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Sample records for flagellum accessory proteins

  1. Accessory Proteins at ERES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinkenberg, Rafael David

    proteins. Together these components co‐operate in cargo‐selection as well as forming, loading and releasing budding vesicles from specific regions on the membrane surface of the ER. Coat components furthermore convey vesicle targeting towards the Golgi. However, not much is known about the mechanisms...... that regulate the COPII assembly at the vesicle bud site. This thesis provides the first regulatory mechanism of COPII assembly in relation to ER‐membrane lipid‐signal recognition by the accessory protein p125A (Sec23IP). The aim of the project was to characterize p125A function by dissecting two main domains...... in the protein; a putative lipid‐associating domain termed the DDHD domain that is defined by the four amino acid motif that gives the domain its name; and a ubiquitously found domain termed Sterile α‐motif (SAM), which is mostly associated with oligomerization and polymerization. We first show, that the DDHD...

  2. Accessory Proteins at ERES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinkenberg, Rafael David

    The components of the COPII machinery, which are essential in establishing an effective Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) to Golgi transport from ER exit sites (ERES), have been identified and characterized within the last 25 years. These consist of the essential Sec12, Sec23, Sec24, Sec13, Sec31 and Sar1...... domain of p125A utilizes a stretch of positively charged residues (KGRKR) to bind lipid membranes that are enriched in Phosphatidylinositol‐4‐phosphates (PI(4)P). The specificity of the DDHD domain lipid recognition is demonstrated to be enhanced through p125A oligomerization mediated by the upstream SAM...... at a later stage of the ER export. The temperature‐dependent block of ER export is shown to cause a clear segregation of ERES composed of Sec31A, Sec23 and p125A from the known COPII‐associating ERES nucleation scaffold protein mSec16A. The temperature block furthermore causes mSec16A to collect on the ER...

  3. Accessory proteins for heterotrimeric G-proteins in the kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G-proteins play a fundamentally important role in regulating signal transduction pathways in the kidney. Accessory proteins are being identified as direct binding partners for heterotrimeric G-protein α or βγ subunits to promote more diverse mechanisms by which G-protein signaling is controlled. In some instances, accessory proteins can modulate the signaling magnitude, localization, and duration following the activation of cell membrane-associated receptors. Alternatively, accessory proteins complexed with their G-protein α or βγ subunits can promote non-canonical models of signaling activity within the cell. In this review, we will highlight the expression profile, localization and functional importance of these newly identified accessory proteins to control the function of select G-protein subunits under normal and various disease conditions observed in the kidney.

  4. The flagellum of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is required for resistance to clearance by surfactant protein A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiping Zhang

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Surfactant protein A (SP-A is an important lung innate immune protein that kills microbial pathogens by opsonization and membrane permeabilization. We investigated the basis of SP-A-mediated pulmonary clearance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa using genetically-engineered SP-A mice and a library of signature-tagged P. aeruginosa mutants. A mutant with an insertion into flgE, the gene that encodes flagellar hook protein, was preferentially cleared by the SP-A(+/+ mice, but survived in the SP-A(-/- mice. Opsonization by SP-A did not play a role in flgE clearance. However, exposure to SP-A directly permeabilized and killed the flgE mutant, but not the wild-type parental strain. P. aeruginosa strains with mutation in other flagellar genes, as well as mucoid, nonmotile isolates from cystic fibrosis patients, were also permeabilized by SP-A. Provision of the wild-type fliC gene restored the resistance to SP-A-mediated membrane permeabilization in the fliC-deficient bacteria. In addition, non-mucoid, motile revertants of CF isolates reacquired resistance to SP-A-mediated membrane permeability. Resistance to SP-A was dependent on the presence of an intact flagellar structure, and independent of flagellar-dependent motility. We provide evidence that flagellar-deficient mutants harbor inadequate amounts of LPS required to resist membrane permeabilization by SP-A and cellular lysis by detergent targeting bacterial outer membranes. Thus, the flagellum of P. aeruginosa plays an indirect but important role resisting SP-A-mediated clearance and membrane permeabilization.

  5. Helicobacter pylori: comparative genomics and structure-function analysis of the flagellum biogenesis protein HP0958

    OpenAIRE

    de Lacy Clancy, Ceara A.

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a gastric pathogen which infects ~50% of the global population and can lead to the development of gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcers and carcinoma. Genome sequencing of H. pylori revealed high levels of genetic variability; this pathogen is known for its adaptability due to mechanisms including phase variation, recombination and horizontal gene transfer. Motility is essential for efficient colonisation by H. pylori. The flagellum is a complex nanomachine which has b...

  6. Male accessory gland secretory protein polymorphism in natural ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Male accessory gland secretory protein polymorphism was analysed in natural populations of Drosophila nasuta nasuta and D. sulfurigaster neonasuta for the first time, using SDS-PAGE to score polymorphism of these proteins in 2788 individuals of D. n. nasuta and 2232 individuals of D. s. neonasuta from 12 different ...

  7. Male accessory gland secretory protein polymorphism in natural ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Male accessory gland secretory protein polymorphism was analysed in natural populations of Drosophila nasuta nasuta and. D. sulfurigaster neonasuta for the first time, using SDS-PAGE to score polymorphism of these proteins in 2788 individuals of D. n. nasuta and 2232 individuals of D. s. neonasuta from 12 different ...

  8. Antagonism of Innate Immunity by Paramyxovirus Accessory Proteins

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    Raychel Chambers

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Paramyxovirinae, a subfamily of Paramyxoviridae, are negative strand RNA viruses comprised of many important human and animal pathogens, which share a high degree of genetic and structural homology. The accessory proteins expressed from the P/V/C gene are major factors in the pathogenicity of the viruses, because of their ability to abrogate various facets of type I interferon (IFN induction and signaling. Most of the paramyxoviruses exhibit a commonality in their ability to antagonize innate immunity by blocking IFN induction and the Jak/STAT pathway. However, the manner in which the accessory proteins inhibit the pathway differs among viruses. Similarly, there are variations in the capability of the viruses to counteract intracellular detectors (RNA helicases, mda-5 and RIG-I. Furthermore, a functional specificity in the antagonism of the IFN response has been reported, suggesting that specificity in the circumvention of innate immunity restricts viral host range. Available evidence indicates that paramyxoviruses employ specific strategies to antagonize the IFN response of their specific hosts, which is one of the major factors that determine viral pathogenicity and host range.

  9. Melanocortin receptor accessory proteins in adrenal gland physiology and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoselova, T V; Jackson, D; Campbell, D C; Clark, A J L; Chan, L F

    2013-04-01

    The melanocortin receptor (MCR) family consists of five G-protein-coupled receptors (MC1R-MC5R) with diverse physiological roles. MC1R controls pigmentation, MC2R is a critical component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, MC3R and MC4R have a vital role in energy homeostasis and MC5R is involved in exocrine function. The melanocortin receptor accessory protein (MRAP) and its paralogue MRAP2 are small single-pass transmembrane proteins that have been shown to regulate MCR expression and function. In the adrenal gland, MRAP is an essential accessory factor for the functional expression of the MC2R/ACTH receptor. The importance of MRAP in adrenal gland physiology is demonstrated by the clinical condition familial glucocorticoid deficiency, where inactivating MRAP mutations account for ∼20% of cases. MRAP is highly expressed in both the zona fasciculata and the undifferentiated zone. Expression in the undifferentiated zone suggests that MRAP could also be important in adrenal cell differentiation and/or maintenance. In contrast, the role of adrenal MRAP2, which is highly expressed in the foetal gland, is unclear. The expression of MRAPs outside the adrenal gland is suggestive of a wider physiological purpose, beyond MC2R-mediated adrenal steroidogenesis. In vitro, MRAPs have been shown to reduce surface expression and signalling of all the other MCRs (MC1,3,4,5R). MRAP2 is predominantly expressed in the hypothalamus, a site that also expresses a high level of MC3R and MC4R. This raises the intriguing possibility of a CNS role for the MRAPs.

  10. Modulation of flagellum attachment zone protein FLAM3 and regulation of the cell shape in Trypanosoma brucei life cycle transitions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sunter, J.C.; Benz, C.; Andre, L.; Whipple, S.; McKean, P.G.; Gull, K.; Ginger, M. L.; Lukeš, Julius

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 128, č. 16 (2015), s. 3117-3130 ISSN 0021-9533 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032; GA MŠk LH12104 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 316304 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Trypanosomes * Morphogenesis * Flagellum attachment zone Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.706, year: 2015

  11. G protein-coupled receptor accessory proteins and signaling: pharmacogenomic insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Miles D; Cole, David E C; Jose, Pedro A; Chidiac, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The identification and characterization of the genes encoding G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and the proteins necessary for the processes of ligand binding, GPCR activation, inactivation, and receptor trafficking to the membrane are discussed in the context of human genetic disease. In addition to functional GPCR variants, the identification of genetic disruptions affecting proteins necessary to GPCR functions have provided insights into the function of these pathways. Gsα and Gβ subunit polymorphisms have been found to result in complex phenotypes. Disruptions in accessory proteins that normally modify or organize heterotrimeric G-protein coupling may also result in disease states. These include the contribution of variants of the regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) protein to hypertension; the role variants of the activator of G protein signaling (AGS) proteins to phenotypes (such as the type III AGS8 variant to hypoxia); the contribution of G protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK) proteins, such as GRK4, in disorders such as hypertension. The role of accessory proteins in GPCR structure and function is discussed in the context of genetic disorders associated with disruption of the genes that encode them. An understanding of the pharmacogenomics of GPCR and accessory protein signaling provides the basis for examining both GPCR pharmacogenetics and the genetics of monogenic disorders that result from disruption of given receptor systems.

  12. Independent Analysis of the Flagellum Surface and Matrix Proteomes Provides Insight into Flagellum Signaling in Mammalian-infectious Trypanosoma brucei*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberholzer, Michael; Langousis, Gerasimos; Nguyen, HoangKim T.; Saada, Edwin A.; Shimogawa, Michelle M.; Jonsson, Zophonias O.; Nguyen, Steven M.; Wohlschlegel, James A.; Hill, Kent L.

    2011-01-01

    The flagellum of African trypanosomes is an essential and multifunctional organelle that functions in motility, cell morphogenesis, and host-parasite interaction. Previous studies of the trypanosome flagellum have been limited by the inability to purify flagella without first removing the flagellar membrane. This limitation is particularly relevant in the context of studying flagellum signaling, as signaling requires surface-exposed proteins in the flagellar membrane and soluble signaling proteins in the flagellar matrix. Here we employ a combination of genetic and mechanical approaches to purify intact flagella from the African trypanosome, Trypanosoma brucei, in its mammalian-infectious stage. We combined flagellum purification with affinity-purification of surface-exposed proteins to conduct independent proteomic analyses of the flagellum surface and matrix fractions. The proteins identified encompass a broad range of molecular functionalities, including many predicted to function in signaling. Immunofluorescence and RNA interference studies demonstrate flagellum localization and function for proteins identified and provide insight into mechanisms of flagellum attachment and motility. The flagellum surface proteome includes many T. brucei-specific proteins and is enriched for proteins up-regulated in the mammalian-infectious stage of the parasite life-cycle. The combined results indicate that the flagellum surface presents a diverse and dynamic host-parasite interface that is well-suited for host-parasite signaling. PMID:21685506

  13. Roles of accessory proteins for heterotrimeric G-protein in the development of cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Motohiko

    2013-01-01

    Signal processing via heterotrimeric G-proteins is one of the most widely used systems for signal transfer across the cell membrane. This signaling system regulates most physiological and pathophysiological processes in mammals and is therefore the primary target of many pharmaceutical agents. The heterotrimeric G-protein signaling system includes the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), heterotrimeric G-proteins, and effectors. The G-proteins are activated by the GPCR to mediate a signal to effector molecules. However, other players in this system that regulate the activation status of heterotrimeric G-proteins independently of GPCR have been identified. Such accessory proteins for heterotrimeric G-protein can provide additional signal input to the G-protein signaling system, or may act as alternative binding partners of G-protein subunits serving as yet unknown roles in cells. It has been reported that this class of proteins is expressed in the cardiovascular system and contributes to signal integration involved in the various diseases. This review provides an overview of the current understanding of accessory proteins for heterotrimeric G-proteins in their 4 functional subsets, including guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors (GDIs), GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs), and Gβγ-interacting proteins, and discusses their roles in the development of cardiovascular diseases. Better understanding of these components may contribute new insight into the complex network of molecules governing GPCR signaling in the cardiovascular system. 

  14. Chloroquine inhibits accessory cell presentation of soluble natural and synthetic protein antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, S; Werdelin, O

    1984-01-01

    We have studied the in vitro effect of the lysosomotrophic agent, chloroquine, on the presentation of soluble protein antigens by guinea pig accessory cells. Chloroquine inhibited the capacity of antigen-pulsed accessory cells to stimulate proliferation in appropriately primed T cells. The effect...... was time- and dose-dependent. A brief treatment solely of the accessory cells with the drug compromised their ability to stimulate primed T cells in a subsequent culture provided the accessory cells were treated with chloroquine before their exposure to the antigen. These results suggest that chloroquine...... acts on an early event in the antigen handling by accessory cells. Chloroquine is a well known inhibitor of lysosomal proteolysis, and it is likely that its effect on antigen presentation is caused by an inhibition of antigen degradation....

  15. VPAC receptors: structure, molecular pharmacology and interaction with accessory proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couvineau, Alain; Laburthe, Marc

    2012-05-01

    The vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a neuropeptide with wide distribution in both central and peripheral nervous systems, where it plays important regulatory role in many physiological processes. VIP displays a large biological functions including regulation of exocrine secretions, hormone release, fetal development, immune responses, etc. VIP appears to exert beneficial effect in neuro-degenerative and inflammatory diseases. The mechanism of action of VIP implicates two subtypes of receptors (VPAC1 and VPAC2), which are members of class B receptors belonging to the super-family of GPCR. This article reviews the current knowledge regarding the structure and molecular pharmacology of VPAC receptors. The structure-function relationship of VPAC1 receptor has been extensively studied, allowing to understand the molecular basis for receptor affinity, specificity, desensitization and coupling to adenylyl cyclase. Those studies have clearly demonstrated the crucial role of the N-terminal ectodomain (N-ted) of VPAC1 receptor in VIP recognition. By using different approaches including directed mutagenesis, photoaffinity labelling, NMR, molecular modelling and molecular dynamic simulation, it has been shown that the VIP molecule interacts with the N-ted of VPAC1 receptor, which is itself structured as a 'Sushi' domain. VPAC1 receptor also interacts with a few accessory proteins that play a role in cell signalling of receptors. Recent advances in the structural characterization of VPAC receptor and more generally of class B GPCRs will lead to the design of new molecules, which could have considerable interest for the treatment of inflammatory and neuro-degenerative diseases. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  16. Melanocortin Receptor Accessory Proteins (MRAPs): Functions in the melanocortin system and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouault, Alix A J; Srinivasan, Dinesh K; Yin, Terry C; Lee, Abigail A; Sebag, Julien A

    2017-10-01

    G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are regulated by numerous proteins including kinases, G-proteins, β-arrestins and accessory proteins. Several families of GPCR accessory proteins like Receptor Activity Modifying Proteins, Receptor Transporting Proteins and Melanocortin Receptor Accessory Proteins (MRAPs) have been identified as regulator of receptor trafficking, signaling and ligand specificity. The MRAP family contains two members, MRAP1 and MRAP2, responsible for the formation of a functional ACTH receptor and for the regulation of energy homeostasis respectively. Like all known GPCR accessory proteins, MRAPs are single transmembrane proteins, however, they form a unique structure since they assemble as an anti-parallel homodimer. Moreover, the accepted idea that MRAPs are specific regulators of melanocortin receptors was recently challenged by the discovery that MRAP2 inhibits the activity of prokineticin receptors. Recent studies are starting to explain the role of the unusual structure of MRAPs and to illustrate the importance of MRAP2 for the maintenance of both energy and glucose homeostasis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Melanocortin Receptors - edited by Ya-Xiong Tao. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The Campylobacter jejuni CiaC virulence protein is secreted from the flagellum and delivered to the cytosol of host cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason eNeal-McKinney

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Acute C. jejuni-mediated disease (campylobacteriosis involves C. jejuni invasion of host epithelial cells using a set of virulence proteins known as the Campylobacter invasion antigens (Cia. The genes encoding the Cia proteins are up-regulated upon co-culture of C. jejuni with epithelial cells. One of the Cia proteins, CiaC, is required for maximal invasion of host cells by C. jejuni. Previous work has also revealed that CiaC is, in part, responsible for host cell cytoskeletal rearrangements that result in membrane ruffling. This study was performed to test the hypothesis that CiaC is delivered to the cytosol of host cells. To detect the delivery of CiaC into cultured epithelial cells, we used the adenylate cyclase domain (ACD of Bordetella pertussis CyaA as a reporter. In this study, we found that export and delivery of the C. jejuni Cia proteins into human INT 407 epithelial cells required a functional flagellar hook complex composed of FlgE, FlgK, and FlgL. Assays performed with bacterial culture supernatants supported the hypothesis that CiaC delivery requires bacteria-host cell contact. We also found that that CiaC was delivered to host cells by cell-associated (bound bacteria, as judged by experiments performed with inhibitors that specifically target the cell signaling pathways utilized by C. jejuni for cell invasion. Interestingly, the C. jejuni flgL mutant, which is incapable of exporting and delivering the Cia proteins, did not induce INT 407 cell membrane ruffles. Complementation of the flgL mutant with plasmid-encoded flgL restored the motility and membrane ruffling. These data support the hypothesis that the C. jejuni Cia proteins, which are exported from the flagellum, are delivered to the cytosol of host cells.

  18. Characterization of the Klebsiella aerogenes Urease Accessory Protein UreD in Fusion with the Maltose Binding Protein

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, Eric L.; Hausinger, Robert P.

    2010-01-01

    Assembly of the Klebsiella aerogenes urease metallocenter requires four accessory proteins, UreD, UreE, UreF, and UreG, to effectively deliver and incorporate two Ni2+ ions into the nascent active site of the urease apoprotein (UreABC). Each accessory protein has been purified and characterized with the exception of UreD due to its insolubility when it is overproduced in recombinant cells. In this study, a translational fusion was made between the maltose binding protein (MBP) and UreD, with ...

  19. Metal transfer within the Escherichia coli HypB-HypA complex of hydrogenase accessory proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Colin D; Ngu, Thanh T; Kaluarachchi, Harini; Zamble, Deborah B

    2013-09-03

    The maturation of [NiFe]-hydrogenase in Escherichia coli is a complex process involving many steps and multiple accessory proteins. The two accessory proteins HypA and HypB interact with each other and are thought to cooperate to insert nickel into the active site of the hydrogenase-3 precursor protein. Both of these accessory proteins bind metal individually, but little is known about the metal-binding activities of the proteins once they assemble together into a functional complex. In this study, we investigate how complex formation modulates metal binding to the E. coli proteins HypA and HypB. This work lead to a re-evaluation of the HypA nickel affinity, revealing a KD on the order of 10(-8) M. HypA can efficiently remove nickel, but not zinc, from the metal-binding site in the GTPase domain of HypB, a process that is less efficient when complex formation between HypA and HypB is disrupted. Furthermore, nickel release from HypB to HypA is specifically accelerated when HypB is loaded with GDP, but not GTP. These results are consistent with the HypA-HypB complex serving as a transfer step in the relay of nickel from membrane transporter to its final destination in the hydrogenase active site and suggest that this complex contributes to the metal fidelity of this pathway.

  20. Male accessory gland secretory protein polymorphism in natural ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the female genital tract, but also affect the mated female's physiology and behaviour (Ravi Ram and Ramesh 2003). As these proteins are involved in reproduction, they are under strong selection pressure (Chen 1996). Investigations for the past two decades on these proteins have revealed high levels of polymorphism ...

  1. The Natural Killer Cell Cytotoxic Function Is Modulated by HIV-1 Accessory Proteins

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    Edward Barker

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells’ major role in the control of viruses is to eliminate established infected cells. The capacity of NK cells to kill virus-infected cells is dependent on the interactions between ligands on the infected cell and receptors on the NK cell surface. Because of the importance of ligand-receptor interactions in modulating the NK cell cytotoxic response, HIV has developed strategies to regulate various NK cell ligands making the infected cell surprisingly refractory to NK cell lysis. This is perplexing because the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpr induces expression of ligands for the NK cell activating receptor, NKG2D. In addition, the accessory protein Nef removes the inhibitory ligands HLA-A and -B. The reason for the ineffective killing by NK cells despite the strong potential to eliminate infected cells is due to HIV-1 Vpu’s ability to down modulate the co-activation ligand, NTB-A, from the cell surface. Down modulation of NTB-A prevents efficient NK cell degranulation. This review will focus on the mechanisms through which the HIV-1 accessory proteins modulate their respective ligands, and its implication for NK cell killing of HIV-infected cells.

  2. Bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 accessory proteins that suppress beta interferon production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Takayuki; Takeuchi, Kenji; Gotoh, Bin

    2007-07-01

    The paramyxovirus P gene encodes accessory proteins antagonistic to interferon (IFN). Viral proteins responsible for the IFN antagonism, however, are distinct among paramyxoviruses. Here we determine bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (bPIV3) IFN antagonists that suppress IFN-beta production, and investigate the underlying molecular mechanism. Of bPIV3 P gene products, C and V proteins were found to suppress double-stranded RNA-stimulated IFN-beta production. The V protein of bPIV3 and Sendai virus in the same genus Respirovirus significantly inhibits double-stranded RNA-stimulated IFN-beta production and the IFN-beta promoter activation enhanced by overexpression of MDA5 but not RIG-I, and yet does not suppress IFN-beta production induced by TRIF, TBK1, and IKKi. The V protein of both viruses specifically binds to MDA5 but not RIG-I. These results suggest that the V protein targets MDA5 for blockage of the IFN-beta gene activation signal. On the other hand, both bPIV3 and Sendai virus C proteins modestly inhibited IFN-beta production irrespective of a species of the signaling molecules used as an inducer. Interestingly, reporter gene expression driven by various promoters was also suppressed by the C proteins irrespective of the promoter species. These results demonstrate that the target of the respirovirus C protein is undoubtedly different from that of the V protein.

  3. Making Sense of Multifunctional Proteins: Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Accessory and Regulatory Proteins and Connections to Transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, Tyler B; Binning, Jennifer M; Gross, John D; Frankel, Alan D

    2017-09-29

    Viruses are completely dependent upon cellular machinery to support replication and have therefore developed strategies to co-opt cellular processes to optimize infection and counter host immune defenses. Many viruses, including human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), encode a relatively small number of genes. Viruses with limited genetic content often encode multifunctional proteins that function at multiple stages of the viral replication cycle. In this review, we discuss the functions of HIV-1 regulatory (Tat and Rev) and accessory (Vif, Vpr, Vpu, and Nef) proteins. Each of these proteins has a highly conserved primary activity; however, numerous additional activities have been attributed to these viral proteins. We explore the possibility that HIV-1 proteins leverage their multifunctional nature to alter host transcriptional networks to elicit a diverse set of cellular responses. Although these transcriptional effects appear to benefit the virus, it is not yet clear whether they are strongly selected for during viral evolution or are a ripple effect from the primary function. As our detailed knowledge of these viral proteins improves, we will undoubtedly uncover how the multifunctional nature of these HIV-1 regulatory and accessory proteins, and in particular their transcriptional functions, work to drive viral pathogenesis.

  4. Dual Topology of the Melanocortin-2 Receptor Accessory Protein (MRAP Is Stable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary J. Maben

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available MRAP (melanocortin 2 receptor accessory protein facilitates trafficking of melanocortin 2 (MC2 receptors and is essential for ACTH binding and signaling. MRAP is a single transmembrane domain protein that forms antiparallel homodimers. These studies ask when MRAP first acquires this dual topology, whether MRAP architecture is static or stable, and whether the accessory protein undergoes rapid turnover. To answer these questions we developed a novel approach that capitalizes on the specificity of bacterial biotin ligase, which adds biotin to lysine in a short acceptor peptide sequence; the distinct mobility of MRAP protomers of opposite orientations based on their N-linked glycosylation; and the ease of identifying biotin-labeled proteins. We inserted biotin ligase acceptor peptides at the N- or C-terminal ends of MRAP and expressed the modified proteins in mammalian cells together with either cytoplasmic or endoplasmic reticulum-targeted biotin ligase. MRAP assumed dual topology early in biosynthesis in both CHO and OS3 adrenal cells. Once established, MRAP orientation was stable. Despite its conformational stability, MRAP displayed a half life of under 2 hr in CHO cells. The amount of MRAP was increased by the proteasome inhibitor MG132 and MRAP underwent ubiquitylation on lysine and other amino acids. Nonetheless, when protein synthesis was blocked with cycloheximide, MRAP was rapidly degraded even when MG132 was included and all lysines were replaced by arginines, implicating non-proteasomal degradation pathways. The results show that although MRAP does not change orientations during trafficking its synthesis and degradation are dynamically regulated.

  5. Receptor activity-modifying proteins; multifunctional G protein-coupled receptor accessory proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Debbie L; Walker, Christopher S; Gingell, Joseph J; Ladds, Graham; Reynolds, Christopher A; Poyner, David R

    2016-04-15

    Receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs) are single pass membrane proteins initially identified by their ability to determine the pharmacology of the calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR), a family B G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). It is now known that RAMPs can interact with a much wider range of GPCRs. This review considers recent developments on the structure of the complexes formed between the extracellular domains (ECDs) of CLR and RAMP1 or RAMP2 as these provide insights as to how the RAMPs direct ligand binding. The range of RAMP interactions is also considered; RAMPs can interact with numerous family B GPCRs as well as examples of family A and family C GPCRs. They influence receptor expression at the cell surface, trafficking, ligand binding and G protein coupling. The GPCR-RAMP interface offers opportunities for drug targeting, illustrated by examples of drugs developed for migraine. © 2016 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  6. The nonstructural protein 8 (nsp8) of the SARS coronavirus interacts with its ORF6 accessory protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Purnima; Gunalan, Vithiagaran; Liu Boping; Chow, Vincent T.K.; Druce, Julian; Birch, Chris; Catton, Mike; Fielding, Burtram C.; Tan, Yee-Joo; Lal, Sunil K.

    2007-01-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (SARS-CoV) caused a severe outbreak in several regions of the world in 2003. The SARS-CoV genome is predicted to contain 14 functional open reading frames (ORFs). The first ORF (1a and 1b) encodes a large polyprotein that is cleaved into nonstructural proteins (nsp). The other ORFs encode for four structural proteins (spike, membrane, nucleocapsid and envelope) as well as eight SARS-CoV-specific accessory proteins (3a, 3b, 6, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b and 9b). In this report we have cloned the predicted nsp8 gene and the ORF6 gene of the SARS-CoV and studied their abilities to interact with each other. We expressed the two proteins as fusion proteins in the yeast two-hybrid system to demonstrate protein-protein interactions and tested the same using a yeast genetic cross. Further the strength of the interaction was measured by challenging growth of the positive interaction clones on increasing gradients of 2-amino trizole. The interaction was then verified by expressing both proteins separately in-vitro in a coupled-transcription translation system and by coimmunoprecipitation in mammalian cells. Finally, colocalization experiments were performed in SARS-CoV infected Vero E6 mammalian cells to confirm the nsp8-ORF6 interaction. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the interaction between a SARS-CoV accessory protein and nsp8 and our findings suggest that ORF6 protein may play a role in virus replication

  7. Immune evasion activities of accessory proteins Vpu, Nef and Vif are conserved in acute and chronic HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlcochova, Petra; Apolonia, Luis; Kluge, Silvia F; Sridharan, Aishwarya; Kirchhoff, Frank; Malim, Michael H; Sauter, Daniel; Gupta, Ravindra K

    2015-08-01

    Heterosexual HIV-1 transmission has been identified as a genetic bottleneck and a single transmitted/founder (T/F) variant with reduced sensitivity to type I interferon initiates productive infection in most cases. We hypothesized that particularly active accessory protein(s) may confer T/F viruses with a selective advantage in establishing HIV infection. Thus, we tested vpu, vif and nef alleles from six T/F and six chronic (CC) viruses in assays for 9 immune evasion activities involving the counteraction of interferon-stimulated genes and modulation of ligands known to activate innate immune cells. All functions were highly conserved with no significant differences between T/F and CC viruses, suggesting that these accessory protein functions are important throughout the course of infection. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Characterization of the Klebsiella aerogenes urease accessory protein UreD in fusion with the maltose binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Eric L; Hausinger, Robert P

    2010-05-01

    Assembly of the Klebsiella aerogenes urease metallocenter requires four accessory proteins, UreD, UreE, UreF, and UreG, to effectively deliver and incorporate two Ni2+ ions into the nascent active site of the urease apoprotein (UreABC). Each accessory protein has been purified and characterized with the exception of UreD due to its insolubility when it is overproduced in recombinant cells. In this study, a translational fusion was made between the maltose binding protein (MBP) and UreD, with the resulting MBP-UreD found to be soluble in Escherichia coli cell extracts and able to complement a DeltaureD-urease cluster in this host microorganism. MBP-UreD was purified as a large multimer (> 670 kDa) that bound approximately 2.5 Ni2+ ions (K(d) of approximately 50 microM, where K(d) is the dissociation constant) per UreD protomer according to equilibrium dialysis measurements. Zn2+ directly competes with 10-fold higher affinity (approximately 4 Zn2+ ions per protomer; K(d) of 5 microM) for the Ni2+ binding sites. MBP pulldown experiments demonstrated that the UreD domain of MBP-UreD formed in vivo complexes with UreF, UreG, UreF plus UreG, or UreABC when these proteins were overproduced in the same E. coli cells. In addition, a UreABC-(MBP-UreD)-UreFG complex was observed in cells producing all urease components. Comparative in vitro binding experiments with purified proteins demonstrated an approximate 1:1 binding ratio between the UreD domain of MBP-UreD and the UreF domain of the UreEF fusion, only weak or transient interaction between MBP-UreD and UreG, and no binding with UreABC. These studies are the first to describe the properties of purified UreD, and they extend our understanding of its binding partners both in vitro and in the cell.

  9. Isolation and killing of candidate chronic myeloid leukemia stem cells by antibody targeting of IL-1 receptor accessory protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Järås, Marcus; Johnels, Petra; Hansen, Nils Gunder

    2010-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is genetically characterized by the Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome, formed through a reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22 and giving rise to the constitutively active tyrosine kinase P210 BCR/ABL1. Therapeutic strategies aiming for a cure of CML...... will require full eradication of Ph chromosome-positive (Ph(+)) CML stem cells. Here we used gene-expression profiling to identify IL-1 receptor accessory protein (IL1RAP) as up-regulated in CML CD34(+) cells and also in cord blood CD34(+) cells as a consequence of retroviral BCR/ABL1 expression. To test...

  10. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder associated with KChIP1 rs1541665 in Kv channels accessory proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Fen Yuan

    Full Text Available Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is an early onset childhood neurodevelopmental disorder with high heritability. A number of genetic risk factors and environment factors have been implicated in the pathogenesis of ADHD. Genes encoding for subtypes of voltage-dependent K channels (Kv and accessory proteins to these channels have been identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS of ADHD. We conducted a two-stage case-control study to investigate the associations between five key genes (KChIP4, KChIP1, DPP10, FHIT, and KCNC1 and the risk of developing ADHD. In the discovery stage comprising 256 cases and 372 controls, KChIP1 rs1541665 and FHIT rs3772475 were identified; they were further genotyped in the validation stage containing 328cases and 431 controls.KChIP1 rs1541665 showed significant association with a risk of ADHD at both stages, with CC vs TT odds ratio (OR = 1.961, 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.366-2.497, in combined analyses (P-FDR = 0.007. Moreover, we also found rs1541665 involvement in ADHD-I subtype (OR (95% CI = 2.341(1.713, 3.282, and Hyperactive index score (P = 0.005 in combined samples.Intriguingly, gene-environmental interactions analysis consistently revealed the potential interactionsof rs1541665 collaboratingwith maternal stress pregnancy (Pmul = 0.021 and blood lead (Padd = 0.017 to modify ADHD risk. In conclusion, the current study provides evidence that genetic variants of Kv accessory proteins may contribute to the susceptibility of ADHD.Further studies with different ethnicitiesare warranted to produce definitive conclusions.

  11. Luxury at a Cost? Recombinant Mouse Hepatitis Viruses Expressing the Accessory Hemagglutinin Esterase Protein Display Reduced Fitness In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissenberg, A.; Vrolijk, M. M.; van Vliet, A. L. W.; Langereis, M. A.; de Groot-Mijnes, J. D. F.; Rottier, P. J. M.; de Groot, R. J.

    2005-01-01

    Group 2 coronaviruses encode an accessory envelope glycoprotein species, the hemagglutinin esterase (HE), which possesses sialate-O-acetylesterase activity and which, presumably, promotes virus spread and entry in vivo by facilitating reversible virion attachment to O-acetylated sialic acids. While HE may provide a strong selective advantage during natural infection, many laboratory strains of mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) fail to produce the protein. Apparently, their HE genes were inactivated during cell culture adaptation. For this report, we have studied the molecular basis of this phenomenon. By using targeted RNA recombination, we generated isogenic recombinant MHVs which differ exclusively in their expression of HE and produce either the wild-type protein (HE+), an enzymatically inactive HE protein (HE0), or no HE at all. HE expression or the lack thereof did not lead to gross differences in in vitro growth properties. Yet the expression of HE was rapidly lost during serial cell culture passaging. Competition experiments with mixed infections revealed that this was not due to the enzymatic activity: MHVs expressing HE+ or HE0 propagated with equal efficiencies. During the propagation of recombinant MHV-HE+, two types of spontaneous mutants accumulated. One produced an anchorless HE, while the other had a Gly-to-Trp substitution at the predicted C-terminal residue of the HE signal peptide. Neither mutant incorporated HE into virion particles, suggesting that wild-type HE reduces the in vitro propagation efficiency, either at the assembly stage or at a postassembly level. Our findings demonstrate that the expression of “luxury” proteins may come at a fitness penalty. Apparently, under natural conditions the costs of maintaining HE are outweighed by the benefits. PMID:16306576

  12. Protein and Peptide Composition of Male Accessory Glands of Apis mellifera Drones Investigated by Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorshkov, Vladimir; Blenau, Wolfgang; Koeniger, Gudrun; Römpp, Andreas; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Spengler, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    In honeybees, reproductive females usually mate early in their life with more than 10 males in free flight, often within 10 minutes, and then store male gametes for up to five years. Because of the extreme polyandry and mating in free flight special adaptations in males are most likely. We present here the results of an investigation of the protein content of four types of male reproductive glands from the Western honeybee (Apis mellifera) drone, namely seminal vesicles (secretion in ejaculate), as well as bulbus, cornua and mucus glands (secretions for the mating plug). Using high resolution and accuracy mass spectrometry and a combination of database searching and de novo sequencing techniques it was possible to identify 50 different proteins in total, inside all mentioned glands, except in the mucus gland. Most of the proteins are unique for a specific gland type, only one of them (H9KEY1/ATP synthase subunit O) was found in three glands, and 7 proteins were found in two types of glands. The identified proteins represent a wide variety of biological functions and can be assigned to several physiological classes, such as protection, energy generation, maintaining optimal conditions, associated mainly with vesicula seminalis; signaling, cuticle proteins, icarpin and apolipoproteins located mainly in the bulbus and cornua glands; and some other classes. Most of the discovered proteins were not found earlier during investigation of semen, seminal fluid and tissue of reproductive glands of the bee drone. Moreover, we provide here the origin of each protein. Thus, the presented data might shed light on the role of each reproductive gland. PMID:25955586

  13. Protein and Peptide Composition of Male Accessory Glands of Apis mellifera Drones Investigated by Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorshkov, Vladimir; Blenau, Wolfgang; Koeniger, Gudrun; Römpp, Andreas; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Spengler, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    In honeybees, reproductive females usually mate early in their life with more than 10 males in free flight, often within 10 minutes, and then store male gametes for up to five years. Because of the extreme polyandry and mating in free flight special adaptations in males are most likely. We present here the results of an investigation of the protein content of four types of male reproductive glands from the Western honeybee (Apis mellifera) drone, namely seminal vesicles (secretion in ejaculate), as well as bulbus, cornua and mucus glands (secretions for the mating plug). Using high resolution and accuracy mass spectrometry and a combination of database searching and de novo sequencing techniques it was possible to identify 50 different proteins in total, inside all mentioned glands, except in the mucus gland. Most of the proteins are unique for a specific gland type, only one of them (H9KEY1/ATP synthase subunit O) was found in three glands, and 7 proteins were found in two types of glands. The identified proteins represent a wide variety of biological functions and can be assigned to several physiological classes, such as protection, energy generation, maintaining optimal conditions, associated mainly with vesicula seminalis; signaling, cuticle proteins, icarpin and apolipoproteins located mainly in the bulbus and cornua glands; and some other classes. Most of the discovered proteins were not found earlier during investigation of semen, seminal fluid and tissue of reproductive glands of the bee drone. Moreover, we provide here the origin of each protein. Thus, the presented data might shed light on the role of each reproductive gland.

  14. Iron oxide nanoparticles modulate heat shock proteins and organ specific markers expression in mice male accessory organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundarraj, Kiruthika; Raghunath, Azhwar; Panneerselvam, Lakshmikanthan; Perumal, Ekambaram

    2017-02-15

    With increased industrial utilization of iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe 2 O 3 -NPs), concerns on adverse reproductive health effects following exposure have been immensely raised. In the present study, the effects of Fe 2 O 3 -NPs exposure in the seminal vesicle and prostate gland were studied in mice. Mice were exposed to two different doses (25 and 50 mg/kg) of Fe 2 O 3 -NPs along with the control and analyzed the expressions of heat shock proteins (HSP60, HSP70 and HSP90) and organ specific markers (Caltrin, PSP94, and SSLP1). Fe 2 O 3 -NPs decreased food consumption, water intake, and organo-somatic index in mice with elevated iron levels in serum, urine, fecal matter, seminal vesicle and prostate gland. FTIR spectra revealed alterations in the functional groups of biomolecules on Fe 2 O 3 -NPs treatment. These changes are accompanied by increased lactate dehydrogenase levels with decreased total protein and fructose levels. The investigation of oxidative stress biomarkers demonstrated a significant increase in reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl content and glutathione peroxidase with a concomitant decrement in the glutathione and ascorbic acid in the male accessory organs which confirmed the induction of oxidative stress. An increase in NADPH-oxidase-4 with a decrease in glutathione-S-transferase was observed in the seminal vesicle and prostate gland of the treated groups. An alteration in HSP60, HSP70, HSP90, Caltrin, PSP94, and SSLP1 expression was also observed. Moreover, accumulation of Fe 2 O 3 -NPs brought pathological changes in the seminal vesicle and prostate gland of treated mice. These findings provide evidence that Fe 2 O 3 -NPs could be an environmental risk factor for reproductive disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Role of Human DNA Polymerase and Its Accessory Proteins in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-04-01

    cells after treatment with 30 14M N’-methyl N’nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) and 100 ,ug/ml methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). Different time points were...protein partners, the question of whether it reached 0.3. After addition of isopropyl -l-thio-fl-D-galacto- contains sites for recognizing other peptide

  16. CGRP Receptor Family and Accessory Protein Localization: Implications for Predicted Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.R. Oliver

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP, adrenomedullin, amylin, and calcitonin are functionally related neuropeptides. Certain of these peptides mediate their action through receptors which have common components, such as the receptor activity modifying proteins (RAMPs and CGRP-receptor component protein, as well as possibly through other distinct receptors. Specifically, the molecular pharmacology of CGRP and adrenomedullin is determined by coexpression of one of three receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs with calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR. Additionally, through formation of another hetero-oligomer, RAMPs also govern the pharmacology of the calcitonin receptor, which in association with RAMP1 or RAMP3, binds amylin with high affinity. We have used multiple approaches to discern the regional and cellular expression of these various receptor components and binding sites for the above neuropeptides in multiple species and in different tissues. Techniques applied include in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry and radioligand autoradiography. These data allow further understanding of both the complexity of receptor-receptor component and receptor-ligand interactions in vivo. Interestingly, these localization data suggest that RAMPs may interact with receptors additional to those already identified for the CGRP family and may be involved in binding innate neuropeptides or other neurotransmitters which are not members of the calcitonin gene-related peptide fam

  17. Functions of replication factor C and proliferating-cell nuclear antigen: Functional similarity of DNA polymerase accessory proteins from human cells and bacteriophage T4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsurimoto, Toshiki; Stillman, B.

    1990-01-01

    The proliferating-cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and the replication factors A and C (RF-A and RF-C) are cellular proteins essential for complete elongation of DNA during synthesis from the simian virus 40 origin of DNA replication in vitro. All three cooperate to stimulate processive DNA synthesis by DNA polymerase δ on a primed single-stranded M13 template DNA and as such can be categorized as DNA polymerase accessory proteins. Biochemical analyses with highly purified RF-C and PCNA have demonstrated functions that are completely analogous to the functions of bacteriophage T4 DNA polymerase accessory proteins. A primer-template-specific DNA binding activity and a DNA-dependent ATPase activity copurified with the multisubunit protein RF-C and are similar to the functions of the phage T4 gene 44/62 protein complex. Furthermore, PCNA stimulated the RF-C ATPase activity and is, therefore, analogous to the phage T4 gene 45 protein, which stimulates the ATPase function of the gene 44/62 protein complex. Indeed, some primary sequence similarities between human PCNA and the phage T4 gene 45 protein could be detected. These results demonstrate a striking conservation of the DNA replication apparatus in human cells and bacteriophage T4

  18. Parasites in motion: flagellum-driven cell motility in African trypanosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kent L.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Motility of the sleeping sickness parasite, Trypanosoma brucei, impacts disease transmission and pathogenesis. Trypanosome motility is driven by a flagellum that harbors a canonical 9 + 2 axoneme, together with trypanosome-specific elaborations. Trypanosome flagellum biology and motility have been the object of intense research over the last two years. These studies have led to the discovery of a novel form of motility, termed social motility, and provided revision of long-standing models for cell propulsion. Recent work has also uncovered novel structural features and motor proteins associated with the flagellar apparatus and has identified candidate signaling molecules that are predicted to regulate flagellar motility. Together with earlier inventories of flagellar proteins from proteomic and genomic studies, the stage is now set to move forward with functional studies to elucidate molecular mechanisms and investigate parasite motility in the context of host-parasite interactions. PMID:20591724

  19. Building a flagellum in biological outer space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis D. B. Evans

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Flagella, the rotary propellers on the surface of bacteria, present a paradigm for how cells build and operate complex molecular ‘nanomachines’. Flagella grow at a constant rate to extend several times the length of the cell, and this is achieved by thousands of secreted structural subunits transiting through a central channel in the lengthening flagellum to incorporate into the nascent structure at the distant extending tip. A great mystery has been how flagella can assemble far outside the cell where there is no conventional energy supply to fuel their growth. Recent work published by Evans et al.[Nature (2013 504: 287-290], has gone some way towards solving this puzzle, presenting a simple and elegant transit mechanism in which growth is powered by the subunits themselves as they link head-to-tail in a chain that is pulled through the length of the growing structure to the tip. This new mechanism answers an old question and may have resonance in other assembly processes.

  20. Identification of an O-linked repetitive glycan chain of the polar flagellum flagellin of Azospirillum brasilense Sp7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyakov, Alexei Ye; Burygin, Gennady L; Arbatsky, Nikolai P; Shashkov, Alexander S; Selivanov, Nikolai Yu; Matora, Larisa Yu; Knirel, Yuriy A; Shchyogolev, Sergei Yu

    2012-11-01

    This is the first report to have identified an O-linked repetitive glycan in bacterial flagellin, a structural protein of the flagellum. Studies by sugar analysis, Smith degradation, (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry showed that the glycan chains of the polar flagellum flagellin of the plant-growth-promoting rhizobacterium Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 are represented by a polysaccharide with a molecular mass of 7.7 kDa, which has a branched tetrasaccharide repeating unit of the following structure: Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. The need to accessorize: Molecular roles of HTLV-1 p30 and HTLV-2 p28 accessory proteins in the viral life cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaneesh eAnupam

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Extensive studies of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 over the last three decades have provided detailed knowledge on viral transformation, host-viral interactions and pathogenesis. HTLV-1 is the etiological agent of adult T cell leukemia (ATL and multiple neurodegenerative and inflammatory diseases while HTLV-2 disease association remains elusive, with few infected individuals displaying neurodegenerative diseases similar to HTLV-1. The HTLV group of oncoretroviruses has a genome that encodes structural and enzymatic proteins Gag, Pro and Env, regulatory proteins Tax and Rex, and several accessory proteins from the pX region. Of these proteins, HTLV-1 p30 and HTLV-2 p28 are encoded by the open reading frame (ORF II of the pX region. Like most other accessory proteins, p30 and p28 are dispensable for in vitro viral replication and transformation but are required for efficient viral replication and persistence in vivo. Both p30 and p28 regulate viral gene expression at the post-transcriptional level whereas p30 can also function at the transcriptional level. Recently, several reports have implicated p30 and p28 in multiple cellular processes, which provide novel insight into HTLV spread and survival and ultimately pathogenesis. In this review we summarize and compare what is known about p30 and p28, highlighting their roles in viral replication and viral pathogenesis.

  2. IL-1 receptor accessory protein-like 1 associated with mental retardation and autism mediates synapse formation by trans-synaptic interaction with protein tyrosine phosphatase δ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Tomoyuki; Yasumura, Misato; Uemura, Takeshi; Lee, Sung-Jin; Ra, Moonjin; Taguchi, Ryo; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Mishina, Masayoshi

    2011-09-21

    Mental retardation (MR) and autism are highly heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorders. IL-1-receptor accessory protein-like 1 (IL1RAPL1) is responsible for nonsyndromic MR and is associated with autism. Thus, the elucidation of the functional role of IL1RAPL1 will contribute to our understanding of the pathogenesis of these mental disorders. Here, we showed that knockdown of endogenous IL1RAPL1 in cultured cortical neurons suppressed the accumulation of punctate staining signals for active zone protein Bassoon and decreased the number of dendritic protrusions. Consistently, the expression of IL1RAPL1 in cultured neurons stimulated the accumulation of Bassoon and spinogenesis. The extracellular domain (ECD) of IL1RAPL1 was required and sufficient for the presynaptic differentiation-inducing activity, while both the ECD and cytoplasmic domain were essential for the spinogenic activity. Notably, the synaptogenic activity of IL1RAPL1 was specific for excitatory synapses. Furthermore, we identified presynaptic protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) δ as a major IL1RAPL1-ECD interacting protein by affinity chromatography. IL1RAPL1 interacted selectively with certain forms of PTPδ splice variants carrying mini-exon peptides in Ig-like domains. The synaptogenic activity of IL1RAPL1 was abolished in primary neurons from PTPδ knock-out mice. IL1RAPL1 showed robust synaptogenic activity in vivo when transfected into the cortical neurons of wild-type mice but not in PTPδ knock-out mice. These results suggest that IL1RAPL1 mediates synapse formation through trans-synaptic interaction with PTPδ. Our findings raise an intriguing possibility that the impairment of synapse formation may underlie certain forms of MR and autism as a common pathogenic pathway shared by these mental disorders.

  3. Accessory Lobes, Accessory Fissures and Prominent Papillary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Often unreported hepatic variations include accessory fissures, lobes and processes. Variant hepatic fissures further show variations in location and depth. Accessory lobes of the liver have different size, shape, situation, connection with maternal organ. These abnormalities in the anatomy of human liver have the ...

  4. Mfa4, an Accessory Protein of Mfa1 Fimbriae, Modulates Fimbrial Biogenesis, Cell Auto-Aggregation, and Biofilm Formation in Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikai, Ryota; Hasegawa, Yoshiaki; Izumigawa, Masashi; Nagano, Keiji; Yoshida, Yasuo; Kitai, Noriyuki; Lamont, Richard J; Yoshimura, Fuminobu; Murakami, Yukitaka

    2015-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis, a gram-negative obligate anaerobic bacterium, is considered to be a key pathogen in periodontal disease. The bacterium expresses Mfa1 fimbriae, which are composed of polymers of Mfa1. The minor accessory components Mfa3, Mfa4, and Mfa5 are incorporated into these fimbriae. In this study, we characterized Mfa4 using genetically modified strains. Deficiency in the mfa4 gene decreased, but did not eliminate, expression of Mfa1 fimbriae. However, Mfa3 and Mfa5 were not incorporated because of defects in posttranslational processing and leakage into the culture supernatant, respectively. Furthermore, the mfa4-deficient mutant had an increased tendency to auto-aggregate and form biofilms, reminiscent of a mutant completely lacking Mfa1. Notably, complementation of mfa4 restored expression of structurally intact and functional Mfa1 fimbriae. Taken together, these results indicate that the accessory proteins Mfa3, Mfa4, and Mfa5 are necessary for assembly of Mfa1 fimbriae and regulation of auto-aggregation and biofilm formation of P. gingivalis. In addition, we found that Mfa3 and Mfa4 are processed to maturity by the same RgpA/B protease that processes Mfa1 subunits prior to polymerization.

  5. Morphological characteristics of the antennal flagellum and its ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Using light microscope and scanning electron microscope, the external morphological characteristics of the antennal flagellum and its sensilla are described in the sandfly, Phlebotomus argentipes Annandale and Brunetti sensu lato, a well known vector of visceral leishmaniasis in India. A revised terminology is given for the ...

  6. Morphological characteristics of the antennal flagellum and its ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 25; Issue 2. Morphological characteristics of the antennal flagellum and its sensilla chaetica with character displacement in the sandfly Phlebotomus argentipes Annandale and Brunetti sensu lato (Diptera: Psychodidae). K Ilango. Articles Volume 25 Issue 2 June 2000 pp ...

  7. Accessory mental foramen

    OpenAIRE

    Balcioglu, Huseyin Avni; Kocaelli, Humeyra

    2009-01-01

    Context: Accessory mental foramen is a rare anatomical variation. Even so, in order to avoid neurovascular complications, particular attention should be paid to the possible occurrence of one or more accessory mental foramen during surgical procedures involving the mandible. Case report: A 3-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) scan of a female patient revealed an accessory mental foramen on the right side of her mandible. Conclusion: A 3D-CT scan should be obtained prior to mandibular sur...

  8. Kicking against the PRCs - A Domesticated Transposase Antagonises Silencing Mediated by Polycomb Group Proteins and Is an Accessory Component of Polycomb Repressive Complex 2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih Chieh Liang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Polycomb group (PcG and trithorax group (trxG genes play crucial roles in development by regulating expression of homeotic and other genes controlling cell fate. Both groups catalyse modifications of chromatin, particularly histone methylation, leading to epigenetic changes that affect gene activity. The trxG antagonizes the function of PcG genes by activating PcG target genes, and consequently trxG mutants suppress PcG mutant phenotypes. We previously identified the ANTAGONIST OF LIKE HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN1 (ALP1 gene as a genetic suppressor of mutants in the Arabidopsis PcG gene LIKE HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN1 (LHP1. Here, we show that ALP1 interacts genetically with several other PcG and trxG components and that it antagonizes PcG silencing. Transcriptional profiling reveals that when PcG activity is compromised numerous target genes are hyper-activated in seedlings and that in most cases this requires ALP1. Furthermore, when PcG activity is present ALP1 is needed for full activation of several floral homeotic genes that are repressed by the PcG. Strikingly, ALP1 does not encode a known chromatin protein but rather a protein related to PIF/Harbinger class transposases. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that ALP1 is broadly conserved in land plants and likely lost transposase activity and acquired a novel function during angiosperm evolution. Consistent with this, immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry (IP-MS show that ALP1 associates, in vivo, with core components of POLYCOMB REPRESSIVE COMPLEX 2 (PRC2, a widely conserved PcG protein complex which functions as a H3K27me3 histone methyltransferase. Furthermore, in reciprocal pulldowns using the histone methyltransferase CURLY LEAF (CLF, we identify not only ALP1 and the core PRC2 components but also plant-specific accessory components including EMBRYONIC FLOWER 1 (EMF1, a transcriptional repressor previously associated with PRC1-like complexes. Taken together our data suggest that ALP1

  9. Kicking against the PRCs - A Domesticated Transposase Antagonises Silencing Mediated by Polycomb Group Proteins and Is an Accessory Component of Polycomb Repressive Complex 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shih Chieh; Hartwig, Ben; Perera, Pumi; Mora-García, Santiago; de Leau, Erica; Thornton, Harry; de Lima Alves, Flavia; de Alves, Flavia Lima; Rappsilber, Juri; Rapsilber, Juri; Yang, Suxin; James, Geo Velikkakam; Schneeberger, Korbinian; Finnegan, E Jean; Turck, Franziska; Goodrich, Justin

    2015-12-01

    The Polycomb group (PcG) and trithorax group (trxG) genes play crucial roles in development by regulating expression of homeotic and other genes controlling cell fate. Both groups catalyse modifications of chromatin, particularly histone methylation, leading to epigenetic changes that affect gene activity. The trxG antagonizes the function of PcG genes by activating PcG target genes, and consequently trxG mutants suppress PcG mutant phenotypes. We previously identified the ANTAGONIST OF LIKE HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN1 (ALP1) gene as a genetic suppressor of mutants in the Arabidopsis PcG gene LIKE HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN1 (LHP1). Here, we show that ALP1 interacts genetically with several other PcG and trxG components and that it antagonizes PcG silencing. Transcriptional profiling reveals that when PcG activity is compromised numerous target genes are hyper-activated in seedlings and that in most cases this requires ALP1. Furthermore, when PcG activity is present ALP1 is needed for full activation of several floral homeotic genes that are repressed by the PcG. Strikingly, ALP1 does not encode a known chromatin protein but rather a protein related to PIF/Harbinger class transposases. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that ALP1 is broadly conserved in land plants and likely lost transposase activity and acquired a novel function during angiosperm evolution. Consistent with this, immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry (IP-MS) show that ALP1 associates, in vivo, with core components of POLYCOMB REPRESSIVE COMPLEX 2 (PRC2), a widely conserved PcG protein complex which functions as a H3K27me3 histone methyltransferase. Furthermore, in reciprocal pulldowns using the histone methyltransferase CURLY LEAF (CLF), we identify not only ALP1 and the core PRC2 components but also plant-specific accessory components including EMBRYONIC FLOWER 1 (EMF1), a transcriptional repressor previously associated with PRC1-like complexes. Taken together our data suggest that ALP1 inhibits Pc

  10. Distinct accessory cell requirements define two types of rat T cell hybridomas specific for unique determinants in the encephalitogenic 68-86 region of myelin basic protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannie, M.D.; Paterson, P.Y.; Thomas, D.W.; Nairn, R.

    1990-01-01

    Six clonotypically unique T cell hybridomas from Lewis rats were used to study accessory cell activities required for class II MHC restricted T cell responses to the 68-86 encephalitogenic sequence of myelin basic protein (MBP). T cell hybrids which were cultured with GP68-86 68-86 sequence of guinea pig MBP (GPMBP) and naive splenocytes (SPL) were induced to produce IL-2 as measured by the CTLL indicator cell line. The hybrids were categorized into two subsets (designated THYB-1 and THYB-2), because two distinct subset-specific pathways of communication between accessory cells and T cells were involved in GPMBP-induced IL-2 production. These pathways were distinguished by the following six observations. First, when the duration of a pulse of SPL with GPMBP was lengthened from 1 to 4 h, these SPL lost their ability to induce IL-2 production by THYB-2 hybrids yet nevertheless retained full stimulatory activity for THYB-1 hybrids. Second, paraformaldehyde fixation of GPMBP-pulsed SPL abrogated an activity necessary for Ag-induced IL-2 production by THYB-2 hybrids. These fixed SPL were nevertheless able to stimulate THYB-1 hybrids, albeit to a lesser extent than viable unfixed SPL. Third, the addition of either cycloheximide, cytochalasin B, or 2-deoxyglucose to an Ag pulse of SPL with GPMBP dramatically inhibited the subsequent responses of THYB-2 hybrids yet had little or no effect upon the reactivity of THYB-1 hybrids. Fourth, thymocytes lacked necessary activities for GPMBP evoked IL-2 production by THYB-2 hybrids yet strongly promoted THYB-1 hybrid responses. Fifth, exposure of SPL to as little as 500 rad of gamma-irradiation markedly attenuated THYB-2 hybrid response to GPMBP but did not affect THYB-1 responses. Sixth, anti-GPMBP responses by THYB-2 hybrids were observed only in the presence of both radioresistant adherent SPL and a distinct population of radiosensitive nonadherent SPL

  11. Accessory mental foramen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcioglu, Huseyin Avni; Kocaelli, Humeyra

    2009-11-01

    Accessory mental foramen is a rare anatomical variation. Even so, in order to avoid neurovascular complications, particular attention should be paid to the possible occurrence of one or more accessory mental foramen during surgical procedures involving the mandible. A 3-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) scan of a female patient revealed an accessory mental foramen on the right side of her mandible. A 3D-CT scan should be obtained prior to mandibular surgeries so that the presence of accessory mental foramen can be detected, and so that the occurrence of a neurosensory disturbance or hemorrhage can be avoided. Although this anatomical variation is rare, it should be kept in mind that an accessory mental foramen may exist.

  12. Sperm flagellum volume determines freezability in red deer spermatozoa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Ros-Santaella

    Full Text Available The factors affecting the inter-individual differences in sperm freezability is a major line of research in spermatology. Poor sperm freezability is mainly characterised by a low sperm velocity, which in turn is associated with low fertility rates in most animal species. Studies concerning the implications of sperm morphometry on freezability are quite limited, and most of them are based on sperm head size regardless of the structural parts of the flagellum, which provides sperm motility. Here, for the first time, we determined the volumes of the flagellum structures in fresh epididymal red deer spermatozoa using a stereological method under phase contrast microscopy. Sperm samples from thirty-three stags were frozen and classified as good freezers (GF or bad freezers (BF at two hours post-thawing using three sperm kinetic parameters which are strongly correlated with fertility in this species. Fourteen stags were clearly identified as GF, whereas nineteen were BF. No significant difference in sperm head size between the two groups was found. On the contrary, the GF exhibited a lower principal piece volume than the BF (6.13 µm3 vs 6.61 µm3, respectively, p = 0.006. The volume of the flagellum structures showed a strong negative relationship with post-thawing sperm velocity. For instance, the volume of the sperm principal piece was negatively correlated with sperm velocity at two hours post-thawing (r = -0.60; p<0.001. Our results clearly show that a higher volume of the sperm principal piece results in poor freezability, and highlights the key role of flagellum size in sperm cryopreservation success.

  13. Small Engine & Accessory Test Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Small Engine and Accessories Test Area (SEATA) facilitates testaircraft starting and auxiliary power systems, small engines and accessories. The SEATA consists...

  14. Infectious bronchitis coronavirus limits interferon production by inducing a host shutoff that requires accessory protein 5b

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kint, Joeri; Langereis, Martijn A.; Maier, Helena J.; Britton, Paul; Kuppeveld, van Frank J.; Koumans, Joseph; Wiegertjes, Geert F.; Forlenza, Maria

    2016-01-01

    During infection of their host cells, viruses often inhibit the production of host proteins, a process that is referred to as host shutoff. By doing this, viruses limit the production of antiviral proteins and increase production capacity for viral proteins. Coronaviruses from the genera

  15. Intraspecies Competition in Serratia marcescens Is Mediated by Type VI-Secreted Rhs Effectors and a Conserved Effector-Associated Accessory Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcoforado Diniz, Juliana; Coulthurst, Sarah J

    2015-07-01

    The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is widespread in Gram-negative bacteria and can deliver toxic effector proteins into eukaryotic cells or competitor bacteria. Antibacterial T6SSs are increasingly recognized as key mediators of interbacterial competition and may contribute to the outcome of many polymicrobial infections. Multiple antibacterial effectors can be delivered by these systems, with diverse activities against target cells and distinct modes of secretion. Polymorphic toxins containing Rhs repeat domains represent a recently identified and as-yet poorly characterized class of T6SS-dependent effectors. Previous work had revealed that the potent antibacterial T6SS of the opportunistic pathogen Serratia marcescens promotes intraspecies as well as interspecies competition (S. L. Murdoch, K. Trunk, G. English, M. J. Fritsch, E. Pourkarimi, and S. J. Coulthurst, J Bacteriol 193:6057-6069, 2011, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JB.05671-11). In this study, two new Rhs family antibacterial effectors delivered by this T6SS have been identified. One of these was shown to act as a DNase toxin, while the other contains a novel, cytoplasmic-acting toxin domain. Importantly, using S. marcescens, it has been demonstrated for the first time that Rhs proteins, rather than other T6SS-secreted effectors, can be the primary determinant of intraspecies competition. Furthermore, a new family of accessory proteins associated with T6SS effectors has been identified, exemplified by S. marcescens EagR1, which is specifically required for deployment of its associated Rhs effector. Together, these findings provide new insight into how bacteria can use the T6SS to deploy Rhs-family effectors and mediate different types of interbacterial interactions. Infectious diseases caused by bacterial pathogens represent a continuing threat to health and economic prosperity. To counter this threat, we must understand how such organisms survive and prosper. The type VI secretion system is a weapon that

  16. Interleukin (IL)-1 in rat parturition: IL-1 receptors 1 and 2 and accessory proteins abundance in pregnant rat uterus at term - regulation by progesterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiguro, Tomohito; Takeda, Jun; Fang, Xin; Bronson, Heather; Olson, David M

    2016-07-01

    The role of interleukin-1 (IL-1), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, in parturition is typically noted by changes in its concentrations. Studying the expression of its receptor family, IL-1 receptor (IL-1R) 1, IL-1R2, IL-1R accessory protein (IL-1RAcP), and its predominantly brain isoform, IL-1RAcPb, during late gestation in the uterus in the Long-Evans rat is another. We assessed changes in their mRNA and protein relative abundance in the uterus and compared IL-1RAcP and IL-1RAcPb mRNA abundance in uterus, cervix, ovaries, placenta, and whole blood of Long-Evans rats during late gestation or in RU486 and progesterone-treated dams using quantitative real-time PCR and western immunoblotting. IL-1R1, IL-1RAcP, and IL-1RAcPb mRNA abundance significantly increased in the uterus at delivery whereas IL-1R2 mRNA abundance significantly decreased. IL-1R1 protein increased at term and IL-1R2 protein decreased at term compared to nonpregnant uteri. IL1-RAcPb mRNA abundance was less than IL-1RAcP, but in the lower uterine segment it was the highest of all tissues examined. RU486 stimulated preterm delivery and an increase in IL-1R1 mRNA abundance whereas progesterone administration extended pregnancy and suppressed the increase in IL-1R1. These data suggest that changes in uterine sensitivity to IL-1 occur during late gestation and suggest another level of regulation for the control of delivery. The roles for IL-1RAcP and IL-1RAcPb need to be determined, but may relate to different intracellular signaling pathways. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  17. Hypothesis and Theory: Revisiting Views on the Co-evolution of the Melanocortin Receptors and the Accessory Proteins, MRAP1 and MRAP2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dores, Robert M

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of the melanocortin receptors (MCRs) is closely associated with the evolution of the melanocortin-2 receptor accessory proteins (MRAPs). Recent annotation of the elephant shark genome project revealed the sequence of a putative MRAP1 ortholog. The presence of this sequence in the genome of a cartilaginous fish raises the possibility that the mrap1 and mrap2 genes in the genomes of gnathostome vertebrates were the result of the chordate 2R genome duplication event. The presence of a putative MRAP1 ortholog in a cartilaginous fish genome is perplexing. Recent studies on melanocortin-2 receptor (MC2R) in the genomes of the elephant shark and the Japanese stingray indicate that these MC2R orthologs can be functionally expressed in CHO cells without co-expression of an exogenous mrap1 cDNA. The novel ligand selectivity of these cartilaginous fish MC2R orthologs is discussed. Finally, the origin of the mc2r and mc5r genes is reevaluated. The distinctive primary sequence conservation of MC2R and MC5R is discussed in light of the physiological roles of these two MCR paralogs.

  18. Assembly of the chloroplast ATP-dependent Clp protease in Arabidopsis is regulated by the ClpT accessory proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjögren, Lars L E; Clarke, Adrian K

    2011-01-01

    The ATP-dependent caseinolytic protease (Clp) is an essential housekeeping enzyme in plant chloroplasts. It is by far the most complex of all known Clp proteases, with a proteolytic core consisting of multiple catalytic ClpP and noncatalytic ClpR subunits. It also includes a unique form of Clp protein of unknown function designated ClpT, two of which exist in the model species Arabidopsis thaliana. Inactivation of ClpT1 or ClpT2 significantly reduces the amount of Clp proteolytic core, whereas loss of both proves seedling lethal under autotrophic conditions. During assembly of the Clp proteolytic core, ClpT1 first binds to the P-ring (consisting of ClpP3-6 subunits) followed by ClpT2, and only then does the P-ring combine with the R-ring (ClpP1, ClpR1-4 subunits). Most of the ClpT proteins in chloroplasts exist in vivo as homodimers, which then apparently monomerize prior to association with the P-ring. Despite their relative abundance, however, the availability of both ClpT proteins is rate limiting for the core assembly, with the addition of recombinant ClpT1 and ClpT2 increasing core content up to fourfold. Overall, ClpT appears to regulate the assembly of the chloroplast Clp protease, revealing a new and sophisticated control mechanism on the activity of this vital protease in plants.

  19. Inhibition of IL-1 Signaling by Antisense Oligonucleotide-mediated Exon Skipping of IL-1 Receptor Accessory Protein (IL-1RAcP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Seda Yılmaz-Eliş

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The cytokine interleukin 1(IL-1 initiates a wide range of proinflammatory cascades and its inhibition has been shown to decrease inflammation in a variety of diseases. IL-1 receptor accessory protein (IL-1RAcP is an indispensible part of the IL-1R complex that stabilizes IL-1/IL-1R interaction and plays an important role in the signal transduction of the receptor complex. The soluble form of IL-1RAcP (sIL-1RAcP contains only the extracellular domain and serves as a natural inhibitor of IL-1 signaling. Therefore, increasing sIL-1RAcP levels might be an attractive therapeutic strategy to inhibit IL-1–driven inflammation. To achieve this we designed specific antisense oligonucleotides (AON, to redirect pre-mRNA IL-1RAcP splicing by skipping of the transmembrane domain encoding exon 9. This would give rise to a novel Δ9IL-1RAcP mRNA encoding a soluble, secreted form of IL-1RAcP, which might have similar activity as natural sIL-1RAcP. AON treatment resulted in exon 9 skipping both in vitro and in vivo. A single dose injection of 10 mg AON/kg body weight induced 90% skipping in mouse liver during at least 5 days. The truncated mRNA encoded for a secreted, soluble Δ9IL-1RAcP protein. IL-1RAcP skipping resulted in a substantial inhibition of IL-1 signaling in vitro. These results indicate that skipping of the transmembrane encoding exon 9 of IL-1RAcP using specific AONs might be a promising therapeutic strategy in a variety of chronic inflammatory diseases.

