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Sample records for fjord catchment denmark

  1. Pelagic and benthic nutrient regeneration processes in mussel cultures (Mytilus edulis) in a eutrophic coastal area (Skive Fjord, Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmer, Marianne; Thorsen, Sandra Walløe; Carlsson, Marita Sundstein

    2015-01-01

    Long-line mussel farming has been proposed as a mitigation tool in eutrophic coastal areas as nutrients are removed from the ecosystem upon harvest of the crops and transferred back to land. Further mussels filter the water and thereby increase water transparency and promote benthic plant growth...... of this study was to explore the environmental interactions of a long-line mussel farm located in a eutrophic coastal area (Skive Fjord, Denmark) by studying the nutrient cycling in the water column and sediments and assessing their contribution to the nutrient dynamics and oxygen conditions in the fjord....... The mussel lines contributed with nutrients, primarily ammonium, to the pool of nutrients in the water column and the contribution increased as the biomass of mussels in the farm increased. The sedimentation of biodeposits was only slightly higher at the farm (51–86 %) compared with a reference site...

  2. Negative effects of blue mussel ( Mytilus edulis) presence in eelgrass ( Zostera marina) beds in Flensborg fjord, Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinther, Hanne Fogh; Laursen, Jens Sund; Holmer, Marianne

    2008-03-01

    The effect of blue mussel ( Mytilus edulis) presence in eelgrass ( Zostera marina) beds was studied from June 2004 to July 2005 in Flensborg fjord, Denmark. The field experiments were conducted at two stations, one with only Z. marina (Eelgrass station) present and one where M. edulis were present in the Z. marina beds (Mixed station). Zostera marina parameters were measured (growth of leaves, shoot density, leaf length, and nutrient content) in combination with epiphyte cover and sediment parameters (sulphate reduction rates, sediment nutrient fluxes, organic content, C, N and P content) to examine possible positive and negative effects of the mussels on eelgrass performance. The fluxes of ammonium from the sediments were stimulated at all sampling dates at the Mixed station, and possibly stimulated epiphyte growth at this station. Further 15N signals in epiphytes from the Mixed station suggested that excretion products from the mussels were important nitrogen sources at this station. Sulphate reduction rates were enhanced at the Mixed station and also sediment sulphide concentrations increased under mussel influence, which may have resulted in sulphide toxicity and decreased growth of Z. marina at this station. The study indicates that for Z. marina beds in Flensborg Fjord the effects of M. edulis in seagrass beds are primarily negative, and raises the question whether this leads to negative effects on the stability and expansion of Z. marina beds.

  3. Role of sulfate reduction and methane production by organic carbon degradation ineutrophic fjord sediments (Limfjorden, Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Bo Barker; Parkes, R. John

    2010-01-01

    The anaerobic mineralization of buried organic matter through sulfate reduction and methanogenesis was studied in 2-m-long piston cores of organic-rich, silty-clay sediment from two sites in Limfjorden, Denmark. An extended sulfate-methane transition (SMT) zone was found at 1-1.5-m sediment depth...

  4. Interplay between filter-feeding zoobenthos and hydrodynamics in the shallow Odense Fjord (Denmark) - Earlier and recent studies, perspectives and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riisgård, H. U.; Lassen, J.; Kortegaard, M.; Møller, L. F.; Friedrichs, M.; Jensen, M. H.; Larsen, P. S.

    2007-11-01

    The shallow Odense Fjord (Denmark) is characterized by a large biomass of filter-feeding polychaetes ( Nereis diversicolor), clams ( Mya arenaria), cockles ( Cerastoderma glaucum), and amphipods ( Corophium volutator). The present paper summarizes studies on zoobenthic filter-feeding in Odense Fjord from the last 10 years. The general principles discovered are extracted and compared to available tools for modelling of the primary characteristics of interplay between benthic filter-feeders and hydrodynamics. Earlier works have been supplemented with data from a recent field study conducted in the shallow inner part of the fjord. Based on data from this study site, the reduction in phytoplankton for fully mixed and incompletely mixed flows has been modelled. It was found that fully mixed flow results in a potential half-life for phytoplankton of only 1.3 h, whereas for the incompletely mixed water the half-life is 2.7 times longer. The field measurements clearly demonstrate the presence of a strong interplay between filter-feeders and hydrodynamics, but although a certain grazing impact is evident from vertical chlorophyll a profiles with often strongly reduced near-bottom concentrations it is not straightforward to identify and model even the main bio-physical processes that prevent the dense populations of filter-feeders to completely control the phytoplankton biomass in Odense Fjord.

  5. Glacio-tectonic thrust and deformation structures in the Vejle Fjord, Denmark revealed by high-resolution subbottom-profile data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Katrine Juul; Boldreel, Lars Ole; Wahlgreen, Katrine Bak;

    Surface geomorphological features and partial cliff exposures up till now represent the predominant source of information of glaciation related deformation in Denmark. In this study we apply high-resolution marine reflection seismic data from the Vejle Fjord area, supported by gravity and Rumohr...... of the fjord. To the north, the deformation is expressed by complex internal reflection patterns within discrete sedimentary units including faults and smaller thrust-structures and associated small-scale folding. Channel incisions and clear reflection relations (i.e. truncations, onlaps and downlaps) reveal...... indicating severe deformation which most likely reflects ice progression from a southerly direction; for instance by the Young Baltic Ice Stream c. 19-17 ka. A thick and undisturbed build-out sequence can be observed to the north and in front of the thrust-belt probably representing meltwater sedimentation...

  6. Water quality improvements from afforestation in an agricultural catchment in Denmark illustrated with the INCA model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastrup-Birk, A.; Gundersen, P.

    2004-01-01

    Intensive agricultural land use across Europe has altered nitrogen (N) budget of catchments substantially, causing widespread N pollution of freshwater. Although the N cycle in forests has changed due to increased N deposition, most forest soil waters in Europe have low nitrate concentrations....... The protective function of forests on water quality has led to increasing interest in the planting of new forests on arable land as a measure to protect valuable or sensitive freshwater resources. The paper illustrates the effects of afforestation on water and N cycling using the Integrated Nitrogen Catchment...... (INCA) model. The model was calibrated on the Horndrup catchment in the eastern part of Jutland, Denmark, which is dominated by agricultural land use but also covered by 18% of forest land. The dynamics of nitrate concentrations in the stream water were simulated successfully by INCA over a three...

  7. Influence of water column dynamics on sulfide oxidation and other major biogeochemical processes in the chemocline of Mariager Fjord (Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zopfi, J.; Ferdelman, TG; Jørgensen, BB

    2001-01-01

    Major electron donors (H2S, NH4+, Mn2+, Fe2+) and accepters (O-2, NO3-, Mn(IV), Fe(III)), process rates ((SO42-)-S-35 reduction, dark (CO2)-C-14 fixation) and vertical fluxes were investigated to quantify the dominant biogeochemical processes at the chemocline of a shallow brackish fjord. Under s...

  8. Documenting success stories of management of phosphorus emissions at catchment scale: an example from the pilot river Odense, Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronvang, B; Tornbjerg, H; Hoffmann, C C; Poulsen, J R; Windolf, J

    2016-11-01

    Documentation of the effects of different mitigation measures adopted at different scales to reduce phosphorus (P) loadings to surface waters is needed to help catchment managers select the best management practices. Water quality monitoring data from the outlets of two paired catchments (the river Odense catchment versus a neighbouring control catchment) on the island of Funen, Denmark, showed significantly different trends in annual flow-weighted P concentrations during the period 2000-2013. A significant downward trend in flow-weighted particulate P (PP) concentrations (0.051 mg P L(-1)) and loss (0.155 kg P ha(-1)) was detected for the river Odense catchment, whereas a similar trend did not emerge in the control catchment. The observed differences in PP reductions may be due to wetlands acting as P sinks since wetland restoration activities have been much more comprehensive in the river Odense catchment (1.8 ha wetlands km(-2)) than in the control catchment (0.5 ha wetland km(-2)). The excess downward trend in total P and PP in the river Odense catchment (5,600 kg P and 3,700 kg P) is corroborated by extrapolating the results from a mass-balance study and 10 years of in situ measurements of P storage (3,700 kg P and 15,000 kg P).

  9. Water quality improvements from afforestation in an agricultural catchment in Denmark illustrated with the INCA model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bastrup-Birk

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Intensive agricultural land use across Europe has altered nitrogen (N budget of catchments substantially, causing widespread N pollution of freshwater. Although the N cycle in forests has changed due to increased N deposition, most forest soil waters in Europe have low nitrate concentrations. The protective function of forests on water quality has led to increasing interest in the planting of new forests on arable land as a measure to protect valuable or sensitive freshwater resources. The paper illustrates the effects of afforestation on water and N cycling using the Integrated Nitrogen Catchment (INCA model. The model was calibrated on the Horndrup catchment in the eastern part of Jutland, Denmark, which is dominated by agricultural land use but also covered by 18% of forest land. The dynamics of nitrate concentrations in the stream water were simulated successfully by INCA over a three-year period. The simulation of the dynamics of nitrate concentrations in the soil water is closely linked to the simulation of the hydrological dynamics and especially to the rainfall. The best fit was achieved for both arable and forest land during the wettest year of the study period. The model was then used to simulate the effect of afforestation of a catchment dominated by agriculture on N fluxes with seepage and runoff. Scenarios of whole catchment conversion to forest were run, based on observations of evapotranspiration and N deposition from other Danish sites. The simulated conversion to mature forest reduced runoff by 30–45% and reduced the nitrate concentrations in the soil water by 50–70%. The simulated effect of afforestation on N leaching was an almost direct reflection of the change in the N input: substantial changes in the plant demand and soil N dynamics over the afforestation period were not simulated. To simulate the N dynamics over longer time-scales, appropriate for the study of afforestation, it is suggested that the INCA model be run

  10. Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickson, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Denmark is well-known for its design and designed products. Industrial design is widely recognised as a competitive factor, but as the following section suggests, a large number of SMEs still are not aware of the competitive edge they could attain through using the potential of design and the Cre......Denmark is well-known for its design and designed products. Industrial design is widely recognised as a competitive factor, but as the following section suggests, a large number of SMEs still are not aware of the competitive edge they could attain through using the potential of design...

  11. Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Natalie Videbæk

    2015-01-01

    The chapter explains the legal framework concerning transgender and transsexual persons in Denmark, statistics, the procedures and requirements for changing legal sex and/or gender, the legal consequences of the changes as regards rights and duties of the person, and the legal challenges of the r......The chapter explains the legal framework concerning transgender and transsexual persons in Denmark, statistics, the procedures and requirements for changing legal sex and/or gender, the legal consequences of the changes as regards rights and duties of the person, and the legal challenges...

  12. Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis Hansen, Søren

    2016-01-01

    The Danish Tax Treaty case of 2014 is the case reported as SKM2014.347.HR,[1] decided by the Supreme Court (Højesteret) on 14 February 2014. The case deals with a taxable loss on shares allocated to a Permanent Establishment located in Denmark belonging to an Aktiengesellschaft (AG) resident...

  13. Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-01

    Denmark is predominantly a low, flat land with such resources as oil, gas and arable land. The Danish are comprised of Scandinavian, Eskimo, Faroese and German peoples, and the languages spoken include Danish, Farese, Greenlandic and some German. The Danish enjoy a literacy rate of nearly 100%, and school attendance is 100%. The Danes are a homogeneous Gothic-Germanic people who have lived in Denmark since the prehistoric period. The Evangelical Lutheran Church is supported by 97% of the population; however, other religions are present. The government of Denmark is a constitutional monarchy with an executive, legislative and judicial branch. The political life is democratic, and compromise is a very important component of the political life of Denmark as many parties and factions must work together. Support for cultural growth comes from the Ministry of Cultural Affairs which subsidizes projects, training other cultural activities. The infant mortality rate is 8.2/1000. Life expectancy for men is 71.5 and for women 77.5.

  14. Impact of landscape characteristics on the stream carbon and nitrogen export: example of a small agricultural catchment in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wohlfart, T.; Exbrayat, J.F.; Schelde, Kirsten;

    2012-01-01

    Agriculture plays an important role on the environment, notably the quality of water draining cultivated soils. Understanding the relationship between landscape characteristics and stream quality is crucial to sustain a good quality of water and to develop adapted policies. Therefore, this study...... investigates the relative influence of different landscape characteristics on carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) losses into streams. It not only focuses on the "classical" agricultural nitrogen pollutants of nitrate (NO3) and ammonia (NH4) but also hypothesises that dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) is an important...... pathways of N losses. In the Bjerringbro area in central Jutland, Denmark, the landscape is dominated by intensively managed croplands draining into the Tyrebaekken creek. More precisely, one northern and one southern stream run through the catchment (842.7 ha) before converging to form a second order...

  15. Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breitenbauch, Henrik Ø.

    2014-01-01

    The report identifies conditions for the successful interactions of national security and defence stakeholders in the strategic framework of comprehensive security and integrated defence. It reviews the literature on comprehensive and integrated approaches to complex security and defence challenges...... and extracts some key factors underpinning the effective whole-of-government and whole-of-society efforts. It then considers experiences of several nations – Denmark, Finland, The Netherlands and Sweden – in building integrated security and defence systems. Finally, the paper investigates the ‘state of play...

  16. Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tilsted, Hans-Henrik; Ahlehoff, Ole; Terkelsen, Christian J

    2017-01-01

    Interventional cardiology in Denmark has been carried out since the mid 1980s. Interventional cardiology is only performed at a few high-volume centres. Healthcare coverage is universal and is essentially free of charge. Hospitals are mostly publicly owned and financed by fixed budgets and, in part...... a plateau in recent years, whereas structural heart interventions, in particular TAVI, are increasing. Around 90% of all patients treated with PCI have a stent implanted, with more than 95% of these being drug-eluting stents. There is a low but increasing use of bioabsorbable scaffolds and drug...

  17. Freshwater flux to Sermilik Fjord, SE Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Mernild

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Fluctuations in terrestrial surface freshwater flux to Sermilik Fjord, SE Greenland, were simulated and analyzed. SnowModel, a state-of-the-art snow-evolution, snow and ice melt, and runoff modeling system, was used to simulate the temporal and spatial terrestrial runoff distribution to the fjord based on observed meteorological data (1999–2008 from stations located on and around the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS. Simulated runoff was compared and verified against independent glacier catchment runoff observations (1999–2005. Modeled runoff to Sermilik Fjord was highly variable, ranging from 2.9×109 m3 y−1 in 1999 to 5.9×109 m3 y−1 in 2005. The uneven spatial runoff distribution produced an areally-averaged annual maximum runoff at the Helheim glacier terminus of more than 3.8 m w.eq. The sub-catchment runoff of the Helheim glacier region accounted for 25% of the total runoff to Sermilik Fjord. The runoff distribution from the different sub-catchments suggested a strong influence from the spatial variation in glacier coverage. To assess the Sermilik Fjord freshwater flux, simulated terrestrial runoff and net precipitation (precipitation minus evaporation and sublimation for the fjord area were combined with satellite-derived ice discharge and subglacial geothermal and frictional melting due to basal ice motion. A terrestrial freshwater flux of ~40.4×109 m3 y−1 was found for Sermilik Fjord, with an 11% contribution originated from surface runoff. For the Helheim glacier sub-catchment only 4% of the flux originated from terrestrial surface runoff.

  18. Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blach-Ørsten, Mark; Hartley, Jannie Møller; Flensburg, Sofie

    2017-01-01

    In Denmark the public debate on media ethics and accountability has seen an all-time high in recent years, culminating, in 2013, with an update of the common and institutionalised guidelines for press ethics. As recently as the summer 2014, in light of a media hacking scandal, the politicians again...... the media industry and the government complicated the development of broadly accepted official rules and sanctions. Finally, political intervention in 1992 established a Press Council, which is now well institutionalized and widely accepted. Internal ethical guidelines have been unusual in the media...... industry, but, in the late 1980s and 1990s the three largest national dailies developed ethical guidelines, and in the last five to seven years more and more news media have followed. Today 64% of the news media are subject to such rules, most of which are to be found on the websites of the media...

  19. Freshwater flux to Sermilik Fjord, SE Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Mernild

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial inputs of freshwater flux to Sermilik Fjord, SE Greenland, were estimated, indicating ice discharge to be the dominant source of freshwater. A freshwater flux of 40.4 ± 4.9×109 m3 y−1 was found (1999–2008, with an 85% contribution originated from ice discharge (65% alone from Helheim Glacier, 11% from terrestrial surface runoff (from melt water and rain, 3% from precipitation at the fjord surface area, and 1% from subglacial geothermal and frictional melting due to basal ice motion. The results demonstrate the dominance of ice discharge as a primary mechanism for delivering freshwater to Sermilik Fjord. Time series of ice discharge for Helheim Glacier, Midgård Glacier, and Fenris Glacier were calculated from satellite-derived average surface velocity, glacier width, and estimated ice thickness, and fluctuations in terrestrial surface freshwater runoff were simulated based on observed meteorological data. These simulations were compared and bias corrected against independent glacier catchment runoff observations. Modeled runoff to Sermilik Fjord was variable, ranging from 2.9 ± 0.4×109 m3 y−1 in 1999 to 5.9 ± 0.9×109 m3 y−1 in 2005. The sub-catchment runoff of the Helheim Glacier region accounted for 25% of the total runoff to Sermilik Fjord. The runoff distribution from the different sub-catchments suggested a strong influence from the spatial variation in glacier coverage, indicating high runoff volumes, where glacier cover was present at low elevations.

  20. A Way to Measure the Residual Flow in the Lim Fjord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    The Lim fjord in Denmark has two connections to the open sea. Therefore the residual flow through the Lim fjord is an important parameter in relation to salinity and concentration on nutrients. It is described how it has been possible to determine the residual flow from the observation...

  1. Validation of SMOS L1C and L2 Products and Important Parameters of the Retrieval Algorithm in the Skjern River Catchment, Western Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bircher, Simone; Skou, Niels; Kerr, Yann H.

    2013-01-01

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite with a passive L-band radiometer monitors surface soil moisture. In addition to soil moisture, vegetation optical thickness tau(NAD) is retrieved (L2 product) from brightness temperatures (T-B, L1C product) using an algorithm based on the L...... and the most sensitive algorithm parameters were analyzed by network and airborne campaign data collected within one SMOS pixel (44 km diameter). The SMOS retrieval is based on the prevailing low vegetation class. For the L1C comparison, T-B's were calculated from in situ soil moisture using L-MEB. Consistent......-band Microwave Emission of the Biosphere (L-MEB) model with initial guesses on the two parameters (derived from ECMWF products and ECOCLIMAP Leaf Area Index, respectively) and other auxiliary input. This paper presents the validation work carried out in the Skjern River Catchment, Denmark. L1C/L2 data...

  2. A multi-criteria, ecosystem-service value method used to assess catchment suitability for potential wetland reconstruction in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Mette Vestergaard; Turner, Katrine Grace; Bøcher, Peder Klith

    2017-01-01

    were identified with an especially high suitability when optimizing all scenarios. This coincides with a high suitability around peri-urban and urban areas and near natural areas, hence capturing both supply and demand services. Of the 35 identified catchments with potentially high suitability, only 2......Wetlands provide a range of ecosystem services such as drought resistance, flood resistance, nutrient deposition, biodiversity, etc. This study presents a new multi-criteria, ecosystems service value-driven method to drive the optimal placement of restored wetlands in terms of maximizing selected...... ecosystem services which a wetland can provide or affect. We aim to answer two questions: 1) which of the ecosystem services indicators defines the placement of wetlands today? 2) Based on the ecosystem services indicator assessment, what are the recommendations for future selection of catchments...

  3. Catchment scale modelling of changes in pesticide leaching under present and future climate conditions. Demonstrated for two cases in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Keur, P.; Henriksen, H.; Sonnenborg, T.; van Roosmalen, L.; Rosenbom, A. E.; Olesen, J. E.; Kjaer, J.; Jørgensen, L. N.; Christensen, O. B.

    2011-12-01

    A catchment scale model MACRO-MIKE SHE is applied for simulating changes in pesticide concentrations to the aquatic environment. The MACRO model is used to model the effect of changes in climate and pesticide management on pesticide leaching from the unsaturated zone and simulated percolation as well as solute flow is propagated to the MIKE SHE model. The intensity based bias correction method for converting from Regional Climate Modelling data to hydrological input data is the most appropriate method as it best reflects changes in rainfall intensity, and thus also in intensity for MACRO simulated percolation and solute flow. Results show that increased percolation simulated by the MACRO model and propagated to the MIKE SHE model nearly all ends up in increased drainage to the river. Further, pesticide solute entering the saturated zone (SZ) is mainly leaving SZ via drainage (85-94%), base flow (3.8-11.3%) and overland flow (0-3.1 %). Mean concentrations in groundwater (SZ) increase by 30-99% for one type of herbicide under future climatic conditions, whereas mean concentrations decrease for two other types by app. 93 and 91 % respectively. Future climatic conditions lead to higher concentrations in surface water for the first type of herbicides, but to decreased concentrations for the another type of herbicide and insecticide. It is overall concluded that an integrated catchment scale modeling approach is essential for pesticide fate simulation taking account of all possible hydrologic pathways.

  4. Modelling the impact of soakaway retrofits on combined sewage overflows in a 3km2 urban catchment in Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roldin, Maria Kerstin; Fryd, Ole; Jeppesen, Jan;

    2012-01-01

    -step approach that employed GIS analyses and physically distributed, dynamic pipe flow modelling in an iterative manner, this study estimates the impact of infiltration on combined sewage overflows (CSOs) in a 3km2 urban catchment in Copenhagen. The first step was the creation of a baseline scenario. The second...... a more realistic scenario where only 8% of the impervious area was connected to soakaways and the reduction in CSO volume was 24%. The potential and realistic scenarios were modelled both with hydraulic coupling between soakaway and sewer, and as fully disconnected. Results show that infiltration...... is constrained mainly by the quality of the stormwater runoff from roads and limited land availability in the potential infiltration scenario, and by low-permeable soils and a problematically high groundwater level in the realistic infiltration scenario. The hydraulically coupled model gives higher CSO volume...

  5. Hydrozoa, fjord Comau, Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galea, H. R.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The shallow-water hydrozoan fauna of fjordComau is surveyed. A total of thirty three specieswere recorded. They have been assigned to eightfamilies of Athecata, eight families of Thecata,two families of Narcomedusae and one family ofTrachymedusae. Their ecology is brieflydiscussed.

  6. Bathymetry of Greenland Fjords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, J. R.; Boghosian, A.; Tinto, K. J.; Bell, R. E.; Porter, D. F.

    2013-12-01

    Operation IceBridge (OIB) has performed extensive airborne gravity surveys of Greenlandic fjords in order to model their bathymetry. Bathymetry inversions from gravity data provide a model of the fjord bathymetry in areas that are otherwise difficult to survey. We use these gravity surveys along with other OIB datasets to create bathymetry models for fjords surveyed by OIB from 2009-2012. These models allow us to estimate depths to the grounding line in areas with poor radar returns and sill depths and overdeepenings in the fjords. Models have been constructed by combining ice-surface and ice-thickness data from coincident OIB lidar and radar surveys. The inversion of gravity anomalies to bathymetry models is dependent on assumptions of both local and regional variations in geology. Local variations can often be identified with OIB magnetic anomalies. Regional geoid variations produce long-wavelength gravity anomalies that are part of the observed gravity, but not present in the forward modeled gravity over the known bed. This effect varies in magnitude around Greenland. In long fjords, removing the long-wavelength components of the observed anomalies reduces the uncertainties from regional geological variations. The average combined error for absolute model depths varies regionally between 50 m and 200 m. The error budget takes into account the measurement uncertainty of the gravity survey along with sensitivity of the model to regional gravity corrections and the point at which the model is pinned to known bed. Gravity inversions model bathymetry at ~5 km wavelengths, while bed topography onshore is known at a higher resolution from radar surveys. This change of length scale must be taken into account when using bathymetry models to consider grounding line morphology as well as when combining modeled bathymetry with offshore bathymetric data. Models can be improved by pinning to ship surveys of offshore bathymetry. Our dataset has incorporated available offshore

  7. Geoengineering Glacial Fjords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolovick, M.; Sergienko, O. V.

    2016-12-01

    Mass loss from Greenland and Antarctica is highly sensitive to the presence of warm ocean water that drives melting of ice shelves and marine terminated glaciers. This warm water resides offshore at depth and accesses the ice-shelf cavities and glacier fjords through deep but narrow troughs carved across the continental shelf. Here, we investigate the possibility of blocking warm water transport through these choke points with an artificial sill. Using a simple width-averaged model of ice stream flow coupled to a melt-driven plume flow, we find that grounding line retreat and sea level rise can be delayed (or potentially reversed depending on glacier geometries) for hundreds of years if warm water is prevented from accessing outlet glaciers and ice-shelf cavities. In our simulations, glaciers with a floating tongue exhibit a strong response to the presence of the artificial sill; while the response of glaciers without a floating tongue depends on the choice of calving law. We conclude by comparing the scale of the artificial sills with the scale of other large public works projects.

  8. Marine migrations in anadromous brown trout (Salmo trutta). Fjord residency as a possible alternative in the continuum of migration to the open sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Villar, Diego; Aarestrup, Kim; Skov, Christian;

    2014-01-01

    Partial migration is a common phenomenon in many fish species. Trout (Salmo trutta) is a partially migratory species where some part of the population migrate to the marine environment, while another remains in freshwater. In the years 2008 and 2009, a total of 159 wild sea trout smolts were tagged...... with acoustic and PIT-tags in the river Villestrup (Denmark) to study the initial postsmolt marine behaviour within a fjord system. We found that the strategies of the sea migrants vary: some stay in the fjord, while others migrate to the sea, suggesting that partial migration occurs even in the marine...... environments. Overall, a total of 53% of the tagged smolts migrated from the fjord to the sea, and 47% stayed (or potentially died) in the fjord. The ratios of fjord-resident versus seamigrating postsmolts were consistent at the study times, and no differences between the early and late migration periods...

  9. Mesozooplankton size data from the fjord branch Kapisigdlit located in the Godthaabsfjord system, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    branch, in the middle of a shallower inner creek . St. 1-4 was covering deeper parts of the fjord, and St. 5 was located on the slope leading up to the shallow inner creek. Mesozooplankton was sampled by vertical net tows using a Hydrobios Multinet (type Mini) equipped with a flow meter and 50 µm mesh......Sampling was conducted from March 24 to August 5 2010, in the fjord branch Kapisigdlit located in the inner part of the Godthåbsfjord system, West Greenland. The vessel "Lille Masik" was used during all cruises except on June 17-18 where sampling was done from RV Dana (National Institute...... for Aquatic Resources, Denmark). A total of 15 cruises (of 1-2 days duration) 7-10 days apart was carried out along a transect composed of 6 stations (St.), spanning the length of the 26 km long fjord branch. St. 1 was located at the mouth of the fjord branch and St. 6 was located at the end of the fjord...

  10. Mesozooplankton abundance data from the fjord branch Kapisigdlit located in the Godthaabsfjord system, West Greenland, 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    branch, in the middle of a shallower inner creek . St. 1-4 was covering deeper parts of the fjord, and St. 5 was located on the slope leading up to the shallow inner creek. Mesozooplankton was sampled by vertical net tows using a Hydrobios Multinet (type Mini) equipped with a flow meter and 50 µm mesh......Sampling was conducted from March 24 to August 5 2010, in the fjord branch Kapisigdlit located in the inner part of the Godthåbsfjord system, West Greenland. The vessel "Lille Masik" was used during all cruises except on June 17-18 where sampling was done from RV Dana (National Institute...... for Aquatic Resources, Denmark). A total of 15 cruises (of 1-2 days duration) 7-10 days apart was carried out along a transect composed of 6 stations (St.), spanning the length of the 26 km long fjord branch. St. 1 was located at the mouth of the fjord branch and St. 6 was located at the end of the fjord...

  11. Phthalates and Nonylphenols in Roskilde Fjord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikelsøe, J.; Fauser, P.; Sørensen, P. B.;

    The aim of the study has been to investigate the occurrence, sources, transport and fate of nonylphenols and phthalates in the aquatic environment of Roskilde Fjord. It was further intended to find the temporal as well as the spatial variation of these xenobiotics in the fjord and stream water. F...

  12. Activity, Microenvironments, and Community Structure of Aerobic and Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidizing Prokaryotes in Estuarine Sediment (Randers Fjord, DK)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm, Andreas; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Dalsgaard, Tage

    2006-01-01

    ACTIVITY, MICROENVIRONMENTS, AND COMMUNITY STRUCTURE OF AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC AMMONIUM OXIDIZING PROKARYOTES IN ESTUARINE SEDIMENT (RANDERS FJORD, DK) A. Schramm 1, N.P. Revsbech 1, T. Dalsgaard 2, E. Piña-Ochoa 3, J. de la Torré 4, D.A. Stahl 4, N. Risgaard-Petersen 2 1 Department of Biological...... oxidizing bacteria and archaea (AOB and AOA) or nitrate-reducing/denitrifying bacteria via their supply of nitrite. Along the Randers Fjord estuary (Denmark), gradients of salinity, nutrients, and organic loading can be observed, and anammox has been detected previously at some sites. The aim of this study...... was to correlate the activity, abundance, and diversity of anammox bacteria, AOB and AOA in surface sediment along the fjord with the sediment microdistribution of nitrite. Using 15N incubations, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and fluorescence in situ hybridization, anammox was only detected at the two innermost...

  13. Freshwater discharge and sediment transport to Kangerlussuaq Fjord, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Andreas Peter Bech

    River. Hydrological processes studied are: proglacial discharge volumes and timing of this, creation of runoff (i.e. melt), storage and release features such as ice dammed lakes (jökulhlaups lakes), the role of supraglacial lakes, storage and release inside or beneath the ice and the role of the so...... called firn zone are studied. Geomorphological processes studied are: Mass transfer from the glacial system and into the nearby fjord and delta systems. As a part of this glacial erosion rates are deduced. Extensive discharge and sediment transport measurements provided the basis for gaining insight....... The role of jökulhlaups in this catchment was found to be less than 2% of the total annual discharge and sediment transport in Watson River (WR). Thus, despite their spectacular appearance, they do not play an important hydrological role. Measurement campaigns carried out in the two other large glacially...

  14. Modeling Spitsbergen fjords by hydrodynamic MIKE engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosecki, Szymon; Przyborska, Anna; Jakacki, Jaromir

    2013-04-01

    Two Svalbard's fjords - Hornsund (on the western side of the most southern part of Spitsbergen island) and Kongsfjorden (also on the western side of Spitsbergen island, but in the northern part) are quite different - the first one is "cold" and second one is "warm". It is obvious that both of them are under influence of West Spitsbergen Current (WSC), which curry out warm Atlantic water and cold East Spitsbergen Current detaches Hornsund. But there is also freshwater stored in Spitsbergen glaciers that have strong influence on local hydrology and physical fjord conditions. Both, local and shelf conditions have impact on state of the fjord and there is no answer which one is the most important in each fjord. Modeling could help to solve this problem - MIKE 3D model has been implemented for both fjords. Mesh-grid of the each fjord has been extended for covering shelf area. External forces like tides, velocities at the boundary and atmospheric forces together with sources of cold and dens fresh water in the fjords will give reliable representation of physical conditions in Hornsund and Kongsfjorden. Calculations of balances between cold fresh water and warm and salt will provide additional information that could help to answer the main question of the GAME (Growing of the Arctic Marine Ecosystem) project - what is the reaction of physically controlled Arctic marine ecosystem to temperature rise.

  15. Mesozooplankton biomass data from the Kapisigdlit an inner fjord branch of the Godthaabsfjord system, West Greenland, 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    branch, in the middle of a shallower inner creek . St. 1-4 was covering deeper parts of the fjord, and St. 5 was located on the slope leading up to the shallow inner creek. Mesozooplankton was sampled by vertical net tows using a Hydrobios Multinet (type Mini) equipped with a flow meter and 50 µm mesh......Sampling was conducted from March 24 to August 5 2010, in the fjord branch Kapisigdlit located in the inner part of the Godthåbsfjord system, West Greenland. The vessel "Lille Masik" was used during all cruises except on June 17-18 where sampling was done from RV Dana (National Institute...... for Aquatic Resources, Denmark). A total of 15 cruises (of 1-2 days duration) 7-10 days apart was carried out along a transect composed of 6 stations (St.), spanning the length of the 26 km long fjord branch. St. 1 was located at the mouth of the fjord branch and St. 6 was located at the end of the fjord...

  16. Generating synthetic fjord bathymetry for coastal Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Christopher N.; Cornford, Stephen L.; Jordan, Thomas M.; Dowdeswell, Julian A.; Siegert, Martin J.; Clark, Christopher D.; Swift, Darrel A.; Sole, Andrew; Fenty, Ian; Bamber, Jonathan L.

    2017-02-01

    Bed topography is a critical boundary for the numerical modelling of ice sheets and ice-ocean interactions. A persistent issue with existing topography products for the bed of the Greenland Ice Sheet and surrounding sea floor is the poor representation of coastal bathymetry, especially in regions of floating ice and near the grounding line. Sparse data coverage, and the resultant coarse resolution at the ice-ocean boundary, poses issues in our ability to model ice flow advance and retreat from the present position. In addition, as fjord bathymetry is known to exert strong control on ocean circulation and ice-ocean forcing, the lack of bed data leads to an inability to model these processes adequately. Since the release of the last complete Greenland bed topography-bathymetry product, new observational bathymetry data have become available. These data can be used to constrain bathymetry, but many fjords remain completely unsampled and therefore poorly resolved. Here, as part of the development of the next generation of Greenland bed topography products, we present a new method for constraining the bathymetry of fjord systems in regions where data coverage is sparse. For these cases, we generate synthetic fjord geometries using a method conditioned by surveys of terrestrial glacial valleys as well as existing sinuous feature interpolation schemes. Our approach enables the capture of the general bathymetry profile of a fjord in north-west Greenland close to Cape York, when compared to observational data. We validate our synthetic approach by demonstrating reduced overestimation of depths compared to past attempts to constrain fjord bathymetry. We also present an analysis of the spectral characteristics of fjord centrelines using recently acquired bathymetric observations, demonstrating how a stochastic model of fjord bathymetry could be parameterised and used to create different realisations.

  17. Globalizing Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory article examines the paradox of being open-minded while ethnocentric as expressed in Danish international management practices at the micro level. With a population of 5.4 million, Denmark is one of the smallest of the European countries. The pressure on many small advanced...... to integrate counteracts to some extent the need to maintain openness to differences. Thus, a strong economy and a feeling of smug ethnocentrism in Denmark generate a central paradox in thinking about internationalization in Danish society....

  18. Lake metabolism scales with lake morphometry and catchment conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stæhr, Peter A.; Baastrup-Spohr, Lars; Jensen, Kaj Sand

    2012-01-01

    We used a comparative data set for 25 lakes in Denmark sampled during summer to explore the influence of lake morphometry, catchment conditions, light availability and nutrient input on lake metabolism. We found that (1) gross primary production (GPP) and community respiration (R) decline with lake...... in lake morphometry and catchment conditions when comparing metabolic responses of lakes to human impacts....

  19. Postcolonial Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Denmark’s postcolonial condition, that is, identify issues in contemporary Denmark deriving from Danish (and European) colonialism’s aftermath. This unfinished business includes contemporary historiography of the migrant other in Danish society, refugee discourse in the public domain, the early stages...

  20. HOMED-Homicides Eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colville-Ebeling, Bonnie; Frisch, Morten; Lynnerup, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Background:An introduction to a forensic medical homicide database established at the Department of Forensic Medicine in Copenhagen. Content: The database contains substantial clinical and demographic data obtained in conjunction with medico-legal autopsies of victims and forensic clinical...... examinations of perpetrators in homicide cases in eastern Denmark. Validity and coverage: The database contains information on all homicide cases investigated at the Department of Forensic Medicine in Copenhagen since 1971. Coverage for the catchment area of the department is assumed to be very good because...... of a medico-legal homicide autopsy rate close to 100%. Regional differences might exist however, due to the fact that the catchment area of the department is dominated by the city of Copenhagen. Conclusions: The strength of the database includes a long running time, near complete regional coverage...

  1. Seiche excitation in a highly stratified fjord of southern Chile: the Reloncaví fjord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Manuel I.; Pizarro, Oscar; Ramírez, Nadin; Cáceres, Mario

    2017-02-01

    We describe a seiche process based on current, temperature, and sea-level data obtained from the Reloncaví fjord (41.6° S, 72.5° W) in southern Chile. We combined 4 months of acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) data with sea-level, temperature, and wind time series to analyze the dynamics of low-frequency (periods > 1 day) internal oscillations in the fjord. Additionally, seasonal conductivity, temperature, and depth (CTD) data from 19 along-fjord stations were used to characterize the seasonality of the density field. The density profiles were used to estimate the internal long-wave phase speed (c) using two approximations: (1) a simple reduced gravity model (RGM) and (2) a continuously stratified model (CSM). No major seasonal changes in c were observed using either approximation (e.g., the CSM yielded 0.73 < c < 0.87 m s-1 for mode 1). The natural internal periods (TN) were estimated using Merian's formula for a simple fjord-like basin and the above phase speeds. Estimated values of TN varied between 2.9 and 3.5 days and were highly consistent with spectral peaks observed in the along-fjord currents and temperature time series. We conclude that these oscillations were forced by the wind stress, despite the moderate wind energy. Wind conditions at the end of winter gave us an excellent opportunity to explore the damping process. The observed damping time (Td) was relatively long (Td = 9.1 days).

  2. Postcolonial Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    This article begins by providing a brief overview of Danish colonial and imperial history in the tropics, the Arctic and the sub-Arctic. It then discusses how Danish colonialism relates to a broader regional (Scandinavian/Nordic) and pan-European colonial history. From there it moves on to consid...... concludes by looking at critical approaches to Danish colonial history and its legacy in contemporary Danophone literature. ‘Something is rotten in the state of Denmark.’ (William Shakespeare, Hamlet, Act 1, Scene 4)...

  3. Zooplankton Distribution in Four Western Norwegian Fjords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsky, G.; Flood, P. R.; Youngbluth, M.; Picheral, M.; Grisoni, J.-M.

    2000-01-01

    A multi-instrumental array constructed in the Laboratoire d'Ecologie du Plancton Marin in Villefranche sur mer, France, named the Underwater Video Profiler (UVP), was used to investigate the vertical distribution of zooplankton in four western Norwegian fjords in the summer 1996. Six distinct zoological groups were monitored. The fauna included: (a) small crustaceans (mainly copepods), (b) ctenophores (mainly lobates), (c) siphonophores (mainly physonects), (d) a scyphomedusa Periphylla periphylla, (e) chaetognaths and (f) appendicularians. The use of the non-disturbing video technique demonstrated that the distribution of large zooplankton is heterogeneous vertically and geographically. Furthermore, the abundance of non-migrating filter feeders in the deep basins of the fjords indicates that there is enough food (living and non-living particulate organic matter) to support their dietary needs. This adaptation may be considered as a strategy for survival in fjords. Specifically, living in dark, deep water reduces visual predation and population loss encountered in the upper layer due to advective processes.

  4. Kvælstof: Fra jord til fjord, 1990-2009. Udvikling, Status for 10 danske fjorde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blicher-Mathiesen, Gitte; Windolf, Jørgen; Kronvang, Brian

    in the form of national regulations of agricultural N management for the N cycling from field to estuaries is important for decision makers and catchment managers working with the implementation of EU Directives such as the Water Framework Directive. Based on our findings we suggest that further reductions....... Denmark The Nitrogen loading to 10 Danish estuaries has since 1990 been reduced by on average 42%. Thirty percent of this reduction is due to a reduction in Nitrogen loss from diffuse sources. Nitrogen surplus and the change in this surplus is shown to be a strong overall indicator for the trends...... of commercial N-fertilizer. Mean flow-weighted total Nitrogen concentrations in inlet fresh waters to estuaries have been reduced by 18-56% resulting in reductions of total Nitrogen concentrations (24-62%) in the inner and middle parts of the estuaries. The large variations in total Nitrogen loadings...

  5. A simple approach to adjust tidal forcing in fjord models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelmervik, Karina; Kristensen, Nils Melsom; Staalstrøm, André; Røed, Lars Petter

    2017-07-01

    To model currents in a fjord accurate tidal forcing is of extreme importance. Due to complex topography with narrow and shallow straits, the tides in the innermost parts of a fjord are both shifted in phase and altered in amplitude compared to the tides in the open water outside the fjord. Commonly, coastal tide information extracted from global or regional models is used on the boundary of the fjord model. Since tides vary over short distances in shallower waters close to the coast, the global and regional tidal forcings are usually too coarse to achieve sufficiently accurate tides in fjords. We present a straightforward method to remedy this problem by simply adjusting the tides to fit the observed tides at the entrance of the fjord. To evaluate the method, we present results from the Oslofjord, Norway. A model for the fjord is first run using raw tidal forcing on its open boundary. By comparing modelled and observed time series of water level at a tidal gauge station close to the open boundary of the model, a factor for the amplitude and a shift in phase are computed. The amplitude factor and the phase shift are then applied to produce adjusted tidal forcing at the open boundary. Next, we rerun the fjord model using the adjusted tidal forcing. The results from the two runs are then compared to independent observations inside the fjord in terms of amplitude and phases of the various tidal components, the total tidal water level, and the depth integrated tidal currents. The results show improvements in the modelled tides in both the outer, and more importantly, the inner parts of the fjord.

  6. Environmental Impacts of Shipping to and from Citronen Fjord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boertmann, D.

    . The waters off Citronen Fjord are covered by ice throughout the year. Fast ice covers Frederick E. Hyde Fjord and the coastal waters off the outer coast, and pack ice covers the Wandel Sea and the majority of the Greenland Sea. Sailing in these waters will require powerful icebreaking capabilities...... Henrik Krøyer Holme are the most sensitive to sailing and icebreaking. Sailing and icebreaking in these areas should be avoided. The movement of icebreakers through the fast ice of Frederick E. Hyde Fjord may alter the habitat of a population of ringed seals that inhabit the fiord. Incidental oil spills...

  7. Comparative study of water resource management policies between China and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Liya; Christensen, Per; Liu, Jingling

    2013-01-01

    This paper compares water resource policies and management practices in China and Denmark. It takes two vulnerable water ecosystems as case studies: Baiyangdian wetland in China and Mariager fjord in Denmark. Based on the theories of the commons, this article explores the similarities...... and differences between the two ecosystems in terms of ecosystem characteristics, historical and cultural backgrounds of these societies, the technologies affecting the ecosystems and also how the ecosystems have been seen at different times as well as the existence of property rights through time. Both water...... due to the complicated administrative structure in China and clearer goals and better resources in Denmark. Denmark has also accomplished a large degree of environmental policy integration (EPI), which is not the case in China. But China has recently put environmental concerns high on the agenda...

  8. Prostate cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasso, K; Friis, S; Kjaer, S K

    1998-01-01

    To review the trends in prostate cancer (PC) incidence and mortality rates in Denmark during a 50-year period.......To review the trends in prostate cancer (PC) incidence and mortality rates in Denmark during a 50-year period....

  9. Prostate cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasso, K; Friis, S; Kjaer, S K

    1998-01-01

    To review the trends in prostate cancer (PC) incidence and mortality rates in Denmark during a 50-year period.......To review the trends in prostate cancer (PC) incidence and mortality rates in Denmark during a 50-year period....

  10. Buddhism in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Jørn

    2008-01-01

    Introductory article on Buddhism in Denmark following historial lines and typological divides between "ethnic" and "convert" Buddhism.......Introductory article on Buddhism in Denmark following historial lines and typological divides between "ethnic" and "convert" Buddhism....

  11. Theosophy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dybdal, René

    2016-01-01

    Theosophy has been on of the major sources for inspiration for the new spiritual movement in Denmark during the 20th Century. In this paper the history of Theosophy in Denmark is described......Theosophy has been on of the major sources for inspiration for the new spiritual movement in Denmark during the 20th Century. In this paper the history of Theosophy in Denmark is described...

  12. The Blue Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Ørts; Sornn-Friese, Henrik

    This paper makes an important contribution to the discussion about knowledge based localised externalities in the context of shipping and the maritime sector in Denmark. In the paper we ask if there is a national, knowledge‐based maritime cluster configured around the shipowners in Denmark. This ...... talk about The Blue Denmark....

  13. Semidiurnal internal tides in a Patagonian fjord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, L.; Pérez-Santos, I.; Valle-Levinson, A.; Schneider, W.

    2014-12-01

    The fjords of central Chilean Patagonia (47°S) receive fresh water from both precipitation and the Baker River. This buoyancy input generates a two layer hydrographic system characterized by strong salinity stratification (∼30 g kg-1 over a depth range of 7-15 m), which favors baroclinic conditions in the fjord. Hourly current velocity profiles were collected with an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) moored at a depth of 40 m during March-April 2009, and complemented by 11 CTD profiles and hourly sea level time series. These data allowed the detection of semidiurnal internal tidal waves for the first time in this region. Wavelength and horizontal phase speeds were determined by the dynamical mode 1 for internal waves. Maximum wavelength was 52 km, travelling at a horizontal phase speed of ∼1.16 m s-1. Wavelet, spectral and empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis techniques applied to the echo anomaly signal and to the baroclinic velocity showed largest semidiurnal amplitudes near the pycnocline. Out of three modes obtained from the EOF analysis, two modes displayed a two- or three-layer flow structure with flow direction reversing at the pycnocline. The semidiurnal internal waves were found as fluctuations near the pycnocline in sporadic packets correlated to high discharge pulses of the Baker River (r2 = 0.77). Additionally, internal Froude number calculations at the mouth of the Baker River indicated critical flow conditions, which allowed for generation of internal waves at the plume front. These waves are separated from the river plume after internal wave phase speeds surpassed frontal speeds. This suggests that the internal waves were modulated by pulses in high river discharge rather than the interaction of barotropic tide with bathymetry (a sill). An implication of these internal waves would be to increase vertical mixing of nutrients toward the surface, through shear instabilities, which would favor primary production.

  14. Marine-terminating glaciers sustain high productivity in Greenland fjords.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meire, Lorenz; Mortensen, John; Meire, Patrick; Juul-Pedersen, Thomas; Sejr, Mikael K; Rysgaard, Søren; Nygaard, Rasmus; Huybrechts, Philippe; Meysman, Filip J R

    2017-08-04

    Accelerated mass loss from the Greenland ice sheet leads to glacier retreat and an increasing input of glacial meltwater to the fjords and coastal waters around Greenland. These high latitude ecosystems are highly productive and sustain important fisheries, yet it remains uncertain how they will respond to future changes in the Arctic cryosphere. Here we show that marine-terminating glaciers play a crucial role in sustaining high productivity of the fjord ecosystems. Hydrographic and biogeochemical data from two fjord systems adjacent to the Greenland ice sheet, suggest that marine ecosystem productivity is very differently regulated in fjords influenced by either land-terminating or marine-terminating glaciers. Rising subsurface meltwater plumes originating from marine-terminating glaciers entrain large volumes of ambient deep water to the surface. The resulting upwelling of nutrient-rich deep water sustains a high phytoplankton productivity throughout summer in the fjord with marine-terminating glaciers. In contrast, the fjord with only land-terminating glaciers lack this upwelling mechanism, and is characterized by lower productivity. Data on commercial halibut landings support that coastal regions influenced by large marine-terminating glaciers have substantially higher marine productivity. These results suggest that a switch from marine-terminating to land-terminating glaciers can substantially alter the productivity in the coastal zone around Greenland with potentially large ecological and socio-economic implications. © 2017 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Retention of fish larvae in a fjord system - a seasonal study of the larval life in a West Greenlandic fjord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swalethorp, Rasmus; Munk, Peter; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel

    in the early part of the spawning season, while later in the season we found larvae dispersing out through the fjord branch. Considering larval sizes and migratory ability these patterns could be due to seasonal changes in hydrography and tidal flow that may facilitate their dispersal...... (Hippoglossoides platessoides) are abundant. The innermost part of the fjord branch Kapisigdlit is the principal spawning site for the fjord population of Atlantic cod, and in 2010 a seasonal study was carried out on the early life of this population. Abundance and distribution of this and other occurring fish...... larval species was recorded from late March to early August along a 25 km transect covering the length of the fjord branch. Cod spawning started when the upper 20 m of the water column had reached a temperature of 2° C, and cod larvae abundances peaked on June 3rd (16 larvae per 100 m3) in the inner...

  16. First Flush Effects in an Urban Catchment Area in Aalborg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Brpch, Kirsten; Andersen, Margit Riis

    1997-01-01

    The paper describes the results of measurements from a 2 year period on a 95 hectare urban catchment in Aalborg, Denmark. The results of the rain/discharge measurements include 160 storm events corresponding to an accumulated rain depth of totally 753 mm. The water quality measurements include 15...

  17. First Flush Effects in an Urban Catchment Area in Aalborg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Broch, Kirsten; Andersen, Margit Riis

    1997-01-01

    The paper describes the results of measurements from a 2 year period on a 95 hectare urban catchment in Aalborg, Denmark. The results of the rain/discharge measurements include 160 storm events corresponding to an accumulated rain depth of totally 753 mm. The water quality measurements include 15...

  18. Multibeam Mapping of Remote Fjords in Southeast-Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinrebe, W.; Kjaer, K. H.; Kjeldsen, K. K.; Bjork, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    The fjords of Southeast-Greenland are among the most remote areas of the Northern Hemisphere. Access to this area is hampered by a broad belt of sea ice floating along the East-Greenland coast from North to South. Consequently, the majority of those fjords have never been surveyed in detail until now. During an expedition by the Center of GeoGenetics of the University of Copenhagen in summer of 2014 we were able to map the Skjoldungen Fjord system with multibeam bathymetry. The topsail schooner ACTIV, built 1951 as a cargo ship to supply remote settlements in Greenland was chosen for the expedition. Though a vintage vessel, the ACTIV was well suited to cross the belt of sea ice and to cruise the ice covered fjords. A portable ELAC-Seabeam 1050 multibeam system was temporarily installed on the vessel. The two transducer of the system were mounted at the lower end of a 6 m long pole attached outboard at port side to the hull of the vessel. Though the installation was quite demanding without any winches or cranes, the construction was sufficiently stable and easy to manage throughout the entire cruise. Nearly the entire fjord system, leaving only a small gap of 5 km at the innermost part and small stripes close to the shorelines could be surveyed during the cruise. For the first time, a comprehensive map of Skjoldungen Fjord is now available. The map displays water depths from close to zero up to 800 m, the deepest part along a stretch of about 10 km in the Southwest. The bathymetry of the northern fjord is remarkably different from the southern fjord: the southern fjord features an outer deep part showing water depths between 500 m and 800 m and a shallow inner part with depths less than 300 m and a prominent sill in between. The northern fjord shows a more gradual increase of water depths from 200 m in the inner part to 600 m at the entrance.

