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Sample records for fixed plot sampling

  1. Point and Fixed Plot Sampling Inventory Estimates at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parresol, Bernard, R.

    2004-02-01

    This report provides calculation of systematic point sampling volume estimates for trees greater than or equal to 5 inches diameter breast height (dbh) and fixed radius plot volume estimates for trees < 5 inches dbh at the Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken County, South Carolina. The inventory of 622 plots was started in March 1999 and completed in January 2002 (Figure 1). Estimates are given in cubic foot volume. The analyses are presented in a series of Tables and Figures. In addition, a preliminary analysis of fuel levels on the SRS is given, based on depth measurements of the duff and litter layers on the 622 inventory plots plus line transect samples of down coarse woody material. Potential standing live fuels are also included. The fuels analyses are presented in a series of tables.

  2. Evaluation of a Smartphone App for Forest Sample Plot Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikko Vastaranta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated a smartphone app (TRESTIMATM for forest sample plot measurements. The app interprets imagery collected from the sample plots using the camera in the smartphone and then estimates forest inventory attributes, including species-specific basal areas (G as well as the diameter (DgM and height (HgM of basal area median trees. The estimates from the smartphone app were compared to forest inventory attributes derived from tree-wise measurements using calipers and a Vertex height measurement device. The data consist of 2169 measured trees from 25 sample plots (32 m × 32 m, dominated by Scots pine and Norway spruce from southern Finland. The root-mean-square errors (RMSEs in the basal area varied from 19.7% to 29.3% and the biases from 11.4% to 18.4% depending on the number of images per sample plot and image shooting location. DgM measurement bias varied from −1.4% to 3.1% and RMSE from 5.2% to 11.6% depending on the tree species. Respectively, HgM bias varied from 5.0% to 8.3% and RMSE 10.0% to 13.6%. In general, four images captured toward the center of the plot provided more accurate results than four images captured away from the plot center. Increasing the number of captured images per plot to the analyses yielded only marginal improvement to the results.

  3. Evaluation of a Smartphone App for Forest Sample Plot Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Mikko Vastaranta; Eduardo González Latorre; Ville Luoma; Ninni Saarinen; Markus Holopainen; Juha Hyyppä

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated a smartphone app (TRESTIMA(TM)) for forest sample plot measurements. The app interprets imagery collected from the sample plots using the camera in the smartphone and then estimates forest inventory attributes, including species-specific basal areas (G) as well as the diameter (D-gM) and height (H-gM) of basal area median trees. The estimates from the smartphone app were compared to forest inventory attributes derived from tree-wise measurements using calipers and a Vertex height...

  4. 36 CFR 9.42 - Well records and reports, plots and maps, samples, tests and surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Well records and reports, plots and maps, samples, tests and surveys. 9.42 Section 9.42 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... Well records and reports, plots and maps, samples, tests and surveys. Any technical data...

  5. [Effects of sampling plot number on tree species distribution prediction under climate change].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yu; He, Hong-Shi; Wu, Zhi-Wei; Li, Xiao-Na; Luo, Xu

    2013-05-01

    Based on the neutral landscapes under different degrees of landscape fragmentation, this paper studied the effects of sampling plot number on the prediction of tree species distribution at landscape scale under climate change. The tree species distribution was predicted by the coupled modeling approach which linked an ecosystem process model with a forest landscape model, and three contingent scenarios and one reference scenario of sampling plot numbers were assumed. The differences between the three scenarios and the reference scenario under different degrees of landscape fragmentation were tested. The results indicated that the effects of sampling plot number on the prediction of tree species distribution depended on the tree species life history attributes. For the generalist species, the prediction of their distribution at landscape scale needed more plots. Except for the extreme specialist, landscape fragmentation degree also affected the effects of sampling plot number on the prediction. With the increase of simulation period, the effects of sampling plot number on the prediction of tree species distribution at landscape scale could be changed. For generalist species, more plots are needed for the long-term simulation.

  6. A sampling strategy for estimating plot average annual fluxes of chemical elements from forest soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.; Gruijter, de J.J.; Vries, de W.

    2010-01-01

    A sampling strategy for estimating spatially averaged annual element leaching fluxes from forest soils is presented and tested in three Dutch forest monitoring plots. In this method sampling locations and times (days) are selected by probability sampling. Sampling locations were selected by

  7. [Effects of spatial heterogeneity on spatial extrapolation of sampling plot data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yu; He, Hong-Shi; Hu, Yuan-Man; Bu, Ren-Cang

    2012-01-01

    By using model combination method, this paper simulated the changes of response variable (tree species distribution area at landscape level under climate change) under three scenarios of environmental spatial heterogeneous level, analyzed the differentiation of simulated results under different scenarios, and discussed the effects of environmental spatial heterogeneity on the larger spatial extrapolation of the tree species responses to climate change observed in sampling plots. For most tree species, spatial heterogeneity had little effects on the extrapolation from plot scale to class scale; for the tree species insensitive to climate warming and the azonal species, spatial heterogeneity also had little effects on the extrapolation from plot-scale to zonal scale. By contrast, for the tree species sensitive to climate warming, spatial heterogeneity had effects on the extrapolation from plot scale to zonal scale, and the effects could be varied under different scenarios.

  8. Permanent sample plots for natural tropical forests: a rationale with special emphasis on Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Nicolas; Magnussen, Steen; Banak, Ludovic Ngok; Namkosserena, Salomon; Yalibanda, Yves

    2010-05-01

    Permanent sample plots (PSP), where trees are individually and permanently marked, have received increased interest in Central Africa as a tool to monitor vegetation changes. Although techniques for mounting PSP in tropical forests are well known, their planning still deserves attention. This study aims at defining a rationale for determining the size and number of replicates for setting up PSP in mixed tropical forests. It considers PSP as a sampling plan to estimate a target quantity with its associated margin of error. The target quantity considered here is the stock recovery rate, which is a key parameter for forest management in Central Africa. It is computed separately for each commercial species. The number of trees to monitor for each species defines the margin of error on the stock recovery rate. The size and number of replicated plots is obtained as the solution of an optimization problem that consists in minimizing the margin of error for every species while ensuring that the mounting cost remains below a given threshold. This rationale was applied using the data from the M'Baïki experimental site in the Central African Republic. It showed that the stock recovery rate is a highly variable quantity, and that the typical cost that forest managers are prone to devote to PSP leads to high margins of error. It also showed that the size and number of replicated plots is related to the spatial pattern of trees: clustered or spatially heterogeneous patterns favor many small plots, whereas regular or spatially homogeneous patterns favor few large plots.

  9. Effects of cycle length and plot density on estimators for a national-scale forest monitoring sample design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis A. Roesch; Todd A. Schroeder; James T. Vogt

    2017-01-01

    The resilience of a National Forest Inventory and Monitoring sample design can sometimes depend upon the degree to which it can adapt to fluctuations in funding. If a budget reduction necessitates the observation of fewer plots per year, some practitioners weigh the problem as a tradeoff between reducing the total number of plots and measuring the original number of...

  10. A K-sample Homogeneity Test based on the Quantification of the p-p Plot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Hinloopen (Jeroen); R. Wagenvoort (Rien); J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractWe propose a quantification of the p-p plot that assigns equal weight to all distances between the respective distributions: the surface between the p-p plot and the diagonal. This surface is labelled the Harmonic Weighted Mass (HWM) index. We introduce the diagonal-deviation (d-d) plot

  11. A K-sample Homogeneity Test based on the Quantification of the p-p Plot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinloopen, Jeroen; Wagenvoort, Rien; Marrewijk, van Charles

    2008-01-01

    We propose a quantification of the p-p plot that assigns equal weight to all distances between the respective distributions: the surface between the p-p plot and the diagonal. This surface is labelled the Harmonic Weighted Mass (HWM) index. We introduce the diagonal-deviation (d-d) plot that allows

  12. A K-sample Homogeneity Test based on the Quantification of the p-p Plot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Hinloopen (Jeroen); R. Wagenvoort (Rien); J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractWe propose a quantification of the p-p plot that assigns equal weight to all distances between the respective distributions: the surface between the p-p plot and the diagonal. This surface is labelled the Harmonic Weighted Mass (HWM) index. We introduce the diagonal-deviation (d-d) plot

  13. A K-sample Homogeneity Test based on the Quantification of the p-p Plot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinloopen, Jeroen; Wagenvoort, Rien; Marrewijk, van Charles

    2008-01-01

    We propose a quantification of the p-p plot that assigns equal weight to all distances between the respective distributions: the surface between the p-p plot and the diagonal. This surface is labelled the Harmonic Weighted Mass (HWM) index. We introduce the diagonal-deviation (d-d) plot that allows

  14. Effects of Cycle Length and Plot Density on Estimators for a National-Scale Forest Monitoring Sample Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis A. Roesch

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The resilience of a National Forest Inventory and Monitoring sample design can sometimes depend upon the degree to which it can adapt to fluctuations in funding. If a budget reduction necessitates the observation of fewer plots per year, some practitioners weigh the problem as a tradeoff between reducing the total number of plots and measuring the original number of plots over a greater number of years. Here, we explore some of the effects of differing plot intensities and cycle lengths on variants of three general classes of estimators for annual cubic meter per hectare volume, using a simulated population and appropriately-graduated sampling simulations. The simulations showed that an increase in cycle length yielded quite dramatic effects while differences due to a simulated reduction in plot intensity had more subtle effects.

  15. Sample Plot Change in the Seventh Review of Continuous National Forest Inventory in Zigui County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhongmei DENG; Jiaxuan XIANG; Jun SONG; Xueyong QIN; Dongwei WANG; Lei ZHOU

    2016-01-01

    The following qualitative conclusions of forest resources in Zigui can be drawn by the research on 73 plots and 5 vegetation plots:forest area is increasing; forest growing stock is increasing; the adjustment of forest category structure is constantly improved; forest quality has been improving; stand structure is optimized continuously; biodiversity has initially appeared.

  16. DESIGN SAMPLING AND REPLICATION ASSIGNMENT UNDER FIXED COMPUTING BUDGET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Loo Hay LEE; Ek Peng CHEW

    2005-01-01

    For many real world problems, when the design space is huge and unstructured, and time consuming simulation is needed to estimate the performance measure, it is important to decide how many designs to sample and how long to run for each design alternative given that we have only a fixed amount of computing time. In this paper, we present a simulation study on how the distribution of the performance measures and distribution of the estimation errors/noises will affect the decision.From the analysis, it is observed that when the underlying distribution of the noise is bounded and if there is a high chance that we can get the smallest noise, then the decision will be to sample as many as possible, but if the noise is unbounded, then it will be important to reduce the noise level first by assigning more replications for each design. On the other hand, if the distribution of the performance measure indicates that we will have a high chance of getting good designs, the suggestion is also to reduce the noise level, otherwise, we need to sample more designs so as to increase the chances of getting good designs. For the special case when the distributions of both the performance measures and noise are normal, we are able to estimate the number of designs to sample, and the number of replications to run in order to obtain the best performance.

  17. Successive RR Interval Analysis of PVC With Sinus Rhythm Using Fractal Dimension, Poincaré Plot and Sample Entropy Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Maksudul Hasan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Premature ventricular contractions (PVC are premature heartbeats originating from the ventricles of the heart. These heartbeats occur before the regular heartbeat. The Fractal analysis is most mathematical models produce intractable solutions. Some studies tried to apply the fractal dimension (FD to calculate of cardiac abnormality. Based on FD change, we can identify different abnormalities present in Electrocardiogram (ECG. Present of the uses of Poincaré plot indexes and the sample entropy (SE analyses of heart rate variability (HRV from short term ECG recordings as a screening tool for PVC. Poincaré plot indexes and the SE measure used for analyzing variability and complexity of HRV. A clear reduction of standard deviation (SD projections in Poincaré plot pattern observed a significant difference of SD between healthy Person and PVC subjects. Finally, a comparison shows for FD, SE and Poincaré plot parameters.

  18. The Use of Satellite Imagery to Guide Field Plot Sampling Scheme for Biomass Estimation in Ghanaian Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, B. P.; Hämäläinen, J. M.; Sah, A. K.; Honji, K.; Foli, E. G.; Awudi, C.

    2012-07-01

    Accurate and reliable estimation of biomass in tropical forest has been a challenging task because a large proportion of forests are difficult to access or inaccessible. So, for effective implementation of REDD+ and fair benefit sharing, the proper designing of field plot sampling schemes plays a significant role in achieving robust biomass estimation. The existing forest inventory protocols using various field plot sampling schemes, including FAO's regular grid concept of sampling for land cover inventory at national level, are time and human resource intensive. Wall to wall LiDAR scanning is, however, a better approach to assess biomass with high precision and spatial resolution even though this approach suffers from high costs. Considering the above, in this study a sampling design based on a LiDAR strips sampling scheme has been devised for Ghanaian forests to support field plot sampling. Using Top-of-Atmosphere (TOA) reflectance value of satellite data, Land Use classification was carried out in accordance with IPCC definitions and the resulting classes were further stratified, incorporating existing GIS data of ecological zones in the study area. Employing this result, LiDAR sampling strips were allocated using systematic sampling techniques. The resulting LiDAR strips represented all forest categories, as well as other Land Use classes, with their distribution adequately representing the areal share of each category. In this way, out of at total area of 15,153km2 of the study area, LiDAR scanning was required for only 770 km2 (sampling intensity being 5.1%). We conclude that this systematic LiDAR sampling design is likely to adequately cover variation in above-ground biomass densities and serve as sufficient a-priori data, together with the Land Use classification produced, for designing efficient field plot sampling over the seven ecological zones.

  19. Impacts of sampling design and estimation methods on nutrient leaching of intensively monitored forest plots in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, W; Wieggers, H J J; Brus, D J

    2010-08-05

    Element fluxes through forest ecosystems are generally based on measurements of concentrations in soil solution at regular time intervals at plot locations sampled in a regular grid. Here we present spatially averaged annual element leaching fluxes in three Dutch forest monitoring plots using a new sampling strategy in which both sampling locations and sampling times are selected by probability sampling. Locations were selected by stratified random sampling with compact geographical blocks of equal surface area as strata. In each sampling round, six composite soil solution samples were collected, consisting of five aliquots, one per stratum. The plot-mean concentration was estimated by linear regression, so that the bias due to one or more strata being not represented in the composite samples is eliminated. The sampling times were selected in such a way that the cumulative precipitation surplus of the time interval between two consecutive sampling times was constant, using an estimated precipitation surplus averaged over the past 30 years. The spatially averaged annual leaching flux was estimated by using the modeled daily water flux as an ancillary variable. An important advantage of the new method is that the uncertainty in the estimated annual leaching fluxes due to spatial and temporal variation and resulting sampling errors can be quantified. Results of this new method were compared with the reference approach in which daily leaching fluxes were calculated by multiplying daily interpolated element concentrations with daily water fluxes and then aggregated to a year. Results show that the annual fluxes calculated with the reference method for the period 2003-2005, including all plots, elements and depths, lies only in 53% of the cases within the range of the average +/-2 times the standard error of the new method. Despite the differences in results, both methods indicate comparable N retention and strong Al mobilization in all plots, with Al leaching being

  20. Optimal plot design in a multipurpose forest inventory

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    Helena M. Henttonen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: We explore the factors affecting the optimal plot design (size and type as well as the subsample tree selection strategies within a plot and their relative importance in defining the optimal plot design in amultipurpose forest inventory. The factors include time used to lay out the plot and to make the tree measurements within the plot, the between-plot variation of each of the variables of interest in the area, and the measurement and model errors for the different variables. Methods: We simulate different plot types and sizes and subsample tree selection strategies on measuredtest areas from North Lapland. The plot types used are fixed-radius, concentric and relascope plots. Weselect the optimal type and size first at plot level using a cost-plus-loss approach and then at cluster level byminimizing the weighted standard error with fixed budget. Results: As relascope plots are very efficient at the plot level for volume and basal area, and fixed-radius plots for stems per ha, the optimal plot type strongly depends on the relative importance of these variables. The concentric plot seems to be a good compromise between these two in many cases. The subsample tree selection strategy was more important in selecting optimal plot than many other factors. In cluster level, the most important factor is the transfer time between plots. Conclusions: While the optimal radius of plots and other parameters were sensitive to the measurement times and other cost factors, the concentric plot type was optimal in almost all studied cases. Subsample tree measurement strategies need further studies, as they were an important cost factor. However, their importance to the precision was not as clear. Keywords: Sample, Plot, Forest inventory, Measurement, Cost, Loss

  1. Statistical considerations for plot design, sampling procedures, analysis, and quality assurance of ozone injury studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Arbaugh; Larry Bednar

    1996-01-01

    The sampling methods used to monitor ozone injury to ponderosa and Jeffrey pines depend on the objectives of the study, geographic and genetic composition of the forest, and the source and composition of air pollutant emissions. By using a standardized sampling methodology, it may be possible to compare conditions within local areas more accurately, and to apply the...

  2. An Efficient MCMC Algorithm to Sample Binary Matrices with Fixed Marginals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhelst, Norman D.

    2008-01-01

    Uniform sampling of binary matrices with fixed margins is known as a difficult problem. Two classes of algorithms to sample from a distribution not too different from the uniform are studied in the literature: importance sampling and Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). Existing MCMC algorithms converge slowly, require a long burn-in period and yield…

  3. Testing aggregation hypotheses among Neotropical trees and shrubs: results from a 50-ha plot over 20 years of sampling

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    Randall W. Myster

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Spatial patterns of tropical trees and shrubs are important to understanding their interaction and the resultant structure of tropical rainforests. To assess this issue, we took advantage of previously collected data, on Neotropical tree and shrub stem identified to species and mapped for spatial coordinates in a 50ha plot, with a frequency of every five years and over a 20 year period. These stems data were first placed into four groups, regardless of species, depending on their location in the vertical strata of the rainforest (shrubs, understory trees, mid-sized trees, tall trees and then used to generate aggregation patterns for each sampling year. We found shrubs and understory trees clumped at small spatial scales of a few meters for several of the years sampled. Alternatively, mid-sized trees and tall trees did not clump, nor did they show uniform (regular patterns, during any sampling period. In general (1 groups found higher in the canopy did not show aggregation on the ground and (2 the spatial patterns of all four groups showed similarity among different sampling years, thereby supporting a “shifting mosaic” view of plant communities over large areas. Spatial analysis, such as this one, are critical to understanding and predicting tree spaces, tree-tree replacements and the Neotropical forest patterns, such as biodiversity and those needed for sustainability efforts, they produce.

  4. Testing aggregation hypotheses among Neotropical trees and shrubs: results from a 50-ha plot over 20 years of sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myster, Randall W; Malahy, Michael P

    2012-09-01

    Spatial patterns of tropical trees and shrubs are important to understanding their interaction and the resultant structure of tropical rainforests. To assess this issue, we took advantage of previously collected data, on Neotropical tree and shrub stem identified to species and mapped for spatial coordinates in a 50ha plot, with a frequency of every five years and over a 20 year period. These stems data were first placed into four groups, regardless of species, depending on their location in the vertical strata of the rainforest (shrubs, understory trees, mid-sized trees, tall trees) and then used to generate aggregation patterns for each sampling year. We found shrubs and understory trees clumped at small spatial scales of a few meters for several of the years sampled. Alternatively, mid-sized trees and tall trees did not clump, nor did they show uniform (regular) patterns, during any sampling period. In general (1) groups found higher in the canopy did not show aggregation on the ground and (2) the spatial patterns of all four groups showed similarity among different sampling years, thereby supporting a "shifting mosaic" view of plant communities over large areas. Spatial analysis, such as this one, are critical to understanding and predicting tree spaces, tree-tree replacements and the Neotropical forest patterns, such as biodiversity and those needed for sustainability efforts, they produce.

  5. Mate choice and optimal search behavior: fitness returns under the fixed sample and sequential search strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegmann, Daniel D; Seubert, Steven M; Wade, Gordon A

    2010-02-21

    The behavior of a female in search of a mate determines the likelihood that she encounters a high-quality male in the search process. The fixed sample (best-of-n) search strategy and the sequential search (fixed threshold) strategy are two prominent models of search behavior. The sequential search strategy dominates the former strategy--yields an equal or higher expected net fitness return to searchers--when search costs are nontrivial and the distribution of quality among prospective mates is uniform or truncated normal. In this paper our objective is to determine whether there are any search costs or distributions of male quality for which the sequential search strategy is inferior to the fixed sample search strategy. The two search strategies are derived under general conditions in which females evaluate encountered males by inspection of an indicator character that has some functional relationship to male quality. The solutions are identical to the original models when the inspected male attribute is itself male quality. The sequential search strategy is shown to dominate the fixed sample search strategy for all search costs and distributions of male quality. Low search costs have been implicated to explain empirical observations that are consistent with the use of a fixed sample search strategy, but under conditions in which the original models were derived there is no search cost or distribution of male quality that favors the fixed sample search strategy. Plausible alternative explanations for the apparent use of this search strategy are discussed.

  6. Visual search for tropical web spiders: the influence of plot length, sampling effort, and phase of the day on species richness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Leite, C M; Rocha, P L B

    2012-12-01

    Empirical studies using visual search methods to investigate spider communities were conducted with different sampling protocols, including a variety of plot sizes, sampling efforts, and diurnal periods for sampling. We sampled 11 plots ranging in size from 5 by 10 m to 5 by 60 m. In each plot, we computed the total number of species detected every 10 min during 1 hr during the daytime and during the nighttime (0630 hours to 1100 hours, both a.m. and p.m.). We measured the influence of time effort on the measurement of species richness by comparing the curves produced by sample-based rarefaction and species richness estimation (first-order jackknife). We used a general linear model with repeated measures to assess whether the phase of the day during which sampling occurred and the differences in the plot lengths influenced the number of species observed and the number of species estimated. To measure the differences in species composition between the phases of the day, we used a multiresponse permutation procedure and a graphical representation based on nonmetric multidimensional scaling. After 50 min of sampling, we noted a decreased rate of species accumulation and a tendency of the estimated richness curves to reach an asymptote. We did not detect an effect of plot size on the number of species sampled. However, differences in observed species richness and species composition were found between phases of the day. Based on these results, we propose guidelines for visual search for tropical web spiders.

  7. Evaluating Quality of Aged Archival Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Samples for RNA-Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples offer a vast, untapped source of genomic data for biomarker discovery. However, the quality of FFPE samples is often highly variable, and conventional methods to assess RNA quality for RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) are not infor...

  8. Evaluating Quality of Aged Archival Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Samples for RNA-Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples offer a vast, untapped source of genomic data for biomarker discovery. However, the quality of FFPE samples is often highly variable, and conventional methods to assess RNA quality for RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) are not infor...

  9. Plot 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Inger-Lise; Gjessing, Susanne; Hermansen, Anne-Mette

    Plot 3 er første udgivelse af et alsidigt dansksystem til mellemtrinnet, hvor digitale medier er integreret i den daglige undervisning.......Plot 3 er første udgivelse af et alsidigt dansksystem til mellemtrinnet, hvor digitale medier er integreret i den daglige undervisning....

  10. Plot 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Inger-Lise; Gjessing, Susanne; Hermansen, Anne-Mette

    Plot 3 er første udgivelse af et alsidigt dansksystem til mellemtrinnet, hvor digitale medier er integreret i den daglige undervisning.......Plot 3 er første udgivelse af et alsidigt dansksystem til mellemtrinnet, hvor digitale medier er integreret i den daglige undervisning....

  11. Tree ring growth by core sampling at the CONECOFOR Permanent Monitoring Plots. The deciduous oak (Quercus cerris L. type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara MANETTI

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Radial growth analysis evaluates the ability of trees to grow under different site and environmental conditions, thus contributing to bio-ecological studies aimed at increasing understanding of forest stand evolution. Tree ring growth is analysed in five Permanent Monitoring Plots (PMPs dominated by Turkey oak (Quercus cerris L.. Common structural features of these PMPs are their origin (coppice forest and their current physiognomy as stored coppice and transitory crop. A dendroecological approach was used to analyse past radial stem growth, the influence of silvicultural background and stand age, as well as to compare the growth rhythm of stands in different site-indexes and environmental conditions. Tree coring was carried out at the time of the first inventory (winter 1996/97 by sampling 8 to 11 dominant and co-dominant trees representative of the upper storey in the buffer area of each PMP. The basic stem and crown growth variables were measured for each tree sampled and two cores collected at 1.30 m. Annual ring width was determined by the Tree Ring Measurement System SMIL3 and the data were elaborated by the ANAFUS software. Site mean curves and growth trend per social class in each stand were defined both by visual comparison and statistical analysis among individual tree series. The main results were as follows: i social differentiation becomes established earlier with better site indexes and higher tree densities; ii sensitivity to external disturbances is higher and more defined in the dominant class than in the co-dominant tree layer; iii competition cycles are clearly discernible and related to both stand density and site-index in young stands under natural evolution (stored coppices; iv when silvicultural interventions were performed in the past is quite visible readable in the stands under conversion into high forest (transitory crops; v the mean series per site are statistically related and common periods characterized by a

  12. Monitoring larval populations of the Douglas-fir tussock moth and the western spruce budworm on permanent plots: sampling methods and statistical properties of data

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.R. Mason; H.G. Paul

    1994-01-01

    Procedures for monitoring larval populations of the Douglas-fir tussock moth and the western spruce budworm are recommended based on many years experience in sampling these species in eastern Oregon and Washington. It is shown that statistically reliable estimates of larval density can be made for a population by sampling host trees in a series of permanent plots in a...

  13. A GIS-based tool for estimating tree canopy cover on fixed-radius plots using high-resolution aerial imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sara A. Goeking; Greg C. Liknes; Erik Lindblom; John Chase; Dennis M. Jacobs; Robert. Benton

    2012-01-01

    Recent changes to the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program's definition of forest land precipitated the development of a geographic information system (GIS)-based tool for efficiently estimating tree canopy cover for all FIA plots. The FIA definition of forest land has shifted from a density-related criterion based on stocking to a 10 percent tree canopy...

  14. Sample processing considerations for detecting copy number changes in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Sharoni

    2012-11-01

    The Whole Genome Sampling Analysis (WGSA) assay in combination with Affymetrix GeneChip Mapping Arrays is used for copy number analysis of high-quality DNA samples (i.e., samples that have been collected from blood, fresh or frozen tissue, or cell lines). Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples, however, represent the most prevalent form of archived clinical samples, but they provide additional challenges for molecular assays. FFPE processing usually results in the degradation of FFPE DNA and in the contamination and chemical modification of these DNA samples. Because of these issues, FFPE DNA is not suitable for all molecular assays designed for high-quality DNA samples. Strategies recommended for processing FFPE DNA samples through WGSA and to the Mapping arrays are described here.

  15. Testing aggregation hypotheses among Neotropical trees and shrubs: results from a 50-ha plot over 20 years of sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall W. Myster

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Spatial patterns of tropical trees and shrubs are important to understanding their interaction and the resultant structure of tropical rainforests. To assess this issue, we took advantage of previously collected data, on Neotropical tree and shrub stem identified to species and mapped for spatial coordinates in a 50ha plot, with a frequency of every five years and over a 20 year period. These stems data were first placed into four groups, regardless of species, depending on their location in the vertical strata of the rainforest (shrubs, understory trees, mid-sized trees, tall trees and then used to generate aggregation patterns for each sampling year. We found shrubs and understory trees clumped at small spatial scales of a few meters for several of the years sampled. Alternatively, mid-sized trees and tall trees did not clump, nor did they show uniform (regular patterns, during any sampling period. In general (1 groups found higher in the canopy did not show aggregation on the ground and (2 the spatial patterns of all four groups showed similarity among different sampling years, thereby supporting a “shifting mosaic” view of plant communities over large areas. Spatial analysis, such as this one, are critical to understanding and predicting tree spaces, tree-tree replacements and the Neotropical forest patterns, such as biodiversity and those needed for sustainability efforts, they produce.Con datos obtenidos previamente, se identificaron especies de árboles y arbustos neotropicales y se ubicaron con coordenadas espaciales en una parcela de 50ha cada cinco años durante un período de 20 años. Estos datos primero se dividieron en cuatro grupos según los estratos verticales del bosque (arbustos, árboles del sotobosque, árboles medios y árboles altos; después se usaron tres para estudiar patrones de agregación en cada año de muestreo. Los arbustos y árboles del sotobosque se agruparon en pequeñas escalas espaciales de pocos metros

  16. MicroRNA profiling of gastric cancer patients from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples

    OpenAIRE

    OSAWA, SOSHI; Shimada, Yutaka; Sekine, Shinichi; Okumura, Tomoyuki; Nagata, Takuya; Fukuoka, Junya; TSUKADA, kazuhiro

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) is a small non-coding RNA that targets specific mRNA. Recent progress in the extraction of RNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues has facilitated miRNA profiling using samples stored in laboratories worldwide. In the present study, miRNA profiling of gastric cancer patients is determined using FFPE samples. First, criteria were established for determining evaluable RNA from the FFPE samples. miRNA profiling was then undertaken using miRNA oligo chips with 88...

  17. Plot 4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Inger-Lise; Hermansen, Anne-Mette; Ferdinand, Trine

    Danskfaglig vejledning informerer om de tanker, der ligger til grund for Plot 4, og beskriver danskfaget ud fra nyere forskning inden for fagets mange delområder. Kapitelvejledning introducerer bogens tekster, forklarer hensigten med kapitlernes opgaver, giver forslag til undervisningen og brugen...

  18. Plot 5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Inger-Lise; Hermansen, Anne-Mette; Ferdinand, Trine

    Danskfaglig vejledning informerer om de tanker, der ligger til grund for Plot 5, og beskriver danskfaget ud fra nyere forskning inden for fagets mange delområder. Kapitelvejledning introducerer bogens tekster, forklarer hensigten med kapitlernes opgaver, giver forslag til undervisningen og brugen...

  19. Plotting Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Margaret Ann; Wilkinson, John Provost

    1997-01-01

    Conflict management theory is illustrated in a series of hypothetical scenarios, typical of library situations. Each scenario is discussed in terms of a specific management theory and the theories are transposed into useful management tools by plotting each situation along relevant axes. (Author/AEF)

  20. Plot 5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Inger-Lise; Hermansen, Anne-Mette; Ferdinand, Trine

    Danskfaglig vejledning informerer om de tanker, der ligger til grund for Plot 5, og beskriver danskfaget ud fra nyere forskning inden for fagets mange delområder. Kapitelvejledning introducerer bogens tekster, forklarer hensigten med kapitlernes opgaver, giver forslag til undervisningen og brugen...