  20. Inhibition of IL-1 Signaling by Antisense Oligonucleotide-mediated Exon Skipping of IL-1 Receptor Accessory Protein (IL-1RAcP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz-Eliş, A Seda; Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke; ‘t Hoen, Peter AC; Safdar, Huma; Breukel, Cor; van Vlijmen, Bart JM; van Deutekom, Judith; de Kimpe, Sjef; van Ommen, Gert-Jan; Verbeek, J Sjef

    2013-01-01

    The cytokine interleukin 1(IL-1) initiates a wide range of proinflammatory cascades and its inhibition has been shown to decrease inflammation in a variety of diseases. IL-1 receptor accessory protein (IL-1RAcP) is an indispensible part of the IL-1R complex that stabilizes IL-1/IL-1R interaction and plays an important role in the signal transduction of the receptor complex. The soluble form of IL-1RAcP (sIL-1RAcP) contains only the extracellular domain and serves as a natural inhibitor of IL-1 signaling. Therefore, increasing sIL-1RAcP levels might be an attractive therapeutic strategy to inhibit IL-1–driven inflammation. To achieve this we designed specific antisense oligonucleotides (AON), to redirect pre-mRNA IL-1RAcP splicing by skipping of the transmembrane domain encoding exon 9. This would give rise to a novel Δ9IL-1RAcP mRNA encoding a soluble, secreted form of IL-1RAcP, which might have similar activity as natural sIL-1RAcP. AON treatment resulted in exon 9 skipping both in vitro and in vivo. A single dose injection of 10 mg AON/kg body weight induced 90% skipping in mouse liver during at least 5 days. The truncated mRNA encoded for a secreted, soluble Δ9IL-1RAcP protein. IL-1RAcP skipping resulted in a substantial inhibition of IL-1 signaling in vitro. These results indicate that skipping of the transmembrane encoding exon 9 of IL-1RAcP using specific AONs might be a promising therapeutic strategy in a variety of chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:23340324

  1. Iqcg is essential for sperm flagellum formation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren-Ke Li

    Full Text Available Mammalian spermatogenesis comprises three successive phases: mitosis phase, meiosis phase, and spermiogenesis. During spermiogenesis, round spermatid undergoes dramatic morphogenesis to give rise to mature spermatozoon, including the condensation and elongation of nucleus, development of acrosome, formation of flagellum, and removal of excessive cytoplasm. Although these transformations are well defined at the morphological level, the mechanisms underlying these intricate processes are largely unknown. Here, we report that Iqcg, which was previously characterized to be involved in a chromosome translocation of human leukemia, is highly expressed in the spermatogenesis of mice and localized to the manchette in developing spermatids. Iqcg knockout causes male infertility, due to severe defects of spermiogenesis and resultant total immobility of spermatozoa. The axoneme in the Iqcg knockout sperm flagellum is disorganized and hardly any typical ("9+2" pattern of microtubule arrangement could be found in Iqcg knockout spermatids. Iqcg interacts with calmodulin in a calcium dependent manner in the testis, suggesting that Iqcg may play a role through calcium signaling. Furthermore, cilia structures in the trachea and oviduct, as well as histological appearances of other major tissues, remain unchanged in the Iqcg knockout mice, suggesting that Iqcg is specifically required for spermiogenesis in mammals. These results might also provide new insights into the genetic causes of human infertility.

  2. The neuroplastin adhesion molecules are accessory proteins that chaperone the monocarboxylate transporter MCT2 to the neuronal cell surface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieangela C Wilson

    Full Text Available The neuroplastins np65 and np55 are two synapse-enriched immunoglobulin (Ig superfamily adhesion molecules that contain 3 and 2 Ig domains respectively. Np65 is implicated in long term, activity dependent synaptic plasticity, including LTP. Np65 regulates the surface expression of GluR1 receptor subunits and the localisation of GABA(A receptor subtypes in hippocampal neurones. The brain is dependent not only on glucose but on monocarboxylates as sources of energy. The. monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs 1-4 are responsible for the rapid proton-linked translocation of monocarboxylates including pyruvate and lactate across the plasma membrane and require association with either embigin or basigin, proteins closely related to neuroplastin, for plasma membrane expression and activity. MCT2 plays a key role in providing lactate as an energy source to neurons.Here we use co-transfection of neuroplastins and monocarboxylate transporters into COS-7 cells to demonstrate that neuroplastins can act as ancillary proteins for MCT2. We also show that Xenopus laevis oocytes contain endogenous neuroplastin and its knockdown with antisense RNA reduces the surface expression of MCT2 and associated lactate transport. Immunocytochemical studies show that MCT2 and the neuroplastins are co-localised in rat cerebellum. Strikingly neuroplastin and MCT2 are enriched in the same parasagittal zebrin II-negative stripes.These data strongly suggest that neuroplastins act as key ancillary proteins for MCT2 cell surface localisation and activity in some neuronal populations, thus playing an important role in facilitating the uptake of lactate for use as a respiratory fuel.

  3. The flagellum of Trypanosoma brucei: new tricks from an old dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, Katherine S.; Hill, Kent L.

    2010-01-01

    African trypanosomes, i.e. Trypanosoma brucei and related sub-species, are devastating human and animal pathogens that cause significant human mortality and limit sustained economic development in sub-Saharan Africa. Trypanosoma brucei is a highly motile protozoan parasite and coordinated motility is central to both disease pathogenesis in the mammalian host and parasite development in the tsetse fly vector. Since motility is critical for parasite development and pathogenesis, understanding unique aspects of the T. brucei flagellum may uncover novel targets for therapeutic intervention in African sleeping sickness. Moreover, studies of conserved features of the T. brucei flagellum are directly relevant to understanding fundamental aspects of flagellum and cilium function in other eukaryotes, making T. brucei an important model system. The T. brucei flagellum contains a canonical 9 + 2 axoneme, together with additional features that are unique to kinetoplastids and a few closely-related organisms. Until recently, much of our knowledge of the structure and function of the trypanosome flagellum was based on analogy and inference from other organisms. There has been an explosion in functional studies in T. brucei in recent years, revealing conserved as well as novel and unexpected structural and functional features of the flagellum. Most notably, the flagellum has been found to be an essential organelle, with critical roles in parasite motility, morphogenesis, cell division and immune evasion. This review highlights recent discoveries on the T. brucei flagellum. PMID:18472102

  4. Type III secretion systems: the bacterial flagellum and the injectisome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diepold, Andreas; Armitage, Judith P.

    2015-01-01

    The flagellum and the injectisome are two of the most complex and fascinating bacterial nanomachines. At their core, they share a type III secretion system (T3SS), a transmembrane export complex that forms the extracellular appendages, the flagellar filament and the injectisome needle. Recent advances, combining structural biology, cryo-electron tomography, molecular genetics, in vivo imaging, bioinformatics and biophysics, have greatly increased our understanding of the T3SS, especially the structure of its transmembrane and cytosolic components, the transcriptional, post-transcriptional and functional regulation and the remarkable adaptivity of the system. This review aims to integrate these new findings into our current knowledge of the evolution, function, regulation and dynamics of the T3SS, and to highlight commonalities and differences between the two systems, as well as their potential applications. PMID:26370933

  5. The neuron-specific interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein is required for homeostatic sleep and sleep responses to influenza viral challenge in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Christopher J; Dunbrasky, Danielle; Oonk, Marcella; Taishi, Ping; Opp, Mark R; Krueger, James M

    2015-07-01

    Interleukin-1β (IL1) is involved in sleep regulation and sleep responses induced by influenza virus. The IL1 receptor accessory protein (AcP) and an alternatively spliced isoform of AcP found primarily in neurons, AcPb, form part of the IL1 signaling complex. IL1-induced sleep responses depend on injection time. In rat cortex, both IL1 mRNA and AcPb mRNA peak at Zeitgeber Time (ZT) 0 then decline over the daylight hours. Sleep deprivation enhances cortical IL1 mRNA and AcPb mRNA levels, but not AcP mRNA. We used wild type (WT) and AcPb knockout (KO) mice and performed sleep deprivation between ZT10 and 20 or between ZT22 and 8 based on the time of day expression profiles of AcPb and IL1. We hypothesized that the magnitude of the responses to sleep loss would be strain- and time of day-dependent. In WT mice, NREMS and REMS rebounds occurred regardless of when they were deprived of sleep. In contrast, when AcPbKO mice were sleep deprived from ZT10 to 20 NREMS and REMS rebounds were absent. The AcPbKO mice expressed sleep rebound if sleep loss occurred from ZT22 to 8 although the NREMS responses were not as robust as those that occurred in WT mice. We also challenged mice with intranasal H1N1 influenza virus. WT mice exhibited the expected enhanced sleep responses. In contrast, the AcPbKO mice had less sleep after influenza challenge compared to their own baseline values and compared to WT mice. Body temperature and locomotor activity responses after viral challenge were lower and mortality was higher in AcPbKO than in WT mice. We conclude that neuron-specific AcPb plays a critical role in host defenses and sleep homeostasis. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Dynamic instability in the hook-flagellum system that triggers bacterial flicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbarzadeh, Mehdi; Fu, Henry Chien

    2018-01-01

    Dynamical bending, buckling, and polymorphic transformations of the flagellum are known to affect bacterial motility, but run-reverse-flick motility of monotrichous bacteria also involves the even more flexible hook connecting the flagellum to its rotary motor. Although flick initiation has been hypothesized to involve either static Euler buckling or dynamic bending of the hook, the precise mechanism of flick initiation remains unknown. Here, we find that flicks initiate via a dynamic instability requiring flexibility in both the hook and flagellum. We obtain accurate estimates of forces and torques on the hook that suggest that flicks occur for stresses below the (static) Euler buckling criterion, then provide a mechanistic model for flick initiation that requires combined bending of the hook and flagellum. We calculate the triggering torque-stiffness ratio and find that our predicted onset of dynamic instability corresponds well with experimental observations.

  7. The dynamic instability in the hook/flagellum system that triggers bacterial flicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbarzadeh, Mehdi; Fu, Henry

    2017-11-01

    Dynamical bending, buckling, and polymorphic transformations of the flagellum are known to affect bacterial motility, but run-reverse-flick motility of monotrichous bacteria also involves the even more flexible hook, which connects the flagellum to the cell body. Here, we identify the dynamic buckling mechanism that produces flicks in Vibrio alginolyticus. Estimates of forces and torques on the hook from experimental observations suggest that flicks are triggered at stresses below the hook's static Euler buckling criterion. Using an accurate linearization of the Kirchoff rod model for the hook in a model of a swimming bacterium with rigid flagellum, we show that as hook stiffness decreases there is a transition from on-axis flagellar rotation with small hook deflections to flagellar precession with large deflections. When flagellum flexibility is incorporated, the precession is disrupted by significant flagellar bending - i.e., incipient flicks. The predicted onset of dynamic instabilities corresponds well with experimentally observed flick events.

  8. Accessory Genes Confer a High Replication Rate to Virulent Feline Immunodeficiency Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Troyer, Ryan M.; Thompson, Jesse; Elder, John H.; VandeWoude, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus that causes AIDS in domestic cats, similar to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS in humans. The FIV accessory protein Vif abrogates the inhibition of infection by cat APOBEC3 restriction factors. FIV also encodes a multifunctional OrfA accessory protein that has characteristics similar to HIV Tat, Vpu, Vpr, and Nef. To examine the role of vif and orfA accessory genes in FIV replication and pathogenicity, we generated chimeras between tw...

  9. Involvement of SPI-2-encoded SpiC in flagellum synthesis in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugita Asami

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SpiC encoded within Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 on the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium chromosome is required for survival within macrophages and systemic infection in mice. Additionally, SpiC contributes to Salmonella-induced activation of the signal transduction pathways in macrophages by affecting the expression of FliC, a component of flagella filaments. Here, we show the contribution of SpiC in flagellum synthesis. Results Quantitative RT-PCR shows that the expression levels of the class 3 fliD and motA genes that encode for the flagella cap and motor torque proteins, respectively, were lower for a spiC mutant strain than for the wild-type Salmonella. Further, this mutant had lower expression levels of the class 2 genes including the fliA gene encoding the flagellar-specific alternative sigma factor. We also found differences in flagella assembly between the wild-type strain and the spiC mutant. Many flagella filaments were observed on the bacterial surface of the wild-type strain, whereas the spiC mutant had only few flagella. The absence of spiC led to reduced expression of the FlhD protein, which functions as the master regulator in flagella gene expression, although no significant difference at the transcription level of the flhDC operon was observed between the wild-type strain and the spiC mutant. Conclusion The data show that SpiC is involved in flagella assembly by affecting the post-transcription expression of flhDC.

  10. Ultrasonographic findings of accessory breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Ki Keun; Cho, Jae Hyun; Yoon, Choon Sik; Kim, Mi Hye

    1993-01-01

    Accessory breast is an ectopic breast tissue from developmental remnants. It sometimes begins to make symptom, pain and swelling, during premenstrual period or pregnancy. For it has been known as a rear condition, it has occasionally misdiagnosed as a abnormal mass, such as lymphadenitis or hidradentis. We have analyzed 52 accessory breast tissues prospectively, to document the characteristic findings of accessory breast. In summary, the characteristic sonographic findings of accessory breast were the presence of breast tissue superficial to the axillary fascia or underlying fascia if not in axilla, resembling the patient's own breast pattern, the presence of converging appearance of dilated ducts, presence of nipple and/or areola, the obliteration of inner wall of dermis, the obliteration of subcutaneous fat layer, and the downward displacement of axillary fascia or underlying fascia if not in axilla without interruption

  11. A Phase Variant of Azospirillum lipoferum Lacks a Polar Flagellum and Constitutively Expresses Mechanosensing Lateral Flagella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, Gladys; Rohr, René; Bally, René

    1999-01-01

    Flagellation of a nonswimming variant of the mixed flagellated bacterium Azospirillum lipoferum 4B was characterized by electron microscopy, and polyclonal antibodies were raised against polar and lateral flagellins. The variant cells lacked a polar flagellum due to a defect in flagellin synthesis and constitutively expressed lateral flagella. The variant cells were able to respond to conditions that restricted the rotation of lateral flagella by producing more lateral flagella, suggesting that the lateral flagella, as well as the polar flagellum, are mechanosensing. PMID:10508112

  12. Light microscopy morphological characteristics of the sperm flagellum may be related to axonemal abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, V; Sigala, J; Ballot, C; Jumeau, F; Barbotin, A L; Duhamel, A; Rives, N; Rigot, J M; Escalier, D; Peers, M C

    2015-03-01

    Although electron microscopy provides a detailed analysis of ultrastructural abnormalities, this technique is not available in all laboratories. We sought to determine whether certain characteristics of the flagellum as assessed by light microscopy were related to axonemal abnormalities. Forty-one patients with an absence of outer dynein arms (type I), a lack of a central complex (type III) and an absence of peripheral doublets (type IV) were studied. Sperm morphology was scored according to David's modified classification. Flagella with an irregular thickness were classified as being of normal length, short or broken. There were correlations between missing outer dynein arms and abnormal, short or coiled flagellum. Type III patients showed the highest flagellar defects (a short (P = 0.0027) or an absent flagellum (P = 0.011)). Just over 68% of the irregular flagella were short in Type III patients, whereas this value was only 34.5% in type I and 26.4% in type IV (P = 0.002). There was a negative correlation between misassembly and spermatozoa of irregular flagella (r = -0.79; P = 0.019). It is concluded that light microscopy analysis of flagellum abnormalities may help provide a correct diagnosis, identify sperm abnormalities with fertility potentials and outcomes in assisted reproduction technologies and assess the genetic risk. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Spatial ecology of the coachwhip, Masticophis flagellum (Squamata: Colubridae), in eastern Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Johnson; Robert R. Fleet; Michael B. Keck; D. Craig Rudolph

    2007-01-01

    We radio-tracked nine Masticophis flagellum (Coachwhips) to determine home range, habitat use, and movements in eastern Texas from April to October 2000. Home ranges of Coachwhips contained more oak savanna macrohabitat than early-successional pine plantation or forested seep, based on the availability of these three macrohabitats in the study area....

  14. Flagellum density regulates Proteus mirabilis swarmer cell motility in viscous environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuson, Hannah H; Copeland, Matthew F; Carey, Sonia; Sacotte, Ryan; Weibel, Douglas B

    2013-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis is an opportunistic pathogen that is frequently associated with urinary tract infections. In the lab, P. mirabilis cells become long and multinucleate and increase their number of flagella as they colonize agar surfaces during swarming. Swarming has been implicated in pathogenesis; however, it is unclear how energetically costly changes in P. mirabilis cell morphology translate into an advantage for adapting to environmental changes. We investigated two morphological changes that occur during swarming--increases in cell length and flagellum density--and discovered that an increase in the surface density of flagella enabled cells to translate rapidly through fluids of increasing viscosity; in contrast, cell length had a small effect on motility. We found that swarm cells had a surface density of flagella that was ∼5 times larger than that of vegetative cells and were motile in fluids with a viscosity that inhibits vegetative cell motility. To test the relationship between flagellum density and velocity, we overexpressed FlhD(4)C(2), the master regulator of the flagellar operon, in vegetative cells of P. mirabilis and found that increased flagellum density produced an increase in cell velocity. Our results establish a relationship between P. mirabilis flagellum density and cell motility in viscous environments that may be relevant to its adaptation during the infection of mammalian urinary tracts and movement in contact with indwelling catheters.

  15. The Non-Flagellar Type III Secretion System Evolved from the Bacterial Flagellum and Diversified into Host-Cell Adapted Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abby, Sophie S.; Rocha, Eduardo P. C.

    2012-01-01

    Type 3 secretion systems (T3SSs) are essential components of two complex bacterial machineries: the flagellum, which drives cell motility, and the non-flagellar T3SS (NF-T3SS), which delivers effectors into eukaryotic cells. Yet the origin, specialization, and diversification of these machineries remained unclear. We developed computational tools to identify homologous components of the two systems and to discriminate between them. Our analysis of >1,000 genomes identified 921 T3SSs, including 222 NF-T3SSs. Phylogenomic and comparative analyses of these systems argue that the NF-T3SS arose from an exaptation of the flagellum, i.e. the recruitment of part of the flagellum structure for the evolution of the new protein delivery function. This reconstructed chronology of the exaptation process proceeded in at least two steps. An intermediate ancestral form of NF-T3SS, whose descendants still exist in Myxococcales, lacked elements that are essential for motility and included a subset of NF-T3SS features. We argue that this ancestral version was involved in protein translocation. A second major step in the evolution of NF-T3SSs occurred via recruitment of secretins to the NF-T3SS, an event that occurred at least three times from different systems. In rhizobiales, a partial homologous gene replacement of the secretin resulted in two genes of complementary function. Acquisition of a secretin was followed by the rapid adaptation of the resulting NF-T3SSs to multiple, distinct eukaryotic cell envelopes where they became key in parasitic and mutualistic associations between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Our work elucidates major steps of the evolutionary scenario leading to extant NF-T3SSs. It demonstrates how molecular evolution can convert one complex molecular machine into a second, equally complex machine by successive deletions, innovations, and recruitment from other molecular systems. PMID:23028376

  16. The non-flagellar type III secretion system evolved from the bacterial flagellum and diversified into host-cell adapted systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie S Abby

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Type 3 secretion systems (T3SSs are essential components of two complex bacterial machineries: the flagellum, which drives cell motility, and the non-flagellar T3SS (NF-T3SS, which delivers effectors into eukaryotic cells. Yet the origin, specialization, and diversification of these machineries remained unclear. We developed computational tools to identify homologous components of the two systems and to discriminate between them. Our analysis of >1,000 genomes identified 921 T3SSs, including 222 NF-T3SSs. Phylogenomic and comparative analyses of these systems argue that the NF-T3SS arose from an exaptation of the flagellum, i.e. the recruitment of part of the flagellum structure for the evolution of the new protein delivery function. This reconstructed chronology of the exaptation process proceeded in at least two steps. An intermediate ancestral form of NF-T3SS, whose descendants still exist in Myxococcales, lacked elements that are essential for motility and included a subset of NF-T3SS features. We argue that this ancestral version was involved in protein translocation. A second major step in the evolution of NF-T3SSs occurred via recruitment of secretins to the NF-T3SS, an event that occurred at least three times from different systems. In rhizobiales, a partial homologous gene replacement of the secretin resulted in two genes of complementary function. Acquisition of a secretin was followed by the rapid adaptation of the resulting NF-T3SSs to multiple, distinct eukaryotic cell envelopes where they became key in parasitic and mutualistic associations between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Our work elucidates major steps of the evolutionary scenario leading to extant NF-T3SSs. It demonstrates how molecular evolution can convert one complex molecular machine into a second, equally complex machine by successive deletions, innovations, and recruitment from other molecular systems.

  17. In Vitro Interaction of the Housekeeping SecA1 with the Accessory SecA2 Protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Prabudiansyah

    Full Text Available The majority of proteins that are secreted across the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane leave the cell via the Sec pathway, which in its minimal form consists of the dimeric ATP-driven motor protein SecA that associates with the protein-conducting membrane pore SecYEG. Some Gram-positive bacteria contain two homologues of SecA, termed SecA1 and SecA2. SecA1 is the essential housekeeping protein, whereas SecA2 is not essential but is involved in the translocation of a subset of proteins, including various virulence factors. Some SecA2 containing bacteria also harbor a homologous SecY2 protein that may form a separate translocase. Interestingly, mycobacteria contain only one SecY protein and thus both SecA1 and SecA2 are required to interact with SecYEG, either individually or together as a heterodimer. In order to address whether SecA1 and SecA2 cooperate during secretion of SecA2 dependent proteins, we examined the oligomeric state of SecA1 and SecA2 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and their interactions with SecA2 and the cognate SecA1, respectively. We conclude that both SecA1 and SecA2 individually form homodimers in solution but when both proteins are present simultaneously, they form dissociable heterodimers.

  18. Billing of Household Goods Accessorial Charges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    The audit objectives were to evaluate the process of submitting bills for household goods accessorial charges for payment, and to evaluate procedures used to conduct prepayment reviews of billed accessorial charges...

  19. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... operating chair and accessories. 878.4950 Section 878.4950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Surgical Devices § 878.4950 Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories. (a) Identification. A manual operating table and accessories and a manual operating chair and...

  20. Accessory hepatic vein: MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Hee; Rho, Tack Soo; Cha, Sang Hoon; Park, Cheol Min; Cha, In Ho

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the MR appearance of the accessory hepatic veins. The study included 87 consecutive patients for whom abdominal MR images were obtained. The subjects who had liver lesion or hepatic vascular abnormalities were excluded. Couinaud classified accessory hepatic veins into inferior and middle right hepatic veins. Our major interests were evaluation of the incidence, morphology, and location of the accessory hepatic vein. Inferior right hepatic vein was demonstrated in 43 out of 87 patients (49%). The morphology was linear in 35 patients (80.5%), and V-shaped in 8 patients (19.5%). In 40 patients (93%), the inferior right hepatic vein was located in the posteroinferior aspect of the right lobe. Middle right hepatic vein was demonstrated in 7 out of 87 patients (8%). All were single linear in morphology, combined with the inferior right hepatic vein, and located between the right hepatic vein and inferior right hepatic vein. The accessory hepatic vein was demonstrated in 49% among the Korean adult population, and was located in posteroinferior portion of the liver, in 93%

  1. The Fe-type nitrile hydratase from Comamonas testosteroni Ni1 does not require an activator accessory protein for expression in Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, Misty L.; Martinez, Salette; Gumataotao, Natalie; Bornscheuer, Uwe; Liu, Dali; Holz, Richard C. (Loyola); (Greifswald)

    2012-10-10

    We report herein the functional expression of an Fe-type nitrile hydratase (NHase) without the co-expression of an activator protein or the Escherichia coli chaperone proteins GroES/EL. Soluble protein was obtained when the {alpha}- and {beta}-subunit genes of the Fe-type NHase Comamonas testosteroni Ni1 (CtNHase) were synthesized with optimized E. coli codon usage and co-expressed. As a control, the Fe-type NHase from Rhodococcus equi TG328-2 (ReNHase) was expressed with (ReNHase{sup +Act}) and without (ReNHase{sup -Act}) its activator protein, establishing that expression of a fully functional, metallated ReNHase enzyme requires the co-expression of its activator protein, similar to all other Fe-type NHase enzymes reported to date, whereas the CtNHase does not. The X-ray crystal structure of CtNHase was determined to 2.4 {angstrom} resolution revealing an {alpha}{beta} heterodimer, similar to other Fe-type NHase enzymes, except for two important differences. First, two His residues reside in the CtNHase active site that are not observed in other Fe-type NHase enzymes and second, the active site Fe(III) ion resides at the bottom of a wide solvent exposed channel. The solvent exposed active site, along with the two active site histidine residues, are hypothesized to play a role in iron incorporation in the absence of an activator protein.

  2. Effect of the I(to) activator NS5806 on cloned K(V)4 channels depends on the accessory protein KChIP2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, Alicia; Jespersen, Thomas; Schmitt, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    The compound NS5806 increases the transient outward current (I(to)) in canine ventricular cardiomyocytes and slows current decay. In human and canine ventricle, I(to) is thought to be mediated by K(V)4.3 and various ancillary proteins, yet, the exact subunit composition of I(to) channels is still...

  3. Building iPhone OS Accessories

    CERN Document Server

    Maskrey, Ken

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a serious, in-depth look at Apple's External Accessory Framework and the iPhone Accessories API. You'll learn how to create new, integrated solutions that combine iPhone apps with dedicated hardware. The iPhone OS Accessories API expands the opportunities for innovative iPhone developers, allowing you to control and monitor external devices, whether you've built them yourself or obtained them from a third party. What you'll learn * Develop accessories and apps for the iPhone and iPod touch. * Use Apple's External Accessory Framework to create hardware/software interaction. *

  4. Morphometry of boar sperm head and flagellum in semen backflow after insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Vázquez, Francisco Alberto; Hernández-Caravaca, Iván; Yánez-Quintana, Wellington; Matás, Carmen; Soriano-Úbeda, Cristina; Izquierdo-Rico, María José

    2015-09-01

    Once deposited in the female reproductive system, sperm begin their competition and undergo a selection to reach the site of fertilization. Little is known about the special characteristics of sperm that reach the oviduct and are able to fertilize, with even less information on the role of sperm dimension and shape in transport and fertilization. Here, we examine whether sperm morphometry could be involved in their journey within the uterus. For this purpose, sperm head dimension (length, width, area, and perimeter) and shape (shape factor, ellipticity, elongation, and regularity), and flagellum length were analyzed in the backflow at different times after insemination (0-15, 16-30, and 31-60 minutes). Sperm morphometry in the backflow was also analyzed taking into account the site of semen deposition (cervical vs. intrauterine). Finally, flagellum length was measured at the uterotubal junction. Sperm analyzed in the backflow were small (head and flagellum) with different head shapes compared with sperm observed in the dose before insemination. The site of deposition influenced head morphometry and tail size both being smaller in the backflow after cervical insemination compared with intrauterine insemination. Mean tail length of sperm collected in the backflow was smaller than that in the insemination dose and at the uterotubal junction. Overall, our results suggest that sperm size may be involved in sperm transport either because of environment or through sperm selection and competence on their way to encounter the female gamete. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Hidden female physiological resistance to male accessory gland substances in a simultaneous hermaphrodite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lodi, Monica; Koene, Joris M

    2017-01-01

    To increase fertilization chances compared with rivals, males are favoured to transfer accessory gland proteins to females during mating. These substances, by influencing female physiology, cause alteration of her sperm usage and remating rate. Simultaneously hermaphroditic land snails with

  6. Functional male accessory glands and fertility in Drosophila require novel ecdysone receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana Sharma

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In many insects, the accessory gland, a secretory tissue of the male reproductive system, is essential for male fertility. Male accessory gland is the major source of proteinaceous secretions, collectively called as seminal proteins (or accessory gland proteins, which upon transfer, manipulate the physiology and behavior of mated females. Insect hormones such as ecdysteroids and juvenoids play a key role in accessory gland development and protein synthesis but little is known about underlying molecular players and their mechanism of action. Therefore, in the present study, we examined the roles of hormone-dependent transcription factors (Nuclear Receptors, in accessory gland development, function and male fertility of a genetically tractable insect model, Drosophila melanogaster. First, we carried out an RNAi screen involving 19 hormone receptors, individually and specifically, in a male reproductive tissue (accessory gland for their requirement in Drosophila male fertility. Subsequently, by using independent RNAi/ dominant negative forms, we show that Ecdysone Receptor (EcR is essential for male fertility due to its requirement in the normal development of accessory glands in Drosophila: EcR depleted glands fail to make seminal proteins and have dying cells. Further, our data point to a novel ecdysone receptor that does not include Ultraspiracle but is probably comprised of EcR isoforms in Drosophila male accessory glands. Our data suggest that this novel ecdysone receptor might act downstream of homeodomain transcription factor paired (prd in the male accessory gland. Overall, the study suggests novel ecdysone receptor as an important player in the hormonal regulation of seminal protein production and insect male fertility.

  7. microRNA-4331 Promotes Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus (TGEV)-induced Mitochondrial Damage Via Targeting RB1, Upregulating Interleukin-1 Receptor Accessory Protein (IL1RAP), and Activating p38 MAPK Pathway In Vitro*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaomin; Bai, Xiaoyuan; Guan, Lijuan; Li, Juejun; Song, Xiangjun; Ma, Xuelian; Guo, Jianxiong; Zhang, Zhichao; Du, Qian; Huang, Yong; Tong, Dewen

    2018-01-01

    Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), a member of the coronaviridae family, could cause fatal diarrhea of piglets and result in numerous economic losses. Previous studies demonstrated that TGEV infection could lead to mitochondrial damage and upregulate miR-4331 level. So miR-4331 may play an important regulatory role in the control of mitochondrial function. To explore the potential role of miR-4331 in mitochondrial damage, we adopted a strategy consisting of quantitative proteomic analysis of porcine kidney (PK-15) cells in response to miR-4331 and TGEV infection. Eventually, 69 differentially expressed proteins were gained. The target of miR-4331 was identified. The effects of miR-4331 and its target RB1 on mitochondrial Ca2+ level, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein (IL1RAP), p38 MAPK signaling pathway were investigated. The results showed that miR-4331 elevated mitochondrial Ca2+ level, reduced MMP, targets Retinoblastoma 1 (RB1), upregulated IL1RAP, and induced activation of p38 MAPK pathway during TGEV infection. RB1 was identified as the direct targets of miR-4331 and downregulated IL1RAP, suppressed the activation of p38 MPAK, and attenuated TGEV-induced mitochondrial damage. In addition, IL1RAP played a positive role in activating p38 MAPK signaling and negative role in TGEV-induced mitochondrial damage. The data indicate that miR-4331 aggravates TGEV-induced mitochondrial damage by repressing expression of RB1, promoting IL1RAP, and activating p38 MAPK pathway. PMID:29217619

  8. microRNA-4331 Promotes Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus (TGEV)-induced Mitochondrial Damage Via Targeting RB1, Upregulating Interleukin-1 Receptor Accessory Protein (IL1RAP), and Activating p38 MAPK PathwayIn Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaomin; Bai, Xiaoyuan; Guan, Lijuan; Li, Juejun; Song, Xiangjun; Ma, Xuelian; Guo, Jianxiong; Zhang, Zhichao; Du, Qian; Huang, Yong; Tong, Dewen

    2018-02-01

    Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), a member of the coronaviridae family, could cause fatal diarrhea of piglets and result in numerous economic losses. Previous studies demonstrated that TGEV infection could lead to mitochondrial damage and upregulate miR-4331 level. So miR-4331 may play an important regulatory role in the control of mitochondrial function. To explore the potential role of miR-4331 in mitochondrial damage, we adopted a strategy consisting of quantitative proteomic analysis of porcine kidney (PK-15) cells in response to miR-4331 and TGEV infection. Eventually, 69 differentially expressed proteins were gained. The target of miR-4331 was identified. The effects of miR-4331 and its target RB1 on mitochondrial Ca 2+ level, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein (IL1RAP), p38 MAPK signaling pathway were investigated. The results showed that miR-4331 elevated mitochondrial Ca 2+ level, reduced MMP, targets Retinoblastoma 1 (RB1), upregulated IL1RAP, and induced activation of p38 MAPK pathway during TGEV infection. RB1 was identified as the direct targets of miR-4331 and downregulated IL1RAP, suppressed the activation of p38 MPAK, and attenuated TGEV-induced mitochondrial damage. In addition, IL1RAP played a positive role in activating p38 MAPK signaling and negative role in TGEV-induced mitochondrial damage. The data indicate that miR-4331 aggravates TGEV-induced mitochondrial damage by repressing expression of RB1, promoting IL1RAP, and activating p38 MAPK pathway. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. VPS29 is not an active metallo-phosphatase but is a rigid scaffold required for retromer interaction with accessory proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D Swarbrick

    Full Text Available VPS29 is a key component of the cargo-binding core complex of retromer, a protein assembly with diverse roles in transport of receptors within the endosomal system. VPS29 has a fold related to metal-binding phosphatases and mediates interactions between retromer and other regulatory proteins. In this study we examine the functional interactions of mammalian VPS29, using X-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy. We find that although VPS29 can coordinate metal ions Mn(2+ and Zn(2+ in both the putative active site and at other locations, the affinity for metals is low, and lack of activity in phosphatase assays using a putative peptide substrate support the conclusion that VPS29 is not a functional metalloenzyme. There is evidence that structural elements of VPS29 critical for binding the retromer subunit VPS35 may undergo both metal-dependent and independent conformational changes regulating complex formation, however studies using ITC and NMR residual dipolar coupling (RDC measurements show that this is not the case. Finally, NMR chemical shift mapping indicates that VPS29 is able to associate with SNX1 via a conserved hydrophobic surface, but with a low affinity that suggests additional interactions will be required to stabilise the complex in vivo. Our conclusion is that VPS29 is a metal ion-independent, rigid scaffolding domain, which is essential but not sufficient for incorporation of retromer into functional endosomal transport assemblies.

  10. Postcopulatory sexual selection results in spermatozoa with more uniform head and flagellum sizes in rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Varea-Sánchez

    Full Text Available Interspecific comparative studies have shown that, in most taxa, postcopulatory sexual selection (PCSS in the form of sperm competition drives the evolution of longer and faster swimming sperm. Work on passserine birds has revealed that PCSS also reduces variation in sperm size between males at the intraspecific level. However, the influence of PCSS upon intra-male sperm size diversity is poorly understood, since the few studies carried out to date in birds have yielded contradictory results. In mammals, PCSS increases sperm size but there is little information on the effects of this selective force on variations in sperm size and shape. Here, we test whether sperm competition associates with a reduction in the degree of variation of sperm dimensions in rodents. We found that as sperm competition levels increase males produce sperm that are more similar in both the size of the head and the size of the flagellum. On the other hand, whereas with increasing levels of sperm competition there is less variation in head length in relation to head width (ratio CV head length/CV head width, there is no relation between variation in head and flagellum sizes (ratio CV head length/CV flagellum length. Thus, it appears that, in addition to a selection for longer sperm, sperm competition may select more uniform sperm heads and flagella, which together may enhance swimming velocity. Overall, sperm competition seems to drive sperm components towards an optimum design that may affect sperm performance which, in turn, will be crucial for successful fertilization.

  11. Mechanical accessories for mobile teleoperators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, M.J.; Herndon, J.N.

    1985-01-01

    The choice of optimum mechanical accessories for mobile teleoperators involves matching the criteria for emergency response with the available technology. This paper presents a general background to teleoperations, a potpourri of the manipulator systems available, and an argument for force reflecting manipulation. The theme presented is that the accomplishment of humanlike endeavors in hostile environments will be most successful when man model capabilities are utilized. The application of recent electronic technology to manipulator development has made new tools available to be applied to emergency response activities. The development activities described are products of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 13 refs., 7 figs

  12. Identification of capsule, biofilm, lateral flagellum, and type IV pili in Vibrio mimicus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tercero-Alburo, J J; González-Márquez, H; Bonilla-González, E; Quiñones-Ramírez, E I; Vázquez-Salinas, C

    2014-11-01

    Vibrio mimicus is a bacterium that causes gastroenteritis; it is closely related to Vibrio cholerae, and can cause acute diarrhea like cholera- or dysentery-type diarrhea. It is distributed worldwide. Factors associated with virulence (such as hemolysins, enterotoxins, proteases, phospholipases, aerobactin, and hemagglutinin) have been identified; however, its pathogenicity mechanism is still unknown. In pathogenic Vibrio species such as V. cholerae, Vibrio. parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus, capsule, biofilms, lateral flagellum, and type IV pili are structures described as essential for pathogenicity. These structures had not been described in V. mimicus until this work. We used 20 V. mimicus strains isolated from water (6), oyster (9), and fish (5) samples and we were able to identify the capsule, biofilm, lateral flagellum, and type IV pili through phenotypic tests, electron microscopy, PCR, and sequencing. In all tested strains, we observed and identified the presence of capsular exopolysaccharide, biofilm formation in an in vitro model, as well as swarming, multiple flagellation, and pili. In addition, we identified homologous genes to those described in other bacteria of the genus in which these structures have been found. Identification of these structures in V. mimicus is a contribution to the biology of this organism and can help to reveal its pathogenic behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The accessory fallopian tube: A rare anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusum R Gandhi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a rare anatomical variation in the form of accessory fallopian tube on right side. The duplication of fallopian tube was observed in a 34-year-old female during routine undergraduate dissection in our department. Fallopian tube is the part of uterus that carries the ovum from the ovary to the uterus. Accessory fallopian tube is the congenital anomaly attached to the ampullary part of main tube. This accessory tube is common site of pyosalpinx, hydrosalpinx, cystic swelling and torsion. The ovum released by the ovary may also be captured by the blind accessory tube leading to infertility or ectopic pregnancy. Hence, all patients of infertility or pelvic inflammatory disease should be screened to rule out the presence of accessory fallopian tube and if encountered should be removed.

  14. Loss of the flagellum happened only once in the fungal lineage: phylogenetic structure of Kingdom Fungi inferred from RNA polymerase II subunit genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hodson Matthew C

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At present, there is not a widely accepted consensus view regarding the phylogenetic structure of kingdom Fungi although two major phyla, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, are clearly delineated. Regarding the lower fungi, Zygomycota and Chytridiomycota, a variety of proposals have been advanced. Microsporidia may or may not be fungi; the Glomales (vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi may or may not constitute a fifth fungal phylum, and the loss of the flagellum may have occurred either once or multiple times during fungal evolution. All of these issues are capable of being resolved by a molecular phylogenetic analysis which achieves strong statistical support for major branches. To date, no fungal phylogeny based upon molecular characters has satisfied this criterion. Results Using the translated amino acid sequences of the RPB1 and RPB2 genes, we have inferred a fungal phylogeny that consists largely of well-supported monophyletic phyla. Our major results, each with significant statistical support, are: (1 Microsporidia are sister to kingdom Fungi and are not members of Zygomycota; that is, Microsporidia and fungi originated from a common ancestor. (2 Chytridiomycota, the only fungal phylum having a developmental stage with a flagellum, is paraphyletic and is the basal lineage. (3 Zygomycota is monophyletic based upon sampling of Trichomycetes, Zygomycetes, and Glomales. (4 Zygomycota, Basidiomycota, and Ascomycota form a monophyletic group separate from Chytridiomycota. (5 Basidiomycota and Ascomycota are monophyletic sister groups. Conclusion In general, this paper highlights the evolutionary position and significance of the lower fungi (Zygomycota and Chytridiomycota. Our results suggest that loss of the flagellum happened only once during early stages of fungal evolution; consequently, the majority of fungi, unlike plants and animals, are nonflagellated. The phylogeny we infer from gene sequences is the first one that is

  15. Loss of the flagellum happened only once in the fungal lineage: phylogenetic structure of kingdom Fungi inferred from RNA polymerase II subunit genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yajuan J; Hodson, Matthew C; Hall, Benjamin D

    2006-09-29

    At present, there is not a widely accepted consensus view regarding the phylogenetic structure of kingdom Fungi although two major phyla, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, are clearly delineated. Regarding the lower fungi, Zygomycota and Chytridiomycota, a variety of proposals have been advanced. Microsporidia may or may not be fungi; the Glomales (vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi) may or may not constitute a fifth fungal phylum, and the loss of the flagellum may have occurred either once or multiple times during fungal evolution. All of these issues are capable of being resolved by a molecular phylogenetic analysis which achieves strong statistical support for major branches. To date, no fungal phylogeny based upon molecular characters has satisfied this criterion. Using the translated amino acid sequences of the RPB1 and RPB2 genes, we have inferred a fungal phylogeny that consists largely of well-supported monophyletic phyla. Our major results, each with significant statistical support, are: (1) Microsporidia are sister to kingdom Fungi and are not members of Zygomycota; that is, Microsporidia and fungi originated from a common ancestor. (2) Chytridiomycota, the only fungal phylum having a developmental stage with a flagellum, is paraphyletic and is the basal lineage. (3) Zygomycota is monophyletic based upon sampling of Trichomycetes, Zygomycetes, and Glomales. (4) Zygomycota, Basidiomycota, and Ascomycota form a monophyletic group separate from Chytridiomycota. (5) Basidiomycota and Ascomycota are monophyletic sister groups. In general, this paper highlights the evolutionary position and significance of the lower fungi (Zygomycota and Chytridiomycota). Our results suggest that loss of the flagellum happened only once during early stages of fungal evolution; consequently, the majority of fungi, unlike plants and animals, are nonflagellated. The phylogeny we infer from gene sequences is the first one that is congruent with the widely accepted morphology

  16. Three-dimensional structure of the Trypanosome flagellum suggests that the paraflagellar rod functions as a biomechanical spring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise C Hughes

    Full Text Available Flagellum motility is critical for normal human development and for transmission of pathogenic protozoa that cause tremendous human suffering worldwide. Biophysical principles underlying motility of eukaryotic flagella are conserved from protists to vertebrates. However, individual cells exhibit diverse waveforms that depend on cell-specific elaborations on basic flagellum architecture. Trypanosoma brucei is a uniflagellated protozoan parasite that causes African sleeping sickness. The T. brucei flagellum is comprised of a 9+2 axoneme and an extra-axonemal paraflagellar rod (PFR, but the three-dimensional (3D arrangement of the underlying structural units is poorly defined. Here, we use dual-axis electron tomography to determine the 3D architecture of the T. brucei flagellum. We define the T. brucei axonemal repeating unit. We observe direct connections between the PFR and axonemal dyneins, suggesting a mechanism by which mechanochemical signals may be transmitted from the PFR to axonemal dyneins. We find that the PFR itself is comprised of overlapping laths organized into distinct zones that are connected through twisting elements at the zonal interfaces. The overall structure has an underlying 57 nm repeating unit. Biomechanical properties inferred from PFR structure lead us to propose that the PFR functions as a biomechanical spring that may store and transmit energy derived from axonemal beating. These findings provide insight into the structural foundations that underlie the distinctive flagellar waveform that is a hallmark of T. brucei cell motility.

  17. Protein diversity in discrete structures at the distal tip of the trypanosome flagellum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Varga, Vladimír; Moreira-Leite, F.; Portman, N.; Gull, K.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 114, č. 32 (2017), E6546-E6555 ISSN 0027-8424 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : flagellar distal end * trypanosome * flagella connector * axonemal capping structure * structure immunoprecipitation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Cell biology Impact factor: 9.661, year: 2016

  18. Radiologic findings of intrapancreatic accessory spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berat Acu

    2015-06-01

    Accessory spleen is a congenital abnormality consisting of normal splenic tissue in ectopic sites. They are found most commonly near the splenic hilum. One in every six accessory spleens is located in the tail of the pancreas. The diagnosis of an IPAS should be considered when a pancreatic mass has the CT densities and/or MRI signal intensities similar to those of the spleen, with and without contrast medium. [J Contemp Med 2015; 5(2.000: 140-143

  19. [Spinal accessory nerve and lymphatic neck dissection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsolle, V; Michelet, V; Majoufre, C; Caix, P; Siberchicot, F; Pinsolle, J

    1997-09-01

    Radical neck dissection was the golden standard of treatment for cervical nodes in head and neck tumors. From the seventies, the preservation of the spinal accessory nerve has become increasingly popular in order to improve the functional result of the neck dissections. The aim of this study was to assess the degree of functional disability associated with each type of neck dissection and the value of anatomical references for dissection of the spinal accessory nerve. One hundred twenty seven patients were evaluated 1 month and 1 year after radical, functional or supraomohyoid neck dissection with a questionnaire and a physical examination. Anatomical measurements of the spinal accessory nerve were performed in 20 patients. We found considerable or severe shoulder dysfunction in 7%, 34% and 51% respectively of patients in whom supraomohyoid, functional and radical neck dissections were performed. Furthermore 49% of patients having undergone a radical neck dissection had little or no symptoms. Sacrifice of the spinal accessory nerve in radical neck dissection may lead to shoulder dysfunction. A functional disability may also be associated, although in a less extent, with any neck dissection in which the spinal accessory nerve is dissected and placed in traction. There is a large variation in the degree of functional disability and pain in patients with similar neck dissections. The course of the spinal accessory nerve in the neck makes it particularly vulnerable to injury during the dissection near the sternocleidomastoid muscle and in the posterior cervical triangle.

  20. A specific flagellum beating mode for inducing fusion in mammalian fertilization and kinetics of sperm internalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravaux, Benjamin; Garroum, Nabil; Perez, Eric; Willaime, Hervé; Gourier, Christine

    2016-01-01

    The salient phases of fertilization are gamete adhesion, membrane fusion, and internalization of the spermatozoon into the oocyte but the precise timeline and the molecular, membrane and cell mechanisms underlying these highly dynamical events are far from being established. The high motility of the spermatozoa and the unpredictable location of sperm/egg fusion dramatically hinder the use of real time imaging optical techniques that should directly provide the dynamics of cell events. Using an approach based on microfluidics technology, the sperm/egg interaction zone was imaged with the best front view, and the timeline of the fertilization events was established with an unparalleled temporal accuracy from the onset of gamete contact to full sperm DNA decondensation. It reveals that a key element of the adhesion phase to initiate fusion is the oscillatory motion of the sperm head on the oocyte plasma membrane generated by a specific flagellum-beating mode. It also shows that the incorporation of the spermatozoon head is a two steps process that includes simultaneous diving, tilt, and plasma membrane degradation of the sperm head into the oocyte and subsequent DNA decondensation. PMID:27539564

  1. From the Cover: Bacterial flagellum as a propeller and as a rudder for efficient chemotaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Li; Altindal, Tuba; Chattopadhyay, Suddhashil; Wu, Xiao-Lun

    2011-02-08

    We investigate swimming and chemotactic behaviors of the polarly flagellated marine bacteria Vibrio alginolyticus in an aqueous medium. Our observations show that V. alginolyticus execute a cyclic, three-step (forward, reverse, and flick) swimming pattern that is distinctively different from the run-tumble pattern adopted by Escherichia coli. Specifically, the bacterium backtracks its forward swimming path when the motor reverses. However, upon resuming forward swimming, the flagellum flicks and a new swimming direction is selected at random. In a chemically homogeneous medium (no attractant or repellent), the consecutive forward t(f) and backward t(b) swimming times are uncorrelated. Interestingly, although t(f) and t(b) are not distributed in a Poissonian fashion, their difference Δt = |t(f) - t(b)| is. Near a point source of attractant, on the other hand, t(f) and t(b) are found to be strongly correlated, and Δt obeys a bimodal distribution. These observations indicate that V. alginolyticus exploit the time-reversal symmetry of forward and backward swimming by using the time difference to regulate their chemotactic behavior. By adopting the three-step cycle, cells of V. alginolyticus are able to quickly respond to a chemical gradient as well as to localize near a point source of attractant.

  2. Cyclic guanosine 3'-5'-monphosphate. High levels in the male accessory gland of Acheta domesticus and related crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, A M; Wyatt, G R

    1975-12-05

    Guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic GMP) was found in the accessory gland of reproductively mature male house crickets (Acheta domesticus (L.)) up to the exceptionally high level of 500 pmol/mg protein (10(-4) mol/kg wet weight). The identity of cricket cyclic GMP was confirmed by enzymatic and spectral analysis. A survey of 10 closely related species of Orthoptera indicated that high levels of cyclic GMP in the accessory gland occur in the subfamily Gryllinae, to which A. domesticus belongs. In these crickets, cyclic GMP in the accessory gland increases together with protein content during two weeks after the final molt. Levels are not augmented by dissection, and are independent of the presence of sperm in the seminal vesicles and of the production of spermatophores by the gland. The function of cyclic GMP in the accessory gland is not yet understood.

  3. MERS-CoV Accessory ORFs Play Key Role for Infection and Pathogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menachery, Vineet D.; Mitchell, Hugh D.; Cockrell, Adam S.; Gralinski, Lisa E.; Yount, Boyd L.; Graham, Rachel L.; McAnarney, Eileen T.; Douglas, Madeline G.; Scobey, Trevor; Beall, Anne; Dinnon, Kenneth; Kocher, Jacob F.; Hale, Andrew E.; Stratton, Kelly G.; Waters, Katrina M.; Baric, Ralph S.; Racaniello, Vincent R.

    2017-08-22

    ABSTRACT

    While dispensable for viral replication, coronavirus (CoV) accessory open reading frame (ORF) proteins often play critical roles during infection and pathogenesis. Utilizing a previously generated mutant, we demonstrate that the absence of all four Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV) accessory ORFs (deletion of ORF3, -4a, -4b, and -5 [dORF3-5]) has major implications for viral replication and pathogenesis. Importantly, attenuation of the dORF3-5 mutant is primarily driven by dysregulated host responses, including disrupted cell processes, augmented interferon (IFN) pathway activation, and robust inflammation.In vitroreplication attenuation also extends toin vivomodels, allowing use of dORF3-5 as a live attenuated vaccine platform. Finally, examination of ORF5 implicates a partial role in modulation of NF-κB-mediated inflammation. Together, the results demonstrate the importance of MERS-CoV accessory ORFs for pathogenesis and highlight them as potential targets for surveillance and therapeutic treatments moving forward.

    IMPORTANCEThe initial emergence and periodic outbreaks of MERS-CoV highlight a continuing threat posed by zoonotic pathogens to global public health. In these studies, mutant virus generation demonstrates the necessity of accessory ORFs in regard to MERS-CoV infection and pathogenesis. With this in mind, accessory ORF functions can be targeted for both therapeutic and vaccine treatments in response to MERS-CoV and related group 2C coronaviruses. In addition, disruption of accessory ORFs in parallel may offer a rapid response platform to attenuation of future emergent strains based on both SARS- and MERS-CoV accessory ORF mutants.

  4. Accessory mental foramen assessment using cone-beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naitoh, Munetaka; Hiraiwa, Yuichiro; Aimiya, Hidetoshi; Gotoh, Kenichi; Ariji, Eiichiro

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the accessory mental foramen using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. A total of 157 patients were enrolled in this investigation. The mental and accessory mental foramina, which show continuity with the mandibular canal, were assessed using axial and cross-sectional, 2-dimensional CBCT images. The sizes of the mental and accessory mental foramina were measured and statistically analyzed. Also, the distance between the mental and accessory mental foramina was measured. The accessory mental foramen was observed in 7% of patients. There was no significant difference regarding the sizes of the mental foramen between accessory mental foramen presence and absence. Also, the mean distance between the mental and accessory mental foramina was 6.3 mm (SD: 1.5 mm). The accessory mental foramen, which shows continuity with the mandibular canal, could be observed in 7% of the subjects using CBCT.

  5. AN ACCESSORY FLEXOR OF THE FIFTH TOE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. The presence of accessory muscles and other organs on the lower limbs of some individuals have variously been reperted in the literature. We report an unusual muscle located on the plantar surface of the left foot of a cadaver. which had not been previously described. This muscle originated from the tendon ...

  6. 21 CFR 884.6120 - Assisted reproduction accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproduction accessories. 884.6120... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6120 Assisted reproduction accessories. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction accessories are a group of...

  7. Detection of accessory spleens with indium 111-labeled autologous platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, H.H. II; Varki, A.; Heaton, W.A.; Siegel, B.A.

    1980-01-01

    In two patients with recurrent immune thrombocytopenia, accessory splenic tissue was demonstrated by radionuclide imaging following administration of indium 111-labeled autologous platelets. In one of these patients, no accessory splenic tissue was seen on images obtained with technetium 99m sulfur colloid. This new technique provides a simple means for demonstrating accessory spleens and simultaneously evaluating the life-span of autologous platelets

  8. 21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Surgical microscope and accessories. 878.4700 Section 878.4700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... microscope and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical microscope and accessories is an AC-powered device...

  9. 21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Microscopes and accessories. 864.3600 Section 864... Microscopes and accessories. (a) Identification. Microscopes and accessories are optical instruments used to enlarge images of specimens, preparations, and cultures for medical purposes. Variations of microscopes...

  10. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endosseous dental implant accessories. 872.3980... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3980 Endosseous dental implant accessories. (a) Identification. Endosseous dental implant accessories are manually powered devices intended...

  11. 21 CFR 872.6250 - Dental chair and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental chair and accessories. 872.6250 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6250 Dental chair and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental chair and accessories is a device, usually AC-powered, in which a patient sits. The...

  12. 21 CFR 872.4120 - Bone cutting instrument and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4120 Bone cutting instrument and accessories. (a) Identification. A bone cutting instrument and accessories is a metal device intended for use... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bone cutting instrument and accessories. 872.4120...

  13. 21 CFR 872.5410 - Orthodontic appliance and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orthodontic appliance and accessories. 872.5410... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 872.5410 Orthodontic appliance and accessories. (a) Identification. An orthodontic appliance and accessories is a device intended for use in...

  14. 21 CFR 890.3025 - Prosthetic and orthotic accessory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. 890.3025... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3025 Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. (a) Identification. A prosthetic and orthotic accessory is a device...

  15. 21 CFR 884.1720 - Gynecologic laparoscope and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gynecologic laparoscope and accessories. 884.1720... Devices § 884.1720 Gynecologic laparoscope and accessories. (a) Identification. A gynecologic laparoscope...) Class II (performance standards). (2) Class I for gynecologic laparoscope accessories that are not part...

  16. More than a marine propeller--the flagellum of the probiotic Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 is the major adhesin mediating binding to human mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troge, Anja; Scheppach, Wolfgang; Schroeder, Bjoern O; Rund, Stefan A; Heuner, Klaus; Wehkamp, Jan; Stange, Eduard F; Oelschlaeger, Tobias A

    2012-12-01

    The flagellum of the probiotic Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 (EcN) is not just responsible for motility, but also for EcN's ability to induce the production of human β-defensin 2. Here, we report a third function of this EcN organell. In this study we investigated the role of the EcN flagellum in adhesion to different host tissues by ex vivo and in vitro studies. Ex vivo studies with cryosections of human gut biopsies revealed that the flagellum of EcN is most likely important for efficient adhesion to the human intestinal tract. These results and in vitro studies with different epithelial cells indicated that the presence of mucus is important for efficient mediation of adhesion by the flagellum of EcN. We observed direct interaction between isolated flagella from EcN wild type and porcine mucin 2 as well as human mucus. However, we could not observe any interaction of the flagella with murine mucus. For the first time, we identified the mucus component gluconate as one receptor for the binding of flagella from EcN and were able to exclude the flagellin domain D3 as a responsible interaction partner. We propose that the flagellum of EcN is its major adhesin in vivo, which enables this probiotic strain to compete efficiently for binding sites on host tissue with several bacterial pathogens. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Accessory Mental Foramen and Maxillofacial Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahpeyma, Amin; Khajehahmadi, Saeedeh

    2017-10-26

    Accessory mental foramens should be considered in surgical procedures performed in mandibular body and symphysis. Location and content of these foramina has significant impact on the result of surgery.Lip numbness is the catastrophic result if these foramina are violated while their content is nerves that carry sensory inputs from lower lip. Examples of interferences with dental implant, orthognathic, and periapical surgeries are presented and it is discussed in which conditions they complicate oral surgical procedures.

  18. Fibroadenoma in the bilateral accessory axillary breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, P; Izzo, V; Cervelli, V

    2010-10-01

    The authors treated a case of bilateral accessory axillary breast tissue. Excision with histologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of fibroadenoma. Treatment left the woman with incision scars (3.5 cm) in the axillary pyramid, a location often not seen during a patient's normal movements. Thus, despite a minor aesthetic incision, gives the advantage of complete histologic analysis was gained. Liposuction treatment was used in this case. The scar results were good.

  19. Instruments and accessories for neutron scattering research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Yoshinobu; Morii, Yukio

    2000-04-01

    This report describes neutron scattering instruments and accessories installed by four neutron scattering research groups at the ASRC (Advanced Science Research Center) of the JAERI and the recent topics of neutron scattering research using these instruments. The specifications of nine instruments (HRPD, BIX-I, TAS-1 and PNO in the reactor hall, RESA, BIX-II, TAS-2, LTAS and SANS-J in the guide hall of the JRR-3M) are summarized in this booklet. (author)

  20. Isolated spinal accessory neuropathy and intracisternal schwannomas of the spinal accessory nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M. Al-Ajmi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We report a 40-year-old female patient presenting with isolated left spinal accessory neuropathy that developed insidiously over 6 years. She complained of ill-defined deep neck and shoulder pain. On examination, prominent sternocleidomastoid and trapezoid muscle weakness and atrophy, shoulder instability, and lateral scapular winging were observed. MRI identified a small mass of the cisternal portion of the spinal accessory nerve. Its appearance was typical of schwannoma. Surgical treatment was not offered because of the small tumor size, lack of mass effect and the questionable functional recovery in the presence of muscular atrophy.

  1. MR imaging of accessory muscles of the ankle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondello, Eduardo; Nazar, Miguel E.; Martin, Eduardo

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to describe the normal anatomy and the characteristics in MRI of the accessory muscles of the posterior ankle: the accessory soleus, accessory flexor digitorum longus, peroneus quartus, tibiocalcaneus internus and peroneocalcaneus internus. Material and methods: There were evaluated 280 symptomatic patients between 18 and 40 years old (85 % males). MR was performed in High Field Magnetic Resonance Units (1.5 T y 1.0 T) and multiplanar sequences. Results: We found 2 peroneus quartus (0.7%), 2 accessory soleus muscles (0.7%), 3 accessory flexor digitorum longus (1.07%) and 1 peroneocalcaneus internus (0.35%). Conclusion: The knowledge of the accessory muscles of the posterior ankle allow to explain different painful pathologies with instability or tendinous tears, which are difficult to diagnose if the muscle are not adequately recognized. (author)

  2. Accessory genes confer a high replication rate to virulent feline immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyer, Ryan M; Thompson, Jesse; Elder, John H; VandeWoude, Sue

    2013-07-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus that causes AIDS in domestic cats, similar to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS in humans. The FIV accessory protein Vif abrogates the inhibition of infection by cat APOBEC3 restriction factors. FIV also encodes a multifunctional OrfA accessory protein that has characteristics similar to HIV Tat, Vpu, Vpr, and Nef. To examine the role of vif and orfA accessory genes in FIV replication and pathogenicity, we generated chimeras between two FIV molecular clones with divergent disease potentials: a highly pathogenic isolate that replicates rapidly in vitro and is associated with significant immunopathology in vivo, FIV-C36 (referred to here as high-virulence FIV [HV-FIV]), and a less-pathogenic strain, FIV-PPR (referred to here as low-virulence FIV [LV-FIV]). Using PCR-driven overlap extension, we produced viruses in which vif, orfA, or both genes from virulent HV-FIV replaced equivalent genes in LV-FIV. The generation of these chimeras is more straightforward in FIV than in primate lentiviruses, since FIV accessory gene open reading frames have very little overlap with other genes. All three chimeric viruses exhibited increased replication kinetics in vitro compared to the replication kinetics of LV-FIV. Chimeras containing HV-Vif or Vif/OrfA had replication rates equivalent to those of the virulent HV-FIV parental virus. Furthermore, small interfering RNA knockdown of feline APOBEC3 genes resulted in equalization of replication rates between LV-FIV and LV-FIV encoding HV-FIV Vif. These findings demonstrate that Vif-APOBEC interactions play a key role in controlling the replication and pathogenicity of this immunodeficiency-inducing virus in its native host species and that accessory genes act as mediators of lentiviral strain-specific virulence.

  3. Value of transoperative scintigraphy in the detection of accessory spleens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sezeur, A.; Goujard, F.; Labriolle-Vaylet, C.L. de; Wioland, M.; Douay, L.; Desmarquet, J.

    1990-01-01

    A case of accessory spleen, 1 cm in diameter, responsible for recurrence of an idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura after splenectomy is reported. This case is original in that the accessory spleen could only be detected by transoperative scintigraphy. Transoperative scintigraphy is a simple method to be used when one or several unrecognized accessory spleens are responsible for recurrence of a blood disease after excision of the principal spleen [fr

  4. Accessory hepatic lobe in right lumbar region - an incidental finding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, M K; Ghartimagar, D; Ghosh, A

    2014-01-01

    An accessory lobe of liver is a rare congenital anomaly which can be detected incidentally or can even present as acute surgical emergency due to torsion. We report a case of accessory hepatic lobe in right lumbar region in a 21years old female who came for a ultrasound abdomen for lower abdominal pain. We report the importance of ultrasonography and Computed Tomogram (CT) scan for the diagnosis of accessory hepatic lobe.

  5. Inflammatory breast cancer in accessory abdominal breast tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy C. Miles, MD, MPH

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Accessory breast tissue results from failure of the embryologic mammary ridge, also known as the milk line, to involute. As a result, ectopic breast tissue can develop anywhere along this ridge, which extends from the axilla—the most common location—to the groin. Primary breast cancer in accessory breast tissue is uncommon but has been reported in multiple prior studies. We present a rare case of inflammatory breast cancer presenting in upper abdominal accessory breast tissue in women with a personal history of ipsilateral breast cancer, and highlight the challenges of both diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer in accessory breast tissue.

  6. Chromosomal flhB1 gene of the alphaproteobacterium Azospirillum brasilense Sp245 is essential for correct assembly of both constitutive polar flagellum and inducible lateral flagella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filip'echeva, Yulia; Shelud'ko, Andrei; Prilipov, Alexei; Telesheva, Elizaveta; Mokeev, Dmitry; Burov, Andrei; Petrova, Lilia; Katsy, Elena

    2018-03-01

    Azospirillum brasilense has the ability of swimming and swarming motility owing to the work of a constitutive polar flagellum and inducible lateral flagella, respectively. The interplay between these flagellar systems is poorly understood. One of the key elements of the flagellar export apparatus is the protein FlhB. Two predicted flhB genes are present in the genome of A. brasilense Sp245 (accession nos. HE577327-HE577333). Experimental evidence obtained here indicates that the chromosomal coding sequence (CDS) AZOBR_150177 (flhB1) of Sp245 is essential for the production of both types of flagella. In an flhB1:: Omegon-Km mutant, Sp245.1063, defects in polar and lateral flagellar assembly and motility were complemented by expressing the wild-type flhB1 gene from plasmid pRK415. It was found that Sp245.1063 lost the capacity for slight but statistically significant decrease in mean cell length in response to transfer from solid to liquid media, and vice versa; in the complemented mutant, this capacity was restored. It was also shown that after the acquisition of the pRK415-harbored downstream CDS AZOBR_150176, cells of Sp245 and Sp245.1063 ceased to elongate on solid media. These initial data suggest that the AZOBR_150176-encoded putative multisensory hybrid sensor histidine kinase-response regulator, in concert with FlhB1, plays a role in morphological response of azospirilla to changes in the hardness of a milieu.

  7. Potential role of Arabidopsis PHP as an accessory subunit of the PAF1 transcriptional cofactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunchung; Ek-Ramos, Maria Julissa; Oh, Sookyung; van Nocker, Steven

    2011-08-01

    Paf1C is a transcriptional cofactor that has been implicated in various transcription-associated mechanisms spanning initiation, elongation and RNA processing, and is important for multiple aspects of development in Arabidopsis. Our recent studies suggest Arabidopsis Paf1C is crucial for proper regulation of genes within H3K27me3-enriched chromatin, and that a protein named PHP may act as an accessory subunit of Paf1C that promotes this function.

  8. ACCESSORIES OF FISCAL OBLIGATION. LEGAL REGIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADA POSTOLACHE

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The interest – which is an institution typical to private law, has been taken over by the fiscal field and adapted to the specific features of fiscal obligation – being defined by its imperative legal regime, which has at the least the following characteristic elements: unitary character, imposed legal percentage, compulsory demand of interest, automatic application. In order to render responsible fiscal debtors, the lawmaker has reintroduced, as an accessory of fiscal obligation, delayed payment penalties, which have a distinct nature and legal regime, but without the principle non bis in idem being transgressed. Our study aims to establish the legal regime ofaccessories typical to fiscal obligation, from the perspective of special normative acts, but also of the common law within the field – Civil Code and Government Ordinance No. 13/2011 – by pointing out at the same time both the particular circumstances and procedural ones regulated by the Fiscal Procedure Code, shedding light upon the controversial legal nature of accessories.

  9. The staphylococcal accessory regulator, SarA, is an RNA-binding protein that modulates the mRNA turnover properties of late-exponential and stationary phase Staphylococcus aureus cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Morrison

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The modulation of mRNA turnover is gaining recognition as a mechanism by which Staphylococcus aureus regulates gene expression, but the factors that orchestrate alterations in transcript degradation are poorly understood. In that regard, we previously found that 138 mRNA species, including the virulence factors protein A (spa and collagen binding protein (cna, are stabilized in a sarA-dependent manner during exponential phase growth, suggesting that SarA protein may directly or indirectly effect the RNA turnover properties of these transcripts. Herein, we expanded our characterization of the effects of sarA on mRNA turnover during late exponential and stationary phases of growth. Results revealed that the locus affects the RNA degradation properties of cells during both growth phases. Further, using gel mobility shift assays and RIP-ChIP, it was found that SarA protein is capable of binding mRNA species that it stabilizes both in vitro and within bacterial cells. Taken together, these results suggest that SarA post-transcriptionally regulates S. aureus gene expression in a manner that involves binding to and consequently altering the mRNA turnover properties of target transcripts.