  19. Work injuries among migrant workers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering, Karin; Lander, Flemming; Rasmussen, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Work migration into Denmark has increased during the recent decades, especially after the enlargement of the European Union (EU) in 2004. Whether or not migrant workers experience more work injuries than the native workforce has been debated and results are conflicting, most likely due...... to methodological difficulties and cultural disparities. We set out to meet these challenges using population-based work injury registers, targeting a specific and representative region in Denmark. METHODS: This population-based study used data on work injuries from an emergency department (ED) and reported...... injuries from the ED's catchment area to the Danish Working Environment Authority during 11 years. We calculated incidences of work injury for groups of migrant workers compared with native Danes and adjusted incidence rate ratios based on information on the complete working population. RESULTS...

  20. Organic carbon burial in fjords: Terrestrial versus marine inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xingqian; Bianchi, Thomas S.; Savage, Candida; Smith, Richard W.

    2016-10-01

    Fjords have been identified as sites of enhanced organic carbon (OC) burial and may play an important role in regulating climate change on glacial-interglacial timescales. Understanding sediment processes and sources of sedimentary OC are necessary to better constrain OC burial in fjords. In this study, we use Fiordland, New Zealand, as a case study and present data on surface sediments, sediment down-cores and terrestrial end-members to examine dynamics of sediments and the sources of OC in fjord sediments. Sediment cores showed evidence of multiple particle sources, frequent bioturbation and mass-wasting events. A multi-proxy approach (stable isotopes, lignin-phenols and fatty acids) allowed for separation of marine, soil and vascular plant OC in surface sediments. The relationship between mass accumulation rate (MAR) and OC contents in fjord surface sediments suggested that mineral dilution is important in controlling OC content on a global scale, but is less important for specific regions (e.g., New Zealand). The inconsistency of OC budgets calculated by using MAR weighted %OC and OC accumulation rates (AR; 6 vs 21-31 Tg OC yr-1) suggested that sediment flux in fjords was likely underestimated. By using end-member models, we propose that 55% to 62% of total OC buried in fjords is terrestrially derived, and accounts for 17 ± 12% of the OCterr buried in all marine sediments. The strong correlation between MAR and OC AR indicated that OC flux will likely decrease in fjords in the future with global warming due to decrease in sediment flux caused by glacier denudation.

  1. Seasonal changes in Fe along a glaciated Greenlandic fjord.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark James Hopwood

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Greenland’s ice sheet is the second largest on Earth, and is under threat from a warming Arctic climate. An increase in freshwater discharge from Greenland has the potential to strongly influence the composition of adjacent water masses with the largest impact on marine ecosystems likely to be found within the glaciated fjords. Here we demonstrate that physical and chemical estuarine processes within a large Greenlandic fjord are critical factors in determining the fate of meltwater derived nutrients and particles, especially for non-conservative elements such as Fe. Concentrations of Fe and macronutrients in surface waters along Godthåbsfjord, a southwest Greenlandic fjord with freshwater input from 6 glaciers, changed markedly between the onset and peak of the meltwater season due to the development of a thin (<10 m, outflowing, low-salinity surface layer. Dissolved (<0.2 µm Fe concentrations in meltwater entering Godthåbsfjord (200 nM, in freshly melted glacial ice (mean 38 nM and in surface waters close to a land terminating glacial system (80 nM all indicated high Fe inputs into the fjord in summer. Total dissolvable (unfiltered at pH <2.0 Fe was similarly high with concentrations always in excess of 100 nM throughout the fjord and reaching up to 5.0 µM close to glacial outflows in summer. Yet, despite the large seasonal freshwater influx into the fjord, Fe concentrations near the fjord mouth in the out-flowing surface layer were similar in summer to those measured before the meltwater season. Furthermore, turbidity profiles indicated that sub-glacial particulate Fe inputs may not actually mix into the outflowing surface layer of this fjord. Emphasis has previously been placed on the possibility of increased Fe export from Greenland as meltwater fluxes increase. Here we suggest that in-fjord processes may be effective at removing Fe from surface waters before it can be exported to coastal seas.

  2. Seasonal changes in Fe along a glaciated Greenlandic fjord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Mark; Connelly, Douglas; Arendt, Kristine; Juul-Pedersen, Thomas; Stinchcombe, Mark; Meire, Lorenz; Esposito, Mario; Krishna, Ram

    2016-03-01

    Greenland's ice sheet is the second largest on Earth, and is under threat from a warming Arctic climate. An increase in freshwater discharge from Greenland has the potential to strongly influence the composition of adjacent water masses with the largest impact on marine ecosystems likely to be found within the glaciated fjords. Here we demonstrate that physical and chemical estuarine processes within a large Greenlandic fjord are critical factors in determining the fate of meltwater derived nutrients and particles, especially for non-conservative elements such as Fe. Concentrations of Fe and macronutrients in surface waters along Godthåbsfjord, a southwest Greenlandic fjord with freshwater input from 6 glaciers, changed markedly between the onset and peak of the meltwater season due to the development of a thin (removing Fe from surface waters before it can be exported to coastal seas.

  3. LCA Center Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Frydendal, Jeppe

    2006-01-01

    product-oriented environmental tools in companies, to ensure that the LCA efforts is based on a solid and scientific basis, and to maintain the well-established co-operation between all important actors in the LCA field in Denmark. A status is given on the achievements of LCA Center Denmark...

  4. Literature review, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Jens; Linneberg, Mai Skjøtt; Nielsen, Robert Green

    2001-01-01

    Gives an overvie of the situation with respect to organic and conversion markets in Denmark based on exsisting literature. The following subjects are covered. National Policies. Agricultural Production. Conversion. Agricultural Marketing......Gives an overvie of the situation with respect to organic and conversion markets in Denmark based on exsisting literature. The following subjects are covered. National Policies. Agricultural Production. Conversion. Agricultural Marketing...

  5. Denmark's National Inventory Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illerup, J. B.; Lyck, E.; Winther, M.

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report reported to the Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) due by 15 April 2001. The report contains information on Denmark's inventories for all years' from 1990 to 1999 for CO2, CH4, N2O, CO...

  6. Denmark's National Inventory Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illerup, J. B.; Lyck, E.; Winther, M.

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report reported to the Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) due by 15 April 2001. The report contains information on Denmark's inventories for all years' from 1990 to 1999 for CO2, CH4, N2O, ...

  7. Denmark's National Inventory Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illerup, J. B.; Lyck, E.; Winther, M.

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report reported to the Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) due by 15 April 2001. The report contains information on Denmark's inventories for all years' from 1990 to 1999 for CO2, CH4, N2O, CO...

  8. Arbitration in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2008-01-01

    Having lagged behind in its arbitration rules for 30 years, Denmark has become an attractive country in which to conduct arbitration. Denmark now has one of Europe's most modern and streamlined arbitration acts, and if they so wish, the parties can exert a substantial influence on how the case...

  9. Studies of actinides in a superanoxic fjord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, P.

    1997-04-01

    Water column and sediment profiles of Pu, Am, Th and U have been obtained in the superanoxic Framvaren fjord, southern Norway. The concentration of bomb test fallout Pu, Am as well as `dissolved` Th in the bottom water are the highest recorded in the marine environment. The behaviour of the actinides in the anoxic water mass is to a large extent governed by the behaviour of the colloidal material. Ultrafiltration reveals that 40-60% of the actinides are associated to the large colloids, surprisingly this is valid also for U. The sediment acts as a source for Pu, Am, and Th to the water column but primarily as a sink for U. The remobilization of Pu, Am and Th is evident from the water column profiles which have similar diffusion shape profiles as other constituents originating from the sediments. The vertical eddy diffusion coefficient calculated from the Pu profile is in the same order of magnitude as reported from the H{sub 2}S profile. Decreased bottom water concentrations (but a constant water column inventory) between 1989 and 1995 as well as pore water Pu concentrations nearly identical to the overlaying bottom water indicates that the present Pu flux from the sediments are low. Contrary to Pu and Am, the water column Th inventory ({sup 232}Th and {sup 230}Th) continues to increase. The flux of {sup 232}Th from the sediments was determined from changes in water column inventory between 1989 and 1995 and from a pore water profile to be in the order of 2-8 Bq/m{sup 2}/y. 208 refs.

  10. Modeling of water masses exchange between Brepolen and the main fjord in the Western Svalbard fjord - Hornsund

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakacki, Jaromir; Przyborska, Anna; Sunfjord, Arild; Albertsen, Jon; Białoskórski, Michał; Pliszka, Bartosz

    2016-04-01

    Hornsund is the southernmost fjord of the Svalbard archipelago island - Spitsbergen. It is under the influence of two main currents - the coastal Sørkapp Current (SC) carrying fresher and colder water masses from the Barents Sea and the West Spitsbergen Current (WSC), which is the branch of the Norwegian Atlantic Current (NwAC) and carries warm and salty waters from the North Atlantic. The main local forcing, which is tidal motion, brings shelf waters into the central fjord basin and then the transformed masses are carried into the easternmost part of the fjord, Brepolen. For the purpose of studying circulation and water exchange in this area a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model has been implemented and validated. The model is based on MIKE by DHI product and covers the Hornsund fjord with the shelf area, which is the fjord foreground. It is sigma a coordinate model (in our case 35 vertical levels) with variable horizontal resolution (mesh grid). The smallest cell has a horizontal dimension less than one hundred meters and the largest cells about 5 km. In spite of model limitations, the model reproduces the main circulation and water pathways in the Brepolen area. Seasonal and annual volume, heat and salt exchanges have been also estimated. The influence of freshwater discharge on shelf-fjord exchange will be also analyzed. The model results allow to study full horizontal and vertical fields of physical parameters (temperature, salinity, sea level variations and currents). The model integration covers only years 2005-2010 and the presented results will be based on this simulation. The project has been financed from the funds of the Leading National Research Centre (KNOW) received by the Centre for Polar Studies for the period 2014-2018

  11. A tale of two fjords – en analyse af bundfauna samfund i Odense og Roskilde Fjord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banta, Gary Thomas; Delefosse, Matthieu; Canal Vergés, Paula;

    var dyndsnegle (Hydrobia sp.) og små orme (polychaeter og oligochaeter) mens biomassen var domineret af muslinger, især sandmuslingen (Mya arenaria). Der var betydelig variation i sammensætningen af de bentiske samfund på alle undersøgte rumlige skalaer. F.eks. var der ca. 38% forskel målt vha Bray...... gravende muslinger (f.eks. Cerastoderma spp.) mens Odense Fjord (OF) havde flere orme. Ligeledes så vi mange tubificide orme i den indre del af OF. I den indre del af RF så vi i stedet mange dansemyggelarver (Chironomidae). Af de undersøgte miljøvariable var vanddybde og salinitet (både niveauet og...

  12. Theosophically Inspired Movements in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dybdal, René

    2016-01-01

    The theosophical movement has had a significant influence on the esoteric milieu in Denmark during the 20th Century. In this paper the inspiration on other Groups in Denmark is explored.......The theosophical movement has had a significant influence on the esoteric milieu in Denmark during the 20th Century. In this paper the inspiration on other Groups in Denmark is explored....

  13. Social Work Education in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Marianne

    2005-01-01

    The development of the social work education and the education for social educators in Denmark. The undergraduate programs and the possibilities for further study within social work in Denmark.......The development of the social work education and the education for social educators in Denmark. The undergraduate programs and the possibilities for further study within social work in Denmark....

  14. Biomarkers in fish from dioxin-contaminated fjords.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylland, K; O Aspholm, O; Knutsen, J A; Ruus, A

    2006-01-01

    The Grenland fjords, southern Norway, have been heavily contaminated by dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (dioxins) over decades through inputs from a magnesium smelter. Despite radically decreased inputs since 1990, there are still high levels of dioxins in both biotic and abiotic components of the fjords. The aim of the study was to establish whether biomarkers' responses in three fish species, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.), sea-trout (anadromous brown trout, Salmo trutta L.) and flounder (Platichthys flesus L.), could be used to discern the effects in the most contaminated ecosystem, Frierfjord, from the effects in the adjacent, less-contaminated ecosystem, Eidangerfjord. Biomarker responses clearly indicated that the three fish species were affected by dioxin exposure. Phase I responses in cod and trout could be used to differentiate exposure in the two fjord ecosystems. Phase II responses (glutathione S-transferase) in cod and trout similarly indicated a higher dioxin exposure in Frierfjord compared with Eidangerfjord. Results for glutathione S-transferase and glutathione reductase indicated different exposure levels in the two fjords, but also showed seasonal variability, and the results highlighted the need for baseline data for these biomarkers.

  15. Resolving bathymetry from airborne gravity along Greenland fjords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boghosian, Alexandra; Tinto, Kirsty; Cochran, James R.; Porter, David; Elieff, Stefan; Burton, Bethany L.; Bell, Robin E.

    2015-12-01

    Recent glacier mass loss in Greenland has been attributed to encroaching warming waters, but knowledge of fjord bathymetry is required to investigate this mechanism. The bathymetry in many Greenland fjords is unmapped and difficult to measure. From 2010 to 2012, National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Operation IceBridge collected a unique set of airborne gravity, magnetic, radar, and lidar data along the major outlet glaciers and fjords in Greenland. We applied a consistent technique using the IceBridge gravity data to create 90 bathymetric profiles along 54 Greenland fjords. We also used this technique to recover subice topography where warm or crevassed ice prevents the radar system from imaging the bed. Here we discuss our methodology, basic assumptions and error analysis. We present the new bathymetry data and discuss observations in six major regions of Greenland covered by IceBridge. The gravity models provide a total of 1950 line kilometers of bathymetry, 875 line kilometers of subice topography, and 12 new grounding line depths.

  16. Wine production in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Jan Børsen; Smith, Valdemar

    By the end of the former century there were less than 10 commercial vintners producing wine in Denmark. There was widespread acceptance of the view that commercial production of wine in the most northern parts of Europe was impossible. However, the number of commercial wine growers in Denmark grew...... as a commercial wine producing nation within the European Union. Based on a remarkably detailed micro data set this paper first gives a description of wine production in Denmark and thereafter we address the question whether vineyard characteristics are important for the quality of the wine and/or whether...

  17. Synoptic events force biological productivity in Patagonian fjord ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneri, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    The annual cycle of primary productivity of the Patagonian fjords has, to date, been described as a two phase system consisting of a short non productive winter phase (during June and July) and a productive phase extending from late winter (August) to autumn (May). Low levels of primary production, phytoplankton biomass and high concentrations of surface nutrients have been described as characterizing winter conditions while pulsed productivity events typifies the productivity pattern during the extended productive season. Pulsed productivity events characterize coastal waters where inorganic nutrients in surface layers are replenished following periods of intensive utilization by autotrophs. Freshwater input in Patagonian fjords in southern Chile (41-55°S) results in one of the largest estuarine regions worldwide. Here strong haline water column stratification prevents nutrient mixing to the surface layers thus potentially shutting off algal production. Our working hypothesis considered that in order to reconcile the observed pulsed productivity pattern, periodic breaking (associated to surface nutrient replenishment) and re-establishment of estuarine conditions (associated to water column stratification) would be required. Up to now however our understanding of the physical processes that control water column conditions in the Patagonian fjord area has been extremely limited. Here we present evidence linking the passage of synoptic low pressure fronts to pulsed productivity events in the Patagonian fjord area. These front controls and influence local processes of interaction between the fjord and the atmosphere generating a rapid water column response. In the specific case of the Puyuhuapi fjord we have been able to show that such synoptic fronts induce surface flow reversal and water column mixing. Phytoplankton blooming occurs after the passage of the synoptic front once calmer conditions prevail and estuarine conditions are re established. The occurrence of

  18. Regionalization Lessons from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrangbæk, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Denmark is a small Northern European country with an extensive welfare state and a strong commitment to maintaining a universal healthcare system. Like the other countries in the Nordic region, Denmark has a long tradition of democratically governed local and regional governments with extensive...... and coordination. Regions and municipalities in Denmark are governed by directly elected democratic councils. The Danish case is thus an example of democratic decentralization, but within a framework of national coordination and fiscal control. In spite of the difference in size and historical traditions...... there are also many similarities between Canada and Denmark, particularly in terms of health and social policy goals and aspirations, and in terms of the commitment to a comprehensive, universal healthcare system. These similarities provide interesting opportunities for comparison....

  19. Retention of fish larvae in a fjord system - a seasonal study of the larval life in a West Greenlandic fjord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swalethorp, Rasmus; Munk, Peter; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel

    larval species was recorded from late March to early August along a 25 km transect covering the length of the fjord branch. Cod spawning started when the upper 20 m of the water column had reached a temperature of 2° C, and cod larvae abundances peaked on June 3rd (16 larvae per 100 m3) in the inner...

  20. Hinduism in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fibiger, Marianne Qvortrup

    2017-01-01

    This is an overview article on all research done, articles written etc. on Hinduism in Denmark. The article includes longer introductions, and commentaries on and citations from every book, article, report that is part of the article.......This is an overview article on all research done, articles written etc. on Hinduism in Denmark. The article includes longer introductions, and commentaries on and citations from every book, article, report that is part of the article....

  1. Climate change in Greenland, Denmark and the Levant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Niels

    change has been the decisive factor behind the main change in human activities in the areas. It also confirms that the climatic history of the sites and of Greenland is closely correlated, with strong ties to global causes of climate change. When the GRIP drilling and the adjacent GISP2 drilling......Abstract: The classical sites for studies of human occupation and climatic changes – Lejre-Roskilde Fjord (Denmark) and Yarbrud (Syria) – have been re-examined. A detailed geological/geophysical mapping of the areas and geochemical/palynological analysis of cores/profiles confirms, that climate...... presented their isotopic records it was clear that the records were similar showing a series of climatic fluctuations (Dansgaard/Oescher events) We have re-examined the Yarbrud site in Syria (OSL dating and pollen analysis) in the hope that we could correlate the 25 cultural layers here (Rust 1950...

  2. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Surface Flow Constructed Wetlands (SFCW) for Nutrient Reduction in Drainage Discharge from Agricultural Fields in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gachango, Florence Gathoni; Pedersen, S M; Kjærgaard, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Constructed wetlands have been proposed as cost-effective and more targeted technologies in the reduction of nitrogen and phosphorous water pollution in drainage losses from agricultural fields in Denmark. Using two pig farms and one dairy farm situated in a pumped lowland catchment as case studies...... could be a better optimal nutrients reduction measure in drainage catchments characterized with higher nutrient loads....

  3. SMOS validation in the Skjern River Catchment, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bircher, Simone

    model. This dissertation is not only a valuable contribution to SMOS validation, but can also be supportive for upcoming space missions such as NASA’s Soil Moisture Active and Passive, SMAP. Knowing the current caveats the use of SMOS data in regional and global modeling of water resources and climate......Soil moisture is a key variable for water resources management, weather and climate predictions as well as hazard analysis. It is highly variable in space and time across scales, and thus difficult to assess. The European Space Agency’s Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite...... with a passive L-band microwave radiometer on board is the first mission dedicated to surface soil moisture monitoring from space with global coverage every three days. By means of a complex retrieval algorithm, soil moisture is derived from the acquired brightness temperatures. Currently, data validation...

  4. Sedimentary Carbon Stocks: A National Assessment of Scotland's Fjords.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeaton, Craig; Austin, William; Davies, Althea; Howe, John

    2017-04-01

    Coastal sediments have been shown to be globally significant repositories for carbon (C) with an estimated 126.2 Tg of C being buried annually (Duarte et al. 2005). Though it is clear these areas are important for the long-term storage of C the actual quantity of C held within coastal sediment remains largely unaccounted for. The first step to understanding the role the coastal ocean plays in the global C cycle is to quantify the C held within these coastal sediments. Of the different coastal environment fjords have been shown to be hotspots for C burial with approximately 11 % of the annual global marine carbon sequestration occurring within fjordic environments (Smith et al. 2015). Through the development of a joint geophysical and geochemical methodology we estimated that the sediment in a mid-latitude fjord holds 26.9 ± 0.5 Mt of C (Smeaton et al., 2016), with these results suggesting that Scottish mid-latitude fjords could be a significant unaccounted store of C equivalent to their terrestrial counterparts (i.e. peatlands). Through the application of the joint geophysical and geochemical methodology developed by Smeaton et al (2016) to a number of other mid-latitude fjords, we will create detailed estimations of the sedimentary C stored at these individual sites. Using these detailed C stock estimations in conjunction with upscaling techniques we will establish the first national estimation of fjordic sedimentary C stocks. The data produced will allow for the sedimentary C stocks to be compared to other national C stocks, such as the Scottish peatlands (Chapman et al. 2009) and forestry (Forestry Commission, 2016). Alongside quantifying this large unaccounted for store of C in the coastal ocean this work also lays foundations for future work to understand the role of the coastal ocean in the global C cycle. Duarte, C. M., Middelburg, J. J., and Caraco, N.: Major role of marine vegetation on the oceanic carbon cycle, Biogeosciences, 2, 1-8, doi:10.5194/bg-2

  5. Unusually loud ambient noise in tidewater glacier fjords: a signal of ice melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Erin C.; Lee, Kevin M.; Brann, Joel P.; Nystuen, Jeffrey A.; Wilson, Preston S.; O'Neel, Shad

    2015-01-01

    In glacierized fjords, the ice-ocean boundary is a physically and biologically dynamic environment that is sensitive to both glacier flow and ocean circulation. Ocean ambient noise offers insight into processes and change at the ice-ocean boundary. Here we characterize fjord ambient noise and show that the average noise levels are louder than nearly all measured natural oceanic environments (significantly louder than sea ice and non-glacierized fjords). Icy Bay, Alaska has an annual average sound pressure level of 120 dB (re 1 μPa) with a broad peak between 1000 and 3000 Hz. Bubble formation in the water column as glacier ice melts is the noise source, with variability driven by fjord circulation patterns. Measurements from two additional fjords, in Alaska and Antarctica, support that this unusually loud ambient noise in Icy Bay is representative of glacierized fjords. These high noise levels likely alter the behavior of marine mammals.

  6. Geomorphic and shallow-acoustic investigation of an Antarctic Peninsula fjord system using high-resolution ROV and shipboard geophysical observations: Ice dynamics and behaviour since the Last Glacial Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Marga; Dowdeswell, J. A.; Noormets, R.; Hogan, K. A.; Evans, J.; Ó Cofaigh, C.; Larter, R. D.

    2016-12-01

    Detailed bathymetric and sub-bottom acoustic observations in Bourgeois Fjord (Marguerite Bay, Antarctic Peninsula) provide evidence on sedimentary processes and glacier dynamics during the last glacial cycle. Submarine landforms observed in the 50 km-long fjord, from the margins of modern tidewater glaciers to the now ice-distal Marguerite Bay, are described and interpreted. The landforms are grouped into four morpho-sedimentary systems: (i) glacial advance and full-glacial; (ii) subglacial and ice-marginal meltwater; (iii) glacial retreat and neoglaciation; and (iv) Holocene mass-wasting. These morpho-sedimentary systems have been integrated with morphological studies of the Marguerite Bay continental shelf and analysed in terms of the specific sedimentary processes and/or stages of the glacial cycle. They demonstrate the action of an ice-sheet outlet glacier that produced drumlins and crag-and-tail features in the main and outer fjord. Meltwater processes eroded bedrock channels and ponds infilled by fine-grained sediments. Following the last deglaciation of the fjord at about 9000 yr BP, subsequent Holocene neoglacial activity involved minor readvances of a tidewater glacier terminus in Blind Bay. Recent stillstands and/or minor readvances are inferred from the presence of a major transverse moraine that indicates grounded ice stabilization, probably during the Little Ice Age, and a series of smaller landforms that reveal intermittent minor readvances. Mass-wasting processes also affected the walls of the fjord and produced scars and fan-shaped deposits during the Holocene. Glacier-terminus changes during the last six decades, derived from satellite images and aerial photographs, reveal variable behaviour of adjacent tidewater glaciers. The smaller glaciers show the most marked recent retreat, influenced by regional physiography and catchment-area size.

  7. The physical environment of Kongsfjorden–Krossfjorden, an Arctic fjord system in Svalbard

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Kongsfjorden-Krossfjorden and the adjacent West Spitsbergen Shelf meet at the common mouth of the two fjord arms. This paper presents our most up-to-date information about the physical environment of this fjord system and identifies important gaps in knowledge. Particular attention is given to the steep physical gradients along the main fjord axis, as well as to seasonal environmental changes. Physical processes on different scales control the large-scale circulation and small-scale (irrevers...

  8. Environmental Impacts of Shipping to and from Citronen Fjord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boertmann, D.

    A large zinc mineralisation has been discovered in the Citronen Fjord area of Peary Land, North Greenland (Fig. 1), and exploration is presently being undertaken. If it is decided that the ore will be exploited, there is only one way of transporting the zinc concentrate from the area: by ship......, and icebreaking impacts the environment in different ways. In general, it seems that noise from shipping sometimes causes short-term behavioural response and temporarily displacement of various marine mammals. Marine mammals in icecovered waters may be particularly sensitive to noise. However, the effects...... from the ships sailing to and from Citronen Fjord poses the most serious threats to the wildlife in the area covered by this report....

  9. Oceanographic gradients and seabird prey community dynamics in glacial fjords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimitsu, Mayumi L.; Piatt, John F.; Madison, Erica N.; Conaway, Jeff; Hillgruber, N.

    2012-01-01

    Glacial fjord habitats are undergoing rapid change as a result of contemporary global warming, yet little is known about how glaciers influence marine ecosystems. These ecosystems provide important feeding, breeding and rearing grounds for a wide variety of marine organisms, including seabirds of management concern. To characterize ocean conditions and marine food webs near tidewater glaciers, we conducted monthly surveys of oceanographic variables, plankton, fish and seabirds in Kenai Fjords, Alaska, from June to August of 2007 and 2008. We also measured tidal current velocities near glacial features. We found high sediment load from glacial river runoff played a major role in structuring the fjord marine ecosystem. Submerged moraines (sills) isolated cool, fresh, stratified and silt-laden inner fjord habitats from oceanic influence. Near tidewater glaciers, surface layers of turbid glacial runoff limited availability of light to phytoplankton, but macrozooplankton were abundant in surface waters, perhaps due to the absence of a photic cue for diel migration. Fish and zooplankton community structure varied along an increasing temperature gradient throughout the summer. Acoustic measurements indicated that low density patches of fish and zooplankton were available in the surface waters near glacial river outflows. This is the foraging habitat occupied most by Kittlitz's murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris), a rare seabird that appears to be specialized for life in glacially influenced environments. Kittlitz's murrelets were associated with floating glacial ice, and they were more likely to occur near glaciers, in deeper water, and in areas with high acoustic backscatter. Kittlitz's murrelet at-sea distribution was limited to areas influenced by turbid glacial outflows, and where prey was concentrated near the surface in waters with low light penetration. Tidewater glaciers impart unique hydrographic characteristics that influence marine plankton and fish

  10. Multibeam bathymetry and CTD measurements in two fjord systems in southeastern Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. Kjeldsen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We present bathymetry and hydrological observations collected in the summer of 2014 from two fjord systems in southeastern Greenland with a multibeam sonar system. Our results provide a detailed bathymetric map of the fjord complex around the island of Skjoldungen in Skjoldungen Fjord and the outer part of Timmiarmiut Fjord and show far greater depths compared to the International Bathymetric Chart of the Arctic Ocean. The hydrography collected shows different properties in the fjords with the bottom water masses below 240 m in Timmiarmiut Fjord being 1–2 °C warmer than in the two fjords around Skjoldungen, but data also illustrate the influence of sills on the exchange of deeper water masses within fjords. Moreover, evidence of subglacial discharge in Timmiarmiut Fjord, which is consistent with satellite observations of ice mélange set into motion, adds to our increasing understanding of the distribution of subglacial meltwater. Data are available through the PANGAEA website at https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.860627.

  11. Multibeam bathymetry and CTD measurements in two fjord systems in southeastern Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellerup Kjeldsen, Kristian; Weinrebe, Reimer Wilhelm; Bendtsen, Jørgen; Anker Bjørk, Anders; Kjær, Kurt Henrik

    2017-08-01

    We present bathymetry and hydrological observations collected in the summer of 2014 from two fjord systems in southeastern Greenland with a multibeam sonar system. Our results provide a detailed bathymetric map of the fjord complex around the island of Skjoldungen in Skjoldungen Fjord and the outer part of Timmiarmiut Fjord and show far greater depths compared to the International Bathymetric Chart of the Arctic Ocean. The hydrography collected shows different properties in the fjords with the bottom water masses below 240 m in Timmiarmiut Fjord being 1-2 °C warmer than in the two fjords around Skjoldungen, but data also illustrate the influence of sills on the exchange of deeper water masses within fjords. Moreover, evidence of subglacial discharge in Timmiarmiut Fjord, which is consistent with satellite observations of ice mélange set into motion, adds to our increasing understanding of the distribution of subglacial meltwater. Data are available through the PANGAEA website at https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.860627.

  12. Nutritional rickets in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck-Nielsen, Signe; Jensen, Tina Kold; Gram, Jeppe

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This study describes clinical and biochemical characteristics of nutritional rickets and risk factors at diagnosis among children living in Denmark. All medical records from patients with rickets referred to or discharged from hospitals in Southern Denmark from 1985 to 2005 were...... identified by register search. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients included were younger than 15 years of age and fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of primary, nutritional rickets. A total of 112 patients with nutritional rickets were included: 29 were of ethnic Danish origin, and 83 were immigrants. RESULTS...... girls older than 4 years of age, 78% were veiled. DISCUSSION: Nutritional rickets in Denmark is predominantly a disease among immigrants, but ethnic Danish patients comprised nearly half of all patients diagnosed before the age of 4 years, and they presented more frequently with hypocalcemic seizures...

  13. Arbitration in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2008-01-01

    is handled. The author, who often acts as arbitrator in Danish and International arbitration cases, will analyse the options which the parties have under the new Danish arbitration act (hereinafter called the AA) for influencing how their case is handled, and thus for making this process more efficient......Having lagged behind in its arbitration rules for 30 years, Denmark has become an attractive country in which to conduct arbitration. Denmark now has one of Europe's most modern and streamlined arbitration acts, and if they so wish, the parties can exert a substantial influence on how the case....... This article thus analyses the degree of party autonomy associated with the choice of arbitration in Denmark. It will be shown that the AA provides a very broad framework for autonomy, and the article will seek to balance the parties' desire for efficiency in the handling of an arbitration case against...

  14. Anaerobic digestion in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Ellegaard, L.

    2002-01-01

    as well as approx. 300,000 tonnes organic industrial waste. Besides the CBPs there is a large number of smaller farm scale plants. The long term energy plan objective is a 10-fold increase of 1998 level biogas production by the year 2020. This will help to achieve a target of 12-14% of the national energy......Centralized biogas plants (CBP) in Denmark codigest mainly manure, together with other organic waste such as industrial organic waste, source sorted household waste and sewage sludge. Today 22 large scale CBP's are in operation in Denmark and in 2001 they treated approx. 1.2 mio tonnes of manure...... consumption being provided by renewable energy by the year 2005 and 33% by the year 2030. A major part of this increase is expected to come from new centralized biogas plant. The annual potential for biogas production from biomass resources available in Denmark is estimated to be approx. to 30 PJ. Manure...

  15. Anaerobic digestion in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Ellegaard, L.

    2002-01-01

    as well as approx. 300,000 tonnes organic industrial waste. Besides the CBPs there is a large number of smaller farm scale plants. The long term energy plan objective is a 10-fold increase of 1998 level biogas production by the year 2020. This will help to achieve a target of 12-14% of the national energy......Centralized biogas plants (CBP) in Denmark codigest mainly manure, together with other organic waste such as industrial organic waste, source sorted household waste and sewage sludge. Today 22 large scale CBP's are in operation in Denmark and in 2001 they treated approx. 1.2 mio tonnes of manure...... consumption being provided by renewable energy by the year 2005 and 33% by the year 2030. A major part of this increase is expected to come from new centralized biogas plant. The annual potential for biogas production from biomass resources available in Denmark is estimated to be approx. to 30 PJ. Manure...

  16. Effect of fjord geometry on tidewater glacier stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åkesson, Henning; Nisancioglu, Kerim H.; Nick, Faezeh M.

    2016-04-01

    Many marine-terminating glaciers have thinned, accelerated and retreated during the last two decades, broadly consistent with warmer atmospheric and oceanic conditions. However, these patterns involve considerable spatial and temporal variability, with diverse glacier behavior within the same regions. Similarly, reconstructions of marine-terminating glaciers indicate highly asynchronous retreat histories. While it is well known that retrograde slopes can cause marine ice sheet instabilities, the effect of lateral drag and fjord width has received less attention. Here, we test the hypothesis that marine outlet glacier stability is largely controlled by fjord width, and to a less extent by regional climate forcing. We employ a dynamic flowline model on idealized glacier geometries (representative of different outlet glaciers) to investigate geometric controls on decadal and longer times scales. The model accounts for driving and resistive stresses of glacier flow as well as along-flow stress transfer. It has a physical treatment of iceberg calving and a time-adaptive grid allowing for continuous tracking of grounding-line migration. We apply changes in atmospheric and oceanic forcing and show how wide and narrow fjord sections foster glacier (in)stabilities. We also evaluate the effect of including a surface mass balance - elevation feedback in such a setting. Finally, the relevance of these results to past and future marine-terminating glacier stability is discussed.

  17. Don't damn Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pace, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Despite its apparently anti-immigration political rhetoric, Denmark remains mainly tolerant of migrants......Despite its apparently anti-immigration political rhetoric, Denmark remains mainly tolerant of migrants...

  18. Quantifying catchment water balances and their uncertainties by expert elicitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebok, Eva; Refsgaard, Jens Christian; Warmink, Jord J.; Stisen, Simon; Høgh Jensen, Karsten

    2017-04-01

    The increasing demand on water resources necessitates a more responsible and sustainable water management requiring a thorough understanding of hydrological processes both on small scale and on catchment scale. On catchment scale, the characterization of hydrological processes is often carried out by calculating a water balance based on the principle of mass conservation in hydrological fluxes. Assuming a perfect water balance closure and estimating one of these fluxes as a residual of the water balance is a common practice although this estimate will contain uncertainties related to uncertainties in the other components. Water balance closure on the catchment scale is also an issue in Denmark, thus, it was one of the research objectives of the HOBE hydrological observatory, that has been collecting data in the Skjern river catchment since 2008. Water balance components in the 1050 km2 Ahlergaarde catchment and the nested 120 km2 Holtum catchment, located in the glacial outwash plan of the Skjern catchment, were estimated using a multitude of methods. As the collected data enables the complex assessment of uncertainty of both the individual water balance components and catchment-scale water balances, the expert elicitation approach was chosen to integrate the results of the hydrological observatory. This approach relies on the subjective opinion of experts whose available knowledge and experience about the subject allows to integrate complex information from multiple sources. In this study 35 experts were involved in a multi-step elicitation process with the aim of (1) eliciting average annual values of water balance components for two nested catchments and quantifying the contribution of different sources of uncertainties to the total uncertainty in these average annual estimates; (2) calculating water balances for two catchments by reaching consensus among experts interacting in form of group discussions. To address the complex problem of water balance closure

  19. Cancer rehabilitation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Helle Ploug; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine

    2008-01-01

    A fundamental assumption behind cancer rehabilitation in many Western societies is that cancer survivors can return to normal life by learning to deal with the consequences of their illness and their treatment. This assumption is supported by increasing political attention to cancer rehabilitation...... and a growth in residential cancer-rehabilitation initiatives in Denmark (Danish Cancer Society 1999; Government of Denmark 2003). On the basis of their ethnographic fieldwork in residential-cancer rehabilitation courses, the authors examine the new rehabilitation discourse. They argue that this discourse has...

  20. Denmark Wind Energy Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, a summary of some ongoing wind energy projects in Denmark is given. The research topics comprise computational model development, wind turbine (WT) design, low-noise airfoil and blade design, control device development, wake modelling and wind farm layout optimization.......In this chapter, a summary of some ongoing wind energy projects in Denmark is given. The research topics comprise computational model development, wind turbine (WT) design, low-noise airfoil and blade design, control device development, wake modelling and wind farm layout optimization....

  1. BIM education in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svidt, Kjeld

    The International Conference on Digital Construction of 2015, Vilnius, Lithuania. See the invited speak ppt. presentation here http://skaitmeninestatyba.lt/files/SKST'15%20skaidr%C4%97s/2_3_Svidt_BIM_education_i_Denmark_Skaitmenine_statyba2015.pdf......The International Conference on Digital Construction of 2015, Vilnius, Lithuania. See the invited speak ppt. presentation here http://skaitmeninestatyba.lt/files/SKST'15%20skaidr%C4%97s/2_3_Svidt_BIM_education_i_Denmark_Skaitmenine_statyba2015.pdf...

  2. Science Communication in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    This paper was presented during the author?s visit at the Faculty of Human Development of the University of Kobe . The paper is intended to provide the knowledge about science communication in the Nordic countries (in particular in Denmark). The focus in the paper is on (i) examples of new...... and innovative modes of science communication in Denmark and (ii) educational programs for science communicators. Furthermore, emphasis is on the pedagogical ideas behind the initiatives, rather than on thorough descriptions of structures, curricula and evaluations of the projects....

  3. Science Communication in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    This paper was presented during the author?s visit at the Faculty of Human Development of the University of Kobe . The paper is intended to provide the knowledge about science communication in the Nordic countries (in particular in Denmark). The focus in the paper is on (i) examples of new...... and innovative modes of science communication in Denmark and (ii) educational programs for science communicators. Furthermore, emphasis is on the pedagogical ideas behind the initiatives, rather than on thorough descriptions of structures, curricula and evaluations of the projects....

  4. Criminal Law in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Lars Bo; Garde, Peter; Greve, Vagn

    Derived from the renowned multi-volume International Encyclopaedia of Laws, this book provides a practical analysis of criminal law in Denmark. An introduction presents the necessary background information about the framework and sources of the criminal justice system, and then proceeds...... resource for criminal lawyers, prosecutors, law enforcement officers, and criminal court judges handling cases connected with Denmark. Academics and researchers, as well as the various international organizations in the field, will welcome this very useful guide, and will appreciate its value in the study...... of comparative criminal law....

  5. Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailand, Mikkel; Hansen, Nana Wesley

    2016-01-01

    Denmark and Sweden have some of the largest public sectors in Europe. They are also characterized by predominantly voluntaristic labor market models where collective bargaining and employee involvement play a relatively strong role in public sector employment relations (ER). In this chapter, we...... more profound in Sweden than in Denmark, but they took place before the 2008 crisis. In Sweden, an economic crisis in the 1990s was a much more important driver than the post- 2008 crisis. The 1990s crisis contributed to an earlier implementation of NPM and to a higher degree of decentralization...

  6. BIM education in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svidt, Kjeld

    The International Conference on Digital Construction of 2015, Vilnius, Lithuania. See the invited speak ppt. presentation here http://skaitmeninestatyba.lt/files/SKST'15%20skaidr%C4%97s/2_3_Svidt_BIM_education_i_Denmark_Skaitmenine_statyba2015.pdf......The International Conference on Digital Construction of 2015, Vilnius, Lithuania. See the invited speak ppt. presentation here http://skaitmeninestatyba.lt/files/SKST'15%20skaidr%C4%97s/2_3_Svidt_BIM_education_i_Denmark_Skaitmenine_statyba2015.pdf...

  7. Bioethics in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul; Andersen, Martin Marchman

    2014-01-01

    This article examines two current debates in Denmark-assisted suicide and the prioritization of health resources-and proposes that such controversial bioethical issues call for distinct philosophical analyses: first-order examinations, or an applied philosophy approach, and second-order examinati......This article examines two current debates in Denmark-assisted suicide and the prioritization of health resources-and proposes that such controversial bioethical issues call for distinct philosophical analyses: first-order examinations, or an applied philosophy approach, and second...

  8. Criminal Law in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Lars Bo; Garde, Peter; Greve, Vagn

    resource for criminal lawyers, prosecutors, law enforcement officers, and criminal court judges handling cases connected with Denmark. Academics and researchers, as well as the various international organizations in the field, will welcome this very useful guide, and will appreciate its value in the study......Derived from the renowned multi-volume International Encyclopaedia of Laws, this book provides a practical analysis of criminal law in Denmark. An introduction presents the necessary background information about the framework and sources of the criminal justice system, and then proceeds...... of comparative criminal law....

  9. Prespawning migratory behaviour and spawning success of sea-ranched Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., in the River Gudenaa, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Kim; Jepsen, Niels; Rasmusssen, Gorm

    2000-01-01

    The migratory behaviour of sea-ranched Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., was analysed by radio-telemetry in the River Gudenaa, Denmark. The main objectives were to: (1) estimate mortality of returning adults through the fjord; (2) observe rate of progression and migratory pattern in the fjord...... of the spawning period. Eight were retrieved dead from the river during or after the spawning period; four with empty gonads assumed to be successful spawners, and four with intact gonads. In 1994, unsuccessful spawners (found dead with intact gonads) entered the river earlier and had a longer total migration...... distance in the river compared to successful. spawners. This suggests that spawning success of sea-ranched salmon is associated with time of river entry and river migration length...

  10. Gender in physics in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niss, Karsten Ulrik; Nordström, B.; Bearden, I.

    2013-01-01

    More women than men get a college degree in Denmark. However, Denmark still has very gender-separated labor market, and in physics only 10 of the university professors are women. Measures are needed to get a more balanced gender distribution among university physicists at all levels in Denmark....

  11. Glacimarine sedimentation in Petermann Fjord and Nares Strait, NW Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Kelly; Jakobsson, Martin; Mayer, Larry; Mix, Alan; Nielsen, Tove; Kamla, Elina; Reilly, Brendan; Heirman, Katrina An; Stranne, Christian; Mohammed, Rezwan; Eriksson, Bjorn; Jerram, Kevin

    2017-04-01

    Here we build on preliminary results from 6500 line-km of high-resolution chirp sub-bottom profiles (2-7 kHz) acquired in Petermann Fjord and Nares Strait during the Petermann 2015 Expedition of the Swedish icebreaker Oden. We map the unlithified sediment cover in Peterman Fjord, which consists of up to 3 conformable "drape" units and calculate volumes of this assumed "post-glacial" fill. In Nares Strait we have mapped sediment volumes in local basins just beyond the sill at the Petermann Fjord-mouth: do these sediments represent material flushed out from the grounding zone of Petermann Glacier when it was grounded at the sill? In this vein, and interestingly, some of the thickest sediments that we observe are found close to a grounding-zone wedge (GZW) in Nares Strait that represents a former grounding zone of ice retreating southwards through the strait. We also map conformable units across Nares Strait and consider the similarities between these and the sediment units in the fjord. Do the strong reflections between the units represent the same climatic, oceanographic or process-shift both inside and outside the fjord? We also aim to tie our new acoustic stratigraphy to sediment-core data (lithofacies, dates) and, therefore, to comment on the age of the mapped sediment units and present ideas on the glacimarine flux of material to the Petermann-Nares system. Primary sediment delivery to the seafloor in this environment is thought to be predominantly through sedimentation from meltwater plumes but also of iceberg-rafted debris (IRD). However, sediment redeposition by slope failures on a variety of scales also occurs and has focussed sediments into discrete basins where the seafloor is rugged. This work - which aims to relate past sediment, meltwater and iceberg fluxes to changes in climate - will help us to identify how the system has responded to a past global warming event, namely the last deglaciation. This is particularly relevant in light of the recent

  12. Medical Spending in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bent Jesper; Kallestrup-Lamb, Malene; Gørtz, Mette

    2016-01-01

    Using full population longitudinal data from merged administrative registers for Denmark, we document that medical spending is highly concentrated in the population, and persistent through time at the individual level. In addition, we provide overviews of institutional details of the Danish health...

  13. Educational Governance in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Lejf

    2014-01-01

    Denmark has entered global competition by expanding collaboration with European countries, which is profoundly impacting the public sector and school governance. Relations between the state and institutions are transforming from traditional democratic, public-sector models of governance into new forms characterized as corporate and market-driven…

  14. Country Report Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savin, Andrej

    The ePrivacy Directive has been implemented in Denmark through a range of legislative instruments, beginning with the Act on Electronic Communications and Services but leading into more important Executive Order on Provision of Electronic Services and the Cookie Order. This structure could...

  15. Stroke awareness in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truelsen, Thomas; Krarup, Lars-Henrik

    2010-01-01

    This is the first study to examine the awareness of major stroke symptoms and stroke risk factors among the general population in Denmark. Early recognition of stroke warning signs and means of reducing stroke occurrence could improve the treatment and prevention of stroke....

  16. Anthroposophy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dybdal, René

    2016-01-01

    The Anthroposophical worldview has had an significant impact on a range of initiatives and institutions within esoteric thinking in many western countries during teh 20th Century - which is also the case in Denmark. This article gives a brief review over the development of Anthroposophical Society...

  17. Special Issues Grid Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tanja; Jakobsen, Turf Böcker

    2012-01-01

    The project "Financialisation of Social Welfare" studies the consequences of financialisation at the household level. As part of the research process, a database of institutional data was developed on a number of social welfare areas for Norway, Denmark and the UK, covering the period 1970...

  18. Prostitution in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stormhøj, Christel; Pedersen, Bodil Maria; Hansen, Kirsten Grønbæk

    2015-01-01

    Prostitution is a worldwide phenomenon, and so are the controversies surrounding it. In Denmark, as in many countries, there is an ongoing public debate about whether it should be seen as a social/political problem, or as a job like any other. The debate takes place within the tension between...

  19. Educational Governance in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Lejf

    2014-01-01

    Denmark has entered global competition by expanding collaboration with European countries, which is profoundly impacting the public sector and school governance. Relations between the state and institutions are transforming from traditional democratic, public-sector models of governance into new forms characterized as corporate and market-driven…

  20. Real Estate in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rimmer, Nina Røhr

    2016-01-01

    A general introduction to buying, owning and selling Property i Denmark. The cost of buying and selling property and the tax implications as well as the general concept of real estate is introduced. The paper includes also a brief introduction to some of the aspects which you should beware of when...

  1. Culture Wars in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørum, Tania

    2016-01-01

    In the 1960s high and low culture were brought into sharp conflict i Denmark. In 1961 a Ministry of Culture was established for the first time. The first minister of culture, the social democrat Julius Bomholt, saw art and culture as an important part of education for democracy that should be made...

  2. Music Streaming in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Rex

    This report analyses how a ’per user’ settlement model differs from the ‘pro rata’ model currently used. The analysis is based on data for all streams by WiMP users in Denmark during August 2013. The analysis has been conducted in collaboration with Christian Schlelein from Koda on the basis...

  3. Clinical Supervision in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Claus Haugaard

    2011-01-01

    on giving and receiving clinical supervision as reported by therapists in Denmark. Method: Currently, the Danish sample consists of 350 clinical psychologist doing psychotherapy who completed DPCCQ. Data are currently being prepared for statistical analysis. Results: This paper will focus primarily...

  4. Study Groups in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1998 European Study Groups have been held in Denmark, and Danish companies from LEGO and NOVO to very small high-tech firms have participated. I briefly describe the history, the organisation and the format of the Danish Study Groups, and highlight a few problem solutions....

  5. Stroke awareness in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truelsen, Thomas; Krarup, Lars-Henrik

    2010-01-01

    This is the first study to examine the awareness of major stroke symptoms and stroke risk factors among the general population in Denmark. Early recognition of stroke warning signs and means of reducing stroke occurrence could improve the treatment and prevention of stroke....

  6. Between Denmark and Detroit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars K.

    2014-01-01

    In 1919, Ford Motor Company established its first assembly plant on the European mainland in Copenhagen, Denmark. Based on a Fordist productive model, including technology and materials from Detroit, cars were manufactured and exported to most of Northern Europe. It has been claimed that Ford also......, local management and the Ford Motor Company....

  7. Wealth & Immigration in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, Johannes Kabderian; Wolffsen, Poul; Mortensen, Mia

    2014-01-01

    Applying newly developed methods this paper quantifies human capital in Denmark and analyzes highly qualified immigration as a potential source of wealth generation. In order to quantify human capital, we use the methodology of Lettau and Ludvigson (2001, 2004), Zhang (2006) and Dreyer et al. (2013...

  8. Denmark Wind Energy Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a summary of some ongoing wind energy projects in Denmark is given. The research topics comprise computational model development, wind turbine design, low noise airfoil and blade design, control device development, wake modelling, and wind farm layout optimization....

  9. Europe in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atzbach, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    for window panes and glass vessels, German and Venetian gaffers were invited to Denmark. The production they started was ephemeral, however, ceasing after only one generation. Third, the tile stove and the concept of "appartement" consisting of a smoke-free heated living room and separate sleeping chambers...

  10. Regionalization Lessons from Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrangbaek, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Denmark is a small Northern European country with an extensive welfare state and a strong commitment to maintaining a universal healthcare system. Like the other countries in the Nordic region, Denmark has a long tradition of democratically governed local and regional governments with extensive responsibilities in organizing welfare state services. The Danish healthcare system has demonstrated an ability to increase productivity, while at the same time maintaining a high level of patient satisfaction. Ongoing reforms have contributed to these results, as well as a firm commitment to innovation and coordination. Regions and municipalities in Denmark are governed by directly elected democratic councils. The Danish case is thus an example of democratic decentralization, but within a framework of national coordination and fiscal control. In spite of the difference in size and historical traditions there are also many similarities between Canada and Denmark, particularly in terms of health and social policy goals and aspirations, and in terms of the commitment to a comprehensive, universal healthcare system. These similarities provide interesting opportunities for comparison.

  11. Graduation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warburg, Margit

    2009-01-01

    all the characteristics of a rite of passage. The graduates wear a traditional cap with a cross as cockade emblem; this special cross is a symbol of Denmark. For graduates of non-Christian background, alternative cockade emblems are available, e.g. a Star of David or a crescent; this shows...

