, describes the Flamanville 3 reactor: reactor type and general conditions, core and conditions of operation, primary and secondary circuits with their components, main auxiliary and recovery systems, man-machine interface and instrumentation and control system, confinement and serious accidents, arrangement of buildings. (J.S.)

  12. [Secret drug tribulations and French legislation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlot, Colette

    2002-01-01

    From an official Montpellier prefecture paper of 18th century, we are interested in a secret drug from Provence origin: the Irroë powder. This purgative will pass from "secret" drug status to "patent" drug. It's notoriety will come from its arrival to Paris. The law of 21th germinal year XI, the decret of 25 prairial year XIII and this of 18th 1810 imposed to give the drug composition to an official status; that examined and permit it's sale. This secret will be produce for half century.

  13. Consciència de la higiène urbana en una Barcelona ofegada

    OpenAIRE

    el Haddad, Marie

    2017-01-01

    El Casc Antic de Barcelona va patir de sobrepoblació, congestió i diversos brots epidèmics fets que van augmentar la vigilància i preocupació per la higiene urbana. Un dels primers intents va començar quan Carles III i Carles IV van emetre reials decrets relatius a l'exhumació dels cementiris. El primer va prohibir de l'enterrament al costat de esglésies i hospitals i va imposar la conversió dels existents en places públiques, i el segon va permetre la construcció de cementiris extramurs llun...

  14. Zeitspiel ist keine Alternative - Warum der Wandel zur Pflicht wird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieper, Stephan

    "Wege entstehen dadurch, dass man sie geht." (Franz Kafka) Die Welt der Digitalisierung ist voll von Wegen, die jemand gegangen ist, bevor dort ein Weg war. Manche dieser Wege stellten sich als Sackgasse heraus, manche als Abkürzung und aus anderen wurden ganze Wegenetze und Städte. Die Energiewelt wird durch den digitalen Wandel nicht verschont bleiben. Durch die intelligenten Messsysteme und die zugehörigen, neuen Strukturen werden energiefremden Wettbewerbern Chancen zum Markteintritt eröffnet. EVUs müssen sich darauf einstellen, dass der permanente Wandel nicht mehr enden wird. Doch auch den EVUs eröffnen sich Optionen. Um erfolgreich zu sein, müssen sie lernen loszugehen, ohne das genaue Ziel zu kennen.

  15. Evaluation of health impact of cans and cladding from fuel processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pages, P.; Lombard, J.

    1989-10-01

    Radiological impact related to exposure of workers during processing of tubes and cladding was based on data related to processing of 600 tons of uranium per year. Two reprocessing options were taken into account: processing by fusion and by cementation. Data are given for different posts. Apart from professional exposure data are given for public exposure. Two possible site were treated: reprocessing plant at the river bank (Rhone) or on the sea coast. (Manche)

  16. THE FIRST DETERMINATION OF THE VISCOSITY PARAMETER IN THE CIRCUMSTELLAR DISK OF A Be STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carciofi, Alex C.; Bjorkman, Jon E.; Haubois, Xavier [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao 1226, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Otero, Sebastian A. [American Association of Variable Star Observers, 49 Bay State Road, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Okazaki, Atsuo T. [Faculty of Engineering, Hokkai-Gakuen University, Toyohira-ku, Sapporo 062-8605 (Japan); Stefl, Stanislav; Rivinius, Thomas [European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile); Baade, Dietrich, E-mail: carciofi@usp.br, E-mail: jon@physics.utoledo.edu [European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, 85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    Be stars possess gaseous circumstellar decretion disks, which are well described using standard {alpha}-disk theory. The Be star 28 CMa recently underwent a long outburst followed by a long period of quiescence, during which the disk dissipated. Here we present the first time-dependent models of the dissipation of a viscous decretion disk. By modeling the rate of decline of the V-band excess, we determine that the viscosity parameter {alpha} = 1.0 {+-} 0.2, corresponding to a mass injection rate M-dot =(3.5{+-}1.3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. Such a large value of {alpha} suggests that the origin of the turbulent viscosity is an instability in the disk whose growth is limited by shock dissipation. The mass injection rate is more than an order of magnitude larger than the wind mass-loss rate inferred from UV observations, implying that the mass injection mechanism most likely is not the stellar wind, but some other mechanism.

  17. Disruption of circumstellar discs by large-scale stellar magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    ud-Doula, Asif; Owocki, Stanley P.; Kee, Nathaniel Dylan

    2018-05-01

    Spectropolarimetric surveys reveal that 8-10% of OBA stars harbor large-scale magnetic fields, but thus far no such fields have been detected in any classical Be stars. Motivated by this, we present here MHD simulations for how a pre-existing Keplerian disc - like that inferred to form from decretion of material from rapidly rotating Be stars - can be disrupted by a rotation-aligned stellar dipole field. For characteristic stellar and disc parameters of a near-critically rotating B2e star, we find that a polar surface field strength of just 10 G can significantly disrupt the disc, while a field of 100 G, near the observational upper limit inferred for most Be stars, completely destroys the disc over just a few days. Our parameter study shows that the efficacy of this magnetic disruption of a disc scales with the characteristic plasma beta (defined as the ratio between thermal and magnetic pressure) in the disc, but is surprisingly insensitive to other variations, e.g. in stellar rotation speed, or the mass loss rate of the star's radiatively driven wind. The disc disruption seen here for even a modest field strength suggests that the presumed formation of such Be discs by decretion of material from the star would likely be strongly inhibited by such fields; this provides an attractive explanation for why no large-scale fields are detected from such Be stars.

  18. Model of purchase contract of the electric power produced by installations which valorize the domestic wastes or equivalent, at the exception of the installations using biogas, and subjected to the electric power purchase obligation. Established in the application of the article 5 from the decree of the 10 may 2001 and approved by the ministry charged with the electric power; Modele de contrat d'achat de l'energie electrique produite par les installations qui valorisent des dechets menagers ou assimiles, a l'exception des installations utilisant du biogaz, et beneficiant l'obligation d'achat d'electricite. Etablie en application de l'article 5 du decret du 10 mai 2001 et approuve par le Ministre charge de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The text of the contract is provided presenting the general conditions and specific conditions adapted to the installation characteristics of the electric power producer: contract object, connecting to the public network, producer installation, reciprocal agreements, measure and control of the energy and power, tariffs periods, price of the bought energy, taxes, payments, contract management, validity, suspension modification or avoidance of the contract. (A.L.B.)

  19. Notice of the Electric Power Control Commission at the 1 february 2001 on the decree concerning the information confidentiality held by the public networks of transportation or electric power distribution, taking into account for the application of the 16 and 20 sections of the law number 2000-108 of the 20 february 2000 related to the modernization and the development of the electrical utilities; Avis de la Commission de regulation de l'electricite en date du 1 fevrier 2001 sur le decret relatif a la confidentialite des informations detenues par les gestionnaires de reseaux publics de transport ou de distribution d'electricite pris pour l'application des articles 16 et 20 de la loi no 2000-108 du 20 fevrier 2000 relative a la modernisation et au developpement du service public de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This document presents the decree concerning the information confidentiality held by the public networks of transportation or electric power distribution, taking into account for the application of the 16 and 20 sections of the law number 2000-108 of the 20 february 2000 related to the modernization and the development of the electrical utilities and a comment of this decree by J. Syrota. (A.L.B.)

  20. Model of contract of purchase of the electric power produced by facilities that use the mechanical energy of the wind, and benefiting from the electricity purchase obligation. Established after enforcement of the article 5 of the decree from May 10, 2001 and approved by the minister attended to energy; Modele de contrat d'achat de l'energie electrique produite par les installations utilisant l'energie mecanique du vent et beneficiant l'obligation d'achat d'electricite. Etablie en application de l'article 5 du decret du 10 mai 2001 et approuve par le Ministre charge de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This model of contract comprises 2 parts. The first part describes the general conditions of electric power purchase: aim of the contract, connection to the grid and delivery point, producer's facility, reciprocal commitments and stoppages for maintenance purpose, energy and power metering and control, energy delivery, payment for the purchased power (tariffs, energy efficiency incentives, conditions, control, tariffs indexing), taxes, payments, contract enforcement, date line, suspension, modification or cancellation, conciliation in case of dispute. A recall of the tariffs mentioned in the by-law from June 8, 2001, of the approximation rules and a model of certificate are given in appendixes. The second part gives some complements to the general conditions (purchaser and producer corporate, characteristics of the facility, details about the connection and delivery point, description of the metering system, tariffs of purchase and indexing, payment of bills, contract characteristics, subscription for a power supply contract). (J.S.)

  1. Model of contract of purchase of the electric power produced by facilities that use the radiant energy of the sun and benefiting from the electricity purchase obligation. Established after enforcement of the article 5 of the decree from May 10, 2001 and approved by the minister attended to energy; Modele de contrat d'achat de l'energie electrique produite par les installations utilisant l'energie radiative du soleil et beneficiant de l'obligation d'achat d'electricite. Etablie en application de l'article 5 du decret du 10 mai 2001 et approuve par le Ministre charge de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This model of contract comprises 3 parts. The first part describes the general conditions of electric power purchase: aim of the contract, connection to the grid and delivery point, producer's facility, reciprocal commitments and stoppages for maintenance purpose, energy and power metering and control, energy delivery, payment for the purchased power (payment and payment indexing), taxes, payments, contract enforcement, date line, suspension, modification or cancellation, conciliation in case of dispute. A recall of the tariffs mentioned in the by-law from March 13, 2002, of the approximation rules and a model of certificate are given in appendixes. The second part gives some complements to the general conditions (purchaser and producer corporate, characteristics of the facility, details about the connection and delivery point, description of the metering system, tariffs of purchase and indexing, payment of bills, contract characteristics, subscription for a power supply contract). The third part is a model of contract for low voltage photovoltaic facilities. (J.S.)

  2. Model of contract of purchase of the electric power produced by facilities that use the energy of aquifers or of underground rocks and benefiting from the electricity purchase obligation. Established after enforcement of the article 5 of the decree from May 10, 2001 and approved by the minister attended to electricity; Modele de contrat d'achat de l'energie electrique produite par les installations utilisant l'energie des nappes aquiferes ou des roches souterraines et beneficiant de l'obligation d'achat d'electricite. Etablie en application de l'article 5 du decret du 10 mai 2001 et approuve par le Ministre charge de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This model of contract comprises 2 parts. The first part describes the general conditions of electric power purchase: aim of the contract, connection to the grid and delivery point, producer's facility, reciprocal commitments and stoppages for maintenance purpose, energy and power metering and control, energy delivery, payment for the purchased power (payment and payment indexing), taxes, payments, contract enforcement, date line, suspension, modification or cancellation, conciliation in case of dispute. A recall of the tariffs mentioned in the by-law from March 13, 2002, of the approximation rules and a model of certificate are given in appendixes. The second part gives some complements to the general conditions (purchaser and producer corporate, characteristics of the facility, details about the connection and delivery point, description of the metering system, tariffs of purchase and indexing, payment of bills, contract characteristics, subscription for a power supply contract). (J.S.)

  3. Model of purchase contract of the electric power produced by installations which eliminate the crude or transformed animal wastes, and subjected to the electric power purchase obligation. Established in the application of the article 5 from the decree of the 10 may 2001 and approved by the ministry charged with the electric power; Modele de contrat d'achat de l'energie electrique produite par les installations qui eliminent des dechets animaux bruts ou transformes, et beneficiant l'obligation d'achat d'electricite. Etablie en application de l'article 5 du decret du 10 mai 2001 et approuve par le Ministre charge de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The text of the contract is provided presenting the general conditions and specific conditions adapted to the installation characteristics of the electric power producer: contract object, connecting to the public network, producer installation, reciprocal agreements, measure and control of the energy and power, tariffs periods, price of the bought energy, taxes, payments, contract management, validity, suspension modification or avoidance of the contract. (A.L.B.)

  4. Model of contract of purchase of the electric power produced by small facilities with a power lower or equal to 36 kVA and benefiting from the electricity purchase obligation. Established after enforcement of the article 5 of the decree from May 10, 2001 and approved by the minister attended to energy; Modele de contrat d'achat de l'energie electrique produite par les petites installations d'une puissance inferieure ou egale a 36 KVA et beneficiant de l'obligation d'achat d'electricite. Etablie en application de l'article 5 du decret du 10 mai 2001 et approuve par le Ministre charge de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This model of contract comprises 3 parts. The first part describes the general conditions of electric power purchase: aim of the contract, connection to the grid and delivery point, producer's facility, reciprocal commitments and stoppages for maintenance purpose, energy and power metering and control, energy delivery, payment for the purchased power (payment and payment indexing), taxes, payments, contract enforcement, date line, suspension, modification or cancellation, conciliation in case of dispute. A recall of the tariffs mentioned in the by-law from March 13, 2002, of the approximation rules and some models of certificates are given in appendixes. The second part gives some complements to the general conditions (purchaser and producer corporate, characteristics of the facility, details about the connection and delivery point, description of the metering system, tariffs of purchase and indexing, payment of bills, contract characteristics, subscription for a power supply contract). The third part is a model of contract for low voltage facilities. (J.S.)

  5. Model of purchase contract of the electric power produced by installations which use mainly the energy given by the combustion of non fossil matters of vegetable extraction, and subjected to the electric power purchase obligation. Established in the application of the article 5 from the decree of the 10 may 2001 and approved by the ministry charged with the electric power; Modele de contrat d'achat de l'energie electrique produite par les installations utilisant, a titre principal, l'energie degagee par la combustion de matieres non fossiles d'origine vegetale et beneficiant l'obligation d'achat d'electricite. Etablie en application de l'article 5 du decret du 10 mai 2001 et approuve par le Ministre charge de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The text of the contract is provided presenting the general conditions and specific conditions adapted to the installation characteristics of the electric power producer: contract object, connecting to the public network, producer installation, reciprocal agreements, measure and control of the energy and power, tariffs periods, price of the bought energy, taxes, payments, contract management, validity, suspension modification or avoidance of the contract. (A.L.B.)

  6. Model of purchase contract of the electric power produced by installations using the hydraulic energy of lakes, rivers and seas and subjected to the electric power purchase obligation. Established in the application of the article 5 from the decree of the 10 may 2001 and approved by the ministry charged with the electric power; Modele de contrat d'achat de l'energie electrique produite par les installations utilisant l'energie hydraulique des lacs, cours d'eau et mers et beneficiant l'obligation d'achat d'electricite. Etablie en application de l'article 5 du decret du 10 mai 2001 et approuve par le Ministre charge de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The text of the contract is provided presenting the general conditions and specific conditions adapted to the installation characteristics of the electric power producer: contract object, connecting to the public network, producer installation, reciprocal agreements, measure and control of the energy and power, tariffs periods, price of the bought energy, taxes, payments, contract management, validity, suspension modification or avoidance of the contract. (A.L.B.)

  7. The State regains control of Areva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupin, Ludovic

    2014-01-01

    This article first gives an overview of problems faced by Areva during the past years: financial losses, new delay for the Finnish EPR and for the French one in Flamanville, delay for the construction of the Jules Horowitz reactor, bad investments, high expenses in offshore wind energy and solar energy. The second part comments the decision taken by the government for a closer relationship between Areva and EDF, the perspectives for Areva associated with the extension of French reactor lifetime, new orientation of activities and definition of a new strategy for Areva

  8. The mechanical vapour compression process applied to seawater desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murat, F.; Tabourier, B.

    1984-01-01

    The authors present the mechanical vapour compression process applied to sea water desalination. As an example, the paper presents the largest unit so far constructed by SIDEM using this process : a 1,500 m3/day unit installed in the Nuclear Power Plant of Flamanville in France which supplies a high quality process water to that plant. The authors outline the advantages of this process and present also the serie of mechanical vapour compression unit that SIDEM has developed in a size range in between 25 m3/day and 2,500 m3/day

  9. Entre Viena y Tucumán. Las paradojas de la emancipación Argentina 1814-1820

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Gallo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo se centra en las paradojas del proceso de independencia argentina. Cuando el mencionado país decretó su separación definitiva del Imperio Español en 1816, declaró el sistema republicano de gobierno a pesar de estar gestionando al mismo tiempo la alternativa monárquica. Esto fue claramente puesto en evidencia durante las sesiones del Congreso de Tucumán, donde se declaró formalmente la  independencia, cuando Manuel Belgrano presentó un proyecto de monarquía bajo el reinado de un descendiente inca. Hasta qué punto estos proyectos monárquicos se debieron al contexto europeo pos-napoleónico, y ala turbulenta situación política interna, es lo que se busca explicar en este trabajo

  10. NGC 1866: First Spectroscopic Detection of Fast-rotating Stars in a Young LMC Cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupree, A. K.; Dotter, A.; Johnson, C. I. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Marino, A. F.; Milone, A. P. [Australian National University, The Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Mount Stromlo Observatory, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Bailey, J. I. III [Leiden Observatory, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands); Crane, J. D. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Mateo, M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Olszewski, E. W. [The University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2017-09-01

    High-resolution spectroscopic observations were taken of 29 extended main-sequence turnoff (eMSTO) stars in the young (∼200 Myr) Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) cluster, NGC 1866, using the Michigan/ Magellan Fiber System and MSpec spectrograph on the Magellan -Clay 6.5 m telescope. These spectra reveal the first direct detection of rapidly rotating stars whose presence has only been inferred from photometric studies. The eMSTO stars exhibit H α emission (indicative of Be-star decretion disks), others have shallow broad H α absorption (consistent with rotation ≳150 km s{sup −1}), or deep H α core absorption signaling lower rotation velocities (≲150 km s{sup −1}). The spectra appear consistent with two populations of stars—one rapidly rotating, and the other, younger and slowly rotating.

  11. DE TESTIBUS TRACTATURI: A LATE TWELFTH-CENTURY ITALIAN CANONISTIC TREATISE ON LEGAL PROCEDURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce C. Brasington

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available De testibus tractaturi, an unedited late twelfth-century, southern Italian treatise, draws on both Gratian’s Decretum and decretals of Pope Alexander III to consider question concerning witnesses. It may also be influenced to some degree by the Summa of Simon of Bisignano. There is no evidence of any reliance on civilian authors. In considering the exceptio contra personam testis, it raises the question of whether testimony given by a witness who later died before trial remained valid. This subject is rarely treated in the early canonistic ordines iudiciorum. The author’s application of a letter of Alexander III to Bishop Roger of Worchester (JL 13162 to this question appears to be unusual, perhaps unique, and sheds light on how the early ius commune evaluated evidence.

  12. Compras corporativas estatales: el regalo guardado en el armario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Hernández Diez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Las compras corporativas son una modalidad de selección incorporada en el TUO del Reglamente de la Ley de Contratacione, aprobada mediente el decret supremo 084-2004-PCM, y que tiene como antecedente la ley de Presupuesto del año 2003. Tiene entre una de sus principalescaracterísticas a la demanda agregada, un acto mediante el que se recoge la decisión de efctuarla. Se trata de un proceso único, a cargo de una sola entidad. Son ventajas de las compras corporativas obtener menores precios en los bienes o servicios que se desean adquirir o contratar, pues permiten una adecuanda racionalización de los recursos, facilitan la supervisión de los procesos y le dan un mayor valor agregado al dinero del Estado, ya que se podrá adquirir-por el mismo precio-una mayor cantidad de bienes en mejores condiciones para la entidad.

  13. Conversion of nuclear power plants into natural gas plant: dismaking the disinformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima Porto, M.S.P. de.

    1990-05-01

    This work was presented by the Brasilian Nuclear Energy Association - ABEN during the meeting of May 9th of the GT Pronen-Grupo de trabalho do Programa Nacional de Energia Nuclear created by the decret 99194 of March 27, 90. The political subject named convertion of nuclear power plants into natural gas plants is analysed. The conclusion calls for the total technical impossibility of such 'convertion'. The term reconstruction is sugested in substitution to the term convertion. Complete and actual data with figures of the reconstruction, in USA, of the Midland units I and II is presented. The case of Montalto Di Castro plant, in Italy, where no work at all was performed is analysed. Considerations concerning the use of natural gas in the brasilian energy matrix is also presented. (author)

  14. Periodicities in the high-mass X-ray binary system RXJ0146.9+6121/LSI+61°235

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarty, Gordon E.; Kiss, László L.; Huziak, Richard; Catalan, Lionel J. J.; Luciuk, Diane; Crawford, Timothy R.; Lane, David J.; Pickard, Roger D.; Grzybowski, Thomas A.; Closas, Pere; Johnston, Helen; Balam, David; Wu, Kinwah

    2009-01-01

    The high-mass X-ray binary RXJ0146.9+6121, with optical counterpart LSI+61°235 (V831Cas), is an intriguing system on the outskirts of the open cluster NGC663. It contains the slowest Be type X-ray pulsar known with a pulse period of around 1400s and, primarily from the study of variation in the emission line profile of Hα, it is known to have a Be decretion disc with a one-armed density wave period of approximately 1240d. Here we present the results of an extensive photometric campaign, supplemented with optical spectroscopy, aimed at measuring short time-scale periodicities. We find three significant periodicities in the photometric data at, in order of statistical significance, 0.34, 0.67 and 0.10d. We give arguments to support the interpretation that the 0.34 and 0.10d periods could be due to stellar oscillations of the B-type primary star and that the 0.67d period is the spin period of the Be star with a spin axis inclination of 23+10-8 degrees. We measured a systemic velocity of -37.0 +/- 4.3kms-1 confirming that LSI+61°235 has a high probability of membership in the young cluster NGC663 from which the system's age can be estimated as 20-25Myr. From archival RXTE All Sky Monitor (ASM) data we further find `super' X-ray outbursts roughly every 450d. If these super outbursts are caused by the alignment of the compact star with the one-armed decretion disc enhancement, then the orbital period is approximately 330d.

  15. Plädoyer für eine Re-Lektüre feministischer Texte vor der ‚Butlermania‘

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Maurer

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Eine wesentliche Botschaft der Textsammlung von Christiane Schmerl lautet, dass es eine mehr als unglückliche Verkürzung sei, feministischen Texten vor Judith Butlers Gender Trouble vorzuhalten, sie würden ‚Geschlecht‘ einfach nur ‚reifizieren‘. Damit – so eine Quintessenz – schneiden sich heutige Kritiken von ihrer eigenen Geschichte ab. Die Lektüre des Bandes von Christiane Schmerl zeigt, dass manche aktuellen Texte hinter ein bereits erreichtes Niveau feministischer Reflexion(smöglichkeiten oftmals zurückfallen.

  16. IRSN-ANCCLI partnership. IRSN-ANCCLI seminar - Safety challenges after the Fukushima accident - January 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compagnat, Gilles; Revol, H.; Rousselet, Yannick; Sene, Monique; Lheureux, Yves; Laurent, Michel; Lavarenne, Caroline; Jorel, M.; Houdre, Thomas; Lachaume, Jean-Luc

    2012-01-01

    After a synthesis, this document contains the contributions (Power Point presentations) of a seminar which addressed the following topics: remarks by the HCTISN on the process of complementary safety assessments, analysis and discussion by the GSIEN on reports of complementary assessment of safety of nuclear installations with respect to the Fukushima accident, opinion of the Gravelines local information commission (CLI) on the complementary safety assessment report for the Gravelines nuclear power plant, stage point of the Manche INTERCLI work-group on the safety of nuclear installations after Fukushima, presentation by the IRSN of the complementary safety assessments, and opinion of the ASN on complementary safety assessments (ECS) of priority nuclear installations

  17. IRSN-ANCCLI partnership. ANCCLI-IRSN seminar: Safety challenges after the Fukushima accident - September 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compagnat, Gilles; Laurent, Michel; Baumont, David; Rebour, Vincent; Quentin, Pascal

    2011-09-01

    Presented under the form of Power Point presentations, the contributions of this seminar proposed: a presentation by the ASN of the French context and of what is at stake with the complementary safety assessments of the French nuclear power plants, a report of the activities the three local information commissions of the Manche district within the context created by the Fukushima accident, and discussions by IRSN experts of the main safety challenges related to seismic hazard (discussion of the robustness of nuclear installations in this respect), to flooding (risk assessment), to a loss of cooling systems and loss of electric supplies, and to crisis management. Finally, a synthesis of the seminar is proposed

  18. The low to intermediate activity and short living waste storage facility. For a controlled management of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Sited at about 50 km of Troyes (France), the Aube facility started in 1992 and has taken over the Manche facility for the surface storage of low to intermediate and short living radioactive wastes. The Aube facility (named CSFMA) is the answer to the safe management of these wastes at the industrial scale and for 50 years onward. This brochure presents the facility specifications, the wastes stored at the center, the surface storage concept, the processing and conditioning of waste packages, and the environmental monitoring performed in the vicinity of the site. (J.S.)

  19. Nauji duomenys apie B. Vilento literatūrinę veiklą

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Kabelka

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available NEUE ANGABEN ÜBER DIE LITERARISCHE  TÄTIGKEIT B. WILLENT'S(ZusammenfassungIm Aufsatz wird ein Brief der Witwe Willent's (Urtext in deutscher Sprache und seine litauische Übersetzung mit Erläuterungen angeführt. Aus dem Briefe stellt sich heraus, dass Willent neben schon bekannten Werken auch die grössere Hälfte der Postilla von Veit Dietrich ins Litauische übersetzt hat.Der Brief trägt manches zur Ergänzung der Biographie B. Willent's bei.

  20. The low to intermediate activity and short living waste storage facility. For a controlled management of radioactive wastes; Le centre de stockage des dechets de faible et moyenne activite a vie courte. Pour une gestion controlee des dechets radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Sited at about 50 km of Troyes (France), the Aube facility started in 1992 and has taken over the Manche facility for the surface storage of low to intermediate and short living radioactive wastes. The Aube facility (named CSFMA) is the answer to the safe management of these wastes at the industrial scale and for 50 years onward. This brochure presents the facility specifications, the wastes stored at the center, the surface storage concept, the processing and conditioning of waste packages, and the environmental monitoring performed in the vicinity of the site. (J.S.)

  1. Alternating current for the West; Un courant alternatif pour le grand ouest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    In the framework of the reactor EPR construction in the Manche, the authors wonder on the pertinence of this energy choice for the economy and the environment of the West France. They show that there is an alternative to this choice. In a first part a state of the situation concerning the electricity supply and demand in the region is detailed. Then from the local potential of renewable electric power production and the electricity conservation, they propose many concrete actions. (A.L.B.)

  2. Observations of the Ushant tidal front in September 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Le Boyer, A.; Cambon, Gildas; Daniault, N.; Herbette, Steven; Le Cann, B.; Marie, Louis; Morin, P.

    2009-01-01

    The Ushant tidal front is the dominant feature of the summer season hydrological structure of the Iroise Sea. It separates tidally mixed coastal waters from thermally stratified open Celtic Sea waters. This article reports on observations made in September 2007 during two short cruises that took place aboard R/V "Cotes de la Manche", and gives a general account of the physical structure of the front along one cross-frontal transect. The data set comprises data from a 4 month ADCP mooring, sho...

  3. Medienbildung in der Kita. Kinder stark machen für eine kompetente Mediennutzung

    OpenAIRE

    Knauf, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Es gibt verschiedene Gründe für distanzierte Haltungen gegenüber Medienarbeit in den Kitas. Manche sind berechtigt und nachvollziehbar. Dennoch: Medienarbeit mit Kindern unter sechs lohnt sich. Und sie lässt sich in die pädagogischen Konzepte von Kitas gut integrieren. Der folgende Beitrag ist der erste von insgesamt fünf, die nacheinander in der „klein&groß“ zu dem Thema „Medien in Kitas“ erscheinen werden. (DIPF/Autor)

  4. Management and storage of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faussat, A.

    1995-01-01

    Management of radioactive waste is a matter of public concern. Such management, however, is today handled industrially in France, and when these techniques are well applied, its is possible to create storage centres. Waste having a short half-life is now stored in the Centre de l'Aube, which replaces the one begun in 1969 in the Department de la Manche. For waste with a long half-life, following the law passed in 1991, ANDRA is pursuing its programme of site prospecting to establish two underground laboratories for studying geological storage. (author). 2 figs., 1 tab

  5. Alternating current for the West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    In the framework of the reactor EPR construction in the Manche, the authors wonder on the pertinence of this energy choice for the economy and the environment of the West France. They show that there is an alternative to this choice. In a first part a state of the situation concerning the electricity supply and demand in the region is detailed. Then from the local potential of renewable electric power production and the electricity conservation, they propose many concrete actions. (A.L.B.)

  6. EDF: net profits are up by 56% in 2004. RTE: a year of change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2005-01-01

    EDF has presented its financial results for 2004: a net profit of 1.3 milliard euros (+56%) and a debt reduced by 5 milliards euros. The turnover reached 46,9 milliard euros (+4.5%) but its capital was reduced drastically from 19 to 8.4 milliard euros because of both the reform of the funding of the retirement pension system and the implementation of new European accountancy norms. For the first time all foreign subsidies of EDF (except those in South-America) have contributed to the profit. EDF foresees to launch an important investment program in 2005 that will involve: the construction of an EPR (European pressurized reactor) on the Flamanville site and the construction of 6 fossil-fueled power plants. The turnover of RTE (the state company that manages the French electricity transport network) reached 4.029 milliard euros which is the same figure as the previous year but its net profit jumps by 25% to reach 347 million euros. RTE has announced that the exchanges at the borders (import and export) have increased from 113 TWh (in 2003) to 119 TWh (in 2004) which betokens a more and more dynamical European electricity market. RTE has also announced that the construction works of the 150-200 km long high voltage power line that will link the new EPR reactor at Flamanville to the national power transmission network will begin near 2010. (A.C.)

  7. Roussely report: recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    A summary of the Roussely report on how to reinforce and support French nuclear industry, has been made public. This report recommends a series of measures. The main measures are: 1) the quick achievement in the best conditions possible of the Olkiluoto plant, 2) to assure the construction of Flamanville-3 under the best conditions of cost and delay, 3) to benefit totally from the feedback experiences of the construction of Olkiluoto and Flamanville-3 for the construction of Penly-3 and of the English program of EPR, 4) to confirm EDF as a leader for French industrial bids proposing nuclear power plants, 5) to diversify the offer of reactors for international bids, 6) to set a common body of rules for all the employees working in the nuclear sector in France, 7) to support the extension of service life of power reactors up to 60 years if safety is not at stake, 8) to promote French safety regulations at an international scale, and 9) to create a university of nuclear engineering. (A.C.)

  8. Daži semantiski atšķirīgi homoģenētiski krāsu nosaukumi latviešu un lietuviešu valodā (zils : žilas, ruds : rudas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anta Trumpa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available MANCHE SEMANTISCH UNTERSCHIEDLICHE HOMOGENETISCHE FARBENBENENNUNGEN IN DER LETTISCHEN UND LITAUISCHEN SPRACHE (zils : žìlas, ruds : rùdasZusammenfassungIm Beitrag sind zwei formal entsprechende, aber semantisch unterschiedliche Wortpaare der lettischen und litauischen Sprache – lett. zils ‘blau’ : žìlas ‘grau’, ruds ‘rötlich, rotbraun’ : rùdas ‘braun’ – analysiert. Auf der Basis von Angaben der Mundarten, der etymologischen Untersuchungen, der alten Wörterbücher und Texte wie auch Folklore wurde versucht festzustellen, welche der beiden Sprachen die altertümlichere Bedeutung aufbewart hat und welche semantische Prozesse in der Bedeutungsentwicklung dieser Farbenbenennungen geschehen sind.Die Analyse dieser Farbenbenennungen lieβ auch manche allgemeine Schlussfolgerungen ziehen: 1 die Wahrnehmung von Farben ist subjektiv, deshalb ist bei Farbenbenennungen die Möglichkeit der semantischen Differenziation gröβer als bei Adjektiven insgesamt; 2 offensichtlich ist ein Teil der Farbenbenennungen in relativ später Periode in jeder Sprache unabhängig entstanden; 3 alte Farbenbenennungen haben sich nicht selten in der Folklore, besonders in den Volksliedern, erhalten.

  9. French experience in design and construction of near-surface disposal facilities for low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jousselin, D.; Medal, G.; Augustin, X.; Wavrechin, B. de

    1993-01-01

    France disposes of all radioactive waste produced on its territory. Short-lived waste (with a half-life shorter than 30 years) are disposed of, since 1969 on the 'La Manche' disposal facility (CSM 'Centre de La Manche'). As this center will be saturated in 1994, ANDRA (French National Agency for Radioactive Waste Management) has undertaken in 1984 the studies and works necessary to the realization of a new disposal facility. TECHNICATOME was associated, since the beginning of those studies and was chosen by ANDRA as Prime Contractor for the new Radwaste Disposal Center. French conception was chosen by Spanish Authorities in 1987, ENRESA (Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radioactivos SA) selected the Cabril Site in the South of Spain as disposal of low and medium activity radwaste. TECHNICATOME was associated with this project, through a joint French-Spanish engineering team. Authority of North Carolina State (USA) decided in 1989 to build a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility and the contract has been awarded to CNSI (Chem Nuclear System Inc.) with a proposal based on the French experience. A french team ANDRA/TECHNICATOME/SGN is in charge of the design of the disposal facility

  10. Safety challenges after the Fukushima accident for operated installations others than EDF reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sene, Monique; Rollinger, Francois; Lheureux, Yves; Lizot, Marie-Therese; Kerdelhue, M.; Py, M.E.; Leroyer, Veronique; Pultier, Marc; Kassiotis, Christophe; Chambrette, Pierre; Devaux, Pascal; Baron, Yves; Collinet, Jacques

    2013-12-01

    This document contains Power Point presentations which, within the perspective created by the Fukushima accident, address various aspects of safety issues for installations other than currently operated EDF reactors. These contributions propose: an agenda of additional safety assessments (ECS) performed on these installations and an examination of responses made to prescriptions made on the 16 June 2012; a presentation by the IRSN of ECS performed in Areva plants; a presentation by Areva of arrangements related to these ECS; a presentation of the Manche local information commissions (CLI) and a presentation of their approach according to a white paper for the safety of civil nuclear installations located in the Manche department; a presentation by the IRSN on ECS concerning various basic nuclear installations such as laboratories, experimental reactors and stopped reactors; a presentation by the CEA of ECS of its installations (context, approach, execution and conclusions); a presentation by the ANCCLI about ASN decision and decision projects about the hard core according to ECS (example of the High flux reactor in the ILL in Grenoble)

  11. AREVA first half 2007 sales revenue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The AREVA group's backlog as of June 30, 2007 was euros 33.5 billion, up 31% compared with that of December 31, 2006. On average, the Group's backlog increased by more than 20% annually over the last three years. It is now at the highest level since AREVA was established in 2001. All divisions contributed to this performance: - The Front End division signed in particular a major enrichment contract with KHNP (South Korea), a fuel supply contract with EDF covering the 2008-2012 period and other significant contracts with Japanese and Swedish utilities. - The Reactors and Services division added the Flamanville 3 EPR, ordered by EDF, to the backlog. Flamanville 3 is AREVA's 100. reactor order. - The Back End division also concluded a major contract with Sogin to treat used fuel stored at Italian nuclear sites. - The Transmission and Distribution division continued to record strong growth. New orders were up 24% compared with the first half of 2006 (+25.1% like-for-like). Important contracts were signed in the Middle East, Russia and with large industrial users of electricity. First half 2007 sales revenue was up 6.7% (+6.4% like-for-like) to euros 5373 million, compared with euros 5036 million for the first half of 2006. Major developments in the first half of 2007 include: - Sales revenue was down 2.8% to euros 1342 million in the Front End division (-3.6% like-for- like) due to uneven distribution of deliveries in the Fuel business unfavorable during the period. This timing issue has no impact on projected annual growth. The division continues to benefit from a gradual price increase for long-term uranium supply contracts. - Sales revenue was up 4.8% to euros 1154 million in the Reactors and Services division (+3% like-for-like). The Services business unit, especially, was a major contributor to growth on all its markets after a 2006 fiscal year marked by a weak demand. The start of construction of a second EPR reactor for EDF, Flamanville 3, also contributed to

  12. The nuclear industry and public hearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansillon, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Major decisions about the French nuclear industry have been made, it is often said, without sufficiently informing and consulting the population. Laws in 1995 and 2002 provide for public hearings in order to inform the public and obtain its reactions to big projects of national interest. The responsibility for organizing a hearing is vested in an independent administrative authority, the National Commission of Public Debate (CNDP). Within 2 years, 5 issues related to the nuclear industry have been referred to it: 1) the ITER project at Cadarache in april 2003, 2) the George-Besse-II project to replace the present uranium enrichment plant at Tricastin in april 2004, 3) the research reactor Jules-Horowitz project at Cadarache in july 2004, 4) the EPR project at Flamanville in november 2004, and 5) the management of radioactive wastes in february 2005. The hearings already represent a fundamental innovation compared with earlier practices

  13. Total and EDF invest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signoret, St.

    2008-01-01

    So as to prepare the future of their industrial sector,the Total company plans to invest (14 billion Euros in 2008) to increase its production capacities and strengthen in of other activities as the liquefied natural gas and the renewable energies; EDF plans to inject 35 billion Euros over three years to multiply the new projects of power plants (wind turbines, coal in Germany, gas in Great Britain and nuclear power in Flamanville). EDF wants to exploit its knowledge of leader to run more than ten E.P.R.(European pressurized water reactor) in the world before 2020, projects are in examination with China, Great Britain, South Africa and United States. (N.C.)

  14. Report on the behalf of the Parliamentary Office of assessment of scientific and technological choices on the control of nuclear pressurized equipment: the case of the EPR vessel. Report of the public hearing of 25 June 2015, and of the presentation of conclusions on the 8 July 2015 - National Assembly Nr 2968, Senate Nr 613

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Deaut, Jean-Yves; Bataille, Christian; Sido, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    After introducing speeches by the president and vice-presidents of the OPECST (the French Parliamentary Office of assessment of scientific and technological choices), this document reports the content of a public hearing which comprised two round tables gathering representatives of the CEA, of the ASN, of the Ministry of Energy, of the IAEA, of the AFCEN (a professional body on rules of design, fabrication and control of electro-nuclear boiler equipment), of the AQUAP (a professional body on the quality of pressurized equipment), of the Louvain University, of Areva, of the Flamanville 3 project, of the IRSN. The first round table more particularly addressed issues related to modalities of control of nuclear pressurized equipment, and the second one the case of the EPR vessel. A debate which followed these round tables is reported, as well as a meeting during which the OPECST presented its conclusions after this public hearing

  15. Definition of a post-Fukushima hard core for EDF's PWRs: objectives, content and associated requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    After having recalled the implementation of the additional safety assessments (ECS) on the French nuclear reactors after the Fukushima accident, and that, after these assessments, ASN asked EDF to implement a 'hard core of robust material and organisational measures' which aim at preventing an accident with a core fusion or at limiting its progress, at limiting massive radioactive releases, and at enabling the operator to perform his required missions in crisis management, this report indicates the objectives of this hard core, and discusses the material measures proposed by EDF. These measures concern the exploited reactors and the EPR Flamanville 3, the pools present in the fuel and reactor buildings. It also discusses the requirements associated with these material measures, notably with respect to earthquake, flooding or other extreme events

  16. Nuclear safety: a large scale quality audit of pressurized equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faudon, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    This article notably refers to, quotes and comments a hearing organised by the French Public Office for the Assessment Scientific and Technological Choices (OPECST) on the issue of safety of pressurized equipment in nuclear reactors, and which gathered the main concerned actors (Areva, EDF, IRSN, ASN) to have an overview of quality controls in AREVA NP fabrication plants. Two different issues have been addressed: a technical metallurgical issue related to some boiler-making parts, and an issue related to quality assurance. These issues concern different older reactors (Fessenheim for example) as well as new ones (EPR Flamanville). The article indicates the different measures planned, envisaged or already implemented by the concerned actors in order to improve knowledge in the boiler-making industry, and to ensure a better quality

  17. The Inspector General's report on Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This document is proposed in French and in English. The author reports, comments and discusses the observations he made during 2010 on different aspects or examples regarding nuclear safety management and radioprotection in the EDF Group, the world's largest nuclear operator with 73 reactors in service: safety management, radioprotection, relationship with the French nuclear safety authority (ASN), skills and training, the implementation and action of an integrated nuclear engineering force, the relationship between safety and business efficiency, actors of the health care sector, the case of the Flamanville EPR reactor, the relationships with contractors, fire hazards, and projects aimed at raising standards. He also addresses observations and information about what is going on in the United Kingdom. He comments a radioprotection incident, the case of an uncontrolled dilution, and a railway accident which occurred in 2006. He gives a brief report of missions in China and in the United States

  18. Nuclear safety in France after Fukushima - Critical analysis of complementary safety assessments (CSA) carried out on French nuclear installations after Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhijani, Arjun; Marignac, Yves

    2012-02-01

    This report proposes a critical analysis of the approach carried out on the basis of the CSA (complementary safety assessment), from their specifications to the IRSN conclusions. It is notably based on the analysis performed by EDF on three nuclear sites (Gravelines, Civaux and Flamanville) which encompass the different levels of the nuclear power plants in France and the EPR project under construction, and on the analysis performed by Areva for La Hague reprocessing plants. Due to the short delay, only some sites and some problems have been considered. The CSA methodology is described. The EDF approach is discussed as well as the IRSN analysis of reports made by EDF, and then the different case studies. Beyond the conclusions of these reports, the authors highlight several major possible accidents which must be taken into account. They also outline that this CSA approach is a good starting point for the strengthening of nuclear safety

  19. Safety technology comments on Cattenom nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The comments are based on the safety report for the identical Flamanville plant, on the contract documents for the DUP and on results of consultancy by the DFK Working Party and on replies from the French side in the context of a German list of questions. The comments refer to the state in spring 1982. According to the agreement made for the catalogue of questions Cattenom/KKP 2, the 1300 MW Philippsburg II nuclear power station is used as a German comparable plant in these comments. Reference is made to the German comparable plant in the description and assessment of important parts of the plant. The main points of the safety technology comments are in the assessment of site characteristics; the safety technology concept; the derivation of radio-active materials and the radiation exposure in the adjacent German area. (orig./HP) [de

  20. The EPR in a few words: all you need to know about the EPR nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    After a brief presentation of the EPR (European - or Evolutionary - Pressurized Reactor) type nuclear reactor, this paper, proposed by the collective group 'Stop EPR', develops the following points: EPR is as dangerous as other reactors; EPR flouts democracy; France's energy demand do not need the construction of EPRs; the construction of EPRs is not a factor of economical and social development; EPR should not be constructed neither in France nor elsewhere and the present building sites should be cancelled; the EPR will not help France to increase its energy independence and protect itself from oil price increases; choosing the EPR is incompatible with the large investments to be made in energy conservation and renewable energies; the EPR is not a solution to climate change; the VHV line corridor that will starts at Flamanville is not justified and poses risks to the environment and public health

  1. Nuclear. Areva, a French fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupin, Ludovic

    2015-01-01

    This article comments the difficulties and problems faced by Areva for its activity of nuclear reactor construction, and which leaded to the transfer of this activity from Areva to EDF while Areva will keep its uranium providing and fuel enrichment activities. These difficulties and problems concern the Flamanville EPR (the construction is 5 years late, vessel defects have just been identified, cost overruns), the Finnish EPR (7 years late, a 5 billions cost overrun), the Jules Horowitz research reactor (5 years late, cost overrun), and strategic choices (notably with respect to the post-Fukushima context). The article also outlines that other activities (mining, enrichment, reactor maintenance) are still doing well, and then briefly discusses the future of Areva NP

  2. EPRtm project experience: selection of partners and supply chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzo, D. de

    2012-01-01

    With 4 EPR T M units under construction, the new plants to be built in the following years will benefit from the return on experience of the work already performed. The knowledge about licensing processes, detail engineering, supply chain, logistics and on-site work gathered from the Olkiluoto 3 and Flamanville 3 projects has already been used in the Taishan 1 and 2 project, resulting in a project that is on schedule and on budget. This article will show how the advantage of such broad experience gained will be used to benefit future projects to ensure certainty of completion, leaving few and limited unresolved issues even before the beginning of the project. Several areas that are not usually tackled when speaking of a New Build project will be covered by this text from the point of view of a nuclear vendor: Project Partnership Selection and the Gate Review Process applied by AREVA in the supply chain of the main components. (Author)

  3. Nuclear civil construction, an essential activity dedicated to outstanding projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herve, G.