  10. Gene Expression in Human Accessory Lacrimal Glands of Wolfring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubels, John L.; Gipson, Ilene K.; Spurr-Michaud, Sandra J.; Tisdale, Ann S.; Van Dyken, Rachel E.; Hatton, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. The accessory lacrimal glands are assumed to contribute to the production of tear fluid, but little is known about their function. The goal of this study was to conduct an analysis of gene expression by glands of Wolfring that would provide a more complete picture of the function of these glands. Methods. Glands of Wolfring were isolated from frozen sections of human eyelids by laser microdissection. RNA was extracted from the cells and hybridized to gene expression arrays. The expression of several of the major genes was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Results. Of the 24 most highly expressed genes, 9 were of direct relevance to lacrimal function. These included lysozyme, lactoferrin, tear lipocalin, and lacritin. The glands of Wolfring are enriched in genes related to protein synthesis, targeting, and secretion, and a large number of genes for proteins with antimicrobial activity were detected. Ion channels and transporters, carbonic anhydrase, and aquaporins were abundantly expressed. Genes for control of lacrimal function, including cholinergic, adrenergic, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, purinergic, androgen, and prolactin receptors were also expressed in gland of Wolfring. Conclusions. The data suggest that the function of glands of Wolfring is similar to that of main lacrimal glands and are consistent with secretion electrolytes, fluid, and protein under nervous and hormonal control. Since these glands secrete directly onto the ocular surface, their location may allow rapid response to exogenous stimuli and makes them readily accessible to topical drugs. PMID:22956620

  11. In Azospirillum brasilense, mutations in flmA or flmB genes affect polar flagellum assembly, surface polysaccharides, and attachment to maize roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Fernando Ariel; Medeot, Daniela Beatriz; Liaudat, Juan Pablo; Pistorio, Mariano; Jofré, Edgardo

    2016-09-01

    Azospirillum brasilense is a soil bacterium capable of promoting plant growth. Several surface components were previously reported to be involved in the attachment of A. brasilense to root plants. Among these components are the exopolysaccharide (EPS), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the polar flagellum. Flagellin from polar flagellum is glycosylated and it was suggested that genes involved in such a posttranslational modification are the same ones involved in the biosynthesis of sugars present in the O-antigen of the LPS. In this work, we report on the characterization of two homologs present in A. brasilense Cd, to the well characterized flagellin modification genes, flmA and flmB, from Aeromonas caviae. We show that mutations in either flmA or flmB genes of A. brasilense resulted in non-motile cells due to alterations in the polar flagellum assembly. Moreover, these mutations also affected the capability of A. brasilense cells to adsorb to maize roots and to produce LPS and EPS. By generating a mutant containing the polar flagellum affected in their rotation, we show the importance of the bacterial motility for the early colonization of maize roots. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925 Section 878.3925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. ...

  13. Evolution of the CT imaging findings of accessory spleen infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendi, Resham; Abramson, Lisa P.; Pillai, Srikumar B.; Rigsby, Cynthia K.

    2006-01-01

    We report the case of a 12-year-old girl presenting with multiple episodes of left upper-quadrant pain caused by torsion of an accessory spleen. We present the CT findings of progression of accessory spleen infarction over the course of 7 days. (orig.)

  14. Bilateral bifid occipital condyles presenting with the right accessory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unlike the left occipital condyle the right occipital condyle contained an additional oblique cleft that separated the left caudal occipital segment into the inner main portion and the outer accessory articular surface. The accessory articular surface was concave in shape and covered with the articular cartilage. The exact ...

  15. 21 CFR 876.5630 - Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories. 876... Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories. (a) Identification. (1) A peritoneal dialysis system and... peritoneal dialysis, a source of dialysate, and, in some cases, a water purification mechanism. After the...

  16. KNOW-BLADE Task-2 report: Aerodynamic accessories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J.; Sørensen, Niels N.; Zahle, Frederik

    2004-01-01

    In the EC project KNOW-BLADE a work package has been defined to investigate the possibility to numerically model aerodynamic accessories in existing Navier-Stokes solvers. Four different aerodynamic accessories have been investigated. Firstly, thepotential of applying active flow control by means...

  17. 21 CFR 872.6640 - Dental operative unit and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., and other dental devices and accessories. The device may be attached to a dental chair. (b... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental operative unit and accessories. 872.6640... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6640 Dental operative unit and...

  18. 21 CFR 884.4120 - Gynecologic electrocautery and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gynecologic electrocautery and accessories. 884.4120 Section 884.4120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Surgical Devices § 884.4120 Gynecologic electrocautery and accessories. (a) Identification. A gynecologic...

  19. Hunting for eruption ages in accessory minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    A primary goal in geochronology is to provide precise and accurate ages for tephras that serve as chronostratigraphic markers for constraining the timing and rates of volcanism, sedimentation, climate change, and catastrophic events in Earth history. Zircon remains the most versatile accessory mineral for dating silicic tephras due to its common preservation in distal pyroclastic deposits, as well as the robustness of its U-Pb and U-series systems even after host materials have been hydrothermally altered or weathered. Countless studies document that zircon may be complexly zoned in age due to inheritance, contamination, recycling of antecrysts, protracted crystallization in long-lived magma reservoirs, or any combination of these. Other accessory minerals such as allanite or chevkinite can retain similar records of protracted crystallization. If the goal is to date the durations of magmatic crystallization, differentiation, and/or magma residence, then these protracted chronologies within and between accessory minerals are a blessing. However, if the goal is to date the timing of eruption with high precision, i.e., absolute ages with millennial-scale uncertainties, then this age zoning is a curse. Observations from ion microprobe 238U-230Th dating of Pleistocene zircon and allanite provide insight into the record of near-eruption crystallization in accessory minerals and serve as a guide for high-precision whole-crystal dating. Although imprecise relative to conventional techniques, ion probe analysis allows high-spatial resolution 238U-230Th dating that can document multi-millennial age distributions at the crystal scale. Analysis of unpolished rims and continuous depth profiling of zircon from small and large volume eruptions (e.g., Coso, Mono Craters, Yellowstone) reveals that the final several micrometers of crystallization often yield ages that are indistinguishable from associated eruption ages from the 40Ar/39Ar or (U-Th)/He methods. Using this approach, we

  20. Accessory mental foramen: a rare anatomical finding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Gagan; Thomas, Shaji; Thayil, Sumeeth Cyriac; Nair, Preeti P

    2011-01-01

    Accessory mental foramen (AMF) is a rare anatomical variation with a prevalence ranging from 1.4 to 10%. Even so, in order to avoid neurovascular complications, particular attention should be paid to the possible occurrence of one or more AMF during surgical procedures involving the mandible. Careful surgical dissection should be performed in the region so that the presence of AMF can be detected and the occurrence of a neurosensory disturbance or haemorrhage can be avoided. Although this anatomical variation is rare, it should be kept in mind that an AMF may exist. Trigeminal neuralgia was diagnosed. On the basis of diagnostic test results, peripheral neurectomy of mental nerve was planned. Failure to do neurectomy of mental nerve branch in the reported case, coming out from AMF, would have resulted in recurrence of pain and eventually failure of the procedure. PMID:22707601

  1. Acetylation of the c-MYC oncoprotein is required for cooperation with the HTLV-1 p30{sup II} accessory protein and the induction of oncogenic cellular transformation by p30{sup II}/c-MYC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romeo, Megan M.; Ko, Bookyung; Kim, Janice; Brady, Rebecca; Heatley, Hayley C.; He, Jeffrey; Harrod, Carolyn K.; Barnett, Braden [Laboratory of Molecular Virology, Department of Biological Sciences, and The Dedman College Center for Drug Discovery, Design, and Delivery, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275-0376 (United States); Ratner, Lee [Departments of Medicine and Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States); Lairmore, Michael D. [University of California-Davis, School of Veterinary Medicine, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95618 (United States); Martinez, Ernest [Department of Biochemistry, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Lüscher, Bernhard [Institute of Biochemistry, Klinikum, RWTH Aachen University, Pauwelsstrasse 30, 52057 Aachen (Germany); Robson, Craig N. [Northern Institute for Cancer Research, Newcastle University, The Medical School, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE2 4HH (United Kingdom); Henriksson, Marie [Department of Microbiology, Cell and Tumor Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Harrod, Robert, E-mail: rharrod@smu.edu [Laboratory of Molecular Virology, Department of Biological Sciences, and The Dedman College Center for Drug Discovery, Design, and Delivery, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275-0376 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    The human T-cell leukemia retrovirus type-1 (HTLV-1) p30{sup II} protein is a multifunctional latency-maintenance factor that negatively regulates viral gene expression and deregulates host signaling pathways involved in aberrant T-cell growth and proliferation. We have previously demonstrated that p30{sup II} interacts with the c-MYC oncoprotein and enhances c-MYC-dependent transcriptional and oncogenic functions. However, the molecular and biochemical events that mediate the cooperation between p30{sup II} and c-MYC remain to be completely understood. Herein we demonstrate that p30{sup II} induces lysine-acetylation of the c-MYC oncoprotein. Acetylation-defective c-MYC Lys→Arg substitution mutants are impaired for oncogenic transformation with p30{sup II} in c-myc{sup −/−} HO15.19 fibroblasts. Using dual-chromatin-immunoprecipitations (dual-ChIPs), we further demonstrate that p30{sup II} is present in c-MYC-containing nucleoprotein complexes in HTLV-1-transformed HuT-102 T-lymphocytes. Moreover, p30{sup II} inhibits apoptosis in proliferating cells expressing c-MYC under conditions of genotoxic stress. These findings suggest that c-MYC-acetylation is required for the cooperation between p30{sup II}/c-MYC which could promote proviral replication and contribute to HTLV-1-induced carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • Acetylation of c-MYC is required for oncogenic transformation by HTLV-1 p30{sup II}/c-MYC. • Acetylation-defective c-MYC mutants are impaired for foci-formation by p30{sup II}/c-MYC. • The HTLV-1 p30{sup II} protein induces lysine-acetylation of c-MYC. • p30{sup II} is present in c-MYC nucleoprotein complexes in HTLV-1-transformed T-cells. • HTLV-1 p30{sup II} inhibits apoptosis in c-MYC-expressing proliferating cells.

  2. Acetylation of the c-MYC oncoprotein is required for cooperation with the HTLV-1 p30II accessory protein and the induction of oncogenic cellular transformation by p30II/c-MYC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romeo, Megan M.; Ko, Bookyung; Kim, Janice; Brady, Rebecca; Heatley, Hayley C.; He, Jeffrey; Harrod, Carolyn K.; Barnett, Braden; Ratner, Lee; Lairmore, Michael D.; Martinez, Ernest; Lüscher, Bernhard; Robson, Craig N.; Henriksson, Marie; Harrod, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The human T-cell leukemia retrovirus type-1 (HTLV-1) p30 II protein is a multifunctional latency-maintenance factor that negatively regulates viral gene expression and deregulates host signaling pathways involved in aberrant T-cell growth and proliferation. We have previously demonstrated that p30 II interacts with the c-MYC oncoprotein and enhances c-MYC-dependent transcriptional and oncogenic functions. However, the molecular and biochemical events that mediate the cooperation between p30 II and c-MYC remain to be completely understood. Herein we demonstrate that p30 II induces lysine-acetylation of the c-MYC oncoprotein. Acetylation-defective c-MYC Lys→Arg substitution mutants are impaired for oncogenic transformation with p30 II in c-myc −/− HO15.19 fibroblasts. Using dual-chromatin-immunoprecipitations (dual-ChIPs), we further demonstrate that p30 II is present in c-MYC-containing nucleoprotein complexes in HTLV-1-transformed HuT-102 T-lymphocytes. Moreover, p30 II inhibits apoptosis in proliferating cells expressing c-MYC under conditions of genotoxic stress. These findings suggest that c-MYC-acetylation is required for the cooperation between p30 II /c-MYC which could promote proviral replication and contribute to HTLV-1-induced carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • Acetylation of c-MYC is required for oncogenic transformation by HTLV-1 p30 II /c-MYC. • Acetylation-defective c-MYC mutants are impaired for foci-formation by p30 II /c-MYC. • The HTLV-1 p30 II protein induces lysine-acetylation of c-MYC. • p30 II is present in c-MYC nucleoprotein complexes in HTLV-1-transformed T-cells. • HTLV-1 p30 II inhibits apoptosis in c-MYC-expressing proliferating cells

  3. Terminal phalangeal accessory ossification center of the thumb: an additional radiographic finding in Larsen syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alanay, Yasemin; Utine, Gulen E.; Tuncbilek, Ergul; Lachman, Ralph S.; Krakow, Deborah

    2006-01-01

    Larsen syndrome is an autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by multiple joint dislocations, vertebral anomalies and dysmorphic facies. Both autosomal-dominant and autosomal-recessive forms of the disorder have been proposed. Individuals with autosomal-dominant Larsen syndrome have characteristic ''cylindrical-shape'' thumbs caused by broad, shortened phalanges. Autosomal-dominant Larsen syndrome results from heterozygosity for mutations in filamin B, a cytoskeletal protein involved in multicellular processes. We report here a patient with a duplicated or accessory distal thumb phalanx and multiple large joint dislocations who was shown to be heterozygous for a filamin B mutation predicting the amino acid substitution G1691S. This adds a new radiographic finding, duplicated or accessory distal phalanx, to the radiographic abnormalities seen in this rare dominant disorder. (orig.)

  4. Accessory spleen compromising response to splenectomy for idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambriz, P.; Munoz, R.; Quintanar, E.; Sigler, L.; Aviles, A.; Pizzuto, J.

    1985-01-01

    Accessory spleens were sought in 28 patients who had undergone splenectomy for chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), using a variety of techniques. Abdominal scintigraphy with autologous erythrocytes labeled with Tc-99m and opsonized with anit-D IgG (radioimmune method) proved to be most useful, clearly demonstrating one or more accessory spleens in 12 cases (43%). Computed tomography (CT) was also helpful. Four out of five patients demonstrated an increased platelet count following surgery, the effectiveness of which was illustrated by the radioimmune scan. Patients who have had splenectomy for chronic ITP should be scanned using radioimmune techniques and CT to determine whether an accessory spleen is present

  5. 21 CFR 884.2640 - Fetal phonocardiographic monitor and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... phonocardiographic monitor is a device designed to detect, measure, and record fetal heart sounds electronically, in... includes the following accessories: signal analysis and display equipment, patient and equipment supports...

  6. Design of a marine sediment trap and accessories

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Janakiraman, G.; Fernando, V.; Venkatesan, R.; Rajaraman, V.S.

    The marine sediment trap and the mooring accessories were developed indigenously and were used successfully for the collection of settling sediments in the Arabian Sea The experience gained in using sediment trap and further improvements...

  7. ISO and EIGA standards for cryogenic vessels and accessories

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The EIGA/WG 6’s scope is cryogenic vessels and accessories, including their design, material compatibility, operational requirements and periodical inspection. The specific responsibilities include monitoring international standardization (ISO, CEN) and regulations (UN, TPED, PED...

  8. The accessory magnocellular neurosecretory system of the rostral human hypothalamus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Morten; Busch, Johannes R.; Jacobsen, Christina

    2018-01-01

    and supraoptic nuclei as well as the hypothalamo-hypophysial tracts exhibited strong immunoreactivity for the neurophysin antibodies. In addition, large collections of immunoreactive accessory magnocellular nuclei and single scattered neurophysin-positive neurons were located in the preoptic region between...... the paraventricular and supraoptic nucleus among the hypothalamo-hypophysial nerve fibers. In addition, smaller collections of neurophysin-immunoreactive neurons were located in the basal part of this region. Among the accessory magnocellular nuclei, the classical circular nucleus was identified. Accessory......The morphology and neurophysin expression of the magnocellular accessory neuroendocrine system located in the rostral human hypothalamus is investigated in a series of brains obtained at autopsy. The hypothalami were fixed in formalin and embedded in paraffin, or after cryoprotection, frozen...

  9. PERSISTENT PUPILLARY MEMBRANE OR ACCESSORY IRIS MEMBRANE?.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavriş, Monica; Horge, Ioan; Avram, Elena; Belicioiu, Roxana; Olteanu, Ioana Alexandra; Kedves, Hanga

    2015-01-01

    Frequently, in literature and curent practice, accessory iris membrane (AIM) and persistant pupillary membrane (PPM) are confused. Both AIM and PPM are congenital iris anomalies in which fine or thick iris strands arrise form the collarette and obscure the pupil. AIM, which is also called iris duplication, closely resembles the normal iris tissue in color and thickness and presents a virtual second pseudopupil aperture in the centre while PPM even in its extreme forms presents as a translucent or opaque membranous structure that extends across the pupil and has no pseudopupil. Mydriatiscs, laser treatment or surgery is used to clear the visual axis and optimize visual development. Surgical intervention is reserved for large, dense AIMs and PPMs. Our patient, a 29 year old male, has come with bilateral dense AIM, bilateral compound hyperopic astigmatism, BCVA OD = 0.6, BCVA OS = 0.4, IOP OU = 17 mmHg. To improve the visual acuity of the patient we decided to do a bilateral membranectomy, restoring in this way transparency of the visual axis. After surgery, the visual acuity improved to BCVA OD= 0.8, BCVA OS=0.8.

  10. An accessory mental foramen: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cağirankaya, Leyla Berna; Kansu, Hilmi

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present a case of an accessory mental foramen (AMF). The mental foramen is an important anatomical structure of particular importance in local anesthesia and surgical procedures in terms of achieving effective mandibular nerve blocks and avoiding injuries to the neurovascular bundles. Although rare, multiple mental foramina have been described in humans. In these cases one foramen is termed the mental foramen and the others are referred to as an AMF. A 62-year-old woman presented for a routine dental examination. In addition to the normal radiographic image of the mental foramen, periapical radiographs of the left mandibular premolar and molar region revealed a round-shaped radiolucency with distinct borders along with an inferior extension below the apex of the mesial root of the first molar. This image was considered to be an AMF. Although no surgical operation was planned, the patient was informed about the existence and importance of the anatomical variation with regard to the need for local anesthesia, diagnosis of periapical disease, and the prevention of nerve damage during surgery in that area of the mandible.

  11. Accessory Tricuspid Valve Leaflet-Morphology, Diagnosis, and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajjar, Trushar; Desai, Neelam

    2016-05-01

    Accessory tricuspid valve tissue is a rare entity associated with congenital cardiac anomalies. We report a seven-month-old child who underwent ventricular septal defect closure with excision of an accessory tricuspid valve leaflet and discuss their morphology, clinical presentation, diagnostic modalities, and treatment options. doi: 10.1111/jocs.12731 (J Card Surg 2016;31:324-326). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Glycolysis plays an important role in energy transfer from the base to the distal end of the flagellum in mouse sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Gen L; Miyashiro, Daisuke; Mukai, Chinatsu; Okuno, Makoto

    2014-06-01

    Many studies have been conducted to elucidate the relationship between energy metabolic pathways (glycolysis and respiration) and flagellar motility in mammalian sperm, but the contribution of glycolysis to sperm motility has not yet been fully elucidated. In the present study, we performed detailed analysis of mouse sperm flagellar motility for further understanding of the contribution of glycolysis to mammalian sperm motility. Mouse sperm maintained vigorous motility in the presence of substrates either for glycolysis or for respiration. By contrast, inhibition of glycolysis by alpha-chlorohydrine caused a significant decrease in the bend angle of the flagellar bending wave, sliding velocity of outer doublet microtubules and ATP content even in the presence of respiratory substrates (pyruvate or β-hydroxybutyrate). The decrease of flagellar bend angle and sliding velocity are prominent in the distal part of the flagellum, indicating that glycolysis inhibition caused the decrease in ATP concentration threrein. These results suggest that glycolysis potentially acts as a spatial ATP buffering system, transferring energy (ATP) synthesized by respiration at the mitochondria located in the basal part of the flagellum to the distal part. In order to validate that glycolytic enzymes can transfer high energy phosphoryls, we calculated intraflagellar concentration profiles of adenine nucleotides along the flagellum by computer simulation analysis. The result demonstrated the involvement of glycolysis for maintaining the ATP concentration at the tip of the flagellum. It is likely that glycolysis plays a key role in energy homeostasis in mouse sperm not only through ATP production but also through energy transfer. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Transcription Factors Encoded on Core and Accessory Chromosomes of Fusarium oxysporum Induce Expression of Effector Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Does, H. Charlotte; Schmidt, Sarah M.; Langereis, Léon; Hughes, Timothy R.

    2016-01-01

    Proteins secreted by pathogens during host colonization largely determine the outcome of pathogen-host interactions and are commonly called ‘effectors’. In fungal plant pathogens, coordinated transcriptional up-regulation of effector genes is a key feature of pathogenesis and effectors are often encoded in genomic regions with distinct repeat content, histone code and rate of evolution. In the tomato pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol), effector genes reside on one of four accessory chromosomes, known as the ‘pathogenicity’ chromosome, which can be exchanged between strains through horizontal transfer. The three other accessory chromosomes in the Fol reference strain may also be important for virulence towards tomato. Expression of effector genes in Fol is highly up-regulated upon infection and requires Sge1, a transcription factor encoded on the core genome. Interestingly, the pathogenicity chromosome itself contains 13 predicted transcription factor genes and for all except one, there is a homolog on the core genome. We determined DNA binding specificity for nine transcription factors using oligonucleotide arrays. The binding sites for homologous transcription factors were highly similar, suggesting that extensive neofunctionalization of DNA binding specificity has not occurred. Several DNA binding sites are enriched on accessory chromosomes, and expression of FTF1, its core homolog FTF2 and SGE1 from a constitutive promoter can induce expression of effector genes. The DNA binding sites of only these three transcription factors are enriched among genes up-regulated during infection. We further show that Ftf1, Ftf2 and Sge1 can activate transcription from their binding sites in yeast. RNAseq analysis revealed that in strains with constitutive expression of FTF1, FTF2 or SGE1, expression of a similar set of plant-responsive genes on the pathogenicity chromosome is induced, including most effector genes. We conclude that the Fol

  14. Accessory stimulus modulates executive function during stepping task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tatsunori; Koyama, Soichiro; Tanabe, Shigeo; Nojima, Ippei

    2015-07-01

    When multiple sensory modalities are simultaneously presented, reaction time can be reduced while interference enlarges. The purpose of this research was to examine the effects of task-irrelevant acoustic accessory stimuli simultaneously presented with visual imperative stimuli on executive function during stepping. Executive functions were assessed by analyzing temporal events and errors in the initial weight transfer of the postural responses prior to a step (anticipatory postural adjustment errors). Eleven healthy young adults stepped forward in response to a visual stimulus. We applied a choice reaction time task and the Simon task, which consisted of congruent and incongruent conditions. Accessory stimuli were randomly presented with the visual stimuli. Compared with trials without accessory stimuli, the anticipatory postural adjustment error rates were higher in trials with accessory stimuli in the incongruent condition and the reaction times were shorter in trials with accessory stimuli in all the task conditions. Analyses after division of trials according to whether anticipatory postural adjustment error occurred or not revealed that the reaction times of trials with anticipatory postural adjustment errors were reduced more than those of trials without anticipatory postural adjustment errors in the incongruent condition. These results suggest that accessory stimuli modulate the initial motor programming of stepping by lowering decision threshold and exclusively under spatial incompatibility facilitate automatic response activation. The present findings advance the knowledge of intersensory judgment processes during stepping and may aid in the development of intervention and evaluation tools for individuals at risk of falls. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Dynamic expression pattern of kinesin accessory protein in Drosophila

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    ing gets restricted to a few cells in the optic lobe and in the ventral ganglion region. It has also stained a subset of sensory neurons from late stage 13 and till the first instar larva stage. The DmKAP expression pattern in the nervous system corresponds well with that of Klp64D and Klp68D as reported earlier. In addition, we ...

  16. Dynamic expression pattern of kinesin accessory protein in Drosophila

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    in figure 4A) and in follicle cells (arrowhead, figure. 4A) has persisted through out development. However, the level of expression in nurse cells is elevated from stage 10b (figure 4C, a single nurse cell is marked by dotted lines). This is likely to contribute to the maternal component to oocyte. DmKAP gene expression is also.

  17. Dynamic expression pattern of kinesin accessory protein in Drosophila

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In situ hybridization using a DmKAP specific cRNA probe has revealed a dynamic pattern of expression in the developing nervous system. The staining first appears in a subset of cells in the embryonic central nervous system at stage 13 and continues till the first instar larva stage. At the third instar larva stage the staining ...

  18. The B. subtilis Accessory Helicase PcrA Facilitates DNA Replication through Transcription Units.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher N Merrikh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In bacteria the concurrence of DNA replication and transcription leads to potentially deleterious encounters between the two machineries, which can occur in either the head-on (lagging strand genes or co-directional (leading strand genes orientations. These conflicts lead to replication fork stalling and can destabilize the genome. Both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells possess resolution factors that reduce the severity of these encounters. Though Escherichia coli accessory helicases have been implicated in the mitigation of head-on conflicts, direct evidence of these proteins mitigating co-directional conflicts is lacking. Furthermore, the endogenous chromosomal regions where these helicases act, and the mechanism of recruitment, have not been identified. We show that the essential Bacillus subtilis accessory helicase PcrA aids replication progression through protein coding genes of both head-on and co-directional orientations, as well as rRNA and tRNA genes. ChIP-Seq experiments show that co-directional conflicts at highly transcribed rRNA, tRNA, and head-on protein coding genes are major targets of PcrA activity on the chromosome. Partial depletion of PcrA renders cells extremely sensitive to head-on conflicts, linking the essential function of PcrA to conflict resolution. Furthermore, ablating PcrA's ATPase/helicase activity simultaneously increases its association with conflict regions, while incapacitating its ability to mitigate conflicts, and leads to cell death. In contrast, disruption of PcrA's C-terminal RNA polymerase interaction domain does not impact its ability to mitigate conflicts between replication and transcription, its association with conflict regions, or cell survival. Altogether, this work establishes PcrA as an essential factor involved in mitigating transcription-replication conflicts and identifies chromosomal regions where it routinely acts. As both conflicts and accessory helicases are found in all domains of life

  19. Characterization of the Proteasome Accessory Factor (paf) Operon in Mycobacterium tuberculosis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Festa, Richard A.; Pearce, Michael J.; Darwin, K. Heran

    2007-01-01

    In a previous screen for Mycobacterium tuberculosis mutants that are hypersusceptible to reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI), two genes associated with the M. tuberculosis proteasome were identified. One of these genes, pafA (proteasome accessory factor A), encodes a protein of unknown function. In this work, we determined that pafA is in an operon with two additional genes, pafB and pafC. In order to assess the contribution of these genes to RNI resistance, we isolated mutants with transpo...

  20. Accessory costs of seed production and the evolution of angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Janice M; Westoby, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Accessory costs of reproduction frequently equal or exceed direct investment in offspring, and can limit the evolution of small offspring sizes. Early angiosperms had minimum seed sizes, an order of magnitude smaller than their contemporaries. It has been proposed that changes to reproductive features at the base of the angiosperm clade reduced accessory costs thus removing the fitness disadvantage of small seeds. We measured accessory costs of reproduction in 25 extant gymnosperms and angiosperms, to test whether angiosperms can produce small seeds more economically than gymnosperms. Total accessory costs scaled isometrically to seed mass for angiosperms but less than isometrically for gymnosperms, so that smaller seeds were proportionally more expensive for gymnosperms to produce. In particular, costs of abortions and packaging structures were significantly higher in gymnosperms. Also, the relationship between seed:ovule ratio and seed size was negative in angiosperms but positive in gymnosperms. We argue that the carpel was a key evolutionary innovation reducing accessory costs in angiosperms by allowing sporophytic control of pre- and postzygotic mate selection and timing of resource allocation. The resulting reduction in costs of aborting unfertilized ovules or genetically inferior embryos would have lowered total reproductive costs enabling early angiosperms to evolve small seed sizes and short generation times. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution © 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  1. Accessory bones of the feet: Radiological analysis of frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiljević Vladica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Accessory bones are most commonly found on the feet and they represent an anatomic variant. They occur when there is a failure in the formation of a unique bone from separated centre of ossification. The aim of this study was to establish their frequency and medical significance. Methods. Anteroposterior and lateral foot radiography was performed in 270 patients aged of 20-80 years with a history of trauma (180 and rheumatology disease (90. The presence and distribution of accessory bones was analysed in relation to the total number of patients and their gender. The results are expressed in numeric values and in terms of percentage. Results. Accessory bones were identified in 62 (22.96% patients: 29 (10.74% of them were found in female patients and 33 (12.22% in males. The most common accessory bones were as follows: os tibiale externum 50%, os peroneum 29.03%, ostrigonum 11.29%, os vaselianum 9.68%. Conclusion. Accessory bones found in 23% of patients with trauma and some of rheumatological diseases. Their significance is demonstrated in the differential diagnosis among degenerative diseases, avulsion fractures, muscle and tendon trauma and other types of injuries which can cause painful affection of the foot, as well as in forensic practice.

  2. Analysis of pCERC7, a small antibiotic resistance plasmid from a commensal ST131 Escherichia coli, defines a diverse group of plasmids that include various segments adjacent to a multimer resolution site and encode the same NikA relaxase accessory protein enabling mobilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Robert A; Hall, Ruth M

    2017-01-01

    The ampicillin resistance plasmid pCERC7, carrying transposon Tn2 with an IS4 insertion, was detected in the draft genome of a commensal Escherichia coli isolate. The genome data also revealed that this isolate belongs to ST131, clade B. pCERC7 is 9712bp comprised of a 3319bp backbone, Tn2::IS4 (6388bp) and 5bp of target site duplication, and was present at a copy number of 40. pCERC7 is related to several plasmids composed of only the backbone, or the backbone with the Tn2 insertion in the same position. These plasmids have been found previously in Escherichia coli or Salmonella enterica recovered in several different countries from as early as the 1970s. This group was named the NTP16 group after the best studied example. pCERC7 was annotated using available information about plasmids in this group and additional analyses. The backbone includes genes for RNA I and RNA II to initiate replication and the Tn2 interrupts a gene found here to encode a protein 66% identical to the Rom regulatory protein of ColE1. NTP16 family plasmids include a gene, previously designated mobA, that was found to encode a homologue (53% identical) of the NikA relaxase accessory protein of the conjugative IncI1 plasmid R64, which is known to bind to the R64 oriT. However, a nikB relaxase gene is not present, indicating that a relaxase must be supplied in trans for mobilisation by R64 to occur, as demonstrated previously for NTP16. Hence, MobA of NTP16 and relatives was renamed NikA. Upstream of nikA, we found a region closely related to the oriT of R64. pCERC7 and all members of the NTP16 family also include a multimer resolution site, nmr, similar to the cer site of ColE1. The backbone of the NTP16 family also includes genes for a demonstrated toxin-antitoxin system, LsoAB. Several more distantly related groups of plasmids that include a very closely related nmr-nikA-oriT segment (99.4-93.7% DNA identity) were identified in the GenBank non-redundant DNA database. All use an RNA I/RNA II

  3. Case report: accessory head of the deep forearm flexors

    Science.gov (United States)

    JONES, M.; ABRAHAMS, P. H.; SAÑUDO, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    In 1813 Gantzer described 2 accessory muscles in the human forearm which bear his name (Wood, 1868; Macalister, 1875) and these have subsequently been reported with variable attachments (Wood, 1868; Macalister, 1875; Turner, 1879; Schäfer & Thane, 1894; Le Double, 1897; Dykes & Anson, 1944; Mangini, 1960; Malhotra et al. 1982; Kida, 1988; Tountas & Bergman, 1993). The accessory heads of the deep flexors of the forearm (Gantzer's muscles) have been described as 2 different small bellies which insert either into FPL or FDP. There are no previous reports which have mentioned the existence of an accessory muscle which inserts into both of the 2 deep flexors of the forearm as in the case presented here. PMID:9306208

  4. Aplasia of the parotid glands with accessory parotid tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higley, Meghan J.; Walkiewicz, Thomas W.; Miller, Jeffrey H.; Curran, John G.; Towbin, Richard B. [Phoenix Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Congenital absence of the parotid gland is a rare entity. Absence is most commonly unilateral, and is not associated with accessory glandular tissue. In the majority of reported cases, parotid gland aplasia is seen with craniofacial abnormalities or hypoplasia of other ectodermal structures, particularly the lacrimal glands. We present a 14-year-old male with bilateral parotid gland aplasia detected incidentally on MRI of the brain and then confirmed on neck CT. The studies also revealed accessory parotid tissue superficial to the left masseter muscle. There were no associated craniofacial abnormalities. The lacrimal glands and submandibular glands were normal. (orig.)

  5. An Accessory Muscle of Pectoral Region: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannur, B.M.; Mallashetty, Nagaraj; Endigeri, Preetish

    2013-01-01

    Among the variations of pectoral muscles, this case appears to be unique in the literature. This was a case of an accessory pectoral muscle which was located between pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles, which was discovered during a routine anatomy dissection. The accessory muscle originated from 6th and 7th ribs at costo-chondral junction, which travelled supero-laterally and inserted by fusing with fibres of pectoralis minor. This unusual muscle holds importance for surgeons while they perform dissectomies, in avoiding complications. PMID:24179919

  6. Turning off flagellum rotation requires the pleiotropic gene pleD: pleA, pleC, and pleD define two morphogenic pathways in Caulobacter crescentus.

    OpenAIRE

    Sommer, J M; Newton, A

    1989-01-01

    We have identified mutations in three pleiotropic genes, pleA, pleC, and pleD, that are required for differentiation in Caulobacter crescentus. pleA and pleC mutants were isolated in an extensive screen for strains defective in both motility and adsorption of polar bacteriophage phi CbK; using temperature-sensitive alleles, we determined the time at which the two genes act. pleA was required for a short period at 0.7 of the swarmer cell cycle for flagellum biosynthesis, whereas pleC was requi...

  7. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction.... Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories (excluding microscope stage warmers, which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical instruments used to enlarge images of gametes...

  8. ACCESSORY CYSTIC DUCT IDENTIFIED IN LAPAROSCOPIC CHOLECYSTECTOMY: A RARE CASE

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar; Kumar; Shaleen; Wasif; Amit

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a 53 year old lady who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy and was found to have an accessory cystic duct close to the fundus. Careful dissection of the liver bed was done and the duct clipped preventing a bile leak. The presence of such ducts though rare should be identified during surgery to prevent potential complications.

  9. 21 CFR 872.4920 - Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories. 872.4920 Section 872.4920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN..., depending upon the operating mode selected, cuts through soft tissue or coagulates the tissue. (b...

  10. Accessory thyroid in the anterior mediastinum: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvatore, M.; Gallo, A.

    1975-01-01

    A case of accessory thyroid in the anterior mediastinum, physically separated from the thyroid gland, is reported. The mediastinal thyroid was incidentally discovered during the preoperative evaluation of a patient with breast carcinoma. The extreme rarity of the case is outlined

  11. Quantitative analysis of solid samples using modified specular reflectance accessory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaja, Tomasz; Mazurek, Sylwester; Szostak, Roman

    2016-12-01

    Diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) is a fast, reliable and cost effective analytical method, requiring minimal or no sample preparation. It is commonly used in the course of qualitative and quantitative analysis of pharmaceutical ingredients and food. We demonstrate that simpler and cheaper specular reflectance (SR) accessory working in a DRIFTS like mode (SR-DL) can be an alternative for DIRFTS attachment. An application of a modified SR accessory for quantitative analysis of solids samples is presented. As a case study the concentration of cinnarizine in commercial tablets has been determined from DRIFTS and SR-DL infrared (IR) and near-infrared (NIR) spectra recorded using DTGS (deuterated triglicine sulphate) detector in the IR and NIR regions and InGaAs (indium-gallium arsenide) detector in the NIR range. Based on these spectra Partial Least Squares (PLS) models were constructed and relative standard errors of prediction (RSEP) were calculated for the calibration, validation and analysed data sets. They amounted to 2.4-2.5%, 2.1-2.7% and 2.0-2.6% for the DRIFTS attachment while 2.1-2.2%, 2.0-2.3% and 1.9-2.6%, respectively, for the modified SR accessory. Obtained error values indicate that modified SR accessory can be effectively used for quantification of solid pharmaceutical samples in the mid- and near-infrared regions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Validated Competency Task Lists for Apparel and Accessories Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selke-Kern, Barbara E.

    Developed by a project that validated task lists by a variety of teachers and apparel marketing business persons, this guide contains task lists for occupations in the field of apparel and accessories marketing. The guide is organized in three sections. Section 1 includes the following: (1) notes on using the information in the guide; (2) a…

  13. Modeling and Simulation of Two Wheelchair Accessories for Pushing Doors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Soran Jalal; Shaikh Mohammed, Javeed

    2017-03-27

    Independent mobility is vital to individuals of all ages, and wheelchairs have proven to be great personal mobility devices. The tasks of opening and navigating through a door are trivial for healthy people, while the same tasks could be difficult for some wheelchair users. A wide range of intelligent wheelchair controllers and systems, robotic arms, or manipulator attachments integrated with wheelchairs have been developed for various applications, including manipulating door knobs. Unfortunately, the intelligent wheelchairs and robotic attachments are not widely available as commercial products. Therefore, the current manuscript presents the modeling and simulation of a novel but simple technology in the form of a passive wheelchair accessory (straight, arm-like with a single wheel, and arc-shaped with multiple wheels) for pushing doors open from a wheelchair. From the simulations using different wheel shapes and sizes, it was found that the arc-shaped accessory could push open the doors faster and with almost half the required force as compared to the arm-like accessory. Also, smaller spherical wheels were found to be best in terms of reaction forces on the wheels. Prototypes based on the arc-shaped accessory design will be manufactured and evaluated for pushing doors open and dodging or gliding other obstacles.

  14. Colonization, Infection, and the Accessory Genome of Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rebekah M.; Bachman, Michael A.

    2018-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative pathogen that has a large accessory genome of plasmids and chromosomal gene loci. This accessory genome divides K. pneumoniae strains into opportunistic, hypervirulent, and multidrug-resistant groups and separates K. pneumoniae from two closely related species, Klebsiella variicola and Klebsiella quasipneumoniae. Some strains of K. pneumoniae act as opportunistic pathogens, infecting critically ill and immunocompromised patients. These K. pneumoniae are a common cause of health-care associated infections including pneumonia, urinary tract infections (UTIs), and bloodstream infections. K. variicola and K. quasipneumoniae are often clinically indistinguishable from opportunistic K. pneumoniae. Other strains of K. pneumoniae are hypervirulent, infecting healthy people in community settings and causing severe infections including pyogenic liver abscess, endophthalmitis, and meningitis. A third group of K. pneumoniae encode carbapenemases, making them highly antibiotic-resistant. These strains act as opportunists but are exceedingly difficult to treat. All of these groups of K. pneumoniae and related species can colonize the gastrointestinal tract, and the accessory genome may determine if a colonizing strain remains asymptomatic or progresses to cause disease. This review will explore the associations between colonization and infection with opportunistic, antibiotic-resistant, and hypervirulent K. pneumoniae strains and the role of the accessory genome in distinguishing these groups and related species. As K. pneumoniae infections become progressively more difficult to treat in the face of antibiotic resistance and hypervirulent strains, an increased understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenesis of these bacteria is vital. PMID:29404282

  15. Termination pattern of the main and accessory pancreatic ducts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pancreas has the main and occasionally a patent accessory pancreatic ducts that carry secretions to the duodenum. Anatomical studies on these ducts are limited. The present study observed the anatomy of the two ducts in eighty six Tanzanians' autopsy subjects to find out if the pattern is similar to those reported from ...

  16. Accessory enzymes from Aspergillus involved in xylan and pectin degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de R.P.

    1999-01-01

    The xylanolytic and pectinolytic enzyme systems from Aspergillus have been the subject of study for many years. Although the main chain cleaving enzymes and their encoding genes have been studied in detail, little information is available about most of the accessory

  17. Accessory Transversarium Foramen of Cervical Vertebrae: A Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A male cadaver preserved by means of the routine embalming techniques following the completion of dissection was used for bone maceration. The soft tissues were removed and the cervical vertebrae were studied for variations. The variations recorded in this study include the presence of accessory transverse foramina in ...

  18. The benefits of using bluetooth accessories with hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Pauline; Davis, Adrian

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the benefits in reported outcomes after providing bluetooth accessories for established hearing aid users. Prospective observational study using validated quantitative outcome measures and detailed patient narrative before and two months after patients were provided with bluetooth accessories. Twelve patients with bilateral NHS hearing aids participated. They had a wide range of ages and hearing loss. After two months, 10 patients reported substantial additional benefit and kept the accessories; two returned them for various reasons. Statistically significant changes were seen in two validated outcome measures: the Glasgow Hearing Aid Benefit Profile and the International Outcome Inventory - Hearing Aids, but not in the Speech, Spatial and Qualities of Hearing Scale. Two notable benefits were reported: some described hearing the emotion and mood in a voice for the first time; others were amazed to report an improved ability to hear film or to hold conversations over the telephone. The provision of bluetooth accessories can give additional reported benefit for some patients - we need better knowledge about who benefits, and whether further support/training to individuals would make a difference.

  19. Design of Fashion Accessories Using Akwa-Ocha Motifs and Symbols

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    motifs and symbols feature in the changing landscape in the design of fashion accessories in Nigeria. ... However, the neglect of Nigerian indigenous elements for the design of fashion accessories is particularly true ..... There are other end use products or fashion accessories such as portable hand bags, purses and shoes ...

  20. Symptomatic and asymptomatic accessory navicular bones: Findings of Tc-99m MDP bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, N.-T.; Jou, I.-M.; Lee, B.-F.; Yao, W.-J.; Tu, D.-G.; Wu, P.-S.

    2000-01-01

    AIM: The accuracy of bone scintigraphy in diagnosing symptomatic accessory navicular bones has not been well studied. We conducted a retrospective study to explore the results and use of scintigraphy in symptomatic and asymptomatic accessory navicular bones. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirteen patients with a total of 13 symptomatic and 10 asymptomatic accessory navicular bones were included in the study. We used a scoring system to grade the scintigraphic abnormalities. The patients' symptoms and scintigraphic findings were recorded. RESULTS: Though focally increased radiopharmaceutical uptake was observed in all symptomatic accessory naviculars, half of the asymptomatic accessory navicular bones had the same manifestations. The scoring system was of no value in differentiating symptomatic from asymptomatic accessory navicular bones. CONCLUSION: Bone scintigraphy is a sensitive but not a specific tool for diagnosing a symptomatic accessory navicular. Chiu, N.-T. (2000)

  1. Measurement of accessory motion: critical issues and related concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, D L

    1992-12-01

    The term "manual therapy" has traditionally been associated with physical therapists who examine and treat patients who have disorders related to the musculoskeletal system. In addition to using instruments to collect patient data, these therapists use a large variety of manually applied examination procedures. Range-of-motion tests, manual muscle tests, neurological tests, and palpation tests are just a few of the categories of tests these therapists use as part of the clinical decision-making process. The major sources of error that can affect the usefulness of manually obtained measurements are discussed. The literature that provides the theoretical and clinical bases for the assessment of joint surface movement is thoroughly reviewed. Conclusions are made about what is currently known about the usefulness of accessory motion tests. Suggestions are made for future research needs in order to clarify and enhance the usefulness of accessory motion tests and other examination procedures used by manual therapists.

  2. Accessory hepatic lobe simulating a left hemidiaphragmatic tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroiwa, Toshiro; Hirata, Hitoshi; Iwashita, Akinori; Yasumori, Kotaro; Mogami, Hiroshi; Teraoka, Hiroaki

    1984-01-01

    A 72-year-old woman with a 20-year history of neuralgia was confirmed at surgery to have a tumor in the left hemidiaphragmatic region which was connected with the left lobe of the liver. Reassessment of radiological diagnosis after surgery revealed that hepatobiliary scintigraphy and computed tomography using left anterior oblique scanning are useful in differentiating the accessory hepatic lobe of the liver from a tumor and in confirming the diagnosis, respectively. (Namekawa, K.)

  3. Thermomechanical milling of accessory lithics in volcanic conduits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Michelle E.; Russell, James K.; Porritt, Lucy A.

    2013-09-01

    Accessory lithic clasts recovered from pyroclastic deposits commonly result from the failure of conduit wall rocks, and represent an underutilized resource for constraining conduit processes during explosive volcanic eruptions. The morphological features of lithic clasts provide distinctive 'textural fingerprints' of processes that have reshaped them during transport in the conduit. Here, we present the first study focused on accessory lithic clast morphology and show how the shapes and surfaces of these accessory pyroclasts can inform on conduit processes. We use two main types of accessory lithic clasts from pyroclastic fallout deposits of the 2360 B.P. subplinian eruption of Mount Meager, British Columbia, as a case study: (i) rough and subangular dacite clasts, and (ii) variably rounded and smoothed monzogranite clasts. The quantitative morphological data collected on these lithics include: mass, volume, density, 2-D image analysis of convexity (C), and 3-D laser scans for sphericity (Ψ) and smoothness (S). Shaping and comminution (i.e. milling) of clasts within the conduit are ascribed to three processes: (1) disruptive fragmentation due to high-energy impacts between clasts or between clasts and conduit walls, (2) ash-blasting of clasts suspended within the volcanic flux, and (3) thermal effects. We use a simplified conduit eruption model to predict ash-blasting velocities and lithic residence times as a function of clast size and source depth, thereby constraining the lithic milling processes. The extent of shape and surface modification (i.e. rounding and honing) is directly proportional to clast residence times within the conduit prior to evacuation. We postulate that the shallow-seated dacite clasts remain subangular and rough due to short (model residence times and mass loss estimates for rounded clasts are used to estimate minimum attrition rates due to volcanic ash-blasting within the conduit (e.g., 12 cm3 s-1 for 25 cm clasts, sourced at 2500 m

  4. An Accessory Agonist Binding Site Promotes Activation of α4β2* Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingyi; Kuryatov, Alexander; Sriram, Aarati; Jin, Zhuang; Kamenecka, Theodore M; Kenny, Paul J; Lindstrom, Jon

    2015-05-29

    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing α4, β2, and sometimes other subunits (α4β2* nAChRs) regulate addictive and other behavioral effects of nicotine. These nAChRs exist in several stoichiometries, typically with two high affinity acetylcholine (ACh) binding sites at the interface of α4 and β2 subunits and a fifth accessory subunit. A third low affinity ACh binding site is formed when this accessory subunit is α4 but not if it is β2. Agonists selective for the accessory ACh site, such as 3-[3-(3-pyridyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl]benzonitrile (NS9283), cannot alone activate a nAChR but can facilitate more efficient activation in combination with agonists at the canonical α4β2 sites. We therefore suggest categorizing agonists according to their site selectivity. NS9283 binds to the accessory ACh binding site; thus it is termed an accessory site-selective agonist. We expressed (α4β2)2 concatamers in Xenopus oocytes with free accessory subunits to obtain defined nAChR stoichiometries and α4/accessory subunit interfaces. We show that α2, α3, α4, and α6 accessory subunits can form binding sites for ACh and NS9283 at interfaces with α4 subunits, but β2 and β4 accessory subunits cannot. To permit selective blockage of the accessory site, α4 threonine 126 located on the minus side of α4 that contributes to the accessory site, but not the α4β2 sites, was mutated to cysteine. Alkylation of this cysteine with a thioreactive reagent blocked activity of ACh and NS9283 at the accessory site. Accessory agonist binding sites are promising drug targets. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Study on reduction of accessory-horsepower requirements. Third quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-04-23

    The objective of this study program is to minimize automotive accessory horsepower consumption, and thereby maximize overall vehicle fuel economy, by utilizing continuously variable speed drives or auxiliary power units (APUs) in a standard passenger automobile. As an aid to definitizing accessory performance, load requirements and fuel economy, a baseline vehicle has beeen established. This vehicle is a conventional intermediate size 5- or 6-passenger automobile with a 4.1 to 5.7 liter (250 to 350 cubic inch) displacement, spark ignition engine. Accessories to be considered are the alternator, power steering system, power brakes, air conditioner, cooling fan, water pump and emission control air pump. A program summary of major accomplishments is presented including: accessory drive devices analyses; vehicle computer model fuel economy analyses; improved accessory efficiency analysis; resized engine fuel economy analysis; accessory evaluation matrix completed; drive-systems trade-study completed and the prime concept presented; and variable-speed belt-drive concepts reviewed.

  6. Accessory spleen presenting as acute abdomen: A case report and operative management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Landmann

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Accessory spleens are found in 10–30% of patients and are asymptomatic. Rarely, torsion of an accessory spleen can cause abdominal pain and acute abdomen. We present the case of an 8-year-old girl who arrives to the emergency room with left upper quadrant abdominal pain. CT scan revealed a non-enhancing soft tissue mass and multiple small splenules. Laparoscopy revealed a torsed accessory spleen and malrotation. Accessory spleen is a common congenital anomaly that is frequently asymptomatic. Rarely, an accessory spleen may become torsed around its vascular pedicle resulting in severe abdominal pain. Treatment is surgical resection. Torsion of accessory splenic tissue is a rare cause of acute abdomen in pediatric patients.

  7. Snapping wrist due to multiple accessory tendon of first extensor compartment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dhiyaneswaran Subramaniyam

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: There are various causes for snapping wrist syndrome. Multiple accessory tendon can also cause snapping as shown in this case report. Moreover am presenting this case to highlight the diagnostic failure with non dynamic radiological investigation and to consider multiple accessory tendon as differential diagnosis for snapping wrist syndrome. Also suggest dynamic study could be a better choice of investigation to diagnosis snapping syndrome. First compartment tunnel release with few accessory tendon slip tenotomy gives good result.

  8. A rare nasal cavity mass in a child: Accessory middle turbinate

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Andrew; Ulualp, Seckin O; Koral, Korgun; Veling, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The accessory middle turbinate, a rare anatomical variation of the nasal cavity, have been systematically studied in adults. Presence of accessory middle turbinate and its clinical significance in a child has not been reported. We describe clinical appearance and radiologic features of accessory middle turbinate in a child. Methods: Retrospective chart review. Results: A 3-year-old boy presented to the otolaryngology clinic for evaluation of recurrent epistaxis. Anterior rhinoscop...

  9. Torsion of the accessory spleen with infarction : CT features in a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Jung Kyung; Lee, Jun Sik; Kim, Mee Eun; Pyun, Hae Wook; Lee, Il Gi; Lee, Jong Gil; Kim, Hee Jin; Kim, Ik Su [Fatima Hospital, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-05-01

    Torsion of the accessory spleen is a rare entity that can have variable clinical presentations. We report case involving an 11-year-old boy with severe abdominal pain and a mass that was found to be due to infarction of the accessory spleen, which was twisted on its pedicle. CT revealed a low-attenuating mass with peripheral inflammatory changes in the left upper abdomen. The mass was pathologically confirmed as torsion of the accessory spleen with infarction. (author)

  10. Accessory breast tissue in axilla masquerading as breast cancer recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goyal Shikha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic or accessory breast tissue is most commonly located in the axilla, though it may be present anywhere along the milk line. Development is hormone dependent, similar to normal breast tissue. These lesions do not warrant any intervention unless they produce discomfort, thus their identification and distinction from other breast pathologies, both benign and malignant, is essential. We report a case with locally advanced breast cancer who presented with an ipsilateral axillary mass following surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Subsequent evaluation with excision biopsy showed duct ectasia in axillary breast tissue and the patient was continued on hormone therapy with tamoxifen.

  11. GSM accessories now available from the CERN Stores

    CERN Multimedia

    Labo Telecom

    2001-01-01

    As of 1st October you can order and receive GSM accessories from the CERN stores like any other article. The CERN stores also manage GSM telephones but, for technical reasons, only the Labo Telecom shop (Building 31, Room S026) is able to make the standard sales, repairs and exchanges for authorised persons with a CERN subscription. Labo Telecom will thus become a specialist shop, open from 11 a.m. to 12 a.m., and will apply the usual rules and authorisation procedures of the stores. The paper form for requests for GSM subscriptions is being computerized and will be available on EDH in the near future.

  12. Hidden female physiological resistance to male accessory gland substances in a simultaneous hermaphrodite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodi, Monica; Koene, Joris M

    2017-03-15

    To increase fertilization chances compared with rivals, males are favoured to transfer accessory gland proteins to females during mating. These substances, by influencing female physiology, cause alteration of her sperm usage and remating rate. Simultaneously hermaphroditic land snails with love-darts are a case in point. During courtship, a love-dart is pierced through the partner's body wall, thereby introducing accessory mucous gland products. This mucus physiologically increases paternity by inhibiting the digestion of donated sperm. The sperm, which are packaged in a spermatophore, are exchanged and received in an organ called the diverticulum. Because of its length, this organ was previously proposed to be a female anatomical adaptation that may limit the dart interference with the recipient's sperm usage. For reproductive success of the donor, an anatomically long spermatophore, relative to the partner's diverticulum, is beneficial as sperm can avoid digestion by exiting through the spermatophore's tail safely. However, the snail Eobania vermiculata possesses a diverticulum that is three times longer than the spermatophore it receives. Here, we report that the love-dart mucus of this species contains a contraction-inducing substance that shortens the diverticulum, an effect that is only properly revealed when the mucus is applied to another helicid species, Cornu aspersum This finding suggests that E. vermiculata may have evolved a physiological resistance to the manipulative substance received via the love-dart by becoming insensitive to it. This provides useful insight into the evolution of female resistance to male manipulations, indicating that it can remain hidden if tested on a single species. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Behaviour of bentonite accessory minerals during the thermal stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcos, David; Bruno, Jordi; Benbow, Steven; Takase, Hiro

    2000-03-01

    This report discusses in a quantitative manner the evolution of the accessory minerals in the bentonite as a result of the thermal event exerted by the spent fuel in the near field. Three different modelling approaches have been used and the results compared between them. The three different approaches have been calculated using two Differential Algebraic Equation (DAE) solver: DYLAN (Model-1) and the Nag DAE solver, d02ngf (Model-2) and the third approach (Model-3) using the last version of PHREEQC. The results from these calculations indicate the feasibility of the modelling approach to model the migration of bentonite accessory minerals and relevant aqueous species throughout the thermal gradient. These calculations indicate that the migration of quartz and quartz polymorphs is a lesser problem. The aqueous speciation of Ca in the bentonite pore water is fundamental in order to define the potential migration of anhydrite during the thermal stage. If CaSO 4 (aq) is the predominant aqueous species, then anhydrite dissolves at the initial groundwater migration times through bentonite. However, if Ca 2+ is considered to be the dominant Ca species at the bentonite pore water, then anhydrite migrates towards the clay/granite interface. This is the main difference in the chemical systems considered in the three model approaches used in this work. The main process affecting the trace mineral behaviour in bentonite is cation exchange. This process controls the concentration of calcium, which results in a direct control of the calcite precipitation-dissolution

  14. The accessory coracobrachialis muscle: ultrasound and MR features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauones, Salem [Centre hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal (CHUM), Department of Radiology, Hopital Saint-Luc, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Moraux, Antoine [Imagerie Medicale Jacquemars Gielee, Lille (France)

    2015-09-15

    To present the prevalence, clinical relevance, and ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of the accessory coracobrachialis (ACB) muscle. We present an US prospective study of the ACB muscle over a 2-year period. Five of the eight patients with suspected ACB on US were subsequently examined by MRI. An ACB muscle was demonstrated by US in eight patients (eight shoulders), including seven females, one male, with mean age 39 years, over 770 (664 patients) consecutive shoulder US examinations referred to our institution yielding a prevalence of 1.04 %. In dynamic US assessment, one case of subcoracoid impingement secondary to a bulky ACB was diagnosed. No thoracic outlet syndrome was encountered in the remaining cases. MRI confirmed the presence of the accessory muscle in five cases. ACB muscle is a rarely reported yet not uncommon anatomic variation of the shoulder musculature encountered only in eight of 664 patients referred for shoulder US study. Its US and MRI appearance is described. One of our patients presented with subcoracoid impingement related to the presence of an ACB. (orig.)

  15. Digital dermatitis of the accessory digits of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso A. Rodrigues

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This report characterizes the digital dermatitis (DD lesions in the accessory digits of dairy cows and presents data on the applied therapy. Fifteen Holstein cattle with DD affecting the accessory digits of the hindlimbs from four dairy farms with previous history of DD were evaluated. Lesions were excised, the wounds were sutured, and a topical application of oxytetracycline powder covered by bandaging was associated with a single parenteral administration of long acting oxytetracycline IM (20mg/kg. Tissue samples were obtained for histopathology and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM. Lesions from all the animals were recuperated 15 days after surgical procedure. Overal, most DD lesions were papillomatous epidermal projections or wartlike verrucous lesions. Histopathologically, samples revealed hyperplasia of epidermis with hyperkeratosis, several mitoses in the stratum basale and elongated rete ridges in the superficial and middle dermis. TEM revealed long, thin spirochete-like bacteria. Morphologic features of lesions and its response to therapy were comparable to those described for DD.

  16. The accessory coracobrachialis muscle: ultrasound and MR features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauones, Salem; Moraux, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    To present the prevalence, clinical relevance, and ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of the accessory coracobrachialis (ACB) muscle. We present an US prospective study of the ACB muscle over a 2-year period. Five of the eight patients with suspected ACB on US were subsequently examined by MRI. An ACB muscle was demonstrated by US in eight patients (eight shoulders), including seven females, one male, with mean age 39 years, over 770 (664 patients) consecutive shoulder US examinations referred to our institution yielding a prevalence of 1.04 %. In dynamic US assessment, one case of subcoracoid impingement secondary to a bulky ACB was diagnosed. No thoracic outlet syndrome was encountered in the remaining cases. MRI confirmed the presence of the accessory muscle in five cases. ACB muscle is a rarely reported yet not uncommon anatomic variation of the shoulder musculature encountered only in eight of 664 patients referred for shoulder US study. Its US and MRI appearance is described. One of our patients presented with subcoracoid impingement related to the presence of an ACB. (orig.)

  17. Detection and sequence analysis of accessory gene regulator genes of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ananda Chitra

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (SP is the major pathogenic species of dogs involved in a wide variety of skin and soft tissue infections. The accessory gene regulator (agr locus of Staphylococcus aureus has been extensively studied, and it influences the expression of many virulence genes. It encodes a two-component signal transduction system that leads to down-regulation of surface proteins and up-regulation of secreted proteins during in vitro growth of S. aureus. The objective of this study was to detect and sequence analyzing the AgrA, B, and D of SP isolated from canine skin infections. Materials and Methods: In this study, we have isolated and identified SP from canine pyoderma and otitis cases by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and confirmed by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Primers for SP agrA and agrBD genes were designed using online primer designing software and BLAST searched for its specificity. Amplification of the agr genes was carried out for 53 isolates of SP by PCR and sequencing of agrA, B, and D were carried out for five isolates and analyzed using DNAstar and Mega5.2 software. Results: A total of 53 (59% SP isolates were obtained from 90 samples. 15 isolates (28% were confirmed to be methicillinresistant SP (MRSP with the detection of the mecA gene. Accessory gene regulator A, B, and D genes were detected in all the SP isolates. Complete nucleotide sequences of the above three genes for five isolates were submitted to GenBank, and their accession numbers are from KJ133557 to KJ133571. AgrA amino acid sequence analysis showed that it is mainly made of alpha-helices and is hydrophilic in nature. AgrB is a transmembrane protein, and AgrD encodes the precursor of the autoinducing peptide (AIP. Sequencing of the agrD gene revealed that the 5 canine SP strains tested could be divided into three Agr specificity groups (RIPTSTGFF, KIPTSTGFF, and RIPISTGFF based on the putative AIP produced by each strain

  18. Decontamination of minimally invasive surgical endoscopes and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayliffe, G

    2000-08-01

    (1) Infections following invasive endoscopy are rare and are usually of endogenous origin. Nevertheless, infections do occur due to inadequate cleaning and disinfection and the use of contaminated rinse water and processing equipment. (2) Rigid and flexible operative endoscopes and accessories should be thoroughly cleaned and preferably sterilized using properly validated processes. (3) Heat tolerant operative endoscopes and accessories should be sterilized using a vacuum assisted steam sterilizer. Use autoclavable instrument trays or containers to protect equipment during transit and processing. Small bench top sterilizers without vacuum assisted air removal are unsuitable for packaged and lumened devices. (4) Heat sensitive rigid and flexible endoscopes and accessories should preferably be sterilized using ethylene oxide, low temperature steam and formaldehyde (rigid only) or gas plasma (if appropriate). (5) If there are insufficient instruments or time to sterilize invasive endoscopes, or if no suitable method is available locally, they may be disinfected by immersion in 2% glutaraldehyde or a suitable alternative. An immersion time of at least 10 min should be adopted for glutaraldehyde. This is sufficient to inactivate most vegetative bacteria and viruses including HIV and hepatitis B virus (HBV). Longer contact times of 20 min or more may be necessary if a mycobacterial infection is known or suspected. At least 3 h immersion in glutaraldehyde is required to kill spores. (6) Glutaraldehyde is irritant and sensitizing to the skin, eyes and respiratory tract. Measures must be taken to ensure glutaraldehyde is used in a safe manner, i.e., total containment and/or extraction of harmful vapour and the provision of suitable personal protective equipment, i.e., gloves, apron and eye protection if splashing could occur. Health surveillance of staff is recommended and should include a pre-employment enquiry regarding asthma, skin and mucosal sensitivity problems and

  19. 14 CFR 221.52 - Airport to airport application, accessorial services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airport to airport application, accessorial... Charges § 221.52 Airport to airport application, accessorial services. Tariffs shall specify whether or not the fares therein include services in addition to airport-to-airport transportation. ...

  20. Accessory minerals of Permian volcanites of South Gemeric Unit and Borka Nappe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smelko, M.; Vozarova, A.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to summarize and complete the results from the study of metavolcanites and their accessory minerals (Zircon Zr 2 SiO 4 , Monazite CePO 4 and Xenotime YPO 4 ) from the Southern Gemericum Unit and from the Borka Nappe. The acid metavolcanites and their accessory minerals were observed of the modern analytical methods.

  1. An epidermoid cyst of accessory spleen simulating tumors of the tail of pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Sinha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An epidermoid cyst of accessory spleen, a rare condition may present as pseudocyst of pancreas and other cystic tumors of the pancreas. This case report along with the review of literature attributes some clinical features and investigative pattern to differentiate between epidermoid cyst of accessory spleen and other cystic tumor of pancreas.

  2. Accidental identification of accessory mental nerve and foramen during implant surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Sudhindra; Kumar, Sampath; Kamath, Sujata; Thakur, Srinath

    2011-01-01

    The accessory mental nerve and the corresponding foramen are not a very common occurrence. In the current case report, we present the notice of an accessory mental nerve in the mandibular molar area during implant placement. The case was managed well without any complications.

  3. The posterior triangle and the painful shoulder: spinal accessory nerve injury.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, W. W.; Twyman, R. S.; Donell, S. T.; Birch, R.

    1996-01-01

    Forty-three cases of accessory nerve injury referred to the Peripheral Nerve Injury Unit have been reviewed. Accessory nerve injury results in a characteristic group of symptoms and signs. Referral for treatment is usually delayed, the average time being 11.3 months. Surgical treatment resulted in improvement of symptoms in almost all cases.

  4. 29 CFR 1919.28 - Unit proof tests-cranes and gear accessory thereto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unit proof tests-cranes and gear accessory thereto. 1919.28... Loads; Heat Treatment; Competent Persons § 1919.28 Unit proof tests—cranes and gear accessory thereto... shall be adhered to with respect to unit proof tests and examinations. ...

  5. 21 CFR 878.4400 - Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and....4400 Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories. (a) Identification. An electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories is a device intended to remove tissue and control...

  6. Intermittent torsion of accessory hepatic lobe: An unusual cause of recurrent right upper quadrant pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jambhekar Kedar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An accessory lobe of the liver is a rare congenital anomaly that can undergo torsion and present as an acute surgical emergency. It is rarely diagnosed preoperatively. We report the preoperative utility of CT scan and MRI in the diagnosis and surgical planning of a case of intermittent accessory hepatic lobe torsion.

  7. Design of Fashion Accessories Using Akwa-Ocha Motifs and Symbols

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The exploration of Akwa-Ocha motifs and symbols for the design of fashion accessories for obvious reasons include creating an identity, checking the emphasis already placed on foreign fashion accessories, creating awareness and projecting one of Nigeria's rich cultural heritages. Key Words: Akwa-Ocha, motifs, symbols, ...

  8. 26 CFR 48.4062(b)-1 - Rebuilt parts or accessories sold on an exchange basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... or accessories sold on an exchange basis. The sale price of a rebuilt part or accessory on which the... will be the basis for tax. For example, if a rebuilt automobile engine is sold for $100, plus another automobile engine, the tax on the rebuilt engine will be computed on the basis of $100. ...

  9. Oligopeptide antigens of the angiotensin lineage compete for presentation by paraformaldehyde-treated accessory cells to T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, S; Werdelin, O

    1986-01-01

    series are highly susceptible to proteolytic destruction in cultures containing prefixed accessory cells. The proteases responsible for the destruction of these peptides are apparently located in the plasma membrane of accessory cells. These enzymes represent a methodologic problem in studies...

  10. Role of nuclear medicine imaging in differential diagnosis of accessory spleens in patients after splenectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D’Amico, Andrea; Cofalik, Anna; Przeorek, Cesary; Gawlik, Tomasz; Olczyk, Tomasz; Kalemba, Michał; Modorowska, Alicja; Turska-d’Amico, Maria; Bobek-Billewicz, Barbara; Jarzab, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    More than 10% of healthy population has one or more accessory spleens. The most common location is the hilum of the spleen or area near the tail of the pancreas. The radiological appearance of accessory spleens in oncologic patients who underwent splenectomy can be misinterpreted as a recurrence, especially in the case of compensatory growth of an accessory spleen in successive radiological examinations. We present the cases of three patients who underwent splenectomy for gastric carcinoid, gastric adenocarcinoma and cancer of the left adrenal gland, respectively. CT examination and/or PET-CT scan revealed suspicious findings in the left upper abdomen. In one patient, the dimensional increase of this finding in successive examinations was initially considered suggestive for cancer recurrence. Scintigraphy with 99m Tc-nanocolloid was able to confirm the presence of an accessory spleen in all these patients. Splenic scintigraphy is an economical, accessible and accurate tool in differential diagnosis of accessory spleens in patients after splenectomy

  11. Using Stator Blades in Accessory Tracts of Hermetic Pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Cheryomushkin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Centrifugal pumps are the most extensive class of dynamic hydraulic machines, which are commonly used. So-called hermetic pumps, which possess a number of calculation and design features, stand apart among these machines. Rather complicated task is to calculate internal tracts of the hermetic pump, which are used to cool and lubricate its units. The article is concerned with this calculation, namely, the study of the hollow flow. In designing the hermetic pump, when simulating the flow through the accessory tracts, a so-called “lock” effect was detected between the rotor end and the side cover. This effect is caused by a macro-vortex formed in the hollow, which resulted in a significant pressure drop at the inlet of the shaft opening. Such a pressure drop leads to reducing fluid flow through the accessory tracts, which can cause overheating and failure of the engine and bearing units. In view of the large width of the hollow under consideration, to describe theoretically its flow is difficult. Therefore, a numerical simulation is the most accurate way to determine the impact degree of the macro-vortex on the flow process. The article shows a mathematical model used in computer modeling. Presents the images of a flowing part of the accessory tracts and the computation mesh. Also, gives the models to construct a mesh and the boundary conditions desirable to provide hydrodynamic calculation. Then, describes the possible ways to eliminate the “block” effect, i.e. to set an additional impeller, completely change the configuration of a flowing part of the internal tracts, as well as to add the stator blades to the side cover. The latter option was chosen, as the most optimal in terms of labor intensity and manufacturability. Further, to compare the nature of the flow with the blades and without them the article shows pressure distribution fields, vectors of velocity, and turbulent kinetic energy values. All the results obtained, including

  12. Detailed anatomy of a left accessory aberrant colic artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, M C; Vlad, M; Voinea, L M; Curcă, G C; Sişu, A M

    2008-10-01

    In an aged human female cadaver a left accessory aberrant colic artery (LAACA) was observed and studied. It originated from the superior mesenteric artery at 3 cm proximal to the middle colic artery, at the inferior border of pancreas, passing over Treitz's muscle and continued covered by the superior duodenal fold where it crossed the inferior mesenteric vein. Further, it continued with a satellite vein anterior to the left renal vein and the anterior branch of the renal artery. The LAACA divided into an ascending branch and a descending one, anastomosed with the middle colic and proper left colic arteries; between its two primary branches and the splenic flexure of colon, a hypovascular area was observed. The surgical relevance of the LAACA detailed anatomy mainly relates to specific procedures performed in left colectomies and nephrectomies.