  12. Citizenship Education in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevgi Coşkun KESKİN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Many countries in the world refer to the social studies and history program to achieve the objective training a good citizen according to its own structure and approach. Denmark is one of these countries. For this purpose Denmark aims to educate individuals who are respectful to the values of community, actively participate in the democratic society and contribute to the development of living community. In this context, the content of Social Studies Program in Denmark forms such as freedom of thought, democracy, ideology, policy and constitutional issues. In recent years in our country makes many applications and project that is based to citizenship education by the Ministry of Education. To shed light on these studies and bring recommendations, social studies and history curriculum of Denmark carrying out citizenship education very seriously is investigated in terms of dimensions of goals, content, learning and teaching process and evaluation.This study is limited with social studies lesson in 7th-9th class and history lesson in 3th-9th class which is applied in Odense of Denmark. In this study it is examined metioned the programs by document analysis. The Programs are obtained reaching the country’s Education Ministry sources. The documents which were written Danish language are translated into first English and then Turkish language. In the meantime it is receieved the support for translation fromDanish programs professionals and teachers where it is needed. In addition to data collection, the researcher is observed participating various course activities.According to results of analysis of the data, these findings are reached: It is often emphasized on concept of democracy, freedom, and respect in citizenship education in Denmark. It is intended to give the students required the rules and values for participation in the democratic life and it is attempted to be given approach that the students have a right to say their ideas freely and to

  13. Linked models to assess the impacts of climate change on nitrogen in a Norwegian river basin and fjord system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaste, OE. [Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Southern Branch, Televeien 3, N-4879 Grimstad (Norway); Wright, R.F.; Barkved, L.J.; Bjerkeng, B.; Magnusson, J.; Saelthun, N.R. [Norwegian Institute for Water Research, P.O. Box 173, N-0411 Oslo (Norway); Engen-Skaugen, T. [Norwegian Meteorological Institute, P.O. Box 43 Blindern, N-0313 Oslo (Norway)

    2006-07-15

    Dynamically downscaled data from two Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models (AOGCMs), ECHAM4 from the Max-Planck Institute (MPI), Germany and HadAm3H from the Hadley Centre (HAD), UK, driven with two scenarios of greenhouse gas emissions (IS92a and A2, respectively) were used to make climate change projections. These projections were then used to drive four effect models linked to assess the effects on hydrology, and nitrogen (N) concentrations and fluxes, in the Bjerkreim river basin (685-km{sup 2}) and its coastal fjord, southwestern Norway. The four effect models were the hydrological model HBV, the water quality models MAGIC, INCA-N and the NIVA FJORD model. The downscaled climate scenarios project a general temperature increase in the study region of approximately 1{sup o}C by 2030-2049 (MPI IS92a) and approximately 3{sup o}C by 2071-2100 (HAD A2). Both scenarios imply increased winter precipitation, whereas the projections of summer and autumn precipitation are quite different, with the MPI scenario projecting a slight increase and the HAD scenario a significant decrease. As a response to increased winter temperature, the HBV model simulates a dramatic reduction of snow accumulation in the upper parts of the catchment, which in turn lead to higher runoff during winter and lower runoff during snowmelt in the spring. With the HAD scenario, runoff in summer and early autumn is substantially reduced as a result of reduced precipitation, increased temperatures and thereby increased evapotranspiration. The water quality models, MAGIC and INCA-N project no major changes in nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -}) concentrations and fluxes within the MPI scenario, but a significant increase in concentrations and a 40-50% increase in fluxes in the HAD scenario. As a consequence, the acidification of the river could increase, thus offsetting ongoing recovery from acidification due to reductions in acid deposition. Additionally, the increased N loading may stimulate growth of N

  14. Linked models to assess the impacts of climate change on nitrogen in a Norwegian river basin and FJORD system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaste, Ø; Wright, R F; Barkved, L J; Bjerkeng, B; Engen-Skaugen, T; Magnusson, J; Saelthun, N R

    2006-07-15

    Dynamically downscaled data from two Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models (AOGCMs), ECHAM4 from the Max-Planck Institute (MPI), Germany and HadAm3H from the Hadley Centre (HAD), UK, driven with two scenarios of greenhouse gas emissions (IS92a and A2, respectively) were used to make climate change projections. These projections were then used to drive four effect models linked to assess the effects on hydrology, and nitrogen (N) concentrations and fluxes, in the Bjerkreim river basin (685-km(2)) and its coastal fjord, southwestern Norway. The four effect models were the hydrological model HBV, the water quality models MAGIC, INCA-N and the NIVA FJORD model. The downscaled climate scenarios project a general temperature increase in the study region of approximately 1 degrees C by 2030-2049 (MPI IS92a) and approximately 3 degrees C by 2071-2100 (HAD A2). Both scenarios imply increased winter precipitation, whereas the projections of summer and autumn precipitation are quite different, with the MPI scenario projecting a slight increase and the HAD scenario a significant decrease. As a response to increased winter temperature, the HBV model simulates a dramatic reduction of snow accumulation in the upper parts of the catchment, which in turn lead to higher runoff during winter and lower runoff during snowmelt in the spring. With the HAD scenario, runoff in summer and early autumn is substantially reduced as a result of reduced precipitation, increased temperatures and thereby increased evapotranspiration. The water quality models, MAGIC and INCA-N project no major changes in nitrate (NO(3)(-)) concentrations and fluxes within the MPI scenario, but a significant increase in concentrations and a 40-50% increase in fluxes in the HAD scenario. As a consequence, the acidification of the river could increase, thus offsetting ongoing recovery from acidification due to reductions in acid deposition. Additionally, the increased N loading may stimulate growth of N

  15. Population genetics of drifting (Calanus spp.) and resident (Acartia clausi) plankton in Norwegian fjords

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bucklin, A.; Kaartvedt, S.; Guarnieri, M.; Goswami, U.

    consequences of these two life-styles for copepods in four fjords of westrn Norway (Lurefjorden, Masfjorden, Sognefjorden and Sorfjorden) and one fjord in eastern Norway (Oslofjorden) is examined. Based on DNA sequence variation of a region of mitochondrial 16S...

  16. Connecting climate signals with phytoplankton productivity and composition in a high Arctic fjord

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Poll, Willem

    2016-01-01

    Kongsfjorden is a high Arctic fjord on the West coast of Spitsbergen in a rapidly changing region that experiences both Arctic and sub-Arctic influences. This fjord has been subject to intense research since the 1980s. More recently, an effort was started by the AWI to collect daily physical, chemic

  17. Remote sensing of seawater and drifting ice in Svalbard fjords by compact Raman LIDAR

    CERN Document Server

    Bunkin, Alexey F; Lednev, Vasily N; Lushnikov, Dmitry L; Marchenko, Aleksey V; Morozov, Eugene G; Pershin, Sergey M; Yulmetov, Renat N

    2013-01-01

    A compact Raman LIDAR system for remote sensing of sea and drifting ice was developed at the Wave Research Center at the Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the RAS. The developed system is based on a diode pumped solid state YVO4:Nd laser combined with compact spectrograph equipped with gated detector. The system exhibits high sensitivity and can be used for mapping or depth profiling of different parameters within many oceanographic problems. Light weight (~20 kg) and low power consumption (300 W) make possible to install the device on any vehicle including unmanned aircraft or submarine system. The Raman LIDAR presented was used for Svalbard fjords study and analysis of different influence of the open sea and glaciers on the water properties. Temperature, phytoplankton, and dissolved organic matter distributions in the seawater were studied in the Ice Fjord, Van Mijen Fjord and Rinders Fjord. Drifting ice and seawater in the Rinders Fjord were characterized by the Raman spectroscopy and fluorescence. It...

  18. Erosion of modern terrestrial organic matter as a major component of sediments in fjords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xingqian; Bianchi, Thomas S.; Savage, Candida

    2017-02-01

    Fjords have recently been recognized as "hot spots" of carbon burial. In this study, we investigated organic carbon (OC) and biomarker radiocarbon values in fjord sediments from New Zealand. Our results showed that OC was mostly modern with the most aged OC in middle reaches of fjords, likely related to hydrodynamic sorting and inputs along adjacent slopes. Radiocarbon ages of sedimentary OC increased from north-to-south, consistent with the Fiordland regional gradients of lower fjord slopes and less rainfall. Our biomarker results suggested that lignin and long-chain fatty acids were preferentially linked with fresh terrestrial debris and degraded soil, respectively, likely due to their chemical and physical properties. Finally, we propose that fjords are a significant sink of modern OC, in contrast to large lowland coastal systems as a major sink of preaged OC. Overall, this study indicated that radiocarbon techniques are critical in investigating carbon dynamics in coastal systems.

  19. Organic carbon in glacial fjords of Chilean Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoja, Silvio; Gutiérrez, Marcelo; Tapia, Fabián; Abarzúa, Leslie; Daneri, Giovanni; Reid, Brian; Díez, Beatriz

    2016-04-01

    The Southern Ice Field in Chilean Patagonia is the largest (13,000 km2) temperate ice mass in the Southern hemisphere, yearly transporting ca. 40 km3 of freshwater to fjords. This volume of fresh and cold water likely affects adjacent marine ecosystems by changing circulation, productivity, food web dynamics, and the abundance and distribution of planktonic and benthic organisms. We hypothesize that freshwater-driven availability of inorganic nutrient and transport of organic and inorganic suspended matter, as well as microbes, become a controlling factor for productivity in the fjord associated with the Baker river and Jorge Montt glacier. Both appear to be sources of silicic acid, but not of nitrate and particulate organic carbon, especially during summer, when surface PAR and glacier thawing are maximal. In contrast to Baker River, the Jorge Montt glacier is also a source of dissolved organic carbon towards a proglacial fjord and the Baker Channel, indicating that a thorough chemical description of sources (tidewater glacier and glacial river) is needed. Nitrate in fiord waters reaches ca. 15 μM at 25 m depth with no evidence of mixing up during summer. Stable isotope composition of particulate organic nitrogen reaches values as low as 3 per mil in low-salinity waters near both glacier and river. Nitrogen fixation could be depleting δ15N in organic matter, as suggested by the detection at surface waters of nif H genes belonging to diazotrophs near the Montt glacier. As diazotrophs have also been detected in other cold marine waters (e.g. Baltic Sea, Arctic Ocean) as well as glaciers and polar terrestrial waters, there is certainly a potential for both marine and freshwater microbes to contribute and have a significant impact on the Patagonian N and C budgets. Assessing the impact of freshwater on C and N fluxes and the microbial community structure in Patagonian waters will allow understanding future scenarios of rapid glacier melting. This research was funded

  20. Benthic primary production and mineralization in a High Arctic Fjord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Attard, Karl M.; Hancke, Kasper; Sejr, Mikael K.

    2016-01-01

    Coastal and shelf systems likely exert major influence on Arctic Ocean functioning, yet key ecosystem processes remain poorly quantified. We employed the aquatic eddy covariance (AEC) oxygen (O2) flux method to estimate benthic primary production and mineralization in a High Arctic Greenland fjord...... light data, we estimate an annual Arctic Ocean benthic GPP of 11.5 × 107 t C yr−1. On average, this value represents 26% of the Arctic Ocean annual net phytoplankton production estimates. This scarcely considered component is thus potentially important for contemporary and future Arctic ecosystem...

  1. Freshwater discharge and sediment transport to Kangerlussuaq Fjord, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Andreas Peter Bech

    The main objectives of this PhD study have been to quantify the large-scale hydrological and geomorphological processes and implications related to three large proglacial rivers draining into Kangerlussuaq Fjord from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS). These rivers are Watson, Umivit and Sarfartoq...... and was applied to investigate detailed processes such as storage and release of meltwater from the glacial system. It showed promising first results, though better constrained input data is needed before firm conclusions on detailed processes can be drawn. In July 2012, a several day long period of unprecedented...

  2. PPP in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    It is the aim of the paper to contribute to the discussion on restating the PPP principles. The paper is based on an ongoing research project: ”Procuring Facilities Management through PPP´s”. A review of litterature with a critical, but positive attitude towards PPP is given. An overview of PPP i......-life thinking can be released in PPPs. The question is raised whether the formation of partnerships between the public and private part might be a way forward for PPP in Denmark and elsewhere....... in Denmark is presented. Only a few PPP´s have been initiated and though more might be in the pipeline, it is likely that the market for PPP is too small. Government policy is positive toward PPP. Private financing is not seen as an essential part of PPP. Attitudes among participants in PPP isare described...

  3. Metal Detecting in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobat, A.S.

    2016-01-01

    Since the early 1980s, metal detector surveying conducted by non-professional volunteers (amateur archaeologists) has contributed significantly to archaeological research and heritage practice in Denmark. Metal detecting has always been legal in Denmark, and official stakeholders have from...... the beginning of metal detector archaeology pursued a liberal model, focusing on cooperation and inclusion rather than confrontation and criminalization. Like no other surveying method, the metal detector has contributed to increasing enormously the amount of data and sites from metal-rich periods. Virtually...... all of the spectacular and ground-breaking discoveries of the past decades are owed to metal detectors in the hands of amateur archaeologists. In order to serve as a contribution to the discussion on the upsides and downsides of liberal metal detector archaeology, this article addresses mainly three...

  4. Denmark at a Crossroad?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Denmark is regularly portrayed in international science journals as ‘the epidemiologist’s dream’: a country where health data on all citizens can be combined with e.g. information about social or financial position, kinship ties, school performance data as well as tissue samples. Moreover, it can...... sourcing has emerged as a new way of running the health services. My key point with this chapter is that though research uses of health data receive the most attention, research is not necessarily the main purpose with intensified data sourcing. Nevertheless, ethical debates tend to focus on research...... all be done without the informed consent of the individual. This chapter describes the practices in Denmark involved in what I call ‘intensified data sourcing’. I define intensified data sourcing as attempts at getting more data, of better quality, on more people – and I point out how intensified data...

  5. Microbreweries in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Birthe Kofoed; Østergaard Brandt, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    are experiencing success is because of the large breweries high willingness to share their present knowledge and newest research with the microbreweries. Another reason is the Danish consumers’ curiosity, interest and willingness to buy special beers brewed with raw materials from the local nature. One......The large breweries in Denmark have existed in more than 150 years. The industry has in recent 10 years experienced a true beer revolution where local entrepreneurs created more than 100 microbreweries, so today there are about 120 breweries in Denmark. One of the reasons why so many microbreweries...... of these special beers is the hay beer from Herslev Brewery, called Mark Hø. The story of the brewery and the beer will be elaborated in this chapter....

  6. School gardens in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyg, Pernille Malberg

    2016-01-01

    ). School gardens are sprouting in rural and urban areas across Denmark. This case study research sheds new light on various school garden models under the Gardens for Bellies program in Denmark, including school-, community-based and central school gardens. This study aims to document the organization......Studies show that school gardening helps children enhance their understanding of science and promotes their interaction with the environment gaining historical, cultural and ecological understandings (Dyg 2014; Chenhall 2010; Green 2013; Johnson 2012; Sloan 2013; McCarty 2010; Hess & Trexler 2011...... of school gardens, which is not studied in international research. It also analyses immediate effects according to pupils and other stakeholders. The research is based on five explorative case studies, involving observations and interviews. The findings show that school gardens open up opportunities...

  7. Peripartum cardiomyopathy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ersbøll, Anne S; Johansen, Marianne; Damm, Peter

    2017-01-01

    AIM: Population-based European studies of peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) are few. We aimed to estimate the nationwide incidence and outcome of PPCM in Denmark during 2005-2014. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Danish National Birth Register and the Danish National Patient Register were linked and searc......AIM: Population-based European studies of peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) are few. We aimed to estimate the nationwide incidence and outcome of PPCM in Denmark during 2005-2014. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Danish National Birth Register and the Danish National Patient Register were linked...... and searched for cardiomyopathy and heart failure ICD-10 diagnoses in a period of nine months before to 12 months after a delivery from 1 January 2005 through 31 December 2014. Diagnoses were validated and additional data were extracted from patient charts. A total of 61 women met the inclusion criteria...

  8. Energy policy in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lidegaard, M.

    2012-12-15

    Denmark has a long tradition of active energy policy, initiated by the first oil crisis in 1973. Over the years, numerous actions have been taken on the basis of a broad consensus in the Danish Parliament - both in order to reduce the energy consumption and in order to increase the share of renewable energy. Now, the cornerstones for the Danish energy future have also been laid. The Danish Government has set the long-term goal to abandon fossil fuels by 2050. An important milestone was reached in March 2012 with an Energy Agreement for the period 2012-2020 - again based on a broad consensus in the Danish Parliament. This Agreement contains a wide range of ambitious initiatives, bringing Denmark a good step closer to the target of 100% renewable energy. In the present publication, a selection of past and present Danish energy policies is presented, together with the results achieved in terms of energy savings, use of renewables etc. (LN)

  9. Technology Museums in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Morten Karnøe

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an exhibit review of some of the major technology museums in Denmark. First comes an introduction to the Danish museum ”landscape”. Second a total of six museums and their technology focused exhibits are presented. Among the museums are the Fisheries and Maritime Museum...... in Esbjerg, housing one of the most impressive and representative exhibitions on the technology behind the strong Danish maritime sector. Another museum being mentioned is the Energy Museum, which covers the background for some of the major breakthroughs performed in Denmark within this area; particularly...... within wind power technology. Finally special attention is devoted to the Danish Technological Museum. A museum which is the oldest and most elaborate of all the technology museums. The museum covers virtually every technological breakthrough with any relevance in a Danish section, with a special focus...

  10. Corporate Bonds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tell, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Corporate financing is the choice between capital generated by the corporation and capital from external investors. However, since the financial crisis shook the markets in 2007–2008, financing opportunities through the classical means of financing have decreased. As a result, corporations have...... to think in alternative ways such as issuing corporate bonds. A market for corporate bonds exists in countries such as Norway, Germany, France, the United Kingdom and the United States, while Denmark is still behind in this trend. Some large Danish corporations have instead used foreign corporate bonds...... markets. However, NASDAQ OMX has introduced the First North Bond Market in December 2012 and new regulatory framework came into place in 2014, which may contribute to a Danish based corporate bond market. The purpose of this article is to present the regulatory changes in Denmark in relation to corporate...

  11. Youth Homelessness in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børner Stax, Tobias

    Based on a literature study this chapter reflects upon the existence of youth homelessness in Denmark. The chapter contains reflections upon the juridical measures directed towards youngsters living on the margin of the Danish society and presents two concrete project directed towards young people...... living rough. The chapter is taken form an anthology discussion youth homelessness in the different member states of the European Union....

  12. Social Pedagogy in Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The paper introduces an overview of the state of art of social pedagogy in Denmark. In the first section, it deals with the importation from Germany of the concept, the process of reception (e.g. translation and transfer) and the original Danish amendments to the original concept. Despite these amendments, social pedagogy was and still remains a practice, thereby appealing to practitioners. Section two of the paper points out how social pedagogy is under-theorized and emphasizes the lack of t...

  13. Reservoir age variations and stable isotope values of bulk sediment in a core from the Limfjord, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente; Olsen, Jesper; Rasmussen, Peter

    The Limfjord is a sound in Northern Jutland, Denmark, connecting the North Sea with the Kattegat. A multi-proxy approach has been applied to a sediment core from Kilen, a former fjord arm near the town of Struer, to reveal the Limfjord’s development in more detail. In this paper, we concentrate...... of organic matter can thus be estimated. The d13C and C/N inferred salinity can be related to changes in Delta-R and other palaeoenvironmental proxies. An increasing marine influence throughout the largest part of the core is followed by large variations around 2000 cal BP....

  14. BMPs in urban stormwater management in Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Viklander, M.; Linde, Jens Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    Best Management Practices (BMPs) for control of stormwater runoff include structural elemts (structural BMPs) that can be applied on the local scale (e.g. infiltration), the drainage catchment scale (e.g. ponds and treatment, or wetlands) and the receiving water scale (e.g. retrofitting of river ....... A review of recent experiences with selected stormwater BMPs in Denmark and Sweden is presented and discussed with respect to the current issues related to legislation and the forces driving future development in stormwater management.......Best Management Practices (BMPs) for control of stormwater runoff include structural elemts (structural BMPs) that can be applied on the local scale (e.g. infiltration), the drainage catchment scale (e.g. ponds and treatment, or wetlands) and the receiving water scale (e.g. retrofitting of river...

  15. Nitrate reduction in geologically heterogeneous catchments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsgaard, Jens Christian; Auken, Esben; Bamberg, C.A.

    2014-01-01

    In order to fulfil the requirements of the EU Water Framework Directive nitrate load from agricultural areas to surface water in Denmark needs to be reduced by about 40%. The regulations imposed until now have been uniform, i.e. the same restrictions for all areas independent of the subsurface...... conditions. Studies have shown that on a national basis about 2/3 of the nitrate leaching from the root zone is reduced naturally, through denitrification, in the subsurface before reaching the streams. Therefore, it is more cost-effective to identify robust areas, where nitrate leaching through the root...... the entire catchment. However, as distributed models often do not include local scale hydrogeological heterogeneities, they are typically not able to make accurate predictions at scales smaller than they are calibrated. We present a framework for assessing nitrate reduction in the subsurface...

  16. Controlled artificial upwelling in a fjord to combat toxic algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClimans, T. A.; Hansen, A. H.; Fredheim, A.; Lien, E.; Reitan, K. I.

    2003-04-01

    During the summer, primary production in the surface layers of some fjords depletes the nutrients to the degree that some arts of toxic algae dominate the flora. We describe an experiment employing a bubble curtain to lift significant amounts of nutrient-rich seawater to the light zone and provide an environment in which useful algae can survive. The motivation for the experiment is to provide a local region in which mussels can be cleansed from the effects of toxic algae. Three 100-m long, perforated pipes were suspended at 40 m depth in the Arnafjord, a side arm of the Sognefjord. Large amounts of compressed air were supplied during a period of three weeks. The deeper water mixed with the surface water and flowed from the mixing region at 5 to 15 m depth. Within a few days, the mixture of nutrient-rich water covered most of the inner portion of Arnafjord. Within 10 days, the plankton samples showed that the artificial upwelling produced the desired type of algae and excluded the toxic blooms that were occurring outside the manipulated fjord arm. The project (DETOX) is supported by the Norwegian ministries of Fisheries, Agriculture and Public Administration.

  17. African Diaspora Associations in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vammen, Ida Marie; Trans, Lars Ove

    2011-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, an increasing number of African migrants have come to Denmark, where they have formed a large number of migrant associations. This chapter presents selected findings from a comprehensive survey of African diaspora associations in Denmark and focuses specifically on their tr......Since the early 1990s, an increasing number of African migrants have come to Denmark, where they have formed a large number of migrant associations. This chapter presents selected findings from a comprehensive survey of African diaspora associations in Denmark and focuses specifically...

  18. Oxygen intrusion into anoxic fjords leads to increased methylmercury availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiteberg Braaten, Hans Fredrik; Pakhomova, Svetlana; Yakushev, Evgeniy

    2013-04-01

    Mercury (Hg) appears in the oxic surface waters of the oceans at low levels (sub ng/L). Because inorganic Hg can be methylated into the toxic and bioaccumulative specie methylmercury (MeHg) levels can be high at the top of the marine food chain. Even though marine sea food is considered the main risk driver for MeHg exposure to people most research up to date has focused on Hg methylation processes in freshwater systems. This study identifies the mechanisms driving formation of MeHg during oxygen depletion in fjords, and shows how MeHg is made available in the surface water during oxygen intrusion. Studies of the biogeochemical structure in the water column of the Norwegian fjord Hunnbunn were performed in 2009, 2011 and 2012. In autumn of 2011 mixing flushing events were observed and lead to both positive and negative effects on the ecosystem state in the fjord. The oxygenated water intrusions lead to a decrease of the deep layer concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia and phosphate. On the other hand the intrusion also raised the H2S boundary from 8 m to a shallower depth of just 4 m. Following the intrusion was also observed an increase at shallower depths of nutrients combined with a decrease of pH. Before flushing events were observed concentrations of total Hg (TotHg) increased from 1.3 - 1.7 ng/L in the surface layer of the fjord to concentrations ranging from 5.2 ng/L to 6.4 ng/L in the anoxic zone. MeHg increased regularly from 0.04 ng/L in the surface water to a maximum concentration of 5.2 ng/L in the deeper layers. This corresponds to an amount of TotHg present as MeHg ranging from 2.1 % to 99 %. The higher concentrations of MeHg in the deeper layer corresponds to an area where no oxygen is present and concentrations of H2S exceeds 500 µM, suggesting a production of MeHg in the anoxic area as a result of sulphate reducing bacteria activity. After flushing the concentrations of TotHg showed a similar pattern ranging from 0.6 ng/L in the

  19. Influence of glacier runoff on ecosystem structure in Gulf of Alaska fjords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimitsu, Mayumi; Piatt, John F.; Mueter, Franz J.

    2016-01-01

    To better understand the influence of glacier runoff on fjord ecosystems, we sampled oceanographic conditions, nutrients, zooplankton, forage fish and seabirds within 4 fjords in coastal areas of the Gulf Alaska. We used generalized additive models and geostatistics to identify the range of glacier runoff influence into coastal waters within fjords of varying estuarine influence and topographic complexity. We also modeled the response of depth-integrated chlorophyll a concentration, copepod biomass, fish and seabird abundance to physical, nutrient and biotic predictor variables. The effects of glacial runoff were traced at least 10 km into coastal fjords by cold, turbid, stratified and generally nutrient-rich near-surface conditions. Glacially modified physical gradients, nutrient availability and among-fjord differences explained 67% of the variation in phytoplankton abundance, which is a driver of ecosystem structure at higher trophic levels. Copepod, euphausiid, fish and seabird distribution and abundance were related to environmental gradients that could be traced to glacial freshwater input, particularly turbidity and temperature. Seabird density was predicted by prey availability and silicate concentrations, which may be a proxy for upwelling areas where this nutrient is in excess. Similarities in ecosystem structure among fjords were attributable to an influx of cold, fresh and sediment-laden water, whereas differences were likely related to fjord topography and local differences in estuarine vs. ocean influence. We anticipate that continued changes in the timing and volume of glacial runoff will ultimately alter coastal ecosystems in the future.

  20. Seminational surveillance of fungemia in Denmark: notably high rates of fungemia and numbers of isolates with reduced azole susceptibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Fuursted, Kurt; Gahrn-Hansen, Bente;

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present the first set of comprehensive data on fungemia in Denmark including the distribution of species and range of susceptibility to major antifungal compounds based on a seminational surveillance study initiated in 2003. The catchment area of the participating hos...

  1. Economic feasibility of surface flow constructed (SFCW) wetlands for reduction of water pollution from agricultural fields in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gachango, Florence Gathoni; Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Kjaergaard, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Constructed wetlands have been proposed as cost effective and more targeted technologies in the reduction of nitrogen and phosphorous water pollution in drainage losses from agricultural fields in Denmark. Using two pig farms and one dairy farm situated in a pumped lowland catchment as study cases...

  2. Allochthonous subsidies of organic matter across a lake-river-fjord landscape in the Chilean Patagonia: Implications for marine zooplankton in inner fjord areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Cristian A.; Martinez, Rodrigo A.; San Martin, Valeska; Aguayo, Mauricio; Silva, Nelson; Torres, Rodrigo

    2011-03-01

    Ecosystems can act as both sources and sinks of allochthonous nutrients and organic matter. In this sense, fjord ecosystems are a typical interface and buffer zone between freshwater systems, glaciated continents, and the coastal ocean. In order to evaluate the potential sources and composition of organic matter across fjord ecosystems, we characterized particulate organic matter along a lake-river-fjord corridor in the Chilean Patagonia using stable isotope (δ 13C) and lipid (fatty acid composition) biomarker analyses. Furthermore, estimates of zooplankton carbon ingestion rates and measurements of δ 13C and δ 15N in zooplankton (copepods) were used to evaluate the implications of allochthonous subsidies for copepods inhabiting inner fjord areas. Our results showed that riverine freshwater flows contributed an important amount of dissolved silicon but, scarce nitrate and phosphate to the brackish surface layer of the fjord ecosystem. Isotopic signatures of particulate organic matter from lakes and rivers were distinct from their counterparts in oceanic influenced stations. Terrestrial allochthonous sources could support around 68-86% of the particulate organic carbon in the river plume and glacier melting areas, whereas fatty acid concentrations were maximal in the surface waters of the Pascua and Baker river plumes. Estimates of carbon ingestion rates and δ 13C in copepods from the river plume areas indicated that terrestrial carbon could account for a significant percentage of the copepod body carbon (20-50%) during periods of food limitation. Particulate organic matter from the Pascua River showed a greater allochthonous contribution of terrigenous/vascular plant sources. Rivers may provide fjord ecosystems with allochthonous contributions from different sources because of the distinct vegetation coverage and land use along each river's watershed. These observations have significant implications for the management of local riverine areas in the context of

  3. [Bariatric surgery in Denmark.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funch-Jensen, P.; Iversen, M.G.; Kehlet, H.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In 2005 the National Board of Health (NBH) published guidelines on bariatric surgery in Denmark. The aim of the present study was to shed light on the national bariatric effort in relation to these guidelines. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The analysis is based on extraction of the following......, a tendency which was attributable to the activities of one of the private clinics. CONCLUSION: The frequency with which bariatric surgery is performed follows a strongly increasing trend and the procedures are only performed at the public departments selected by the National Board of Health...

  4. Mobility Management in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guasco, Clement Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    There is today an undisputed superiority of cars on any other means of transportation, both practically and psychologically. However, the reliance on cars as the main means of transportation has led to a number of social and environmental problems. Mobility Management aims at managing the way...... people fulfil their mobility needs so that they rely less on their cars and start using alternatives such as bicycles and public transport. This article analyses the possibility to use businesses as vectors for introducing Mobility Management within social practices in Denmark in the light of the recent...

  5. Country Report Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savin, Andrej

    The ePrivacy Directive has been implemented in Denmark through a range of legislative instruments, beginning with the Act on Electronic Communications and Services but leading into more important Executive Order on Provision of Electronic Services and the Cookie Order. This structure could...... be confusing for outsiders as it involves several acts, all of which are concerned not just with one but with several directives. The use of ministerial orders can be explained by the need to introduce flexibility into the fast-changing area, but avoiding a lengthy and complicated full legislative process....

  6. The new Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guglielmi, Michel

    2005-01-01

    Many countries are confronting challenges of moving internal borders as well as borders of tolerance. Territories and borders are like many aspects of life affected by change and rationalism in a globalised world. The New Denmark, which is about restructuring municipals, is very much concerned...... with local considerations but can at the same time point out more general themes on territorial dislocations. Our intend is to use different layers of information to investigate and map specific patterns and use them as a tools for designing possible solutions to problems related to the loss of identity...

  7. Suburban development in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Danielsen, Claus

    2013-01-01

    In this paper I focus on current projects and activities aiming at renewal and revitalisation of Danish suburban areas. In the last five years several activities have been initiated in order to discuss possibilities and strategies for the future development of the suburban areas in Denmark. A Think...... Tank has published a report, books and political statements have pointing to the suburban areas as important focal points for future developments, and a number of architectural competitions have been launched. The paper is based on review of these acitivities. It is pointed out, that ‘cultural heritage...

  8. The forest Gribskov, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overballe-Petersen, Mette V; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten; Buttenschøn, Rita M.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of forest history is crucial for understanding the processes, structures, functions and current status of forest ecosystems. An enhanced understanding of the long history of disturbance factors affecting forest development and thereby the present state of the forest is particularly...... valuable when working with forest management, conservation and restoration. Integrating the legacies of past disturbances-natural as well as anthropogenic-into conservation and management strategies is likely to favour natural values and ecosystem services. A case-study in Gribskov, Denmark, using...

  9. Company cases Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tølle, Martin; Pedersen, Jørgen Lindgaard

    2005-01-01

    for government sector in Denmark. DC employed 1,000 persons and had a market share on 75 % in the market of large government institutions when it was taken over. Danish government wanted to sell DC in order to get more intensity in competion in IT - markets in general and especially in the market for public...... to technology but also from more focus on human beings and business.It has been important that CSC has respected Nordic values in worklife and that the CSC philosophy has been important and not so different from DC. The other case is from pharmaceutical industry in which Norwegian Nycomed buys DAK...

  10. A soil moisture and temperature network for SMOS validation in Western Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bircher, Simone; Skou, Niels; Jensen, K. H.

    2011-01-01

    SMOS pixel (44 × 44 km), which is representative of the land surface conditions of the catchment and with minimal impact from open water (2) arrangement of three network clusters along the precipitation gradient, and (3) distribution of the stations according to respective fractions of classes...... capacitance sensors was established in the Skjern River Catchment, Denmark. The objectives of this article are to describe a method to implement a network suited for SMOS validation, and to present sample data collected by the network to verify the approach. The design phase included (1) selection of a single...

  11. Lithostratigraphy of the Upper Oligocene - Miocene succession of Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piasecki, Stefan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a revised lithostratigraphic scheme for the uppermost Upper Oligocene – Miocene succession of Denmark. The marine Oligocene Brejning Clay Member is upgraded to formation status and includes the Sydklint Member and the Øksenrade Member (new. The shallow marine and deltaic deposits of mainly Early Miocene age are included in the Ribe Group (new while the fully marine Middle and Upper Miocene clay-rich deposits are referred to the Måde Group (new. The Ribe Group is subdivided into 6 formations: the Vejle Fjord Formation is revised and includes the Skansebakke Member,the Billund Formation (new includes the Addit and Hvidbjerg Members (new, the Klintinghoved Formation is redefined formally and includes the Koldingfjord Member (new, the Bastrup Formation(new includes the Resen Member (new, the Vandel Member is a new member in the Arnum Formation (revised, the Odderup Formation is redefined and includes the Stauning Member (new and the coalbearing Fasterholt Member. The Måde Group is subdivided into the Hodde, Ørnhøj (new, Gram and Marbæk (new Formations. Subdivision of the Upper Oligocene – Miocene succession into two groups, the Ribe and Måde Groups, is compatible with the North Sea lithostratigraphic framework where they correlate with the upper part of the Hordaland Group and the Nordland Group, respectively. The revised lithostratigraphic framework correlated in three dimensions provides rigorous constraints on the palaeogeographic interpretation of the Late Oligocene – Miocene period. Three major deltaic units (Billund, Bastrup and Odderup Formations prograded from the north and north-east into the North Sea Basin during the Early – early Middle Miocene. Delta progradation was punctuated by deposition of marine clay and silt associated with minor transgressive events (Vejle Fjord, Klintinghoved and Arnum Formations. During the Middle–Late Miocene, marine depositional conditions dominated (Hodde, Ørnhøj and

  12. Public accountability procedures in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    The article raises questions as - who is responsible for environmental and tehnological policy in Denmark? And how are those 'policymakers' made accountable to the public for their decisions?......The article raises questions as - who is responsible for environmental and tehnological policy in Denmark? And how are those 'policymakers' made accountable to the public for their decisions?...

  13. Immigration and Religion in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lisbet

    2009-01-01

    An overview over legal framework for immigration into Denmark, special clauses on religion as a parameter for residence permit and asylum in churches......An overview over legal framework for immigration into Denmark, special clauses on religion as a parameter for residence permit and asylum in churches...

  14. Wind farm progress in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Sten Tronæs; Andersen, Per Dannemand

    1996-01-01

    The paper presents a status of wind power in Denmark and on the technical and industrial achievements. The present total installed capacity is be the end of 1995 approx. 630 MW, and the contribution to the electric energy generation in Denmark is approx. 4%....

  15. Denmark's National Inventory Report 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Lyck, Erik; Mikkelsen, Mette Hjorth

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report 2009. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2007 for CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6, NOx, CO, NMVOC, SO2. The report documents the methodology as well as presents activity data and emissi...

  16. Denmark's National Inventory Report 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Lyck, Erik; Mikkelsen, Mette Hjorth

    2010-01-01

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report 2010. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2008 for CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6, NOx, CO, NMVOC, SO2....

  17. Denmark's National Inventory Report 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Lyck, Erik; Mikkelsen, Mette Hjorth

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report 2009. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2007 for CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6, NOx, CO, NMVOC, SO2. The report documents the methodology as well as presents activity data and emissi...

  18. Denmark's National Inventory Report 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Lyck, Erik; Mikkelsen, Mette Hjorth

    2010-01-01

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report 2010. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2008 for CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6, NOx, CO, NMVOC, SO2....

  19. Denmark's national inventory report 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illerup, Jytte Boll; Lyck, Erik; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth;

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report reported to the Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) due by April 2006. The report contains information on Denmark's inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2004 for CO....

  20. Reservoir age variations and stable isotope values of bulk sediment in a core from the Limfjord, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente; Olsen, Jesper; Rasmussen, Peter

    The Limfjord is a sound in Northern Jutland, Denmark, connecting the North Sea with the Kattegat. A multi-proxy approach has been applied to a sediment core from Kilen, a former fjord arm near the town of Struer, to reveal the Limfjord’s development in more detail. In this paper, we concentrate...... on radiocarbon dating of shells and on stable isotope measurements of bulk sediment from 7400 to 1300 cal BP. Reservoir ages in coastal waters and estuaries can differ considerably from the global model ocean. The seas around Denmark have a reservoir age of c. 400 years, while a hardwater effect of a few...... thousand years is possible for freshwater with a high content of dissolved carbonate. On the other hand, freshwater without a significant content of 14C-dead carbon does not have a reservoir age. In coastal waters, the different water sources mix and produce highly variable reservoir ages. Due to Holocene...

  1. Near-surface Nutrients Data from Gulf of Alaska Fjords, 2004-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset contains nutrient data collected at stations within four fjords in the coastal area of the Gulf of Alaska. Sea water samples were collected with a...

  2. Modified Herring Trawl Fish Catch Data, Gulf of Alaska Fjords, 2004-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset contains catch data from trawls at the sampling stations. We deployed a modified herring trawl in coastal waters within glacier fjords of Alaska....

  3. The impact of glacier geometry on meltwater plume structure and submarine melt in Greenland fjords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, D.; Sutherland, D. A.; Hudson, B.; Moon, T.; Catania, G. A.; Shroyer, E. L.; Nash, J. D.; Bartholomaus, T. C.; Felikson, D.; Stearns, L. A.; Noël, B. P. Y.; Broeke, M. R.

    2016-09-01

    Meltwater from the Greenland Ice Sheet often drains subglacially into fjords, driving upwelling plumes at glacier termini. Ocean models and observations of submarine termini suggest that plumes enhance melt and undercutting, leading to calving and potential glacier destabilization. Here we systematically evaluate how simulated plume structure and submarine melt during summer months depends on realistic ranges of subglacial discharge, glacier depth, and ocean stratification from 12 Greenland fjords. Our results show that grounding line depth is a strong control on plume-induced submarine melt: deep glaciers produce warm, salty subsurface plumes that undercut termini, and shallow glaciers produce cold, fresh surface-trapped plumes that can overcut termini. Due to sustained upwelling velocities, plumes in cold, shallow fjords can induce equivalent depth-averaged melt rates compared to warm, deep fjords. These results detail a direct ocean-ice feedback that can affect the Greenland Ice Sheet.

  4. Coastal Change Potential Index Assessment (CPI) for Kenai Fjords National Park (kefj_shore)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A coastal change potential (CPI) was used to map the relative change potential of the coast to sea-level change within Kenai Fjords National Park in Alaska. The CPI...

  5. Marine Bird and Mammal Surveys in Glacier Fjords of Alaska, 2004-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data describe marine bird and mammal surveys conducted in glacial fjords of coastal Alaska. Data were collected to document the at-sea distribution and...

  6. Hydrology-linked spatial distribution of pesticides in a fjord system in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsson, Pernilla; Cornelissen, G.; Bøggild, C.E.

    2012-01-01

    and glacial meltwater runoff (secondary sources). The average values were 50 pg L-1 for HCB and 11 pg L-1 for α-HCH. These concentrations are comparable to levels in fjords in Svalbard (Norwegian Arctic), but lower than in open and/or ice covered oceans in the Canadian Arctic. Two air samplers were deployed......A pilot study is presented evaluating selected chlorinated pesticides as chemical tracers for water masses in a sub-Arctic fjord system (Godthåbsfjord, western Greenland). Polyoxymethylene (POM) based passive water samplers were deployed during summer-autumn 2010. The levels of the analysed...... chlorinated pesticides in the fjord surface waters were found to be low compared to earlier studies. α-Hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were the predominant contaminants. However, these two compounds have higher levels in oceanic water compared to freshwater influenced fjord waters...

  7. Oceanographic Profile Data from Glacier Fjords of Alaska, 2004-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset contains physical oceanographic data within four fjords in the coastal area of the Gulf of Alaska. Data were collected with a Seabird Electronics...

  8. The impact of glacier geometry on meltwater plume structure and submarine melt in Greenland fjords

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carroll, D.; Sutherland, D. A.; Hudson, B.; Moon, T.; Catania, G. A.; Shroyer, E. L.; Nash, J. D.; Bartholomaus, T. C.; Felikson, D.; Stearns, L. A.; Noël, B. P Y|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370612345; van den Broeke, M. R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073765643

    2016-01-01

    Meltwater from the Greenland Ice Sheet often drains subglacially into fjords, driving upwelling plumes at glacier termini. Ocean models and observations of submarine termini suggest that plumes enhance melt and undercutting, leading to calving and potential glacier destabilization. Here we

  9. Seasonal and interannual phytoplankton production in a sub-arctic tidewater outlet glacier fjord, west Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul-Pedersen, T.; Arendt, K.; Mortensen, J.

    2015-01-01

    This study describes seasonal patterns and proposes likely drivers of an unusual phytoplankton primary production pattern in the outer-sill region of a tidewater outlet glacierinfluenced fjord (Godthåbsfjord) in SW Greenland. It is based on monthly measurements of pelagic primary production...... in a water column almost fully mixed due to tidal forces at the fjord sill. After the spring bloom, primary production decreased in June, after which a summer bloom of up to 1383 mg C m−2 d−1 built up. This bloom coincided with the development of a pycnocline caused by substantial runoff from the Greenland...... Ice Sheet every year during midsummer. This observation supports a hypothesis that fjord circulation modes and subglacial freshwater discharge, leading to upwelling of nutrient rich water, stimulate primary production in the fjord. Future changes in the timing or magnitude of meltwater runoff from...

  10. Seasonal dynamics of autotrophic and heterotrophic plankton metabolism and PCO2 in a subarctic Greenland fjord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejr, Mikael K.; Krause-Jensen, Dorte; Dalsgaard, Tage

    2014-01-01

    We measured net planktonic community production (NCP), community respiration (CR), and gross primary production (GPP) in September, February, and May in a subarctic Greenland fjord influenced by glacial meltwater and terrestrial runoff. Potential controls of pelagic carbon cycling, including...

  11. Multibeam bathymetry and CTD measurements in two fjord systems in southeastern Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Kristian Kjellerup; Weinrebe, Reimer Wilhelm; Bendtsen, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    We present bathymetry and hydrological observations collected in the summer of 2014 from two fjordsystems in southeastern Greenland with a multibeam sonar system. Our results provide a detailed bathymetricmap of the fjord complex around the island of Skjoldungen in Skjoldungen Fjord and the outer...... of the distribution of subglacial meltwater. Data are available through the PANGAEA website at https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.860627....

  12. Complete spatiotemporal freshwater flux budget for a major Greenland glacier-fjord system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Twila; Sutherland, David; Carroll, Dustin; Kehrl, Laura; Straneo, Fiamma; Felikson, Denis

    2017-04-01

    Freshwater flux from ice sheet mass loss raises global sea level, influences large-scale ocean circulation and stratification, and affects biological systems. Freshwater flux in glacial fjords comes from several sources: ice sheet surface melt discharged subglacially at the glacial termini, terrestrial runoff, submarine terminus melt, and melt from icebergs throughout the fjord (here, including icebergs, bergy bits, and melánge). Melt from icebergs is poorly constrained; previous efforts use limited-footprint satellite images and fail to distinguish iceberg freshwater flux from other melt sources. We have developed a new method, combining in situ and remote sensing observations with a parameterized iceberg melt model and climate reanalysis data, to calculate freshwater flux from icebergs and create a spatiotemporally complete fjord freshwater budget. Here, we apply this method to Sermilik Fjord, a major glacier-fjord system in southeast Greenland. We generate complete freshwater budgets for summer and winter periods during 2008-2013 as well as mean monthly estimates of iceberg freshwater flux over a full year. Along with this enhanced understanding of iceberg freshwater flux across time, our estimates also spatially resolve meltwater flux across the full water depth of the fjord. We find that more than 70% of iceberg melt production occurs below 10 m depth. We also compare iceberg melt flux to other freshwater sources, demonstrating that iceberg melt dominates freshwater production. Our work provides the first calculation of iceberg freshwater flux across the full fjord water depth, estimates the first complete freshwater budget for a major Greenland glacier-fjord system, and provides monthly to interannual comparisons across freshwater sources. Ultimately, these results provide a path forward in accurately representing freshwater flux, including iceberg melt production, in large-scale climate models.

  13. Norwegian fjords as potential sites for CO{sub 2} experiments. A preliminary feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golmen, Lars G.; Soerensen, Jan; Haugan, Peter; Bakke, Torgeir; Bjerknes, Vilhelm

    1997-12-31

    Large-scale deposition of CO{sub 2} will probably take place deep in the open oceans. But small-scale experiments on plume dynamics and chemical or biological impacts are more conveniently performed in Norwegian fjords. This report describes a feasibility study treating the physical, biological and legal constraints upon such experiments. Several small and large fjord basins with depths exceeding 500 m exist in western Norway. The report gives guidelines to what further steps should be taken to establish an in-situ CO{sub 2} experiment in a fjord. Twenty-six different basins have been identified in terms of maximum depths, municipal adherence etc. Deep water hydrographic conditions vary relatively little from one fjord to another. Data on the dynamical states and on deep water biology are in general lacking and a baseline study on selected fjords should be performed prior to the final selection. User conflicts and legal aspects must be considered and a complete EIA study will probably be required before any CO{sub 2} experiment can be started in a fjord. 60 refs., 13 figs.

  14. Novel Measurements and Techniques for Outlet Glacier Fjord Ice/Ocean Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, A.; Howat, I. M.; Holland, D. M.; Ahlstrom, A. P.; Larsen, S. H.

    2014-12-01

    Glacier fjord bathymetry and conditions indicate that they play fundamental roles for outlet glacier dynamics and thus knowledge of these parameters is extremely beneficial to upcoming models that predict changes. In particular, the bathymetry of a fjord gives important information about the exchange between fjord waters close to marine-terminating glaciers and the shelf and ocean. Currently, only sparse bathymetric data near the ice fronts are available for the majority of fjords in Greenland. The challenge in obtaining these measurements is that the fjord melange environment is a terrible one for mechanical gear, or ship or any other kind of access. There is hope however, and this work focuses on novel ways of obtaining this data using a multitude of upcoming technologies and techniques that are now being tested and planned. The span of the techniques described include but are not limited to: 1) manned helicopter-based live-reading instruments and deployable/retriavable sensor packages http://www.motionterra.com/fjord/ 2) remote or autonomous unmanned miniature boats (Depth/CTD), and 3) UAV's that either read live data or deploy small sensors that can telemeter their data (ice-flow trackers, image acquisition, etc.). A review of current results obtained at Jakobshavn and Upernavik Glaciers will be given as well as a description of the techniques and hardware used.

  15. Company cases Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tølle, Martin; Pedersen, Jørgen Lindgaard

    2005-01-01

    IT - solitions. CSC wanted to buy DC to penetrate the Nordic market. Some effects can be mentioned: Employment in CSC - DK is in 2003 1,700 persons or 2,600 including other companies bought up recently. In innovation positive effects can be registered from contacts with CSC - International. Not only from access...... for government sector in Denmark. DC employed 1,000 persons and had a market share on 75 % in the market of large government institutions when it was taken over. Danish government wanted to sell DC in order to get more intensity in competion in IT - markets in general and especially in the market for public...... to technology but also from more focus on human beings and business.It has been important that CSC has respected Nordic values in worklife and that the CSC philosophy has been important and not so different from DC. The other case is from pharmaceutical industry in which Norwegian Nycomed buys DAK...

  16. Management development in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Camilla; Hjalager, Anne-Mette; Holt Larsen, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    of which is to further cross-countrycompetence development and collaboration within the European educational sector. Thefirst phase of the project is a quantitative interview study of one hundred organizations ineach of the participating countries. The second phase consists in qualitative case studiesin...... selected organizations in each of the countries. In Denmark one hundred and oneorganizations have participated in the study.Identical questionnaires and interviews are conducted in all of the mentioned countries andthe huge amount of data is analyzed in each country and across countries. The findingswill...... of Organization and Industrial Sociology at the Copenhagen BusinessSchool is the Danish partner in the project. The project has been conducted by CamillaLeth in collaboration with Ilse Kristensen, Mette Gundersen and Lea Green under thesupervision of Henrik Holt Larsen. Anne-Mette Hjalager has contributed...

  17. Bioethics in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul; Andersen, Martin Marchman

    2014-01-01

    -order examinations, what might be called a political philosophical approach. The authors argue that although first-order examination plays an important role in teasing out different moral points of view, in contemporary democratic societies, few, if any, bioethical questions can be resolved satisfactorily by means......This article examines two current debates in Denmark-assisted suicide and the prioritization of health resources-and proposes that such controversial bioethical issues call for distinct philosophical analyses: first-order examinations, or an applied philosophy approach, and second...... of first-order analyses alone, and that bioethics needs to engage more closely with second-order enquiries and the question of legitimacy in general....

  18. Think tanks in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsten, Mark; Nørgaard Kristensen, Nete

    2016-01-01

    outside the media. The study shows that the two largest and oldest think tanks in Denmark, the liberal think tank CEPOS and the social democratic think tank ECLM, are very active and observable in the media; that the media’s distribution of attention to these think tanks, to some extent, confirms a re......Though think tanks have a long history internationally, they have especially in recent years come to play an increasingly important role in both policy-formulation and public debate. In this article, we analyse the growing presence of think tanks in a Danish context during the 2000s and the first...... half of the 2010s, because in this national setting think tanks are still a relatively new phenomenon. Based on theories of mediatization and de-corporatization, we present 1) an analysis of the visibility of selected Danish think tanks in the media and 2) an analysis of their political networks...