    2016-01-01

    The complexity of nuclear civil construction is directly linked to the safety requirements imposed on nuclear facilities: durability in terms of time, stability, containment, tightness, managing cracking and leakages, quality controls... These requirements imply specific measures for instance the concrete that is used for the containment building has a particular composition that gives it an enhanced resistance or the substantial thickness of the foundation raft implies monitoring the temperature at which the concrete is poured. The construction of the EPR at the Flamanville site is taken as an example. This construction involves 120.000 tonnes of concrete-reinforcement steels, 400.000 m"3 of concrete, 400 km of pipes and 1600 km of cables. (A.C.)

  4. Impacts of climate warming on industrial management of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dueymes, E.; Guidez, J.

    2008-01-01

    Climatic change is an undeniable fact and it will imply 3 consequences. First, the climate will be warmer on average and particularly in summer. Secondly, there will be less snow, a retreat of glaciers, and less contribution through melting to river flow. Thirdly, there will be a lower rate of flow for rivers with an increase of their temperature. As for storms, no increase of events or intensity can be infer from statistical data. The first impact will be on the cooling capacity of power plants settled on river banks. Another impact will be the construction of adequate embankments for seaside plants to counter the continuous rise of the sea level. The future generation of plants will be set either on seaside sites either with cooling towers. The climate situation extrapolated to 2100 has been taking into account for the design and construction of the EPR on the Flamanville site. (A.C.)

  5. International Conference on water reuse and desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The International conference on water reuse and desalination was held on the 13 November 1984 in Johannesburg, South Africa. Papers delivered on this conference covered the following aspects: desalination technology, industrial effluent control, economics of desalination of wastewaters, consumable supplies in desalination, the world market for seawater desalination equipment, reverse osmosis, evaporation and ultrafiltration, treatment of hazardous wastes, role of reverse osmosis in waste water treatment, as well as the desalination, recovery and recycle of water with high efficiency. A paper was also delivered on the mechanical vapour compression process applied to seawater desalination - as an example the paper presents the largest unit so far constructed by SIDEM using this process: a 1,500 mz/day unit installed in the Nuclear power plant of Flamanville in France

  6. Draft resolution aimed at creating an inquiry commission related to the EPR sector - Nr 1251

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baupin, Denis; Pompili, Barbara; Rugy, Francois De; Abeille, Laurence; Alauzet, Eric; Allain, Brigitte; Attard, Isabelle; Auroi, Danielle; Bonneton, Michele; Cavard, Christophe; Coronado, Sergio; Lambert, Francois-Michel; Mamere, Noel; Massonneau, Veronique; Molac, Paul; Roumegas, Jean-Louis; Sas, Eva

    2013-01-01

    This draft resolution is based on several problems and issues raised by the construction of the EPR reactor in Flamanville and dealing with the perspectives for this specific sector. The authors outline that the construction may finally take almost twice as long as initially foreseen, that the budget has been multiplied by two and a half, that the safety of this installation is still a matter of questions (notably for the control-command system, for the resistance to a plane crash, and with respect with lessons learned from the Fukushima accident), and that the involved partners (GDF Suez, ENEL, Centrica, Siemens) are becoming always more hesitant. They evoke the problems faced by other EPRs under construction in Finland and in China, and state that export perspectives seem to lead to a failure. The draft resolution proposes the creation of an inquiry commission to examine these issues

  7. French regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballereau, P.

    2000-01-01

    Decrees providing for the enforcement of the radiation protection laws allow establishments to provide the individual surveillance of the workers exposure to ionizing radiations. A decree is relative to the dismantling of the fuel fabrication plant at Pierrelatte. A decree allows the Cea to modify a laboratory on irradiated fuels at Saclay. A departmental order allows EDF to continue the taking of samples in water, liquid and gaseous effluents releases for the operating site of Paluel and Flamanville. Some decrees are relative to the radioactive material transport. A law about the evaluation of environmental impact in a transfrontier context has been passed ( 17 activities such nuclear power plants, reactors, facilities devoted to the production, enrichment of nuclear fuel, storage, and processing of spent fuels are listed). A decree allows the transfer of ORIS by cea-Industry, Cea subsidiary sold to the Schering group. (N.C.)

  8. The nuclear industry and public hearings; L'industrie nucleaire et le debat public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansillon, Y. [Commission Nationale du Debat Public, 75 - Paris (France)

    2007-02-15

    Major decisions about the French nuclear industry have been made, it is often said, without sufficiently informing and consulting the population. Laws in 1995 and 2002 provide for public hearings in order to inform the public and obtain its reactions to big projects of national interest. The responsibility for organizing a hearing is vested in an independent administrative authority, the National Commission of Public Debate (CNDP). Within 2 years, 5 issues related to the nuclear industry have been referred to it: 1) the ITER project at Cadarache in april 2003, 2) the George-Besse-II project to replace the present uranium enrichment plant at Tricastin in april 2004, 3) the research reactor Jules-Horowitz project at Cadarache in july 2004, 4) the EPR project at Flamanville in november 2004, and 5) the management of radioactive wastes in february 2005. The hearings already represent a fundamental innovation compared with earlier practices.

  9. EPR meeting international safety standards with margin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurkiewicz, S.M.; Brauns, J.; Blombach, J.

    2005-01-01

    The EPR provides technology that offers a solution to the market's need for safe, economic power. The EPR was originally developed through a joint effort between Framatome ANP and Siemens by incorporating the best technological features from the French and German nuclear reactor fleets into a cost-competitive product capable of international licensing. As such, the EPR is a global product with commercial units currently being built in Finland at the Olkiluoto site, and planned for France, at the Flamanville site. Framatome ANP has recently proposed four EPR units to China in response to a request for vendor bids. In addition, Framatome ANP has announced their intent to pursue design certification with the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This paper discusses how EPR's innovative safety philosophy ensures compliance with international safety standards for advanced light-water reactors (ALWRs). (author)

  10. EPR meeting international safety standards with margin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurkiewicz, S.M.; Brauns, J.; Blombach, J.

    2005-01-01

    The EPR provides technology that offers a solution to the market's need for safe, economic power. The EPR was originally developed through a joint effort between Framatome ANP and Siemens by incorporating the best technological features from the French and German nuclear reactor fleets into a cost-competitive product capable of international licensing. As such, the EPR is a global product with commercial units currently being built in Finland at the Olkiluoto site, and planned for France, at the Flamanville site. Framatome ANP has recently proposed four EPR units to China in response to a request for vendor bids. In addition, Framatome ANP has announced their intent to pursue design certification in with the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This paper discusses how EPR's innovative safety philosophy ensures compliance with international safety standards for advanced light-water reactors (ALWRs). (author)

  11. EPRTM project experience: selection of partners and supply chain; Experiencia en Proyectos de EPTTM: seleccion de socios y cadena de suministros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzo, D. de

    2012-07-01

    With 4 EPRTM units under construction, the new plants to be built in the following years will benefit from the return on experience of the work already performed. The knowledge about licensing processes, detail engineering, supply chain, logistics and on-site work gathered from the Olkiluoto 3 and Flamanville 3 projects has already been used in the Taishan 1 and 2 project, resulting in a project that is on schedule and on budget. This article will show how the advantage of such broad experience gained will be used to benefit future projects to ensure certainty of completion, leaving few and limited unresolved issues even before the beginning of the project. Several areas that are not usually tackled when speaking of a New Build project will be covered by this text from the point of view of a nuclear vendor: Project Partnership Selection and the Gate Review Process applied by AREVA in the supply chain of the main components. (Author)

  12. The Montaigne Institute makes an issue of phasing out nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brezet, Gabriel; Thouverez, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    The author discusses some data published by the Montaigne Institute to assess a nuclear phasing out program proposed by B. Hamon, the socialist candidate to the French 2017 presidential election. According to the Institute, the cost of this phasing out program is assessed to reach 217 billions euros between 2018 and 2035. This figure comprises a major part for CSPE reimbursement (179 billions), compensations to EDF shareholders, compensations for the giving up of the Flamanville EPR, and expenses to adapt the electric grid to renewable energies. The author more particularly discusses some biases in the CSPE assessment as Hamon's proposal of phasing out nuclear was to take place over 25 years and not 18. He also shows that a share of CSPE reimbursements should not be counted, that staying nuclear has also a cost, and that hypotheses regarding CSPE reimbursement can be criticised. He also briefly discusses the level of compensations to EDF shareholders, and the impact of a higher electricity price

  13. Investigations of inter-system common cause failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonclerca, P.; Gallois, M.; Vasseur, D.

    2012-01-01

    Intra-system common-cause failures (CCF) are widely studied and addressed in existing PSA models, but the information and studies that incorporate the potential for inter-system CCF is limited. However, the French Safety Authority has requested that EDF investigate the possibility of common-cause failure across system boundaries for Flamanville 3 (an EPR design). Also, the modeling of inter-system CCF, or the proof that their impact is negligible, would satisfy Capability Category III for one of the requirements in the ASME/ANS PRA standard in the U.S. EDF and EPRI have been working on a method to assess when it is necessary to take into account inter-system CCF in a PSA model between 2008 and 2010. This method is based both on the likelihood of inter-system CCF and on its demonstrated potential impact on CDF (core damage frequency). This method was first applied on pumps in different systems of the 900 MWe series plants. The second application concerned the motor-operated valves across different systems, using the same PSA model. This second application helped us refine the method, which was not optimal when the number of concerned components is very large. Since then, the method has been successfully applied on the pumps and 10 kV breakers of the EPR power plant in Flamanville. This paper describes the method and the results obtained in some of these studies. All studies have shown either that components in different systems, when they were not already part of a common cause failure group in the model, are not susceptible to common causes of failure, or that the potential for inter-system common-cause failure is negligible regarding the overall risk. (authors)

  14. New build methodology approach by Iberdrola Ingenieria y Construccion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zornoza Garcia-Andrade, Javier; Ignacio Diaz Prade, Jose; Martinez Gozalo, Ignacio; Merino Teillet, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Iberdrola Ingenieria y Construccion (hereinafter IEC) has developed a significant number of projects in several nuclear plants worldwide. Some of these plants are under operation, while others are under construction. Nowadays, IEC is actively participating in the design and construction of some safety and non-safety class systems of Flamanville 3, for EDF, has actively participated for OL4 (Finland) in one of the Nuclear Island (NI) proposal development covering for example complete NI supply chain and Licence Feasibility Study stages. Also, in the UK IEC has developed site characterization, licensing and heat sink analysis and supply chain development activities for NUGEN and is performing support engineering activities for HGNE for Wylfa. In addition, IEC performed the project for the refurbishment of Laguna Verde 1 and 2 turbine islands in Mexico, with a budget above 600 M USD. Nowadays, successful development of a new nuclear plant project in Europe, with stringent regulatory requirements for licensing and permitting which directly impact in the development of design, supply, construction and commissioning, requires successful integration of these processes by Regulatory Authority, Customer, Main Supplier and its entire supply chain. The soft integration of design, supply chain, construction and commissioning in the entire project development, will permit the application of advanced construction and engineering methodologies, as for example 'Open Top' construction or modular design, while minimizing regulatory delays. This integration represents one of the main challenges to minimize nuclear projects risk in order to successfully develop the project of a new plant considering a construction period of less than 5 year. Current paper provides a short description of proposed methodology and experiences of IEC, exposing several examples taken from actual experience in the design, supply and installation of systems in Flamanville 3 and from Olkiluoto 4

  15. A will of dialogue and openness. ANDRA's activity report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    After an interview with the ANDRA's CEO and a brief presentation of some figures about the ANDRA's personnel, this report reviews the activities of the French national Agency for radioactive waste management (ANDRA): search for a site for a storage centre for low-level long-life wastes, the contract signed between ANDRA and the French State to define operational objectives and activities for the next four years, a survey on the collecting of wastes from small producers, activity of decontamination of polluted sites, safety investigation on the Manche's storage centre, control of the environmental impact of the Aube's storage centre, storage centre project for low-level long-life wastes, geological studies for the storage centre project for high-and-intermediate long-life wastes, a price received for the ANDRA's underground laboratory, and international activities

  16. Plädoyer für eine Re-Lektüre feministischer Texte vor der ‚Butlermania‘ A Plea for Re-Reading Feminist Texts Before ‘Butlermania’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Maurer

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Eine wesentliche Botschaft der Textsammlung von Christiane Schmerl lautet, dass es eine mehr als unglückliche Verkürzung sei, feministischen Texten vor Judith Butlers Gender Trouble vorzuhalten, sie würden ‚Geschlecht‘ einfach nur ‚reifizieren‘. Damit – so eine Quintessenz – schneiden sich heutige Kritiken von ihrer eigenen Geschichte ab. Die Lektüre des Bandes von Christiane Schmerl zeigt, dass manche aktuellen Texte hinter ein bereits erreichtes Niveau feministischer Reflexion(smöglichkeiten oftmals zurückfallen.It is more than an unhappy reduction that feminist texts before Judith Butler’s Gender Trouble are often accused of merely reifying ‘sex.’ Contemporary critiques thus cut themselves off from their own history. A reading of the volume by Christiane Schmerl shows that some contemporary texts often fall behind feminist reflections or reflective possibilities already established.

  17. ANDRA - 2012 activity and sustainable development report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renauld, Valerie; Levert, Anne-Sophie; Muzerelle, Sophie; Cassoli, Emmanuel

    2013-07-01

    After a brief presentation of the main events during 2012, a recall of the ANDRA's mission (national inventory of radioactive materials and wastes), and a brief presentation of staffing data, this report presents and comments the activities of the ANDRA in the industrial domain (the Cigeo project for deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes, activities of the Aube centres and of the Manche storage centre, perspectives for low-activity long-life wastes, decontamination of polluted sites), in the scientific field (European projects, support to education and training, participation to a colloquium on clays, activities in the field of numerical simulation, activities of the 'Observatoire de l'Environnement'). The next part address the international activities, local commitments (in relationship with the different storage and industrial centres, or in the field of education and training), and activities related to communication and information

  18. ANDRA - Activity and sustainable development report 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuis, Marie-Claude; Gonnot, Francois-Michel; Renauld, Valerie; Sanz, Carole

    2012-07-01

    This annual report addresses the following aspects: governance (missions, localizations, institutional partners, clients, Meuse/Haute-Marne land planning scheme, underground research laboratory, Cigeo project), human resources (accident prevention, salaried personnel, customer relationship management, next steps for the Cigeo project), public service missions (polluted sites, waste confinement in Pargny-sur-Saulx, the radium diagnosis operation, a remote declaration as a new service to prepare the national inventory for 2012), industrial activities (the industrial design phase of the Cigeo project, the Manche storage centre, the Aube storage centre), environmental activities (the Observatory of the environment, the weak impact of the storage centres, the evolution of analysis laboratory of the industrial directorate), scientific policy, technological researches, experiments and developments, international activity and relationships, sustainable development, dialogue, transparency and communication, future generations, and prospective

  19. Efficient use of energy - electric power. Model projects and relevant publications; Energie effizient nutzen - Schwerpunkt Strom. Modellvorhaben und Fachartikel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radgen, P.; Jochem, E. [eds.

    1999-10-26

    The forum intended to provide written information for experts and to develop model projects for selected fields of industry in Baden-Wuerttemberg. However, these two instruments can only be part of an innovation initiative headed by the Land government in cooperation with the Baden-Wuerttemberg industry and science. [German] Der Schwerpunkt des Forums 'Strom effizient nutzen' konzentrierte sich auf die Erarbeitung von schriftlichen Informationen fuer den Fachmann sowie auf die Entwicklung einiger Modellvorhaben fuer einige ausgewaehlte Branchen Baden-Wuerttembergs. Diese beiden Instrumente koennen aber nur Teil einer Innovationsinitiative sein, die Regierung, Wirtschaft und Wissenschaft entwickeln muessten, wollte man einen sichtbaren Erfolg bei der Loesung des o.g. Zielkonfliktes verbuchen. Eine solche Initiative zu konzipieren und zu entfesseln, die der baden-wuerttembergischen Wirtschaft manch positive Impulse braechte, waere machbar; wie die Modellvorhaben dieses Projektes in ueberzeugender Weise belegen, gibt es hinreichend rentable Moeglichkeiten. (orig.)

  20. Dimensionnement d’un actionneur pour organe de pilotage à entraînement direct avec redondance passive magnétique

    OpenAIRE

    Allias, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Ce manuscrit de thèse, intitulé " Dimensionnement d’un actionneur pour organe de pilotage à entraînement direct avec redondance passive magnétique ", s’inscrit dans un projet ANR du nom de TEMOP pour, TEchnologie Mécatronique pour Organe de Pilotage, en lien avec la société UTC Aerospace de Figeac. L’objectif de cette thèse est de développer une solution de machine électrique permettant de générer le retour d’effort actif d’un mini-manche latéral d’aéronef, dans le but d’améliorer les sensati...

  1. Cogema experience on retrieving and conditioning solid radwaste previously stored in pits. The La Hague north west pit case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodin, F.; Alexandre, D.; Fournier, Ph.

    2000-01-01

    Short lived, low and medium level waste called 'technological waste' produced by the La Hague Reprocessing Plant have been stored in the La Hague North-West concrete-lined pits until implementation at ANDRA's Centre de Stockage de la Manche (CSM). COGEMA decided to retrieve and condition 11,000 m 3 of humid solid radwaste, stored in bulk in pits. This report describes the experience gained from February 1990 to December 1998, taking into account radwaste and integrated dose rate results conditioning such waste. The procedures and means used and improved by COGEMA to comply with ANDRA's storage standards and the ever-decreasing financial costs generated by the workers, allowed to retrieve and condition 11,000 m 3 of old solid radwaste with competitive costs and in complete safety and protection of the environment. (authors)

  2. A.C.R.O. activity report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This association participated in different working groups: North Cotentin radioecology group, groups of expertise on the uranium mines of Limousin, executive committee for the management of the post accidental phase of a nuclear accident or a radiological emergency situation, radioactive waste management, radiological surveillance of the territory, radiation protection mission by the Asn, radiological surveillance of the environment of the Chinon nuclear power plant, study of the presence of 235 U around the site of Brennilis, study of the radioactive waste management at the Manche plant, radiological surveillance of the Cyceron cyclotron at Caen, Aurengo commission on the consequences in France of the Chernobylsk accident. Actions of information, regular publications, meeting with public are also a part of the work of this association. (N.C.)

  3. Warum werden Frauen (nicht Unternehmerinnen? Why Do Women (Not Become Entrepreneurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Bischoff

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Wenige Frauen – im Vergleich zu Männern – gründen ein Unternehmen, viele Frauen tun es nicht. Warum nicht? Spielt das „Unternehmerinnenbild in Deutschland“ eine Rolle? Dieser Frage geht das Forschungsprojekt „Vielfalt in der Unternehmerschaft: Facetten des Unternehmerinnenbildes in Deutschland“ nach, dessen erste Ergebnisse jetzt vorliegen. Manche Stereotypen werden bestätigt, andere – erfreulicherweise – nicht.Few women, in contrast to men, found their own company and most women do not. But why not? Does the “image of entrepreneurial women in Germany” play a role? The research project, “Diversity in Entrepreneurship: Facets of the Image of Entrepreneurial Women in Germany,” wishes to answer this question and the initial results are in: Some stereotypes are reinforced whereas other, fortunately, are not.

  4. Activity report 2004; Rapport d'activite 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-04-01

    Constituted by a public and commercial establishment, the French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA) is responsible for the long term management of radioactive waste. This activity report presents the three missions of the ANDRA during the year 2004. The industrial mission deals with the Aube center disposal and the Manche center disposal facilities and the collection effort concerning the diffuse nuclear waste. The research mission focuses on the presentation of several topics: the repository design by studying various potential architectures, the reversibility and the safety assessment under operating conditions and the description of the behavior of repository at various space and time scales. The last mission concerns the information and the communication program. (A.L.B.)

  5. Activity report 2004; Rapport d'activite 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-04-01

    Constituted by a public and commercial establishment, the French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA) is responsible for the long term management of radioactive waste. This activity report presents the three missions of the ANDRA during the year 2004. The industrial mission deals with the Aube center disposal and the Manche center disposal facilities and the collection effort concerning the diffuse nuclear waste. The research mission focuses on the presentation of several topics: the repository design by studying various potential architectures, the reversibility and the safety assessment under operating conditions and the description of the behavior of repository at various space and time scales. The last mission concerns the information and the communication program. (A.L.B.)

  6. Evaluation of harmonic disturbances at the common point of coupling of the Eurotunnel and of the HVDC France-England link

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chazottes, B.; Deflandre, T.

    1992-12-31

    On startup of the Trans Manch Tunnel in 1993, the harmonic currents generated by the railway will raise the harmonic levels in a point of the network already subject to the demand of convertors of the DC France-England 2000 MW link (IFA 2000). Digital simulations enabled the rise in harmonic voltages at the tunnel termination point as well as its consequences upon the conversion station filtering for a great number of network diagrams and various railway traffic hypotheses to be evaluated. After having described the methodology and the results of the study, the report presents the influence of the network topology upon the harmonic impedance and poses the technical and commercial problems met with the junction in a same point of several large-capacity disturbing elements on the 400 kV system. (authors). 10 figs., 5 refs.

  7. UBER DEN BEITRITT DER PLURIMODALITÄT DES VERSTEHENS DER NICHTEUROPÄISCHEN TRADITION. DISCOURS ÜBER DISCOURS. (PROBLEMATISIERUNG INITIERT MIT DEM WERK "CARSTVO ZNAKOVA" VON ROLAND BARTHES, AUGUST CESAREC, ZAGREB 1989

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadran Zalokar

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In diesem Text problematisiert der Verfasser manche grundsätzlicke Fragen des Verstehens nichteuropäischen Traditionen im Ganzen. Dabei analysiert er das Werk von Roland Barthes in Zusammenhang des Verstehens der Beziehung textuallen im Gegensatz zum geistlichen Tradition Japans, gleichzeitig auf die methodologisch wichtige Frage hinweisend. Alles enken und "Schreiben" darüber ist in nuce zweifelhaft. Das Denken des planetaren Polilogen als Multiloge verlangt einen strengen wissenschaftlichen Beitritt, aber auch einen metawissenschaftlichen und metaphilosphischen Einblick in das geistliche Wesen nichteuropäischen Tradition, weil es gleichmäßige Beachtung verschiedensten geistlichen Erfahrungen und Eingenartigkeiten des geistlichen Lebens aller Traditionen nötig ist und nurwissenschaftlicher und nurphilosophischer Beitritt ist nicht genügend.

  8. A.C.R.O. activity report 2006; A.C.R.O. rapport d'activite 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This association participated in different working groups: North Cotentin radioecology group, groups of expertise on the uranium mines of Limousin, executive committee for the management of the post accidental phase of a nuclear accident or a radiological emergency situation, radioactive waste management, radiological surveillance of the territory, radiation protection mission by the Asn, radiological surveillance of the environment of the Chinon nuclear power plant, study of the presence of {sup 235}U around the site of Brennilis, study of the radioactive waste management at the Manche plant, radiological surveillance of the Cyceron cyclotron at Caen, Aurengo commission on the consequences in France of the Chernobylsk accident. Actions of information, regular publications, meeting with public are also a part of the work of this association. (N.C.)

  9. ANDRA's news; L'actualite de l'Andra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This press kit presents the three missions of the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) and the main highlights of these three missions for the second half of 2003: 1 - industrial mission: the very low radioactive waste disposal facility of Morvilliers (543 m{sup 3} of waste packages already stored), the Aube disposal facility (exploitation data), the Manche disposal facility (adaptation to new monitoring standards); 2 - the research mission: the Meuse/Haute-Marne laboratory (progress of works and experimental program), the mobilization of competences (international expertise of ANDRA's researches about deep underground disposal, the coordination of the European program ESDRED); 3 - the information mission: national inventory of radioactive wastes, publications and events, recall of ANDRA's missions. (J.S.)

  10. Low level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthoux, A.

    1985-01-01

    Final disposal of low level wastes has been carried out for 15 years on the shallow land disposal of the Manche in the north west of France. Final participant in the nuclear energy cycle, ANDRA has set up a new waste management system from the production center (organization of the waste collection) to the disposal site including the setting up of a transport network, the development of assessment, additional conditioning, interim storage, the management of the disposal center, records of the location and characteristics of the disposed wastes, site selection surveys for future disposals and a public information Department. 80 000 waste packages representing a volume of 20 000 m 3 are thus managed and disposed of each year on the shallow land disposal. The disposal of low level wastes is carried out according to their category and activity level: - in tumuli for very low level wastes, - in monoliths, a concrete structure, of the packaging does not provide enough protection against radioactivity [fr

  11. Management of ''short-lifetime'' radioactive wastes, an industrial reality to safeguard the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faussat, A.

    1992-01-01

    On the occasion of the inauguration of the Aube waste storage center by A.Billardon, Vice Minister for Energy, the author reviews the management situation in France for short life radioactive wastes. The wastes are first defined and their characteristics explained, and then are discussed the general principles underlying the management of these wastes, which involves finding ways to avoid the dispersal of radioactive products into the environment. The author explains why the French have chosen surface storage, and then goes into the integrated management system developed to optimize the long-term management of short-term wastes on the technical and economic levels. The two storage centers existing in France (the Manche and Aube centers) are then described. The article winds up with a presentation of the system as it has been adapted abroad, and another possible adaptation for use in storing toxic industrial wastes. 2 figs., 3 photos

  12. Tumulus Disposal Demonstration Facility for the Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clapp, R.B.; van Hoesen, S.D.

    1987-01-01

    This disposal concept is based on the Tumulus design developed by the French at the La Manche facility. Waste units are stacked above-grade on a concrete pad. The facility currently under development at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) involves sealing waste in concrete vaults, placing the vaults on a grade level concrete pad, and covering the pad and vaults with a soil cover after vault emplacement is complete. Emplacement is expected to continue until the facility exhausts its approximate 800 m 3 (28,000 ft 3 ) capacity. The facility incorporates engineered barriers to radionuclide migration; a monitoring system to ensure barrier performance; and a newly developed set of Demonstration Waste Acceptance Criteria to reduce the likelihood of groundwater contamination

  13. Activity report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-04-01

    Constituted by a public and commercial establishment, the French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA) is responsible for the long term management of radioactive waste. This activity report presents the three missions of the ANDRA during the year 2004. The industrial mission deals with the Aube center disposal and the Manche center disposal facilities and the collection effort concerning the diffuse nuclear waste. The research mission focuses on the presentation of several topics: the repository design by studying various potential architectures, the reversibility and the safety assessment under operating conditions and the description of the behavior of repository at various space and time scales. The last mission concerns the information and the communication program. (A.L.B.)

  14. Aromatised mineral water and soft spirits coming on. More than ever: user-friendly ice cure machines. Ice cubes and cones, flake ice, shattered ice; Aromatisierte Mineralwasser und Softspirituosen auf dem Vormarsch. Mehr denn je: Servicefreundliche Eiswuerfelbereiter. Wuerfeleis - Kegeleis - Flockeneis - Scherbeneis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1995-05-01

    Only a few years ago beer and spirits were still the standard drinks for most Germans. Wine is certainly also drunken a lot in west and south Germany but there was nothing like a cool ``Blondes`` (pale beer) together with a ``Kurzer`` (hard liquor) to keep a German man, and even some German women, happy for a while. In Berlin this combination is called a ``Molle`` and a ``Korn`` and in north Germany a beer and a ``Koem``. These times have given way to a radial change in drinking habits brought on by reunification and tourists returning from abroad. Although the warm summer of 1994 pushed beer comsumption up another 3%, the market is altogether on the decline. In fact only 115 million of the 200 million hectoliter brewing capacity were actually utilised in 1994. Decreasing turnover is not the only problem, as yields are also poor. (orig.) [Deutsch] Noch vor wenigen Jahren waren Bier und Schnaps mehr oder minder das Standardgetraenk der meisten Deutschen. In Sued- und Westdeutschland wird zwar viel Wein getrunken, doch ein kuehles ``Blondes`` und dazu ein ``Kurzer`` liess manches Maennerherz und sogar auch manches Frauenherz hoeher schlagen. In Berlin bestellte man erst einmal eine Molle und `nen Korn, in Norddeutschland Bier und Koem. Diese Zeiten sind laengst vorbei, im Zuge der europaeischen Vereinigung und infolge der vielen Auslandsurlaube haben sich die Trinkgewohnheiten heute total veraendert. Der Bierkonsum ist zwar auf Grund des warmen Sommers 1994 noch einmal um 3% gestiegen, dennoch schrumpft der Markt. Die Braukapazitaet liegt bei 200 Millionen Hektoliter, tatsaechlich gebraut wurden 1994 aber nur ca. 115 Millionen Hektoliter. Nicht nur die abnehmende Menge ist das Hauptproblem, sondern die geringe Rendite. (orig.)

  15. La regulación del proceso de selección del consultor: ¿fuente de inseguridad jurídica?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe de Vivero

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Las recientes modificaciones introducidas por la Ley 1150/07 y por el decreto 066/08 en los procesos de selección de consultores por parte del Estado están produciendo inseguridad jurídica en el sistema legal. Los procesos de selección para consultores, en esta regulación, permiten al empleado público aplicar normas que pueden proteger intereses personales en vez de proteger intereses públicos, lo cual va en contra de la transparencia y eficiencia, aspectos que inspiraron estas modificaciones./ The recent modifications introduced by the law 1150/07 and by the decret 066/08 in the bidding process for State consultants are producing a lack of reliance in the legal system. The bidding process for consultants in this new regulation allows the public employee to apply rules that might protect personal interests instead of the public interest, going against the clearness and efficiency that was the scope of the modification.

  16. La legislación de la lucha antialcohólica en Santander (1923-1928

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy Alexander Sierra Garzón

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La legislación de la lucha antialcohólica se decretó en los años veinte del siglo anterior, esta legislación se ubicó en un periodo conocido en la historiografía nacional como el inicio del proceso de modernización del Estado colombiano. El contenido de la legislación facultó a los gobernadores para la eliminación de las rentas de licores en los departamentos, pero también fue un paquete normativo que buscaba el control en la producción, comercialización y consumo de todos los licores. El presente artículo analizó la aplicación de la legislación nacional en el departamento de Santander. Las consecuencias finales abarcaron la eliminación en la fabricación de licores artesanales (chicha y guarapo y la consolidación de una empresa oficial del departamento dedicada a la destilación del aguardiente de caña.

  17. MELCOR 1.8.2 Analyses in Support of ITER's RPrS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brad J Merrill

    2008-01-01

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Program is performing accident analyses for ITER's 'Rapport Preliminaire de Surete' (Report Preliminary on Safety - RPrS) with a modified version of the MELCOR 1.8.2 code. The RPrS is an ITER safety document required in the ITER licensing process to obtain a 'Decret Autorisation de Construction' (a Decree Authorizing Construction - DAC) for the ITER device. This report documents the accident analyses performed by the US with the MELCOR 1.8.2 code in support of the ITER RPrS effort. This work was funded through an ITER Task Agreement for MELCOR Quality Assurance and Safety Analyses. Under this agreement, the US was tasked with performing analyses for three accident scenarios in the ITER facility. Contained within the text of this report are discussions that identify the cause of these accidents, descriptions of how these accidents are likely to proceed, the method used to analyze the consequences of these accidents, and discussions of the transient thermal hydraulic and radiological release results for these accidents

  18. A program on quality assurance and dose calibration for radiation therapy units in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilla, M.C. de; Carrizales, L.; Diaz, J.; Gutt, F.; Cozman, A.

    1996-01-01

    The results of a five year program (1988-90-91-92-93) on quality assurance and dose calibration for 12 Cobalt-60 units from public hospitals, which represents 30% of total radiation therapy units in Venezuela, are presented. The remarkable improvement in the general performance of these units can be seen in the IAEA/WHO Postal TLD Intercomparison results which gave 100% within ± 5% in 1990 and 1992, while 63% in 1990 and 44% in 1992, with errors up to 37% were obtained for the participants not included in the program. The difference between the two groups lead the government to decrete through the Gaceta Oficial de la Republica de Venezuela, Resolution G-1397 on March 3, 1993, the quality assurance and dose calibration programs shall be established for all radiation therapy installations in Venezuela. The project for the standards was developed by the SSDL physicists and it was already approbated by the Health Ministry. It is expected that the Norms will enter into effect by the end of 1994. (author). 14 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  19. Be discs in coplanar circular binaries: Phase-locked variations of emission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panoglou, Despina; Faes, Daniel M.; Carciofi, Alex C.; Okazaki, Atsuo T.; Baade, Dietrich; Rivinius, Thomas; Borges Fernandes, Marcelo

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we present the first results of radiative transfer calculations on decretion discs of binary Be stars. A smoothed particle hydrodynamics code computes the structure of Be discs in coplanar circular binary systems for a range of orbital and disc parameters. The resulting disc configuration consists of two spiral arms, and this can be given as input into a Monte Carlo code, which calculates the radiative transfer along the line of sight for various observational coordinates. Making use of the property of steady disc structure in coplanar circular binaries, observables are computed as functions of the orbital phase. Some orbital-phase series of line profiles are given for selected parameter sets under various viewing angles, to allow comparison with observations. Flat-topped profiles with and without superimposed multiple structures are reproduced, showing, for example, that triple-peaked profiles do not have to be necessarily associated with warped discs and misaligned binaries. It is demonstrated that binary tidal effects give rise to phase-locked variability of the violet-to-red (V/R) ratio of hydrogen emission lines. The V/R ratio exhibits two maxima per cycle; in certain cases those maxima are equal, leading to a clear new V/R cycle every half orbital period. This study opens a way to identifying binaries and to constraining the parameters of binary systems that exhibit phase-locked variations induced by tidal interaction with a companion star.

  20. “OMNE, QUOD NON EST EX FIDE, PECCATUM EST" THE RELEVANCE OF GOOD FAITH IN CANONICAL TRANSACTIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Parini Vincenti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It is quite clear that there is a canonical foundation underlying the institute of transactio. Indeed, a compromise is often reached when a dispute has already entered the litigation phase, and as such legal doctrine tends to separate the economic aspect from the ethical aspect in its interpretation. Though the Church has a necessarily imperfect system of legal sanctions at its disposal, over the centuries it has in fact played a fundamental role in the ethical aspect of compromise. Indeed, the Gospel teaches that every human relationship must be based on concordia, as concordia mater est unitatis: if parties have ignored such morals and are about to litigate, or have already started legal proceedings, the Church must exhort them to settle the dispute. This article aims to examine the relevance of two of the essential requirements of transactio –namely lis and res dubia – within the Decretals (X 1.36. 1-11 de transactionibus. The framework of this analysis is provided by the tenet Effectus transactionis est, ut ei stetur, which sanctions the effectiveness of transactio as a juristic act. The goal is to evaluate how the uncertainty of legal proceedings relates to the principle of good faith in canon law.

  1. IL CONTRIBUTO DI INNOCENZO III ALLA FORMAZIONE DELLA CULTURA GIURIDICA OCCIDENTALE: IN PARTICOLARE IN RELAZIONE AL NOTO PRINCIPIO «REI PUBLICAE INTEREST NE CRIMINA REMANEANT IMPUNITA»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Edoardo Varalda

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the period so called renovatio, many principles contained in the Roman legal sources have been explained in a new and innovative way, influencing the history of juridical thought and contributing to the development of the European legal experience. In fact, the principle "Rei publice interest it crimina remaneant impunita" (mentioned in two decretals of Innocent III: i.e. the Inauditum in 1199 and i.e. the Ut famae in 1203 has an essential role in the development of the conceptual system of modern criminal law. The content of this study will be, on the one hand, the detailed study of historical iter by which this principle has been consolidated and has been embraced by canonical experience and, more generally, in the Western one; on the other hand, it will analyse both from a technical and a metagiuridico point of view the origin of such formula and on the contribution that Christian theology might have given by clarifying and specifying its meaning. Therefore, it’s clear the importance of this principle in the development of the European legal system and, broadly, in the Western legal experience.

  2. A program on quality assurance and dose calibration for radiation therapy units in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla, M.C. de; Carrizales, L; Diaz, J; Gutt, F; Cozman, A [Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Caracas (Venezuela). Lab. de Calibracion Dosimetrica

    1996-08-01

    The results of a five year program (1988-90-91-92-93) on quality assurance and dose calibration for 12 Cobalt-60 units from public hospitals, which represents 30% of total radiation therapy units in Venezuela, are presented. The remarkable improvement in the general performance of these units can be seen in the IAEA/WHO Postal TLD Intercomparison results which gave 100% within {+-} 5% in 1990 and 1992, while 63% in 1990 and 44% in 1992, with errors up to 37% were obtained for the participants not included in the program. The difference between the two groups lead the government to decrete through the Gaceta Oficial de la Republica de Venezuela, Resolution G-1397 on March 3, 1993, the quality assurance and dose calibration programs shall be established for all radiation therapy installations in Venezuela. The project for the standards was developed by the SSDL physicists and it was already approbated by the Health Ministry. It is expected that the Norms will enter into effect by the end of 1994. (author). 14 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  3. Clandestinidad, fiscalidad y tolerancia: el opio en el discurso oficial, Mexicali, México 1915-1916

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinnia V. Capó Valdivia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analiza el discurso oficial relacionado con la fiscalidad del comercio y consumo de opio en Mexicali, Baja California. Se centra en el impuesto a fábricas de opio y pago por importación del narcótico que el jefe político del Distrito Norte de la Baja California, Esteban Cantú, decretó en 1915. Este impuesto contrarió disposiciones federales y acuerdos internacionales. Se analiza el contexto sociopolítico y cultural que favoreció la implementación, aunque por breve tiempo, de esta política fiscal. Se pone especial atención a los significados intersubjetivos que acompañaron a las políticas y declaraciones de las autoridades gubernamentales. A partir de ello, se identifican prejuicios de raza, xenofobia/nacionalismo y nociones “científicas” (degeneracionismo utilizados para justificar una “tolerancia” institucionalizada al comercio de opio en Mexicali.

  4. A Semiautomatic Pipeline for Be Star Light Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rímulo, L. R.; Carciofi, A. C.; Rivinius, T.; Okazaki, A.

    2016-11-01

    Observational and theoretical studies from the last decade have shown that the Viscous Decretion Disk (VDD) scenario, in which turbulent viscosity is the physical mechanism responsible for the transport of material and angular momentum ejected from the star to the outer regions of the disk, is the only viable model for explaining the circumstellar disks of Be stars. In the α-disk approach applied to the VDD, the dimensionless parameter α is a measure of the turbulent viscosity. Recently, combining the time-dependent evolution of a VDD α-disk with non-LTE radiative transfer calculations, the first measurement of the α parameter was made, for the disk dissipation of the Be star ω CMa. It was found that α≍ 1 for that Be disk. The main motivation of this present work is the statistical determination of the α parameter. For this purpose, we present a pipeline that will allow the semiautomatic determination of the α parameter of several dozens of light curves of Be stars available from photometric surveys, In this contribution, we describe the pipeline, outlining the main staps required for the semiautomatic analysis of light curves

  5. LOS REQUISITOS DE LA LEX AQUILIA, CON ESPECIAL REFERENCIA AL DAÑO: LECTURAS DESDE LAS DISTINTAS TEORÍAS SOBRE EL CAPÍTULO TERCERO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Aedo Barrena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene por objeto hacer un breve repaso de los requisitos que la lex Aquilia exigía para su concurrencia, desde las distintas lecturas que la doctrina romanista moderna ha hecho del capítulo tercero. Así, se muestra de que manera las distintas posiciones influyen en la conceptualización de la Murta, en el desarrollo decretal y, por consiguiente en la relación de causalidad, pero especialmente en el daño, que es el requisito al cual la investigación presta más atención. Así se analiza, según estas diferentes visiones, el desarrollo del principio idquod interest. Claramente, como se ha insinuado en este resumen, se enfrentan dos visiones contrapuestas, entre aquellos que ven en la lex Aquilia un estatuto originariamente resarcitorio (negando incluso el principio corpore corpori y adjudicándolo a la interpretación medieval versus un punto de vista que considera que la ley tenía originariamente un carácter estrictamente penal, derivando paulatinamente hacia un carácter resarcitorio. En el primer punto de vista, el principio id quod interest se presentó desde un comienzo en el capítulo tercero, el que exclusivamente se refería al daño (tesis de Daube; desde el segundo punto de vista, la interpretación permitió la evolución desde el premium corporis hasta el principio id quod interest, en el punto de vista afirmado desde Jolowicz y recientemente sustentado por Valditara.This paper aims to make a brief review of the requirements that the lex Aquilia required for its concurrence, from the various readings that the modern Roman law doctrine has made the third chapter. Thus, it shows how the different positions that influence the conceptualization of iniuria, in the development decretal, and therefore in terms of causality, but especially in the damage, which in that part of that research pays more attention. So is analyzed, as these various visions, the development of the principle id quod interest. Clearly, as

  6. INVESTIGATING THE CIRCUMSTELLAR DISK OF THE Be SHELL STAR 48 LIBRAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silaj, J.; Jones, C. E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario, N6A 3K7 (Canada); Carciofi, A. C.; Escolano, C.; Bednarski, D. [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofísica e Ciências Atmosféricas, Universitária de São Paulo, Rua do Matão 1226, Cidade Universitária, 05508-900 São Paulo, SP Brazil (Brazil); Okazaki, A. T. [Faculty of Engineering, Hokkai-Gakuen University, Toyohira-ku, Sapporo 062-8605 (Japan); Tycner, C. [Department of Physics, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, MI 48859 (United States); Rivinius, T.; Klement, R. [European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile)

    2016-07-20

    A global disk oscillation implemented in the viscous decretion disk (VDD) model has been used to reproduce most of the observed properties of the well known Be star ζ Tau. 48 Librae shares several similarities with ζ Tau—they are both early-type Be stars, display shell characteristics in their spectra, and exhibit cyclic V / R variations—but has some marked differences as well, such as a much denser and more extended disk, a much longer V / R cycle, and the absence of the so-called triple-peak features. We aim to reproduce the photometric, polarimetric, and spectroscopic observables of 48 Librae with a self-consistent model, and to test the global oscillation scenario for this target. Our calculations are carried out with the three-dimensional NLTE radiative transfer code HDUST. We employ a rotationally deformed, gravity-darkened central star surrounded by a disk whose unperturbed state is given by the VDD model. A two-dimensional global oscillation code is then used to calculate the disk perturbation and superimpose it on the unperturbed disk. A very good, self-consistent fit to the time-averaged properties of the disk is obtained with the VDD. The calculated perturbation has a period P = 12 years, which agrees with the observed period, and the behavior of the V / R cycle is well reproduced by the perturbed model. The perturbed model improves the fit to the photometric data and reproduces some features of the observed spectroscopic data. Some suggestions to improve the synthesized spectroscopy in a future work are given.