  13. Study of oxygen isotope ratio in accessory zircons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibikova, E.V.; Ustinov, V.I.; Gracheva, T.V.; Kiselevskij, M.A.; Shukolyukov, Yu.A.

    1982-01-01

    The isotope ratio of oxygen has been studied in accessory zircons of ores predominantly of granite composition, of different age with a known contents and distribution of radioactive elements in the grain volume, which enabled one to calculate the integral dose of the mineral structure irradiation by alpha-particles. The degree of zircon structure metamict character has been also calculated from the data obtained with the use of infrared spectroscopy. It is shown that for the totally metamictous zircons the exchange between the structural oxygen and the oxygen of water is characteristic, the water easily penetrating into broken structure of the mineral and washing out the radiogenic lead. The prevailing role of the chemical processes is confirmed, but not of the diffusion ones resulting in the lead carry-over, break of the U-Pb isotope system, and appearance of discordant ages. The isotopically light zircon proves to be less suitable for geochronological studies

  14. Isoform-specific functions of Mud/NuMA mediate binucleation of Drosophila male accessory gland cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Kiichiro; Kokuryo, Akihiko; Imano, Takao; Minami, Ryunosuke; Nakagoshi, Hideki; Adachi-Yamada, Takashi

    2014-12-20

    In standard cell division, the cells undergo karyokinesis and then cytokinesis. Some cells, however, such as cardiomyocytes and hepatocytes, can produce binucleate cells by going through mitosis without cytokinesis. This cytokinesis skipping is thought to be due to the inhibition of cytokinesis machinery such as the central spindle or the contractile ring, but the mechanisms regulating it are unclear. We investigated them by characterizing the binucleation event during development of the Drosophila male accessory gland, in which all cells are binucleate. The accessory gland cells arrested the cell cycle at 50 hours after puparium formation (APF) and in the middle of the pupal stage stopped proliferating for 5 hours. They then restarted the cell cycle and at 55 hours APF entered the M-phase synchronously. At this stage, accessory gland cells binucleated by mitosis without cytokinesis. Binucleating cells displayed the standard karyokinesis progression but also showed unusual features such as a non-round shape, spindle orientation along the apico-basal axis, and poor assembly of the central spindle. Mud, a Drosophila homolog of NuMA, regulated the processes responsible for these three features, the classical isoform Mud(PBD) and the two newly characterized isoforms Mud(L) and Mud(S) regulated them differently: Mud(L) repressed cell rounding, Mud(PBD) and Mud(S) oriented the spindle along the apico-basal axis, and Mud(S) and Mud(L) repressed central spindle assembly. Importantly, overexpression of Mud(S) induced binucleation even in standard proliferating cells such as those in imaginal discs. We characterized the binucleation in the Drosophila male accessory gland and examined mechanisms that regulated unusual morphologies of binucleating cells. We demonstrated that Mud, a microtubule binding protein regulating spindle orientation, was involved in this binucleation. We suggest that atypical functions exerted by three structurally different isoforms of Mud regulate

  15. Deleterious effect of ultraviolet-B radiation on accessory function of human blood adherent mononuclear cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rich, E.A.; Elmets, C.A.; Fujiwara, H.; Wallis, R.S.; Ellner, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) on accessory function of human blood adherent mononuclear cells (ADH) for antigen and mitogen-induced responses, and production by ADH of the amplifying cytokine interleukin 1 (IL-1) were examined. Responder lymphocytes were rendered accessory cell dependent by treatment of nonadherent cells with OKIal + complement. UV-B depressed accessory function of ADH in a dose-dependent manner. UV-B decreased accessory function of ADH for tetanus toxoid-induced responses and phytohaemagglutinin-induced responses. UV-B also decreased accessory activity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells but not Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B cells for a PPD-reactive T cell line. Interleukin 1 (IL-1) activity of supernatants of ADH was assayed on C3H/HeJ mouse thymocytes. Pretreatment of ADH with UV-B decreased lipopolysaccharide-stimulated IL-1 activity. Lysates of UV-B irradiated, LPS-stimulated ADH had no discernible IL-1 activity. Addition of IL-1 partially restored accessory activity of UV-B irradiated ADH for lymphocyte responses to TT. Exposure of ADH to TT or PHA for 30 min before irradiation blocked the inhibitory effect of UV-B on accessory activity. Thus, low doses of UV-B are deleterious to accessory function and to production of IL-1 by ADH. Interference with production of cytokines and with initial interactions of accessory cells with antigen and mitogen may be critical to the effects of UV-B on immunoregulatory function of ADH. (author)

  16. Demonstration of the accessory mental foramen using rotational panoramic radiography compared with cone-beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naitoh, Munetaka; Yoshida, Kazuhito; Nakahara, Kino; Gotoh, Kenichi; Ariji, Eiichiro

    2011-12-01

    Rotational panoramic radiography is routinely used in dental practice. It has not been clarified, however, whether an accessory mental foramen can be demonstrated using this technique. The visibility of accessory mental foramina on rotational panoramic radiographs was compared with those on para-panoramic images reconstructed from cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) images. A total of 365 patients (130 males and 235 females) were retrospectively analyzed. Para-panoramic images were reconstructed from CBCT images with the accessory mental foramen/foramina using three-dimensional visualization and measurement software, and then the accessory mental foramen on rotational panoramic images was compared with that on para-panoramic images. A total of 37 accessory mental foramina were observed in 28 patients on CBCT images. The rate of being able to visualize the accessory mental foramen or bony canal between the point of bifurcation from the mandibular canal and the accessory mental foramen on rotational panoramic radiographs was 48.6% (18 of 37 accessory mental foramina). Approximately half of the accessory mental foramina-positive CBCT images demonstrated the accessory mental foramen, or bony canal between the point of bifurcation from the mandibular canal and accessory mental foramen on rotational panoramic radiographs. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Regucalcin expression in bovine tissues and its regulation by sex steroid hormones in accessory sex glands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Starvaggi Cucuzza

    Full Text Available Regucalcin (RGN is a mammalian Ca2+-binding protein that plays an important role in intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Recently, RGN has been identified as a target gene for sex steroid hormones in the prostate glands and testis of rats and humans, but no studies have focused on RGN expression in bovine tissues. Thus, in the present study, we examined RGN mRNA and protein expression in the different tissues and organs of veal calves and beef cattle. Moreover, we investigated whether RGN expression is controlled through sex steroid hormones in bovine target tissues, namely the bulbo-urethral and prostate glands and the testis. Sex steroid hormones are still illegally used in bovine husbandry to increase muscle mass. The screening of the regulation and function of anabolic sex steroids via modified gene expression levels in various tissues represents a new approach for the detection of illicit drug treatments. Herein, we used quantitative PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses to demonstrate RGN mRNA and protein expression in bovine tissues. In addition, estrogen administration down-regulated RGN gene expression in the accessory sex glands of veal calves and beef cattle, while androgen treatment reduced RGN gene expression only in the testis. The confirmation of the regulation of RGN gene expression through sex steroid hormones might facilitate the potential detection of hormone abuse in bovine husbandry. Particularly, the specific response in the testis suggests that this tissue is ideal for the detection of illicit androgen administration in veal calves and beef cattle.

  18. Assembly and breakdown of Cajal bodies in accessory nuclei of Hymenoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaglarz, Mariusz K; Bilinski, Szczepan M; Kloc, Malgorzata

    2005-03-01

    In some species of insects, oocytes have vesicular organelles, termed accessory nuclei (ANs). The ANs form by budding off from the nuclear envelope of the oocyte and are filled with translucent matrix containing dense inclusions. One type of these inclusions contains coilin and small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs) and is homologous to Cajal bodies. We describe the early events in the morphogenesis of Cajal bodies in the ANs (ANCBs) of the common wasp, Vespula germanica, and show that they contain survival of motor neurons (SMN) protein. We present evidence that in the wasp, ANCBs form by the gradual accumulation of aggregates composed of SMN and small nuclear RNAs. We also show that ANCBs break down and disperse within the ANs as the ANs, which initially surround the oocyte nucleus, localize to the oocyte cortex. The components of dispersed ANCBs are retained within ANs until the end of oogenesis, which suggests that their function may be required at the onset of embryonic development. Because the morphology and behavior of ANs and their Cajal body-like inclusions are conserved in two other hymenopteran species, these features might be characteristic of all hymenopterans.

  19. Implementation of immobilization accessories for positioning of small animals for radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vettorato, M.C.; Girotto, C.H.; Fogaça, J.L.; Vulcano, L.C.; Fernandes, M.A.R., E-mail: m_vettorato@hotmail.com [Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2017-11-15

    Radiation therapy is a modality that is presenting great advances in veterinary medicine worldwide. In Brazil, this therapeutic option is underachieved. The success of this method depends on several factors, including the use of appropriate accessories for protection and immobilization of patients. For the immobilization of small animals during treatment, in addition to sedation and anesthesia, immobilizing accessories, similar to those used in human radiotherapy, are used. This study aimed to present proposals for immobilizing accessories adapted to the positioning of small animals in order to be used in radiotherapy planning. In order to achieve results, accessories were made and tested in a living animal simulating a radiotherapy planning, which proved to be favorable to use in positioning small animals undergoing radiotherapy and for implementation processes. (author)

  20. Unusual scintigraphic appearances of a mobile accessory lobe of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingham, J.B.; Maisey, M.N.

    1978-01-01

    Accessory hepatic lobules are an uncommon occurrence. In a gallium scan, a highly mobile, asymptomatic liver lobule gave rise to diagnostic confusion. It was resolved by the use of multiple radiopharmaceuticals

  1. A variation of the extensor hallucis longus muscle (accessory extensor digiti secundus muscle).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezer, Murat; Cicekcibasi, Aynur Emine

    2012-06-01

    An accessory muscle adjacent to the extensor hallucis longus muscle (EHL) was observed between the EHL and the extensor digitorum longus muscle (EDL) in the anterior side of both legs of the cadaver of a 72-year-old male, during educational dissection, and it was observed that the tendon of this muscle extended to the second toe. The tendon of this muscle united with the second toe tendon of the EDL. These common tendons appeared before reaching the toe media phalanxes and extended to the related media phalanxes of toe. However, an additional tendon separating from this accessory muscle tendon united with the EHL tendon at the left foot. This accessory muscle, unlike the variations identified to date, is considered to extend to the second toe, and the name "accessory extensor digiti secundus muscle" is offered.

  2. Implementation of immobilization accessories for positioning of small animals for radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vettorato, M.C.; Girotto, C.H.; Fogaça, J.L.; Vulcano, L.C.; Fernandes, M.A.R.

    2017-01-01

    Radiation therapy is a modality that is presenting great advances in veterinary medicine worldwide. In Brazil, this therapeutic option is underachieved. The success of this method depends on several factors, including the use of appropriate accessories for protection and immobilization of patients. For the immobilization of small animals during treatment, in addition to sedation and anesthesia, immobilizing accessories, similar to those used in human radiotherapy, are used. This study aimed to present proposals for immobilizing accessories adapted to the positioning of small animals in order to be used in radiotherapy planning. In order to achieve results, accessories were made and tested in a living animal simulating a radiotherapy planning, which proved to be favorable to use in positioning small animals undergoing radiotherapy and for implementation processes. (author)

  3. The Online Marketing Research on the Factors of Competitiveness of Enterprises in the Computer Accessory Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashkina Oksana I.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at identifyng the factors of competitiveness of enterprises in the market for computer accessories (on the example of the «ZONA51» store and suggesting certain actions as to creating and strengthening competitive advantages. The main competitors of the enterprise, which offer computer accessories, as well as the basic preferences of consumers in choosing the game-oriented computer accessories, have been explored. The study has found that price and active Internet communications are the main factors in the competitiveness of enterprises in the market for computer accessories. It is also important to use communicative channels such as «word-of-mouth marketing» for specific types of goods. The target audience of the products analyzed is young people, so it is also important to advertise resources near the places of youth gatherings to provide active communications. Further studies should consider the factors of competitiveness of Internet shops with different orientation.

  4. Scintigraphic diagnosis and computed tomographic localization of an accessory spleen following relapse of chronic immune thrombocytopaenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardaci, G.T.; Blake, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    Chronic immune thrombocytopaenia is an immunologically mediated disorder resulting in disordered platelet kinetics and potentially life-threatening disease. Failure of medical therapy is an indication for splenectomy, and responses are seen in 80% of patients following this procedure. An important cause of relapse following splenectomy is the presence of an accessory spleen. A patient with Hodgkin's Disease developed chronic immune thrombocytopaenia despite previous splenectomy. A remission was induced with immunosuppressive therapy, but he later relapsed. An accessory spleen was detected using 99 m Tc denatured red blood cells and localized using computed tomography. Resection of the accessory spleen resulted in clinical remission. As accessory spleens are often small in size, combined modality imaging is recommended in the evaluation of this disorder. 15 refs., 2 figs

  5. A rare nasal cavity mass in a child: Accessory middle turbinate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Chang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The accessory middle turbinate, a rare anatomical variation of the nasal cavity, have been systematically studied in adults. Presence of accessory middle turbinate and its clinical significance in a child has not been reported. We describe clinical appearance and radiologic features of accessory middle turbinate in a child. Methods: Retrospective chart review. Results: A 3-year-old boy presented to the otolaryngology clinic for evaluation of recurrent epistaxis. Anterior rhinoscopy revealed moist nasal mucosa without inflammation and bilateral prominent blood vessels on the anterior nasal septum. Nasal endoscopy showed turbinate like protuberances in bilateral middle meatus. CT images documented accessory middle turbinate in the bilateral nasal cavity. Conclusion: Otolaryngologists should be cognizant of anatomical variations of middle turbinate to achieve correct diagnosis and avoid potential complications during surgical management.

  6. Macaque accessory optic system: II. Connections with the pretectum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baleydier, C.; Magnin, M.; Cooper, H.M.

    1990-01-01

    Connections of the accessory optic system (AOS) with the pretectum are described in the macaque monkey. Injections of tritiated amino acids in the pretectum demonstrate a major contralateral projection to the dorsal (DTN), lateral (LTN), and medial (MTN) terminal nuclei of the AOS and a sparser projection to the ipsilateral LTN. Injections of retrograde tracers, Fast Blue (FB), or wheat germ agglutinin horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) plus nonconjugated horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in the LTN show that the pretectal-LTN projection originates from two nuclei. The main source of pretectal efferents to the LTN is from the pretectal olivary nucleus (OPN) and is entirely contralateral. This projection, which appears unique to primates, originates from the large multipolar cells of the OPN. In addition to this projection, the nucleus of the optic tract (NOT) projects to the ipsilateral LTN, as in nonprimates. Injection of WGA-HRP in the pretectum shows a reciprocal predominantely ipsilateral projection from the LTN to the pretectum. Retinas were observed after injection of FB in the LTN. The retinal ganglion cells projecting to the AOS are mainly distributed near the fovea and in the nasal region of the contralateral eye, suggesting a nasotemporal pattern of decussation. The demonstration of a direct connection between LTN and OPN forces to a reconsideration of the functional role of the AOS. Previous descriptions of luminance responsive cells in the LTN support a possible participation of this nucleus in the control of the pupillary light reflex

  7. Transformation asymmetry and the evolution of the bacterial accessory genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apagyi, Katinka J; Fraser, Christophe; Croucher, Nicholas J

    2017-12-01

    Bacterial transformation can insert or delete genomic islands (GIs), depending on the donor and recipient genotypes, if an homologous recombination spans the GI's integration site and includes sufficiently long flanking homologous arms. Combining mathematical models of recombination with experiments using pneumococci found GI insertion rates declined geometrically with the GI's size. The decrease in acquisition frequency with length (1.08x10-3 bp-1) was higher than a previous estimate of the analogous rate at which core genome recombinations terminated. Although most efficient for shorter GIs, transformation-mediated deletion frequencies did not vary consistently with GI length, with removal of 10 kb GIs approximately 50% as efficient as acquisition of base substitutions. Fragments of two kilobases, typical of transformation event sizes, could drive all these deletions independent of island length. The strong asymmetry of transformation, and its capacity to efficiently remove GIs, suggests non-mobile accessory loci will decline in frequency without preservation by selection. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  8. Photothermal camera port accessory for microscopic thermal diffusivity imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escola, Facundo Zaldívar; Kunik, Darío; Mingolo, Nelly; Martínez, Oscar Eduardo

    2016-06-01

    The design of a scanning photothermal accessory is presented, which can be attached to the camera port of commercial microscopes to measure thermal diffusivity maps with micrometer resolution. The device is based on the thermal expansion recovery technique, which measures the defocusing of a probe beam due to the curvature induced by the local heat delivered by a focused pump beam. The beam delivery and collecting optics are built using optical fiber technology, resulting in a robust optical system that provides collinear pump and probe beams without any alignment adjustment necessary. The quasiconfocal configuration for the signal collection using the same optical fiber sets very restrictive conditions on the positioning and alignment of the optical components of the scanning unit, and a detailed discussion of the design equations is presented. The alignment procedure is carefully described, resulting in a system so robust and stable that no further alignment is necessary for the day-to-day use, becoming a tool that can be used for routine quality control, operated by a trained technician.

  9. Accessory soleus muscle as a cause of congenital talipes equino varus. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambani, Rohit; Shahid, Muhammad Salim

    2006-10-01

    The authors report a case of congenital clubfoot in a one-year-old male child, in which an accessory soleus muscle was noted intraoperatively, running anteromedially to the Achilles tendon and with a distinct insertion on the postero-medial aspect of the calcaneus. Correction of the varus and equinus of the hindfoot could only be achieved after cutting the tendon of the accessory soleus muscle at its insertion on the calcaneus.

  10. CT demonstration of accessory nasal turbinates: secondary middle turbinate and bifid inferior turbinate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aksungur, Erol H. [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Cukurova University, Balcali Hospital, Adana, 01330 (Turkey); Bicakci, Kenan [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Cukurova University, Balcali Hospital, Adana, 01330 (Turkey); Inal, Mehmet [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Cukurova University, Balcali Hospital, Adana, 01330 (Turkey); Akguel, Erol [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Cukurova University, Balcali Hospital, Adana, 01330 (Turkey); Binokay, Figen [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Cukurova University, Balcali Hospital, Adana, 01330 (Turkey); Aydogan, Barlas [Department of ENT, Cukurova University, Balcali Hospital, Adana, 01330 (Turkey); Oguz, Mahmut [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Cukurova University, Balcali Hospital, Adana, 01330 (Turkey)

    1999-09-01

    Normally, there are three pairs of nasal turbinates in the nasal cavity. Coronal computed tomographies of 253 cases of sinusitis were examined for the presence of additional turbinates and bilateral secondary middle turbinates were detected in two cases. Also, we describe another accessory turbinate, 'bifid inferior turbinate', in one of these cases. Existence of these accessory turbinates may occur during embryologic development of lateral nasal wall.

  11. Centrifugal telencephalic afferent connections to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohedano-Moriano, Alicia; de la Rosa-Prieto, Carlos; Saiz-Sanchez, Daniel; Ubeda-Bañon, Isabel; Pro-Sistiaga, Palma; de Moya-Pinilla, Miguel; Martinez-Marcos, Alino

    2012-01-01

    Parallel to the olfactory system, most mammals possess an accessory olfactory or vomeronasal system. The olfactory and vomeronasal epithelia project to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, which in turn project to adjacent areas of the telencephalon, respectively. New data indicate that projections arising from the main and accessory olfactory bulbs partially converge in the rostral telencephalon and are non-overlapping at caudal telencephalic levels. Therefore, the basal telencephalon should be reclassified in olfactory, vomeronasal, and mixed areas. On the other hand, it has been demonstrated that virtually all olfactory- and vomeronasal-recipient structures send reciprocal projections to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, respectively. Further, non-chemosensory recipient structures also projects centrifugally to the olfactory bulbs. These feed-back projections appear to be essential modulating processing of chemosensory information. The present work aims at characterizing centrifugal projections to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs arising from olfactory, vomeronasal, mixed, and non-chemosensory recipient telencephalic areas. This issue has been addressed by using tracer injections in the rat and mouse brain. Tracer injections were delivered into the main and accessory olfactory bulbs as well as in olfactory, vomeronasal, mixed, and non-chemosensory recipient telencephalic structures. The results confirm that olfactory- and vomeronasal-recipient structures project to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, respectively. Interestingly, olfactory (e.g., piriform cortex), vomeronasal (e.g., posteromedial cortical amygdala), mixed (e.g., the anterior medial amygdaloid nucleus), and non-chemosensory-recipient (e.g., the nucleus of the diagonal band) structures project to the main and to the accessory olfactory bulbs thus providing the possibility of simultaneous modulation and interaction of both systems at different stages of chemosensory processing

  12. Incidence and morphology of accessory heads of flexor pollicis longus and flexor digitorum profundus (Gantzer's muscles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    JONES, M.; ABRAHAMS, P. H.; SAÑUDO, J. R.; CAMPILLO, M.

    1997-01-01

    In 1813 Gantzer described 2 accessory muscles in the human forearm which bear his name (Wood, 1868; Macalister, 1875; Testut, 1884; Le Double, 1897). The more frequent of the 2 accessory muscles or ‘accessorius ad pollicem’ was found to arise from the coronoid process of the ulna, coursing distally to attach into the flexor pollicis longus muscle (flexor pollicis longus accessory head, FPLah). The less frequently observed or ‘accessorius ad flexorem profundum digitorum’ was again found to arise from the coronoid process and course to join into the flexor digitorum profundus (flexor digitorum profundus accessory head, FDPah). Since their initial description, they have been examined in further detail by a number of authors (Wood, 1868; Macalister, 1875; Le Double, 1897; Dykes & Anson, 1944; Mangini, 1960; Malhotra et al. 1982; Dellon & McKinnon, 1987; Kida, 1988). These studies, most of them focusing on the FPLah, all show different results of prevalence, origin, insertion, relations and nerve supply. We undertook this study with the aim of providing a more accurate account of the detailed morphology of both accessory muscles because of the above-mentioned inconsistent anatomical descriptions and the lack of information as to important aspects such as vascular supply, morphology (shape and length) and the coexistence of both accessory heads. PMID:9419002

  13. Accessory mental foramen: an anatomical study on dry mandibles and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevas, George; Mavrodi, Alexandra; Natsis, Konstantinos

    2015-06-01

    Since numerous surgical procedures in oral and maxillofacial surgery as well as several aspects of dental practice involve the mental region, the knowledge of its anatomical variations is essential for the clinician. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the incidence and the anatomical features of the accessory mental foramen, which is occasionally traced additionally to the main mental foramen. Ninety-six dry human mandibles of a Greek population and of unknown sex and age were examined in order to notice the presence of possible accessory mental foramina. The frequency of the accessory mental foramen was calculated, and its dimensions and its topographical relationship to the teeth of the mandible and the mental foramen were determined as well. A single accessory mental foramen was identified in 4.17% of the sample, while its mean transverse diameter was measured to be 1.09 mm and its mean distance from the mental foramen was 5.24 mm. The present study revealed an appreciable incidence of the accessory mental foramen in the Greek population, recognizably higher than the discovered incidence of past studies involving the Greek population. Consequently, the clinician should always be prepared to deal with an accessory mental foramen during surgical procedures.

  14. Snapping wrist due to multiple accessory tendon of first extensor compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniyam, S Dhiyaneswaran; Purushothaman, Rajesh; Zacharia, Balaji

    2018-01-01

    Snapping phenomena result from the sudden impingement between anatomical and/or heterotopical structures with subsequent abrupt movement and noise. Snaps are variously perceived by patients, from mild discomfort to significant pain requiring surgical management. snapping syndrome occurs at various site like hip, knee, shoulder and wrist. There are many cadaveric studies shows accessory tendon in first extensor compartment of wrist. We present a 19 year old male presents catching sensation and occasional radial side wrist pain for 6 months. Finkelstein test was negative. Radiograph showed small bony projection over the radial styloid. MRI wrist was reported as normal but retrospective analysis of image shows multiple tendons. Intraopertively we found multiple accessory tendon of extensor pollicis brevis which is causing snapping. Fibrous tunnel release with tenotomy of few accessory tendons done. On table patients catching sensation was assessed and found to be relieved. Patient is not having snapping on his follow up visit and able to carry out his daily activity without difficulties. There are various causes for snapping wrist syndrome. Multiple accessory tendon can also cause snapping as shown in this case report. Moreover am presenting this case to highlight the diagnostic failure with non dynamic radiological investigation and to consider multiple accessory tendon as differential diagnosis for snapping wrist syndrome. Also suggest dynamic study could be a better choice of investigation to diagnosis snapping syndrome. First compartment tunnel release with few accessory tendon slip tenotomy gives good result. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. MR imaging findings of painful type II accessory navicular bone: correlation with surgical and pathologic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yun Sun; Lee, Kyung Tai; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kang, Heung Sik

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the MR imaging findings of painful type II accessory navicular bone and to correlate these with the surgical and pathologic findings. The MR images of 17 patients with medial foot pain and surgically proven type II accessory navicular abnormalities were reviewed. The changes of signal intensity in the accessory navicular, synchondrosis and adjacent soft tissue, the presence of synchondrosis widening, and posterior tibial tendon (PTT) pathology on the T1-weighted and fat-suppressed T2-weighted images were analyzed. The MR imaging findings were compared with the surgical and pathologic findings. The fat-suppressed T2-weighted images showed high signal intensity in the accessory navicular bones and synchondroses in all patients, and in the soft tissue in 11 (64.7%) of the 17 patients, as well as synchondrosis widening in 3 (17.6%) of the 17 patients. The MR images showed tendon pathology in 12 (75%) of the 16 patients with PTT dysfunction at surgery. The pathologic findings of 16 surgical specimens included areas of osteonecrosis with granulomatous inflammation, fibrosis and destruction of the cartilage cap. The MR imaging findings of painful type II accessory navicular bone are a persistent edema pattern in the accessory navicular bone and within the synchondrosis, indicating osteonecrosis, inflammation and destruction of the cartilage cap. Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction was clinically evident in most patients

  16. Fibroadenoma of the axillary accessory breast: diagnostic value of dynamic magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawa, Munehisa; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Sato, Morio; Takeuchi, Taizo; Tamaki, Takeshi; Oura, Shoji

    2010-10-01

    Accessory breast is synonymous with polymastia or supernumerary breast tissue. An accessory breast without a nipple or areola is rare. We report a case of fibroadenoma of an accessory breast with no nipple or areola in a 41-year-old woman who presented with a right axillary mass associated with five small nodules in the normally situated breast. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed the accessory breast surrounding the tumor. We ignored the presence of the component surrounding the mass and made a preoperative diagnosis of an axillary mass of possible metastases from multiple breast cancers or breast cancer of unknown origin associated with multiple breast fibroadenomas. From a retrospective view, based on the histological results, MRI and dynamic MRI demonstrated a tiny component of breast-like tissue surrounding the axillary mass and an enhancement pattern typical of fibroadenoma for the axillary mass. For the later diagnosis of the axillary mass, the interpretation of whether the component of breast tissue surrounding the axillary mass was present is crucial. If the component exists, a tumor that originated from the accessory breast should be foremost in the differential diagnosis. Dynamic MRI appears to contribute to the diagnosis of fibroadenoma of an accessory breast before biopsy or surgical resection.

  17. Postsplenectomy recurrence of idiopathic thrombocitopenic purpura: role of laparoscopic splenectomy in the treatment of accessory spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, C A; Pravisani, R; Bidinost, S; Baccarani, U; Bresadola, V; Risaliti, A; Terrosu, G

    2015-01-01

    Idiopatic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is the most common indication for splenectomy. The failure rate of surgery is about 8% and the failure rate after splenectomy is approximately 28% for all patients. When the presence of an accessory spleen is diagnosed, splenectomy is recommended. Laparoscopic approach is considered the first choice. At our Department, between July and November 2011 two patients underwent laparoscopic accessory splenectomy for recurrence of ITP. Both patients had a previously laparoscopic splenectomy. Preoperative Magnetic Resonance (MR) was performed in both the cases revealing the presence of an accessory spleen. The operative time was 105 and 100 minutes respectively. No perioperative complications occured. Hospital stay was four days in both cases. The first patient had a disease free period of two months; the second one of one month. Both patients restarted immunosuppressive therapy. The relapse of thrombocytopenia post-splenectomy can be associated with the presence of an accessory spleen. The laparoscopic accessory splenectomy should be considered the first choice approach. Surgical accessory splenectomy allows a transitory remission of the disease.

  18. Human coronavirus 229E encodes a single ORF4 protein between the spike and the envelope genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, Ronald; Jebbink, Maarten F.; Wilbrink, Berry; Pyrc, Krzysztof; Zaaijer, Hans L.; Minor, Philip D.; Franklin, Sally; Berkhout, Ben; Thiel, Volker; van der Hoek, Lia

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The genome of coronaviruses contains structural and non-structural genes, including several so-called accessory genes. All group 1b coronaviruses encode a single accessory protein between the spike and envelope genes, except for human coronavirus (HCoV) 229E. The prototype virus has a

  19. Limited fluoroscopy catheter ablation of accessory pathways in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swissa, Moshe; Birk, Einat; Dagan, Tamir; Abby Naimer, Sody; Fogelman, Michal; Einbinder, Tom; Bruckheimer, Elchanan; Fogelman, Rami

    2017-10-01

    Limited fluoroscopy ablation using 3D electro-anatomical system (3DS) has been used for arrhythmias in children, however it is not a common practice. We aimed to facilitate a fluoroscopy limited approach for ablation of accessory pathways (AP) in children. Following electrophysiologic (EP) catheter placement a single dual-plane fluoroscopic image (right anterior oblique-30° and left anterior oblique-60° views) was acquired and the 3DS views were rotated to be a perfect match to the fluoroscopy. Ninety-four consecutive pediatric patients [mean age 11.8±4.1 (4.2-18) years, 61.7% males] with Wolf-Parkinson-White syndrome underwent ablation of an AP. Fifty-seven had manifest AP, 54 had left-sided AP (LSAP) and 40 had right-sided AP (RSAP). The acute success rate was 95.7% (90/94), with a recurrence rate of 1.1% (1/90) at a mean follow-up of 13±5.5 (4.4-22.9) months. Mean procedure and fluoroscopy times were 144±45 (55-262)min and 1.8±1.4 (0.1-5.6)min, respectively. Comparison of the first 20 procedures to the next 74 procedures demonstrated an extended procedure time (171±53min vs 135±38min, pfluoroscopy time, the number of long applications, the time to effect, and the acute success rate were similar. There were no permanent ablation-related complications. A limited fluoroscopy approach for ablation of AP in children using 3DS is easily acquired, adapted, reduces the fluoroscopy time, and has an excellent efficacy and safety profile. Copyright © 2017 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Accessory renal arteries: Prevalence in resistant hypertension and an important role in nonresponse to radiofrequency renal denervation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VonAchen, Paige [Minneapolis Heart Institute and Foundation at Abbott Northwestern Hospital, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Hamann, Jason [Boston Scientific Corporation, Maple Grove, MN (United States); Houghland, Thomas; Lesser, John R.; Wang, Yale; Caye, David; Rosenthal, Kristi; Garberich, Ross F. [Minneapolis Heart Institute and Foundation at Abbott Northwestern Hospital, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Daniels, Mary [Vital Images/Toshiba, Minnetonka, MN (United States); Schwartz, Robert S., E-mail: rss@rsschwartz.com [Minneapolis Heart Institute and Foundation at Abbott Northwestern Hospital, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Objective: The aim of this study was to understand the role of accessory renal arteries in resistant hypertension, and to establish their role in nonresponse to radiofrequency renal denervation (RDN) procedures. Background: Prior studies suggest a role for accessory renal arteries in hypertensive syndromes, and recent clinical trials of renal denervation report that these anomalies are highly prevalent in resistant hypertension. This study evaluated the relationships among resistant hypertension, accessory renal arteries, and the response to radiofrequency (RF) renal denervation. Methods: Computed Tomography Angiography (CTA) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans from 58 patients with resistant hypertension undergoing RF renal denervation (RDN) were evaluated. Results were compared with CT scans in 57 healthy, normotensive subjects undergoing screening as possible renal transplant donors. All scans were carefully studied for accessory renal arteries, and were correlated with long term blood pressure reduction. Results: Accessory renal arteries were markedly more prevalent in the hypertensive patients than normotensive renal donors (59% vs 32% respectively, p = 0.004). RDN had an overall nonresponse rate of 29% (response rate 71%). Patients without accessory vessels had a borderline higher response rate to RDN than those with at least one accessory vessel (83% vs 62% respectively, p = 0.076) and a higher RDN response than patients with untreated accessory arteries (83% vs 55%; p = 0.040). For accessory renal arteries and nonresponse, the sensitivity was 76%, specificity 49%, with positive and negative predictive values 38% and 83% respectively. Conclusions: Accessory renal arteries were markedly over-represented in resistant hypertensives compared with healthy controls. While not all patients with accessory arteries were nonresponders, nonresponse was related to both the presence and non-treatment of accessory arteries. Addressing accessory renal arteries in

  1. Risk factors responsible for atrial fibrillation development between symptomatic patients with concealed or manifest atrioventricular accessory pathways ?

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Mu; Feng, Xiangfei; Sun, Jian; Wang, Qunshan; Zhang, Pengpai; Wang, Jun; Li, Yi-Gang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patients with manifest atrioventricular accessory pathways (mAPs) have a greater tendency to develop atrial fibrillation (AF) compared with patients with concealed atrioventricular accessory pathways (cAPs). However, the risk factors of developing AF in patients with various atrioventricular accessory pathways (APs) are not clear. Methods: This retrospective study included 460 symptomatic patients with either cAPs (n = 246) or mAPs (n = 214) who underwent electrophysiological s...

  2. Proteomic Analysis of Intact Flagella of Procyclic Trypanosoma brucei Cells Identifies Novel Flagellar Proteins with Unique Sub-localization and Dynamics*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subota, Ines; Julkowska, Daria; Vincensini, Laetitia; Reeg, Nele; Buisson, Johanna; Blisnick, Thierry; Huet, Diego; Perrot, Sylvie; Santi-Rocca, Julien; Duchateau, Magalie; Hourdel, Véronique; Rousselle, Jean-Claude; Cayet, Nadège; Namane, Abdelkader; Chamot-Rooke, Julia; Bastin, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Cilia and flagella are complex organelles made of hundreds of proteins of highly variable structures and functions. Here we report the purification of intact flagella from the procyclic stage of Trypanosoma brucei using mechanical shearing. Structural preservation was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy that showed that flagella still contained typical elements such as the membrane, the axoneme, the paraflagellar rod, and the intraflagellar transport particles. It also revealed that flagella severed below the basal body, and were not contaminated by other cytoskeletal structures such as the flagellar pocket collar or the adhesion zone filament. Mass spectrometry analysis identified a total of 751 proteins with high confidence, including 88% of known flagellar components. Comparison with the cell debris fraction revealed that more than half of the flagellum markers were enriched in flagella and this enrichment criterion was taken into account to identify 212 proteins not previously reported to be associated to flagella. Nine of these were experimentally validated including a 14-3-3 protein not yet reported to be associated to flagella and eight novel proteins termed FLAM (FLAgellar Member). Remarkably, they localized to five different subdomains of the flagellum. For example, FLAM6 is restricted to the proximal half of the axoneme, no matter its length. In contrast, FLAM8 is progressively accumulating at the distal tip of growing flagella and half of it still needs to be added after cell division. A combination of RNA interference and Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching approaches demonstrated very different dynamics from one protein to the other, but also according to the stage of construction and the age of the flagellum. Structural proteins are added to the distal tip of the elongating flagellum and exhibit slow turnover whereas membrane proteins such as the arginine kinase show rapid turnover without a detectible polarity. PMID:24741115

  3. Proteomic analysis of intact flagella of procyclic Trypanosoma brucei cells identifies novel flagellar proteins with unique sub-localization and dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subota, Ines; Julkowska, Daria; Vincensini, Laetitia; Reeg, Nele; Buisson, Johanna; Blisnick, Thierry; Huet, Diego; Perrot, Sylvie; Santi-Rocca, Julien; Duchateau, Magalie; Hourdel, Véronique; Rousselle, Jean-Claude; Cayet, Nadège; Namane, Abdelkader; Chamot-Rooke, Julia; Bastin, Philippe

    2014-07-01

    Cilia and flagella are complex organelles made of hundreds of proteins of highly variable structures and functions. Here we report the purification of intact flagella from the procyclic stage of Trypanosoma brucei using mechanical shearing. Structural preservation was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy that showed that flagella still contained typical elements such as the membrane, the axoneme, the paraflagellar rod, and the intraflagellar transport particles. It also revealed that flagella severed below the basal body, and were not contaminated by other cytoskeletal structures such as the flagellar pocket collar or the adhesion zone filament. Mass spectrometry analysis identified a total of 751 proteins with high confidence, including 88% of known flagellar components. Comparison with the cell debris fraction revealed that more than half of the flagellum markers were enriched in flagella and this enrichment criterion was taken into account to identify 212 proteins not previously reported to be associated to flagella. Nine of these were experimentally validated including a 14-3-3 protein not yet reported to be associated to flagella and eight novel proteins termed FLAM (FLAgellar Member). Remarkably, they localized to five different subdomains of the flagellum. For example, FLAM6 is restricted to the proximal half of the axoneme, no matter its length. In contrast, FLAM8 is progressively accumulating at the distal tip of growing flagella and half of it still needs to be added after cell division. A combination of RNA interference and Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching approaches demonstrated very different dynamics from one protein to the other, but also according to the stage of construction and the age of the flagellum. Structural proteins are added to the distal tip of the elongating flagellum and exhibit slow turnover whereas membrane proteins such as the arginine kinase show rapid turnover without a detectible polarity. © 2014 by The

  4. Accessories modifying based on plastic waste of shampoo bottle as home economic product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyowati, Erna; Sukesi, Siti

    2018-03-01

    Plastic is a waste that can not decompose by the soil and if its left without a good handling can pollute the environment. Plastic waste needs processing by the recycle bottles principle. Shampoo bottle is one of plastic waste with high density polyethylene type (HDPE). One of the innovation to recycling shampoo bottles waste into the new products whichbeneficially and aestheticallyform by engineered the buns accesories. Accessories are one of the tools used by most women, in the form of trinkets or ornaments which ajusted to the trend to beautify the look. Accessories from shampoo bottle waste can be obtained from household waste, beauty salon and the beauty program study by inculcating human beings' behavior by transforming waste into blessing while also increasing family income. Technique of making its by compiling through improvement of panelist team. The goal of this research is to engineering theaccessories based on shampoo bottle waste as home economics. The method are using experiment, observation and documentation, analysis using descriptive. The results obtained from the overall sensory test averaged at 93%, while the favored test averaged at 85.5%. The product can be ordered according to the desired design, but it takes a long time. Therefore accessories engineering from shampoo bottles waste-based can be used as home economics. The production of shampoo bottles waste-based accessories should improved its quality and quantity, to be marketed through the community, by the cooperation with accessories and bun craftsmen.

  5. Reversible Isolated Accessory Nerve Palsy due to a Large Thrombosed Vertebral Aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisayasu Saito

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Isolated accessory nerve palsy due to intracranial disorders is uncommon because intracranial accessory nerve injury usually occurs in case of a skull base tumor or trauma, resulting in one of multiple cranial nerve palsies. We report a very rare case of isolated accessory nerve palsy due to a large thrombosed aneurysm of the intracranial vertebral artery. Full recovery was achieved after surgery. Case Report: A patient complaining of transient numbness in the right side was referred to our hospital. An MRI indicated a large thrombosed aneurysm of the right vertebral artery. The aneurysm severely compressed the medulla oblongata. First, the proximal vertebral artery (VA was clipped with an aneurysm clip to reduce the pressure inside the aneurysm. However, cerebral angiography revealed a partial recanalization of the right VA. The patient then underwent coil embolization of the right VA just proximal to the aneurysm clip. Subsequently, the right VA was completely obliterated. The patient was discharged without any neurological deficit. Two weeks later, however, she complained of right shoulder pain. Physical and neurological examinations demonstrated atrophy of the right trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscle, leading to a deepening of the right supraclavicular fossa. The symptoms were considered to result from the right isolated accessory nerve palsy. Follow-up MRI showed that the VA aneurysm gradually decreased in size over a period of several months. At the same time, her symptoms disappeared completely. Conclusion: We should keep in mind that isolated accessory nerve palsy can be caused by a large or giant vertebral aneurysm.

  6. Acquired cavo-varus deformity caused by an accessory calcaneus: a case report and literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh Baghla, Davinder Paul [Ealing Hospital, Orthopaedic Department, Southall (United Kingdom); Shariff, Sajid [Wexham Park Hospital, Orthopaedic Department, Slough (United Kingdom); Bashir, Waseem A. [Ealing Hospital, Radiology Department, Southall (United Kingdom)

    2010-02-15

    We describe an unusual cause of an acquired cavo-varus foot deformity produced by progressive enlargement of an accessory calcaneal ossicle. A 13-year-old boy with constitutional plano-valgus flat feet noted a gradual change in foot shape associated with lateral ankle pain on ambulation following an inversion injury 2 years earlier. CT and MRI scans confirmed a large accessory calcaneal ossicle lying within the sinus tarsi, with associated marrow oedema. Following surgical excision of the ossicle, the foot returned to its original shape and the symptoms were alleviated. This is the fifth reported case of an accessory calcaneal ossicle, but the only case that has occurred in a flatfooted individual. We also present the first reported MRI images of the lesion confirming pathological marrow oedema as a response to mechanical stress. (orig.)

  7. Analysis of pressure sensitive adhesive tape: I. Evaluation of infrared ATR accessory advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill; Bartick

    2000-01-01

    Attenuated total reflection (ATR), also known as internal reflection spectroscopy (IRS), is a forensically accepted method for infrared (IR) analysis of pressure sensitive adhesive tapes. Advancements of ATR accessories in the last decade have provided the forensic examiner several ATR methods to choose from. These accessories offer a variety of ATR crystal choices with a variety of prices and capabilities. Four different types of pressure sensitive adhesive tapes including duct tape, electrical tape, packaging tape and office tape have been used to compare six different ATR methods. Each of the methods tested offers both benefits and limitaltions which must be considered for the type of sample to be analyze. The intent of this paper is to assist the reader in better understanding ATR techniques, the many differences among currently available ATR accessories and how the method is applied to the analysis of pressure sensitive adhesive tape.

  8. Accessories for detention and protection used in small animals radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vettorato, Michel Campos; Vulcano, Luiz Carlos; Fernandes, Marco Antonio Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Radiation therapy is a medical method well established in the treatment of cancer in veterinary medicine worldwide. The radiotherapy protocols applied in animals vary according to several factors. In most procedures require sedation or anesthesia of the animal and this fact imposes the use of immobilization accessories specially developed for the different species of animals and treated as their specified procedures. Therefore, this study aims to describe the types of accessories used for immobilization and for the protection of small animals undergoing radiotherapy. For its development a literature search was performed by search sites like Google Scholar, Scielo, Bireme, PubMed, and consultations in books campus library Botucatu UNESP. Despite the limitations of each accessory rated this review, it was possible to identify the use of each and how this can be advantageous for the treatment of animals undergoing radiation therapy. (author)

  9. An exploration study to find important factors influencing on brand in car accessory market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Supplying car accessory is one of the most important growing industries in the world. Every year, millions of cars are produced and people need to have the access to necessary car accessory. In this paper, we present an exploration study to detect important factors influencing car accessory market. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale consists of 16 questions, distributes it among 200 experts and analyses it using factor analysis. Cronbach alpha and Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy are calculated as 0.823 and 0.863, which validate the overall questionnaire. The results indicate that there are three influencing factors including brand capability, brand characteristics and consumers’ believe.

  10. Accessory left atrial diverticulae: contractile properties depicted with 64-slice cine-cardiac CT.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Killeen, Ronan P

    2012-02-01

    To assess the contractility of accessory left atrial appendages (LAAs) using multiphasic cardiac CT. We retrospectively analyzed the presence, location, size and contractile properties of accessory LAAs using multiphasic cardiac 64-slice CT in 102 consecutive patients (63 males, 39 females, mean age 57). Multiplanar reformats were used to create image planes in axial oblique, sagittal oblique and coronal oblique planes. For all appendages with an orifice diameter >or= 10 mm, axial and sagittal diameters and appendage volumes were recorded in atrial diastole and systole. Regression analysis was performed to assess which imaging appearances best predicted accessory appendage contractility. Twenty-three (23%) patients demonstrated an accessory LAA, all identified along the anterior LA wall. Dimensions for axial oblique (AOD) and sagittal oblique (SOD) diameters and sagittal oblique length (SOL) were 6.3-19, 3.4-20 and 5-21 mm, respectively. All appendages (>or=10 mm) demonstrated significant contraction during atrial systole (greatest diameter reduction was AOD [3.8 mm, 27%]). Significant correlations were noted between AOD-contraction and AOD (R = 0.57, P < 0.05) and SOD-contraction and AOD, SOD and SOL (R = 0.6, P < 0.05). Mean diverticulum volume in atrial diastole was 468.4 +\\/- 493 mm(3) and in systole was 171.2 +\\/- 122 mm(3), indicating a mean change in volume of 297.2 +\\/- 390 mm(3), P < 0.0001. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed SOL to be the strongest independent predictor of appendage contractility (R(2) = 0.86, P < 0.0001) followed by SOD (R(2) = 0.91, P < 0.0001). Accessory LAAs show significant contractile properties on cardiac CT. Those accessory LAAs with a large sagittal height or depth should be evaluated for contractile properties, and if present should be examined for ectopic activity during electrophysiological studies.

  11. Accessories after the facts: Constraining the timing, duration and conditions of high-temperature metamorphic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Richard J. M.; Kirkland, Christopher L.; Clark, Chris

    2016-11-01

    High-temperature metamorphic rocks are the result of numerous chemical and physical processes that occur during a potentially long-lived thermal evolution. These rocks chart the sequence of events during an orogenic episode including heating, cooling, exhumation and melt interaction, all of which may be interpreted through the elemental and isotopic characteristics of accessory minerals such as zircon, monazite and rutile. Developments in imaging and in situ chemical analysis have resulted in an increasing amount of information being extracted from these accessory phases. The refractory nature of these minerals, combined with both their use as geochronometers and tracers of metamorphic mineral reactions, has made them the focus of many studies of granulite-facies terrains. In such studies the primary aim is often to determine the timing and conditions of the peak of metamorphism, and high-temperature metasedimentary rocks may seem ideal for this purpose. For example pelites typically contain an abundance of accessory minerals in a variety of bulk compositions, are melt-bearing, and may have endured extreme conditions that facilitate diffusion and chemical equilibrium. However complexities arise due to the heterogeneous nature of these rocks on all scales, driven by both the composition of the protolith and metamorphic differentiation. In additional to lithological heterogeneity, the closure temperatures for both radiogenic isotopes and chemical thermometers vary between different accessory minerals. This apparent complexity can be useful as it permits a wide range of temperature and time (T-t) information to be recovered from a single rock sample. In this review we cover: 1) characteristic internal textures of accessory minerals in high temperature rocks; 2) the interpretation of zircon and monazite age data in relation to high temperature processes; 3) rare earth element partitioning; 4) trace element thermometry; 5) the incorporation of accessory mineral growth

  12. Persistent impairment of liver function caused by a pendulated accessory liver lobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogh, J.; Tromholt, N.; Joergensen, F.

    1989-01-01

    A large pendulated accessory liver lobe and complete absence of the left lobe were discovered by liver scintigraphy and ultrasound scanning in a patient suspected of having an ovarian tumor. The patient had a history of fluctuating impaired liver function tests for many years, probably caused by intermittent torsion of the peduncle. Pedunculated accessory liver lobes are extremely rare and seldom diagnosed in vivo. Our patient seems to be the 11th published case, and the only one in which longstanding fluctuating impaired liver function tests have been observed. (orig.)

  13. Ablation of an atriofascicular accessory pathway with a zero-fluoroscopy procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Proietti, MD, PhD

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A 16-year-old patient with recurrent palpitations and documented left bundle branch block superior axis wide complex tachycardia underwent an electrophysiological study and ablation with a zero-fluoroscopy procedure. The electrophysiological study showed a decremental antegrade conducting atriofascicular pathway. Three-dimensional CARTO-guided mapping of the tricuspid annulus in sinus rhythm was performed, and a distinct signal corresponding to the accessory pathway potential of the atriofascicular pathway was found in the posterolateral region. By using an SR0 sheath and a 4-mm-tip catheter, radiofrequency application was delivered at this point on the annulus and successfully eliminated conduction through the accessory pathway.

  14. Reactive Hypertrophy of an Accessory Spleen Mimicking Tumour Recurrence of Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christin Tjaden

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available De novo occurrence of an accessory spleen after splenectomy is worth noting for two reasons. First, it is known that splenectomy can cause reactive hypertrophy of initially inactive and macroscopically invisible splenic tissue. Second, it can mimic tumour recurrence in situations in which splenectomy has been performed for oncological reasons. This might cause difficulties in differential diagnosis and the clinical decision for reoperation. We report the case of a patient with suspected recurrence of renal cell carcinoma after total pancreatectomy and splenectomy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma, which finally revealed an accessory spleen as the morphological correlate of the newly diagnosed mass in the left retroperitoneum.

  15. Properties of Phase Transition of Traffic Flow on Urban Expressway Systems with Ramps and Accessory Roads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei Chaoqun; Liu Yejin

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a cellular automaton model to describe the phase transition of traffic flow on urban expressway systems with on-off-ramps and accessory roads. The lane changing rules are given in detailed, the numerical results show that the main road and the accessory road both produce phase transitions. These phase transitions will often be influenced by the number of lanes, lane changing, the ramp flow, the input flow rate, and the geometry structure. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  16. 30 CFR 75.1106-5 - Maintenance and tests of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; accessories and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; accessories and equipment; requirements. 75.1106-5 Section 75.1106-5... liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; accessories and equipment; requirements. (a) Hose lines... designed for use with liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders and a suitable torchtip cleaner...

  17. Progress in the clinical imaging research of bone diseases on ankle and foot sesamoid bones and accessory ossicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaozhong; Shi, Lenian; Liu, Taiyun; Wang, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Summary Sesamoid bones and accessory ossicles are research focuses of foot and ankle surgery. Pains of the foot and ankle are related to sesamoid bones and accessory ossicles. The specific anatomical and functional relationship of sesamoid bones and accessory ossicles can cause such bone diseases as the dislocation of sesamoid bones and accessory bones, infection, inflammation and necrosis of sesamoid bones, cartilage softening, tenosynovitis of sesamoid bones and the sesamoid bone syndrome. However, these bone diseases are often misdiagnosed or mistreated. In patients with trauma history, relevant diseases of sesamoid bones and accessory ossicles as above mentioned are highly probable to be misdiagnosed as avulsion fractures. In such cases, radiographic findings may provide a basis for clinical diagnosis. PMID:25343083

  18. A novel method of lengthening the accessory nerve for direct coaptation during nerve repair and nerve transfer procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, R Shane; Maldonado, Andrés A; Stoves, Yolanda; Fries, Fabian N; Li, Rong; Loukas, Marios; Oskouian, Rod J; Spinner, Robert J

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The accessory nerve is frequently repaired or used for nerve transfer. The length of accessory nerve available is often insufficient or marginal (under tension) for allowing direct coaptation during nerve repair or nerve transfer (neurotization), necessitating an interpositional graft. An attractive maneuver would facilitate lengthening of the accessory nerve for direct coaptation. The aim of the present study was to identify an anatomical method for such lengthening. METHODS In 20 adult cadavers, the C-2 or C-3 connections to the accessory nerve were identified medial to the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle and the anatomy of the accessory nerve/cervical nerve fibers within the SCM was documented. The cervical nerve connections were cut. Lengths of the accessory nerve were measured. Samples of the cut C-2 and C-3 nerves were examined using immunohistochemistry. RESULTS The anatomy and adjacent neural connections within the SCM are complicated. However, after the accessory nerve was "detethered" from within the SCM and following transection, the additional length of the accessory nerve increased from a mean of 6 cm to a mean of 10.5 cm (increase of 4.5 cm) after cutting the C-2 connections, and from a mean of 6 cm to a mean length of 9 cm (increase of 3.5 cm) after cutting the C-3 connections. The additional length of accessory nerve even allowed direct repair of an infraclavicular target (i.e., the proximal musculocutaneous nerve). The cervical nerve connections were shown not to contain motor fibers. CONCLUSIONS An additional length of the accessory nerve made available in the posterior cervical triangle can facilitate direct repair or neurotization procedures, thus eliminating the need for an interpositional nerve graft, decreasing the time/distance for regeneration and potentially improving clinical outcomes.

  19. Proteasome substrate capture and gate opening by the accessory factor PafE fromMycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kuan; Jastrab, Jordan B; Zhang, Susan; Kovach, Amanda; Zhao, Gongpu; Darwin, K Heran; Li, Huilin

    2018-03-30

    In all domains of life, proteasomes are gated, chambered proteases that require opening by activators to facilitate protein degradation. Twelve proteasome accessory factor E (PafE) monomers assemble into a single dodecameric ring that promotes proteolysis required for the full virulence of the human bacterial pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis Whereas the best characterized proteasome activators use ATP to deliver proteins into a proteasome, PafE does not require ATP. Here, to unravel the mechanism of PafE-mediated protein targeting and proteasome activation, we studied the interactions of PafE with native substrates, including a newly identified proteasome substrate, the ParA-like protein, Rv3213c, and with proteasome core particles. We characterized the function of a highly conserved feature in bacterial proteasome activator proteins: a glycine-glutamine-tyrosine-leucine (GQYL) motif at their C termini that is essential for stimulating proteolysis. Using cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), we found that the GQYL motif of PafE interacts with specific residues in the α subunits of the proteasome core particle to trigger gate opening and degradation. Finally, we also found that PafE rings have 40-Å openings lined with hydrophobic residues that form a chamber for capturing substrates before they are degraded, suggesting PafE has a previously unrecognized chaperone activity. In summary, we have identified the interactions between PafE and the proteasome core particle that cause conformational changes leading to the opening of the proteasome gate and have uncovered a mechanism of PafE-mediated substrate degradation. Collectively, our results provide detailed insights into the mechanism of ATP-independent proteasome degradation in bacteria. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Assessment of exposure to manganese in welding operations during the assembly of heavy excavation machinery accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smargiassi, A; Baldwin, M; Savard, S; Kennedy, G; Mergler, D; Zayed, J

    2000-10-01

    Welder exposure to metals in various industrial sectors is poorly characterized. We had the opportunity to carry out an exploratory study to characterize manganese exposure in welding operations in a recently established Quebec factory that assembled accessories for heavy excavation machinery. Ten workers were sampled for total manganese for at least two consecutive days out of three followed by two consecutive days for respirable manganese (with a size selective sampler with a median cut-off of 4 microns), during a typical week in the summer of 1998. Parts being welded were characterized as large or small. Small parts were those being welded on tables during subassembly. Workers were divided into two groups according to the parts they were welding. Seventy-eight percent of the total manganese exposure levels of welding operations during the assembly of large accessories of heavy excavation machinery exceeded the manganese American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit value (TLV) of 0.20 mg/m3 (GM 0.24 mg/m3, n = 14) while none exceeded the TLV during the assembly of small pieces (GM 0.06 mg/m3, n = 8). Welding operations during the assembly of large heavy excavation machinery accessories may pose a significant health hazard. Considering the importance of task-related variables affecting exposure among workers, further studies are needed to better characterize exposure determinants of welding operations during the assembly of heavy excavation machinery accessories.

  1. Tetralogy of Fallot with restrictive ventricular septal defect by accessory tricuspid leaflet tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Mahipat Raj Soni; Deepak A. Bohara; Ajay U. Mahajan; Pratap J. Nathani

    2012-01-01

    In tetralogy of Fallot septal defect is usually large because of malalignment of outlet septum, restrictive defect has been reported rarely. We present a case of tetralogy of Fallot with accessory tricuspid leaflet tissue restricting ventricular septal defect. The report includes echocardiographic and catheter images of this rare presentation of tetralogy of Fallot.

  2. 26 CFR 48.4061(b)-2 - Definition of parts or accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., and Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4061(b)-2 Definition of parts or accessories. (a... flexible housings designed as replacement parts for automotive speedometers; as well as replacement parts... adapted for use on automobiles; automobile floor mats; jacks of the mechanical or hydraulic bumper, screw...

  3. Does Accessory Ossicle Affect Management Plan in an Athlete After Ankle Sprain? A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şerife Şeyma TORĞUTALP

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Os subfibulare is an accessory ossicle that lies at the distal part of lateral malleolus. It is typically asymptomatic and detected incidentally by the presence of ankle injuries. A case report of sixteen years old male athlete with ankle injury was presented.

  4. 21 CFR 876.5880 - Isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and accessories. 876.5880 Section 876.5880 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... storage or freezing container with or without bag or preservatives, pulsatile or nonpulsatile hypothermic...

  5. Surgical treatment of a comminuted articular fracture of the accessory carpal bone in a thoroughbred horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munroe, G.A.; Cauvin, E.

    1997-01-01

    The clinical, radiographic and ultrasonographic findings in a case ofa comminuted articular fracture of the accessory carpal bone of a thoroughbred chaser are described, and its surgical treatment and aftercare are detailed. The horse made an uneventful recovery and successfully returned to racing

  6. A peptide from the male accessory gland in Leptinotarsa decemlineata: Purification, characterization and molecular cloning.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, H.M.; Koopmanschap, A.B.; Kort, de C.A.D.; Schooneveld, H.

    1997-01-01

    Our interest in the male accessory glands (MAGs) of Leptinotarsa decemlineata was raised recently by our finding that certain cells produce a secretory substance that is recognized by one of our monoclonal antibodies (MAC-18), developed for the immunohistochemical demonstration of peptidergic

  7. An accessory flexor of the fifth toe | Asomugha | Nigerian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presence of accessory muscles and other organs on the lower limbs of some individuals has variously been reported in the literature. We report an unusual muscle located on the plantar surface of the left foot of a cadaver, which had not been previously described. This muscle originated from the tendon of tibialis ...

  8. 29 CFR 1919.27 - Unit proof tests-winches, derricks and gear accessory thereto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unit proof tests-winches, derricks and gear accessory... HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Vessels: Tests and Proof Loads; Heat Treatment; Competent Persons § 1919.27 Unit proof tests—winches, derricks and...

  9. A peptide from the male accessory glands of the Colorado potato beetle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, H.M.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis describes a study of the male accessory glands of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say). These glands add various substances to the ejaculate. On mating, the ejaculate is transferred to the female, together with the substances from the

  10. Ultrastructure of the accessory venom gland of the puff-adder and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The venom-secreting apparatus of most vipers comprises a posterior main gland, a tapering intermediate neck region con- taining a primary duct, an anteriorly situated accessory venom gland (surrounding the duct) and a terminal or secondary duct. (Kochva & Gans 1965; Gennaro, Gallahan & Lorincz 1963). Relatively little ...

  11. Accessory atrioventricular myocardial connections in the developing human heart: relevance for perinatal supraventricular tachycardias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hahurij, Nathan D.; Gittenberger-de Groot, Adriana C.; Kolditz, Denise P.; Bökenkamp, Regina; Schalij, Martin J.; Poelmann, Robert E.; Blom, Nico A.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fetal and neonatal atrioventricular (AV) reentrant tachycardias can be life-threatening but resolve in most cases during the first year of life. The transient presence of accessory AV myocardial connections during annulus fibrosus development may explain this phenomenon. METHODS AND

  12. Accessory nuclei revisited: the translocation of snRNPs from the germinal vesicle to the periphery of the future embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biliński, Szczepan M; Kloc, Małgorzata

    2002-03-01

    Oocytes of certain insects contain peculiar organelles termed accessory nuclei (AN). These organelles originate by budding off from the envelope of the oocyte nucleus and contain 1-2 dense inclusions immersed in a translucent ground substance. We have demonstrated that in the wasp Vespula germanica each inclusion consists of two elements: a spherical body, and a hemispherical structure composed of numerous 20-30 nm particles. Immunoelectron microscopy and whole-mount in situ hybridization have shown that the inclusions contain AgNOR-staining proteins, p80-coilin, Sm proteins, and small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs). These results indicate that the inclusions and hemispherical structures are homologous to Cajal bodies and B-snurposomes of Xenopus germinal vesicles, respectively. During previtellogenesis, AN (together with their Cajal bodies) migrate to the cortical ooplasm of the oocyte where they reside at least until the onset of embryogenesis. We suggest that AN are vehicles for the transport and localization of snRNPs to the periphery of the oocyte, i.e., to the region where the blastoderm of the embryo develops and where there is a requirement for a high concentration of RNA-processing factors.

  13. Accessory papillary muscles and papillary muscle hypertrophy are associated with sudden cardiac arrest of unknown cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhm, Jae-Sun; Youn, Jong-Chan; Lee, Hye-Jeong; Park, Junbeom; Park, Jin-Kyu; Shim, Chi Young; Hong, Geu-Ru; Joung, Boyoung; Pak, Hui-Nam; Lee, Moon-Hyoung

    2015-10-15

    The present study was performed for elucidating the associations between the morphology of the papillary muscles (PMs) and sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). We retrospectively reviewed history, laboratory data, electrocardiography, echocardiography, coronary angiography, and cardiac CT/MRI for 190 patients with SCA. The prevalence of accessory PMs and PM hypertrophy in patients with SCA of unknown cause was compared with that in patients with SCA of known causes and 98 age- and sex-matched patients without SCA. An accessory PM was defined as a PM with origins separated from the anterolateral and posteromedial PMs, or a PM that branched into two or three bellies at the base of the anterolateral or posteromedial PM. PM hypertrophy was defined as at least one of the two PMs having a diameter of ≥1.1cm. In 49 patients (age 49.9±15.9years; 38 men) the cause of SCA was unknown, whereas 141 (age 54.2±16.6years; 121 men) had a known cause. The prevalence of accessory PMs was significantly higher in the unknown-cause group than in the known-cause group (24.5% and 7.8%, respectively; p=0.002) or the no-SCA group (7.1%, p=0.003). The same was true for PM hypertrophy (unknown-cause 12.2%, known-cause 2.1%, p=0.010; no SCA group 1.0%, p=0.006). By logistic regression, accessory PM and PM hypertrophy were independently associated with sudden cardiac arrest of unknown cause. An accessory PM and PM hypertrophy are associated with SCA of unknown cause. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A group-specific inhibitor of lysosomal cysteine proteinases selectively inhibits both proteolytic degradation and presentation of the antigen dinitrophenyl-poly-L-lysine by guinea pig accessory cells to T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, S; Werdelin, O

    1986-01-01

    A limited intralysosomal proteolytic degradation is probably a key event in the accessory cell processing of large protein antigens before their presentation to T cells. With the aid of highly specific inhibitors of proteinases, we have examined the role of proteolysis in the presentation...... of antigens by guinea pig accessory cells. The proteinase inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl-phenylalanylalanine-diazomethyl-ketone, which selectively inhibits cysteine proteinases, was used to block this set of enzymes in cultured cells. We demonstrate that the selective inhibition of the cysteine proteinases...... inhibitor. Another inhibitor, pepstatin A, which selectively blocks aspartic proteinases, did not block the presentation of dinitrophenyl-poly-L-lysine. The results identify cysteine proteinases, probably lysosomal, as one of the groups of enzymes involved in antigen processing....

  15. A group-specific inhibitor of lysosomal cysteine proteinases selectively inhibits both proteolytic degradation and presentation of the antigen dinitrophenyl-poly-L-lysine by guinea pig accessory cells to T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, S; Werdelin, O

    1986-01-01

    A limited intralysosomal proteolytic degradation is probably a key event in the accessory cell processing of large protein antigens before their presentation to T cells. With the aid of highly specific inhibitors of proteinases, we have examined the role of proteolysis in the presentation...... of antigens by guinea pig accessory cells. The proteinase inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl-phenylalanylalanine-diazomethyl-ketone, which selectively inhibits cysteine proteinases, was used to block this set of enzymes in cultured cells. We demonstrate that the selective inhibition of the cysteine proteinases...... of antigen-presenting cells causes a profound inhibition of both the proteolytic degradation and the presentation of the synthetic antigen dinitrophenyl-poly-L-lysine. In contrast, the presentation of another synthetic antigen, the copolymer of L-glutamic acid and L-alanine, was enhanced by the same...

  16. Architecture of the trypanosome RNA editing accessory complex, MRB1

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ammerman, M. L.; Downey, K. M.; Hashimi, Hassan; Fisk, J. C.; Tomasello, D. L.; Faktorová, Drahomíra; Kafková, L.; King, T.; Lukeš, Julius; Read, L. K.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 12 (2012), s. 5637-5650 ISSN 0305-1048 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/09/1667 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : BINDING COMPLEX * PROTEIN * BRUCEI * TANDEM * TRANSCRIPTOME * MITOCHONDRIA * INTERACTS * TBRGG2 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 8.278, year: 2012 http://nar.oxfordjournals.org/content/40/12/5637.full

  17. Activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors elevates intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations in accessory lobe neurons of the chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Keita; Kitamura, Naoki; Suzuki, Yuki; Yamanaka, Yuko; Shinohara, Hikaru; Shibuya, Izumi

    2015-04-01

    Accessory lobes are protrusions located at the lateral sides of the spinal cord of chicks and it has been proposed that they play a role as a sensory organ for equilibrium during walking. We have reported that functional neurons exist in the accessory lobe. As there is histological evidence that synaptic terminals of cholinergic nerves exist near the somata of accessory lobe neurons, we examined the effects of acetylcholine on changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]i), as an index of cellular activities. Acetylcholine (0.1-100 µM) caused a transient rise in the [Ca2+]i. Acetylcholine-evoked [Ca2+]i rises were observed in the absence of extracellular Ca2+, and they were abolished in the presence of cyclopiazonic acid, an inhibitor of Ca2+-ATPase of intracellular Ca2+ stores or atropine, a muscarinic receptor antagonist. mRNAs coding M3 and M5 isoforms of the muscarinic receptors were detected in accessory lobes by the RT-PCR. These results indicate that chick accessory lobe neurons express functional muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, and that acetylcholine stimulates Ca2+ mobilization from intracellular Ca2+ stores, which elevates the [Ca2+]i in the somata of accessory lobe neurons, through activation of these receptors. Cholinergic synaptic transmission to the accessory lobe neurons may regulate some cellular functions through muscarinic receptors.