  1. Towards the harmonization between National Forest Inventory and Forest Condition Monitoring. Consistency of plot allocation and effect of tree selection methods on sample statistics in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, Patrizia; Di Cosmo, Lucio; Cenni, Enrico; Pompei, Enrico; Ferretti, Marco

    2013-07-01

    In the frame of a process aiming at harmonizing National Forest Inventory (NFI) and ICP Forests Level I Forest Condition Monitoring (FCM) in Italy, we investigated (a) the long-term consistency between FCM sample points (a subsample of the first NFI, 1985, NFI_1) and recent forest area estimates (after the second NFI, 2005, NFI_2) and (b) the effect of tree selection method (tree-based or plot-based) on sample composition and defoliation statistics. The two investigations were carried out on 261 and 252 FCM sites, respectively. Results show that some individual forest categories (larch and stone pine, Norway spruce, other coniferous, beech, temperate oaks and cork oak forests) are over-represented and others (hornbeam and hophornbeam, other deciduous broadleaved and holm oak forests) are under-represented in the FCM sample. This is probably due to a change in forest cover, which has increased by 1,559,200 ha from 1985 to 2005. In case of shift from a tree-based to a plot-based selection method, 3,130 (46.7%) of the original 6,703 sample trees will be abandoned, and 1,473 new trees will be selected. The balance between exclusion of former sample trees and inclusion of new ones will be particularly unfavourable for conifers (with only 16.4% of excluded trees replaced by new ones) and less for deciduous broadleaves (with 63.5% of excluded trees replaced). The total number of tree species surveyed will not be impacted, while the number of trees per species will, and the resulting (plot-based) sample composition will have a much larger frequency of deciduous broadleaved trees. The newly selected trees have-in general-smaller diameter at breast height (DBH) and defoliation scores. Given the larger rate of turnover, the deciduous broadleaved part of the sample will be more impacted. Our results suggest that both a revision of FCM network to account for forest area change and a plot-based approach to permit statistical inference and avoid bias in the tree sample

  2. Application of mapped plots for single-owner forest surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul C. Van Deusen; Francis Roesch

    2009-01-01

    Mapped plots are used for the nation forest inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service. Mapped plots are also useful foro single ownership inventoires. Mapped plots can handle boundary overlap and can aprovide less variable estimates for specified forest conditions. Mapping is a good fit for fixed plot inventories where the fixed area plot is used for both mapping...

  3. A note on sample complexity of learning binary output neural networks under fixed input distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Pestov, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    We show that the learning sample complexity of a sigmoidal neural network constructed by Sontag (1992) required to achieve a given misclassification error under a fixed purely atomic distribution can grow arbitrarily fast: for any prescribed rate of growth there is an input distribution having this rate as the sample complexity, and the bound is asymptotically tight. The rate can be superexponential, a non-recursive function, etc. We further observe that Sontag's ANN is not Glivenko-Cantelli under any input distribution having a non-atomic part.

  4. Spatial recurrence plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, D B; Lopes, S R; Viana, R L; Kurths, J

    2006-05-01

    We propose an extension of the recurrence plot concept to perform quantitative analyzes of roughness and disorder of spatial patterns at a fixed time. We introduce spatial recurrence plots (SRPs) as a graphical representation of the pointwise correlation matrix, in terms of a two-dimensional spatial return plot. This technique is applied to the study of complex patterns generated by coupled map lattices, which are characterized by measures of complexity based on SRPs. We show that the complexity measures we propose for SRPs provide a systematic way of investigating the distribution of spatially coherent structures, such as synchronization domains, in lattice profiles. This approach has potential for many more applications, e.g., in surface roughness analyzes.

  5. Fixed-precision sequential sampling plans for estimating alfalfa caterpillar, Colias lesbia, egg density in alfalfa, Medicago sativa, fields in Córdoba, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Gerardo V; Porta, Norma C La; Avalos, Susana; Mazzuferi, Vilma

    2013-01-01

    The alfalfa caterpillar, Colias lesbia (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae), is a major pest of alfalfa, Medicago sativa L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), crops in Argentina. Its management is based mainly on chemical control of larvae whenever the larvae exceed the action threshold. To develop and validate fixed-precision sequential sampling plans, an intensive sampling programme for C. lesbia eggs was carried out in two alfalfa plots located in the Province of Córdoba, Argentina, from 1999 to 2002. Using Resampling for Validation of Sampling Plans software, 12 additional independent data sets were used to validate the sequential sampling plan with precision levels of 0.10 and 0.25 (SE/mean), respectively. For a range of mean densities of 0.10 to 8.35 eggs/sample, an average sample size of only 27 and 26 sample units was required to achieve a desired precision level of 0.25 for the sampling plans of Green and Kuno, respectively. As the precision level was increased to 0.10, average sample size increased to 161 and 157 sample units for the sampling plans of Green and Kuno, respectively. We recommend using Green's sequential sampling plan because it is less sensitive to changes in egg density. These sampling plans are a valuable tool for researchers to study population dynamics and to evaluate integrated pest management strategies.

  6. The Plot

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, J. Kent

    1991-01-01

    The following essay on the Popish Plot is chapter nine of my biography of Thomas, 5th Baron, 1st Earl, and 1st Marquess of Wharton; and perhaps it is the only chapter in the history of biography that barely mentions the name of the protagonist. This odd state of affairs arises because neither the political career of Thomas Wharton, who later became de facto prince of the Whigs, nor the English Revolution, which he vigorously supported, can be understood without considerable bac...

  7. Multiple plots in R

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Stefan McKinnon

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter I will investigate how to combine multiple plots into a single. The scenario is a dataset of a series of measurements, on three samples in three situations. There are many ways we can display this, e.g. 3d graphs or faceting. 3d graphs are not good for displaying static data so we...... will not go there. Faceting is strictly speaking for plotting all variable / classes against each other....

  8. Multiple plots in R

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Stefan McKinnon

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter I will investigate how to combine multiple plots into a single. The scenario is a dataset of a series of measurements, on three samples in three situations. There are many ways we can display this, e.g. 3d graphs or faceting. 3d graphs are not good for displaying static data so we...... will not go there. Faceting is strictly speaking for plotting all variable / classes against each other....

  9. Use of a line intercept snow track index and plot sampling for estimating densities of wild boar (Sus scrofa in southwestern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bobek

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available n Bory Dolnośląskie Forest (southwestern Poland, in 8 forest districts with a total of 121,783 hectares (ha of forest area, 16 sampling plots of a total area of 7,100 ha were marked. Using the block count method, the presence of 157 wild boars was found in 12 sampling plots where the population density ranged from 2.2 to 52.9 individuals/1000 ha. By counting snow tracks along 16 line transects situated within the sampling plots (total length – 70.9 km, the presence of 103 wild boars was found. In places where tracks of wild boars were found, the relative population density of this species ranged from 0.10 to 5.6 individuals/km of transect. Using non-linear regression, a mathematical formula was derived where the relative population density index (N/km was the independent variable, and the absolute population density (N/1000 ha was the dependent variable. A high correlation was found between these variables (R2=0.85. It is suggested that the population numbers evaluated by snow tracks of wild boars found on line transects, and the regression equation derived in this study be used in the management of this species.

  10. Efficient Estimation for Diffusions Sampled at High Frequency Over a Fixed Time Interval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Nina Munkholt; Sørensen, Michael

    Parametric estimation for diffusion processes is considered for high frequency observations over a fixed time interval. The processes solve stochastic differential equations with an unknown parameter in the diffusion coefficient. We find easily verified conditions on approximate martingale...... estimating functions under which estimators are consistent, rate optimal, and efficient under high frequency (in-fill) asymptotics. The asymptotic distributions of the estimators are shown to be normal variance-mixtures, where the mixing distribution generally depends on the full sample path of the diffusion...

  11. Complexity Plots

    KAUST Repository

    Thiyagalingam, Jeyarajan

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we present a novel visualization technique for assisting the observation and analysis of algorithmic complexity. In comparison with conventional line graphs, this new technique is not sensitive to the units of measurement, allowing multivariate data series of different physical qualities (e.g., time, space and energy) to be juxtaposed together conveniently and consistently. It supports multivariate visualization as well as uncertainty visualization. It enables users to focus on algorithm categorization by complexity classes, while reducing visual impact caused by constants and algorithmic components that are insignificant to complexity analysis. It provides an effective means for observing the algorithmic complexity of programs with a mixture of algorithms and black-box software through visualization. Through two case studies, we demonstrate the effectiveness of complexity plots in complexity analysis in research, education and application. © 2013 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2013 The Eurographics Association and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Establishment and Sampling of Permanent Vegetation Monitoring Plots in Herbaceous Communities at Big Muddy National Fish and Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 2002 and 2003, as part of an effort to characterize bird habitat, vegetation at Big Muddy National Fish and Wildlife Refuge was sampled in three very coarse...

  13. Identification of fungal pathogens in Formalin-fixed, Paraffin-embedded tissue samples by molecular methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickerts, Volker

    2016-02-01

    The etiology of invasive fungal infections (IFI) is incompletely understood due to diagnostic limitations including insensitivity of cultures and failure of histopathology to discriminate between different species. This diagnostic gap precludes the optimal use of antifungals, leading to adverse patient outcomes. The identification of fungal pathogens from Formalin-fixed, Paraffin-embedded tissue (FFPE) blocks by molecular methods is emerging as an alternative approach to study the etiology of IFI. PCR assays, including species specific- and broadrange fungal tests are used with FFPE samples from patients with proven IFI. Fungal species identification is achieved in 15-90% of the samples. This heterogeneity may be explained by the samples studied. However, comparison of different studies is impaired, as controls ruling out false positive-, false negative test results or PCR inhibition are frequently not reported. Studies using in situ hybridization also vary in the clinical samples included and the targeted fungi. In addition, target sequences, the probe chemistry and the detection of hybridization signals also account for the differences in diagnostic sensitivity. Using both approaches in parallel yields additive insights, potentially leading to a superior identification of fungal etiology and awareness of the limitations of both molecular diagnostic approaches.

  14. High-resolution distributed sampling of bandlimited fields with fixed-precision sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Animesh; Ramchandran, Kannan

    2007-01-01

    The problem of sampling a discrete-time sequence of spatially bandlimited fields with a bounded dynamic range, in a distributed, communication-constrained, processing environment is addressed. A central unit, having access to the data gathered by a dense network of fixed-precision sensors, operating under stringent inter-node communication constraints, is required to reconstruct the field snapshots to maximum accuracy. Both deterministic and stochastic field models are considered. For stochastic fields, results are established in the almost-sure sense. The feasibility of having a flexible tradeoff between the oversampling rate (sensor density) and the analog-to-digital converter (ADC) precision, while achieving an exponential accuracy in the number of bits per Nyquist-interval is demonstrated. This exposes an underlying ``conservation of bits'' principle: the bit-budget per Nyquist-interval per snapshot (the rate) can be distributed along the amplitude axis (sensor-precision) and space (sensor density) in an ...

  15. corner: Corner plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman-Mackey, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    corner uses matplotlib to visualize multidimensional samples using a scatterplot matrix. In these visualizations, each one- and two-dimensional projection of the sample is plotted to reveal covariances. corner was originally conceived to display the results of Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulations and the defaults are chosen with this application in mind but it can be used for displaying many qualitatively different samples. An earlier version of corner was known as triangle.py.

  16. Passive sampling and analyses of common dissolved fixed gases in groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalding, Brian P; Watson, David B

    2008-05-15

    An in situ passive sampling and gas chromatographic protocol was developed for analysis of the major and several minor fixed gases (He, Ne, H2, N2, O2, CO, CH4, CO2, and N2O) in groundwater. Using argon carrier gas, a HayeSep DB porous polymer phase, and sequential thermal conductivity and reductive gas detectors, the protocol achieved sufficient separation and sensitivity to measure the mixing ratio of all these gases in a single 0.5 mL gas sample collected in situ, stored, transported, and injected using a gastight syringe. Within 4 days of immersion in groundwater, the simple passive in situ sampler, whether initially filled with He or air, attained an equivalent and constant mixing ratio for five of the seven detected gases. The abundant mixing ratio of N2O, averaging 2.6%, indicated that significant denitrification is likely ongoing within groundwater contaminated with uranium, acidity, nitrate, and organic carbon from a group of four closed radioactive wastewater seepage ponds at the Oak Ridge Field Research Center. Over 1000 passive gas samples from 12 monitoring wells averaged 56% CO2, 32.4% N2, 2.6% O2, 2.6% N2O, 0.21% CH4, 0.093% H2, and 0.025% CO with an average recovery of 95 +/- 14% of the injected gas volume.

  17. Improved reproducibility in genome-wide DNA methylation analysis for PAXgene-fixed samples compared with restored formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Gitte Brinch; Hager, Henrik; Hansen, Lise Lotte; Tost, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Formalin fixation has been the standard method for conservation of clinical specimens for decades. However, a major drawback is the high degradation of nucleic acids, which complicates its use in genome-wide analyses. Unbiased identification of biomarkers, however, requires genome-wide studies, precluding the use of the valuable archives of specimens with long-term follow-up data. Therefore, restoration protocols for DNA from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples have been developed, although they are cost-intensive and time-consuming. An alternative to FFPE and snap-freezing is the PAXgene Tissue System, developed for simultaneous preservation of morphology, proteins, and nucleic acids. In the current study, we compared the performance of DNA from either PAXgene or formalin-fixed tissues to snap-frozen material for genome-wide DNA methylation analysis using the Illumina 450K BeadChip. Quantitative DNA methylation analysis demonstrated that the methylation profile in PAXgene-fixed tissues showed, in comparison with restored FFPE samples, a higher concordance with the profile detected in frozen samples. We demonstrate, for the first time, that DNA from PAXgene conserved tissue performs better compared with restored FFPE DNA in genome-wide DNA methylation analysis. In addition, DNA from PAXgene tissue can be directly used on the array without prior restoration, rendering the analytical process significantly more time- and cost-effective.

  18. Whole-genome gene expression profiling of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig April

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We have developed a gene expression assay (Whole-Genome DASL, capable of generating whole-genome gene expression profiles from degraded samples such as formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE specimens. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We demonstrated a similar level of sensitivity in gene detection between matched fresh-frozen (FF and FFPE samples, with the number and overlap of probes detected in the FFPE samples being approximately 88% and 95% of that in the corresponding FF samples, respectively; 74% of the differentially expressed probes overlapped between the FF and FFPE pairs. The WG-DASL assay is also able to detect 1.3-1.5 and 1.5-2 -fold changes in intact and FFPE samples, respectively. The dynamic range for the assay is approximately 3 logs. Comparing the WG-DASL assay with an in vitro transcription-based labeling method yielded fold-change correlations of R(2 approximately 0.83, while fold-change comparisons with quantitative RT-PCR assays yielded R(2 approximately 0.86 and R(2 approximately 0.55 for intact and FFPE samples, respectively. Additionally, the WG-DASL assay yielded high self-correlations (R(2>0.98 with low intact RNA inputs ranging from 1 ng to 100 ng; reproducible expression profiles were also obtained with 250 pg total RNA (R(2 approximately 0.92, with approximately 71% of the probes detected in 100 ng total RNA also detected at the 250 pg level. When FFPE samples were assayed, 1 ng total RNA yielded self-correlations of R(2 approximately 0.80, while still maintaining a correlation of R(2 approximately 0.75 with standard FFPE inputs (200 ng. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, these results show that WG-DASL assay provides a reliable platform for genome-wide expression profiling in archived materials. It also possesses utility within clinical settings where only limited quantities of samples may be available (e.g. microdissected material or when minimally invasive procedures are performed (e

  19. Transcriptional profiling of degraded RNA in cryopreserved and fixed tissue samples obtained at autopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhasan Samir

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional multiplexed gene expression methods require well preserved, intact RNA. Such specimens are difficult to acquire in clinical practice where formalin fixation is the standard procedure for processing tissue. Even when special handling methods are used to obtain frozen tissue, there may be RNA degradation; for example autopsy samples where degradation occurs both pre-mortem and during the interval between death and cryopreservation. Although specimens with partially degraded RNA can be analyzed by qRT-PCR, these analyses can only be done individually or at low levels of multiplexing and are laborious and expensive to run for large numbers of RNA targets. Methods We evaluated the ability of the cDNA-mediated Annealing, Selection, extension, and Ligation (DASL assay to provide highly multiplexed analyses of cryopreserved and formalin fixed, paraffin embedded (FFPE tissues obtained at autopsy. Each assay provides data on 1536 targets, and can be performed on specimens with RNA fragments as small as 60 bp. Results The DASL performed accurately and consistently with cryopreserved RNA obtained at autopsy as well as with RNA extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue that had a cryopreserved mirror image specimen with high quality RNA. In FFPE tissue where the cryopreserved mirror image specimen was of low quality the assay performed reproducibly on some but not all specimens. Conclusion The DASL assay provides reproducible results from cryopreserved specimens and many FFPE specimens obtained at autopsy. Gene expression analyses of these specimens may be especially valuable for the study of non-cancer endpoints, where surgical specimens are rarely available.

  20. Dose-Response Analysis of RNA-Seq Profiles in Archival Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples provide a vast untapped resource for chemical safety and translational science. To date, genomic profiling of FFPE samples has been limited by poor RNA quality and inconsistent results with limited utility in dose-response assessmen...

  1. Low-Z polymer sample supports for fixed-target serial femtosecond X-ray crystallography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feld, Geoffrey K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); National Institute of Environmental Health Science, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Heymann, Michael [Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA (United States); Univ. of Hamburg and DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Benner, W. Henry [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pardini, Tommaso [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Tsai, Ching -Ju [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Boutet, Sebastien [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Coleman, Matthew A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hunter, Mark S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Li, Xiaodan [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Messerschmidt, Marc [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); BioXFEL Science and Technology Center, Buffalo, NY (United States); Opathalage, Achini [Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA (United States); Pedrini, Bill [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Williams, Garth J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Krantz, Bryan A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Fraden, Seth [Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA (United States); Hau-Riege, Stefan [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Evans, James E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Segelke, Brent W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Frank, Matthias [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-06-27

    X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) offer a new avenue to the structural probing of complex materials, including biomolecules. Delivery of precious sample to the XFEL beam is a key consideration, as the sample of interest must be serially replaced after each destructive pulse. The fixed-target approach to sample delivery involves depositing samples on a thin-film support and subsequent serial introduction via a translating stage. Some classes of biological materials, including two-dimensional protein crystals, must be introduced on fixed-target supports, as they require a flat surface to prevent sample wrinkling. A series of wafer and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)-style grid supports constructed of low-Z plastic have been custom-designed and produced. Aluminium TEM grid holders were engineered, capable of delivering up to 20 different conventional or plastic TEM grids using fixed-target stages available at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). As proof-of-principle, X-ray diffraction has been demonstrated from two-dimensional crystals of bacteriorhodopsin and three-dimensional crystals of anthrax toxin protective antigen mounted on these supports at the LCLS. In conclusion, the benefits and limitations of these low-Z fixed-target supports are discussed; it is the authors' belief that they represent a viable and efficient alternative to previously reported fixed-target supports for conducting diffraction studies with XFELs.

  2. VLSI Implementation of Fixed-Point Lattice Wave Digital Filters for Increased Sampling Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Agarwal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Low complexity and high speed are the key requirements of the digital filters. These filters can be realized using allpass filters. In this paper, design and minimum multiplier implementation of a fixed point lattice wave digital filter (WDF based on three port parallel adaptor allpass structure is proposed. Here, the second-order allpass sections are implemented with three port parallel adaptor allpass structures. A design-level area optimization is done by converting constant multipliers into shifts and adds using canonical signed digit (CSD techniques. The proposed implementation reduces the latency of the critical loop by reducing the number of components (adders and multipliers. Three design examples are included to analyze the effectiveness of the proposed approach. These are implemented in verilog HDL language and mapped to a standard cell library in a 0.18 μm CMOS process. The functionality of the implementations have been verified by applying number of different input vectors. Results and simulations demonstrate that the proposed design method leads to an efficient lattice WDF in terms of maximum sampling frequency. The cost to pay is small area overhead. The postlayout simulations have been done by HSPICE with CMOS transistors.

  3. Development of a novel flow cytometric approach to evaluate fish sperm chromatin using fixed samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jill A.

    2013-01-01

    The integrity of the paternal DNA is essential for the accurate transmission of genetic information, yet fertilization is not inhibited by chromatin breakage. Some methods are available for the sensitive detection of DNA damage and can be applied in studies of environmental toxicology, carcinogenesis, aging, and assisted reproduction techniques in both clinical and experimental settings. Because semen samples obtained from remote locations undergo chromatin damage prior to laboratory assessment, the present study was undertaken to evaluate treatments for effective chromatin staining in the development of a DNA fragmentation assay using fixed milt from yellow perch (Perca flavescens). Similar to the sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA), susceptibility of nuclear DNA to acid-induced denaturation was measured by flow cytometry (FCM). Use of 10% buffered formalin for milt fixation allowed easier peak discrimination than 4% paraformaldehyde. The effects of time and temperature of incubation in 0.08 N HCl were evaluated in order to determine the ideal conditions for promoting DNA decondensation and making strand breaks more available for staining and detection by FCM. The best results were obtained with incubation at 37°C for 1 minute, followed by cold propidium iodide staining for 30 minutes.

  4. Weak limits for exploratory plots in the analysis of extremes

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Bikramjit

    2010-01-01

    Exploratory plotting tools have been devised aplenty in order to diagnose the goodness-of-fit of data sets to a hypothesized distribution. Some of them have found extensive use in diverse areas of finance, telecommunication, environmental science, etc. in order to detect sub-exponential or heavy-tailed behavior in observed data. In this paper we concentrate on two such plotting methodologies: the Quantile-Quantile plots for heavy-tails and the Mean Excess plots. Under the assumption of heavy-tailed behavior of the underlying sample the convergence in probability of these plots to a fixed set in a suitable topology of closed sets of $\\R^2$ has been studied in \\cite{das:resnick:2008} and \\cite{ghosh:resnick:2009}. These results give theoretical justifications for using the plots to test the null hypothesis that the underlying distribution is heavy-tailed by checking if the observed plot is ``close'' to the limit under the null hypothesis. In practice though one set of observations would lead to only one plot of...

  5. Quantitative analysis of gene expression in fixed colorectal carcinoma samples as a method for biomarker validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    OSTASIEWICZ, BEATA; OSTASIEWICZ, PAWEŁ; DUŚ-SZACHNIEWICZ, KAMILA; OSTASIEWICZ, KATARZYNA; ZIÓŁKOWSKI, PIOTR

    2016-01-01

    Biomarkers have been described as the future of oncology. Modern proteomics provide an invaluable tool for the near-whole proteome screening for proteins expressed differently in neoplastic vs. healthy tissues. However, in order to select the most promising biomarkers, an independent method of validation is required. The aim of the current study was to propose a methodology for the validation of biomarkers. Due to material availability the majority of large scale biomarker studies are performed using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues, therefore these were selected for use in the current study. A total of 10 genes were selected from what have been previously described as the most promising candidate biomarkers, and the expression levels were analyzed with reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) using calibrator normalized relative quantification with the efficiency correction. For 6/10 analyzed genes, the results were consistent with the proteomic data; for the remaining four genes, the results were inconclusive. The upregulation of karyopherin α 2 (KPNA2) and chromosome segregation 1-like (CSE1L) in colorectal carcinoma, in addition to downregulation of chloride channel accessory 1 (CLCA1), fatty acid binding protein 1 (FABP1), sodium channel, voltage gated, type VII α subunit (SCN7A) and solute carrier family 26 (anion exchanger), member 3 (SLC26A3) was confirmed. With the combined use of proteomic and genetic tools, it was reported, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, that SCN7A was downregulated in colorectal carcinoma at mRNA and protein levels. It had been previously suggested that the remaining five genes served an important role in colorectal carcinogenesis, however the current study provided strong evidence to support their use as biomarkers. Thus, it was concluded that combination of RT-qPCR with proteomics offers a powerful methodology for biomarker identification, which can be used to analyze

  6. Porous filtering media comparison through wet and dry sampling of fixed bed gasification products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allesina, G.; Pedrazzi, S.; Montermini, L.; Giorgini, L.; Bortolani, G.; Tartarini, P.

    2014-11-01

    The syngas produced by fixed bed gasifiers contains high quantities of particulate and tars. This issue, together with its high temperature, avoids its direct exploitation without a proper cleaning and cooling process. In fact, when the syngas produced by gasification is used in an Internal Combustion engine (IC), the higher the content of tars and particulate, the higher the risk to damage the engine is. If these compounds are not properly removed, the engine may fail to run. A way to avoid engine fails is to intensify the maintenance schedule, but these stops will reduce the system profitability. From a clean syngas does not only follow higher performance of the generator, but also less pollutants in the atmosphere. When is not possible to work on the gasification reactions, the filter plays the most important role in the engine safeguard process. This work is aimed at developing and comparing different porous filters for biomass gasifiers power plants. A drum filter was developed and tested filling it with different filtering media available on the market. As a starting point, the filter was implemented in a Power Pallet 10 kW gasifier produced by the California-based company "ALL Power Labs". The original filter was replaced with different porous biomasses, such as woodchips and corn cobs. Finally, a synthetic zeolites medium was tested and compared with the biological media previously used. The Tar Sampling Protocol (TSP) and a modified "dry" method using the Silica Gel material were applied to evaluate the tars, particulate and water amount in the syngas after the filtration process. Advantages and disadvantages of every filtering media chosen were reported and discussed.

  7. Dose-Response Analysis of RNA-Seq Profiles in Archival Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded (FFPE) Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of archival resources has been limited to date by inconsistent methods for genomic profiling of degraded RNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples. RNA-sequencing offers a promising way to address this problem. Here we evaluated transcriptomic dose responses us...

  8. Dose-Response Analysis of RNA-Seq Profiles in Archival Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded (FFPE) Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of archival resources has been limited to date by inconsistent methods for genomic profiling of degraded RNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples. RNA-sequencing offers a promising way to address this problem. Here we evaluated transcriptomic dose responses us...

  9. Multimodal Raman-fluorescence spectroscopy of formalin fixed samples is able to discriminate brain tumors from dysplastic tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Suresh; Cicchi, Riccardo; Giordano, Flavio; Buccoliero, Anna Maria; Pavone, Francesco Saverio

    2014-05-01

    In the recent years, there has been a considerable surge in the application of spectroscopy for disease diagnosis. Raman and fluorescence spectra provide characteristic spectral profile related to biochemical and morphological changes when tissues progress from normal state towards malignancy. Spectroscopic techniques offer the advantage of being minimally invasive compared to traditional histopathology, real time and quantitative. In biomedical optical diagnostics, freshly excised specimens are preferred for making ex-vivo spectroscopic measurements. With regard to fresh tissues, if the lab is located far away from the clinic it could pose a problem as spectral measurements have to be performed immediately after dissection. Tissue samples are usually placed in a fixative agent such as 4% formaldehyde to preserve the samples before processing them for routine histopathological studies. Fixation prevents the tissues from decomposition by arresting autolysis. In the present study, we intend to investigate the possibility of using formalin fixed samples for discrimination of brain tumours from dysplastic tissue using Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy. Formalin fixed samples were washed with phosphate buffered saline for about 5 minutes in order to remove the effects of formalin during spectroscopic measurements. In case of fluorescence spectroscopy, changes in spectral profile have been observed in the region between 550-670 nm between dysplastic and tumor samples. For Raman measurements, we found significant differences in the spectral profiles between dysplasia and tumor. In conclusion, formalin fixed samples can be potentially used for the spectroscopic discrimination of tumor against dysplastic tissue in brain samples.

  10. Improved reproducibility in genome-wide DNA methylation analysis for PAXgene® fixed samples compared to restored FFPE DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Gitte Brinch; Hager, Henrik; Hansen, Lise Lotte;

    2014-01-01

    , precluding the use of the valuable archives of specimens with long-term follow-up data. Therefore, restoration protocols for DNA from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples have been developed, although they are cost-intensive and time-consuming. An alternative to FFPE and snap......Chip. Quantitative DNA methylation analysis demonstrated that the methylation profile in PAXgene-fixed tissues showed, in comparison with restored FFPE samples, a higher concordance with the profile detected in frozen samples. We demonstrate, for the first time, that DNA from PAXgene conserved tissue performs better...... compared with restored FFPE DNA in genome-wide DNA methylation analysis. In addition, DNA from PAXgene tissue can be directly used on the array without prior restoration, rendering the analytical process significantly more time- and cost-effective....

  11. Comparing the proteome of snap frozen, RNAlater preserved, and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded human tissue samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Tue Bjerg; Kastaniegaard, Kenneth; Padurariu, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Large biobanks exist worldwide containing formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples and samples stored in RNAlater. However, the impact of tissue preservation on the result of a quantative proteome analysis remains poorly described. Human colon mucosal biopsies were extracted from the sigmoideum...... and either immediately frozen, stabilized in RNAlater, or stabilized by formalin-fixation. In one set of biopsies, formalin stabilization was delayed for 30 min. The protein content of the samples was characterized by high throughput quantitative proteomics. We were able to identify a similar high number...

  12. Atypical carcinoid and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung: a proteomic dataset from formalin-fixed archival samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Tanca

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Here we present a dataset generated using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded archival samples from two rare lung neuroendocrine tumor subtypes (namely, two atypical carcinoids, ACs, and two large-cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, LCNECs. Samples were subjected to a shotgun proteomics pipeline, comprising full-length protein extraction, SDS removal through spin columns, in solution trypsin digestion, long gradient liquid chromatography peptide separation and LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry analysis. A total of 1260 and 2436 proteins were identified in the AC and LCNEC samples, respectively, with FDR <1%. MS data are available in the PeptideAtlas repository at http://www.peptideatlas.org/PASS/PASS00375.

  13. Atypical carcinoid and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung: a proteomic dataset from formalin-fixed archival samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanca, Alessandro; Addis, Maria Filippa; Pisanu, Salvatore; Abbondio, Marcello; Pagnozzi, Daniela; Eccher, Albino; Rindi, Guido; Cossu-Rocca, Paolo; Uzzau, Sergio; Fanciulli, Giuseppe

    2016-06-01

    Here we present a dataset generated using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded archival samples from two rare lung neuroendocrine tumor subtypes (namely, two atypical carcinoids, ACs, and two large-cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, LCNECs). Samples were subjected to a shotgun proteomics pipeline, comprising full-length protein extraction, SDS removal through spin columns, in solution trypsin digestion, long gradient liquid chromatography peptide separation and LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry analysis. A total of 1260 and 2436 proteins were identified in the AC and LCNEC samples, respectively, with FDR <1%. MS data are available in the PeptideAtlas repository at http://www.peptideatlas.org/PASS/PASS00375.

  14. Atypical carcinoid and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung: a proteomic dataset from formalin-fixed archival samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanca, Alessandro; Addis, Maria Filippa; Pisanu, Salvatore; Abbondio, Marcello; Pagnozzi, Daniela; Eccher, Albino; Rindi, Guido; Cossu-Rocca, Paolo; Uzzau, Sergio; Fanciulli, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Here we present a dataset generated using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded archival samples from two rare lung neuroendocrine tumor subtypes (namely, two atypical carcinoids, ACs, and two large-cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, LCNECs). Samples were subjected to a shotgun proteomics pipeline, comprising full-length protein extraction, SDS removal through spin columns, in solution trypsin digestion, long gradient liquid chromatography peptide separation and LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry analysis. A total of 1260 and 2436 proteins were identified in the AC and LCNEC samples, respectively, with FDR <1%. MS data are available in the PeptideAtlas repository at http://www.peptideatlas.org/PASS/PASS00375. PMID:27054153

  15. PLOT3D user's manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walatka, Pamela P.; Buning, Pieter G.; Pierce, Larry; Elson, Patricia A.

    1990-01-01

    PLOT3D is a computer graphics program designed to visualize the grids and solutions of computational fluid dynamics. Seventy-four functions are available. Versions are available for many systems. PLOT3D can handle multiple grids with a million or more grid points, and can produce varieties of model renderings, such as wireframe or flat shaded. Output from PLOT3D can be used in animation programs. The first part of this manual is a tutorial that takes the reader, keystroke by keystroke, through a PLOT3D session. The second part of the manual contains reference chapters, including the helpfile, data file formats, advice on changing PLOT3D, and sample command files.