  7. Global Simulations of the Inner Regions of Protoplanetary Disks with Comprehensive Disk Microphysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xue-Ning

    2017-08-01

    The gas dynamics of weakly ionized protoplanetary disks (PPDs) are largely governed by the coupling between gas and magnetic fields, described by three non-ideal magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) effects (Ohmic, Hall, ambipolar). Previous local simulations incorporating these processes have revealed that the inner regions of PPDs are largely laminar and accompanied by wind-driven accretion. We conduct 2D axisymmetric, fully global MHD simulations of these regions (˜1-20 au), taking into account all non-ideal MHD effects, with tabulated diffusion coefficients and approximate treatment of external ionization and heating. With the net vertical field aligned with disk rotation, the Hall-shear instability strongly amplifies horizontal magnetic field, making the overall dynamics dependent on initial field configuration. Following disk formation, the disk likely relaxes into an inner zone characterized by asymmetric field configuration across the midplane, which smoothly transitions to a more symmetric outer zone. Angular momentum transport is driven by both MHD winds and laminar Maxwell stress, with both accretion and decretion flows present at different heights, and modestly asymmetric winds from the two disk sides. With anti-aligned field polarity, weakly magnetized disks settle into an asymmetric field configuration with supersonic accretion flow concentrated at one side of the disk surface, and highly asymmetric winds between the two disk sides. In all cases, the wind is magneto-thermal in nature, characterized by a mass loss rate exceeding the accretion rate. More strongly magnetized disks give more symmetric field configuration and flow structures. Deeper far-UV penetration leads to stronger and less stable outflows. Implications for observations and planet formation are also discussed.

  8. Global Simulations of the Inner Regions of Protoplanetary Disks with Comprehensive Disk Microphysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Xue-Ning, E-mail: xbai@cfa.harvard.edu [Institute for Theory and Computation, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., MS-51, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2017-08-10

    The gas dynamics of weakly ionized protoplanetary disks (PPDs) are largely governed by the coupling between gas and magnetic fields, described by three non-ideal magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) effects (Ohmic, Hall, ambipolar). Previous local simulations incorporating these processes have revealed that the inner regions of PPDs are largely laminar and accompanied by wind-driven accretion. We conduct 2D axisymmetric, fully global MHD simulations of these regions (∼1–20 au), taking into account all non-ideal MHD effects, with tabulated diffusion coefficients and approximate treatment of external ionization and heating. With the net vertical field aligned with disk rotation, the Hall-shear instability strongly amplifies horizontal magnetic field, making the overall dynamics dependent on initial field configuration. Following disk formation, the disk likely relaxes into an inner zone characterized by asymmetric field configuration across the midplane, which smoothly transitions to a more symmetric outer zone. Angular momentum transport is driven by both MHD winds and laminar Maxwell stress, with both accretion and decretion flows present at different heights, and modestly asymmetric winds from the two disk sides. With anti-aligned field polarity, weakly magnetized disks settle into an asymmetric field configuration with supersonic accretion flow concentrated at one side of the disk surface, and highly asymmetric winds between the two disk sides. In all cases, the wind is magneto-thermal in nature, characterized by a mass loss rate exceeding the accretion rate. More strongly magnetized disks give more symmetric field configuration and flow structures. Deeper far-UV penetration leads to stronger and less stable outflows. Implications for observations and planet formation are also discussed.

  9. Priesagos -ng- prūsų hidronimai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feliksas Daubaras

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available DIE ALTPREUßlSCHEN HYDRONYME MIT -ng- SUFFIXENZusammenfassungIm vorliegenden Artikel werden altpr. Gewässernamen mit den Suffixen –ing- und -ang- besprochen. Hydronyme mit -ing- sind ihrer Herkunft nach Adjektive, die meistens von Substantiven ab­geleitet sind und den Besitz des durch das Stammwort ausgedrückten Begriffes bezeichnen. Manche von ihnen sind zu Eigennamen geworden, z. B. altpr. rag-ingis „Hirsch“ „mit Hörnern“ = *Rag-ing- Fluß, vgl. altpr. ragis „Horn“, lit. rãgas „Horn, Landzunge“; altpr. *stab-ing- „steinig“ = *Stab­-ing- See, vgl. altpr. stabis „Stein“; altpr. *sil-ing- „von Heiden umgeben“ = *Sil-ing- Bach, vgl. altpr. sylo „Heide“. Insgesamt sind im Artikel einunddreißig Hydronyme mit -ing- und drei mit -ang- angeführt. Die Konzentration von Gewässer- bzw. Ortsnamen mit diesen Suffixen in altpreussischen, kurischen und selischen Gebieten hat bereits Būga bemerkt. Das Suffix -ing- bei der Bil­dung von Gewässernamen war ursprünglich wohl nur den westlichen baltischen Stämmen (Preußen und Jatwingen und ihren nächsten Nachbarn Kuren bekannt. Das Suffix -ang- ist nur für Kuren und Preußen typisch. Hydronymische Parallelen mit Wurzeln von altpr. Gewässernamen mit -ing-und -ang- sind in Litauen und Lettland verschieden verbreitet. Mehrere von ihnen sind auf dem ganzen litauischen und lettischen Territorium zu treffen, z, B. *Amel-, *Ard-, *Ar-, *Bal-, *Bert-,*Birkel- , *Dubr-, *Eiv-, *Gisl-, *Kukul-, *Mat-, *Mus-, * Mutet-, *Mar-, *Rag-, *Ser-, *Sil-, *Sav-, *Ulp-, *Vad-. Manche Wurzeln kommen nur in bestimmten Gebieten vor, z. B. *Erl-,*Ranz-, *Skutel- — in Kurland, *Stab- — in Jatwingien, *Īz— in Selenland.Einige altpr. Hydronyme mit -ing- haben Variante mit -ung- (Amel-ink: Amelung, Dalwinge: Dalwunge, Seringe: Serung, was sich durch den Einfluß der deutschen Sprache deuten läßt.

  10. Jono Bretkūno Biblijos germanizmai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nijolė Čepienė

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available GERMANISMEN IN DER BIBEL VON JONAS BRETKŪNASZusammenfassungDie Bibel des Jonas Bretkūnas (1579-1590 (weiter BB ist die wertvollste handschriftliche Über­setzung des XVI. Jhs. aus dem Deutschen (Lukas Evangelium ist aus dem Lateinischen übersetzt. Sie enthält viele sprachliche Schätze, die die Lage der Sprache und die kulturelle Umgebung des Klein Litauens im XVI. Jh. widerspiegeln.Beim Vergleich der BB mit den anderen altlitauischen Schriften des XVI. Jhs. stellte sich heraus, daß BB am meisten Germanismen, etwa 300, enthält. Es sind meistens deutsche Lehnwörter aus dem Niederdeutschen und Hochdeutschen. Die Mehrheit der Germanismen bilden kulturelle Lehnwörter, die wegen der Sprachkontakte entstanden sind. Manche Lehnwörter gelangten ins Litauische wahr­scheinlich auf dem literarischen Wege, d.h. bei der Übersetzung der Religionsschriften (psalteras „Psal­ter“, mirrhas „Myrrhe“, izopas „Isop“. Einige Lehnwörter könnten ohne Vermittlung der slawischen Sprachen ins Litauische gelangen, z.B.: gruntas (Grund, pancierius (Panzer, šnuras (Schnur.Die Eigentümlichkeit der Übersetzung des Bretkūnas ist das Zusammenhäufen der lexikalischen Va­rianten, Synonyme; einige Wörter sind von den Korrektoren zugeschrieben. Die Germanismen kommen im Haupttext und in späteren Korrekturen vor. Viele Varianten haben die Lehnwörter šturmas „Sturm“, kunstas „Kunst“, spikerė „Speicher“, spangas „Spange“ u.a. Die Beispiele zeigen, daß Bretkūnas wollte nicht die Lehnwörter aus dem Text wegwerfen. Er gab Varianten, manche in Parenthesen, als ob der Leser selbst die passenden Wörter wählte. Viele Varianten entstanden wegen der Vieldeutigkeit der Wörter, ihrer semantischen Nuancen. Sie zeigen, daß Bretkūnas bei der Übersetzung der Bibel oft zweifelte, welches Wort besser passt. Er schätzte die Varianten ein, einige schreibend in Parenthesen, andere unterstreichend oder ausstreichend, trotzdem blieb oft keine

  11. Deliberated opinion of the Environment Authority on the request of authorization of creation of the Penly 3 basic nuclear installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report proposes an environmental review of the content of the installation creation request file submitted for the creation of an EPR reactor (same type as the one in Flamanville), Penly 3, at the vicinity of two existing nuclear plants. More particularly, it discusses the contents of the impact study and of the risk management study. It presents and comments the operation (objectives, history, time planning) and indicates the concerned procedures. While formulating recommendations, it comments and discusses the style and content of the impact study, outlines some methodological problems, notably about some aspects of cost assessment, discusses the analysis of the present and initial site condition, the content of the project and its alternatives, the analysis of the various radiological or chemical impacts on the environment and on health, the analysis of impacts related to conventional and radioactive waste management, the analysis of non-radiological impacts on water (rivers and sea), the analysis of impacts on Natura 2000 sites and of other impacts (on noise, urban planning, expected economic impacts), the analysis of impacts of construction works. The last part addresses the risk management analysis

  12. French public opinion and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Ngoc, B.

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the year French media have dealt with a lot of negative information concerning nuclear industry: the dire financial situation of AREVA, the questioning about the state of the pressure vessel of the Flamanville EPR or the EDF and Chinese investments in the british Hinkley point project. All these issues have impacted the opinion of the French people about nuclear energy: more people are against nuclear energy but nuclear accident appears to be only the tenth source of concern after unemployment (first) and terrorism. The debate about the energetic transition that will lead to the decrease of the nuclear share in the production of electricity marks the end of a political consensus in favour of the atom. Solar energy is the favorite energy source, more than 55% of the population wish solar energy to achieve a bigger share in the 15 next years while only 32% wish the same thing for wind energy. For most people nuclear energy appears to be necessary to complement renewable energies for at least the next 15-30 years. (A.C.)

  13. EPR design features to mitigate severe accident challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurkiewicz, S.M.; Fischer, M.; Bittermann, D.

    2005-01-01

    The EPR, an evolutionary pressurized water reactor (PWR), is a 4300-4500 MWth that incorporates proven technology within an optimized configuration to enhance safety. EPR was originally developed through a joint effort between Framatome ANP and Siemens by incorporating the best technological features from the French and German nuclear reactor fleets into a cost-competitive product. Commercial EPR units are currently being built in Finland at the Olkiluoto site, and planned for France at the Flamanville site. In recent months, Framatome ANP announced their intention to market the EPR units to China in response to a request for vendor bids as well as their intent to pursue design certification in the United States under 10CFR52. The EPR safety philosophy is based on a deterministic consideration of defense-in-depth complemented by probabilistic analyses. Not only is the EPR designed to prevent and mitigate design basis accidents (DBAs), it employs an extra level of safety associated with severe accident response. Therefore, as a design objective, features are included to ensure that radiological consequences are limited such that the need for stringent counter measures, such as evacuation and relocation of the nearby population, can be reasonably excluded. This paper discusses some of the innovative features of the EPR to address severe accident challenges. (author)

  14. Nuclear accident: the EPR, the most dangerous reactor in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large, John

    2007-02-01

    After a brief description of the operation of a nuclear reactor, this document outlines the complexity of this machine and the problems which may happen and result in radioactive releases. It also briefly recalls past accidents (Chernobyl, Three Mile Island) and serious incidents (Fosmark in Sweden, Blayais in France). The author then describes how the nuclear industry and nuclear safety authorities tend to deny the risk, notably as far as the EPR is concerned. He outlines that the hypotheses retained by EDF and safety authorities for the quantity of radioactivity released in case of accident might be under-assessed as it appears when they are compared with data obtained by different models and in reality. The author considers that the use of MOX introduces difficulties to ensure nuclear safety, and that the EPR will therefore be the most dangerous nuclear reactor in the world. Based on a simulation, he shows that, in case of accident in of the EPR in Flamanville, radioactive fallouts will occur at the continental scale in less than two days. He proposes an assessment of consequences for the population in terms of deaths, cancers, evacuation. He indicates the different exposure modes for the population, and the countermeasures to be implemented in case of accident (he proposes an assessment of consequences in terms of morbidity with or without countermeasures)

  15. The costs of the different pathways of electricity production and saving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessus, B.

    2012-01-01

    The author discusses the content and methodology of a report published by the French Court of Audit on the assessment of the costs of the nuclear sector. He briefly recalls the principle adopted by the Court, i.e. the method of the economic current cost which calculates a global MWh cost on the whole operation duration of the selected production tool. The author discusses the application of this method to different electricity production and consumption sectors: ground-based wind energy, the Flamanville EPR, use of low-energy bulbs, air-air heat pumps, a refrigerator. He compares and discusses the results obtained for different electricity production sectors (EPR, ground-based wind energy, and gas combined cycle technology) and their sensitivity to adopted hypotheses. He comments the evolution of the investment cost of nuclear reactors in France, the economic current costs of offshore wind energy and small photovoltaic production. He finally discusses the economic current costs of the different ways of energy saving and their sensitivity to the adopted hypotheses

  16. Modelling of atmospheric dispersion in a complex medium and associated uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demael, Emmanuel

    2007-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the study of the digital modelling of atmospheric dispersions. It aimed at validating the Mercure-Saturne tool used with a RANS (Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes) approach within the frame of an impact study or of an accidental scenario on a nuclear site while taking buildings and ground relief into account, at comparing the Mercure-Saturne model with a more simple and less costly (in terms of computation time) Gaussian tool (the ADMS software, Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling System), and at quantifying uncertainties related to the use of the Mercure-Saturne model. The first part introduces theoretical elements of atmosphere physics and of the atmospheric dispersion in a boundary layer, presents the Gaussian model and the Mercure-Saturne tool and its associated RANS approach. The second part reports the comparison of the Mercure-Saturne model with conventional Gaussian plume models. The third part reports the study of the atmospheric flow and dispersion about the Bugey nuclear site, based on a study performed in a wind tunnel. The fourth part reports the same kind of study for the Flamanville site. The fifth part reports the use of different approaches for the study of uncertainties in the case of the Bugey site: application of the Morris method (a screening method), and of the Monte Carlo method (quantification of the uncertainty and of the sensitivity of each uncertainty source) [fr

  17. Information report issued in application of the article 146 of the regulation by the Commission for Finances, General Economy, and Budgetary Control on the development perspectives of AREVA and the future of the nuclear sector. Nr 2952

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goua, Marc; Mariton, Herve

    2015-01-01

    As AREVA displays an unprecedented loss, and is facing a durable and persistent stagnation of its nuclear activities after the Fukushima accident, and as these losses are the consequences of misguided strategic decisions and disputable mining acquisitions, as well as of a problematic management of the main big industrial projects, this report comes after an intervention of the French President on the future of this company. The objectives are a restoration of Areva's competitiveness, and the elaboration of a new partnership between EDF and AREVA with a new definition of their respective roles in the design, manufacturing and selling of nuclear reactors. Notably based on hearings, and on visits of the Flamanville EPR site and of the La Hague reprocessing plant this reports aims at informing the French parliament on the different faced challenges and opportunities. The authors thus give an overview of the group financial situation and describe the important reorganisation issues. They analyse how the group has been weakened by its economic performance and a development mode with uncertain results. They try to define a possible future within the frame of a reorganised nuclear sector based on a high performance group, a good governance of the nuclear sector, an industrially consistent solution, and a relevant position for the French nuclear sector

  18. Nuclear energy an asset for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2007-01-01

    The energy issue is now a worldwide concern. It is showed that nuclear energy combined with renewable energies are the only efficient response to face the challenge of climate warming by cutting drastically the emission of greenhouse gases in the electricity production. The second asset of nuclear energy is to be able to meet the growing need for electric power of developing countries. Energy conservation is a good thing to do in western countries but it is far to be sufficient. The success of France's nuclear energy program has enabled the country to be independent from other countries concerning its electricity production, to produce electricity at moderate and stable costs even on the long term, and to develop nuclear industry operators that are world leaders. According to the 28 june 2006 bill that clarifies the management of radioactive wastes, the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in deep geological layers, will be put into service in 2025. The law has let the possibility of recovering the waste containers during a certain period after their burial if new solutions will have emerged. In the context of an expected renaissance of nuclear energy, the EPR (European Pressurized Reactor) is a valuable offer that must be developed. The construction of an EPR unit on the Flamanville site is necessary to perfect its design. (A.C.)

  19. IC modelling in the IRSN EPR level 1 PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delache, J.

    2012-01-01

    Today in France, an EPR (European Pressurized Water Reactor) Unit is under construction at the Flamanville site. The creation authorization was granted in April 2007 and the plant commissioning is planned for 2012. The plant operator (EDF) provided for the construction license several PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment) studies. IRSN, as TSO (Technical Safety Organisation), wishes to dispose of the appropriate knowledge and tools for the independent verification of the operator studies and so developed its own model of PSA level 1. The goal is not to rebuild the plant operator PSA (with a full scope...) but to dispose of a simplified model able to clearly point out specific important issues. In the IRSN model a particular effort has recently been done on the Digital IC modelling. The IC (Instrumentation and Control) is modelled in the IRSN EPR PSA by using Fault Trees. Instead, EDF EPR PSA applies the COMPACT model to simplify the command and instrumentation logics. The IRSN model is more detailed in order to be more accurate in the global analysis of the Digital IC. For instance the communication ways between automates are considered as well as the failure of support systems. The model is still under development mainly in order to define the CCF (Common Cause Failure) which may be considered. (authors)

  20. Facts of the month

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glot-Sanchez, N.

    2007-01-01

    This article gathers a lot of information concerning the energy sector at the world scale, it is organized according to the type of energy: electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energies and fossil fuels. The energy bill of France in 2006 has reached 46 milliard euros, it means an increase of +19% compared to 2005. It's worth noting that this increase is completely due to the evolution of the cost of oil since the quantities of oil imports have not changed. In Germany an opinion survey shows that the public is against a nuclear power phaseout unless renewable energies are sufficiently developed to take over. EDF has officially ordered the nuclear part of the new EPR reactor on the Flamanville site to Areva company. Areva company has won 2 bids on the Swedish market: the upgrading contract of the Oskarsham-2 unit and the contract concerning the extension of the operating life of the Ringhals-4 unit. The Paks-2 unit is now operating again after delicate works have been made to repair damage occurred during a maintenance operation in 2003. The 2 oldest operating nuclear power plants in the world have been decommissioned: Dungeness-A and Sizewell-A, both in U.K. and both after a 40 year long operating life. (A.C.)

  1. First quarter 2006: sales up by 13.3% to euros 2,476 million

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-04-01

    The AREVA group's first quarter 2006 sales was euros 2,476 million, compared with euros 2,186 million for the same period in 2005, representing 13.3% growth in terms of reported data. Organic growth was 13.0%. Nuclear operations posted sales of euros 1,660 million, up 11.5% (up 11.6% like-for-like), and buoyant business volume marked by: net growth for the Front End Division (+20.4%), with 60% coming from volume-product mix effects and 40% from favorable price effects, especially for uranium supply and enrichment services; the contribution from the OL3 (Finland), Ling Ao-Phase II (China) and Flamanville 3 EPR (France) reactor projects, which boosted the Reactors and Services Division's sales by 13.2%; a slight decrease in the Back End Division (-2.5%). The Transmission and Distribution Division posted sales of euros 817 million, representing strong organic growth (up 16.6%), consistent with the increase in orders recorded in 2005. Orders booked in the first quarter of 2006 were up by 15.4% like-for-like (up 25.4% in reported data) compared with the first quarter of 2005. For 2006, the Group expects net growth in sales, like-for-like, although not at the particularly high levels of the first quarter

  2. EDF's viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serviere, G.

    2009-01-01

    After a period when several types of power reactors were operated, the most part of the French nuclear power plants were built in a 10 years time on the basis of a PWR design. This very important effort allowed France to face the oil crisis and an increase of power demand. Today nuclear energy keeps all its relevance in the French energy mix but a larger contribution of renewable energies is expected progressively. Light water reactors will stay dominant in the 2, 3 decades to come because of their important feedback experience and their economical competitiveness. The emergence of the 4. generation is not sure, it will depend strongly on: -) the available resources of uranium, -) the extend of the use of nuclear energy in the world, and -) its competitiveness compared to the 3. generation. This series of slides is divided into 3 parts: 1) the nuclear power in the French energy mix, 2) 3. generation reactors versus 4. generation ones, and 3) The EPR at Flamanville and in the world (China, Usa and Great-Britain). (A.C.)

  3. News from the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2011-01-01

    This document gathers pieces of information from around the world concerning the nuclear sector. Among which were the following. Saudi-Arabia projects to build 16 nuclear reactors till 2020. In Pakistan the third reactor has entered into service, this reactor (Chashma-2, 330 MW) is a PWR-type reactor designed by CNNC (China National Nuclear Corporation). Areva Newport News LLC has postponed to a later date the construction of a plant dedicated to manufacturing big components like reactor vessels or vessel heads. Areva and Rhodia have signed an agreement for a better valorization of deposits involving uranium and rare earth elements. Bulgaria has inaugurated a new storage center for nuclear wastes. Areva has launched the construction of a plant dedicated to the production of Pb-212, an isotope used in the treatment of some cancers. A worker died of a fall on the building site of Flamanville-3. According to COMARE (Committee on Medical Aspects of Radiation in the Environment) there is no relationship between the child leukemia and the presence of nuclear power plants in U.K. Siemens has been condemned to pay 0.648 billion euros to Areva as a compensation for the breach of the shareholder pact. Rosatom has created Rosatom Overseas that will be in charge of financing, building, operating and even owning nuclear power plants on foreign soil. 'Electricite de France' has presented its trends for the next decade. (A.C.)

  4. Radiological objectives and severe accident mitigation strategy for the generation II PWRs in France in the framework of PLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cenerino, G.; Dubreuil, M.; Raimond, E.; Pichereau, F.

    2012-01-01

    In France, EDF is involved in the construction of a first generation III (Gen III) reactor (European Pressurized Reactor - EPR) on Flamanville site next to two PWRs. Plant Life Extension (PLE) of reactors will consequently lead to simultaneous operation of Gen III and Gen II reactors during a long period of time. As a consequence, EDF was requested by the French Nuclear Safety Authority to prepare a PWR life management program including, in addition to an ageing management of Systems, Structures and Components, a consequent reactor safety enhancement program. The objective was stated to EDF by the French Nuclear Safety Authority: 'the safety objectives of the Gen III reactors should be used as a reference for all studies undertaken in the frame of PLE'. One part of the EDF program deals with additional arrangements able to reduce more drastically the consequences of any accident. The relevance, according to IRSN, of the EDF radiological objectives for Design Basis Accidents, of the new EDF objectives for Severe Accidents (SA) and of the EDF potential modifications for SA mitigation are presented. (author)

  5. After Fukushima in the North Contentin - 'ACROnic du nucleaire' nr 95, December 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anger, Paulette; Anger, Didier; Autret, Jean-Claude; Barbey, Pierre; Boilley, David; Guillemette, Andre; Rousselet, Yannick; Sene, Monique; Zerbib, Jean-Claude

    2011-12-01

    This document raises questions on the safety and security of nuclear installations in North-Cotentin after the Fukushima accident. These questions concern the responsible authority in case of accident, the problems associated with subcontracting, the existing organisation and measures related to radiation protection and medical monitoring, the way dose limits will be computed and how people will be informed when there is no more electricity or telephone, the actual exposure level when plume effect and food are taken into account, the issue of domestic and industrial waters (how contamination will be stopped), the way huge quantities of contaminated lands and wastes will be managed in France. It also evokes other issues (the distribution of iodine, hacking of computer systems, extreme meteorological events, historic earthquakes), some of them being specific to La Hague AREVA NC plant (storage of fission products, storage pools for irradiated fuels, storage of plutonium oxide and MOX wastes), to the Flamanville power station (location and protection of the control room and of spare systems, hot shutdown of the reactor, failures of steam generator tubes, hydrogen management in case of loss of coolant, toughness of seals in the primary circuit, and so on), and to the EPR (reliability of control clusters, efficiency of corium receptor, sinking of an oil tanker and oil-slick)

  6. Accurate monitoring developed by EDF for FA-3-EPRTM and UK-EPRTM: chemistry-radiochemistry design and procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tigeras, Arancha; Bouhrizi, Sofia; Pierre, Marine; L'Orphelin, Jean-Matthieu

    2012-09-01

    The monitoring of chemistry and radiochemistry parameters is a fundamental need in nuclear power plants in order to ensure: - The reactivity control in real time, - The barrier integrity surveillance by means of the fuel cladding failures detection and the primary-pressure boundary components control, - The water quality to limit the radiation build-up and the material corrosion permitting to prepare the maintenance, radioprotection and waste operations. - The efficiency of treatment systems and hence the minimization of chemical and radiochemical substances discharges The relevant chemistry and radiochemistry parameters to be monitored are selected depending on the chemistry conditioning of systems, the source term evaluations, the corrosion mechanisms and the radioactivity consequences. In spite of the difficulties for obtaining representative samples under all circumstances, the EPR M design provides the appropriate provisions and analytical procedures for ensuring the reliable and accurate monitoring of parameters in compliance with the specification requirements. The design solutions, adopted for Flamanville 3-EPR M and UK-EPR M , concerning the sampling conditions and locations, the on-line and analytical equipment, the procedures and the results transmission to control room and chemistry laboratory are supported by ALARP considerations, international experience and researches concerning the nuclides behavior (corrosion product and actinides solubility, fission product degassing, impurities and additives reactions also). This paper details the means developed by EDF for making successful and meaningful sampling and measurements to achieve the essential objectives associated with the monitoring. (authors)

  7. Digital innovations for teaching and nuclear training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanjas, Y.; Schoevaerts, D.; Beliazi, L.

    2017-01-01

    The article reviews various digital tools that have been developed for nuclear training. The 'internet virtual laboratory' has been developed by the IAEA, it allows the live broadcasting through the web of experiments and practical exercises performed on the ISIS reactor located in France at Saclay. Virtual reality is booming and allows professionals to move in a nuclear facility virtually. For instance the SecureVI tool is based on 360 degrees photographs of the facility that are associated with goggles to get the immersive effect. The last generation of full-scale reactor simulators are based on 3-dimensional calculations made by the latest version of neutron transport codes and thermal-hydraulic codes. The EPR-FA3 simulator represents the control room of the Flamanville EPR, it is used for the training of reactor operators. The X1300 simulator replicates PWR operations and the SOFIA tool allows the trainees to understand how a nuclear reactor works. The CAVE tool was first developed to be used as an help to engineers and now it has been adapted to training purposes: CAVE allows a complete immersion in a nuclear facility. (A.C.)

  8. Temporary and Long Term Design Provisions Taken on the French NPP Fleet to Cope with Extended Station Black out in case of Rare and Severe External Events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuy, Patricia; Delafond, Carine; Dubois, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Following the events at Fukushima, the Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) has been strongly involved in a series of reviews related to the robustness of French nuclear power plants in case of 'rare and severe' external hazards. These reviews included in particular the 'stress tests' performed in 2011 as required by the European Commission. Those reviews, and the proposal made by EDF to reinforce NPPs robustness in such situation, led to the introduction of the concept of a hardened safety core (HSC) to avoid massive releases and prolonged effects in the environment in case of rare and severe natural hazards. This concept will be explained in the paper and the new specific electrical equipment as well as the interfaces with the existing electrical distribution required to implement this HSC will be explained. As the detailed design, manufacturing and installation of the HSC in all NPP sites will take several years, temporary measures have been adopted. This paper will also present the electrical sources and the distribution related to those temporary measures. The specific situation of the new built EPR reactor in Flamanville is also addressed. Lastly, in complement to the above on-site design provisions, a Nuclear Rapid Response Force has been set up by EDF to bring off-site support to French NPPs in case of emergency. The paper will describe the type of electrical equipment to be delivered and the principle for distributing the electrical power to the required loads. (authors)

  9. Radiation protection on EPR: comparative approach of the French and Finnish regulatory reviewing process and optimization at the design phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arial, E.; Couasnon, O.; Latil-querrec, N.; Evrard, J.M.; Herviou, K.; Riihiluoma, V.; Beneteau, Y.; Foret, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    Taking the opportunity to evaluate the preliminary safety report of the French EPR reactor built in Flamanville, the IRSN proposes to assess the history of EPR, from the decision to implement studies in the 90's to the French and German cooperation, and finally to the construction of a unit in Finland and in France, and to make a synthesis of the assessment of radiation protection arrangements. This assessment presents the dose targets (calculated reference doses) planned by the nuclear operators in the design phase as well as the global radiation protection optimization process and a comparison of French and Finnish analyses. In France, for example, EDF performed a detailed optimization analysis of selected tasks known to have a major contribution to the annual average collective dose (thermal insulation, logistics, valve maintenance, opening/closing of the vessel, preparation and checks of steam generators, on-site spent fuel management, and waste management). The optimization process is based (in France) on an iterative method. A comparison between the EPR collective dose target and doses received in other pressurized water reactors that are close to the EPR design (Konvoi of German design, French existing units, etc.) is also presented. This synthesis was carried out by the IRSN, the expert body of the French nuclear safety authority, in association with Electricite de France (EDF), the French operator, and the authority for nuclear safety in Finland (STUK). It summarizes more than 15 years of studies and partnership, focusing on radiation protection, in the design phase of the EPR. (authors)

  10. From the nuclear world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2015-01-01

    This document gathers pieces of information concerning nuclear industry worldwide. The most relevant are the following ones. China has announced the construction between 2020 and 2025 of the biggest particle accelerator in the world. The Finn government has agreed with the project of a spent fuel storage center, it was the last administrative step before the launching of the construction works. The quality of the steel of the pressure vessel of the Olkiluoto EPR has been assessed by the Finn nuclear safety authority (STUK). The French nuclear safety authority (ASN) has launched a test program for assessing the resistance of the pressure vessel of the Flamanville EPR as a consequence of the recent discovery of defects in the composition of the steel. A robot called SX1 has been designed to measure radiation in a continuous way by strolling about in a nuclear facility. As a consequence of a tense relationship with Russia, the Turkish government has stopped the construction (by Rosatom) of the Akkuyu nuclear plant. The Belgian government and the Electrabel company have signed an agreement for a 10 year extension of the operating life of the Doel 1 and 2 reactors. Chinese authorities have approved the construction of 4 new third generation reactors. (A.C.)

  11. Nuclear and energies Nr 59/June 2012 - Synthesis of significant events from December 2011 until May 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenail, Bernard; Ducroux, Guy; Lamorlette, Guy; Seyve, Claude; Fromant, Bernard; Gollion, Jacques; Miquel, Pierre; Raisonnier, Daniele; Lepine, Gerard; Vandevoir, Roger

    2012-01-01

    A first article comments the fact that, fifteen months after the Fukushima accident, two reactors are about to start again. In two articles dealing with energy, a first one comments the recent evolution of the energy sector (oil market, gas market, European energy) and a second one addresses current events in the sector of renewable energies: in the solar sector (the Photowatt affair, the Myrte and STARS projects), in the offshore wind sector (bidding in France and in Great-Britain). Dealing with the nuclear sector, a first article deals with the uranium market (from mine to fuel) and with AREVA activities in different countries. A second article proposes an overview of world perspectives for nuclear reactors, of nuclear activity in France (energy policy, nuclear safety, the issue of the Fessenheim power station, the EPR in Flamanville, the ATMEA project) and in various countries in Europe (Finland, Great Britain, Germany, Lithuania, Netherlands, Russia, Belarus, Czech Republic, Poland, Switzerland, Spain, Romania), in the United States, China, South Korea, Japan, India, Armenia, Vietnam, Jordan, and South Africa. The last articles address the relationship between nuclear and society (during the presidential campaign in France, in different reports, in the summit on nuclear safety, in Germany where phasing out nuclear raises problems), the impact of nuclear on the environment (situation in France, incidents in different French nuclear installations, and briefly in other countries like Germany, Great-Britain, Spain, Eastern Europe, Ukraine, Iran, China, Japan, Taiwan, USA), and the development of Pb-212-based radio-immunotherapy by Areva Med

  12. Nuclear power plants: 2004 atw compact statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2005-01-01

    In late 2004, nuclear power plants were available for power supply or were under construction in 32 countries worldwide. A total of 441 nuclear power plants, i.e. two plants more than in late 2003, were in operation with an aggregate gross power of approx. 386 GWe and an aggregate net power, respectively, of 362 GWe, in 31 countries. The available capacity of nuclear power plants increased by approx. 5 GWe as a result of the additions by the six units newly commissioned: Hamaoka 5 (Japan), Ulchin 6 (Korea), Kalinin 3 (Russia), Khmelnitski 2 (Ukraine), Qinshan II-2 (People's Republic of China), and Rowno 4 (Ukraine). In addition, unit 3 of the Bruce A nuclear power plant in Canada with a power of 825 MWe was restarted after an outage of many years. Contrary to earlier plans, a recommissioning program was initiated for the Bruce A-1 and A-2 units, which are also down at present. Five plants were decommissioned for good in 2004; Chapelcross 1 to 4 with 50 MWe each in the United Kingdom, and Ignalina 1 with 1 300 MWe in Lithuania. 22 nuclear generating units with an aggregate gross power of 19 GWe in nine countries were under construction in late 2004. In India, construction work was started on a new project, the 500 MWe PFBR prototype fast breeder reactor. In France, the EDF utility announced its intention to build an EPR on the Flamanville site beginning in 2007. (orig.)

  13. EDF and Areva: a hazardous and risky strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teule, Rianne; Thomas, Steve

    2009-06-01

    As EDF and Areva have been developing for several years a strategy exclusively based on a nuclear revival in the world, this document proposes a synthesis of a study in which the author describes and analyses this strategy, as well as the actual trade perspectives of the sector, and outlines the many uncertainties regarding development projects. It addresses the financial and political context for EDF (a record indebtedness) and Areva (an inability to face investments) and outlines the supporting role of the Coface (the only way for the French government to support EDF and Areva). It highlights and discusses the failures of both ERP projects, in Flamanville (cost overruns and consequences) and in Finland. It addresses the actual status of markets, notices that France's strategy (lifetime extension for the existing reactors) implies that the construction of new EPRs might finally be postponed, that which would mean a loss of prospects for Areva and a catastrophe for the EPR program. It comments the commitment of EDF in the UK and outlines that the success of the development of new nuclear plants still depends on public subsidies which are not yet decided. The author considers that investments made by EDF in the USA seem rather speculative, and outlines that there are still financial issues and uncertainties like in the UK. The presence and activities of EDF and Areva in China are also commented, and more briefly for the rest of the world

  14. Synthesis of the IRSN report.no. 2012-009 on the definition of a post-Fukushima hard core for EDF's PWRs: objectives, content and associated requirements. Opinion related to the post-Fukushima hard core of EDF's pressurized water reactors under construction or in operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    After having recalled the implementation of the additional safety assessments (ECS) on the French nuclear reactors after the Fukushima accident, and that, after these assessments, ASN asked EDF to implement a 'hard core of robust material and organisational measures' which aim at preventing an accident with a core fusion or at limiting its progress, at limiting massive radioactive releases, and at enabling the operator to perform his required missions in crisis management, a first report briefly indicates the objectives of this hard core, and discuses the material measures proposed by EDF. These measures concern the exploited reactors and the EPR Flamanville 3, the pools present in the fuel and reactor buildings. It also discusses requirements associated with these material measures, notably with respect to earthquake, flooding or other extreme events. It briefly discusses organisational measures. A second report, produced by the Permanent Group of Experts, states the opinion of this group on the same issues, and proposes a set of recommendations for further measures by EDF

  15. Stratégies de contournement de l'adresse et délocution : le tiers du discours politique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truan, Naomi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Whereas the research in enunciative linguistics since Benveniste (1966 : 260 mainly focuses on the second person (you in the study of address strategies, this article raises the possibility that the grammatical category of the third person (P3 does not only correspond to the absent(s in discourse, but is also a way to avoid or soften direct address in order to preserve the face of the speaker and the hearers and to limit Face Threatening Acts (FTA, Brown/Levinson 1978, 1987. The analysis is based on a corpus of British and German political speeches of David Cameron and Angela Merkel. It analyses examples where the third person (P3, be it an indefinite pronoun like the German man (one, universal quantifiers like jeder/everyone or keiner/no one, partial quantifiers like manch-/some or NPs, involves the recipients of the discourse. The use of the third person can therefore be seen as a marker of “verbal indirection” (Obeng 1997 : 80 and invites us to pay closer attention to the distinction between grammatical and enunciative status of the category of person on the one hand, and to the distinction between addressees (allocutaires and recipients (destinataires of political discourse on the other hand.

  16. The disposal of radioactive waste in Sweden, West Germany and France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Representatives from Humberside, Lincolnshire and Bedford County Councils have visited radioactive waste disposal sites in Sweden (Forsmak), West Germany (Konrad) and France (Centre de la Manche). The British regions are those in which there are sites which NIREX (Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive) have been investigating with a view to disposing of low and intermediate level radioactive waste. The sites, methods of disposal, cost and radiation levels are detailed for the three countries visited and compared with the NIREX proposals for shallow trench disposal for wastes at low and intermediate levels. The general findings were that the three countries visited are more advanced in the development of policies and practices for radioactive waste disposal with better technical alternatives to the NIREX proposals. Secondly, that the overall cost may be greater than for a shallow repository but would still be less than 1% of the nuclear electricity generation cost. Thirdly, the need to gain and sustain public acceptance for what was being done was more clearly understood and acted on than in the UK. (U.K.)

  17. DIE SPRACHE VON "BAŠĆANSKA PLOČA" (DIE STEINTAFEL VON BAŠKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stjepan Damjanović

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In einer Mehrzahl von Abhandlungen über Bašćanska ploča berücksichtigen die Verfasser auch die Sprache, in der Regel kurz, nur in einem oder zwei Sätzen. Die größten Bemühungen sind auf die Rekonstruirung der unlesbaren Teilen gerichtet, dagegen nicht weinger interessanter lesbarer Teil regte eine Sprachanalyse selten an. Gewöhnlich wird festgestellt, daß die Tafel in der kroatischen Sprache geschrieben ist, während die philologisch gut unterrichtete Forscher vermeiden diesartige Nenunngen, indem sie das Vorhandensein der altslawischen und altkroatischen Sprachelemente entdeckten. Man versuchte noch nicht in einer Analyse sprachliche Grundschichte und darauf geschichtete Sprachelemente zu bestimmen. Nach dem ersten Eindruck wurde bestimmt, ob es sich um "die kroatische Srpache mit den Elementen der alten slawischen liturgischen Sprache" handelt oder um "die altslawische in der manche kroatische Spracheigenschaften hereingekommen sind". Die Analyse mancher Spracheinzelheiten (Halblaute und "Jat" weist auf altslawische Grundschicht hin. Der Verfasser hat sich trotzdem nicht entschieden den Fachausdruck "kroatische Redaktion des altslawischen" zu verwenden, weil er neue Analyse und neue Begriffsbestimmungen als nötig hält, wie z.B. "Redaktion", "Rezension" usw, um mit Sicherkeit sagen zu können, ob es um kroatische Redaktion des altslawischen oder um andere Formen der altslawischen - alt kroatischen Interferenz geht.

  18. Depleted ion exchange resins encapsulation with mobile unit: equipment and experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, S.; Faisantieu, D.

    1986-01-01

    Since 1981, STMI has been operating mobile units in EDF's PWR nuclear power plants, for spent resins encapsulation with polymer thermosetting matrices. Three mobile units are now in operation: COMET 1 and COMET 2, supplied by STMI, using polymerized styrene with proper additives as encapsulating material, and PRECED 1, on PEC-Engineering design, based on a DOW Chemical solidification process. On march 1986, more than 30 operations have been performed on EDF's PWR plants. More than 5000 liners containing encapsulated depleted ion exchange resins have been produced, while processing about 500 m 3 (i.e. 17.000 ft 3 ) of resins. During this period, those mobile units have shown their reliability and their efficiency. The produced processed waste, which have been accepted by ANDRA at the La Manche Storage Site (SSM) must meet the Fundamental Safety Rules (RFS) edicted by the Central Bureau for Nuclear Facilities Safety (SCSIN) of the French Department of Industry. The operations are carried out with excellent safety and radioprotection safety conditions, and following a very detailed Q.A. program [fr

  19. Fermats letzter Satz die abenteuerliche Geschichte eines mathematischen Rätsels

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Simon

    2000-01-01

    Der Satz des Pythagoras: a²+b²=c² steht im Zentrum des Rätsels, um das es hier geht. Diese »Urformel« gilt immer und überall, aber nur in der Zweier-Potenz, mit keiner anderen ganzen Zahl. In den Notizen des französischen Mathematikers Pierre Fermat, der im 17. Jahrhundert lebte, gibt es einen Hinweis, dass er den Beweis für dieses Phänomen gefunden hat. Doch der Beweis selbst ist verschollen. 350 Jahre lang versuchten nun die Mathematiker der nachfolgenden Generationen, diesen Beweis zu führen. Keinem wollte es gelingen, manche trieb das Problem sogar in den Selbstmord. Schließlich wurde ein Preis für die Lösung des Rätsels ausgesetzt. Nun gelang dem britischen Mathematiker Andrew Wiles 1995 der Durchbruch. Simon Singh wiederum gelang es, diese auf den ersten Blick abgelegene Geschichte so zu erzählen, dass niemand und auch kein Mathematikhasser sich ihrer Faszination entziehen kann: Ein Glanzlicht des modernen Wissenschaftsjournalismus! »Dieses Buch ist ein Wunder.

  20. Von der Druckerei zum Weblog Medienarbeit in einer Freinetklasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Neureiter

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Eine Freinet-Pädagogin erzählt. Wir Freinet-PädagogInnen werden immer wieder gefragt: „Freinet, das ist doch das mit der Druckerei.“ Manches Mal kommt auch ein „Ah, das habe ich auch schon mal gemacht!“ dazu. Celestin und Elise Freinet druckten mit ihren SchülerInnen eigene Bücher, damals vor heute rund 90 Jahren war das Drucken die einzige Möglichkeit, Inhalte zu vervielfältigen. In den Gesprächen über Freinetpädagogik und die Druckerei muss ich dann immer peinlich betreten gestehen, dass ich schon seit Jahren nicht mehr mit der Letterndruckerei und den Schulkindern gedruckt habe und die Druckerei nach dem letzten Lehrerinnen-Seminar wieder gut verpackt in den Kasten gewandert ist.Von unseren Korrespondenzpartner-Klassen in der Schweiz bekommen wir immer so schön gedruckte Texte.Nur wir schaffen es leider nie „zurückzudrucken“.

  1. Zahlen und Rechenvorgänge auf unterschiedlichen Abstraktionsniveaus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rödler, Klaus

    "Das Verständnis geht langsam vor sich!" Diesen wichtigen Satz hörte ich bei einem Vortrag von Martin Lowsky. Auf die hier behandelte Fragestellung übertragen heißt das: Was eine Zahl ist und wie ich sie im Rechenvorgang einsetzen und interpretieren kann, das erschließt sich erst allmählich. Die Zahl des Rechenanfängers ist nicht dieselbe wie die des kompetenten Rechners und es ist nicht die Zahl des Lehrers oder der Lehrerin. Die Zahlen sind nur auf der Oberfläche der Worte und Zeichen gleich. Im Innern, im Verständnis, sind sie völlig verschieden! Ich glaube, dass die Missachtung dieser Divergenz dazu führt, dass manche Kinder in für den Lehrer und Lehrerin nicht nachvollziehbaren Routinen stecken bleiben, einfachste Informationen nicht wirklich integrieren. Die auf beiden Seiten wachsende Verunsicherung durch die nicht erkannte und daher nicht kommunizierbare Diskrepanz im inneren Zahlkonzept stört den allmählichen Aufbau strukturierter Zahlvorstellungen.