  18. Role of Human DNA Polymerase and its Accessory Proteins in Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    liquid Trp-Leu-His-/SD selection medium was prepared. Four ml of into the flasks. Cell pellets were collected by centrifugation at 3000 X g YPD medium ...about 2X 10 6 cells were resuspended in 09 500 ml of a mixture of serum-free F12 and Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM) containing 20 mg of...least 3 min before pulsing the samples. The cells were then incubated on ice for 5 min, resuspended in 10% FBS growth medium , transferred to a 6 well

  19. In the ovary of Ciona intestinalis (Type A), immune-related galectin and phenoloxidase genes are differentially expressed by the follicle accessory cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrinello, Daniela; Sanfratello, Maria Antonietta; Parisi, Maria Giovanna; Vizzini, Aiti; Cammarata, Matteo

    2018-01-01

    Riboprobes (in situ hybridization) and antibodies (immunohistochemistry), previously used to show the upregulation of Ciona intestinalis (Type A) galectins (CiLgals-a, CiLgals-b) and phenoloxidase (CinPO2) immune-related genes, were tested on histological sections of the ovary. The ovarian follicles are composed of oocytes encased by follicular cells (FCs) and test cells (TCs). Results show the transcription upregulation of both CiLgals and CinPO2 genes in the vitellogenic FCs, conversely distinct cytolocalization of the proteins are shown. At vitellogenic stage, the CiLgals are localized in the FCs, in the oocyte cytoplasm, and close to the germinal vesicle (GV), whereas the CinPO2 was never identified in the FCs. In a presumptive advanced phase and at the post-vitellogenic stage the TCs appear to be labelled by the CinPO2 riboprobe, and the protein identified by the antibody suggesting an mRNA transcytosis process from FCs. At post-vitellogenic stage the CiLgals mainly enrich the GV nucleoplasm, whereas the CinPO2 is contained in TCs and in the ooplasm but never found in the GV. This finding sheds new light on a former paper in which TCs were reported to be the only CinPO2-producing cells in the ovarian follicle. Finally, CiLgals and CinPO2 genes transcription and proteins production seem to be associated with accessory cells during their differentiation from vitellogenic to post-vitellogenic stage. The present findings promote further research on the early upregulation of immune-related genes, and the potential multifunctional role of the produced proteins. In addition further insight on the accessory cells involvement in ascidian oogenesis are reported. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Functional Interplay of Two Paralogs Encoding SWI/SNF Chromatin-Remodeling Accessory Subunits During Caenorhabditis elegans Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, Iris; Porta-de-la-Riva, Montserrat; Gómez-Orte, Eva; Rubio-Peña, Karinna; Aristizábal-Corrales, David; Cornes, Eric; Fontrodona, Laura; Osteikoetxea, Xabier; Ayuso, Cristina; Askjaer, Peter; Cabello, Juan; Cerón, Julián

    2016-03-01

    SWI/SNF ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling complexes have been related to several cellular processes such as transcription, regulation of chromosomal stability, and DNA repair. The Caenorhabditis elegans gene ham-3 (also known as swsn-2.1) and its paralog swsn-2.2 encode accessory subunits of SWI/SNF complexes. Using RNA interference (RNAi) assays and diverse alleles we investigated whether ham-3 and swsn-2.2 have different functions during C. elegans development since they encode proteins that are probably mutually exclusive in a given SWI/SNF complex. We found that ham-3 and swsn-2.2 display similar functions in vulva specification, germline development, and intestinal cell proliferation, but have distinct roles in embryonic development. Accordingly, we detected functional redundancy in some developmental processes and demonstrated by RNA sequencing of RNAi-treated L4 animals that ham-3 and swsn-2.2 regulate the expression of a common subset of genes but also have specific targets. Cell lineage analyses in the embryo revealed hyper-proliferation of intestinal cells in ham-3 null mutants whereas swsn-2.2 is required for proper cell divisions. Using a proteomic approach, we identified SWSN-2.2-interacting proteins needed for early cell divisions, such as SAO-1 and ATX-2, and also nuclear envelope proteins such as MEL-28. swsn-2.2 mutants phenocopy mel-28 loss-of-function, and we observed that SWSN-2.2 and MEL-28 colocalize in mitotic and meiotic chromosomes. Moreover, we demonstrated that SWSN-2.2 is required for correct chromosome segregation and nuclear reassembly after mitosis including recruitment of MEL-28 to the nuclear periphery. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  1. A morphological study of the vomeronasal organ and the accessory olfactory bulb in the Korean roe deer, Capreolus pygargus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Changnam; Ahn, Meejung; Lee, Jae-Yuk; Lee, Sang; Yun, Youngmin; Lim, Yoon-Kyu; Taniguchi, Kazumi; Shin, Taekyun

    2014-01-01

    The vomeronasal organ (VNO) and accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) of the Korean roe deer (Capreolus pygargus) were studied histologically to evaluate their morphological characteristics. Grossly, the VNO, encased by cartilage, has a paired tubular structure with a caudal blind end and a rostral connection through incisive ducts on the hard palate. In the VNO, the vomeronasal sensory epithelium (VSE) consists of galectin-3-positive supporting cells, protein gene product (PGP) 9.5-positive receptor cells, and basal cells. The vomeronasal respiratory epithelium (VRE) consists of a pseudostratified epithelium. The AOB strata included a vomeronasal nerve layer (VNL), a glomerular layer (GL), a mitral/tufted cell layer, and a granular cell layer. All lectins used in this study, including Bandeiraea simplicifolia agglutinin isolectin B4 (BSI-B4), soybean agglutinin (SBA), Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I), and Triticum vulgaris wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), labeled the VSE with varying intensity. In the AOB, both the VNL and the GL reacted with BSI-B4, SBA, and WGA with varying intensity, but not with UEA-I. This is the first morphological study of the VNO and AOB of the Korean roe deer, which are similar to those of goats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Study on reduction of accessory horsepower requirements. Fourth quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-07-30

    The program objective is to evolve and define an accessory drive system that will minimize system power consumption of driven accessories on an internal combustion engine in a passenger automobile. The initial three program phases established concept feasibility, determined potential fuel savings, and selected a drive system design for concept mechanization. During this quarter the major program accomplishments were: selection of candidate belt-drive concepts; completion of Phase III baseline vehicle drive systems physical and operational envelopes; completion of analysis for a mechanically controlled direct-operated belt drive with input programming; and completion of design layout and analysis for a hydromechanically controlled, servo-operated belt drive with output-speed sensing. (LLL)

  3. Physician accessories: Doctor, what you carry is every patient′s worry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey Anita

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nosocomial infections are on the rise worldwide and many a times they are carried by the health care personnel. Accessories used by physicians and healthcare personnel can be a potential source of nosocomial infection. Materials and Methods: We designed a survey with the aim to investigate the prevalence of microbial flora of accessories such as pens, stethoscopes, cell phones and white coat used by the physicians working in a tertiary care hospital. Observations: It was observed that 66% of the pens, 55% of the stethoscopes, 47.61% of the cell phones and 28.46% of the white coats used by the doctors were colonized with various microorganisms. Staphylococcus spp. was the predominant isolate followed by Escherichia coli. Methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus was also found, which was a matter of concern. Conclusions: Awareness of appropriate hand hygiene is important in order to prevent potential transmission to patients.

  4. Sclerotic fibroma (storiform collagenoma)-like stroma in a fibroadenoma of axillary accessory breast tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val-Bernal, José Fernando; González-Vela, María Carmen; De Grado, Mauricio; Garijo, María Francisca

    2012-08-01

    Accessory breast tissue is a subcutaneous remnant persisting after normal embryological development of the breast. It occurs most frequently in the axilla. Fibroadenomas in axillary breast tissue are rare. We report the case of a 29-year-old female patient who presented a fibroadenoma arising in the accessory breast tissue of the right axillary fossa. The neoplasm showed foci of sclerotic fibroma-like stroma. The patient had no signs of Cowden's syndrome. To the best of our knowledge, a lesion of this kind has not been previously reported. This stromal change suggests an uncommon involutional phase of the fibroadenoma with production of sclerotic and hypocellular collagen. The lesion should be differentiated from extraneural perineuroma, from the changes in fibroadenomas in Cowden's syndrome, from sclerosing lobular hyperplasia (fibroadenomatoid mastopathy) and from pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Accessory mental foramen: A rare anatomical variation detected by cone-beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Marianna Guanaes Gomes; De Faro Valverde, Ludmila; Vidal, Manuela Torres Andion; Crusoe-Rebello, Ieda Margarida [Dept. of Oral Radiology, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador (Brazil)

    2015-03-15

    The mental foramen is a bilateral opening in the vestibular portion of the mandible through which nerve endings, such as the mental nerve, emerge. In general, the mental foramen is located between the lower premolars. This region is a common area for the placement of dental implants. It is very important to identify anatomical variations in presurgical imaging exams since damage to neurovascular bundles may have a direct influence on treatment success. In the hemimandible, the mental foramen normally appears as a single structure, but there are some rare reports on the presence and number of anatomical variations; these variations may include accessory foramina. The present report describes the presence of accessory mental foramina in the right mandible, as detected by cone-beam computed tomography before dental implant placement.

  6. Accessory nerve function after level 2b-preserving selective neck dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Bilge; Coskun, Hakan; Kumas, Ferda F; Irdesel, Jale; Zarifoglu, Mehmet; Erisen, Levent; Onart, Selcuk

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the relationship between accessory nerve functions and level 2b-preserving selective neck dissection. Forty-one necks of 30 patients with laryngeal cancer who underwent unilateral or bilateral level 2b-preserving neck dissections, between February 2003 and July 2005, were evaluated. Neck and shoulder movements and muscle strengths were examined and electroneuromyography (ENMG) was performed preoperatively at the postoperative 21st day and 6th month. Pathological anatomical findings at the postoperative 6th month were also evaluated. All shoulder movements and muscle strengths were preserved. Neck extension, rotation movements, and flexion strengths were restricted. ENMG values were affected moderately in the early postoperative period and improved slightly in the late postoperative period. None of the patients developed shoulder syndrome or adhesive capsulitis. Preserving level 2b during selective neck dissection decreases trauma to the accessory nerve and improves functional results. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2009.

  7. Accessory mental foramen: A rare anatomical variation detected by cone-beam computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Marianna Guanaes Gomes; De Faro Valverde, Ludmila; Vidal, Manuela Torres Andion; Crusoe-Rebello, Ieda Margarida

    2015-01-01

    The mental foramen is a bilateral opening in the vestibular portion of the mandible through which nerve endings, such as the mental nerve, emerge. In general, the mental foramen is located between the lower premolars. This region is a common area for the placement of dental implants. It is very important to identify anatomical variations in presurgical imaging exams since damage to neurovascular bundles may have a direct influence on treatment success. In the hemimandible, the mental foramen normally appears as a single structure, but there are some rare reports on the presence and number of anatomical variations; these variations may include accessory foramina. The present report describes the presence of accessory mental foramina in the right mandible, as detected by cone-beam computed tomography before dental implant placement.

  8. Accessory mental foramen: A rare anatomical variation detected by cone-beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Marianna Guanaes Gomes; Valverde, Ludmila de Faro; Vidal, Manuela Torres Andion; Crusoé-Rebello, Iêda Margarida

    2015-03-01

    The mental foramen is a bilateral opening in the vestibular portion of the mandible through which nerve endings, such as the mental nerve, emerge. In general, the mental foramen is located between the lower premolars. This region is a common area for the placement of dental implants. It is very important to identify anatomical variations in presurgical imaging exams since damage to neurovascular bundles may have a direct influence on treatment success. In the hemimandible, the mental foramen normally appears as a single structure, but there are some rare reports on the presence and number of anatomical variations; these variations may include accessory foramina. The present report describes the presence of accessory mental foramina in the right mandible, as detected by cone-beam computed tomography before dental implant placement.

  9. Posttraumatic torsion of accessory lobe of the liver and the gallbladder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koplewitz, B.Z.; Manson, D.E. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Hospital for Sick Children and the University of Toronto, Ont. (Canada); Ein, S.H. [Div. of General Surgery, Hospital for Sick Children and the University of Toronto, Ont. (Canada)

    1999-11-01

    Torsion of an accessory lobe of the liver and of the gallbladder is a rare etiology for acute abdominal pain in children and infants. We report a case of an 8-year-old girl who was admitted with acute epigastric pain and vomiting, after her brother had jumped on her back. Physical examination revealed an afebrile child with a nontender right upper quadrant (RUQ) mass. Color Doppler ultrasound and contrast-enhanced CT demonstrated a heterogeneous, avascular mass with displacement of a thickened-wall gallbladder. A torted, congested accessory lobe of the liver and the gallbladder were resected at laparotomy. Imaging and operative findings are presented and a differential diagnosis is discussed in order to increase awareness of this rare condition. (orig.)

  10. High level of sperm competition may increase transfer of accessory gland products carried by the love dart of land snails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lodi, Monica; Staikou, Alexandra; Janssen, Ruben; Koene, Joris M

    2017-01-01

    Postcopulatory adaptations that increase reproductive success compared to rivals, like the transfer of accessory gland products that promote paternity, are common when sperm competition occurs among males. In land snails, the dart shooting behavior and its adaptive significance, in promoting

  11. Preoperative computed tomography and scintigraphy to facilitate the detection of accessory spleen in patients with hematologic disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyanagi, Nobuhiro; Kanematsu, Takashi; Sugimachi, Keizo

    1988-01-01

    Accessory spleens of 1.5 cm in size were preoperatively identified by the combined use of computerized tomography and splenic scintigraphy in two patients with hematologic diseases. After the accessory spleen had been removed from the first patient, who had persistent hereditary spherocytosis and had undergone a splenectomy 15 months before, a postoperative decrease in hyperbilirubinemia was noted. In the other patient who had idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, a successful accessory splenectomy was done at the same time as her splenectomy, and was followed by 6 months' complete remission. These events indicate that preoperative investigations using computerized tomography and scintigraphy are indispensable for ruling out an accessory spleen in those patients for whom splenectomy needs to be done in order to alleviate hematologic disorders.

  12. Preoperative computed tomography and scintigraphy to facilitate the detection of accessory spleen in patients with hematologic disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyanagi, Nobuhiro; Kanematsu, Takashi; Sugimachi, Keizo

    1988-01-01

    Accessory spleens of 1.5 cm in size were preoperatively identified by the combined use of computerized tomography and splenic scintigraphy in two patients with hematologic diseases. After the accessory spleen had been removed from the first patient, who had persistent hereditary spherocytosis and had undergone a splenectomy 15 months before, a postoperative decrease in hyperbilirubinemia was noted. In the other patient who had idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, a successful accessory splenectomy was done at the same time as her splenectomy, and was followed by 6 months' complete remission. These events indicate that preoperative investigations using computerized tomography and scintigraphy are indispensable for ruling out an accessory spleen in those patients for whom splenectomy needs to be done in order to alleviate hematologic disorders. (author)

  13. Combination of Hansen Robotic system with cryocatheter in a challenging parahisian accessory pathway ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Rodríguez-Mañero

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A perceived distinctive feature of cryoablation is the stability (cryoadherence of the catheter tip during cold temperatures at the desired location, even during tachycardia. We report the case report of a young patient with a parahisian accessory pathway where stability of the ablation catheter was not achieved despite using the cryocatheter with a steerable sheath. Ultimately, stability at the desired location was achieved robotically by means of Hansen system (Hansen Medical, Mountain View, CA, USA.

  14. Pain caused by a dental implant impinging on an accessory inferior alveolar canal: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqbool, Arman; Sultan, Ahmed Ali; Bottini, Gian Battista; Hopper, Colin

    2013-01-01

    This report presents a case history of intractable facial pain following the placement of a posterior mandibular implant. The pain was resistant to all medical management, but a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scan showed that the implant impinged on an unusual accessory inferior alveolar nerve. The decision to remove the implant led to significant pain reduction. This clinical example underscores the need for scrupulous imaging prior to implant placement.

  15. Mobile instrumentation platform and robotic accessory for real-time screening of hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.S.; Jaselskis, E.J.

    1992-01-01

    An innovative mobile laboratory for real-time field screening of soils for inorganic hazardous waste using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry sampling and analysis technique is being developed at Ames Laboratory. This sampling technique as well as the concept for installing, monitoring, and controlling the instrumentation and utilities in the mobile laboratory, the robotic sampling accessory, and manual sampling method are discussed. Benefits of this mobile configuration and future development plans also are described

  16. Can an accessory renal artery be safely covered during endovascular aortic aneurysm repair?

    OpenAIRE

    Antoniou, George A.; Karkos, Christos D.; Antoniou, Stavros A.; Georgiadis, George S.

    2013-01-01

    A best evidence topic was constructed according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether coverage of an accessory renal artery (ARA) in patients undergoing endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) is associated with increased risk of renal impairment. Altogether, 106 papers were located using the reported searches, of which 5 represented the best evidence to answer the question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, study type, patient group studied, rel...

  17. STUDY OF ANATOMICAL VARIATIONS AND INCIDENCE OF MENTAL FORAMEN AND ACCESSORY MENTAL FORAMEN IN DRY HUMAN MANDIBLES

    OpenAIRE

    Sumit Gupta; Jagdish S. Soni

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To provide anatomical information on the position, morphological variations and incidence of mental foramen and accessory mental foramen as they are important for dental surgeons, anaesthetists in nerve block and surgical procedures to avoid injury to neurovascular bundle in mental foramen area. Method: The present study was conducted using 120 dried human mandibles of both sexes. Size, shape and position of mental foramen and accessory mental foramen were determined using digital...

  18. Gallium arsenide exposure impairs splenic B cell accessory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondre-Lewis, Timothy A; Hartmann, Constance B; Caffrey, Rebecca E; McCoy, Kathleen L

    2003-03-01

    Gallium arsenide (GaAs) is utilized in industries for its semiconductor and optical properties. Chemical exposure of animals systemically suppresses several immune functions. The ability of splenic B cells to activate antigen-specific helper CD4(+) T cell hybridomas was assessed, and various aspects of antigen-presenting cell function were examined. GaAs-exposed murine B cells were impaired in processing intact soluble protein antigens, and the defect was antigen dependent. In contrast, B cells after exposure competently presented peptides to the T cells, which do not require processing. Cell surface expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules and several costimulatory molecules on splenic B cells, which are critical for helper T cell activation, was not affected by chemical exposure. GaAs exposure also did not influence the stability of MHC class II heterodimers, suggesting that the defect may precede peptide exchange. GaAs-exposed B cells contained a normal level of aspartyl cathepsin activity; however, proteolytic activities of thiol cathepsins B and L were approximately half the control levels. Furthermore, two cleavage fragments of invariant chain, a molecular chaperone of MHC class II molecules, were increased in GaAs-exposed B cells, indicative of defective degradation. Thus, diminished thiol proteolytic activity in B cells may be responsible for their impaired antigen processing and invariant chain degradation, which may contribute to systemic immunosuppression caused by GaAs exposure.

  19. Quality detection system and method of micro-accessory based on microscopic vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongjie; Wang, Shiwei; Fu, Yu

    2017-10-01

    Considering that the traditional manual detection of micro-accessory has some problems, such as heavy workload, low efficiency and large artificial error, a kind of quality inspection system of micro-accessory has been designed. Micro-vision technology has been used to inspect quality, which optimizes the structure of the detection system. The stepper motor is used to drive the rotating micro-platform to transfer quarantine device and the microscopic vision system is applied to get graphic information of micro-accessory. The methods of image processing and pattern matching, the variable scale Sobel differential edge detection algorithm and the improved Zernike moments sub-pixel edge detection algorithm are combined in the system in order to achieve a more detailed and accurate edge of the defect detection. The grade at the edge of the complex signal can be achieved accurately by extracting through the proposed system, and then it can distinguish the qualified products and unqualified products with high precision recognition.

  20. Reliable sex and strain discrimination in the mouse vomeronasal organ and accessory olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolokh, Illya I; Fu, Xiaoyan; Holy, Timothy E

    2013-08-21

    Animals modulate their courtship and territorial behaviors in response to olfactory cues produced by other animals. In rodents, detecting these cues is the primary role of the accessory olfactory system (AOS). We sought to systematically investigate the natural stimulus coding logic and robustness in neurons of the first two stages of accessory olfactory processing, the vomeronasal organ (VNO) and accessory olfactory bulb (AOB). We show that firing rate responses of just a few well-chosen mouse VNO or AOB neurons can be used to reliably encode both sex and strain of other mice from cues contained in urine. Additionally, we show that this population code can generalize to new concentrations of stimuli and appears to represent stimulus identity in terms of diverging paths in coding space. Together, the results indicate that firing rate code on the temporal order of seconds is sufficient for accurate classification of pheromonal patterns at different concentrations and may be used by AOS neural circuitry to discriminate among naturally occurring urine stimuli.

  1. Ultrastructure of male reproductive accessory glands and ejaculatory duct in the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Preethi; Marchini, Daniela; Taylor, Phillip W

    2009-05-01

    Ultrastructure of male reproductive accessory glands and ejaculatory duct in the Queensland fruit fly (Q-fly), Bactrocera tryoni, were investigated and compared with those of other tephritid flies. Male accessory glands were found to comprise one pair of mesodermic glands and three pairs of ectodermic glands. The mesodermic accessory glands consist of muscle-lined, binucleate epithelial cells, which are highly microvillated and extrude electron-dense secretions by means of macroapocrine transport into a central lumen. The ectodermic accessory glands consist of muscle-lined epithelial cells which have wide subcuticular cavities, lined with microvilli. The electron-transparent secretions from these glands are first extruded into the cavities and then forced out through small pores of the cuticle into the gland lumen. Secretions from the two types of accessory glands then flow into the ejaculatory duct, which is highly muscular, with epithelial cells rich in rough endoplasmic reticulum and lined with a thick, deeply invaginated cuticle. While there are some notable differences, reproductive accessory glands of male Q-flies generally resemble those of the olive fruitfly, Bactrocera oleae, and to a lesser extent the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata.

  2. Accessory and main olfactory systems influences on predator odor-induced behavioral and endocrine stress responses in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masini, Cher V; Garcia, Robert J; Sasse, Sarah K; Nyhuis, Tara J; Day, Heidi E W; Campeau, Serge

    2010-02-11

    Exposures to predator odors are very effective methods to evoke a variety of stress responses in rodents. We have previously found that ferret odor exposure leads to changes in endocrine hormones (corticosterone and ACTH) and behavior. To distinguish the contributions of the main and accessory olfactory systems in these responses, studies were designed to interfere with these two systems either independently, or simultaneously. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with 10% zinc sulfate (ZnSO(4)), which renders rodents anosmic (unable to smell) while leaving the accessory olfactory areas intact, or saline, in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, the vomeronasal organs of rats were surgically removed (VNX) to block accessory olfactory processing, while leaving the main olfactory system intact. And in the third experiment both the main and accessory olfactory areas were disrupted by combining the two procedures in the same rats. Neither ZnSO(4) treatment nor VNX alone reliably reduced the increased corticosterone response to ferret odor compared to strawberry odor, but in combination, they did. This suggests that processing through the main or the accessory olfactory system can elicit the endocrine stress response to ferret odor. VNX alone also did not affect the behavioral responses to the ferret odor. ZnSO(4) treatment, alone and in combination with VNX, led to changes in behavior in response to both ferret and strawberry odor, making the behavioral results less clearly interpretable. Overall these studies suggest that both the main and accessory olfactory systems mediate the neuroendocrine response to predator odor.

  3. Uptake in vivo of 45Ca in male accessory sex organs of the rat: effect of estramustine phosphate and diethylstilbestrol diphosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batra, S.; Muentzing, J.

    1981-01-01

    The radioactivity following a single i.v. injection of 45 Ca into male rats was found to be significantly higher in seminal vesicles, dorsolateral prostate, coagulating glands and ventral prostate than in muscle. The acute effect of a single dose given intraperitoneally of estramustine phosphate (Estracyt) and diethylstilbestrol diphosphate (Honvan) were examined on 45 Ca uptake. Generally, the 45 Ca concentration in the accessory sex organs with the exception of the dorsolateral prostate increased after administration of estramustine phosphate. Diethylstilbestrol phosphate treatment also significantly increased 45 Ca uptake in the ventral prostate when measured on the basis of tissue wet weight but not on the basis of protein. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to the therapeutic action of Estracyt in prostatic carcinoma. (Auth.)

  4. Rab23 is a flagellar protein in Trypanosoma brucei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Field Mark C

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rab small GTPases are important mediators of membrane transport, and orthologues frequently retain similar locations and functions, even between highly divergent taxa. In metazoan organisms Rab23 is an important negative regulator of Sonic hedgehog signaling and is crucial for correct development and differentiation of cellular lineages by virtue of an involvement in ciliary recycling. Previously, we reported that Trypanosoma brucei Rab23 localized to the nuclear envelope 1, which is clearly inconsistent with the mammalian location and function. As T. brucei is unicellular the potential that Rab23 has no role in cell signaling was possible. Here we sought to further investigate the role(s of Rab23 in T. brucei to determine if Rab23 was an example of a Rab protein with divergent function in distinct taxa. Methods/major findings The taxonomic distribution of Rab23 was examined and compared with the presence of flagella/cilia in representative taxa. Despite evidence for considerable secondary loss, we found a clear correlation between a conventional flagellar structure and the presence of a Rab23 orthologue in the genome. By epitope-tagging, Rab23 was localized and found to be present at the flagellum throughout the cell cycle. However, RNAi knockdown did not result in a flagellar defect, suggesting that Rab23 is not required for construction or maintenance of the flagellum. Conclusions The location of Rab23 at the flagellum is conserved between mammals and trypanosomes and the Rab23 gene is restricted to flagellated organisms. These data may suggest the presence of a Rab23-mediated signaling mechanism in trypanosomes.

  5. Complete genome sequencing of Agrobacterium sp. H13-3, the former Rhizobium lupini H13-3, reveals a tripartite genome consisting of a circular and a linear chromosome and an accessory plasmid but lacking a tumor-inducing Ti-plasmid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibberg, Daniel; Blom, Jochen; Jaenicke, Sebastian; Kollin, Florian; Rupp, Oliver; Scharf, Birgit; Schneiker-Bekel, Susanne; Sczcepanowski, Rafael; Goesmann, Alexander; Setubal, Joao Carlos; Schmitt, Rüdiger; Pühler, Alfred; Schlüter, Andreas

    2011-08-20

    Agrobacterium sp. H13-3, formerly known as Rhizobium lupini H13-3, is a soil bacterium that was isolated from the rhizosphere of Lupinus luteus. The isolate has been established as a model system for studying novel features of flagellum structure, motility and chemotaxis within the family Rhizobiaceae. The complete genome sequence of Agrobacterium sp. H13-3 has been established and the genome structure and phylogenetic assignment of the organism was analysed. For de novo sequencing of the Agrobacterium sp. H13-3 genome, a combined strategy comprising 454-pyrosequencing on the Genome Sequencer FLX platform and PCR-based amplicon sequencing for gap closure was applied. The finished genome consists of three replicons and comprises 5,573,770 bases. Based on phylogenetic analyses, the isolate could be assigned to the genus Agrobacterium biovar I and represents a genomic species G1 strain within this biovariety. The highly conserved circular chromosome (2.82 Mb) of Agrobacterium sp. H13-3 mainly encodes housekeeping functions characteristic for an aerobic, heterotrophic bacterium. Agrobacterium sp. H13-3 is a motile bacterium driven by the rotation of several complex flagella. Its behaviour towards external stimuli is regulated by a large chemotaxis regulon and a total of 17 chemoreceptors. Comparable to the genome of Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58, Agrobacterium sp. H13-3 possesses a linear chromosome (2.15 Mb) that is related to its reference replicon and features chromosomal and plasmid-like properties. The accessory plasmid pAspH13-3a (0.6 Mb) is only distantly related to the plasmid pAtC58 of A. tumefaciens C58 and shows a mosaic structure. A tumor-inducing Ti-plasmid is missing in the sequenced strain H13-3 indicating that it is a non-virulent isolate. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Epidermoid cyst in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen: three case reports and review of the literatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadota, Kyuichi; Kushida, Yoshio; Miyai, Yumi; Katsuki, Naomi; Hayashi, Toshitetsu; Bando, Kenji; Shibuya, Shinsuke; Haba, Reiji

    2010-09-01

    The development of an epidermoid cyst in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen is an extremely rare lesion, with only 17 cases being reported in the English literature. All such cases were located in the pancreatic tail, some of which showed carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) immunoreactivity in the lining of the epithelium. A few of them indicated an elevation of the serum CA19-9 level. Here we report three cases of an epidermoid cyst in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen. Cases 1 and 2 were 57-year-old and 70-year-old women, while case 3 was a 37-year-old man. All three cases were asymptomatic. Serum CA19-9 levels showed within normal limits (case 1), slightly elevated (case 2), and clearly elevated (case 3). They underwent a distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy (cases 1 and 2) and without splenectomy (case 3). Grossly, the surgical specimen was a well-demarcated, multiple (case 1) or solitary (cases 2 and 3) cystic mass in the pancreatic tail. A high level of fluid CA 19-9 was detected in case 1. Microscopically, the cystic walls were lined with squamous and cuboidal epithelium, which were surrounded by normal splenic tissue and hyalinized fibrous tissue. The lining squamous epithelium was revealed as nonkeratinizing (Cases 1 and 2) or keratinizing (Case 3). Immunohistochemically, CA19-9 was positive in the monolayer and surface layer of the cuboidal epithelium, but negative for the keratinizing squamous epithelium. As for the histogenesis, it is suggested that the cystic lining of the epithelium may derive from the pancreatic duct which protrudes into the accessory spleen.

  7. Accessory gland as a site for prothoracicotropic hormone controlled ecdysone synthesis in adult male insects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie L Hentze

    Full Text Available Insect steroid hormones (ecdysteroids are important for female reproduction in many insect species and are required for the initiation and coordination of vital developmental processes. Ecdysteroids are also important for adult male physiology and behavior, but their exact function and site of synthesis remains unclear, although previous studies suggest that the reproductive system may be their source. We have examined expression profiles of the ecdysteroidogenic Halloween genes, during development and in adults of the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. Genes required for the biosynthesis of ecdysone (E, the precursor of the molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E, are expressed in the tubular accessory glands (TAGs of adult males. In contrast, expression of the gene encoding the enzyme mediating 20E synthesis was detected in the ovaries of females. Further, Spookiest (Spot, an enzyme presumably required for endowing tissues with competence to produce ecdysteroids, is male specific and predominantly expressed in the TAGs. We also show that prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH, a regulator of E synthesis during larval development, regulates ecdysteroid levels in the adult stage in Drosophila melanogaster and the gene for its receptor Torso seems to be expressed specifically in the accessory glands of males. The composite results suggest strongly that the accessory glands of adult male insects are the main source of E, but not 20E. The finding of a possible male-specific source of E raises the possibility that E and 20E have sex-specific roles analogous to the vertebrate sex steroids, where males produce primarily testosterone, the precursor of estradiol. Furthermore this study provides the first evidence that PTTH regulates ecdysteroid synthesis in the adult stage and could explain the original finding that some adult insects are a rich source of PTTH.

  8. Influence of Telecommunication Modality, Internet Transmission Quality, and Accessories on Speech Perception in Cochlear Implant Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantokoudis, Georgios; Koller, Roger; Guignard, Jérémie; Caversaccio, Marco; Kompis, Martin; Senn, Pascal

    2017-04-24

    Telecommunication is limited or even impossible for more than one-thirds of all cochlear implant (CI) users. We sought therefore to study the impact of voice quality on speech perception with voice over Internet protocol (VoIP) under real and adverse network conditions. Telephone speech perception was assessed in 19 CI users (15-69 years, average 42 years), using the German HSM (Hochmair-Schulz-Moser) sentence test comparing Skype and conventional telephone (public switched telephone networks, PSTN) transmission using a personal computer (PC) and a digital enhanced cordless telecommunications (DECT) telephone dual device. Five different Internet transmission quality modes and four accessories (PC speakers, headphones, 3.5 mm jack audio cable, and induction loop) were compared. As a secondary outcome, the subjective perceived voice quality was assessed using the mean opinion score (MOS). Speech telephone perception was significantly better (median 91.6%, P 15%) were not superior to conventional telephony. In addition, there were no significant differences between the tested accessories (P>.05) using a PC. Coupling a Skype DECT phone device with an audio cable to the CI, however, resulted in higher speech perception (median 65%) and subjective MOS scores (3.2) than using PSTN (median 7.5%, P<.001). Skype calls significantly improve speech perception for CI users compared with conventional telephony under real network conditions. Listening accessories do not further improve listening experience. Current Skype DECT telephone devices do not fully offer technical advantages in voice quality. ©Georgios Mantokoudis, Roger Koller, Jérémie Guignard, Marco Caversaccio, Martin Kompis, Pascal Senn. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 24.04.2017.

  9. Pan-genome sequence analysis using Panseq: an online tool for the rapid analysis of core and accessory genomic regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villegas Andre

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pan-genome of a bacterial species consists of a core and an accessory gene pool. The accessory genome is thought to be an important source of genetic variability in bacterial populations and is gained through lateral gene transfer, allowing subpopulations of bacteria to better adapt to specific niches. Low-cost and high-throughput sequencing platforms have created an exponential increase in genome sequence data and an opportunity to study the pan-genomes of many bacterial species. In this study, we describe a new online pan-genome sequence analysis program, Panseq. Results Panseq was used to identify Escherichia coli O157:H7 and E. coli K-12 genomic islands. Within a population of 60 E. coli O157:H7 strains, the existence of 65 accessory genomic regions identified by Panseq analysis was confirmed by PCR. The accessory genome and binary presence/absence data, and core genome and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of six L. monocytogenes strains were extracted with Panseq and hierarchically clustered and visualized. The nucleotide core and binary accessory data were also used to construct maximum parsimony (MP trees, which were compared to the MP tree generated by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST. The topology of the accessory and core trees was identical but differed from the tree produced using seven MLST loci. The Loci Selector module found the most variable and discriminatory combinations of four loci within a 100 loci set among 10 strains in 1 s, compared to the 449 s required to exhaustively search for all possible combinations; it also found the most discriminatory 20 loci from a 96 loci E. coli O157:H7 SNP dataset. Conclusion Panseq determines the core and accessory regions among a collection of genomic sequences based on user-defined parameters. It readily extracts regions unique to a genome or group of genomes, identifies SNPs within shared core genomic regions, constructs files for use in phylogeny programs

  10. Accessory soleus muscle: a case report and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palaniappan, M. (Leicester Royal Infirmary (United Kingdom). Dept. of Radiology Royal Liverpool Children' s Hospital (United Kingdom). Dept. of Radiology); Rajesh, A.; Rickett, A. (Leicester Royal Infirmary (United Kingdom). Dept. of Radiology); Kershaw, C.J. (Leicester Royal Infirmary (United Kingdom). Dept. of Orthopaedics)

    1999-08-01

    Accessory soleus muscle is a rare condition which presents as a soft-tissue mass medial to the calcaneum and distal Achilles tendon. Though congenital in origin, it manifests in the second and third decades of life as a soft-tissue mass due to muscle hypertrophy. Patients may be asymptomatic or present with a painful ankle mass. It is important to be aware of this condition when interpreting CT or MRI of the ankle, which show characteristic findings of a normal muscle in an abnormal location. (orig.) With 4 figs., 12 refs.

  11. Comminuted fracture of the accessory carpal bone removed via an arthroscopic-assisted arthrotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Alvaro G; Santschi, Elizabeth M

    2015-02-01

    A 16-year-old American paint horse gelding was presented for evaluation of a left forelimb lameness grade III/V. Radiographs and computed tomography revealed a comminuted fracture of the accessory carpal bone involving the entire articulation with the distal radius and the proximal aspect of the articulation with the ulnar carpal bone. Multiple fragments were present in the palmar pouch of the antebrachiocarpal joint. An arthroscopic-assisted open approach was necessary to remove all fractured fragments. Subsequently the horse was re-admitted for lameness and was treated successfully with antibiotics and long-term supportive bandaging.

  12. Special servicing equipment for reactor pressurized vessel stud hole and stud accessories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianglian

    1999-01-01

    The author briefly introduces the design and manufacture of nuclear island special servicing equipment of Nuclear Power Institute of China. Maintenance process of reactor pressurized vessel (RPV) stud hold and stud accessories the special servicing equipment include RPV flange dummy, closed-circuit television (CCTV) inspection equipment, RPV stud hole expandable comb, RPV stud hole polisher, RPV stud hold thread lubricating equipment, RPV stud hole thread miller and RPV stud hole camera. It is presented how eight kinds of special servicing equipment perform the maintenance process concerning their function, structure, and characteristics, their practical use on site is also introduced

  13. Posterior Coronary Vein as the Substrate for an Epicardial Accessory Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cipoletta, MD

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Catheter ablation of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome is associated with up to 5% of failure. Coronary sinus (CS abnormalities or connections between CS myocardial coat and left ventricular epicardium are associated with posteroseptal and left posterior accessory pathways (AP. A 41-year-old patient with WPW syndrome was referred to our hospital after three unsuccessful ablations. The 12-lead ECG suggested a left posteroseptal AP. CT imaging and electro-anatomic mapping showed a relationship between AP electrical course and CS posterior branch. This finding supports the hypothesis CSAPs lie in the myocardial coat around CS and represent an extensive connection between atrial and ventricular epicardial surface.

  14. Thermistor guided radiofrequency ablation of atrial insertion sites in patients with accessory pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, C M; Moore, H J; Solomon, A J; Rodak, D J; Fletcher, R D

    1995-11-01

    Radiofrequency ablation has gained acceptance in the treatment of patients with symptomatic Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. The purpose of this study was to characterize the relation between temperature and other electroconductive parameters in patients undergoing atrial insertion accessory pathway ablation utilizing a thermistor equipped catheter. The mean temperature and power at sites of atrial insertion ablation are lower than has been previously associated with creation of radiofrequency lesions in the ventricle. While high cavitary blood flow in the atrium may result in cooling, the thinner atrial tissue may require less energy to achieve adequate heating than ventricular myocardium.

  15. Comminuted fracture of the accessory carpal bone removed via an arthroscopic-assisted arthrotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Alvaro G.; Santschi, Elizabeth M.

    2015-01-01

    A 16-year-old American paint horse gelding was presented for evaluation of a left forelimb lameness grade III/V. Radiographs and computed tomography revealed a comminuted fracture of the accessory carpal bone involving the entire articulation with the distal radius and the proximal aspect of the articulation with the ulnar carpal bone. Multiple fragments were present in the palmar pouch of the antebrachiocarpal joint. An arthroscopic-assisted open approach was necessary to remove all fractured fragments. Subsequently the horse was re-admitted for lameness and was treated successfully with antibiotics and long-term supportive bandaging. PMID:25694665

  16. Ability of male Queensland fruit flies to inhibit receptivity in multiple mates, and the associated recovery of accessory glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Preethi; Taylor, Phillip W

    2008-02-01

    Mating success of male insects is commonly determined by their ability to find and copulate with multiple females, but is also determined by their ability to transfer an effective ejaculate. In order to succeed in these tasks, males must first succeed in replenishing the necessary reproductive reserves between mating opportunities. We here investigate the ability of male Queensland fruit flies ('Q-fly') to recover from their first matings in time to both mate again the following day and to induce sexual inhibition in successive mates. We have previously found that accessory gland fluids (AGFs) transferred in the ejaculate of male Q-flies are directly responsible for induction of sexual inhibition in their mates. We here investigate changes in male accessory gland, testis and ejaculatory apodeme dimensions that are likely to reflect depletion and recovery of contents. We found no differences between virgin and previously mated males in their ability to obtain matings or to induce sexual inhibition in their mates, indicating a full recovery of the necessary reproductive reserves between mating opportunities. Whereas no changes were detected in testis or ejaculatory apodeme size following mating, the recovery of male ability to inhibit female remating was closely reflected in the mesodermal accessory gland dimensions; these accessory glands greatly diminished in size (length and area) immediately after mating, with recovery commencing between 5.5 and 11 h after mating. The accessory glands then expanded to reach their original size in time to mate the following day and induce sexual inhibition in the next mate.

  17. Comparison of the accuracy of three algorithms in predicting accessory pathways among adult Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maden, Orhan; Balci, Kevser Gülcihan; Selcuk, Mehmet Timur; Balci, Mustafa Mücahit; Açar, Burak; Unal, Sefa; Kara, Meryem; Selcuk, Hatice

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of three algorithms in predicting accessory pathway locations in adult patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome in Turkish population. A total of 207 adult patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome were retrospectively analyzed. The most preexcited 12-lead electrocardiogram in sinus rhythm was used for analysis. Two investigators blinded to the patient data used three algorithms for prediction of accessory pathway location. Among all locations, 48.5% were left-sided, 44% were right-sided, and 7.5% were located in the midseptum or anteroseptum. When only exact locations were accepted as match, predictive accuracy for Chiang was 71.5%, 72.4% for d'Avila, and 71.5% for Arruda. The percentage of predictive accuracy of all algorithms did not differ between the algorithms (p = 1.000; p = 0.875; p = 0.885, respectively). The best algorithm for prediction of right-sided, left-sided, and anteroseptal and midseptal accessory pathways was Arruda (p algorithms were similar in predicting accessory pathway location and the predicted accuracy was lower than previously reported by their authors. However, according to the accessory pathway site, the algorithm designed by Arruda et al. showed better predictions than the other algorithms and using this algorithm may provide advantages before a planned ablation.

  18. Structure and function of Vibrio cholerae accessory cholera enterotoxin in presence of gold nanoparticles: Dependence on morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Tanaya; Chatterjee, Barun K; Saha, Tultul; Hoque, Kazi Mirajul; Chakrabarti, Pinak

    2017-05-01

    Accessory cholera enterotoxin (Ace) is a classical enterotoxin produced by Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent for cholera. Considering the crucial role of Ace in pathogenesis of cholera, we explored the modulation of structure/function of Ace using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) of different size and shape - spherical (AuNS10 and AuNS100, the number indicating the diameter in nm) and rod (AuNR10). Biophysical techniques have been used to find out structural modulation of Ace by AuNPs. Effect of AuNP on Ace conformation was monitored by far-UV CD; urea-induced unfolding and binding of Ace to various AuNPs were studied by tryptophan fluorescence. In vivo experiments using mouse ileal loop and Ussing chamber were carried out to corroborate biophysical data. Biophysical data revealed degradation of Ace by AuNR10 and AuNS100, not by AuNS10. The feature of AuNR10 having high aspect ratio, but with the same transverse diameter as that of AuNS10 enabled us to explore the importance of morphology on modulation of protein structure/function. The equilibration time for adsorption shows dependence on the radius of curvature, being largest for AuNR10. In vivo experiments revealed the efficacy of AuNR10 and AuNS100 for reduced fluid accumulation, indicative of the loss of activity of Ace. We show how biophysical studies and in vivo experiments go hand-in-hand in establishing the efficacy and role of size/shape of AuNPs on a toxin structure. The effect of AuNP on toxin depends on its morphology. The targeted modulation of Ace could be of therapeutic benefit for gastrointestinal disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Accessory soleus in the athletes: literature review and case report of a massive muscle in a soccer player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Roberto; Bonasia, Davide Edoardo; Tron, Alessia; Ferro, Andrea; Castoldi, Filippo

    2009-08-01

    Accessory soleus is a rare congenital anatomical variant, which may manifest in the second/third decade of life as an exertional ankle pain and swelling or as an asymptomatic postero-medial mass. The incidence of this condition ranges from 0.7 to 5.5%. Many treatment options have been described in literature, including conservative treatment, excision, fasciotomy, release and closure of blood supply. We report a symptomatic massive accessory soleus (17 x 5 x 4 cm) in an 18-year-old male semi-professional soccer player. Excision of the accessory soleus was performed. The patient went back to the game 3 months after surgery. The literature review stated that either fasciotomy or excision of the muscle produce good results in the athletes.

  20. [Catheter ablation of atrio-ventricular accessory pathways in the era of ablation therapy of complex arrhythmias: a changing perspective for oncoming generation of electrophysiologists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiala, M; Chovančík, J; Wojnarová, D; Szymeczek, H; Pindor, J; Bulková, V; Neuwirth, R; Jiravský, O; Vavřík, D; Krawiec, S; Januška, J

    2012-06-01

    Catheter ablation of atrio-ventricular accessory pathways has become a routine treatment method. However, its perspective has been changing in the era of ablation of complex arrhythmias. This study was aimed at evaluating accessory pathways ablation efficacy within the last nine years at one center. From February 2002 to June 2011, catheter ablation of accessory pathways was performed in 247 patients (100 females, 42 ± 16 years). Elimination of accessory pathways conduction in both directions was the procedure endpoint. Immediate accessory pathways conduction elimination at the first ablation was achieved in 228 (92%) patients. Ablation failed to eliminate accessory pathways conduction in 19 (8%) patients, or accessory pathways conduction subsequently recurred in another 7 (3%) patients. Repeat ablation was completed in 20 (8%) patients, 2 patients underwent a third ablation procedure. In total, accessory pathway was permanently eliminated in 238 (96%) patients. Ablation failure was connected with a risky position in the vicinity of atrio-ventricular conduction system in 6 (67 %) out of 9 patients. By the individual A, B, C, D operators experience, efficacy of the first procedure/total efficacy, was 97%/99%, 90%/96%, 87%/87%, and 91%/91%, respectively (comparison of inter-operator efficacy of the first and repeat ablation by Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA test: p = 0,19 and 0,05, respectively). Accessory pathways ablation efficacy exceeds 95%, and ablation failure is dominantly related to the accessory pathways location close to the atrio-ventricular conduction system. Individual operator's experience was associated with a certain disparity between high and nearly absolute accessory pathways ablation efficacy.

  1. Effect of accessory pigment composition on the absorption characteristics of dinoflagellate bloom in a coastal embayment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Vijayan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The light absorption properties of a dinoflagellate (Noctiluca scintillans Macartney bloom in Manila Bay were analysed during the onset of a whole-bay-scale bloom in March 2004. The chlorophyll a concentrations varied over a very wide range from 1.4 μg l−1 to extremely high values of 521 μg l−1. The chlorophyll specific absorption coefficients of phytoplankton (a*ph(λ varied significantly in shape and magnitude. The spectrally averaged values of a*ph(λ varied by two orders of magnitude within and outside the bloom patch. The total suspended solid concentration was high in the middle of the bay (≥4 mg l−1. The non-photosynthetic pigment (NPP index was∼0.6 at most of the stations, mainly due to the presence of photoprotective pigments like zeaxanthin, lutein and neoxanthin, which led to variations in the blue absorption maxima of the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients. The absorption properties of the accessory pigments were masked owing to the presence of overlapping pigment absorption bands. The fourth derivative of the absorption spectra was able to resolve these overlapping features and enhance the absorption characteristics of prominent accessory pigments.

  2. Ascaris lumbricoides and its invasion of the accessory cystic duct: an unusual presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, Zain; Masood, Irfan; Pirzada, Muhammad Taqi

    2015-04-01

    Around the world, Ascaris lumbricoides is the most common helminthic infection. We describe the case of a 25-year-old woman, known to have had Ascaris infestation, presenting with abdominal pain, constipation and jaundice together with fever and tachycardia. There was tenderness in the right hypochondrium and liver function tests confirmed cholestatic jaundice. An abdominal ultrasound showed multiple linear echogenic foci in the distal small intestine along with cholelithiasis and a thick-walled gall bladder with a single stone compressing the common bile duct (Mirizzi syndrome). The patient underwent exploratory laparotomy; more than 100 worms were found inside the small intestine and they were removed by enterotomy and manual decompression. No worm could be palpated within the common bile duct (CBD). Cholecystectomy was performed, during which an accessory cystic duct was noted opening into the common bile duct superiorly to the main cystic duct. A 10 cm live worm was found coming out of it and was removed via forceps. Later on an endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatogram (ERCP) showed a widened ampulla, a mildly dilated common bile duct, but without any filling defects. The patient made an uneventful postoperative recovery being discharged on the ninth day. Worms in an accessory cystic duct have not been report in the medical literature so far. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  3. Impact of infection on the secretory capacity of the male accessory glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Marconi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Studies that compare the impact of different infectious entities of the male reproductive tract (MRT on the male accessory gland function are controversial. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Semen analyses of 71 patients with proven infections of the MRT were compared with the results of 40 healthy non-infected volunteers. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to their diagnosis: chronic prostatitis NIH type II (n = 38, chronic epididymitis (n = 12, and chronic urethritis (n = 21. RESULTS: The bacteriological analysis revealed 9 different types of microorganisms, considered to be the etiological agents, isolated in different secretions, including: urine, expressed prostatic secretions, semen and urethral smears: E. Coli (n = 20, Klebsiella (n = 2, Proteus spp. (n = 1, Enterococcus (n = 20, Staphylococcus spp. (n = 1, M. tuberculosis (n = 2, N. gonorrhea (n = 8, Chlamydia tr. (n = 16 and, Ureaplasma urealyticum (n = 1. The infection group had significantly (p < 0.05 lower: semen volume, alpha-glucosidase, fructose, and zinc in seminal plasma and, higher pH than the control group. None of these parameters was sufficiently accurate in the ROC analysis to discriminate between infected and non-infected men. CONCLUSION: Proven bacterial infections of the MRT impact negatively on all the accessory gland function parameters evaluated in semen, suggesting impairment of the secretory capacity of the epididymis, seminal vesicles and prostate. These findings were associated with an infectious related significant increase of semen pH. None of the semen parameters evaluated can be suggested as a diagnostic tool for infection.

  4. Care of astronomical telescopes and accessories a manual for the astronomical observer and amateur telescope maker

    CERN Document Server

    Pepin, M Barlow

    2005-01-01

    Commercially-made astronomical telescopes are better and less expensive than ever before, and their optical and mechanical performance can be superb. When a good-quality telescope fails to perform as well as it might, the reason is quite probably that it needs a little care and attention! Here is a complete guide for anyone who wants to understand more than just the basics of astronomical telescopes and accessories, and how to maintain them in the peak of condition. The latest on safely adjusting, cleaning, and maintaining your equipment is combined with thoroughly updated methods from the old masters. Here, too, are details of choosing new and used optics and accessories, along with enhancements you can make to extend their versatility and useful lifetime. This book is for you. Really. Looking after an astronomical telescope isn't only for the experts - although there are some things that only an expert should attempt - and every serious amateur astronomer will find invaluable information here, gleaned from ...

  5. An augmented gravity model of South Africa’s exports of motor vehicles, parts and accessories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Sichei

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The study applies an “augmented” gravity model to South Africa’s exports of motor vehicles, parts and accessories to 71 countries over the period 1994 to 2004.  A static panel data model is specified and estimated.  Several conclusions are drawn from the study.  First, a number of variables, namely, importer income, distance, level of import tariffs, government effectiveness, regulatory quality, use of right-hand drive vehicles are important determinants of bilateral trade flows for motor vehicles, parts and accessories.  Second, solving the gravity model deterministically, we show that export potential exists in a number of countries like Malawi, Zambia, Kenya and Malaysia.  A number of barriers hinder the members of the National Association of Automobile Manufacturers of South Africa (NAAMSA from exploiting these export markets. These include very high import tariffs, lack of South Africa’s diplomatic mission in the trading partner and the uncertainty regarding what happens at the expiry of the Motor Industry Development Programme (MIDP in 2012. Finally, the export potential identified by the gravity model should be regarded only as an indication since it is sensitive to the model specification and sample of countries.

  6. Morphology and development of the accessory glands in various female cricket species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Robert

    2016-11-01

    The study presents new results with regard to the morphometric and ultrastructural development of the accessory glands in females of the three cricket species Gryllus bimaculatus, Gryllus assimilis, and Acheta domesticus. Furthermore, possible age-dependence of secretory productivity of single organs was analyzed by application of the ligature technique introduced in a previous contribution. Within the first 12 days of the adult phase, the accessory glands of all investigated cricket species exhibit a significant increase in length and width which assumes values between 50 and 100%. This gland growth is rather the result of a continuous increase in cellular volume and less that of mitotic cell propagation. In all species height and width of single gland cells increase by 60-80% within the studied time interval. These changes in morphometry are commonly accompanied by ultrastructural modifications. Total glandular secretion is subject to an increase from the 5th to the 12th day of adult age. This development corresponds well with the number of eggs contemporaneously oviposited into the substrate and thus underlines the hypothesis, according to which the main function of the secretion consists in acting as a lubricant for the facilitated transport of the oocytes through the ovipositor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The assessment of accessory mental foramen in a selected polish population: a CBCT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmysłowska-Polakowska, Ewa; Radwański, Mateusz; Łęski, Michał; Ledzion, Sławomir; Łukomska-Szymańska, Monika; Polguj, Michał

    2017-02-20

    Accessory mental foramen (AMF) is a rare anatomical variation. When accessory mental foramen is present, the nerves and vessels that go through the mental foramen (MF) must follow alternative courses and special care must be taken during dental treatment planning. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the occurrence and the location of AMF in a selected Polish population using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Two hundred CBCT (105 males and 95 females) examinations were evaluated for the presence of AMFs. The location and side of AMFs were reported. The mean distance between MF and AMF was also calculated. The vertical size of MF on the side with and without AMF was measured. The obtained variables were statistically analyzed. AMFs were observed in 7% of the patients. There was no statistically significant difference between the appearance of AMF and sex (p > 0.05). We found no significant difference in the vertical size of MF between individuals with and without AMFs (p < 0.05). Twenty-eight AMFs (7%) were observed from 400 sides of 200 patients. AMFs occurred more often in males (18 AMFs) than in females (10 AMFs). Twenty AMFs (71.4%) were located anteriorly, and eight (28.6%) - posteriorly. Fifteen AMFs (53.6%) were on the right side and thirteen (46.4%) - on the left.

  8. Bilateral axillary masses mimicking as accessory breast with multiple fibroadenoma and bilateral gigantomastia in HIV-positive patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Saumya; Mishra, Anand K; Tewari, S; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2013-06-24

    Accessory breast is a rare entity that can present as asymptomatic masses or can cause symptoms like heaviness, pain, restriction of arm movement and limitation in daily pursuits with allied apprehension and anxiety for the patient. We present a case of bilateral axillary masses mimicking as accessory breast with multiple fibroadenoma in a 28 years, nulliparous, Indian woman who is HIV positive, which proves to be a diagnostic dilemma. Excisional biopsy was diagnostic. The rarity of such cases imposes challenges on the management in terms of diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic options.

  9. Accessory ossicles and sesamoid bones of the ankle and foot: imaging findings, clinical significance and differential diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellado, J.M.; Ramos, A.; Salvado, E.; Camins, A.; Sauri, A. [Inst. de Diagnostic per la Imatge, Hospital Universitari de Tarragona Joan XXIII, Tarragona (Spain); Danus, M. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Hospital Universitari de Tarragona Joan XXIII, Tarragona (Spain)

    2003-12-01

    Accessory ossicles and sesamoid bones are frequent findings in routine radiographs of the ankle and foot. They are commonly considered fortuitous and unrelated to the patient's complaint; however, they may eventually cause painful syndromes or degenerative changes in response to overuse and trauma. They may also suffer or simulate fractures. Our aim was to review, illustrate and discuss the imaging findings of some of the more frequent accessory ossicles and sesamoid bones of the ankle and foot region, with particular emphasis on those that may be of clinical significance or simulate fractures. (orig.)

  10. THE FISCAL FRAME OF NATIONAL TRANSPORT SERVICES ASSIMILATED TO INTRA-COMMUNITARIAN GOODS TRANSPORT, ACCESSORY SERVICES AND AFFERENT MEDIATION SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Pravat

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The unrolling of properly intra-communitarian goods transport services may depend in many cases or be in tight connection with other services performance, such as: national transport services, accessory services (loading, unloading, handling, weighing, sorting, goods storage or the mediation services concerning the intra-communitarian goods transport or accessory services. The categories of services above mentioned are remarked through a series of specific fiscal aspects, aspects that will be presented in this paper, both from a theoretical point of view, and from the point f view of some short examples.

  11. Accessory ossicles and sesamoid bones of the ankle and foot: imaging findings, clinical significance and differential diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellado, J.M.; Ramos, A.; Salvado, E.; Camins, A.; Sauri, A.; Danus, M.

    2003-01-01

    Accessory ossicles and sesamoid bones are frequent findings in routine radiographs of the ankle and foot. They are commonly considered fortuitous and unrelated to the patient's complaint; however, they may eventually cause painful syndromes or degenerative changes in response to overuse and trauma. They may also suffer or simulate fractures. Our aim was to review, illustrate and discuss the imaging findings of some of the more frequent accessory ossicles and sesamoid bones of the ankle and foot region, with particular emphasis on those that may be of clinical significance or simulate fractures. (orig.)

  12. Interaction between the flagellar pocket collar and the hook complex via a novel microtubule-binding protein in Trypanosoma brucei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Albisetti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma brucei belongs to a group of unicellular, flagellated parasites that are responsible for human African trypanosomiasis. An essential aspect of parasite pathogenicity is cytoskeleton remodelling, which occurs during the life cycle of the parasite and is accompanied by major changes in morphology and organelle positioning. The flagellum originates from the basal bodies and exits the cell body through the flagellar pocket (FP but remains attached to the cell body via the flagellum attachment zone (FAZ. The FP is an invagination of the pellicular membrane and is the sole site for endo- and exocytosis. The FAZ is a large complex of cytoskeletal proteins, plus an intracellular set of four specialised microtubules (MtQ that elongate from the basal bodies to the anterior end of the cell. At the distal end of the FP, an essential, intracellular, cytoskeletal structure called the flagellar pocket collar (FPC circumvents the flagellum. Overlapping the FPC is the hook complex (HC (a sub-structure of the previously named bilobe that is also essential and is thought to be involved in protein FP entry. BILBO1 is the only functionally characterised FPC protein and is necessary for FPC and FP biogenesis. Here, we used a combination of in vitro and in vivo approaches to identify and characterize a new BILBO1 partner protein-FPC4. We demonstrate that FPC4 localises to the FPC, the HC, and possibly to a proximal portion of the MtQ. We found that the C-terminal domain of FPC4 interacts with the BILBO1 N-terminal domain, and we identified the key amino acids required for this interaction. Interestingly, the FPC4 N-terminal domain was found to bind microtubules. Over-expression studies highlight the role of FPC4 in its association with the FPC, HC and FPC segregation. Our data suggest a tripartite association between the FPC, the HC and the MtQ.

  13. Sequencing of mitochondrial genomes of nine Aspergillus and Penicillium species identifies mobile introns and accessory genes as main sources of genome size variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joardar Vinita

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genera Aspergillus and Penicillium include some of the most beneficial as well as the most harmful fungal species such as the penicillin-producer Penicillium chrysogenum and the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus, respectively. Their mitochondrial genomic sequences may hold vital clues into the mechanisms of their evolution, population genetics, and biology, yet only a handful of these genomes have been fully sequenced and annotated. Results Here we report the complete sequence and annotation of the mitochondrial genomes of six Aspergillus and three Penicillium species: A. fumigatus, A. clavatus, A. oryzae, A. flavus, Neosartorya fischeri (A. fischerianus, A. terreus, P. chrysogenum, P. marneffei, and Talaromyces stipitatus (P. stipitatum. The accompanying comparative analysis of these and related publicly available mitochondrial genomes reveals wide variation in size (25–36 Kb among these closely related fungi. The sources of genome expansion include group I introns and accessory genes encoding putative homing endonucleases, DNA and RNA polymerases (presumed to be of plasmid origin and hypothetical proteins. The two smallest sequenced genomes (A. terreus and P. chrysogenum do not contain introns in protein-coding genes, whereas the largest genome (T. stipitatus, contains a total of eleven introns. All of the sequenced genomes have a group I intron in the large ribosomal subunit RNA gene, suggesting that this intron is fixed in these species. Subsequent analysis of several A. fumigatus strains showed low intraspecies variation. This study also includes a phylogenetic analysis based on 14 concatenated core mitochondrial proteins. The phylogenetic tree has a different topology from published multilocus trees, highlighting the challenges still facing the Aspergillus systematics. Conclusions The study expands the genomic resources available to fungal biologists by providing mitochondrial genomes with consistent

  14. [Comparison of ablation of left-sided accessory pathway by atrial septal and retrograde arterial approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J G; Bao, Z Y; Gu, X

    2017-03-07

    Objective: To compare the advantages and disadvantages of radiofrequency ablation of left-sided accessory pathways by via atrial septal approach with retrograde through aortic approach. Methods: A total of 184 patients of left-side accessory pathways were treated in Taizhou People's Hospital and the Subei People's Hospital from March 2012 to August 2015.A total of 103 cases were treated by aortic retrograde approach as through arterial group, 81 cases were treated by punctured atrial septal to left atrial for mapping and ablation as through atrial septal group.Comparison of ablation procedure time, total and pathways of different parts(subgroup) at instant success and relapse rates, safety (serious complications), and statistics other complications in operation and postoperative. Results: Through arterial group and through atrial septal group were no significant difference ( P >0.05) in the ablation procedure time((25±18 ) vs (22±15)min ), instant success(98.1% vs 97.5%) and relapse rates(1.0% vs 1.2%), security(1 vs 0 case). There was no statistical difference in septal part subgroups (all P >0.05) in the ablation procedure time((22±18)vs (25±19)min), instant success(91.7% vs 89.9 %) and relapse rates(0 vs 11.1%); posterior wall subgroup had no statistical difference in the ablation procedure time((18±15)vs (16±12)min), instant success(100% vs 100 %) and relapse rates(0 vs 0)(all P >0.05); side wall subgroup had no statistical difference in the ablation procedure time((29±20)vs (21±18) min), instant success (98.3% vs 98.1%)and relapse rates(1.7% vs 0%)(all P >0.05). Conclusion: Ablation of left-sided accessory pathways by transseptal approach and transaortic approach has no statistical difference in the procedure time, instant success and relapse rates, security.In a particular case, there is a certain complementarity between the two methods.

  15. Development of the Noise-Resistant and Sound Focusing Accessory of Ultrasonic Leak Detector for Spacecraft on Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, W.; Yan, R. X.; Sun, L. C.; Shao, R. P.

    2017-12-01

    Ultrasonic signal produced by the gas leak is so week that it is difficult to detect, and easily interfered. So developing the noise-resistant and sound focusing accessory for the ultrasonic leak detector is very important for improving ultrasonic leak detector sensitivity and noise-resistant capability. Based on the theory analysis of the leak ultrasonic signal reverberation and anacampsis, the 5A06 aluminium alloy and nylon were selected as the material of noise-resistant and sound focusing accessory by calculation and compare. Then the circular cone trumpet structure was design as the accessory main structure, and the nylon expansion port, nylon shrinking port and aluminium alloy expansion port structures were manufactured. The different structure characters were shown by the contrasting experiment. The results indicate that the nylon expansion circular cone trumpet structure has better sound focusing performance and it can improve the testing sound pressure amplitude 10 bigger than the detector without the accessory. And the aluminium alloy expansion circular cone trumpet structure has better noise-resistant ability than others. These conclusions are very important for the spacecraft leak detection and it can provide some references for the design of the noise-resistant and sound focusing structure.

  16. Rare Case of an Epithelial Cyst in an Intrapancreatic Accessory Spleen Treated by Robot-Assisted Spleen Preserving Distal Pancreatectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijck, Willemijn P M; Groot, Vincent P; Brosens, Lodewijk A A; Hagendoorn, Jeroen; Rinkes, Inne H M Borel; van Leeuwen, Maarten S; Molenaar, I Quintus

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial cyst in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen (ECIPAS) is exceedingly rare with only 57 cases reported since the first publication in 1980. Comprehensive clinical and diagnostic features remain to be clarified. We present a case of ECIPAS in a 21-year-old Philippine woman who was admitted

  17. Preparation and Dielectric Properties of SiC/LSR Nanocomposites for Insulation of High Voltage Direct Current Cable Accessories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Nanqiang; Chen, Qingguo; Wei, Xinzhe

    2018-01-01

    The conductivity mismatch in the composite insulation of high voltage direct current (HVDC) cable accessories causes electric field distribution distortion and even insulation breakdown. Therefore, a liquid silicone rubber (LSR) filled with SiC nanoparticles is prepared for the insulation of cable accessories. The micro-morphology of the SiC/LSR nanocomposites is observed by scanning electron microscopy, and their trap parameters are characterized using thermal stimulated current (TSC) tests. Moreover, the dielectric properties of SiC/LSR nanocomposites with different SiC concentrations are tested. The results show that the 3 wt % SiC/LSR sample has the best nonlinear conductivity, more than one order of magnitude higher than that of pure LSR with improved temperature and nonlinear conductivity coefficients. The relative permittivity increased 0.2 and dielectric loss factor increased 0.003, while its breakdown strength decreased 5 kV/mm compared to those of pure LSR. Moreover, the TSC results indicate the introduction of SiC nanoparticles reduced the trap level and trap density. Furthermore, the SiC nanoparticles filling significantly increased the sensitivity of LSR to electric field stress and temperature changes, enhancing the conductivity and electric field distribution within the HVDC cable accessories, thus improving the reliability of the HVDC cable accessories. PMID:29518054

  18. Types of coeliac trunk branching including accessory hepatic arteries: a new point of view based on cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olewnik, Łukasz; Wysiadecki, Grzegorz; Polguj, Michał; Waśniewska, Anna; Jankowski, Mateusz; Topol, Mirosław

    2017-06-14

    The coeliac trunk is major visceral branch of the abdominal aorta. Familiarity with anatomic variations of the coeliac trunk is relevant for planning radiological and surgical procedures. The aim of our research was determining variations of the coeliac trunk, including the occurrence of accessory hepatic arteries. 40 cadavers were studied. Six patterns of coeliac trunk branching were observed in this study. Accessory hepatic arteries were observed in seven specimens (17.5%). The most prevalent variation was normal trifurcation, accounting for 62.5% of cases. The rarest variation was absence of the coeliac trunk, with an incidence of 2.5%. In this variant the left gastric artery, the common hepatic artery, and the splenic artery branched directly off the abdominal aorta. The study material allowed to distinguish two coeliac tunk branching patterns which, to the best of our knowledge, have not been reported before. It was a type with four branches originating from the coeliac trunk: the left gastric artery, the common hepatic artery, the splenic artery, and right accessory hepatic artery. The other previously unreported pattern variant was also a coeliac trunk which gave off the coeliac trunk gave off three branches: the common hepatic artery, the splenic artery and right accessory hepatic artery. The average distance between the aortic hiatus and the coeliac trunk calculated for all the cadavers amounted to 54 mm (SD = 11.85 mm). The average distance between the coeliac trunk and the superior mesenteric artery was 11.1 mm (SD = 7.7 mm).

  19. Accessory nerve to suprascapular nerve transfer to restore shoulder exorotation in otherwise spontaneously recovered obstetric brachial plexus lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ouwerkerk, Willem J. R.; Uitdehaag, Bernard M. J.; Strijers, Rob L. M.; Nollet, Frans; Holl, Kurt; Fellner, Franz A.; Vandertop, W. Peter

    2006-01-01

    A systematic follow-up of infants with an obstetric brachial plexus lesion of C5 and C6 or the superior trunk showing satisfactory spontaneous recovery of shoulder and arm function except for voluntary shoulder exorotation, who underwent an accessory to suprascapular nerve transfer to improve active

  20. 78 FR 47817 - Parts and Accessories Necessary for Safe Operation; Application for an Exemption From Van Hool N...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration [Docket No. FMCSA-2013-0314] Parts and Accessories Necessary for Safe Operation; Application for an Exemption From Van Hool N... exemption from Van Hool N.V. and Coach USA (Van Hool/Coach USA) to allow the use of double deck motorcoaches...