  16. Analysis/plot generation code with significance levels computed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistics valid for both large and small samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, S.E.; Fields, D.E.

    1983-10-01

    This report describes a version of the TERPED/P computer code that is very useful for small data sets. A new algorithm for determining the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) statistics is used to extend program applicability. The TERPED/P code facilitates the analysis of experimental data and assists the user in determining its probability distribution function. Graphical and numerical tests are performed interactively in accordance with the user's assumption of normally or log-normally distributed data. Statistical analysis options include computation of the chi-square statistic and the KS one-sample test statistic and the corresponding significance levels. Cumulative probability plots of the user's data are generated either via a local graphics terminal, a local line printer or character-oriented terminal, or a remote high-resolution graphics device such as the FR80 film plotter or the Calcomp paper plotter. Several useful computer methodologies suffer from limitations of their implementations of the KS nonparametric test. This test is one of the more powerful analysis tools for examining the validity of an assumption about the probability distribution of a set of data. KS algorithms are found in other analysis codes, including the Statistical Analysis Subroutine (SAS) package and earlier versions of TERPED. The inability of these algorithms to generate significance levels for sample sizes less than 50 has limited their usefulness. The release of the TERPED code described herein contains algorithms to allow computation of the KS statistic and significance level for data sets of, if the user wishes, as few as three points. Values computed for the KS statistic are within 3% of the correct value for all data set sizes.

  17. A comprehensive factorial design study of variables affecting protein extraction from formalin-fixed kidney tissue samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, J E; Oliveira, E; Otero-Glez, A; Santos Nores, J; Igrejas, G; Lodeiro, C; Capelo, J L; Santos, H M

    2014-02-01

    Formalin-fixed tissues are an important source of biological samples for biomedical research. However, proteomics analysis of formalin-fixed tissues has been set aside by formalin-induced protein modifications, which reduce protein extraction efficiency. In this study, a two level full factorial experimental design (2(4)) was used to determine the effects of the extracting conditions in the efficiency of protein recovery from formalin-fixed kidney samples. The following variables were assessed: temperature of extraction, pH of extraction, composition of the extracting buffer and the use ultrasonic energy applied with probe. It is clearly demonstrated that when hating and ultrasonic energy are used in conjunction, a 7-fold increase (p protein extraction is obtained if compared to extracting conditions for which neither heating nor ultrasonic energy are used. The optimization study was done following the amount of protein extracted by UV (Nanodrop(®) technology, protein ABS at 280 nm) and by 1D SDS-PAGE. Extracts obtained with the optimized conditions were subjected to LC-MALDI MS/MS. A total of 112 proteins were identified.

  18. A novel sampling method for multiple multiscale targets from scattering amplitudes at a fixed frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaodong

    2017-08-01

    A sampling method by using scattering amplitude is proposed for shape and location reconstruction in inverse acoustic scattering problems. Only matrix multiplication is involved in the computation, thus the novel sampling method is very easy and simple to implement. With the help of the factorization of the far field operator, we establish an inf-criterion for characterization of underlying scatterers. This result is then used to give a lower bound of the proposed indicator functional for sampling points inside the scatterers. While for the sampling points outside the scatterers, we show that the indicator functional decays like the bessel functions as the sampling point goes away from the boundary of the scatterers. We also show that the proposed indicator functional continuously depends on the scattering amplitude, this further implies that the novel sampling method is extremely stable with respect to errors in the data. Different to the classical sampling method such as the linear sampling method or the factorization method, from the numerical point of view, the novel indicator takes its maximum near the boundary of the underlying target and decays like the bessel functions as the sampling points go away from the boundary. The numerical simulations also show that the proposed sampling method can deal with multiple multiscale case, even the different components are close to each other.

  19. A Fixed-Precision Sequential Sampling Plan for the Potato Tuberworm Moth, Phthorimaea operculella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechidae), on Potato Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbi, M; Rajabpour, A

    2017-02-15

    Phthorimaea operculella Zeller is an important pest of potato in Iran. Spatial distribution and fixed-precision sequential sampling for population estimation of the pest on two potato cultivars, Arinda(®) and Sante(®), were studied in two separate potato fields during two growing seasons (2013-2014 and 2014-2015). Spatial distribution was investigated by Taylor's power law and Iwao's patchiness. Results showed that the spatial distribution of eggs and larvae was random. In contrast to Iwao's patchiness, Taylor's power law provided a highly significant relationship between variance and mean density. Therefore, fixed-precision sequential sampling plan was developed by Green's model at two precision levels of 0.25 and 0.1. The optimum sample size on Arinda(®) and Sante(®) cultivars at precision level of 0.25 ranged from 151 to 813 and 149 to 802 leaves, respectively. At 0.1 precision level, the sample sizes varied from 5083 to 1054 and 5100 to 1050 leaves for Arinda(®) and Sante(®) cultivars, respectively. Therefore, the optimum sample sizes for the cultivars, with different resistance levels, were not significantly different. According to the calculated stop lines, the sampling must be continued until cumulative number of eggs + larvae reached to 15-16 or 96-101 individuals at precision levels of 0.25 or 0.1, respectively. The performance of the sampling plan was validated by resampling analysis using resampling for validation of sampling plans software. The sampling plant provided in this study can be used to obtain a rapid estimate of the pest density with minimal effort.

  20. Uniform sampling of undirected and directed graphs with a fixed degree sequence

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, Annabell

    2009-01-01

    Many applications in network analysis require efficient algorithms to sample uniformly at random from the set of all graphs with a prescribed degree sequence. We solve this long-standing open problem for both the directed and undirected case using a Markov chain based approach. By spectral analysis we prove that our Markov chains are rapidly mixing, i.e., we can determine a random realization in polynomial time. Previous solutions to these sampling problems have either been restricted to special classes of degree sequences or only led to approximately uniform sampling. For the case of directed graphs, we also explain in this paper why a popular switching algorithm fails in general to sample uniformly at random but characterize under which efficiently checkable conditions it will provable succeed in polynomial time. Finally, we point out some interesting consequences for network analysis.

  1. Oligonucleotide array outperforms SNP array on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded clinical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasri, Soroush; Anjomshoaa, Ahmad; Song, Sarah; Guilford, Parry; McNoe, Les; Black, Michael; Phillips, Vicky; Reeve, Anthony; Humar, Bostjan

    2010-04-01

    Compromised quality of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE)-derived DNA has compounded the use of archival specimens for array-based genomic studies. Recent technological advances have led to first successes in this field; however, there is currently no general agreement on the most suitable platform for the array-based analysis of FFPE DNA. In this study, FFPE and matched fresh-frozen (FF) specimens were separately analyzed with Affymetrix single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) 6.0 and Agilent 4x44K oligonucleotide arrays to compare the genomic profiles from the two tissue sources and to assess the relative performance of the two platforms on FFPE material. Genomic DNA was extracted from matched FFPE-FF pairs of normal intestinal epithelium from four patients and were applied to the SNP and oligonucleotide platforms according to the manufacturer-recommended protocols. On the Affymetrix platform, a substantial increase in apparent copy number alterations was observed in all FFPE tissues relative to their matched FF counterparts. In contrast, FFPE and matched FF genomic profiles obtained via the Agilent platform were very similar. Both the SNP and the oligonucleotide platform performed comparably on FF material. This study demonstrates that Agilent oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization generates reliable results from FFPE extracted DNA, whereas the Affymetrix SNP-based array seems less suitable for the analysis of FFPE material.

  2. Probing focal cortical dysplasia in formalin fixed samples using tissue optical spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Suresh; Cicchi, Riccardo; Giordano, Flavio; Buccoliero, Anna Maria; Conti, Valerio; Guerrini, Renzo; Pavone, Francesco Saverio

    2016-03-01

    Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is one of most common causes of intractable epilepsy in pediatric population and these are often insensitive to anti-epileptic drugs. FCD is characterized by a disarray in localized regions of the cerebral cortex and abnormal neurons which results them to misfire with incorrect signals. Resective neurosurgery to remove or disconnect the affected parts from the rest of the brain seems to be a viable option to treat FCD. Before neurosurgery the subject could undergo imaging studies including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) scans. On the downside FCD could be elusive in MRI images and may be practically invisible in CT scans. Furthermore, unnecessary removal of normal tissues is to be taken into consideration as this could lead to neurological defects. In this context, optical spectroscopy have been widely investigated as an alternative technique for the detection of abnormal tissues in different organ sites. Disease progression is accompanied by a number of architectural, biochemical and morphological changes. These variations are reflected in the spectral intensity and line shape. Here, in this proof of concept study we propose to investigate the application of tissue optical spectroscopy based on fluorescence excitation at two wavelength 378 and 445 nm coupled along with Raman spectroscopy for the detection of FCD on formalin fixed tissue specimens from pediatric subjects. For fluorescence at both the excitation wavelengths FCD showed a decreased intensity at longer wavelength when compared to normal tissues. Also, differences exist in the Raman spectral profiles of normal and FCD.

  3. SAMPLING INTENSITY WITH FIXED PRECISION WHEN ESTIMATING VOLUME OF HUMAN BRAIN COMPARTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhiannon Maudsley

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Cavalieri sampling and point counting are frequently applied in combination with magnetic resonance (MR imaging to estimate the volume of human brain compartments. Current practice involves arbitrarily choosing the number of sections and sampling intensity within each section, and subsequently applying error prediction formulae to estimate the precision. The aim of this study is to derive a reference table for researchers who are interested in estimating the volume of brain regions, namely grey matter, white matter, and their union, to a given precision. In particular, this table, which is based on subsampling of a large brain data set obtained from coronal MR images, offers a recommendation for the minimum number of sections and mean number of points per section that are required to achieve a pre-defined coefficient of error of the volume estimator. Further analysis onMR brain data from a second human brain shows that the sampling intensity recommended is appropriate.

  4. Density Distribution Sunflower Plots

    OpenAIRE

    Dupont, William D; W. Dale Plummer Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Density distribution sunflower plots are used to display high-density bivariate data. They are useful for data where a conventional scatter plot is difficult to read due to overstriking of the plot symbol. The x-y plane is subdivided into a lattice of regular hexagonal bins of width w specified by the user. The user also specifies the values of l, d, and k that affect the plot as follows. Individual observations are plotted when there are less than l observations per bin as in a conventio...

  5. Monitoring larval populations of the douglas-fir tussock moth and the western spruce budworm on permanent plots: Sampling methods and statistical properties of data. Forest Service general technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, R.R.; Paul, H.G.

    1994-05-01

    Procedures for monitoring Larval populations of the Douglas-fir tussock moth and the western spruce budworm are recommended based on many years experience of sample these species in eastern Oregon and Washington. It is shown that statistically reliable estimates of larval density can be made for a population by sampling host trees in a series of permanent plots in a geographical monitoring unit. The most practical method is to estimate densities of both insect species simultaneously on a plot by the nondestructive sampling of foliage on lower crown branches of host trees. For best results, sampling methods need to be consistent with monitoring done annually to accumulate continuous databases that reflect the behavior of defoliator populations over a long period of time.

  6. Normal probability plots with confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantarangsi, Wanpen; Liu, Wei; Bretz, Frank; Kiatsupaibul, Seksan; Hayter, Anthony J; Wan, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Normal probability plots are widely used as a statistical tool for assessing whether an observed simple random sample is drawn from a normally distributed population. The users, however, have to judge subjectively, if no objective rule is provided, whether the plotted points fall close to a straight line. In this paper, we focus on how a normal probability plot can be augmented by intervals for all the points so that, if the population distribution is normal, then all the points should fall into the corresponding intervals simultaneously with probability 1-α. These simultaneous 1-α probability intervals provide therefore an objective mean to judge whether the plotted points fall close to the straight line: the plotted points fall close to the straight line if and only if all the points fall into the corresponding intervals. The powers of several normal probability plot based (graphical) tests and the most popular nongraphical Anderson-Darling and Shapiro-Wilk tests are compared by simulation. Based on this comparison, recommendations are given in Section 3 on which graphical tests should be used in what circumstances. An example is provided to illustrate the methods.

  7. Performance of the linear array HPV genotyping test on paired cytological and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cervical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donà, Maria Gabriella; Ronchetti, Livia; Giuliani, Massimo; Carosi, Mariantonia; Rollo, Francesca; Congiu, Mario; Mazza, Domenica; Pescarmona, Edoardo; Vocaturo, Amina; Benevolo, Maria

    2013-05-01

    Detection and genotyping of human papillomavirus (HPV) from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples may be difficult when using assays based on amplification of large fragments. The objective of the present study was to investigate the performance of the Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test (Linear Array) on FFPE cervical cone biopsy specimens using paired cytologic samples obtained immediately before the conization as a criterion standard. Thirty-nine samples of grade 2 or higher cervical intraepithelial neoplasia were selected; all of the corresponding cytological samples were positive by the Linear Array and had a report of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or worse. A valid Linear Array test result was obtained for 38 FFPE specimens (97.4%, 95% CI 88.0 to 99.9). Specifically, 34 were HPV-positive (89.5%, 95% CI 76.5 to 96.9) and 4 were HPV-negative (10.5%, 95% CI 3.4 to 23.5). The overall agreement of the results obtained for the cytologic and histologic paired samples was good (Cohen's κ = 0.85, SE = 0.082, P = 0.000). Further analysis of samples with negative or invalid Linear Array test results, both modifying the nucleic acids extraction protocol and using the INNO-LiPA assay, suggested that failure of the Linear Array test in HPV detection from tissues was probably due to DNA fragmentation. Parallel analysis of paired FFPE and cytologic samples is extremely useful for evaluation of the efficiency of PCR-based assays in HPV detection and genotyping from tissue samples. In the present study, false-negative results were obtained in a limited percentage of cases, our data depicting the successful performance of the Linear Array test on FFPE samples.

  8. Optimal plot design in a multipurpose forest inventory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Helena M Henttonen; Annika Kangas

    2016-01-01

    Background:We explore the factors affecting the optimal plot design (size and type as well as the subsample tree selection strategies within a plot) and their relative importance in defining the optimal plot design in amultipurpose forest inventory. The factors include time used to lay out the plot and to make the tree measurements within the plot, the between-plot variation of each of the variables of interest in the area, and the measurement and model errors for the different variables. Methods:We simulate different plot types and sizes and subsample tree selection strategies on measuredtest areas from North Lapland. The plot types used are fixed-radius, concentric and relascope plots. Weselect the optimal type and size first at plot level using a cost-plus-loss approach and then at cluster level byminimizing the weighted standard error with fixed budget. Results:As relascope plots are very efficient at the plot level for volume and basal area, and fixed-radius plots for stems per ha, the optimal plot type strongly depends on the relative importance of these variables. The concentric plot seems to be a good compromise between these two in many cases. The subsample tree selection strategy was more important in selecting optimal plot than many other factors. In cluster level, the most important factor is the transfer time between plots. Conclusions:While the optimal radius of plots and other parameters were sensitive to the measurement times and other cost factors, the concentric plot type was optimal in almost al studied cases. Subsample tree measurement strategies need further studies, as they were an important cost factor. However, their importance to the precision was not as clear.

  9. Accelerating functional MRI using fixed-rank approximations and radial-cartesian sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiew, Mark; Graedel, Nadine N; McNab, Jennifer A; Smith, Stephen M; Miller, Karla L

    2016-12-01

    Recently, k-t FASTER (fMRI Accelerated in Space-time by means of Truncation of Effective Rank) was introduced for rank-constrained acceleration of fMRI data acquisition. Here we demonstrate improvements achieved through a hybrid three-dimensional radial-Cartesian sampling approach that allows posthoc selection of acceleration factors, as well as incorporation of coil sensitivity encoding in the reconstruction. The multicoil rank-constrained reconstruction used hard thresholding and shrinkage on matrix singular values of the space-time data matrix, using sensitivity encoding and the nonuniform Fast Fourier Transform to enforce data consistency in the multicoil non-Cartesian k-t domain. Variable acceleration factors were made possible using a radial increment based on the golden ratio. Both retrospective and prospectively under-sampled data were used to assess the fidelity of the enhancements to the k-t FASTER technique in resting and task-fMRI data. The improved k-t FASTER is capable of tailoring acceleration factors for recovery of different signal components, achieving up to R = 12.5 acceleration in visual-motor task data. The enhancements reduce data matrix reconstruction errors even at much higher acceleration factors when compared directly with the original k-t FASTER approach. We have shown that k-t FASTER can be used to significantly accelerate fMRI data acquisition with little penalty to data quality. Magn Reson Med 76:1825-1836, 2016. © 2016 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. © 2016 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  10. GlobPlot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linding, Rune; Russell, Robert B; Neduva, Victor

    2003-01-01

    are important for protein function. We present here a new tool for discovery of such unstructured, or disordered regions within proteins. GlobPlot (http://globplot.embl.de) is a web service that allows the user to plot the tendency within the query protein for order/globularity and disorder. We show examples...... with known proteins where it successfully identifies inter-domain segments containing linear motifs, and also apparently ordered regions that do not contain any recognised domain. GlobPlot may be useful in domain hunting efforts. The plots indicate that instances of known domains may often contain additional...... N- or C-terminal segments that appear ordered. Thus GlobPlot may be of use in the design of constructs corresponding to globular proteins, as needed for many biochemical studies, particularly structural biology. GlobPlot has a pipeline interface--GlobPipe--for the advanced user to do whole proteome...

  11. Difference and ratio plots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Anders Jørgen; Holmskov, U; Bro, Peter

    1995-01-01

    hitherto unnoted differences between controls and patients with either rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus. For this we use simple, but unconventional, graphic representations of the data, based on difference plots and ratio plots. Differences between patients with Burkitt's lymphoma...... and systemic lupus erythematosus from another previously published study (Macanovic, M. and Lachmann, P.J. (1979) Clin. Exp. Immunol. 38, 274) are also represented using ratio plots. Our observations indicate that analysis by regression analysis may often be misleading....

  12. Fuzzy recurrence plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, T. D.

    2016-12-01

    Recurrence plots display binary texture of time series from dynamical systems with single dots and line structures. Using fuzzy recurrence plots, recurrences of the phase-space states can be visualized as grayscale texture, which is more informative for pattern analysis. The proposed method replaces the crucial similarity threshold required by symmetrical recurrence plots with the number of cluster centers, where the estimate of the latter parameter is less critical than the estimate of the former.

  13. Calibrated Passive Sampling--Multi-plot Field Measurements of NH3 Emissions with a Combination of Dynamic Tube Method and Passive Samplers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacholski, Andreas

    2016-03-21

    Agricultural ammonia (NH3) emissions (90% of total EU emissions) are responsible for about 45% airborne eutrophication, 31% soil acidification and 12% fine dust formation within the EU15. But NH3 emissions also mean a considerable loss of nutrients. Many studies on NH3 emission from organic and mineral fertilizer application have been performed in recent decades. Nevertheless, research related to NH3 emissions after application fertilizers is still limited in particular with respect to relationships to emissions, fertilizer type, site conditions and crop growth. Due to the variable response of crops to treatments, effects can only be validated in experimental designs including field replication for statistical testing. The dominating ammonia loss methods yielding quantitative emissions require large field areas, expensive equipment or current supply, which restricts their application in replicated field trials. This protocol describes a new methodology for the measurement of NH3 emissions on many plots linking a simple semi-quantitative measuring method used in all plots, with a quantitative method by simultaneous measurements using both methods on selected plots. As a semi-quantitative measurement method passive samplers are used. The second method is a dynamic chamber method (Dynamic Tube Method) to obtain a transfer quotient, which converts the semi-quantitative losses of the passive sampler to quantitative losses (kg nitrogen ha(-1)). The principle underlying this approach is that passive samplers placed in a homogeneous experimental field have the same NH3 absorption behavior under identical environmental conditions. Therefore, a transfer co-efficient obtained from single passive samplers can be used to scale the values of all passive samplers used in the same field trial. The method proved valid under a wide range of experimental conditions and is recommended to be used under conditions with bare soil or small canopies (<0.3 m). Results obtained from

  14. Measuring expression levels of small regulatory RNA molecules from body fluids and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyongyosi, Adrienn; Docs, Otto; Czimmerer, Zsolt; Orosz, Laszlo; Horvath, Attila; Török, Olga; Mehes, Gabor; Nagy, Laszlo; Balint, Balint L

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs are involved in the regulation of various pathophysiological processes such as immune regulation and cancer. Next-generation sequencing methods enable us to monitor their presence in various types of samples but we need flexible methods for validating datasets generated by high-throughput methods. Here we describe the detailed protocols to be used with our MiRNA Primer Design Tool assay design system. The presented methods allow the flexible design of the oligonucleotides needed for the RT-qPCR detection of any variant of small regulatory RNA molecules from virtually any species. This method can be used to measure miRNA levels from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples and various body fluids. As an example, we show the results of the hsa-miR-515-3p, hsa-miR-325, and hsa-miR-155 quantification using a specific UPL probe (Universal Probe Library) and a stem-loop RT-qPCR assay. The small nucleolar RNA RNU43 is used as endogenous control for normalization of the results. Urine from healthy pregnant women and FFPE samples from patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer and treated with antibody-based anti-EGFR monotherapy were used as samples.

  15. Enhancing the Frequency Adaptability of Periodic Current Controllers with a Fixed Sampling Rate for Grid-Connected Power Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Zhou, Keliang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    the instantaneous grid information (e.g., frequency and phase of the grid voltage) for the current control, which is commonly performed by a Phase-Locked-Loop (PLL) system. Hence, harmonics and deviations in the estimated frequency by the PLL could lead to current tracking performance degradation, especially...... for the periodic signal controllers (e.g., PR and RC) with a fixed sampling rate. In this paper, the impacts of frequency deviations induced by the PLL and/or the grid disturbances on the selected current controllers are investigated by analyzing the frequency adaptability of these current controllers....... Subsequently, strategies to enhance the frequency adaptability of the current controllers are proposed for the power converters to produce high quality feed-in currents even in the presence of grid frequency deviations. Specifically, by feeding back the PLL estimated frequency to update the center frequencies...

  16. 金莲花产量抽样调查的样地最小面积与形状研究%A study on the plot minimum area and shape for sampling Trollius chinensis yield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永宁; 马凯; 黄选瑞

    2011-01-01

    抽样调查是植物资源调查的一种重要方法,样地的面积与形状是抽样调查的基础,影响着调查的效率与精度.为确定野生金莲花产量抽样调查的最适样地面积与形状,设计了边长或半径逐步增大的正方形、长方形、圆形3种样地,选择了Generalized Mitscherlich方程、Richard方程与Logistic方程拟合变异系数-面积的变化趋势.提出了以变异系数的变化率与调查费用最小为判据,确定样地最小面积的2种方法,并对不同形状的样地进行比较以确定适合的样地形状.结果表明,3种变异系数-面积曲线的拟合效果均较好,相关指数均达到0.94以上,但以Logistic方程最为稳定.以变化率确定的最小面积,同一样地形状表现为Richard方程>Logistic方程>Generalized Mitscherlich方程;采用同一个回归方程,样地最小面积表现为圆形>正方形>长方形,正方形与长方形较为接近.基于最小费用研究表明,同一样地形状采用不同回归方程所得最小费用相近,但最小面积各不相同;对于同一回归方程,样地最小面积同样表现为圆形>正方形>长方形,正方形与长方形相近的趋势.最后,综合确定正方形样地的最小样地面积为36 m2(6 m×6 m),长方形为32 m2(8 m×4 m),圆形为78.5 m2(半径5 m).不同形状的样地,从所能达到的最小变异系数、相同面积与精度时的调查费用与不同回归模型反映的稳定性来说,长方形样地最好,正方形次之,但二者相差不大,圆形最差.%A sample survey is an important method for investigating plant resources. Plot area and shape underlie sampling surveys and influence survey efficiency and accuracy. To determine optimum plot area and shape for investigating yield of Trollius chinensis, three plot shapes (square, rectangle and circle) with a range of side lengths or radii were used to fit the CV (coefficient of variation)-area curve by the Generalized Mitscherlich

  17. Bisulfite-Based DNA Methylation Analysis from Recent and Archived Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin Embedded Colorectal Tissue Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmár, Alexandra; Péterfia, Bálint; Hollósi, Péter; Wichmann, Barnabás; Bodor, András; Patai, Árpád V; Schöller, Andrea; Krenács, Tibor; Tulassay, Zsolt; Molnár, Béla

    2015-09-01

    We aimed to test the applicability of formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples for gene specific DNA methylation analysis after using two commercially available DNA isolation kits. Genomic DNA was isolated from 5 colorectal adenocarcinomas and 5 normal adjacent tissues from "recent", collected within 6 months, and "archived", collected more than 5 years ago, FFPE tissues using either High Pure FFPET DNA Isolation kit or QIAamp DNA FFPE Tissue kit. DNA methylation analysis of MAL, SFRP1 and SFRP2 genes, known to be hypermethylated in CRC, was performed using methylation-sensitive high resolution melting (MS-HRM) analysis and sequencing. QIAamp (Q) method resulted in slightly higher recovery in archived (HP: 1.22 ± 3.18 μg DNA; Q: 3.00 ± 4.04 μg DNA) and significantly (p < 0.05) higher recovery in recent samples compared to High Pure method (HP) (HP: 4.10 ± 2.91 μg DNA; Q: 11.51 ± 7.50 μg DNA). Both OD260/280 and OD260/230 ratios were lower, but still high in the High Pure isolated archived and recent samples compared to those isolated with QIAamp. Identical DNA methylation patterns were detected for all 3 genes tested by MS-HRM with both isolation kits in the recent group. However, despite of higher DNA recovery in QIAamp slightly more reproducible methylation results were obtained from High Pure isolated archived samples. Sequencing confirmed DNA hypermethylation in CRCs. In conclusion, reproducible DNA methylation patterns were obtained from recent samples using both isolation kits. However, long term storage may affect the reliability of the results leading to moderate differences between the efficiency of isolation kits.

  18. Adding stress plot function to NASTRAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, S.

    1978-01-01

    Stress plot function was developed and added to the NASTRAN level 15.5. Computed stress distribution can be displayed by this function, with vectors showing the principal stresses of the finite elements over the specified portions of the structure. NASTRAN is reviewed in the aspect of plotting capabilities. Stress tensor field is examined in preparation of stress display. Then the stress plot function as added to the NASTRAN is described. A sample plotout by this function is shown.

  19. HaloPlex Targeted Resequencing for Mutation Detection in Clinical Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Tumor Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moens, Lotte N J; Falk-Sörqvist, Elin; Ljungström, Viktor; Mattsson, Johanna; Sundström, Magnus; La Fleur, Linnéa; Mathot, Lucy; Micke, Patrick; Nilsson, Mats; Botling, Johan

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, the advent of massively parallel next-generation sequencing technologies has enabled substantial advances in the study of human diseases. Combined with targeted DNA enrichment methods, high sequence coverage can be obtained for different genes simultaneously at a reduced cost per sample, creating unique opportunities for clinical cancer diagnostics. However, the formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) process of tissue samples, routinely used in pathology departments, results in DNA fragmentation and nucleotide modifications that introduce a number of technical challenges for downstream biomolecular analyses. We evaluated the HaloPlex target enrichment system for somatic mutation detection in 80 tissue fractions derived from 20 clinical cancer cases with paired tumor and normal tissue available in both FFPE and fresh-frozen format. Several modifications to the standard method were introduced, including a reduced target fragment length and two strand capturing. We found that FFPE material can be used for HaloPlex-based target enrichment and next-generation sequencing, even when starting from small amounts of DNA. By specifically capturing both strands for each target fragment, we were able to reduce the number of false-positive errors caused by FFPE-induced artifacts and lower the detection limit for somatic mutations. We believe that the HaloPlex method presented here will be broadly applicable as a tool for somatic mutation detection in clinical cancer settings.

  20. Distributed plot-making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lotte Groth; Bossen, Claus

    2016-01-01

    different socio-technical systems (paper-based and electronic patient records). Drawing on the theory of distributed cognition and narrative theory, primarily inspired by the work done within health care by Cheryl Mattingly, we propose that the creation of overview may be conceptualised as ‘distributed plot......-making’. Distributed cognition focuses on the role of artefacts, humans and their interaction in information processing, while narrative theory focuses on how humans create narratives through the plot construction. Hence, the concept of distributed plot-making highlights the distribution of information processing...... between different social actors and artefacts, as well as the filtering, sorting and ordering of such information into a narrative that is made coherent by a plot. The analysis shows that the characteristics of paper-based and electronic patient records support or obstruct the creation of overview in both...

  1. The effects of age-in-block on RNA-seq analysis of archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archival samples represent a vast resource for identification of chemical and pharmaceutical targets. Previous use of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples has been limited due to changes in RNA introduced by fixation and embedding procedures. Recent advances in RNA-seq...

  2. The effects of age-in-block on RNA-seq analysis of archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archival samples represent a vast resource for identification of chemical and pharmaceutical targets. Previous use of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples has been limited due to changes in RNA introduced by fixation and embedding procedures. Recent advances in RNA-seq...

  3. Density Distribution Sunflower Plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D. Dupont

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Density distribution sunflower plots are used to display high-density bivariate data. They are useful for data where a conventional scatter plot is difficult to read due to overstriking of the plot symbol. The x-y plane is subdivided into a lattice of regular hexagonal bins of width w specified by the user. The user also specifies the values of l, d, and k that affect the plot as follows. Individual observations are plotted when there are less than l observations per bin as in a conventional scatter plot. Each bin with from l to d observations contains a light sunflower. Other bins contain a dark sunflower. In a light sunflower each petal represents one observation. In a dark sunflower, each petal represents k observations. (A dark sunflower with p petals represents between /2-pk k and /2+pk k observations. The user can control the sizes and colors of the sunflowers. By selecting appropriate colors and sizes for the light and dark sunflowers, plots can be obtained that give both the overall sense of the data density distribution as well as the number of data points in any given region. The use of this graphic is illustrated with data from the Framingham Heart Study. A documented Stata program, called sunflower, is available to draw these graphs. It can be downloaded from the Statistical Software Components archive at http://ideas.repec.org/c/boc/bocode/s430201.html . (Journal of Statistical Software 2003; 8 (3: 1-5. Posted at http://www.jstatsoft.org/index.php?vol=8 .

  4. Whole-genome single-cell copy number profiling from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelotto, Luciano G; Baslan, Timour; Kendall, Jude; Geyer, Felipe C; Burke, Kathleen A; Spraggon, Lee; Piscuoglio, Salvatore; Chadalavada, Kalyani; Nanjangud, Gouri; Ng, Charlotte K Y; Moody, Pamela; D'Italia, Sean; Rodgers, Linda; Cox, Hilary; da Cruz Paula, Arnaud; Stepansky, Asya; Schizas, Michail; Wen, Hannah Y; King, Tari A; Norton, Larry; Weigelt, Britta; Hicks, James B; Reis-Filho, Jorge S

    2017-03-01

    A substantial proportion of tumors consist of genotypically distinct subpopulations of cancer cells. This intratumor genetic heterogeneity poses a substantial challenge for the implementation of precision medicine. Single-cell genomics constitutes a powerful approach to resolve complex mixtures of cancer cells by tracing cell lineages and discovering cryptic genetic variations that would otherwise be obscured in tumor bulk analyses. Because of the chemical alterations that result from formalin fixation, single-cell genomic approaches have largely remained limited to fresh or rapidly frozen specimens. Here we describe the development and validation of a robust and accurate methodology to perform whole-genome copy-number profiling of single nuclei obtained from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded clinical tumor samples. We applied the single-cell sequencing approach described here to study the progression from in situ to invasive breast cancer, which revealed that ductal carcinomas in situ show intratumor genetic heterogeneity at diagnosis and that these lesions may progress to invasive breast cancer through a variety of evolutionary processes.