  2. Particular intervention plan of the Areva La Hague facility - 2012 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The Particular intervention plan (PPI in French) is an emergency plan which foresees the measures and means to be implemented to address the potential risks of the presence and operation of a nuclear facility. This plan is implemented and developed by the Prefect in case of nuclear accident (or incident leading to a potential accident), the impact of which extending beyond the facility perimeter. It represents a special section of the organisation plan for civil protection response (ORSEC plan). The PPI foresees the necessary measures and means for crisis management during the first hours following the accident and is triggered by the Department Prefect according to the information provided by the facility operator. Its aim is to protect the populations leaving within 10 km of the facility against a potential radiological hazard. The PPI describes: the facility, the intervention area, the protection measures for the population, the conditions of emergency plan triggering, the crisis organisation, the action forms of the different services, and the post-accident stage. This document is the public version of the Particular intervention plan of the Areva NC La Hague fuel reprocessing plant (located on the territories of Beaumont-Hague, Digulleville, Herqueville, Jobourg and Omonville-la-Petite towns, Manche, France) which comprises the totally decommissioned UP2 400 unit, and the UP2 800 production unit still in operation

  3. ANDRA - Annual sustainable development and activity report 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-11-01

    After two texts on the themes of change and dialogue signed by ANDRA's CEO and CBA (Chairman of the Board of Administrators), this report proposes a large overview of the French national radioactive waste management Agency, ANDRA, in the fields of governance (missions, installations, institutional representatives, customers, launching of the Meuse/Haute-Marne inter-district development scheme, 2009 report on the Cigeo project), of human resources (place of women and men, payroll, the Customer Industrial Solutions department, a new approach to customer relations, Cigeo project), of public service missions (site cleaning up, containment of radioactive wastes, radium diagnosis), of industry (Cigeo project, Manche disposal facility, very-low-level waste disposal facility in the Aube district, a crane to move a roof-canopy, low- and intermediate-level waste disposal facility in the Aube district, test of crisis communication, ASN inspections), of the environment (permanent environmental observatory, radiological impact of disposal facilities), of scientific policy (strategic research agenda, relationships with higher education, opinion of experts on ANDRA research), of technological research (new experiments in laboratory, patent in metrology, computer tools, geological knowledge and modelling of the Meuse and Haute-Marne districts, radioactive waste behaviour, issues of intellectual property), of experiments and development, of international commitment and relationships (with South Korea, Eastern Europe, Hungary and Morocco, European directive on radioactive wastes), of sustainable development (local contracts, sponsorship and partnership), of dialogue, transparency and communication, of commitment for future generations, and of future perspectives

  4. Particular intervention plan of Cherbourg's military harbour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Particular intervention plan (PPI in French) is an emergency plan which foresees the measures and means to be implemented to address the potential risks of the presence and operation of a nuclear facility. This plan is implemented and developed by the Prefect in case of nuclear accident (or incident leading to a potential accident), the impact of which extending beyond the facility perimeter. It represents a special section of the organisation plan for civil protection response (ORSEC plan). The PPI foresees the necessary measures and means for crisis management during the first hours following the accident and is triggered by the Department Prefect according to the information provided by the facility operator. Its aim is to protect the populations leaving within 10 km of the facility against a potential radiological hazard. The PPI describes: the facility, the intervention area, the protection measures for the population, the conditions of emergency plan triggering, the crisis organisation, the action forms of the different services, and the post-accident stage. This document is the public version of the Particular intervention plan of the military harbour of Cherbourg (Manche, France) which hosts several nuclear facilities devoted to the construction and dismantling of nuclear submarines (without weapons)

  5. Low-level radioactive waste management in France: two decades of experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marque, Y.

    1993-01-01

    Human activities generate wastes and these wastes have potential impacts on our environment and important implications for the twilight years of the twentieth century. Radioactive wastes, in particular, is a matter of considerable concern to the public, with emotional debate often clouding the legitimate need of the public for information for the subject. In France, the development of the nuclear power program and the widespread use of radioisotopes by the medical profession, industry and the research community called for a radioactive waste management program. In 1979, the French Government created ANDRA, the National Radioactive Waste Management Agency, which has the complete responsibility for radioactive waste disposal, including design, siting, construction and operation of waste disposal facilities. In 1991, the Waste Law reaffirmed ANDRA's principle functions and created the National Waste Observatory within ANDRA, whose the mission is to establish and maintain a current inventory of all radioactive waste storage and disposal sites on French territory. The present paper describes the generation of short-lived waste in France, the french policy on short-lived waste disposal, operation and cancellation of Manche plant, design and construction of Aube plant

  6. The french low-level waste disposal site 'Centre de l'Aube'. A ten years process, from geological concept to waste deliveries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernique, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    The 'Centre de la Manche', first French low-level waste disposal site opened in 1969 and will enter the institutional control period around 1994. A creation process for a new disposal was initiated in 1981 when ANDRA prepared a general radioactive waste management Program and presented it to the High Council for Nuclear Safety and Information. After acceptance of the Program, a national site screening was made, based on a conceptual geological model designed from the experience. In 1984, the Minister of Industry announced the pre-selection of 3 counties out of the inventory for preliminary studies that allowed to select l' Aube as a potential site for the new French disposal 'Centre de l'Aube'. The different steps of the process and procedure that brought to the acceptance of the first packages in January 1992 is presented in the paper, as well as the experience recently gained since that date. This additional know-how and expertise is made available by Andra through agreements already existing with various Countries like, among others, Spain, the United States, and Mexico

  7. Course d'orientation

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2010-01-01

    Après Vulbens, rendez-vous à La Rippe Un vrai premier mai pour accueillir la cinquième manche de la coupe genevoise dans les bois de Vulbens (Haute Savoie)! Temps humide et plus frais, bois verdoyant, muguet à profusion. Voilà pour le décor de cette course organisée pour le club du CERN. Côté parcours, les organisateurs avaient préparé, sur une nouvelle zone, cinq circuits relativement techniques. Il faut dire que le relief bien découpé s’y prêtait. Les concurrents - environ 120 – ont ainsi pu découvrir cette carte et rallié au plus vite la balise arrivée. Le plus rapide sur le technique long a été Yann Locatelli (EMHM Chamonix) membre de l’équipe de France militaire, sur le technique moyen, il s’agit de Jurg Niggli (O’Jura), un habitu&ea...

  8. Club d'orientation

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation du CERN

    2010-01-01

    COURSE D’ORIENTATION  1er mai: muguet et balises à Vulbens Les week-ends s’enchainent et les courses aussi. La quatrième manche de la coupe genevoise organisée par le club sous la direction de J. Zosso, J. Iven et W. Heinze a eu lieu sur le site de Genolier (canton de Vaud) samedi dernier. Le soleil a, une nouvelle fois, accompagné les participants sur les cinq circuits proposés. On notera la jolie performance de Sami Vaehaenen élite finlandais (CO CERN) sur le parcours technique long en 49:09 avec une avance de presque 10 mm sur le second concurrent, le junior Clément Poncet (O’Jura). Les résultats complets de cette étape sont consultables en ligne à l’adresse suivante : http://cern.ch/club-orientation. La prochaine étape est prévue dans la forêt de Vulbens (Haute Savoie) samedi 1er mai sur une toute nouvelle carte. Les...

  9. Radio elements transfer from water to atmosphere through degassing processes in the Loire estuary: the Flore project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontugne, M.; Hatte, C.; Paterne, M.; Maro, D.; Germain, P.; Hebert, D.; Rozet, M.; Voiseux, C.; Solier, L.; Tenailleau, L.; Abril, G.

    2004-01-01

    The behaviour of the toxic substances in the environment covers various fields of investigations like contamination by the radioelements, heavy metals and organic compounds. The knowledge of the biogeochemical cycles of the radioelements basically their temporal and spatial distributions is essential to a better understanding of their biological effects. Estuarine environments present a major interest since they constitute accumulation areas of wastes and rejections of the majority of the anthropogenic activities. These transition zones between fresh waters and ocean, characterised by the change of the physico- chemical properties (pH, salinity, turbidity) allows a redistribution of the radioelements by their speciation or phase change thus modifying their bio-availability. The Loire River estuary receives the rejections of radioelements being able to come from various sources like the nuclear thermal power stations (fourteen engines with discharges of carbon-14, tritium), the hospital complexes (rejections of iodine 131). The aims of FLORE program is to study the distribution of these radioelements and processes of phase transfer in this estuary especially in the mud plug area where the biochemical activity is intense. If most of the processes of transfer are now well established, fluxes of radioelements between water and the atmosphere are not quantified. Two oceanographic cruises carried out in February and September 2003 on board N/O 'Cotes de La Manche' allow to present distribution Iodine 131 within the estuary and the first estimation of radiocarbon and tritium fluxes from the river water to the atmosphere. (author)

  10. Nuclear waste management policy in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, J.F.

    1983-01-01

    The object of the nuclear waste management policy in France has always been to protect the worker and the public from unacceptable risks. The means and the structures developed to reach this objective, however, have evolved with time. One fact has come out ever more clearly over the years: Nuclear waste problems cannot be considered in a piecemeal fashion. The French nuclear waste management structure and policy aim at just this global approach. Responsibilities have been distributed between the main partners: the waste producers and conditioners, the research teams, the safety authorities, and the long-term waste manager, National Radioactive Waste Management Agency. The main technical options adopted for waste forms are embedding in hydraulic binders, bitumen, or thermosetting resins for low-level waste (LLW) and medium-level waste (MLW), and vitrification for high-level, liquid wastes. One shallow land disposal site for LLW and MLW has been in operation since 1969, the Centre of La Manche. Alpha-bearing and high-level waste will be disposed of by deep geological storage, possibly in granite formations. Further RandD aims mainly at improving present-day practices, developing more durable, long-term, alpha-bearing waste for all solid waste forms and going into all aspects of deep geological disposal characterization

  11. COGEMA experience on retrieving and conditioning solid radwaste previously stored in pits. The La Hague North-West pit case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodin, F.; Alexandre, D.; Fournier, P.

    1999-01-01

    Short lived, low and medium level waste called 'technological waste' produced by the La Hague Reprocessing Plant have been stored in the La Hague North-West concrete-lined pits until implementation at ANDRA's Centre de Stockage de la Manche (CSM). COGEMA decided to retrieve and condition 11,000 m 3 of humid solid radwaste, stored in bulk in pits. On account of the variety of radwaste kinds, retrieving and conditioning operations represented real challenge. One goal of these operations was to ensure that the work was performed in complete safety towards environment with optimum containment and with the best radiation protection for the personnel involved. COGEMA decided to split the work into two phases. The feedback from the first phase was very helpful to the second phase. This report describes the experience gained from February 1990 to December 1998, taking into account radwaste and integrated dose rate results conditioning such waste. The procedures and means used and improved by COGEMA to comply with ANDRA's storage standards and the ever-decreasing financial costs generated by the workers, allowed to retrieve and condition 11,000 m 3 of old solid radwaste with competitive costs and in complete safety and protection of the environment. (author)

  12. Creating and managing radioactive waste disposal facilities with the involvement of the local populations - 59286

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farin, Sebastien

    2012-01-01

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Andra is responsible for proposing and implementing industrial management solutions for all French radioactive waste. Andra is in particular in charge of operating the two repositories in the Aube region, monitoring the Manche repository one of the world's first surface repositories and creating disposal facilities for waste currently without an operational disposal solution. Andra's communication approach. Andra's communication role is stipulated by law and is an integral part of its activities, in the same way as research, industry or risk management. Andra's aim is to make the subject of radioactive waste management one that is of nationwide interest comprehensible to the largest possible number, so that each citizen and stakeholder can, in full possession of the facts, make his or her own opinion and finally reach an informed decision. Andra's communication policy is based on four main levers: - Information, through a full range of tools (web sites, publications, periodicals) adapted to the level of expertise and understanding of its various target audiences; - Explanation, by means of opportunities throughout the year for those interested in the subject (site visits, fairs, meetings with schools, travelling exhibitions, etc.); - Local integration, through regular relations with local players

  13. Alternative methods for disposal of low-level radioactive wastes. Task 2c: technical requirements for earth mounded concrete bunker disposal of low-level radioactive waste. Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.O.; Bennett, R.D.

    1985-10-01

    The study reported herein contains the results of Task 2c (Technical Requirements for Earth Mounded Concrete Bunker Disposal of Low-Level Radioactive Waste) of a four-task study entitled ''Criteria for Evaluating Engineered Facilities''. The overall objective of this study is to ensure that the criteria needed to evaluate five alternative low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal methods are available to potential license applicants. The earth mounded concrete bunker disposal alternative is one of several methods that may be proposed for disposal of low-level radioactive waste. The name of this alternative is descriptive of the disposal method used in France at the Centre de la Manche. Experience gained with this method at the Centre is described, including unit operations and features and components. Some improvements to the French system are recommended herein, including the use of previous backfill around monoliths and extending the limits of a low permeability surface layer. The applicability of existing criteria developed for near-surface disposal (10 CFR Part 61 Subpart D) to the earth mounded concrete bunker disposal method, as assessed in Task 1, are reassessed herein. With minor qualifications, these criteria were found to be applicable in the reassessment. These conclusions differ slightly from the Task 1 findings

  14. TECHNICAL TRAINING SEMINAR

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Tuesday 3 February 2004 From 09:00 to 13:30 - Training Centre Auditorium - bldg. 593, room 11 USB (Universal Serial Bus) CYPRESS Seminar Claudia Colombini, Field Application Engineer CYPRESS ActiveComp Electronic GmbH D-85077 MANCHING, Germany As a pioneer in USB, CYPRESS sets the standard for cost-effective solutions without sacrificing functionality, performance or reliability. Having shipped over 200 million USB devices, Cypress is the undisputed market leader and demonstrate unmatched USB expertise. With the industry's broadest selection of USB solutions, Cypress has the right silicon, software and support for every USB application, from Low-speed to High-Speed and USB On-The-Go (OTG). • 9:00 - 10:30 Overview of USB systems. USB CYPRESS product overview. Peripherals: Low Speed, Full Speed, High Speed (1.1 and 2.0). Hub Solutions, Embedded Host Solutions, On-The-Go (OTG) and wireless USB. USB Development Tools (first part) • 10:30 - 10:45 coffee • 10:45 - 13:00 (second part)...

  15. Technical Training: Technical Training Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    TECHNICAL TRAINING Monique Duval tel. 74924 technical.training@cern.ch Tuesday 3 February 2004 From 09:00 to 13:30 - Training Centre Auditorium - bldg. 593, room 11 USB (Universal Serial Bus) CYPRESS Seminar Claudia Colombini, Field Application Engineer CYPRESS ActiveComp Electronic GmbH D-85077 MANCHING, Germany As a pioneer in USB, CYPRESS sets the standard for cost-effective solutions without sacrificing functionality, performance or reliability. Having shipped over 200 million USB devices, Cypress is the undisputed market leader and demonstrates unmatched USB expertise. With the industry's broadest selection of USB solutions, Cypress has the right silicon, software and support for every USB application, from Low-speed to High-Speed and USB On-The-Go (OTG). 9:00 - 10:30 Overview of USB systems. USB CYPRESS product overview. Peripherals: Low Speed, Full Speed, High Speed (1.1 and 2.0). Hub Solutions, Embedded Host Solutions, On-The-Go (OTG) and wireless USB. USB Development Tools (first part) 10:30 -...

  16. TECHNICAL TRAINING SEMINAR

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Tuesday 3 February 2004 From 09:00 to 13:30 - Training Centre Auditorium - bldg. 593, room 11 USB (Universal Serial Bus) CYPRESS Seminar Claudia Colombini, Field Application Engineer CYPRESS ActiveComp Electronic GmbH D-85077 MANCHING, Germany As a pioneer in USB, CYPRESS sets the standard for cost-effective solutions without sacrificing functionality, performance or reliability. Having shipped over 200 million USB devices, Cypress is the undisputed market leader and demonstrate unmatched USB expertise. With the industry's broadest selection of USB solutions, Cypress has the right silicon, software and support for every USB application, from Low-speed to High-Speed and USB On-The-Go (OTG). • 09:00 - 10:30 Overview of USB systems. USB CYPRESS product overview. Peripherals: Low Speed, Full Speed, High Speed (1.1 and 2.0). Hub Solutions, Embedded Host Solutions, On-The-Go (OTG) and wireless USB. USB Development Tools (first part) • 10:30 - 10:45 coffee • 10:45 - 13:00 (second part)...

  17. Regarding the old Cea factory of the Bouchet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    1997-10-01

    This article si devoted to the Cea site of the Bouchet. Radiation monitoring have been made and the information about it, given to the populations around the site. The wastes with a value upper than this one chosen for low activity wastes have been sent to the storage center of Manche plant, the other ones whom activity level was lower than this one advocated for low level radioactive wastes were used for the base of A87 motorway. The two little rivers have been cleaned out and the sediments tipped out in the decantation basin of the Cea site. Radiation monitoring for the radon have to be made to control the right progress of these decontamination operations. All these operations have been made in dialogue with S.N.P.E.( the national society of powders and explosives), the D.R.I.R.E.( regional direction of research industry and environment), O.P.R.I. (office of protection against ionizing radiations) and the Cea. (N.C.)

  18. Radioactive wastes management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, Ph.

    1999-01-01

    This article presents the French way to deal with nuclear wastes. 4 categories of radioactive wastes have been defined: 1) very low-level wastes (TFA), 2) low or medium-wastes with short or medium half-life (A), 3) low or medium-level wastes with long half-life (B), and 4) high-level wastes with long half-life (C). ANDRA (national agency for the management of radioactive wastes) manages 2 sites of definitive surface storage (La-Manche and Aube centers) for TFA-wastes. The Aube center allows the storage of A-wastes whose half-life is less than 30 years. This site will receive waste packages for 50 years and will require a regular monitoring for 300 years after its decommissioning. No definitive solutions have been taken for B and C wastes, they are temporarily stored at La Hague processing plant. Concerning these wastes the French parliament will have to take a decision by 2006. At this date and within the framework of the Bataille law (1991), scientific studies concerning the definitive or retrievable storage, the processing techniques (like transmutation) will have been achieved and solutions will be proposed. These studies are numerous, long and complex, they involve fresh knowledge in geology, chemistry, physics,.. and they have implied the setting of underground facilities in order to test and validate solutions in situ. This article presents also the transmutation technique. (A.C.)

  19. Long term radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavie, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    In France, waste management, a sensitive issue in term of public opinion, is developing quickly, and due to twenty years of experience, is now reaching maturity. With the launching of the French nuclear programme, the use of radioactive sources in radiotherapy and industry, waste management has become an industrial activity. Waste management is an integrated system dealing with the wastes from their production to the long term disposal, including their identification, sortage, treatment, packaging, collection and transport. This system aims at guaranteing the protection of present and future populations with an available technology. In regard to their long term management, and the design of disposals, radioactive wastes are divided in three categories. This classification takes into account the different radioisotopes contained, their half life and their total activity. Presently short-lived wastes are stored in the shallowland disposal of the ''Centre de la Manche''. Set up within the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), the National Agency for waste management (ANDRA) is responsible within the framework of legislative and regulatory provisions for long term waste management in France [fr

  20. Canoë-Kayak Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Canoë-Kayak Club

    2011-01-01

    Le coup d’envoi de la saison vient d’être donné, le 6 mars dernier avait lieu le sélectif national2 de slalom à Cessenon sur Orb dans l’Hérault sur le stade d’eau vive de Réals. Des compétiteurs de toute la France avaient fait le déplacement. Olivier Barrière seul représentant du club qualifié a défendu fièrement les couleurs du club en réalisant deux bonnes manches sanctionnées d’une seule faute et a ainsi pris une sérieuse option pour la qualification aux championnats de France vétérans, qui se disputeront fin juillet à Metz, en remontant à la cinquième place du classement national vétérans 2. Ce déplacement dans le sud était également l’occasion de récup...

  1. Ganzheitliche Digitalisierungsansätze im Stadtwerk: Von der Strategie bis zur Umsetzung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudenhausen, Roman; Hahn, Heike

    Digitalisierung muss im Stadtwerk dazu führen, Kundenerwartungen, die heutzutage schon vielfach durch digitales Know-how und Erfahrungen geprägt sind, in einzigartiger Weise zu entsprechen - in Form digitaler Kundenkontaktpunkte, automatisierter Prozesse oder plattformbasierter Geschäftsmodelle. Eine große Rolle spielen dabei unternehmensweit nutzbare Informationen, die eine 360-Grad-Sicht auf den Kunden ermöglichen. Nur in dieser Kombination werden sich nachhaltig Wettbewerbsvorteile generieren lassen. Manch ein Kunde wird die Lust, einen Prozess zu Ende zu gehen, schon vor dem Abschluss verlieren, wenn er nicht unmittelbar und ohne die digitale Welt zu verlassen zum Ziel kommt. Eine nur "halb digitale Kundenerfahrung" wird weder zu Neugeschäft noch zur positiven emotionalen Bindung zwischen Kunden und Stadtwerk führen. Nicht zu unterschätzen sind zudem Erwartungen hinsichtlich zukünftiger Geschäftsmodelle, aus denen sich disruptive Bedrohungen für die herkömmlichen Strom- und Gasangebote ergeben werden. Erste innovative Ansätze finden sich bereits im Markt, die erahnen lassen, dass zurzeit viel diskutierte Technologien wie die Blockchain nicht mehr nur hypothetischer Natur sind. Die Auseinandersetzung mit der Digitalisierung erfolgt dabei sinnvollerweise in einem unternehmensweit abgestimmten Rahmen, der eine zielgerichtete und ganzheitliche Vorgehensweise ermöglicht.

  2. The use potential of aquifer thermal energy storage systems in Canada; Das Anwendungspotential fuer Aquiferwaermespeichersysteme in Kanada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruickshanks, F. [Environment Canada, Dartmouth, ON (Canada); Morofski, E. [Government Services Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Technology RD and D

    1994-12-31

    This paper offers a brief overview of the historical and technical aspects of aquifer thermal energy storage and its use potential in commercial buildings in Canada. Aquifer thermal energy storage systems are now attractive both for new commercial buildings in Canada and for some already existing ones. This holds true especially of the Atlantic region, where fuel costs are rising and electric power rates vary according to the time of day. The simple pay-back period for ATES systems is between zero and five years. The economic aspects of the use of ATES systems in buildings are pointed out. (orig./BWI) [Deutsch] Dieser Beitrag gibt eine kurze Uebersicht der historischen und technischen Aspekte der Waermespeicherung in Aquiferen und deren Verwendungspotential in kommerziellen Gebaeuden in Kanada. Aquiferwaermespeicherungssysteme sind nunmehr attraktiv sowohl fuer neue als auch fuer manche bereits bestehenden kommerziellen Gebaeude in Kanada. Dies gilt insbesondere fuer die atlantische Region wegen der dort steigenden Kosten fuer Brennstoffe und tageszeitabhaengigen fuer elektrischen Strom. Die einfache Amortisationszeit fuer ATES-Systeme liegt zwischen null und fuenf Jahren. Die wirtschaftlichen Gesichtspunkte des Einsatzes von ATES-Systemen in kommerziellen Gebaeuden werden angefuehrt. (orig./BWI)

  3. The management and disposal of alpha-contaminated waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duclos, J.; Farges, L.; Lavie, J.M.; Marque, Y.

    1981-01-01

    The establishment of the French National Agency for Radioactive Waste Management (ANDRA) in November 1979 marked the beginning of industrial management of this type of waste in France. The organization of this Agency is sufficiently flexible to reconcile the need for the assumption of responsibility by the public authorities for a matter having considerable long-term implications; the importance of making available to all radioactive-waste producers the benefits of the research carried out by large national entities; (Commissariat a l'energie atomique, Electricite de France, etc.) and the obligation to satisfy all the scientific and financial requirements regarding optimal radioactive-waste management. The Centre de stockage de la Manche (CSM) is at present concerned with the special requirements relating to alpha waste. These are being analysed, together with their implications for technical specifications and industrial management. A strategy for alpha waste storage is defined in the light of the forecasts of waste deliveries for the next 20 years. (author)

  4. ASN report on nuclear safety and radiation protection in France in 2006, excerpts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacoste, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    The main topics for the Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) in 2006 were the following ones. 1) the 2006-686 bill on transparency and security in the nuclear field. This law constitutes an overhaul of the legislative framework applicable to nuclear activities. It creates the Nuclear Safety Authority as an independent administrative authority and defines its tasks. It contains significant advances in terms of transparency. 2) The 2006-739 bill concerning sustainable management of radioactive materials and waste. This law clearly states that the disposal in deep geological formations is the reference solution for high-level, long-lived radioactive wastes. 3) The EPR reactor project safety in which ASN completed technical examination of the preliminary safety case. In November 2006, ASN produced to French Authorities a draft decree concerning the EPR project on the Flamanville site. 4) An international audit of ASN was performed in 2006 by IAEA in order to assess the extent to which the standards IAEA recommends are taken into account and implemented. 5) ASN has contributed to the harmonization of nuclear safety in Europe and at world scale through its contribution to the work of the WENRA association. 6) In 2005 and 2006 4 serious radiotherapy accidents were reported in France. Cancer radiotherapy is a fully justified practice that demands a vigilant supervision of ASN. 7) ASN has amplified its means for informing the public about nuclear safety and radiation protection. And 8) ASN considers that people and organizations are fundamental factors in safety and radiation protection and that significant progress is still to be made in taking into account these factors in nuclear activities. (A.C.)

  5. Operating an EPR: A strong asset in the future European electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteve, Bernard; Beutier, Didier

    2006-01-01

    Recently, two nuclear units have been decided in Europe, both EPR 1,600 MWe. In Finland, TVO Company decided to commission a reactor in 2009 on Olkiluoto site. The license was granted in February 2005 and the construction started in summer. In 2004 in France, EDF Company decided an EPR to be commissioned in 2012 at Flamanville. In both cases, national Parliament vote has given the green light. It is interesting to understand why each company has made such decision. In TVO case, the main driving factor seems to be the need of industrial consumers for low and stable electricity price in a context of growing excess demand. In EDF case, no short term demand, but rather long term electricity company strategy seems to be the main reason. The relation to national energy policy is very clear in both cases. In Finland, the 5. Nuclear Power Plant was decided: - as a key element of the energy mix to meet growing electricity needs while replacing older plants, - to ensure, together with renewables, the fulfillment of the Kyoto commitments, - to secure stable and predictable electricity price for intensive industrial consumers (for instance, paper mills), - to reduce the dependence on electricity import. Here, it is argued more broadly that EPR will be a strong asset in the future European electricity market. To support this argument, we shall describe: 1) to what extent the evolving European electricity market may call for new nuclear units, 2) specific design features explaining why EPR especially fits with expectations, 3) cost assessments giving the conditions of EPR competitiveness, 4) main elements of risk assessment and how they are dealt with. (authors)

  6. First half 2006: sales revenue up by 5.7% to euros 5,036 million; 1. semestre 2006: chiffre d'affaires en hausse de 5,7% a 5,036 million d'euros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The AREVA group reports first half 2006 sales revenue of 5,036 million euros, up from 4,764 million euros for the same period in 2005, representing 5.7% growth in terms of reported data. Organic growth was 5.1%. In the second quarter 2006 the group had revenue of 2,560 million euros, down 0.7% from second quarter 2005 sales (-1.6% like-for-like). Nuclear operations reported first half 2006 revenue of 3,334 million euros, up 1.6% from the first half of 2005 (+1.3% like-for-like), marked by: net growth of 12.9% for the Front End Division, mainly attributable to uranium deliveries and enrichment services; the contribution from reactor projects in Finland (OL3), China (Ling Ao-Phase II) and France (Flamanville 3 EPR), which boosted sales for the Reactors and Services Division by 2.7%, despite the downturn in sales of reactor services; a 14.4% drop in the Back End Division, primarily in the used fuel treatment business. The Transmission and Distribution Division recorded sales revenue of 1,701 million euros, representing strong organic growth of 13.8%, consistent with the increase in orders booked in the second half of 2005. Orders for the first half of 2006 were up by 17.5% like-for-like compared with those of the first half of 2005. The group is targeting a net increase in revenue for 2006, like-for-like.

  7. Germany steps up pressure on Fessenheim, but is the 'Energiewende' all-knowing?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, John

    2015-01-01

    Politics of course has more than its fair share of those who know everything and do their best not to let get the facts get in the way where inconvenient truths risk destroying their ''Besserwisser'' illusions. An example of this is a letter from Germany's federal environment minister Barbara Hendricks to her French counterpart Segolene Royal. The subject of the letter was the closure of France's Fessenheim nuclear power plant. The content of the letter appears to show that, not content with stamping out the use of nuclear energy in Germany and all the knowledge and industrial expertise that goes with it, Germany seems intent on imposing its point of view onto its neighbour. Hendricks acknowledges that any decisions relating to Fessenheim are for France alone as a sovereign nation. But, if that is the case, why bother to write the letter in the first place? In reply Royal, a prominent French Socialist, stresses French president Francois Hollande's desire to close Fessenheim before his term of office draws to a close. Royal also noted that it is up to France's nuclear operator, EDF, to ''define which reactors are removed from the grid''. It is also amusing to read Royal's comment that the fact Fessenheim can be closed at all is largely due to the construction of replacement nuclear capacity at Flamanville, in northern France. Surely that irony could not have been lost on Germany's environment ministry.

  8. EURATOM safeguards implementation in France and cooperation with the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oddou, J.

    2013-01-01

    International safeguards in France are applied both by: -) the European Commission (EC), through the Chapter 7 of the EURATOM Treaty; -) the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as France is a party to the NPT and has concluded a safeguards agreement with IAEA. With the exception of mining, France has a complete nuclear fuel cycle from ore concentrates to waste. Based on the legal framework of the EURATOM Treaty, all civil nuclear facilities and all civil nuclear materials are safeguarded by EURATOM wherever they are in France. Therefore the two conversion plants, the two enrichment plants, the three fuel fabrication plants, the 59 nuclear power plants including the EPR of Flamanville under construction, the 2 reprocessing plants in La Hague, the five facilities for waste treatment and numerous research centers and reactors of CEA are declared and controlled by the European Commission. The activities of the EURATOM inspectors are of various kind depending of the facility and the type of inspection. The most common checks are: identification and counting of the nuclear material, verification of accountancy declaration vs. physical follow-up of the nuclear material, non-destructive analysis and destructive analysis after sampling in large bulk handling facilities. There is a strong cooperation between IAEA and EC: the majority of IAEA inspections in France are joint team inspections with the EC. This pooling of equipment and teams can save money and human resources. Equipment for containment and surveillance are paid whether by the EC or by the IAEA and can be used by both bodies of inspectors. With the principle of 'One Job One Person', verification activities are done only once and it saves time for the inspectors and the operators. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (A.C.)

  9. Chemistry and radiochemistry strategies supported by FA3-EPRTM and UK-EPRTM auxiliary systems: performances and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tigeras, Arancha; Fourment, Pierre; Elgallaf; Anas; Chupin, Antoine; Fauvel, Nicola

    2012-09-01

    The design and the operation of auxiliary systems play an essential role in: - the preservation of the primary circuit integrity, - the prevention of hydrogen risk, - the control of the boron concentration and radioactivity, - the application of pH and zinc programmes. While the source term generation mainly depends on the primary circuit material and primary coolant chemistry conditioning, the source term spreading is directly linked to the auxiliary systems treatment and performances. Indeed, the auxiliary systems regulate the boron, hydrogen, lithium and zinc injection as well as the countermeasures to ensure the reactivity control and the hazardous H 2 /O 2 mixture prevention. The main principles governing the chemistry and radiochemistry in the auxiliary systems are based on the application of: - Design features for hydrogen and boron management. - Criteria for selecting the appropriate material of each system considering the functional requirements and the source term build up reduction. - Measures for minimizing the activity deposition on the surfaces of components and pipings. - Adequate and reliable systems of purification for reducing the accumulation of liquid/gas radioactivity and impurities in the circuits and for optimizing the waste production. - Chemistry program for limiting the material corrosion of auxiliary systems and preventing the source term transfer to the core. - Appropriate sampling locations and equipment to monitor the chemistry and radiochemistry parameters. This paper describes the operation of the main auxiliary systems of FLAMANVILLE3-EPR TM and UK-EPR- TM participating in the chemistry/radiochemistry management such as Chemical and Volume Control System (CVCS), Reactor Borated Water Make-up System (RBWMS), Coolant Treatment System (CTS), Gaseous Waste Processing System (GWPS), Fuel Pool Purification System (PTR [FPPS/FPCS]) also. The performances requested to these systems and the chemistry programs applied to them are discussed

  10. Cancer incidence in adults living in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in France, based on data from the French Network of Cancer Registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbiolles, Alice; Roudier, Candice; Goria, Sarah; Stempfelet, Morgane; Kairo, Cécile; Quintin, Cécile; Bidondo, Marie-Laure; Monnereau, Alain; Vacquier, Blandine

    2018-03-01

    Nuclear power plants (NPPs) release toxic emissions into the environment that may affect neighboring populations. This ecologic study was designed to investigate the possibility of an excess incidence of cancer in the vicinity of French NPPs by examining the incidence by municipality of 12 types of cancer in the population aged 15 years and older during the 1995-2011 period. Population exposure to pollution was estimated on the basis of distance from towns of residence to the NPP. Using regression models, we assessed the risk of cancer in a 20-km zone around NPPs and observed an excess incidence of bladder cancer (Relative Risk (RR), 95% Credibility Interval (95% CI)) in men and women (RR men  = 1.08; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.17 and RR women  = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.39). Women living within the 20-km proximity areas had a significantly reduced risk of thyroid cancer (RR women  = 0.86; 95% CI: 0.77, 0.96). No excess risk of hematologic malignancies in either sex was seen. The higher than expected incidence of bladder cancer may be due to an excess incidence localized around the Flamanville NPP and the nearby La Hague nuclear waste treatment center, which is a source of chemical contaminants, many (including arsenic) of them known risk factors for bladder cancer. Differences in medical practices could explain the reduced risk of thyroid cancer. In this first study of adults living near NPPs in France, cancer incidence is significantly higher than in the references populations for one of the cancer types studied: bladder cancer. © 2017 UICC.

  11. Germany steps up pressure on Fessenheim, but is the 'Energiewende' all-knowing?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepherd, John [nuclear 24, Brighton (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-15

    Politics of course has more than its fair share of those who know everything and do their best not to let get the facts get in the way where inconvenient truths risk destroying their ''Besserwisser'' illusions. An example of this is a letter from Germany's federal environment minister Barbara Hendricks to her French counterpart Segolene Royal. The subject of the letter was the closure of France's Fessenheim nuclear power plant. The content of the letter appears to show that, not content with stamping out the use of nuclear energy in Germany and all the knowledge and industrial expertise that goes with it, Germany seems intent on imposing its point of view onto its neighbour. Hendricks acknowledges that any decisions relating to Fessenheim are for France alone as a sovereign nation. But, if that is the case, why bother to write the letter in the first place? In reply Royal, a prominent French Socialist, stresses French president Francois Hollande's desire to close Fessenheim before his term of office draws to a close. Royal also noted that it is up to France's nuclear operator, EDF, to ''define which reactors are removed from the grid''. It is also amusing to read Royal's comment that the fact Fessenheim can be closed at all is largely due to the construction of replacement nuclear capacity at Flamanville, in northern France. Surely that irony could not have been lost on Germany's environment ministry.

  12. Design performances and chemistry program supporting the FA3 /UKEPRTM activity management: experience and modeling balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tigeras, Arancha; Clinard, Marie-Helene; Chahma, Farah; Jolivet, Patrick; Bremnes, Oystein; Bachet, Martin

    2012-09-01

    EPR TM reactor accounts with an evolutionary design that provides the appropriate features to ensure the safety implementation of different chemistry and radiochemistry options. ALARP considerations have been taken into account by EDF-AREVA for making decisions relating to the activity management in the primary circuit of Flamanville 3-EPR TM and UK-EPR TM reactors. The water chemistry and radiochemistry concept implemented in FA3-EPR TM and UK-EPR TM reactors is the result of an exhaustive selection process based on the balance between the theoretical developments, the laboratory tests and the NPP experience concerning the diverse areas associated with: - The source term identification and characterization: The understanding of the origin and behavior of fission products/actinides, corrosion products and activation products constitutes the essential support for the selection of suitable parameters and criteria to monitor the system integrity, the tramp-uranium and radiation build-up and the discharges to the environment. - The source term quantification: The balance between the baseline data from PWR forerunner reactors and the assessments performed by modeling constitutes the major demonstration of the source term accuracy. This approach ensures that activity risks are understood and can be managed with the EPR TM design options. - The EPR TM design options evaluation: The sensitivity analysis results show the influence of the fuel management, the material choice and the chemistry conditioning on several domains such as the activity coolant and the fuel/ex-core crud management. EDF-AREVA demonstrates by means of this process that the design, sizing and chemistry conditioning of EPR TM reactor primary circuit are adapted to guarantee the correct activity management. The methodology developed, based on qualitative and quantitative assessments, intends to propose to the Nuclear Industry several alternatives for evaluating and/or improving the compliance with

  13. First half 2006: sales revenue up by 5.7% to euros 5,036 million

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The AREVA group reports first half 2006 sales revenue of 5,036 million euros, up from 4,764 million euros for the same period in 2005, representing 5.7% growth in terms of reported data. Organic growth was 5.1%. In the second quarter 2006 the group had revenue of 2,560 million euros, down 0.7% from second quarter 2005 sales (-1.6% like-for-like). Nuclear operations reported first half 2006 revenue of 3,334 million euros, up 1.6% from the first half of 2005 (+1.3% like-for-like), marked by: net growth of 12.9% for the Front End Division, mainly attributable to uranium deliveries and enrichment services; the contribution from reactor projects in Finland (OL3), China (Ling Ao-Phase II) and France (Flamanville 3 EPR), which boosted sales for the Reactors and Services Division by 2.7%, despite the downturn in sales of reactor services; a 14.4% drop in the Back End Division, primarily in the used fuel treatment business. The Transmission and Distribution Division recorded sales revenue of 1,701 million euros, representing strong organic growth of 13.8%, consistent with the increase in orders booked in the second half of 2005. Orders for the first half of 2006 were up by 17.5% like-for-like compared with those of the first half of 2005. The group is targeting a net increase in revenue for 2006, like-for-like

  14. Training Solutions to the Global Challenges of a Nuclear Renaissance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garces, M.; Chan, S.; Leo, C.; Garcia, S.; Vidal, B.

    2010-07-01

    From East Asia to the United States and all over Europe, the nuclear re-birth is generating demands the training simulation vendors had not faced before. Companies involved in the planning, design, construction and operation of new plants increasingly require simulation tools to satisfy very different needs, all of them on a large scale: education and support of inexperienced newcomer staff, human factors analysis and control room design, e-learning, verification and validation of I and C systems or training and licensing of crews before the actual installations are complete. There is a full set of applications already available to the whole industry to satisfy these needs. End-user friendly Thunder Real-Time Executive (T-REX), poised to become the standard simulation platform for U.S. plants, makes it possible to provide full-scope simulator and simulator exercises to students and others on a memory stick or over the internet. AREVA EPR full-scope training simulator, based on the ALICES integrated object-oriented simulation environment, becomes an engineering simulator for the Flamanville 3 plant under construction in Normandy; the same will happen to the Taishan 1 and 2 simulators in Guangdong (China) while UniStar plans to apply this approach to the future EPR's to be built in the United States. SIREP PWR Basic Principle Simulator, with simplified models which can run on an ordinary PC, is used at GDF SUEZ offices in Brussels to implement their Nuclear Trainees Program. EDF Training Department chooses On-line Micro Simulation (MicroSel), which can be managed with Learning Management Systems, for classroom and stand-alone learning of the basic characteristics of French reactors. All these are examples of how extensive R and D and innovation programs implemented by the simulator providers, some of them under way here in Spain, will help to overcome some of the challenges of the current nuclear expansion.

  15. Training Solutions to the Global Challenges of a Nuclear Renaissance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garces, M.; Chan, S.; Leo, C.; Garcia, S.; Vidal, B.

    2010-01-01

    From East Asia to the United States and all over Europe, the nuclear re-birth is generating demands the training simulation vendors had not faced before. Companies involved in the planning, design, construction and operation of new plants increasingly require simulation tools to satisfy very different needs, all of them on a large scale: education and support of inexperienced newcomer staff, human factors analysis and control room design, e-learning, verification and validation of I and C systems or training and licensing of crews before the actual installations are complete. There is a full set of applications already available to the whole industry to satisfy these needs. End-user friendly Thunder Real-Time Executive (T-REX), poised to become the standard simulation platform for U.S. plants, makes it possible to provide full-scope simulator and simulator exercises to students and others on a memory stick or over the internet. AREVA EPR full-scope training simulator, based on the ALICES integrated object-oriented simulation environment, becomes an engineering simulator for the Flamanville 3 plant under construction in Normandy; the same will happen to the Taishan 1 and 2 simulators in Guangdong (China) while UniStar plans to apply this approach to the future EPR's to be built in the United States. SIREP PWR Basic Principle Simulator, with simplified models which can run on an ordinary PC, is used at GDF SUEZ offices in Brussels to implement their Nuclear Trainees Program. EDF Training Department chooses On-line Micro Simulation (MicroSel), which can be managed with Learning Management Systems, for classroom and stand-alone learning of the basic characteristics of French reactors. All these are examples of how extensive R and D and innovation programs implemented by the simulator providers, some of them under way here in Spain, will help to overcome some of the challenges of the current nuclear expansion.

  16. ASN report abstracts on the state of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection in France in 2008. ASN annual report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    ASN is an independent administrative authority tasked, on behalf of the state, with regulating nuclear safety and radiation protection in order to protect workers, patients and the environment from the hazards involved in nuclear activities. It also contributes to informing the public. ASN, run by a five-member commission, regulates the whole of the sector, acting in a completely impartial manner. The ASN Commission presents its report on the state of nuclear safety and radiation protection in France in 2008. Contents: A - Introduction: The year 2008. B - Key topics: 1. ASN actions to promote greater transparency; 2. EDF nuclear power plant ageing and operating life: the conditions for continued operation; 3. The prevention of malicious acts; 4. ASN regulation of the radiotherapy sector; 5. Regulating and monitoring the construction of the Flamanville 3 EPR reactor; 6. ASN's international nuclear safety responsibilities; 7. The new nuclear countries; 8. Decommissioning of basic nuclear installations and the low-level, long-lived waste disposal project. C - Overview: 1 - Nuclear activities: ionising radiations and health risks; 2 - Principles and stakeholders in the regulation of nuclear safety and radiation protection; 3 - Regulation; 4 - Regulation of nuclear activities and exposure to ionising radiations; 5 - Environmental protection; 6 - Public information and transparency; 7 - International relations; 8 - Radiological emergencies; 9 - Medical uses of ionising radiations; 10 - Industrial and research activities; 11 - Transport of radioactive materials; 12 - EDF nuclear power plants; 13 - Nuclear fuel cycle installations; 14 - Nuclear research facilities and various nuclear installations; 15 - Safe decommissioning of basic nuclear installations; 16 - Radioactive waste and polluted sites. D - Appendices: List of basic nuclear installations; ASN decisions and opinions published in 2008 in its Official Bulletin; Acronyms, abbreviations and names

  17. Exploring Pulsars with Polestar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappallo, Rigel; Laycock, Silas; Christodoulou, Dimitris

    2018-06-01

    An X-ray pulsar (XRP) is a highly-magnetized neutron star (NS) that rotates while emitting beams of X-ray radiation produced primarily in the vicinity of its magnetic poles. If these beams happen to cross our line of sight and the NS’s spin and magnetic axes are not aligned, then our telescopes detect it as a periodically pulsating source. With the introduction of a new class of orbit-based observatories over the last quarter of a century the field of X-ray pulsar astronomy has seen an influx of high-resolution data. This windfall demands new models of pulsar behavior and emission geometry be created and subsequently fit to this high-quality data.We have written a model (Polestar) in Python 2.7.6 that mathematically represents a simplified XRP. The code has ten different, tunable geometric parameters that can be individually incorporated or suppressed. Any given XRP has a unique pulse profile which is often energy-dependent, and changes with different luminosity states. A change in luminosity coincides with a change in the system (e.g. a periodic Type-1 outburst is triggered following periastron passage, or the orientation of the decretion disk around the donor star has changed), and as such an increase in luminosity tends to produce an increase in complexity of the accompanying pulse profile. If a particular source in a low-luminosity state can be fit well with Polestar incorporating only a few parameters then an underlying geometry may be inferred. Further, if profiles from the same source in higher-luminosity states can be fit with the addition of only one or two additional parameters it will serve to further solidify current XRP theory (e.g. the emergence of fan-like emission patterns, or the vertical growth of the accretion column).Our initial fitting campaign was directed at the ~ 100 XRPs in the Small Magellanic Cloud. Polestar also includes an interactive slider GUI that allows the user to see in real time how changing the various profiles alter the

  18. Nuclear material discovery or loss: the French experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanetti, S.H.