  1. 15 CFR 742.11 - Specially designed implements of torture, thumbscrews, and thumbcuffs; and parts and accessories...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specially designed implements of torture, thumbscrews, and thumbcuffs; and parts and accessories, n.e.s. 742.11 Section 742.11 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND...

  2. Preparation and Dielectric Properties of SiC/LSR Nanocomposites for Insulation of High Voltage Direct Current Cable Accessories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanqiang Shang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The conductivity mismatch in the composite insulation of high voltage direct current (HVDC cable accessories causes electric field distribution distortion and even insulation breakdown. Therefore, a liquid silicone rubber (LSR filled with SiC nanoparticles is prepared for the insulation of cable accessories. The micro-morphology of the SiC/LSR nanocomposites is observed by scanning electron microscopy, and their trap parameters are characterized using thermal stimulated current (TSC tests. Moreover, the dielectric properties of SiC/LSR nanocomposites with different SiC concentrations are tested. The results show that the 3 wt % SiC/LSR sample has the best nonlinear conductivity, more than one order of magnitude higher than that of pure LSR with improved temperature and nonlinear conductivity coefficients. The relative permittivity increased 0.2 and dielectric loss factor increased 0.003, while its breakdown strength decreased 5 kV/mm compared to those of pure LSR. Moreover, the TSC results indicate the introduction of SiC nanoparticles reduced the trap level and trap density. Furthermore, the SiC nanoparticles filling significantly increased the sensitivity of LSR to electric field stress and temperature changes, enhancing the conductivity and electric field distribution within the HVDC cable accessories, thus improving the reliability of the HVDC cable accessories.

  3. Cutaneous application of an accessory-gland secretion after sperm exchange in a terrestrial slug (Mollusca : Pulmonata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benke, Mandy; Reise, Heike; Montagne-Wajer, Kora; Koene, Joris M

    Competition for fertilisation in hermaphroditic animals seems to have led to many odd behaviours and complex morphologies involved in the transfer of accessory-gland products to the partner. Terrestrial slugs of the genus Deroceras show remarkably elaborate and interspecifically diverse penis

  4. Effect of partial saturation of bonded neo magnet on the automotive accessory motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimitkumar K. Sheth

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the effects of using a partially magnetized bonded neo (NdFeB magnet in an automotive accessory motor are presented. The potential reason for partial saturation of the bonded neo magnet is explained and a simple method to ensure saturation of the magnet is discussed. A magnetizing fixture design using the 2-D Finite element analysis (FEA is presented. The motor performance at various magnet saturation levels has been estimated using the 2-D FEA. Details of the thermal demagnetization test adopted by the automotive industry is also discussed and results of the motor performance for four saturation levels are detailed. These results indicate that the effect of demagnetization is more adverse in a motor with partially saturated magnets.

  5. Effect of partial saturation of bonded neo magnet on the automotive accessory motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Nimitkumar K.; Angara, Raghu C. S. Babu

    2017-05-01

    In this paper the effects of using a partially magnetized bonded neo (NdFeB) magnet in an automotive accessory motor are presented. The potential reason for partial saturation of the bonded neo magnet is explained and a simple method to ensure saturation of the magnet is discussed. A magnetizing fixture design using the 2-D Finite element analysis (FEA) is presented. The motor performance at various magnet saturation levels has been estimated using the 2-D FEA. Details of the thermal demagnetization test adopted by the automotive industry is also discussed and results of the motor performance for four saturation levels are detailed. These results indicate that the effect of demagnetization is more adverse in a motor with partially saturated magnets.

  6. A SaTScan™ macro accessory for cartography (SMAC package implemented with SAS® software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleinman Ken P

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SaTScan is a software program written to implement the scan statistic; it can be used to find clusters in space and/or time. It must often be run multiple times per day when doing disease surveillance. Running SaTScan frequently via its graphical user interface can be cumbersome, and the output can be difficult to visualize. Results The SaTScan Macro Accessory for Cartography (SMAC package consists of four SAS macros and was designed as an easier way to run SaTScan multiple times and add graphical output. The package contains individual macros which allow the user to make the necessary input files for SaTScan, run SaTScan, and create graphical output all from within SAS software. The macros can also be combined to do this all in one step. Conclusion The SMAC package can make SaTScan easier to use and can make the output more informative.

  7. Type testing of cables and accessories, a way to improve the quality of these products?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benda-Berlijn, S.M.; Roelofs, G.P.T. [KEMA Research and Development, Engineering and Consultancy for the Electric Power Industry, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    1997-12-31

    Electric cable testing in the Netherlands has contributed to improving the quality of electricity infrastructure. At the KEMA High-Voltage laboratory, about 87 type-tests of cables and accessories have been performed since 1993. This includes 41 cables, 13 terminations, 19 straight through joints, 7 cross bonding joints and 7 transition joints. 31 per cent of the materials tested did not pass performance standards. IEC 502 was the standard which was successfully passed by 85 per cent of the tested materials. By providing feedback, this testing program makes it possible for manufacturers to continually improve their designs, production processes and assembling techniques. Improvements in quality is the inevitable result. 6 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  8. A SaTScan macro accessory for cartography (SMAC) package implemented with SAS software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Allyson M; Kleinman, Ken P

    2007-03-06

    SaTScan is a software program written to implement the scan statistic; it can be used to find clusters in space and/or time. It must often be run multiple times per day when doing disease surveillance. Running SaTScan frequently via its graphical user interface can be cumbersome, and the output can be difficult to visualize. The SaTScan Macro Accessory for Cartography (SMAC) package consists of four SAS macros and was designed as an easier way to run SaTScan multiple times and add graphical output. The package contains individual macros which allow the user to make the necessary input files for SaTScan, run SaTScan, and create graphical output all from within SAS software. The macros can also be combined to do this all in one step. The SMAC package can make SaTScan easier to use and can make the output more informative.

  9. The accessory papillary muscle with inferior J-waves - peculiarity or hidden danger?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    du Toit Lorraine

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Originally described in 1953, today the so-called J-wave is the source of much controversy. As a marker of so-called "early repolarization", this variant has been regarded as a totally benign variant since the 1960's. However, since then a wealth of data have indicated that the J-wave may be a marker of a highly arrhythmogenic substrate with a resultant high risk of sudden cardiac death. In this case report a case of an accessory papillary muscle with a prominent J-wave is described. This may be the first of many possible cases where papillary muscle variants may be the cause of the J-wave.

  10. Research on the Application of New Accessory Ingredient in Cashmere Hank Yarn Dyeing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-ping; Wang, Cun-tao

    There exist many problems in the process of cashmere yarn dyeing such as great difficulty in dyeing, large damage to yarn, low strength, and lack of brightness in color. Currently the technologies of hank yarn dyeing in foreign countries are very advanced, but most of them aim for hank yarn dyeing of cotton and silk with few reports on the research about hank dyeing of cashmere. In this paper, we will use reactive dyes to dye cashmere yarn, do comparative experiment on pre-treatment lotion Kierlon OL and Da ai wen, and add a smooth anti-creasing agent Primasol JET and cashmere protective agent WSM in the dyeing process and analyze their impact on the performance of cashmere hank yarn dyeing to determine a reasonable dose of accessory ingredient. This dyeing program can be applied to guide the actual production, achieving the effects of improving the performance of cashmere hank yarn dyeing and enhancing the quality of dyed yarn

  11. Ectopic Intrathoracic Hepatic Tissue and Accessory Lung Lobe Aplasia in a Dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lande, Rachel; Dvorak, Laura; Gardiner, David W; Bahr, Anne

    2015-01-01

    A 6 yr old male Yorkshire terrier was presented for an ~6 yr history of progressive cough and dyspnea. Thoracic radiographs revealed a 6 cm diameter mass within the right caudal thorax. Thoracic ultrasound identified an intrathoracic mass ultrasonographically consistent with liver tissue and a chronic diaphragmatic hernia was suspected. Exploratory laparotomy was performed, but no evidence of a diaphragmatic hernia was identified. Thoracic exploration identified abnormal lung parenchyma. The accessory lung lobe was removed using a stapling devise near its base. The consolidated mass had the gross appearance of liver and was histologically identified as ectopic hepatic tissue. Ectopic hepatic tissue, unlike ectopic splenic and pancreatic tissue, is rare and generally has a subdiaphragmatic distribution. This solitary case report demonstrates that ectopic intrathoracic hepatic tissue should be considered a differential diagnosis for a caudal mediastinal mass.

  12. MRI of the tibioastragalus anticus of Gruber muscle: a rare accessory muscle and normal anatomical variant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkowitz, Yaron; Amiras, Dimitri [Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); St Mary' s Hospital, Imaging Department, QEQM, London (United Kingdom); Mushtaq, Nadeem [Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-15

    We present the case of a 31-year-old man who sustained a hyperplantar flexion injury of his right ankle, and was evaluated using computed tomography and MRI to assess for osseous and ligamentous injury. The MRI and CT studies demonstrated a tibioastragalus anticus of Gruber (TAAG) muscle in the lower limb's anterior compartment. To our knowledge, the imaging of this muscle has not been previously described. The TAAG muscle arises from the lower third of the anterolateral tibia and the interosseous membrane. Its tendon passes laterally, deep to the tibialis anterior and extensor hallucis longus tendons, and inserts onto the anterior superolateral neck of the talus in a fan-like manner. Knowledge and recognition of this tendon are important for both diagnostic accuracy and surgical planning, and could potentially be used as a tendon transfer or graft in the appropriate clinical setting. The presence of this accessory muscle should not be confused with a pathological condition. (orig.)

  13. Intraoperative Fluoroscopic Imaging for Suprascapular Nerve Localization During Spinal Accessory Nerve to Suprascapular Nerve Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabbad, Nicole C; Nuland, Kyle S; Pothula, Aravind

    2017-08-01

    Distal fiber transfer of the spinal accessory nerve (SAN) to the suprascapular nerve (SSN) has been well described as an effective means to regain shoulder external rotation following upper trunk brachial plexus injuries. Both supine and prone positioning techniques have been described with comparable success. Whereas the posterior technique allows for sufficient distal length on the SAN for effective neurotization of the infraclavicular brachial plexus and SSN both proximal and distal to the suprascapular ligament, localization of the SSN within the suprascapular notch can be challenging and time intensive, especially in the obese patient. The use of intraoperative C-arm fluoroscopy is presented as a viable method for more exact suprascapular notch identification during dissection of the SSN. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Genetic Influence on Accessory Navicular Bone in the Foot: A Korean Twin and Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, In Yae; Kang, Hyo Jeong; Ko, Hyeonyoung; Sung, Joohon; Song, Yun-Mi; Hwang, Ji Hye

    2017-06-01

    An accessory navicular bone (AN) is the most common accessory ossicle in the foot. The presence of an AN bone can trigger various foot problems, such as posterior tibial tendon pathology, flattening of the medial longitudinal arch, and medial foot pain. Despite the clinical influence of presence of an AN in foot disease, the research regarding its inheritance is still insufficient. A total of 135 pairs of monozygotic (MZ) twins, 25 pairs of dizygotic (DZ) twins, and 676 singletons from families were enrolled in order to estimate genetic influences on AN. After confirmation of zygosity and family relationship with a tandem repeat marker kit and questionnaires, the presence and type of the AN was classified through bilateral feet radiographic examination. The heritability of an AN was estimated using quantitative genetic analysis based on a variance decomposition model considering various types of family relationships: father-offspring pair, mother-offspring pair, and pooled DZ twin and sibling pairs. As a result, approximately 40.96% of the participants in this study had an AN in either foot, with type II being the most common type. The heritability for the presence of any type of an AN in any foot was estimated as 0.88 (95% CI [0.82, 0.94]) after adjusting for age and sex. Specifically, type II AN showed the highest heritability of 0.82 (95% CI [0.71-0.93]). The high heritability of an AN found in this large twin and family study suggests that an AN is determined by the substantial influence of genetic factor.

  15. Accessory genetic content in Campylobacter jejuni ST21CC isolates from feces and blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarp, C P A; Akinrinade, O; Kaden, R; Johansson, C; Rautelin, H

    2017-06-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is an important foodborne pathogen and the most commonly reported bacterial cause of gastroenteritis. C. jejuni is occasionally found in blood, although mechanisms important for invasiveness have remained unclear. C. jejuni is divided into many different lineages, of which the ST21 clonal complex (CC) is widely distributed. Here, we performed comparative genomic and in vitro analyses on 17C. jejuni ST21CC strains derived from human blood and feces in order to identify features associated with isolation site. The ST21CC lineage is divided into two large groups; centered around ST-21 and ST-50. Our clinical strains, typed as ST-50, showed further microevolution into two distinct clusters. These clusters were distinguished by major differences in their capsule loci and the distribution of accessory genetic content, including C. jejuni integrated elements (CJIEs) and plasmids. Accessory genetic content was more common among fecal than blood strains, whereas blood strains contained a hybrid capsule locus which partially consisted of C. jejuni subsp. doylei-like content. In vitro infection assays with human colon cell lines did not show significant differences in adherence and invasion between the blood and fecal strains. Our results showed that CJIEs and plasmid derived genetic material were less common among blood isolates than fecal isolates; in contrast, hybrid capsule loci, especially those containing C. jejuni subsp. doylei-like gene content, were found among many isolates derived from blood. The role of these findings requires more detailed investigation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  16. Subcutaneous accessory pain system (SAPS): A novel pain pathway for myofascial trigger points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eloqayli, Haytham

    2018-02-01

    Despite the accumulating neuro-physiological evidence of myofascial pain, many clinicians are skeptical about its existence as a separate disease entity. No single theory can fully explain the four cardinal features of MPS; taut bands, local tenderness, local twitching and the characteristic pattern of referred pain. Bridging the gap between basic and clinical knowledge mandates coupling the local trigger point changes with the clinically seen distant somatically innervated referred pain. The main question addressed by the present theory is why do trigger points behave differently in comparison to the surrounding muscle tissue and are trigger points the primary problem or secondary to a primary pathology. We propose that trigger points have an extra-innervation system that connect them with other spinal structures such as the facet, the annulus and other trigger points with a role for the subcutaneous fascia as part of trigger points pathogenesis or passage for the extra-innervation. The extra-innervation system is Subcutaneous accessory pain system (SAPS). The novel SAPS system connecting trigger points to the spinal segments via dorsal rami is presented. Individuals with this accessory pathway are prone to myofascial pain, trigger point activation and segmental referred somatic pain similar to other axial spinal structures. Despite the high prevalence of myofascial pain, the mechanism is not universally agreed upon. Why do the trigger points act differently from surrounding muscle tissue and are almost constant in location in different individuals is controversial. Why does myofascial pain and its two components, trigger points and referred pain, exist or are more prevalent in some individuals than in others is unexplained. The correlation between axial spinal structures pathology and the trigger points is not explored well. The existing theories about trigger point formation and referred pain is scientifically credible for each separate component and the SAPS

  17. Pathogenicity Locus, Core Genome, and Accessory Gene Contributions to Clostridium difficile Virulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany B. Lewis

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile is a spore-forming anaerobic bacterium that causes colitis in patients with disrupted colonic microbiota. While some individuals are asymptomatic C. difficile carriers, symptomatic disease ranges from mild diarrhea to potentially lethal toxic megacolon. The wide disease spectrum has been attributed to the infected host’s age, underlying diseases, immune status, and microbiome composition. However, strain-specific differences in C. difficile virulence have also been implicated in determining colitis severity. Because patients infected with C. difficile are unique in terms of medical history, microbiome composition, and immune competence, determining the relative contribution of C. difficile virulence to disease severity has been challenging, and conclusions regarding the virulence of specific strains have been inconsistent. To address this, we used a mouse model to test 33 clinical C. difficile strains isolated from patients with disease severities ranging from asymptomatic carriage to severe colitis, and we determined their relative in vivo virulence in genetically identical, antibiotic-pretreated mice. We found that murine infections with C. difficile clade 2 strains (including multilocus sequence type 1/ribotype 027 were associated with higher lethality and that C. difficile strains associated with greater human disease severity caused more severe disease in mice. While toxin production was not strongly correlated with in vivo colonic pathology, the ability of C. difficile strains to grow in the presence of secondary bile acids was associated with greater disease severity. Whole-genome sequencing and identification of core and accessory genes identified a subset of accessory genes that distinguish high-virulence from lower-virulence C. difficile strains.

  18. Hausdorff Distance evaluation of orthodontic accessories' streaking artifacts in 3D model superimposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rino Neto

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether image artifacts caused by orthodontic metal accessories interfere with the accuracy of 3D CBCT model superimposition. A human dry skull was subjected three times to a CBCT scan: at first without orthodontic brackets (T1, then with stainless steel brackets bonded without (T2 and with orthodontic arch wires (T3 inserted into the brackets' slots. The registration of image surfaces and the superimposition of 3D models were performed. Within-subject surface distances between T1-T2, T1-T3 and T2-T3 were computed and calculated for comparison among the three data sets. The minimum and maximum Hausdorff Distance units (HDu computed between the corresponding data points of the T1 and T2 CBCT 3D surface images were 0.000000 and 0.049280 HDu, respectively, and the mean distance was 0.002497 HDu. The minimum and maximum Hausdorff Distances between T1 and T3 were 0.000000 and 0.047440 HDu, respectively, with a mean distance of 0.002585 HDu. In the comparison between T2 and T3, the minimum, maximum and mean Hausdorff Distances were 0.000000, 0.025616 and 0.000347 HDu, respectively. In the current study, the image artifacts caused by metal orthodontic accessories did not compromise the accuracy of the 3D model superimposition. Color-coded maps of overlaid structures complemented the computed Hausdorff Distances and demonstrated a precise fusion between the data sets.

  19. Intervention of D-glucose ameliorates the toxicity of streptozotocin in accessory sex organs of rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikram, A.; Tripathi, D.N.; Ramarao, P.; Jena, G.B.

    2008-01-01

    Streptozotocin (STZ) is a naturally occurring compound isolated from Streptomyces achromogens. It is used extensively for inducing diabetes in experimental animals. Diabetes mellitus is known to have proven adverse effects on male sexual organs and their reproductive functions. The atrophy of prostate gland and other organs of the genitourinary tract were observed in experimental diabetic animals. STZ exhibits a structural resemblance to D-glucose due to the presence of sugar moiety in its structure. Pancreatic β-cells mainly contain GLUT1 and GLUT2 glucose transporters. Possibly due to structural resemblance, STZ and D-glucose, share a common recognition site for entry into the β-cells. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the effect of D-glucose on STZ-induced toxicity in accessory sex organs of male rats. Animals were kept on overnight fasting. One group received vehicle and served as negative control, while all other groups were given STZ (45 mg/kg). Animals that received only STZ served as positive control. The effect of D-glucose was studied on STZ treated animals with different dosage of D-glucose (250, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg). Restoration of body weight, plasma glucose and plasma insulin was evident only at 1000 and 2000 mg/kg of D-glucose. The protective effect of D-glucose is evident only when it is administered simultaneously with STZ. In the present investigation, we report that simultaneous administration of D-glucose along with STZ ameliorates STZ-induced toxicity. This is evident from the restoration of accessory sex organ's weight, cellular morphology as well as insulin level

  20. Morphological and morphometric analysis of accessory mental foramen in dry human mandibles of south indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Rajkohila

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mental foramen (MF is an important landmark for administration of local anesthesia in surgical procedures involving the mandible. Additional mental foramina, called accessory mental foramina (AMF transmitting branches of mental nerve, have been reported. Detection of AMFs in presurgical imaging may reduce postoperative pain in dental surgical procedures. Aim: The aim of the study was to study the incidence and morphometric analysis of accessory MF in the dry human mandibles of South Indian population. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and sixty dry human mandibles were studied for the presence, location, shape of AMF, and its relation to MF. The horizontal diameter of AMF, and its distance from symphysis menti, the posterior border of mandible and from the base of mandible were measured and statistically analyzed. Results and Conclusions: In our study, AMF were present in 8.85% mandibles (unilateral - 7.6% [4.6% - left, 2.69% - right] and bilateral 1.6%. The most common position was below the second premolar (48.1%. AMF were round in shape (74% and was often located either superomedial or inferolateral to MF. Their transverse diameter ranged from 0.5 to 1 mm. The AMF were situated at a mean distance of 2.96 mm from MF, 23.47 mm from symphysis menti, 11.24 mm from the lower border of the body of the mandible, and 57.35 mm from the posterior border of ramus of mandible. The knowledge of the presence of AMF and its dimensions would enable the clinicians to do mandibular procedures carefully and avoid injury to the branches of mental nerve that may be passing through it.

  1. Morphological and morphometric analysis of accessory mental foramen in dry human mandibles of south indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkohila, J; Daniel, Priyanka; Ambikaipakan, Sakunthala; Rabi, Suganthy

    2018-01-01

    Mental foramen (MF) is an important landmark for administration of local anesthesia in surgical procedures involving the mandible. Additional mental foramina, called accessory mental foramina (AMF) transmitting branches of mental nerve, have been reported. Detection of AMFs in presurgical imaging may reduce postoperative pain in dental surgical procedures. Aim: The aim of the study was to study the incidence and morphometric analysis of accessory MF in the dry human mandibles of South Indian population. Two hundred and sixty dry human mandibles were studied for the presence, location, shape of AMF, and its relation to MF. The horizontal diameter of AMF, and its distance from symphysis menti, the posterior border of mandible and from the base of mandible were measured and statistically analyzed. In our study, AMF were present in 8.85% mandibles (unilateral - 7.6% [4.6% - left, 2.69% - right] and bilateral 1.6%). The most common position was below the second premolar (48.1%). AMF were round in shape (74%) and was often located either superomedial or inferolateral to MF. Their transverse diameter ranged from 0.5 to 1 mm. The AMF were situated at a mean distance of 2.96 mm from MF, 23.47 mm from symphysis menti, 11.24 mm from the lower border of the body of the mandible, and 57.35 mm from the posterior border of ramus of mandible. The knowledge of the presence of AMF and its dimensions would enable the clinicians to do mandibular procedures carefully and avoid injury to the branches of mental nerve that may be passing through it.

  2. Anatomical evidence for the absence of a morphologically distinct cranial root of the accessory nerve in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachman, Nirusha; Acland, Robert D; Rosse, Cornelius

    2002-01-01

    The accessory nerve is conventionally described as having a cranial and spinal root. According to standard descriptions the cranial root (or part) is formed by rootlets that emerge from the medulla between the olive and the inferior cerebellar peduncle. These rootlets are considered to join the spinal root, travel with it briefly, then separate within the jugular foramen to become part of the vagus nerve. In 15 fresh specimens we exposed the posterior cranial fossa with a coronal cut through the foramen magnum and explored the course of each posterior medullary rootlet (PMR) arising from within the retro-olivary groove. We chose the caudal end of the olive as the landmark for the caudal end of the medulla. In all specimens every PMR that did not contribute to the glossopharyngeal nerve joined the vagus nerve at the jugular foramen. The distance between the caudal limit of the olive and the origin of the most caudal PMR that contributed to the vagus nerve ranged from 1-21 mm (mean = 8.8 mm). All rootlets that joined the accessory nerve arose caudal to the olive. The distance from the caudal limit of the olive and the most rostral accessory rootlet ranged from 1-15 mm (mean = 5.4 mm). We were unable to demonstrate any connection between the accessory and vagus nerves within the jugular foramen. Our findings indicate that the accessory nerve has no cranial root; it consists only of the structure hitherto referred to as its spinal root. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. The Structure of a Type 3 Secretion System (T3SS) Ruler Protein Suggests a Molecular Mechanism for Needle Length Sensing*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Julien R. C.; Fernández, Lucia; Wasney, Gregory A.; Vuckovic, Marija; Reffuveille, Fany; Hancock, Robert E. W.; Strynadka, Natalie C. J.

    2016-01-01

    The type 3 secretion system (T3SS) and the bacterial flagellum are related pathogenicity-associated appendages found at the surface of many disease-causing bacteria. These appendages consist of long tubular structures that protrude away from the bacterial surface to interact with the host cell and/or promote motility. A proposed “ruler” protein tightly regulates the length of both the T3SS and the flagellum, but the molecular basis for this length control has remained poorly characterized and controversial. Using the Pseudomonas aeruginosa T3SS as a model system, we report the first structure of a T3SS ruler protein, revealing a “ball-and-chain” architecture, with a globular C-terminal domain (the ball) preceded by a long intrinsically disordered N-terminal polypeptide chain. The dimensions and stability of the globular domain do not support its potential passage through the inner lumen of the T3SS needle. We further demonstrate that a conserved motif at the N terminus of the ruler protein interacts with the T3SS autoprotease in the cytosolic side. Collectively, these data suggest a potential mechanism for needle length sensing by ruler proteins, whereby upon T3SS needle assembly, the ruler protein's N-terminal end is anchored on the cytosolic side, with the globular domain located on the extracellular end of the growing needle. Sequence analysis of T3SS and flagellar ruler proteins shows that this mechanism is probably conserved across systems. PMID:26589798

  4. TLR accessory molecule RP105 (CD180 is involved in post-interventional vascular remodeling and soluble RP105 modulates neointima formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacco C Karper

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: RP105 (CD180 is TLR4 homologue lacking the intracellular TLR4 signaling domain and acts a TLR accessory molecule and physiological inhibitor of TLR4-signaling. The role of RP105 in vascular remodeling, in particular post-interventional remodeling is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: TLR4 and RP105 are expressed on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC as well as in the media of murine femoral artery segments as detected by qPCR and immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, the response to the TLR4 ligand LPS was stronger in VSMC from RP105(-/- mice resulting in a higher proliferation rate. In RP105(-/- mice femoral artery cuff placement resulted in an increase in neointima formation as compared to WT mice (4982 ± 974 µm(2 vs.1947 ± 278 µm(2,p = 0.0014. Local LPS application augmented neointima formation in both groups, but in RP105(-/- mice this effect was more pronounced (10316±1243 µm(2 vs.4208 ± 555 µm(2,p = 0.0002, suggesting a functional role for RP105. For additional functional studies, the extracellular domain of murine RP105 was expressed with or without its adaptor protein MD1 and purified. SEC-MALSanalysis showed a functional 2∶2 homodimer formation of the RP105-MD1 complex. This protein complex was able to block the TLR4 response in whole blood ex-vivo. In vivo gene transfer of plasmid vectors encoding the extracellular part of RP105 and its adaptor protein MD1 were performed to initiate a stable endogenous soluble protein production. Expression of soluble RP105-MD1 resulted in a significant reduction in neointima formation in hypercholesterolemic mice (2500 ± 573 vs.6581 ± 1894 µm(2,p<0.05, whereas expression of the single factors RP105 or MD1 had no effect. CONCLUSION: RP105 is a potent inhibitor of post-interventional neointima formation.

  5. Combining RNA-seq and proteomic profiling to identify seminal fluid proteins in the migratory grasshopper Melanoplus sanguinipes (F).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Martha L; Todd, Christopher; Erlandson, Martin; Andres, Jose

    2015-12-22

    Seminal fluid proteins control many aspects of fertilization and in turn, they play a key role in post-mating sexual selection and possibly reproductive isolation. Because effective proteome profiling relies on the availability of high-quality DNA reference databases, our knowledge of these proteins is still largely limited to model organisms with ample genetic resources. New advances in sequencing technology allow for the rapid characterization of transcriptomes at low cost. By combining high throughput RNA-seq and shotgun proteomic profiling, we have characterized the seminal fluid proteins secreted by the primary male accessory gland of the migratory grasshopper (Melanoplus sanguinipes), one of the main agricultural pests in central North America. Using RNA sequencing, we characterized the transcripts of ~ 8,100 genes expressed in the long hyaline tubules (LHT) of the accessory glands. Proteomic profiling identified 353 proteins expressed in the long hyaline tubules (LHT). Of special interest are seminal fluid proteins (SFPs), such as EJAC-SP, ACE and prostaglandin synthetases, which are known to regulate female oviposition in insects. Our study provides new insights into the proteomic components of male ejaculate in Orthopterans, and highlights several important patterns. First, the presence of proteins that lack predicted classical secretory tags in accessory gland proteomes is common in male accessory glands. Second, the products of a few highly expressed genes dominate the accessory gland secretions. Third, accessory gland transcriptomes are enriched for novel transcripts. Fourth, there is conservation of SFPs' functional classes across distantly related taxonomic groups with very different life histories, mating systems and sperm transferring mechanisms. The identified SFPs may serve as targets of future efforts to develop species- specific genetic control strategies.

  6. Os cuboideum secundarium: A rare accessory ossicle with the potential to mimic a mass on magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauffmann, Gregory [University of Chicago, Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Stacy, G.S. [University of Chicago, Section of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Accessory ossicles are common incidental findings on radiographs of the ankle and foot. While typically asymptomatic and of no clinical significance, they are sometimes associated with local pain or even mistaken for pathological conditions such as fractures. Given the potential for misinterpretation, it is important to understand their typical locations and appearances. This case highlights an exceptionally rare accessory ossicle called the os cuboideum secundarium, located adjacent to the cuboid and calcaneus. Interestingly, this case demonstrates the potential for this rare ossicle to mimic a mass on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Furthermore, despite the significant improvements in the understanding of musculoskeletal pathology afforded by advancements in cross-sectional imaging techniques, this case is a reminder of certain pitfalls that remain. Lastly, it highlights the importance of radiographs as an initial diagnostic study in evaluating foot pain. (orig.)

  7. Presence of accessory penis, colonic duplication and several other congenital anomalies in a child: a very rare association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sayan; Mondal, Prabodh Chandra; Pandey, Shashi Bhushan; Achar, Arun

    2014-10-01

    An accessory penis is a very rare anomaly. Only five cases have been reported thus far to our knowledge. We present the case of a child aged 2 years and 10 months who had a penis-like structure (containing phallus and glans) attached to the right buttock. Associated anomalies were a non-communicating type of colonic duplication, a paramedian stenosed anal opening, a horse-shoe kidney, posterior urethral valves, scoliosis of the lumbo-sacral spine, polydactyly and equino-varus deformity of the right foot. As far as we can tell, this is the first report of an accessory penis associated with colonic duplication and other congenital anomalies. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  8. Os cuboideum secundarium: A rare accessory ossicle with the potential to mimic a mass on magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauffmann, Gregory; Stacy, G.S.

    2014-01-01

    Accessory ossicles are common incidental findings on radiographs of the ankle and foot. While typically asymptomatic and of no clinical significance, they are sometimes associated with local pain or even mistaken for pathological conditions such as fractures. Given the potential for misinterpretation, it is important to understand their typical locations and appearances. This case highlights an exceptionally rare accessory ossicle called the os cuboideum secundarium, located adjacent to the cuboid and calcaneus. Interestingly, this case demonstrates the potential for this rare ossicle to mimic a mass on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Furthermore, despite the significant improvements in the understanding of musculoskeletal pathology afforded by advancements in cross-sectional imaging techniques, this case is a reminder of certain pitfalls that remain. Lastly, it highlights the importance of radiographs as an initial diagnostic study in evaluating foot pain. (orig.)

  9. Ultra violet radiation-induced defects in accessory cell function in the human proliferative response to tetanus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pretell, J.O.; Wimberly, J.; Parrish, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Ultraviolet B radiation (290-320 nm) has been shown to interfere with accessory cell function of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in the generation of a proliferative response to tetanus. By altering the timing of irradiation of adherent cells and using short pulses of antigen, we have identified a minimum of two u.v. sensitive accessory cell functions. The first involves antigen presentation and is not readily reversible with time in culture after irradiation. The second is demonstrated by the ability of low doses of u.v. radiation given after the tetanus toxoid pulse to inhibit an event(s) occuring independent of antigen processing. Both occur within a range of doses which would penetrate to the vasculature of the skin of humans exposed to the sun or to phototherapy. (author)

  10. Chlorophyll accessory pigments collected from OSCAR ELTON SETTE in North Pacific Ocean from 2008-03-01 to 2011-04-01 (NODC Accession 0129395)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the chlorophyll accessory pigments measured from discrete depth water samples collected in CTD-mounted 10 liter Niskin bottles as part of NOAA...

  11. Chlorophyll accessory pigments collected from NOAA Ship OSCAR ELTON SETTE in North Pacific Ocean from 2008-03-01 to 2011-04-01 (NCEI Accession 0129395)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the chlorophyll accessory pigments measured from discrete depth water samples collected in CTD-mounted 10 liter Niskin bottles as part of NOAA...

  12. Classical torus conformal block, = 2∗ twisted superpotential and the accessory parameter of Lamé equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatek, Marcin

    2014-03-01

    In this work the correspondence between the semiclassical limit of the DOZZ quantum Liouville theory on the torus and the Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit of the = 2∗ (Ω-deformed) U(2) super-Yang-Mills theory is used to propose new formulae for the accessory parameter of the Lamé equation. This quantity is in particular crucial for solving the problem of uniformization of the one-punctured torus. The computation of the accessory parameters for torus and sphere is an open longstanding problem which can however be solved if one succeeds to derive an expression for the so-called classical Liouville action. The method of calculation of the latter has been proposed some time ago by Zamolod-chikov brothers. Studying the semiclassical limit of the four-point function of the quantum Liouville theory on the sphere they have derived the classical action for the Riemann sphere with four punctures. In the present work Zamolodchikovs idea is exploited in the case of the Liouville field theory on the torus. It is found that the Lamé accessory parameter is determined by the classical Liouville action on the one-punctured torus or more concretely by the torus classical block evaluated on the saddle point intermediate classical weight. Secondly, as an implication of the aforementioned correspondence it is obtained that the torus accessory parameter is related to the sum of all rescaled column lengths of the so-called "critical" Young diagrams extremizing the instanton "free energy" for the = 2∗ gauge theory. Finally, it is pointed out that thanks to the known relation the sum over the "critical" column lengths can be expressed in terms of a contour integral in which the integrand is built out of certain special functions.

  13. Localization of accessory pathway in patients with wolff-parkinson-white syndrome from surface ecg using arruda algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidullah, S.; Shah, B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: To ablate accessory pathway successfully and conveniently, accurate localization of the pathway is needed. Electrophysiologists use different algorithms before taking the patients to the electrophysiology (EP) laboratory to plan the intervention accordingly. In this study, we used Arruda algorithm to locate the accessory pathway. The objective of the study was to determine the accuracy of the Arruda algorithm for locating the pathway on surface ECG. Methods: It was a cross-sectional observational study conducted from January 2014 to January 2016 in the electrophysiology department of Hayat Abad Medical Complex Peshawar Pakistan. A total of fifty nine (n=59) consecutive patients of both genders between age 14-60 years presented with WPW syndrome (Symptomatic tachycardia with delta wave on surface ECG) were included in the study. Patient's electrocardiogram (ECG) before taking patients to laboratory was analysed on Arruda algorithm. Standard four wires protocol was used for EP study before ablation. Once the findings were confirmed the pathway was ablated as per standard guidelines. Results: A total of fifty nine (n=59) patients between the age 14-60 years were included in the study. Cumulative mean age was 31.5 years ± 12.5 SD. There were 56.4% (n=31) males with mean age 28.2 years ± 10.2 SD and 43.6% (n=24) were females with mean age 35.9 years ± 14.0 SD. Arruda algorithm was found to be accurate in predicting the exact accessory pathway (AP) in 83.6% (n=46) cases. Among all inaccurate predictions (n=9), Arruda inaccurately predicted two third (n=6; 66.7%) pathways towards right side (right posteroseptal, right posterolateral and right antrolateral). Conclusion: Arruda algorithm was found highly accurate in predicting accessory pathway before ablation. (author)

  14. Brazil and the new luxury: an analysis of the consumption and creation of luxury apparel and accessories in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Galsworthy, Antony

    2014-01-01

    This research investigates how a rising nation’s consumers and producers are defining their relationship with luxury apparel and accessories. In the context of these products it seeks to identify the core attributes required to merit the luxury soubriquet, in order to arrive at a contemporary definition that also encompasses the impact of branding both of product and place of origin. Luxury consumption accompanies rapid economic growth and the BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, China) have become...

  15. Accessory Meningeal Arterial Supply to the Posterior Nasal Cavity: Another Reason for Failed Endovascular Treatment of Epistaxis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, I.C.; Santos, C. Dos

    2003-01-01

    A patient with intractable posterior epistaxis was treated with embolization of the ipsilateral sphenopalatine and facial arteries and contralateral sphenopalatine artery. She continued to bleed despite a seemingly adequate embolization procedure. A second angiogram revealed a significant collateral blood supply to the posterior nasal cavity from the accessory meningeal artery not identified during the first procedure. This was then embolized with no further epistaxis encountered. This case demonstrates yet another collateral arterial pathway that might account for a failed embolization

  16. Homology of the Fifth Epibranchial and Accessory Elements of the Ceratobranchials among Gnathostomes: Insights from the Development of Ostariophysans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Murilo; Bockmann, Flávio Alicino; de Carvalho, Marcelo Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Epibranchials are among the main dorsal elements of the gill basket in jawed vertebrates (Gnathostomata). Among extant fishes, chondrichthyans most resemble the putative ancestral condition as all branchial arches possess every serially homologous piece. In osteichthyans, a primitive rod-like epibranchial 5, articulated to ceratobranchial 5, is absent. Instead, epibranchial 5 of many actinopterygians is here identified as an accessory element attached to ceratobranchial 4. Differences in shape and attachment of epibranchial 5 in chondrichthyans and actinopterygians raised suspicions about their homology, prompting us to conduct a detailed study of the morphology and development of the branchial basket of three ostariophysans (Prochilodus argenteus, Characiformes; Lophiosilurus alexandri and Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, Siluriformes). Results were interpreted within a phylogenetic context of major gnathostome lineages. Developmental series strongly suggest that the so-called epibranchial 5 of actinopterygians does not belong to the epal series because it shares the same chondroblastic layer with ceratobranchial 4 and its ontogenetic emergence is considerably late. This neomorphic structure is called accessory element of ceratobranchial 4. Its distribution among gnathostomes indicates it is a teleost synapomorphy, occurring homoplastically in Polypteriformes, whereas the loss of the true epibranchial 5 is an osteichthyan synapomorphy. The origin of the accessory element of ceratobranchial 4 appears to have occurred twice in osteichthyans, but it may have a single origin; in this case, the accessory element of ceratobranchial 4 would represent a remnant of a series of elements distally attached to ceratobranchials 1–4, a condition totally or partially retained in basal actinopterygians. Situations wherein a structure is lost while a similar neomorphic element is present may lead to erroneous homology assessments; these can be avoided by detailed morphological and

  17. Prolonged Intracellular Na+ Dynamics Govern Electrical Activity in Accessory Olfactory Bulb Mitral Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asaph Zylbertal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Persistent activity has been reported in many brain areas and is hypothesized to mediate working memory and emotional brain states and to rely upon network or biophysical feedback. Here, we demonstrate a novel mechanism by which persistent neuronal activity can be generated without feedback, relying instead on the slow removal of Na+ from neurons following bursts of activity. We show that mitral cells in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB, which plays a major role in mammalian social behavior, may respond to a brief sensory stimulation with persistent firing. By combining electrical recordings, Ca2+ and Na+ imaging, and realistic computational modeling, we explored the mechanisms underlying the persistent activity in AOB mitral cells. We found that the exceptionally slow inward current that underlies this activity is governed by prolonged dynamics of intracellular Na+ ([Na+]i, which affects neuronal electrical activity via several pathways. Specifically, elevated dendritic [Na+]i reverses the Na+-Ca2+ exchanger activity, thus modifying the [Ca2+]i set-point. This process, which relies on ubiquitous membrane mechanisms, is likely to play a role in other neuronal types in various brain regions.

  18. Study of degradation on polypropylene accessories used in radiotherapy services due to interaction with gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neto, Antonio R.; Azevedo, Elaine C.; Soboll, Danyel S.

    2013-01-01

    Polypropylene is a polymer used in radiotherapy services as immobilization parts and masks due to their thermoplastic properties that allow specific formats of construction and has a low cost production. However this material can present degradation over time and may hinder basic procedures as cleaning between uses of this accessory. In this study, samples of PP (polypropylene) were evaluated before and after irradiation with doses from 5 kGy to 25 kGy by infrared absorption spectrometry and contact angle analysis. The infrared spectrum showed material degradation by analyzing the peaks corresponding to the chemical bonds C-H, C-H2 and C-H3 which increased absorption to all doses when compared with the non-irradiated spectrum. The contact angle demonstrated that on the PP surface the contact angle decreased in all comparisons among samples irradiated and non-irradiated, showing a hydrophilic behavior. However, starting at 20 kGy it was observed less variation of angles when compared with lower doses. Irradiated at 25 kGy the material presented a contact angle almost identical to the non-irradiated material. (author)

  19. Activity Dependent Modulation of Granule Cell Survival in the Accessory Olfactory Bulb at Puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livio Oboti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The vomeronasal system (VNS is specialized in the detection of salient chemical cues triggering social and neuroendocrine responses. Such responses are not always stereotyped, instead, they vary depending on age, sex, and reproductive state, yet the mechanisms underlying this variability are unclear. Here, by analyzing neuronal survival in the first processing nucleus of the VNS, namely the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB, through multiple bromodeoxyuridine birthdating protocols, we show that exposure of female mice to male soiled bedding material affects the integration of newborn granule interneurons mainly after puberty. This effect is induced by urine compounds produced by mature males, as bedding soiled by younger males was ineffective. The granule cell increase induced by mature male odor exposure is not prevented by pre-pubertal ovariectomy, indicating a lesser role of circulating estrogens in this plasticity. Interestingly, the intake of adult male urine-derived cues by the female vomeronasal organ increases during puberty, suggesting a direct correlation between sensory activity and AOB neuronal plasticity. Thus, as odor exposure increases the responses of newly born cells to the experienced stimuli, the addition of new GABAergic inhibitory cells to the AOB might contribute to the shaping of vomeronasal processing of male cues after puberty. Consistently, only after puberty, female mice are capable to discriminate individual male odors through the VNS.

  20. The "hidden" concealed left-sided accessory pathway: An uncommon cause of SVT in young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pass, Robert H; Liberman, Leonardo; Silver, Eric S; Janson, Christopher M; Blaufox, Andrew D; Nappo, Lynn; Ceresnak, Scott R

    2018-01-12

    Concealed left-sided accessory pathways (CLAP) are a cause of supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) in the young. Most are mapped with right ventricular (RV) apical/outflow pacing. Rarely, alternative means of mapping are required. We review our experience from three pediatric electrophysiology (EP) centers with a rare form of "hidden" CLAP. All patients SVT and one AFIB (4%). APs were adenosine sensitive in 7/20 patients (35%) and VA conduction was decremental in six (26%). CLAP conduction was demonstrable with orthodromic reentrant tachycardia in all patients, with RV extrastimulus testing in seven (30%) and with rapid RV pacing (

  1. Does breathing type influence electromyographic activity of obligatory and accessory respiratory muscles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, M F; Valenzuela, S; Miralles, R; Portus, C; Santander, H; Fuentes, A D; Celhay, I

    2014-11-01

    Craniomandibular electromyographic (EMG) studies frequently include several parameters, e.g. resting, chewing and tooth-clenching. EMG activity during these parameters has been recorded in the elevator muscles, but little is known about the respiratory muscles. The aim of this study was to compare EMG activity in obligatory and accessory respiratory muscles between subjects with different breathing types. Forty male subjects were classified according to their breathing type into two groups of 20 each: costo-diaphragmatic breathing type and upper costal breathing type. Bipolar surface electrodes were placed on the sternocleidomastoid, diaphragm, external intercostal and latissimus dorsi muscles. EMG activity was recorded during the following tasks: (i) normal quiet breathing, (ii) maximal voluntary clenching in intercuspal position, (iii) natural rate chewing until swallowing threshold, (iv) short-time chewing. Diaphragm EMG activity was significantly higher in the upper costal breathing type than in the costo-diaphragmatic breathing type in all tasks (P breathing type than in the costo-diaphragmatic breathing type in tasks 3 and 4 (P breathing types in the tasks studied (P > 0·05). The significantly higher EMG activity observed in subjects with upper costal breathing than in the costo-diaphragmatic breathing type suggests that there could be differences in motor unit recruitment strategies depending on the breathing type. This may be an expression of the adaptive capability of muscle chains in subjects who clinically have a different thoraco-abdominal expansion during inspiration at rest. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Accessory atlantoaxial ligament avulsion fracture of the axis: Are there any clinical implications?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Niknejad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Injuries to the craniocervical support structures are frequently observed in neurotrauma cases. Stability of this region is of vital importance. Literature has mainly focused on three major ligaments of the craniocervical junction: The tectorial membrane, the transverse ligament, and the alar ligaments. However, the accessory atlantoaxial ligament (ALL also seems to be involved in craniocervical stability as shown in cadaveric specimens. Still, the biomechanical importance of this structure needs to be determined, especially in trauma settings. Here, we describe a case of isolated traumatic injury to this structure and discuss the clinical outcome. A 64 year old polytrauma patient with a remarkable avulsion fracture at the site of the insertion of the ALL was admitted to our center. We evaluated the patient both clinical and radiological at admission, after 3 months and after 1 year. We clinically assessed the upper cervical rotational stability using the cervical flexion rotation test. We observed no rotational instability or any other clinical repercussions at the long term after an isolated ALL injury. This case shows that isolated traumatic damage to the ALL is possible. Unilateral damage to the ALL probably does not cause rotational instability of the craniocervical junction. In case a similar avulsion fracture is observed, we recommend performing a magnetic resonance imaging of the craniovertebral region to assess for any ligamentous lesions.

  3. Diagnosis of accessory conduction pathway using ECG-gated emission CT analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misaki, Takuro; Mukai, Keiichi; Tsubota, Makoto; Iwa, Takashi; Nakajima, Ken-ichi; Hisada, Kin-ichi

    1987-01-01

    Pinpointing the location of accessory conduction pathway (ACP) is of great importance in the surgical treatment for Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome. For this purpose, this study explored the usefulness of ECG-gated emission computed tomography (Gated-ECT) in 30 patients who preoperatively underwent Gated-ECT. The site of earliest contraction at level of atrioventicular valves, obtained on tomographic phase analysis, was compared with the site of earliest activation, obtained on epicardial mapping during surgery. The concordance rate of the two methods was 94 % (28/30). Among them, one patient was found to have the association of corrected transposition of great arteries on Gated-ECT. Gated-ECT was, however, of limited value in differentiating right posterior ACP from right postseptal ACP. The discordance between the sites of earliest contraction and activation, which was observed in the two others, was likely due to decreased wall motion resulting from myocardial disturbance. Gated-ECT may have a diagnostic potential for the location of ACP, especially in view of providing images that corresponded to the surgical anatomy. (Namekawa, K.)

  4. Epithelioid Myoepithelioma of the Accessory Parotid Gland: Pathological and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyoshi Iguchi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Tumors of the accessory parotid gland (APG are rare, and pleomorphic adenoma (PA is the most common benign APG tumor subtype. Myoepithelioma of the APG is much rarer than PA, and to date, only 5 cases have been sporadically reported in the English literature. We describe the clinicopathological and MRI findings of an epithelioid myoepithelioma of the APG that was treated in our hospital. The patient's only clinical symptom was a slow-growing and painless mid-cheek mass. The tumor was suspected to be PA before surgery based on the following MRI findings: (1 a well-circumscribed and lobulated contour, (2 isointensity and hyperintensity relative to the muscle on T1- and T2-weighted images (WIs, respectively, (3 good enhancement on contrast-enhanced T1-WIs, (4 peripheral hypointensity on T2-WIs, and (5 a gradual time-signal intensity curve enhancement pattern on gadolinium-enhanced dynamic MRI. The tumor was completely resected via a standard parotidectomy approach, and the postoperative pathological examination of the tumor, including immunohistochemistry, confirmed the diagnosis of epithelioid myoepithelioma. As it is hardly possible to distinguish myoepithelioma from PA and low-grade malignant tumors preoperatively, a pathological examination using frozen sections is helpful for surgical strategy-related decisions.

  5. Accessory components in gas-lubricated floating ring seals; Zusatzeinrichtungen an gasgeschmierten Gleitringdichtungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchner, C.; Victor, K.H.

    1995-12-31

    The present paper uses existing designs of floating-ring seal systems to illustrate their use as accessory components in gas-lubricated axial-face seals. These floating-ring seals may be used as pre-seals on the side of the axial-face seal facing the product. Here they are subject to high ambient pressure and small pressure differences. On the side of the axial-face seal facing the sliding bearing they are used as post-seals, where they are subject to atmospheric conditions and small pressure differences. The authors present various purpose-specific designs of these seal systems. Theoretical calculation models are compared with measuring results obtained under conditions close to actual practice. (orig.) [Deutsch] Anhand von ausgefuehrten Konstruktionen werden Schwimmring-Dichtungssysteme als Zusatzeinrichtung an gasgeschmierten Gleitringdichtungen (GLRD) erlaeutert. Auf der produktzugewandten Seite der GLRD werden diese Schwimmringdichtungen als Vordichtung (Pre-Seal) eingesetzt, die bei hohen Umgebungsdruecken und geringen Druckdifferenzen betrieben werden. Auf der dem Gleitlager zugewandten Seite der GLRD werden Schwimmringdichtungen bei atmosphaerischen Bedingungen und ebenfalls geringen Druckdifferenzen als nachgeschaltete Dichtung (Post-Seal) eingesetzt. Es werden konstruktive Loesungen fuer die verschiedenen Aufgaben dieser Dichtungssysteme vorgestellt. Theoretische Berechnungsmodelle werden mit praxisnahen Messergebnissen verglichen. (orig.)

  6. Spinal accessory nerve injury: A potentially missed cause of a painful, droopy shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaluso, Steven; Ross, Douglas C; Doherty, Timothy J; Doherty, Christopher D; Miller, Thomas A

    2016-11-21

    Spinal accessory nerve (SAN) injury can be an overlooked cause of scapular winging and shoulder dysfunction. The most common etiology is iatrogenic injury following surgical procedures at the posterior triangle of the neck. We present three cases of isolated injury to the SAN following trauma. To improve detection of SAN injuries through highlighting the clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment via three cases in which the injuries were initially missed. Clinical case series and narrative review. Three (3) patients were evaluated by history, physical exam and electrodiagnostic study (EMG). Clinical symptoms included, a painful, droopy shoulder and difficulties with overhead activities. Clinical signs included the observation of scapular winging, and focal atrophy of the trapezius and in some cases the sternocleidomastoid (SCM). Novel clinical signs such as the active elevation lag sign and triangle sign were also helpful clinically to highlight the SAN as the site of pathology. EMG revealed denervation and reduced motor unit recruitment in the trapezius and SCM. Early detection of SAN injuries can be improved through appropriate clinical suspicion, a detailed history and careful physical exam. EMG testing can help guide prognosis, direct conservative and surgical treatment, and reduce patient morbidity.

  7. Laparoscopic Resection of an Epithelial Cyst in an Intrapancreatic Accessory Spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Suzumura

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An epithelial cyst in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen (ECIAS is rare. We herein report a case of a patient with ECIAS who underwent laparoscopic surgery. A 57-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because of a pancreatic tail tumor. She was asymptomatic, and a physical examination revealed no remarkable abnormalities. The levels of the tumor marker carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9 and s-pancreas-1 antigen (SPan-1 were elevated. Ultrasonography showed a well-defined homogeneous cystic tumor. Computed tomography showed a well-demarcated cystic tumor in the pancreatic tail. Magnetic resonance imaging showed that the cystic tumor exhibited low intensity on T1-weighted images and high intensity on T2-weighted images. The cystic tumor was diagnosed as mucinous cystic neoplasm preoperatively. The patient underwent laparoscopic spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy. A histopathological examination revealed the cyst wall to be lined by stratified squamous epithelium within splenic parenchyma, and the ultimate diagnosis was ECIAS. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient was discharged on postoperative day 12. ECIAS is very difficult to diagnose preoperatively. Laparoscopic surgery is a safe and minimally invasive procedure for patients with difficult-to-diagnose pancreatic tail tumor suspected of having low-grade malignancy.

  8. Encountering the Accessory Polar Renal Artery during Laparoscopic Para-Aortic Lymphadenectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won Moo; Choi, Joong Sub; Bae, Jaeman; Jung, Un Suk; Eom, Jeong Min

    2018-01-01

    A 60-year-old Korean woman underwent laparoscopic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and was confirmed to have high-grade serous carcinoma of both ovaries with a huge omental cake, extensive agglutinated intra-abdominal metastatic masses, extensive serosa invasion of the intestines, and mesenterial deposits. She underwent 3 cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by laparoscopic interval debulking surgery, including hysterectomy, pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy, appendectomy, partial peritonectomy, and omentectomy. We encountered the right accessory polar renal artery (APRA) during the surgery and carefully preserved the right APRA from the abdominal aorta to the right kidney (Fig. 1). Postoperative computed tomography angiography showed an intact right APRA and normal-appearing kidney (Fig. 2). The patient had adjuvant chemotherapy and is alive without disease recurrence. Because APRA is a functional end artery, it is important to preserve it during surgery to prevent ischemic damage and renal failure [1]. It is very important for the gynecologic-oncologist to have knowledge of the retroperitoneal vascular anatomy, experience in laparoscopic surgery, and an accurate surgical technique to avoid vascular injury during laparoscopic para-aortic lymphadenectomy. Copyright © 2017 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Estimation of Phytoplankton Accessory Pigments From Hyperspectral Reflectance Spectra: Toward a Global Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, A. P.; Boss, E.; Cetinić, I.; Slade, W.

    2017-12-01

    Phytoplankton community composition in the ocean is complex and highly variable over a wide range of space and time scales. Able to cover these scales, remote-sensing reflectance spectra can be measured both by satellite and by in situ radiometers. The spectral shape of reflectance in the open ocean is influenced by the particles in the water, mainly phytoplankton and covarying nonalgal particles. We investigate the utility of in situ hyperspectral remote-sensing reflectance measurements to detect phytoplankton pigments by using an inversion algorithm that defines phytoplankton pigment absorption as a sum of Gaussian functions. The inverted amplitudes of the Gaussian functions representing pigment absorption are compared to coincident High Performance Liquid Chromatography measurements of pigment concentration. We determined strong predictive capability for chlorophylls a, b, c1+c2, and the photoprotective carotenoids. We also tested the estimation of pigment concentrations from reflectance-derived chlorophyll a using global relationships of covariation between chlorophyll a and the accessory pigments. We found similar errors in pigment estimation based on the relationships of covariation versus the inversion algorithm. An investigation of spectral residuals in reflectance data after removal of chlorophyll-based average absorption spectra showed no strong relationship between spectral residuals and pigments. Ultimately, we are able to estimate concentrations of three chlorophylls and the photoprotective carotenoid pigments, noting that further work is necessary to address the challenge of extracting information from hyperspectral reflectance beyond the information that can be determined from chlorophyll a and its covariation with other pigments.

  10. Age-related location of manifest accessory pathway and clinical consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brembilla-Perrot, Béatrice; Huttin, Olivier; Olivier, Arnaud; Sellal, Jean Marc; Villemin, Thibaut; Manenti, Vladimir; Moulin-Zinsch, Anne; Marçon, François; Simon, Gauthier; Andronache, Marius; Beurrier, Daniel; de Chillou, Christian; Girerd, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Accessory pathway (AP) ablation is not always easy. Our purpose was to assess the age-related prevalence of AP location, electrophysiological and prognostic data according to this location. Electrophysiologic study (EPS) was performed in 994 patients for a pre-excitation syndrome. AP location was determined on a 12 lead ECG during atrial pacing at maximal preexcitation and confirmed at intracardiac EPS in 494 patients. AP location was classified as anteroseptal (AS)(96), right lateral (RL)(54), posteroseptal (PS)(459), left lateral (LL)(363), nodoventricular (NV)(22). Patients with ASAP or RLAP were younger than patients with another AP location. Poorly-tolerated arrhythmias were more frequent in patients with LLAP than in other patients (0.009 for ASAP, 0.0037 for RLAP, location was confirmed at intracardiac EPS. Among untreated patients, poorly-tolerated arrhythmia occurred in patients with LLAP (3) or PSAP (6). Failures of ablation were more frequent for AS or RL AP than for LL or PS AP. AS and RLAP location in pre-excitation syndrome was more frequent in young patients. Maximal rate conducted over AP was lower than in other locations. Absence of poorly-tolerated arrhythmias during follow-up and higher risk of ablation failure should be taken into account for indications of AP ablation in children with few symptoms.

  11. The Relationship Between Accessory Navicular and Flat Foot: A Radiologic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hoon; Hwang, Jin Ho; Seo, Joon Oh; Kim, Hyun Woo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between accessory navicular (AN) and flat foot and to evaluate the association between flat foot and the symptoms of patients with AN. We enrolled 196 patients with painful or asymptomatic AN in this study. Patients who were older than 18 years or who had no weight-bearing radiographs of the feet were not included. Another 46 normal participants were used as a control group. The AN group was divided into 3 subgroups: a group with asymptomatic AN; a symptomatic group that had not undergone excision; and a symptomatic group that had undergone surgery. Seven radiographic indices were measured including calcaneal pitch angle, tibiocalcaneal angle, talocalcaneal angle, naviculocuboid overlap, talonavicular coverage angle, lateral talo-first metatarsal angle, and AP talo-first metatarsal angle. Groups were compared regarding age, sex, presence of pain at the time of surgery, and radiographic parameters. The calcaneal pitch angle in the AN group was significantly smaller than that of controls (P=0.004). Naviculocuboid overlap (P=0.001), talonavicular coverage angle (Pflat foot; however, the degree of flat foot was not associated with the development and severity of symptoms in patients with AN.

  12. Incidence of Accessory Phrenic Nerve and its Clinical Significance: A Cadaveric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soubhagya R. Nayak

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The description of accessory phrenic nerve (APN in the standard textbooks and available literature is vague and sometimes limited to few lines. The incidence of APN varies a great deal from 17.6 % to 80.9 % in the available literature. The aim of the present study was to calculate the incidence and variation of APN in Indian population. Material and methods: Forty five adult formalin-fixed cadavers (35 male, 10 female; 90 sides used for gross anatomy dissection for undergraduates; during the 2 year period 2006–2007 were considered. Findings were recorded at different stages of the dissection. Results: Out of 90 body sides studied, the APN was present in 48 sides (53.3 %. In 17 of the above sides the APN was confined to the cervical region (Cervical type and in 31 sides the APN entered the thorax (Thoracic type, all anterior to the subclavian vein (SV. In eleven specimens the APN was found bilaterally. Conclusion: The incidence of APN, with its course and relation to the various structures in cervical and thoracic region will help the surgeons while performing internal thoracic artery (ITA grafting and other radical neck surgery.

  13. Radiologic Evaluation of the Renal Axis in Patients with an Accessory Renal Artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Joon Ho; Kim, Hyoung Jung; Lim, Joo Won; Ko, Young Tae; Lee, Eun Ha

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association between an accessory renal artery (ARA) and the renal axis seen on radiographs. The MDCT axial images of 428 patients were used to detect the presence of an ARA and its location. The plain radiographs were used to measure the renal axis angle, which was the angle between the longitudinal spinal axis and the renal axis. We correlated these results to determine the association between an ARA and the renal axis. Of the 856 kidneys (428 patients), 19 kidneys had an ARA in the upper pole, 63 kidneys had an ARA in the hilum and 20 kidneys had an ARA in the lower pole. The mean renal axis angles of these three groups were 16.7 degrees, 15.9 degrees and 11.2 degrees respectively. The mean renal axis angle without an ARA was 16.8 degrees. The renal axis angles with an ARA in the upper pole or hilum showed no significant differences compared to those without an ARA. However, the renal axis angle with an ARA in the lower pole was significantly smaller than those without an ARA. On plain radiographs, the axis of kidneys with an ARA in the lower pole maybe more vertical than those without an ARA

  14. Inhibition of histone deacetylases stimulates HBV replication independent of protein X

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Klundert, Maarten A. A.; Swart, Marjolein; Zaaijer, Hans L.; Kootstra, Neeltje A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: HBV expresses an accessory protein called X (HBx), which supports HBV replication by increasing transcription from episomal templates. Here, we investigate whether HBx augments HBV replication by interfering with the deacetylation of HBV DNA associated histones by histone deacetylases (HDACs).

  15. Modeling the structure of SARS 3a transmembrane protein using a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. 3a is an accessory protein from SARS coronavirus that is known to play a significant role in the proliferation of the virus by forming tetrameric ion channels. Although the monomeric units are known to consist of three transmembrane (TM) domains, there are no solved structures available for the complete monomer.

  16. Stenosing Tenosynovitis of the Flexor Hallucis Longus Tendon Associated with the Plantar Capsular Accessory Ossicle at the Interphalangeal Joint of the Great Toe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Ho Chang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents a case of stenosing tenosynovitis of the flexor hallucis longus tendon associated with the plantar capsular accessory ossicle at the interphalangeal joint of the great toe, which was confirmed by intraoperative observation and was successfully treated with surgical resection of the ossicle. As the plantar capsular accessory ossicle was not visible radiographically due to the lack of ossification, ultrasonography was helpful for diagnosing this disorder.

  17. Effects of breathing maneuver and sitting posture on muscle activity in inspiratory accessory muscles in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ki-song; Byun, Min-kwang; Lee, Won-hwee; Cynn, Heon-seock; Kwon, Oh-yun; Yi, Chung-hwi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background To determine the influence of breathing maneuver and sitting posture on tidal volume (TV), respiratory rate (RR), and muscle activity of the inspiratory accessory muscles in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods Twelve men with COPD participated in the study. Inductive respiratory plethysmography and surface electromyography were used to simultaneously measure TV, RR, and muscle activity of the inspiratory accessory muscles [the scalenus (SM),...

  18. Potential health hazards associated with exposures to asbestos-containing drywall accessory products: A state-of-the-science assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelka, Amanda D; Finley, Brent L

    2012-01-01

    Until the late 1970s, chrysotile asbestos was an ingredient in most industrial and consumer drywall accessory products manufactured in the US. In 1977, the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) issued a ban of consumer patching compounds containing "respirable, free-form asbestos" based on their prediction of exceptionally high rates of asbestos-related diseases among individuals using patching compounds for as little as a few days. Although hundreds of thousands of workers and homeowners handling these products may have experienced exposure to asbestos prior to the ban, there has been no systematic effort to summarize and interpret the information relevant to the potential health effects of such exposures. In this analysis, we provide a comprehensive review and analysis of the scientific studies assessing fiber type and dimension, toxicological and epidemiological endpoints, and airborne fiber concentrations associated with joint compound use. We conclude that: 1) asbestos in drywall accessory products was primarily short fiber (compound particulate is probably not biopersistent in the lung, 3) estimated cumulative chrysotile exposures experienced by workers and homeowners are below levels known to be associated with respiratory disease, and 4) mortality studies of drywall installers have not demonstrated a significantly increased incidence of death attributable to any asbestos-related disease. Consequently, contrary to the predictions of the CPSC, the current weight of evidence does not indicate any clear health risks associated with the use of asbestos-containing drywall accessory products. We also describe information gaps and suggest possible areas of future research.

  19. Mitogenic activation of B cells in vitro: the properties of adherent accessory cells as revealed by partition analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kettman, J.R.; Soederberg, A.; Lefkovits, I.

    1986-08-15

    The requirement of B cells activated by mitogen (dextran sulfate plus lipopolysaccharide) for accessory cells was studied by partition analysis. Small numbers of splenic B cells were activated to clonal growth, as determined by visual inspection, and to immunoglobulin (Ig) synthesis, as determined by release of Ig into the culture fluid. By placing irradiated adherent cells in the periphery of the microculture wells and forcing responding cells to different areas of the well (slant experiments), it was observed that no cell contact was necessary for B cell activation, and that promoted contact (Rock and Roll experiments) does not increase the efficiency of activation. Sequential microcultures suggest that only some irradiated adherent cells act as accessory cells, but they can perform this function to more than one B cell. Attempts to perform limiting dilution analysis by varying irradiated adherent cell input showed non-single-hit behavior. When the data were rearranged, taking into account the distribution of irradiated adherent cells, then single-hit behavior with about 1 to 5% of irradiated adherent cells acting as an accessory cells for B cell clonal activation was observed. The evidence suggests that an uncommon irradiated adherent cell releases a soluble factor necessary for B cell activation and/or clonal proliferation.

  20. Congenital tri-cavernous hemangiomas of the right buccal region, right accessory parotid gland, and masseter muscle region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Gu, Yongchun; Zhang, Li; Hua, Zequan

    2014-03-01

    We report a rare case of congenital tri-cavernous hemangiomas of the right buccal region, right accessory parotid gland, and masseter muscle region in an adult. The patient, a 25-year-old woman, complained of 3 masses in her right midcheek. Ultrasonographic and computed tomographic findings showed an irregular-shaped mass (multiple calcifications) with a well-defined margin in the masseter muscle region, an ellipse-shaped mass (multiple calcifications) with a well-defined margin in the right buccal region, and a comma-shaped mass (no calcifications) with a well-defined margin separate from the parotid gland in the right accessory parotid gland region. These iconographic findings suggested that the masses were all hemangiomas separately originating from the parotid gland, accessory parotid gland, and masseter muscle. The masses were completely removed through a standard parotid incision without postoperative facial palsy, skin deformity, and difficulty in secreting saliva. Findings from histologic examination of the tumor revealed multiple, thin-walled, and dilated blood vessels, confirming the diagnosis of cavernous hemangiomas. Ultrasonographic and computed tomographic findings were extremely useful in diagnosing the mass/masses as hemangioma before surgery, clarifying relationships between the mass and adjacent structures, and determining the surgical approach to the mass/masses.