  5. Flexible Lab-Tailored Cut-Offs for Suitability of Formalin-Fixed Tumor Samples for Diagnostic Mutational Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Sara; Tondat, Fabrizio; Pacchioni, Donatella; Molinaro, Luca; Barreca, Antonella; Macrì, Luigia; Chiusa, Luigi; di Celle, Paola Francia; Cassoni, Paola; Sapino, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The selection of proper tissues from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tumors before diagnostic molecular testing is responsibility of the pathologist and represents a crucial step to produce reliable test results. The international guidelines suggest two cut-offs, one for the percentage and one for the number of tumor cells, in order to enrich the tumor content before DNA extraction. The aim of the present work was two-fold: to evaluate to what extent a low percentage or absolute number of tumor cells can be qualified for somatic mutation testing; and to determine how assay sensitivities can guide pathologists towards a better definition of morphology-based adequacy cut-offs. We tested 1797 tumor specimens from melanomas, colorectal and lung adenocarcinomas. Respectively, their BRAF, K-RAS and EGFR genes were analyzed at specific exons by mutation-enriched PCR, pyrosequencing, direct sequencing and real-time PCR methods. We demonstrate that poorly cellular specimens do not modify the frequency distribution of either mutated or wild-type DNA samples nor that of specific mutations. This observation suggests that currently recommended cut-offs for adequacy of specimens to be processed for molecular assays seem to be too much stringent in a laboratory context that performs highly sensitive routine analytical methods. In conclusion, new cut-offs are needed based on test sensitivities and documented tumor heterogeneity. PMID:25844806

  6. Fruiting body and soil rDNA sampling detects complementary assemblage of Agaricomycotina (Basidiomycota, Fungi) in a hemlock-dominated forest plot in southern Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Teresita M; Skillman, Jane E; Moncalvo, Jean-Marc

    2008-07-01

    This is the first study to assess the diversity and community structure of the Agaricomycotina in an ectotrophic forest using above-ground fruiting body surveys as well as soil rDNA sampling. We recovered 132 molecular operational taxonomic units, or 'species', from fruiting bodies and 66 from soil, with little overlap. Fruiting body sampling primarily recovered fungi from the Agaricales, Russulales, Boletales and Cantharellales. Many of these species are ectomycorrhizal and form large fruiting bodies. Soil rDNA sampling recovered fungi from these groups in addition to taxa overlooked during the fruiting body survey from the Atheliales, Trechisporales and Sebacinales. Species from these groups form inconspicuous, resupinate and corticioid fruiting bodies. Soil sampling also detected fungi from the Hysterangiales that form fruiting bodies underground. Generally, fruiting body and soil rDNA samples recover a largely different assemblage of fungi at the species level; however, both methods identify the same dominant fungi at the genus-order level and ectomycorrhizal fungi as the prevailing type. Richness, abundance, and phylogenetic diversity (PD) identify the Agaricales as the dominant fungal group above- and below-ground; however, we find that molecularly highly divergent lineages may account for a greater proportion of total diversity using the PD measure compared with richness and abundance. Unless an exhaustive inventory is required, the rapidity and versatility of DNA-based sampling may be sufficient for a first assessment of the dominant taxonomic and ecological groups of fungi in forest soil.

  7. NPLOT - NASTRAN PLOT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcentire, K.

    1994-01-01

    NPLOT is an interactive computer graphics program for plotting undeformed and deformed NASTRAN finite element models (FEMs). Although there are many commercial codes already available for plotting FEMs, these have limited use due to their cost, speed, and lack of features to view BAR elements. NPLOT was specifically developed to overcome these limitations. On a vector type graphics device the two best ways to show depth are by hidden line plotting or haloed line plotting. A hidden line algorithm generates views of models with all hidden lines removed, and a haloed line algorithm displays views with aft lines broken in order to show depth while keeping the entire model visible. A haloed line algorithm is especially useful for plotting models composed of many line elements and few surface elements. The most important feature of NPLOT is its ability to create both hidden line and haloed line views accurately and much more quickly than with any other existing hidden or haloed line algorithms. NPLOT is also capable of plotting a normal wire frame view to display all lines of a model. NPLOT is able to aid in viewing all elements, but it has special features not generally available for plotting BAR elements. These features include plotting of TRUE LENGTH and NORMALIZED offset vectors and orientation vectors. Standard display operations such as rotation and perspective are possible, but different view planes such as X-Y, Y-Z, and X-Z may also be selected. Another display option is the Z-axis cut which allows a portion of the fore part of the model to be cut away to reveal details of the inside of the model. A zoom function is available to terminals with a locator (graphics cursor, joystick, etc.). The user interface of NPLOT is designed to make the program quick and easy to use. A combination of menus and commands with help menus for detailed information about each command allows experienced users greater speed and efficiency. Once a plot is on the screen the interface

  8. Agreement of the Kato-Katz test established by the WHO with samples fixed with sodium acetate analyzed at 6 months to diagnose intestinal geohelminthes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfredo Fernández-Niño, Julián; David Ramírez, Juan; Consuelo López, Myriam; Inés Moncada, Ligia; Reyes, Patricia; Darío Heredia, Rubén

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the Kato-Katz test (WHO version) with stool samples from a rural area, fixed with sodium acetate (SAF). The Kato-Katz test was used to compare unfixed samples (conventional test) with the same samples containing SAF fixative at time 0 and at 6 months. The study included stools from 154 subjects. A marginally statistically significant decrease in prevalence was estimated only for hookworm, when comparing unfixed samples versus the SAF fixed samples read at 6 months (p=0.06). A significant reduction in parasite load was found for hookworm (pAscaris lumbricoides (p=0.10). This research suggests that the SAF fixative solution is a good option for transporting samples for diagnosis, especially in rural areas in developing countries.

  9. Orbital Plots Using Gnuplot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Brian G.

    2000-06-01

    The plotting program Gnuplot is freely available, general purpose, easy to use, and available on a variety of platforms. Complex three-dimensional surfaces, including the familiar angular parts of the hydrogen atom orbitals, are easily represented using Gnuplot. Contour plots allow viewing the radial and angular variation of the probability density in an orbital. Examples are given of how Gnuplot is used in an undergraduate physical chemistry class to view familiar atomic orbitals in new ways or to generate views of orbital functions that the student may have not seen before. Gnuplot may also be easily integrated into the environment of a Web page; an example of this is discussed (and is available at http://onsager.bd.psu.edu/~moore/orbitals_gnuplot). The plotting commands are entered with a form and a CGI script is used to run Gnuplot and display the result back to the browser.

  10. Plot til lyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil

    Den velfungerende krimi faciliterer denne dobbelte plotlæsning ved at muliggøre en særlig form for legende og udforskende interaktion mellem læser og plot: Ved at lægge spor ud og holde tolkningsmuligheder og løsningsmuligheder åbne får vi mulighed for at påtage os og udføre opklaringsarbejdet side......, der inviterer os med ind i selve handlingens rum og forløb og giver os forskellige handlingsmuligheder i forhold til disse. I bogen omtales denne særlige form for plot for forlystelsesplot med henvisning til forlystelsesparken og den særlige form for interaktiv fortælleform, som vi finder der: en...

  11. Random versus fixed-site sampling when monitoring relative abundance of fishes in headwater streams of the upper Colorado River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quist, M.C.; Gerow, K.G.; Bower, M.R.; Hubert, W.A.

    2006-01-01

    Native fishes of the upper Colorado River basin (UCRB) have declined in distribution and abundance due to habitat degradation and interactions with normative fishes. Consequently, monitoring populations of both native and nonnative fishes is important for conservation of native species. We used data collected from Muddy Creek, Wyoming (2003-2004), to compare sample size estimates using a random and a fixed-site sampling design to monitor changes in catch per unit effort (CPUE) of native bluehead suckers Catostomus discobolus, flannelmouth suckers C. latipinnis, roundtail chub Gila robusta, and speckled dace Rhinichthys osculus, as well as nonnative creek chub Semotilus atromaculatus and white suckers C. commersonii. When one-pass backpack electrofishing was used, detection of 10% or 25% changes in CPUE (fish/100 m) at 60% statistical power required 50-1,000 randomly sampled reaches among species regardless of sampling design. However, use of a fixed-site sampling design with 25-50 reaches greatly enhanced the ability to detect changes in CPUE. The addition of seining did not appreciably reduce required effort. When detection of 25-50% changes in CPUE of native and nonnative fishes is acceptable, we recommend establishment of 25-50 fixed reaches sampled by one-pass electrofishing in Muddy Creek. Because Muddy Creek has habitat and fish assemblages characteristic of other headwater streams in the UCRB, our results are likely to apply to many other streams in the basin. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2006.

  12. The Half-Half Plot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Einmahl, J.H.J.; Gantner, M.

    2009-01-01

    The Half-Half (HH) plot is a new graphical method to investigate qualitatively the shape of a regression curve. The empirical HH-plot counts observations in the lower and upper quarter of a strip that moves horizontally over the scatter plot. The plot displays jumps clearly and reveals further featu

  13. The Half-Half Plot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Einmahl, J.H.J.; Gantner, M.

    2009-01-01

    The Half-Half (HH) plot is a new graphical method to investigate qualitatively the shape of a regression curve. The empirical HH-plot counts observations in the lower and upper quarter of a strip that moves horizontally over the scatter plot. The plot displays jumps clearly and reveals further

  14. The Half-Half Plot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Einmahl, J.H.J.; Gantner, M.

    2009-01-01

    The Half-Half (HH) plot is a new graphical method to investigate qualitatively the shape of a regression curve. The empirical HH-plot counts observations in the lower and upper quarter of a strip that moves horizontally over the scatter plot. The plot displays jumps clearly and reveals further featu

  15. Effects of spatial heterogeneity on spatial extrapolation of sampling plot data%空间异质性对样地数据空间外推的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁宇; 贺红士; 胡远满; 布仁仓

    2012-01-01

    By using model combination method, this paper simulated the changes of response variable (tree species distribution area at landscape level under climate change) under three scenarios of environmental spatial heterogeneous level, analyzed the differentiation of simulated results under different scenarios, and discussed the effects of environmental spatial heterogeneity on the larger spatial extrapolation of the tree species responses to climate change observed in sampling plots. For most tree species, spatial heterogeneity had little effects on the extrapolation from plot scale to class scale; for the tree species insensitive to climate warming and the azonal species, spatial heterogeneity also had little effects on the extrapolation from plot-scale to zonal scale. By contrast, for the tree species sensitive to climate warming, spatial heterogeneity had effects on the extrapolation from plot scale to zonal scale, and the effects could be varied under different scenarios.%应用模型结合的方法模拟了3个空间异质性等级预案下反应变量(气候变化下景观水平的树种分布面积)的变化情况,并分析模拟结果在预案之间的差异性,探讨了环境空间异质性对样地观测到的树种对气候变化响应向更大空间尺度外推的影响.结果表明:空间异质性在一般情况下对样地数据向土地类型尺度外推没有影响,而对样地尺度外推到海拔带尺度的影响则有较复杂的情况.对于对气候变化不敏感的树种以及非地带性树种,空间异质性对样地数据向海拔带尺度外推没有影响;对于大多数对气候变化敏感的地带性树种而言,空间异质性对样地数据向海拔带尺度外推则有影响.

  16. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction is an alternative method for the detection of HER-2 amplification in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded breast cancer samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Tianjie; Guo, Peng; Qiu, Yan; Chen, Shinan; Yang, Libo; Sun, Linyong; Ye, Feng; Bu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) are the most common methods that are used to quantify HER-2 gene and protein levels, respectively, in human breast cancer. However, due to bad sample quality, some samples are unable to be subjected to a FISH assay. We evaluated 71 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) breast carcinoma specimens by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), IHC, and FISH. We also performed qPCR and FISH assays on delayed formalin-fixed (DDF) samples. The qPCR results were in complete concordance with the results of IHC and FISH. In regards to the DDF samples, the HER-2 fluorescent signal seemed decayed compared with that of the DDF samples after 1 h. However, the qPCR method still works well up to 12 hours. Our results indicated that qPCR was obviously superior to FISH in cases that were not fixed in a reasonable amount of time. However, qPCR can be an alternative method by which to perform HER2 amplification assays in breast cancer.

  17. matplotlib plotting cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Devert, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    This book follows a cookbook style approach that puts orthogonal and non-redundant recipes in your hands. Rather than rehashing the user manual, the explanations expose the underlying logic behind Matplotlib. If you are an engineer or scientist who wants to create great visualizations with Python, rather than yet another specialized language, this is the book for you. While there are several very competent plotting packages, Matplotlib is ""just"" a Python module. Thus, if you know some Python already, you will feel at home from the first steps on. In case you are an application writer, you wo

  18. Application of total station in the positioning of large-scale plot sampling in forest ecosystem%全站仪在森林生态系统大样地定位中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林观土; 王长委; 韩锡君; 徐庆华; 陈军

    2011-01-01

    The principles and methodology of total station used in lofting survey and measurement of tree height and diameter at breast height were introduced, and the precision of measurement was analyzed according to law of propagated error. It was shown that total station used in large-scale plot sampling in forest ecosystem was feasible. The precision of grid vertex, the measurement of tree height and diameter at breast height about 300 meter from the control point was 1/100, 1/250 and 1/S0, respectively, which satisfied the demand of the specification for forest investigation and will provide referential values for the future large-scale plot setting and tree sampling in forest ecosystem.%本文介绍全站仪在森林大样地内进行放样测量、树高测量及胸径测量的原理与方法,通过误差传播定律分析其测量的精度,结果表明:全站仪在森林生态调查定位中是可行的.放样距控制点300m的方格顶点的精度可达到1/100,树高测量的精度可达到1/250,胸径测量的精度可达到1/50,可满足林业调查规范的要求.对于日后森林生态系统大样地的设置及树木测量具有参考意义.

  19. High-Throughput Amplicon-Based Copy Number Detection of 11 Genes in Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Ovarian Tumour Samples by MLPA-Seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrashova, Olga; Love, Clare J; Lunke, Sebastian; Hsu, Arthur L; Waring, Paul M; Taylor, Graham R

    2015-01-01

    Whilst next generation sequencing can report point mutations in fixed tissue tumour samples reliably, the accurate determination of copy number is more challenging. The conventional Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) assay is an effective tool for measurement of gene dosage, but is restricted to around 50 targets due to size resolution of the MLPA probes. By switching from a size-resolved format, to a sequence-resolved format we developed a scalable, high-throughput, quantitative assay. MLPA-seq is capable of detecting deletions, duplications, and amplifications in as little as 5ng of genomic DNA, including from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumour samples. We show that this method can detect BRCA1, BRCA2, ERBB2 and CCNE1 copy number changes in DNA extracted from snap-frozen and FFPE tumour tissue, with 100% sensitivity and >99.5% specificity.

  20. Influence of parasite density and sample storage time on the reliability of Entamoeba histolytica-specific PCR from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frickmann, Hagen; Tenner-Racz, Klara; Eggert, Petra; Schwarz, Norbert G; Poppert, Sven; Tannich, Egbert; Hagen, Ralf M

    2013-12-01

    We report on the reliability of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of Entamoeba histolytica from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue in comparison with microscopy and have determined predictors that may influence PCR results. E. histolytica-specific and Entamoeba dispar-specific real-time PCR and microscopy from adjacent histologic sections were performed using a collection of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue specimens obtained from patients with invasive amebiasis. Specimens had been collected during the previous 4 decades. Association of sample age, parasite density, and reliability of PCR was analyzed. E. histolytica PCR was positive in 20 of 34 biopsies (58.8%); 2 of these 20 were microscopically negative for amebae in neighboring tissue sections. PCR was negative in 9 samples with visible amebae in neighboring sections and in 5 samples without visible parasites in neighboring sections. PCR was negative in all specimens that were older than 3 decades. Low parasite counts and sample ages older than 20 years were predictors for false-negative PCR results. All samples were negative for E. dispar DNA. PCR is suitable for the detection of E. histolytica in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples that are younger than 2 decades and that contain intermediate to high parasite numbers. Negative results in older samples were due to progressive degradation of DNA over time as indicated by control PCRs targeting the human 18S rRNA gene. Moreover, our findings support previous suggestions that only E. histolytica but not E. dispar is responsible for invasive amebiasis.

  1. Plotting Gothic: A Paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Murray

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paradox of the title is that while most historians of medieval architecture agree that a combination of geometric and arithmetic methods was generally used to lay out a medieval church, there has been little consensus on the specifics of the process in relation to the design of any particular edifice. I begin by identifying four premises which underlie the debate. I then ask whether the new technologies — laser scanning and computer assisted design/drafting applications — can help. A case study uses newly generated point cloud data from a laser scan of the choir of Beauvais Cathedral. Finally, the notion of ‘plotting’ introduces essential sociological, anthropological and rhetorical dimensions. In the spirit of Roland Barthes ('Le plaisir du texte' and Peter Brooks ('Reading for the Plot', we can understand the urgency with which the architectural historian may seek to unscramble the hidden codes of the building as compulsive ‘reading for the plot’.

  2. Proteomic workflow for analysis of archival formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded clinical samples to a depth of 10 000 proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiśniewski, Jacek R; Duś, Kamila; Mann, Matthias

    2013-04-01

    Archival formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded clinical samples represent a very diverse source of material for proteomic investigation of diseases, often with follow-up patient information. Here, we describe an analytical workflow for analysis of laser-capture microdissected formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded samples that allows studying proteomes to a depth of 10 000 proteins per sample. The workflow involves lysis of tissue in SDS-containing buffer, detergent removal, and consecutive digestion of the proteins with two enzymes by the multienzyme digestion filter-aided sample preparation method. Resulting peptides are fractionated by pipette-tip based strong anion exchange into six fractions and analyzed by LC-MS/MS on a bench top quadrupole Orbitrap mass spectrometer. Analysis of the data using the MaxQuant software resulted in the identification of 9502 ± 28 protein groups per a 110 nL sample of microdissected cells from human colonic adenoma. This depth of proteome analysis enables systemic insights into the organization of the adenoma cells and an estimation of the abundances of known biomarkers. It also allows the identification of proteins expressed from tumor suppressors, oncogenes, and other key players in the development and progression of the colorectal cancer. Our proteomic platform can be used for quantitative comparisons between samples representing different stages of diseases and thus can be applied to the discovery of biomarkers or drug targets. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Application of Excel software in the design work of forest harvesting in the point sample plot%Excel 软件在林木采伐作业设计角规样地中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓玉明

    2015-01-01

    Using by the Excel software formula function to establish the design work of forest harvesting in the point sam-ple plot.The operating procedures are:1.Fill in the codes of species name form,high and yield rate;2.Fill in the in-vestigation data of tree diameter,basal area,average high;3.Fill in the subcompartment area,and other data can be generated automatically summary and calculation.The Excel software could solve the tedious,error prone in the sample survey investigation and calculation wor.%利用 Excel 软件的函数功能,建立林木采伐作业设计角规样地表,操作规程为:①填写树种名和形高、出材率代码;②录入树种、径阶、断面积、平均高等调查数据;③填写采伐小班面积,其它数据可自动生成并进行汇总计算。通过 Excel 软件解决了角规样地调查内业查表、计算等工作繁琐、容易出错等问题。

  4. Aristotle's theory of tragedy plot and comparison with modern plot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋莹

    2008-01-01

    This paper is to study Aristotle's theory of tragedy and his tragedy plot from the Poetics. He says,'tragedy is an imitation of an action that is serious,complete,and of adequate magnitude-in language embellished in different ways in different parts-in the form of action,not of narration-through pity and fear effecting the purgation of these emotions. The elements of tragedy are plot,character,thought,diction,melody and spectacle in their order of importance.' However there exist some differences and similarities between his plot in Poetics and modern plot.

  5. Evaluation of different real time PCRs for the detection of Pneumocystis jirovecii DNA in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded bronchoalveolar lavage samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, Bertie H C G M; Voskuil, W Sebastiaan; Maraha, Boulos; van der Zee, Anneke; Westenend, Pieter J; Kusters, Johannes G

    2015-06-01

    The presence of Pneumocystis jirovecii in fresh clinical materials can be detected by PCR with high sensitivity and is thus preferred over microscopic methods. However, fresh materials are not always available, and on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded materials, PCR may result in reduced detection rates. In this study the diagnostic sensitivity of P. jirovecii real time PCR on DNA isolated from fresh bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples versus that from matched FFPE derived DNA is analyzed. Our results indicate that when targeting a small DNA fragment P. jirovecii PCR can be performed on FFPE BAL samples with acceptable sensitivity (up to 83.3%). This is considerably higher than the 33.3% positives observed by classical staining of these samples.

  6. PetroPlot: A plotting and data management tool set for Microsoft Excel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yongjun; Langmuir, Charles H.; Asimow, Paul D.

    2003-03-01

    PetroPlot is a 4000-line software code written in Visual Basic for the spreadsheet program Excel that automates plotting and data management tasks for large amount of data. The major plotting functions include: automation of large numbers of multiseries XY plots; normalized diagrams (e.g., spider diagrams); replotting of any complex formatted diagram with multiple series for any other axis parameters; addition of customized labels for individual data points; and labeling flexible log scale axes. Other functions include: assignment of groups for samples based on multiple customized criteria; removal of nonnumeric values; calculation of averages/standard deviations; calculation of correlation matrices; deletion of nonconsecutive rows; and compilation of multiple rows of data for a single sample to single rows appropriate for plotting. A cubic spline function permits curve fitting to complex time series, and comparison of data to the fits. For users of Excel, PetroPlot increases efficiency of data manipulation and visualization by orders of magnitude and allows exploration of large data sets that would not be possible making plots individually. The source codes are open to all users.

  7. GnuForPlot Graphics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-11-04

    Gnuforplot Graphics is a Fortran90 program designed to generate two and three dimensional plots of data on a personal computer. The program uses calls to the open source code Gnuplot to generate the plots. Two Fortran90 programs have been written to use the Gnuplot graphics capabilities. The first program, named Plotsetup.f90 reads data from output files created by either the Stadium or LeachXS/Orchestra modeling codes and saves the data in arrays for plotting. This program then calls Gnuforplot which takes the data array along with user specified parameters to set plot specifications and issues Gnuplot commands that generate the screen plots. The user can view the plots and optionally save copies in jpeg format.

  8. Sample Sizes Required to Detect Interactions between Two Binary Fixed-Effects in a Mixed-Effects Linear Regression Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Andrew C; Heo, Moonseong

    2009-01-15

    Mixed-effects linear regression models have become more widely used for analysis of repeatedly measured outcomes in clinical trials over the past decade. There are formulae and tables for estimating sample sizes required to detect the main effects of treatment and the treatment by time interactions for those models. A formula is proposed to estimate the sample size required to detect an interaction between two binary variables in a factorial design with repeated measures of a continuous outcome. The formula is based, in part, on the fact that the variance of an interaction is fourfold that of the main effect. A simulation study examines the statistical power associated with the resulting sample sizes in a mixed-effects linear regression model with a random intercept. The simulation varies the magnitude (Δ) of the standardized main effects and interactions, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ρ ), and the number (k) of repeated measures within-subject. The results of the simulation study verify that the sample size required to detect a 2 × 2 interaction in a mixed-effects linear regression model is fourfold that to detect a main effect of the same magnitude.

  9. Study on Surface Plotting Methods in Parts Plotting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhen; ZHAO Fa-dong

    2013-01-01

    According to the factors that confirm the shape of surface, it is classified into two categories:arc surface and curve surface. The method to confirm the category of surfaces and the plotting methods are discussed in this paper, which provide guidance for parts plotting.

  10. Detection of reactive oxygen species during the cell cycle under normal culture conditions using a modified fixed-sample staining method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chia-Yuan; Chen, Chia-Ling; Yang, Kao-Chi; Ma, Ching-Ting; Choi, Pui-Ching; Lin, Chiou-Feng

    2015-01-01

    We developed an alternative method of simultaneously monitoring the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cellular oxidative responses using the oxidation-sensitive fluorescent probe dichlorofluorescein (DCF) in fixed samples. In this study, we evaluated the ability of this method to detect ROS generation during the cell cycle under normal culture conditions using flow cytometric analyses. Among the fixatives tested, only acetone and paraformaldehyde did not alter the endogenous oxidation of the responsive dye 5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (CM-H2DCFDA), which is a chloromethyl derivative of H2DCFDA. Only acetone fixation followed by staining with propidium iodide was able to detect ROS generation during the cell cycle without altering DCF oxidation. Further thymidine treatment led to cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase followed by the downregulation of total intracellular ROS. Paraformaldehyde-based fixation enabled the evaluation of ROS generation by immunostaining at a different phase of the cell cycle, whereas MPM2 co-staining enabled identification of the specific mitotic phase. This study demonstrates a modified fixed-sample method that can be used to measure intracellular ROS production during the cell cycle using standard immunostaining techniques.

  11. Box-and-Whisker Plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Russell D.

    1985-01-01

    Box-and-whisker plots (which give rapid visualization of batches of data) can be effectively used to present diverse collections of data used in traditional first-year chemistry courses. Construction of box-and-whisker plots and their use with bond energy data and data on heats of formation and solution are discussed. (JN)

  12. S2PLOT: Three-dimensional (3D) Plotting Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, D. G.; Fluke, C. J.; Bourke, P. D.; Parry, O. T.

    2011-03-01

    We present a new, three-dimensional (3D) plotting library with advanced features, and support for standard and enhanced display devices. The library - S2PLOT - is written in C and can be used by C, C++ and FORTRAN programs on GNU/Linux and Apple/OSX systems. S2PLOT draws objects in a 3D (x,y,z) Cartesian space and the user interactively controls how this space is rendered at run time. With a PGPLOT inspired interface, S2PLOT provides astronomers with elegant techniques for displaying and exploring 3D data sets directly from their program code, and the potential to use stereoscopic and dome display devices. The S2PLOT architecture supports dynamic geometry and can be used to plot time-evolving data sets, such as might be produced by simulation codes. In this paper, we introduce S2PLOT to the astronomical community, describe its potential applications, and present some example uses of the library.

  13. Comparative Notched Box Plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    provides a 95.1% confidence interval. See Noether (1976, Table E). Furthermore, this notch is not necessarily sym- metric about the sample median as in...distribution of the sign test). ( Noether 1976, Chapter 12; Lehmann 1975, Chapter 4; Hollander and Wolfe 1972, Chapter 3.) Thus, exact rather than approximate...binomial with parameters n and .5, i.e., b(n, .5). We will refer to dx as the notch depth. Noether (1978, Table E) provides the d. values; otherwise, they

  14. Influences of diurnal sampling bias on fixed-point monitoring of plankton biodiversity determined using a massively parallel sequencing-based technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Satoshi; Hida, Kohsuke; Urushizaki, Shingo; Onitsuka, Goh; Yasuike, Motoshige; Nakamura, Yoji; Fujiwara, Atushi; Tajimi, Seisuke; Kimoto, Katsunori; Kobayashi, Takanori; Gojobori, Takashi; Ototake, Mitsuru

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the influence of diurnal sampling bias on the community structure of plankton by comparing the biodiversity among seawater samples (n=9) obtained every 3h for 24h by using massively parallel sequencing (MPS)-based plankton monitoring at a fixed point conducted at Himedo seaport in Yatsushiro Sea, Japan. The number of raw operational taxonomy units (OTUs) and OTUs after re-sampling was 507-658 (558 ± 104, mean ± standard deviation) and 448-544 (467 ± 81), respectively, indicating high plankton biodiversity at the sampling location. The relative abundance of the top 20 OTUs in the samples from Himedo seaport was 48.8-67.7% (58.0 ± 5.8%), and the highest-ranked OTU was Pseudo-nitzschia species (Bacillariophyta) with a relative abundance of 17.3-39.2%, followed by Oithona sp. 1 and Oithona sp. 2 (Arthropoda). During seawater sampling, the semidiurnal tidal current having an amplitude of 0.3ms(-1) was dominant, and the westward residual current driven by the northeasterly wind was continuously observed during the 24-h monitoring. Therefore, the relative abundance of plankton species apparently fluctuated among the samples, but no significant difference was noted according to G-test (p>0.05). Significant differences were observed between the samples obtained from a different locality (Kusuura in Yatsushiro Sea) and at different dates, suggesting that the influence of diurnal sampling bias on plankton diversity, determined using the MPS-based survey, was not significant and acceptable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Trellis plots as visual aids for analyzing split plot experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahci, Murat; Menon, Anil

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of split plot experiments can be challenging due to a complicated error structure resulting from restrictions on complete randomization. Similarly, standard visualization methods do not provide the insight practitioners desire to understand the data, think of explanations, generate...... hypotheses, build models, or decide on next steps. This article demonstrates the effective use of trellis plots in the preliminary data analysis for split plot experiments to address this problem. Trellis displays help to visualize multivariate data by allowing for conditioning in a general way. They can...

  16. Reliability evaluation of sampling plan fixed by Council Directive 91/68/EEC for the maintenance of officially brucellosis-free flock status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Massis, F; Petrini, A; Giovannini, A

    2005-08-01

    The European Union (EU) strategy with respect to sheep and goat brucellosis aims to eradicate the infection and achieve officially brucellosis-free (OBF) status in all EU holdings and territories. Council Directive 91/68/EEC of 28 January 1991 states that to maintain OBF status of ovine or caprine holdings located outside an OBF territory, only a representative number of animals need to be tested annually. However, depending on the number of animals in a holding, this testing method risks non-detection of the infection, thereby reducing the efficacy of the brucellosis control plan. The recommended sampling procedure has a low sensitivity for detecting infection in medium-sized flocks; furthermore, the risk of not detecting re-infection in OBF flocks, particularly in territories that have not yet gained OBF status, is also not acceptable. Moreover, in large-sized flocks, the Directive sampling procedure entails taking an excessive number of samples, which can be very expensive. The authors evaluated, by using statistical analyses and a simulation model based on field data, the possible consequences of the current EU strategy. It is suggested that the sampling criteria for the maintenance of OBF status in the EU should be modified and that a statistically based sampling method should be applied instead of the fixed percentage method that is currently in use.

  17. Field application of a planted fixed bed reactor (PFR) for support media and rhizosphere investigation using undisturbed samples from full-scale constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, A B; Vasconcellos, G R; von Sperling, M; Kuschk, P; Kappelmeyer, U; Vasel, J L

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a novel method for investigations on undisturbed samples from full-scale horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (HSSFCW). The planted fixed bed reactor (PFR), developed at the Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research (UFZ), is a universal test unit for planted soil filters that reproduces the operational conditions of a constructed wetland (CW) system in laboratory scale. The present research proposes modifications on the PFR original configuration in order to allow its operation in field conditions. A mobile device to obtain undisturbed samples from real-scale HSSFCW was also developed. The experimental setting is presented with two possible operational configurations. The first allows the removal and replacement of undisturbed samples in the CW bed for laboratory investigations, guaranteeing sample integrity with a mobile device. The second allows the continuous operation of the PFR and undisturbed samples as a fraction of the support media, reproducing the same environmental conditions outside the real-scale system. Investigations on the hydrodynamics of the adapted PFR were carried out with saline tracer tests, validating the proposed adaptation. Six adapted PFR units were installed next to full-scale HSSFCW beds and fed with interstitial liquid pumped from two regions of planted and unplanted support media. Fourteen points were monitored along the system, covering carbon fractions, nitrogen and sulfate. The results indicate the method as a promising tool for investigations on CW support media, rhizosphere and open space for studies on CW modeling, respirometry, kinetic parameters, microbial communities, redox potential and plant influence on HSSFCW.