    2006-01-01

    In a nuclear facility, when a difference between the physical inventory listing and accountancy records is discovered, the French law (Article 11 of the 'Decret 81-512') requires a declaration to the High Civil Servant for Defence of the Ministry in charge of Industry. Moreover, according to article L.1333-13 of the Defence Code, in case of a suspicion of loss, theft or diversion of nuclear material, the licensee has to declare this event to the police. In the meantime, an investigation is carried out in the facility, and in cooperation with other facilities if necessary. These measures are aimed at: - Finding the lost nuclear material (if any), - Understand the causes of the problem, - Solve the differences by acting on the PIL or/and accountancy records, - Act to prevent any other occurrence of this kind of event. These actions can take place in the general field of a police investigation. After all these facts and information have been gathered, the licensee writes down a complete file which is transferred to the High Civil Servant for Defence of the Ministry in charge of Industry, in order to be analysed by his technical support body (IRSN). Thus, the IRSN is able to give its conclusion to the authority about this event, especially regarding: - The causes of the event, - Relevance and completeness of investigations, - Pertinence of the corrections, - Relevance of corrective actions, - Probability of another occurrence. This system is useful to ensure a complete follow-up of the events occurring in the various nuclear facilities in France, to have an extensive overview of the problems on a national scale. If an item is found in a facility A, numerous questions must be answered: - Where does it come from? - Since when is it in facility A? - How did it happened that this item has been transferred from facility B to facility A without the transfer of information? - We will consider these issues through examples. This kind of event can be potentially very rich in

  19. The formation of scientists and technicians at the 'Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires' at Saclay; Formation des scientifiques et des techniciens au Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debiesse, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The considerable needs in research workers and scientists which are asked by the nuclear energy obliged the Commissariat a l'Energie atomique to deal with a particular effort to increase the quantitative and qualitative formation of scientists. Most various ways have been used. 1- A National Institute of Nuclear Sciences and Nuclear Techniques was created, by a joint decree of the Prime Minister and the Minister for National Education (june 18, 1957). This Institute of Higher Teaching (250 students) indulges in the following matters: atomic engineering, quantum mechanics, theory and technic of particle accelerators, special metallurgy, radiobiology, thermic and mechanics of fluids. 2- An associated centre of the 'Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers' waeated (200 students) for technical assistants, drawers, etc. 3- In contribution with both electronic industry and Ministry of Work, the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires contributes to an accelerated formation of technical assistants into Professional Centres. Conclusion: Training of scientists and research workers is one of the most important activities of the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay. Without losing its technical efficiency, it has supplied and varied means adapted to the various purposes that we shall reach. (author)Fren. [French] Les besoins considerables actuels et previsibles en chercheurs et scientifiques necessites par l'avevement de l'energie nucleaire imposaient au Commissariat a I'Energie atomique un effort particulier pour augmenter la formation quantitative et qualitative des scientifiques. Les moyens les plus divers ont ete mis en oeuvre: 1- Creation de l'Institut National des Sciences et Techniques Nucleaires par decret de la Presidence du Conseil et de l'Education Nationale en date du 18.6.57. Cet Institut d'Enseignement Superieur (250 etudiants) donne des cours en: genie atomique, mecanique quantique, theorie et technique des Accelerateurs de particules, metallurgie speciale, radiobiologie

  20. Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Enrique Silva Duarte

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available El sector salud y las reformas relacionadas con él, ocupan a diario la opinión nacional e internacional. Existen diferentes diagnósticos sobre la calidad de los servicios, su cobertura, la crisis de los prestadores de los servicios y la distribución de los recursos. Lo anterior ha generado importantes pronunciamientos y posiciones antagónicas de los actores del modelo. La Universidad EAN no es ajena a esta realidad nacional, más aún cuando el Gobierno decretó la Emergencia Social en Colombia, intentando solucionar en parte los déficits presupuestales del Sector Salud. La Revista EAN pretende hacer aportes en diferentes temas que son transversales a los que convergen como parte del análisis general. Como una contribución al debate constructivo que todo sector debe tener, así como una mirada desde el emprendimiento en el sector Salud en Colombia, publicamos artículos de sumo interés para el mejoramiento del Sector Salud. Por ser esta una revista científica indexada internacionalmente en Ulrich, RedalyC y Latindex, así como el índice nacional Publindex, hemos seleccionado aquellos artículos resultados de investigaciones científicas. Gracias a esto, nuestro aporte servirá para otros académicos y dirigentes del sector Salud para la toma de decisiones. Los temas son diversos, pero centrados en la gestión del aseguramiento, el derecho a la salud, los costos de la calidad y la no calidad de la salud. De igual forma los autores seleccionados dan una mirada crítica a temas relacionados con análisis de eventos en salud, Hospitalizaciones prevenibles y las asimetrías de la información en salud. Pretendemos al entregar estos trabajos a la comunidad acadé-mica, estar contribuyendo como Universidad, a la búsqueda de solu-ciones que redunden en el beneficio de la humanidad.

  1. A.C.R.O. activity report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    control organisation, with the Minister of health international colloquium on the risk management, S.F.R.P. congress on radiation protection, university colloquium on risk management, S.F.R.P. congress on carbon 14, S.F.R.P. congress I.R.P.A. european congress on radiation protection presentation of the working group in radiation protection, S.F.R.P. congress on evaluation and surveillance of radioactive releases of nuclear installations, european commission stake holders conference on approaches to the management of environmental radioactivity, ethical lesson and society at the national school of the Departments of civil engineering, think tank and working groups, participation to the local commission of information (C.L.I.) and in its regular publication 'the nuclear chronicle', participation to the superior council of nuclear safety and information (C.S.S.I.N.); about the environmental surveillance two environments are the object of a regular follow-up: the plateau of La Hague (reprocessing plant and Manche plant where are treated and stored radioactive waste), Touraine area where is situated the nuclear power plant of Chinon; Radio ecological follow through of the aquatic environment both continental and marine of the sea-coast of Normandy from 2001 to 2003; Radio ecological monitoring of the environment of the Cogema la Hague building site in the Moulinets cove; measurements of radon; inventory of the tritium levels in the drinking water of the Manche department; radiation monitoring of the effluents released by the hospitals in the town of Caen. (N.C.)

  2. ANDRA's Long-Term Memory-Preservation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charton, Patrick; Dumont, Jean-Noel

    2012-01-01

    Maintaining the memory of repositories over the long term is required not only to ensure safety and reversibility (legal requirements), but also in response to social expectations. Since 2010, ANDRA has been implementing a long-term memory preservation program to reinforce and diversify its current arrangements in that field, as well as explore opportunities to extend memory keeping over thousands of years. As a reference solution, ANDRA uses the arrangement and practices in place at its surface disposal facilities. Although at ANDRA they are well aware of the fact that the operational time of a LILW disposal corresponds more or less with the implementation time of a geological disposal, useful insights can nevertheless be gained from the experience with short-lived LILW. The reference solution implemented at the Centre de la Manche and de l'Aube includes five memorization devises, differentiating between passive and active memory keeping. There are three passive memories, consisting of copies with various degrees of information on permanent paper, and two active memories, consisting of oral transmissions under the form of events and meetings with various (local) stakeholders. For HLW, ANDRA calculates a timescale of 200 years for the total implementation of a geological disposal, and a minimum of memory of 500 years afterwards, which necessitates conservation of RK and M for 700 years in total. Permanent paper lasts 600-1000 years. ANDRA also developed a sapphire disk which can contain large amounts of records and endure 1 million years. In fact this device created more questions; the purpose is exactly to question 'solutions' that are solely based on engineering. It for instance evokes questions such as 'Which languages should we use, which graphical material should we add, how can we avoid vandalism, what meaning will future generations give to the traces we leave?' All these issues and more are being investigated under ANDRA's long term memory preservation

  3. Essai de classement typo-technologique des araires à partir des pièces métalliques découvertes en Gaule romaine en vue de leur reconstitution Setting up of a typological-technological classification method to try to reconstruct ards from metallic pieces found in Roman Gaul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Marbach

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Les pièces métalliques d’instruments aratoires sont, pour la Gaule romaine, pratiquement les seuls éléments archéologiques à notre disposition nous permettant de reconstruire ces outils. Des auteurs tels que S.E. Rees (G.B., R. Pohanka (Autriche et surtout J. Henning (Europe du sud-est ont fait des propositions de reconstitution des instruments aratoires de cette époque. Que faut-il en penser ? Une méthode de recherche a été élaborée à partir d’une analyse fine des pièces métalliques d’un catalogue de ces pièces pour les Gaules. Les socs ont été classés en fonction de leur surface utile, de la forme de leur douille de fixation et de l’angle d’usure de la pièce avec le sol, quand il est observable. Pour les reilles, le classement est identique et la longueur de la soie est ici prise en compte. À partir des valeurs retenues pour ces pièces et d’une étude technique avec modélisation de l’instrument aratoire, les possibilités de reconstruction des araires ont été étudiées. On souhaite ainsi rappeler aux chercheurs combien il est important de publier les pièces retrouvées avec le maximum de précision, dans les dessins et les mesures. En conclusion, pour les araires à soc à douille, de nombreuses incertitudes demeurent, sauf pour les socs de petites surfaces utiles, qui sont généralement des araires manche-sep. Pour les araires à reille, la reconstruction des instruments semble accessible, y compris la longueur du timon de traction ou chambige. Quelques exemples concrets de reconstitution sont présentés, dont un araire tourne-oreille.Metallic pieces of tilling implements from Roman Gaul, are practically the only archaeological elements at our disposal to reconstruct the tools. Authors such as S.E. Rees (GB, R. Pohanka (Austria, and above all J. Henning (South East of Europe have made proposals concerning the reconstruction of tilling implements of that period. What is to be thought of these

  4. Mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of nitrided or oxinitrided, and powder painted regular and interstitial free (IF) drawing steel sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogalski, Z.; Latas, Z. [Instytut Mechaniki Precyzyjnej, ul. Duchnicka 3, 01-796 Warszawa (Poland)

    2004-06-01

    Specimens of 0.8 mm thick regular and interstitial free (IF) drawing steel sheet have been nitrided in fluidised bed for 2 hours at 620 C and 560 C with and without a post-oxidation, and slow and accelerated cooling. As a result, surface hardness, yield and tensile strength of the sheets increased considerably without a critical loss of ductility. Resistance welds between the sheets did not lose their original strength after nitriding-oxinitriding. Nitrided-oxinitrided at 620 C and then powder painted sheets, as compared with powder painted raw sheets, were more corrosion resistant in neutral salt spray and climatic tests. Some mechanical and anticorrosion properties of the IF steel sheet that had undergone the nitriding-oxinitriding processes were definitely better than those of equally processed regular steel sheet. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Proben aus 0,8 mm dickem Blech aus Ziehmassenstahl sowie aus Ziehstahl ohne interstitiel geloeste Legierungsanteile (IF), werden im Wirbelbett in 2 Stunden bei 620 und 560 {sup o}C nitriert mit nachfolgenden Oxidierung sowie alternativ ohne Oxidierung und mit langsamer und beschleunigter Abkuehlung. Infolge dessen nehmen die Haerte, die Dehngrenze und die Zugfestigkeit der Bleche zu, ohne kritischen Zaehigkeitsverlust. Die Widerstandsschweisswulste zwischen den Blechen nach dem Nitrieren-Oxinitrieren haben nicht an Festigkeit verloren. Die bei 620 {sup o}C nitrierten-oxinitrierten und nachfolgend mit Pulverlack beschichteten Bleche sind bei den Versuchen in Salznebel und bei klimatischen Versuchen korrosionbestaendiger im Vergleich mit den mit nur Pulverlack beschichteten Rohblechen. Manche der mechanischen und korrosionsverhalten betreffenden Eigenschaften der Bleche aus IF-Staehle sind entscheidend besser als fuer das ebenso behandelte Blech aus Ziehmassenstahl. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  5. Stabilization of the cleaning of anaerobic waste water with the aid of activated sludge following receipts of hydrogen peroxide; Stabilisierung der anaeroben Abwasserreinigung durch Belebtschlamm nach Eintrag von Wasserstoffperoxid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stupperich, E. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Abt. Angewandte Mikrobiologie; Gerstmeir, R. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Abt. Angewandte Mikrobiologie; Marqua, J. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Abt. Angewandte Mikrobiologie; Rothfuss, A. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Abt. Angewandte Mikrobiologie

    1996-12-31

    Some municipal and industrial sewage treatment plants comprise an aerobic and an anaerobic unit. However, discharge conditions may be such as to cause strong oxidants like hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) to enter the anaerobic unit. As measurements of the reduction-oxidation potential in an acidification stage showed, small concentrations of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, already, may cause irreversible damage to the anaerobic bacterial strains living there. Adding activated sludge from the aerobic unit to such a system can prevent the damage. Probably, the enzyme catalase protects the anaerobic system against the oxydizing effect of hydrogen peroxide: this enzyme from aerobic bacteria and optionally aerobic bacteria causes the ecologically compatible decomposition of hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen, which is substantially less reactive. Optionally aerobic bacteria, which are also added, protect the anaerobic system further by consuming this oxygen. (orig.) [Deutsch] Manche kommunalen und industriellen Klaeranlagen bestehen aus einer Aerobie und einer Anaerobie. Verschiedene Einleitungsbedingungen koennen aber dazu fuehren, dass in die Anaerobie starke Oxidationsmittel wie Wasserstoffperoxid (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) gelangen. Messungen des Redoxpotentials in einer Versaeuerungsstufe zeigen, dass bereits geringe Konzentrationen an H{sub 2}O{sub 2} die dort lebenden anaeroben Bakterienkulturen irreversibel schaedigen. Wird aber einem solchen System Belebtschlamm aus der Aerobie zudosiert, so kann diese Schaedigung verhindert werden. Wahrscheinlich schuetzt das Enzym Katalase die Anaerobie vor der oxidierenden Wirkung des Wasserstoffperoxids. Dieses Enzym aus aeroben und fakultativ aeroben Bakterien zersetzt naemlich Wasserstoffperoxid oekologisch vertraeglich in Wasser und den bedeutend weniger reaktiven Sauerstoff. Zum Schutz der Anaerobie wird auch dieser Sauerstoff durch die zudosierten fakultativ aeroben Bakterien verbraucht. (orig.)

  6. Study of archaeological iron objects by PGAA, Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, F. E., E-mail: fwagner@tum.de [Technische Universität München, Physik- Department E15 (Germany); Gebhard, R. [Archäologische Staatssammlung München (Germany); Häusler, W.; Wagner, U. [Technische Universität München, Physik- Department E15 (Germany); Albert, P.; Hess, H. [Archäologische Staatssammlung München (Germany); Révay, Z.; Kudejová, P.; Kleszcz, K. [Technische Universität München, Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II) (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    Archaeological iron objects often corrode rapidly after their excavation, even though they have survived long times of burial in the ground. Chlorine that accumulates during burial is thought to play a major role in this destructive post-excavation corrosion. It is therefore important for the conservation of such objects to determine the chlorine content in a non-destructive manner and, if necessary, to remove the chlorine from the artefacts by appropriate methods. Such methods are leaching in alkaline solutions or heating in a reducing atmosphere at temperatures up to 800 {sup ∘}C. We have studied the efficiency of the heating method using prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) for monitoring the Cl content and Mössbauer spectroscopy at room temperature (RT) and 4.2 K as well as X-ray diffraction to study the mineralogical transformations of the rust layers. The heat treatments were performed a N{sub 2}/H{sub 2} (90/10) mixture at temperatures up to 750 {sup ∘}C. As test specimens sections of iron rods from the Celtic oppidum of Manching (Bavaria) were used. The initial Cl contents of the pieces varied in the range of several hundred ppm, referring to the iron mass. Annealing for 24 h at 350, 550 and 750 {sup ∘}C was found to reduce the Cl contents of the specimens, to about 70, 30 and 15 % of the original values, respectively. The rust consists mainly of goethite with admixtures of magnetite, lepidocrocite and akaganeite, which is thought to be a major carrier of chlorine, probably together with iron chlorides. Much of the goethite is so fine-grained that it does not split magnetically at RT. Annealing converts the rust mainly to maghemite at 350 {sup ∘}C, to magnetite at 550 {sup ∘}C and to wüstite plus magnetite and metallic iron at 750 {sup ∘}C. Pure akaganeite behaves in nearly the same manner.

  7. Study of archaeological iron objects by PGAA, Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, F. E.; Gebhard, R.; Häusler, W.; Wagner, U.; Albert, P.; Hess, H.; Révay, Z.; Kudejová, P.; Kleszcz, K.

    2016-01-01

    Archaeological iron objects often corrode rapidly after their excavation, even though they have survived long times of burial in the ground. Chlorine that accumulates during burial is thought to play a major role in this destructive post-excavation corrosion. It is therefore important for the conservation of such objects to determine the chlorine content in a non-destructive manner and, if necessary, to remove the chlorine from the artefacts by appropriate methods. Such methods are leaching in alkaline solutions or heating in a reducing atmosphere at temperatures up to 800 "∘C. We have studied the efficiency of the heating method using prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) for monitoring the Cl content and Mössbauer spectroscopy at room temperature (RT) and 4.2 K as well as X-ray diffraction to study the mineralogical transformations of the rust layers. The heat treatments were performed a N_2/H_2 (90/10) mixture at temperatures up to 750 "∘C. As test specimens sections of iron rods from the Celtic oppidum of Manching (Bavaria) were used. The initial Cl contents of the pieces varied in the range of several hundred ppm, referring to the iron mass. Annealing for 24 h at 350, 550 and 750 "∘C was found to reduce the Cl contents of the specimens, to about 70, 30 and 15 % of the original values, respectively. The rust consists mainly of goethite with admixtures of magnetite, lepidocrocite and akaganeite, which is thought to be a major carrier of chlorine, probably together with iron chlorides. Much of the goethite is so fine-grained that it does not split magnetically at RT. Annealing converts the rust mainly to maghemite at 350 "∘C, to magnetite at 550 "∘C and to wüstite plus magnetite and metallic iron at 750 "∘C. Pure akaganeite behaves in nearly the same manner.

  8. National blueprint for the deployment of liquefied natural gas as marine fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Based on a consultation of professional bodies, this blueprint expresses the strong commitment of the French State with economic actors towards an energy transition on the long term, and more particularly concerns the development of LNG (liquefied natural gas) as marine fuel. This objective complies with national and European environmental objectives for the reduction of greenhouse emissions and for a better air quality. This blueprint notably develops two European directives which addresses the sulphur content of marine fuels, and the deployment of an infrastructure for alternative fuels. In its first part, this document states the strong political support to the development of LNG: environmental objectives, existing financial levers for a progressive evolution towards LNG, adaptation of the regulatory framework for a sustainable emergence of a LNG sector, implementation of specific trainings of sea-based and ground-based personnel for the handling of LNG. It sketches the development of LNG for each French coastline (Manche-North Sea, Atlantic, Mediterranean Sea) by analysing the potential demand, and by presenting current projects. Some specific issues related to LNG development are then addressed and discussed: creation of global LNG sectors, inclusion of projects within a trans-national approach, taking of the LNG multimodal reality into account. A set of actions is finally defined: definition of a national framework, stronger support of actors in the search for relevant financing solutions, emergence of harmonized regulatory conditions, implementation of relevant training for LNG handling, support to the implementation of projects which will enable the emergence of a LNG sector for fuel supply in France

  9. Special Issue - A Press Review of The West Normandy Marine Energy Highlights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piquet, Francois; Martin, Geraldine; Bornemann, Brigitte; Longmore, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This Special Issue has been undertaken at the initiative of West Normandy that shares the Alderney Race - Europe's second most powerful tidal stream - with the nearby British Channel Island of Alderney. Its objective is to help to understand better the region that by the end of this decade will be home to the first tidal turbines to be deployed in France and some of the first offshore wind-turbines at nearby Courseulles-sur-Mer. Via these articles the reader can discover the depth of the political will locally and nationally to put in place a strong and vibrant French marine renewable energy industry. One hundred and fifty West Normandy SMEs are wanting to be involved in the sector. There are both skills and training directories to assist the energy companies and the developers. This western tip of France has the right industrial infrastructure and experience, with 150 local SMEs already known to be interested in the industry. There are all the necessary R and D as well as education and training facilities. The ports of Cherbourg-Octeville and Caen-Ouistreham offer all tide, and all weather access for installation and/or maintenance vessels. Grid connectivity is already assured. To encourage and facilitate the creation of the industry in West Normandy the region has set up West Normandy Marine Energy - a limited public company which is the primary point of contact for everything relating to marine renewables in West Normandy. Their focus is on offering a special welcome to devices tested in British sites and now interested in using the Alderney Race pilot farms as a first step towards industrialisation. Energy policy in France is being increasingly devolved to the regions, away from central government. West Normandy is now a regional leader in all forms of marine renewables. West Normandy Marine Energy was set up by the West Normandy region, the General Council of the Manche department, and Cherbourg Urban Community

  10. Una escritura de la desaparición y aparición siempre futuras: Superrealismo / El libro de Levante, prenovela (1929 de Azorín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Aranjo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available En 1929, peu après la naissance du surréalisme français (1924, le francophile, nationaliste et membre de la Génération espagnole du 98, Azorín, résidant dans la ville frontalière de San Sébastian (Guipúzcoa, fait appel à une certaine écriture semi-automatique, fulgurant et recherchée, afin de provoquer l’émergence du personnage, divers et virtuel, du roman, toujours futur, dont le projet final converge à la fin vers son village natal de Monóvar (Levant, au bout d’un éblouissant voyage à travers la Péninsule et la Manche de Don Quichotte, un autre grand surréaliste.En 1929, poco después del nacimiento del Surrealismo francés (1924, el francófilo, nacionalista y noventayochista Azorín, desde la casi fronteriza San Sebastián (Guipúzcoa, usa cierta forma de escritura semi-automática, fulgurante y señoreada, para provocar la emergencia del personaje, diverso y virtual, de la novela, siempre futura, cuyo proyecto final acabará coincidiendo con el centro natal (siempre ausente y por venir de Monóvar (Levante al cabo de un deslumbrante viaje imaginario en tren a través de la Península y de la Mancha de Don Quijote, este gran Surrealista.

  11. Study of archaeological iron objects by PGAA, Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, F. E.; Gebhard, R.; Häusler, W.; Wagner, U.; Albert, P.; Hess, H.; Révay, Z.; Kudejová, P.; Kleszcz, K.

    2016-12-01

    Archaeological iron objects often corrode rapidly after their excavation, even though they have survived long times of burial in the ground. Chlorine that accumulates during burial is thought to play a major role in this destructive post-excavation corrosion. It is therefore important for the conservation of such objects to determine the chlorine content in a non-destructive manner and, if necessary, to remove the chlorine from the artefacts by appropriate methods. Such methods are leaching in alkaline solutions or heating in a reducing atmosphere at temperatures up to 800 ∘C. We have studied the efficiency of the heating method using prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) for monitoring the Cl content and Mössbauer spectroscopy at room temperature (RT) and 4.2 K as well as X-ray diffraction to study the mineralogical transformations of the rust layers. The heat treatments were performed a N2/H2 (90/10) mixture at temperatures up to 750 ∘C. As test specimens sections of iron rods from the Celtic oppidum of Manching (Bavaria) were used. The initial Cl contents of the pieces varied in the range of several hundred ppm, referring to the iron mass. Annealing for 24 h at 350, 550 and 750 ∘C was found to reduce the Cl contents of the specimens, to about 70, 30 and 15 % of the original values, respectively. The rust consists mainly of goethite with admixtures of magnetite, lepidocrocite and akaganeite, which is thought to be a major carrier of chlorine, probably together with iron chlorides. Much of the goethite is so fine-grained that it does not split magnetically at RT. Annealing converts the rust mainly to maghemite at 350 ∘C, to magnetite at 550 ∘C and to wüstite plus magnetite and metallic iron at 750 ∘C. Pure akaganeite behaves in nearly the same manner.

  12. UIS Baden-Wuerttemberg. AJA project. Application of JAVA-based solutions in environment, transport and administration. Phase II 2001; UIS Baden-Wuerttemberg. Projekt AJA. Anwendung JAVA-basierter Loesungen in den Bereichen Umwelt, Verkehr und Verwaltung. Phase II 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer-Foell, R.; Keitel, A.; Geiger, W. (eds.)

    2001-12-01

    Information and communication technology facilitates data acquisition, recording, evaluation and transmission in many fields of society, but even experts tend to get lost in the flood of data that are available. In order to make it possible to integrate new technological developments in information systems, the Minister of Environment and Transportation continues the project AJA (''Application of JAVA-based solutions'') which was started in 2000. AJA is a sequel to the GLOBUS project which was terminated in 1999. (GLOBUS - Globale Umweltsachdaten im UIS Baden-Wuerttemberg und anderen Systemen). [German] Die Bereiche Umwelt, Verkehr und Verwaltung profitieren bei der Erhebung, Erfassung, Auswertung, Darstellung und Weitergabe ihrer Daten in hohem Masse von Informations- und Kommunikationstechnik (IuK). Manche Darstellungsweisen und Berechnungen werden dadurch erst moeglich. Uebergreifende Zusammenhaenge koennen mit Hilfe der IuK aufgezeigt werden. Die Verwaltung muss Technologien einsetzen, wie sie in der Wirtschaft fuer die Zusammenfuehrung von verteilten Unternehmensdaten verwendet werden, um Entscheidungs grundlagen fuer die Unternehmenspolitik zu liefern (z.B. Data Warehouse). In solchen ''Warenhaeusern von Daten'' finden sich oft nur Experten zurecht. Unsere Herausforderung ist es, diese komplexen Zusammenhaenge nicht nur dem Experten, sondern auch dem Buerger auf moeglichst einfache und wirtschaftliche Weise zu vermitteln. Dem Buerger ist der freie Zugang zu Informationen ueber die Umwelt zu ermoeglichen. Wir sind damit auf dem Wege zu einem Marktplatz von Daten und Informationen fuer den Buerger und die Verwaltung. Um neue technologische Entwicklungen in Informationssystemen einsetzen zu koennen, fuehrt das Ministerium fuer Umwelt und Verkehr (UVM) das 2000 begonnene FuE-Vorhaben AJA ''Anwendung JAVA-basierter Loesungen'' fort. AJA baut auf dem 1999 abgeschlossenen Vorhaben GLOBUS (Globale

  13. FET-PET-based reirradiation and chloroquine in patients with recurrent glioblastoma. First tolerability and feasibility results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilger, Angelika; Bittner, Martin-Immanuel; Grosu, Anca L.; Wiedenmann, Nicole; Firat, Elke; Niedermann, Gabriele; Milanovic, Dusan [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Freiburg (Germany); Meyer, Philipp T. [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Freiburg (Germany); Weber, Wolfgang A. [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Freiburg (Germany); Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Molecular Imaging and Therapy Service, York Avenue, NY (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Treatment of recurrent glioblastoma (rGBM) remains an unsolved clinical problem. Reirradiation (re-RT) can be used to treat some patients with rGBM, but as a monotherapy it has only limited efficacy. Chloroquine (CQ) is an anti-malaria and immunomodulatory drug that may inhibit autophagy and increase the radiosensitivity of GBM. Between January 2012 and August 2013, we treated five patients with histologically confirmed rGBM with re-RT and 250 mg CQ daily. Treatment was very well tolerated; no CQ-related toxicity was observed. At the first follow-up 2 months after finishing re-RT, two patients achieved partial response (PR), one patient stable disease (SD), and one patient progressive disease (PD). One patient with reirradiated surgical cavity did not show any sign of PD. In this case series, we observed encouraging responses to CQ and re-RT. We plan to conduct a CQ dose escalation study combined with re-RT. (orig.) [German] Die Behandlung rezidivierter Glioblastome (rGBM) ist problematisch. Manche Patienten koennen erneut bestrahlt (re-RT) werden, jedoch nur mit begrenzter Wirksamkeit. Das Antimalariamittel Chloroquin (CQ) wirkt immunmodulatorisch, hemmt die Autophagie und kann die Radiosensibilitaet erhoehen. Zwischen Januar 2012 und August 2013 wurden 5 Patienten mit einem histologisch gesicherten rGBM mit re-RT und zusaetzlich taeglich 250 mg CQ behandelt. Diese Behandlung wurde sehr gut, ohne CQ-assoziierte Nebenwirkungen toleriert. Zum ersten Follow-up, 2 Monate nach der re-RT, fanden sich zwei partielle Remissionen (PR), ein stabiler Verlauf (SD) und ein Progress (PD). Ein zuvor operierter Patient war in anhaltender Remission. Diese Fallstudie zeigt ein ermutigendes Ansprechen von Patienten mit rGBM auf eine Behandlung mit CQ und re-RT. Eine Dosiseskalationsstudie CQ/re-RT ist geplant. (orig.)

  14. Facility design, construction, and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    France has been disposing of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) at the Centre de Stockage de la Manche (CSM) since 1969 and now at the Centre de Stockage de l'Aube (CSA) since 1992. In France, several agencies and companies are involved in the development and implementation of LLW technology. The Commissariat a l'Energie Atomic (CEA), is responsible for research and development of new technologies. The Agence National pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs is the agency responsible for the construction and operation of disposal facilities and for wastes acceptance for these facilities. Compagnie Generale des Matieres Nucleaires provides fuel services, including uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, and fuel reprocessing, and is thus one generator of LLW. Societe pour les Techniques Nouvelles is an engineering company responsible for commercializing CEA waste management technology and for engineering and design support for the facilities. Numatec, Inc. is a US company representing these French companies and agencies in the US. In Task 1.1 of Numatec's contract with Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Numatec provides details on the design, construction and operation of the LLW disposal facilities at CSM and CSA. Lessons learned from operation of CSM and incorporated into the design, construction and operating procedures at CSA are identified and discussed. The process used by the French for identification, selection, and evaluation of disposal technologies is provided. Specifically, the decisionmaking process resulting in the change in disposal facility design for the CSA versus the CSM is discussed. This report provides' all of the basic information in these areas and reflects actual experience to date

  15. A community based approach to improve health care seeking for newborn danger signs in rural Wardha, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongre, Amol R; Deshmukh, Pradeep R; Garg, Bishan S

    2009-01-01

    To find out the effect of community mobilization and health education effort on health care seeking behavior of families with sick newborns, and to explore the rationale behind the changed health care seeking behaviors of mothers in a rural Indian community. In the present community based participatory intervention, a triangulated research design of quantitative (survey) and qualitative (Focus group discussions, FGDs) method was undertaken for needs assessment in year 2004. In community mobilization, women's self help groups; Kishori Panchayat (KP, forum of adolescent girls), Kisan Vikas Manch (Farmers' club) and Village Coordination Committees (VCC) were formed in the study area. The trained social worker facilitated VCCs to develop village health plans to act upon their priority maternal and child health issues. The pregnant women and group members were given health education. The Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) technique was used to monitor awareness regarding newborn danger signs among pregnant women. In year 2007, a triangulation of quantitative survey and a qualitative study (free list and pile sort exercise) was undertaken to find out changes in health care seeking behaviors of mothers. There was significant improvement in mothers' knowledge regarding newborn danger signs. About half of the mothers got information from CLICS doot (female community health worker). The monitoring over three years period showed encouraging trend in level of awareness among pregnant women. After three years, the proportion of mothers giving no treatment/home remedy for newborn danger signs declined significantly. However, there was significant improvement in mothers' health care seeking from private health care providers for sick newborns. The present approach improved mothers' knowledge regarding newborn danger signs and improved their health care seeking behavior for newborn danger signs at community level. Due to lack of faith in government health services, women

  16. Organic petrology in the service of archaeology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teichmueller, M.

    1992-02-01

    The techniques of organic petrology have been used to study the nature and provenance of 81 ornaments ranging in age from the Celtic (dated as late Hallstatt-early La Tene times, 500-300 B.C.) to Roman (1st-4th Century A.D.) periods, which have been recovered from graves and settlements in Germany and Switzerland. The ornaments were mainly black or dark brown armlets but also included beads, buttons and medallions. The most commonly used source material was jet (22 objects) which is derived from bituminized drift woods found in Liassic oil shale, probably mainly of English provenance. Eleven objects were made from Carboniferous cannel coal and four from boghead coal, both of unknown geographic provenance. Only one object proved to be made from {ital Posidonia} shale, a liassic oil shale from southern Germany. The identification of two distinctive sapropelites, used mainly for the production of armlets, is of particular interest. These sapropelites are the 'Schwarte' from the top of the Kounova Seam (Stephanian) of northern Bohemia (15 objects) and the Kimmeridge 'coal' of Dorset, England (19 objects). The recognition of these organic materials was made possible by the study of fresh rock samples. All the armlets made from 'Schwarte' were excavated in the Celtic oppidum at Manching in southern Germany; the armlets made from Kimmeridge 'coal' were found in Celtic and Roman graves. These discoveries suggest the existence of early trade routes crossing the English Channel and passing south to Switzerland, probably along the River Rhine. A very few armlets were made from dark tuff (probably of Bohemian origin), black glass or dark brown bone. These materials were probably all used as substitutes for jet and/or sapropelites. It is interesting to note that all these dark armlets were thought to possess magic properties, which may explain their frequency. 26 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Radioactive waste management in France, how successive crises helped the process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamborini, J.

    2000-01-01

    Since the start of the nuclear program in the early 70s, the acceptance of nuclear power by the public is an evolving process which involves many different actors and more and more, the local one. The radioactive waste management field also suffered from this deterioration of public opinion concerning nuclear power. Therefore, this text explains how National Radioactive Waste Agency (ANDRA) changed its policy in this matter notably through its experience in the implementation of its high-level (HLW), long-lived waste management program. ANDRA was created in 1979 to manage waste generated by the nuclear power programme. In 1984, ANDRA was asked to ensure the replacement of the Centre de la Manche, by undertaking studies for a new disposal facility with a capacity of 1 million cubic meters. Discussions with local elected representatives and the social fabric were a key element in the successful implementation of the new disposal facility. It is important to recognise, however, that social consensus about the site was not immediate: it required more than 400 public meetings and the creation of a local information committee consisting of elected representatives, associations and ANDRA In 1987, concurrently with the construction of the Centre de l'Aube, investigations started on the implementation of underground laboratories as a preliminary step to the construction of a repository for long-lived HLW. The approach used was very similar to that for surface disposal sites. However, three years after scientific and technical work campaigns had been launched on the pre-selected sites, all reconnaissance activities had to be stopped due to the opposition of the public and elected representatives. The government finally decreed a moratorium on the management of all long-lived HLW

  18. Evaluation of the risk associated with the storage of radioactive wastes. The deterministic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewi, J.

    1988-07-01

    Radioactive waste storage facility safety depends on a certain number of barriers being placed between the waste and man. These barriers, certain of which are articial (the waste package and engineered barriers) and others are natural (geological formations), are of characteristics suited to the type of storage facility (surface storage or storage in deep geological formations). The combination of these different barriers provide protection for man, under all circumstances considered plausible. Justification, for the storage of given quantities of radionuclides, of the choice of the site, the artificial barriers and the overall storage architecture, is obtained by evaluation of the risk. It being this which provides a basis for determining the acceptability of the storage facility. One of the following two methods is normally used for evaluation of the risk: the deterministic method and the probabilistic method. This adress describes the deterministic method. This method is employed in France for the safety analysis of the projects and works of ANDRA, the national agency responsible for the management of radioactive waste. It should be remembered that in France, the La Manche surface storage centre for low and medium activity waste has been in existence since 1969, close to the reprocessing plant at La Hague and a second surface storage centre is to be commissioned around 1991 at Soulaines in centre of France (departement de l'Aube). Furthermore, geological surveying of four sites located in geological formations consisting of granite, schist, clay and salt were begun in 1987 for the selection in about three years time of a site for the creation of an underground laboratory. This could later be transformed, if safety is demonstrated, into a deep storage centre

  19. Case law. Administrative decisions. National legislative and regulatory activities. International regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2007-01-01

    The different subjects are as follow: judgment on Konrad repository project (Germany), Measures for the dismantling of Barsebaeck (Sweden), amendment to the criminal code (Argentina), Australian nuclear science and technology organisation amendment act, commonwealth radioactive waste management legislation amendment (Australia), amendments to the radiation act and radiation decree (Finland), decree on securing financing for nuclear charges, decree licensing the construction of the basic nuclear installation Flamanville 3 comprising an EPR reactor (France), amendment to the act on preventive radiation protection, administrative provisions on the supervision of environmental radioactivity, ordinance on radioactive drugs, amendment to the ordinance on the treatment of foodstuffs with radiation, European agreement relating to the international transportation of dangerous goods by road, ordinance on the transportation of dangerous goods by road and rail, ordinance to amend the R.I.D. regulations, ordinance on the transportation of dangerous goods on the Rhine and Mosel rivers, amendments to the 1961 foreign trade act and to the 1993 foreign trade ordinance (Germany), regulations in the field of radiation protection (Iceland), decree on nuclear reactor licensing (Indonesia), carriage of dangerous goods by road act (Ireland), decree on emergency planning with regard to the transport of radioactive and fissile materials (Italy), covenant between the government and the Borssele operator concerning the life extension (Netherlands), consolidated edition of the 1965 radiation protection act (New Zealand), regulation on ionizing radiation sources (Poland), decision approving the structure and organisation of the romanian nuclear agency, amendment of the 2003 decision approving the internal rules of the national commission for the control of nuclear activities, amendment of the 2003 ordinance on the management of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste including final disposal

  20. Innovative fission reactors for this century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minguez, E.

    2007-01-01

    It is well known that global trends indicate a rebirth of nuclear energy due to several items: the climate change and the use of energies that emits CO 2 , the cost and dependence of gas and oil, the new innovative reactors which are competitive, safer, and sustainable and can support the Kyoto Protocol. The Advanced Reactors have safer systems than those developed in the Generation II, which demonstrates that are sustainable for the present and nuclear industry has also developed new concepts for the future which also will be sustainable. Now the new power plants that have being constructed are classified in the Generation III. Several units of this technology are in operation in Japan and other countries of the Pacific. Europe is now constructing the first unit in Finland (Olkilouto) with European technology: the European Pressurized Reactor (EPR). France has announced the beginning of the construction of an EPR in Flamanville next year. In 2000, several countries with advanced nuclear technology established the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) to develop and demonstrate nuclear energy systems that offer advantages in the following areas: sustainability, economics, safety and reliability and proliferation resistance and physical protection. These new systems will be deployed commercially after 2030. Six innovative concepts are under research, and the aim is not only produce electricity, but also hydrogen using the operational conditions of several concepts. Developed countries with NPPs in operation have strategies for the future of the nuclear energy. For the short term is to extend the operation of the NPPs until 60 years, or alternatively construction of new units of Generation III, to substitute those closed for decommissioning, keeping the percentage of contribution to the electricity generated. Between the period 2030-50, the solution is to operate the new innovative systems of the Generation IV, which uses the passive concept, and in the second part

  1. Second generation of TELEPERM XS applications successful in operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, P.

    2008-01-01

    Safety I and C plays an important part in safety and availability of nuclear power plants. AREVA NP, the nuclear technology enterprise, recently began delivery of the second generation TELEPERM XS digital safety I and C technology. Qinshan 1, the first Chinese-built reactor, had its reactor protection system replaced. The plant has been back on the grid since January 12, 2008. Moreover, the Swedish Ringhals 1 nuclear generating unit has operated a neutron flux measuring system of the second-generation TELEPERM XS since October 2007. Both systems are running to their users' full satisfaction. TELEPERM XS has meanwhile been employed in 49 plants in twelve countries. This safety I and C system by AREVA NP can be used with nearly all reactor lines, for both new reactor designs and upgrading nuclear power plants in operation. Here are some examples of successful installations of reactor protection, reactor control and limiting, neutron flux measurement and Diesel power control systems with TELEPERM XS: the Tianwan 1 and 2 units in China (VVER plants), Oskarsham 2 in Sweden (boiling water reactor), and Neckarwestheim 1 and 2 in Germany (pressurized water reactors). TELEPERM XS systems are being planned for the new plants of Olkiluoto 3 in Finland (EPR), Flamanville 3 in France (EPR), Taishan 1 and 2 in China (EPR), and Ling Ao 3 and 4 in China (CPR 1000). For quick and unproblematic implementation of TELEPERM XS in a plant, the system with all subassemblies, functions, and input/output signals is fully tested in a testing station. For this purpose, AREVA NP built one of the largest testing stations in the world for I and C cabinets, the 'TELEPERM XS Integration Center', at its German location in Erlangen. More than 200 I and C cabinets can be tested simultaneously in these installations. The 'I and C and Electrical Systems' Forum is attached to the testing station. This is where the company presents to its customers and partner firms realistic solutions, in combination

  2. Power plants 2009. Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Within the Annual Conference 2009 of the VGB PowerTech e.V. (Essen, Federal Republic of Germany) from 23rd to 25th May, 2009, in Lyon (France) the following lectures were held: (1) Electricity demand, consequences of the financial and economic crisis - Current overview 2020 for the EU-27 (Hans ten Berge); (2) Status and perspectives of the electricity generation mix in France (Bernard Dupraz); (3) European electricity grid - status and perspective (Dominique Maillard); (4) Technologies and acceptance in the European energy market (Gordon MacKerran); (5) EPR construction in Finland, China, France, (Claude Jaouen); (6) EPR Flamanville 3: A project on the path towards nuclear revival (Jacques Alary); (7) Worldwide nuclear Revival and acceptance (Luc Geraets); (8) An overview on the status of final disposal of radioactive wastes worldwide (Piet Zuidema); (9) Who needs pumped storage plants? PSP are partner to grid stability and renewable energies (Hans-Christoph Funke); (10) Sustainable use of water resources to generate electricity safely and efficiently (Patrick Tourasse); (11) The growth strategy of RWE Innogy - Role of RES in RWE strategy (Fritz Vahrenholt); (12) Solar technologies towards grid parity - key factors and timeframe (G. Gigliucci); (13) Overview on CCS technologies and results of Vattenfalls oxyfuel pilot plant (Philippe Paelinck); (14) Development perspectives of lignite-based IGCC-plants with CCS (Dietmar Keller); (15) Post combustion capture plants - concept and plant integration (Wolfgang Schreier); (16) CCS fossil power generation in a carbon constraint world (Daniel Hofmann); (17) CEZ group strategy in Central and South Eastern Europe (Jan Zizka); (18) Strategy and projects of DONG Energy (Jens Erik Pedersen); (19) E.ON coal-based power generation of the future - The highly efficient power plant and downstream separation of carbon dioxide (Gerhard Seibel); (20) Final sage of first supercritical 460 MW e l. CFB Boiler construction - firs

  3. Operational measurements in radioprotection in the industrial and medical environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodde, S.; Vial, Th.; Truffert, H.; Kramar, R.; Batalla, A.; Roine, Ph.; Pin, A.; Lahaye, Th.; Rodde, S.; Bordy, J.M.; Paquet, F.; Veres, A.; Cadiou, A.; Branthonne, J.Y.; Noel, A.; Laloubere, L.; Moreau, St.; Gensdarmes, F.; Marques, S.; Lestang, M.; Valendru, N.; Tranchant, Ph.; Martel, P.; Bernhard, S.; Chareyre, P.; Gardin, I.; Casanova, Ph.; De Vita, A.; Tenailleau, L.; Masson, B.; Feret, B.; Guerin, M.; Guillot, L.; Gaultier, E.