  1. Synergistic action of recombinant accessory hemicellulolytic and pectinolytic enzymes to Trichoderma reesei cellulase on rice straw degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laothanachareon, Thanaporn; Bunterngsook, Benjarat; Suwannarangsee, Surisa; Eurwilaichitr, Lily; Champreda, Verawat

    2015-12-01

    Synergism between core cellulases and accessory hydrolytic/non-hydrolytic enzymes is the basis of efficient hydrolysis of lignocelluloses. In this study, the synergistic action of three recombinant accessory enzymes, namely GH62 α-l-arabinofuranosidase (ARA), CE8 pectin esterase (PET), and GH10 endo-1,4-beta-xylanase (XYL) from Aspergillus aculeatus expressed in Pichia pastoris to a commercial Trichoderma reesei cellulase (Accellerase® 1500; ACR) on hydrolysis of alkaline pretreated rice straw was studied using a mixture design approach. Applying the full cubic model, the optimal ratio of quaternary enzyme mixture was predicted to be ACR:ARA:PET:XYL of 0.171:0.079:0.100:0.150, which showed a glucose releasing efficiency of 0.173 gglc/FPU, higher than the binary ACR:XYL mixture (0.122 gglc/FPU) and ACR alone (0.081 gglc/FPU) leading to a 47.3% increase in glucose yield compared with that from ACR at the same cellulase dosage. The result demonstrates the varying degree of synergism of accessory enzymes to cellulases useful for developing tailor-made enzyme systems for bio-industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Mechanical, corrosion and biocompatibility behaviour of Mg-3Zn-HA biodegradable composites for orthopaedic fixture accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Satish; Kumar, R Manoj; Gupta, Pallavi; Kumaraswamy, Murali; Roy, Partha; Lahiri, Debrupa

    2018-02-01

    Development of biodegradable implants has grown into one of the important areas in medical science. Degradability becomes more important for orthopaedic accessories used to support fractured and damaged bones, in order to avoid second surgery for their removal after healing. Clinically available biodegradable orthopaedic materials are mainly made of polymers or ceramics. These orthopaedic accessories have an unsatisfactory mechanical strength, when used in load-bearing parts. Magnesium and its alloys can be suitable candidate for this purpose, due to their outstanding strength to weight ratio, biodegradability, non-toxicity and mechanical properties, similar to natural bone. The major drawback of magnesium is its low corrosion resistance, which also influences its mechanical and physical characteristics in service condition. An effort has been taken in this research to improve the corrosion resistance, bioactivity and mechanical strength of biodegradable magnesium alloys by synthesizing Mg-3wt% Zn matrix composite, reinforced with thermally treated hydroxyapatite(HA) [Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 ], a bioactive and osteogenic ceramic. Addition of 5wt% HA is found effective in reducing the corrosion rate by 42% and improvement in the compressive yield strength of biodegradable magnesium alloy by 23%. In-vitro evaluation, up to 56 days, reveal improved resistance to degradation with HA reinforcement to Mg. Osteoblast cells show better growth and proliferation on HA reinforced surfaces of the composite. Mg-HA composite structure shows impressive potential to be used in orthopaedic fracture fixing accessories. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Clinical results of a new strategy (modified CHIVA) for surgical treatment of anterior accessory great saphenous varicose veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Fernández, Nicolás; Linares-Palomino, Jose Patricio; López-Espada, Cristina; Martínez-Gámez, Francisco Javier; Ros-Díe, Eduardo

    2016-03-01

    Traditionally, anterior accessory great saphenous vein insufficiency was managed by crossectomy and resection of varicose veins. The aim of this paper is to show the safety and efficacy of a new therapeutic strategy for anterior accessory great saphenous varicose veins. This non-randomised prospective study included 65 patients with varicose veins from the anterior accessory great saphenous vein. The novelty of the technique is to avoid the great saphenous vein crossectomy and perform just flebectomy of the visible veins. Venous duplex studies were performed preoperatively, a month and a year postoperatively. The clinical assessment was done by the Fligelstone scale. The baseline CEAP clinical classification was: 58% C2, 26% C3 and 15% C4-6. The new strategy was applied to all cases. 3 haematomas, 7 cases of asymptomatic partial anterior saphenous thrombosis. Reduction of the initial average diameter was from 6.4 mm anterior saphenous to 3.4 mm by one year (p <0.001). At twelve months a forward flow is maintained in 82% of cases. Recurrence of varicose veins was 8%. All patients improved their clinical status based on the Fligelstone scale. Cases with saphenous diameter bigger than 7.5 mm and obesity were identified as predictors of worse clinical and hemodynamic outcome. This modified surgical strategy for anterior saphenous varicose veins results in better clinical outcomes at one year postoperatively. Copyright © 2015 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Mitogenic activation of B cells in vitro: the properties of adherent accessory cells as revealed by partition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kettman, J.R.; Soederberg, A.; Lefkovits, I.

    1986-01-01

    The requirement of B cells activated by mitogen (dextran sulfate plus lipopolysaccharide) for accessory cells was studied by partition analysis. Small numbers of splenic B cells were activated to clonal growth, as determined by visual inspection, and to immunoglobulin (Ig) synthesis, as determined by release of Ig into the culture fluid. By placing irradiated adherent cells in the periphery of the microculture wells and forcing responding cells to different areas of the well (slant experiments), it was observed that no cell contact was necessary for B cell activation, and that promoted contact (Rock and Roll experiments) does not increase the efficiency of activation. Sequential microcultures suggest that only some irradiated adherent cells act as accessory cells, but they can perform this function to more than one B cell. Attempts to perform limiting dilution analysis by varying irradiated adherent cell input showed non-single-hit behavior. When the data were rearranged, taking into account the distribution of irradiated adherent cells, then single-hit behavior with about 1 to 5% of irradiated adherent cells acting as an accessory cells for B cell clonal activation was observed. The evidence suggests that an uncommon irradiated adherent cell releases a soluble factor necessary for B cell activation and/or clonal proliferation

  5. Isolation and killing of candidate chronic myeloid leukemia stem cells by antibody targeting of IL-1 receptor accessory protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Järås, Marcus; Johnels, Petra; Hansen, Nils Gunder

    2010-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is genetically characterized by the Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome, formed through a reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22 and giving rise to the constitutively active tyrosine kinase P210 BCR/ABL1. Therapeutic strategies aiming for a cure of CML...

  6. Activation and evasion of the type I Interferon response by infectious bronchitis virus : roles of the accessory proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kint, J.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY

    Viruses are intracellular parasites that exploit the machinery of the host cell to replicate. To defend themselves against invading viruses, animal cells have evolved an anti-viral mechanism, known as the

  7. A job for quantum dots: use of a smartphone and 3D-printed accessory for all-in-one excitation and imaging of photoluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petryayeva, Eleonora; Algar, W Russ

    2016-04-01

    Point-of-care (POC) diagnostic technologies are needed to improve global health and smartphones are a prospective platform for these technologies. While many fluorescence or photoluminescence-based smartphone assays have been reported in the literature, common shortcomings are the requirement of an excitation light source external to the smartphone and complicated integration of that excitation source with the smartphone. Here, we show that the photographic flash associated with the smartphone camera can be utilized to enable all-in-one excitation and imaging of photoluminescence (PL), thus eliminating the need for an excitation light source external to the smartphone. A simple and low-cost 3D-printed accessory was designed to create a dark environment and direct excitation light from the smartphone flash onto a sample. Multiple colors and compositions of semiconductor quantum dot (QD) were evaluated as photoluminescent materials for all-in-one smartphone excitation and imaging of PL, and these were compared with fluorescein and R-phycoerythrin (R-PE), which are widely utilized molecular and protein materials for fluorescence-based bioanalysis. The QDs were found to exhibit much better brightness and have the best potential for two-color detection. A model protein binding assay with a sub-microgram per milliliter detection limit and a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay for proteolytic activity were demonstrated, including imaging with serum as a sample matrix. In addition, FRET within tandem conjugates of a QD donor and fluorescent dye acceptor enabled smartphone detection of dye fluorescence that was otherwise unobservable without the QD to enhance its brightness. The ideal properties of photoluminescent materials for all-in-one smartphone excitation and imaging are discussed in the context of several different materials, where QDs appear to be the best overall material for this application.

  8. Membrane Shape Instability Induced by Protein Crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiming; Atefi, Ehsan; Baumgart, Tobias

    2016-11-01

    Peripheral proteins can bend membranes through several different mechanisms, including scaffolding, wedging, oligomerization, and crowding. The crowding effect in particular has received considerable attention recently, in part because it is a colligative mechanism-implying that it could, in principle, be explored by any peripheral protein. Here we sought to clarify to what extent this mechanism is exploited by endocytic accessory proteins. We quantitatively investigate membrane curvature generation by means of a GUV shape stability assay. We found that the amount of crowding required to induce membrane curvature is correlated with membrane tension. Importantly, we also revealed that at the same membrane tension, the crowding mechanism requires far higher protein coverage to induce curvature changes compared to those observed for the endophilin BAR domain, serving here as an example of an endocytic accessory protein. Our results are important for the design of membrane-targeted biosensors as well as the understanding of mechanisms of biological membrane shaping. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Eukaryotic LYR Proteins Interact with Mitochondrial Protein Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Angerer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In eukaryotic cells, mitochondria host ancient essential bioenergetic and biosynthetic pathways. LYR (leucine/tyrosine/arginine motif proteins (LYRMs of the Complex1_LYR-like superfamily interact with protein complexes of bacterial origin. Many LYR proteins function as extra subunits (LYRM3 and LYRM6 or novel assembly factors (LYRM7, LYRM8, ACN9 and FMC1 of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS core complexes. Structural insights into complex I accessory subunits LYRM6 and LYRM3 have been provided by analyses of EM and X-ray structures of complex I from bovine and the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, respectively. Combined structural and biochemical studies revealed that LYRM6 resides at the matrix arm close to the ubiquinone reduction site. For LYRM3, a position at the distal proton-pumping membrane arm facing the matrix space is suggested. Both LYRMs are supposed to anchor an acyl-carrier protein (ACPM independently to complex I. The function of this duplicated protein interaction of ACPM with respiratory complex I is still unknown. Analysis of protein-protein interaction screens, genetic analyses and predicted multi-domain LYRMs offer further clues on an interaction network and adaptor-like function of LYR proteins in mitochondria.

  10. Poster - 23: Dosimetric Characterization and Transferability of an Accessory Mounted Mini-Beam Collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, William; Crewson, Cody; Alexander, Andrew; Cranmer-Sargison, Gavin; Kundapur, Vijayananda

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The dosimetric characterization of an accessory-mounted mini-beam collimator across three beam matched linear accelerators. Materials and Methods: Percent depth dose and profiles were measured for the open and mini-beam collimated fields. The average beam quality and peak-to-valley dose ratio (PVDR), the ratio of average peak dose to average valley dose, were obtained from these measurements. The open field relative output and the mini-beam collimator factor, the ratio of the mini-beam dose to open field dose at the beam center, were measured for square fields of side 2, 3, 4, and 5 cm. Mini-beam output as a function of collimator inclination angle relative to the central axis was also investigated. Results and Discussion: Beam quality for both the open and mini-beam collimated fields agreed across all linacs to within ±1.0%. The PVDR was found to vary by up to ±6.6% from the mean. For the 2, 3, and 4 cm fields the average open field relative output with respect to the 5 cm field was 0.874±0.4%, 0.921±0.3%, and 0.962±0.1%. The average collimator factors were 0.450±3.9%, 0.443±3.9%, 0.438±3.9%, and 0.434±3.9%. A decrease in collimator factor greater than 7% was found for an inclination angle change of 0.09°. Conclusion: The mini-beam collimator has revealed a difference between the three linacs not apparent in the open field data, yet transferability can still be attained through thorough dosimetric characterization.

  11. Determination of radon concentration in water using RAD7 with RAD H2O accessories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, M. F. I.; Rabaiee, N. A.; Jaafar, M. S.

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, the radon issue has become one of the major problems of radiation protection. Radon exposure occurs when using water for showering, washing dishes, cooking and drinking water. RAD7 and Rad H20 accessories were used in order to measure radon concentration in water sample. In this study, four types of water were concerns which are reverse osmosis (drinking water), mineral water, tap water and well water. Reverse osmosis (drinking water) and mineral water were bought from the nearest supermarket while tap water and well water were taken from selected areas of Pulau Pinang and Kedah. Total 20 samples were taken with 5 samples for each type of water. The measured radon concentration ranged from 2.9±2.9 to 79.5±17 pCi/L, 2.9±2.9 to 67.8±16 pCi/L, 15.97±7 to 144.25±24 pCi/L and 374.89±37 to 6409.03±130 pCi/L in reverse osmosis (drinking water), mineral water, tap water and well water. Well water has the highest radon compared to others. It was due to their geological element such as granite. Results for all types of water are presented and compared with maximum contamination limit (MCL) recommended by United State Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) which is 300pCi/L. Reverse osmosis water, mineral water and tap water were fall below MCL. However, well water was exceeded maximum level that was recommended. Thus, these findings were suggested that an action should be taken to reduce radon concentration level in well water as well as reduce a health risk towards the public

  12. Clinical meaning of hot uptake on bone scan in symptomatic accessory navicular bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chong, Ari; Ha, Jung Min; Lee, Jun Young [Chosun University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    We analyzed clinical factors related to uptake on a Tc-99 m HDP bone scan of the accessory navicular (AN). We retrospectively reviewed patients who had been examined by an orthopedic surgeon and underwent bone scan due to suspected symptomatic AN. A three-point grading system was used to evaluate uptake on bone scan. Relationships between grade, symptoms, age, gender, symptom duration, and bone size were analyzed. In total, 73 ANs (30 asymptomatic, 43 symptomatic) were enrolled. The majority of asymptomatic ANs had no uptake but some had grade 1 (n = 8) or 2 (n = 2) uptake. All asymptomatic ANs with uptake remained asymptomatic during follow-up. For the asymptomatic ANs, larger bones showed a higher grade. With a cut-off value of size ≤6.8 mm, there is no chance of uptake. All symptomatic ANs showed uptake on bone scan. For symptomatic ANs, larger size and shorter pain duration were related to a higher grade. Age, gender, and left-/right-sideness were not related to grade. Multiple regressions revealed that only uptake grade, not size or symptom duration, was the significant risk factor for a symptomatic AN. With a cut-off value of grade <1, a symptomatic AN could be ruled out with a negative predictive value of 100 %. Bone scanning is useful for symptomatic ANs with a high negative predictive value. Higher grade is related to larger size and shorter pain duration. For asymptomatic ANs, grade was related to size but did not predict symptom development.

  13. Importance of accessory outflow pathways in hydrocephalus after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griebel, R.W.; Black, P.M.; Pile-Spellman, J.; Strauss, H.W.

    1989-01-01

    This study evaluated the changes in pathways of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) outflow that accompanied acute and compensated hydrocephalus in the rabbit. Intraventricularly injected 99mTc antimony sulfide was used as a tracer of outflow pathways, and specified structures were counted 12 to 24 hours after injection. Fifteen rabbits were divided into three groups: 1) an acutely hydrocephalic group in which 3 cisternal injections of blood were followed by a study of CSF pressure, ventricular size, and CSF outflow pathways 1 week after the last injection; 2) a control group treated according to the same protocol, except that sterile saline was injected instead of blood; and 3) a chronic group also treated according to the same protocol but in which the animals were maintained an average of 4 weeks after the last blood injection. Ventricular size was measured by computed digitation and expressed as an area ratio of ventricle to brain (VBR). In control animals, 11.8% of the injected colloid dosage was found in cranial perineural lymphatic channels, and 4.8% appeared in the spinal cord. The mean CSF pressure was 149 +/- 20.2 mm H20 (mean +/- SE) and the mean VBR was 0.040 +/- 0.003. In animals evaluated 1 week after subarachnoid injection, accessory cranial perineural lymphatic outflow decreased significantly to 3.4%, and spinal cord activity increased to 9.8% (P less than 0.05, two-tailed t-test). These animals were hydrocephalic and had CSF pressure of 247 +/- 25.1 mm H20 (mean +/- SE) and VBR of 0.083 +/- 0.009

  14. A Practical ECG Criterion to Unmask Left Accessory AV Connections in Patients With Subtle Preexcitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J Jenkins; Shah, Jignesh; Charnigo, Richard; Tackett, Andrea; Darrat, Yousef H; Bailey, Alison; Delisle, Brian; Kakavand, Bahram; DI Biase, Luigi; Natale, Andrea; Morales, Gustavo; Elayi, Claude S

    2015-05-20

    Accessory AV-connections capable of antegrade conduction need to be recognized because of the potential for life-threatening arrhythmias. However, the preexcited ECG pattern may be subtle, especially among left-sided AV-connections. We explored whether additional ECG criteria might help identify left-sided AV-connections. We analyzed 156 patients who underwent an electrophysiology study (EPS) and ablation for paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardias (PSVT). Patients were divided into 2 groups: those with left-sided AV-connections (Group 1) and all other PSVT (Group 2). Various ECG parameters were compared before and after ablation in both groups. The EPS identified left-sided AV-connections among 43 patients (Group 1) and excluded it among 113 (Group 2). Baseline ECG in Group 1 demonstrated obvious preexcitation among 24/43 patients (55.8%), the remaining 19/43 missing obvious preexcitation. R/S ratio > 0.5 in V1 was noted in 38/43 (88.4%) patients in Group 1 before ablation (median 1.00; IQR 0.58-2.20), including 16/19 (84.2%) patients lacking obvious left-sided AVconnections. Conversely, only 10/113 (8.8%) patients in Group 2 had R/S ratios in V1 ≥ 0.5 (0.20; 0.10-0.31), P AV-connections (sensitivity 93.0%). The negative predictive value of this combined criterion was 103/106 (97.2%). In symptomatic patients, combining the R/S ratio (≥ 0.5) in lead V1 with the classic preexcitation pattern on ECG markedly improved the sensitivity to diagnose left-sided AV-connections. This ratio may be particularly useful among patients lacking obvious preexcitation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Distinctive Accessory Minerals, Textures and Crystal Habits in Biofilm Associated Gypsum Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, M.; Des Marais, D.; Jahnke, L.; Parenteau, M.

    2008-12-01

    Gypsum-depositing environments near Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur, Mexico were investigated in order to differentiate the influence of microbial activity versus nonbiological processes upon sedimentary fabrics and minerals. Field sites were located in sabkhas (mudflats and anchialine pools) and in seawater concentration ponds in the salt production facility operated by Exportadora de Sal, S. A. Gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O) was classified according to sedimentary environment (e.g., mudflats, anchialine pools, saltern ponds, surface and subsurface sediments), sedimentary texture, mineral composition, crystal habit, brine composition and other geochemical and biological factors. Gypsum types that develop in the absence of biofilms include water column precipitates (pelagic grains) and subsedimentary crystalline discs that form from phreatic brine ripening. Subsedimentary gypsum forming in sabkha environments had a sinuous axial microtexture and poikilitically enclosed detrital particles whereas water column precipitates exhibited euhedral prismatic habits and extensive penetrative twinning. Gypsum that was influenced by biofilms included cumulate crusts and gypsooids / gypsolite developing in anchialine pools and in saltern concentration ponds. Gypsum precipitating within subaqueous benthic microbial mats, or biofilm/sediment surfaces offered compelling evidence of biofilm influence on crystal textures and habits. Biofilm effects include irregular high relief surface textures, accessory minerals (elemental sulfur, Ca-carbonate, Sr/Ca-sulfate, Mg-oxide and Mg- sulfate) and distinctive crystal habits. Elemental sulfur, Ca-carbonate, and Sr/Ca-sulfate are known byproducts of bacterially mediated sulfate reduction (BSR). Populations of gypsum crystals within biofilms exhibited euhedral to lensoidal morphologies with unique equant and distorted prismatic forms. These forms had been shown to arise from form- and face-specific inhibition by bioorganic functional groups (Cody

  16. Complete genome viral phylogenies suggests the concerted evolution of regulatory cores and accessory satellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade Zanotto, Paolo Marinho; Krakauer, David C

    2008-01-01

    We consider the concerted evolution of viral genomes in four families of DNA viruses. Given the high rate of horizontal gene transfer among viruses and their hosts, it is an open question as to how representative particular genes are of the evolutionary history of the complete genome. To address the concerted evolution of viral genes, we compared genomic evolution across four distinct, extant viral families. For all four viral families we constructed DNA-dependent DNA polymerase-based (DdDp) phylogenies and in addition, whole genome sequence, as quantitative descriptions of inter-genome relationships. We found that the history of the polymerase gene was highly predictive of the history of the genome as a whole, which we explain in terms of repeated, co-divergence events of the core DdDp gene accompanied by a number of satellite, accessory genetic loci. We also found that the rate of gene gain in baculovirus and poxviruses proceeds significantly more quickly than the rate of gene loss and that there is convergent acquisition of satellite functions promoting contextual adaptation when distinct viral families infect related hosts. The congruence of the genome and polymerase trees suggests that a large set of viral genes, including polymerase, derive from a phylogenetically conserved core of genes of host origin, secondarily reinforced by gene acquisition from common hosts or co-infecting viruses within the host. A single viral genome can be thought of as a mutualistic network, with the core genes acting as an effective host and the satellite genes as effective symbionts. Larger virus genomes show a greater departure from linkage equilibrium between core and satellites functions.

  17. Evaluation of the accessory mental foramen in a pediatric population using cone-beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantekin, K; Şekerci, Ae

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to clarify the occurrence, diameter, and location of the accessory mental foramen (AMF) using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images from a sample of Turkish children. This retrospective was carried out using a total of 275 CBCT images from child and adolescent patients were randomly selected from existing records in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology at the University of Erciyes, Kayseri, Turkey. The mental foramen (MF) and AMF were assessed on axial, sagittal, and coronal CBCT slices. The mean age was 10.51 ± 3.32 years, consisting of 139 males (mean age 10.64 ± 3.42) and 126 females (mean age 10.38 ± 3.18). Twenty-one AMFs were observed in 18 of 275 patients (6.5%, 10 boys and eight girls). There was no significant difference in gender in relation to the prevalence of AMF (p = 0.65). The mean area of the 21 AMFs and the MF on the side with the AMF were 0.7 mm² (SD ± 0.5) and 3.8 mm² (SD ± 2.2), respectively. It is important to stress that detecting the AMN using CBCT with 3D reconstructions may reduce the risk of paralysis, hemorrhage, and postoperative pain in this region. Our study presents the first report assessing the occurrence, diameter, and location of the AMF in the pediatric population using CBCT images. In this respect, not surprisingly, the mean size of the AMF of our population is smaller than other reports in the literature that involve adult populations.

  18. Detection and characterization of the mandibular accessory buccal foramen using CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisman, Y; Sahman, H; Sekerci, AE; Tokmak, T T; Aksu, Y; Mavili, E

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the frequency and characteristics of the mandibular accessory buccal foramen (ABF) with CT. Methods A retrospective study was carried out using the CT records of 504 patients referred to the Erciyes University Medical School (Kayseri, Turkey) between 2007 and 2010. Presence, location, diameter, area and number of ABFs and their continuity with mandibular canal and distance to the mental foramen were evaluated using axial, sagittal and three-dimensional CT images. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS® v. 15 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL), and t-tests were used for statistical analysis. Results 14 ABFs were observed in 10 (2%) of 504 patients. The frequency of ABFs was found to be 2.6% in males and 1% in females. The mean distance between the ABF and the mental foramen was 5.0 mm [standard deviation (SD) ± 2.48]. The mean long axis of the ABFs was 1.4 mm (SD ± 0.4) and the mean area of them was 1.5 mm2 (SD ± 0.8). The mean area of the mental foramen on the side with the ABF was 4.1 mm2 (SD ± 2.71). Conclusions This study presents a relatively lower frequency of ABFs than that in the literature. These foramina could have more complex neurovascular structures than was previously thought. Thus, in special cases where a direct surgical exploration during the planned surgery is not indicated, CT or cone beam CT examination to determine the possible presence of ABFs may be indicated. PMID:22499130

  19. Detection and characterization of the accessory mental foramen using cone-beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yihan; Yang, Xiangwen; Zhang, Bichu; Wei, Bin; Gong, Yao

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the frequency and characteristics of accessory mental foramina (AMFs) and their bony canals in a selected Chinese population using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Reconstructed CBCT images of the mandible in 784 Chinese patients (305 males and 479 females) were retrospectively analysed to identify the AMF. The presence, dimension and location of the AMF as well as the origin and course of the associated bony canal were evaluated and classified. Variations in these characteristics were analysed according to gender, side and age. A total of 66 AMFs were found in 57 (7.3%) of the 784 patients. The frequency of AMFs was significantly influenced by gender and side of the mandible (p mental foramen) accounted for 54.5% of the total. The mean horizontal and vertical diameters of the AMF were 1.38 ± 0.47 and 1.23 ± 0.37 mm, respectively. Two typical types of the bony canal leading to the AMF were identified according to their bifurcation site from the mandibular canal. Most bony canals originated from the anterior loop of the mental canal (56.1%) and coursed posterosuperiorly (36.3%). The mean length of the bony canals was 5.78 ± 2.31 mm. This study presents a considerable frequency of AMFs in a Chinese population. The high-position AMF and the associated bony canal coursing in the oblique upward direction appear frequently. Thus, clinicians should be alert to the presence of the AMF to avoid neurovascular complications especially when dental procedures require periosteum detachment and implant insertion in the mental region.

  20. Morphological analysis of the male reproductive accessory glands of the bat Artibeus lituratus (Phyllostomidae: Chiroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Renata T S; Pires, Laís R M; Albernaz, Edna S S; Andrade, Cleber S; Santiago, Cornélio S; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Taboga, Sebastião R; Beguelini, Mateus R

    2018-02-01

    Bats are distributed worldwide from tropical to temperate regions. Despite their wide geographical radiation and advances in studies using evolutionary approaches, aspects related to the reproduction of these animals remain poorly explored, especially those related to the male reproductive accessory glands (RAGs). Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the morphophysiology of the male RAGs in the bat Artibeus lituratus. The RAGs in A. lituratus are composed of a compact intra-abdominal glandular complex, consisting of the prostate with two prostatic regions (ventral and dorsal), plus Littre glands and a pair of extra-abdominal bulbourethral glands. The ventral region of the prostate has an epithelium with variable morphology, due to its holocrine type of secretion. In contrast, the dorsal region has a typical cubic-to-columnar pseudostratified epithelium. Both regions contain two cell types, basal and secretory cells. Similar to the epithelial morphology, the secretion also varies, with the ventral region containing numerous PAS-positive globular vesicles, whereas the dorsal region has a more fluid, hyaline and PAS-negative secretion. Littre glands are dispersed in the connective tissue of the urethra, while the bulbourethral glands are located in the penile root, both glands with cubic-to-columnar pseudostratified epithelium and globular PAS-positive secretion. The results demonstrate that the RAGs of A. lituratus are composed of two prostatic regions, ventral and dorsal, and urethral and bulbourethral glands, with no seminal vesicles. Each prostatic region has unique and distinctive characteristics, with the ventral region presenting an exclusive holocrine nature and the dorsal region having similarities to the ventral prostate of rodents. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Ignition systems and blasting accessories; L'amorcage et les accessoires de tir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Mouza, J. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines, 75 - Paris (France); Monnery, J. [SFEPA, 92 - Puteaux (France); Vuillaume, P. [Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques, 60 - Verneuil en Halatte (INERIS) (France); Cervellera, St. [Titanite SA, 21 - Pontailler sur Saone (France); Houeix, T.

    2002-03-01

    1. General: Blasting caps or detonators are the main elements of the pyrotechnical sequence. They should be reliable in order to guaranty the quality, the safety and the energy liberated by the explosive. They transmit to the explosive the minimum required energy to initiate the detonation. The pyrotechnical sequence comprises a mechanical or electrical device, the blasting cap able to produce a shock or a spark initiating the explosion directly or through a primary explosive more sensible than the main one. 2. Initiation systems: Various types of systems are described determining the way the shock wave is propagated within the explosive. Initiation may be made punctually, by means of a detonator or laterally by means of a cord. Detonators may be operated electrically, non-electrically or electronically. Special devices allow for the retardation of the initiation. 3. Retardation reliability and accuracy: Some points about the consequences of dispersions in lengths of retardation of detonators such as the possible overlapping of explosive loads and combination of vibration trains in the environment are discussed. A smaller dispersion offered by electronic detonators, which are by far the most frequently used, should be able to overcome these difficulties. 4. Impact of the initiation on the explosive yield: The way the ignition is performed has a direct consequence on the yield of the explosive. When a primer explosive is utilised as a booster, various factors (weight, position and diameter) play an important role on the detonation pressure and speed. A chart indicates the explosive energy liberated depending on the way ignition is performed. 5. Blasting accessories: Dynamos were largely used in the past to generate the electric current required to actuate blasting caps. Now this electric current is generated by the discharge of capacitors associated with electronic devices to control the blasting sequence. Ohmmeters are also used to check the electric circuits

  2. [Analysis of Spirulina powder by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and calculation of protein content].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai-Jing; Xu, Chang-Hua; Li, Wei-Ming; Wang, Feng; Zhou, Qun; Li, An; Zhao, Yue-Liang; Ha, Yi-Ming; Sun, Su-Qin

    2013-04-01

    Spirulina, Spirulina powder and dextrin standard were analyzed and identified by Infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The main components, protein (1 657 and 1 537 cm(-1)) and carbohydrate (1 069 and 1054 cm(-1)), had distinct fingerprint characteristics of IR spectra. By comparing the IR spectra of Spirulina, Spirulina powder and dextrin standard, the dominant nutrition in Spirulina powder was identified as protein and carbohydrate. The dominant accessory added in Spirulina powder was dextrin. Comparing the IR spectra of Spirulina powder from 28 different factories and figuring out the correlation provides the information about the amount of accessory. A standard curve of the ratio of absorption peak intensities to protein content was constructed to accurately determine the amount of protein in Spirulina powder.

  3. Outer membrane protein functions as integrator of protein import and DNA inheritance in mitochondria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käser, Sandro; Oeljeklaus, Silke; Týč, Jiří; Vaughan, Sue; Warscheid, Bettina; Schneider, André

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosomatids are one of the earliest diverging eukaryotes that have fully functional mitochondria. pATOM36 is a trypanosomatid-specific essential mitochondrial outer membrane protein that has been implicated in protein import. Changes in the mitochondrial proteome induced by ablation of pATOM36 and in vitro assays show that pATOM36 is required for the assembly of the archaic translocase of the outer membrane (ATOM), the functional analog of the TOM complex in other organisms. Reciprocal pull-down experiments and immunofluorescence analyses demonstrate that a fraction of pATOM36 interacts and colocalizes with TAC65, a previously uncharacterized essential component of the tripartite attachment complex (TAC). The TAC links the single-unit mitochondrial genome to the basal body of the flagellum and mediates the segregation of the replicated mitochondrial genomes. RNAi experiments show that pATOM36, in line with its dual localization, is not only essential for ATOM complex assembly but also for segregation of the replicated mitochondrial genomes. However, the two functions are distinct, as a truncated version of pATOM36 lacking the 75 C-terminal amino acids can rescue kinetoplast DNA missegregation but not the lack of ATOM complex assembly. Thus, pATOM36 has a dual function and integrates mitochondrial protein import with mitochondrial DNA inheritance. PMID:27436903

  4. Accessory nerve to suprascapular nerve transfer to restore shoulder exorotation in otherwise spontaneously recovered obstetric brachial plexus lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ouwerkerk, Willem J R; Uitdehaag, Bernard M J; Strijers, Rob L M; Frans, Nollet; Holl, Kurt; Fellner, Franz A; Vandertop, W Peter

    2006-10-01

    A systematic follow-up of infants with an obstetric brachial plexus lesion of C5 and C6 or the superior trunk showing satisfactory spontaneous recovery of shoulder and arm function except for voluntary shoulder exorotation, who underwent an accessory to suprascapular nerve transfer to improve active shoulder exorotation, to evaluate for functional recovery, and to understand why other superior trunk functions spontaneously recover in contrast with exorotation. In 54 children, an accessory to suprascapular nerve transfer was performed as a separate procedure at a mean age of 21.7 months. Follow-up examinations were conducted before and at 4, 8, 12, 24, and 36 months after operation and included scoring of shoulder exorotation and abduction. Intraoperative reactivity of spinatus muscles and additional needle electromyographic responses were registered after electrostimulation of suprascapular nerves. Histological examination of suprascapular nerves was performed. Trophy of spinatus muscles was followed by magnetic resonance imaging scanning. The influence of perinatal variables and results of ancillary investigations on outcome were evaluated. Exorotation improved from 70 degrees to functional levels exceeding 0 degrees, except in two patients. Abduction improved in 27 patients, with results of 90 degrees or more in 49 patients. Electromyography at 4 months did not show signs of denervation in 39 out of 40 patients. Intraoperative electrostimulation of suprascapular nerves elicited spinatus muscle reaction in 44 out of 48 patients. Histology of suprascapular nerves was normal. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging scans showed only minor wasting of spinatus muscles in contrast with major wasting after successful operations. An accessory to suprascapular nerve transfer is effective to restore active exorotation when performed as the primary or a separate secondary procedure in children older than 10 months of age. Contradictory spontaneous recovery of other superior

  5. Complete diphallia, imperforate ani (type 2 atresia ani), and an accessory scrotum in a 5-day-old calf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loynachan, Alan T; Jackson, Carney B; Harrison, Lenn R

    2006-07-01

    A 5-day-old Angus calf was submitted to the necropsy service at the University of Kentucky Livestock Disease Diagnostic Center. At birth, the calf was noted to have 2 scrota. Five days post-calving the calf developed severe tenesmus and an umbilical infection. Clinical examination revealed atresia ani. At necropsy, complete diphallus, imperforate ani (type 2 atresia ani), and remnants of 2 scrota were identified. This report describes the gross pathologic appearance of a rare case of complete diphallia, imperforate ani (type 2 atresia ani), and an accessory scrotum in a 5-day-old calf.

  6. Location of accessory pathways and its radiofrequency ablation in Wolf-Parkinson-White syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukajlović Dejan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA of accessory pathways (AP is the first line therapy in symptomatic patients with preexcitation syndrome, resistant to medical therapy. Objective: To evaluate the influence of AP location on RFA effectiveness. Method: The study compared RFA results of AP located on the left side, right side, and in septal area of the heart in the first 101 consecutive patients treated at Dedinje Cardiovascular Institute in Belgrade. Results: There was no significant difference between the right-, left- and septal-AP in relation to primary success rates (66.7%, 84.3%, 73.7%, respectively, p=0.285, recurrence rates (12.5%, 6.97%,14.3%, p=0.591, and final success rates (66%, 84.3%, 78.9%, p=0.37. Maximally achieved interface temperature was lowest at right-sided AP (49.8±1.9єC as compared to the left (53.0±3.5єC or septal AP (52.9±3.0єC (p<0.01. Fluoroscopy time did not differ significantly (p=0.062, while total procedure time and the number of applied RF pulses was higher in the left-sided AP as compared to other two (104.6±44.9 for the left, 98.9±47.5 for the right and 80.7±39.8 minutes for the septal AP, p<0.05; 11.0±8.8 pulses for the left, 6.5±3.8 for the right and 6.4±5.0 for septal AP, p<0.01. Two major complications developed: one third-degree AV block after ablation of midseptal AP, and one pericardial effusion without tamponade, with spontaneous regression. Conclusion: The success rate of RFA of the right-, left- and septal-AP was similar. Heating of the tissue was weakest during RFA of the right-sided AP.

  7. Outcome following spinal accessory to suprascapular (spinoscapular) nerve transfer in infants with brachial plexus birth injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchelsman, David E; Ramos, Lorna E; Alfonso, Israel; Price, Andrew E; Grossman, Agatha; Grossman, John A I

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the value of distal spinal accessory nerve (SAN) transfer to the suprascapular nerve (SSN) in children with brachial plexus birth injuries in order to better define the application and outcome of this transfer in these infants. Over a 3-year period, 34 infants with brachial plexus injuries underwent transfer of the SAN to the SSN as part of the primary surgical reconstruction. Twenty-five patients (direct repair, n = 20; interposition graft, n = 5) achieved a minimum follow-up of 24 months. Fourteen children underwent plexus reconstruction with SAN-to-SSN transfer at less than 9 months of age, and 11 underwent surgical reconstruction at the age of 9 months or older. Mean age at the time of nerve transfer was 11.6 months (range, 5-30 months). At latest follow-up, active shoulder external rotation was measured in the arm abducted position and confirmed by review of videos. The Gilbert and Miami shoulder classification scores were utilized to report shoulder-specific functional outcomes. The effects of patient age at the time of nerve transfer and the use of interpositional nerve graft were analyzed. Overall mean active external rotation measured 69.6°; mean Gilbert score was 4.1 and the mean Miami score was 7.1, corresponding to overall good shoulder functional outcomes. Similar clinical and shoulder-specific functional outcomes were obtained in patients undergoing early (9 months of age, n = 11) SAN-to-SSN transfer and primary plexus reconstruction. Nine patients (27%) were lost to follow-up and are not included in the analysis. Optimum results were achieved following direct transfer (n = 20). Results following the use of an interpositional graft (n = 5) were rated satisfactory. No patient required a secondary shoulder procedure during the study period. There were no postoperative complications. Distal SAN-to-SSN (spinoscapular) nerve transfer is a reliable option for shoulder reinnervation in

  8. Nerve fascicle transfer using a part of the C-7 nerve for spinal accessory nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xuan; Shen, Yun-Dong; Feng, Jun-Tao; Xu, Wen-Dong

    2018-02-09

    OBJECTIVE Spinal accessory nerve (SAN) injury results in a series of shoulder dysfunctions and continuous pain. However, current treatments are limited by the lack of donor nerves as well as by undesirable nerve regeneration. Here, the authors report a modified nerve transfer technique in which they employ a nerve fascicle from the posterior division (PD) of the ipsilateral C-7 nerve to repair SAN injury. The technique, first performed in cadavers, was then undertaken in 2 patients. METHODS Six fresh cadavers (12 sides of the SAN and ipsilateral C-7) were studied to observe the anatomical relationship between the SAN and C-7 nerve. The length from artificial bifurcation of the middle trunk to the point of the posterior cord formation in the PD (namely, donor nerve fascicle) and the linear distance from the cut end of the donor fascicle to both sites of the jugular foramen and medial border of the trapezius muscle (d-SCM and d-Traps, respectively) were measured. Meanwhile, an optimal route for nerve fascicle transfer (NFT) was designed. The authors then performed successful NFT operations in 2 patients, one with an injury at the proximal SAN and another with an injury at the distal SAN. RESULTS The mean lengths of the cadaver donor nerve fascicle, d-SCM, and d-Traps were 4.2, 5.2, and 2.5 cm, respectively. In one patient who underwent proximal SAN excision necessitated by a partial thyroidectomy, early signs of reinnervation were seen on electrophysiological testing at 6 months after surgery, and an impaired left trapezius muscle, which was completely atrophic preoperatively, had visible signs of improvement (from grade M0 to grade M3 strength). In the other patient in whom a distal SAN injury was the result of a neck cyst resection, reinnervation and complex repetitive discharges were seen 1 year after surgery. Additionally, the patient's denervated trapezius muscle was completely resolved (from grade M2 to grade M4 strength), and her shoulder pain had disappeared

  9. The homeodomain protein ladybird late regulates synthesis of milk proteins during pregnancy in the tsetse fly (Glossina morsitans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey M Attardo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Regulation of tissue and development specific gene expression patterns underlies the functional specialization of organs in multi-cellular organisms. In the viviparous tsetse fly (Glossina, the female accessory gland is specialized to generate nutrients in the form of a milk-like secretion to support growth of intrauterine larva. Multiple milk protein genes are expressed specifically in the female accessory gland and are tightly linked with larval development. Disruption of milk protein synthesis deprives developing larvae of nutrients and results in extended larval development and/or in abortion. The ability to cause such a disruption could be utilized as a tsetse control strategy. Here we identify and delineate the regulatory sequence of a major milk protein gene (milk gland protein 1:mgp1 by utilizing a combination of molecular techniques in tsetse, Drosophila transgenics, transcriptomics and in silico sequence analyses. The function of this promoter is conserved between tsetse and Drosophila. In transgenic Drosophila the mgp1 promoter directs reporter gene expression in a tissue and stage specific manner orthologous to that of Glossina. Analysis of the minimal required regulatory region of mgp1, and the regulatory regions of other Glossina milk proteins identified putative homeodomain protein binding sites as the sole common feature. Annotation and expression analysis of Glossina homeodomain proteins identified ladybird late (lbl as being accessory gland/fat body specific and differentially expressed between lactating/non-lactating flies. Knockdown of lbl in tsetse resulted in a significant reduction in transcript abundance of multiple milk protein genes and in a significant loss of fecundity. The role of Lbl in adult reproductive physiology is previously unknown. These results suggest that Lbl is part of a conserved reproductive regulatory system that could have implications beyond tsetse to other vector insects such as mosquitoes. This

  10. RRE-dependent HIV-1 Env RNA effects on Gag protein expression, assembly and release

    OpenAIRE

    López, Claudia S.; Sloan, Rachel; Cylinder, Isabel; Kozak, Susan L.; Kabat, David; Barklis, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The HIV-1 Gag proteins are translated from the full-length HIV-1 viral RNA (vRNA), whereas the envelope (Env) protein is translated from incompletely spliced Env mRNAs. Nuclear export of vRNAs and Env mRNAs is mediated by the Rev accessory protein which binds to the rev-responsive element (RRE) present on these RNAs. Evidence has shown there is a direct or indirect interaction between the Gag protein, and the cytoplasmic tail (CT) of the Env protein. Our current work shows that env gene expre...

  11. Effect of accessory pigment composition on the absorption characteristics of a dinoflagellate bloom in a coastal embayment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Vijayan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The light absorption properties of a dinoflagellate (Noctiluca scintillans Macartney bloom in Manila Bay were analysed during the onset of a whole-bay-scale bloom in March 2004. The chlorophyll a concentrations varied over a very wide range from 1.4 µg l-1 to extremely high values of 521 µg l-1. The chlorophyll specific absorption coefficients of phytoplankton (a*ph(λ varied significantly in shape and magnitude. The spectrally averaged values of a*ph(λ varied by two orders of magnitude within and outside the bloom patch. The total suspended solid concentration was high in the middle of the bay (≥4 mg l-1. The non-photosynthetic pigment (NPP index was ~0.6 at most of the stations, mainly due to the presence of photoprotective pigments like zeaxanthin, lutein and neoxanthin, which led to variations in the blue absorption maxima of the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients. The absorption properties of the accessory pigments were masked owing to the presence of overlapping pigment absorption bands. The fourth derivative of the absorption spectra was able to resolve these overlapping features and enhance the absorption characteristics of prominent accessory pigments.

  12. Morphology and Ultrastructure of the Accessory Glands in the Female Genital Tract of the House Cricket, Acheta domesticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The accessory glands in the genital tract of female Acheta domesticus L. (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) were investigated in detail. The glands are situated within the 7th and 8th abdominal segment and lead to the genital chamber lateral to the terminal papilla of the ductus receptaculi. The shape of the gland is characterized by a complex system of tubules, including numerous ramifications. The gland's size ranges from 2 to 4 mm. The epithelium is constructed according to a simple scheme and consists of a cuticular intima at the luminal side, one layer of gland cells, and a basallamina at the outermost side. The observed morphology of the accessory glands widely corresponds with that in other cricket species (e.g., Teleogryllus commodus). This is also true for the structure of a single gland cell, which can be subdivided into a basal part with nucleus and intracellular cisternae, as well as an apical part with all those compartments responsible for the production of the secretion. The secretion itself may be classified as lipophilic and is produced for the first time 4 to 6 days after the imaginai moult. Several endogenic functions of the secretion are discussed (lubricant for oviposition, support for introducing the tube of the spermatophore into the ductus receptaculi, etc.). PMID:23425229

  13. The S2 accessory gene of equine infectious anemia virus is essential for expression of disease in ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerness, Angela J; Flaherty, Maureen T; Perry, Stephanie T; Jia, Bin; Payne, Susan L; Fuller, Frederick J

    2006-05-25

    Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is a macrophage-tropic lentivirus that persistently infects horses and causes a disease that is characterized by periodic episodes of fever, thrombocytopenia, and viremia. EIAV encodes only four regulatory/accessory genes, (tat, rev, ttm, and S2) and is the least genetically complex of all known lentiviruses. We sought to determine the role of the EIAV S2 accessory gene of EIAV by introducing mutations that would prevent S2 expression on the p19/wenv17 infectious molecular clone. Virus derived from the p19/wenv17 molecular clone is highly virulent and routinely fatal when given in high doses (J. Virol. 72 (1998) 483). In contrast, an S2 deletion mutant on the p19/wenv17 background is unable to induce acute disease and plasma virus loads were reduced by 2.5 to 4.0 logs at 15 days post-infection. The S2 deleted virus failed to produce any detectable clinical signs during a 5-month observation period. These results demonstrate that S2 gene expression is essential for disease expression of EIAV.

  14. The main but not the accessory olfactory system is involved in the processing of socially relevant chemosignals in ungulates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu eKELLER

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ungulates like sheep and goats have, like many other mammalian species, two complementary olfactory systems. The relative role played by these two systems has long been of interest regarding the sensory control of social behavior. The study of ungulate social behavior could represent a complimentary alternative to rodent studies because they live in a more natural environment and their social behaviors depend heavily on olfaction. In addition, the relative size of the main olfactory bulb (in comparison to the accessory olfactory bulb is more developped than in many other lissencephalic species like rodents. In this review, we present data showing a clear involvement of the main olfactory system in two well-characterized social situations under olfactory control in ungulates, namely maternal behavior and offspring recognition at birth and the reactivation of the gonadotropic axis of females exposed to males during the anestrous season. In conclusion, we discuss the apparent discrepancy between the absence of evidence for a role of the vomeronasal system in ungulate social behavior and the existence of a developed accessory olfactory system in these species.

  15. The main but not the accessory olfactory system is involved in the processing of socially relevant chemosignals in ungulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Matthieu; Lévy, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    Ungulates like sheep and goats have, like many other mammalian species, two complementary olfactory systems. The relative role played by these two systems has long been of interest regarding the sensory control of social behavior. The study of ungulate social behavior could represent a complimentary alternative to rodent studies because they live in a more natural environment and their social behaviors depend heavily on olfaction. In addition, the relative size of the main olfactory bulb (MOB) [in comparison to the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB)] is more developed than in many other lissencephalic species like rodents. In this review, we present data showing a clear involvement of the main olfactory system in two well-characterized social situations under olfactory control in ungulates, namely maternal behavior and offspring recognition at birth and the reactivation of the gonadotropic axis of females exposed to males during the anestrous season. In conclusion, we discuss the apparent discrepancy between the absence of evidence for a role of the vomeronasal system in ungulate social behavior and the existence of a developed accessory olfactory system in these species.

  16. Retromolar Canal Associated with Age, Side, Sex, Bifid Mandibular Canal, and Accessory Mental Foramen in Panoramic Radiographs of Brazilians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ticiana Sidorenko de O. Capote

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The retromolar canal (RMC is an anatomical variation that can cause complications in dental procedures. Method. The RMC was evaluated according to age, sex, and presence of accessory mandibular canal and accessory mental foramen, on both sides in 500 panoramic radiographs, belonging to individuals at the age of 7 to 20 years. The associations of interest were studied through Fisher’s Exact Test and Pearson’s Chi-Square Test, and the correlation was studied through Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient (r. The significance level used was 5%. Results. The RMC was observed in 44 radiographs (8.8%, and out of those 24 were females. There was no statistically significant association between the RMC and age (p>0.05; Fisher’s Exact Test, sex (p=0.787; Pearson’s Chi-Square Test, amount of mandibular canals and mental foramina, on both sides (p>0.05; Pearson’s Chi-Square Test. There was a significant association between RMC and side, the higher frequency of the canal being on the right side (p<0.05; Fisher’s Exact Test. Conclusions. Despite the low occurrence of the RMC, its identification and the verification of its dimensions and path are relevant, mainly in cases when anesthetic and surgical procedures can present failures or difficulties.

  17. Retromolar Canal Associated with Age, Side, Sex, Bifid Mandibular Canal, and Accessory Mental Foramen in Panoramic Radiographs of Brazilians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capote, Ticiana Sidorenko de O; Gonçalves, Marcela de Almeida; Campos, Juliana Álvares Duarte Bonini

    2015-01-01

    Background. The retromolar canal (RMC) is an anatomical variation that can cause complications in dental procedures. Method. The RMC was evaluated according to age, sex, and presence of accessory mandibular canal and accessory mental foramen, on both sides in 500 panoramic radiographs, belonging to individuals at the age of 7 to 20 years. The associations of interest were studied through Fisher's Exact Test and Pearson's Chi-Square Test, and the correlation was studied through Pearson's Correlation Coefficient (r). The significance level used was 5%. Results. The RMC was observed in 44 radiographs (8.8%), and out of those 24 were females. There was no statistically significant association between the RMC and age (p > 0.05; Fisher's Exact Test), sex (p = 0.787; Pearson's Chi-Square Test), amount of mandibular canals and mental foramina, on both sides (p > 0.05; Pearson's Chi-Square Test). There was a significant association between RMC and side, the higher frequency of the canal being on the right side (p < 0.05; Fisher's Exact Test). Conclusions. Despite the low occurrence of the RMC, its identification and the verification of its dimensions and path are relevant, mainly in cases when anesthetic and surgical procedures can present failures or difficulties.

  18. Morphology and ultrastructure of the accessory glands in the female genital tract of the house cricket, Acheta domesticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The accessory glands in the genital tract of female Acheta domesticus L. (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) were investigated in detail. The glands are situated within the 7(th) and 8(th) abdominal segment and lead to the genital chamber lateral to the terminal papilla of the ductus receptaculi. The shape of the gland is characterized by a complex system of tubules, including numerous ramifications. The gland's size ranges from 2 to 4 mm. The epithelium is constructed according to a simple scheme and consists of a cuticular intima at the luminal side, one layer of gland cells, and a basallamina at the outermost side. The observed morphology of the accessory glands widely corresponds with that in other cricket species (e.g., Teleogryllus commodus). This is also true for the structure of a single gland cell, which can be subdivided into a basal part with nucleus and intracellular cisternae, as well as an apical part with all those compartments responsible for the production of the secretion. The secretion itself may be classified as lipophilic and is produced for the first time 4 to 6 days after the imaginai moult. Several endogenic functions of the secretion are discussed (lubricant for oviposition, support for introducing the tube of the spermatophore into the ductus receptaculi, etc.).

  19. The T-cell accessory molecule CD4 recognizes a monomorphic determinant on isolated Ia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gay, D; Buus, S; Pasternak, J

    1988-01-01

    The membrane protein CD4 is commonly found on mature T cells specific for antigen in association with class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC; Ia) proteins. This correlation has led to the suggestion that CD4 binds to a monomorphic region of the Ia molecule on the antigen-presenting cell...... proteins into a planar membrane system, we show that different Ia molecules can greatly enhance the ability of a CD4+ but not a CD4- variant of this class I-restricted T hybrid to respond to isolated class I molecules. T-cell responses can be strongly augmented by the concurrent expression of CD4 on the T...... cell and any of four different Ia proteins on planar membranes, thus supporting the idea that CD4 binds to a monomorphic region of the Ia molecule and increases the avidity with which the T cell can interact with its target....

  20. Bacterial flagellar capping proteins adopt diverse oligomeric states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Postel, Sandra; Deredge, Daniel; Bonsor, Daniel A.; Yu, Xiong; Diederichs, Kay; Helmsing, Saskia; Vromen, Aviv; Friedler, Assaf; Hust, Michael; Egelman, Edward H.; Beckett, Dorothy; Wintrode, Patrick L.; Sundberg, Eric J. (UV); (Braunschweig); (Maryland-MED); (Konstanz); (Maryland); (Hebrew)

    2016-09-24

    Flagella are crucial for bacterial motility and pathogenesis. The flagellar capping protein (FliD) regulates filament assembly by chaperoning and sorting flagellin (FliC) proteins after they traverse the hollow filament and exit the growing flagellum tip. In the absence of FliD, flagella are not formed, resulting in impaired motility and infectivity. Here, we report the 2.2 Å resolution X-ray crystal structure of FliD fromPseudomonas aeruginosa, the first high-resolution structure of any FliD protein from any bacterium. Using this evidence in combination with a multitude of biophysical and functional analyses, we find thatPseudomonasFliD exhibits unexpected structural similarity to other flagellar proteins at the domain level, adopts a unique hexameric oligomeric state, and depends on flexible determinants for oligomerization. Considering that the flagellin filaments on which FliD oligomers are affixed vary in protofilament number between bacteria, our results suggest that FliD oligomer stoichiometries vary across bacteria to complement their filament assemblies.

  1. The Accessory Genome of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Defines a Persistent Colonization Type in Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Stefanie A; Menge, Christian; Eichhorn, Inga; Semmler, Torsten; Wieler, Lothar H; Pickard, Derek; Belka, Ariane; Berens, Christian; Geue, Lutz

    2016-09-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains can colonize cattle for several months and may, thus, serve as gene reservoirs for the genesis of highly virulent zoonotic enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC). Attempts to reduce the human risk for acquiring EHEC infections should include strategies to control such STEC strains persisting in cattle. We therefore aimed to identify genetic patterns associated with the STEC colonization type in the bovine host. We included 88 persistent colonizing STEC (STEC(per)) (shedding for ≥4 months) and 74 sporadically colonizing STEC (STEC(spo)) (shedding for ≤2 months) isolates from cattle and 16 bovine STEC isolates with unknown colonization types. Genoserotypes and multilocus sequence types (MLSTs) were determined, and the isolates were probed with a DNA microarray for virulence-associated genes (VAGs). All STEC(per) isolates belonged to only four genoserotypes (O26:H11, O156:H25, O165:H25, O182:H25), which formed three genetic clusters (ST21/396/1705, ST300/688, ST119). In contrast, STEC(spo) isolates were scattered among 28 genoserotypes and 30 MLSTs, with O157:H7 (ST11) and O6:H49 (ST1079) being the most prevalent. The microarray analysis identified 139 unique gene patterns that clustered with the genoserotypes and MLSTs of the strains. While the STEC(per) isolates possessed heterogeneous phylogenetic backgrounds, the accessory genome clustered these isolates together, separating them from the STEC(spo) isolates. Given the vast genetic heterogeneity of bovine STEC strains, defining the genetic patterns distinguishing STEC(per) from STEC(spo) isolates will facilitate the targeted design of new intervention strategies to counteract these zoonotic pathogens at the farm level. Ruminants, especially cattle, are sources of food-borne infections by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in humans. Some STEC strains persist in cattle for longer periods of time, while others are detected only sporadically. Persisting

  2. Minimum Information Loss Based Multi-kernel Learning for Flagellar Protein Recognition in Trypanosoma Brucei

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2014-12-01

    Trypanosma brucei (T. Brucei) is an important pathogen agent of African trypanosomiasis. The flagellum is an essential and multifunctional organelle of T. Brucei, thus it is very important to recognize the flagellar proteins from T. Brucei proteins for the purposes of both biological research and drug design. In this paper, we investigate computationally recognizing flagellar proteins in T. Brucei by pattern recognition methods. It is argued that an optimal decision function can be obtained as the difference of probability functions of flagella protein and the non-flagellar protein for the purpose of flagella protein recognition. We propose to learn a multi-kernel classification function to approximate this optimal decision function, by minimizing the information loss of such approximation which is measured by the Kull back-Leibler (KL) divergence. An iterative multi-kernel classifier learning algorithm is developed to minimize the KL divergence for the problem of T. Brucei flagella protein recognition, experiments show its advantage over other T. Brucei flagellar protein recognition and multi-kernel learning methods. © 2014 IEEE.

  3. Accessory factors of cytoplasmic viral RNA sensors required for antiviral innate immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki eOshiumi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Type I interferon (IFN induces many antiviral factors in host cells. RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs are cytoplasmic viral RNA sensors that trigger the signal to induce the innate immune response that includes type I IFN production. RIG-I and MDA5 are RLRs that form nucleoprotein filaments along viral double-stranded RNA, resulting in the activation of MAVS adaptor molecule. The MAVS protein forms a prion-like aggregation structure, leading to type I IFN production. RIG-I and MDA5 undergo post-translational modification. TRIM25 and Riplet ubiquitin ligases deliver a K63-linked polyubiquitin moiety to the RIG-I N-terminal caspase activation and recruitment domains (CARDs and C-terminal region; the polyubiquitin chain then stabilizes the two-CARD tetramer structure required for MAVS assembly. MDA5 activation is regulated by phosphorylation. RIOK3 is a protein kinase that phosphorylates the MDA5 protein in a steady state, and PP1α/γ dephosphorylate this protein, resulting in its activation. RIG-I and MDA5 require cytoplasmic RNA helicases for their efficient activation. LGP2, another RLR, is an RNA helicase involved in RLR signaling. This protein does not possess N-terminal CARDs and thus cannot trigger downstream signaling by itself. Recent studies have revealed that this protein modulates MDA5 filament formation, resulting in enhanced type I IFN production. Several other cytoplasmic RNA helicases are involved in RLR signaling. DDX3, DHX29, DHX36, and DDX60 RNA helicases have been reported to be involved in RLR-mediated type I IFN production after viral infection. However, the underlying mechanism is largely unknown. Future studies are required to reveal the role of RNA helicases in the RLR signaling pathway.

  4. V-ATPase-mediated granular acidification is regulated by the V-ATPase accessory subunit Ac45 in POMC-producing cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, E.J.S.; Hafmans, T.G.M.; Martens, G.J.

    2010-01-01

    The vacuolar (H(+))-ATPase (V-ATPase) is an important proton pump, and multiple critical cell-biological processes depend on the proton gradient provided by the pump. Yet, the mechanism underlying the control of the V-ATPase is still elusive but has been hypothesized to involve an accessory subunit

  5. Effects of breathing maneuver and sitting posture on muscle activity in inspiratory accessory muscles in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Ki-song

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the influence of breathing maneuver and sitting posture on tidal volume (TV, respiratory rate (RR, and muscle activity of the inspiratory accessory muscles in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Methods Twelve men with COPD participated in the study. Inductive respiratory plethysmography and surface electromyography were used to simultaneously measure TV, RR, and muscle activity of the inspiratory accessory muscles [the scalenus (SM, sternocleidomastoid (SCM, and pectoralis major (PM muscles] during quiet natural breathing (QB and pursed-lips breathing (PLB in three sitting postures: neutral position (NP, with armm support (WAS, and with arm and head support (WAHS. Results Two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was employed. In a comparison of breathing patterns, PLB significantly increased TV and decreased RR compared to QB. Muscle activity in the SM and SCM increased significantly in PLB compared to QB. In a comparison of sitting postures, the muscle activity of the SM, SCM, and PM increased in the forward-leaning position. Conclusions The results suggest that in COPD, PLB induced a favorable breathing pattern (increased TV and reduced RR compared to QB. Additionally, WAS and WAHS positions increased muscle activity of the inspiratory accessory muscles during inspiration versus NP. Differential involvement of accessory respiratory muscles can be readily studied in COPD patients, allowing monitoring of respiratory load during pulmonary rehabilitation.

  6. 26 CFR 48.4063-2 - Tax-free sales of parts or accessories sold for resale on or in connection with the first retail...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... (Signature) (Address) 2. Description of parts and accessories Type Quantity Price Total 3. Description of new... time of sale the selling manufacturer has knowledge or reason to believe that the light-duty truck... liability if it has knowledge or reason to believe that the purchaser has failed to register, refused to...

  7. The lissencephaly protein Lis1 is present in motile mammalian cilia and requires outer arm dynein for targeting to Chlamydomonas flagella

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lotte B; Rompolas, Panteleimon; Christensen, Søren T

    2007-01-01

    other organisms. Immunoblotting using an anti-CrLis1 antibody revealed that this protein is present in the flagellum and is depleted from flagella of mutants with defective outer dynein arm assembly, including one strain that lacks only the alpha heavy chain/light chain 5 thioredoxin complex......Lissencephaly is a developmental brain disorder characterized by a smooth cerebral surface, thickened cortex and misplaced neurons. Classical lissencephaly is caused by mutations in LIS1, which encodes a WD-repeat protein involved in cytoplasmic dynein regulation, mitosis and nuclear migration....... Several proteins required for nuclear migration in Aspergillus bind directly to Lis1, including NudC. Mammalian NudC is highly expressed in ciliated epithelia, and localizes to motile cilia in various tissues. Moreover, a NudC ortholog is upregulated upon deflagellation in Chlamydomonas. We found...

  8. Bilateral cervical ectopic thymic nodules with accessory thyroid tissue and an ectopic parathyroid in the neck region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wea-Lung Lin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Some remnants of thymic tissue may be deposited along the pathway of the descent of the neck during embryologic development of the thymus. Ectopic thymic tissue is usually deposited along the pathway from the mandibular angle to the manubrium of the sternum. Most reported cases of an ectopic thymus occurred in children, and cases are less common in adults. We report a 26-year-old woman, who was incidentally found to have 2 neck nodules on the posterior side of the bilateral upper pole of the thyroid gland while undergoing a subtotal thyroidectomy. The left-side neck nodule showed accessory thyroid follicles intermixed with ectopic thymic tissue, and the right-side neck nodule was ectopic parathyroid tissue together with ectopic thymic tissue.

  9. Epididymal and sex accessory gland secretions in transfusion-dependent beta-thalassemic patients: evidence of an impaired prostatic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpino, A; De Sanctis, V; Siciliano, L; Maggiolini, M; Vivacqua, A; Pinamonti, A; Sisci, D; Andó, S

    1997-01-01

    Neutral alpha-glucosidase levels as epididymal marker, fructose levels as vesicular marker, zinc, citric acid and prostate specific antigen levels as prostatic markers were measured in the seminal plasma of eight transfusion-dependent beta-thalassemic patients in order to study epididymal and sex accessory gland secretions (eighteen subjects served as controls). FSH and LH as well as total and free testosterone were detected displaying unaltered serum values. Ejaculate of patients showed normal sperm count and low sperm motility, in the meantime seminal plasma exhibited unaltered both neutral alpha-glucosidase and fructose values but low levels of zinc, citric acid and prostate specific antigen were noticed as well. These data suggest an impaired prostatic secretion in the thalassemic patients studied. A local iron toxicity on the prostatic tissue could be supported by the decrease of its specific markers observed only in the subgroup of patients with high ferritin serum levels.

  10. Regulation of macrophage accessory cell activity by mycobacteria. I. Ia expression in normal and irradiated mice infected with Mycobacterium mycroti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaye, P.M.; Feldmann, M.

    1986-01-01

    CBA/Ca mice were infected by either the intravenous or intraperitoneal route with Mycobacterium microti and the subsequent changes in local macrophage populations examined. Following infection, the number of macrophages increased and they showed greater expression of both MHC Class II molecules. This response was not dependent on viability of the mycobacteria, in contrast to reports with other microorganisms such as Listeria. Studies in sublethally irradiated mice indicated that persistent antigen could give rise to a response after a period of host recovery which was radiation dose dependent. This procedure also highlighted differences in the regulation of different murine class II antigens in vivo, as seen by delayed re-expression of I-E antigens. Macrophage accessory cell function, as assessed by an in vitro T cell proliferation assay, correlated with Ia expression after fixation, but not after indomethacin treatment; this highlights the diverse nature of regulatory molecules produced by these cells. (author)

  11. Perineal nodular indurations ("accessory testicles") in cyclists. Fine needle aspiration cytologic and pathologic findings in two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, P N; Camuzard, P; Schoonaert, M F

    1988-01-01

    The cytologic and histologic findings from two cases of perineal nodular indurations observed in two cyclists are reported. These lesions, also referred to as "accessory testicles" or "third testicle" or "ischial hygromas" of cyclists, consist of a localized aseptic area of necrosis with pseudocyst formation involving connective tissue in the superficial fascia of the perineum. These histologic findings, which were seen in the subsequent surgical specimens in these two cases, were reflected in the fine needle aspiration findings. The aspirates contained few cellular elements, mainly a few vacuolated histiocytes, against a background of fibrinous material. These indurations, which develop as a result of repeated, chronic microtrauma to the perineum impressed by the vibration of the saddle of the bicycle, constitute an authentic handicap for the professional cyclist and are a contraindication to cycling for amateur cyclists.

  12. Seasonal reproductive activity and innervation of vas deferens and accessory male genital glands in the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Paino

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Autonomic nerves supplying mammalian male internal genital organs have an important role in the regulation of reproductive function. To find out the relationships between the neurochemical content of these nerves and the reproductive activity, we performed an immunohistochemical study in a species, the water buffalo, exhibiting a seasonal sexual behaviour. The distribution of noradrenergic and peptide-containing nerves was evaluated during the mating (autumn-winter and non-mating (spring-summer periods. During the mating period, a dense noradrenergic innervation was observed to supply the vas deferens as well as the accessory genital glands. Peptide-containing nerves were also observed but with a lower density. During the non-mating period noradrenergic nerves dramatically reduced. These results suggest that there is a neuro-endocrine interaction between androgen hormones and the autonomic nerve supply in the regulation of male water buffalo reproductive functions.

  13. Incidence and anatomical variations of accessory navicular bone in patients with foot pain: A retrospective radiographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalbouneh, Heba; Alajoulin, Omar; Alsalem, Mohammad; Humoud, Noor; Shawaqfeh, Jamil; Alkhoujah, Mohammad; Abu-Hassan, Hana; Mahafza, Waleed; Badran, Darwish

    2017-05-01

    The accessory navicular (AN) is an accessory ossicle anatomically located on the medial side of the foot, proximal to the navicular and continuous with the tibialis posterior tendon. It is occasionally a source of pain and local tenderness. Knowledge of the AN and its morphological variations can help identify the source of a patient's symptoms and prevent misinterpreting them as fractures. Foot radiographs from 1,240 patients who presented in two centers with chronic foot pain, or persistent pain developed after trauma, were retrospectively reviewed to determine the incidence and variations of the AN in relation to gender. The AN was found in 20.9% (259/1240). Among 259 feet with AN, Type 1 was identified in 25.4% (66/259), Type 2 in 42.4% (110/259) (20.0% (52/259) Type 2 A and 22.4% (58/259) Type 2B), and Type 3 in 32.0% (83/259). After 13 patients with incomplete medical records had been excluded, the remaining records showed that foot pain was associated with an AN in 10.6% of patients (26/246). In 1.2% of cases, two additional ossicles were found proximal to the navicular, possibly the result of multiple ossification centers that did not unite at the time of development. Patient symptomatology was related to the presence of an AN in 2% of patients with chronic foot pain. The AN could vary morphologically. Our data can enhance our diagnostic skills in detecting these ossicles. Clin. Anat. 30:436-444, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Gated blood-pool SPECT assessment of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndromes before and after radiofrequency ablation of accessory pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bontemps, L.; Ben Brahim, H.; Kraiem, T.; Chevalier, P.; Kirkorian, G.; Touboul, P.; Itti, R.