  18. Development of plotting position for the general extreme value distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sooyoung; Shin, Hongjoon; Joo, Kyoungwon; Heo, Jun-Haeng

    2012-12-01

    SummaryProbability plotting positions are used to graphically display the annual maximum rainfall or flood and to estimate the exceedance probabilities of those values. Therefore, the graphical approach using plotting positions has been applied in many hydrology and water resource engineering fields. The definition of unbiased plotting positions by Cunnane (1978) as the mean of the order statistics from reduced variates has influenced researchers to develop the plotting position of the probability distribution containing shape parameters. In this study, the plotting position formula for the general extreme value (GEV) distribution was derived by using the theoretical reduced variates of the GEV distribution for various sample sizes and shape parameters. To choose an appropriate plotting position formula, we examined eight plotting position formula types containing coefficients of skewness or squared coefficients of skewness in the numerator and/or denominator. In addition, the parameters of the plotting position formula for the GEV distribution were estimated by using a genetic optimization method known as the real-coded genetic algorithm (RGA). The accuracy of the derived plotting position formula for the GEV distribution was examined on the basis of the root mean square errors and relative bias between the theoretical reduced variates and those calculated from the derived and existing plotting position formulas. The derived plotting formula was found to be useful if the range of the shape parameter was within ±0.2.

  19. Action Between Plot and Discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Thor

    2007-01-01

    , these narrated actions disrupt the theoretical divisions, on the one hand, between the narrated story and the narrating discourse, and on the other hand, between plot-narratology and discourse-narratology. As narrated actions, they seem to belong to the domain of plot-narratology, but insofar as they serve...... an important visualizing function, these narrated actions have a communicative function and, as such, they can be said to belong to the domain of discourse-narratology. In the first part of the article, I argue that a certain type of plot-narratology, due to its retrospective epistemology and abstract...

  20. Action Between Plot and Discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Thor

    2007-01-01

    , these narrated actions disrupt the theoretical divisions, on the one hand, between the narrated story and the narrating discourse, and on the other hand, between plot-narratology and discourse-narratology. As narrated actions, they seem to belong to the domain of plot-narratology, but insofar as they serve...... an important visualizing function, these narrated actions have a communicative function and, as such, they can be said to belong to the domain of discourse-narratology. In the first part of the article, I argue that a certain type of plot-narratology, due to its retrospective epistemology and abstract...

  1. Optimization and analysis of a quantitative real-time PCR-based technique to determine microRNA expression in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reis Patricia P

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRs are non-coding RNA molecules involved in post-transcriptional regulation, with diverse functions in tissue development, differentiation, cell proliferation and apoptosis. miRs may be less prone to degradation during formalin fixation, facilitating miR expression studies in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissue. Results Our study demonstrates that the TaqMan Human MicroRNA Array v1.0 (Early Access platform is suitable for miR expression analysis in FFPE tissue with a high reproducibility (correlation coefficients of 0.95 between duplicates, p 35, we show that reproducibility between technical replicates, equivalent dilutions, and FFPE vs. frozen samples is best in the high abundance stratum. We also demonstrate that the miR expression profiles of FFPE samples are comparable to those of fresh-frozen samples, with a correlation of up to 0.87 (p Conclusion Our study thus demonstrates the utility, reproducibility, and optimization steps needed in miR expression studies using FFPE samples on a high-throughput quantitative PCR-based miR platform, opening up a realm of research possibilities for retrospective studies.

  2. Immunohistochemical detection of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 in formalin-fixed breast carcinoma cell block preparations: correlation of results to corresponding tissue block (needle core and excision) samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsella, Mary D; Birdsong, George G; Siddiqui, Momin T; Cohen, Cynthia; Hanley, Krisztina Z

    2013-03-01

    Evaluation of ER, PR and Her 2 are routinely performed on breast carcinomas. For accurate detection of these markers, compliance with the ASCO/CAP guidelines is recommended. Our previous study showed that alcohol fixation did not affect ER results when alcohol-fixed cell block (CB) sections were compared to formalin-fixed tissue sections, while PR and Her2 showed less concordance. The aim of this study was to evaluate and to compare ER, PR and Her2 IHC results on formalin-fixed CB sections to those observed on subsequent surgical (needle core or resection) specimens (SS). Fifty cases of formalin fixed CB samples obtained from primary (18%) and metastatic (82%) breast carcinomas were studied, all of which had subsequent SS available. ER, PR, and Her2 IHC studies were done on all samples and results were compared. ER results on formalin-fixed CB samples showed excellent correlation with SS (correlation coefficient cc = 0.82). While there was minimal improvement in PR results (cc = 0.433), Her2 detection did not improve by formalin fixation (cc = 0.439). Formalin fixation for CB preparations does not significantly improve the already good detection of ER positive breast tumors. The concordance rate in PR and IHC results between formalin-fixed CB and SS samples showed improvement as compared with the alcohol-fixed CB results. However, there was no improvement in detection of Her2 overexpression by using formalin fixation on cytology specimens.

  3. Optimizing trial design in pharmacogenetics research: comparing a fixed parallel group, group sequential, and adaptive selection design on sample size requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boessen, Ruud; van der Baan, Frederieke; Groenwold, Rolf; Egberts, Antoine; Klungel, Olaf; Grobbee, Diederick; Knol, Mirjam; Roes, Kit

    2013-01-01

    Two-stage clinical trial designs may be efficient in pharmacogenetics research when there is some but inconclusive evidence of effect modification by a genomic marker. Two-stage designs allow to stop early for efficacy or futility and can offer the additional opportunity to enrich the study population to a specific patient subgroup after an interim analysis. This study compared sample size requirements for fixed parallel group, group sequential, and adaptive selection designs with equal overall power and control of the family-wise type I error rate. The designs were evaluated across scenarios that defined the effect sizes in the marker positive and marker negative subgroups and the prevalence of marker positive patients in the overall study population. Effect sizes were chosen to reflect realistic planning scenarios, where at least some effect is present in the marker negative subgroup. In addition, scenarios were considered in which the assumed 'true' subgroup effects (i.e., the postulated effects) differed from those hypothesized at the planning stage. As expected, both two-stage designs generally required fewer patients than a fixed parallel group design, and the advantage increased as the difference between subgroups increased. The adaptive selection design added little further reduction in sample size, as compared with the group sequential design, when the postulated effect sizes were equal to those hypothesized at the planning stage. However, when the postulated effects deviated strongly in favor of enrichment, the comparative advantage of the adaptive selection design increased, which precisely reflects the adaptive nature of the design. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. RNA extraction from ten year old formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded breast cancer samples: a comparison of column purification and magnetic bead-based technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Haiyu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of protocols for RNA extraction from paraffin-embedded samples facilitates gene expression studies on archival samples with known clinical outcome. Older samples are particularly valuable because they are associated with longer clinical follow up. RNA extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissue is problematic due to chemical modifications and continued degradation over time. We compared quantity and quality of RNA extracted by four different protocols from 14 ten year old and 14 recently archived (three to ten months old FFPE breast cancer tissues. Using three spin column purification-based protocols and one magnetic bead-based protocol, total RNA was extracted in triplicate, generating 336 RNA extraction experiments. RNA fragment size was assayed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR for the housekeeping gene glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD, testing primer sets designed to target RNA fragment sizes of 67 bp, 151 bp, and 242 bp. Results Biologically useful RNA (minimum RNA integrity number, RIN, 1.4 was extracted in at least one of three attempts of each protocol in 86–100% of older and 100% of recently archived ("months old" samples. Short RNA fragments up to 151 bp were assayable by RT-PCR for G6PD in all ten year old and months old tissues tested, but none of the ten year old and only 43% of months old samples showed amplification if the targeted fragment was 242 bp. Conclusion All protocols extracted RNA from ten year old FFPE samples with a minimum RIN of 1.4. Gene expression of G6PD could be measured in all samples, old and recent, using RT-PCR primers designed for RNA fragments up to 151 bp. RNA quality from ten year old FFPE samples was similar to that extracted from months old samples, but quantity and success rate were generally higher for the months old group. We preferred the magnetic bead-based protocol because of its speed and higher quantity of

  5. A Comparison of RNA-Seq Results from Paired Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded and Fresh-Frozen Glioblastoma Tissue Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve-Codina, Anna; Arpi, Oriol; Martinez-García, Maria; Pineda, Estela; Mallo, Mar; Gut, Marta; Carrato, Cristina; Rovira, Anna; Lopez, Raquel; Tortosa, Avelina; Dabad, Marc; Del Barco, Sonia; Heath, Simon; Bagué, Silvia; Ribalta, Teresa; Alameda, Francesc; de la Iglesia, Nuria

    2017-01-01

    The molecular classification of glioblastoma (GBM) based on gene expression might better explain outcome and response to treatment than clinical factors. Whole transcriptome sequencing using next-generation sequencing platforms is rapidly becoming accepted as a tool for measuring gene expression for both research and clinical use. Fresh frozen (FF) tissue specimens of GBM are difficult to obtain since tumor tissue obtained at surgery is often scarce and necrotic and diagnosis is prioritized over freezing. After diagnosis, leftover tissue is usually stored as formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue. However, RNA from FFPE tissues is usually degraded, which could hamper gene expression analysis. We compared RNA-Seq data obtained from matched pairs of FF and FFPE GBM specimens. Only three FFPE out of eleven FFPE-FF matched samples yielded informative results. Several quality-control measurements showed that RNA from FFPE samples was highly degraded but maintained transcriptomic similarities to RNA from FF samples. Certain issues regarding mutation analysis and subtype prediction were detected. Nevertheless, our results suggest that RNA-Seq of FFPE GBM specimens provides reliable gene expression data that can be used in molecular studies of GBM if the RNA is sufficiently preserved. PMID:28122052

  6. Numerical and structural genomic aberrations are reliably detectable in tissue microarrays of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor samples by fluorescence in-situ hybridization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Horn

    Full Text Available Few data are available regarding the reliability of fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH, especially for chromosomal deletions, in high-throughput settings using tissue microarrays (TMAs. We performed a comprehensive FISH study for the detection of chromosomal translocations and deletions in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE tumor specimens arranged in TMA format. We analyzed 46 B-cell lymphoma (B-NHL specimens with known karyotypes for translocations of IGH-, BCL2-, BCL6- and MYC-genes. Locus-specific DNA probes were used for the detection of deletions in chromosome bands 6q21 and 9p21 in 62 follicular lymphomas (FL and six malignant mesothelioma (MM samples, respectively. To test for aberrant signals generated by truncation of nuclei following sectioning of FFPE tissue samples, cell line dilutions with 9p21-deletions were embedded into paraffin blocks. The overall TMA hybridization efficiency was 94%. FISH results regarding translocations matched karyotyping data in 93%. As for chromosomal deletions, sectioning artefacts occurred in 17% to 25% of cells, suggesting that the proportion of cells showing deletions should exceed 25% to be reliably detectable. In conclusion, FISH represents a robust tool for the detection of structural as well as numerical aberrations in FFPE tissue samples in a TMA-based high-throughput setting, when rigorous cut-off values and appropriate controls are maintained, and, of note, was superior to quantitative PCR approaches.

  7. Numerical and structural genomic aberrations are reliably detectable in tissue microarrays of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor samples by fluorescence in-situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Heike; Bausinger, Julia; Staiger, Annette M; Sohn, Maximilian; Schmelter, Christopher; Gruber, Kim; Kalla, Claudia; Ott, M Michaela; Rosenwald, Andreas; Ott, German

    2014-01-01

    Few data are available regarding the reliability of fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH), especially for chromosomal deletions, in high-throughput settings using tissue microarrays (TMAs). We performed a comprehensive FISH study for the detection of chromosomal translocations and deletions in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor specimens arranged in TMA format. We analyzed 46 B-cell lymphoma (B-NHL) specimens with known karyotypes for translocations of IGH-, BCL2-, BCL6- and MYC-genes. Locus-specific DNA probes were used for the detection of deletions in chromosome bands 6q21 and 9p21 in 62 follicular lymphomas (FL) and six malignant mesothelioma (MM) samples, respectively. To test for aberrant signals generated by truncation of nuclei following sectioning of FFPE tissue samples, cell line dilutions with 9p21-deletions were embedded into paraffin blocks. The overall TMA hybridization efficiency was 94%. FISH results regarding translocations matched karyotyping data in 93%. As for chromosomal deletions, sectioning artefacts occurred in 17% to 25% of cells, suggesting that the proportion of cells showing deletions should exceed 25% to be reliably detectable. In conclusion, FISH represents a robust tool for the detection of structural as well as numerical aberrations in FFPE tissue samples in a TMA-based high-throughput setting, when rigorous cut-off values and appropriate controls are maintained, and, of note, was superior to quantitative PCR approaches.

  8. Pre-Analytical Considerations for Successful Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS: Challenges and Opportunities for Formalin-Fixed and Paraffin-Embedded Tumor Tissue (FFPE Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Arreaza

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In cancer drug discovery, it is important to investigate the genetic determinants of response or resistance to cancer therapy as well as factors that contribute to adverse events in the course of clinical trials. Despite the emergence of new technologies and the ability to measure more diverse analytes (e.g., circulating tumor cell (CTC, circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA, etc., tumor tissue is still the most common and reliable source for biomarker investigation. Because of its worldwide use and ability to preserve samples for many decades at ambient temperature, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor tissue (FFPE is likely to be the preferred choice for tissue preservation in clinical practice for the foreseeable future. Multiple analyses are routinely performed on the same FFPE samples (such as Immunohistochemistry (IHC, in situ hybridization, RNAseq, DNAseq, TILseq, Methyl-Seq, etc.. Thus, specimen prioritization and optimization of the isolation of analytes is critical to ensure successful completion of each assay. FFPE is notorious for producing suboptimal DNA quality and low DNA yield. However, commercial vendors tend to request higher DNA sample mass than what is actually required for downstream assays, which restricts the breadth of biomarker work that can be performed. We evaluated multiple genomics service laboratories to assess the current state of NGS pre-analytical processing of FFPE. Significant differences in pre-analytical capabilities were observed. Key aspects are highlighted and recommendations are made to improve the current practice in translational research.

  9. A Method to Correlate mRNA Expression Datasets Obtained from Fresh Frozen and Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Tissue Samples: A Matter of Thresholds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana A M Mustafa

    Full Text Available Gene expression profiling of tumors is a successful tool for the discovery of new cancer biomarkers and potential targets for the development of new therapeutic strategies. Reliable profiling is preferably performed on fresh frozen (FF tissues in which the quality of nucleic acids is better preserved than in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE material. However, since snap-freezing of biopsy materials is often not part of daily routine in pathology laboratories, one may have to rely on archival FFPE material. Procedures to retrieve the RNAs from FFPE materials have been developed and therefore, datasets obtained from FFPE and FF materials need to be made compatible to ensure reliable comparisons are possible.To develop an efficient method to compare gene expression profiles obtained from FFPE and FF samples using the same platform.Twenty-six FFPE-FF sample pairs of the same tumors representing various cancer types, and two FFPE-FF sample pairs of breast cancer cell lines, were included. Total RNA was extracted and gene expression profiling was carried out using Illumina's Whole-Genome cDNA-mediated Annealing, Selection, extension and Ligation (WG-DASL V3 arrays, enabling the simultaneous detection of 24,526 mRNA transcripts. A sample exclusion criterion was created based on the expression of 11 stably expressed reference genes. Pearson correlation at the probe level was calculated for paired FFPE-FF, and three cut-off values were chosen. Spearman correlation coefficients between the matched FFPE and FF samples were calculated for three probe lists with varying levels of significance and compared to the correlation based on all measured probes. Unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis was performed to verify performance of the included probe lists to compare matched FPPE-FF samples.Twenty-seven FFPE-FF pairs passed the sample exclusion criterion. From the profiles of 27 FFPE and FF matched samples, the best correlating probes were identified

  10. Deparaffinization with mineral oil: a simple procedure for extraction of high-quality DNA from archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikal, Nahla; Nussenzveig, Roberto H; Agarwal, Archana M

    2014-09-01

    Extracting DNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) archival samples remains difficult. Successful polymerase chain reactions (PCR) with DNA extracted from FFPE samples is still very low. We extracted DNA from 12 recent and old archival FFPE bone marrow trephine biopsies by use of a simple protocol on the basis of deparaffinization with molecular biology-grade mineral oil followed by DNA extraction with the Qiagen FFPE kit. Comparison of this deparaffinization method with standard protocols, for example, xylene or Hemo-D with subsequent rehydration using graded ethanols, was investigated. The quality and quantity of extracted DNA were tested by a combination of ultraviolet spectroscopy, analysis on a Caliper LabChip GX, and real-time PCR combined with high-resolution melt analysis. Highest quality PCR-amplifiable DNA was obtained by deparaffinization with mineral oil, whereas more variable results were obtained for the other 2 deparaffinization procedures. This result was confirmed by real-time PCR and high-resolution melt analysis. Besides improvements in the quality of extracted DNA, use of mineral oil for deparaffinization has the added benefit of decreased time (20 vs. 75 min) and a significant reduction of hands-on labor (1 step vs. multiple hands-on centrifugation and decanting steps).

  11. Dispersion pattern and fixed precision sequential sampling of Sitobion avenae (Fabricus (Hemiptera: Aphididae in wheat fields of Badjgah (Fars province in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Soltani Ghasemloo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the dispersion pattern of a species is an important pre-requisite for developing an effective pest management program. In this study, four hundred wheat plants were surveyed for Sitobion avenae twice a week during 2010 and 2011 growing seasons in two fields of Badjgah (Fars province in Iran. In each field only one of the two cultivers of Bahar or Shiraz was planted. Analysis of spatial distribution pattern using Taylor’s power law and Iwao’s regression model showed that S. avenae exhibited an aggregated distribution on wheat. Taylor’s power law was estimated from 84 data sets and fitted the data better than Iwao’s regression model. The optimal sample sizes needed for fixed precision levels of 0.25 and 0.30 were estimated using Taylor’s regression coefficients, and the required sample sizes increased dramatically with increased levels of precision. Therefore, the samplingplan we presented here should be used as a tool for an efficient estimation of S. avenae population density in wheat fields for pest management decision.

  12. Fix 40!

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Ansambel Fix peab 13. detsembril Tallinnas Saku Suurhallis oma 40. sünnipäeva. Kontserdi erikülaline on ansambel Apelsin, kaastegevad Jassi Zahharov ja HaleBopp Singers. Õhtut juhib Tarmo Leinatamm

  13. Fix 40!

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Ansambel Fix peab 13. detsembril Tallinnas Saku Suurhallis oma 40. sünnipäeva. Kontserdi erikülaline on ansambel Apelsin, kaastegevad Jassi Zahharov ja HaleBopp Singers. Õhtut juhib Tarmo Leinatamm

  14. Evaluation of the HPV typing INNO-LiPA EXTRA assay on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cervical biopsy samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberizzi, Paola; Spinillo, Arsenio; Gardella, Barbara; Cesari, Stefania; Silini, Enrico Maria

    2014-12-01

    The HPV genotyping line probe assay INNO-LiPA EXTRA allows the detection of a wider spectrum of viral types compared to the earlier V2 version of the assay. Its performance in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues is unknown. To test the EXTRA assay in HPV genotyping of paired cervical scrapings and corresponding FFPE biopsy specimens. Paired samples from 188 women with abnormal cytology were examined using the INNO-LiPA HPV genotyping assay, version EXTRA. The assay can simultaneously detect 18 high-risk, 7 low-risk, and 2 unclassified HPV types. Kappa statistics were used to measure interrater agreement between groups. The evaluation of paired cervical scraping and biopsy samples gave a 100% overall agreement for HPV status and of 72.9% (kappa 0.6554) for the number of infecting HPVs. 392 out of 507 individual HPV types were concordant, corresponding to a positive agreement rate of 87.2% (95% CI 84.1-90.3). As to the individual genotypes, the agreement was absolute for HPV 45, 68, 73 (kappa 1), excellent for HPV 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 35, 39, 44, 51, 52, 53, 54, 56, 69/71 and 82 (kappa 0.7796-0.9714), good for HPV26, 33, 43, 58, 66 and 74 (kappa 0.6768-0.7449), and poor for HPV 59 and 40. These agreement values were comparable to those obtained with the V2 assay. The EXTRA assay provided excellent performance in HPV typing on FFPE samples comparable to the earlier version of the test despite higher complexity and increased coverage of types. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Next-generation sequencing of RNA and DNA isolated from paired fresh-frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples of human cancer and normal tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Hedegaard

    Full Text Available Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissues are an invaluable resource for clinical research. However, nucleic acids extracted from FFPE tissues are fragmented and chemically modified making them challenging to use in molecular studies. We analysed 23 fresh-frozen (FF, 35 FFPE and 38 paired FF/FFPE specimens, representing six different human tissue types (bladder, prostate and colon carcinoma; liver and colon normal tissue; reactive tonsil in order to examine the potential use of FFPE samples in next-generation sequencing (NGS based retrospective and prospective clinical studies. Two methods for DNA and three methods for RNA extraction from FFPE tissues were compared and were found to affect nucleic acid quantity and quality. DNA and RNA from selected FFPE and paired FF/FFPE specimens were used for exome and transcriptome analysis. Preparations of DNA Exome-Seq libraries was more challenging (29.5% success than that of RNA-Seq libraries, presumably because of modifications to FFPE tissue-derived DNA. Libraries could still be prepared from RNA isolated from two-decade old FFPE tissues. Data were analysed using the CLC Bio Genomics Workbench and revealed systematic differences between FF and FFPE tissue-derived nucleic acid libraries. In spite of this, pairwise analysis of DNA Exome-Seq data showed concordance for 70-80% of variants in FF and FFPE samples stored for fewer than three years. RNA-Seq data showed high correlation of expression profiles in FF/FFPE pairs (Pearson Correlations of 0.90 +/- 0.05, irrespective of storage time (up to 244 months and tissue type. A common set of 1,494 genes was identified with expression profiles that were significantly different between paired FF and FFPE samples irrespective of tissue type. Our results are promising and suggest that NGS can be used to study FFPE specimens in both prospective and retrospective archive-based studies in which FF specimens are not available.

  16. PCV2-DNA in formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded lymph nodes of wild boar (Sus scrofa ssp. scrofa: one sampling approach for two laboratory techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morandi Federico

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Superficial inguinal lymph nodes from 72 wild boars examined in a previous immunohistochemical (IHC study on porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 were selected for a PCV2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR analysis. Four of these lymph nodes were PCV2-IHC strongly positive with PMWS histological lesions (outcome 1, 6 weak to mild PCV2-IHC positive without PMWS histological lesions (outcome 2 and 62 PCV2-IHC negative. Considering IHC the gold standard for diagnosis, the aims of the study were to evaluate the suitability of the PCV2-DNA extraction from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissue and the sensitivity and specificity of PCR under two IHC interpretations criteria: (A the sample was considered positive if the result was outcome 1; (B the sample was considered positive if the result was outcome 1 or 2. Under (A criteria, sensitivity and specificity of PCR were 100% and 89.7%, respectively; the Cohen's Kappa coefficient was 0.49. Under (B criteria, sensitivity and specificity of PCR were 80.0% and 95.2%, respectively; the Cohen's Kappa coefficient was 0.72. The high Cohen's Kappa coefficient under the (B interpretative criteria indicates good agreement between the two methods. In conclusion, 1 DNA extracted from FFPE specimens of wild boar is suitable for PCR and further represents a screening test for PCV2/PCVD (PCV2 Diseases investigations in wild boar as well; 2 routine histological sampling can also be useful for PCV2 virological studies in wild boar.

  17. A Comparison of Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability (HPAC) Software Dose-Rate Contour Plots to a Sample of Local Fallout Data From Test Detonations in the Continental United States, 1945 - 1962

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    SCIPUFF . The methods are: fixed winds; historical weather data or climatology; surface observations and upper air profiles; mass consistent wind fields...Earth assumption. HPAC Transport HPAC then uses its particulate transport algorithms called the Second-order Closure Integrated PUFF ( SCIPUFF ...model. SCIPUFF is a Lagrangian model that calculates material dispersion in the environment, taking into account diffusion and turbulence caused by

  18. National-scale vegetation change across Britain; an analysis of sample-based surveillance data from the Countryside Surveys of 1990 and 1998

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smart, S.M.; Clarke, R.T.; Poll, van de H.M.; Robertson, E.J.; Shield, E.R.; Bunce, R.G.H.; Maskell, L.C.

    2003-01-01

    Patterns of vegetation across Great Britain (GB) between 1990 and 1998 were quantified based on an analysis of plant species data from a total of 9596 fixed plots. Plots were established on a stratified random basis within 501 1 km sample squares located as part of the Countryside Survey of GB. Resu

  19. A comparison of five sampling techniques to estimate surface fuel loading in montane forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamela G. Sikkink; Robert E. Keane

    2008-01-01

    Designing a fuel-sampling program that accurately and efficiently assesses fuel load at relevant spatial scales requires knowledge of each sample method's strengths and weaknesses.We obtained loading values for six fuel components using five fuel load sampling techniques at five locations in western Montana, USA. The techniques included fixed-area plots, planar...

  20. Field Plot Points for Voyageurs National Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — A total of 191 vegetation field plot samples were collected at Voyageurs National Park and environs to support vegetation classification development. Teams of...

  1. Casa Grande Ruins National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project - Plot Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This layer contains spatial information for 25 plots sampled during vegetation mapping and classification efforts at Casa Grande Ruins NM, AZ. Data was collected by...

  2. Evidence towards Improved Estimation of Respiratory Muscle Effort from Diaphragm Mechanomyographic Signals with Cardiac Vibration Interference Using Sample Entropy with Fixed Tolerance Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarlabous, Leonardo; Torres, Abel; Fiz, José A.; Jané, Raimon

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of amplitude parameters of the diaphragm mechanomyographic (MMGdi) signal is a non-invasive technique to assess respiratory muscle effort and to detect and quantify the severity of respiratory muscle weakness. The amplitude of the MMGdi signal is usually evaluated using the average rectified value or the root mean square of the signal. However, these estimations are greatly affected by the presence of cardiac vibration or mechanocardiographic (MCG) noise. In this study, we present a method for improving the estimation of the respiratory muscle effort from MMGdi signals that is robust to the presence of MCG. This method is based on the calculation of the sample entropy using fixed tolerance values (fSampEn), that is, with tolerance values that are not normalized by the local standard deviation of the window analyzed. The behavior of the fSampEn parameter was tested in synthesized mechanomyographic signals, with different ratios between the amplitude of the MCG and clean mechanomyographic components. As an example of application of this technique, the use of fSampEn was explored also in recorded MMGdi signals, with different inspiratory loads. The results with both synthetic and recorded signals indicate that the entropy parameter is less affected by the MCG noise, especially at low signal-to-noise ratios. Therefore, we believe that the proposed fSampEn parameter could improve estimates of respiratory muscle effort from MMGdi signals with the presence of MCG interference. PMID:24586436

  3. Evidence towards improved estimation of respiratory muscle effort from diaphragm mechanomyographic signals with cardiac vibration interference using sample entropy with fixed tolerance values.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Sarlabous

    Full Text Available The analysis of amplitude parameters of the diaphragm mechanomyographic (MMGdi signal is a non-invasive technique to assess respiratory muscle effort and to detect and quantify the severity of respiratory muscle weakness. The amplitude of the MMGdi signal is usually evaluated using the average rectified value or the root mean square of the signal. However, these estimations are greatly affected by the presence of cardiac vibration or mechanocardiographic (MCG noise. In this study, we present a method for improving the estimation of the respiratory muscle effort from MMGdi signals that is robust to the presence of MCG. This method is based on the calculation of the sample entropy using fixed tolerance values (fSampEn, that is, with tolerance values that are not normalized by the local standard deviation of the window analyzed. The behavior of the fSampEn parameter was tested in synthesized mechanomyographic signals, with different ratios between the amplitude of the MCG and clean mechanomyographic components. As an example of application of this technique, the use of fSampEn was explored also in recorded MMGdi signals, with different inspiratory loads. The results with both synthetic and recorded signals indicate that the entropy parameter is less affected by the MCG noise, especially at low signal-to-noise ratios. Therefore, we believe that the proposed fSampEn parameter could improve estimates of respiratory muscle effort from MMGdi signals with the presence of MCG interference.

  4. MatrixPlot: visualizing sequence constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorodkin, Jan; Stærfeldt, Hans Henrik; Lund, Ole

    1999-01-01

    MatrixPlot: visualizing sequence constraints. Sub-title Abstract Summary : MatrixPlot is a program for making high-quality matrix plots, such as mutual information plots of sequence alignments and distance matrices of sequences with known three-dimensional coordinates. The user can add information...... about the sequences (e.g. a sequence logo profile) along the edges of the plot, as well as zoom in on any region in the plot. Availability : MatrixPlot can be obtained on request, and can also be accessed online at http://www. cbs.dtu.dk/services/MatrixPlot. Contact : gorodkin@cbs.dtu.dk...

  5. MatrixPlot: visualizing sequence constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorodkin, Jan; Stærfeldt, Hans Henrik; Lund, Ole

    1999-01-01

    MatrixPlot: visualizing sequence constraints. Sub-title Abstract Summary : MatrixPlot is a program for making high-quality matrix plots, such as mutual information plots of sequence alignments and distance matrices of sequences with known three-dimensional coordinates. The user can add information...... about the sequences (e.g. a sequence logo profile) along the edges of the plot, as well as zoom in on any region in the plot. Availability : MatrixPlot can be obtained on request, and can also be accessed online at http://www. cbs.dtu.dk/services/MatrixPlot. Contact : gorodkin@cbs.dtu.dk...

  6. Plot intensity and cycle-length effects on growth and removals estimates from forest inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul C. Van Deusen; Francis A. Roesch

    2015-01-01

    Continuous forest inventory planners can allocate the budget to more plots per acre or a shorter remeasurement cycle. A higher plot intensity benefits small area estimation and allows for more precision in current status estimates. Shorter cycles may provide better estimates of growth, removals and mortality. On a fixed budget, the planner can't have both greater...

  7. Round versus rectangular: Does the plot shape matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iserloh, Thomas; Bäthke, Lars; Ries, Johannes B.

    2016-04-01

    Field rainfall simulators are designed to study soil erosion processes and provide urgently needed data for various geomorphological, hydrological and pedological issues. Due to the different conditions and technologies applied, there are several methodological aspects under review of the scientific community, particularly concerning design, procedures and conditions of measurement for infiltration, runoff and soil erosion. Extensive discussions at the Rainfall Simulator Workshop 2011 in Trier and the Splinter Meeting at EGU 2013 "Rainfall simulation: Big steps forward!" lead to the opinion that the rectangular shape is the more suitable plot shape compared to the round plot. A horizontally edging Gerlach trough is installed for sample collection without forming unnatural necks as is found at round or triangle plots. Since most research groups did and currently do work with round plots at the point scale (<1m²), a precise analysis of the differences between the output of round and square plots are necessary. Our hypotheses are: - Round plot shapes disturb surface runoff, unnatural fluvial dynamics for the given plot size such as pool development especially directly at the plot's outlet occur. - A square plot shape prevent these problems. A first comparison between round and rectangular plots (Iserloh et al., 2015) indicates that the rectangular plot could indeed be the more suitable, but the rather ambiguous results make a more elaborate test setup necessary. The laboratory test setup includes the two plot shapes (round, square), a standardised silty substrate and three inclinations (2°, 6°, 12°). The analysis of the laboratory test provide results on the best performance concerning undisturbed surface runoff and soil/water sampling at the plot's outlet. The analysis of the plot shape concerning its influence on runoff and erosion shows that clear methodological standards are necessary in order to make rainfall simulation experiments comparable. Reference

  8. Maintaining a permanent plot data base for growth and yield research: Solutions to some recurring problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    John C. Byrne

    1993-01-01

    Methods for solving some recurring problems of maintaining a permanent plot data base for growth and yield reseuch are described. These methods include documenting data from diverse sampling designs, changing sampling designs, changing field procedures, and coordinating activities in the plots with the land management agency. Managing a permanent plot data base (...