    2009-01-01

    This document gathers the slides of the available presentations given during these conference days. Thirty presentations are assembled in the document and deal with: 1 - enforcement circular of the labor code dispositions relative to workers protection against ionizing radiation hazards (T. Lahaye); 2 - context and regulatory evolutions - public health code (S. Rodde); 3 - references and perspectives in external dosimetry (J.M. Bordy); 4 - CIPR's Committee 2 works (F. Paquet); 5 - from protection data to measurement data (A. Pin); 6 - dosimetric control in radiotherapy (A. Veres); 7 - calibration of irradiation measurement devices in industrial environment (A. Cadiou); 8 - calibration and verification of nuclear measurement devices (J.Y. Branthonne); 9 - calibration of measurement devices in medical environment (J.M. Bordy); 10 - quality control in radiotherapy (A. Batalla); 11 - in-vivo dosimetry in radiotherapy (A. Noel); 12 - calibration metrology of fixed post irradiation sensors (L. Laloubere); 13 - design requirements for the radiological zoning and the wastes cleanliness of Flamanville 3 EPR reactor (S. Moreau); 14 - efficiency of aerosol capture systems used in CNPE EDF (F. Gensdarmes); 15 - mobile surveillance means of the atmospheric contamination of CNPE EDF's reactor building (S. Marques and M. Lestang); 16 - experience feedback about the security gates at EDF's nuclear facilities (N. Valendru); 17 - metrology needs for radioprotection technical controls (P. Tranchant); 18 - technical evaluation of a flowmeter/dosemeter in the framework of the regulatory control of X-ray electric generators used in radio-diagnosis (P. Martel); 19 - reinforced natural radioactivity - the case of radon measurement (S. Bernhard); 20 - fires during radioactive materials transport (P. Chareyre); 21 - measurement in the framework of medical examinations: radiology service (A. Noel); 22 - operational measurements in nuclear medicine (I. Gardin); 23 - from the operational

  4. Nuclear energy: 21st century promise. 10 October 2005, Budapest, Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2005-01-01

    What role will nuclear energy play can not be can not be answered definitively, but IAEA projections for the coming decades are markedly higher than they were even five years ago. Nuclear reactors currently generate electricity for nearly 1 billion people, producing about 16% of the world's electricity. This percentage has held relatively steady for more than a decade, keeping pace with the steady expansion in the global electricity market. But in just the past few years, we have witnessed a significant change in attitudes towards nuclear power. Fast growing global energy demands, an increased emphasis on the security of energy supply, and the risk of climate change are driving a renewed consideration, in many quarters, towards investment in nuclear power. This past March, at an international ministerial conference in Paris, participants from 65 countries were upbeat regarding the role of nuclear power in meeting 21st century electricity and energy needs. Near term nuclear growth remains centred in Asia and Eastern Europe, which together account for 22 of the 24 units now under construction. The Russian Federation intends to double its nuclear generating capacity by 2020; China plans nearly a six-fold expansion in capacity by the same date; and India anticipates a ten-fold increase by 2022. Elsewhere, plans remain more modest, but it is clear that nuclear energy is regaining stature as a serious option. When Finland began pouring concrete for Olkiluoto-3 earlier this year, it was the first new nuclear construction in Western Europe since 1991. France will likely be next, with construction of a European Pressurized Water Reactor (EPR) at Flamanville scheduled to start in 2007. Some 'newcomer' developing countries, such as Indonesia and Vietnam, are also moving steadily forward with plans for nuclear power investment. And at last month's IAEA General Conference in Vienna, a host of countries were discussing plans and possibilities for initiating or expanding nuclear

  5. Maintenance of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migaud, D.; Hutin, J.P.; Jouette, I.; Eymond, P.; Devie, P.; Cudelou, C.; Magnier, S.; Frydman, M.

    2016-01-01

    This document gathers different articles concerning the maintenance of the French nuclear power plants. The first article analyses the impact of the recent law on the energetic transition that sets the share of nuclear power at 50% of the electricity produced by 2025. A consequence may be the decommissioning of 17 to 20 reactors by 2025 and the huge maintenance program called 'Grand Carenage' whose aim is to extend operating life over 40 years will have to be re-considered in order to avoid useless expenses. The second article shows that in 2015 the French nuclear reactor fleet got very good results in terms of availability and safety. There were 49 scheduled outages and among them some ended ahead of time. The third article describes the specificities of the maintenance of a nuclear power plant, for instance the redundancy of some systems implies that maintenance has to deal with systems that have never functioned but must be ready to operate at any moment. Another specificity is the complexity of a nuclear power plant that implies an essential phase of preparation for maintenance operations. Because of safety requirements any maintenance operation has to be controlled, checked and may provide feedback. The fourth article presents the 'Grand Carenage' maintenance program that involves the following operations: the replacement of steam generators, the re-tubing of condensers, the replacement of the filtering drums used for cooling water, the testing of the reactor building, the hydraulic test of the primary circuit and the inspection of the reactor vessel. The fifth article focuses on the organization of the work-site for maintenance operations and the example of the Belleville-sur-Loire is described in the sixth article. Important maintenance operations like 'Grand Carenage' requires a strong collaboration with a network of specialized enterprises and as no reactor (except Flamanville EPR) is being built in France, maintenance

  6. Operational measurements in radioprotection in the industrial and medical environments; Mesures operationnelles en radioprotection dans les milieux industriel et medical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodde, S.; Vial, Th.; Truffert, H.; Kramar, R.; Batalla, A.; Roine, Ph.; Pin, A.; Lahaye, Th.; Rodde, S.; Bordy, J.M.; Paquet, F.; Veres, A.; Cadiou, A.; Branthonne, J.Y.; Noel, A.; Laloubere, L.; Moreau, St.; Gensdarmes, F.; Marques, S.; Lestang, M.; Valendru, N.; Tranchant, Ph.; Martel, P.; Bernhard, S.; Chareyre, P.; Gardin, I.; Casanova, Ph.; De Vita, A.; Tenailleau, L.; Masson, B.; Feret, B.; Guerin, M.; Guillot, L.; Gaultier, E.

    2009-07-01

    This document gathers the slides of the available presentations given during these conference days. Thirty presentations are assembled in the document and deal with: 1 - enforcement circular of the labor code dispositions relative to workers protection against ionizing radiation hazards (T. Lahaye); 2 - context and regulatory evolutions - public health code (S. Rodde); 3 - references and perspectives in external dosimetry (J.M. Bordy); 4 - CIPR's Committee 2 works (F. Paquet); 5 - from protection data to measurement data (A. Pin); 6 - dosimetric control in radiotherapy (A. Veres); 7 - calibration of irradiation measurement devices in industrial environment (A. Cadiou); 8 - calibration and verification of nuclear measurement devices (J.Y. Branthonne); 9 - calibration of measurement devices in medical environment (J.M. Bordy); 10 - quality control in radiotherapy (A. Batalla); 11 - in-vivo dosimetry in radiotherapy (A. Noel); 12 - calibration metrology of fixed post irradiation sensors (L. Laloubere); 13 - design requirements for the radiological zoning and the wastes cleanliness of Flamanville 3 EPR reactor (S. Moreau); 14 - efficiency of aerosol capture systems used in CNPE EDF (F. Gensdarmes); 15 - mobile surveillance means of the atmospheric contamination of CNPE EDF's reactor building (S. Marques and M. Lestang); 16 - experience feedback about the security gates at EDF's nuclear facilities (N. Valendru); 17 - metrology needs for radioprotection technical controls (P. Tranchant); 18 - technical evaluation of a flowmeter/dosemeter in the framework of the regulatory control of X-ray electric generators used in radio-diagnosis (P. Martel); 19 - reinforced natural radioactivity - the case of radon measurement (S. Bernhard); 20 - fires during radioactive materials transport (P. Chareyre); 21 - measurement in the framework of medical examinations: radiology service (A. Noel); 22 - operational measurements in nuclear medicine (I. Gardin); 23 - from the

  7. Los bienes de las parroquias altoaragonesas en el Museo de Lérida : de sentencias e intenciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Navarro Bometón

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En 1995, tras la reforma de los límites diocesanos entre las antiguas sedes episcopales de Lérida y Barbastro, se ponía en marcha un litigio canónico por la propiedad de los bienes artísticos procedentes de las parroquias altoaragonesas que, desde finales del siglo XIX, fueron trasladados al Museo del Seminario ilerdense, después Museo Diocesano. La Nunciatura Apostólica decretó en 1998 que las piezas estaban en Lérida a título de depósito y que la propiedad pertenecía a las parroquias que habían pasado a formar parte de la diócesis de Barbastro-Monzón. El litigio canónico se zanjó en 2007, pero actualmente las piezas protagonizan varias causas en los tribunales civiles, entre las que destacan las abiertas por dos ayuntamientos cuyas parroquias pertenecen, desde 1955, a la diócesis de Huesca. Algunos de los bienes en litigio tienen un notable valor artístico, pero es su valor como símbolo histórico y de identidad, como herencia del esfuerzo y de la devoción de unas comunidades rurales, lo que reclaman los aragoneses. Así mismo, las instituciones catalanas, abogan por la propiedad de unas piezas cuya conservación fue posible gracias a la labor del obispado de Lérida.In 1995 after the reform of the diocesan boundaries between the former Episcopal sees of Lérida and Barbastro a canonical dispute was initiated in order to establish the property of the artistic goods from the High Aragon, which at the end of the 19th century were moved to the Seminary Museum of Lerida, called afterwards Diocesan Museum. The Apostolic Nunciature decreed in 1998 that the pieces were in Lérida in storage and that they belonged to the parishes which had formed part of the diocese Barbastro- Monzón. The canonical dispute ended in 2007, but the pieces are involved presently in several civil court cases, among which are those opened by two councils whose parishes belong since 1955 to the Diocese of Huesca. Some of the historical and disputed

  8. Fast reactor development programme in France during 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Rigoleur, C.

    1996-01-01

    In 1995, the total amount of electricity produced in France was 471 TWh, out of which 358.2 TWh (76 %) were produced by nuclear power plants, 36.9 TWh (7.8 %) by conventional thermal plants, and 75.5 TWh (16 %) by hydraulic plants. The net electrical power consumption was 368.7 TWh. At the end of 1995, 'Electricite de France' had 54 PWR units in operation. The availability factor for these units was maintained at 81%. 1995 was marked by a decrease of unexpected shutdowns (1.8% in 1995 instead of 2.2% in 1994), a new reduction in programmed shutdown periods, and a good safety level was maintained. In the field of Fast Reactors, the main events of 1995 were the following. At the end of December 1994, the PHENIX reactor was authorized to perform its 49th cycle at 350 MW th (143 MWe). This 49th cycle was completed without any significant problems on April 7, 1995. During the remainder of the year, the reactor had been shut down in order to carry out several tasks within the scope of the ten-year extension of the PHENIX reactor's lifetime. Concerning the CREYS-MALVILLE plant (SUPER-PHENIX) the first part of the year was devoted to repairing argon leak of one of the IHX. Authorization to restart the reactor was given on August 22. The end of the year was beset by a number of minor incidents. The reactor was restarted at the end of 1995 and reactor power was increased by successive steps (30% Pn (Nominal Power) up to February 6 1996; followed by 50 %...). The 'Decret d'Autorisation de Creation' stipulates that because of its prototype character, SUPER PHENIX will have to be operated under conditions explicitly giving priority to safety and knowledge acquisition, with an objective of research and demonstration. In this context, the so-called 'knowledge acquisition' programme designed to prove the capacity of a large FBR to produce electricity on an industrial scale, to test the consumption of plutonium and minor actinides in a large fast reactor, as well as to provide

  9. Conflicto de alquileres y política de vivienda social en la década de 1920. El caso de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidalgo Dattwyler, Rodrigo

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Rent conflicts engendered in Chile in the mid-1920's had relevant impacts in the efforts of the Chilean state to resolve housing issues. The rental code of 1925 reduced by 50% the canons for renting and established housing courts. The expected results of these reforms were hindered by cunning arguments deployed by both property owners and tenants to take advantage of the benefits established by the law. In turn, the Law of Affordable Housing promulgated also in 1925 provided new incentives to construct affordable housing, issue that was not addressed correctly by the 1906 regulation that, however, prompted the demolition of several housing units in unhealthy condition. These initiatives achieved limited results regarding construction of new affordable units, but had significant impacts in consolidating a public institutional arrangement to address housing issues.

    [es] Los conflictos de alquileres generados en Chile hacia la década de 1920 tuvieron importantes repercusiones en las actuaciones que realizó el Estado Chileno en esos años, para resolver el problema de la vivienda popular. La Ley de Alquileres de 1925 decretó la rebaja de un cincuenta por ciento de los cánones de arrendamiento e instauró los Tribunales de la Vivienda. Sus resultados se vieron limitados por las argucias, que tanto los propietarios como los inquilinos, utilizaron para sacar provecho de las franquicias de la ley. Por su parte hacia 1925, se promulgó también la Ley de Habitaciones Baratas, que trató de dar un nuevo impulso a la edificación de casas económicas, actividad que no había logrado ser abordada correctamente por la normativa de 1906 que, sin embargo, dio a lugar a numerosas demoliciones de viviendas insalubres. Los resultados alcanzados por dichas iniciativas, fueron limitados respecto de la construcción de nuevas residencias para obreros, pero contribuyeron a la consolidación de una institucionalidad estatal en torno al problema habitacional

  10. Hydro-mechanical improvement of the cap cover of a surface landfill for low and intermediate level radioactive waste short life time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verstaevel, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    This study related to the Manche storage center (CSM), one of the first landfill in the world dedicated to low and intermediate radioactive waste short-live time. The researches considered in this thesis supported by industrial companies, focus on the hydraulic study of cap cover materials of the site, and their hydro-mechanical improvement. The aim is to improve their impermeability in order to be substituted to the geo-membrane as cap cover liner. A specification imposed by Andra was to consider a solution of the re-use of the in situ material by adding of additive. The initial material is a sandy silt, a material with a significant proportion of fines. In the literature there are many studies on the mechanical improvement of fine materials (applications to road infrastructure) and the treatment of sandy materials by adding a fine fraction (constitution of waterproof barriers). On the other hand there are very few studies on the impermeability improvement of fine soils. A physical tests campaign on treated materials with bentonite was carried out at various treatment rates. The results showed that the addition of additive induces a decrease in optimum dry unit weight for a normal Proctor compaction energy and increases their optimum water content. In addition, the susceptibility to erosion, internal or external, observed during oedo-permeameter test was assessed from various stability criteria available in the literature. Unlike the treatment of soil for road embankments, the increase of the material stiffness is not wanted and flexibility is preferred what is observed with the treatment tested. The comparative hydraulic conductivity of the untreated and treated materials were measured. In this study different devices (oedo-permeameter, permeameters, triaxial device) were used. The influence of the treatment rate of the material on the decrease of the hydraulic conductivity was observed. Four large scale experimentations were designed; they should be monitored

  11. Safety - thanks to the freedom to decide; Sicherheit durch Entscheidungsfreiheit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandes, B. [Brandes GmbH, Eutin (Germany)

    1994-12-01

    The pipe manufacturers who are grouped together in the EuHP have reached agreement on offering bare copper wire as `their` compatible standard sensor. This is not a new decision: This always was the case, and was always sold as such if the customer did not express any particular wishes of their own in this respect when placing the order. The inspiration for this action is, rather, concern with some monitoring systems. These have become the subject of gossip over the past few years, and we too view this development with concern. Only the `Nordic system` and the resistance comparison measuring system process are unaffected by this. Against this background, attempts are also being made to have copper declared as the sole standard. This decision is in fact only a logical defence of interests, because compatibility between not only the pipe manufacturers but also between the laying processes is only available with the resistance wire - and that has always been the case. It is important not to treat the topic as an `article of faith`, but in such a way that the way is open to solutions which really are acceptable to all parties. (orig./KO) [Deutsch] Die im EuHP zusammengefassten Rohrhersteller haben sich nun darauf verstaendigt, kuenftig zwei Kupferadern als `ihren` Standardsensor anzubieten. Das ist keine neue Entscheidung, denn das war schon immer so und wurde immer dann verkauft, wenn der Kunde keine feste eigene Meinung in die Auftragsvergabe einbrachte. Neu ist, dass man kuenftig `keine stoerenden Komponenten` in den Rohren mehr will und dass man das `Kupfersystem` offensiv nach aussen traegt. Mit diesem Hintergrund ist es verstaendlich, dass manche bei dieser Gelegenheit gleich den Sensor, der ihnen als Rohrhersteller am angenehmsten ist, zum Standard erklaeren moechten. Dieser Beschluss ist konsequente Interessenwahrnehmung. Denn: Wirkliche Kompatibilitaet nicht nur zwischen den Verlegeverfahren, gibt es mit dem Widerstandsdraht schon seit ueber 20 Jahren. Ob der

  12. Territorial integration of the geological repository in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farin, S.; Ouzounian, G.; Miguez, R.; Tison, J.-L.

    2011-01-01

    In France, a framework has been drawn up by the National Assembly and implemented by the government, in order to get the best relationship between Andra, among others, and the stakeholders and the inhabitants of the towns and countries where disposal facilities or projects are or could be established. The main threads of the two Acts passed in 2006, being relevant to the relationship with inhabitants are the information exchange and the local economic development. Dealing with the information exchange and diffusion: The Local Information Committee (CLI), for each nuclear facility, has been reinforced and a specific, Local Information and Oversight Committee (for the Underground Laboratory in Meuse-Haute-Marne) has been renewed. The CLI was in charge of a general assignment to inform and consult on nuclear safety, radioprotection and environmental topics. Now, since 2006, the nuclear facility's CLI and the CLIS are able to order study reports, measures and analyses to experts freely selected. Creation of the High Committee for Transparency and Information on Nuclear Safety (HCTISN). This new authority aims to inform, consult and debate about the risks relevant to nuclear activities and their impacts on people's health, environment and nuclear safety. Andra contributes to the functioning of CLI in disposal facilities at Manche and Aube Departments, and CLIS of the underground Laboratory at Meuse and Haute-Marne departments. This paper will present these contributions and how Andra's action helps to reach the goals of information and exchange with the people around its facilities. Concerning the local economic development, there are specific organizations or schemes, depending on the facility: Local taxes contributions based on the disposal facilities activities as is usual in France. A High Level Committee (CHN) and two public interest groups (GIP) in Meuse and Haute-Marne departments have been set up since 1991 and 2005. Andra is represented in these three

  13. An experimental study on dredge spoil of estuarine sediments in the bay of seine (France): A morphosedimentary assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmin, Stella; Lesueur, Patrick; Dauvin, Jean Claude; Samson, Sandrine; Tournier, Patrice; Gallicher Lavanne, Albert; Dubrulle-Brunaud, Carole; Thouroude, Coralie

    2016-03-01

    Studies on the consequences of dredging on estuarine morphology and its sedimentary dynamics are common, but the impacts of dumping dredge spoil in coastal open settings are rarely found in scientific literature. An experimental study was conducted over the period 2012-2013 to monitor the physical impacts of dredged material dumped at two adjacent sites (one million cubic metres at each) on the inner shelf of the Bay of Seine in France (eastern part of the English Channel, La Manche). As recently reinforced in the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), knowledge on the location and intensity of human impacts (e.g. on marine ecosystems) is critical for effective marine management and conservation. So, two methods of disposition were tested to evaluate the impacts of dumping on the environment and thus propose recommendations for future dumping. The strategy is based on a Before-After-Control-Impact (BACI) approach, in which the spatio-temporal variability was studied by analysing the morphological and sedimentological characteristics over a period of 28 months, from November 2011 to April 2014, also including recovery of the seafloor after cessation of the dumping activities. The first experimental dumping operation (MASED) was carried out regularly for 8 months at a single point and generating a conical deposit of 5 m in height, while the second dumping (MABIO) lasted for 12 months involving four steps in the dumping process. In the second case, a wider area was covered, leading to the formation of a smaller deposit of 2 m in height. The dumped deposits consisted of muddy fine sand, whereas the inner shelf seafloor in this area is covered with fine to medium sand. As a result, muddy fine sand accumulated at or near the two dumping sites, with a maximum mud (i.e. particles4 Φ) content of 50% compared todredged material remained at the end of the dumping periods. After dumping ceased, a further 5% of material for MABIO and 20% for MASED, was transported out

  14. Radioactive wastes. Safety of storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devillers, Ch.

    2001-01-01

    A radioactive waste storage facility is designed in a way that ensures the isolation of wastes with respect to the biosphere. This function comprises the damping of the gamma and neutron radiations from the wastes, and the confinement of the radionuclides content of the wastes. The safety approach is based on two time scales: the safety of the insulation system during the main phase of radioactive decay, and the assessment of the radiological risks following this phase. The safety of a surface storage facility is based on a three-barrier concept (container, storage structures, site). The confidence in the safety of the facility is based on the quality assurance of the barriers and on their surveillance and maintenance. The safety of a deep repository will be based on the site quality, on the design and construction of structures and on the quality of the safety demonstration. This article deals with the safety approach and principles of storage facilities: 1 - recall of the different types of storage facilities; 2 - different phases of the life of a storage facility and regulatory steps; 3 - safety and radiation protection goals (time scales, radiation protection goals); 4 - safety approach and principles of storage facilities: safety of the isolation system (confinement system, safety analysis, scenarios, radiological consequences, safety principles), assessment of the radiation risks after the main phase of decay; 5 - safety of surface storage facilities: safety analysis of the confinement system of the Aube plant (barriers, scenarios, modeling, efficiency), evaluation of radiological risks after the main phase of decay; experience feedback of the Manche plant; variants of surface storage facilities in France and abroad (very low activity wastes, mine wastes, short living wastes with low and average activity); 6 - safety of deep geological disposal facilities: legal framework of the French research; international context; safety analysis of the confinement system

  15. Andra - Everything you ever wanted to know about radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-08-01

    Andra is a publicly owned industrial and commercial body, set up by the French act of 30 December 1991. Its role was expanded by the 2006 Planning Act on the long-term management of radioactive materials and waste. Andra is independent of the producers of radioactive waste, and is under the supervision of the ministries responsible for energy, research and the environment. Andra is responsible for identifying, implementing and guaranteeing safe management solutions for all French radioactive waste, in order to protect present and future generations from the risks inherent in such substances. Andra's role involves a number of activities: running the two existing above-ground disposal facilities in the Aube, the first one for low- and intermediate- level, short-lived waste (LILW-SL) and the other one for very-low-level waste (VLLW), the Cires facility; monitoring the Manche disposal facility, the CSM, France's first above-ground disposal facility for low- and intermediate-level waste, which is now closed; studying and designing disposal facilities for waste as yet without a special facility, that is: Low-level, long-lived waste (LLW-LL), High-level and intermediate-level long-lived waste (HLW, ILW-LL) - the Cigeo project; taking in radioactive waste from hospitals, research laboratories, universities and radioactive objects owned by private individuals (old luminous clocks and watches, health care equipment containing radium, natural laboratory salts, certain minerals, etc.); at the request of the owner or the authorities, cleaning up sites polluted by radioactivity; surveying and listing French radioactive waste and issuing the National Inventory of Radioactive Materials and Waste every three years; informing all members of the public by means of documents, exhibitions, visits to its facilities, etc.; preserving the memory of its centers; promoting and disseminating its know-how outside France. Contents: 1 - Andra, its role, its activities, its funding; 2

  16. Present situation and issues for the French radioactive waste management agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuis, M.C.

    2009-01-01

    This series of slides makes a status of the radioactive waste management in France: 1 - Planned disposal facilities: A - Low level long lived waste (LL-LL: Graphite Waste And Radium Bearing Waste): Implementation within a shallow clay formation (between 15 and 200 m in depth). For graphite waste: a 'repository with an intact cover' as a reference option. For radium-bearing waste: a 'repository with a reworked cover' under investigation. The required footprint on ground surface is in the order of 100 ha. Siting approach: June 2, 2008: letter from the Minister of State to the Chairman of ANDRA; June 2008: file addressed by ANDRA to the mayors of 3,115 communes. Until the end of October 2008: expression of interest by local communities. Possibility to confirm their application in late 2010. December 2008: assessment report by ANDRA and proposal of ranked zones to the government. Beginning of 2009: government decision concerning the pre-selection still pending. 2009-2010: geological surveys, consultations, territorial projects. B - High level and Intermediate level long lived waste (HL and IL-LL): Preparing disposal in a clay formation. 2012: public debate, 2013: site selection, 2015: application, 2025: start up. The Meuse Haute Marne Underground Research Laboratory Siting: the disposal facility (drilling campaigns), Construction of a Visitors' Centre designed to present the waste-repository project and its technological aspect. Inauguration scheduled in June 2009. 2 - Operated disposal facilities: A - Low and intermediate level short lived waste (LIL-SL) and Very low level waste (VLL). LIL-SL Manche Centre: 1969: start up, 1994: end of operation, 2003: institutional control period, Disposed volume (1969-1994): 527,000 m 3 , Impact of the facility ∼0,65 μSv/year (2008). Institutional control period monitoring: Radiological and chemical monitoring (Discharges, Underground water, Surface water), Capping system monitoring (Water-tightness performances, Rainfall water

  17. Le développement durable du tourisme dans les territoires insulaires français et la valorisation touristique des espaces naturels littoraux métropolitains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadège Lombard

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Cet article aborde la question du développement touristique dans les territoires insulaires, et propose un éclairage plus particulier sur la valorisation touristique des espaces naturels. Il présente, tout d’abord, les enjeux du développement durable du tourisme dans les territoires insulaires français. En fonction de la taille des îles, de leur accessibilité, de l’importance de leur fréquentation touristique on peut distinguer différents types d’îles.  Le défi pour chaque  île réside dans la mise en oeuvre d’un projet en étroite adéquation avec ses propres ressources et les spécificités de son territoire pour assurer un développement durable du tourisme. L’article illustre ensuite l’exemple de la valorisation touristique des espaces naturels, l’ambivalence du rapport entre le tourisme et ces espaces. Il s’attache à montrer en quoi le tourisme qui peut être parfois à l’origine de la  dégradation des espaces naturels peut être source de retombées positives pour l’environnement dès lors que les acteurs du territoire sont en situation de gérer leur développement. L’article s’achève sur un essai d’élaboration de grille d’évaluation des retombées économiques liées à la valorisation touristique des espaces naturels, appliqué à l’exemple du site naturel de la Pointe d’Agon, situé au nord du Mont Saint Michel, dans le département de la Manche.This article tackles with the issue of tourism in islands and focuses on tourist development of natural sites. First it highlights the issue of sustainable tourism for French islands. Several types of islands can be characterized, according to size, accessibility, tourist-going... To guarantee a sustainable development, the challenge is to lead a project based on the characteristics of the island and its own ressources.Then, this article enlarges on the paradox between tourism and conservation. Tourism can damage the environment but, when it

  18. Pulmonary manifestations in collagen vascular diseases; Pulmonale Manifestationen bei Kollagenosen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, M.N.A. [Thoraxklinik, Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Abteilung fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie mit Nuklearmedizin, Heidelberg (Germany); Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Translational Lung Research Center (TLRC), Heidelberg (Germany); Kreuter, M. [Thoraxklinik, Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Zentrum fuer interstitielle und seltene Lungenerkrankungen, Pneumologie und Beatmungsmedizin, Heidelberg (Germany); Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Translational Lung Research Center (TLRC), Heidelberg (Germany); Kauczor, H.U. [Radiologische Klinik, Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Abteilung fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany); Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Translational Lung Research Center (TLRC), Heidelberg (Germany); Heussel, C.P. [Thoraxklinik, Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Abteilung fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie mit Nuklearmedizin, Heidelberg (Germany); Radiologische Klinik, Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Abteilung fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany); Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Translational Lung Research Center (TLRC), Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    gewoehnlichen interstitiellen Pneumonie (UIP) als direkte Lungenmanifestation einer rheumatoiden Arthritis mit einer Sensitivitaet von 45 % und einer Spezifitaet von 96 % identifiziert werden. Sowohl die direkte Lungenmanifestation als auch die Medikamententoxizitaet sowie manche Infektionen koennen bei verschiedenen Kollagenosen auf der Duennschicht-MDCT ein aehnliches Bild abgeben. Die Kenntnis von Mustern und Ursachen traegt zur diagnostischen Sicherheit bei. Bei Erstdiagnose einer Erkrankung aus dem rheumatischen Formenkreis und pulmonalen Symptomen empfiehlt sich eine Duennschicht-MDCT. Zusaetzlich wird je nach CT-Befund alle 6 bis 12 Monate eine klinische, lungenfunktionelle und bildgebende Verlaufskontrolle empfohlen. In jedem Fall muessen die einzelnen CT-morphologischen Muster der Lungenbeteiligung identifiziert werden. Die Kombination von Informationen zur Anamnese, zu klinischen Befunden und Bildgebung ist Voraussetzung fuer ein adaequates Krankheitsmanagement. (orig.)

  19. Don Quichotte, un don quichotte ? Déprogrammation d’un stéréotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Cuenca-Godbert

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available En réaction à la publication de la suite apocryphe de Don Quichotte de la Manche, Cervantès utilise dans sa seconde partie les ressorts narratifs de la stéréotypie littéraire pour montrer à quel point son personnage diffère de ce qu'en a fait Alonso Fernández de Avellaneda, continuateur peu respectueux de sa personne et de son personnage. Le refus de voir en don Quichotte un simple stéréotype du chevalier errant chimérique est particulièrement manifeste dans la série d'aventures se déroulant au château des ducs, où don Quichotte, par sa renommée littéraire littéralement reconnue, est traité en chevalier par des personnages manipulateurs de situations, qui visent à produire chez lui des réactions programmées pour s’en amuser. Il apparaît alors que le simple agrégat d'ingrédients propres au stéréotype littéraire chevaleresque finit par ne pas produire l'issue escomptée.En la Segunda parte del Quijote, Cervantes reacciona ante la publicación de la de Alonso Fernández de Avellaneda, continuador poco respetuoso con la persona del autor primigenio y su personaje. Recurriendo a los procedimientos narrativos de la estereotipia literaria deja bien claro qué diferente resulta ser el personaje original respecto al del continuador. La negativa de ver a don Quijote como un mero estereotipo del caballero andante loco se pone particularmente de manifiesto en la serie de aventuras que transcurren en el palacio de los duques. Allí, los personajes reconocen literalmente la fama literaria de don Quijote. Generan, desde situaciones ficticias, tipos de tratamiento que se dispensarían a un verdadero caballero andante. Como resultado, se desencadena una serie de reacciones programadas con las que pretenden divertirse. Sin embargo, queda claro que la mera acumulación de ingredientes propios del estereotipo literario caballeresco no produce el resultado esperado.

  20. Vaterschaft nach der Scheidung – Die Perspektive der Väter Fatherhood After Divorce—The Fathers’ Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Matzner

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Während man in Deutschland die Situation von allein erziehenden Müttern gut erforscht hat, wandte man sich den von ihren Kindern getrennt lebenden Vätern nur äußerst selten zu. Dies ist mehr als erstaunlich, wenn man sich die in die Millionen gehende Zahl betroffener Väter und Kinder vor Augen führt. Allein im Jahr 2000 wurden 95.000 Ehepaare mit minderjährigen Kindern (146.000 geschieden. Bei Gerhard Amendts empirischer Studie handelt es sich um die erste deutschsprachige, als Buch erschienene wissenschaftliche Veröffentlichung zum Thema „Scheidungsväter“. Amendt beantwortet aus der Perspektive der Väter folgende Fragen: Wie sprechen Väter über ihre Scheidung und wie gehen sie mit den Scheidungsfolgen um? Wie verbringen sie die Zeit mit ihren Kindern? Warum brechen manche von ihnen den Kontakt zu den Kindern ab? Der neue Zugang zum Thema Scheidung bzw. Trennung über die Person des Vaters war längst überfällig und bringt neue Perspektiven und Erkenntnisse in die wissenschaftliche Debatte.While the situation of single mothers has been duly researched in Germany, very rarely has attention been given to fathers who live separated from their children. This is truly remarkable when one surveys the number, rising into the millions, of fathers and children affected. In the year 2000 alone, 95,000 married couples with dependant children (146,000 divorced. Gerhard Amendt’s empirical study can be seen as the first German-language, book length, scientific publication on “divorced fathers.” Arendt answers the following questions from the perspective of the fathers: How do fathers talk about divorce and how do they deal with the consequences of divorce? How do they spend time with their children? Why do some of them cut off contact to their children? This new access to the issues of divorce or separation with regard to the father was long overdue and brings new perspectives and realizations to the scientific debate.

  1. Derivation of Waste Acceptance Criteria for Low and Intermediate Level Waste in Surface Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagner, L.; Voinis, S.

    2000-01-01

    In France, low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes are disposed in a near-surface facility, at Centre de l'Aube disposal facility. This facility, which was commissioned in 1992, has a disposal capacity of one million cubic meters, and will be operated up to about 2050. It took over the job from Centre de la Manche, which was commissioned in 1969 and shut down in 1994, after having received about 520,000 cubic meters of wastes. The Centre de l'Aube disposal facility is designed to receive a many types of waste produced by nuclear power plants, reprocessing, decommissioning, as well as by the industry, hospitals and armed forces. The limitation of radioactive transfer to man and the limitation of personnel exposure in all situations considered plausible require limiting the total activity of the waste disposed in the facility as well as the activity of each package. The paper presents how ANDRA has derived the activity-related acceptance criteria, based on the safety analysis. In the French methodology, activity is considered as end-point for deriving the concentration limits per package, whereas it is the starting point for deriving the total activity limits. For the concentration limits (called here LMA) the approach consists of five steps: the determination of radionuclides important for safety with regards to operational and long-term safety, the use of relevant safety scenarios as a tool to derive quantitative limits, the setting of dose constraint per situation associated with scenarios, the setting of contribution factor per radionuclide, and the calculation of concentration activity limits. An exhaustive survey has been performed and has shown that the totality of waste packages which should be delivered by waste generators are acceptable in terms of activity limits in the Centre de l'Aube. Examples of concentration activity limits derived from this methodology are presented. Furthermore those limits have been accepted by the French regulatory body and

  2. Experimental investigations on inlet flow of ducted turbines. A contribution to turbine intake optimization; Experimentelle Untersuchungen zur Anstroemung von Rohrturbinen. Ein Beitrag zur Optimierung des Turbineneinlaufes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godde, D. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Obernach (Germany). Versuchsanstalt fuer Wasserbau und Wasserwirtschaft (Oskar-von-Miller-Institut)

    1994-12-31

    erfuellen, die in allgemeiner Form auch in zahlreichen Veroeffentlichungen formuliert sind. Im Rahmen der vorliegenden Arbeit konzentrieren sich die neuen Untersuchungen auf diesem Gebiet - an einem Modell und an einem Versuchskraftwerk - auf den Trennpfeiler, den Rechen und die anschliessende Verziehung im Einlaufbereich von Rohrturbinen. Die Untersuchungsergebnisse klaeren nun einige Zusammenhaenge, widersprechen teilweise bisherigen Annahmen oder bestaetigen sie und relativieren manche der Anforderungen. Die Ergebnisse sind zwar unter Beachtung der modelleigenen Restriktionen und der Charakteristik der verwendeten Turbine zu werten, besitzen jedoch auf Grund des Untersuchungsumfangs bis zu einem gewissen Grad Allgemeingueltigkeit. (AKF)

  3. Revisión crítico-comparada de las principales teorías científico sociales sobre la delincuencia femenina (Vergleichend kritische Überarbeitung der wichtigsten wissenschaftlichen und sozialen Theorien über die Fraunkriminalität

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudrun Stenglein

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Wenn man von Verbrechen spricht, scheint man mit einem reinen männlichen Phänomen konfrontiert zu sein. Die wissenschaftlichen Arbeiten über Kriminalität beschäftigen sich normalerweise mit dem Verhalten männlicher Krimineller. Die Frauen werden nur als passive Subjekte, meist als Opfer dargestellt. Die Frauenkriminalitätsproblematik wird aber immer gewichtiger, die Anzahl der Delikte, die durch Frauen begangen werden, und der Frauen als Strafgefangene wächst. Aber in der akademischen Welt wird diese Problematik nach wie vor als nicht wichtig dargestellt, sie spielt eine wesentlich kleinere Rolle. Das Phänomen der Frauenkriminalität wird bis zum heutigen Tage mit dem biologischen Unterschied, mit der Form des Seins der Frau erklärt. Die Vorstellungswelt der Frau beschäftigt sich nur mit der Suche nach einem adäquaten Parter und mit der Rolle als Mutter und Ehefrau, die sich um ihre Familie kümmert. Jahrhundertelang war dieses Thema auf die Verhaltensweisen in Verbindung mit der sozialen Reputation beschränkt. Mit diesem Artikel wird eine Einleitung in die verschiedenen biologischen und sozialen Erklärungsansätze dieses Phänomens unter dem besonderen funktionalistischen Blickwinkel der Rollentheorie und der Theorie der sozialen Kontrolle gegeben. Ein anderer Ansatzpunkt ist die Etikettierungsthorie, Labeling Approach. Einige Erklärungsansätze, wie die Sozialisierung der Frau, haben nach wie vor Gültigkeit, vor allem, weil es sich bei dem Problem der Frauenkriminalität um ein multidisziplinäres Thema handelt. Die individuellen und sozialen Faktoren müssen miteinander verbunden werden. Die Gesellschaft macht aus den Personen, was sie sind, zumindest potenziert sie die individuellen Bedingungen. Einige Erklärungen wurden mit der Zeit relativiert. Manche können mitlerweile für veraltet gehalten werden, andere sind in ihren Ansichtsweisen teilweise zu beschränkt, so dass sie heutzutage als befremdlich oder

  4. Gerard Larguier, Artist, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larguier, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    Since 1994, the French National Agency for Radioactive Waste Management (Andra) has been pursuing a study of collective memory, based on its experience with the Manche disposal facility. In 2010 - in response to the project Centre industriel de stockage geologique (Cigeo), its concomitant need to preserve collective memory of the site for at least 500 years, and public demand - Andra launched an initiative to ensure that future generations do not forget about the existence of radioactive waste disposal facilities. Pursuing its investigations in this area, Andra has led theoretical enquiries that consider art as a possible vehicle of collective memory. Memory is often found between parentheses that do not overload the spirit but enclose it in rules that facilitate forgetting... which is a vanity of the present moment. The past must always have the role of providing future ferment. And then the transfer occurs that can open up to history. Born in 1938, Gerard Larguier began working in 1956 with the renowned poster artist Paul Colin of Nancy before going on to study at the Beaux-Arts in Paris and Academie Julian. He has worked at his studio in the Bateau Lavoir in Paris since 1979 as well as Bonnet's former presbytery in the Meuse since 1973. Using both materials and relief, he has exhibited his artwork at leading institutions around the world. Since 1998, he has taken up the theme of memory in his works 'Chronique du XXeme siecle', 'Autodafes et palimpsestes' and his series 'A saute-souvenances'. He has also tackled the evolution of artwork over the centuries in a series of fifty works entitled 'Les chefs-d'oeuvre revisites'. In 2008, Gerard Larguier completed a fresco commissioned by Andra on the local heritage and environment of the Bure Laboratory. In 2010, the municipality of Soulaines d'Huys commissioned a fresco of the history of the town from the sixteenth century to the present using the archives of

  5. The North Cotentin radioecology group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miserey, Y.; Pellegrini, P.

    2007-01-01

    On January 11., 97, the epidemiologist Jean-Francois Viel publishes a study on the risks of leukaemia of the children in the canton of Beaumont-Hague (Manche), situated near the site of the reprocessing plant of spent fuel of Cogema. Advancing the hypothesis of a link between the exposure to radioactive waste and the appearance of case of the disease in the region, the study creates at once the scandal within the scientific community and within the general public. Worrying about the affair, Ministers in charge of environment and health decide to create a first scientific commission in which participates Jean-Francois Viel. But the tensions are so important within this association that at the end of six months its president decides to resign. It is at this moment there of the story of this debate that the evidence was imperative: it was necessary to innovate by putting around the table experts of any origin to estimate the risks of leukaemia which can result from exposures of the populations of the North Cotentin to ionizing radiations. Placed under Annie Sugier presidency, then manager of the protection in the I.P.S.N. (Institute of protection and nuclear safety), the pluralistic group, called 'North Cotentin radioecology group' ( G.R.N.C.), who collected 50 experts, represents an innovative way of entering in the evaluation and the management of the risks and in the acceptability of the uncertainty. The originality of the G.R.N.C. lies in a critical step as exhaustive as possible which allows to end in the production of shared knowledge. The direction the economic studies and the environmental evaluation of the Ministry of ecology and sustainable development considered important to make the story of the G.R.N.C. better known. To bring to a successful conclusion this project of edition, a work group was set up by the service of Research) and the forward-looking and the drafting of the work was entrusted to a journalist, Yves Miserey and to an ethnologist, Patricia

  6. France country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouillot, Dominique [Onet Technologies, 36, Bd des Oceans 13009 Marseille (France)

    2008-07-01

    Nuclear in France - Electricity share: 78%. Electricity production by Electricite de France: 419 TWh, 63,260 GWe installed. Number of Reactors: 58 NPPs type PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) in operation; One under construction: EPR (European Pressurized Reactor) Flamanville 3, on time. Others nuclear installations: The AREVA NC La Hague fuel treatment and recycling plant - Capacity: 1700 tons (Facilities UP2 and UP3). COMURHEX is number one worldwide in the conversion of uranium mine concentrates into UF{sub 6} and has a processing capacity of 14,000 tonnes of uranium per year. EURODIF Production site, with the construction of the Georges Besse II plant, Centrifugation is the highest performance technology today. Others nuclear installations: MELOX production site - Mox fuel production; FBFC:fuel rods manufacturing; Waste Storage in Surface and Subsurface: The Aube department storage center in Soulaines, which houses short-lived low- to medium-level waste; the VLL storage centre in Morvilliers (Aube), which houses very low-level waste. Public acceptance: An opinion poll published in June 2007, commissioned by the OE (Observatoire de l'Energie) shows that a majority of French people support nuclear. The respondents were asked whether nuclear energy, which produces 78% of total electricity, is an asset: 51% of them backed the idea, 39% a disadvantage, 10% did not have an opinion. Energy policy: The new President Nicolas Sarkozy said that Nuclear energy is necessary for France. (Organisation of so called 'Grenelle of environment'). Projects: EPR Flamanville 3: Due to be commissioned in 2012, Commercial FBR (Fast Breeders reactor) in 2040, EURODIF will ended in 2012 and Georges Besse 2 (centrifugation) should be operational in 2012, Decommissioning of 6 UNGG reactors, Superphenix and Brennillis within 25 years. (estimated at 3 billion Euros). Nuclear waste management policy: The French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA) is responsible

  7. EPR meets the next generation PWR safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouteille, Francois; Czech, Juergen; Sloan, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    At the origin was the common decision in 1989 of Framatome and Siemens to cooperate to design a Nuclear Island which meets the future needs of utilities. EDF and a group of main German Utilities joined this effort in 1991 and from that point were completely involved in the progress of the work. Compliance of the EPR with the European Utility Requirements (EUR) was verified to ensure a large acceptability of the design by other participating utilities. In addition, the entire process was backed up to the end of 1998 by the French and the German Safety Authorities which engaged into a long-lasting cooperation to define common requirements applicable to future Nuclear Power Plants. Upon signature of the Olkiluoto 3 contract, STUK, the Finnish safety and radiation authority, began reviewing the design of the EPR. Upon the favorable recommendation of STUK, the Finnish government delivered a Construction License for the Olkiluoto 3 NPP on February 17, 2005. Following the positive conclusion of the political debate in France with regard to nuclear energy, EDF will also submit a request to start the construction of an EPR on the Flamanville site. In the US, the first steps in view of a Design Certification by the NRC have been taken. These three independent decisions make the EPR the leading first generation 3+ design under construction. Important safety functions are assured by separate systems in a straightforward operating mode. Four separate, redundant trains for all safety systems are installed in four separate layout division for which a strict separation is ensured so that common mode failure, for example due to internal hazards, can be ruled out. A reduction in common mode failure potential is also obtained by design rules ensuring the systematic application of functional diversity. A four train-redundancy for the major safety systems provides flexibility in adapting the design to maintenance requirements, thus contributing to reduce the outage duration. Additional

  8. EPR becomes reality at Finland's Olkiluoto 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueldner, R.; Giese, U.