  19. MOBILIZING KNOWLEDGE IN DENMARK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus

    2011-01-01

    competition state – that is to be realized by fulfilling the ambitions for comprehensive knowledge mobilization through education.1 On the other hand, Denmark is having a hard time finding a broad consensus when what is, in principle, supposed to be a common political will is to be translated into knowledge......Knowledge mobilization is not only a new expression in a Danish context. It is also an interesting concept to introduce and discuss. For doesn’t knowledge mobilization have more – or, at least, as much – to do with politics as with education research or education in itself? Doesn’t modern knowledge...... mobilization have to do with a new political will to mobilize the population by creating a connection between education research and education? On the basis of this report on the Danish efforts with respect to ’knowledge mobilization’, these questions can be answered affirmatively; the extent of knowledge...

  20. Civil Procedure In Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    , enforcement in Denmark of judgments pronounced by Danish or foreign courts, as well as arbitration in Danish and international arbitral cases, based on the extensive Danish arbitral reform 2005, taking the Uncitral pattern arbitration law as its model. The book is written parly based on traditional legal...... on the author's extensive personal experience as arbitrator in numerous Danish and international arbitral proceedings.......The book contains an up-to-date survey of Danish civil procedure after the profound Danish procedural reforms in 2007. It deals with questions concerning competence and function of Danish courts, commencement and preparation of civil cases, questions of evidence and burden of proof, international...

  1. Management development in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Camilla; Hjalager, Anne-Mette; Holt Larsen, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    This report contains the major results from a study of management development in Danishorganizations. The study is part of a European research project with participation ofDenmark, the U.K, France, Norway, Rumania, Spain, and Germany. The project is part ofthe so-called Leonardo program the purpose...... of which is to further cross-countrycompetence development and collaboration within the European educational sector. Thefirst phase of the project is a quantitative interview study of one hundred organizations ineach of the participating countries. The second phase consists in qualitative case studiesin...... be published in books, journals and newspaper articles. Hopefully the findings of thelarge European project will thus affect the way in which educational institutions andorganizations manage the `Europeanization' of management development.The present report solely describes significant findings from...

  2. Elderly Turkish Migrants in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaakilde, Anne Leonora; Petersen, Signe Sofia Gronwald; Yazici, Suzan

    simoultaneously translated from Turkish, English and Danish by the two interviewers; a medical doctor from Turkey and an ethnologist from Denmark. Results The interviews revealed a high level of functional illiteracy, low social and economic status and little language skills except for Turkish. From their life...... histories, we learned that the interviewees had not only encountered unskilled and physical demanding work, but many of them had experienced very bad and unhealthy living conditions during their stay in Denmark. Conclusions A life course approach to the study of Elderly Turkish migrants in Denmark suggests...... that the negative health situation among this population, compared to ethnic Danes, is entailed to low socio-economic status and experiences with bad living conditions in Denmark in a life-historical perspective....

  3. CCTV in Denmark 1954 - 1982

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peter Lauritsen; Andreas Feuerbach

    2015-01-01

      The article describes how CCTV has evolved in Denmark from 1954, where it is first mentioned in a specialist journal, to 1982, where legislation is passed that regulates how CCTV can be used and by whom...

  4. Denmark: a geography of energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haselip, James Arthur

    2012-01-01

    Since the oil crises of the 1970s, when Denmark was 90% dependent upon imported oil, the country has decoupled economic growth from energy consumption and greatly diversified its sources of energy....

  5. Changes in the Regional Groundwater Aquifer and Potential Impacts on Surface Waters in Central Zealand, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorn, Paul

    The regional, confined aquifer on the island of Zealand, in eastern Denmark, is the primary aquifer used for large-scale abstraction for the supplies of all larger cities, including Roskilde and the greater Copenhagen metropolitan area. Large-scale groundwater abstraction from this aquifer...... as previously they never did. This study analyzes the changes in the groundwater potential between 1936 and 2006 in two stream catchments in central Zealand (Elverdam and Langvad) to assess how groundwater abstraction has affected the regional aquifers potential for contribution to base-flow in the streams......, wetlands and lakes in the area. The results show that there was a significant impact on the regional groundwater aquifer in the Langvad river catchment, with groundwater as much as 17m lower in 1987 from 1936 (pre-abstraction). However, in the Elverdam river catchment, the levels remained virtually...

  6. Magnitude, spatial scale and optimization of ecosystem services from a nutrient extraction mussel farm in the eutrophic Skive Fjord, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Pernille; Cranford, P. J.; Maar, M.

    2016-01-01

    phytoplankton. The model employed mussel clearance rate estimates derived from the observed magnitude of food depletion within the farm. Model results indicate that the mussel population filtration rate could be increased by 80 to 120% without any negative feedback on mussel growth. This could be accomplished...

  7. Catchment areas for public transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Landex, Alex

    2008-01-01

    In the planning of public transport catchment areas of stops are often included to estimate potential number of travellers. There are different approaches to GIS-based catchment area analyses depending on the desired level of detail. The Circular Buffer approach is the fundamental, but also...... between the Circular Buffer approach and the Service Area approach are illustrated and a comparison between the sizes of the catchment areas is made. The strength of the Service Area approach and the impact on the catchment area when adding additional time resistance to crossing of stairways...... is illustrated by a case example. Furthermore, a case example illustrates how the additional time resistance in stairways affects the catchment area of an underground station compared to a ground-level station. It is also illustrated how catchment area analyses can serve in the planning of stops on a new line...

  8. Coming to Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Troels Fage; Larsen, Christian Albrekt

    2016-01-01

    Cross-national differences in public opinions about welfare policies, and the role of the government more generally, are often explained in terms of institutional differences. It is widely believed that the hostility towards welfare policies in the US and their support in the Nordic countries is ...... are Americans living in (neo)liberal welfare institutions and 2) are as, or more, supportive than are native Danes. The article finds more evidence of the context-effect being caused by exposure to Danish welfare state institutions than to Danish culture in general....... is partly caused by the institutional structure of what Esping-Andersen (1990) famously labeled liberal and social democratic welfare regimes. The paper contributes to this literature by analyzing welfare attitudes among American migrants living in a social democratic welfare regime. The paper combines...... a survey among first generation American migrants living in Denmark with already existing survey data on American and Danish welfare attitudes. As expected, the article finds that Americans living in a context of social democratic welfare institutions are 1) more supportive of the welfare state than...

  9. Marine fungi isolated from Chilean fjord sediments can degrade oxytetracycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada-Rudolph, R; Novoa, V; Sáez, K; Martínez, M; Rudolph, A; Torres-Diaz, C; Becerra, J

    2016-08-01

    Salmon farming is the main economic activity in the fjords area of Southern Chile. This activity requires the use of antibiotics, such as oxytetracycline, for the control and prevention of diseases, which have a negative impact on the environment. We analyzed the abilities of endemic marine fungi to biodegrade oxytetracycline, an antibiotic used extensively in fish farming. We isolated marine fungi strains from sediment samples obtained from an area of fish farming activity. The five isolated strains showed an activity on oxytetracycline and were identified as Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma deliquescens, Penicillium crustosum, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, and Talaromyces atroroseus by a scanning electron microscopy and characterized by molecular techniques. Results showed significant degradation in the concentration of oxytetracycline at the first 2 days of treatment for all strains analyzed. At 21 days of treatment, the concentration of oxytetracycline was decreased 92 % by T. harzianum, 85 % by T. deliquescens, 83 % by P. crustosum, 73 % by R. mucilaginosa, and 72 % by T. atroroseus, all of which were significantly higher than the controls. Given these results, we propose that fungal strains isolated from marine sediments may be useful tools for biodegradation of antibiotics, such as oxytetracycline, in the salmon industry.

  10. Hydrology-linked spatial distribution of pesticides in a fjord system in Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Pernilla; Cornelissen, Gerard; Bøggild, Carl Egede; Rysgaard, Søren; Mortensen, John; Kallenborn, Roland

    2012-05-01

    A pilot study is presented evaluating selected chlorinated pesticides as chemical tracers for water masses in a sub-Arctic fjord system (Godthåbsfjord, western Greenland). Polyoxymethylene (POM) based passive water samplers were deployed during summer-autumn 2010. The levels of the analysed chlorinated pesticides in the fjord surface waters were found to be low compared to earlier studies. α-Hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were the predominant contaminants. However, these two compounds have higher levels in oceanic water compared to freshwater influenced fjord waters. These chemicals can thus be considered as indicators for direct atmospheric long-range transport, while the organochlorine pesticides like trans-, cis-chlordane, trans-nonachlor and oxychlordane that are detected in the inner parts of the fjord are indicators for potential freshwater sources such as rivers and glacial meltwater runoff (secondary sources). The average values were 50 pg L(-1) for HCB and 11 pg L(-1) for α-HCH. These concentrations are comparable to levels in fjords in Svalbard (Norwegian Arctic), but lower than in open and/or ice covered oceans in the Canadian Arctic. Two air samplers were deployed for the identification of direct atmospheric contributions. Local contamination sources do not contribute significantly. The study demonstrated the value of passive water sampling devices for comprehensive hydrological characterization of Arctic coastal waters.

  11. Hydrological Catchment Similarity Assessment in Geum River Catchments, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ara; Park, Kisoon; Lee, Hyosang

    2013-04-01

    Similarity measure of catchments is essential for regionalization studies, which provide in depth analysis in hydrological response and flood estimations at ungauged catchments. However, this similarity measure is often biased to the selected catchments and is notclearly explained in hydrological sense. This study applied a type of hydrological similarity distance measure-Flood Estimation Handbook to 25 Geum river catchments, Korea. Three Catchment Characteristics, Area (A)-Annual precipitation (SAAR)-SCS Curve Number (CN), are used in Euclidian distance measures. Furthermore, six index of Flow Duration Curve (ILow:Q275/Q185, IDrought:Q355/Q185, IFlood:Qmax/Q185, IAbundant:Q95/Q185, IFloodDuration:Q10/Q355 and IRiverRegime:Qmax/Qmin) are applied to clustering analysis of SPSS. The catchments' grouping of hydrological similarity measures suggests three groups: H1 (Cheongseong, Gidae, Bukil, Oksan, Seockhwa, Habgang and Sangyeogyo), H2 (Cheongju, Guryong, Ugon, Boksu, Useong and Seokdong) and H3 (Muju, Yangganggyo and YongdamDam). The four catchments (Cheoncheon, Donghyang, DaecheongDam and Indong) are not grouped in this study. The clustering analysis of FDC provides four Groups; CFDC1 (Muju, YongdamDam, Yangganggyo, DaecheongDam, Cheongseong, Gidae, Seokhwa, Bukil, Habgang, Cheongju, Oksan, Yuseong and Guryong), CFDC2 (Cheoncheon, Donghyang, Boksu, Indong, Nonsan, Seokdong, Ugon, Simcheon, Useong and Sangyeogyo), CFDC3 (Songcheon) and CFDC4 (Tanbu). The six catchments (out of seven) of H1 are grouped in CFDC1, while Sangyeogyo is grouped in CFDC2. The four catchments (out of six) of H2 are also grouped in CFDC2, while Cheongju and Guryong are grouped in CFDC1. The catchments of H3 are categorized in CFDC1. The authors examine the results (H1, H2 and H3) of similarity measure based on catchment physical descriptors with results (CFDC1 and CFDC2) of clustering based on catchment hydrological response. The results of hydrological similarity measures are supported by

  12. Effects of salmon lice infection and salmon lice protection on fjord migrating Atlantic salmon and brown trout post-smolts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivertsgard, Rolf; Thorstad, Eva B.; Okland, Finn;

    2007-01-01

    fjord system and had, thus, entered the ocean when the more pathogenic pre-adult and adult lice stages developed. The brown trout, in comparison to Atlantic salmon, remained to a larger extent than Atlantic salmon in the inner part of the fjord system. No effect of salmon lice infection, or protection...

  13. Spring bloom dynamics in a subarctic fjord influenced by tidewater outlet glaciers (Godthåbsfjord, SW Greenland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meire, Lorenz; Mortensen, John; Rysgaard, Søren; Bendtsen, Jørgen; Boone, Wieter; Meire, Patrick; Meysman, Filip J. R.

    2016-06-01

    In high-latitude fjord ecosystems, the spring bloom accounts for a major part of the annual primary production and thus provides a crucial energy supply to the marine food web. However, the environmental factors that control the timing and intensity of these spring blooms remain uncertain. In 2013, we studied the spring bloom dynamics in Godthåbsfjord, a large fjord system adjacent to the Greenland Ice Sheet. Our surveys revealed that the spring bloom did not initiate in the inner stratified part of the fjord system but only started farther away from tidewater outlet glaciers. A combination of out-fjord winds and coastal inflows drove an upwelling in the inner part of the fjord during spring (April-May), which supplied nutrient-rich water to the surface layer. This surface water was subsequently transported out-fjord, and due to this circulation regime, the biomass accumulation of phytoplankton was displaced away from the glaciers. In late May, the upwelling weakened and the dominant wind direction changed, thus reversing the direction of the surface water transport. Warmer water was now transported toward the inner fjord, and a bloom was observed close to the glacier terminus. Overall, our findings imply that the timing, intensity, and location of the spring blooms in Godthåbsfjord are controlled by a combination of upwelling strength and wind forcing. Together with sea ice cover, the hydrodynamic regime hence plays a crucial role in structuring food web dynamics of the fjord ecosystem.

  14. Recycling and burial of phosphorus in sediments of an anoxic fjord-the By Fjord, western Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viktorsson, Lena; Kononets, Mikhail; Roos, Per;

    2013-01-01

    the DIC and DIP fluxes at oxic bottoms was almost 10 times higher than the Redfield C: P ratio indicating partial immobilization of P in oxic sediments. In contrast, the C: P ratio in fluxes was on average 1.5 times lower than Redfield at the anoxic bottoms. The benthic fluxes from anoxic bottoms were P...... rich not only in relation to C, but also to N. The low C: P flux ratio at anoxic sites coincided with an about 2.5 times higher than Redfield C: P ratio of organic matter in the sediment solid phase clearly suggesting preferential regeneration of P at anoxic bottoms. Burial of inorganic P was higher...... water. The water in the basin is exchanged only every 3 to 5 years and the water below sill level is anoxic or sulfidic between water renewals. Five sites were examined in the By Fjord; three shallow sites above the sill level with oxic bottom waters and two deeper sites with anoxic bottom waters...

  15. Trophic position of Calanus finmarchicus (Copepoda, Calanoida) in the Trondheim Fjord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saage, A.; Altin, D.; Vadstein, O.; Sommer, U.

    2008-04-01

    The trophic position of Calanus finmarchicus in the Trondheim Fjord in 2004 was determined through stable isotope analyses. Wild specimens were sampled monthly in the fjord and δ 13C and δ 15N signatures of the developmental stages from CIII to adults were measured. There were statistically significant differences in the δ 13C and δ 15N signatures of three identified groups: overwintered parental generation, developing new generation and new generation preparing for overwintering. C. finmarchicus individuals raised in a laboratory on a pure algal diet ( Dunaliella tertiolecta and Isochrysis galbana) provided stable isotope signatures for purely herbivorous copepods. With these signatures as comparison, the trophic position of C. finmarchicus in the Trondheim Fjord in 2004 was determined as trophic level 2.4, thus indicating omnivory under natural conditions. Additionally, our data suggest that seasonal differences in the δ 13C signatures of C. finmarchicus are due to the varying lipid content of the different developmental stages.

  16. Seasonal carbon cycling in a Greenlandic fjord: an integrated pelagic and benthic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Heidi Louise; Meire, Lorenz; Juul-Pedersen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is expected to have a pronounced effect on biogeochemical cycling in Arctic fjords, but current insight on the biogeochemical functioning of these systems is limited. Here, we present seasonal data on primary production, export of particulate organic carbon (POC), and the coupling...... carbon amounted to 3.2 and 5.3 mol C m−2 yr−1, respectively. Sulfate reduction was the most prominent mineralization pathway, accounting for 69% of the benthic mineralization, while denitrification accounted for 2%. Overall, the carbon mineralization and burial in Kobbefjord were significantly higher...... in ice coverage in higher Arctic Greenlandic fjords will, as a first approximation, entail proportional increases in productivity, mineralization, and burial of organic carbon in the fjords, which will thus become similar to present-day southerly systems....

  17. Submarine sedimentary features on a fjord delta front, Queen Inlet, Glacier Bay, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Paul R.; Powell, Ross D.; Phillips, Andrew C.

    1992-01-01

    Side-scan sonar images provide a view of an actively changing delta front in a marine outwash fjord in Glacier Bay, Alaska. Numerous interconnected gullies and chute-like small channels form paths for the transport of sand and coarse silt from the braided glacial outwash streams on the delta plain to the sinuous turbidity-current channels incised into the fjord floor. These turbidity-current channels carry coarse sediment through the fjord and into the adjoining glacial trunk valley. Several sedimentary processes affect the development of this delta front: overflow plumes deposit fine sediment; sediment gravity flows result from episodic delivery of large loads of coarse sediment; and mass movement may be triggered by earthquakes and, more regularly, by spring-tidal drawdown or hydraulic loading.

  18. Significant Impact of Glacial Meltwater on the Pelagic Carbon Cycle in a High Arctic Greenland Fjord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Tage; Bruhn, Annette; Sejr, Mikael Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Global warming has accelerated the melting of the Greenland Ice Cap (GIC) resulting in increased loading of coastal waters with meltwater and associated inorganic particles and organic matter, a development that is projected to be enhanced in the future. In Young Sound, North Eastern Greenland......, Carbon cycling in the water column was greatly influenced by meltwater from the GIC in summer 2011. Young Sound is a high arctic fjord (ca. 74° N) ca. 80 km long and 1 – 7 km wide ice free conditions from mid July to mid October. Meltwater was mainly delivered to the inner parts of the fjord creating...... a gradient in salinity and turbidity along the length of the fjord. The mixed surface layer (ca. 5 m thick) varied in salinity from ca. 10 in the innermost part to 28 at the opening to the Greenland Sea. The depth of the photic zone was highly influenced by the turbidity leading to an increase from 4 m...

  19. Risk-based prioritization of ground water threatening point sources at catchment and regional scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overheu, Niels Døssing; Tuxen, Nina; Flyvbjerg, John;

    2014-01-01

    framework has been developed to enable a systematic and transparent risk assessment and prioritization of contaminant point sources, considering the local, catchment, or regional scales (Danish EPA, 2011, 2012). The framework has been tested in several catchments in Denmark with different challenges...... and needs, and two of these are presented. Based on the lessons learned, the Danish EPA has prepared a handbook to guide the user through the steps in a risk-based prioritization (Danish EPA, 2012). It provides guidance on prioritization both in an administratively defined area such as a Danish Region......, and within the bounds of a specified ground water catchment. The handbook presents several approaches in order to prevent the prioritization from foundering because of a lack of data or an inappropriate level of complexity. The developed prioritization tools, possible graphical presentation and use...

  20. Accessing social rights in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacqueson, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    are in decreasing order Polish, German and British nationals. Debates among politicians reflected in the media have since the enlargement of the EU to 10 new Member States in 2004 focused on and off on the issue of access by migrants to social benefits and the issue of social tourism. The debate and discussions......, and the attitude of main actors, such as the media and political parties. It thus looks both at theory and practice. EU-based migration to Denmark is still relatively low, and is essentially exercised by workers and students. Apart from Scandinavians, the most representative EU-citizens actually living in Denmark......’s emphasizing that the existing law was incompatible with EU law, especially with Regulation 883/2004 on the coordination of social security schemes. While Denmark praises itself for being a good pupil in faithfully respecting and applying EU law, reality is another where EU law is seen as a threat...

  1. Heat and Ice in Sermilik Fjord: Novel Observational Techniques Using PIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, M.; Straneo, F.; Sutherland, D.

    2014-12-01

    A 1-year pilot experiment using pressure-sensor-equipped inverted echo sounders (PIES) was conducted in Sermilik Fjord in eastern Greenland to test non-traditional methods for measuring the time-varying
heat content in high-latitude seas, shelves, and fjords and for detecting the presence of ice. PIES, which are installed on the seafloor below the reach of destructive iceberg keels, present
a promising and inexpensive way to improve understanding of fjord dynamics and shelf-fjord interactions and will increase long-term monitoring capabilities in high latitudes where
remoteness and harsh conditions hamper traditional in situ observation techniques. The use
of PIES to characterize variability at high latitudes is a novel application of an existing
technology, but rests on the same principle as the traditional blue-water uses for PIES: due
to the dependence of sound speed on temperature, the surface-to-bottom round-trip acoustic-travel-time associated with reflections between the PIES and the air-sea interface is an excellent proxy
for heat content in the intervening water column. Furthermore, since reflections from seawater-ice interfaces are also detected when ice
is present, PIES provide a means to characterize the ice component in high-latitude systems. The PIES deployed in Sermilik Fjord (August 2011 - September 2012) resolved changes in heat content at scales ranging from hourly to seasonal. Furthermore, during winter, the PIES logged about 300 iceberg detections and recorded a 2-week period of land-fast ice cover in March. The deepest icebergs in the fjord were found to have keel depths reaching to ~350 m and iceberg speeds averaged about 0.2 m/s but were as high as 0.5 m/s.

  2. Extreme winds in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristensen, L.; Rathmann, O.; Hansen, S.O.

    1999-02-01

    Wind-speed data from four sites in Denmark have been analyzed in order to obtain estimates of the basic wind velocity which is defined as the 50-year wind speed under standard conditions, i.e. ten-minute averages at the height 10 m over a uniform terrain with the roughness length 0.05 m. The sites are, from west, Skjern (15 years), Kegnaes (7 years), Sprogoe (20 years), and Tystofte (15 years). The data are ten minute averages of wind speed, wind direction, temperature and pressure. The last two quantities are used to determine the air density {rho}. The data are cleaned for terrain effects by means of a slightly modified WASP technique where the sector speed-up factors and roughness lengths are linearly smoothed with a direction resolution of one degree. Assuming geotropic balance, all the wind-velocity data are transformed to friction velocity u{sub *} and direction at standard conditions by means of the geotropic drag law for neutral stratification. The basic wind velocity in 30 deg. sectors are obtained through ranking of the largest values of the friction velocity pressure 1/2{rho}u{sub *}{sup 2} taken both one every two months and once every year. The main conclusion is that the basic wind velocity is significantly larger at Skjern, close to the west coast of Jutland, than at any of the other sites. Irrespective of direction, the present standard estimates of 50-year wind are 25 {+-} 1 m/s at Skern and 22 {+-} 1 m/s at the other three sites. These results are in agreement with those obtained by Jensen and Franck (1970) and Abild (1994) and supports the conclusion that the wind climate at the west coast of Jutland is more extreme than in any other part of the country. Simple procedures to translate in a particular direction sector the standard basic wind velocity to conditions with a different roughness length and height are presented. It is shown that a simple scheme makes it possible to calculate the total 50-year extreme load on a general structure without

  3. Zone Denmark - gasell Taanist / Reet Krause

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Krause, Reet, 1967-

    2006-01-01

    Taanis Viborgis asuva firma Zone Company Denmark, kaubamärgi Zone Denmark ja firma disainerite tutvustus. Ettevõte valmistab disainitooteid roostevabast terasest, klaasist, puidust, kummist jm. Disainer Naja Utzon Popov endast, oma loomingust

  4. Etnic Diversity in the Globalised Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi; Popova, Dr. Margarita

    This paper deals with ethnic minorities in Denmark and covers some psychosocial aspects including bilingualism.......This paper deals with ethnic minorities in Denmark and covers some psychosocial aspects including bilingualism....

  5. Zone Denmark - gasell Taanist / Reet Krause

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Krause, Reet, 1967-

    2006-01-01

    Taanis Viborgis asuva firma Zone Company Denmark, kaubamärgi Zone Denmark ja firma disainerite tutvustus. Ettevõte valmistab disainitooteid roostevabast terasest, klaasist, puidust, kummist jm. Disainer Naja Utzon Popov endast, oma loomingust

  6. Hepatitis B prevalence in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, N; Hay, G; Cowan, S

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Denmark is not clear. The primary aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of chronic HBV infection in Denmark. The capture–recapture method was used to estimate the total population diagnosed with chronic HBV infection......, and the capture–recapture estimate of the total population diagnosed with chronic hepatitis B was 7,112 (95% confidence interval (CI): 6,953–10,747). Only 17% of the identified patients attended recommended clinical care according to national guidelines. Including undiagnosed patients, the current population...

  7. Hepatitis B prevalence in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, N; Hay, G; Cowan, S;

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Denmark is not clear. The primary aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of chronic HBV infection in Denmark. The capture–recapture method was used to estimate the total population diagnosed with chronic HBV infection......, and the capture–recapture estimate of the total population diagnosed with chronic hepatitis B was 7,112 (95% confidence interval (CI): 6,953–10,747). Only 17% of the identified patients attended recommended clinical care according to national guidelines. Including undiagnosed patients, the current population...

  8. Green tax reform in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    1994-01-01

    Energy, transport and fuel taxes in Denmark have, since the late 1970s, been among the highest in the OECD, and raise already more than 30 billion DKK annually to cover 10-12 per cent of the state household: a share that will be increased over the next five years with new green taxes. Furthermore......, Denmark is currently the only country within the European Union which has introduced a tax on CO2; although Germany and the Netherlands are also considering doing so, the Danish CO2 tax has been effective since 1 January 1993....

  9. Stepfamilies in Denmark and France

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toulemon, Laurent; Knudsen, Lisbeth B.

    2006-01-01

    In both Denmark and France, the past decades have shown profound changes in the patterns of fertility as well as in family formation and family dissolution, with no related decline in overall fertility. Using very large data sets (380,000 respondents in the French survey, 1.3 million women...... in Danish Register data), we built synthetic indexes to show the frequency of stepfamilies in both countries. It is more frequent in Denmark than in France. We then analyse fertility of stepfamilies, compared to couples without any child born before the union, with controlling for age, duration of union...

  10. Invasive alien birds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyegaard, Timme; Heldbjerg, Henning; Fox, Anthony David

    Avian Introduced Alien Species (IAS) constitute a threat to the integrity of native biodiversity, the economy and human health, so here we briefly review some of the problems posed by such species around the world in relation to bird species in Denmark. A new European Union Regulation on Invasive...... the importance of mechanisms such as DOFs (Danish Ornithological Society, BirdLife Denmark) Atlas project, Common Bird Monitoring (breeding and wintering species) and DOFbasen to contribute data on the current geographical and numerical distribution of the few serious alien avian species already present...

  11. Invasive alien birds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Anthony David; Heldbjerg, Henning; Nyegaard, Timme

    2015-01-01

    Avian Introduced Alien Species (IAS) constitute a threat to the integrity of native biodiversity, the economy and human health, so here we briefly review some of the problems posed by such species around the world in relation to such bird species in Denmark. A new European Union Regulation...... show the importance of mechanisms such as DOF’s (Dansk Ornitologisk Forening, BirdLife Denmark) Atlas project, Common Bird Census (breeding and wintering species) and DOFbasen to contribute data on the current geographical and numerical distribution of the few serious alien avian species already...

  12. Stepfamilies in Denmark and France

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toulemon, Laurent; Knudsen, Lisbeth B.

    2006-01-01

    In both Denmark and France, the past decades have shown profound changes in the patterns of fertility as well as in family formation and family dissolution, with no related decline in overall fertility. Using very large data sets (380,000 respondents in the French survey, 1.3 million women...... in Danish Register data), we built synthetic indexes to show the frequency of stepfamilies in both countries. It is more frequent in Denmark than in France. We then analyse fertility of stepfamilies, compared to couples without any child born before the union, with controlling for age, duration of union...

  13. Deglaciation of the Scoresby Sund fjord region, north-east Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Svend Visby

    1972-01-01

    by a short period of advance at the end of the period. (3) The Post-glacial warm period (c. 7000-5000 BP) was a time when the glaciers retreated behind their present limits. A warm climate is indicated by the presence of the now-extinct bivalves Mytillls edulis and Chlamys islandica in raised marine deposits....... (4) Historical time is marked by are-advance. The deglaciation of the region was greatly influenced by relief. This is reflected in the location of the glacier fronts during the major stages and the differences in the behaviour of neighbouring fjord glaciers. The fjord morphology probably also...

  14. Benthic foraminiferal biogeography in NW European fjords: A baseline for assessing future change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, John W.; Alve, Elisabeth

    2016-11-01

    The seaboard extending from northern Svalbard to Scotland is the only region of the world where fjords have been comprehensively studied for their live (stained) benthic foraminiferal faunas. These modern faunas provide essential baseline data for the interpretation of the postglacial and continuing environmental changes in those fjords and this is the first biogeographic synthesis. The data come from the surface sediment assemblages (mainly sampled in the 1990's) from all the available literature. Due to limited information of shallow water assemblages in the north, only the species occurrences in deeper water from below the halocline are considered. Amongst these, only "common species" species occurring in more than one fjord are included. There is a clear pattern of distribution with five groups of taxa: 5 widespread species found throughout the region; 53 species reaching their northern limit; 13 species reaching their southern limit; 11 deep-sea species; 1 recently introduced species. Although there is an abrupt change in temperature from Tanafjorden in northern Norway to Hornsund in southern Svalbard, the faunal change from N to S is progressive throughout the investigated region. The area of overlap of the northern and southern species corresponds with the previously recognised boundary between the Barents Sea Province and the Norwegian Coast Province based on shelf and upper slope invertebrate macrofaunal benthos and plankton. Temperature is the main abiotic control on the distributions. For the fjords which have shallow sills separating them from the open shelf it is likely that most of the foraminiferal colonisers of the deeper fjord basins are sourced from the shelf or slope via propagules. One species has recently been introduced from further south into the southern region probably through the discharge of ballast water from ships. The biodiversity of the pristine Svalbard fjords extends below what is considered to reflect acceptable ecological status

  15. Is Denmark still a fairytale country?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weirsøe, Mathilde

    2011-01-01

    In Denmark, you earn much more as a salesperson if you are named Kasper or Katrine than Amir or Fatima. Why? Because in Denmark, people favour the majority culture over the minority culture, a new Danish study concludes.......In Denmark, you earn much more as a salesperson if you are named Kasper or Katrine than Amir or Fatima. Why? Because in Denmark, people favour the majority culture over the minority culture, a new Danish study concludes....

  16. Meltwater chemistry and solute export from a Greenland Ice Sheet catchment, Watson River, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yde, Jacob C; Knudsen, N. Tvis; Hasholt, Bent

    2014-01-01

    –2010 for the Watson River sector of the GrIS that drains into the fjord Kangerlussuaq. The hydrochemistry is dominated by Ca2+ and HCO3− with a relatively high molar K+/Na+ ratio of 0.6 ± 0.1, typical for meltwaters draining a gneissic lithology. Low molar Ca2+/Na+ and Mg2+/Na+ ratios indicate that weathering....... However, when normalized by discharge the denudation rates are comparable to other Arctic sites. When extrapolating the results from the Watson River catchment to the entire Greenland for 2007–2010, the solute export from Greenland meltwater varied between 7.1 × 106 and 7.8 × 106 tons, whilst the major...

  17. Importance of including small-scale tile drain discharge in the calibration of a coupled groundwater-surface water catchment model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Lausten; Refsgaard, Jens Christian; Christensen, Britt Stenhøj Baun;

    2013-01-01

    the catchment. In this study, a coupled groundwater-surface water model based on the MIKE SHE code was developed for the 4.7 km2 Lillebæk catchment in Denmark, where tile drain flow is a major contributor to the stream discharge. The catchment model was calibrated in several steps by incrementally including...... the observation data into the calibration to see the effect on model performance of including diverse data types, especially tile drain discharge. For the Lillebæk catchment, measurements of hydraulic head, daily stream discharge, and daily tile drain discharge from five small (1–4 ha) drainage areas exist....... The results showed that including tile drain data in the calibration of the catchment model improved its general performance for hydraulic heads and stream discharges. However, the model failed to correctly describe the local-scale dynamics of the tile drain discharges, and, furthermore, including the drain...

  18. A Synthesis of Characteristics of Submarine Landslides Generated by the 1964 Great Alaska Earthquake in Six Fjords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeussler, P. J.; Parsons, T.; Lee, H. J.; Ryan, H. F.; Brothers, D. S.; Liberty, L. M.; Hart, P. E.; Geist, E. L.; Roland, E. C.; Witter, R. C.; Kayen, R. E.

    2015-12-01

    Submarine landslide-generated tsunamis were the single largest cause of fatalities in the Mw9.2 1964 Great Alaska earthquake. In the last decade, we studied the submarine slope failures in six fjords: Resurrection Bay, Port Valdez, Passage Canal, southern Dangerous Passage, Aialik Bay, and Harris Bay. The six fjords lie 20 to 30 km above the Alaska-Aleutian megathrust, which provides an ideal landslide trigger mechanism. To characterize the landslides, we used multibeam bathymetry data, pre- and post-event bathymetry differencing, sparker and chirp seismic data, wave runup directions and heights, shear wave velocity profiles, the onland sedimentary record of the tsunamis, observations during the earthquake, and tsunami models. All slides originated at the margins of the fjords, mostly in unconsolidated sediment of the fjord-head deltas(?), and transported sediment to the deepest part of the fjords. The slides transported material up to ~15 km, resulting in slide deposits up to 20 m thick, and a subsequent megaturbidite deposit up to 15 m thick. These slides resurfaced the entire fjord bottom and the resultant flow of sediment and water brought numerous deep dwelling fish to the surface, killed by the sudden pressure changes. Typical fjord sedimentation resulted in conditions primed for slope failures. Fjord-head deltas deposited unconsolidated sediment at the upper margins of the fjords, which composed the majority of sediment that failed during the earthquake. We find that the highest tsunami runups were correlated with blocky landslides that required unique depositional conditions. The Little Ice Age (LIA) occurred between the penultimate megathrust earthquake ~900 yr ago and 1964, with the most recent maximum extent around 1875AD. The LIA glacial expansion led to significant sedimentation at the margins of the fjords. Near Shoup Bay in Port Valdez, in Passage Canal, and probably in southern Dangerous Passage, ice overrode till and sediment deposited in front of

  19. Denmark: consensus seeking and decentralization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou; Christiansen, Peter Munk; Winter, Søren

    1998-01-01

    Governance and Environment in Western Europe: Politics, Policy and Administration, provides an up-to-date overview of developments in this area focusing on a selection of ten countries in Western Europe and the European Union. The countries examined are: Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, T...

  20. Intergenerational Educational Mobility in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tverborgvik, Torill; Clausen, Lene Björk; Thorsted, Brian Larsen; Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2013-01-01

    In light of the Danish government's goal of 95% of every cohort achieving higher education by 2015, we investigate educational mobility in Denmark. Following 800,000 Danes and their parents, we found that children of parents with only basic education had a three-times-higher risk of achieving only basic education, compared with the children…

  1. Denmark: consensus seeking and decentralization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou; Christiansen, Peter Munk; Winter, Søren

    1998-01-01

    Governance and Environment in Western Europe: Politics, Policy and Administration, provides an up-to-date overview of developments in this area focusing on a selection of ten countries in Western Europe and the European Union. The countries examined are: Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy...

  2. Becoming adult educators in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milana, Marcella; Søgaard Lund, Lise

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present an analysis of identity-construction processes among adult educators in Denmark and we address the question how adult educators develop professionalism, not least by taking advantage of existing opportunity structures for current and prospective adult educators. A between...

  3.   Bente Boa, Torm, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagtmann, Maria Anne

    2009-01-01

    At the beginning of July 2009, Maria Anne Wagtmann (Associate Professor, PhD, University of Southern Denmark) had the opportunity to interview Ms Bente Boa, a senior marine HR manager in the Danish ship owning firm TORM A/S' ( http://www.torm.com/ ). Bente Boa is also chairwoman of the "The Sea...

  4. Open Educational Resources in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harlung, Asger

    2010-01-01

    The report presents an overview of accessibility, content types,and educational levels of open Educational Resources for public school, high shcool, higher education, and citizen empowerment and enlightenment offered from educational institutions or via other internet sources in Denmark in late...

  5. Denmark in the Bologna Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.

    The creation of the European Higher Education Area foreseen in the Bologna Declaration (1999) will facilitate inter-university co-operation by promoting the mobility and employability of European citizens. The article outlines the current development in Denmark, especially as regards the training...... of translators and interpreters....

  6. Green tax reform in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    1994-01-01

    Energy, transport and fuel taxes in Denmark have, since the late 1970s, been among the highest in the OECD, and raise already more than 30 billion DKK annually to cover 10-12 per cent of the state household: a share that will be increased over the next five years with new green taxes. Furthermore...

  7. Relatively high antibiotic resistance among heterotrophic bacteria from arctic fjord sediments than water - Evidence towards better selection pressure in the fjord sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatha, A. A. Mohamed; Neethu, C. S.; Nikhil, S. M.; Rahiman, K. M. Mujeeb; Krishnan, K. P.; Saramma, A. V.

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of antibiotic resistance among aerobic heterotrophic bacteria and coliform bacteria from water and sediment of Kongsfjord. The study was based on the assumption that arctic fjord environments are relatively pristine and offer very little selection pressure for drug resistant mutants. In order to test the hypothesis, 200 isolates belonging to aerobic heterotrophic bacteria and 114 isolates belonging to coliforms were tested against 15 antibiotics belonging to 5 different classes such as beta lactams, aminoglycosides, quinolones, sulpha drugs and tetracyclines. Resistance to beta lactam and extended spectrum beta lactam (ESBL) antibiotics was considerably high and they found to vary significantly (p antibiotic resistance against ESBL's extent and diversity of antibiotic resistance (as revealed by multiple antibiotic resistance index and resistance patterns), was high in the aerobic heterotrophic bacteria. Most striking observation was that isolates from fjord sediments (both heterotrophic bacteria and coliforms) in general showed relatively high prevalence of antibiotic resistance against most of the antibiotics tested, indicating to better selection pressure for drug resistance mutants in the fjord sediments.

  8. The catchment based approach using catchment system engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonczyk, Jennine; Quinn, Paul; Barber, Nicholas; Wilkinson, Mark

    2015-04-01

    The catchment based approach (CaBa) has been championed as a potential mechanism for delivery of environmental directives such as the Water Framework Directive in the UK. However, since its launch in 2013, there has been only limited progress towards achieving sustainable, holistic management, with only a few of examples of good practice ( e.g. from the Tyne Rivers trust). Common issues with developing catchment plans over a national scale include limited data and resources to identify issues and source of those issues, how to systematically identify suitable locations for measures or suites of measures that will have the biggest downstream impact and how to overcome barriers for implementing solutions. Catchment System Engineering (CSE) is an interventionist approach to altering the catchment scale runoff regime through the manipulation of hydrological flow pathways throughout the catchment. A significant component of the runoff generation can be managed by targeting hydrological flow pathways at source, such as overland flow, field drain and ditch function, greatly reducing erosive soil losses. Coupled with management of farm nutrients at source, many runoff attenuation features or measures can be co-located to achieve benefits for water quality and biodiversity. A catchment, community-led mitigation measures plan using the CSE approach will be presented from a catchment in Northumberland, Northern England that demonstrate a generic framework for identification of multi-purpose features that slow, store and filter runoff at strategic locations in the landscape. Measures include within-field barriers, edge of field traps and within-ditch measures. Progress on the implementation of measures will be reported alongside potential impacts on the runoff regime at both local and catchment scale and costs.

  9. Contamination of arctic Fjord sediments by Pb-Zn mining at Maarmorilik in central West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, Kerstin; Leipe, Thomas; Dellwig, O;

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on heavy metal contamination of arctic sediments from a small Fjord system adjacent to the Pb-Zn "Black Angel" mine (West Greenland) to investigate the temporal and spatial development of contamination and to provide baseline levels before the mines re-opening in January 2009...... illustrate this transport and spatial distribution pattern of the contaminated material....

  10. Seasonal carbon cycling in a Greenlandic fjord: an integrated pelagic and benthic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Heidi Louise; Meire, Lorenz; Juul-Pedersen, Thomas;

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is expected to have a pronounced effect on biogeochemical cycling in Arctic fjords, but current insight on the biogeochemical functioning of these systems is limited. Here, we present seasonal data on primary production, export of particulate organic carbon (POC), and the coupling...

  11. An experiment with forced oxygenation of the deepwater of the anoxic By Fjord, Western Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stigebrandt, Anders; Liljebladh, Bengt; De Brabandere, Loreto;

    2015-01-01

    In a 2.5-year-long environmental engineering experiment in the By Fjord, surface water was pumped into the deepwater where the frequency of deepwater renewals increased by a factor of 10. During the experiment, the deepwater became long-term oxic, and nitrate became the dominating dissolved...

  12. Metazooplankton community structure, feeding rate estimates, and hydrography in a meltwater-influenced Greenlandic fjord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, K.W.; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel; Munk, Peter

    2011-01-01

    2008, and estimated feeding rates for some of the larger species groups. Within the 4 regional domains that were covered in the study (continental slope, continental shelf, outer sill region, and main fjord basin), salty coastal water and glacial runoff mixed to various extents, and 7 water masses...

  13. The Mystery of Microsetella – Combination of egg- and broadcast spawning in an Arctic fjord?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koski, Marja; Swalethorp, Rasmus; Kjellerup, Sanne

    2014-01-01

    Different life-history stages of the pelagic harpacticoid Microsetella norvegica were sampled in a Greenland fjord, to investigate how this slowly growing species can achieve high abundances at low temperatures. We expected low but continuous reproduction coupled with a low mortality, but observe...

  14. Seasonal carbon cycling in a Greenlandic fjord: an integrated pelagic and benthic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sørensen, H.L.; Meire, L.; Juul-Pedersen, T.; de Stigter, H.C.; Meysman, F.J.R.; Rysgaard, S.; Thamdrup, B.; Glud, R.N.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is expected to have a pronounced effect on biogeochemical cycling in Arctic fjords, but current insight on the biogeochemical functioning of these systems is limited. Here, we present seasonal data on primary production, export of particulate organic carbon (POC), and the coupling to

  15. Impact of ice melting on distribution of particulate sterols in glacial fjords of Chilean Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Marcelo H.; Riquelme, Pablo; Pantoja, Silvio

    2016-04-01

    We analyzed variability in abundance and composition of sterols in waters of the fjord adjacent to glacier Jorge Montt, one of the fastest retreated glaciers in Patagonian Icefields. The study was carried out between August 2012 and November 2013 under different meltwater scenarios. Distribution of sterols in surface and bottom waters was determined by Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry. Sterol concentration ranged from 18 to 1726 ng/L in surface and bottom waters and was positive correlated with chlorophyll-a concentration. Under high melting conditions in austral summer, surface meltwaters showed high concentrations of sterols and were dominated by methylene-cholesterol, a representative sterol of centric diatoms. In the area near open ocean and in austral autumn, winter and spring in proglacial fjord, lower sterol concentrations in surface waters were accompanied by other microalgae sterols and an increase in relative abundance of plant sterols, evidencing a different source of organic matter. In autumn, when high meltwater flux was also evidenced, presence of stanols and an uncommon tri-unsaturated sterol suggests influence of meltwaters in composition of sterols in the downstream fjord. We conclude that ice melting can modify sterol composition by setting conditions for development of a singular phytoplankton population able to thrive in surface meltwater and by carrying glacier organic matter into Patagonian glacial fjords. In projected ice melting scenario, these changes in organic matter quantity and quality can potentially affect availability of organic substrates for heterotrophic activity and trophic status of glacial fjords. This research was funded by COPAS Sur-Austral (PFB-31)

  16. Seasonal variations of phytoplankton dynamics in Nunatsiavut fjords (Labrador, Canada) and their relationships with environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simo-Matchim, Armelle-Galine; Gosselin, Michel; Blais, Marjolaine; Gratton, Yves; Tremblay, Jean-Éric

    2016-04-01

    We assessed phytoplankton dynamics and its environmental control in four Labrador fjords (Nachvak, Saglek, Okak, and Anaktalak) during summer, early fall and late fall. Primary production and chlorophyll a (chl a) biomass were measured at seven optical depths, including the depth of subsurface chl a maximum (SCM). Phytoplankton abundance, size structure and taxonomy were determined at the SCM. Principal component analysis and non-metric multidimensional scaling were used to analyze relationships between production, biomass and community composition in relation to environmental variables. We observed a marked seasonal variability, with significant differences in phytoplankton structure and function between summer and fall. Surprisingly, primary production and chl a biomass were not significantly different from one fjord to another. The highest values of primary production (1730 mg C m- 2 day- 1) and chl a biomass (96 mg chl a m- 2) were measured during the summer bloom, and those high values indicate that Labrador fjords are highly productive ecosystems. The summer community showed relatively high abundance of nanophytoplankton (2-20 μm) while the fall community was characterized by low primary production and chl a biomass as well as relatively high abundance of picophytoplankton (< 2 μm). The low value of carbon potentially exported out of the euphotic zone throughout the study (≤ 31% of total primary production) suggests that phytoplankton production was mainly grazed by microzooplankton rather than being exported to greater depths. We observed a mixed assemblage of diatoms and flagellates in summer, whereas the fall community was largely dominated by flagellates. Seasonal variations in phytoplankton dynamics were mainly controlled by the strength of the vertical stratification and by the large differences in day length due to the northerly location of Labrador fjords. This study documents for the very first time phytoplankton structure and function in

  17. Last glacial ice-sheet dynamics and deglaciation on Svalbard inferred from fjord records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forwick, Matthias; Baeten, Nicole J.; Bunin, Elizabeth; Hansen, Trude; Kempf, Philipp; Velle, Julie H.; Sverre Laberg, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Various glacigenic landforms and sedimentary processes identified in the Spitsbergen fjords provide valuable insights into the dynamics of the northwestern parts of the Svalbard Barents Sea Ice Sheet during the last glacial. Glacial linear features oriented parallel to most fjord axes are identified on swath-bathymetry and high-resolution sub-bottom profiler data. They provide evidence of locally fast-flowing grounded ice draining the northwestern parts of the Svalbard Barents Sea Ice Sheet to the shelf breaks off north and west Svalbard. Eskers overlying glacial lineations reveal the existence of englacial or sub-glacial drainage systems that developed after the termination of fast ice flow. Iceberg ploughmarks suggest that parts of the deglaciation occurred by iceberg calving. Multiple transverse ridges, e.g. grounding zone wedges and moraines, indicate that multiple halts and/or readvances interrupted the deglaciations of the fjords. This includes relatively small moraines, probably deposited during halts and/or readvances in consecutive winters, thus, allowing the calculation of annual retreat rates of the ice fronts in certain fjord areas. Their regular spacing may suggest that e.g. parts of Billefjorden, Smeerenburgfjorden and Woodfjorden were deglaciated at relatively constant rates of at least 140 m/year. However, the deglaciation of van Keulenfjorden accelerated from approx. 80 m/year to about 190 m/year. Lithological analyses allow the study of sub-glacial, glacier-proximal and glacier-distal sedimentary processes and environments, as well as the identification of influences from various sediment sources. They reveal, furthermore, that the deglaciations of multiple fjords terminated quasi-synchronously around 11,200 cal. years BP, but that significant local delays of up to several thousand years occurred.

  18. Rethinking Project Management in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per

    2012-01-01

    Projects are everywhere across different sectors, industries and countries. Project management is no longer a sub-discipline of engineering and other rather technical disciplines but is also used for many other purposes. Even though practice has changed dramatically over the years, the models...... and methodologies for project management has been fairly static and has therefore received substantial criticism for a lack of relevance to practice. Several scholars have therefore started to think more widely about projects and project management conceptualized as rethinking project management. However this theme...... has lived a somewhat quiet life in Denmark, which leads to the purpose of this chapter, which is to set the stage for rethinking project management in Denmark. The chapter is based on an empirical study within the Danish project management community and beyond where we discuss this rethinking process...

  19. Invasive alien birds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Anthony David; Heldbjerg, Henning; Nyegaard, Timme

    2015-01-01

    on Invasive Alien Species implemented in January 2015 establishes a framework for actions to combat alien species, which requires Member States to prevent the spread of alien species, provide early warning and rapid responses to their presence and management of established alien species where they occur. We......Avian Introduced Alien Species (IAS) constitute a threat to the integrity of native biodiversity, the economy and human health, so here we briefly review some of the problems posed by such species around the world in relation to such bird species in Denmark. A new European Union Regulation...... show the importance of mechanisms such as DOF’s (Dansk Ornitologisk Forening, BirdLife Denmark) Atlas project, Common Bird Census (breeding and wintering species) and DOFbasen to contribute data on the current geographical and numerical distribution of the few serious alien avian species already...

  20. Invasive alien birds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Anthony David; Heldbjerg, Henning; Nyegaard, Timme

    2015-01-01

    Avian Introduced Alien Species (IAS) constitute a threat to the integrity of native biodiversity, the economy and human health, so here we briefly review some of the problems posed by such species around the world in relation to such bird species in Denmark. A new European Union Regulation...... on Invasive Alien Species implemented in January 2015 establishes a framework for actions to combat alien species, which requires Member States to prevent the spread of alien species, provide early warning and rapid responses to their presence and management of established alien species where they occur. We...... show the importance of mechanisms such as DOF’s (Dansk Ornitologisk Forening, BirdLife Denmark) Atlas project, Common Bird Census (breeding and wintering species) and DOFbasen to contribute data on the current geographical and numerical distribution of the few serious alien avian species already...

  1. Rethinking Project Management in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per

    2012-01-01

    Projects are everywhere across different sectors, industries and countries. Project management is no longer a sub-discipline of engineering and other rather technical disciplines but is also used for many other purposes. Even though practice has changed dramatically over the years, the models...... and methodologies for project management has been fairly static and has therefore received substantial criticism for a lack of relevance to practice. Several scholars have therefore started to think more widely about projects and project management conceptualized as rethinking project management. However this theme...... has lived a somewhat quiet life in Denmark, which leads to the purpose of this chapter, which is to set the stage for rethinking project management in Denmark. The chapter is based on an empirical study within the Danish project management community and beyond where we discuss this rethinking process...

  2. Building Local Governance in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Bodil

    Local partnerships have become an important strategic element in active social policy in Denmark. In order to progress towards the parallel objectives of increasing employment rates and creating a more open and inclusive labour market, improving local collaboration is considered paramount....... Accordingly, the municipalities (which in Denmark are in charge of implementing most social policies and carry a large share of the financial burdens) have since 1999 been obliged to have a local coordination committee. Law determines the composition, the competences, and the main tasks of these committees...... albeit there is legal room for some variances. The paper discusses pros and cons of nationally mandated local partnerships. One positive effect is that in some settings, the law have initiated local cooperation that otherwise would not have taken place or not reached the volume it has now. This has...