  9. VTM plots as evidence of historical change: Goldmine or landmine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jon E.

    2004-01-01

    VTM (Vegetation Type Map) plots comprise a huge data set on vegetation composition for many parts of California collected mostly between 1929 and 1935. Historical changes in vegetation have been inferred by sampling these areas many decades later and evaluating the changes in plant dominance. VTM plots can not be precisely relocated, and it has been assumed that errors resulting from this problem are inconsequential or can be eliminated by comparison with a composite of multiple contemporary plots. This study examines that assumption for southern California shrubland landscapes by comparing the differences in species composition between closely positioned VTM-sized plots. Comparing shrub species density in 400-m² plots separated by 30 m (center to center), I found that all species exhibited considerable differences in density even over this short distance. This patchiness in shrub distribution could lead to major errors in historical reconstructions from VTM plot data. Two methods are proposed for dealing with this problem. One is to collect multiple samples from the vicinity of the VTM plot and use the observed spatial variation to set bounds on the temporal changes required to represent significant historical change. The other is to look at broad landscape changes reflected in the averages observed in a large sampling of sites.

  10. Superplot: Graphical interface for plotting and analyzing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowlie, Andrew; Bardsley, Michael Hugh

    2016-12-01

    Superplot calculates and plots statistical quantities relevant to parameter inference from a "chain" of samples drawn from a parameter space produced by codes such as MultiNest (ascl:1109.006), BAYES-X (ascl:1505.027), and PolyChord (ascl:1502.011). It offers a graphical interface for browsing a chain of many variables quickly and can produce numerous kinds of publication quality plots, including one- and two-dimensional profile likelihood, three-dimensional scatter plots, and confidence intervals and credible regions. Superplot can also save plots in PDF format, create a summary text file, and export a plot as a pickled object for importing and manipulating in a Python interpreter.

  11. Convergence of Place and Plot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil

    2010-01-01

    efterladt sig en række mærker og spor som kan læses og fortolkes. Blodspor, rester af negle, hår udgør forskellige (DNA)koder som kan dekrypteres og dechifreres på samme måde som krudtslam, skudhuller, fysiske skader er tegn som skal læses og fortolkes. Som sådan rummer stedet et plot (en fortælling) som...

  12. Using variance components to estimate power in a hierarchically nested sampling design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzul, Maria C; Dixon, Philip M; Quist, Michael C; Dinsmore, Stephen J; Bower, Michael R; Wilson, Kevin P; Gaines, D Bailey

    2013-01-01

    We used variance components to assess allocation of sampling effort in a hierarchically nested sampling design for ongoing monitoring of early life history stages of the federally endangered Devils Hole pupfish (DHP) (Cyprinodon diabolis). Sampling design for larval DHP included surveys (5 days each spring 2007-2009), events, and plots. Each survey was comprised of three counting events, where DHP larvae on nine plots were counted plot by plot. Statistical analysis of larval abundance included three components: (1) evaluation of power from various sample size combinations, (2) comparison of power in fixed and random plot designs, and (3) assessment of yearly differences in the power of the survey. Results indicated that increasing the sample size at the lowest level of sampling represented the most realistic option to increase the survey's power, fixed plot designs had greater power than random plot designs, and the power of the larval survey varied by year. This study provides an example of how monitoring efforts may benefit from coupling variance components estimation with power analysis to assess sampling design.

  13. Field Plot and Accuracy Assessment Points for Bent's Old Fort National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Accuracy Assessment, Observation and Plot Points. Plots within the park were identified and sampled in the summer of 2005. In the summer of 2006, randomly selected...

  14. Field Plot and Observation Points for Natural Bridges National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This point file displays the 97 field plot and observation points visited in 2003 & 2004 as part of the vegetation mapping project. Sample plots were located...

  15. Field Plot Points Modified for Fort Necessity National Battlefield Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Locations of vegetation classification sampling plots at Fort Necessity National Battlefield. In this data set, the X, Y coordinates for three plots have been...

  16. Numerical and Structural Genomic Aberrations Are Reliably Detectable in Tissue Microarrays of Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tumor Samples by Fluorescence In-Situ Hybridization: e95047

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heike Horn; Julia Bausinger; Annette M Staiger; Maximilian Sohn; Christopher Schmelter; Kim Gruber; Claudia Kalla; M Michaela Ott; Andreas Rosenwald; German Ott

    2014-01-01

    ...), especially for chromosomal deletions, in high-throughput settings using tissue microarrays (TMAs). We performed a comprehensive FISH study for the detection of chromosomal translocations and deletions in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded...

  17. Numerical and structural genomic aberrations are reliably detectable in tissue microarrays of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor samples by fluorescence in-situ hybridization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Horn, Heike; Bausinger, Julia; Staiger, Annette M; Sohn, Maximilian; Schmelter, Christopher; Gruber, Kim; Kalla, Claudia; Ott, M Michaela; Rosenwald, Andreas; Ott, German

    2014-01-01

    ...), especially for chromosomal deletions, in high-throughput settings using tissue microarrays (TMAs). We performed a comprehensive FISH study for the detection of chromosomal translocations and deletions in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded...

  18. AUTOMATED TECHNIQUE FOR CREATING LITHOLOGIC LOG PLOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristijan Posavec

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents automated technique for creating lithologic log plots. Technique is based on three computer tools: Microsoft (MS Access program, LogPlot program, and Visual Basic (VB macros for MS Excel. MS Access ensures professional storage of lithologic data which can be in that way easier and faster entered, searched, updated, and also used for different purposes, while LogPlot provides tools for creating lithologic log plots. VB macros enable transfer of lithologic data from MS Access to LogPlot. Data stored in MS Access are exported in ASCII files which are later used by LogPlot for creation of lithologic log plots. Presented concept facilitates creation of lithologic log plots, and automated technique enables processing of a large number of data i.e. creation of lareg number lithologic log plots in a short period of time (the paper is published in Croatian.

  19. Selecting a sampling method to aid in vegetation management decisions in loblolly pine plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. Weise; Glenn R. Glover

    1993-01-01

    Objective methods to evaluate hardwood competition in young loblolly pine (Pinustaeda L.) plantations are not widely used in the southeastern United States. Ability of common sampling rules to accurately estimate hardwood rootstock attributes at low sampling intensities and across varying rootstock spatial distributions is unknown. Fixed area plot...

  20. Evaluation of different real time PCRs for the detection of Pneumocystis jirovecii DNA in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded bronchoalveolar lavage samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, Bertie H C G M; Voskuil, W Sebastiaan; Maraha, Boulos; van der Zee, Anneke; Westenend, Pieter J; Kusters, Johannes G

    2015-01-01

    The presence of Pneumocystis jirovecii in fresh clinical materials can be detected by PCR with high sensitivity and is thus preferred over microscopic methods. However, fresh materials are not always available, and on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded materials, PCR may result in reduced detection ra

  1. PLOT3D: An Interactive Graphics Code for Three Dimensional Plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-28

    all program parameters PLOTF Plots the function y-f(x.z) according to the specified programs parameters. PLOTS Manipulates data for scaling and angles...of rotation; Calls PLOTF to plot each line PERIM Draws the plane of projection and perimeter around the plotted data PLTIF Puts data information on...PLT3T ADISP Clears alphanumeric display PLOTS Same as in PLT3T segment PLOTF Plots on pen plotter instead of the graphics terminal PERIM Same as in

  2. Multiple hypothesis clustering in radar plot extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizing, A.G.; Theil, A.; Dorp, Ph. van; Ligthart, L.P.

    1995-01-01

    False plots and plots with inaccurate range and Doppler estimates may severely degrade the performance of tracking algorithms in radar systems. This paper describes how a multiple hypothesis clustering technique can be applied to mitigate the problems involved in plot extraction. The measures of

  3. Multiple hypothesis clustering in radar plot extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizing, A.G.; Theil, A.; Dorp, Ph. van; Ligthart, L.P.

    1995-01-01

    False plots and plots with inaccurate range and Doppler estimates may severely degrade the performance of tracking algorithms in radar systems. This paper describes how a multiple hypothesis clustering technique can be applied to mitigate the problems involved in plot extraction. The measures of con

  4. Legumes increase rhizosphere carbon and nitrogen relative to cereals in California agricultural plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, R.; Maltais-landry, G.

    2013-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) is an essential nutrient to plant growth, therefore a sufficient supply is needed for high yields. By using N-fixing plants like legumes in crop rotation, we can increase soil N and yields of following crops. Furthermore, legumes also affect soil carbon (C) and C:N ratios, which impacts nutrient cycling in soils. We assessed the effects of two legumes (vetch, fava bean) and a cereal mixture (oats and wheat) on soil N and C by comparing both rhizosphere and bulk soils. We studied the impacts of these plants with different management types (organic, low-input conventional, unfertilized) to see if plant effects on soil C and N changed across management. We used plots from the Long-Term Research on Agricultural Systems (LTRAS) experiment (Davis, CA) to conduct this experiment, where three plots were under each management type. Within each of these plots, we sampled three micro-plots, where we collected rhizosphere soil from fava bean, vetch, and cereals as well as bulk soil, i.e. non-rhizosphere soil. We collected 108 samples, each of which were dried and ball-milled into a fine, uniform powder. Tin capsules with 15-30mg of soil were then analyzed with a Carlo Erba Elemental analyzer to measure how much N and C was present in each of the samples. The different management types didn't affect the relationship among plants, but soil C and N were highest in organic and lowest in unfertilized plots. We found that N was significantly higher in legume rhizosphere than cereal rhizosphere and bulk soils. Soil C was also higher in legumes vs. cereals and bulk soils, but the only significant difference was with the bulk soils. This ultimately resulted in lower C:N ratios in the rhizosphere of legumes, only vetch, however, had significantly lower soil C:N than cereals. Vetch had higher N, and lower C and C:N than fava bean, but the difference between the two legumes was never significant. Similarly, cereals had higher C and N and lower C:N than bulk soils, although

  5. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  6. Field Plot Points for Colonial National Historical Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile shows the location of vegetation sampling plots used for vegetation classification and mapping at Colonial National Historical Park.

  7. Field Plot Points for Richmond National Battlefield Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile shows the location of vegetation sampling plots used for vegetation classification and mapping at Richmond National Battlefield Park.

  8. Fixed-Precision Sequential Sampling Plans for Estimating Alfalfa Caterpillar, Colias lesbia, Egg Density in Alfalfa, Medicago sativa, Fields in Córdoba, Argentina

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gerardo V. Serra; Norma C. La Porta; Susana Avalos; Vilma Mazzuferi

    2013-01-01

    .... Using Resampling for Validation of Sampling Plans software, 12 additional independent data sets were used to validate the sequential sampling plan with precision levels of 0.10 and 0.25 (SE/mean), respectively...

  9. Fifth International Symposium on Recurrence Plot

    CERN Document Server

    Riley, Michael; Giuliani, Alessandro; Webber, Charles; Jr, Jr; Translational Recurrences : From Mathematical Theory to Real-World Applications

    2014-01-01

    This book features 13 papers presented at the Fifth International Symposium on Recurrence Plots, held August 2013 in Chicago, IL. It examines recent applications and developments in recurrence plots and recurrence quantifi cation analysis (RQA) with special emphasis on biological and cognitive systems and the analysis of coupled systems using cross-recurrence methods. Readers will discover new applications and insights into a range of systems provided by recurrence plot analysis and new theoretical and mathematical developments in recurrence plots. Recurrence plot based analysis is a powerful tool that operates on real-world complex systems that are nonlinear, non-stationary, noisy, of any statistical distribution, free of any particular model type, and not particularly long. Quantitative analyses promote the detection of system state changes, synchronized dynamical regimes, or classifi cation of system states. Th e book will be of interest to an interdisciplinary audience of recurrence plot users and researc...

  10. Faithfulness of Recurrence Plots: A Mathematical Proof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Yoshito; Komuro, Motomasa; Horai, Shunsuke; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    It is practically known that a recurrence plot, a two-dimensional visualization of time series data, can contain almost all information related to the underlying dynamics except for its spatial scale because we can recover a rough shape for the original time series from the recurrence plot even if the original time series is multivariate. We here provide a mathematical proof that the metric defined by a recurrence plot [Hirata et al., 2008] is equivalent to the Euclidean metric under mild conditions.

  11. An Excel macro for generating trilinear plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikaze, Steven G; Crowe, Allan S

    2007-01-01

    This computer note describes a method for creating trilinear plots in Microsoft Excel. Macros have been created in MS Excel's internal language: Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). A simple form has been set up to allow the user to input data from an Excel worksheet. The VBA macro is used to convert the triangular data (which consist of three columns of percentage data) into X-Y data. The macro then generates the axes, labels, and grid for the trilinear plot. The X-Y data are plotted as scatter data in Excel. By providing this macro in Excel, users can create trilinear plots in a quick, inexpensive manner.

  12. Representing uncertainty on model analysis plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Trevor I.

    2016-12-01

    Model analysis provides a mechanism for representing student learning as measured by standard multiple-choice surveys. The model plot contains information regarding both how likely students in a particular class are to choose the correct answer and how likely they are to choose an answer consistent with a well-documented conceptual model. Unfortunately, Bao's original presentation of the model plot did not include a way to represent uncertainty in these measurements. I present details of a method to add error bars to model plots by expanding the work of Sommer and Lindell. I also provide a template for generating model plots with error bars.

  13. Polar plot representation of time-resolved fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichorst, John Paul; Wen Teng, Kai; Clegg, Robert M

    2014-01-01

    Measuring changes in a molecule's fluorescence emission is a common technique to study complex biological systems such as cells and tissues. Although the steady-state fluorescence intensity is frequently used, measuring the average amount of time that a molecule spends in the excited state (the fluorescence lifetime) reveals more detailed information about its local environment. The lifetime is measured in the time domain by detecting directly the decay of fluorescence following excitation by short pulse of light. The lifetime can also be measured in the frequency domain by recording the phase and amplitude of oscillation in the emitted fluorescence of the sample in response to repetitively modulated excitation light. In either the time or frequency domain, the analysis of data to extract lifetimes can be computationally intensive. For example, a variety of iterative fitting algorithms already exist to determine lifetimes from samples that contain multiple fluorescing species. However, recently a method of analysis referred to as the polar plot (or phasor plot) is a graphical tool that projects the time-dependent features of the sample's fluorescence in either the time or frequency domain into the Cartesian plane to characterize the sample's lifetime. The coordinate transformations of the polar plot require only the raw data, and hence, there are no uncertainties from extensive corrections or time-consuming fitting in this analysis. In this chapter, the history and mathematical background of the polar plot will be presented along with examples that highlight how it can be used in both cuvette-based and imaging applications.

  14. Nitrogen symbiotically fixed by cowpea and gliricidia in traditional and agroforestry systems under semiarid conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Rodrigues Martins

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to estimate the amounts of N fixed by cowpea in a traditional system and by cowpea and gliricidia in an agroforestry system in the Brazilian Northeast semiarid. The experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design, in a split-plot arrangement, with four replicates, in the semiarid region of the state of Paraíba, Brazil. Plots consisted of agroforestry and traditional systems (no trees, and split-plots of the three crops planted between the tree rows in the agroforestry system. To estimate N fixation, plant samples were collected in the fourth growth cycle of the perennial species and in the fourth planting cycle of the annual species. In the agroforestry system with buffel grass and prickly-pear cactus, gliricidia plants symbiotically fix high proportions of N (>50% and contribute with higher N amounts (40 kg ha-1 in leaves than in the traditional system (11 kg ha-1 in grain and 18 kg ha-1 in straw. In the agroforestry system with maize and cowpea, gliricidia plants do not fix nitrogen, and N input is limited to the fixation by cowpea (2.7 kg ha-1, which is lower than in the traditional system due to its lower biomass production.

  15. Facilitated gate setting by sequential dot plot scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Susanne; Müller, Susann

    2015-07-01

    Microbial communities comprising thousands of unknown organisms can be studied flow cytometrically by applying just one fluorescent parameter and using scatter characteristics of cells. Resulting 2D-plots need to represent high numbers of cells to detect the many subcommunities, even rare ones that might be present in the sample. Evaluation of such data can be faulty and subjective due to the low number of parameters available for data discrimination and the high numbers of overlaying events. Here, we describe a procedure that helps to evaluate such data using facilitated gate setting by sequential dot-plot scanning.

  16. Vegetation Plot Data of the Coastal Wetland Elevation Monitoring Sites on National Wildlife Refuges in the South Atlantic Geography.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Plot level raw datasets--including Cover, Woody Stem, Plot/Environmental, and Soil--from vegetation sampling on Coastal Wetland Elevation Monitoring Sites within the...

  17. CI2 for creating and comparing confidence-intervals for time-series bivariate plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullineaux, David R

    2017-02-01

    Currently no method exists for calculating and comparing the confidence-intervals (CI) for the time-series of a bivariate plot. The study's aim was to develop 'CI2' as a method to calculate the CI on time-series bivariate plots, and to identify if the CI between two bivariate time-series overlap. The test data were the knee and ankle angles from 10 healthy participants running on a motorised standard-treadmill and non-motorised curved-treadmill. For a recommended 10+ trials, CI2 involved calculating 95% confidence-ellipses at each time-point, then taking as the CI the points on the ellipses that were perpendicular to the direction vector between the means of two adjacent time-points. Consecutive pairs of CI created convex quadrilaterals, and any overlap of these quadrilaterals at the same time or ±1 frame as a time-lag calculated using cross-correlations, indicated where the two time-series differed. CI2 showed no group differences between left and right legs on both treadmills, but the same legs between treadmills for all participants showed differences of less knee extension on the curved-treadmill before heel-strike. To improve and standardise the use of CI2 it is recommended to remove outlier time-series, use 95% confidence-ellipses, and scale the ellipse by the fixed Chi-square value as opposed to the sample-size dependent F-value. For practical use, and to aid in standardisation or future development of CI2, Matlab code is provided. CI2 provides an effective method to quantify the CI of bivariate plots, and to explore the differences in CI between two bivariate time-series. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of sensitivity and faecal egg counts of Mini-FLOTAC using fixed stool samples and Kato-Katz technique for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni and soil-transmitted helminths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulibaly, Jean T; Ouattara, Mamadou; Becker, Sören L; Lo, Nathan C; Keiser, Jennifer; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Ianniello, Davide; Rinaldi, Laura; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Utzinger, Jürg

    2016-12-01

    Accurate diagnostic tools for human helminthiasis are crucial for epidemiological surveys, improved patient management, and evaluation of community-based intervention studies. However, the diagnosis of intestinal schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis heavily relies on stool microscopy using the Kato-Katz technique, which has a low sensitivity. The Mini-FLOTAC method is an alternative microscopy-based technique, but its diagnostic performance using sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin-(SAF)-fixed stool specimens has not been validated. The fixation of stool samples for later examination in a laboratory may reduce logistical and financial barriers of prevalence surveys by not requiring field laboratories. We compared the diagnostic accuracy of the Kato-Katz technique using fresh stool samples with the Mini-FLOTAC technique, employing matched stool samples that were fixed in SAF. Three consecutive stool samples from 149 school-aged children in Côte d'Ivoire were subjected to quintuplicate Kato-Katz thick smears examined on the same day. From the remaining stool, approximately 2g was fixed in 10ml of SAF for about 3 months, and then subjected to the Mini-FLOTAC method, using two flotation solutions (FS2 and FS7). The combined results of multiple Kato-Katz and Mini-FLOTAC readings revealed prevalences of Schistosoma mansoni, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm of 99.3%, 72.5% and 7.4%, respectively. Employing a Bayesian latent class analysis to estimate the true sensitivity of the diagnostic approaches, the sensitivity of Mini-FLOTAC using FS2 was 50.1% (95% Bayesian credible interval (BCI): 30.9-70.2%) for hookworm and 68.0% (95% BCI: 34.9-93.5%) for T. trichiura. When applying Mini-FLOTAC using FS7, the sensitivity was 89.9% (95% BCI: 86.9-97.4%) for S. mansoni, 37.2% (95% BCI: 17.2-60.6%) for hookworm and 67.7% (95% BCI: 33.0-93.0%) for T. trichiura. The specificity ranged from 80.1-95.0% in all Mini-FLOTAC tests. Mini-FLOTAC revealed higher arithmetic mean

  19. Box Plots in the Australian Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jane M.

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the definition of "box plot" as used in the "Australian Curriculum: Mathematics" with other definitions used in the education community; describes the difficulties students experience when dealing with box plots; and discusses the elaboration that is necessary to enable teachers to develop the knowledge…

  20. The Heuristic Interpretation of Box Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lem, Stephanie; Onghena, Patrick; Verschaffel, Lieven; Van Dooren, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Box plots are frequently used, but are often misinterpreted by students. Especially the area of the box in box plots is often misinterpreted as representing number or proportion of observations, while it actually represents their density. In a first study, reaction time evidence was used to test whether heuristic reasoning underlies this…

  1. Reaction Order Ambiguity in Integrated Rate Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joe

    2008-01-01

    Integrated rate plots are frequently used in reaction kinetics to determine orders of reactions. It is often emphasised, when using this methodology in practice, that it is necessary to monitor the reaction to a substantial fraction of completion for these plots to yield unambiguous orders. The present article gives a theoretical and statistical…

  2. Box Plots in the Australian Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jane M.

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the definition of "box plot" as used in the "Australian Curriculum: Mathematics" with other definitions used in the education community; describes the difficulties students experience when dealing with box plots; and discusses the elaboration that is necessary to enable teachers to develop the knowledge necessary to use them…

  3. A Discussion on Mean Excess Plots

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Souvik

    2009-01-01

    A widely used tool in the study of risk, insurance and extreme values is the mean excess plot. One use is for validating a Generalized Pareto model for the excess distribution. This paper investigates some theoretical and practical aspects of the use of the mean excess plot.

  4. A M-MLV reverse transcriptase with reduced RNaseH activity allows greater sensitivity of gene expression detection in formalin fixed and paraffin embedded prostate cancer samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Rachel M; Rhodes, Anthony; Oxley, Jon; Ladomery, Michael R

    2013-08-01

    Formalin fixed and paraffin embedded (FFPE) human tissue collections are an invaluable resource for retrospective gene expression studies. However formalin fixation results in chemical modification of RNA and increased RNA degradation. This can affect RNA yield and quality. A critical step when analysing gene expression is the conversion of RNA to complementary DNA (cDNA) using a reverse transcriptase (RT) enzyme. FFPE derived RNA may affect the performance and efficiency of the RT enzyme and cDNA synthesis. We directly compared three commonly used FFPE RNA isolation methods and measured RNA yield, purity and integrity. We also assessed the effectiveness of three commercially available Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus (M-MLV) RTs on cDNA synthesis and gene expression sensitivity when using FFPE RNA as a template. Our results show that gene detection sensitivity is dependent on the isolation method, RT and length of the PCR amplicon (<200bp) when using FFPE RNA. The use of an M-MLV RT enzyme with reduced RNaseH activity gave significantly increased qRT-PCR sensitivity when using FFPE RNA derived from prostate tissue. The choice of RT can also affect perceived changes in target gene expression and thus the same RT should be used when attempting to reproduce results from different studies. This study highlights the need to optimise and evaluate RNA isolation methods and RTs when using FFPE RNA as a template in order to maximise a successful outcome in PCR applications.

  5. [Use of archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples for molecular genetic analysis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarošová, Marie; Kučerová, Jana; Flodr, Patrik; Mikešová, Michaela; Procházka, Vít; Papajík, Tomáš

    2014-04-01

    The currently valid molecular genetic subclassification of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) into three prognostic subgroups based on expression profiling has been the objective of numerous genetic studies. In routine clinical practice, however, expression profiling technology remains unavailable for the most of centers. Apart from the technology, in some cases molecular genetic laboratories have problems obtaining high-quality material, i.e. fresh tissues, for RNA isolation to determine gene expression. One possibility is to determine the gene expression from RNA obtained by isolation from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue. This pilot study aimed at isolating RNA from FFPE in patients diagnosed with DLBCL and verifying the potential use of such RNA for the expression analysis of 7 selected genes. Although the study showed that it is possible to isolate RNA and determine the expression of the selected genes from archival material, the values of relative expression of some genes in the set were too variable to be used for unambiguous prognostic classification. It was confirmed that retrospective analyses of selected genes may be performed with sufficient material obtained, and that properly archived blocks may be used for molecular biology analyses even after 8 years.

  6. Nested-PCR for the detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in bronchial alveolar swabs, frozen tissues and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded swine lung samples: comparative evaluation with immunohistochemical findings and histological features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula R. Almeida

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection is often performed through histopathology, immunohistochemistry (IHC and polymerase chain reaction (PCR or a combination of these techniques. PCR can be performed on samples using several conservation methods, including swabs, frozen tissue or formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissue. However, the formalin fixation process often inhibits DNA amplification. To evaluate whether M. hyopneumoniae DNA could be recovered from FFPE tissues, 15 lungs with cranioventral consolidation lesions were collected in a slaughterhouse from swine bred in herds with respiratory disease. Bronchial swabs and fresh lung tissue were collected, and a fragment of the corresponding lung section was placed in neutral buffered formalin for 48 hours. A PCR assay was performed to compare FFPE tissue samples with samples that were only refrigerated (bronchial swabs or frozen (tissue pieces. M. hyopneumoniae was detected by PCR in all 15 samples of the swab and frozen tissue, while it was detected in only 11 of the 15 FFPE samples. Histological features of M. hyopneumoniae infection were presented in 11 cases and 7 of these samples stained positive in IHC. Concordance between the histological features and detection results was observed in 13 of the FFPE tissue samples. PCR was the most sensitive technique. Comparison of different sample conservation methods indicated that it is possible to detect M. hyopneumoniae from FFPE tissue. It is important to conduct further research using archived material because the efficiency of PCR could be compromised under these conditions.

  7. Correlations in Nuclear Arrhenius-Type Plots

    CERN Document Server

    Tsang, M B

    1998-01-01

    Arrhenius-type plots for multifragmentation process, defined as the transverse energy dependence of the single-fragment emission-probability, -ln(p_{b}) vs 1/sqrt(E_{t}), have been studied by examining the relationship of the parameters p_{b} and E_{t} to the intermediate-mass fragment multiplicity . The linearity of these plots reflects the correlation of the fragment multiplicity with the transverse energy. These plots may not provide thermal scaling information about fragment production as previously suggested.

  8. FERMI/GLAST Integrated Trending and Plotting System Release 5.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Sheila; Brumer, Haim; Reitan, Denise

    2012-01-01

    An Integrated Trending and Plotting System (ITPS) is a trending, analysis, and plotting system used by space missions to determine performance and status of spacecraft and its instruments. ITPS supports several NASA mission operational control centers providing engineers, ground controllers, and scientists with access to the entire spacecraft telemetry data archive for the life of the mission, and includes a secure Web component for remote access. FERMI/GLAST ITPS Release 5.0 features include the option to display dates (yyyy/ddd) instead of orbit numbers along orbital Long-Term Trend (LTT) plot axis, the ability to save statistics from daily production plots as image files, and removal of redundant edit/create Input Definition File (IDF) screens. Other features are a fix to address invalid packet lengths, a change in naming convention of image files in order to use in script, the ability to save all ITPS plot images (from Windows or the Web) as GIF or PNG format, the ability to specify ymin and ymax on plots where previously only the desired range could be specified, Web interface capability to plot IDFs that contain out-oforder page and plot numbers, and a fix to change all default file names to show yyyydddhhmmss time stamps instead of hhmmssdddyyyy. A Web interface capability sorts files based on modification date (with newest one at top), and the statistics block can be displayed via a Web interface. Via the Web, users can graphically view the volume of telemetry data from each day contained in the ITPS archive in the Web digest. The ITPS could be also used in nonspace fields that need to plot data or trend data, including financial and banking systems, aviation and transportation systems, healthcare and educational systems, sales and marketing, and housing and construction.

  9. Bodily fluid analysis of non-serum samples using point-of-care testing with iSTAT and Piccolo analyzers versus a fixed hospital chemistry analytical platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londeree, William; Davis, Konrad; Helman, Donald; Abadie, Jude

    2014-09-01

    Forward deployed military medical units can provide sophisticated medical care with limited resources. Point-of-Care Testing (POCT) may facilitate care and expedite diagnosis. This study assessed the accuracy of results for POCT for non-serum samples (pleural, peritoneal, and cerebrospinal fluid) using iSTAT and Piccolo hand-held devices compared with results obtained using a hospital chemistry analyzer. Pleural, peritoneal, and cerebrospinal fluids obtained during routine care were simultaneously analyzed on a Vitros 5600 automated clinical chemistry hospital analyzer, iSTAT, and Piccolo POCT devices. POCT results were highly correlated with the Vitros 5600 for pleural fluid LDH, glucose, and triglycerides (TG); for peritoneal fluid bilirubin, TG, glucose, albumin, and protein; and glucose for cerebrospinal fluid. POCT results for non-serum samples from pleural, peritoneal, and cerebrospinal fluid correlate with standard hospital chemistry analysis. The results of this study demonstrate potential for possible new diagnostic roles for POCT in resource-limited environments.

  10. Setting the Stage for Creative Writing: Plot Scaffolds for Beginning and Intermediate Writers

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Day, Shannon

    2006-01-01

    Standardized writing tests focus more on content than mechanics, but writing instruction typically focuses more on mechanics than content. Plot scaffolds, can help teachers fix the balance and help foster creativity and originality in students' writing. In this practical guide, elementary and middle school teachers will find: (1) a research-based…

  11. Evaluation of Mutational Testing of Preneoplastic Barrett's Mucosa by Next-Generation Sequencing of Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Endoscopic Samples for Detection of Concurrent Dysplasia and Adenocarcinoma in Barrett's Esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Portillo, Armando; Lagana, Stephen M; Yao, Yuan; Uehara, Takeshi; Jhala, Nirag; Ganguly, Tapan; Nagy, Peter; Gutierrez, Jorge; Luna, Aesis; Abrams, Julian; Liu, Yang; Brand, Randall; Sepulveda, Jorge L; Falk, Gary W; Sepulveda, Antonia R

    2015-07-01

    Barrett's intestinal metaplasia (BIM) may harbor genomic mutations before the histologic appearance of dysplasia and cancer and requires frequent surveillance. We explored next-generation sequencing to detect mutations with the analytical sensitivity required to predict concurrent high-grade dysplasia (HGD) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) in patients with Barrett's esophagus by testing nonneoplastic BIM. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) routine biopsy or endoscopic mucosal resection samples from 32 patients were tested: nonprogressors to HGD or EAC (BIM-NP) with BIM, who never had a diagnosis of dysplasia or EAC (N = 13); progressors to HGD or EAC (BIM-P) with BIM and a worse diagnosis of HGD or EAC (N = 15); and four BIM-negative samples. No mutations were detected in the BIM-NP (0 of 13) or BIM-negative samples, whereas the BIM-P samples had mutations in 6 (75%) of 8 cases in TP53, APC, and CDKN2A (P = 0.0005), detected in samples with as low as 20% BIM. We found that next-generation sequencing from routine FFPE nonneoplastic Barrett's esophagus samples can detect multiple mutations in minute areas of BIM with high analytical sensitivity. Next-generation sequencing panels for detection of TP53 and possibly combined mutations in other genes, such as APC and CDKN2A, may be useful in the clinical setting to improve dysplasia and cancer surveillance in patients with Barrett's esophagus.