    2005-01-01

    The EPR is a third-generation pressurized water reactor (PWR). Its development was started in 1992 by Framatome and Siemens within a Franco-German partnership. Since 2001 this work has been continued by Framatome ANP, which was formed when the two companies merged their nuclear businesses. The French company AREVA, world market leader in nuclear technology, holds a 66% share in Framatome ANP, with Siemens owning 34%. From the very start, development of the EPR was focused on improving plant safety and economics even further. The new reactor development was jointly financed together with the leading power utilities of both countries. The first steps towards realization of an EPR nuclear power plant were taken at Olkiluoto, Finland in 2004, consisting of initial preparation of the construction site. By mid-February 2005 the local municipality - Eurajoki - had issued a construction permit, and the Finnish Government a construction license pursuant to the Finnish Nuclear Energy Act. This had been preceded by a preliminary safety assessment prepared by the Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) for the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry in which STUK verified that it did not see any safety-related issues opposing issuance of the nuclear construction license. STUK emphasized that the evolutionary design of the EPR had been further improved by AREVA compared to the previous product lines. Concreting work began this spring and the unit will start commercial operation in 2009. Construction of an EPR has also been given the political go-ahead in France. According to the utility Electricite de France (EDF) the new reactor will be built as a forerunner of a later series at the site of Flamanville in Normandy. Construction is scheduled to begin in 2007. An EPR nuclear power plant has a rated electric capacity of around 1600 MW, depending on specific site conditions. Being the product of intense bilateral cooperation the EPR combines the technological

  9. Optimisation of radiation protection for the new european pressurized water reactor (EPR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miniere, D.; Beneteau, Y.; Le Guen, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    Full text: As part of the EPR (European Pressurized Reactor) project being deployed at Flamanville, EDF has pro actively made the decision to focus on radiation protection (RP) aspects right from the start of the design phase, as it has done with nuclear safety. The approach adopted for managing RP-significant activities has been to include all involved stake holders -designers, licensee and contractor companies- in the three successive phases, starting with a survey among workers and designers, followed by a proposal review, and finally ending with the decision-making phase entrusted to an ALARA committee. The RP target set by EDF for this new reactor is to engage in an effort of continuous improvement and optimisation, through benchmarking with the best performing plants of the fleet. The collective dose target is currently set at 0.35 man.Sv/year per unit. In addition to other aspects, efforts will focus on shortening the duration of the highest-dose jobs, with a new challenge being set for work performed in the reactor building during normal operations, the aim being to improve plant availability. The plan is for work to be performed 7 days prior to shutting down the reactor and 3 days afterwards, in order to make logistical arrangements for forthcoming jobs. Without this reduction, the estimated drop is currently 4.5% of annual dose. For this purpose, two areas have been set up in the EPR 's reactor building: one no-go area for containing leaks from the primary circuit, and one accessible area for normal operations, separated from the no-go area by purpose-built ventilation equipment and facilities. To offer protection against radioactive flux (neutrons and high energy), RP studies have resulted in the installation of a concrete floor and of nuclear shielding at the outlets of primary circuit pipes. Steam generator bunkers and pumps have also been reinforced. All these measures will ensure that the accessible area can be posted as a green area (dose rate < 25

  10. Radiation protection issues for EPR reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miniere, D.; Le Guen, B.; Beneteau, Y.; Le Guen, B.

    2008-01-01

    As part of the EPR (European Pressurized Reactor) project being deployed at Flamanville, EDF has pro actively made the decision to focus on radiation protection Radiation Protection aspects right from the start of the design phase, as it has done with nuclear safety. The approach adopted for managing Radiation Protection-significant activities has been to include all involved stakeholders - designers, licensee and contractor companies - in the three successive phases, starting with a survey among workers and designers, followed by a proposal review, and finally ending with the decision-making phase entrusted to an ALARA committee. The Radiation Protection target set by EDF for this new reactor is to engage in an effort of continuous improvement and optimisation, through benchmarking with the best performing plants of the fleet. The collective dose target is currently set at 0.35 Man Sv/year per unit. In addition to other aspects, efforts will focus on shortening the duration of the highest-dose jobs, with a new challenge being set for work performed in the reactor building during normal operations, the aim being to improve plant availability. The plan is for work to be performed 7 days prior to shutting down the reactor and 3 days afterwards, in order to make logistical arrangements for forthcoming jobs. Without this reduction, the estimated drop is currently 4.5% of annual dose. For this purpose, two areas have been set up in the E.P.R.'s reactor building: one no-go area for containing leaks from the primary circuit, and one accessible area for normal operations, separated from the no-go area by purpose-built ventilation equipment and facilities. To offer protection against radioactive flux (neutrons and high energy), Radiation Protection studies have resulted in the installation of a concrete floor and of nuclear shielding at the outlets of primary circuit pipes. Steam generator bunkers and pumps have also been reinforced. All these measures will ensure that the

  11. Backlog at December 31, 2007: euro 39,8 billion, up by 55% from year-end 2006. 2007 sales revenue: euro 11.9 billion, up by 9.8% (+10.4% like-for-like)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The AREVA group's backlog reached a record level of euro 39.834 billion as of December 31, 2007, up by 55% from that of year-end 2006. In Nuclear, the backlog was euro 34.927 billion at year-end 2007 (+58%), due in particular to the signature of a contract in a record amount with the Chinese utility CGNPC. The series of agreements concluded provide among other things for the construction of two new-generation EPR nuclear islands and the supply of all of the materials and services needed for their operation through 2027. CGNPC also bought 35% of the production of UraMin, the mining company acquired by AREVA in August 2007. Industrial cooperation in the Back End of the cycle was launched with the signature of an agreement between China and France. In addition, the group signed several long-term contracts in significant amounts, particularly with KHNP of South Korea, EDF and Japanese utilities. The Transmission and Distribution division won several major contracts in Libya and Qatar at the end of the year approaching a total of euro 750 million. For the entire year, new orders grew by 34% to euro 5.816 billion. The backlog, meanwhile, grew by 40% to euro 4.906 billion at year-end. The group cleared sales revenue of euro 11.923 billion in 2007, up by 9.8% (+10.4% like-for-like) in relation to 2006 sales of euro 10.863 billion. Sales revenue for the 4. quarter of 2007 rose to euro 3.858 billion, for growth of 16.7% (+18.8% like-for-like) over one year. Sales revenue for the year was marked by: - Growth of 7.6% (+10.6% like-for-like) in Front End sales revenue, which rose to euro 3.140 billion. The division's Enrichment operations posted strong growth. - Sales were up by 17.5% (+15.2% like-for-like) to euro 2.717 billion in the Reactors and Services division. Sales revenue was driven in particular by the growth of Services operations, after weak demand in 2006, by progress on OL3 construction, and by the start of Flamanville 3, the second EPR. For the Back End division

  12. Nuclear Technology Review 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-08-01

    The year 2007 saw signs of recent rising expectations for nuclear power starting to translate into increased construction. There were seven construction starts, plus the resumption of active construction at Watts Bar 2 in the USA, and a total of 33 reactors under construction at the end of the year. Watts Bar 2 is the first active construction in the USA since 1996. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) received four applications for combined licences (COLs), the first applications for new nuclear reactors in the USA in nearly 30 years. Construction also began at Flamanville 3, the first construction start in France since 1991. Current expansion, as well as near term and long term growth prospects, however, remain centred in Asia. Of the 33 reactors under construction, 19 were in Asia. By the end of the year, 28 of the last 39 new reactors to have been connected to the grid were in Asia. The IAEA revised its medium term projections for global growth in nuclear power upwards in 2007, to 447 GW(e) and 691 GW(e), respectively in its low and high projections for 2030. Others, for instance the OECD International Energy Agency, also revised their projections upwards. Reported uranium resources increased significantly relative to those in the last edition of the 'Red Book', Uranium 2005: Resources, Production and Demand, due mainly to resource increases reported by Australia, the Russian Federation, South Africa and Ukraine. The spot market uranium price reached almost $360/kg in June before falling back to $240/kg in December. Construction began on USEC's new American Centrifuge Plant, and Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited started cascade tests at its advanced centrifuge uranium enrichment plant at Rokkasho. Kazakhstan and the Russian Federation established the International Uranium Enrichment Centre in East Siberia as one step in President Vladimir Putin's 2006 proposal to create a system of international centres providing nuclear fuel cycle services, including enrichment

  13. Nuclear Technology Review 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-08-15

    The year 2007 saw signs of recent rising expectations for nuclear power starting to translate into increased construction. There were seven construction starts, plus the resumption of active construction at Watts Bar 2 in the USA, and a total of 33 reactors under construction at the end of the year. Watts Bar 2 is the first active construction in the USA since 1996. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) received four applications for combined licences (COLs), the first applications for new nuclear reactors in the USA in nearly 30 years. Construction also began at Flamanville 3, the first construction start in France since 1991. Current expansion, as well as near term and long term growth prospects, however, remain centred in Asia. Of the 33 reactors under construction, 19 were in Asia. By the end of the year, 28 of the last 39 new reactors to have been connected to the grid were in Asia. The IAEA revised its medium term projections for global growth in nuclear power upwards in 2007, to 447 GW(e) and 691 GW(e), respectively in its low and high projections for 2030. Others, for instance the OECD International Energy Agency, also revised their projections upwards. Reported uranium resources increased significantly relative to those in the last edition of the 'Red Book', Uranium 2005: Resources, Production and Demand, due mainly to resource increases reported by Australia, the Russian Federation, South Africa and Ukraine. The spot market uranium price reached almost $360/kg in June before falling back to $240/kg in December. Construction began on USEC's new American Centrifuge Plant, and Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited started cascade tests at its advanced centrifuge uranium enrichment plant at Rokkasho. Kazakhstan and the Russian Federation established the International Uranium Enrichment Centre in East Siberia as one step in President Vladimir Putin's 2006 proposal to create a system of international centres providing nuclear fuel cycle services, including enrichment

  14. Enriched boric acid as an optimized neutron absorber in the EPR primary coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosse, Christelle; Jolivel, Fabienne; Berger, Martial

    2012-09-01

    This paper focuses on one of the most important EPR PWR reactor design optimizations, through primary coolant conditioning by enriched boric acid (EBA). On PWRs throughout the world, boric acid has already been implemented in primary coolant and associated auxiliary systems for criticality control, due to its high Boron 10 neutron absorption cross section. Boric acid also allows primary coolant pH 300C control in combination with lithium hydroxide in many PWRs. The boric acid employed in the majority of existing PWRs is the 'natural' one, with a typical isotopic atomic abundance in Boron 10 about 19.8 at.%. However, EPR requirements for neutron management are more important, due to its fully optimized design compared to older PWRs. From the boron point of view, it means that criticality could be controlled either by increased 'natural' Boron concentrations or by using EBA. Comparatively to 'natural' boric acid, EBA allows for: - the use of smaller storage volumes for an identical total Boron concentration, or lower total Boron concentration if the tank volumes are kept identical. The latter also reduces the risks of boric acid crystallization, in spite of increased neutron-absorbing properties - the application of an evolutionary chemistry operating regime called Advanced pH Control, making it possible to maintain a constant pH 300C value at 7.2 in the primary coolant at nominal conditions throughout entire cycles. This optimized stability of pH 300C will contribute to reduce the consequences of contamination of the reactor coolant system by corrosion products, and consequently, all related issues - the reduction of borated liquid wastes, thanks to maximal recycling resulting from EPR design. The increased design costs associated with EBA are consequently compensated by a reduced total consumption of this chemical. Therefore, the basic design choice for the EPR is the use of EBA. For the Flamanville 3 EPR, according to the above

  15. Backlog at December 31, 2007: euro 39,8 billion, up by 55% from year-end 2006. 2007 sales revenue: euro 11.9 billion, up by 9.8% (+10.4% like-for-like); Carnet de commandes au 31 decembre 2007: 39,8 milliards d'euros, en progression de 55% par rapport a fin 2006. Chiffre d'affaires de l'exercice 2007: 11,9 milliards d'euros, en progression de 9,8% (+10,4% en donnees comparables)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-01-15

    The AREVA group's backlog reached a record level of euro 39.834 billion as of December 31, 2007, up by 55% from that of year-end 2006. In Nuclear, the backlog was euro 34.927 billion at year-end 2007 (+58%), due in particular to the signature of a contract in a record amount with the Chinese utility CGNPC. The series of agreements concluded provide among other things for the construction of two new-generation EPR nuclear islands and the supply of all of the materials and services needed for their operation through 2027. CGNPC also bought 35% of the production of UraMin, the mining company acquired by AREVA in August 2007. Industrial cooperation in the Back End of the cycle was launched with the signature of an agreement between China and France. In addition, the group signed several long-term contracts in significant amounts, particularly with KHNP of South Korea, EDF and Japanese utilities. The Transmission and Distribution division won several major contracts in Libya and Qatar at the end of the year approaching a total of euro 750 million. For the entire year, new orders grew by 34% to euro 5.816 billion. The backlog, meanwhile, grew by 40% to euro 4.906 billion at year-end. The group cleared sales revenue of euro 11.923 billion in 2007, up by 9.8% (+10.4% like-for-like) in relation to 2006 sales of euro 10.863 billion. Sales revenue for the 4. quarter of 2007 rose to euro 3.858 billion, for growth of 16.7% (+18.8% like-for-like) over one year. Sales revenue for the year was marked by: - Growth of 7.6% (+10.6% like-for-like) in Front End sales revenue, which rose to euro 3.140 billion. The division's Enrichment operations posted strong growth. - Sales were up by 17.5% (+15.2% like-for-like) to euro 2.717 billion in the Reactors and Services division. Sales revenue was driven in particular by the growth of Services operations, after weak demand in 2006, by progress on OL3 construction, and by the start of Flamanville 3, the second EPR. For the Back End

  16. Preventive strategy for nanomaterials. Special report; Vorsorgestrategien fuer Nanomaterialien. Sondergutachten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    knowledge of which nanomaterials are used in which products. The SRU sees a need for greater transparency here to enable public authorities to react swiftly whenever evidence of health or environmental risks arises. Consumers should in principle enjoy freedom of choice. For this reason the SRU recommends creating a registry of nanoproducts and supplementation of existing labelling requirements. [German] In diesem Sondergutachten gibt der Sachverstaendigenrat fuer Umweltfragen (SRU) Empfehlungen fuer einen verantwortungsvollen, vorsorgeorientierten Umgang mit dieser Technologie. Ziel ist es, Innovationen zu ermoeglichen, aber auch Risiken fruehzeitig zu erkennen und zu mindern. Der SRU sieht dringenden Handlungsbedarf bei der Regulierung von Nanomaterialien und fordert mehr Transparenz bei Verbraucherprodukten ein. Sobald ein begruendeter Anlass zur Besorgnis besteht, muss nach dem Vorsorgeprinzip gehandelt und zwischen Risiken und Chancen abgewogen werden. Um dies zu ermoeglichen, sind zahlreiche rechtliche Aenderungen erforderlich. Nanomaterialien und Nano-Produkte unterliegen grundsaetzlich dem Stoff-, Produkt- und Umweltrecht. In der Praxis fuehren aber die Besonderheiten von Nanomaterialien dazu, dass nicht alle rechtlichen Instrumente greifen. So werden Nanomaterialien bei der Registrierung von Chemikalien und bei der Zulassung von Produkten nicht immer separat erfasst und damit bewertet. Der SRU empfiehlt, solche nanospezifischen Regelungsluecken schnell zu schliessen. Dazu ist es notwendig, Nanomaterialien verbindlich zu definieren, sie grundsaetzlich bei der Risikobewertung von Chemikalien wie eigenstaendige Stoffe zu behandeln und mit einem eigens auf sie zugeschnittenen Datensatz zu registrieren. Dabei duerfen die Risiken von Nanomaterialien nicht pauschal bewertet werden, weil manche Materialien nach heutigem Kenntnisstand unbedenklich sind, waehrend bei anderen ein Risikopotenzial besteht. Einen Anlass zur Besorgnis sieht der SRU vor allem bei der Verwendung von

  17. Deglaciation of the Eurasian ice sheet complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Henry; Hubbard, Alun; Andreassen, Karin; Auriac, Amandine; Whitehouse, Pippa L.; Stroeven, Arjen P.; Shackleton, Calvin; Winsborrow, Monica; Heyman, Jakob; Hall, Adrian M.

    2017-08-01

    The Eurasian ice sheet complex (EISC) was the third largest ice mass during the Last Glacial Maximum with a span of over 4500 km and responsible for around 20 m of eustatic sea-level lowering. Whilst recent terrestrial and marine empirical insights have improved understanding of the chronology, pattern and rates of retreat of this vast ice sheet, a concerted attempt to model the deglaciation of the EISC honouring these new constraints is conspicuously lacking. Here, we apply a first-order, thermomechanical ice sheet model, validated against a diverse suite of empirical data, to investigate the retreat of the EISC after 23 ka BP, directly extending the work of Patton et al. (2016) who modelled the build-up to its maximum extent. Retreat of the ice sheet complex was highly asynchronous, reflecting contrasting regional sensitivities to climate forcing, oceanic influence, and internal dynamics. Most rapid retreat was experienced across the Barents Sea sector after 17.8 ka BP when this marine-based ice sheet disintegrated at a rate of ∼670 gigatonnes per year (Gt a-1) through enhanced calving and interior dynamic thinning, driven by oceanic/atmospheric warming and exacerbated by eustatic sea-level rise. From 14.9 to 12.9 ka BP the EISC lost on average 750 Gt a-1, peaking at rates >3000 Gt a-1, roughly equally partitioned between surface melt and dynamic losses, and potentially contributing up to 2.5 m to global sea-level rise during Meltwater Pulse 1A. Independent glacio-isostatic modelling constrained by an extensive inventory of relative sea-level change corroborates our ice sheet loading history of the Barents Sea sector. Subglacial conditions were predominately temperate during deglaciation, with over 6000 subglacial lakes predicted along with an extensive subglacial drainage network. Moreover, the maximum EISC and its isostatic footprint had a profound impact on the proglacial hydrological network, forming the Fleuve Manche mega-catchment which had an area of

  18. Atsevišķu latviešu un lietuviešu valodas adjektīvu semantiskā diferenciācija: latv. šķīsts, liet. skýstas; latv. skaists, liet. skaistùs; latv. tikls, liet. tiklùs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anta Trumpa

    2011-11-01

    ltere Bedeutung ‘hell’ im Kollokation skaists laiks ‘schönes Wetter’ beibehalten worden.Im lett. tikls ist die Bedeutungsverengung geschehen: ‘ehrlich, tugendhaft im weiteren Sinne’→ ‘sexuell scheu, keusch’. In den litauischen Mundarten ist neben den Adjektiv tiklùs ‘ehrlich’ auch homo­nymisches tiklùs ‘leichtgläubig’ beibehalten worden.Nach der Analyse dieser Wortpaaren kann man manche Zusammenhänge bemerken. Erstens, in allen drei Fällen ist die ältere Bedeutung das litauisches Wort beibehalten. Zweitens, die Bedeutungsentwick­lungen von lett. šķīsts ‘sauber, rein’ → ‘rein von Sünden, tugendhaft, keusch’ und von lit. skaistùs ‘tugendhaft, keusch’ → ‘rein, hell’ sind vielleicht wegen des Einflusses des Christentums geschehen. Drittens, heute sind diese Bezeichnungen der Eigenschaften der Sittlichkeit ziemlich selten verwendet, meistens, in den religiosen Texten.

  19. French surface disposal experience. The disposal of large waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutzer, Michel; Lecoq, Pascal; Duret, Franck; Mandoki, Robert

    2006-01-01

    More than 90 percent of the volume of radioactive waste that are generated in France can be managed in surface disposal facilities. Two facilities are presently operated by ANDRA: the Centre de l'Aube disposal facility that is dedicated to low and intermediate short lived waste and the Morvilliers facility for very low level waste. The Centre de l'Aube facility was designed at the end of the years 1980 to replace the Centre de la Manche facility that ended operation in 1994. In order to achieve as low external exposure as possible for workers it was decided to use remote handling systems as much as possible. Therefore it was necessary to standardize the types of waste containers. But taking into account the fact that these waste were conditioned in existing facilities, it was not possible to change a major part of existing packages. As a consequence, 6 mobile roofs were constructed to handle 12 different types of waste packages in the disposal vaults. The scope of Centre de l'Aube was mainly to dispose operational waste. However some packages, as 5 or 10 m 3 metallic boxes, could be used for larger waste generated by decommissioning activities. The corresponding flow was supposed to be small. After the first years of operations, it appeared interesting to develop special procedures to dispose specific large waste in order to avoid external exposure costly cutting works in the generating facilities. A 40 m 3 box and a large remote handling device were disposed in vaults that were currently used for other types of packages. Such a technique could not be used for the disposal of vessel heads that were replaced in 55 pressurised water power reactors. The duration of disposal and conditioning operation was not compatible with the flow of standard packages that were delivered in the vaults. Therefore a specific type of vault was designed, including handling and conditioning equipment. The first pressure vessel head was delivered on the 29 of July 2004, 6 heads have been

  20. Describing the association between socioeconomic inequalities and cancer survival: methodological guidelines and illustration with population-based data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belot A

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Aurélien Belot,1-3 Laurent Remontet,3,4 Bernard Rachet,1 Olivier Dejardin,5,6 Hadrien Charvat,7 Simona Bara,8 Anne-Valérie Guizard,5,9 Laurent Roche,3,4 Guy Launoy,5,6 Nadine Bossard3,4 1Cancer Survival Group, Department of Non-Communicable Disease Epidemiology, Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom; 2Non-Communicable Diseases and Trauma Direction, The French Public Health Agency, Saint-Maurice, France; 3Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France; 4UMR 5558, Biometry and Evolutionary Biology Laboratory, Biostatistics Health Group, CNRS, University Lyon 1, Lyon, France; 5National Institute of Health and Medical Research U1086 ANTICIPE, Caen, France; 6Calvados Digestive Cancer Registry, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Caen, France; 7Prevention Division, Center for Public Health Sciences, National Cancer Center, Tokyo, Japan; 8Manche General Cancer Registry, Centre Hospitalier Public du Cotentin, Cherbourg-en-Cotentin, France; 9Calvados General Cancer Registry, Centre François Baclesse, Caen, France Background: Describing the relationship between socioeconomic inequalities and cancer survival is important but methodologically challenging. We propose guidelines for addressing these challenges and illustrate their implementation on French population-based data. Methods: We analyzed 17 cancers. Socioeconomic deprivation was measured by an ecological measure, the European Deprivation Index (EDI. The Excess Mortality Hazard (EMH, ie, the mortality hazard among cancer patients after accounting for other causes of death, was modeled using a flexible parametric model, allowing for nonlinear and/or time-dependent association between the EDI and the EMH. The model included a cluster-specific random effect to deal with the hierarchical structure of the data. Results: We reported the conventional age-standardized net survival (ASNS

  1. Las puntas y rejas prehispánicas de metal en los Andes y su continuidad hasta el presente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Les pointes et les socs préhispaniques en métal dans les Andes et leur continuité jusqu’à aujourd’hui Résumé: Cet article tente de montrer la continuité entre les instruments à usages multiples composés de pointes et des socs en cuivre arsenical insérés sur des manches en bois qui ont été élaborés à partir de 900 d. C. par les Sicán de Batán Grande, département de Lambayeque (Pérou, et certains instruments en acier utilisés actuellement dans les Andes du nord du Pérou et du sud de l’Équateur : les barretas, barretillas, barretones et les petites pelles. Il s’agit d’indiquer, sur la base d’informations ethnographiques, la relation entre ces instruments et les allachus, kituchis et chaquitacllas dont se servent les paysans des hautes terres du centre et du sud du Pérou, ceci dans le but de contribuer à l’élaboration d’une histoire de la technologie andine. Este artículo intenta, por un lado, mostrar la continuidad entre las herramientas multiusos elaboradas a partir de 900 d.C. por los sicanes de Batán Grande, departamento de Lambayeque (Perú, compuestas por puntas y rejas de cobre arsenical insertadas en cabos de madera y algunos de los instrumentos de acero utilizados actualmente en los Andes del norte del Perú y del sur del Ecuador: barretas, barretillas, barretones y pequeñas lampas. Y por otro, indicar, en base a datos etnográficos, la relación entre estos instrumentos y los allachus, kituchis y chaquitacllas que emplean los campesinos de las tierras alto andinas del centro y el sur del Perú. Esto con la finalidad de abogar para la elaboración de una historia de la tecnología andina. Prehispanic metal points and ploughshares in the Andes and their continuity until the present Abstract: This article shows the continuity in the production of multiple use tools that where made beginning AD 900 by the Sicán people of Batán Grande, in the Department of Lambayeque, Peru. These tools are arsenical cooper

  2. Les réseaux d’équipements sportifs dans les stations balnéaires : l’exemple du tennis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Rollan

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Les réseaux d’équipements sportifs sont indissociables de l’histoire du sport et de son développement dans notre pays. Le sport est passé en un siècle d’une activité, représentative du snobisme à un phénomène populaire. L’installation du sport moderne a été difficile car il s’opposait aux sports traditionnels. Le rôle de l’Etat a été fondamental dans le développement du sport et surtout la loi de 1901 sur les associations a permis aux réseaux sportifs de se constituer et d’initier les réseaux d’équipements, l’Etat prenant le relais dans un second temps. Dans les stations balnéaires, dont la hiérarchie était déjà établie avant la Première Guerre mondiale, ce sont les Anglais qui ont été à l’origine de l’installation des différents sports. Les classes très aisées ont suivi et ont participé à leur diffusion. Les équipements privés ont d’abord été pris en charge par l’Etat. Mais suite aux investissements massifs des années 1980, les réseaux d’équipements sportifs sont aujourd’hui sous-utilisés une partie de l’année. Les golfs des stations balnéaires des côtes de l’Atlantique, de la Manche et de la mer du Nord organisés en réseaux grâce aux programmes immobiliers qui les accompagnent sont quant à eux, rentabilisés tout au long de l’année.Sport facilities networks are an integral part of sport history and development in France. Starting as a snobbish activity, in one century sport became a popular phenomenon. Modern sport, going against traditional sport, met with a great many obstacles. On top of this, the legislation was not favourable since it forbade any association. Therefore the role of the State was essential. But, it was the 1901 Law concerning associations which made it truly possible for the sporting networks to be formed and for sport facilities networks to be initiated, the State taking over in a second time. On seaside resorts, the hierarchy of which

  3. Liabilities identification and long-term management - Review of French situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    -evaluated each year by taking into account the effect of inflation and if necessary, a change of the estimated costs. The different waste producers assume the ownership of the radioactive wastes generated in their installations and are therefore responsible for the financing of their long term management. Provisions are based on a deep geological disposal for Long-Lived High Level Waste (HLW-LL), which is currently considered as the most mature solution between the different studied technical options, even if French research explore complementary issues. But operators are not responsible for the definition and implementation of the technical options. Such missions have been transferred to the ANDRA. ANDRA's industrial mission is financed by the producers through commercial contracts covering the monitoring phase of the Manche facility and the operation of the Aube facility. Research programs conducted by ANDRA are also financed by the waste producers under the 'polluter pays' principle. There is no legal requirement for the operators to create a specific fund to accumulate the financial resources coming from provisions. However, in accordance with their supervision authorities, EDF, AREVA and CEA have already set up financial tools to create such funds: instead of setting up a specific legislation on this subject, the French State developed an economic approach based on the definition of appropriate governance rules in these companies. The recent or announced evolutions in the European and French energy sectors could lead to changes in this organisational scheme and an evolution of the French approach in that field is under consideration. At this stage, it seems difficult to be precise about future options which have not been decided and only general principles can be mentioned. Concerning waste management, different working groups are currently created with the concerned French Ministries to define future trends for the financing mechanisms and to set up terms of reference for

  4. Bendrieji rytų baltų kalbų gérti, gẽria, gė́rė– dzer̂t, dzer̦u, dzêru tipo veiksmažodžiai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audronė Kaukienė

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available DIE GEMEINSAMMEN OSTBALTISCHEN VERBEN DES TYPS gérti, gẽria, gė́rė – dzer̂t, dzer̦u, dzêru ZusammenfassungIn dem Artikel werden die Paare der Wurzelverben des Typs Cē̆r im Litauischen und Lettischen untersucht. Die gemeinsamen ostbaltischen Verben des Typs gérti werden von verschiedenen (semanti­schen, morphologischen, morphfonologischen u. a. Standpunkten besprochen. Die Daten der beiden baltischen Sprachen und die Entsprechungen anderer verwandten Sprachen werden verglichen, mit dem Ziel, Ähnlichkeiten und Unterschiede festzustellen. Gleichzeitig versucht man die Formation des struk­turellen Typs selbst, die Bedingungen und Zeit seiner Bildung zu klären.Die meisten zur Analyse stehenden Verben weisen alte Wurzeln, Äquivalente in anderen verwandten Sprachen auf. Im Preußischen hat das verbale Wurzeläquivalent nur die ostbaltische Wurzel *u̯ē̆r- „öffnen": pr. etwēre „(du öffnest“, etwerreis „öffne“. Andere Wörter haben Ableitungen in anderen verwandten Sprachen. Manche Wurzeln sind im Preußischen überhaupt nicht fixiert worden, z. B.: *bē̆r- / *bī̆r-“streuen, ausfallen“.Der Artikel besteht aus drei Teilen: in dem ersten wird die Semantik, in dem zweiten Morphfonologie (Vokalismus, Betonung, Konsonantismus und in dem dritten Morphologie (die verbalen Stämme des Präsens und Präteritums, Beziehungen zwischen Verben, die aus gleichen Wurzeln stammen, doch den anderen strukturellen Typ aufweisen; die baltischen Beispiele werden mit Entsprechungen anderer Sprachen verglichen besprochen.Die Untersuchung hat gezeigt, dass die analysierten Verben der gemeinsamen ostbaltischen lexi­kalischen Schicht angehören, weil sie strukturell identisch und semantisch sehr nah sind.Es sind zwei wichtigste semantische Merkmale der Verben deutlich geworden: für diese ist die Bedeutungsveränderung (und die damit verbundene Vieldeutigkeit charakteristisch, sie zeigen auch sehr große Ähnlichkeit zwischen

  5. Mehr Last als Lust – Ein weiterer Sammelband zu „(Frauen-Körper“ More Encumbrance than Enjoyment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula-Irene Villa

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Dieser Band vereint acht heterogene Aufsätze zu „Lust und Last am eigenen Körper“ von Frauen. Alle Beiträge gehören zum Spektrum psychologischer Reflexion; die Themen reichen dabei von Sport über Kochen und Essen bis Schönheit, die Zugänge von Psychoanalyse über experimentelle Psychologie bis hin zu freier Assoziation auf der Grundlage klinisch-praktischer Arbeit. Ein roter Faden durch die Beiträge ist nicht erkennbar und so wirkt die Vielfalt beliebig. So unterschiedlich die Beiträge sind, so unterschiedlich ist auch ihre Qualität. Leider kommen einige Artikel über die unkritische Zusammenstellung anderer Arbeiten nicht hinaus, die meisten nehmen kaum Bezug auf das inzwischen breite und institutionalisierte Feld der (sozial- und kulturwissenschaftlichen Körperforschung. Doch haben manche Aufsätze interessante empirische Einblicke zu bieten, die zur weiteren Reflexion anregen, und einige wenige Beiträge sind so differenziert, dass sich mit ihnen weiterdenken und -forschen lässt. Insgesamt bereitet die Lektüre des Buches weder ‚Einsteiger/-innen‘ noch ‚Fortgeschrittenen‘ der wissenschaftlichen Beschäftigung mit (Frauen-Körpern Lust, sondern erweist sich – bis auf Ausnahmen, die allerdings auch in ausführlicherer Form anderenorts publiziert wurden – eher als Last. Ärgerlich und alles andere als argumentativ überzeugend ist darüber hinaus das in manchen Texten enthaltene, mehr oder minder explizit artikulierte, ‚Feminismus- bzw. Frauenforschungs-Bashing‘.This volume joins together eight heterogeneous essays by women under the theme “enjoyment and encumbrance of the body.” All of the contributions belong within the spectrum of psychological reflection; the themes range from sports, cooking and eating, and beauty, to the process of psychoanalysis, experimental psychology, and free-association based on clinical practice. The thread throughout the contributions remains indiscernible and thus the

  6. FUNKTIONSLOGIK TERRORISTISCHER PROPAGANDA IM BEWEGTEN BILD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Christoph

    2015-09-01

    ängig, welche Ziele sie transportieren wollen und ob sie sich an Laien oder an bereits ideologisch vorgeschulte Anhänger richten. Sozialrevolutionäre Gruppen sind besonders bemüht um eine gute Außendarstellung, da sie tendenziell dazu neigen, elitär zu sein und sich von der Bevölkerung zu entfremden. Während sie eine klare Sprache nutzen, arbeiten religiös-motivierte Terroristen oft mit blumigen Bildern und Umschreibungen. Die taktischen Erwägungen von Terroristen, etwa ihre Kämpfer geheim halten zu müssen, führt oft dazu, dass sich die Vorteile des Web 2.0 nicht vollständig für sich ausnutzen können. Organisationen wie die FARC oder der Islamische Staat, die selbst über Rückzugsterritorien verfügen, können aber auch ganz ungeniert Gesicht zeigen und damit noch viel effektiver auf ihre Zielgruppen einwirken. Es hat sich auch gezeigt, dass es große Unterschiede in der Medienkompetenz terroristischer Organisationen gibt: Während die weiter oben erwähnten Gruppierungen teils eigene Medienstäbe eingerichtet haben, scheinen die Videoproduktionen anderer Organisationen eher Ausschussware zu sein. Wenn sich der terroristische Kampf wirklich auf dem Feld der Kommunikation entscheidet, so haben manche Organisationen hier die besseren Karten ausgespielt als andere. Sie schaffen es, ihre Ziele – die Dämonisierung und Einschüchterung des Feindes, die Legitimation der eigenen Gewalt und die Anwerbung neuer Kämpfer und Unterstützer – besser zu transportieren. Der Islamische Staat beschreitet auf diesem Gebiet keine grundsätzlich neuen Wege. Neu ist ihm nur die Leichtigkeit und die technische Professionalität, mit der er auf die Kommunikationsherausforderungen des digitalen Zeitalters reagiert.

  7. Força de preensão palmar e pinça digital em diferentes grupos de pilotos da Academia da Força Aérea brasileira Grip and pinch strength among different groups of Brazilian Air Force pilots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Helena Gonçalves

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Pilotos da Academia de Força Aérea (AFA brasileira, durante vôos, realizam movimentos com grande solicitação da musculatura da mão que comanda o manche, o que pode modificar a força muscular. Este estudo teve por objetivo analisar as forças musculares isométricas de preensão palmar e pinças polpa-a-polpa, trípode e lateral de três grupos de pilotos da AFA. Foram avaliados 15 pilotos da Esquadrilha da Fumaça (EDA, 16 instrutores de vôo (PI e 6 pilotos em treinamento (PT, todos do sexo masculino. Para a avaliação, o posicionamento corporal dos pilotos seguiu a padronização da Sociedade Americana de Terapeutas da Mão e a ordem dos movimentos analisados foi predefinida, evitando fadiga muscular. A força muscular isométrica máxima foi coletada em uma contração sustentada por 6 segundos. Os resultados mostram diferenças significativas na preensão, com superioridade das mãos dominantes em relação às não-dominantes em todos os grupos, tendo ainda o grupo EDA obtido valores significativamente superiores em relação aos demais. Nas medidas da pinça trípode, o grupo EDA apresentou significativos valores superiores aos do grupo PT, sendo encontrados valores das mãos dominantes superiores aos das não-dominantes nos grupos EDA e PI. Conclui-se que o treino específico da musculatura da mão durante o vôo, a especificidade e o período de treinamento interferem na força muscular isométrica da mão.Pilots from Brazilian Air Force Academy (AFA perform strentgth- and accuracy-demanding hand movements, which may modify muscle strength. The aim of this study was to analyse hand isometric strength of grip and pulp-to-pulp, tripode and lateral pinch in three groups of male AFA pilots: ADS (Air Demonstration Squadron, n=15; IP (instructor pilots, n=16; and TP (training pilots, n=6. Pilots body positioning during tests followed the standards of the American Society of Hand Therapists; the sequence of assessed movements was

  8. Technical support by Solthis for health-care workers in order to decentralise medical treatment for people living with HIV in the Ségou region of Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Akonde

    2009-01-01

    écentralisation.El comienzo del tratamiento médico para las personas con VIH/ SIDA en Malí se remonta a 1997 gracias a la sociedad civil. La respuesta nacional se oficializó con la adopción de la Iniciativa Malí para el Acceso a las Terapias Antirretrovirales. En 2004 se decretó por ley el acceso gratuito a la terapia antirretroviral, los fármacos contra las infecciones oportunistas y el control biológico básico. En 2005 la descentralización de la atención sanitaria para acceder a las diferentes regiones y grupos supuso uno de los principales impulsos de la estrategia nacional para luchar contra la pandemia.Los países del África subsahariana están realizando importantes esfuerzos para lograr la cobertura general de todo su territorio nacional.Es en este contexto de generalización donde la ONG Solthis comenzó a cooperar con actores malíes para extender el acceso a un tratamiento de calidad para pacientes con VIH/SIDA en la ciudad y la región de Ségou. Con el fin de fomentar el desarrollo, Solthis optó por continuar proporcionando in situ apoyo técnico a los actores nacionales en la lucha contra el SIDA. Gracias a la presencia diaria «en el terreno» de un equipo, Solthis dedica gran parte de sus actividades al desarrollo de capacidades del personal sanitario mediante el intercambio de conocimientos y experiencias científico-médicas.También se intentó mejorar las condiciones de trabajo del personal sanitario y proporcionar acceso de los pacientes con VIH a diversas pruebas y medicamentos.El objetivo inicial era fomentar el acceso universal a las ARV. Actualmente el programa de Ségou financiado por Solthis ha desarrollado más de 1500 nuevos tratamientos en la región. Además, todos los centros especializados ofrecen servicios de prevención y tratamiento a las madres y a sus hijos. La región de Ségou constituye actualmente una parte esencial de la iniciativa IMAARV como proyecto piloto de descentralización.