  3. Oncoplastic breast surgery in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Anders; Henriksen, Trine Foged; Siersen, Hans Erik

    2014-01-01

    With improved survival rates after breast cancer treatment, more attention is drawn to improve the cosmetic outcome after surgical treatment of breast cancer. In this process the oncoplastic breast surgery was conceived. It supplements the traditional surgical treatments (mastectomy and breast...... conserving surgery) with increased focus on individualized therapy. The ambition is to obtain the best possible cosmetic outcome without compromising recurrence rates and survival. This article provides an overview of the current oncoplastic breast surgery treatment offered in Denmark....

  4. Morphine: oxycodone interventions in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk Mikkelsen, Camilla; Andersen, Stig Ejdrup

    2012-01-01

    In the years of the late 2000s, the use of oxycodone in both primary care and hospital care increased significantly in Denmark while the use of morphine decreased. Although oxycodone and morphine are considered equally effective and safe, oxycodone is much more expensive than morphine. Therefore...... in hospital care. On this basis, it is economically very important that drug use in both sectors …...

  5. Experiences with biomass in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregg, Jay Sterling; Bolwig, Simon; Solér, Ola

    The Bioenergy Department in SENER have requested assistance with planning for the deployment of bioenergy (Biomass, biogas and waste incineration) in Mexico and information on Danish experiences with developing policy initiatives promoting bioenergy. This introduction to the Danish experiences...... with biomass use is compiled as preparation for SENER’s potential visit to Denmark in 2014. This report was prepared 19 June, 2014 by DTU System Analysis to Danish Energy Agency (DEA) as part of a frame contract agreement....

  6. Effects of policy measures implemented in Denmark on nitrogen pollution of the aquatic environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronvang, Brian; Andersen, Hans Estrup; Børgesen, Christen Duus

    2008-01-01

    Since 1985, seven national Action Plans (AP) have been implemented in Denmark to reduce nitrogen discharges from point sources and nitrogen losses from agriculture. The instruments applied include regulations on point source discharges from waste water treatment plants, area-related measures, e.......g. reestablishment of wetlands and afforestation and nutrient-related measures, e.g. mandatory fertilizer plans and improved utilization of nitrogen in manure. A national monitoring programme was launched in 1988 to monitor trends in nitrogen losses from point sources and diffuse agricultural sources. Four national...... reduction of 29 and 32% (1989-2004). The change in model calculated nitrogen leaching varies between 28 and 44% as calculated for catchments within eight geo-regions covering most of Denmark. The average trend calculated for nitrogen concentrations measured in the same streams and geo-regions shows...

  7. Lake metabolism scales with lake morphometry and catchment conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stæhr, Peter A.; Baastrup-Spohr, Lars; Jensen, Kaj Sand;

    2012-01-01

    We used a comparative data set for 25 lakes in Denmark sampled during summer to explore the influence of lake morphometry, catchment conditions, light availability and nutrient input on lake metabolism. We found that (1) gross primary production (GPP) and community respiration (R) decline with lake...... area, water depth and drainage ratio, and increase with algal biomass (Chl), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total phosphorus (TP); (2) all lakes, especially small with less incident light, and forest lakes with high DOC, have negative net ecosystem production (NEP ... decreases with lake area and water depth as a consequence of lower input of nutrients and organic matter per unit water volume; (4) the influence of benthic processes on free water metabolic measures declines with increasing lake size; and (5) with increasing lake size, lake metabolism decreases...

  8. Exploring the Diversity and Antimicrobial Potential of Marine Actinobacteria from the Comau Fjord in Northern Patagonia, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undabarrena, Agustina; Beltrametti, Fabrizio; Claverías, Fernanda P; González, Myriam; Moore, Edward R B; Seeger, Michael; Cámara, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Bioprospecting natural products in marine bacteria from fjord environments are attractive due to their unique geographical features. Although, Actinobacteria are well known for producing a myriad of bioactive compounds, investigations regarding fjord-derived marine Actinobacteria are scarce. In this study, the diversity and biotechnological potential of Actinobacteria isolated from marine sediments within the Comau fjord, in Northern Chilean Patagonia, were assessed by culture-based approaches. The 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that members phylogenetically related to the Micrococcaceae, Dermabacteraceae, Brevibacteriaceae, Corynebacteriaceae, Microbacteriaceae, Dietziaceae, Nocardiaceae, and Streptomycetaceae families were present at the Comau fjord. A high diversity of cultivable Actinobacteria (10 genera) was retrieved by using only five different isolation media. Four isolates belonging to Arthrobacter, Brevibacterium, Corynebacterium and Kocuria genera showed 16S rRNA gene identity Actinobacteria with biotechnological potential for producing biologically active compounds.

  9. Dynamics of phytoplankton distribution and photosynthetic capacity in a western Norwegian fjord during coastal upwelling: Effects on optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erga, Svein Rune; Ssebiyonga, Nicolausi; Frette, Øyvind; Hamre, Børge; Aure, Jan; Strand, Øivind; Strohmeier, Tore

    2012-01-01

    The present study describes the coupling between optical properties and the dynamics of phytoplankton distribution and photosynthetic capacity in the Lysefjord during an exceptional coastal upwelling. At the mouth of the fjord, transparent Coastal water was "piled up" against the sill, while more turbid Fjord water from the outer fjord system was flowing over the sill, creating the intermediate layer which extended further into the fjord. This was reflected by high spectral attenuation coefficients in the upper 10 m of the fjord. Outside the sill, clear water with low spectral attenuation coefficients were found below sill depth down to at least 30 m, while the attenuation coefficients inside the sill were significantly higher between 10 and 20 m. About 4-7 km outwards from the head of the fjord clearer deep basin water was entering the upper layer due to the upwelling which could be traced up to 7 m, bounded by the 7.5 °C and the 31 salinity isolines. In the outer part of the fjord waters with a high chl a content and photosynthetic capacity were observed below the outflowing surface layer containing "old water" from the inner part of the fjord, which was characterized by low nutrient and chl a concentrations. Maximum quantum efficiencies (0.5) were encountered within this subsurface layer. Quantum efficiencies exceeded 0.3 when nitrate and silicate concentrations increased above 2 mmol m -3. About 50% of the PAR light attenuation (0-30 m) was caused by chl a, and the 1% light depth varied between 27 and 35 m along the transect. Due to the influence of freshwater outlets, non-pigmented particles were more abundant in the inner part of the fjord than in the outer part. Colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) contributed strongly to absorption within the upper 10 m at wavelengths below 470 nm while scattering was the major attenuation contributor for wavelengths above 600 nm. With respect to possible climate change effects on the growth of phytoplankton in

  10. MNCs in Denmark and the UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navrbjerg, Steen Erik; Marginson, Paul

    2016-01-01

    country’s institutions to suit the MNC’s needs (country-of-origin effect). This question is discussed by Steen E. Navrbjerg from FAOS and Paul Marginson from Warwick in the article MNCs in Denmark and the UK - accommodating to or transforming national industrial relations? The article is based on a survey...... of 301 MNCs in the UK and 110 MNC’s in Denmark. In the article home owned MNCs is compared with overseas MNCs in Denmark and the UK respectively; furthermore, MNCs in a liberal market economy (UK) is compared with MNCs in a coordinated market economy (Denmark). The analysis shows that the MNCs in Denmark...... much more often recognize unions than is the case with MNCs in the UK. This indicates that strong relations between the social partners and a strong institutionalised IR-system in Denmark are defining the relations between employer and employee, and are also inhibiting the MNCs opportunities...

  11. Relationships between fjord bathymetries and recent glacier behavior: gaining new insight from IceBridge flights over Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, D.; Boghosian, A.; Tinto, K. J.; Cochran, J. R.; Bell, R. E.

    2012-12-01

    The geometry of glacial fjords may play a large role in determining the stability of outlet glaciers. Sloping seafloors will feedback on a moving grounding line and shallow sills and deep continental shelf troughs will allow greater interaction with the surrounding ocean water. To better understand the role of fjord bathymetry in the glacier system, Operation IceBridge (OIB) has flown a suite of radar, lidar, gravity and magnetic instruments along the flow lines of previously inaccessible outlet glaciers and their fjords around the Greenlandic coast. Here, we combine newly collected surface elevation, ice thickness data, and gravity and magnetic anomalies from OIB flights, along with ship-based bathymetric profiles, into a single dataset. The combination of these new data are used in the construction of forward models that provide the framework for performing gravity inversions, finally resulting in many new bathymetric charts of previously unmapped fjords in Greenland. These newly created fjord bathymetries are compared to several important characteristics their outlet glaciers and ocean waters. We investigate the importance of glacier parameters such as surface velocity and area changes, as well as newly available oceanographic data from within the fjord, on recent changes in glacier behavior. Are faster flowing glaciers found in fjords with deep sills and a greater exchange with continental shelf water? Comparisons of these glacier-fjord relationships are also separated by region and by glacier type. Are glaciers in the southeast mostly changing in a similar way even though their bed geometries are quite different? These broad correlations are a starting point in an effort to investigate the role of bed geometry in the relationship between external forcing and the observed recent change of many of Greenland's largest outlet glaciers.

  12. Sea ice and primary production proxies in surface sediments from a High Arctic Greenland fjord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro, Sofia; Sejr, Mikael K; Limoges, Audrey;

    2017-01-01

    that IP25 records from fjords need to be carefully considered and not directly compared to marine settings. The sea ice-associated biomarker HBI III revealed an open-water signature, with highest concentrations near the mid-July ice edge. This proxy evaluation is an important step towards reliable......In order to establish a baseline for proxy-based reconstructions for the Young Sound-Tyrolerfjord system (Northeast Greenland), we analysed the spatial distribution of primary production and sea ice proxies in surface sediments from the fjord, against monitoring data from the Greenland Ecosystem...... Monitoring Programme. Clear spatial gradients in organic carbon and biogenic silica contents reflected marine influence, nutrient availability and river-induced turbidity, in good agreement with in situ measurements. The sea ice proxy IP25 was detected at all sites but at low concentrations, indicating...

  13. Sea ice and primary production proxies in surface sediments from a High Arctic Greenland fjord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro, Sofia; Sejr, Mikael K; Limoges, Audrey

    2017-01-01

    In order to establish a baseline for proxy-based reconstructions for the Young Sound–Tyrolerfjord system (Northeast Greenland), we analysed the spatial distribution of primary production and sea ice proxies in surface sediments from the fjord, against monitoring data from the Greenland Ecosystem...... Monitoring Programme. Clear spatial gradients in organic carbon and biogenic silica contents reflected marine influence, nutrient availability and river-induced turbidity, in good agreement with in situ measurements. The sea ice proxy IP25 was detected at all sites but at low concentrations, indicating...... that IP25 records from fjords need to be carefully considered and not directly compared to marine settings. The sea ice-associated biomarker HBI III revealed an open-water signature, with highest concentrations near the mid-July ice edge. This proxy evaluation is an important step towards reliable...

  14. Seasonal and interannual phytoplankton production in a sub-arctic tidewater outlet glacier fjord, west Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul-Pedersen, T.; Arendt, K.; Mortensen, J.;

    2015-01-01

    and hydrographic conditions during a 7 yr period. Total annual primary production during 2005 to 2012 was between 84.6 and 139.1 g C m−2 yr−1. Two phytoplankton blooms of similar magnitude reoccur in the fjord every year. A ‘classical’ spring bloom of up to 1743 mg C m−2 d−1 occurred in late April/early May...... in a water column almost fully mixed due to tidal forces at the fjord sill. After the spring bloom, primary production decreased in June, after which a summer bloom of up to 1383 mg C m−2 d−1 built up. This bloom coincided with the development of a pycnocline caused by substantial runoff from the Greenland...

  15. Characterization of Baker Fjord region through its heavy metal content on sediments (Central Chilean Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Ahumada

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of heavy metals content (Ba, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sr and Zn in sediments of the Baker Fjord and surrounding channels in the central region of the Chilean fjords (47°45'S, 48°15'S is analyzed. The aim of the study was characterized the patterns of abundance and distribution of these metals in surface sediments. The area corresponds to a poorly studied zone with low human activity. Distribution patterns would be influenced by rainfall conditions (local erosion, fluvial (continental sediments carried by rivers, glacier (glacier flour and estuarine circulation. Cluster analysis allows differentiation among the sampled sites and group with similar characteristics. Finally, the concentrations found were contrasted with average values of metamorphic rocks and show with some certainty that the values found for calendar for this area and the greatest concentrations are the result of natural enrichment.

  16. Hydrological forecasting in catchments with glaciers

    OpenAIRE

    Nahat, Angèle

    2015-01-01

    The runoff forecast is crucial in Norway because the country bases most of its electricity from hydropower. The hydrological model has thus been improved for years in order to foresee the runoff in the best possible way. In Norway, there are many catchments with extensive water storage: glaciers. Those catchments represent a significant part of the catchments where hydropower is produced. Therefore knowing the right amount of outflow from a catchment with glaciers is essential but more challe...

  17. The role of atmospheric precipitation in introducing contaminants to the surface waters of the Fuglebekken catchment, Spitsbergen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kozak

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Although the Svalbard Archipelago is located at a high latitude, far from potential contaminant sources, it is not free from anthropogenic impact. Towards the Fuglebekken catchment, in the southern part of Spitsbergen, north of Hornsund fjord, contaminants can be transported from mainland pollution sources. In the precipitation and surface water collected in the catchment, the following elements were detected and quantified: Ag, Al, As, B, Ba, Bi, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Cs, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sr, Tl, U, V and Zn. Additionally, pH, electrical conductivity and total organic carbon (TOC were determined in those samples. The acidic reaction of precipitation waters was identified as an important factor intensifying the metal migration in this Arctic tundra environment. The air mass trajectory, surprisingly, explained the variability of only a small fraction of trace elements in precipitation water. The air mass origin area was correlated only with the concentrations of As, V and Cr. Wind directions were helpful in explaining the variability of Mn, U and Ba concentrations (east–north-easterly wind and the contents of B, As, Rb, Se, Sr and Li in precipitation (south-westerly wind, which may indicate the local geological source of those. Atmospheric deposition was found to play a key role in the transport of contaminants into the Fuglebekken catchment; however, the surface water composition was modified by its pH and TOC content.

  18. Corporatism in Denmark and Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Mikkel Mailand

    2009-01-01

    The literature of corporatism tends to bypass most Scandinavian countries and ignore state-social partner relations not related to wage bargaining and income policy. This contribution attempts to overcome both these shortcomings. It concludes that corporatism is alive in Denmark and Norway....... The social partners have, as general rule, been involved in formulating and implementing changes in welfare state policies, and corporatist arrangements are also seen in relation to some industrial relations issues. The two countries share a number of contextual features important for corporatism. However...

  19. eHealth in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kierkegaard, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Denmark is widely regarded as a leading country in terms of eHealth integration and healthcare delivery services. The push for eHealth adoption over that past 20 years in the Danish health sector has led to the deployment of multiple eHealth technologies. However, in reality the Danish healthcare...... suffers from eHealth system fragmentation which has led to eHealth's inability to reach full potential in delivering quality healthcare service. This paper will presents a case study of the current state of eHealth in the Danish healthcare system and discuss the current challenges the country is facing...

  20. Studying landscape architecture in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Ellen Marie; Hare, Richard Andrew

    2010-01-01

    s demanded large numbers of landscape architects. Today landscape architecture education addresses current challenges of climate change and the need for sustainable development where an understanding of natural systems is seen as essential for future urbanisation processes in evermore innovative......Landscape architecture is a well-established profession in Denmark. From the early 20th Century the profession developed steadily. However, it was 1960 before a separate education was established. This proved timely as the immense physical development of the Danish welfare state of the 1970s and 80...

  1. Day-Care in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Helle

    2011-01-01

      The chapter explores central notions of appropriate social behavior in what is arguably the most important institution in Denmark when it comes to social integration, namely day-care, also known as pre-school. Moral values guiding everyday practices are generally taken for granted. When...... interacting with ethnic minority children and their parents, however, staff are occasionally forced to make explicit the reasoning behind their actions. A focus on the interaction of ethnic minority children and their parents in day-care centres therefore provides insights into the cultural beliefs and values...... which structure daily socialization practices in a Danish day-care, and by implication in Danish society....

  2. Antibiotic-producing bacteria from the sea surface microlayer in the Trondheim fjord, Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Hakvåg, Sigrid

    2009-01-01

    The marine environment has so far been poorly utilized in the search for (producers of) novel antimicrobial compounds. Marine bioprospecting might therefore be a promising field of research for the pharmaceutical industry as an alternative to terrestrial sources and synthetic production of pharmaceuticals.In this project, over 4000 cultivable isolates have been isolated from different locations in the Trondheim fjord and along the coast of Trøndelag, Norway. Over 1000 of these bacteria were i...

  3. Carbon Bioavailability in a High Arctic Fjord Influenced by Glacial Meltwater, NE Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria L. Paulsen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The land-to-ocean flux of organic carbon is increasing in glacierized regions in response to increasing temperatures in the Arctic (Hood et al., 2015. In order to understand the response of the coastal ecosystem metabolism to the organic carbon input it is essential to determine the bioavailability of the different carbon sources in the system. We quantified the bacterial turnover of organic carbon in a high Arctic fjord system (Young Sound, NE Greenland during the ice-free period (July-October 2014 and assessed the quality and quantity of the 3 major organic carbon sources; (1 local phytoplankton production (2 runoff from land-terminating glaciers and a lowland river and (3 inflow from the ocean shelf. We found that despite relatively low concentrations of DOC in the rivers, the bioavailability of the river–DOC was significantly higher than in the fjord, and characterized by high cell-specific bacterial production and low C:N ratios. In contrast, the DOC source entering via inflow of coastal shelf waters had high DOC concentrations with high C:N and low specific bacterial production. The phytoplankton production in the fjord could not sustain the bacterial carbon demand, but was still the major source of organic carbon for bacterial growth. We assessed the bacterial community composition and found that communities were specific for the different water types i.e., the bacterial community of the coastal inflow water could be traced mainly in the subsurface water, while the glacial river community strongly dominated the surface water in the fjord.

  4. Actinomycetes from Sediments in the Trondheim Fjord, Norway: Diversity and Biological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey B. Zotchev

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The marine environment represents a largely untapped source for isolation of new microorganisms with potential to produce biologically active secondary metabolites. Among such microorganisms, Gram-positive actinomycete bacteria are of special interest, since they are known to produce chemically diverse compounds with a wide range of biological activities. We have set out to isolate and characterize actinomycete bacteria from the sediments in one of the largest Norwegian fjords, the Trondheim fjord, with respect to diversity and antibiotic-producing potential. Approximately 3,200 actinomycete bacteria were isolated using four different agar media from the sediment samples collected at different locations and depths (4.5 to 450 m. Grouping of the isolates first according to the morphology followed by characterization of isolates chosen as group representatives by molecular taxonomy revealed that Micromonospora was the dominating actinomycete genus isolated from the sediments. The deep water sediments contained a higher relative amount of Micromonospora compared to the shallow water samples. Nine percent of the isolates clearly required sea water for normal growth, suggesting that these strains represent obligate marine organisms. Extensive screening of the extracts from all collected isolates for antibacterial and antifungal activities revealed strong antibiotic-producing potential among them. The latter implies that actinomycetes from marine sediments in Norwegian fjords can be potential sources for the discovery of novel anti-infective agents.

  5. Substantial stores of sedimentary carbon held in mid-latitude fjords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeaton, Craig; Austin, William E. N.; Davies, Althea L.; Baltzer, Agnès; Abell, Richard E.; Howe, John A.

    2016-10-01

    Quantifying marine sedimentary carbon stocks is key to improving our understanding of long-term storage of carbon in the coastal ocean and to further constraining the global carbon cycle. Here we present a methodological approach which combines seismic geophysics and geochemical measurements to quantitatively estimate the total stock of carbon held within marine sediment. Through the application of this methodology to Loch Sunart, a fjord on the west coast of Scotland, we have generated the first full sedimentary carbon inventory for a fjordic system. The sediments of Loch Sunart hold 26.9 ± 0.5 Mt of carbon split between 11.5 ± 0.2 and 15.0 ± 0.4 Mt of organic and inorganic carbon respectively. These new quantitative estimates of carbon stored in coastal sediments are significantly higher than previous estimates. Through an area-normalised comparison to adjacent Scottish peatland carbon stocks, we have determined that these mid-latitude fjords are significantly more effective as carbon stores than their terrestrial counterparts. This initial work supports the concept that fjords are important environments for the burial and long-term storage of carbon and therefore should be considered and treated as unique environments within the global carbon cycle.

  6. Calving Signature in Ocean Waves: Helheim Glacier and Sermilik Fjord Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vankova, I.; Holland, D.

    2015-12-01

    In this work, we investigate the characteristics of calving on Helheim glacier from data recorded on an array of five high frequency pressure meters placed along Sermilik fjord. Calving generated tsunami waves were recorded and used to construct a calving event catalog and to characterize the post-calving ocean state. Calving on Helheim is highly seasonal: it onsets after months of inactivity in early spring, immediately following the rise of daily average temperatures above freezing point, which indicates the potentially dominant role of meltwater in the calving mechanism. Tidal phase and amplitude, ocean temperature variations or surges did not seem to be significant calving factors. In the ocean spectra, we observe discrete peaks between 0.4 to 6 mHz associated with calving events. These peak frequencies are consistent among all the events and they travel as propagating modes up and down the fjord for several hours while being slowly radiated away to the open ocean, an observation which we support with a model. Large part of the spectrum is trapped in evanescent modes or is quickly dissipated. These observations are relevant for our understanding of the time scale and rate of mixing in glacier fjords, and eventually for improving boundary conditions for ocean models.

  7. Maternal mortality in Denmark, 1985-1994

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Betina Ristorp; Westergaard, Hanne Brix; Bødker, Birgit

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In Denmark, maternal mortality has been reported over the last century, both locally through hospital reports and in national registries. The purpose of this study was to analyze data from national medical registries of pregnancy-related deaths in Denmark 1985-1994 and to classify them...

  8. INOPS Survey data report for Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Andrej Christian; Hansen, Morten Balle; Østergaard, Jeppe

    This data report provides statistics on the organization, management and performance of different ways of providing maintenance services within the municipal park and road sector(s) in Denmark. The statistics rely on data collected in the period from November 2014 to February 2015 through an onli...... survey send out to managers in all 98 municipalities in Denmark....

  9. Farming of Freshwater Rainbow Trout in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokumsen, Alfred; Svendsen, Lars Moeslund

    Textbook on Farming of Freshwater Rainbow Trout in Denmark. Danish edition with the title: Opdræt af regnbueørred i Danmark......Textbook on Farming of Freshwater Rainbow Trout in Denmark. Danish edition with the title: Opdræt af regnbueørred i Danmark...

  10. Live and work in North Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Sascha; Pristed Nielsen, Helene

    This report is based on a survey among Expats in North Denmark, and was carried out in collaboration with 'Velkomstcentre - live and work in North Denmark'. It includes findings about the backgrounds of the Expats, their motives for coming to the region and their perceptions of the region before...

  11. Oral contraception in Denmark 1998-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Nadia M; Laursen, Maja; Lidegaard, Øjvind

    2012-01-01

    Oral contraceptives (OC) are the most popular contraception in Denmark. Overall figures on use are well described, but more detailed use patterns according to type and age need to be updated.......Oral contraceptives (OC) are the most popular contraception in Denmark. Overall figures on use are well described, but more detailed use patterns according to type and age need to be updated....

  12. Cheilosia fasciata (Diptera: Syrphidae) new to Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Hans Henrik; Bygebjerg, Rune

    2016-01-01

    -eastern Denmark in 2014. Search for larvae and adults during the 2015 season across Denmark – assisted by numerous volunteers – resulted in a total of four inhabited forest sites, all on Falster and within a distance of 10 km. Thus, the species is most likely a recent immigrant from northern Germany...

  13. Socioeconomic differences in health expectancy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    2000-01-01

    Social differences in mortality rates reported in Denmark gave rise to the present study of health expectancy in different socioeconomic groups.......Social differences in mortality rates reported in Denmark gave rise to the present study of health expectancy in different socioeconomic groups....

  14. The Demand for Rental Homes in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skak, Morten

    2007-01-01

    For a number of years, homeownership rates have been increasing with increasing GDP per capita in most European countries, but not in Denmark after 2000. How has increased real incomes kept demand for rental housing up in Denmark? The present paper takes a closer look at the Danish development...

  15. The BRICS and Denmark - Economics & High Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skak, Mette

    2013-01-01

    Denmark's otherwise strategic opening towards the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) lacks the world order dimension of raison de système.......Denmark's otherwise strategic opening towards the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) lacks the world order dimension of raison de système....

  16. Farming of Freshwater Rainbow Trout in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokumsen, Alfred; Svendsen, Lars Moeslund

    Textbook on Farming of Freshwater Rainbow Trout in Denmark. Danish edition with the title: Opdræt af regnbueørred i Danmark......Textbook on Farming of Freshwater Rainbow Trout in Denmark. Danish edition with the title: Opdræt af regnbueørred i Danmark...

  17. Improved access to temporary pacing in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alhede, Christina; Weisz, Mathilde; Diederichsen, Axel

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to illustrate current use of temporary pacing (TP) in Denmark by replicating a questionnaire study from 1986 and to compare the results of the two studies.......The aim was to illustrate current use of temporary pacing (TP) in Denmark by replicating a questionnaire study from 1986 and to compare the results of the two studies....

  18. Seasonal plankton variability in Chilean Patagonia fjords: Carbon flow through the pelagic food web of Aysen Fjord and plankton dynamics in the Moraleda Channel basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, H. E.; Castro, L.; Daneri, G.; Iriarte, J. L.; Silva, N.; Vargas, C. A.; Giesecke, R.; Sánchez, N.

    2011-03-01

    Two research cruises ( CIMAR 13 Fiordos) were conducted in the N-S oriented macrobasin of the Moraleda Channel (42-47°S), which includes the E-W oriented Puyuhuapi Channel and Aysen Fjord, during two contrasting productive seasons: austral winter (27 July-7 August 2007) and spring (2-12 November 2007). These campaigns set out to assess the spatio-temporal variability, defined by the local topography along Moraleda Channel, in the biological, physical, and chemical oceanographic characteristics of different microbasins and to quantify the carbon budget of the pelagic trophic webs of Aysen Fjord. Seasonal carbon fluxes and fjord-system functioning vary widely in our study area. In terms of spatial topography, two constriction sills (Meninea and Elefantes) define three microbasins along Moraleda Channel, herein the (1) north (Guafo-Meninea), (2) central (Meninea-Elefantes), and (3) south (Elefantes-San Rafael Lagoon) microbasins. In winter, nutrient concentrations were high (i.e. nitrate range: 21-14 μM) and primary production was low (153-310 mgC m -2 d -1), suggesting that reduced light radiation depressed the plankton dynamics throughout Moraleda Channel. In spring, primary production followed a conspicuous N-S gradient, which was the highest (5167 mgC m -2 d -1) in the north microbasin and the lowest (742 mgC m -2 d -1) in the south microbasin. The seasonal pattern of the semi-enclosed Puyuhuapi Channel and Aysen Fjord, however, revealed no significant differences in primary production (˜800 mgC m -2 d -1), and vertical fluxes of particulate organic carbon were nearly twice as high in spring as in winter (266 vs. 168 mgC m -2 d -1). At the time-series station (St. 79), the lithogenic fraction dominated the total sedimented matter (seston). The role of euphausiids in the biological carbon pump of the Patagonian fjords was evident, given the predominance of zooplankton fecal material, mostly euphausiid fecal strings (46% of all fecal material), among the

  19. Mapping SOC in a river catchment by integrating laboratory spectra wavelength with remote sensing spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Yi; Xiong, Xiong; Knadel, Maria;

    There is potential to use soil ·-proximal and remote sensing derived spectra concomitantly to develop soil organic carbon (SOC) models. Yet mixing spectral data from different sources and technologies to improve soil models is still in its infancy. The objective of this study was to incorporate...... soil spectral features indicative of SOC from laboratory visible near-infrared reflectance (vis-NlR) spectra and incorporate them with remote sensing (RS) images to improve predictions of top SOC in the Skjem river catchment, Denmark. The secondary objective was to improve prediction results...... by separately calibrating samples from upland and wetland. We hypbthesize that final prediction accuracy is significantly improved by incorporatin1 laboratory vis-NlR images upscaled from point-based spectra to catchment scale and RS data for topsoil SOC spatial modeling....

  20. Low-Wage Work in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    2008-01-01

    not stay in low-wage jobs for long. Many go on to higher paying jobs, while a significant minority ends up relying temporarily on income support and benefits sustained by one of the highest tax rates in the world.  Low-Wage Work in Denmark provides an insightful look at the particularities of the Danish...... of collective bargaining help regulate working conditions in the absence of strong government regulation. Denmark's rate of low-wage work-8.5 percent-is the lowest of the five countries under analysis. In Low-Wage Work in Denmark, a team of Danish researchers combines comprehensive national registry data...... with detailed case studies of five industries to explore why low-end jobs are so different in Denmark. Some jobs that are low-paying in the United States, including hotel maids and meat processors, though still demanding, are much more highly compensated in Denmark. And Danes, unlike American workers, do...

  1. Catchment-Wide Atmospheric Greenhouse Gas Exchange as Influenced by Land Use Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbst, Mathias; Friborg, Thomas; Ringgaard, Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    The turbulent fl uxes of carbon dioxide between the land surface and the atmosphere were measured with the eddy covariance technique above three contrasO ng land use types in the Skjern River catchment in western Denmark, namely an agricultural area, a forest plantation, and a wet grassland....... The measurements also included the turbulent fl uxes of methane above the wet grassland and of nitrous oxide above the agricultural area and ran continuously throughout the year 2009. The highest CO2 uptake rates (around 30 µmol m-2 s-1) were observed at the agricultural site; however, the site was a CO2 sink only...

  2. Denmark

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Peter; van der Meer, Peter; Huisman, J.; Kaiser, F.

    2001-01-01

    The Danish system of higher education has long been a formally unified system. In spite of this, however, there are a number of different types of institutions, including universities, schools, colleges, and specialised institutions. The university sector consists of twelve university or

  3. Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinck-Jensen, Jeppe; Rosenmeier, Morten; Scotwin, Helene Egede

    2015-01-01

    Content: Background, Employees' Copyright, Employees´ Semi-Conductor Chips, Employees' Inventions, Employees' Utility Models, Employees´ Design Rights, Employees´ Plant Varieties, Instances for Disputes, Concluding Remarks....

  4. Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Palle Damkjær; Werler, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    The notion of the so-called life enlightenment (livsoplysning) and the concepts elaborated by N. F. S. Grundtvig and his work on residential adult education centers form the fundamental principles of the Danish school system. A significant goal of Danish education is not just the acquisition of t...

  5. Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Palle Damkjær; Werler, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    The notion of the so-called life enlightenment (livsoplysning) and the concepts elaborated by N. F. S. Grundtvig and his work on residential adult education centers form the fundamental principles of the Danish school system. A significant goal of Danish education is not just the acquisition...

  6. Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Lars Bo

    2013-01-01

    Den belgiske advokatforening har samlet bidrag fra 31 europæiske lande om hvorledes advokaters tavshedspligt er reguleret og hvorledes reglerne håndhæves i praksis, herunder samspillet med vidnereglerne og reglerne om hvidvask....

  7. Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Branth

    2008-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Global Warming and Climate Change helps readers learn about the astonishingly intricate processes that make ours the only planet known to be habitable. These three volumes include more than 750 articles that explore major topics related to global warming and climate change......-ranging geographically from the North Pole to the South Pole, and thematically from social effects to scientific causes....

  8. Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulfbeck, Vibe Garf

    2008-01-01

    The European Tort Law Yearbook provides a comprehensive overview of the latest developments in tort law in Europe. It contains reports on most EU Member States, including the new Member States the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithunia, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Bulgaria and Romania....

  9. Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annegrethe; Pedersen, Jørgen Lindgaard

    2006-01-01

    This project has investigated outward foreign direct investments from the Nordic economies, and analysed the role domestic multinational companies play in their respective Nordic home economies. The project consisted of a desktop study of existing research, a quantitative study of FDI flows....... Through teh project as a whole, valuable insights into multinational corporate behaviour and strategy have been gained. It explicitly addressed the home-base implications of corporate internationalisation, and provides a theoretical framework for understanding the conditions under which the foreign...

  10. Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Torben; Møller, Winnie Friis; Elle, Morten

    2009-01-01

    emissions. The Action investigated how nineteen EU member states were active in reducing carbon dioxide levels in the built environment, not only in line with buildings meeting the requirements of the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) (1), but also in taking standards further and looking...... a network of nineteen countries across Europe, ‘how carbon reductions can be achieved through appropriate design and management of the urban built environment’. This involved investigating the built environment at building and urban scale, focusing on minimising energy use and associated carbon dioxide......This publication summarises the activities of the COST C23 Action entitled ‘Strategies for a Low Carbon Urban Built Environments (LCUBE)’ which took place over the period 2004 to 2009. This publication is supported by COST. The main objective of the COST C23 Action was to investigate, through...

  11. Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg Bennike, Kathrine; Stoltz, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    and still is influential in terms of Denmark’s response to gender and HS. The chapter further examines the Danish women’s movement, which has been influential on a national level in achieving economic, political and social rights, but which has also been advocating for gender, equality and security...

  12. Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annegrethe; Pedersen, Jørgen Lindgaard

    2006-01-01

    and the innovation behaviour of multinationals, and a qualitative analysis based on interviews conducted with leading managers, researchers and owner respondents in 17 Nordic domestic multinationals. The following report present presents the qualitative analysis papers written on the basis of these interviews...

  13. Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lisbet

    2015-01-01

    Oversigtsartikel der viser state of the art vedr forholdet mellem stat, kirke og trossamfund, Ret og Religion i Danmark i følgende punkter: Sociale forhold, historisk baggrund, retskilder, individuel religionsfrihed, trossamfundenes retlige status, trossamfundenes autonomi, religion og uddannelse...

  14. Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatti, Yosef; Hansen, Sune Welling

    2013-01-01

    This book examines the political consequences of European security commercialisation through increased reliance on private military and security companies (PMSCs). The role of commercial security in the domestic setting in Europe is widely acknowledged; after all, the biggest private security...... company globally – G4S Group – has its roots in Scandinavia. However, the use of commercial security contracting by European states for military purposes in international settings is mostly held to be marginal. This book examines the implications of commercialisation for the peace and reconciliations...

  15. Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Palle Damkjær; Werler, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    The notion of the so-called life enlightenment (livsoplysning) and the concepts elaborated by N. F. S. Grundtvig and his work on residential adult education centers form the fundamental principles of the Danish school system. A significant goal of Danish education is not just the acquisition of t...... of theoretical knowledge, but the acquisition of practical knowledge that provides an explanation of and orientation in life....

  16. Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Rikke

    2016-01-01

    on the kinds of gendered understanding that underline research surveys like the WIME project and discusses the potential limitations of this approach to gender analysis. Furthermore, it discusses the benefits and potential problems of applying gender inclusive policies to media institutions by drawing upon....... Using this concept, this article critically discussed diversity policies and gender equality policies as they apply to media institutions....... Sara Ahmed’s critique of the ‘politics of declarations.’ (2004) Ahmed has shown how declarations of anti-racism are performances which admit to potential negative racist practices, after which the admission itself becomes a positive practice and hence mistakenly interpreted as an anti-racist practice...

  17. Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldgaard-Pedersen, Astrid

    2013-01-01

    Encyclopedia of Transitional Justice is a reference tool directed to both practitioners and academics interested in the field of Transitional Justice. It covers concepts, country studies, institutions, methods, and key debates.......Encyclopedia of Transitional Justice is a reference tool directed to both practitioners and academics interested in the field of Transitional Justice. It covers concepts, country studies, institutions, methods, and key debates....

  18. Sediment thicknesses and holocene glacial marine sedimentation rates in three east Greenland fjords (ca. 68°N)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J.T.; Milliman, John D.; Jennings, A.E.; Rynes, N.; Dwyer, J.

    1994-01-01

    We compared measured and estimated sediment budgets in heavily glaciated fjords in East Greenland. Mass balance calculations and regional glacio-climatic conditions suggest that the sediment flux to the seafloor in Kangerdlugssuaq and Nansen fjords should be dominated by iceberg rafting and not by the rain-out of suspended particulates in meltwater, as the glacier calving flux is estimated at 15 and $2 km^{3}/yr$, compared to meltwater volumes of 4.4 and $1.7 km^{3}/yr$, respectively. Gravity cores in the three fjords indicate that the uppermost 1-2.5 m of sediment consists of diamictons or fine-grained laminated muds. AMS radiocarbon dates on calcareous foramininfera or shells (16 total) indicate sedimentation rates of 110 to 340 cm/ka within the fjords over the last 1 ka, and 10-20 cm/ka during the Holecene on the inner and middle shelf. Annual sediment discharge is around $0.67 \\times 10^{6}$ tonnes/yr within the Kangerdlugssuaq Fjord and Trough system, which translates into an average basin-wide rate of denudation of 0.01 mm/yr (0.01 m/ka). Air gun and deep-towed (Huntec) seismic profiling was carried out in Kangerdlugssuaq and Nansen fjords, East Greenland, and showed that sediment fills averaged 500 and 350 m respectively; they consist primarily of acoustically stratified sediments. If the sediment fills are entirely Holocene in age then the required average sediment accumulation rates of 35-50 m/ka are an order of magnitude larger than the $^{14}C $controlled rates of the last 1-2 ka. This raises the possibility that fjord sediments may be by-passed and not always recycled during glacial advances; this will affect sedimentation rates on adjacent shelves and deep-sea areas during successive glaciations

  19. Last glacial ice sheet dynamics and deglaciation on Svalbard inferred from fjord records (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forwick, M.; Vorren, T. O.; Baeten, N. J.; Hansen, T.; Kempf, P.; Velle, J. H.; Laberg, J.

    2013-12-01

    Swath bathymetry, high-resolution sub-bottom profiles and sediment cores from fjords on north and west Svalbard document a variety of glacigenic landforms and sedimentary processes, providing valuable insights into the dynamics of the northwestern parts of the Svalbard Barents Sea Ice Sheet during the last glacial. Glacial linear features oriented parallel to most fjord axes are identified on swath-bathymetry and high-resolution sub-bottom profiler data. They provide evidence of locally fast-flowing grounded ice draining the northwestern parts of the Svalbard Barents Sea Ice Sheet to the shelf breaks off north and west Svalbard. Eskers overlying glacial lineations reveal the existence of englacial or sub-glacial drainage systems that developed after the termination of fast ice flow. Iceberg ploughmarks suggest that parts of the deglaciation occurred by iceberg calving. Multiple transverse ridges, e.g. grounding zone wedges and moraines, indicate that multiple halts and/or readvances interrupted the deglaciations of the fjords. This includes relatively small moraines, probably deposited during halts and/or readvances in consecutive winters, thus, allowing the calculation of annual retreat rates of the ice fronts in certain fjord areas. Their regular spacing may suggest that e.g. parts of Billefjorden, Smeerenburgfjorden and Woodfjorden were deglaciated at relatively constant rates of at least 140 m/year. However, the deglaciation of van Keulenfjorden accelerated from approx. 80 m/year to about 190 m/year. Lithological analyses allow the study of sub-glacial, glacier-proximal and glacier-distal sedimentary processes and environments, as well as the identification of influences from various sediment sources. They reveal, furthermore, that the deglaciations of multiple fjords terminated quasi-synchronously around 11,200 cal. years BP, but that significant local delays of up to several thousand years occurred. We present examples of the above mentioned landforms

  20. Linking the spatial variability of glacier mass loss to fjord geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, D. F.; Tinto, K. J.; Boghosian, A.; Cochran, J. R.; Csatho, B. M.; Bell, R. E.

    2015-12-01

    There is compelling evidence of increasing mass loss of the ice sheets using a diverse set of observations, including increased thinning rates measured from both airborne and satellite altimeters, elevated mass fluxes resulting from the acceleration of outlet glaciers, and mass changes measured directly from satellite gravimetry. A dominant characteristic of observed change in Greenland outlet glaciers is that it is locally random. Numerous studies have revealed a high degree of spatial and temporal variability of outlet glacier mass change. Modeling studies suggest that increased ocean temperatures may be responsible for the observed glacial retreat in Greenland through increased basal melting, leading to increased calving rates, terminus retreat, glacier speedup, and eventually thinning of inland ice. Knowledge of fjord geometry is crucial for ice-ocean interaction because the availability of ocean heat to the ice will be restricted by narrow sills and shallow grounding lines. We investigate whether the variability in observed changes among Greenland glaciers can be partially explained by variation in fjord geometry. Using statistical techniques commonly employed to detect patterns in complex spatial data, we objectively show that mass change in Greenland tidewater glaciers between 2003 and 2009 is indeed mostly spatially incoherent. Except for a few clusters of similar change in the NW and Scoresby Sund regions, there is significant glacier-scale variability in mass loss rates. To understand the drivers of this local variability, we compare fjord bathymetries from all regions of Greenland, modeled using airborne gravimetry measurements from NASA Operation IceBridge flights, to estimates of glaciological change. Specifically, we investigate the correlation between water depths at the grounding line and the dynamic mass loss of tidewater glaciers. In theory, a deep grounding line will allow greater interaction with the warm Atlantic Water observed in most fjords

  1. Monitoring the effects of climate and agriculture intensity on nutrient fluxes in lowland streams: a comparison between temperate Denmark and subtropical Uruguay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goyenola, Guillermo; Meerhof, Mariane; Teixeira de Mello, Franco

    2014-01-01

    or intensive agriculture. The four selected streams drained catchments of similar size (7 to 19 km2). We have established similarly equipped monitoring stations in the four micro-catchments in spring (November 2009, Uruguay; March 2010, Denmark) to monitor the effects of land use and agriculture intensity...... sampling of composite water samples for nutrient analysis (total and dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus; sampled every four hours and accumulated fortnightly). Moreover, water level and meteorological information (precipitation, air temperature, global radiation, humidity) has been recorded every 10 minutes...... and instantaneous flow measurements have been conducted at regular intervals, to facilitate the calculation of instantaneous discharge from continuous records of water level (stage-discharge relationships). We will show results of ca. 2 years from this comparative study between Uruguay and Denmark...

  2. Bundling ecosystem services in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turner, Katrine Grace; Odgaard, Mette Vestergaard; Bøcher, Peder Klith;

    2014-01-01

    We made a spatial analysis of 11 ecosystem services at a 10 km × 10 km grid scale covering most of Denmark. Our objective was to describe their spatial distribution and interactions and also to analyze whether they formed specific bundle types on a regional scale in the Danish cultural landscape....... We found clustered distribution patterns of ecosystem services across the country. There was a significant tendency for trade-offs between on the one hand cultural and regulating services and on the other provisioning services, and we also found the potential of regulating and cultural services...... to form synergies. We identified six distinct ecosystem service bundle types, indicating multiple interactions at a landscape level. The bundle types showed specialized areas of agricultural production, high provision of cultural services at the coasts, multifunctional mixed-use bundle types around urban...

  3. Accessing social rights in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacqueson, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this report is to give an overview of the Danish system relating to immigration and welfare rights in order to identify the various barriers to the free movement of Union citizens and their family members. This report addresses the legal and cultural framework, how it works in practice...... 2014. The reason for that is the government’s change of practice in administrating family benefits, granting them to all Union citizens lawfully residing in Denmark without any requirement of prior residence in the country. This change was the result of a request from the European Commission...... be the successful attempt of the Eurosceptic right wing party, The Danish People’s Party, to draw attention to migrant Union citizens and circumvent their social rights (like it did in the case of family benefits). Finally, while the Danish system is at the outset protective of the social rights of non...

  4. Multidecadal shoreline changes in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kabuth, Alina Kristin; Kroon, Aart; Pedersen, Jørn Bjarke Torp

    2014-01-01

    Multidecadal shoreline changes along ca. 7000 km coastline around Denmark were computed for the time interval between 1862 AD and 2005 AD and were connected with a geomorphological coastal classification. The shoreline data set was based on shoreline positions from historical and modern topographic...... maps. Coastal landforms were identified on a digital terrain model in combination with aerial photographs. Two shoreline-change computation methods were evaluated at a test site, aiming for optimized time efficiency and accuracy of the countrywide application: a Nearest Neighbor search and a cross...... were, therefore, computed with the DSAS method. Patterns in coastline dynamics were identified through the connection of shoreline-change rates with the occurrence of coastal landforms. Short-term changes and alterations of shoreline evolution through coastal structures were not resolved in this study...

  5. Housing and energy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Rob; Grupe Larsen, Vibeke; Kragh, Mikkel

    2010-01-01

      This paper examines the historical background, current context and future challenges for housing energy consumption in Denmark. There has been a radical transformation in housing energy consumption over the last 30 years, with an absolute reduction in heat consumption and a rapid growth...... in electricity consumption, reflecting wider technological and social transformations in the movement from an industrial to a knowledge based society. In new housing it is shown that electricity consumption now dominates the total primary energy consumption, and that as a consequence traditional heat saving...... paradigms are relatively less effective, and can result in overheating and rising electricity consumption. At the same time, climate change concerns show that rising temperatures will in the future result in a falling heat demand and increasing cooling demand in housing. With this background, a theoretical...

  6. Right wing populism in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte; Meret, Susi

    2016-01-01

    . This approach to the nation state carries clear historical legacies. Scholars have noticed that Scandinavia developed a particular form of ‘welfare nationalism’, which since the 1960s and 70s links national, social and democratic issues with social equality, democracy and gender equality in the construction......Scholars generally agree that Denmark and the other Scandinavian countries represent an ‘exceptionalism’ in terms of welfare state and gender regimes, and it has been argued that this context also influenced the way populism has emerged, developed and consolidated in the past half century...... extent can we identify a specific Danish exceptionalism linked to the particular Danish history and democracy? In spite or perhaps because of these historical legacies, the Nordic countries face problems with integrating immigrant minorities as equal citizens on the labour market and in society...

  7. Diabetes among migrants in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Gregers Stig; Kamper-Jørgensen, Zaza; Carstensen, Bendix;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Studies of diabetes in migrant populations have shown a higher prevalence compared to their respective countries of origin and to people natively born in the host country, but there is little population-based data on diabetes incidence and mortality in migrant populations. The aim...... of the current study was (1) to describe the incidence rates and prevalence of diabetes among first generation migrants in Denmark compared to the Danish background population, and (2) to compare standardised mortality rates (SMRs) for individuals with and without diabetes according to country of origin....... RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Information was obtained from linkage of the National Diabetes Register with mortality statistics and information from the Central Personal Register on country of origin. Age- and sex-specific estimates of prevalence, incidence rates, mortality rates and SMRs relative...

  8. Salmonella control programs in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, Henrik C; Hald, Tine; Lo Fo Wong, Danilo; Madsen, Mogens; Korsgaard, Helle; Bager, Flemming; Gerner-Smidt, Peter; Mølbak, Kåre

    2003-07-01

    We describe Salmonella control programs of broiler chickens, layer hens, and pigs in Denmark. Major reductions in the incidence of foodborne human salmonellosis have occurred by integrated control of farms and food processing plants. Disease control has been achieved by monitoring the herds and flocks, eliminating infected animals, and diversifying animals (animals and products are processed differently depending on Salmonella status) and animal food products according to the determined risk. In 2001, the Danish society saved U.S.$25.5 million by controlling Salmonella. The total annual Salmonella control costs in year 2001 were U.S.$14.1 million (U.S.$0.075/kg of pork and U.S.$0.02/kg of broiler or egg). These costs are paid almost exclusively by the industry. The control principles described are applicable to most industrialized countries with modern intensive farming systems.

  9. Salmonella Control Programs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Hald, Tine; Wong, Danilo Lo Fo

    2003-01-01

    We describe Salmonella control programs of broiler chickens, layer hens, and pigs in Denmark. Major reductions in the incidence of foodborne human salmonellosis have occurred by integrated control of farms and food processing plants. Disease control has been achieved by monitoring the herds...... and flocks, eliminating infected animals, and diversifying animals (animals and products are processed differently depending on Salmonella status) and animal food products according to the determined risk. In 2001, the Danish society saved U.S.$25.5 million by controlling Salmonella. The total annual...... Salmonella control costs in year 2001 were U.S.$14.1 million (U.S.$0.075/kg of pork and U.S.$0.02/kg of broiler or egg). These costs are paid almost exclusively by the industry. The control principles described are applicable to most industrialized countries with modern intensive farming systems....

  10. Neighbourhood catchments: a new approach for achieving ownership and change in catchment and stream management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, C; Rohde, K; Millar, G; Dougall, C; Stevens, S; Ritchie, R; Lewis, S

    2002-01-01

    The Neighbourhood Catchment approach integrates land and stream management practices at a property and through to a local catchment scale, links production and environmental goals, and is a building block to achieve ownership and change at a sub-catchment scale and larger. Research conducted in two 'focus' Neighbourhood Catchments has shown that land management practices that retain >30% soil cover reduce sediment movement to streams. The Neighbourhood Catchment approach engages both early and cautious adopters, and enables continuous improvement of resource management to take place, and be recorded at an individual property and local catchment scale.

  11. Energy use in Denmark: An international perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schipper, L.; Howarth, R.; Andersson, B.; Price, L.

    1992-08-01

    This report analyzes the evolution use in Denmark since the early 1970s in order to shed light on the future path of energy use in Denmark, with particular emphasis on the role of energy efficiency. The authors found that improvements in end-use energy efficiency reduced primary energy requirements in Denmark by 22% between 1972 and 1988. Focusing on developments in six individual sectors of the Danish economy (residential, manufacturing, other industry, service, travel, and freight), they found that the residential, manufacturing, and service sectors have led the improvements in efficiency. Travel showed few significant improvements and the efficiency of freight transportation worsened. The international comparisons showed that the structure of energy use in Denmark is less energy-intensive than that of most high-income OECD countries, with the exception of Japan. Overall, they concluded that most of the energy savings achieved in Denmark were brought about through improvements in technology. They also found that an important stimulus for improved efficiency was higher energy prices, led in no small part by significant taxes imposed on small consumers of heating oil, electricity, and motor fuels. Energy-efficiency programs accelerated energy savings in homes and commercial buildings. The rate of improvement of energy efficiency in Denmark has slowed down significantly since 1984, consistent with trends observed in other major countries. While many of the energy-efficiency goals stated or implied in Denmark`s Energi 2000 are achievable over a very long period, present trends do not point towards achievement of these goals by 2010 or even 2020. Strong measures will have to be developed by both public and private authorities if energy efficiency is to make a key contributions to reducing environmental problems associated with energy use in Denmark.