  12. 固定样本在经济统计分析中的应用%The Application of Fixed Sample to the Economic and Statistical Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖红叶; 董麓

    2002-01-01

    Data is the material when people do economic statistics analysis。Because the data will directly affect the research result,the quality of data is very iimportant。Fstablishing data model and collecting data should be both under the guidance of the economic theory and statistic theory。Panel sample is one kind of research methods in analyzing social and economic problems,for it can joint cross-section data and time series data,the research result it provides is often very effective 。People should pay attention to it。

  13. Split-plot designs for multistage experimentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahci, Murat; Tyssedal, John

    2016-01-01

    at the same time will be more efficient. However, there have been only a few attempts in the literature to provide an adequate and easy-to-use approach for this problem. In this paper, we present a novel methodology for constructing two-level split-plot and multistage experiments. The methodology is based...... be accommodated in each stage. Furthermore, split-plot designs for multistage experiments with good projective properties are also provided....

  14. PRP: a FORTRAN IV interactive plotting program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, A. S.; Linde, J.

    A computer program, PRP, has been designed to plot any arithmetic combination selected from a set of major and trace element data on a y- x graph. y and x are defined and entered as a program string (y, x) which is interpreted sequentially. Operators ( +, -, ∗, /, ( unary) , square root, log 10, In c, antilog 10, exponential, integer, absolute value, (,),,) and integer or real numbers may be included. Axis lengths and scales are determined by the user. Five different plotting symbols are available.

  15. Generalised Recurrence Plot Analysis for Spatial Data

    OpenAIRE

    Marwan, Norbert; Kurths, Juergen; Saparin, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Recurrence plot based methods are highly efficient and widely accepted tools for the investigation of time series or one-dimensional data. We present an extension of the recurrence plots and their quantifications in order to study recurrent structures in higher-dimensional spatial data. The capability of this extension is illustrated on prototypical 2D models. Next, the tested and proved approach is applied to assess the bone structure from CT images of human proximal tibia. We find that the ...

  16. Development of TRatioPlot in ROOT

    CERN Document Server

    Gessinger-Befurt, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The ROOT data analysis and visualization framework is a software package which is widely used in physics, especially in high energy physics. A common visualization which has so far been lacking a direct implementation is the ratio plot, as well as a few similar types of plots. The scope and goal of the summer student project at CERN was to implement a class in ROOT itself, that can take care of the most common types of calculations, and produces high quality visuals.

  17. Microscopic diagnosis of sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin-fixed stool samples for helminths and intestinal protozoa: a comparison among European reference laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utzinger, J; Botero-Kleiven, S; Castelli, F; Chiodini, P L; Edwards, H; Köhler, N; Gulletta, M; Lebbad, M; Manser, M; Matthys, B; N'Goran, E K; Tannich, E; Vounatsou, P; Marti, H

    2010-03-01

    The present study aimed to compare the diagnostic performance of different European reference laboratories in diagnosing helminths and intestinal protozoa, using an ether-concentration method applied to sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin (SAF)-preserved faecal samples. In total, 102 stool specimens were analysed during a cross-sectional parasitological survey in urban farming communities in Côte d'Ivoire. Five SAF-preserved faecal samples were prepared from each specimen and forwarded to the participating reference laboratories, processed and examined under a microscope adhering to a standard operating procedure (SOP). Schistosoma mansoni (cumulative prevalence: 51.0%) and hookworm (cumulative prevalence: 39.2%) were the predominant helminths. There was excellent agreement (kappa > 0.8; p protozoa were Entamoeba coli (median prevalence: 67.6%), Blastocystis hominis (median prevalence: 55.9%) and Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (median prevalence: 47.1%). Substantial agreement among reference laboratories was found for E. coli (kappa = 0.69), but only fair or moderate agreement was found for other Entamoeba species, Giardia intestinalis and Chilomastix mesnili. There was only poor agreement for B. hominis, Isospora belli and Trichomonas intestinalis. In conclusion, although common helminths were reliably diagnosed by European reference laboratories, there was only moderate agreement between centres for pathogenic intestinal protozoa. Continued external quality assessment and the establishment of a formal network of reference laboratories is necessary to further enhance both accuracy and uniformity in parasite diagnosis.

  18. Community Structure and Diversity Distributions of Small Mammals in Different Sample Plots in the Eastern Part of Wuling Mountains%武陵山东段不同样地小型兽类群落结构及多样性分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘井元; 杜红; 田耕百; 余品红; 王身文; 彭红

    2008-01-01

    2000-2004年对长江三峡南岸的武陵山东段7个不同样地、3个不同海拔梯度和6种生境类型的啮齿等小兽进行了5年调查.共布放鼠铗29297铗次,获得啮齿等小兽2271只;其他方法获26只,分隶于8科19属24种.其中啮齿目占70.83%,食虫目占29.17%.对所获数据分析结果表明:1)虽物种丰富度具有从南向北随海拔升高而增加的趋势,但在垂直分布上有相当一部分物种呈现较宽的分布;2)无论在7个不同样地,还是在6种生境,1200m以下均以黑线姬鼠(Apodemus agrarius)和褐家鼠(Rattus norvegicus)为优势种;1300m以上则以短尾鼩(Anourosorex squamipes)、社鼠(Niviventer confucianus)和中华姬鼠(Apodemus draco)为优势,但在数量上缺乏规律性;3)冬季密度明显大于春季,沿海拔高度呈梯度增高,但不同样地的密度缺乏一致规律性;4)7个不同样地多样性和均匀度均呈现较大变化.这可能与该地区人为干预较多有关.%Five years' (2000-2004) continuous study has been carried out on small mammals such as rodents in seven different sample plots, at three different altitudes and in six different ecological environment types in the eastern part of the Wuling Mountains, south bank of the Three Gorges of Yangtze River in Hubei. A total of 29 297 rat clamps/times were placed and 2271 small mammals such as rodents were captured, and 26 small mammals were captured by other means. All the small mammals captured belonged to 8 families 19 genera and 24 species, of which rodentia accounted for 70.83% and insectivora 29.17%. Through analysis of the data, the results showed that: 1) although the species richness had a trend of increasing along different sample plots as altitude increased from south to north, quite a few species showed a wide habitat range in a vertical distribution (15 species were dispersed over three zones and two species over two zones) , indicating a strong adaptability of small mammals such as rodents at lower

  19. plotKML: Scientific Visualization of Spatio-Temporal Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Hengl

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available plotKML is an R package that provides methods for writing the most common R spatial classes into KML files. It builds up on the existing XML parsing functionality (XML package, and provides similar plotting functionality as the lattice package. Its main objective is to provide a simple interface to generate KML files with a small number of arguments, and allows users to visually explore spatio-temporal data available in R: points, polygons, gridded maps, trajectory-type data, vertical profiles, ground photographs, time series vector objects or raster images, along with the results of spatial analysis such as geostatistical mapping, spatial simulations of vector and gridded objects, optimized sampling designs, species distribution models and similar. A generic plotKML( function automatically determines the parsing order and visualizes data directly from R; lower level functions can be combined to allow for new user-created visualization templates. In comparison to other packages writing KML, plotKML seems to be more object oriented, it links more closely to the existing R classes for spatio-temporal data (sp, spacetime and raster packages than the alternatives, and provides users with the possibility to create their own templates.

  20. Surveillance of Site A and Plot M report for 2010.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golchert, N. W. (ESQ)

    2011-05-31

    The results of the environmental surveillance program conducted at Site A/Plot M in the Palos Forest Preserve area for Calendar Year 2010 are presented. Based on the results of the 1976-1978 radiological characterization of the site, a determination was made that a surveillance program be established. The characterization study determined that very low levels of hydrogen-3 (as tritiated water) had migrated from the burial ground and were present in two nearby hand-pumped picnic wells. The current surveillance program began in 1980 and consists of sample collection and analysis of surface and subsurface water. The results of the analyses are used to monitor the migration pathway of hydrogen-3 contaminated water from the burial ground (Plot M) to the hand-pumped picnic wells and monitor for the presence of radioactive materials in the environment of the area. Hydrogen-3 in the Red Gate Woods picnic wells was still detected this year, but the average and maximum concentrations were significantly less than found earlier. Hydrogen-3 continues to be detected in a number of wells, boreholes, dolomite holes, and a surface stream. Analyses since 1984 have indicated the presence of low levels of strontium-90 in water from a number of boreholes next to Plot M. The results of the surveillance program continue to indicate that the radioactivity remaining at Site A/Plot M does not endanger the health or safety of the public visiting the site, using the picnic area, or living in the vicinity.

  1. Surveillance of Site A and Plot M, Report for 2009.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golchert, N. W.

    2010-04-21

    The results of the environmental surveillance program conducted at Site A/Plot M in the Palos Forest Preserve area for Calendar Year 2009 are presented. Based on the results of the 1976-1978 radiological characterization of the site, a determination was made that a surveillance program be established. The characterization study determined that very low levels of hydrogen-3 (as tritiated water) had migrated from the burial ground and were present in two nearby hand-pumped picnic wells. The current surveillance program began in 1980 and consists of sample collection and analysis of surface and subsurface water. The results of the analyses are used to monitor the migration pathway of hydrogen-3 contaminated water from the burial ground (Plot M) to the hand-pumped picnic wells and monitor for the presence of radioactive materials in the environment of the area. Hydrogen-3 in the Red Gate Woods picnic wells was still detected this year, but the average and maximum concentrations were significantly less than found earlier. Hydrogen-3 continues to be detected in a number of wells, boreholes, dolomite holes, and a surface stream. Analyses since 1984 have indicated the presence of low levels of strontium-90 in water from a number of boreholes next to Plot M. The results of the surveillance program continue to indicate that the radioactivity remaining at Site A/Plot M does not endanger the health or safety of the public visiting the site, using the picnic area, or living in the vicinity.

  2. 454 next generation-sequencing outperforms allele-specific PCR, Sanger sequencing, and pyrosequencing for routine KRAS mutation analysis of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altimari, Annalisa; de Biase, Dario; De Maglio, Giovanna; Gruppioni, Elisa; Capizzi, Elisa; Degiovanni, Alessio; D'Errico, Antonia; Pession, Annalisa; Pizzolitto, Stefano; Fiorentino, Michelangelo; Tallini, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Detection of KRAS mutations in archival pathology samples is critical for therapeutic appropriateness of anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies in colorectal cancer. We compared the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of Sanger sequencing, ARMS-Scorpion (TheraScreen®) real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), pyrosequencing, chip array hybridization, and 454 next-generation sequencing to assess KRAS codon 12 and 13 mutations in 60 nonconsecutive selected cases of colorectal cancer. Twenty of the 60 cases were detected as wild-type KRAS by all methods with 100% specificity. Among the 40 mutated cases, 13 were discrepant with at least one method. The sensitivity was 85%, 90%, 93%, and 92%, and the accuracy was 90%, 93%, 95%, and 95% for Sanger sequencing, TheraScreen real-time PCR, pyrosequencing, and chip array hybridization, respectively. The main limitation of Sanger sequencing was its low analytical sensitivity, whereas TheraScreen real-time PCR, pyrosequencing, and chip array hybridization showed higher sensitivity but suffered from the limitations of predesigned assays. Concordance between the methods was k = 0.79 for Sanger sequencing and k > 0.85 for the other techniques. Tumor cell enrichment correlated significantly with the abundance of KRAS-mutated deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), evaluated as ΔCt for TheraScreen real-time PCR (P = 0.03), percentage of mutation for pyrosequencing (P = 0.001), ratio for chip array hybridization (P = 0.003), and percentage of mutation for 454 next-generation sequencing (P = 0.004). Also, 454 next-generation sequencing showed the best cross correlation for quantification of mutation abundance compared with all the other methods (P < 0.001). Our comparison showed the superiority of next-generation sequencing over the other techniques in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Next-generation sequencing will replace Sanger sequencing as the reference technique for diagnostic detection of KRAS mutation in archival tumor tissues.

  3. Fixed effects analysis of variance

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Lloyd; Birnbaum, Z W; Lukacs, E

    1978-01-01

    Fixed Effects Analysis of Variance covers the mathematical theory of the fixed effects analysis of variance. The book discusses the theoretical ideas and some applications of the analysis of variance. The text then describes topics such as the t-test; two-sample t-test; the k-sample comparison of means (one-way analysis of variance); the balanced two-way factorial design without interaction; estimation and factorial designs; and the Latin square. Confidence sets, simultaneous confidence intervals, and multiple comparisons; orthogonal and nonorthologonal designs; and multiple regression analysi

  4. Information sampling behavior with explicit sampling costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juni, Mordechai Z.; Gureckis, Todd M.; Maloney, Laurence T.

    2015-01-01

    The decision to gather information should take into account both the value of information and its accrual costs in time, energy and money. Here we explore how people balance the monetary costs and benefits of gathering additional information in a perceptual-motor estimation task. Participants were rewarded for touching a hidden circular target on a touch-screen display. The target’s center coincided with the mean of a circular Gaussian distribution from which participants could sample repeatedly. Each “cue” — sampled one at a time — was plotted as a dot on the display. Participants had to repeatedly decide, after sampling each cue, whether to stop sampling and attempt to touch the hidden target or continue sampling. Each additional cue increased the participants’ probability of successfully touching the hidden target but reduced their potential reward. Two experimental conditions differed in the initial reward associated with touching the hidden target and the fixed cost per cue. For each condition we computed the optimal number of cues that participants should sample, before taking action, to maximize expected gain. Contrary to recent claims that people gather less information than they objectively should before taking action, we found that participants over-sampled in one experimental condition, and did not significantly under- or over-sample in the other. Additionally, while the ideal observer model ignores the current sample dispersion, we found that participants used it to decide whether to stop sampling and take action or continue sampling, a possible consequence of imperfect learning of the underlying population dispersion across trials. PMID:27429991

  5. 6th International Symposium on Recurrence Plots

    CERN Document Server

    Jr, Jr; Ioana, Cornel; Marwan, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    The chapters in this book originate from the research work and contributions presented at the Sixth International Symposium on Recurrence Plots held in Grenoble, France in June 2015. Scientists from numerous disciplines gathered to exchange knowledge on recent applications and developments in recurrence plots and recurrence quantification analysis. This meeting was remarkable because of the obvious expansion of recurrence strategies (theory) and applications (practice) into ever-broadening fields of science. It discusses real-world systems from various fields, including mathematics, strange attractors, applied physics, physiology, medicine, environmental and earth sciences, as well as psychology and linguistics. Even readers not actively researching any of these particular systems will benefit from discovering how other scientists are finding practical non-linear solutions to specific problems. The book is of interest to an interdisciplinary audience of recurrence plot users and researchers interested in time...

  6. BOREAS TE-23 Map Plot Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Paul M.; Fournier, Robert; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Papagno, Andrea (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmospheric Study (BOREAS) TE-23 (Terrestrial Ecology) team collected map plot data in support of its efforts to characterize and interpret information on canopy architecture and understory cover at the BOREAS tower flux sites and selected auxiliary sites from May to August 1994. Mapped plots (typical dimensions 50 m x 60 m) were set up and characterized at all BOREAS forested tower flux and selected auxiliary sites. Detailed measurement of the mapped plots included: (1) stand characteristics (location, density, basal area); (2) map locations diameter at breast height (DBH) of all trees; (3) detailed geometric measures of a subset of trees (height, crown dimensions); and (4) understory cover maps. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  7. Comparing the methods plot and point-centered quarter to describe a woody community from typical Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firmino Cardoso Pereira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article evaluates the effectiveness of the methods fixed area plots (AP and point-centered quarters (PQ to describe a woody community from typical Cerrado. We used 10 APs and 140 PQs, distributed into 5 transects. We compared the density of individuals, floristic composition, richness of families, genera, and species, and vertical and horizontal vegetation structure. The AP method was more effective to sample the density of individuals. The PQ method was more effective for characterizing species richness, vertical vegetation structure, and record of species with low abundance. The composition of families, genera, and species, as well as the species with higher importance value index in the community were similarly determined by the 2 methods. The methods compared are complementary. We suggest that the use of AP, PQ, or both methods may be aimed at the vegetation parameter under study.

  8. PLOT3D Export Tool for Tecplot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The PLOT3D export tool for Tecplot solves the problem of modified data being impossible to output for use by another computational science solver. The PLOT3D Exporter add-on enables the use of the most commonly available visualization tools to engineers for output of a standard format. The exportation of PLOT3D data from Tecplot has far reaching effects because it allows for grid and solution manipulation within a graphical user interface (GUI) that is easily customized with macro language-based and user-developed GUIs. The add-on also enables the use of Tecplot as an interpolation tool for solution conversion between different grids of different types. This one add-on enhances the functionality of Tecplot so significantly, it offers the ability to incorporate Tecplot into a general suite of tools for computational science applications as a 3D graphics engine for visualization of all data. Within the PLOT3D Export Add-on are several functions that enhance the operations and effectiveness of the add-on. Unlike Tecplot output functions, the PLOT3D Export Add-on enables the use of the zone selection dialog in Tecplot to choose which zones are to be written by offering three distinct options - output of active, inactive, or all zones (grid blocks). As the user modifies the zones to output with the zone selection dialog, the zones to be written are similarly updated. This enables the use of Tecplot to create multiple configurations of a geometry being analyzed. For example, if an aircraft is loaded with multiple deflections of flaps, by activating and deactivating different zones for a specific flap setting, new specific configurations of that aircraft can be easily generated by only writing out specific zones. Thus, if ten flap settings are loaded into Tecplot, the PLOT3D Export software can output ten different configurations, one for each flap setting.

  9. First detection and genotyping of Giardia intestinalis in stool samples collected from children in Ghazni Province, eastern Afghanistan and evaluation of the PCR assay in formalin-fixed specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass, Anna; Karanis, Panagiotis; Korzeniewski, Krzysztof

    2017-08-01

    It is estimated that faecal-orally transmitted diseases are common in Afghanistan, as a consequence of poor hygienic standards of life and widespread contamination of water and food with both human and animal faeces. However, there is little information in the literature concerning infections caused by intestinal parasites in the Afghan population. In this study, we report the occurrence of Giardia intestinalis assemblages (A and B) in formalin-fixed stool samples collected from 245 Afghan schoolchildren living in Ghazni Province in eastern Afghanistan. Detection of the parasite's DNA and genotyping was performed using real-time PCR, specific to the β-giardin gene of G. intestinalis. Positive results were recorded in 52 (21.2%) samples. Genotyping was successful in 39 faecal samples and showed the predominance of assemblage B of G. intestinalis in this population (15 assemblage A and 24 assemblage B). Co-infection with both genotypes A and B was detected in four samples. Additionally, we evaluated the effect of 10% buffered formalin fixative on the detection of G. intestinalis DNA using real-time PCR and nested PCR characterised by different lengths of PCR products (74 and 479 bp, respectively). The human faeces containing the Giardia cysts were tested for 16 weeks. Amplification of G. intestinalis DNA with real-time PCR was possible up to 6 weeks of preservation of stool sample in formalin, compared to only 2 weeks with nested PCR. This suggests that real-time PCR is a more suitable tool in cases where stool samples have to be kept in formalin for longer periods of time.

  10. Using a fixed wing UAV remote sensing system for Sorghum Crop Phenotyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafian, S.; Rajan, N.; Schnell, R.; Bagavathiannan, M.; Valasek, J.; Menefee, D.; Pokhrel, P.; Olsenholler, J.; Shi, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Remote sensing with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) provides great possibilities to acquire images with high spatial and temporal resolution. We obtained remote sensing imagery using a fixed-wing UAV equipped with a multispectral sensor (GEMS, Sentek Systems) for evaluating sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L) crop growth and yield. The UAV was flown over a test field where six hybrids of sorghum were grown in three population densities and in three replications. The altitude for image acquisition was 120 ft. Simultaneously with the UAV flights, we conducted intensive ground sampling for plant leaf area index (LAI) and fractional ground cover (fc). We pre-processed the multispectral data to create orthoimages and extracted Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from each plot. Our results indicate strong linear relationships of NDVI with LAI and fc. The harvesting of test plots will be done in mid-august and the relationship of NDVI with yield will be investigated.

  11. Generalised recurrence plot analysis for spatial data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marwan, Norbert [Institute of Physics, University of Potsdam, 14415 Potsdam (Germany)]. E-mail: marwan@agnld.uni-potsdam.de; Kurths, Juergen [Institute of Physics, University of Potsdam, 14415 Potsdam (Germany); Saparin, Peter [Department of Biomaterials, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, 14424 Potsdam-Golm (Germany)

    2007-01-08

    Recurrence plot based methods are highly efficient and widely accepted tools for the investigation of time series or one-dimensional data. We present an extension of the recurrence plots and their quantifications in order to study recurrent structures in higher-dimensional spatial data. The capability of this extension is illustrated on prototypical 2D models. Next, the tested and proved approach is applied to assess the bone structure from CT images of human proximal tibia. We find that the spatial structures in trabecular bone become more recurrent during the bone loss in osteoporosis.

  12. A reduced volumetric expansion factor plot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, R. C.

    1979-01-01

    A reduced volumetric expansion factor plot has been constructed for simple fluids which is suitable for engineering computations in heat transfer. Volumetric expansion factors have been found useful in correlating heat transfer data over a wide range of operating conditions including liquids, gases and the near critical region.

  13. Derivation of plotting position formula for GEV distribution using genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S.; Kim, T.; Heo, J.

    2008-12-01

    Probability plotting positions are used for the graphical display of annual maximum rainfall or flood series and the estimation of exceedance probability of those values. In addition, plotting positions allow a visual examination of the fitness of probability distribution provided by flood frequency analysis. Therefore, the graphical approach using plotting position has been applied to many fields of hydrology and water resources planning. Various plotting position formulas were developed for probability distributions in many researches and plotting position formulas by Gringorten(1963) and Cunnane(1978) were applied to the Gumbel and GEV distributions generally. Especially, Cunnane(1978) defined the plotting position that related with the mean of data and proposed the general formula that can be applied to various probability distributions. The definition of the plotting position by Cunnane(1978) have influenced on the plotting position of probability distribution contained shape parameter. In this study, the plotting position formula for the GEV distribution is derived by using the combination of the order statistics and the probability weight moment of the GEV distribution for various sample sizes and shape parameters. In addition, the parameters of plotting position formula for the GEV distribution are estimated by using genetic algorithm considering the range of a coefficient of skewness related with the shape parameters of the GEV distribution. The accuracy of derived plotting position formula for the GEV distribution is examined by the comparison of root mean square errors between theoretical reduced variates and those calculated from the derived and existing plotting position formulas such as Gringorten(1963) and Cunnane(1978).

  14. Field Plot and Observation Points for Timpanogos Cave National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This point feature class contains points representing field sample data (13 plots points and 10 observations points, collected June 2007) for the vegetation mapping...

  15. Golden Spike National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project - Field Plot and Observation Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This point feature class contains points representing field sample data (3 plots points and 46 observations points, collected June 2007) for the vegetation mapping...

  16. Field Plot Points for Bluestone National Scenic River Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This feature class contains point features which represent locations of vegetation sampling plots in Bluestone National Scenic River. Location coordinates for most...

  17. Field Plot Points Modified for Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Location of vegetation sampling plots use to collect data for vegetation classification and mapping at Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area. In this data set,...

  18. Field Plot Points for George Washington Birthplace National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile shows the location of vegetation sampling plots used for vegetation classification and mapping at George Washington Birthplace National Monument.

  19. Field Plot Points for Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Location of vegetation sampling plots used to collect data for vegetation classification and mapping at Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River.

  20. Field Plot Points for Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile shows the location of vegetation sampling plots used for vegetation classification and mapping at Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park

  1. Field Plot Points for Allegheny Portage Railroad National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Location of vegetation sampling plots used to collect data for vegetation classification and mapping at Allegheny Portage Railroad National Historic Site. In this...

  2. Field Plot Points for Appomattox Court House National Historical Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile shows the location of vegetation sampling plots used for vegetation classification and mapping at Appomottox Court House National Historical Park

  3. Field Plot Points for Booker T. Washington National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile shows the location of vegetation sampling plots used for vegetation classification and mapping at Booker T. Washington National Monument

  4. Field Plot and Observation Points for Hovenweep National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This point feature class contains points representing field sample data (27 plots points and 32 observations points, collected April and May of 2003) for the...

  5. Field Plot Points for Washita Battlefield National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This metadata is for the 2005 vegetation data points (spatial database) created from the sample vegetation plots collected at Washita Battlefield National Historic...

  6. Field Plot and Observation Points for Pipe Spring National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This point feature class contains points representing field sample data (3 plots points and 4 observations points, collected August 2007 and September 2008) for the...

  7. Field Plot Points for Craters of Moon National Monument and Preserve Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This metadata is for the 2006 vegetation data points (spatial database) created from the sample vegetation plots collected at Craters of Moon National Monument and...

  8. Field Plot Points for Fort Larned National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This metadata is for the 2005 vegetation data points (spatial database) created from the sample vegetation plots collected at Fort Larned National Historic Site.

  9. Field Plot Points for New River Gorge National River Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This data set contains point features which represent locations of vegetation sampling plots in the New River Gorge National River. Location coordinates for most...

  10. Field Plot Points Modified for Valley Forge National Historical Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile includes the locations of vegetation classification sampling plots used to develop an association-level vegetation classification of Valley Forge...

  11. Field Plot Points for Weir Farm National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile shows the location of vegetation sampling plots used for vegetation classification and mapping at Weir Farm National Historic Site.

  12. FLOWCHART; a computer program for plotting flowcharts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Bernice

    1982-01-01

    The computer program FLOWCHART can be used to very quickly and easily produce flowcharts of high quality for publication. FLOWCHART centers each element or block of text that it processes on one of a set of (imaginary) vertical lines. It can enclose a text block in a rectangle, circle or other selected figure. It can draw a 'line connecting the midpoint of any side of any figure with the midpoint of any side of any other figure and insert an arrow pointing in the direction of flow. It can write 'yes' or 'no' next to the line joining two figures. FLOWCHART creates flowcharts using some basic plotting subroutine* which permit plots to be generated interactively and inspected on a Tektronix compatible graphics screen or plotted in a deferred mode on a Houston Instruments 42' pen plotter. The size of the plot, character set and character height in inches are inputs to the program. Plots generated using the pen plotter can be up to 42' high--the larger size plots being directly usable as visual aids in a talk. FLOWCHART centers each block of text on an imaginary column line. (The number of columns and column width are specified as input.) The midpoint of the longest line of text within the block is defined to be the center of the block and is placed on the column line. The spacing of individual words within the block is not altered when the block is positioned. The program writes the first block of text in a designated column and continues placing each subsequent block below the previous block in the same column. A block of text may be placed in a different column by specifying the number of the column and an earlier block of text with which the new block is to be aligned. If block zero is given as the earlier block, the new text is placed in the new column continuing down the page below the previous block. Optionally a column and number of inches from the top of the page may be given for positioning the next block of text. The program will normally draw one of five

  13. Impact of tillage on soil magnetic properties: results over thirty years different cultivation plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiesson, Julien; Kessouri, Pauline; Buvat, Solène; Tabbagh, Alain

    2010-05-01

    Cultivation may favour or not different processes such as air and water circulation, organic matter and fertilizers supplies..., consequently it can a priori induce significant changes in local oxido-reduction conditions which determine the magnetic properties of soils: the soil magnetic signal. If laboratory measurements on soil samples can be slow and irreversible, it is also possible to perform in field measurements by using electromagnetic devices that allow quick and easy measuring over the relevant soil thicknesses both in time (TDEM) and frequency (FDEM) domains. The object of this study is to compare the variation of two magnetic properties (magnetic susceptibility, measured by FDEM apparatus and magnetic viscosity measured by TDEM apparatus) and there ratio along depth for three different types of tillage (no tillage, ploughing, and simplified tillage). An experimental plot of 80 m by 50 m total area, on which these three types of tillage have been conducted for more than thirty years, was surveyed. The plot is divided in five strips of 16 m by 50 m area, each of which being cultivated by one type of tillage only. Each strip is divided in two parts, one half with nitrogen-fixing crop during intercultivation winter period and the other half with bare soil during this period. On each part, the variation along depth of both magnetic properties was assessed by surveying with different devices corresponding to three different volumes of investigation. For the magnetic susceptibility measurements the devices used were the MS2 of Bartington Ltd with the MS2D probe and the CS60 a slingram prototype use in VCP and HCP configurations. For the magnetic viscosity, the devices used were the DECCO from Littlemore ltd. And the VC100, a slingram prototype, used at two heights. Eleven values of the two magnetic properties have been recorded using each device and their medians calculated. The data were inverted to define the median magnetic profiles of each half

  14. Looking at large data sets using binned data plots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, D.B.

    1990-04-01

    This report addresses the monumental challenge of developing exploratory analysis methods for large data sets. The goals of the report are to increase awareness of large data sets problems and to contribute simple graphical methods that address some of the problems. The graphical methods focus on two- and three-dimensional data and common task such as finding outliers and tail structure, assessing central structure and comparing central structures. The methods handle large sample size problems through binning, incorporate information from statistical models and adapt image processing algorithms. Examples demonstrate the application of methods to a variety of publicly available large data sets. The most novel application addresses the too many plots to examine'' problem by using cognostics, computer guiding diagnostics, to prioritize plots. The particular application prioritizes views of computational fluid dynamics solution sets on the fly. That is, as each time step of a solution set is generated on a parallel processor the cognostics algorithms assess virtual plots based on the previous time step. Work in such areas is in its infancy and the examples suggest numerous challenges that remain. 35 refs., 15 figs.

  15. Realtime multi-plot graphics system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipkowski, Michael S.

    1990-01-01

    The increased complexity of test operations and customer requirements at Langley Research Center's National Transonic Facility (NTF) surpassed the capabilities of the initial realtime graphics system. The analysis of existing hardware and software and the enhancements made to develop a new realtime graphics system are described. The result of this effort is a cost effective system, based on hardware already in place, that support high speed, high resolution, generation and display of multiple realtime plots. The enhanced graphics system (EGS) meets the current and foreseeable future realtime graphics requirements of the NTF. While this system was developed to support wind tunnel operations, the overall design and capability of the system is applicable to other realtime data acquisition systems that have realtime plot requirements.

  16. External Use of TOPCAT's Plotting Library

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, M B

    2014-01-01

    The table analysis application TOPCAT uses a custom Java plotting library for highly configurable high-performance interactive or exported visualisations in two and three dimensions. We present here a variety of ways for end users or application developers to make use of this library outside of the TOPCAT application: via the command-line suite STILTS or its Jython variant JyStilts, via a traditional Java API, or by programmatically assigning values to a set of parameters in java code or using some form of inter-process communication. The library has been built with large datasets in mind; interactive plots scale well up to several million points, and static output to standard graphics formats is possible for unlimited sized input data.