  9. Research and experience report 2009. Developments in the technical and legal basis of nuclear oversight; Erfahrungs- und Forschungsbericht 2009. Entwicklungen im Bereich der Grundlagen der nuklearen Aufsicht/Rapport sur la recherche et les experiences en 2009. Developpements dans les bases techniques et legales pour la surveillance nucleaire/Research and experience report 2009. Developments in the technical and legal basis of nuclear oversight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-04-15

    additional intake points in the cooling water outlet. There have been defects and incidents in the construction of the new plants at Olkiluoto (Finland) and Flamanville (France) relating to concreting work and inadequate welding specifications. ENSI will develop a new surveillance concept for the construction of NPPs, so that Switzerland is prepared in time for any new builds. ENSI maintains active links with international organisations, particularly with IAEA, OECD/NEA and WENRA and also has a series of bilateral agreements with France, Germany, Austria and the USA. The ENSI contribution to current negotiations on greater global harmonisation is based on the stringent nuclear safety standards in Switzerland. At the 3{sup rd} Review Conference of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management, Switzerland received a rating of good for its Country Report: other countries welcomed the transparency of the master plan procedure and the participation of the public and neighbouring countries. The research programme at the rock laboratories of Mont Terri and Grimsel also received a positive reception. According to the main requirements of IAEA and the Swiss Nuclear Energy Act, since 1 January 2009 ENSI has been an independent nuclear regulatory body reporting directly to the Federal Council (Swiss national government). The existing ordinances and guidelines are continuously amended to accord with the recent legislation on nuclear energy and also are harmonised with international standards. A new ordinance based on the Nuclear Energy Act took effect in 2009. In addition ENSI completed 8 guidelines, either new or revisions

  10. Anticipation of the needs linked with new generation reactors: COGEMA Logistics casks developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Issard, H.; Grygiel, J.M. [COGEMA LOGISTICS SA, 1 rue des Herons BP 302, Montigny-le-Bretonneux, 78054 Saint Quentin en Yvelines (France)

    2006-07-01

    The fast growth of the world's economy coupled with the need for natural resources use optimization and, the risk of climate change, make energy supplies one of the 21. century most daring challenges. The high reliability and efficiency of nuclear energy, its competitiveness in an electricity market impacted by a new oil shock are as many factors in favour of the 'renaissance' of this greenhouse gas free energy. More than 20 reactors are currently under construction worldwide and ambitious plans for new buildings have been initiated notably in China and India. In Western Europe, the foundation stone of the first evolutionary European Pressurized Reactor (EPR) was laid on September 2005, 12, in Olkiluoto, Finland. In France, EDF made the decision to launch the construction of an EPR on the Flamanville site. Constellation Energy and Areva formed recently a joint enterprise providing the business framework through which a first fleet of evolutionary reactors could be deployed in the USA. Other countries have expressed their wish to consider nuclear energy in their energy mix. Stirring of nuclear 'renaissance' are now discernible either through the development of new reactors or extensive programs of reactor life extension. Such programs cannot be disconnected from the optimization of the fuel cycle strategy. Competitiveness relies indeed upon the optimal fuel utilization. The fuel cycle cost may be lowered by higher average burnups. For example, target values for the EPR are over 60 000 MWd/tHM corresponding to initial U235 enrichment up to 5% for UO{sub 2} fuels. The possibility of 'moxifying' the EPR up to 50% is another key for flexibility. Investigations towards a greater flexibility do not concern only the core management but also the spent fuel management. Increased flexibility is indeed sought to keep open all back-end options. Quick evacuation of fuel assemblies unloaded from the core is in particular considered, thus

  11. The true costs of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallner, A.; Mraz, G.

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, many nuclear power plants will be reaching the end of their lifetimes over the next few years. States must therefore decide now on the direction they intend to steer their energy policies. Possible options are the construction of new nuclear power plants, extending the lifetime of existing ones, or changing direction towards a sustainable energy future. Arguments put forward by the nuclear power lobby in favour of new builds are, on the one hand, the claim that nuclear power is low in CO2 emissions,1and on the other, that it is low cost. This paper examines the second claim and identifies the “true costs of nuclear power”. This paper provides an overview for the general reader and presents the most important aspects of “costs of nuclear power”, as well as sound information to contribute to discussions of this complex issue. The first part of this paper focuses on the costs of nuclear new-build: Approximately two thirds of electricity generation costs consist of fixed costs, the largest part of which covers the construction of the nuclear power plant (NPP) itself, including the interest rates (capital costs). Consequently, construction costs are a crucial factor in the overall cost of nuclear power. The issue of nuclear new build is currently under discussion in many states in Europe which are considering replacing their aged nuclear power plant fleet, e.g. UK (Hinkley Point and further plans for new builds), Finland (Olkiluoto 3), France (Flamanville 3), the Czech Republic (Temelin 3/4), Slovakia (Mochovce 3/4) and Romania (Cernavoda 3/4). Those projects have one crucial point in common: problems with costs or financing. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) has calculated that construction costs rose 15% per annum from 2003 to 2009; construction costs rose from 2,000 to 4,000 USD, amounting to total construction costs of US$ 4 billion for a 1,000 MW NPP. A current example of cost and construction time overrun is the Finnish reactor

  12. IAEA Concludes Safety Review at Chooz Nuclear Power Plant in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    management of corrective maintenance and leak repair to minimize backlogs and maintain plant safety; The plant should enhance the chemistry control program to cover all chemistry aspects of plant systems; The plant should enhance the process of root cause analysis of safety significant events to improve the depth of analysis of such events; and The plant should consider improving systems to allow clear identification of deficiencies in the field once they have been recognized. Chooz management expressed a determination to address all the areas identified for improvement and requested the IAEA to schedule a follow-up mission in approximately 18 months. The team delivered a draft of its recommendations, suggestions and good practices to the plant management in the form of Technical Notes for factual comments. The technical notes and comments from the plant and the French Safety Authority will be reviewed at IAEA headquarters. The final report will be submitted to the Government of France within three months. This was the 175th mission of the OSART programme, which began in 1982, and the 25th mission in France. The next OSART mission in France is scheduled at Flamanville Units 1 and 2 in 2014. Background: General information about OSART missions can be found on the IAEA Website. An OSART mission is designed as a review of programmes and activities essential to operational safety. It is not a regulatory inspection, nor is it a design review or a substitute for an exhaustive assessment of the plant's overall safety status. Experts participating in the IAEA's June 2010 International Conference on Operational Safety of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) reviewed the experience of the OSART programme and concluded: In OSART missions NPPs are assessed against IAEA Safety Standards which reflect the current international consensus on what constitutes a high level of safety; and OSART recommendations and suggestions are of utmost importance for operational safety improvement of NPPs. The IAEA

  13. Anticipation of the needs linked with new generation reactors: COGEMA Logistics casks developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Issard, H.; Grygiel, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    The fast growth of the world's economy coupled with the need for natural resources use optimization and, the risk of climate change, make energy supplies one of the 21. century most daring challenges. The high reliability and efficiency of nuclear energy, its competitiveness in an electricity market impacted by a new oil shock are as many factors in favour of the 'renaissance' of this greenhouse gas free energy. More than 20 reactors are currently under construction worldwide and ambitious plans for new buildings have been initiated notably in China and India. In Western Europe, the foundation stone of the first evolutionary European Pressurized Reactor (EPR) was laid on September 2005, 12, in Olkiluoto, Finland. In France, EDF made the decision to launch the construction of an EPR on the Flamanville site. Constellation Energy and Areva formed recently a joint enterprise providing the business framework through which a first fleet of evolutionary reactors could be deployed in the USA. Other countries have expressed their wish to consider nuclear energy in their energy mix. Stirring of nuclear 'renaissance' are now discernible either through the development of new reactors or extensive programs of reactor life extension. Such programs cannot be disconnected from the optimization of the fuel cycle strategy. Competitiveness relies indeed upon the optimal fuel utilization. The fuel cycle cost may be lowered by higher average burnups. For example, target values for the EPR are over 60 000 MWd/tHM corresponding to initial U235 enrichment up to 5% for UO 2 fuels. The possibility of 'moxifying' the EPR up to 50% is another key for flexibility. Investigations towards a greater flexibility do not concern only the core management but also the spent fuel management. Increased flexibility is indeed sought to keep open all back-end options. Quick evacuation of fuel assemblies unloaded from the core is in particular considered, thus assigning the level of performance of the cask

  14. Partnerships and Opportunity: A Canadian Success Story Community engagement on uranium mining in northern Saskatchewan. Informing and Involving Stakeholders in the Context of the Finnish Decision-making Process. Stakeholder involvement and public debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, Sharonne; Vanhatalo, Hanna; Thome-Jassaud, Pierre-Franck

    2017-01-01

    nuclear power that resulted. Fennovoima established a local office in Pyhaejoki where people could ask questions and discuss issues that are important to them, sometimes not even related to the plant. For electricite de France, this importance of reputation was highlighted by the recent issue of quality concerns at a component fabrication plant that Mr Thome-Jassaud described as being more impactful on public confidence in France than the Fukushima Daiichi accident due to its local applicability. Another theme throughout the session was the importance of making information available, particularly in forms that suit particular needs. During the national public debate to consider the construction of Flamanville 3, electricite de France faced persistent questions on the ability for the proposed plant to withstand an aircraft collision. This issue highlighted the balance between security and transparency, as making certain information available can increase the knowledge available to an attacker and endanger the public rather than protect it. Instead of using this as a reason to keep documents completely private, electricite de France created an agreement with a limited set of people familiar with nuclear issues who could review and understand the information in order to check the sensitive analyses. This approach built trust and has now become a standard practice for electricite de France. Ms Katz described the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission as being strongly committed to ensuring that Canadian citizens receive access to information they feel that they need; the regulator places a requirement on licensees to proactively communicate. The Nuclear Safety Commission has its own extensive outreach and engagement programme, and provides funding to members of the general public and indigenous communities to enable their participation in hearings and throughout environmental assessment processes. Ms Vanhatalo emphasised the importance of making information available in a form

  15. 8. national congress of radiation protection 'SFRP 2011' - Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souques, M.; Lambrozo, J.; Perrin, A.; Magne, I.; Bedja, M.; Fleury, G.; Le Brusquet, L.; Barbe, R.; Lahaye, T.; Laurier, D.; Tomasek, L.; Tirmarche, M.; Guseva Canu, I.; Garsi, J.P.; Caer-Lorho, S.; Jacob, S.; Acker, A.; Fernandez, F.; Bertho, J.M.; Synhaeve, N.; Stefani, J.; Desbree, A.; Blanchardon, E.; Dublineau, I.; Petitot, F.; Lestaevel, P.; Tourlonias, E.; Mazzucco, C.; Jacquinot, S.; Dhieux, B.; Delissen, O.; Tournier, B.; Gensdarmes, F.; Godet, J.L.; Perrin, M.L.; Saad, N.; Bardelay, C.; Voytchev, M.; Doursout, T.; Chapalain, E.; Dandrieux, G.; Cazala, C.; Gay, D.; Chabanis, O.; Palut-Laurent, O.; Ringeard, C.; Thomassin, A.; Roxin, A.M.; Gschwind, R.; Makovicka, L.; Roxin, I.; Henriet, J.; Martin, E.; Klopfenstein, J.F.; Lochard, J.; Guillaumont, R.; Marignac, Y.; Petitfrere, M.; Catelinois, O.; Devin, P.; Sene, M.; Barbey, P.; Reaud, C.; Schneider, T.; Achikian, S.; Le Clerc, A.; Rochereau, S.; Schneider, C.; Vigneron, H.; Charron, S.; Delattre, A.; Luccioni, C.; Monti, P.; Bernaud, J.Y.; Michielsen, N.; Bondiguel, S.; Bordy, J.M.; Daures, J.; Denoziere, M.; Gualdrini, G.; Mariotti, F.; Barre, A.; Beauval, A.; Davi, J.N.; Dupic, S.; Grincourt, D.; Kandil, A.; Marteel, C.; Vrammout, D.; Saintamon, F.; Aberkane, J.; Paquet, F.; Barbey, P.; Bardies, M.; Biau, A.; Blanchardon, E.; Chetioui, A.; Lebaron-Jacobs, L.; Pasquier, J.L.; Broggio, D.; Beurrier, J.; Farah, J.; Franck, D.; Sauget, M.; Bertrand, A.; Boveda, S.; Bar, O.; Brezin, A.; Maccia, C.; Bernier, M.O.; Struelens, L.; Carinou, E.; Dominiek, J.; Brodecki, M.; Donadille, L.; Ferrari, P.; Koukorava, C.; Krim, S.; Nikodemova, D.; Ruiz-Lopez, N.; Sans Merce, M.; Vanhavere, F.; Clairand, I.; Bordy, J.M.; Debroas, J.; Ginjaume, M.; Itie, C.; Krim, S.; Lebacq, A.L.; Martin, P.; Struelens, L.; Sans-Merce, M.; Vanhavere, F.; Gauron, C.; Wild, P.; Grzebyk, M.; Derock, C.; Champion, K.; Cohen, P.; Menez, C.; Tellart, A.S.; Thiel, H.; Pennarola, R.; Choudat, D.; Dillenseger, P.; Rehel, J.L.; Aubert, B.; Gagna, G.; Amabile, J.C.; Laroche, P.; Grandcoing, A.; Roch, P.; Challeton-de Vathaire, C.; Franck, D.; Roy, C.; Doucet, J.; Jancon, G.; Pelletier, B.; Marchal, C.; Megnigbeto, C.; Franchi, C.; Cillard, P.; Etard, C.; Sinno-Tellier, S.; Guersen, J.; Chabrot, P.; Cassagnes, L.; Gabrillargues, J.; Boyer, L.; Kien, N.; Schieber, C.; Almen, A.; Magne, S.; Spasic, E.; Ngo, C.; Bordy, J.M.; Carlan, L. de; Bridier, A.; Ginestet, C.; Malet, C.; Ferdinand, P.; Courdi, A.; Rucka, G.; Bondiau, P.Y.; Cazoulat, A.; Bohand, S.; Schoen, V.; Bey, E.; Roche, H.; Quesne, B.; Monier, C.; Leonard, J.G.; Cordier, G.; Gurriaran, R.; De Vismes, A.; Picolo, J.L.; Elbast, M.; Saudo, A.; Holler, V.; Blanchin, N.

    2011-06-01

    radiation protection and related domains; 22 - O'CLOC study - cataracts in interventional cardiologists; 23 - Doses received in extremities and eye lens by medical personnel: results of the ORAMED European project; 24 - Use of operational dosemeters in interventional radiology/cardiology: results of the ORAMED European project; 25 - Sub-ungual multi-parametric capillaroscopy of occupational chronic exposure in interventional radiology; 26 - Example of workplace and zoning analysis in interventional neuro-radiology; 27 - Dosimetric study of various work places in prostate brachytherapy; 28 - Contribution to radiation protection of the partial redesigning of a nuclear medicine service; 29 - Committed effective doses evaluated by the IRSN after internal contamination of nuclear medicine personnel - 2006-2010 status; 30 - Why and how developing a quality approach in radiation protection?; 31 - 2011 status and perspectives of radiation protection in medical environment. The ASN's viewpoint; 32 - Doses in scanography: results of a multi-centric inquiry; 33 - Status of the optimization approach of patients dosimetry in interventional radiology at Clermont Ferrand univ. health centre; 34 - Can we define reference levels in interventional neuro-radiology with diagnostic and therapeutic purposes?; 35 - EMAN: implementation of an ALARA european network in the medical domain; 36 - In-vivo surface and intra-cavitary dosimetry in patient's radiotherapy using multi-channel OSL/FO technique; 37 - Estimation of secondary cancers after robotized stereotactic radiotherapy of lung cancer; 38 - Medical-surgical management of an injured person after radio-contamination by plutonium or americium (Percy area); 39 - Industrial radiography incident at Flamanville nuclear site; 40 - Incorporated activity mapping using Monte-Carlo simulations in case of complex contaminations; 41 - IRSN's metrology teams preparedness for crisis; 42 - Alpha irradiation problem following an internal contamination: dose

  16. Nuclear power, the great illusion. Promises, setbacks and threats; Nucleaire: la grande illusion. Promesses, deboires et menaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marignac, Y.

    2008-07-01

    July 2008 (the halting of work on the Flamanville reactor site by the French nuclear safety authority, radioactive pollution in the water table at Tricastin, a fire in the Finnish EPR etc). Both the press and public opinion have rediscovered the obscurity which in France cloaks the whole management of nuclear power's inherent risks, and the disdain for the populace that this implies. (authors)

  17. 8. national congress of radiation protection 'SFRP 2011' - Proceedings; Huitieme congres national de radioprotection 'SFRP 2011' - Recueil des presentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souques, M.; Lambrozo, J.; Perrin, A.; Magne, I.; Bedja, M.; Fleury, G.; Le Brusquet, L.; Barbe, R.; Lahaye, T.; Laurier, D.; Tomasek, L.; Tirmarche, M.; Guseva Canu, I.; Garsi, J.P.; Caer-Lorho, S.; Jacob, S.; Acker, A.; Fernandez, F.; Bertho, J.M.; Synhaeve, N.; Stefani, J.; Desbree, A.; Blanchardon, E.; Dublineau, I.; Petitot, F.; Lestaevel, P.; Tourlonias, E.; Mazzucco, C.; Jacquinot, S.; Dhieux, B.; Delissen, O.; Tournier, B.; Gensdarmes, F.; Godet, J.L.; Perrin, M.L.; Saad, N.; Bardelay, C.; Voytchev, M.; Doursout, T.; Chapalain, E.; Dandrieux, G.; Cazala, C.; Gay, D.; Chabanis, O.; Palut-Laurent, O.; Ringeard, C.; Thomassin, A.; Roxin, A.M.; Gschwind, R.; Makovicka, L.; Roxin, I.; Henriet, J.; Martin, E.; Klopfenstein, J.F.; Lochard, J.; Guillaumont, R.; Marignac, Y.; Petitfrere, M.; Catelinois, O.; Devin, P.; Sene, M.; Barbey, P.; Reaud, C.; Schneider, T.; Achikian, S.; Le Clerc, A.; Rochereau, S.; Schneider, C.; Vigneron, H.; Charron, S.; Delattre, A.; Luccioni, C.; Monti, P.; Bernaud, J.Y.; Michielsen, N.; Bondiguel, S.; Bordy, J.M.; Daures, J.; Denoziere, M.; Gualdrini, G.; Mariotti, F.; Barre, A.; Beauval, A.; Davi, J.N.; Dupic, S.; Grincourt, D.; Kandil, A.; Marteel, C.; Vrammout, D.; Saintamon, F.; Aberkane, J.; Paquet, F.; Barbey, P.; Bardies, M.; Biau, A.; Blanchardon, E.; Chetioui, A.; Lebaron-Jacobs, L.; Pasquier, J.L.; Broggio, D.; Beurrier, J.; Farah, J.; Franck, D.; Sauget, M.; Bertrand, A.; Boveda, S.; Bar, O.; Brezin, A.; Maccia, C.; Bernier, M.O.; Struelens, L.; Carinou, E.; Dominiek, J.; Brodecki, M.; Donadille, L.; Ferrari, P.; Koukorava, C.; Krim, S.; Nikodemova, D.; Ruiz-Lopez, N.; Sans Merce, M.; Vanhavere, F.; Clairand, I.; Bordy, J.M.; Debroas, J.; Ginjaume, M.; Itie, C.; Krim, S.; Lebacq, A.L.; Martin, P.; Struelens, L.; Sans-Merce, M.; Vanhavere, F.; Gauron, C.; Wild, P.; Grzebyk, M.; Derock, C.; Champion, K.; Cohen, P.; Menez, C.; Tellart, A.S.; Thiel, H.; Pennarola, R.; Choudat, D.; Dillenseger, P.; Rehel, J.L. [and others

    2011-06-15

    -learning techniques in radiation protection and related domains; 22 - O'CLOC study - cataracts in interventional cardiologists; 23 - Doses received in extremities and eye lens by medical personnel: results of the ORAMED European project; 24 - Use of operational dosemeters in interventional radiology/cardiology: results of the ORAMED European project; 25 - Sub-ungual multi-parametric capillaroscopy of occupational chronic exposure in interventional radiology; 26 - Example of workplace and zoning analysis in interventional neuro-radiology; 27 - Dosimetric study of various work places in prostate brachytherapy; 28 - Contribution to radiation protection of the partial redesigning of a nuclear medicine service; 29 - Committed effective doses evaluated by the IRSN after internal contamination of nuclear medicine personnel - 2006-2010 status; 30 - Why and how developing a quality approach in radiation protection?; 31 - 2011 status and perspectives of radiation protection in medical environment. The ASN's viewpoint; 32 - Doses in scanography: results of a multi-centric inquiry; 33 - Status of the optimization approach of patients dosimetry in interventional radiology at Clermont Ferrand univ. health centre; 34 - Can we define reference levels in interventional neuro-radiology with diagnostic and therapeutic purposes?; 35 - EMAN: implementation of an ALARA european network in the medical domain; 36 - In-vivo surface and intra-cavitary dosimetry in patient's radiotherapy using multi-channel OSL/FO technique; 37 - Estimation of secondary cancers after robotized stereotactic radiotherapy of lung cancer; 38 - Medical-surgical management of an injured person after radio-contamination by plutonium or americium (Percy area); 39 - Industrial radiography incident at Flamanville nuclear site; 40 - Incorporated activity mapping using Monte-Carlo simulations in case of complex contaminations; 41 - IRSN's metrology teams preparedness for crisis; 42 - Alpha irradiation problem following

  18. Research and experience report 2009. Developments in the technical and legal basis of nuclear oversight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-04-01

    intake points in the cooling water outlet. There have been defects and incidents in the construction of the new plants at Olkiluoto (Finland) and Flamanville (France) relating to concreting work and inadequate welding specifications. ENSI will develop a new surveillance concept for the construction of NPPs, so that Switzerland is prepared in time for any new builds. ENSI maintains active links with international organisations, particularly with IAEA, OECD/NEA and WENRA and also has a series of bilateral agreements with France, Germany, Austria and the USA. The ENSI contribution to current negotiations on greater global harmonisation is based on the stringent nuclear safety standards in Switzerland. At the 3 rd Review Conference of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management, Switzerland received a rating of good for its Country Report: other countries welcomed the transparency of the master plan procedure and the participation of the public and neighbouring countries. The research programme at the rock laboratories of Mont Terri and Grimsel also received a positive reception. According to the main requirements of IAEA and the Swiss Nuclear Energy Act, since 1 January 2009 ENSI has been an independent nuclear regulatory body reporting directly to the Federal Council (Swiss national government). The existing ordinances and guidelines are continuously amended to accord with the recent legislation on nuclear energy and also are harmonised with international standards. A new ordinance based on the Nuclear Energy Act took effect in 2009. In addition ENSI completed 8 guidelines, either new or revisions

  19. Nuclear power, the great illusion. Promises, setbacks and threats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marignac, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Europe, which is very divided on this issue. In this light it seemed especially important to our association Global Chance (which includes among its members several of France's few independent nuclear experts, and produces analyses in the fields of energy and the environment whose relevance is appreciated both in France and beyond) to offer European decision-makers and citizens a fact-based critical analysis of the French experience, so as to shed a more realistic light on the illusion of a nuclear 'earthly paradise' that France is trying to impose on its European partners. Global Chance thereby hopes to alert international opinion to the largely illusory nature of any plan for a massive international and European revival of nuclear power as a means of meeting the challenges of development and the environment. First we question the capacity of such a revival, even supposing that it met no technical, political or economic obstacles, to make a decisive contribution within the required timescale to the underlying goals of the 'energy/climate package': European energy security and a massive reduction in greenhouse gas emissions in the short and medium term (20% to 30% by 2020, 75% by 2050). Second, using the example of France we investigate whether the proponents of such a revival have the industrial and economic capacity to carry it through, and the ability to contain its consequences and risks for the environment, peace and the health of the population. This publication appears at a time when in France, more or less for the first time, the wall of silence that the authorities have erected around the more or less serious 'incidents' that have peppered the history of the country's nuclear industry is beginning to crack. In the climate created by the possibility of a revival of nuclear power, the French press has taken a greater interest than usual in the various incidents that have occurred in June and July 2008 (the halting of work on the Flamanville reactor site by the

  20. Paradigmenwechsel in der Anti-Aging-Medizin: Hormesis, Target-of-Rapamycin-Komplex und erste Anti-Aging-Pillen // Paradigm Shift in Anti-Aging Medicine: Hormesis, Target of Rapamycin Complex and First Human Anti-Aging-Pills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Römmler A

    2016-01-01

    dieser Gesellschaften. Manche Maßnahmen der Lebensführung (z. B. kalorienreduzierte Ernährung, regelmäßiges Training verbessern die Altersgesundheit, dennoch benötigen viele zusätzlich Therapien gegen Krankheiten im Alter. Deren größter Risikofaktor ist „das Altern“ selbst.brIn Tiermodellen können durch bestimmte Substanzen und Lebensführung die gesunde Lebensspanne verlängert und das Altern verzögert werden. Dies wird durch physiologische Signalketten vermittelt, die evolutionär konserviert erscheinen. Im Mittelpunkt solcher Regulatoren steht der mTOR-Komplex („mechanistic Target of Rapamycin“. Er verknüpft Signale wie Energie-, Nahrungs- und Stressstatus mit grundlegenden Aktivitäten der Zelle, zu denen Proliferation versus Zellarrest sowie Reparatur versus Apoptose gehören.brDie Zellregulation auf solche Signale bzw. Stressoren erfolgt nicht linear, sondern biphasisch (U-förmig, glockenförmig als hormetisches Prinzip. Demnach führen milde Stress-Dosen zunächst zur Aktivierung von Reparatursystemen, womit sich die Zelle an solche „giftigen“ Reize adaptiert und widerstandsfähiger wird. Erst bei höheren Reizen kommt es zum Umkehreffekt und zu toxischer Schädigung. „Hormesis“ beschreibt plausibel die in Modellorganismen beobachteten Anti-Aging-Effekte solcher milden Reize, die sich durch verlängerte Lebensspanne bei verminderter Krankheitsinzidenz (Diabetes mellitus, Karzinome, Demenz auszeichnen.brEinige natürliche mTOR-Inhibitoren sind für humane Anwendungen bereits verfügbar. Hierzu zählen Resveratrol, Rapamycin (Sirolimus und Metformin, die von Bakterien, Pilzen oder Pflanzen jeweils als „Giftstoffe“ zur Abwehr von Fressfeinden gebildet werden. Erste Humandaten bei Diabetikern unter Metformin und bei Älteren mit Immunseneszenz unter Rapamycin zeigen bereits Anti-Aging-Effekte, was neue Perspektiven für die Altersmedizin eröffnet.

  1. Ενδείξεις για τη διάρκεια των χερσαίων ταξιδιών και μετακινήσεων στο Βυζάντιο (6ος-11ος αιώνας

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ι. ΔΗΜΗΤΡΟΥΚΑΣ

    1998-09-01

    üstigen Wanderers";;; nahekamen (40-50 km. Mit diesem technischen Begriff wird die größte Tagesleistung eines Fußwanderers bezeichnet, der ohne Gepäck reist. Briefträger und kleine Gruppen legten pro Tag 60 bis 100 km zurück, während Depeschenträger und die übrigen Beamten der Staatspost dank dem Gebrauch von robusten, in den einzelnen Stationen befindlichen Pferden noch höhere und bisweilen Rekordzeiten erreichen konnten. Bei der Beurteilung der Zuverlässigkeit entsprechender Informationen muß man sehr vorsichtig vorgehen, da ihre Zeitangaben manchmal übertrieben und von der Aura des Wunderbaren umwoben sind. Im relativ langen Zeitraum, der uns hier interessiert, sind zwei Blütezeiten des byzantinischen Verkehrswesens zu unterscheiden: Die erste reicht bis in die 70er Jahre des 6. Jh.s und hängt mit der Perfektion des römischen cursus publicus eng zusammen, die zweite umfaßt das 9., 10. und 11. Jh. und fällt mit einer Neugliederung der Staatspost als Δημόσιος Δρόμος zeitlich zusammen. Diese Entwicklung ist klar an den Gegebenheiten zu erkennen, die den Verkehr auf einem  bestimmten Verkehrsader, nämlich der Via Egnatia, betreffen. Im 10. Jh. benötigte man ungefähr 25. Tage, um sie zu befahren; etwas besser waren die Reiseleistungen auf derselben Straße im 6. Jh., wie die Reisen des Briefträgers Paulinus und des agens in rebus Eulogius zeigen können. Dies ist darauf zurückzuführen, daß nach der Krise der sog. ";;;dunklen Jahrhunderte";;;, die auch als Krise des byzantinischen Verkehrswesens verstanden werden muß, die technische Perfektion der alten römischen Reichs-straßen trotz anzunehmender Reparaturen nie gänzlich wiederhergestellt werden konnte. Manche Indizien sprechen dafür, daß sich in der Zeit der Krise die Reisegeschwindigkeit verschlechterte, was mit der Verschlechterung des Straßenzustandes, der allgemeinen Unsicherheit und der Benützung von langen Umwegen (z. B. zwischen Italien und Byzanz und zwischen Byzanz und dem

  2. Groundwater flow reference model of the Meuse/Haute-Marne region: implications on performance analysis of high and intermediate level and long lived radwaste repository in clay formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benabderrahmane, H.; Plas, F.; Yven, B.; Cornaton, F.; Perrochet, P.; Kerrou, J.; Stucki, J.; Caloz, P.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. An integrated multi-scale hydrogeological conceptual model of the Paris basin and the Meuse/Haute-Marne sector was developed to study the groundwater flow and solute transport behaviour in the multi-layered aquifer system and around the Callovo-Oxfordian clay formation as potential host for the French high and intermediate level and long lived radioactive waste. The Paris basin system (200000 km 2 ) consists of 27 aquiferous and semi-permeable (aquitard) hydrogeological units from Trias to Quaternary affected by 80 regional faults. It produces boundary conditions to the refined aquifer system of the 250 km 2 Meuse/Haute-Marne site, which includes 27 layers from Trias to Portlandian. The Callovo-Oxfordian clay formation is located at a mean depth of 500 m, with a minimum thickness of 130 m and hydraulic conductivity values of the order of 10-14 m/s. The numerical steady-state flow solution is calculated on a finite element mesh of about 3 million 2-D and 3-D linear elements (GEOS-CHYN 2009). At the top surface, the mesh refinement (250 m to 50 m) is locally constrained by the fault lineaments and the river network. At depth, it takes into account the 10 m to 500 m throw of the faults and the vertical flow through semi-permeable units. Triangular elements are used to represent a top surface layer that includes the weathered part of the outcropping formations, and quadrangular elements allow for the representation of the faults planes at depth. The layers are discretized into 6-nodded wedge elements, while 4-nodded tetrahedrons and 5-nodded pyramids are used to handle the pinching and the outcrop of the layers. The flow boundary conditions and source-sink terms are: - Specified hydraulic heads (Dirichlet) along the rivers and elsewhere on the top surface inflow fluxes (Neumann) derived from hydrological balance (with a mean inflow of 240 mm/year). - Specified hydraulic heads (Dirichlet) at the Manche coast side. - No

  3. Managing our Nuclear Waste: Choosing Safety and Sustainable Development. Proceedings of the European Forum 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Claude; SCHNEITER, Jean-Louis; Lamoureux, Francois; ); Haug, Peter; Flueler, Thomas; Bouzon, Jean-Luc; Carlsson, Torsten; DEMET, Michel; Marsily, Ghislain de; Gadbois, Serge; Gatignol, Claude; Hooft, Evelyn; Jordan Cizelj, Romana; Rollinger, Francois; Bataille, Christian; Shaver, Kathryn; Linkohr, Rolf; Castellan, Angelo; Collard, Daniel; Devezeaux, Jean-Guy; Dose, Francois; Dupraz, Bernard; Gonnot, Francois-Michel; Leclere, Robert; Pradel, Philippe; Webster, Simon; ); Herzog, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    , professor of geology, member of CNE, Academy of Sciences and Academy of Technologies, Serge Gadbois, sociologist, member of Mutadis and COWAM, Claude Gatignol, Manche representative at the French Parliament, member of OPECST, Evelyn Hooft, ONDRAF, Belgium; Romana Jordan Cizelj, Member of the European Parliament, Slovenia, Francois Rollinger, CFDT - CSSIN. 4 - Audition: Christian Bataille, Nord representative at the French Parliament, member of OPECST, Kathryn Shaver, Head of NWMO, Canada. 5 - 2. round table 'Research laboratories and disposal sites: opportunities for dynamics based on sustainable development' (Chairman: Rolf Linkohr, nuclear physicist, Head of C.E.R.E.S. (DE)). The idea is to increase awareness of the fact that our system of production is tending towards eco-production. The nuclear industry has been a pioneer in this respect, by developing new technologies. In fact, the management and storage of waste is a very high-tech industry which can create a range of businesses with added value e.g. storage, safety etc. Moreover, the producers of waste 'have other expertise' which can be called upon by 'departements' that have agreed to the siting of such disposal sites, using the expertise in a way that takes account of the 'departement's' specific advantages (biomass from farming and forestry, control of energy requirements for small businesses etc.). This presupposes that all local and industrial stakeholders will shoulder their responsibilities and make a commitment, along with the local people, to create new training and businesses in the area concerned. A number of questions will be looked at in detail: - the social and environmental responsibility of waste producers: the technologies and expertise that should be used to further sustainable development (nuclear safety and security, bio-fuels, control of energy demands etc.) - partnerships in contracts of agreed objectives; the involvement of all players; the issue of public/private sector partnerships to fund

  4. National congress of radiation protection - SFRP 2005; Congres National de Radioprotection - SFRP 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagroye, I [Bordeaux Univ., Lab. de Bioelectromagnetisme de l' EPHE, Lab. PIOM, ENSCPB, 33 (France); Gonzague, A [EDF, Centre d' appui du parc en exploitation, Groupe prevention des risques environnement, 93 - Saint-Denis (France); Ammerich, M [Direction Generale de la Surete Nucleaire et de la radioprotection (DGSNR), 75 - Paris (France); Blanc, D; Lecomte, J F; Boucher, D; Boucher, D; Averbeck, D; Gourmelon, P; Barbey, P; Bourguignon, M; Cordoliani, Y S; Dutrillaux, B; Radecki, J J; Schieber, C; Cosset, J M; Lecomte, J F; Lochard, J; Metivier, H; Sugier, A; Tirmarche, M; Aurengo, A; Lamartine, J; Martin, M; Mallard, C; Malfoy, B; Ugolin, N; Chevillard, S; Schlumberger, M; Laurier, D; White-Koning, M L; Hemon, D; Tirmarche, M; Jougla, E; Clavel, J; Miccoli, L; Barber, R; Angulo, J F; Dubrova, Y E; Le Gall, B; Phan, G; Grillon, G; Rouit, E; Benech, H; Fattal, E; Deverre, J R; Legros, A; Beuter, A; Verrier, A; Magne, I; Souques, M; Lambrozo, J; Schmitt, P; Roth, P; Nadi, M; Joly, L; Chapel, C; Burgain, A; Marliot, F; Cordier, E; Courant, D; Elabbassi, E B; Seze, R de

    2005-07-01

    particular contamination; C.H.A.V.I.R., an interactive simulator for radiation protection; an ALARA engineering commune to the operating reactors; evolution of the radiological zoning and monitoring rules associated on the Cogema la Hague facility; an ambitious project for the nuclear park of EDF power plants : the purification project and its implementation for the Chinon B2 reactor - 2004); the eighth session concerns the environmental exposures and their consequences with the following presentations ( the concept of radioecological sensitivity and its interest in the risk management; phenomenal and analytical interpretation of the rain-deposit relationship used for the building of cesium 137 deposits in France consecutively to the Chernobyl accident; study of radioactivity source terms and transfer from medical origin in the purification network of the town of Toulouse; natural and artificial radioactivity in some marine species in manche. Case of polonium and plutonium alpha emitters. Synthesis of data acquired in the north Cotentin since 1990. elements of comparison; the role of local commissions of information (C.L.I.) in the follow up of release and monitoring of nuclear facilities); the ninth session concerns the dosimetry; the tenth session is divided in two parts radiation protection in accidental situations and radiation protection in post accidental situations with their respective presentations as follow ( evaluation of the dispersion of an aero contaminant in a ventilated area in field near an accidental source of emissions; study of the containment efficiency by gloveboxes in functioning accidental situations; the radiation protection and health; study by R.P.E. of the response of different materials in mixed field ( gamma, neutrons), application to the dosimetry reconstruction of an accident; nuclear or radiological events: organisation of medical intervention; and rehabilitation of life conditions in the contaminated territories: the contribution of

  5. Epidemiological study around La Hague

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    cases for 23 expected cases for the period 1978-1992). It confirms that in the Beaumont La hague district a numerical excess of leukemia cases is observed during the period 1978-1992 (4 observed cases for 1.4 expected cases), at the limit to be significant. The report refutes any cause-effect relationship between the beaches frequenting and the cancers. The Souleau commission refutes the causality suggested by J.F.Viel by leaning on the evaluation of facility neighbouring populations exposure: these increased qualified evaluations (by the exploiting facilities), if they were confirmed, should not lead to an increase of leukemia cases, taken into account what it is known about the relation between exposure dose: risk to develop a cancer. The Souleau commission recommends to complete the study and to monitor how does evolve the excess detected in the Beaumont-La hague district, this mission will be realized by the Professor Spira for the years 1993-1998. The group of M. Sugier, director at the Institute of Protection and Nuclear Safety is given the mission to study these evaluations. The results of the mission realized by the Professor Spira for the period 1993-1997 does not bring to the fore a significant excess of leukemia cases. It recommends a systematic surveillance of leukemia and cancers in the Manche department. Moreover, the Professor Spira recommends that several epidemiology studies (six studies for a period of three years each) to precise the causes of the leukemia in North Cotentin. The results of the group of M. Sugier give the level of the radio-induced risk of leukemia coming from the nuclear facilities is 600 times lower than the natural radioactivity: the number of cases attributed to the complete radioactive sources exposure, for the population between 0 to 24 years old, and who lived in the Beaumont-la hague county during the period 1978-1996 is estimated to .83 cases whom 0.0014 cases are attributed to the nuclear facilities release exposure. (N.C.)

  6. La science comme pratique d’intégration dans la société des princes. Les Grimaldi de Monaco et la curiosité savante (xviie–xviiie siècle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Fouilleron

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Jusque-là seigneur de Monaco, Honoré II (1597-1662 prend, en 1612, le titre de prince. En 1641, il se place sous la protection du roi de France qui confirme, par le traité de Péronne, sa souveraineté. Parallèlement à son effort d’affirmation politique, il s’attache à intégrer la société européenne des princes en adoptant les pratiques culturelles de la distinction monarchique.Souverains à Monaco et grands aristocrates en France, les Grimaldi constituent, au xviie siècle, des cabinets de curiosités. Miroirs de souveraineté, substituts de regalia ou de mirabilia, ces objets rares et précieux publient l’éminence de la dynastie aux yeux des visiteurs de leurs palais, en particulier des voyageurs savants en route vers l’Italie. La qualité de ces derniers en fait des hôtes choyés par les princes. Même si certains, comme le mathématicien Bernouilli ou l’astronome Cassini, n’ont qu’une vision rapide et lointaine de la Principauté, d’autres, comme le géologue Saussure, le naturaliste Millin ou le médecin botaniste Fodéré, usent de leur regard de spécialistes pour décrire les spécificités du petit État dans leur discipline. Certains s’arrêtent, comme le père jésuite Laval, en 1719, pour faire des expérimentations devant le prince Antoine Ier (1661-1731, qui, dans sa bibliothèque, conserve des outils de géométrie. Amateur d’art et esprit éclairé, Jacques Ier (1689-1751 achète, quant à lui, des instruments du cabinet de Bonnier de La Mosson. La provenance prestigieuse de ces objets distingue et sanctionne sa curiosité. À la fin du xviiie siècle, la science devient « utile » et objet de gouvernement. Honoré III (1720-1795 commande des mémoires sur la culture du mûrier. Il fait venir de façon précoce des chevaux anglais pour améliorer la race normande et recourt à l’expertise d’un agronome d’outre-Manche pour mettre en valeur ses terres. À Monaco, il fait évaluer par

  7. National congress of radiation protection - SFRP 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagroye, I.; Gonzague, A.; Ammerich, M.; Blanc, D.; Lecomte, J.F.; Boucher, D.; Boucher, D.; Averbeck, D.; Gourmelon, P.; Barbey, P.; Bourguignon, M.; Cordoliani, Y.S.; Dutrillaux, B.; Radecki, J.J.; Schieber, C.; Cosset, J.M.; Lecomte, J.F.; Lochard, J.; Metivier, H.; Sugier, A.; Tirmarche, M.; Aurengo, A.; Lamartine, J.; Martin, M.; Mallard, C.; Malfoy, B.; Ugolin, N.; Chevillard, S.; Schlumberger, M.; Laurier, D.; White-Koning, M.L.; Hemon, D.; Tirmarche, M.; Jougla, E.; Clavel, J.; Miccoli, L.; Barber, R.; Angulo, J.F.; Dubrova, Y.E.; Le Gall, B.; Phan, G.; Grillon, G.; Rouit, E.; Benech, H.; Fattal, E.; Deverre, J.R.; Legros, A.; Beuter, A.; Verrier, A.; Magne, I.; Souques, M.; Lambrozo, J.; Schmitt, P.; Roth, P.; Nadi, M.; Joly, L.; Chapel, C.; Burgain, A.; Marliot, F.; Cordier, E.; Courant, D.; Elabbassi, E.B.; Seze, R. de

    2005-01-01

    contamination; C.H.A.V.I.R., an interactive simulator for radiation protection; an ALARA engineering commune to the operating reactors; evolution of the radiological zoning and monitoring rules associated on the Cogema la Hague facility; an ambitious project for the nuclear park of EDF power plants : the purification project and its implementation for the Chinon B2 reactor - 2004); the eighth session concerns the environmental exposures and their consequences with the following presentations ( the concept of radioecological sensitivity and its interest in the risk management; phenomenal and analytical interpretation of the rain-deposit relationship used for the building of cesium 137 deposits in France consecutively to the Chernobyl accident; study of radioactivity source terms and transfer from medical origin in the purification network of the town of Toulouse; natural and artificial radioactivity in some marine species in manche. Case of polonium and plutonium alpha emitters. Synthesis of data acquired in the north Cotentin since 1990. elements of comparison; the role of local commissions of information (C.L.I.) in the follow up of release and monitoring of nuclear facilities); the ninth session concerns the dosimetry; the tenth session is divided in two parts radiation protection in accidental situations and radiation protection in post accidental situations with their respective presentations as follow ( evaluation of the dispersion of an aero contaminant in a ventilated area in field near an accidental source of emissions; study of the containment efficiency by gloveboxes in functioning accidental situations; the radiation protection and health; study by R.P.E. of the response of different materials in mixed field ( gamma, neutrons), application to the dosimetry reconstruction of an accident; nuclear or radiological events: organisation of medical intervention; and rehabilitation of life conditions in the contaminated territories: the contribution of radiation protection

  8. Novel concepts and strategies in anticancer metallodrug development : towards oral activity, peptide conjugation and mass spectrometric applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, S.

    2013-07-01

    including top-down electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Mass spectrometry is an invaluable tool in the analysis of molecular interactions between metallodrugs and biomolecules, such as DNA or proteins and their constituents. Furthermore, the molecular reactivity may give insight into the mode of action of a particular metallodrug or family of metallodrugs. Within the frame of this Ph.D. thesis, mass spectrometric techniques have been used to characterize the reactivity of representative (thio)pyr(id)onato RuII–p-cymene metallodrugs towards amino acids, nucleotides and proteins and an inverse correlation was found between extent of protein binding and antiproliferative activity, at least for these families of metallodrugs. Furthermore, the analysis of metallation sites of metallodrugs on proteins by mass spectrometric methods poses significant challenges in many cases due to low adduct detection efficiencies. Top-down mass spectrometric analysis is a promising approach to determine oxaliplatin binding sites on ubiquitin and different fragmentation techniques were investigated with the combination of higher energy C-trap dissociation (HCD) and electron transfer dissociation (ETD) tandem mass spectrometry yielding the highest information content. This approach led to the confirmation of methionine-1 as the primary and histidine-68 as the secondary binding site. (author) [German] Manche auf Ruthenium und Osmium als Zentralatomen basierende Koordinationsverbindungen haben sich als vielversprechende tumorhemmende Wirkstoffkandidaten erwiesen. Derzeit stellen organometallische RuII und OsII Komplexverbindungen—durch einen η6-koordinierenden Arenliganden stabilisiert—die bis dato modernste Forschungsstrategie dar, um solche Wirkstoffe zu erhalten. Im Rahmen dieser Dissertation wurden neuartige, tumorhemmende RuII– und OsII–Aren Verbindungen entdeckt und in Bezug auf ihre molekularen Wechselwirkungen mit Biomolekülen untersucht. Letzteres wurde vorab

  9. Dum lucet - bibamus sodales. Ob und wie wir Archäologen die Alten verstehen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Mikl Curk

    2004-12-01

    -Schälchens, welches uns nur durch eine Publikation bekannt ist (Mratschek 1987, könnte aber den Trinker - ob er schon ein Neusiedler aus Norditalien kommend oder ein Einheimischer, welcher das Schälchen zur Gästegabe bekommen hat, war - direkter ansprechen. Mit Bleiglasur glasierte Ware trägt zum Teil im Reliefdekor noch naturgetreu abgebildete Efeu- und Weinreben-Ranken, die aber bald größtenteils stilisiert werden. Manches Gefäß von dieser Sorte wurde schon in den provinziellen Werkstätten hergestellt, in der ersten Phase allerdings als Modellarbeit der italischen (oder in Italien ausgebildeten Meister. Das beweisen sehr klar die Unterschiede an der Ausarbeitung, wenn man die Gegenstände aus Poetovio z.B. mit denen aus Carnuntum vergleicht. Aus Norditalien stammt jedenfalls auch eine Zahl der Gesichtbecher, besonders derjenigen, die als Grabbeigabe in Emona ausgegraben worden sind (Brathwaite 2001; Schindler Kaudelka, Butti Ronchetti, Schneider 2000. Da aber auch in Emona ein spezifisch gearbeitetes Gefäß mit der Darstellung vom männlichen Gesicht als Graburne gedient hat, und die Scherben aus Siedlungsspuren und aus der Töpferwerkstätte in Poetovio wieder andere Eigenschaften aufweisen, würde die Autorin, was die Bestimmung solcher Gefäße betrifft, die Meinung vertreten, dass sie sowohl für den Gebrauch im Kultus als auch zum Erheitern der Tischrunde gedacht gewesen seien, wenn auch für verschiedene Umgebungen und nicht gleich in der Ausführung. Die Reihe des oben dargestellten Trinkgeschirrs stammte sozusagen ausschließlich aus dem mittelmeerländischen Kulturkreis oder aus direktem Import. Das einheimische Element schien seine Vorstellungen nicht durch naturgetreue Abbildungen an den Artefakten des täglichen Lebens kund gegeben zu haben. In den lokalen Werkstätten sind sogar direkte Nachbildungen, auch technisch so einfach, wie das bei Keramik möglich ist, kaum vorhanden. Das wird auch durch einen Topf von Poetovio (jetzt im Landesmuseum in Graz, der