    1997-01-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) ablation of accessory pathways in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome is supposed to be less aggressive than fulguration while providing excellent results. The aims of our study were therefore the evaluation of the functional results of this therapy in terms of left or right ejection fractions and its effects on the contraction synchronism between both ventricular chambers, derived from bi-ventricular Fourier phase histograms. A consecutive series of 44 patients has been investigated within 48 hours before and after RF therapy: 14 patients had right sided WPW and 30 patients left sided WPW. Only patients for whom RF treatment was considered as a success have been included in the study. Gated blood pool tomography has been performed in order to localize the site of pre-excitation and to build-up the phase histograms for both ventricles, and planar gated imaging has been used for right and left ejection fraction determination. Functional results demonstrate the absence of deleterious effect of RF on ventricular contraction and rather a slight increase of ejection fractions, with a more statistically significant difference for left WPW (LVEF = 62.2 % before RF vs 64.4 % after RF; p = 0.02) than for right WPW (RVEF = 36.3 % before RF vs 39.7 after RF; p = 0.16). Phase analysis, on the contrary, show only significant differences for right WPW, with a noticeable decrease of the pre-excitation (left-to-right phase difference 14.4 deg before RF vs 7.5 deg after RF; p = 0.03) and a significant reduction of the right ventricular phase dispersion (right phase standard deviation 26.5 deg before RF vs 19.0 deg after RF; p = 0.03). For left WPW no measurable differences can be demonstrated in the basal state and it is suggested to use stimulation techniques in order to enhance the competition between the normal and accessory conduction pathways. (authors)

  15. Material flows of mobile phones and accessories in Nigeria: Environmental implications and sound end-of-life management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osibanjo, Oladele; Nnorom, Innocent Chidi

    2008-01-01

    Presently, Nigeria is one of the fastest growing Telecom markets in the world. The country's teledensity increased from a mere 0.4 in 1999 to 10 in 2005 following the liberalization of the Telecom sector in 2001. More than 25 million new digital mobile lines have been connected by June 2006. Large quantities of mobile phones and accessories including secondhand and remanufactured products are being imported to meet the pent-up demand. This improvement in mobile telecom services resulted in the preference of mobile telecom services to fixed lines. Consequently, the contribution of fixed lines decreased from about 95% in year 2000 to less than 10% in March 2005. This phenomenal progress in information technology has resulted in the generation of large quantities of electronic waste (e-waste) in the country. Abandoned fixed line telephone sets estimated at 120,000 units are either disposed or stockpiled. Increasing quantities of waste mobile phones estimated at 8 million units by 2007, and accessories will be generated. With no material recovery facility for e-waste and/or appropriate solid waste management infrastructure in place, these waste materials end up in open dumps and unlined landfills. These practices create the potential for the release of toxic metals and halocarbons from batteries, printed wiring boards, liquid crystal display and plastic housing units. This paper presents an overview of the developments in the Nigerian Telecom sector, the material in-flow of mobile phones, and the implications of the management practices for wastes from the Telecom sector in the country

  16. The Structure of a Type 3 Secretion System (T3SS) Ruler Protein Suggests a Molecular Mechanism for Needle Length Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Julien R C; Fernández, Lucia; Wasney, Gregory A; Vuckovic, Marija; Reffuveille, Fany; Hancock, Robert E W; Strynadka, Natalie C J

    2016-01-22

    The type 3 secretion system (T3SS) and the bacterial flagellum are related pathogenicity-associated appendages found at the surface of many disease-causing bacteria. These appendages consist of long tubular structures that protrude away from the bacterial surface to interact with the host cell and/or promote motility. A proposed "ruler" protein tightly regulates the length of both the T3SS and the flagellum, but the molecular basis for this length control has remained poorly characterized and controversial. Using the Pseudomonas aeruginosa T3SS as a model system, we report the first structure of a T3SS ruler protein, revealing a "ball-and-chain" architecture, with a globular C-terminal domain (the ball) preceded by a long intrinsically disordered N-terminal polypeptide chain. The dimensions and stability of the globular domain do not support its potential passage through the inner lumen of the T3SS needle. We further demonstrate that a conserved motif at the N terminus of the ruler protein interacts with the T3SS autoprotease in the cytosolic side. Collectively, these data suggest a potential mechanism for needle length sensing by ruler proteins, whereby upon T3SS needle assembly, the ruler protein's N-terminal end is anchored on the cytosolic side, with the globular domain located on the extracellular end of the growing needle. Sequence analysis of T3SS and flagellar ruler proteins shows that this mechanism is probably conserved across systems. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. E2F1 and p53 Transcription Factors as Accessory Factors for Nucleotide Excision Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Johnson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Many of the biochemical details of nucleotide excision repair (NER have been established using purified proteins and DNA substrates. In cells however, DNA is tightly packaged around histones and other chromatin-associated proteins, which can be an obstacle to efficient repair. Several cooperating mechanisms enhance the efficiency of NER by altering chromatin structure. Interestingly, many of the players involved in modifying chromatin at sites of DNA damage were originally identified as regulators of transcription. These include ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers, histone modifying enzymes and several transcription factors. The p53 and E2F1 transcription factors are well known for their abilities to regulate gene expression in response to DNA damage. This review will highlight the underappreciated, transcription-independent functions of p53 and E2F1 in modifying chromatin structure in response to DNA damage to promote global NER.

  18. Determining Roles of Accessory Genes in Denitrification by Mutant Fitness Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccaro, Brian J; Thorgersen, Michael P; Lancaster, W Andrew; Price, Morgan N; Wetmore, Kelly M; Poole, Farris L; Deutschbauer, Adam; Arkin, Adam P; Adams, Michael W W

    2016-01-01

    Enzymes of the denitrification pathway play an important role in the global nitrogen cycle, including release of nitrous oxide, an ozone-depleting greenhouse gas. In addition, nitric oxide reductase, maturation factors, and proteins associated with nitric oxide detoxification are used by pathogens to combat nitric oxide release by host immune systems. While the core reductases that catalyze the conversion of nitrate to dinitrogen are well understood at a mechanistic level, there are many peripheral proteins required for denitrification whose basic function is unclear. A bar-coded transposon DNA library from Pseudomonas stutzeri strain RCH2 was grown under denitrifying conditions, using nitrate or nitrite as an electron acceptor, and also under molybdenum limitation conditions, with nitrate as the electron acceptor. Analysis of sequencing results from these growths yielded gene fitness data for 3,307 of the 4,265 protein-encoding genes present in strain RCH2. The insights presented here contribute to our understanding of how peripheral proteins contribute to a fully functioning denitrification pathway. We propose a new low-affinity molybdate transporter, OatABC, and show that differential regulation is observed for two MoaA homologs involved in molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis. We also propose that NnrS may function as a membrane-bound NO sensor. The dominant HemN paralog involved in heme biosynthesis is identified, and a CheR homolog is proposed to function in nitrate chemotaxis. In addition, new insights are provided into nitrite reductase redundancy, nitric oxide reductase maturation, nitrous oxide reductase maturation, and regulation. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Protein Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Protein Foods Foods high in protein such as fish, ... for the vegetarian proteins, whether they have carbohydrate. Protein Choices Plant-Based Proteins Plant-based protein foods ...

  20. Flagellar membrane fusion and protein exchange in trypanosomes; a new form of cell-cell communication? [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Imhof

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Diverse structures facilitate direct exchange of proteins between cells, including plasmadesmata in plants and tunnelling nanotubes in bacteria and higher eukaryotes.  Here we describe a new mechanism of protein transfer, flagellar membrane fusion, in the unicellular parasite Trypanosoma brucei. When fluorescently tagged trypanosomes were co-cultured, a small proportion of double-positive cells were observed. The formation of double-positive cells was dependent on the presence of extracellular calcium and was enhanced by placing cells in medium supplemented with fresh bovine serum. Time-lapse microscopy revealed that double-positive cells arose by bidirectional protein exchange in the absence of nuclear transfer.  Furthermore, super-resolution microscopy showed that this process occurred in ≤1 minute, the limit of temporal resolution in these experiments. Both cytoplasmic and membrane proteins could be transferred provided they gained access to the flagellum. Intriguingly, a component of the RNAi machinery (Argonaute was able to move between cells, raising the possibility that small interfering RNAs are transported as cargo. Transmission electron microscopy showed that shared flagella contained two axonemes and two paraflagellar rods bounded by a single membrane. In some cases flagellar fusion was partial and interactions between cells were transient. In other cases fusion occurred along the entire length of the flagellum, was stable for several hours and might be irreversible. Fusion did not appear to be deleterious for cell function: paired cells were motile and could give rise to progeny while fused. The motile flagella of unicellular organisms are related to the sensory cilia of higher eukaryotes, raising the possibility that protein transfer between cells via cilia or flagella occurs more widely in nature.

  1. GenBank blastx search result: AK104368 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available l cds; and putative urea transporter, urease accessory protein D, urease accessory protein G, urease accesso...ry protein F, and urease accessory protein E genes, complete cds.|BCT BCT 2e-47 +1 ...

  2. The accessory peroneal (fibular) muscles: peroneus quartus and peroneus digiti quinti. A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yammine, Kaissar

    2015-08-01

    The denomination of "accessory peroneal muscle" (APM) refers usually to two muscles: the peroneus quartus (PQua) and the peroneus digit quinti (PQui) which were believed to be variants of a same muscle. Their morphology and prevalence show high variation in relevant literature mainly owing to the diverse terminology used to describe this muscle group. The aim of this meta-analysis is to generate more accurate description and frequency of those muscles. A total of 46 studies (3,928 legs/ankles) met the inclusion criteria. The aggregate results were: (a) a true APM prevalence of 16 % with 10.2 % for PQua vs. 34.3 % for PQui; (b) a crude prevalence of 16.6 % for PQua vs. 21.5 % for PQui; (c) a bilateral prevalence of 1.73 % for PQua vs. 12.5 % for PQui; (d) the PQua was significantly more prevalent in Indian populations compared to all other ancestries, and the PQui is significantly more prevalent in Europeans and Americans compared to Japanese and Korean populations; (e) though a tendency for higher frequency was found in males and on the right specimens, no significance was found for gender and side; for (f) the "surgical" occurrence of PQua in studies dealing with peroneal tendon surgery was 5.5 % where peroneal tendon pathology seems to be not associated with the presence of an APM; (g) the MRI prevalence of APM was 10.6 %; (h) APMs took origin from peroneus brevis in 60 %, from the distal fibula in 36 % and from other structures in 4 %; (i) APMs took insertion on retrotroclear eminence of the calcaneum in 53.4 %, on peroneal trochlea in 6.6 %, merged with a peroneal tendon in 9.3 %, and inserted on the extensor apparatus of the 5th toe in 18.4 %. Despite the acknowledged limitation owing to the varied terminology used to describe this accessory muscle group, the significant differences found between the aggregate frequency estimates of each muscle do not support the hypothesis that both muscles are variants of a same structure.

  3. Geochemical and textural characterization of phosphate accessory phases in the vein assemblage and metasomatically altered Llallagua tin porphyry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betkowski, Wladyslaw B.; Rakovan, John; Harlov, Daniel E.

    2017-09-01

    Petrographic and geochemical characterization of phosphate accessory minerals represents a powerful tool in understanding the mineralization and metasomatic history of one of the world's biggest tin deposits, the Siglo XX mine, Salvadora stock, Llallagua, Bolivia. The Llallagua tin deposit lies in a hydrothermally altered porphyry stock that is part of the subduction-related Bolivian tin belt. Despite numerous studies, there is still a debate over the timing and characteristics of mineralization history of the deposit. Primary igneous fluorapatite and monazite (for the first time) were recognized in the altered porphyry. The igneous monazite is enriched in Th, unlike the hydrothermal monazite that is recognized for its low Th concentration. Fluorapatite, monazite, and xenotime also coexist with cassiterite within the hydrothermal vein assemblage. Fluorapatite and xenotime are essentially pristine. Monazite, however, shows various degrees of alteration in the form of regenerative mineral replacement (RMR). This exemplifies differential reactivity and selective mineral replacement/alteration of three accessory phosphate minerals, that are all important geochemical tracers of magmatic and hydrothermal processes, and which can all be used as geochronometers. Mineral textures and composition in the altered porphyry and vein assemblages have been evaluated. Monazite-xenotime geothermometry indicates monazite crystallization beginning around 550 °C. Monazite continues to grow as temperatures gradually decrease to about 300 °C, when most of cassiterite precipitation occurred in the samples studied. The primary mechanism of phosphate alteration has been identified as a coupled dissolution-reprecipitation process, which led to REE exchange in the igneous fluorapatite and hydrothermal monazite. In Type I local alteration, La and Pr-Nd show continuity across the pre- and post- alteration concentric zones indicating that they were not affected by alteration. This is an

  4. Electrophysiological evidence for a direct link between the main and accessory olfactory bulbs in the adult rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor eVargas-Barroso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is accepted that the main- and accessory- olfactory systems exhibit overlapping responses to pheromones and odorants. We performed whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in adult rat olfactory bulb slices to define a possible interaction between the first central relay of these systems: the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB and the main olfactory bulb (MOB. This was tested by applying electrical field stimulation in the dorsal part of the MOB while recording large principal cells (LPCs of the anterior AOB (aAOB. Additional recordings of LPCs were performed at either side of the plane of intersection between the aAOB and posterior-AOB (pAOB halves, or linea alba, while applying field stimulation to the opposite half. A total of 92 recorded neurons were filled during whole-cell recordings with biocytin and studied at the light microscope. Neurons located in the aAOB (n = 6, 8% send axon collaterals to the MOB since they were antidromically activated in the presence of glutamate receptor antagonists (APV and CNQX. Recorded LPCs evoked orthodromic excitatory post-synaptic responses (n = 6, aAOB; n = 1, pAOB or antidromic action potentials (n = 8, aAOB; n = 7, pAOB when applying field stimulation to the opposite half of the recording site (e.g. recording in aAOB; stimulating in pAOB and vice-versa. Observation of the filled neurons revealed that indeed, LPCs send axon branches that cross the linea alba to resolve in the internal cellular layer. Additionally, LPCs of the aAOB send axon collaterals to dorsal-MOB territory. Notably, while performing AOB recordings we found a sub-population of neurons (24 % of the total that exhibited voltage-dependent bursts of action potentials. Our findings support the existence of: 1. a direct projection from aAOB LPCs to dorsal-MOB, 2. physiologically active synapses linking aAOB and pAOB, and 3. pacemaker-like neurons in both AOB halves. This work was presented in the form of an Abstract on SfN 2014 (719.14/EE17.

  5. On the effect specificity of accessory gland products transferred by the love-dart of land snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodi, Monica; Koene, Joris M

    2016-05-13

    Sexual selection favours the evolution of male bioactive substances transferred during mating to enhance male reproductive success by affecting female physiology. These effects are mainly well documented for separate-sexed species. In simultaneous hermaphrodites, one of the most peculiar examples of transfer of such substances is via stabbing a so-called love-dart in land snails. This calcareous stylet delivers mucous products produced by accessory glands into the mate's haemolymph. In Cornu aspersum, this mucus temporarily causes two changes in the recipient. First, the spermatophore uptake into the spermatophore-receiving organ, called diverticulum, is probably favoured by contractions of this organ. Second, the amount of stored sperm increases by contractions of the copulatory canal, which close off the tract leading to the sperm digesting organ. However, it has yet to be determined whether these effects are similar across species, which would imply a common strategy of the dart in increasing male reproductive success. We performed a cross-reactivity test to compare the in vitro response of the diverticulum and copulatory canal of C. aspersum (Helicidae) to its own and other species' mucus (seven helicids and one bradybaenid). We found that the contractions in the diverticulum were only induced by dart mucus of certain species, while the copulatory canal responded equally to all but one species' mucus tested. In addition, we report a newly-discovered effect causing the shortening of the diverticulum, which is also only caused by dart mucus of certain species. The advantage seems to be a distance reduction to the sperm storage organ. All these findings are the first to shed light on the evolution of the different functions of accessory gland products in dart-bearing species. These functions may be achieved via common physiological changes caused by the substances contained in the dart mucus, since the responses evoked were similar across species' mucus. Moreover

  6. Estradiol-induced neurogenesis in the female accessory olfactory bulb is required for the learning of the male odor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brus, Maïna; Trouillet, Anne-Charlotte; Hellier, Vincent; Bakker, Julie

    2016-08-01

    Odors processed by the main and accessory olfactory bulbs (MOB, AOB) are important for sexual behavior. Interestingly, both structures continue to receive new neurons during adulthood. A role for olfactory neurogenesis in sexual behavior in female mice has recently been shown and gonadal hormones such as estradiol can modulate adult neurogenesis. Therefore, we wanted to determine the role of estradiol in learning the odors of sexual partners and in the adult neurogenesis of female aromatase knockout mice (ArKO), unable to produce estradiol. Female wild-type (WT) and ArKO mice were exposed to male odors during 7 days, and olfactory preferences, cell proliferation, cell survival and functional involvement of newborn neurons were analyzed, using BrdU injections, in combination with a marker of cell activation (Zif268) and neuronal fate (doublecortin, NeuN). Behavioral tasks indicated that both WT and ArKO females were able to discriminate between the odors of two different males, but ArKO mice failed to learn the familiar male odor. Proliferation of newborn cells was reduced in ArKO mice only in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Olfactory exposure decreased cell survival in the AOB in WT females, suggesting a role for estradiol in a structure involved in sexual behavior. Finally, newborn neurons do not seem to be functionally involved in the AOB of ArKO mice compared with WT, when females were exposed to the odor of a familiar male, suggesting that estradiol-induced neurogenesis in the AOB is required for the learning of the male odor in female mice. Aromatase knockout mice (ArKO) presented deficits in olfactory preferences without affecting their olfactory discrimination abilities, and showed no functional involvement of newborn neurons in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) in response to the odor of a familiar male. These results suggest that estradiol-induced neurogenesis in the female AOB is required for the learning of the male odor. © 2016 International

  7. Characterization of pro-inflammatory flagellin proteins produced by Lactobacillus ruminis and related motile Lactobacilli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Anne Neville

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus ruminis is one of at least twelve motile but poorly characterized species found in the genus Lactobacillus. Of these, only L. ruminis has been isolated from mammals, and this species may be considered as an autochthonous member of the gastrointestinal microbiota of humans, pigs and cows. Nine L. ruminis strains were investigated here to elucidate the biochemistry and genetics of Lactobacillus motility. Six strains isolated from humans were non-motile while three bovine isolates were motile. A complete set of flagellum biogenesis genes was annotated in the sequenced genomes of two strains, ATCC25644 (human isolate and ATCC27782 (bovine isolate, but only the latter strain produced flagella. Comparison of the L. ruminis and L. mali DSM20444(T motility loci showed that their genetic content and gene-order were broadly similar, although the L. mali motility locus was interrupted by an 11.8 Kb region encoding rhamnose utilization genes that is absent from the L. ruminis motility locus. Phylogenetic analysis of 39 motile bacteria indicated that Lactobacillus motility genes were most closely related to those of motile carnobacteria and enterococci. Transcriptome analysis revealed that motility genes were transcribed at a significantly higher level in motile L. ruminis ATCC27782 than in non-motile ATCC25644. Flagellin proteins were isolated from L. ruminis ATCC27782 and from three other Lactobacillus species, while recombinant flagellin of aflagellate L. ruminis ATCC25644 was expressed and purified from E. coli. These native and recombinant Lactobacillus flagellins, and also flagellate L. ruminis cells, triggered interleukin-8 production in cultured human intestinal epithelial cells in a manner suppressed by short interfering RNA directed against Toll-Like Receptor 5. This study provides genetic, transcriptomic, phylogenetic and immunological insights into the trait of flagellum-mediated motility in the lactobacilli.

  8. Tetrameric structure of the flagellar cap protein FliD from Serratia marcescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, So Yeon; Song, Wan Seok; Hong, Ho Jeong; Lee, Geun-Shik; Kang, Seung Goo; Ko, Hyun-Jeong; Kim, Pyeung-Hyeun; Yoon, Sung-Il

    2017-07-15

    Bacterial motility is provided by the flagellum. FliD is located at the distal end of the flagellum and plays a key role in the insertion of each flagellin protein at the growing tip of the flagellar filament. Because FliD functions as an oligomer, the determination of the oligomeric state of FliD is critical to understanding the molecular mechanism of FliD-mediated flagellar growth. FliD has been shown to adopt a pentameric or a hexameric structure depending on the bacterial species. Here, we report another distinct oligomeric form of FliD based on structural and biochemical studies. The crystal structures of the D2 and D3 domains of Serratia marcescens FliD (smFliD) were determined in two crystal forms and together revealed that smFliD assembles into a tetrameric architecture that resembles a four-pointed star plate. smFliD tetramerization was also confirmed in solution by cross-linking experiments. Although smFliD oligomerizes in a head-to-tail orientation using a common primary binding interface between the D2 and D3' domains (the prime denotes the second subunit in the oligomer) similarly to other FliD orthologs, the smFliD tetramer diverges to present a unique secondary D2-D2' binding interface. Our structure-based comparative analysis of FliD suggests that bacteria have developed diverse species-specific oligomeric forms of FliD that range from tetramers to hexamers for flagellar growth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterization of Pro-Inflammatory Flagellin Proteins Produced by Lactobacillus ruminis and Related Motile Lactobacilli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, B. Anne; Forde, Brian M.; Claesson, Marcus J.; Darby, Trevor; Coghlan, Avril; Nally, Kenneth; Ross, R. Paul; O’Toole, Paul W.

    2012-01-01

    Lactobacillus ruminis is one of at least twelve motile but poorly characterized species found in the genus Lactobacillus. Of these, only L. ruminis has been isolated from mammals, and this species may be considered as an autochthonous member of the gastrointestinal microbiota of humans, pigs and cows. Nine L. ruminis strains were investigated here to elucidate the biochemistry and genetics of Lactobacillus motility. Six strains isolated from humans were non-motile while three bovine isolates were motile. A complete set of flagellum biogenesis genes was annotated in the sequenced genomes of two strains, ATCC25644 (human isolate) and ATCC27782 (bovine isolate), but only the latter strain produced flagella. Comparison of the L. ruminis and L. mali DSM20444T motility loci showed that their genetic content and gene-order were broadly similar, although the L. mali motility locus was interrupted by an 11.8 Kb region encoding rhamnose utilization genes that is absent from the L. ruminis motility locus. Phylogenetic analysis of 39 motile bacteria indicated that Lactobacillus motility genes were most closely related to those of motile carnobacteria and enterococci. Transcriptome analysis revealed that motility genes were transcribed at a significantly higher level in motile L. ruminis ATCC27782 than in non-motile ATCC25644. Flagellin proteins were isolated from L. ruminis ATCC27782 and from three other Lactobacillus species, while recombinant flagellin of aflagellate L. ruminis ATCC25644 was expressed and purified from E. coli. These native and recombinant Lactobacillus flagellins, and also flagellate L. ruminis cells, triggered interleukin-8 production in cultured human intestinal epithelial cells in a manner suppressed by short interfering RNA directed against Toll-Like Receptor 5. This study provides genetic, transcriptomic, phylogenetic and immunological insights into the trait of flagellum-mediated motility in the lactobacilli. PMID:22808200

  10. Zolpidem, a selective GABA(A) receptor alpha1 subunit agonist, induces comparable Fos expression in oxytocinergic neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular and accessory but not supraoptic nuclei in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiss, Alexander; Søderman, Andreas; Bundzikova, Jana

    2006-01-01

    Functional activation of oxytocinergic (OXY) cells in the hypothalamic paraventricular (PVN), supraoptic (SON), and accessory (ACC) nuclei was investigated in response to acute treatment with Zolpidem (a GABA(A) receptor agonist with selectivity for alpha(1) subunits) utilizing dual Fos...... contemporaneousness within the cells of the principal and accessory magnocellular nuclei in response to Zolpidem treatment. The present study provides a comparative background that may help in the further understanding of a possible extend of Zolpidem effect on the brain...... significant activations were also seen in certain groups of accessory structures including the circular nucleus (13.99+/-3.43%), small clusters of accessory neurons (10.55+/-1.94%), and the lateral hypothalamic perivascular nucleus (9.42+/-2.74%). Between the naive and vehicle controls, the dual Fos...

  11. [Wide spectrum of arrhythmias, with inductions and terminations of atrio-ventricular replica-nodal tachycardia by automaticity during successful radiofrequency ablation of long anterogradely slow conducting atrio-fasciculo-ventricular accessory pathway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodalski, Robert; Szumowski, Lukasz; Walczak, Franciszek

    2012-01-01

    Mahaim syndrome is still a challenge. The specific characteristics of the pathway, the fact that it seldom occurs, and ambiguities about the pathophysiology and nomenclature make it, for electrophysiologists, still difficult to ablate. We present a case of a patient with anterogradely slow conducting accessory pathway, which has been effectively ablated although M potential was not observed nor was a mechanical conducting block of the accessory pathway. The accessory pathway showed a wide spectrum of electrophysiological characteristics of the "AV node physiology" including inductions and terminations of atrio-ventricular replica-nodal tachycardia by local automaticity, not only during electrophysiological study, but during successful application. The accessory pathway presented signs of two types of pseudo Mahaim fibers: atrio-fascicular and slow conducting atrio-ventricular connection.

  12. Companion Protease Inhibitors for the In Situ Protection of Recombinant Proteins in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Stéphanie; Jutras, Philippe V; Khalf, Moustafa; D'Aoust, Marc-André; Goulet, Marie-Claire; Sainsbury, Frank; Michaud, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    We previously described a procedure for the use of plant protease inhibitors as "companion" accessory proteins to prevent unwanted proteolysis of clinically useful recombinant proteins in leaf crude protein extracts (Benchabane et al. Methods Mol Biol 483:265-273, 2009). Here we describe the use of these inhibitors for the protection of recombinant proteins in planta, before their extraction from leaf tissues. A procedure is first described involving inhibitors co-expressed along-and co-migrating-with the protein of interest in host plant cells. An alternative, single transgene scheme is then described involving translational fusions of the recombinant protein and companion inhibitor. These approaches may allow for a significant improvement of protein steady-state levels in leaves, comparable to yield improvements observed with protease-deficient strains of less complex protein expression hosts such as E. coli or yeasts.

  13. [Case report: Iatrogenic shoulder pain syndrome following spinal accessory nerve injury during lateral cervical neck dissection for tongue cancer: the role of rehabilitation and ethical-deontological issues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronconi, Gianpaolo; Spagnolo, Antonio Gioacchino; Ferriero, Giorgio; Giovannini, Silvia; Amabile, Eugenia; Maccauro, Giulio; Ferrara, Paola Emilia

    2017-01-01

    The shoulder pain syndrome is the most frequent complication of lateral cervical neck dissection and may be caused by iatrogenic injury to the spinal accessory nerve, causing pain and functional limitation of the upper limb and of the cervical spine. Interdisciplinary collaboration and early rehabilitation can reduce the consequences of disability and the possible issues that can arise due to inadequate management of the problem.

  14. Physicochemical characterization of pectinase activity from Bacillus spp. and their accessory role in synergism with crude xylanase and commercial cellulase in enzyme cocktail mediated saccharification of agrowaste biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thite, V S; Nerurkar, A S

    2018-02-07

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical properties of the crude pectinase activity from three Bacillus isolates of ruminant dung origin and study their synergism with crude xylanases from the same Bacillus spp. and a commercial cellulase to evaluate their accessory role in improved biomass saccharification. Pectinolytic crude culture filtrate obtained from three ruminant dung isolates, Bacillus safensis M35, Bacillus altitudinis R31 and Bacillus altitudinis J208, on crude pectin containing medium possessed polygalacturonate hydrolase, pectate lyase and pectin lyase activities. Studies regarding their stability under various temperature and pH conditions revealed their mild acidic to alkaline and mesophilic nature with enzyme activity falling within the pH range 6·0-9·0 and temperature range 30-60°C. The pectinase activity was categorized as endolytic as it brought about ~50% reduction in relative viscosity of pectic polymer within initial 10 min of incubation. Synergism of pectinase activity with crude xylanase activities and/or commercial cellulase was clearly demonstrated as ~1·6 to ~1·9-fold increase in agrowaste biomass saccharification was obtained confirming the role of pectinases as accessory enzymes. Synergism of the broad-spectrum endopectinase activity obtained from three Bacillus isolates with accessory crude xylanases from the same isolates and commercial cellulase enhanced the agrowaste saccharification and confirmed the accessory role of crude pectinase as they formed an efficient enzyme cocktail functioning in a contributive manner for improvement of agrowaste biomass saccharification. Mesophilic crude endopectinases obtained from Bacillus spp. isolated from ruminant dung possessed activity in broad pH and temperature ranges as well as broad substrate specificity. Moreover, their synergism with crude xylanase and Primfast ® 200 cellulase demonstrated the potential to form efficient enzyme cocktail for application in plant

  15. Cone-beam computed tomography analysis of accessory maxillary ostium and Haller cells: Prevalence and clinical significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Ibrahim K.; Sansare, Kaustubh; Karjodkar, Freny R.; Vanga, Kavita; Salve, Prashant [Dept. of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Nair Hospital Dental College, Mumbai (India); Pawar, Ajinkya M. [Dept. of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Nair Hospital Dental College, Mumbai (India)

    2017-03-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of Haller cells and accessory maxillary ostium (AMO) in cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images, and to analyze the relationships among Haller cells, AMO, and maxillary sinusitis. Volumetric CBCT scans from 201 patients were retrieved from our institution's Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine archive folder. Two observers evaluated the presence of Haller cells, AMO, and maxillary sinusitis in the CBCT scans. AMO was observed in 114 patients, of whom 27 (23.7%) had AMO exclusively on the right side, 26 (22.8%) only on the left side, and 61 (53.5%) bilaterally. Haller cells were identified in 73 (36.3%) patients. In 24 (32.9%) they were present exclusively on the right side, in 17 (23.3%) they were only present on the left side, and in 32 (43.8%) they were located bilaterally. Of the 73 (36.3%) patients with Haller cells, maxillary sinusitis was also present in 50 (68.5%). On using chi-square test, a significant association was observed between AMO and maxillary sinusitis in the presence of Haller cells. Our results showed AMO and Haller cells to be associated with maxillary sinusitis. This study provides evidence for the usefulness of CBCT in imaging the bony anatomy of the sinonasal complex with significantly higher precision and a smaller radiation dose.

  16. Phase analysis in the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome with surgically proven accessory conduction pathways: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, K.; Bunko, H.; Tada, A.; Taki, J.; Tonami, N.; Hisada, K.; Misaki, T.; Iwa, T.

    1984-01-01

    Twenty-one patients with the Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome who underwent surgical division of the accessory conduction pathway (ACP) were studied by gated blood-pool scintigraphy. In each case, a functional image of the phase was generated, based on the fundamental frequency of the Fourier transform. The location of the ACP was confirmed by electrophysiologic study, epicardial mapping, and surgery. Phase analysis identified the side of preexcitation correctly in 16 out of 20 patients with WPW syndrome with a delta wave. All patients with right-cardiac type (N=9) had initial contraction in the right ventricle (RV). In patients with left-cardiac type (N=10), six had initial movement in the left ventricle (LV); but in the other four the ACPs in the anterior or lateral wall of the left ventricle (LV) could not be detected. In patients with multiple ACPs (N=2), one right-cardiac type had initial contraction in the RV, while in the other (with an intermittent WPW syndrome) the ACP was not detected. These observations indicate that abnormal wall motion is associated with the conduction anomalies of the WPW syndrome. We conclude that phase analysis can correctly identify the side of initial contraction in the WPW syndrome before and after surgery. However, as a method of preoperative study, it seems difficult to determine the precise site of the ACP by phase analysis alone

  17. A simple and compact smartphone accessory for quantitative chemiluminescence-based lateral flow immunoassay for salivary cortisol detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangheri, Martina; Cevenini, Luca; Anfossi, Laura; Baggiani, Claudio; Simoni, Patrizia; Di Nardo, Fabio; Roda, Aldo

    2015-02-15

    We have developed a simple and accurate biosensor based on a chemiluminescent (CL)-lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) method integrated in a smartphone to quantitatively detect salivary cortisol. The biosensor is based on a direct competitive immunoassay using peroxidase-cortisol conjugate, detected by adding the chemiluminescent substrate luminol/enhancer/hydrogen peroxide. The smartphone camera is used as light detector, for image acquisition and data handling via a specific application. We 3D-printed simple accessories to adapt the smartphone. The system comprises a cartridge, which houses the LFIA strip, and a smartphone adaptor with a plano-convex lens and a cartridge-insertion slot. This provides a mini-darkbox and aligned optical interface between the camera and the LFIA membrane for acquiring CL signals. The method is simple and fast, with a detection limit of 0.3 ng/mL. It provides quantitative analysis in the range of 0.3-60 ng/mL, which is adequate for detecting salivary cortisol in the clinically accepted range. It could thus find application in the growing area of home-self-diagnostic device technology for clinical biomarker monitoring, overcoming the current difficulties in achieving sensitive and quantitative information with conventional systems taking the advantage of smartphone connectivity and the enhanced performance of the included camera. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Change in the collateral and accessory collateral ligament lengths of the proximal interphalangeal joint using cadaveric model three-dimensional laser scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, S S; Dreckmann, S; Binhammer, P A

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the lengths of the index and middle finger proximal interphalangeal joint ligaments and determine the relative changes in the collateral and accessory collateral ligament lengths at 0°, 45° and 90° flexion. We generated three-dimensional scans of 16 finger (eight index and eight middle) proximal interphalangeal joints to assess relative changes in ligament length. Significant changes were found between 45°-90° and 0°-90° for the ulnar collateral ligament of the index finger and both collateral ligaments of the middle finger between 45°-90° and 0°-90°. No significant changes in length were found for the radial collateral ligament of the index finger or the accessory collateral ligaments of the index and middle fingers. Overall, it was found that the collateral ligament length changed significantly, but there was no significant change in the accessory collateral ligaments. Therapeutic IV. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Protein export through the bacterial flagellar type III export pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamino, Tohru

    2014-08-01

    For construction of the bacterial flagellum, which is responsible for bacterial motility, the flagellar type III export apparatus utilizes both ATP and proton motive force across the cytoplasmic membrane and exports flagellar proteins from the cytoplasm to the distal end of the nascent structure. The export apparatus consists of a membrane-embedded export gate made of FlhA, FlhB, FliO, FliP, FliQ, and FliR and a water-soluble ATPase ring complex consisting of FliH, FliI, and FliJ. FlgN, FliS, and FliT act as substrate-specific chaperones that do not only protect their cognate substrates from degradation and aggregation in the cytoplasm but also efficiently transfer the substrates to the export apparatus. The ATPase ring complex facilitates the initial entry of the substrates into the narrow pore of the export gate. The export gate by itself is a proton-protein antiporter that uses the two components of proton motive force, the electric potential difference and the proton concentration difference, for different steps of the export process. A specific interaction of FlhA with FliJ located in the center of the ATPase ring complex allows the export gate to efficiently use proton motive force to drive protein export. The ATPase ring complex couples ATP binding and hydrolysis to its assembly-disassembly cycle for rapid and efficient protein export cycle. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Protein trafficking and secretion in bacteria. Guest Editors: Anastassios Economou and Ross Dalbey. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Protein-protein interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byron, Olwyn; Vestergaard, Bente

    2015-01-01

    Responsive formation of protein:protein interaction (PPI) upon diverse stimuli is a fundament of cellular function. As a consequence, PPIs are complex, adaptive entities, and exist in structurally heterogeneous interplays defined by the energetic states of the free and complexed protomers......, are reported. The aim is to depict how the elucidation of the interplay of structures requires the interplay of methods....

  1. Characterisation of several ankyrin repeat protein variant 2, a phosphoprotein phosphatase 1-interacting protein, in testis and spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Joana Vieira; Korrodi-Gregório, Luís; Luers, Georg; Cardoso, Maria João; Patrício, António; Maia, Nuno; da Cruz E Silva, Edgar F; Fardilha, Margarida

    2016-06-01

    Phosphoprotein phosphatase 1 (PPP1) catalytic subunit gamma 2 (PPP1CC2), a PPP1 isoform, is largely restricted to testicular germ cells and spermatozoa. The key to understanding PPP1 regulation in male germ cells lies in the identification and characterisation of its interacting partners. This study was undertaken to determine the expression patterns of the several ankyrin repeat protein variant 2 (SARP2), a PPP1-interacting protein, in testis and spermatozoa. SARP2 was found to be highly expressed in testis and spermatozoa, and its interaction with human spermatozoa endogenous PPP1CC2 was confirmed by immunoprecipitation. Expression analysis by RT-qPCR revealed that SARP2 and PPP1CC2 mRNA levels were significantly higher in the spermatocyte fraction. However, microscopy revealed that SARP2 protein was only present in the nucleus of elongating and mature spermatids and in spermatozoa. In spermatozoa, SARP2 was prominently expressed in the connecting piece and flagellum, as well as, to a lesser extent, in the acrosome. A yeast two-hybrid approach was used to detect SARP2-interacting proteins and a relevant interaction with a novel sperm-associated antigen 9 (SPAG9) variant, a testis and spermatozoa-specific c-Jun N-terminal kinase-binding protein, was validated in human spermatozoa. Given the expression pattern of SARP2 and its association with PPP1CC2 and SPAG9, it may play a role in spermiogenesis and sperm function, namely in sperm motility and the acrosome reaction.

  2. "Depupylation" of Prokaryotic Ubiquitin-like Protein from Mycobacterial Proteasome Substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, K.E.; Li, H.; Cerda-Maira, F. A.; Wang, T.; Bishai, W. R.; Darwin, K. H.

    2010-09-10

    Ubiquitin (Ub) provides the recognition and specificity required to deliver proteins to the eukaryotic proteasome for destruction. Prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein (Pup) is functionally analogous to Ub in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), as it dooms proteins to the Mtb proteasome. Studies suggest that Pup and Ub do not share similar mechanisms of activation and conjugation to target proteins. Dop (deamidase of Pup; Mtb Rv2112c/MT2172) deamidates the C-terminal glutamine of Pup to glutamate, preparing it for ligation to target proteins by proteasome accessory factor A (PafA). While studies have shed light on the conjugation of Pup to proteins, it was not known if Pup could be removed from substrates in a manner analogous to the deconjugation of Ub from eukaryotic proteins. Here, we show that Mycobacteria have a depupylase activity provided by Dop. The discovery of a depupylase strengthens the parallels between the Pup- and Ub-tagging systems of prokaryotes and eukaryotes, respectively.

  3. Comercio electrónico del flamenco: textiles, zapatos y complementos. Electronic-commerce of flamenco: textiles, shoes and accessories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Hurtado Guapo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El flamenco forma parte del patrimonio inmaterial de la humanidad y también es considerado un sector económico de gran potencial, formando parte de las industrias culturales de España. En los últimos años las nuevas tecnologías han hecho que los productos que antes adquiríamos en las tiendas tradicionales, lleguen a nuestras casas con tan solo un click. En el siguiente artículo se realiza una búsqueda a través del motor de búsqueda Google con las palabras clave “tiendas flamenco”, recuperándose 980.000 resultados, de los cuales 482 son tiendas en línea. Tras seleccionar 100 de éstos websites de forma aleatoria, se realiza un análisis por fases, que se corresponden con las etapas de la compra de un producto en la Red basándose en el comportamiento de la búsqueda de información. Los resultados muestran, que los aspectos relacionados con los proceso de compra del producto, son los parámetros más desatendidos en las webs de las tiendas estudiadas. Flamenco is Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity, it is an economic sector and it is also part of the Cultural industries of Spain. Information and Communication Technologies (ICT can provide online purchase with (filtered to your specifications, from your desk just one click. This study began with the search engine Google using “Flamenco shops” as search term. The results showed 980,000 websites, we retrieved 482 online shops and we analyzed 100 random websites. The target of our research has been studying the cycle of purchase of flamenco textiles, shoes and accessories on each shop. Our methodology is based on human information behavior.

  4. Hemolymph circulation in insect sensory appendages: functional mechanics of antennal accessory pulsatile organs (auxiliary hearts) in the mosquito Anopheles gambiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boppana, Sushma; Hillyer, Julián F

    2014-09-01

    Mosquito antennae provide sensory input that modulates host-seeking, mating and oviposition behaviors. Thus, mosquitoes must ensure the efficient transport of molecules into and out of these appendages. To accomplish this, mosquitoes and other insects have evolved antennal accessory pulsatile organs (APOs) that drive hemolymph into the antennal space. This study characterizes the structural mechanics of hemolymph propulsion throughout the antennae of Anopheles gambiae. Using intravital video imaging, we show that mosquitoes possess paired antennal APOs that are located on each side of the head's dorsal midline. They are situated between the frons and the vertex in an area that is dorsal to the antenna but ventral to the medial-most region of the compound eyes. Antennal APOs contract in synchrony at 1 Hz, which is 45% slower than the heart. By means of histology and intravital imaging, we show that each antennal APO propels hemolymph into the antenna through an antennal vessel that traverses the length of the appendage and has an effective diameter of 1-2 μm. When hemolymph reaches the end of the appendage, it is discharged into the antennal hemocoel and returns to the head. Because a narrow vessel empties into a larger cavity, hemolymph travels up the antenna at 0.2 mm s(-1) but reduces its velocity by 75% as it returns to the head. Finally, treatment of mosquitoes with the anesthetic agent FlyNap (triethylamine) increases both antennal APO and heart contraction rates. In summary, this study presents a comprehensive functional characterization of circulatory physiology in the mosquito antennae. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. High level of sperm competition may increase transfer of accessory gland products carried by the love dart of land snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodi, Monica; Staikou, Alexandra; Janssen, Ruben; Koene, Joris M

    2017-12-01

    Postcopulatory adaptations that increase reproductive success compared to rivals, like the transfer of accessory gland products that promote paternity, are common when sperm competition occurs among males. In land snails, the dart shooting behavior and its adaptive significance, in promoting individual fitness through enhanced paternity of the successful dart shooter, have been considered such an adaptation. The fitness result gained is mediated by the transfer of mucus components on the love dart capable of altering the physiology of the receiver's reproductive tract. In this context, dart shooting and mucus transfer could be considered as processes targeted by sexual selection. While the effect of dart mucus is beneficial for the dart user, so far it has remained unknown whether its transport is greater when snails experience a higher level of sperm competition. Here, we report results of a study on inter- and intraspecific variations of dart and mucus gland morphometry, considered to be traits reflecting the ability of snails to adjust the production and transfer of mucus under varying sperm competition scenarios. We investigated four populations with different densities from four dart-bearing species, Arianta arbustorum , Cepaea nemoralis , Cornu aspersum, and Helix lucorum . The results indicate that different adaptations of these traits occur among the studied species that all seem to achieve the same goal of transferring more mucus when sperm competition is higher. For example, the presence of longer and more branched mucous glands or an increase in dart surface most likely reflect increased mucus production and enhanced ability of mucus transport, respectively. Interestingly, the species for which the use of the dart is reported to be facultative, A. arbustorum , did not show any variation among the examined traits. To conclude, sexual selection in the form of sperm competition intensity seems to be an important selective force for these simultaneously

  6. Tomographic phase analysis to detect the site of accessory conduction pathway in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, K.; Bunko, H.; Tada, A.; Tonami, N.; Taki, J.; Nanbu, I.; Hisada, K.; Misaki, T.; Iwa, T.

    1984-01-01

    Phase analysis has been applied to Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW) to detect the site of accessory conduction pathway (ACP); however, there was a limitation to estimate the precise location of ACP by planar phase analysis. In this study, the authors applied phase analysis to gated blood pool tomography. Twelve patients with WPW who underwent epicardial mapping and surgical division of ACP were studied by both of gated emission computed tomography (GECT) and routine gated blood pool study (GBPS). The GBPS was performed with Tc-99m red blood cells in multiple projections; modified left anterior oblique, right anterior oblique and/or left lateral views. In GECT, short axial, horizontal and vertical long axial blood pool images were reconstructed. Phase analysis was performed using fundamental frequency of the Fourier transform in both GECT and GBPS images, and abnormal initial contractions on both the planar and tomographic phase analysis were compared with the location of surgically confirmed ACPs. In planar phase analysis, abnormal initial phase was identified in 7 out of 12 (58%) patients, while in tomographic phase analysis, the localization of ACP was predicted in 11 out of 12 (92%) patients. Tomographic phase analysis is superior to planar phase images in 8 out of 12 patients to estimate the location of ACP. Phase analysis by GECT can avoid overlap of blood pool in cardiac chambers and has advantage to identify the propagation of phase three-dimensionally. Tomographic phase analysis is a good adjunctive method for patients with WPW to estimate the site of ACP

  7. Staphylococcus aureus interaction with phospholipid vesicles--a new method to accurately determine accessory gene regulator (agr activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisem Laabei

    Full Text Available The staphylococcal accessory gene regulatory (agr operon is a well-characterised global regulatory element that is important in the control of virulence gene expression for Staphylococcus aureus, a major human pathogen. Hence, accurate and sensitive measurement of Agr activity is central in understanding the virulence potential of Staphylococcus aureus, especially in the context of Agr dysfunction, which has been linked with persistent bacteraemia and reduced susceptibility to glycopeptide antibiotics. Agr function is typically measured using a synergistic haemolysis CAMP assay, which is believe to report on the level of expression of one of the translated products of the agr locus, delta toxin. In this study we develop a vesicle lysis test (VLT that is specific to small amphipathic peptides, most notably delta and Phenol Soluble Modulin (PSM toxins. To determine the accuracy of this VLT method in assaying Agr activity, we compared it to the CAMP assay using 89 clinical Staphylococcus aureus isolates. Of the 89 isolates, 16 were designated as having dysfunctional Agr systems by the CAMP assay, whereas only three were designated as such by VLT. Molecular analysis demonstrated that of these 16 isolates, the 13 designated as having a functional Agr system by VLT transcribed rnaIII and secreted delta toxin, demonstrating they have a functional Agr system despite the results of the CAMP assay. The agr locus of all 16 isolates was sequenced, and only the 3 designated as having a dysfunctional Agr system contained mutations, explaining their Agr dysfunction. Given the potentially important link between Agr dysfunction and clinical outcome, we have developed an assay that determines this more accurately than the conventional CAMP assay.

  8. TLR4 accessory molecule RP105 (CD180 regulates monocyte-driven arteriogenesis in a murine hind limb ischemia model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonius J N M Bastiaansen

    Full Text Available AIMS: We investigated the role of the TLR4-accessory molecule RP105 (CD180 in post-ischemic neovascularization, i.e. arteriogenesis and angiogenesis. TLR4-mediated activation of pro-inflammatory Ly6Chi monocytes is crucial for effective neovascularization. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that RP105+ monocytes are present in the perivascular space of remodeling collateral arterioles. As RP105 inhibits TLR4 signaling, we hypothesized that RP105 deficiency would lead to an unrestrained TLR4-mediated inflammatory response and hence to enhanced blood flow recovery after ischemia. METHODS AND RESULTS: RP105-/- and wild type (WT mice were subjected to hind limb ischemia and blood flow recovery was followed by Laser Doppler Perfusion Imaging. Surprisingly, we found that blood flow recovery was severely impaired in RP105-/- mice. Immunohistochemistry showed that arteriogenesis was reduced in these mice compared to the WT. However, both in vivo and ex vivo analyses showed that circulatory pro-arteriogenic Ly6Chi monocytes were more readily activated in RP105-/- mice. FACS analyses showed that Ly6Chi monocytes became activated and migrated to the affected muscle tissues in WT mice following induction of hind limb ischemia. Although Ly6Chi monocytes were readily activated in RP105-/- mice, migration into the ischemic tissues was hampered and instead, Ly6Chi monocytes accumulated in their storage compartments, bone marrow and spleen, in RP105-/- mice. CONCLUSIONS: RP105 deficiency results in an unrestrained inflammatory response and monocyte over-activation, most likely due to the lack of TLR4 regulation. Inappropriate, premature systemic activation of pro-inflammatory Ly6Chi monocytes results in reduced infiltration of Ly6Chi monocytes in ischemic tissues and in impaired blood flow recovery.

  9. Frontal plane fractures of the accessory carpal bone and implications for the carpal sheath of the digital flexor tendons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minshall, G J; Wright, I M

    2014-09-01

    Accurate radiological and ultrasonographic descriptions of frontal plane fractures of the accessory carpal bone (ACB) are lacking, and implications of these fractures for the carpal sheath and its contents have not previously been reported. Aims were as follows: 1) to describe the location and radiological features of frontal plane fractures of the ACB; 2) to document communication of displaced fractures with the carpal sheath and consequent injury to the deep digital flexor tendon (DDFT); 3) to describe ultrasonographic identification of lesions; and 4) to report tenoscopic evaluation and treatment. Retrospective case series. Analysis of frontal plane fractures of the ACB referred to a single hospital between 2006 and 2012, including review of radiographic, ultrasonographic and tenoscopic images. Nine fractures were identified, of which 8 displaced fractures all communicated with the carpal sheath. Comminuted fragments and/or protruding fracture margins lacerated the lateral margin of the enclosed DDFT. This was identifiable ultrasonographically and confirmed at tenoscopy in 7 cases. Treatment in these horses consisted of removal of torn tendon tissue together with fragmentation and protuberant fracture edges, and 7 of 7 cases returned to work. One horse with a nondisplaced fracture was managed with immobilisation; the fracture healed, and the horse returned to work. One horse with a displaced fracture was retired to stud. Frontal plane fractures of the ACB occur palmar to the groove in its lateral margin for the tendon of insertion of ulnaris lateralis. Comminuted fragments can displace distally within the carpal sheath to a mid-metacarpal level or abaxially to lie extrathecally, lateral to the parent bone. Displaced fractures communicate with the carpal sheath and traumatise the DDFT. © 2013 EVJ Ltd.

  10. Anatomical characteristics and visibility of mental foramen and accessory mental foramen: Panoramic radiography vs. cone beam CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muinelo-Lorenzo, Juan; Suárez-Quintanilla, Juan-Antonio; Fernández-Alonso, Ana; Varela-Mallou, Jesús; Suárez-Cunqueiro, María-Mercedes

    2015-11-01

    The mental foramen (MF) is a small foramen located in the anterolateral region of the mandible through which the mental nerve and vessels emerge. The knowledge on the anatomic characteristics and variations of MF is very important in surgical procedures involving that area. The aim of this study was two-fold: firstly, to analyze the anatomic characteristics of MF and the presence of accessory mental foramen (AMF) using CBCT and, secondly, to compare the capability of CBCT and PAN in terms of MF and AMF visualization, as well as influencing factors. A sample of 344 CBCT scans was analyzed for presence and characteristics (i.e. diameter, area, shape, exit angle) of MF and AMF. Subsequently, corresponding PANs were analyzed to ascertain whether MF and AMF were visible. Out of the 344 patients, 344 (100%) MFs and 45 (13%) AMFs were observed on CBCT. Regarding gender, MF diameter and area, MF-MIB and MF-MSB distances, and exit angle were all significantly higher in males. Also, statistically significant differences were found in terms of age and dental status. Statistically significant differences in MF long and short diameters and MF area were found with respect to AMF presence (p=.021, p=.008, p=.021). Only 83.87% of the MFs and 45.83% of the AMFs identified on CBCT were also visible on PANs. MF diameter, shape, exit angle, and age had a significant influence on MF visualization on PAN (B=.43, p=.005; B=-.55, p=.020; B=.20, p=.008; B=.61, p=.005). PAN is not an adequate technique to properly identify MF and AMF. Diameter, shape, exit angle, and age are all factors influencing MF visualization on PAN images. For surgery involving the MF anatomical region, a preoperative radiological study with CBCT is of crucial importance to avoid complications.

  11. Evaluation of infraspinatus reinnervation and function following spinal accessory nerve to suprascapular nerve transfer in adult traumatic brachial plexus injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltzer, Heather L; Wagner, Eric R; Kircher, Michelle F; Spinner, Robert J; Bishop, Allen T; Shin, Alexander Y

    2017-07-01

    Our objective was to determine the prevalence and quality of restored external rotation (ER) in adult brachial plexus injury (BPI) patients who underwent spinal accessory nerve (SAN) to suprascapular nerve (SSN) transfer, and to identify patient and injury factors that may influence results. Fifty-one adult traumatic BPI patients who underwent SAN to SSN transfer between 2000 and 2013, all treated less than 1 year after injury with >1 year follow-up. The primary outcome measured was shoulder ER. The outcomes we utilized included "clinically useful ER" (motion ≥ -35° with ≥MRC 2 strength), modified British Medical Research Council (MRC) grading, and electromyographic (EMG) reinnervation. EMG evidence of re-innervation was found in 85% of patients. Surgery resulted in improved ER in 41% (21/51) of shoulders at an average of 28 months follow-up. Of these, only 31% (17/51) had clinically useful ER. The average ER active range of motion was 12° from full internal rotation (Range: -60° to 90°) and MRC grade 2.2 (2-4). The only predictor of ER improvement was an isolated upper trunk (C5-C6) injury. Improved ER was clinically evident in 76%, 37% and 26% of upper trunk (UT), C5-C6-C7 and panplexus injuries, respectively (P SSN transfer failed to provide useful recovery of ER through reinnervation of the infraspinatus muscle in injuries involving more levels than a C5-C6 root/upper trunk pattern. In patients with greater than C5-6 level injuries alternatives to SAN to SSN transfer should be considered to restore shoulder ER. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery 37:365-370, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Star Ware: The Amateur Astronomer's Guide to Choosing, Buying, and Using Telescopes and Accessories, 3rd Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Philip S.

    2002-05-01

    Praise for the Second Edition of Star Ware "Star Ware is still a tour de force that any experienced amateur will find invaluable, and which hardware-minded beginners will thoroughly enjoy." -Robert Burnham, Sky & Telescope magazine "Star Ware condenses between two covers what would normally take a telescope buyer many months to accumulate." -John Shibley, Astronomy magazine Now more than ever, the backyard astronomer has a dazzling array of choices when it comes to telescope shopping-which can make choosing just the right sky-watching equipment a formidable challenge. In this revised and updated edition of Star Ware, the essential guide to buying astronomical equipment, award-winning astronomy writer Philip Harrington does the work for you, analyzing and exploring today's astronomy market and offering point-by-point comparisons of everything you need. Whether you're an experienced amateur astronomer or just getting started, Star Ware, Third Edition will prepare you to explore the farthest reaches of space with: Extensive, expanded reviews of leading models and accessories, including dozens of new products, to help you buy smart A clear, step-by-step guide to all aspects of purchasing everything from telescopes and binoculars to filters, mounts, lenses, cameras, film, star charts, guides and references, and much more Eleven new do-it-yourself projects for making unique astronomical equipment at home Easy tips on maintenance, photography, and star-mapping to help you get the most out of your telescope Lists of where to find everything astronomical, including Internet sites and Web resources; distributors, dealers, and conventions; and corporate listings for products and services

  13. The axial skeleton of Poposaurus langstoni (Pseudosuchia: Poposauroidea) and its implications for accessory intervertebral articulation evolution in pseudosuchian archosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanic, Candice M; Nesbitt, Sterling J

    2018-01-01

    Dinosaurs and their close relatives grew to sizes larger than any other terrestrial animal in the history of life on Earth, and many enormous dinosaurs (e.g., Diplodocus , Spinosaurus , Tyrannosaurus ) have accessory intervertebral articulations that have been suggested to support these large body sizes. Some pseudosuchian archosaurs have been reported to have these articulations as well, but few have been characterized in these taxa because of a lower abundance of complete, three-dimensional pseudosuchian vertebral material in relation to dinosaurs. We describe the axial column of the large (∼4-5 m) poposauroid pseudosuchian Poposaurus langstoni from the Upper Triassic of Texas (TMM Locality 31025 of the Otis Chalk localities; Dockum Group, Howard County, TX, USA). P. langstoni was originally named from pelvic girdle elements and vertebrae; here we describe newly discovered and prepared presacral vertebrae and a presacral rib from the original excavation of the holotype in the 1940s. The well-preserved vertebrae have well-defined vertebral laminae and clear hyposphene-hypantrum intervertebral articulations, character states mentioned in pseudosuchians but rarely described. The new material demonstrates variation present in the hyposphene-hypantrum articulation through the vertebral column. We compared these morphologies to other pseudosuchians with and without the hyposphene-hypantrum articulation. Based on these careful comparisons, we provide an explicit definition for the hyposphene-hypantrum articulation applicable across Archosauria. Within Pseudosuchia, we find the hyposphene-hypantrum appeared independently in the clade at least twice, but we also see the loss of these structures in clades that had them ancestrally. Furthermore, we found the presence of large body sizes (femoral lengths >∼300 mm) and the presence of the hyposphene-hypantrum is correlated in most non-crocodylomorph pseudosuchian archosaurs with a few exceptions. This result suggests that

  14. The axial skeleton of Poposaurus langstoni (Pseudosuchia: Poposauroidea and its implications for accessory intervertebral articulation evolution in pseudosuchian archosaurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candice M. Stefanic

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Dinosaurs and their close relatives grew to sizes larger than any other terrestrial animal in the history of life on Earth, and many enormous dinosaurs (e.g., Diplodocus, Spinosaurus, Tyrannosaurus have accessory intervertebral articulations that have been suggested to support these large body sizes. Some pseudosuchian archosaurs have been reported to have these articulations as well, but few have been characterized in these taxa because of a lower abundance of complete, three-dimensional pseudosuchian vertebral material in relation to dinosaurs. We describe the axial column of the large (∼4–5 m poposauroid pseudosuchian Poposaurus langstoni from the Upper Triassic of Texas (TMM Locality 31025 of the Otis Chalk localities; Dockum Group, Howard County, TX, USA. P. langstoni was originally named from pelvic girdle elements and vertebrae; here we describe newly discovered and prepared presacral vertebrae and a presacral rib from the original excavation of the holotype in the 1940s. The well-preserved vertebrae have well-defined vertebral laminae and clear hyposphene–hypantrum intervertebral articulations, character states mentioned in pseudosuchians but rarely described. The new material demonstrates variation present in the hyposphene–hypantrum articulation through the vertebral column. We compared these morphologies to other pseudosuchians with and without the hyposphene–hypantrum articulation. Based on these careful comparisons, we provide an explicit definition for the hyposphene–hypantrum articulation applicable across Archosauria. Within Pseudosuchia, we find the hyposphene–hypantrum appeared independently in the clade at least twice, but we also see the loss of these structures in clades that had them ancestrally. Furthermore, we found the presence of large body sizes (femoral lengths >∼300 mm and the presence of the hyposphene–hypantrum is correlated in most non-crocodylomorph pseudosuchian archosaurs with a few exceptions

  15. Human Spermatozoa as a Model for Detecting Missing Proteins in the Context of the Chromosome-Centric Human Proteome Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumeau, Fanny; Com, Emmanuelle; Lane, Lydie; Duek, Paula; Lagarrigue, Mélanie; Lavigne, Régis; Guillot, Laëtitia; Rondel, Karine; Gateau, Alain; Melaine, Nathalie; Guével, Blandine; Sergeant, Nicolas; Mitchell, Valérie; Pineau, Charles

    2015-09-04

    The Chromosome-Centric Human Proteome Project (C-HPP) aims at cataloguing the proteins as gene products encoded by the human genome in a chromosome-centric manner. The existence of products of about 82% of the genes has been confirmed at the protein level. However, the number of so-called "missing proteins" remains significant. It was recently suggested that the expression of proteins that have been systematically missed might be restricted to particular organs or cell types, for example, the testis. Testicular function, and spermatogenesis in particular, is conditioned by the successive activation or repression of thousands of genes and proteins including numerous germ cell- and testis-specific products. Both the testis and postmeiotic germ cells are thus promising sites at which to search for missing proteins, and ejaculated spermatozoa are a potential source of proteins whose expression is restricted to the germ cell lineage. A trans-chromosome-based data analysis was performed to catalog missing proteins in total protein extracts from isolated human spermatozoa. We have identified and manually validated peptide matches to 89 missing proteins in human spermatozoa. In addition, we carefully validated three proteins that were scored as uncertain in the latest neXtProt release (09.19.2014). A focus was then given to the 12 missing proteins encoded on chromosomes 2 and 14, some of which may putatively play roles in ciliation and flagellum mechanistics. The expression pattern of C2orf57 and TEX37 was confirmed in the adult testis by immunohistochemistry. On the basis of transcript expression during human spermatogenesis, we further consider the potential for discovering additional missing proteins in the testicular postmeiotic germ cell lineage and in ejaculated spermatozoa. This project was conducted as part of the C-HPP initiatives on chromosomes 14 (France) and 2 (Switzerland). The mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited with the Proteome

  16. Crystal Structure of the Flagellar Rotor Protein FliN from Thermotoga maritima†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Perry N.; Mathews, Michael A. A.; Joss, Lisa A.; Hill, Christopher P.; Blair, David F.

    2005-01-01

    FliN is a component of the bacterial flagellum that is present at levels of more than 100 copies and forms the bulk of the C ring, a drum-shaped structure at the inner end of the basal body. FliN interacts with FliG and FliM to form the rotor-mounted switch complex that controls clockwise-counterclockwise switching of the motor. In addition to its functions in motor rotation and switching, FliN is thought to have a role in the export of proteins that form the exterior structures of the flagellum (the rod, hook, and filament). Here, we describe the crystal structure of most of the FliN protein of Thermotoga maritima. FliN is a tightly intertwined dimer composed mostly of β sheet. Several well-conserved hydrophobic residues form a nonpolar patch on the surface of the molecule. A mutation in the hydrophobic patch affected both flagellar assembly and switching, showing that this surface feature is important for FliN function. The association state of FliN in solution was studied by analytical ultracentrifugation, which provided clues to the higher-level organization of the protein. T. maritima FliN is primarily a dimer in solution, and T. maritima FliN and FliM together form a stable FliM1-FliN4 complex. Escherichia coli FliN forms a stable tetramer in solution. The arrangement of FliN subunits in the tetramer was modeled by reference to the crystal structure of tetrameric HrcQBC, a related protein that functions in virulence factor secretion in Pseudomonas syringae. The modeled tetramer is elongated, with approximate dimensions of 110 by 40 by 35Å, and it has a large hydrophobic cleft formed from the hydrophobic patches on the dimers. On the basis of the present data and available electron microscopic images, we propose a model for the organization of FliN subunits in the C ring. PMID:15805535

  17. Comparative Outer Membrane Protein Analysis of High and Low-Invasive Strains of Cronobacter malonaticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha A. Aldubyan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cronobacter are an important group of foodborne pathogens that has been linked to life-threatening infections in both infants and adults. The major infections associated with Cronobacter species are neonatal meningitis, necrotizing enterocolitis, and septicaemia. There are seven species in the Cronobacter genus, of which only three are of clinical importance; Cronobacter sakazakii, Cronobacter malonaticus, and Cronobacter turicensis. To date most studies have focussed on C. sakazakii as it is the major species associated with neonatal infections. However, recently C. malonaticus, in particular sequence type 7 (ST7, has been noted as being prevalent in adult infections and therefore warranting further investigation. In this study, eight strains of C. malonaticus ST7, that had been isolated from a wide range of sources and varied in their in vitro virulence, were chosen for proteomic analysis of their outer membrane proteins (OMPs. One-dimensional gel analysis revealed a ~29 kDa size band that was only present in the highly invasive strains. Subsequent mass spectrometric analysis identified several peptides that matched the flagellin protein. The presence of flagellin protein was confirmed in 2D gel spot. Mass spectrometry analysis of total OMPs revealed that the four highly invasive C. malonaticus strains expressed the main flagellum proteins that were absent from the four low invasive strains. These were the flagellar hook protein FlgE, flagellar hook-associated protein 1, flagellar hook-associated protein, flagellin, and flagellar hook-filament junction protein FlgL. This data indicates that C. malonaticus flagellar proteins may have an important role in the organism's invasion properties.

  18. A mutation in the DNA polymerase accessory factor of herpes simplex virus 1 restores viral DNA replication in the presence of raltegravir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bin; Yang, Kui; Wills, Elizabeth; Tang, Liang; Baines, Joel D

    2014-10-01

    Previous reports showed that raltegravir, a recently approved antiviral compound that targets HIV integrase, can inhibit the nuclease function of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV terminase) in vitro. In this study, subtoxic levels of raltegravir were shown to inhibit the replication of four different herpesviruses, herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), HSV-2, HCMV, and mouse cytomegalovirus, by 30- to 700-fold, depending on the dose and the virus tested. Southern blotting and quantitative PCR revealed that raltegravir inhibits DNA replication of HSV-1 rather than cleavage of viral DNA. A raltegravir-resistant HSV-1 mutant was generated by repeated passage in the presence of 200 μM raltegravir. The genomic sequence of the resistant virus, designated clone 7, contained mutations in 16 open reading frames. Of these, the mutations F198S in unique long region 15 (UL15; encoding the large terminase subunit), A374V in UL32 (required for DNA cleavage and packaging), V296I in UL42 (encoding the DNA polymerase accessory factor), and A224S in UL54 (encoding ICP27, an important transcriptional regulator) were introduced independently into the wild-type HSV-1(F) genome, and the recombinant viruses were tested for raltegravir resistance. Viruses bearing both the UL15 and UL32 mutations inserted within the genome of the UL42 mutant were also tested. While the UL15, UL32, and UL54 mutant viruses were fully susceptible to raltegravir, any virus bearing the UL42 mutation was as resistant to raltegravir as clone 7. Overall, these results suggest that raltegravir may be a valuable therapeutic agent against herpesviruses and the antiviral activity targets the DNA polymerase accessory factor rather than the nuclease activity of the terminase. This paper shows that raltegravir, the antiretrovirus drug targeting integrase, is effective against various herpesviruses. Drug resistance mapped to the herpesvirus DNA polymerase accessory factor, which was an unexpected finding. Copyright © 2014

  19. Minimally invasive surgical instruments with an accessory channel capable of integrating fibre-optic cable for optical biopsy: a review of the state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelínek, Filip; Arkenbout, Ewout A; Sakes, Aimée; Breedveld, Paul

    2014-08-01

    This review article provides a comprehensive overview and classification of minimally invasive surgical instruments with an accessory channel incorporating fibreoptics or another auxiliary device for various purposes. More specifically, this review was performed with the focus on the newly emerging field of optical biopsy, its objective being to discuss primarily the instruments capable of carrying out the optical biopsy and subsequent tissue resection. Instruments housing the fibreoptics for other uses, as well as instruments with an accessory channel capable of housing the fibreoptics instead of their original auxiliary device after relevant design modifications, supplement the review. The entire Espacenet and Scopus databases were searched, yielding numerous patents and articles on conceptual and existing instruments satisfying the criteria. The instruments were categorised based on the function the fibreoptics or the auxiliary device serves. On the basis of their geometrical placement with respect to the tissue resector or manipulator, the subcategories were further defined. This subdivision was used to identify the feasibility of performing the optical biopsy and the tissue resection in an accurate and successive fashion. In general, the existing concepts or instruments are regarded as limited with regard to such a functionality, either due to the placement of their accessory channel with or without the fibreoptics or due to the operational restrictions of their tissue manipulators. A novel opto-mechanical biopsy harvester, currently under development at Delft University of Technology, is suggested as a promising alternative, ensuring a fast and accurate succession of the optical and the mechanical biopsies of a flat superficial tissue. © IMechE 2014.

  20. Independent evolution of the core and accessory gene sets in the genus Neisseria: insights gained from the genome of Neisseria lactamica isolate 020-06

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Brian

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Neisseria contains two important yet very different pathogens, N. meningitidis and N. gonorrhoeae, in addition to non-pathogenic species, of which N. lactamica is the best characterized. Genomic comparisons of these three bacteria will provide insights into the mechanisms and evolution of pathogenesis in this group of organisms, which are applicable to understanding these processes more generally. Results Non-pathogenic N. lactamica exhibits very similar population structure and levels of diversity to the meningococcus, whilst gonococci are essentially recent descendents of a single clone. All three species share a common core gene set estimated to comprise around 1190 CDSs, corresponding to about 60% of the genome. However, some of the nucleotide sequence diversity within this core genome is particular to each group, indicating that cross-species recombination is rare in this shared core gene set. Other than the meningococcal cps region, which encodes the polysaccharide capsule, relatively few members of the large accessory gene pool are exclusive to one species group, and cross-species recombination within this accessory genome is frequent. Conclusion The three Neisseria species groups represent coherent biological and genetic groupings which appear to be maintained by low rates of inter-species horizontal genetic exchange within the core genome. There is extensive evidence for exchange among positively selected genes and the accessory genome and some evidence of hitch-hiking of housekeeping genes with other loci. It is not possible to define a 'pathogenome' for this group of organisms and the disease causing phenotypes are therefore likely to be complex, polygenic, and different among the various disease-associated phenotypes observed.