  12. Direct Democracy in Local Politics in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Palle

    2007-01-01

    Elements of  direct democracy at the local level does exist in Denmark, but it is little known, because no formal rules regulate this aspect of political life, because results from popular initiatives and referendums are not recorded in official statistics, and because few systematic analyses have...... been published. This paper, accordingly, has an explorative nature and asks two basic questions: What is the current state of direct democracy at the local level in Denmark, and what are the prospects for a further development of direct democracy at the local level in Denmark? The paper is based...

  13. Studies of anoxiC conditions in Framvaren fjord, Gullmaren fjord and Byfjorden and of mixing between seawater and freshwater at the Kalix river and estuary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, P. [Univ. of Lund, Lund (Sweden)

    2001-04-01

    The sediments in the anoxic Framvaren fjord acts as a source for actinides to the overlaying water column. The remobilisation process is most likely linked to early diagenetic alteration of the marine organic material in the sediments. This is indicated by the close correlation between Pu, Am and dissolved organic carbon depth profiles in the water column. Speciation studies of the plutonium and americium in the water column shows that both to a large degree are associated to colloidal material in the size range 0.01-0.45 {mu}m. Less than 2% is retained by a 0.45 {mu}m filter which is reflected in the low K{sub D}-values obtained of about 20 000, which is at least a factor of 10 lower than in typical coastal waters. It is also proven that the plutonium exist almost entirely in the trivalent state in the anoxic water column. This study is the first ever to show extensive remobilisation of plutonium and americium from sediments in anoxic marine basins. Similar remobilisation from sediments most likely occur in other anoxic marine waters where early diagenesis results in humic and fulvic acid production. Although the remobilised actinides in the Framvaren fjord at present don't pose any radiological hazard due to the lack of fish in anoxic waters, it is of great concern to identify processes involved in the remobilisation of actinides from anoxic sediments as such sediments likely will be a major source for actinides in the Baltic Sea and other oxygen sensitive basins in the long term perspective. In such basins the remobilised plutonium may reach oxygenated and biological productive waters by convection. Results from the temporarily oxygen deficient Gullmaren fjord on the Swedish west coast shows that remobilisation from sediments can not be identified during short (a few months) periods of oxygen deficient water. The rapid bioturbation (quantified by tracer studies) in this fjord results in that sedimenting organic material rapidly is buried and distributed

  14. Historical trends in precipitation and stream discharge at the Skjern River catchment, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Ida Bjørnholt; Sonnenborg, Torben Obel; Jensen, Karsten Høgh;

    2014-01-01

    in the future, compared to the performance under present conditions, where they can be calibrated. The (simulated) stream discharge was subsequently analysed using high flow and drought indices based on the threshold method. The extreme signal was found to depend highly on the period chosen as reference...... to normal. The analysis indicated that no significant amplitude increase of the hydrograph for both wet and dry extremes could be found superimposed on the overall discharge increase....

  15. Heavy metals in seaducks and mussels from Misty Fjords National Monument in southeast Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J.C.; Koehl, P.S.; Derksen, D.V.; Rothe, T.C.; Bunck, C.M.; Moore, John F.

    1995-01-01

    Quartz Hill, in Misty Fjords National Monument near Ketchikan, Alaska, is the site of a proposed molybdenum-producing mine. To provide baseline data for use in post-development comparisons, we analyzed tissues of Barrow's goldeneyes (Bucephala islandica), common mergansers (Mergus merganser), and blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) for seven heavy metals that could potentially be released into the environment as a result of mining operations. Specimens were collected in 1980, 1981, and 1982 from two fjords likely to be used for discharge of tailings from the proposed mine and from two control fjords. Concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, chromium, molybdenum, lead, and zinc were measured in soft tissues of mussels and in kidney, liver, and muscle of birds. The highest mean concentrations of metals found in bird tissues were 55.7 ppm dry weight cadmium in kidneys and 154 ppm dry weight zinc in livers of Barrow's goldeneyes. Concentrations of several metals in blue mussels differed among seasons and locations, but the most significant finding in mussels was a maximum mean cadmium concentration of 9.6 ppm dry weight, a level higher than normally found in undisturbed areas. With the exception of 104 ppm dry weight cadmium in the kidney of one common merganser and 12.7 ppm dry weight lead in the kidney of another, concentrations of other metals in seaduck and mussel tissues were low, consistent with what would be expected for a pre-development environment. Molybdenum was found in low concentrations ( 10 ppm dry weight) in all avian kidney samples and most liver samples, but was not detected in blue mussels.

  16. Glacier inputs influence organic matter composition and prokaryotic distribution in a high Arctic fjord (Kongsfjorden, Svalbard)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, Solveig; Kerhervé, Philippe; Calleja, Maria Ll.; Many, Gaël; Morata, Nathalie

    2016-12-01

    With climate change, the strong seasonality and tight pelagic-benthic coupling in the Arctic is expected to change in the next few decades. It is currently unclear how the benthos will be affected by changes of environmental conditions such as supplies of organic matter (OM) from the water column. In the last decade, Kongsfjorden (79°N), a high Arctic fjord in Svalbard influenced by several glaciers and Atlantic water inflow, has been a site of great interest owing to its high sensitivity to climate change, evidenced by a reduction in ice cover and an increase in melting freshwater. To investigate how spatial and seasonal changes in vertical fluxes can impact the benthic compartment of Kongsfjorden, we studied the organic matter characteristics (in terms of quantity and quality) and prokaryotic distribution in sediments from 3 stations along a transect extending from the glacier into the outer fjord in 4 different seasons (spring, summer, autumn and winter) in 2012-2013. The biochemical parameters used to describe the sedimentary organic matter were organic carbon (OC), total nitrogen, bulk stable isotope ratios, pigments (chorophyll-a and phaeopigments) and biopolymeric carbon (BPC), which is the sum of the main macromolecules, i.e. lipids, proteins and carbohydrates. Prokaryotic abundance and distribution were estimated by 4‧,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining. This study identifies a well-marked quantitative gradient of biogenic compounds throughout all seasons and also highlights a discrepancy between the quantity and quality of sedimentary organic matter within the fjord. The sediments near the glacier were organic-poor (Bacterial total cell numbers in sediments of Kongsfjorden were < 2 × 108 cells ml- 1 and the prokaryotic community structure was strongly influenced by the marked environmental biogenic gradients. Overall, the spatial variability prevailed over the seasonal variability in sediments of Kongsfjorden suggesting that glacier inputs

  17. Oceanic heat delivery via Kangerdlugssuaq Fjord to the south-east Greenland ice sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inall, Mark E.; Murray, Tavi; Cottier, Finlo R.; Scharrer, Kilian; Boyd, Timothy J.; Heywood, Karen J.; Bevan, Suzanne L.

    2014-02-01

    Acceleration of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) tidewater outlet glaciers has increased the ice sheet's contribution to global sea level rise over the last two decades. Coincident increases in atmospheric temperatures around Greenland explain some of the increased ice loss, but warm Atlantic-origin water (AW) is increasingly recognized as contributing to the accelerating ice-mass loss, particularly, via the outlet glaciers of south-east (SE) Greenland. However, there remains a lack of understanding of the variability in heat content of the water masses found to the east of Greenland and how this heat is communicated to the outlet glaciers of the GrIS. Here a new analysis is presented of ocean/GrIS interaction in which the oceanic heat flux toward the ice sheet in Kangerdlugssuaq Fjord (0.26 TW) is an order-of-magnitude greater than that reported for the other major outlet glacier of SE Greenland (Helheim). Heat delivered by AW to the calving front of Kangerdlugssuaq is equivalent to ˜10 m d-1 melt (i.e., 30-60% of the ice flow speed), and thus is highly significant. During the observational campaign in September 2010 warm Polar Surface Water (PSWw) melted a substantial volume of ice within the fjord; equivalent to 25% of the volume melted by AW alone. Satellite-derived sea surface temperatures show large interannual variability in PSWw over the 20 year period 1991-2011. Anomalously warm PSWw was observed within the fjord prior to the well-documented major ice front retreats of May 2004 and November 2010.

  18. Autochthonous and allochthonous contributions of organic carbon to microbial food webs in Svalbard fjords

    KAUST Repository

    Holding, Johnna M.

    2017-03-27

    Rising temperatures in the Arctic Ocean are causing sea ice and glaciers to melt at record breaking rates, which has consequences for carbon cycling in the Arctic Ocean that are yet to be fully understood. Microbial carbon cycling is driven by internal processing of in situ produced organic carbon (OC), however recent research suggests that melt water from sea ice and glaciers could introduce an allochthonous source of OC to the microbial food web with ramifications for the metabolic balance of plankton communities. In this study, we characterized autochthonous and allochthonous sources of OC to the Western Svalbard fjord system using stable isotopes of carbon. We quantified δ13C of eukaryotic and prokaryotic planktonic groups using polar lipid-derived fatty acids as biomarkers in addition to measuring δ13C of marine particulate OC and dissolved OC from glacial runoff. δ13C of bacteria (−22.5‰) was higher than that of glacial runoff OC (−28.5‰) and other phytoplankton groups (−24.7 to −29.1‰), which suggests that marine bacteria preferentially use a third source of OC. We present a Bayesian three-source δ13C mixing model whereby ∼ 60% of bacteria carbon is derived from OC in sea ice, and the remaining carbon is derived from autochthonous production and glacial-derived OC. These results suggest that subsidies of OC from melting glaciers will not likely influence microbial carbon cycling in Svalbard fjords in the future and that further research is needed to determine the effects of melting sea ice on microbial carbon cycling in fjord systems and elsewhere in the Arctic Ocean.

  19. A New Ice-sheet / Ocean Interaction Model for Greenland Fjords using High-Order Discontinuous Galerkin Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopera, M. A.; Maslowski, W.; Giraldo, F.

    2015-12-01

    One of the key outstanding challenges in modeling of climate change and sea-level rise is the ice-sheet/ocean interaction in narrow, elongated and geometrically complicated fjords around Greenland. To address this challenge we propose a new approach, a separate fjord model using discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods, or FDG. The goal of this project is to build a separate, high-resolution module for use in Earth System Models (ESMs) to realistically represent the fjord bathymetry, coastlines, exchanges with the outside ocean, circulation and fine-scale processes occurring within the fjord and interactions at the ice shelf interface. FDG is currently at the first stage of development. The DG method provides FDG with high-order accuracy as well as geometrical flexibility, including the capacity to handle non-conforming adaptive mesh refinement to resolve the processes occurring near the ice-sheet/ocean interface without introducing prohibitive computational costs. Another benefit of this method is its excellent performance on multi- and many-core architectures, which allows for utilizing modern high performance computing systems for high-resolution simulations. The non-hydrostatic model of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation will account for the stationary ice-shelf with sub-shelf ocean interaction, basal melting and subglacial meltwater influx and with boundary conditions at the surface to account for floating sea ice. The boundary conditions will be provided to FDG via a flux coupler to emulate the integration with an ESM. Initially, FDG will be tested for the Sermilik Fjord settings, using real bathymetry, boundary and initial conditions, and evaluated against available observations and other model results for this fjord. The overarching goal of the project is to be able to resolve the ice-sheet/ocean interactions around the entire coast of Greenland and two-way coupling with regional and global climate models such as the Regional Arctic System Model (RASM

  20. Denmark, Democracy and the Free Press

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breiting, Søren

    2006-01-01

    What's important to Danish people in Denmark and in the world - most will argue for the importance of a free critical press, solidarity with people who need help and a peaceful world.......What's important to Danish people in Denmark and in the world - most will argue for the importance of a free critical press, solidarity with people who need help and a peaceful world....

  1. Energy Efficiency in Grocery Distribution in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Evaluation of the development of the energy efficiency of grocery distribution from 1960 to the present in Denmark, covering both the distribution to the shops and the shopping transport (distribution from shops to individual homes)......Evaluation of the development of the energy efficiency of grocery distribution from 1960 to the present in Denmark, covering both the distribution to the shops and the shopping transport (distribution from shops to individual homes)...

  2. The Mobilisation of Muslim Women in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pristed Nielsen, Helene

    Under the headline of ‘the mobilisation of Muslim women in Denmark', this paper contains a series of introductory considerations as well as a few preliminary findings on the relatively unexplored question of how and why Muslim women in Denmark form organisations, and via their organisations...... immigrant women´s organisations, this paper aims to explore patterns of networking among these women, and the level and nature of their interaction with other organisations and societal institutions....

  3. Diabetes among Inuit migrants in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moustgaard, Helene; Bjerregaard, Peter; Borch-Johnsen, Knut;

    2005-01-01

    The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of diabetes and impaired glucose intolerance (IGT) among Inuit migrants living in Denmark, and to compare with findings from Greenland. Further, we analyzed determinants for diabetes and impaired glucose metabolism.......The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of diabetes and impaired glucose intolerance (IGT) among Inuit migrants living in Denmark, and to compare with findings from Greenland. Further, we analyzed determinants for diabetes and impaired glucose metabolism....

  4. Denmark, Democracy and the Free Press

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breiting, Søren

    2006-01-01

    What's important to Danish people in Denmark and in the world - most will argue for the importance of a free critical press, solidarity with people who need help and a peaceful world.......What's important to Danish people in Denmark and in the world - most will argue for the importance of a free critical press, solidarity with people who need help and a peaceful world....

  5. Perspectives for Electric Vehicles in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horstmann, Jørgen; Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Review of the present knowledge on electric vehicles and analysis of the energy and environmental consequences of the introduction of electric vehicles in Denmark. The report focuses on the 10-15 year time perspective.......Review of the present knowledge on electric vehicles and analysis of the energy and environmental consequences of the introduction of electric vehicles in Denmark. The report focuses on the 10-15 year time perspective....

  6. Distributional implications of environmental taxation in Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik; Birr-Pedersen, Katja; Wier, Mette

    2003-01-01

    Environmental taxes imposed on households have been introduced in many countries. However, few countries have reached the level of environmental taxation that is seen in Denmark today, although many are considering shifting the tax burden towards the consumption that is harming the environment. The total tax burden imposed on households in Denmark in the form of taxes on energy use of all kinds, water consumption and waste production, etc., is considerable. This paper analyses the individ...

  7. Perspectives for Electric Vehicles in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horstmann, Jørgen; Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Review of the present knowledge on electric vehicles and analysis of the energy and environmental consequences of the introduction of electric vehicles in Denmark. The report focuses on the 10-15 year time perspective.......Review of the present knowledge on electric vehicles and analysis of the energy and environmental consequences of the introduction of electric vehicles in Denmark. The report focuses on the 10-15 year time perspective....

  8. The functional biology and trophic role of krill (Thysanoessa raschii) in a Greenlandic fjord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersted, Mette Dalgaard; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel; Munk, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Despite being a key zooplankton group, knowledge on krill biology from the Arctic is inadequate. The present study examine the functional biology and evaluate the trophic role of krill in the GodthAyenbsfjord (64 degrees N, 51 degrees W) SW Greenland, through a combination of fieldwork...... ration of 1% body C d(-1). Furthermore, T. raschii was capable of exploiting plankton cells from 5 to 400 mu m, covering several trophic levels of the pelagic food web. The calculated grazing impact by T. raschii on the fjord plankton community was negligible. However, the schooling and migratory...

  9. Macroalgae contribute to nested mosaics of pH variability in a subarctic fjord

    KAUST Repository

    Krause-Jensen, D.

    2015-08-19

    The Arctic Ocean is considered the most vulnerable ecosystem to ocean acidification, and large-scale assessments of pH and the saturation state for aragonite (Ωarag) have led to the notion that the Arctic Ocean is already close to a corrosive state. In high-latitude coastal waters the regulation of pH and Ωarag is, however, far more complex than offshore because increased biological activity and input of glacial meltwater affect pH. Effects of ocean acidification on calcifiers and non-calcifying phototrophs occupying coastal habitats cannot be derived from extrapolation of current and forecasted offshore conditions, but they require an understanding of the regimes of pH and Ωarag in their coastal habitats. To increase knowledge of the natural variability in pH in the Arctic coastal zone and specifically to test the influence of benthic vegetated habitats, we quantified pH variability in a Greenland fjord in a nested-scale approach. A sensor array logging pH, O2, PAR, temperature and salinity was applied on spatial scales ranging from kilometre scale across the horizontal extension of the fjord; to 100 m scale vertically in the fjord, 10–100 m scale between subtidal habitats with and without kelp forests and between vegetated tidal pools and adjacent vegetated shores; and to centimetre to metre scale within kelp forests and millimetre scale across diffusive boundary layers of macrophyte tissue. In addition, we assessed the temporal variability in pH on diurnal and seasonal scales. Based on pH measurements combined with point samples of total alkalinity, dissolved inorganic carbon and relationships to salinity, we also estimated variability in Ωarag. Results show variability in pH and Ωarag of up to 0.2–0.3 units at several scales, i.e. along the horizontal and vertical extension of the fjord, between seasons and on a diel basis in benthic habitats and within 1 m3 of kelp forest. Vegetated intertidal pools exhibited extreme diel pH variability of > 1.5 units

  10. Macroalgae contribute to nested mosaics of pH variability in a subarctic fjord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause-Jensen, D.; Duarte, C. M.; Hendriks, I. E.; Meire, L.; Blicher, M. E.; Marbà, N.; Sejr, M. K.

    2015-08-01

    The Arctic Ocean is considered the most vulnerable ecosystem to ocean acidification, and large-scale assessments of pH and the saturation state for aragonite (Ωarag) have led to the notion that the Arctic Ocean is already close to a corrosive state. In high-latitude coastal waters the regulation of pH and Ωarag is, however, far more complex than offshore because increased biological activity and input of glacial meltwater affect pH. Effects of ocean acidification on calcifiers and non-calcifying phototrophs occupying coastal habitats cannot be derived from extrapolation of current and forecasted offshore conditions, but they require an understanding of the regimes of pH and Ωarag in their coastal habitats. To increase knowledge of the natural variability in pH in the Arctic coastal zone and specifically to test the influence of benthic vegetated habitats, we quantified pH variability in a Greenland fjord in a nested-scale approach. A sensor array logging pH, O2, PAR, temperature and salinity was applied on spatial scales ranging from kilometre scale across the horizontal extension of the fjord; to 100 m scale vertically in the fjord, 10-100 m scale between subtidal habitats with and without kelp forests and between vegetated tidal pools and adjacent vegetated shores; and to centimetre to metre scale within kelp forests and millimetre scale across diffusive boundary layers of macrophyte tissue. In addition, we assessed the temporal variability in pH on diurnal and seasonal scales. Based on pH measurements combined with point samples of total alkalinity, dissolved inorganic carbon and relationships to salinity, we also estimated variability in Ωarag. Results show variability in pH and Ωarag of up to 0.2-0.3 units at several scales, i.e. along the horizontal and vertical extension of the fjord, between seasons and on a diel basis in benthic habitats and within 1 m3 of kelp forest. Vegetated intertidal pools exhibited extreme diel pH variability of > 1.5 units and

  11. Macroalgae contribute to nested mosaics of pH variability in a sub-Arctic fjord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Krause-Jensen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic Ocean is considered the most vulnerable ecosystem to ocean acidification (OA and large-scale assessments of pH and the saturation state for aragonite (Ωarag indicate that it is already close to corrosive states (Ωarag arag is far more complex than offshore because increased biological activity and input of glacial meltwater affect pH. As most calcifiers occupy coastal habitats, the assessment of risks from OA to these vulnerable organisms cannot be derived from extrapolation of current and forecasted offshore conditions, but requires an understanding of the regimes of pH and Ωarag in their coastal habitats. To increase knowledge of the natural variability of pH in the Arctic coastal zone and specifically to test the influence of benthic vegetated habitats, we quantified pH-variability in a Greenland fjord in a nested scale approach. A sensor array logging pH, O2, PAR, temperature and salinity was applied on spatial scales ranging from km-scale across the horizontal extension of the fjord, over 100 m scale vertically in the fjord, 10–100 m scale between subtidal habitats with and without kelp forests and between vegetated tidal pools and adjacent vegetated shores, to cm-m scale within kelp forests and mm-scale across boundary layers of macrophyte tissue. In addition, we assessed the temporal variability in pH on diurnal and seasonal scales. Based on pH-measurements combined with relationships between salinity, total alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon we also estimated variability of Ωarag. Results show variability in pH and Ωarag of up to 0.2–0.3 units at several scales, i.e. along the horizontal and vertical extension of the fjord, between seasons and on a diel basis in benthic habitats and within 1 m3 of kelp forest. Vegetated intertidal pools exhibited extreme diel pH variability of > 1.5 units and macrophyte boundary layers a pH-range of up to 0.8 units. Overall, Ωarag was favorable to calcification, and pelagic

  12. Macroalgae contribute to nested mosaics of pH variability in a sub-Arctic fjord

    KAUST Repository

    Krause-Jensen, D.

    2015-03-27

    The Arctic Ocean is considered the most vulnerable ecosystem to ocean acidification (OA) and large-scale assessments of pH and the saturation state for aragonite (Ωarag) indicate that it is already close to corrosive states (Ωarag < 1). In high-latitude coastal waters the regulation of pH and Ωarag is far more complex than offshore because increased biological activity and input of glacial meltwater affect pH. As most calcifiers occupy coastal habitats, the assessment of risks from OA to these vulnerable organisms cannot be derived from extrapolation of current and forecasted offshore conditions, but requires an understanding of the regimes of pH and Ωarag in their coastal habitats. To increase knowledge of the natural variability of pH in the Arctic coastal zone and specifically to test the influence of benthic vegetated habitats, we quantified pH-variability in a Greenland fjord in a nested scale approach. A sensor array logging pH, O2, PAR, temperature and salinity was applied on spatial scales ranging from km-scale across the horizontal extension of the fjord, over 100 m scale vertically in the fjord, 10–100 m scale between subtidal habitats with and without kelp forests and between vegetated tidal pools and adjacent vegetated shores, to cm-m scale within kelp forests and mm-scale across boundary layers of macrophyte tissue. In addition, we assessed the temporal variability in pH on diurnal and seasonal scales. Based on pH-measurements combined with relationships between salinity, total alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon we also estimated variability of Ωarag. Results show variability in pH and Ωarag of up to 0.2–0.3 units at several scales, i.e. along the horizontal and vertical extension of the fjord, between seasons and on a diel basis in benthic habitats and within 1 m3 of kelp forest. Vegetated intertidal pools exhibited extreme diel pH variability of > 1.5 units and macrophyte boundary layers a pH-range of up to 0.8 units. Overall,

  13. Magnetotelluric investigation in West Greenland - considering the polar electrojet, ocean and fjords

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Nynne Louise Berthou

    A magnetotelluric survey has been conducted in North West Greenland, with the purpose of investigating the subsurface. The results of two processing techniques are presented, a single station robust processing and a multiple station processing. The multiple station processing tries to eliminate...... on induction arrows is presented, illustrating the importance of including these in magnetotelluric modelling. This informationis included in the 3D modelling of the magnetotelluric survey in Greenland, together with the bathymetry of the ocean. The modelling shows that the impact from the fjords and ocean...

  14. Population structure, growth and production of a recent brachiopod from the Chilean fjord region

    KAUST Repository

    Baumgarten, Sebastian

    2013-12-04

    Magellania venosa, the largest recent brachiopod, occurs in clusters and banks in population densities of up to 416 ind m-2 in Comau Fjord, Northern Chilean fjord region. Below 15 m, it co-occurs with the mytilid Aulacomya atra and it dominates the benthic community below 20 m. To determine the question of why M. venosa is a successful competitor, the in situ growth rate of the brachiopod was studied and its overall growth performance compared with that of other brachiopods and mussels. The growth in length was measured between February 2011 and March 2012 after mechanical tagging and calcein staining. Settlement and juvenile growth were determined from recruitment tiles installed in 2009 and from subsequent photocensus. Growth of M. venosa is best described by the general von Bertalanffy growth function, with a maximum shell length (L∞) of 71.53 mm and a Brody growth constant (K) of 0.336 year-1. The overall growth performance (OGP index = 5.1) is the highest recorded for a rynchonelliform brachiopod and in the range of that for Mytilus chilensis (4.8-5.27), but lower than that of A. atra (5.74). The maximal individual production (PInd) is 0.29 g AFDM ind-1 year-1 at 42 mm shell length and annual production ranges from 1.28 to 89.25 g AFDM year-1 m-2 (1-57% of that of A. atra in the respective fjords). The high shell growth rate of M. venosa, together with its high overall growth performance may explain the locally high population density of this brachiopod in Comau Fjord. However, the production per biomass of the population (P/B--ratio) is low (0.535) and M. venosa may play only a minor role in the food chain. Settling dynamics indicates that M. venosa is a pioneer species with low juvenile mortality. The coexistence of the brachiopod and bivalve suggests that brachiopod survival is affected by neither the presence of potential brachiopod predators nor that of space competitors (i.e. mytilids).

  15. Phytoplankton growth and microzooplankton grazing along a sub-Arctic fjord (Godthåbsfjord, West Greenland)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calbet, A.; Riisgaard, Karen; Saiz, E.

    2011-01-01

    we established four zones: i) Fyllas Bank, characterized by deep chl a maxima (ca. 30-40 m) consisting of large cells; ii) the mouth and main branch of the fjord, where phytoplankton was relatively homogeneously distributed in the upper 30 m layer; iii) inner waters influenced by glacial melt water...... and upwelling, with high chl a concentrations (up to 12 µg L-1) in the > 10 µm fraction within a narrow (2 m) subsurface layer; and iv) the Kapisigdlit branch of the fjord, ice-free, and characterized with a thick and deep chl a maximum layer. Overall, microzooplankton grazing impact on primary production...

  16. Late-Holocene environment and climatic changes in Ameralik Fjord, southwest Greenland: evidence from the sedimentary record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Henrik S.; Jensen, Karin G.; Kuijpers, Antoon

    2006-01-01

    of fine (silty) sediments related to strong melt-water discharge from the Inland Ice. The benthic foraminiferal fauna demonstrates the presence of well-ventilated, saline bottom water originating from inflow of subsurface West Greenland Current water of Atlantic (Irminger Sea) origin. The hydrographic......  Sedimentological and geochemical (XRF) data together with information from diatom and benthic foraminifera records of a 3.5 m long gravity core from Ameralik fjord, southern West Greenland, is used for reconstructing late Holocene environmental changes in this area. The changes are linked...... with a decreased meltwater discharge and more widespread sea-ice cover in the fjord....

  17. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Surface Flow Constructed Wetlands (SFCW) for Nutrient Reduction in Drainage Discharge from Agricultural Fields in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gachango, F G; Pedersen, S M; Kjaergaard, C

    2015-12-01

    Constructed wetlands have been proposed as cost-effective and more targeted technologies in the reduction of nitrogen and phosphorous water pollution in drainage losses from agricultural fields in Denmark. Using two pig farms and one dairy farm situated in a pumped lowland catchment as case studies, this paper explores the feasibility of implementing surface flow constructed wetlands (SFCW) based on their cost effectiveness. Sensitivity analysis is conducted by varying the cost elements of the wetlands in order to establish the most cost-effective scenario and a comparison with the existing nutrients reduction measures carried out. The analyses show that the cost effectiveness of the SFCW is higher in the drainage catchments with higher nutrient loads. The range of the cost effectiveness ratio on nitrogen reduction differs distinctively with that of catch crop measure. The study concludes that SFCW could be a better optimal nutrients reduction measure in drainage catchments characterized with higher nutrient loads.

  18. Catchment mixing processes and travel time distributions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Botter, Gianluca

    2012-01-01

    ...) of travel, residence and evapotranspiration times, which are comprehensive descriptors of the fate of rainfall water particles traveling through catchments, and provide key information on hydrologic...

  19. The Spanish flu in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolte, Ida Viktoria; Skinhøj, Peter; Keiding, Niels; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2008-01-01

    The spread of H5N1 influenza and the similarity between this avian virus and the Spanish flu virus causes fear of a new influenza pandemic, but data from the Spanish flu may also be of guidance in planning for preventive measures. Using data on influenza cases, influenza deaths and total deaths for Denmark and for Danish towns from 1917 to 1921, and population data from the 1916 and 1921 censuses, we analysed incident cases, cumulative, age-specific and age-standardized rates. Overall, more than 900,000 persons contracted flu during the y 1918-1920, and 1 out of 50 patients died from the disease. An early wave of the flu occurred in the capital and major towns, but not in peripheral towns. Influenza incidence in 1918 peaked at age 5-15 y, closely followed by the age groups 1-5 y and 15-65 y, but the influenza mortality was highest in the age groups 0-1 y and 15-65 y, with a peak mortality at age 20-34 y producing a W curve for mortality by age. The background for the better outcome in children aged 1-15 y as well as for the disease immunity in the elderly population should be further investigated.

  20. Simulating the uncertain effect of active carbon capping of a dioxin-polluted Norwegian fjord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starrfelt, Jostein; Saloranta, Tuomo M

    2015-07-01

    Process-based multimedia models are frequently used to simulate the long-term impacts of pollutants and to evaluate potential remediation actions that can be put in place to improve or manage polluted marine environments. Many such models are detailed enough to encapsulate the different scales and processes relevant for various contaminants, yet still are tractable enough for analysis through established methods for uncertainty assessment. Inclusion and quantification of the uncertainty associated with local efficacy of remediation actions is of importance when the desired outcome in terms of human health concerns or environmental classification shows a nonlinear relationship with remediation effort. We present an updated fugacity-based environmental fate model set up to simulate the historical fate of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzo-furans (PCDD/Fs) in the Grenland fjords, in Norway. The model is parameterized using Bayesian inference and is then used to simulate the effect of capping parts of the polluted sediments with active carbon. Great care is taken in quantifying the uncertainty regarding the efficacy of the activated carbon cap to reduce the leaching of contaminants from the sediments. The model predicts that by capping selected parts of the fjord, biota will be classified as moderately polluted approximately a decade earlier than a natural remediation scenario. Our approach also illustrates the importance of incorporating uncertainty in local remediation efforts, as the biotic concentrations scale nonlinearly with remediation effort.

  1. Characteristics of Temperature and Humidity Inversions and Low-Level Jets over Svalbard Fjords in Spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Vihma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Air temperature and specific humidity inversions and low-level jets were studied over two Svalbard fjords, Isfjorden and Kongsfjorden, applying three tethersonde systems. Tethersonde operation practices notably affected observations on inversion and jet properties. The inversion strength and depth were strongly affected by weather conditions at the 850 hPa level. Strong inversions were deep with a highly elevated base, and the strongest ones occurred in warm air mass. Unexpectedly, downward longwave radiation measured at the sounding site did not correlate with the inversion properties. Temperature inversions had lower base and top heights than humidity inversions, the former due to surface cooling and the latter due to adiabatic cooling with height. Most low-level jets were related to katabatic winds. Over the ice-covered Kongsfjorden, jets were lifted above a cold-air pool on the fjord; the jet core was located highest when the snow surface was coldest. At the ice-free Isfjorden, jets were located lower.

  2. Inorganic carbon in a high latitude estuary-fjord system in Canada's eastern Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, D.; Bedard, J. M.; Burt, W. J.; Vagle, S.; Thomas, H.; Azetsu-Scott, K.; McGillis, W. R.; Iverson, S. J.; Wallace, D. W. R.

    2016-09-01

    Rapidly changing conditions in the Arctic can have a significant impact on biogeochemical cycles and can be particularly important in high latitude estuary-fjord systems with abundant and diverse freshwater sources. This study provides a first look into the inorganic carbon system and its relation to freshwater sources in Cumberland Sound in the east coast of Baffin Island, Nunavut, Canada. These data contribute to the very limited set of inorganic carbon measurements in high latitude estuary-fjord systems. During the ice-free conditions in August 2011, the meteoric freshwater fractions (MW) in the upper 40 m ranged from 11 to 21% and no sea ice melt (SIM) was present in the Sound. Surface waters were undersaturated with pCO2 (260 and 300 μatm), and DIC and TA ranged between 1779 and 1966 μmol DIC kg-1, and 1922 and 2140 μmol TA kg-1, respectively. Aragonite saturation (ΩAr) state ranged from 1.9 in the surface to 1.4 in the subsurface waters. Data show decreasing TA and ΩAr with increasing MW fraction and suggest that Cumberland Sound waters would become aragonite undersaturated (ΩAr melt. In August 2012, MW fractions at the surface were between 8 and 11.5%, and SIM between 7 and 23%. Significant interannual variability of summertime SIM could potentially result in ΩAr undersaturation.

  3. Laboratory investigations of granular and hydrodynamic processes in tidewater glacial fjords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathles, Mac; Thompson, Oluwatoyin; Burton, Justin

    Accelerated warming in the past few decades has led to a dramatic increase in glacial activity. This is perhaps most apparent in tidewater glacial fjords, where gravitational flows from ice sheets are focused into narrow channels of thick, fast-flowing ice which terminate into the ocean. The result is a complex system involving both melting and iceberg calving which has a direct impact on the Earth's climate and sea level rise. However, there are numerous inherent difficulties in collecting field data from remote, ice-choked fjords. To address this, we use a laboratory scale model to measure aspects of tidewater glaciers which are not observable in nature. Our model has helped to uncover the source of glacial earthquakes, where floating, cubic-kilometer scaled icebergs capsize due to gravitational instability, and temporarily reverse the velocity of the glacier. In addition, we use our model to address two other important components of tidewater glaciers involving a granular ice mélange which applies stresses on the glacier, and the role of iceberg capsize in disrupting the stratified heat transport at the glacier's terminus. We acknowledge support from NSF DMR-1506446.

  4. Soft-bottom macrobenthic faunal associations in the southern Chilean glacial fjord complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ríos

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Macrobenthic associations were investigated at 29 sampling stations with a semi-quantitative Agassiz trawl, ranging from the South Patagonian Icefield to the Straits of Magellan in the South Chilean fjord system. A total of 1,895 individuals belonging to 131 species were collected. 19 species belong to colonial organisms, mainly Bryozoa (17 species and Octocorallia (2 species. The phylum Echinodermata was the most diverse in species number (47 species, with asteroids (25 species and ophiuroids (13 species being the best represented within this taxon. Polychaeta was the second dominant group in terms of species richness (46 species. Multidimensional scaling ordination (MDS separated two station groups, one related to fjords and channels off the South Patagonian Icefield and the second one to stations surrounding the Straits of Magellan. 45 species account for 90% of the dissimilarity between these two groups. These differences can mainly be explained by the influence of local environmental conditions determined by processes closely related to the presence/absence of glaciers. Abiotic parameters such as water depth, type of sediment and chemical features of the superficial sediment were not correlated with the numbers of individuals caught by the Agassiz trawl in each group of sampling stations.

  5. Linking recent observations of cyclic steps from fjords to outcropping stratigraphic products, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, S. M.; Coutts, D. S.; Covault, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    Repeated bathymetric surveys of fjord prodeltas in Western Canada track channel erosion and deposition, which is interpreted to result from upstream migrating cyclic steps. Cyclic steps are long-wave (the ratio of wavelength to height is >>1), upstream-migrating bedforms that develop as a result of repeated internal hydraulic jumps in an overriding turbidity current at lee-to-stoss slope breaks. An internal hydraulic jump is the result of a transition from subaqueous densimetric Froude supercritical to subcritical flow. As the supercritical bedforms migrate greater than 90% of the deposits are reworked, making morphology- and facies- based recognition challenging in the depositional record. The objectives of this work are to use predictions of remnant bedform geometry from repeat bathymetric surveys to recognize cyclic step deposits in the stratigraphic record. We compare fjord deposits to Late Cretaceous submarine channel strata of the Nanaimo Group at Gabriola Island, British Columbia. In the Squamish prodelta, sediment accumulation on the stoss side of cyclic steps and erosion on the lee side promotes their up-slope migration. Deposits are modified by overriding turbidity currents, resulting in sedimentary bodies 5-30 m long, 0.5-2 m thick and migrating cyclic step deposits inform a revised interpretation of a high gradient channel setting dominated by supercritical flow in the Nanaimo Group. The outcrop perspective, tied to data from seafloor surveys, offers insights into the stratigraphy and preservation potential of these bedforms.

  6. Seeing Northern European Fjord and Mountain Agriculture Through Farmers' Eyes: A Critical Step in Promoting Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Bernués

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is a minor contributor to local economies in European mountain and fjord areas where tourism is predominant; however, it is essential to maintain the agricultural landscape and other important nonmarket functions of mountain agroecosystems. Policy-makers have aimed to support agriculture in these areas, but farmers' perspectives are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to analyze (1 the main characteristics of livestock farming systems and the recent changes they have undergone, (2 farmers' perceptions of different functions of agriculture, (3 farmers' goals, and (4 the relationships among these elements in order to support more targeted policy-making in fjord and mountain areas in Scandinavian countries. We collected data from 27 farms and conducted univariate and multivariate (principal components and cluster analyses. Most recent changes in farming have been related to improving working conditions and increasing tourist activity. According to the farmers, the main nonmarket functions of agriculture were (1 maintaining cultural heritage and rural development, (2 delivering environmental services, and (3 promoting traditional agriculture. The farmers' primary goals were (1 innovating for better farming, (2 improving the family's quality of life, and (3 achieving economic objectives. We identified 2 clusters of farmers based on divergent perceptions of rural development and the goal of improving the family's quality of life. These results point to the importance of integrated policies that address agricultural, environmental, and rural development together and take into account farmers' diverse perceptions and goals.

  7. Environmental factors structuring Arctic megabenthos - a case study from a shelf and two fjords

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirstin eMeyer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available From photographic samples, we describe the benthic megafaunal communities in two north Svalbard fjords and on the adjacent continental shelf. We analyze the fauna in relation to abiotic factors of depth, bottom water temperature, percent cover of hard substratum, heterogeneity of stone size, and bottom-water turbidity to explore how these factors might affect the fauna and how they are related to the functional traits (size, morphology, mobility, colonial/solitary, and feeding type of the megabenthos. Depth and bottom water temperature were consistently the strongest correlates with faunal composition and functional traits of the constituent species. A greater proportion of the variability in the functional traits of the megabenthos could be explained by abiotic factors rather than faunal composition, indicating that the abiotic factors of depth and temperature were strongly related to the functional traits of the megabenthos. On a local scale, stone size heterogeneity explained most variation in the functional traits of the megabenthos in one fjord. The results of this case study show a significant relationship between bottom water temperature and the functioning of north Svalbard megabenthic communities. Warming temperatures in the Arctic will likely decrease the variety of functional traits represented in Svalbard megabentos, resulting in scavenger-dominated communities. A reduction in megabenthic biomass may also result, reducing energy availability to higher trophic levels.

  8. Microbial life in a fjord: metagenomic analysis of a microbial mat in Chilean patagonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A Ugalde

    Full Text Available The current study describes the taxonomic and functional composition of metagenomic sequences obtained from a filamentous microbial mat isolated from the Comau fjord, located in the northernmost part of the Chilean Patagonia. The taxonomic composition of the microbial community showed a high proportion of members of the Gammaproteobacteria, including a high number of sequences that were recruited to the genomes of Moritella marina MP-1 and Colwelliapsycherythraea 34H, suggesting the presence of populations related to these two psychrophilic bacterial species. Functional analysis of the community indicated a high proportion of genes coding for the transport and metabolism of amino acids, as well as in energy production. Among the energy production functions, we found protein-coding genes for sulfate and nitrate reduction, both processes associated with Gammaproteobacteria-related sequences. This report provides the first examination of the taxonomic composition and genetic diversity associated with these conspicuous microbial mat communities and provides a framework for future microbial studies in the Comau fjord.

  9. Microbial Life in a Fjord: Metagenomic Analysis of a Microbial Mat in Chilean Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugalde, Juan A.; Gallardo, Maria J.; Belmar, Camila; Muñoz, Práxedes; Ruiz-Tagle, Nathaly; Ferrada-Fuentes, Sandra; Espinoza, Carola; Allen, Eric E.; Gallardo, Victor A.

    2013-01-01

    The current study describes the taxonomic and functional composition of metagenomic sequences obtained from a filamentous microbial mat isolated from the Comau fjord, located in the northernmost part of the Chilean Patagonia. The taxonomic composition of the microbial community showed a high proportion of members of the Gammaproteobacteria, including a high number of sequences that were recruited to the genomes of Moritella marina MP-1 and Colwelliapsycherythraea 34H, suggesting the presence of populations related to these two psychrophilic bacterial species. Functional analysis of the community indicated a high proportion of genes coding for the transport and metabolism of amino acids, as well as in energy production. Among the energy production functions, we found protein-coding genes for sulfate and nitrate reduction, both processes associated with Gammaproteobacteria-related sequences. This report provides the first examination of the taxonomic composition and genetic diversity associated with these conspicuous microbial mat communities and provides a framework for future microbial studies in the Comau fjord. PMID:24015199

  10. Coastal Submesoscale Baroclinic Eddies in Cyclostrophic Balance in the Saguenay Fjord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livernoche, Alexandre; Bourgault, Daniel; Chavanne, Cédric; Galbraith, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Submesoscale baroclinic eddies in cyclostrophic balance were studied in the Saguenay fjord (Quebec, Canada) using mooring data, boat-based sampling and oblique images taken from the shore, obtained in 2013 and 2015. Cyclostrophic balance implies equilibrium between the centrifugal force and the pressure gradient, with negligible Coriolis effect. The shear between the strong ebb flow and the bathymetric obstacle of a cape in the fjord creates a front downstream from the cape, which in turn generates vortices that are hundreds of meters in diameter. Shipborne ADCP, echosounder and CTD transects across the front were measured in order to understand the eddy generation. The first observed vortex had a radius of ~175 m, a maximum horizontal velocity of 0.3 m/s, and was trapped above the pycnocline. The horizontal surface currents were determined using Particle Imagery Velocimetry (PIV) applied to successive georectified images. It was found that under some conditions, sea surface patterns can provide sufficiently clear information to quantitatively capture the eddy current field and its evolution over time. From these observations, the vertical vorticity field as well as the horizontal strain rate can be computed. These results, although preliminary, are promising for investigating horizontal eddy diffusion in coastal waters, as well as their parameterization in ocean.

  11. Hydropedological insights when considering catchment classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bouma

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil classification systems are analysed to explore the potential of developing classification systems for catchments. Soil classifications are useful to create systematic order in the overwhelming quantity of different soils in the world and to extrapolate data available for a given soil type to soils elsewhere with identical classifications. This principle also applies to catchments. However, to be useful, soil classifications have to be based on permanent characteristics as formed by the soil forming factors over often very long periods of time. When defining permanent catchment characteristics, discharge data would therefore appear to be less suitable. But permanent soil characteristics do not necessarily match with characteristics and parameters needed for functional soil characterization focusing, for example, on catchment hydrology. Hydropedology has made contributions towards the required functional characterization of soils as is illustrated for three recent hydrological catchment studies. However, much still needs to be learned about the physical behaviour of anisotropic, heterogeneous soils with varying soil structures during the year and about spatial and temporal variability. The suggestion is made therefore to first focus on improving simulation of catchment hydrology, possibly incorporating hydropedological expertise, before embarking on a catchment classification effort which involves major input of time and involves the risk of distraction. In doing so, we suggest to also define other characteristics for catchment performance than the traditionally measured discharge rates. Such characteristics may well be derived from societal issues being studied, as is illustrated for the Green Water Credits program.

  12. Genome sequence of "Candidatus Aquiluna" sp. strain IMCC13023, a marine member of the Actinobacteria isolated from an arctic fjord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ilnam; Lee, Kiyoung; Yang, Seung-Jo; Choi, Ahyoung; Kang, Dongmin; Lee, Yoo Kyoung; Cho, Jang-Cheon

    2012-07-01

    We report the genome sequence of actinobacterial strain IMCC13023, isolated from arctic fjord seawater. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene showed that the strain is related to "Candidatus Aquiluna rubra." The genome information suggests that strain IMCC13023 is a photoheterotroph carrying actinorhodopsin, with the smallest genome ever reported for a free-living member of the Actinobacteria.

  13. Late-Holocene environment and climatic changes in Ameralik Fjord, southwest Greenland: evidence from the sedimentary record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Henrik S.; Jensen, Karin G.; Kuijpers, Antoon

    2006-01-01

      Sedimentological and geochemical (XRF) data together with information from diatom and benthic foraminifera records of a 3.5 m long gravity core from Ameralik fjord, southern West Greenland, is used for reconstructing late Holocene environmental changes in this area. The changes are linked to la...

  14. Glacier extent in a Novaya Zemlya fjord during the Little Ice Age inferred from glaciomarine sediment records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeberg, J.J.; Forman, S.L.; Polyak, L.

    2003-01-01

    Glacier activity at Russkaya Gavan', north-west Novaya Zemlya (Arctic Russia), is reconstructed by particle size analysis of three fjord sediment cores in combination with 14C and 210Pb dating. Down-core logging of particle size variation reveals at least two intervals with sediment coarsening durin

  15. Interactions between algal-bacterial populations and trace metals in fjord surface waters during a nutrient stimulated summer bloom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller, F.; Larsen, A.; Stedmon, C.

    2005-01-01

    We examined how variations in algal-bacterial community structure relate to Cu, Zn, and Mn speciation during a diatom-rich bloom that was induced by daily additions of inorganic macronutrients to fjord waters in August 2002. The experiments were carried out in 11-m3 floating mesocosm bags deploye...

  16. Population dynamics of the spionid polychaete Pygospio elegans in Isefjord and Roskilde Fjord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thonig, Anne; Banta, Gary Thomas; Kesäniemi, Jenni;

    We sampled populations of Pygospio elegans at four locations (Lynæs, Lammefjord, Vellerup, Herslev) in the Isefjord - Roskilde Fjord estuary complex with approximately monthly intervals from March to November 2014. The goal of this study is to compare the population dynamics, with special focus o...

  17. Activity, Microenvironments, and Community Structure of Aerobic and Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidizing Prokaryotes in Estuarine Sediment (Randers Fjord, DK)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm, Andreas; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Dalsgaard, Tage

    2006-01-01

    ACTIVITY, MICROENVIRONMENTS, AND COMMUNITY STRUCTURE OF AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC AMMONIUM OXIDIZING PROKARYOTES IN ESTUARINE SEDIMENT (RANDERS FJORD, DK) A. Schramm 1, N.P. Revsbech 1, T. Dalsgaard 2, E. Piña-Ochoa 3, J. de la Torré 4, D.A. Stahl 4, N. Risgaard-Petersen 2 1 Department of Biological...

  18. Skill-Biased Technological Change in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Rose Skaksen, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Skill-Biased Technological Change in Denmark:A Disaggregate Perspective@*In this paper, we provide an industry-level analysis of skill-biased technological change(SBTC) in Denmark over the last two decades. The analysis shows that SBTC has variedconsiderably across industries, and traditionally l...... information aboutfuture labour requirements, as the relative importance of these industries must be expectedto grow, thereby reinforcing the shift in demand for skilled labour.JEL Classification: J24, J31, L6Keywords: skill-biased technological change, Danish industries......Skill-Biased Technological Change in Denmark:A Disaggregate Perspective@*In this paper, we provide an industry-level analysis of skill-biased technological change(SBTC) in Denmark over the last two decades. The analysis shows that SBTC has variedconsiderably across industries, and traditionally...... large Danish industries have experiencedrelatively less SBTC. This may partly explain why wage inequality between skilled and lessskilled has risen less in Denmark than in other countries. We also find that SBTC has beenconcentrated in already skill-intensive industries. This contains important...

  19. Groundwater recharge and capillary rise in a clayey catchment: modulation by topography and the Arctic Oscillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Schrøder

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The signature left by capillary rise in the water balance is investigated for a 16 km2 clayey till catchment in Denmark. Integrated modelling for 1981–99 substantiates a 30% uphill increase in average net recharge, caused by the reduction in capillary rise when the water table declines. Calibration of the groundwater module is constrained by stream flow separation and water table wells. Net recharge and a priori parameterisation has been estimated from those same data, an automatic rain gauge and electrical sounding. Evaluation of snow storage and compensation for a simplified formulation of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity contribute to a modelling of the precipitation-runoff relation that compares well with measurements in other underdrained clayey catchments. The capillary rise is assumed to be responsible for a 30% correlation between annual evapotranspiration and the North Atlantic Oscillation. The observed correlation, and the hypothesis of a hemispherical Arctic Oscillation linking atmospheric pressure with surface temperature, suggests that modelled evapotranspiration from clayey areas is better than precipitation records for identifying the region influenced by oscillation. Keywords: catchment modelling, MIKE SHE, capillary rise, degree-day model, climate

  20. Exploring the Diversity and Antimicrobial Potential of Marine Actinobacteria from the Comau Fjord in Northern Patagonia, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undabarrena, Agustina; Beltrametti, Fabrizio; Claverías, Fernanda P.; González, Myriam; Moore, Edward R. B.; Seeger, Michael; Cámara, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Bioprospecting natural products in marine bacteria from fjord environments are attractive due to their unique geographical features. Although, Actinobacteria are well known for producing a myriad of bioactive compounds, investigations regarding fjord-derived marine Actinobacteria are scarce. In this study, the diversity and biotechnological potential of Actinobacteria isolated from marine sediments within the Comau fjord, in Northern Chilean Patagonia, were assessed by culture-based approaches. The 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that members phylogenetically related to the Micrococcaceae, Dermabacteraceae, Brevibacteriaceae, Corynebacteriaceae, Microbacteriaceae, Dietziaceae, Nocardiaceae, and Streptomycetaceae families were present at the Comau fjord. A high diversity of cultivable Actinobacteria (10 genera) was retrieved by using only five different isolation media. Four isolates belonging to Arthrobacter, Brevibacterium, Corynebacterium and Kocuria genera showed 16S rRNA gene identity <98.7% suggesting that they are novel species. Physiological features such as salt tolerance, artificial sea water requirement, growth temperature, pigmentation and antimicrobial activity were evaluated. Arthrobacter, Brachybacterium, Curtobacterium, Rhodococcus, and Streptomyces isolates showed strong inhibition against both Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes. Antimicrobial activities in Brachybacterium, Curtobacterium, and Rhodococcus have been scarcely reported, suggesting that non-mycelial strains are a suitable source of bioactive compounds. In addition, all strains bear at least one of the biosynthetic genes coding for NRPS (91%), PKS I (18%), and PKS II (73%). Our results indicate that the Comau fjord is a promising source of novel Actinobacteria with biotechnological potential for producing biologically active compounds. PMID:27486455

  1. Exploring the diversity and antimicrobial potential of marine Actinobacteria from the Comau Fjord in Northern Patagonia, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Undabarrena

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bioprospecting natural products in marine bacteria from fjord environments are attractive due to their unique geographical features. Although Actinobacteria are well known for producing a myriad of bioactive compounds, investigations regarding fjord-derived marine Actinobacteria are scarce. In this study, the diversity and biotechnological potential of Actinobacteria isolated from marine sediments within the Comau fjord, in Northern Chilean Patagonia, were assessed by culture-based approaches. The 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that members phylogenetically related to the Micrococcaceae, Dermabacteraceae, Brevibacteriaceae, Corynebacteriaceae, Microbacteriaceae, Dietziaceae, Nocardiaceae and Streptomycetaceae families were present at the Comau fjord. A high diversity of cultivable Actinobacteria (10 genera was retrieved by using only five different isolation media. Four isolates belonging to Arthrobacter, Brevibacterium, Corynebacterium and Kocuria genera showed 16S rRNA gene identity <98.7% suggesting that they are novel species. Physiological features such as salt tolerance, artificial sea water requirement, growth temperature, pigmentation and antimicrobial activity were evaluated. Arthrobacter, Brachybacterium, Curtobacterium, Rhodococcus and Streptomyces isolates showed strong inhibition against both Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes. Antimicrobial activities in Brachybacterium, Curtobacterium and Rhodococcus have been scarcely reported, suggesting that non-mycelial strains are a suitable source of bioactive compounds. In addition, all strains bear at least one of the biosynthetic genes coding for NRPS (91%, PKS I (18% and PKS II (73%.Our results indicate that the Comau fjord is a promising source of novel Actinobacteria with biotechnological potential for producing biologically active compounds.

  2. High Abundance of the Epibenthic Trachymedusa Ptychogastria polaris Allman, 1878 (Hydrozoa, Trachylina) in Subpolar Fjords along the West Antarctic Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Craig R.; Lindsay, Dhugal J.; Bentlage, Bastian; Youngbluth, Marsh J.

    2017-01-01

    Medusae can be conspicuous and abundant members of seafloor communities in deep-sea benthic boundary layers. The epibenthic trachymedusa, Ptychogastria polaris Allman, 1878 (Hydrozoa: Trachylina: Ptychogastriidae) occurs in the cold, high latitude systems of both the northern and southern hemispheres, with a circumpolar distribution in Arctic and sub-Arctic areas, and disjunct reports of a few individuals from Antarctica. In January-February 2010, during benthic megafaunal photosurveys in three subpolar fjords along the West Antarctic Peninsula (Andvord, Flandres and Barilari Bays), P. polaris was recorded in Antarctic Peninsula waters. The trachymedusa, identified from megacore-collected specimens, was a common component of the epifauna in the sediment floored basins at 436–725 m depths in Andvord and Flandres Bays, reaching densities up to 13 m-2, with mean densities in individual basins ranging from 0.06 to 4.19 m-2. These densities are 2 to 400-fold higher than previously reported for P. polaris in either the Arctic or Antarctic. This trachymedusa had an aggregated distribution, occurring frequently in Andvord Bay, but was often solitary in Flandres Bay, with a distribution not significantly different from random. Epibenthic individuals were similar in size, typically measuring 15–25 mm in bell diameter. A morphologically similar trachymedusa, presumably the same species, was also observed in the water column near the bottom in all three fjords. This benthopelagic form attained abundances of up to 7 m-2 of seafloor; however, most P. polaris (~ 80%), were observed on soft sediments. Our findings indicate that fjords provide a prime habitat for the development of dense populations of P. polaris, potentially resulting from high and varied food inputs to the fjord floors. Because P. polaris resides in the water column and at the seafloor, large P. polaris populations may contribute significantly to pelagic-benthic coupling in the WAP fjord ecosystems. PMID

  3. High Abundance of the Epibenthic Trachymedusa Ptychogastria polaris Allman, 1878 (Hydrozoa, Trachylina) in Subpolar Fjords along the West Antarctic Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grange, Laura J; Smith, Craig R; Lindsay, Dhugal J; Bentlage, Bastian; Youngbluth, Marsh J

    2017-01-01

    Medusae can be conspicuous and abundant members of seafloor communities in deep-sea benthic boundary layers. The epibenthic trachymedusa, Ptychogastria polaris Allman, 1878 (Hydrozoa: Trachylina: Ptychogastriidae) occurs in the cold, high latitude systems of both the northern and southern hemispheres, with a circumpolar distribution in Arctic and sub-Arctic areas, and disjunct reports of a few individuals from Antarctica. In January-February 2010, during benthic megafaunal photosurveys in three subpolar fjords along the West Antarctic Peninsula (Andvord, Flandres and Barilari Bays), P. polaris was recorded in Antarctic Peninsula waters. The trachymedusa, identified from megacore-collected specimens, was a common component of the epifauna in the sediment floored basins at 436-725 m depths in Andvord and Flandres Bays, reaching densities up to 13 m-2, with mean densities in individual basins ranging from 0.06 to 4.19 m-2. These densities are 2 to 400-fold higher than previously reported for P. polaris in either the Arctic or Antarctic. This trachymedusa had an aggregated distribution, occurring frequently in Andvord Bay, but was often solitary in Flandres Bay, with a distribution not significantly different from random. Epibenthic individuals were similar in size, typically measuring 15-25 mm in bell diameter. A morphologically similar trachymedusa, presumably the same species, was also observed in the water column near the bottom in all three fjords. This benthopelagic form attained abundances of up to 7 m-2 of seafloor; however, most P. polaris (~ 80%), were observed on soft sediments. Our findings indicate that fjords provide a prime habitat for the development of dense populations of P. polaris, potentially resulting from high and varied food inputs to the fjord floors. Because P. polaris resides in the water column and at the seafloor, large P. polaris populations may contribute significantly to pelagic-benthic coupling in the WAP fjord ecosystems.

  4. Genetic Structure in a Small Pelagic Fish Coincides with a Marine Protected Area: Seascape Genetics in Patagonian Fjords.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canales-Aguirre, Cristian B; Ferrada-Fuentes, Sandra; Galleguillos, Ricardo; Hernández, Cristián E

    2016-01-01

    Marine environmental variables can play an important role in promoting population genetic differentiation in marine organisms. Although fjord ecosystems have attracted much attention due to the great oscillation of environmental variables that produce heterogeneous habitats, species inhabiting this kind of ecosystem have received less attention. In this study, we used Sprattus fuegensis, a small pelagic species that populates the inner waters of the continental shelf, channels and fjords of Chilean Patagonia and Argentina, as a model species to test whether environmental variables of fjords relate to population genetic structure. A total of 282 individuals were analyzed from Chilean Patagonia with eight microsatellite loci. Bayesian and non-Bayesian analyses were conducted to describe the genetic variability of S. fuegensis and whether it shows spatial genetic structure. Results showed two well-differentiated genetic clusters along the Chilean Patagonia distribution (i.e. inside the embayment area called TicToc, and the rest of the fjords), but no spatial isolation by distance (IBD) pattern was found with a Mantel test analysis. Temperature and nitrate were correlated to the expected heterozygosities and explained the allelic frequency variation of data in the redundancy analyses. These results suggest that the singular genetic differences found in S. fuegensis from inside TicToc Bay (East of the Corcovado Gulf) are the result of larvae retention bya combination of oceanographic mesoscale processes (i.e. the west wind drift current reaches the continental shelf exactly in this zone), and the local geographical configuration (i.e. embayment area, islands, archipelagos). We propose that these features generated an isolated area in the Patagonian fjords that promoted genetic differentiation by drift and a singular biodiversity, adding support to the existence of the largest marine protected area (MPA) of continental Chile, which is the Tic-Toc MPA.

  5. Neonatal herpes in Denmark 1977-1991

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To prevent neonatal herpes, women in labor with genital herpes infection are still delivered by Cesarean section. This policy is currently being debated. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of neonatal herpes in Denmark and to evaluate the prevention practice. METHODS......: All newborns with perinatal herpes in Denmark 1977-1991 were identified from hospital-records. RESULTS: Of 862,298 deliveries 136 possible cases were found but only 30 (22%) fulfilled the criteria for neonatal herpes. The incidence increased from 2.36 to 4.56 per 100,000 live births during 1977......%) did not have any sequelae. Four (13%) died. Six (20%) had serious neurological sequelae. Seven (23%) only had cutaneous recurrences. In seven cases (23%) information was insufficient. CONCLUSIONS: During a 15 year period in Denmark only one neonate had serious sequelae following a recognized maternal...

  6. Ship emissions and air pollution in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Helge Rørdam; Winther, Morten; Ellermann, Thomas

    A project has been carried out to map the contribution from ship traffic to air pollution in Denmark. A main element in the project is the establishment of a new, improved inventory of ship emissions for the waters around Denmark. The inventory makes use of the so-called AIS system, which...... continuously keeps track of ship positions. The inventory provides basis for model calculations of air quality in Denmark for the years 2007, 2011 and 2020. The study has focus on identifying the contribution from ships, and on assessing the effect of international regulations of ship pollution. A minor...... component of the study concerns the contribution to local air pollution from ships at port....

  7. The Western Denmark Cardiac Computed Tomography Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene Hüche; Nørgaard, Bjarne Linde; Tilsted, Hans Henrik;

    2015-01-01

    -CCTR, showed that coronary CT angiographies accounted for only 23% of all nonregistered cardiac CTs, indicating >90% completeness of coronary CT angiographies in the WDHR-CCTR. The completeness of individual variables varied substantially (range: 0%-100%), but was >85% for more than 70% of all variables. Using......BACKGROUND: As a subregistry to the Western Denmark Heart Registry (WDHR), the Western Denmark Cardiac Computed Tomography Registry (WDHR-CCTR) is a clinical database established in 2008 to monitor and improve the quality of cardiac computed tomography (CT) in Western Denmark. OBJECTIVE: We...... expected numbers; and 4) positive predictive values as well as negative predictive values of 19 main patient and procedure variables. RESULTS: By December 31, 2012, almost 22,000 cardiac CTs with up to 40 variables for each procedure have been registered. Of these, 87% were coronary CT angiography...

  8. FM research for practice in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker

    2012-01-01

    environment. FM started to be developed in practice with a strong focus on benchmarking and IT systems like CAFM. Around year 2000 a number of research and development project on Whole Life Costing was carried out and around 2005 there were some development projects and publications on new offices. Digital......Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of research and development in the area of Facilities Management (FM) in Denmark. Background: Research in FM is a fairly new activity in Denmark, but there have during the 1980’s and 1990’s been a number of development activities...... on national level, which have had importance to constitute and form a professional basis for FM. Approach (Theory/Methodology): The paper provides a chronological overview of research and development activities related to FM over the last 30 years in Denmark, including CFM’s ongoing research projects. Results...

  9. FM Research for Practice in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker

    environment. FM started to be developed in practice with a strong focus on benchmarking and IT systems like CAFM. Around year 2000 a number of research and development project on Whole Life Costing was carried out and around 2005 there were some development projects and publications on new offices. Digital......Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of research and development in the area of Facilities Management (FM) in Denmark. Background: Research in FM is a fairly new activity in Denmark, but there have during the 1980’s and 1990’s been a number of development activities...... on national level, which have had importance to constitute and form a professional basis for FM. Approach (Theory/Methodology): The paper provides a chronological overview of research and development activities related to FM over the last 30 years in Denmark, including CFM’s ongoing research projects. Results...

  10. Molecular Typing of Treponema pallidum in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salado-Rasmussen, Kirsten; Cowan, Susan; Gerstoft, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this nationwide study is to determine the strain type diversity among patients diagnosed with syphilis by PCR during a 4-year period in Denmark. Epidemiological data, including HIV status, for all patients were obtained from the Danish national syphilis registration system. Molecular...... strain typing was based on characterization of 3 variable treponemal genes, arp, tpr and tp0548. A total of 278 specimens from 269 patients were included. Among the fully typeable specimens (n = 197), 22 strain types were identified, with 1 type, 14d/g, accounting for 54%. The majority (93......%) of the patients reported acquiring syphilis in Denmark. Among patients with concurrent HIV, 9 full strain types were identified and no difference in strain type was found by HIV status (p = 0.197). In conclusion, the majority of patients were infected in Denmark and the HIV-infected syphilis patients were...

  11. Performance contracting in central government in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Mads Bøge

    2015-01-01

    in organisational structure, tasks, culture and time with performance contracts is expected to affect the contract content, hypotheses on variation across agencies are deduced. The empirical basis of the paper is a study of all performance contracts between parent ministries and subordinate agencies in Danish......This paper looks into performance contracting in Danish central government. Management by Objectives and Results (MBOR) was adopted in central government in Denmark during the 1980s and early 1990s. In 1991, performance contracts between parent ministries and their agencies were introduced...... in Danish central government. Since their introduction, performance contracts have become central elements in the steering and management of agencies in central government in Denmark, and today they are nearly universally adopted in central government. In Denmark, the Ministry of Finance is responsible...

  12. Ship emissions and air pollution in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Helge Rørdam; Winther, Morten; Ellermann, Thomas

    A project has been carried out to map the contribution from ship traffic to air pollution in Denmark. A main element in the project is the establishment of a new, improved inventory of ship emissions for the waters around Denmark. The inventory makes use of the so-called AIS system, which...... continuously keeps track of ship positions. The inventory provides basis for model calculations of air quality in Denmark for the years 2007, 2011 and 2020. The study has focus on identifying the contribution from ships, and on assessing the effect of international regulations of ship pollution. A minor...... component of the study concerns the contribution to local air pollution from ships at port....

  13. System Protection Schemes in Eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Joana

    The Ph.D. project investigates different aspects of voltage stability in the power system of Eastern Denmark taking into account the large amount of wind power. In the project, a simple System Protection Scheme (SPS) against voltage instability in Eastern Denmark is developed. The SPS design...... outages in the southern part of the 132-kV system introduce further stress in the power system, eventually leading to a voltage collapse. The local System Protection Scheme against voltage collapse is designed as a response-based scheme, which is dependent on local indication of reactive and active power...... for the Eastern Danish power system, such as wind farm rejection, cascading line outages and power oscillations. E.g. Nordic inter-area oscillation modes and damping were easily detected from phasor data during the outage of the 400 kV tie-line between Eastern Denmark and Sweden. It is concluded that recording...

  14. Assessing the effectiveness of Denmark's waste tax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    1998-01-01

    By the mid-l980s, Denmark had a serious waste disposal problem: Its per capita generation of waste was among the highest in Europe and rising; it was running out of landfill space, with Copenhagen set to exhaust its landfill capacity in a short time; and there was a great deal of concern about air...... pollution from incinerators. Denmark responded to this situation by adopting a comprehensive waste management policy that included an innovative tax on waste designed to promote the reuse and recycling of many types of waste. Now that the tax has been in place for a decade, there is enough data to assess...... its effectiveness. Such an assessment has implications that extend far beyond Denmark. To date, six other countries in Europe (Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom) have adopted waste taxes at the national level, and two others (Norway and Sweden) are considering...

  15. Groundwater discharge dynamics from point to catchment scale in a lowland stream: Combining hydraulic and tracer methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Jane Bang; Sebok, Eva; Duque, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    nutrient or pollutant transport zones from nearby agricultural fields. VTP measurements confirmed high groundwater fluxes in discharge areas indicated by DTS and ADCP, and this coupling of ADCP, DTS and VTP proposes a novel field methodology to detect areas of concentrated groundwater discharge with higher......Detecting, quantifying and understanding groundwater discharge to streams are crucial for the assessment of water, nutrient and contaminant exchange at the groundwater–surface water interface. In lowland agricultural catchments with significant groundwater discharge this is of particular importance...... because of the risk of excess leaching of nutrients to streams. Here we aim to combine hydraulic and tracer methods from point-to-catchment scale to assess the temporal and spatial variability of groundwater discharge in a lowland, groundwater gaining stream in Denmark. At the point-scale, groundwater...

  16. Septic arthritis in the central part of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen Andreasen, Rikke; Andersen, Nanna Skaarup; Just, Søren Andreas;

    Septic arthritis in the central part of Denmark, Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, volume 73, supplement 2, p. 287......Septic arthritis in the central part of Denmark, Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, volume 73, supplement 2, p. 287...

  17. Simulate to regulate - Denmark's virtual road pricing programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildebogaard, Jan

    1999-01-01

    The article describes the reseach programme on electronic road pricing launched at the Technical University of Denmark.......The article describes the reseach programme on electronic road pricing launched at the Technical University of Denmark....

  18. Male and Female Labour Supply in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversen, Ebbe Krogh

    1996-01-01

    This paper estimates labour supply for married and single men and women in Denmark in 1990, using a double-hurdle model which allows involuntary unemployment due to for example demand restrictions, and fixed costs of work. A labour supply f unction based on a variant of the Stone-Geary utility...... function with a nonlinear wage rate is estimated. Elasticities of labour supply with respect to wage, income and tax rate are presented. Finally, the effects on the four groups of a few recently discussed tax and transfer reforms in Denmark are simulated....

  19. Source attribution of human campylobacteriosis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Louise; Rosenquist, Hanne; Rosenquist, J. T.

    2014-01-01

    This study assesses the contribution of different sources of human campylobacteriosis in Denmark using two different source-attribution approaches. In total, 794 non-human isolates and 406 isolates from human cases (domestic, travel related, and cases with unknown travel history) were collected....... Isolates were characterized by multilocus sequence typing, flaA typing and susceptibility to antibiotics. Both models used indicate that the major burden of human campylobacteriosis in Denmark originates from the domestic broiler chicken reservoir. The second most important reservoir was found to be cattle...

  20. Implementation of Renewable Energy Systems in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I

    1997-01-01

    Denmark has been one of the first countries in the world to commit itself to a sustainable energy development. This has been substantiated by two official action plans from 1990 and 1996 with emphasis on energy efficiency and supply systems based on renewable energy. In year 2005, renewable energy...... sources are planned to cover 12-14% and in year 2030 about 35% of total Danish energy demand. This paper reviews the experiences with implementation of renewable energy in Denmark with a focus on wind power and biomass....

  1. Management Accounting in Denmark; Theory and Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Israelsen, Poul; Andersen, Michael; Rohde, Carsten

    1996-01-01

    The article describes the present state of cost and management accounting in Denmark within “mainstream accounting”, both as regards theory and practice. In the case of theory, there has been a gradual convergence of views. The essence of these views is briefly described. Concerning practice......, the main results of two new empirical studies are presented one on product costing and the other on identifying the adoption of “modern cost management techniques” in Denmark. The article places both current theory and practice in their historical context. In the former, this is done through an outline...

  2. Denmark's Energy Cooperation with Emerging Powers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bruno Oliveira; Schvartzman, Yonatan; Jørgensen, Knud Erik

    2015-01-01

    This chapter addresses the energy cooperation between Denmark and South Africa, China and other emerging economic powers. It conducts an empirical analysis departing from the theoretical concept of multi-level energy governance, inquiring the way international transactions within the realm...... and vectors. The following section covers the international dimension of the energy policy pursued by Denmark by exploring the way it cooperates with Emerging Powers. Afterwards, the chapter addresses the role played by the EU in these dynamics, in the context of EU’s proclaimed preference for multilateral...

  3. Introduction of New Parasites in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Heidi L.

    for the first time in Denmark approximately 10 years ago in 3 foxes from the Copenhagen area. Since then, no systematic surveillance has been performed, and therefore the current prevalence among wildlife and pets is unknown. So far the parasite has not been found in intermediate hosts (rodents) in Denmark...... carnivores entering the country. Increasing prevalences are observed in our neighboring countries, and migrating raccoon dogs from Germany are thought to entail a risk for transmission and spread of this much feared parasite. Likewise, invading foxes and raccoon dogs may cause a risk of increasing numbers...

  4. Trends in sickness absence in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Kristina; Bihrmann, Kristine; Mikkelsen, Sigurd

    2009-01-01

    a linear regression analysis to analyze time trends in sickness absence based on datasets from the Danish Employers Confederation, the State Employer's Authority, the Labour Force Survey, and Statistics Denmark. RESULTS: The findings from the Confederation of Danish Employers, the State Employer......'s Authority, and the Labor Force Survey indicated a stable and largely unaltered pattern of sickness absence during the last 20 years. Findings from Statistics Denmark showed an increase in the cumulative incidence proportion from 6.6 to 7.5% among employed people between 2000 and 2007. CONCLUSION: Our data...

  5. Copenhagen is hot, Denmark is not

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Csaba, Fabian; Stöber, Birgit

    This paper discusses the practice of ranking linked to the issue of place branding focusing on two cases from Denmark, one the national level, the other on the local level, namely the city of Copenhagen. Rankings of places have increased, and – as we shall argue – so have their influence on ident......This paper discusses the practice of ranking linked to the issue of place branding focusing on two cases from Denmark, one the national level, the other on the local level, namely the city of Copenhagen. Rankings of places have increased, and – as we shall argue – so have their influence...... audiences represent and use place image survey results....

  6. The Strange Birth of Liberal Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ingrid; Lampe, Markus; Sharp, Paul Richard

    into decline, in fact flourished. Key to the success of Danish agriculture was an early diversification towards dairy production. We dispute this simple story which sees Denmark as something of a liberal paragon. Denmark's success owed much to a prudent use of trade policy which favoured dairy production....... Moreover, this favouritism continued even after a more general movement to free trade in the 1860s. Using micro-level data from individual dairies, we quantify the implied subsidy to dairy production from the tariffs, and demonstrate that this in many cases ensured the profitability of individual dairies....

  7. Implementation of Renewable Energy Systems in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I

    1997-01-01

    Denmark has been one of the first countries in the world to commit itself to a sustainable energy development. This has been substantiated by two official action plans from 1990 and 1996 with emphasis on energy efficiency and supply systems based on renewable energy. In year 2005, renewable energy...... sources are planned to cover 12-14% and in year 2030 about 35% of total Danish energy demand. This paper reviews the experiences with implementation of renewable energy in Denmark with a focus on wind power and biomass....

  8. Doing hydrology backwards in tropical humid catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real Rangel, R.; Brena-Naranjo, J. A.; Pedrozo-Acuña, A.

    2015-12-01

    Top-down approaches in hydrology offer the possibility to predict water fluxes at the catchment scale based on the interpretation of the observed hydrological response at the catchment itself. Doing hydrology backwards (inferring precipitation and evapotranspiration rates at the catchment scale from streamflow measurements, see Kirchner (2009)) can be a useful methodology for estimating water fluxes at the catchment and regional scales. Previous studies using this inverse modeling approach have been performed in regions (UK, Switzerland, France, Eastern US) where energy-limited (in winter and early spring) and water-limited conditions (in summer) prevail during a large period of the year. However, such approach has not been tested in regions characterized by a quasi-constant supply of water and energy (e.g. humid tropics). The objective of this work is to infer annual rates of precipitation and evapotranspiration over the last decade in 10 catchments located in Mexico's tropical humid regions. Hourly discharge measurements during recession periods were analyzed and parameters for the nonlinear storage-discharge relationship of each catchment were derived. Results showed large variability in both catchment-scale precipitation and evapotranspiration rates among the selected study sites. Finally, a comparison was done between such estimates and those obtained from remotely-sensed data (TRMM for precipitation and MOD16 for evapotranspiration).

  9. Distribution and production of submerged macrophytes in Tipper Grund (Ringkøbing Fjord, Denmark), and the impact of waterfowl grazing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas

    1980-01-01

    . at intermediate depth and Potamogeton pectinatus, Myriophyllum spicatum and Ranunculus baudauti at greater depth. (2) All macrophyte species showed a unimodal peak of biomass during the summer. Angiosperms with heavy epiphytic load withered 1-2 months earlier than did angiosperms without epiphytes. (3) Annual...

  10. Distribution and production of submerged macrophytes in Tipper Grund (Ringkøbing Fjord, Denmark), and the impact of waterfowl grazing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas

    1980-01-01

    . at intermediate depth and Potamogeton pectinatus, Myriophyllum spicatum and Ranunculus baudauti at greater depth. (2) All macrophyte species showed a unimodal peak of biomass during the summer. Angiosperms with heavy epiphytic load withered 1-2 months earlier than did angiosperms without epiphytes. (3) Annual...

  11. Biological effects of long term fine limestone tailings discharge in a fjord ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Lucy; Melsom, Fredrik; Glette, Tormod

    2015-07-15

    Benthic infaunal data collected from 1993 to 2010 were analysed to examine the effect of long term discharge of fine limestone tailings on macrofaunal species assemblages in a fjord. Relative distance from the outfall and proportion of fine tailings in the sediment were correlated with benthic community structure. Diversity decreased with increasing proportion of fine tailings. Biological Traits Analysis (BTA) was used to explore the temporal and spatial effects of the tailings gradient on macrofaunal functional attributes. BTA revealed that all stations along a pressure gradient of fine limestone tailings were dominated by free-living species. As the proportion of fine tailings in the sediment increased, there was an increase in fauna that were smaller, highly mobile, living on or nearer the surface sediment, with shorter lifespans. There was a decrease in permanent tube dwellers, those fauna with low or no mobility, that live deeper in the sediment and have longer lifespans (>5 yrs). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Numerical modeling experiments of coastal upwelling at the field of Arctic fjords.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosecki, Szymon; Dzierzbicka-Głowacka, Lidia

    2016-04-01

    Coastal upwelling is a well described, known phenomenon in theory. Nowadays there is more and more both environmental and modeling studies about it. Upwelling especially in the Arctic fjords is a process that strongly affects hydrodynamics and even more ecosystems. It is so important, that it brings detailed question about effects and needed wind driven forcing parameters. My modeling experiment studies were strongly different than the studies that are typically carried out using numerical models. Instead of searching for this phenomenon in modeled analysis or environmental data, I did several case scenarios simulations. For those I used statistically selected wind data measured in-stiu. The hi-resolution coastal mapping, the flexible mesh discretization method and the sigma-layered three dimensional model MIKE 3 by DHI allowed me to explore this phenomenon with very good accuracy. This studies have been done in Institute of Oceanology PAS in Sopot, as a part of Centre for Polar Studies.

  13. Seasonal variability of the circulation system in a West Greenland tidewater outlet glacier fjord, Godthåbsfjord (64°N)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, John; Bendtsen, Jørgen; Lennert, Kunuk

    2014-01-01

    due to melting of the ice sheet. However, very few observational studies describe the seasonal dynamics of fjord circulation. Here we present the first continuous current measurements (April–November) from a deep mooring deployed in a west Greenland tidewater outlet glacier fjord. Four distinct...... circulation phases are identified during the period, and they are related to exchange processes with coastal waters, tidal mixing, and melt processes on the Greenland Ice Sheet. During early summer, warm intermediate water is transported toward the glacier at an average velocity of about 7 cm s−1. In late......Many tidewater outlet glacier fjords surround the coast of Greenland, and their dynamics and circulation are of great importance for understanding the heat transport toward glaciers from the ice sheet. Thus, fjord circulation is a critical aspect for assessing the threat of global sea level rise...

  14. Temperature and conductivity data collected by CTDs on moored buoys in the Sermilik Fjord, Greenland from 2008-07 to 2009-08 (NODC Accession 0123217)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data included in this dataset were collected in the Sermilik Fjord, located in East Greenland in the Ammassalik district close to the town of Tasiilaq. Data...

  15. Gulf Watch Alaska, Nearshore Monitoring Component: Sea Otter Foraging Observations from Prince William Sound, Katmai National Park and Preserve, and Kenai Fjords National Park, 2012-2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data is part of the Gulf Watch Alaska (GWA) long term monitoring program, benthic monitoring component and a seasonal diet study in Kenai Fjords National Park....

  16. Variable catchment sizes for the two-step floating catchment area (2SFCA) method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Whippo, Tara

    2012-07-01

    Government efforts designed to help improve healthcare access rely on accurate measures of accessibility so that resources can be allocated to truly needy areas. In order to capture the interaction between physicians and populations, various access measures have been utilized, including the popular two-step floating catchment area (2SFCA) method. However, despite the many advantages of 2SFCA, the problems associated with using fixed catchment sizes have not been satisfactorily addressed. We propose a new method to dynamically determine physician and population catchment sizes by incrementally increasing the catchment until a base population and a physician-to-population ratio are met. Preliminary application to the ten-county region in northern Illinois has demonstrated that the new method is effective in determining the appropriate catchment sizes across the urban to suburban/rural continuum and has revealed greater detail in spatial variation of accessibility compared to results using fixed catchment sizes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Distribution of siphonophores, chaetognaths, euphausiids and oceanographic conditions in the fjords and channels of southern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Sergio; Silva, Nelson

    2004-03-01

    Interior waters of the fjords and channels of southern Chile (41.5°S-56°S) receive inputs of Subantarctic Water, Equatorial Subsuperficial Water and Western Pacific Subsurface Water from the adjacent Pacific Ocean by means of numerous connecting channels that lead inward from the ocean margin. These waters become mixed in the interior zone with freshwater from precipitation, river flow, and meltwater from cordilleran glaciers. A two-layered positive estuarine circulation becomes established, with a superficial layer having a net movement towards the adjacent ocean, and a deep layer with net movement towards the fjords. The biomass of the interior waters is composed principally of planktonic crustaceans (copepods and euphausiids), chaetognaths, and gelatinous carnivores. In a southerly direction, decreases are observed in biomass, in relative abundance, and in species diversity of siphonophores, chaetognaths, and euphausiids. Only a few species have been able to adapt successfully to the extreme oceanographic conditions typical of the region, reflected in dominant monospecific populations such as Muggiaea atlantica, Sagitta tasmanica, and Euphausia vallentini. The zooplankton fauna of interior waters, characterized by its low degree of specific richness, is made up of a mixture of species typical of Subantarctic Water (Sagitta tasmanica, S. decipiens, Euphausia lucens, Nematoscelis megalops, Thysanoessa gregaria), antarctic water (Pyrosthephos vanhoeffeni, Dimophyes arctica, Sagitta marri, S. gazellae, Eukrohnia hamata, E. bathyantarctica, Euphausia vallentini), temperate and warm epipelagic waters (Eudoxoides spiralis, Lensia conoidea, Chelophyes appendiculata, Muggiaea atlantica, Sphaeronectes gracilis, S. fragilis, Abylopsis tetragona, Sagitta enflata), and mesopelagic water (Physophora hydrostatica, Stylocheiron maximum, Vogtia pentacantha, V. serrata).

  18. The Little Ice Age: evidence from a sediment record in Gullmar Fjord, Swedish west coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Polovodova Asteman

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the climatic and environmental changes during the last millennium in NE Europe based on a ca. 8-m long high-resolved and well-dated marine sediment record from the deepest basin of Gullmar Fjord (SW Sweden. According to the 210Pb- and 14C-datings, the record includes the period of the late Holocene characterised by anomalously cold summers and well known as the Little Ice Age (LIA. Using benthic foraminiferal stratigraphy, lithology, bulk sediment geochemistry and stable carbon isotopes we reconstruct various phases of this cold period, identify its timing in the study area and discuss the land-sea interactions occurring during that time. The onset of the LIA is indicated by an increase in cold-water foraminiferal species Adercotryma glomerata at ~ 1350 AD. The first phase of the LIA was characterised by a stormy but milder climate, which is indicated by a presence of Nonionella iridea. Maximum abundances of this species are likely to mirror a short and abrupt warming event at ~ 1600 AD. It is likely that due to land use changes in the second part of the LIA there was an increased input of terrestrial organic matter to the fjord, which is indicated by lighter δ13C values and an increase of detritivorous and omnivorous species as Textularia earlandi and Eggerelloides scaber. The climate deterioration during the climax of the LIA (1675–1704 AD, as suggested by the agglutinated species, caused some carbonate dissolution, variations in primary productivity and a decline of N. iridea dependant on fresh phytodetritus. It is also assumed that an increase of Hyalinea balthica could be indicative of climate warming trends at 1600–1743 and 1813–1940 AD.

  19. Tsunamis generated by 3D granular landslides in various scenarios from fjords to conical islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFall, Brian C.; Fritz, Hermann M.

    2015-04-01

    Landslide generated tsunamis such as in Lituya Bay, Alaska 1958 account for some of the highest recorded tsunami runup heights. Source and runup scenarios based on real world events are physically modeled using generalized Froude similarity in the three dimensional NEES tsunami wave basin at Oregon State University. A novel pneumatic landslide tsunami generator (LTG) was deployed to simulate landslides with varying geometry and kinematics. The bathymetric and topographic scenarios tested with the LTG are the basin-wide propagation and runup, fjord, curved headland fjord and a conical island setting representing a landslide off an island or a volcano flank collapse. The LTG consists of a sliding box filled with 1,350 kg of landslide material which is accelerated by pneumatic pistons down slope. Two different landslide materials are used to study the granulometry effects: naturally rounded river gravel and cobble mixtures. Water surface elevations are recorded by an array of resistance wave gauges. The landslide deformation is measured from above and underwater camera recordings. The landslide deposit is measured on the basin floor with a multiple transducer acoustic array (MTA). Landslide surface reconstruction and kinematics are determined with a stereo particle image velocimetry (PIV) system. Wave runup is recorded with resistance wave gauges along the slope and verified with video image processing. The measured landslide and wave parameters are compared between the planar hill slope used in various scenarios and the convex hill slope of the conical island. The energy conversion rates from the landslide motion to the wave train is quantified for the planar and convex hill slopes. The wave runup data on the opposing headland is analyzed and evaluated with wave theories. The measured landslide and tsunami data serve to validate and advance three-dimensional numerical landslide tsunami prediction models.

  20. Subtidal circulation in a deep-silled fjord: Douglas Channel, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Di; Hannah, Charles G.; Foreman, Michael G. G.; Dosso, Stan

    2017-05-01

    Douglas Channel, a deep fjord on the west coast of British Columbia, Canada, is the main waterway in the fjord system that connects the town of Kitimat to Queen Charlotte Sound and Hecate Strait. A 200 m depth sill divides Douglas Channel into an outer and an inner basin. This study examines the low-frequency (from seasonal to meteorological bands) circulation in Douglas Channel from data collected at three moorings deployed during 2013-2015. The deep flows are dominated by a yearly renewal that takes place from May/June to early September. A dense bottom layer with a thickness of 100 m that cascades through the system at the speed of 0.1-0.2 m s-1, which is consistent with gravity currents. Estuarine flow dominates the circulation above the sill depth, and the observed landward net volume flux suggests that it is necessary to include the entire complex channel network to fully understand the estuarine circulation in the system. The influence of the wind forcing on the subtidal circulation is not only at the surface, but also at middepth. The along-channel wind dominates the surface current velocity fluctuations and the sea level response to the wind produces a velocity signal at 100-120 m in the counter-wind direction. Overall, the circulation in the seasonal and the meteorological bands is a mix of estuarine flow, direct wind-driven flow, and the barotropic and baroclinic responses to changes to the surface pressure gradient caused by the wind stress.

  1. Seismic reflection characteristics of glacial and glacimarine sediment in the Gulf of Alaska and adjacent fjords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, P.R.

    1989-01-01

    Glaciation together with tectonism have been dominant factors affecting sedimentation in the Gulf of Alaska area from at least the late Miocene throughout the Quaternary. The effects of tectonism are apparent in high mountains that border the gulf, raised terraces of Middleton Island and the eastern gulf coastal zone, and numerous active faults and related earthquakes. Glacial evidence includes magnificent glaciers and their onshore deposits, spectacular fjords, large sea valleys incised in the continental shelf, submarine morainal ridges at mouths of bays and sea valleys, and thick glacimarine sedimentary sequences (diamicts) that are exposed onshore and at the sea floor along the outer shelf. Seismic-reflection profiling and sampling of the uppermost marine sedimentary sequences in the Gulf of Alaska and adjacent fjords and bays have allowed identification of three discrete glacially related stratigraphic units. These units were delineated on the basis of seismic signature, geometry, physiographic location, stratigraphic position, and sedimentologic characteristics. The oldest unit, a Quaternary diamict, is portrayed on seismic profiles by irregular, discontinuous reflections. This unit probably includes till, outwash and glacimarine sediment. A geographically restricted unit, one incorporating Holocene end moraines at bay mouths and associated with some sea valleys, consists of jumbled masses of discontinuous reflections and very irregular surface morphology. The youngest unit, a blanket of Holocene sand to clayey silt prograding as a sediment wedge across the shelf, contains nearly horizontal, parallel reflections except where disrupted by mass movement. Although seismic-reflection data alone cannot provide definitive proof of the presence of glacial sediment, when combined with sea-floor sampling, seismic profiling is a powerful tool for determining the continuity of marine sedimentary units and relationships to past and modern glaciers. ?? 1989.

  2. Geochemistry of surface sediments from the fjords of Northern Chilean Patagonia (44-47°S): Spatial variability and implications for paleoclimate reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Sébastien; Hughen, Konrad A.; Sepúlveda, Julio; Pantoja, Silvio

    2012-01-01

    The Patagonian fjords have a clear potential to provide high-resolution sedimentary and geochemical records of past climate and environmental change in the Southern Andes. To improve our ability to interpret these proxy records, we investigated the processes that control fjord sediment inorganic geochemistry through a geochemical, mineralogical and sedimentological analysis of surface sediment samples from the fjords of Northern Chilean Patagonia. A simple Terrestrial Index based on measurements of salinity and Fraction of Terrestrial Carbon was used to estimate the terrestrial input/river discharge at each site. Our results demonstrate that, under the cold climate conditions of Patagonia, chemical weathering is weak and the inorganic geochemical composition of the fjord sediments is primarily controlled by hydrodynamic mineralogical sorting, i.e., the intensity of river discharge. Our results suggest that the distribution of Fe, Ti and Zr in surface sediments is controlled by their association with heavy and/or coarse minerals, whereas Al is independent of hydrodynamic processes. The elemental ratios Fe/Al, Ti/Al and Zr/Al are therefore well suited for estimating changes in the energy of terrestrial sediment supply into the fjords through time. Zr/Al is particularly sensitive in proximal environments, while Fe/Al is most useful in the outer fjords and on the continental margin. In the most proximal environments, however, Fe/Al is inversely related to hydrodynamic conditions. Caution should therefore be exercised when interpreting Fe/Al ratios in terms of past river discharge. The application of these proxies to long sediment cores from Quitralco fjord and Golfo Elefantes validates our interpretations. Our results also emphasize the need to measure Al-based elemental ratios at high precision, which can be achieved using simultaneous acquisition ICP-AES technology. This study therefore constitutes a strong basis for the interpretation of sedimentary records from the

  3. Glacial meltwater and primary production are drivers of strong CO2 uptake in fjord and coastal waters adjacent to the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Meire

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Greenland Ice Sheet releases large amounts of freshwater, which strongly influences the physical and chemical properties of the adjacent fjord systems and continental shelves. Glacial meltwater input is predicted to strongly increase in the future, but the impact of meltwater on the carbonate dynamics of these productive coastal systems remains largely unquantified. Here we present seasonal observations of the carbonate system over the year 2013 in the surface waters of a west Greenland fjord (Godthåbsfjord influenced by tidewater outlet glaciers. Our data reveal that the surface layer of the entire fjord and adjacent continental shelf are undersaturated in CO2 throughout the year. The average annual CO2 uptake within the fjord is estimated to be 65 g C m−2 yr−1, indicating that the fjord system is a strong sink for CO2. The largest CO2 uptake occurs in the inner fjord near to the Greenland Ice Sheet and high glacial meltwater input during the summer months correlates strongly with low pCO2 values. This strong CO2 uptake can be explained by the thermodynamic effect on the surface water pCO2 resulting from the mixing of fresh glacial meltwater and ambient saline fjord water, which results in a CO2 uptake of 1.8 mg C kg−1 of glacial ice melted. We estimated that 28% of the CO2 uptake can be attributed to the input of glacial meltwater, while the remaining part is due to high primary production. Our findings imply that glacial melt\\-water is an important driver for undersaturation in CO2 in fjord and coastal waters adjacent to large ice sheets.

  4. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 2. Characterization of low permeable and fractured sediments and rocks in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.; Laier, T.

    2011-07-01

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings plus different types of material from the research periods) and radioactive waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. In Denmark, many different kinds of fine-grained sediments and crystalline rocks occur from the ground surface down to 300 meters depth. Therefore, the possible geological situations include sediments and rocks of different composition and age. These situations are geographical distributed over large areas of Denmark. These sediments and rocks are shortly described based on existing information and include five different major types of sediments and rocks: 1: Crystalline granite and gneiss of Bornholm (because these rock types are host for waste disposals in many other countries). 2: Sandstone and shale from Bornholm (as these sediments are rela- tively homogeneous although they have fracture permeability). 3: Chalk and limestone (because these sediments may act as low permeable seals, but in most areas they act as groundwater reservoirs). 4: Fine-grained Tertiary clay deposits (as these sediments have a low permeability, are widely distributed and can reach large thicknesses). 5: Quaternary glacial, interglacial and Holocene clay deposits. These sediments are distributed all over Denmark. Following the descriptions of the geologic deposits, the areas below (including several possible locations for waste disposal sites) are selected for further investigation. The Precambrian basement rocks of Bornholm could be host rocks for the disposal. The rock types for further evaluation will be: Hammer Granite, Vang Granite, Roenne Granite, Bornholm gneiss, Paradisbakke Migmatite and Alminding Granite. In the Roskilde Fjord area around Risoe, a combination of Paleocene clays, meltwater clay and clayey till could be interesting. The area is partly included in the OSD area in North Sjaelland but

  5. Public-private partnerships in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Grunert, Klaus G.; Bruun, Peter

    2004-01-01

    element of this project, this report presents an inventory of public-private partnerships in Denmark. More specifically, it provides an inventory of past, present and proposed research projects related to food quality and food safety involving both public and private partners. Furthermore it points...... to a number of opportunities for developing public-private partnerships....

  6. Planning of high school examinations in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui; Hansen, Michael Pilegaard

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a computer based support system used to plan high school examinations in Denmark. We will discuss the methods and techniques used to solve such a complex and large scale combinatorial problem. Decomposition and other heuristic principles have been used extensively to develop...

  7. The Strange Birth of Liberal Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ingrid; Lampe, Markus; Sharp, Paul Richard

    The usual story of the "first era of globalization" at the end of the nineteenth century sees Denmark as something as an outlier: a country which, like Britain, resisted the globalization backlash in the wake of the inflow of cheap grain from the New World, but where agriculture, rather than goin...

  8. Maternal deaths in Denmark 2002-2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Birgit; Hvidman, Lone; Weber, Tom

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe a method for identification, classification and assessment of maternal deaths in Denmark and to identify substandard care. DESIGN: Register study and case audit based on data from the Registers of the Danish Medical Health Board, death certificates and hospital records. SET...

  9. Implementing shared decision making in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl Steffensen, Karina; Hjelholt Baker, Vibe; Vinter, Mette Marianne

    2017-01-01

    national plan for cancer treatment. What about tools for patient decision support? Development of evidence-based patient decision aids (PDAs) are still at an early stage in Denmark, but recent national and private funding has helped push the field forward. Furthermore, a few stakeholders have started...

  10. Discrimination and Anti-discrimination in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tore Vincents

    The purpose of this report is to describe and analyse Danish anti-discrimination legislation and the debate about discrimination in Denmark in order to identify present and future legal challenges. The main focus is the implementation of the EU anti-discrimination directives in Danish law...

  11. Epidemiology of cerebral palsy in Southern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøslev-Friis, Christina; Dunkhase-Heinl, Ulrike; Andersen, Johnny Dohn Holmgren;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence, subtypes, severity and neuroimaging findings of cerebral palsy (CP) in a cohort of children born in Southern Denmark. Risk factors were analysed and aetiology considered. METHODS: A population-based cohort study covering 17,580 l...

  12. The economics of biogas in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.; Laugesen, Frederik Møller; Dubgaard, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Denmark has been one of the leading European Countries in using Biogas for Combined Heat and Power (CHP), since the 1980’ties. However, in the last two decades, the increase has been limited. A new energy policy aimed at increasing the profitability of Biogas was introduced in the spring of 2012....

  13. Adoption of Precision farming in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Fountas, S.; Blackmore, S.

    2003-01-01

    The adoption of precision farming (PF)in Denmark has been studied through two mail surveys, personal interviews and focus groups with farmers and other stakeholders. Farmers are in general optimistic about PF but it is difficult to verify the economic and environmental gains. It has been difficult...

  14. Implementing the water framework directive in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.; Anker, Helle Tegner; Baaner, Lasse

    2017-01-01

    One of the major challenges in the implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) is how to address diffuse agricultural pollution of the aquatic environment. In Denmark the implementation of agricultural measures has been fraught with difficulty in the form of delays and legal proceedings...

  15. The Demand for Rental Homes in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skak, Morten

    2007-01-01

    development, and gives some indications of the future demand for rental housing in Denmark. The results indicate a future stagnant rental demand kept up by an increasing share of persons of old age and young persons undergoing education, and thus a rising homeownership rate. It is believed that the structural...

  16. Willingness to Pay for Insurance in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jan V.; Højbjerg Jacobsen, Rasmus; Lau, Morten I.

    We estimate the maximum amount that Danish households are willing to pay for three different types of insurance: auto, home and house insurance. We use a unique combination of claims data from the largest private insurance company in Denmark, measures of individual risk attitudes and discount rates...... of the insurance claims....

  17. A case of human babesiosis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holler, Jon G; Röser, Dennis; Nielsen, Henrik Vedel

    2014-01-01

    We report the first human case of Babesia microti infection imported to Denmark from the United States by a 64 year old female traveller with fever of unknown origin. The case raises the possibility that Babesia-infections may be under-diagnosed, illustrates the importance of a thorough travel...

  18. Inter-Industry Wage Differentials in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausten, Mette

    1995-01-01

    This paper analyses empirically the inter-industry wage differentials in Denmark using cross-sectional human capital wage relations. The sample period is 1981-1990, a period with several changes in the wage bargaining set-up. Significant and highly persistent inter-industrial wage differentials...

  19. Denmark - Chapter in Handbook of Global Bioethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Linda; Faber, Berit A.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter about bioethics in Denmark focuses on specific Danish characteristics. These are the early start of a bioethics debate, legislation and bioethics councils; the independence of the councils and the parliamentarians voting on ethical issues; the introduction and extraordinary importanc...

  20. Prospect for organic farming in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lars-Bo

    2005-01-01

    in organic production has led to surplus supply of organic products, especially milk. In this paper we use a dynamic general equilibrium model specifically developed for forecasting the Danish economy towards 2022 to explore the future development of the organic production in Denmark. Several policy...

  1. Policies in Dementia, comparing Germany and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lene Berit Skov

    2017-01-01

    In Short Germany as well as Denmark are focusing on the same issues regarding Dementia, as other European Countries are, too. The key issues in the national strategies are: timely diagnosis, self-determination for the person with dementia, unbroken “care chain”, better possibilities for the relief...... of informal carers (relatives), balanced view on assistive technology, destigmatisation and support of autonomy....

  2. Inclusive Women's Organisations in Denmark and Norway?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pristed Nielsen, Helene; Thun, Cecilie

    2010-01-01

    The article demonstrates how majority women’s organizations in Denmark and Norway react differently to the challenge of collaborating with new groups of women in society. The question of collaboration with minority women’s organizations prompts existing majority organizations to navigate between ...

  3. What Drives Business Performance in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Bodo; Wang, Cong

    an overall positive and significant effect of social capital and religion on firm performance in Denmark. These effects are robust to different levels of aggregation (sample structure), different sampling years and alternative measures of firm performance (return on asset, current ratio, solvency ratio...

  4. Direct Democracy in Local Politics in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Palle

    2007-01-01

    Elements of  direct democracy at the local level does exist in Denmark, but it is little known, because no formal rules regulate this aspect of political life, because results from popular initiatives and referendums are not recorded in official statistics, and because few systematic analyses have...

  5. Counting niqabs and burqas in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warburg, Margit; Johansen, Birgitte Schepelern; Østergaard, Kate

    2013-01-01

    Muslim women wearing face-covering clothing are the subject of politically heated debates in a number of European countries, but reliable data on the number of these women (niqabis) are generally lacking. At the request of the Danish government, the authors conducted a survey of niqabis in Denmark...

  6. Social housing in Portugal and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alves, Sonia; Andersen, Hans Thor

    The social housing sector has become increasingly residualized and segregated in Portugal and Denmark. Whilst there is a considerable difference between the systems in these two countries, as regards issues of management and governance, dominant rent regimes (cost rent, social rent) or eligibility...

  7. Dietary patterns in Them and Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, P; Jørgensen, I M; Paerregaard, A

    1982-01-01

    Four-day weighing and 24-hour recall were used to record food consumption in groups of 30 men, aged 50-59 years, in 2 areas of Denmark: Them, a rural Danish community, and Copenhagen. Fat consumption was found to be higher in Them, whereas alcohol consumption was higher in Copenhagen. The absolut...

  8. Genetics of congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommiska, Johanna; Känsäkoski, Johanna; Christiansen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    of HH later in life. We examined the genetics and clinical features of CHH in Denmark. Forty-one male patients were screened for mutations in KAL1, FGFR1, FGF8, PROK2, PROKR2, GNRHR, TAC3, TACR3, and KISS1R. CHD7 was screened in two patients with hearing loss. In 12 patients, a molecular genetic cause...

  9. Considering foreign direct investment in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerding, Allan Næs

    2005-01-01

    The present paper examines the aspect of relational assets and relates it to the strategic decision on undertaking foreign direct investment (FDI). The point of departure is the increasing importance of FDI globally as well as in the Danish economy, and the observation that even though Denmark...

  10. Use of vaginal hysterectomy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sidsel Lykke; Daugbjerg, Signe B; Gimbel, Helga

    2011-01-01

    To describe the use of vaginal, abdominal and laparoscopic hysterectomy in Denmark from 1999 to 2008, the influence of national guidelines and the patient and procedure-related characteristics associated with the choice of vaginal hysterectomy. Design. Nationwide register-based cohort study....

  11. Communal politics and religious difference in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogelman, Tatiana

    2017-01-01

    in Denmark, effectively forcing it to leave the public sphere and privatize. This came about as the municipality's Children and Youth Committee withdrew its previous willingness to accommodate the daycare's need for more closed days (due to Jewish holidays) than the officially permitted number. Drawing...

  12. Comparing Teacher Roles in Denmark and England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Peter; Dorf, Hans; Pratt, Nick; Hohmann, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a comparative study of teaching in Denmark and England. Its broader aim is to help develop an approach for comparing pedagogy. Lesson observations and interviews identified the range of goals towards which teachers in each country worked and the actions these prompted. These were clustered using the lens of…

  13. The true incidence of cryptorchidism in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, Dina; Kjellberg, Emma M; Breddam, Mette;

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Considerable controversy exists regarding the recently published high prevalence of cryptorchidism and the actual orchiopexy rate in Denmark. Therefore, we carried out another prevalence study. Materials and Methods: The study population included 1,094 consecutive males delivered alive a...

  14. Chemical Intolerance among Hairdressers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Marie Thi Dao; Elberling, Jesper; Skovbjerg, Sine;

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence and the severity of fragrance-related symptoms among hairdressers in Denmark compared with the Danish general population. Further, to characterize former hairdressers who are severely chemically intolerant to fragranced products in relation to sex, age and health- an......- and work-related reasons for leaving the hairdressing profession....

  15. Discrimination and Anti-discrimination in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tore Vincents

    The purpose of this report is to describe and analyse Danish anti-discrimination legislation and the debate about discrimination in Denmark in order to identify present and future legal challenges. The main focus is the implementation of the EU anti-discrimination directives in Danish law...

  16. Bio-SNG potential assessment: Denmark 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrenfeldt, J.; Thomsen, T. (Risoe DTU, Roskilde (Denmark)); Joergensen, Betina (Dansk Gasteknisk Center A/S, Hoersholm (Denmark))

    2010-11-15

    In this project the potential for SNG based on biomass gasification has been sought elucidated. As part of the project a model for simulation of biomass in Denmark has been developed. The conclusion is that SNG can substitute a significant amount of natural gas, but the energy efficiency should be improved. (Author)

  17. Dioxin in the atmosphere of Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vikelsoee, J.; Hovmand, M.F.; Andersen, Helle V.; Bossi, R.; Johansen, Elsebeth; Chrillesen, M.A.

    2006-03-15

    Occurrence and geographical distribution of dioxin was investigated in air and deposition at selected locations in Denmark, three forest sites in the background area, a city site in Copenhagen and a village site. At two sites simultaneously determination of dioxins concentrations in the ambient atmosphere and bulk precipitation were carried out during a period of three years. (au)

  18. The cost of tuberculosis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fløe, Andreas; Hilberg, Ole; Wejse, Christian

    Hypothesis: Tuberculosis (TB) patients carry higher direct health-related and indirect costs than the general population. Objective: To calculate the economic burden of TB in Denmark, including the health-related costs of treatment and the indirect costs for society in a national retrospective case...

  19. High mortality from tuberculosis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fløe, Andreas; Hilberg, Ole; Wejse, Christian

    Hypothesis: We hypothesize that survival among TB-patients in Denmark is lower than among the general population. Objective: To evaluate survival in a national Danish TB cohort, and to estimate relative survival compared with population controls with no TB diagnosis, in a retrospective case-contr...

  20. A review of paediatric tuberculosis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatleberg, Camilla; Prahl, Julie B; Rasmussen, Jeppe Nørgaard

    2014-01-01

    Paediatric tuberculosis (TB) is a key indicator for recent transmission and presents a reservoir for the disease. We describe trends in epidemiology, microbiological characteristics and treatment outcome in Denmark between 2000 and 2009. Data was retrieved from the national TB surveillance system...

  1. Spatio-temporal Variation in Glacier Ice as Habitat for Harbor Seals in an Alaskan Tidewater Glacier Fjord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womble, J. N.; McNabb, R. W.; Gens, R.; Prakash, A.

    2015-12-01

    Some of the largest aggregations of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardii) in Alaska occur in tidewater glacier fjords where seals rest upon icebergs that are calved from tidewater glaciers into the marine environment. The distribution, amount, and size of floating ice in fjords are likely important factors influencing the spatial distribution and abundance of harbor seals; however, fine-scale characteristics of ice habitat that are used by seals have not been quantified using automated methods. We quantified the seasonal changes in ice habitat for harbor seals in Johns Hopkins Inlet, a tidewater glacier fjord in Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska, using aerial photography, object-based image analysis, and spatial models. Aerial photographic surveys (n = 53) were conducted of seals and ice during the whelping (June) and molting (August) seasons from 2007-2014. Surveys were flown along a grid of 12 transects and high-resolution digital photos were taken directly under the plane using a vertically aimed camera. Seal abundance and spatial distribution was consistently higher during June (range: 1,672-4,340) than August (range: 1,075-2,582) and corresponded to the spatial distribution and amount of ice. Preliminary analyses from 2007 suggest that the average percent of icebergs (ice ≥ than 1.6m2) and brash ice (ice icebergs: 1.8% ± 1.6%; brash ice: 43.8% ± 38.9%) than August (icebergs: 0.2% ± 0.7%; brash ice; 15.8% ± 26.4%). Iceberg angularity (an index of iceberg shape) was also greater in June (1.7 ± 0.9) than August (0.9 ± 0.9). Potential factors that may influence the spatio-temporal variation in ice habitat for harbor seals in tidewater glacier fjords include frontal ablation rates of glaciers, fjord circulation, and local winds. Harbor seals exhibit high seasonal fidelity to tidewater glacier fjords, thus understanding the relationships between glacier dynamics and harbor seal distribution will be critical for understanding how future changes in tidewater

  2. Temporal and spatial distribution of floating objects in coastal waters of central-southern Chile and Patagonian fjords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa, Iván A.; Rivadeneira, Marcelo M.; Thiel, Martin

    2011-03-01

    Floating objects are suggested to be the principal vector for the transport and dispersal of marine invertebrates with direct development as well as catalysts for carbon and nutrient recycling in accumulation areas. The first step in identifying the ecological relevance of floating objects in a specific area is to identify their spatio-temporal distribution. We evaluated the composition, abundance, distribution, and temporal variability of floating objects along the continental coast of central-southern Chile (33-42°S) and the Patagonian fjords (42-50°S) using ship surveys conducted in austral winter (July/August) and spring (November) of the years 2002-2005 and 2008. Potential sources of floating items were identified with the aid of publicly available databases and scientific reports. We found three main types of floating objects, namely floating marine debris (mainly plastic objects and Styrofoam), wood (trunks and branches), and floating kelps ( Macrocystis pyrifera and Durvillaea antarctica). Floating marine debris were abundant along most of the examined transects, with markedly lower abundances toward the southern fjord areas. Floating marine debris abundances generally corresponded to the distribution of human activities, and were highest in the Interior Sea of Chiloé, where aquaculture activities are intense. Floating wood appeared sporadically in the study area, often close to the main rivers. In accordance with seasonal river run-off, wood was more abundant along the continental coast in winter (rainy season) and in the Patagonian fjords during the spring surveys (snow melt). Densities of the two floating kelp species were similar along the continental coast, without a clear seasonal pattern. M. pyrifera densities increased towards the south, peaking in the Patagonian fjords, where it was dominant over D. antarctica. Densities of M. pyrifera in the Patagonian fjords were highest in spring. Correlation analyses between the abundances of floating

  3. Knee arthroplasty in Denmark, Norway and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizjajeva, Svetlana; Fenstad, Anne Marie; Furnes, Ove; Lidgren, Lars; Mehnert, Frank; Odgaard, Anders; Pedersen, Alma Becic; Havelin, Leif Ivar

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose The number of national arthroplasty registries is increasing. However, the methods of registration, classification, and analysis often differ. Methods We combined data from 3 Nordic knee arthroplasty registers, comparing demographics, methods, and overall results. Primary arthroplasties during the period 1997–2007 were included. Each register produced a dataset of predefined variables, after which the data were combined and descriptive and survival statistics produced. Results The incidence of knee arthroplasty increased in all 3 countries, but most in Denmark. Norway had the lowest number of procedures per hospital—less than half that of Sweden and Denmark. The preference for implant brands varied and only 3 total brands and 1 unicompartmental brand were common in all 3 countries. Use of patellar button for total knee arthroplasty was popular in Denmark (76%) but not in Norway (11%) or Sweden (14%). Uncemented or hybrid fixation of components was also more frequent in Denmark (22%) than in Norway (14%) and Sweden (2%). After total knee arthroplasty for osteoarthritis, the cumulative revision rate (CRR) was lowest in Sweden, with Denmark and Norway having a relative risk (RR) of 1.4 (95% CI: 1.3–1.6) and 1.6 (CI: 1.4–1.7) times higher. The result was similar when only including brands used in more than 200 cases in all 3 countries (AGC, Duracon, and NexGen). After unicompartmental arthroplasty for osteoarthritis, the CRR for all models was also lowest in Sweden, with Denmark and Norway having RRs of 1.7 (CI: 1.4–2.0) and 1.5 (CI: 1.3–1.8), respectively. When only the Oxford implant was analyzed, however, the CRRs were similar and the RRs were 1.2 (CI: 0.9–1.7) and 1.3 (CI: 1.0–1.7). Interpretation We found considerable differences between the 3 countries, with Sweden having a lower revision rate than Denmark and Norway. Further classification and standardization work is needed to permit more elaborate studies. PMID:20180723

  4. Analysis of flow signatures and catchment similarity indices for catchment classification in Yesilirmak Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyugur, Batuhan; Yilmaz, Koray K.

    2017-04-01

    Catchment classification schemes aim to identify groups of hydrologically similar catchments to enable a mapping between catchment physical characteristics and hydro-climatic conditions with the catchment functioning. This mapping, together with the quantified uncertainties, potentially facilitates improved process understanding, transfer of this understanding to ungauged catchments, model parameter regionalization and hence improve operational applications and watershed management. Although many studies focusing on the topic of catchment classification exist in the literature, there is yet no general consensus on the number and type of similarity metrics that should be included in such analysis. The aim of this study is to first carefully derive hydrologically relevant similarity metrics from catchment physical (elevation, area, slope, geology, soils, land use etc.), climatic (seasonality, temperature, aridity index etc.) and hydrologic response characteristics (flow signatures) and then utilize Affinity Propagation clustering algorithm to determine the optimal number of groupings based on individual as well as a combination of these similarity metrics. The study area is comprised of 24 sub-catchments located in the Yesilirmak Basin, Turkey, where daily streamflow and meteorological variables are available. The metrics that are based on flow signatures summarize a number of behavioral functions of the watershed system including those derived from flow duration curve (overall water balance, vertical redistribution) as well as temporal redistribution of flow (seasonality etc.). Our initial results indicated that inclusion of information on geology and seasonality (climate and flow) appears to be promising in delineating the hydrologic functioning of the catchments.

  5. Glacial meltwater influences on plankton community structure and the importance of top-down control (of primary production) in a NE Greenland fjord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Kristine Engel; Agersted, Mette Dalgaard; Sejr, Mikael Kristian; Juul-Pedersen, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Freshwater runoff from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) can be an important driver influencing plankton community structure in Greenland fjords. In the present study, we describe physical, taxonomic and functional differences in the plankton community in Young Sound, a NE Greenland fjord, from the inner fjord close to the GIS towards the coastal region in late summer. The fjord is influenced by runoff from land-terminating glaciers that separated the surface layer from cold underlying waters. The highest chlorophyll a concentration ( 74.9% of the total copepod biomass at all stations, and their grazing impact was the highest among the copepod groups. Copepod grazing impact on the phytoplankton standing stock, however, was exceeded by microzooplankton grazing, investigated by dilution experiments, with the highest grazing impact on the phytoplankton standing stock of 63% d-1 in the inner part of the fjord. In spite of high phytoplankton instantaneous growth rates at the innermost fjord station, proto-zooplankton was capable of controlling the phytoplankton production. The study showed functional differences within the system and provides indications of how dynamic the coastal ecosystem of Greenland can be.

  6. Examination of catchment areas for public transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Hansen, Stephen; Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents a method to examine the catchment areas for stops in high quality public transport systems based on the street network in the examined area. This is achieved by implementing the Service Area functions from the ArcGIS extension Network Analyst. The method is compared to a more...... simple method using only the Euclidean distance from the examined stop and the paper describes the differences in detail-level of the results. Furthermore, the paper describes how the Service Area method can be used to examine increments in the catchment areas by adding extra entrances to stations...... or by making changes in the street network around the station. The paper also discusses the degree of realism in the used GIS networks and how it can affect the size of the catchment areas. It is concluded that the Service Area method improves the detail-level and accuracy in catchment area analyses...

  7. Maternal mortality in Denmark, 1985-1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Betina Ristorp; Westergaard, Hanne Brix; Bødker, Birgit; Weber, Tom; Møller, Margrete; Sørensen, Jette Led

    2009-02-01

    In Denmark, maternal mortality has been reported over the last century, both locally through hospital reports and in national registries. The purpose of this study was to analyze data from national medical registries of pregnancy-related deaths in Denmark 1985-1994 and to classify them according to the UK Confidential Enquiry into Maternal Deaths (CEMD). All deaths of women with a registered pregnancy within 12 months prior to the death were identified by comparing the Danish medical registries, death certificates, and relevant codes according to International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). All cases were classified using the UK CEMD classification. Cases of maternal death were further evaluated by an audit group. 311 cases were classified. 92 deaths (29.6%) occurred 42 days), 1 woman died from a direct obstetric cause, 46 from indirect causes, and 172 from fortuitous causes. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were the major cause of direct maternal deaths. The rate of maternal deaths constituted 9.8/100,000 maternities (i.e. the number of women delivering registrable live births at any gestation or stillbirths at 24 weeks of gestation or later). This is the first systematic report on deaths in Denmark based on data from national registries. The maternal mortality rate in Denmark is comparable to the rates in other developed countries. Fortunately, statistics are low, but each case represents potential learning. Obstetric care has changed and classification methods differ between countries. Prospective registration and registry linkage seem to be a way to ensure completion. This retrospective study has provided the background for a prospective study on registration and evaluation of maternal mortality in Denmark.

  8. A new perspective on catchment storage gained from a nested catchment experiment in Luxembourg (Europe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Laurent; Klaus, Julian; Hissler, Christophe; François Iffly, Jean; Gourdol, Laurent; Martinez-Carreras, Nuria; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.

    2014-05-01

    Recent hydrological process research focussed on how much water a catchment can store and how these catchments store and release water. Storage can be a valuable metric for catchment description, inter-comparison, and classification. Further storage controls catchment mixing, non-linearities in rainfall-runoff transformation and eco-hydrological processes. Various methods exist to determine catchment storage (e.g. natural tracer, soil moisture and groundwater data, hydrological models). Today it remains unclear what parts of the catchment storage are measured with the different models. Here we present a new hydrometric approach to answer the question how much water a catchment can store. We tested our approach in a dense hydro-climatological monitoring network that encompasses 16 recording streamgauges and 21 pluviographs in the Alzette River basin in Luxembourg (Europe). Catchment scales are ranging from 0.47 to 285 km2 and they have clean- and mixed combinations of distinct geologies ranging from schists to marls, sandstone, dolomite and limestone. Previous investigations in the area of interest have shown that geology largely controls winter runoff coefficients. Here, we focus at how catchment geology is ultimately affecting catchment storage. We used the approach of Sayama et al. (2011) to compute catchment dynamic storage changes for each winter season over the period 2002-2012 (based on precipitation as input; discharge and evapotranspiration as output). We determined dynamic storage changes for each winter semester (October to March) in all 16 catchments over the period 2002-2012. At the beginning of each hydrological winter season, all catchments showed similar trends in storage change. A few weeks into the winter season, catchments with lowest permeability (e.g. marls) started to plateau. The highest storage values were reached several months later in the season in catchments dominated by permeable substrate (e.g. sandstone). For most catchments, we found

  9. Understanding Pesticide Behaviour At The Catchment Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, N.; White, S. M.; Worrall, F.; Pendlington, D.; Groves, S.

    Pesticides in stream flow at the outlet of a 142ha catchment in Eastern England (Col- worth, Bedfordshire), have been monitored since October 1999. About 50% of the total catchment is directly controlled within one farm and a rotation of wheat, oil seed rape, grass, linseed, beans and peas is grown. The data from this catchment are being used to investigate the performance of the USDA SWAT contaminant transport pack- age at the catchment scale. Three years of stream flow and climate data are available with a useful set of pesticide application and detection data. Following calibration and validation of the hydrology of the catchment, pesticide modelling was carried out for tebuconazole, terbutryn, and terbuthylazine. This paper reports on the results of a sen- sitivity analysis of the model, and the final calibrated pesticide component. Analysis of the results obtained show that the timing and decay of predicted pesticide concen- trations are correct. It is therefore recommended that SWAT can be used as a tool to understand pesticide behaviour at the catchment scale.

  10. Topic: Catchment system dynamics: Processes and feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesstra, Saskia

    2015-04-01

    In this meeting we can talk about my main expertise: the focus of my research ocus revolves around understanding catchment system dynamics in a holistic way by incorporating both processes on hillslopes as well as in the river channel. Process knowledge enables explanation of the impact of natural and human drivers on the catchment systems and which consequences these drivers have for water and sediment connectivity. Improved understanding of the catchment sediment and water dynamics will empower sustainable land and river management and mitigate soil threats like erosion and off-side water and sediment accumulation with the help of nature's forces. To be able to understand the system dynamics of a catchment, you need to study the catchment system in a holistic way. In many studies only the hillslopes or even plots are studied; or only the channel. However, these systems are connected and should be evaluated together. When studying a catchment system any intervention to the system will create both on- as well as off sites effects, which should especially be taken into account when transferring science into policy regulations or management decisions.

  11. Results of national lake surveys 1995 in Finland, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Russian Kola, Russian Karelia, Scotland and Wales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriksen, Arne; Skjelkvaale, Brit Lisa [Norsk Inst. for Vannforskning, Oslo (Norway); Mannio, Jaakko [FEI, (Finland)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    Beginning in 1995, national lake surveys were conducted in the above North European countries. This report provides the first united evaluation of lake water chemistry in Northern Europe. It was found that, except for Denmark, the water was characterized by low ionic strength and had low content of nitrogen and phosphorus. In Finland, Norway, Sweden, Russian Kola and Karelia more than 50% of the lakes had low critical load (CL) values for sulphur acidity (S), while Scotland, Wales and Denmark had very few lakes with low CL for S. The highest percentage (27%) of lakes with exceedence of CL for S was found in Norway, while the values for Russian Kola, Sweden and Finland were 17%, 9% and 9%, respectively. In Scotland and Wales, critical loads for sulphur acidity were exceeded in 1% of the total lake population. For Denmark and Russian Karelia, too few lakes were sampled to give reliable estimates. This adds up to approximately 22000 lakes in Northern Europe where CL for S was exceeded. However, this number of lakes is a minimum as exceedence of CL for N was not included in the calculation due to lack of catchment data. 26 refs., 21 figs., 13 tabs.

  12. Assessing catchment connectivity using hysteretic loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jason; Masselink, Rens; Goni, Mikel; Gimenez, Rafael; Casali, Javier; Seeger, Manuel; Keesstra, Saskia

    2017-04-01

    Storm events mobilize large proportions of sediments in catchment systems. Therefore understanding catchment sediment dynamics throughout the continuity of storms and how initial catchment states act as controls on the transport of sediment to catchment outlets is important for effective catchment management. Sediment connectivity is a concept which can explain the origin, pathways and sinks of sediments within catchments (Baartman et al., 2013; Parsons et al., 2015; Masselink et al., 2016a,b; Mekonnen et al., 2016). However, sediment connectivity alone does not provide a practicable mechanism by which the catchment's initial state - and thus the location of entrained sediment in the sediment transport cascade - can be characterized. Studying the dynamic relationship between water discharge (Q) and suspended sediment (SS) at the catchment outlet can provide a valuable research tool to infer the likely source areas and flow pathways contributing to sediment transport because the relationship can be characterized by predictable hysteresis patterns. Hysteresis is observed when the sediment concentration associated with a certain flow rate is different depending on the direction in which the analysis is performed - towards the increase or towards the diminution of the flow. However, the complexity of the phenomena and factors which determine the hysteresis make its interpretation ambiguous. Previous work has described various types of hysteretic loops as well as the cause for the shape of the loop, mainly pointing to the origin of the sediments. The data set for this study comes from four experimental watersheds in Navarre (Spain), owned and maintained by the Government of Navarre. These experimental watersheds have been monitored and studied since 1996 (La Tejería and Latxaga) and 2001 (Oskotz principal and Oskotz woodland). La Tejería and Latxaga watersheds are similar to each other regarding size (approximately 200 ha), geology (marls and sandstones), soils (fine

  13. Microsatellite DNA reveals population genetic differentiation among sprat (Sprattus sprattus) sampled throughout the Northeast Atlantic, including Norwegian fjords

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glover, Kevin A.; Skaala, Øystein; Limborg, Morten;

    2011-01-01

    Glover, K. A., Skaala, Ø., Limborg, M., Kvamme, C., and Torstensen, E. Microsatellite DNA reveals population genetic differentiation among sprat (Sprattus sprattus) sampled throughout the Northeast Atlantic, including Norwegian fjords. – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 68: 2145–2151. Sprat...... (Sprattus sprattus), small pelagic shoaling fish, were sampled from the Celtic, North, and Baltic seas, and 10 Norwegian fjords. Significant overall genetic differentiation was observed among samples when analysed with eight microsatellite DNA loci (Global FST = 0.0065, p ... differences were observed between the Baltic and all other samples (largest pairwise FST = 0.043, p sample from the Celtic Sea (CEL) and the North Sea (NSEA; FST = 0.001, p = 0.16), but variable levels of genetic differentiation were...

  14. Kommentarer til Modeller for Danske Fjorde og Kystnære Havområder - opfølgning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jan Kloppenborg; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo

    2016-01-01

    Formålet med denne opfølgning til det første notat[2] er at tilføje en måde at beregne usikkerhederne vha af sammenligning af resultater præsenteret i ”Modeller for Danske Fjorde og Kystnære Havområder”, som er udarbejdet af DHI og Aarhus Universitet, DCE[1].......Formålet med denne opfølgning til det første notat[2] er at tilføje en måde at beregne usikkerhederne vha af sammenligning af resultater præsenteret i ”Modeller for Danske Fjorde og Kystnære Havområder”, som er udarbejdet af DHI og Aarhus Universitet, DCE[1]....

  15. Conceptual PHES-system models of the Aysén watershed and fjord (Southern Chile): testing a brainstorming strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Víctor H; Delgado, Luisa E; Bachmann, Pamela

    2008-09-01

    The use of brainstorming techniques for the generation of conceptual models, as the basis for the integrated management of physical-ecological-social systems (PHES-systems) is tested and discussed. The methodology is applied in the analysis of the Aysén fjord and watershed (Southern Chilean Coast). Results show that the proposed methods can be adequately used in management scenarios characterized by highly hierarchical, experts/non-experts membership.

  16. The Saguenay Fjord, Quebec, Canada: Integrating marine geotechnical and geophysical data for spatial seismic slope stability and hazard assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urgeles, R.; Locat, J.; Lee, H.J.; Martin, F.

    2002-01-01

    In 1996 a major flood occurred in the Saguenay region, Quebec, Canada, delivering several km3 of sediment to the Saguenay Fjord. Such sediments covered large areas of the, until then, largely contaminated fjord bottom, thus providing a natural capping layer. Recent swath bathymetry data have also shown that sediment landslides are widely present in the upper section of the Saguenay Fjord, and therefore, should a new event occur, it would probably expose the old contaminated sediments. Landslides in the Upper Saguenay Fjord are most probably due to earthquakes given its proximity to the Charlevoix seismic region and to that of the 1988 Saguenay earthquake. In consequence, this study tries to characterize the permanent ground deformations induced by different earthquake scenarios from which shallow sediment landslides could be triggered. The study follows a Newmark analysis in which, firstly, the seismic slope performance is assessed, secondly, the seismic hazard analyzed, and finally an evaluation of the seismic landslide hazard is made. The study is based on slope gradients obtained from EM1000 multibeam bathymetry data as well as water content and undrained shear strength measurements made in box and gravity cores. Ground motions integrating local site conditions were simulated using synthetic time histories. The study assumes the region of the 1988 Saguenay earthquake as the most likely source area for earthquakes capable of inducing large ground motions in the Upper Saguenay region. Accordingly, we have analyzed several shaking intensities to deduce that generalized sediment displacements will begin to occur when moment magnitudes exceed 6. Major displacements, failure, and subsequent landslides could occur only from earthquake moment magnitudes exceeding 6.75. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Chlorophyll-a thin layers in the Magellan fjord system: The role of the water column stratification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, Francisco; Kilian, Rolf; Mutschke, Erika

    2016-08-01

    Fjord systems represent hotspots of primary productivity and organic carbon burial. However, the factors which control the primary production in mid-latitude fjords are poorly understood. In this context, results from the first fine-scale measurements of bio-oceanographic features in the water column of fjords associated with the Strait of Magellan are presented. A submersible fluorescence probe (FP) was used to measure the Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration in situ, along with conductivity, temperature, hydrostatic pressure (depth) and dissolved oxygen (CTD-O2) of the water column. The Austral spring results of 14 FP-CTD-O2 profiles were used to define the vertical and horizontal patches of the fluorescent pigment distribution and their spatial relations with respect to the observed hydrographic features. Three zones with distinct water structures were defined. In all zones, the 'brown' spectral group (diatoms and dinoflagellates) predominated accounting for >80 wt% of the phytoplankton community. Thin layers with high Chl-a concentration were detected in 50% of the profiles. These layers harbored a substantial amount (30-65 wt%) of the phytoplankton biomass. Stratification was positively correlated to the occurrence of Chl-a thin layers. In stable and highly stratified water columns the integrated Chl-a concentration was higher and frequently located within thin layers whereas well mixed water columns displayed lower values and more homogeneous vertical distribution of Chl-a. These results indicate that mixing/stability processes are important factors accounting to the vertical distribution of Chl-a in Magellan fjords.

  18. New cosmogenic exposure dates from Sermilik Fjord, southeast Greenland document rapid early Holocene retreat of Helheim Glacier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, A. L.; Rainsley, E.; Murray, T.; Fogwill, C. J.

    2010-12-01

    Marine-terminating glaciers are currently the dominant route for mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS). Over the last decade Helheim Glacier, in concert with the majority of marine-terminating glaciers of the southeast sector of the GrIS, has exhibited dramatic changes in speed, thinning and retreat rates. The Holocene retreat history of the outlet glaciers of southeast Greenland is, however, largely unconstrained. Without detailed records of retreat over longer-time scales recent changes cannot be placed in context, nor is there sufficient evidence to constrain ice sheet models for improved estimates of future sea level rise. We present the first direct chronological constraint on the retreat of ice from Sermilik Fjord in southeast Greenland, the former drainage route of Helheim Glacier. Samples spanning the full length of the 80 km fjord were collected from erratics and streamlined bedrock in July 2009-10 and analysed for terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide (10Be) dating. Overlapping exposure ages indicate rapid evacuation of ice from much of the fjord at around 10.5 ka BP. Such substantial early Holocene retreat coincides with establishment of the local marine limit at c. 11 ka BP (Long et al. 2008). The new dates extend and confirm results from a tributary valley close to the fjord mouth that placed retreat from the present day coastline at c. 11.5 ka (Roberts et al. 2008). References: Roberts, D.H., Long, A.J., Schnabel, C., Freeman, S. and Simpson, M.J.R. 2008. The deglacial history of southeast sector of the Greenland Ice Sheet during the Last Glacial Maximum. Quaternary Science Reviews, 27, 1505-1516. Long, A.J., Roberts, R.H., Simpson, M.J.R., Dawson, S., Milne, G.A. and Huybrechts, P. 2008. Late Weichselian relative sea-level changes and ice sheet history in southeast Greenland. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 272, 8-18.

  19. Ice-dammed lake drainage cools and raises surface salinities in a tidewater outlet glacier fjord, west Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjeldsen, K. K.; Mortensen, J.; Bendtsen, J.; Petersen, D.; Lennert, K.; Rysgaard, S.

    2014-06-01

    The drainage of ice-dammed lakes in the form of outburst floods in Greenland is detected regularly by remote sensing, and these events are expected to occur more frequently in a warmer climate. However, their impact on ice sheet stability and neighboring water bodies is still unknown. In this interdisciplinary study, we investigate lake drainages from the Greenland Ice Sheet into a west Greenland fjord by analyzing simultaneous time series of satellite observations and direct hydrographic measurements of temperature and salinity in the fjord. Satellite images show that, in general, lake drainages have occurred quasiperiodically during the last decade. A particular sequence of drainage events was observed by satellite in 2009 and was analyzed together with the first direct hydrographic observations. Signs of ice-dammed lake drainages were observed by a downstream mooring located just below the intertidal zone. The release of freshwater occurred at the fjord subsurface at a tidewater outlet glacier. The downstream in-water sequence of property changes in relation to these drainage events was observed as an almost immediate decrease in surface layer temperature (~2°C) followed within a week by the arrival of a high-saline pulse (~ +5 units) with elevated salinity lasting for several days during the passage. During lake drainages, large amounts of relatively warm and saline intermediate water are brought to the near-surface layers by entrainment processes near the glacier front, and this influences the hydrography of the fjord but also impacts the ecosystem through upwelling of nutrient-rich intermediate water.

  20. Detecting groundwater discharge dynamics from point to catchment scale in a lowland stream: combining hydraulic and tracer methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Poulsen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Detecting, quantifying, and understanding groundwater discharge to streams are crucial for the assessment of water, nutrient and contaminant exchange at the surface water–groundwater interface. In lowland agricultural catchments with significant groundwater discharge this is of particular importance because of the risk of excess leaching of nutrients to streams. Here we aim to combine hydraulic and tracer methods from point to catchment scale to assess the temporal and spatial variability of groundwater discharge in a lowland, groundwater gaining stream in Denmark. At the point scale groundwater fluxes to the stream were quantified based on Vertical streambed Temperature Profiles (VTP. At the reach scale (0.15–2 km the spatial distribution of zones of focused groundwater discharge was investigated by the use of Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS. Groundwater discharge to the stream was quantified using differential gauging with an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP. At the catchment scale (26–114 km2 runoff sources during main rain events were investigated by hydrograph separations based on Electrical Conductivity (EC and stable isotopes 2H / 1H. Clear differences in runoff sources between catchments were detected, ranging from approximately 65% event water for the most responsive sub-catchment and less than 10% event water for the least responsive sub-catchment. This shows a large variability in groundwater discharge to the stream, despite the similar lowland characteristics of sub-catchments, indicating the usefulness of environmental tracers for obtaining information about integrated catchment functioning during events. There were also clear spatial patterns of focused groundwater discharge detected by the DTS and ADCP measurements at the reach scale suggesting high spatial variability, where a significant part of groundwater discharge was concentrated in few zones indicating the possibility of concentrated nutrient or pollutant

  1. A complete re-assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments of the Saguenay Fjord (Quebec)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelletier, E.; Cote, N.; Curtosi, A.; St-Louis, R. [Quebec Univ., Rimouski, PQ (Canada). Institut des Sciences de la Mer de Rimouski

    2003-07-01

    The sediments in the Saguenay Fjord and the Baie des HaHa were contaminated during the 1960s and 1970s. A study was conducted in the Spring of 2002 to obtain new data on the spatio-temporal distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the sediments. Five sediment cores were sampled from different areas of the Fjord and analyzed for their PAH content by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Total PAHs were reported for the first 28 cm of each core. The mean concentration in the surface layer was 310 ng/g with a maximum value of 460 ng/g found in the North Arm of the Fjord. The lowest value of 227 ng/g was found in the Baie des HaHa. Surface values were between 10 and 30 times lower than those reported in samples from a 1982 study. The maximum PAH values were found in layers between 15 and 28 cm in depth, suggesting a slow burying process of the highly contaminated sediments.

  2. An approach to predict water quality in data-sparse catchments using hydrological catchment similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohle, Ina; Glendell, Miriam; Stutter, Marc I.; Helliwell, Rachel C.

    2017-04-01

    An understanding of catchment response to climate and land use change at a regional scale is necessary for the assessment of mitigation and adaptation options addressing diffuse nutrient pollution. It is well documented that the physicochemical properties of a river ecosystem respond to change in a non-linear fashion. This is particularly important when threshold water concentrations, relevant to national and EU legislation, are exceeded. Large scale (regional) model assessments required for regulatory purposes must represent the key processes and mechanisms that are more readily understood in catchments with water quantity and water quality data monitored at high spatial and temporal resolution. While daily discharge data are available for most catchments in Scotland, nitrate and phosphorus are mostly available on a monthly basis only, as typified by regulatory monitoring. However, high resolution (hourly to daily) water quantity and water quality data exist for a limited number of research catchments. To successfully implement adaptation measures across Scotland, an upscaling from data-rich to data-sparse catchments is required. In addition, the widespread availability of spatial datasets affecting hydrological and biogeochemical responses (e.g. soils, topography/geomorphology, land use, vegetation etc.) provide an opportunity to transfer predictions between data-rich and data-sparse areas by linking processes and responses to catchment attributes. Here, we develop a framework of catchment typologies as a prerequisite for transferring information from data-rich to data-sparse catchments by focusing on how hydrological catchment similarity can be used as an indicator of grouped behaviours in water quality response. As indicators of hydrological catchment similarity we use flow indices derived from observed discharge data across Scotland as well as hydrological model parameters. For the latter, we calibrated the lumped rainfall-runoff model TUWModel using multiple

  3. Evolution of a trough-fan system: Scoresby Sund fjord, central-east Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Lara F.; Nielsen, Tove; Knutz, Paul C.; Kuijpers, Antoon; Damm, Volkmar

    2016-04-01

    The continental shelf along the east margin of Greenland is shaped by several, glacially carved transverse troughs that constitute the oceanward extension of the major fjords. Scoresby Sund is the most prominent fjord of central-east Greenland and separates Liverpool Land, to the north, from Blosseville Kyst to the south. Offshore of Scoresby Sund a large glacial trough mouth fan (TMF) has been built through successive phases of glacial advances. Morpho-structural and seismo-stratigraphic analyses of the Scoresby Sund TMF have been done using all Multichannel Seismic (MCS) profiles available in the area. The ODP site 987 of the leg 162 is located in the abyssal plain offshore of Scoresby Sund and was used for age estimations. The width of the continental shelf in the study area ranges from a 65 km narrow part along the Blosseville Kyst to 120 km off Scoresby Sund. The average water depth is shallower than 300 m, deepening to 600 m along Scoresby Sund glacial trough. Oceanwards a steep slope, seafloor falls into the 2250 m deep abyssal plain of the south Greenland Sea. The sedimentary cover displays maximum thickness along the middle continental shelf (2.8 s TWTT on average). Seven major stratigraphic discontinuities could be identified within the sedimentary record. They restrict eight major seismic units, named from 8 to 1, in upward stratigraphic order. The distribution and seismic facies of these units reveal the evolutionary sequence of the study area from early Cenozoic to Present. The lowest unit, Unit 8, is post-basalt to middle-late Miocene age and represents a pre-glacial depositional stage when tectonic events controlled the sedimentation. Deposition of Unit 7 occurred by late Miocene, revealing glacial-related deposits and ice-stream along Scoresby Sund fjord. Unit 6 was formed during early Pliocene by glacial advance over the continental shelf leading to strong erosive surfaces in the shelf area and Mass Transport Deposits (MTDs) in the northern abyssal

  4. Glacier inputs influence organic matter composition and prokaryotic distribution in a high Arctic fjord (Kongsfjorden, Svalbard)

    KAUST Repository

    Bourgeois, Solveig

    2016-08-23

    With climate change, the strong seasonality and tight pelagic-benthic coupling in the Arctic is expected to change in the next few decades. It is currently unclear how the benthos will be affected by changes of environmental conditions such as supplies of organic matter (OM) from the water column. In the last decade, Kongsfjorden (79°N), a high Arctic fjord in Svalbard influenced by several glaciers and Atlantic water inflow, has been a site of great interest owing to its high sensitivity to climate change, evidenced by a reduction in ice cover and an increase in melting freshwater. To investigate how spatial and seasonal changes in vertical fluxes can impact the benthic compartment of Kongsfjorden, we studied the organic matter characteristics (in terms of quantity and quality) and prokaryotic distribution in sediments from 3 stations along a transect extending from the glacier into the outer fjord in 4 different seasons (spring, summer, autumn and winter) in 2012–2013. The biochemical parameters used to describe the sedimentary organic matter were organic carbon (OC), total nitrogen, bulk stable isotope ratios, pigments (chorophyll-a and phaeopigments) and biopolymeric carbon (BPC), which is the sum of the main macromolecules, i.e. lipids, proteins and carbohydrates. Prokaryotic abundance and distribution were estimated by 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining. This study identifies a well-marked quantitative gradient of biogenic compounds throughout all seasons and also highlights a discrepancy between the quantity and quality of sedimentary organic matter within the fjord. The sediments near the glacier were organic-poor (< 0.3%OC), however the high primary productivity in the water column displayed during spring was reflected in summer sediments, and exhibited higher freshness of material at the inner station compared to the outer basin (means C-chlorophyll-a/OC ~ 5 and 1.5%, respectively). However, sediments at the glacier front were depleted

  5. Molecular tracing of VHS in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Susie Sommer; Schuetze, H.; Korsholm, H.

    and scenario-simulation models to identify important factors for the spread of disease and to develop and evaluate new control strategies. Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia Virus (VHSV) is one of the most important viral fish diseases and is widely spread all over Europe and creates significant losses every year......MOLTRAQ is a pan-European project that aims to increase knowledge on a wide array of economically important viral diseases in fish and molluscs on both the epidemiological and the genetic level. It centers on the use of spatio-temporal and phylogenetic information to create phylogeographic...... for European fish farmers. VHSV has been endemic in Denmark since the 1950’s but after an effective control and eradication programme that spanned more than 45 years the virus was finally eradicated from Denmark in 2009. As part of MOLTRAQ more than 200 Danish isolates, including isolates from both marine...

  6. The Sale of Alcohol in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Lisbeth; Milhøj, Anders

    2005-01-01

    . The sale of spirits has been fairly stable. Modelling the system of the beer-share and the wine-share we want to split the total development into a part that can be ascribed to changes in the relative prices and a part that can be explained by changes in taste and drinking habits specified as a trend....... By specifying a system conditionally on the prices of beer, wine and spirits and a trend we manage to estimate price sensitivity and taste sensitivity. A small forecasting exercise shows that the final model is fairly good at predicting changes in the shares due to price changes. Finally, the effects......In the following we will analyse the sale of alcohol in Denmark. Various figures related to this question are published by Statistics Denmark at different frequencies. Our main concern will be with quarterly data for the sale of beer, wine and spirits from the period 1990 - 2004. Our two hypotheses...

  7. Visibly ethnically different families in Denmark & Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    . Alongside colorblindness, limited/ missing racialisation discussions, the visible bodies of spouses, children in the mixed families and the transnational adoptees are made salient in their everyday lives in interactions with the white majority population through experiences as gaze, curious questions......This paper foregounds visibly ethnically different families (Phoenix, 2011) in Denmark. These comprise both.families with parents from two different countries (India and Denmark) and families with transnational adoptees (South Korea). The former are barely scientifically explored due...... to the dominant colorblindness discourse, while later comprise a heated topic challenging poor (global south) adoptee meeting a loving Danish family’ discourse. How do these family members narrate their experiences of societal encounter is the research question, which is answered through two qualitative interview...

  8. Comparison of future energy scenarios for Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwon, Pil Seok; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2012-01-01

    Scenario-making is becoming an important tool in energy policy making and energy systems analyses. This article probes into the making of scenarios for Denmark by presenting a comparison of three future scenarios which narrate 100% renewable energy system for Denmark in 2050; IDA 2050, Climate...... Commission 2050, and CEESA (Coherent Energy and Environmental System Analysis). Generally, although with minor differences, the scenarios suggest the same technological solutions for the future such as expansion of biomass usage and wind power capacity, integration of transport sector into the other energy...... sectors. The methodologies used in two academic scenarios, IDA 2050 and CEESA, are compared. The main differences in the methodologies of IDA 2050 and CEESA are found in the estimation of future biomass potential, transport demand assessment, and a trial to examine future power grid in an electrical...

  9. Ascariasis Is a Zoonosis in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejsum, Peter; Parker, E. Davis; Frydenberg, Jane; Roepstorff, Allan; Boes, Jaap; Haque, Rashidul; Astrup, Ingrid; Prag, Jørgen; Skov Sørensen, Uffe B.

    2005-01-01

    A preliminary epidemiological survey indicated an association between Ascaris infections in Danish patients and contact with pigs or pig manure. In the present study, we compared Ascaris worms collected from humans and Ascaris worms collected from pigs by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis, a technique for whole-genome fingerprinting, and by PCR-linked restricted fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of nuclear rDNA. The AFLP data were analyzed by distance- and model-based clustering methods. These results assigned Ascaris worms from Danish patients to a cluster different from that for worms from humans in other geographic areas. In contrast, worms from humans and pigs in Denmark were assigned to the same cluster. These results were supported by the PCR-RFLP results. Thus, all of the examined Danish patients had acquired Ascaris infections from domestic pigs; ascariasis may therefore be considered a zoonotic disease in Denmark. PMID:15750075

  10. The Market for Hospital Medicine in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hostenkamp, Gisela

    2012-01-01

    increases and use summary statistics to compare market performance in both sectors. The market for hospital medicine is more concentrated than the pharmaceutical retail sector and the share of generics and parallel imported products is significantly lower. Between 2005 and 2009 expenditures for hospital...... for hospital medicines and their procurement are still poorly understood. The present paper characterises the market for hospital medicines in Denmark in terms of its organisation and developments between 2005 and 2009. In Denmark hospital medicines are publicly financed and procurement is centrally organised....... 98% of all medicines administered at Danish public hospitals are purchased through a public procurement agency by means of public tenders. Using data on actual contract prices we decompose pharmaceutical expenditure growth into the contributions from newly introduced medicines, price and volume...

  11. Religious Education research in welfare state Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchardt, Mette

    2017-01-01

    The article deals with forms of knowledge and types of research interests in scholarly work on Religious Education at the primary and lower secondary levels in Denmark throughout the heyday of the welfare state from the 1960s and up until the 2000s, when the welfare state model not least...... and thus in a changed institutional field. Drawing on the conceptual understanding of the field of educational sciences deriving from Hofstetter and Schneuwly (2002), the article analyzes ways of doing research in and related to Religious Education and the scholarly disciplines involved. Focus...... with regard to education was in transition. The point of departure is the work and oeuvre of K.E. Bugge, for many years – and remaining until now – the last professor of Religious Education in Denmark, namely at the Royal Danish School of Education (Danmarks Lærerhøjskole) which reorganized as Danish...

  12. Incidence and prevalence of epilepsy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jakob; Vestergaard, Mogens; Pedersen, Marianne G

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: To estimate the occurrence of epilepsy in Denmark between 1977 and 2002, taking gender, age, and secular trends into consideration. METHODS: We used the Danish Civil Registration System to identify all persons born in Denmark and the Danish National Hospital Register to identify persons...... registered with epilepsy between 1977 and 2002. RESULTS: Between 1977 and 2002 the average incidence of epilepsy was 68.8 new epilepsy patients per 100,000 person-years at risk. However, the incidence changed with calendar time and increased steeply from 1990 to 1995, probably due to changes in diagnostic...... declined from a high level in children to a low level between 20 and 40 years of age, and thereafter a gradual increase was seen. The incidence rate was slightly higher in men than in women except for the age range 10-20 years. About 2% of the population was diagnosed with epilepsy at some point during...

  13. Summer-house package, Slettestrand, Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, S.O. [Danish Technical Inst., Taastruup (Denmark). Solar Energy Centre

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of this system is to keep buildings dry by blowing solar-heated ambient air into the building during hours of sunshine. Several hundred of these mass-produced solar air systems have been sold, chiefly in Denmark and Spain. In Denmark, the Summer- House Package is mostly used to keep summer houses and week-end cottages dry during the winter, in order to prevent moisture damage to furniture, etc. In Spain it is used to dehumidify dwellings. For space heating gas is often burned in furnaces without chimneys, which generates much moisture in the building and consequently damages the walls. Yearly repainting of the house interior can be avoided by the installation of this system. Mass-production 'do-it-yourself' building kits make the system very inexpensive. (author)

  14. Toftegard multi-family houses, Herlev, Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, S.O. [Danish Technical Inst., Taastruup (Denmark). Solar Energy Centre

    1999-07-01

    Two roof space collector systems for preheating domestic hot water have been installed during the renovation of the Toftegard multi-family houses built in the early 1950s. As part of the renovation, instead of renovation of the old roofs, a new floor of apartments was erected on top of the old buildings. The renovation increased the living area by 25% without increasing the heating and water demand, thanks also to other energy-saving measures in the existing dwellings. No rent increase for the occupants of the older apartments has been necessary. The roof-space solar air collectors cover 33% of the demand for domestic hot water for 184 apartments. The actual performance of the systems is as expected. The economies are the same as for solar heating systems with liquid collectors in Denmark. Toftegard received the environmental award of the Federation of Non-profit Housing in Denmark in 1994. (author)

  15. Prevalence of generalized retinal dystrophy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mette; Jensen, Hanne; Bregnhøj, Jesper F;

    2014-01-01

    of this study was to examine the prevalence and diagnostic spectrum of generalized retinal dystrophy in the Danish population. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study with data from the Danish Retinitis Pigmentosa Registry that comprises all patients in Denmark with generalized retinal....... RESULTS: Of the 5,602,628 Danish citizens on January 1, 2013, 1622 patients were registered as having a generalized retinal dystrophy and were alive and living in Denmark, corresponding to a prevalence of 1:3,454. In 28% of cases the eye condition was part of a syndrome, while the remaining 72% had eye...... disease only. Aside from simplex cases (45%), the most common hereditary pattern was autosomal recessive (23%). CONCLUSION: This epidemiological survey demonstrates that the prevalence of generalized retinal dystrophy in the Danish population is 1:3454. Many of the dystrophies are the subjects of clinical...

  16. Power applications for superconducting cables in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Ole; Østergaard, Jacob; Olsen, S. Krüger

    1999-01-01

    In Denmark a growing concern for environmental protection has lead to wishes that the open country is kept free of overhead lines as far as possible. New lines under 100 kV and existing 60/50 kV lines should be established as underground cables. Superconducting cables represent an interesting...... alternative to conventional cables, as they are able to transmit two or more times the energy than a conventional cable. HTS cables with a room temperature dielectric design are especially interesting as a target for replacing overhead lines. Superconducting cables in the overall network are of interest...... in cases such as transmission of energy into cities and through areas of special interest. The planned large groups of windmills in Denmark generating up to 2000 MVA or more both on dry land and off-shore will be an obvious case for the application of superconducting AC or DC cables. These opportunities...

  17. Surviving severe traumatic brain injury in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Lene; Poulsen, Ingrid; Kammersgaard, Lars Peter

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To identify all hospitalized patients surviving severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) in Denmark and to compare these patients to TBI patients admitted to highly specialized rehabilitation (HS-rehabilitation). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients surviving severe TBI were identified from...... The Danish National Patient Registry and The Danish Head Trauma Database. Overall incidence rates of surviving severe TBI and incidence rates of admission to HS-rehabilitation after severe TBI were estimated and compared. Patient-related predictors of no admission to HS-rehabilitation among patients...... severe TBI were admitted to HS-rehabilitation. Female sex, older age, and non-working status pre-injury were independent predictors of no HS-rehabilitation among patients surviving severe TBI. CONCLUSION: The incidence rate of hospitalized patients surviving severe TBI was stable in Denmark...

  18. Societal costs of diabetes mellitus in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sortsø, C; Green, A; Jensen, Peter Bjødstrup

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To provide comprehensive real-world evidence on societal diabetes-attributable costs in Denmark. METHODS: National register data are linked on an individual level through unique central personal registration numbers in Denmark. All patients in the Danish National Diabetes Register in 2011 (N...... = 318 729) were included in this study. Complication status was defined according to data from the Danish National Hospital Register. Diabetes-attributable costs were calculated as the difference between costs of patients with diabetes and the expected costs given the annual resource consumption...... of the diabetes-free population. RESULTS: Societal costs attributable to diabetes were estimated to be at least 4.27 billion EUR in 2011, corresponding to 14,349 EUR per patient-year. A twofold higher healthcare resource usage was found for patients with diabetes as compared with the diabetes-free population...

  19. Lower benefits to refugees in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghosh, Flora; Juul, Søren

    2008-01-01

    legislation in Denmark. Subsequently we present and discuss our main theoretical concepts, namely the theories of recognition and justice which function as clues for our empirical analysis. From this theoretical perspective we present finally an empirical analysis of Start Help recipients' experiences.......This article is a study of the contrast between the Danish law concerning reduced economic benefits for newly arrived refugees and immigrants (known as Start Help or as introductory benefit) and the idea of recognition as the condition for individual self-realization and justice. Our assumption...... is that Start Help both implies economic discrimination against newly arrived persons in Denmark (especially refugees and their families under family reunification rules) and symbolizes a lack of recognition. We have chosen to adopt the theories of recognition (and redistribution) propounded by Axel Honneth...

  20. Power and Democracy in Denmark. Conclusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Goul; Christiansen, Peter Munk; Beck Jørgensen, Torben

    In 1997, the Danish Parliament decided to launch a power study, officially An Analysis of Democracy and Power in Denmark. A steering committee consisting of five independent researchers was assigned responsibility for the project. The Steering Committee has gathered the overall conclusions from...... the numerous projects under the Power Study, and this book is a short presentation of these conclusions.The main focus of the book is the state of democracy in Denmark at the dawn of the 21st century. How has democracy fared, has the development made things better or worse, and to which extent does...... contemporary democracy live up to our democratic ideals? The answer is that in many ways democracy is doing better than we might have expected, considering the intense pressure on the nation state and the democratic institutions in the postwar period. The Danish population is still full of democratic life...