  17. Convex Arrhenius plots and their interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truhlar, Donald G.; Kohen, Amnon

    2001-01-01

    This paper draws attention to selected experiments on enzyme-catalyzed reactions that show convex Arrhenius plots, which are very rare, and points out that Tolman's interpretation of the activation energy places a fundamental model-independent constraint on any detailed explanation of these reactions. The analysis presented here shows that in such systems, the rate coefficient as a function of energy is not just increasing more slowly than expected, it is actually decreasing. This interpretation of the data provides a constraint on proposed microscopic models, i.e., it requires that any successful model of a reaction with a convex Arrhenius plot should be consistent with the microcanonical rate coefficient being a decreasing function of energy. The implications and limitations of this analysis to interpreting enzyme mechanisms are discussed. This model-independent conclusion has broad applicability to all fields of kinetics, and we also draw attention to an analogy with diffusion in metastable fluids and glasses. PMID:11158559

  18. Effects of artificial sand fixing on community characteristics of a rare desert shrub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huiliang; Tao, Ye; Qiu, Dong; Zhang, Daoyuan; Zhang, Yongkuan

    2013-10-01

    Eremosparton songoricum (Fabaceae) is a rare, native, clonal small shrub of the deserts of central Asia. Although human activities have greatly fragmented the distribution of E. songoricum, it occurs in areas where artificial sand fixing (AS) has been implemented. We sought to explore whether AS promotes survival and growth of E. songoricum. In the Gurbantunggut Desert of northwestern China in June 2010, we established 10 plots in an area where sand fixing occurred (5-10 years previously) and 11 plots on original sand substrate on which some plants had settled without fixing sand. Sand fixing changed soil properties and biological characteristics in sand-fixed plots. The soil surface where sand fixing occurred was covered by algal crusts and some lichen, but not bare sand (BS). Soil nutrients; water content of deep soil (30-150 cm); overall plant and herbaceous species richness, diversity, abundance, and cover; above- and belowground biomass; and cover, biomass, and height of E. songoricum in the sand-fixed plots were significantly greater than in plots of BS. However, distribution of E. songoricum individuals in the 2 types of plots did not differ. Our results indicate AS may enhance survival of E. songoricum and increase the overall diversity and stability of the desert plant community. We suggest AS as a way to protect this rare desert plant in situ. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  19. Extended quantification of the generalized recurrence plot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedl, Maik; Marwan, Norbert; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    The generalized recurrence plot is a modern tool for quantification of complex spatial patterns. Its application spans the analysis of trabecular bone structures, Turing structures, turbulent spatial plankton patterns, and fractals. But, it is also successfully applied to the description of spatio-temporal dynamics and the detection of regime shifts, such as in the complex Ginzburg-Landau- equation. The recurrence plot based determinism is a central measure in this framework quantifying the level of regularities in temporal and spatial structures. We extend this measure for the generalized recurrence plot considering additional operations of symmetry than the simple translation. It is tested not only on two-dimensional regular patterns and noise but also on complex spatial patterns reconstructing the parameter space of the complex Ginzburg-Landau-equation. The extended version of the determinism resulted in values which are consistent to the original recurrence plot approach. Furthermore, the proposed method allows a split of the determinism into parts which based on laminar and non-laminar regions of the two-dimensional pattern of the complex Ginzburg-Landau-equation. A comparison of these parts with a standard method of image classification, the co-occurrence matrix approach, shows differences especially in the description of patterns associated with turbulence. In that case, it seems that the extended version of the determinism allows a distinction of phase turbulence and defect turbulence by means of their spatial patterns. This ability of the proposed method promise new insights in other systems with turbulent dynamics coming from climatology, biology, ecology, and social sciences, for example.

  20. Surveillance of Site A and Plot M - Report for 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golchert, N. W.; ESH/QA Oversight

    2007-05-07

    The results of the environmental surveillance program conducted at Site A/Plot M in the Palos Forest Preserve area for Calendar Year 2006 are presented. Based on the results of the 1976-1978 radiological characterization of the site, a determination was made that a surveillance program be established. The characterization study determined that very low levels of hydrogen-3 (as tritiated water) had migrated from the burial ground and were present in two nearby hand-pumped picnic wells. The current surveillance program began in 1980 and consists of sample collection and analysis of surface and subsurface water. The results of the analyses are used to (1) monitor the migration pathway of water from the burial ground (PlotM) to the hand pumped picnic wells, (2) establish if buried radionuclides other than hydrogen-3 have migrated, and (3) monitor the presence of radioactive and chemically hazardous materials in the environment of the area. Hydrogen-3 in the Red GateWoods picnic wells was still detected this year, but the average and maximum concentrations were significantly less than found earlier. Hydrogen-3 continues to be detected in a number of wells, boreholes, dolomite holes, and a surface stream. Analyses since 1984 have indicated the presence of low levels of strontium-90 in water from a number of boreholes next to Plot M. The results of the surveillance program continue to indicate that the radioactivity remaining at Site A/Plot M does not endanger the health or safety of the public visiting the site, using the picnic area, or living in the vicinity.

  1. Surveillance of Site A and Plot M, Report for 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golchert, N. W.

    2009-05-07

    The results of the environmental surveillance program conducted at Site A/Plot M in the Palos Forest Preserve area for Calendar Year 2008 are presented. Based on the results of the 1976-1978 radiological characterization of the site, a determination was made that a surveillance program be established. The characterization study determined that very low levels of hydrogen-3 (as tritiated water) had migrated from the burial ground and were present in two nearby hand pumped picnic wells. The current surveillance program began in 1980 and consists of sample collection and analysis of surface and subsurface water. The results of the analyses are used to (1) monitor the migration pathway of hydrogen-3 contaminated water from the burial ground (Plot M) to the hand-pumped picnic wells, (2) establish if other buried radionuclides have migrated, and (3) monitor for the presence of radioactive materials in the environment of the area. Hydrogen-3 in the Red Gate Woods picnic wells was still detected this year, but the average and maximum concentrations were significantly less than found earlier. Hydrogen-3 continues to be detected in a number of wells, boreholes, dolomite holes, and a surface stream. Analyses since 1984 have indicated the presence of low levels of strontium-90 in water from a number of boreholes next to Plot M. The results of the surveillance program continue to indicate that the radioactivity remaining at Site A/Plot M does not endanger the health or safety of the public visiting the site, using the picnic area, or living in the vicinity.

  2. Surveillance of site A and plot M, report for 2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golchert, N. W.; ESH/QA Oversight

    2008-03-25

    The results of the environmental surveillance program conducted at Site A/Plot M in the Palos Forest Preserve area for Calendar Year 2007 are presented. Based on the results of the 1976-1978 radiological characterization of the site, a determination was made that a surveillance program be established. The characterization study determined that very low levels of hydrogen-3 (as tritiated water) had migrated from the burial ground and were present in two nearby hand pumped picnic wells. The current surveillance program began in 1980 and consists of sample collection and analysis of surface and subsurface water. The results of the analyses are used to: (1) monitor the migration pathway of water from the burial ground (Plot M) to the hand-pumped picnic wells, (2) establish if other buried radionuclides have migrated, and (3) monitor the presence of radioactive materials in the environment of the area. Hydrogen-3 in the Red Gate Woods picnic wells was still detected this year, but the average and maximum concentrations were significantly less than found earlier. Hydrogen-3 continues to be detected in a number of wells, boreholes, dolomite holes, and a surface stream. Analyses since 1984 have indicated the presence of low levels of strontium-90 in water from a number of boreholes next to Plot M. The results of the surveillance program continue to indicate that the radioactivity remaining at Site A/Plot M does not endanger the health or safety of the public visiting the site, using the picnic area, or living in the vicinity.

  3. AvoPlot: An extensible scientific plotting tool based on matplotlib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nial Peters

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available AvoPlot is a simple-to-use graphical plotting program written in Python and making extensive use of the matplotlib plotting library. It can be found at http://code.google.com/p/avoplot/. In addition to providing a user-friendly interface to the powerful capabilities of the matplotlib library, it also offers users the possibility of extending its functionality by creating plug-ins. These can import specific types of data into the interface and also provide new tools for manipulating them. In this respect, AvoPlot is a convenient platform for researchers to build their own data analysis tools on top of, as well as being a useful standalone program.

  4. 9 CFR 108.3 - Preparation of plot plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preparation of plot plans. 108.3... LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS § 108.3 Preparation of plot plans. Plot plans shall show all of the buildings on a... on the plot plan the use of immediate adjacent properties such as, residential area, pasture,...

  5. Split-Plot Designs with Mirror Image Pairs as Subplots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyssedal, John; Kulahci, Murat; Bisgaard, Soren

    2011-01-01

    In this article we investigate two-level split-plot designs where the sub-plots consist of only two mirror image trials. Assuming third and higher order interactions negligible, we show that these designs divide the estimated effects into two orthogonal sub-spaces, separating sub-plot main effects...... and sub-plot by whole-plot interactions from the rest. Further we show how to construct split-plot designs of projectivity P≥3. We also introduce a new class of split-plot designs with mirror image pairs constructed from non-geometric Plackett–Burman designs. The design properties of such designs are very...

  6. QCD at Fixed Topology

    CERN Document Server

    Brower, Richard C; Negele, John W; Wiese, U J

    2003-01-01

    Since present Monte Carlo algorithms for lattice QCD may become trapped in a fixed topological charge sector, it is important to understand the effect of calculating at fixed topology. In this work, we show that although the restriction to a fixed topological sector becomes irrelevant in the infinite volume limit, it gives rise to characteristic finite size effects due to contributions from all $\\theta$-vacua. We calculate these effects and show how to extract physical results from numerical data obtained at fixed topology.

  7. 从福尔马林固定-石蜡包埋样本中抽提RNA的方法与可行性%Study of method and feasibility for extracting RNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱萌; 张宁; 任牡丹; 卢新兰; 和水祥

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the feasibility and validity of RNA extraction from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded ( FFPE) tissues. Methods FFPE samples from 41 cases of archived gastric carcinoma and adjacent paracancerous tissues were collected, serial section of 10 u.m thick was cut 3 slices, protease digestion salting-out method was used to extract and purify RNA, the yield and quality of RNA were detected to analyze its application value. Results The purity of RNA extracted from 41 couples of gastric cancer and adjacent tissue FFPE samples was between 1. 578 ~3. 175 with an average of 2. 022 +0. 190. Cancer tissue was between 1. 578 ~3. 175 with an average of 2. 033 ±0.240, adjacent tissue was between 1.726 -2.329 with an average of 2. 011 ±0. 123. RNA concentration was between 26. 8 ~ 1087 ng/μ1 with an average of 267. 062 ±210. 435 ng/μl, in which the cancer tissues between 50. 5 ~ 1087 ng/ μ1, an average of 336. 5 ± 228. 927 ng/μ1, adjacent tissues between 26. 8 ~ 820 ng/pj, an average of 197. 62 ± 165. 47 ng/μl. Agar-ose gel electrophoresis was dispersed at about 300 bp. The comparison of the purity of RNA from those FFPE samples was not difference (P = 0.564), but the concentration of RNA was difference( P = 0. 001 ) with cancer tissues were higher. Conclusions The RNA extracted from FFPE samples is inevitably degradation but still have high purity and proper concentration. The purity, concentration and integrity of RNA extracted from FFPE samples can meet the downstream demands if the amplicons is in a certain range, the establishment of the method for extracting RNA from FFPE samples is completely feasible if the fixed, dewaxing, digestive and other influencing factors reach the requirements.%目的 探讨从福尔马林固定-石蜡包埋(formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded,FFPE)组织中抽提RNA的可行性和有效性.方法 收集胃癌和癌旁FFPE样本各41例,10 μm厚连续切片3张,采用蛋白酶消化盐析法抽提纯化RNA,检测提

  8. Charm Dalitz Plot Analysis Formalism and Results

    CERN Document Server

    Asner, David M

    2004-01-01

    Charm meson decay dynamics have been studied extensively over the last decade. We describe the Dalitz-plot analysis technique which has been applied by many experiments to three-body D0, D+ and Ds decays. We discuss experimental results from Mark II, Mark III, E687, E691, ARGUS, E791, FOCUS, CLEO and BABAR. These studies probe a variety of physics including doubly-Cabibbo suppressed decays, searches for CP violation, the properties of established light mesons and the properties of pipi and Kpi S-wave states.

  9. Superplot: a graphical interface for plotting and analysing MultiNest output

    CERN Document Server

    Fowlie, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    We present an application, Superplot, for calculating and plotting statistical quantities relevant to parameter inference from a "chain" of samples drawn from a parameter space, produced by e.g. MultiNest. A simple graphical interface allows one to browse a chain of many variables quickly, and make publication quality plots of, inter alia, profile likelihood, posterior pdf, confidence intervals and credible regions. In this short manual, we document installation and basic usage, and define all statistical quantities and conventions.

  10. Hypothetical Outcome Plots Outperform Error Bars and Violin Plots for Inferences about Reliability of Variable Ordering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Hullman

    Full Text Available Many visual depictions of probability distributions, such as error bars, are difficult for users to accurately interpret. We present and study an alternative representation, Hypothetical Outcome Plots (HOPs, that animates a finite set of individual draws. In contrast to the statistical background required to interpret many static representations of distributions, HOPs require relatively little background knowledge to interpret. Instead, HOPs enables viewers to infer properties of the distribution using mental processes like counting and integration. We conducted an experiment comparing HOPs to error bars and violin plots. With HOPs, people made much more accurate judgments about plots of two and three quantities. Accuracy was similar with all three representations for most questions about distributions of a single quantity.

  11. Hypothetical Outcome Plots Outperform Error Bars and Violin Plots for Inferences about Reliability of Variable Ordering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hullman, Jessica; Resnick, Paul; Adar, Eytan

    2015-01-01

    Many visual depictions of probability distributions, such as error bars, are difficult for users to accurately interpret. We present and study an alternative representation, Hypothetical Outcome Plots (HOPs), that animates a finite set of individual draws. In contrast to the statistical background required to interpret many static representations of distributions, HOPs require relatively little background knowledge to interpret. Instead, HOPs enables viewers to infer properties of the distribution using mental processes like counting and integration. We conducted an experiment comparing HOPs to error bars and violin plots. With HOPs, people made much more accurate judgments about plots of two and three quantities. Accuracy was similar with all three representations for most questions about distributions of a single quantity. PMID:26571487

  12. A Plot Story:The Ransom of Red Chief

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Si-yu

    2015-01-01

    The Ransom of Red Chief is a short story written by O · Henry. Some critics regard it as a plot story but some do not. A typical plot story should focus on the plot:using techniques such as flashback or foreshadowing to unfold the plot and containing exposition, complication, climax, resolution, conclusion to rich the plot. The main characters are presented with internal and ex⁃ternal conflicts as well. In this thesis, a detailed analysis will be presented to prove that this story is really a plot story.

  13. Slice Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Neal, R M

    2000-01-01

    Markov chain sampling methods that automatically adapt to characteristics of the distribution being sampled can be constructed by exploiting the principle that one can sample from a distribution by sampling uniformly from the region under the plot of its density function. A Markov chain that converges to this uniform distribution can be constructed by alternating uniform sampling in the vertical direction with uniform sampling from the horizontal `slice' defined by the current vertical position, or more generally, with some update that leaves the uniform distribution over this slice invariant. Variations on such `slice sampling' methods are easily implemented for univariate distributions, and can be used to sample from a multivariate distribution by updating each variable in turn. This approach is often easier to implement than Gibbs sampling, and more efficient than simple Metropolis updates, due to the ability of slice sampling to adaptively choose the magnitude of changes made. It is therefore attractive f...

  14. Heterogeneous Molecular Catalysis of Electrochemical Reactions: Volcano Plots and Catalytic Tafel Plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costentin, Cyrille; Savéant, Jean-Michel

    2017-06-14

    We analyze here, in the framework of heterogeneous molecular catalysis, the reasons for the occurrence or nonoccurrence of volcanoes upon plotting the kinetics of the catalytic reaction versus the stabilization free energy of the primary intermediate of the catalytic process. As in the case of homogeneous molecular catalysis or catalysis by surface-active metallic sites, a strong motivation of such studies relates to modern energy challenges, particularly those involving small molecules, such as water, hydrogen, oxygen, proton, and carbon dioxide. This motivation is particularly pertinent for what concerns heterogeneous molecular catalysis, since it is commonly preferred to homogeneous molecular catalysis by the same molecules if only for chemical separation purposes and electrolytic cell architecture. As with the two other catalysis modes, the main drawback of the volcano plot approach is the basic assumption that the kinetic responses depend on a single descriptor, viz., the stabilization free energy of the primary intermediate. More comprehensive approaches, investigating the responses to the maximal number of experimental factors, and conveniently expressed as catalytic Tafel plots, should clearly be preferred. This is more so in the case of heterogeneous molecular catalysis in that additional transport factors in the supporting film may additionally affect the current-potential responses. This is attested by the noteworthy presence of maxima in catalytic Tafel plots as well as their dependence upon the cyclic voltammetric scan rate.

  15. Generalized confidence interval plots using commands or dialogs

    OpenAIRE

    Roger Newson

    2005-01-01

    Confidence intervals may be presented as publication-ready tables or as presentation-ready plots. -eclplot- produces plots of estimates and confidence intervals. It inputs a dataset (or resultsset) with one observation per parameter and variables containing estimates, lower and upper confidence limits, and a fourth variable, against which the confidence intervals are plotted. This resultsset can be used for producing both plots and tables, and may be generated using a spreadsheet or using -st...

  16. When does the mean excess plot look linear?

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Souvik

    2010-01-01

    In risk analysis, the mean excess plot is a commonly used exploratory plotting technique for confirming iid data is consistent with a generalized Pareto assumption for the underlying distribution, since in the presence of such a distribution thresholded data have a mean excess plot that is roughly linear. Does any other class of distributions share this linearity of the plot? Under some extra assumptions, we are able to conclude that only the generalized Pareto family has this property.

  17. Fixed mobile convergence handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Ahson, Syed A

    2010-01-01

    From basic concepts to future directions, this handbook provides technical information on all aspects of fixed-mobile convergence (FMC). The book examines such topics as integrated management architecture, business trends and strategic implications for service providers, personal area networks, mobile controlled handover methods, SIP-based session mobility, and supervisory and notification aggregator service. Case studies are used to illustrate technical and systematic implementation of unified and rationalized internet access by fixed-mobile network convergence. The text examines the technolo

  18. Optically fixed photorefractive correlator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘友文; 刘立人; 周常河; 徐良瑛

    2002-01-01

    An optically fixed photorefractive correlator is presented, where two-centre non-volatile holographic recording isemployed to write and fix the matched filter in doubly doped LiNbO3 crystals. This correlator shows good correlationcharacteristics and insensitivity to the writing beam during readout. It can be used in cases requiring stability and notrequiring modification for a long period, and it is refreshed optically when new information needs to be registered.

  19. Worm plot to diagnose fit in quantile regression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van

    2007-01-01

    The worm plot is a series of detrended Q-Q plots, split by covariate levels. The worm plot is a diagnostic tool for visualizing how well a statistical model fits the data, for finding locations at which the fit can be improved, and for comparing the fit of different models. This paper shows how the

  20. Worm plot to diagnose fit in quantile regression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van

    2007-01-01

    The worm plot is a series of detrended Q-Q plots, split by covariate levels. The worm plot is a diagnostic tool for visualizing how well a statistical model fits the data, for finding locations at which the fit can be improved, and for comparing the fit of different models. This paper shows how

  1. Worm plot to diagnose fit in quantile regression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van

    2007-01-01

    The worm plot is a series of detrended Q-Q plots, split by covariate levels. The worm plot is a diagnostic tool for visualizing how well a statistical model fits the data, for finding locations at which the fit can be improved, and for comparing the fit of different models. This paper shows how the

  2. Daily dynamics of the number and activity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria in fallow and intensely cultivated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emer, N. R.; Semenov, A. M.; Zelenev, V. V.; Zinyakova, N. B.; Kostina, N. V.; Golichenkov, M. V.

    2014-08-01

    The daily dynamics (during 33 days) of the number (colony-forming units (CFU)) of nitrogen-fixing bacteria and of the nitrogen-fixing activity (the acetylene method) were determined in a gray forest soil under a fallow land and under an intensely cultivated field. The daily dynamics of the CFUs determined on the nitrogen-free medium in the samples from both plots had wavelike patterns. The daily values of the actual and potential activities of nitrogen fixation in the samples from the fallow land plot and of the actual activity of nitrogen fixation in the samples from the intensely cultivated soil were low and close to the detection limit. The potential activity of nitrogen fixation in the intensely cultivated soil was significant and also had a wavelike pattern. The harmonic analysis of the daily dynamics of the CFUs and nitrogen fixation showed the statistically significant harmonics of these biological characteristics pointing to the objective and regular character of the wavelike dynamics. The revealed dynamics of the biological characteristics of the soils and the methods of their analysis are important in terms of the comparative study of the biological properties of different soils.

  3. Characterising infant inter-breath interval patterns during active and quiet sleep using recurrence plot analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, Philip I; Wilson, Stephen J; Suresh, Sadasivam; Cooper, David M

    2009-01-01

    Breathing patterns are characteristically different between active and quiet sleep states in infants. It has been previously identified that breathing dynamics are governed by a non-linear controller which implies the need for a nonlinear analytical tool. Further, it has been shown that quantified nonlinear variables are different between adult sleep states. This study aims to determine whether a nonlinear analytical tool known as recurrence plot analysis can characterize breath intervals of active and quiet sleep states in infants. Overnight polysomnograms were obtained from 32 healthy infants. The 6 longest periods each of active and quiet sleep were identified and a software routine extracted inter-breath interval data for recurrence plot analysis. Determinism (DET), laminarity (LAM) and radius (RAD) values were calculated for an embedding dimension of 4, 6, 8 and 16, and fixed recurrence of 0.5, 1, 2, 3.5 and 5%. Recurrence plots exhibited characteristically different patterns for active and quiet sleep. Active sleep periods typically had higher values of RAD, DET and LAM than for quiet sleep, and this trend was invariant to a specific choice of embedding dimension or fixed recurrence. These differences may provide a basis for automated sleep state classification, and the quantitative investigation of pathological breathing patterns.

  4. Density Distribution Sunflower Plots in Stata Version 8

    OpenAIRE

    Dupont, William D

    2004-01-01

    Density distribution sunflower plots are used to display high-density bivariate data. They are useful for data where a conventional scatter plot is difficult to read due to overstriking of the plot symbol. The x-y plane is subdivided into a lattice of regular hexagonal bins of width w specified by the user. The user also specifies the values of l, d, and k that affect the plot as follows. Individual observations are plotted when there are less than l observations per bin as in a conventional ...

  5. Dalitz plot analysis of the D+ -> K- pi+ pi+ decay

    CERN Document Server

    Bonvicini, G; Dubrovin, M; Lincoln, A; Asner, D M; Edwards, K W; Naik, P; Briere, R A; Ferguson, T; Tatishvili, G; Vogel, H; Watkins, M E; Rosner, J L; Adam, N E; Alexander, J P; Cassel, D G; Duboscq, J E; Ehrlich, R; Fields, L; Gibbons, L; Gray, R; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hertz, D; Jones, C D; Kandaswamy, J; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Mohapatra, D; Onyisi, P U E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Shi, X; Stroiney, S; Sun, W M; Wilksen, T; Athar, S B; Patel, R; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Eisenstein, B I; Karliner, I; Mehrabyan, S; Lowrey, N; Selen, M; White, E J; Wiss, J; Mitchell, R E; Shepherd, M R; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Gao, K Y; Hietala, J; Kubota, Y; Klein, T; Lang, B W; Poling, R; Scott, A W; Zweber, P; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A G; Ecklund, K M; Love, W; Savinov, V; López, A; Mehrabyan, S; Méndez, H; Ramírez, J; Ge, J Y; Miller, D H; Sanghi, B; Shipsey, I P J; Xin, B; Adams, G S; Anderson, M; Cummings, J P; Danko, I; Hu, D; Moziak, B; Napolitano, J; He, Q; Insler, J; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Thorndike, E H; Yang, F; Artuso, M; Blusk, S; Horwitz, N; Khalil, S; Li, J; Menaa, N; Mountain, R; Nisar, S; Randrianarivony, K; Sia, R; Sultana, N; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Zhang, L M

    2007-01-01

    We present a Dalitz plot analysis of the decay D+ -> K- pi+ pi+ based on 281 pb-1 of e+e- collision data produced at the psi(3770) by CESR and observed with the CLEO-c detector. We select 67086 candidate events with a small, ~1.1%, background for this analysis. When using a simple isobar model our results are consistent with the previous measurements done by E791. Since our sample is considerably larger we can explore alternative models. We find better agreement with data when we include an isospin-two pi+pi+ S-wave contribution. We apply a quasi model-independent partial wave analysis and measure the amplitude and phase of the K pi and pi+pi+ S waves in the range of invariant masses from the threshold to the maximum in this decay.

  6. Dalitz Plot Analysis of Ds+->pi+pi-pi+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, B.; Bona, M.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; /Annecy, LAPP; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; /Barcelona U., ECM; Lopez, L.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; /INFN, Bari /Bari U.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; /Bergen U.; Abrams, G.S.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D.N.; Cahn, R.N.; Jacobsen, R.G.; /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UCLA /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /Frascati /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT, LNS /McGill U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII /Pennsylvania U. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Princeton U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DSM, DAPNIA, Saclay /South Carolina U. /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /Valencia U., IFIC /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2009-01-26

    A Dalitz plot analysis of {approx} 13, 000 D{sub s}{sup +} decays to {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} has been performed. A 384 fb{sup -1} data sample, recorded by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} storage ring running at center of mass energies near 10.6 GeV, is used. Amplitudes and phases of the intermediate resonances which contribute to this final state are measured. A high precision measurement of the ratio: {Beta}(D{sub s}{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -})/{Beta}(D{sub s}{sup +} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}) = 0.199 {+-} 0.004 {+-} 0.006 is performed. Using a model independent partial wave analysis the amplitude and phase of the S-wave have been measured.

  7. Dalitz plot analysis of Ds+→π+π-π+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, B.; Bona, M.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Lopez, L.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Abrams, G. S.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D. N.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Lynch, G.; Osipenkov, I. L.; Ronan, M. T.; Tackmann, K.; Tanabe, T.; Hawkes, C. M.; Soni, N.; Watson, A. T.; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; Asgeirsson, D. J.; Fulsom, B. G.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T. S.; McKenna, J. A.; Barrett, M.; Khan, A.; Blinov, V. E.; Bukin, A. D.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Golubev, V. B.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Solodov, E. P.; Todyshev, K. Yu.; Bondioli, M.; Curry, S.; Eschrich, I.; Kirkby, D.; Lankford, A. J.; Lund, P.; Mandelkern, M.; Martin, E. C.; Stoker, D. P.; Abachi, S.; Buchanan, C.; Atmacan, H.; Gary, J. W.; Liu, F.; Long, O.; Vitug, G. M.; Yasin, Z.; Zhang, L.; Sharma, V.; Campagnari, C.; Hong, T. M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Mazur, M. A.; Richman, J. D.; Beck, T. W.; Eisner, A. M.; Flacco, C. J.; Heusch, C. A.; Kroseberg, J.; Lockman, W. S.; Martinez, A. J.; Schalk, T.; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Wilson, M. G.; Winstrom, L. O.; Cheng, C. H.; Doll, D. A.; Echenard, B.; Fang, F.; Hitlin, D. G.; Narsky, I.; Piatenko, T.; Porter, F. C.; Andreassen, R.; Mancinelli, G.; Meadows, B. T.; Mishra, K.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Bloom, P. C.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Hirschauer, J. F.; Nagel, M.; Nauenberg, U.; Smith, J. G.; Wagner, S. R.; Ayad, R.; Soffer, A.; Toki, W. H.; Wilson, R. J.; Feltresi, E.; Hauke, A.; Jasper, H.; Karbach, M.; Merkel, J.; Petzold, A.; Spaan, B.; Wacker, K.; Kobel, M. J.; Nogowski, R.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Volk, A.; Bernard, D.; Bonneaud, G. R.; Latour, E.; Verderi, M.; Clark, P. J.; Playfer, S.; Watson, J. E.; Andreotti, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabrese, R.; Cecchi, A.; Cibinetto, G.; Franchini, P.; Luppi, E.; Negrini, M.; Petrella, A.; Piemontese, L.; Santoro, V.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Finocchiaro, G.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Rama, M.; Zallo, A.; Buzzo, A.; Contri, R.; Lo Vetere, M.; Macri, M. M.; Monge, M. R.; Passaggio, S.; Patrignani, C.; Robutti, E.; Santroni, A.; Tosi, S.; Chaisanguanthum, K. S.; Morii, M.; Adametz, A.; Marks, J.; Schenk, S.; Uwer, U.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Klose, V.; Lacker, H. M.; Bard, D. J.; Dauncey, P. D.; Tibbetts, M.; Behera, P. K.; Chai, X.; Charles, M. J.; Mallik, U.; Cochran, J.; Crawley, H. B.; Dong, L.; Meyer, W. T.; Prell, S.; Rosenberg, E. I.; Rubin, A. E.; Gao, Y. Y.; Gritsan, A. V.; Guo, Z. J.; Lae, C. K.; Arnaud, N.; Béquilleux, J.; D'Orazio, A.; Davier, M.; Firmino da Costa, J.; Grosdidier, G.; Le Diberder, F.; Lepeltier, V.; Lutz, A. M.; Pruvot, S.; Roudeau, P.; Schune, M. H.; Serrano, J.; Sordini, V.; Stocchi, A.; Wormser, G.; Lange, D. J.; Wright, D. M.; Bingham, I.; Burke, J. P.; Chavez, C. A.; Fry, J. R.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamet, R.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Payne, D. J.; Touramanis, C.; Bevan, A. J.; Clarke, C. K.; di Lodovico, F.; Sacco, R.; Sigamani, M.; Cowan, G.; Paramesvaran, S.; Wren, A. C.; Brown, D. N.; Davis, C. L.; Denig, A. G.; Fritsch, M.; Gradl, W.; Alwyn, K. E.; Bailey, D.; Barlow, R. J.; Jackson, G.; Lafferty, G. D.; West, T. J.; Yi, J. I.; Anderson, J.; Chen, C.; Jawahery, A.; Roberts, D. A.; Simi, G.; Tuggle, J. M.; Dallapiccola, C.; Li, X.; Salvati, E.; Saremi, S.; Cowan, R.; Dujmic, D.; Fisher, P. H.; Henderson, S. W.; Sciolla, G.; Spitznagel, M.; Taylor, F.; Yamamoto, R. K.; Zhao, M.; Patel, P. M.; Robertson, S. H.; Lazzaro, A.; Lombardo, V.; Palombo, F.; Bauer, J. M.; Cremaldi, L.; Godang, R.; Kroeger, R.; Summers, D. J.; Zhao, H. W.; Simard, M.; Taras, P.; Nicholson, H.; de Nardo, G.; Lista, L.; Monorchio, D.; Onorato, G.; Sciacca, C.; Raven, G.; Snoek, H. L.; Jessop, C. P.; Knoepfel, K. J.; Losecco, J. M.; Wang, W. F.; Corwin, L. A.; Honscheid, K.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Morris, J. P.; Rahimi, A. M.; Regensburger, J. J.; Sekula, S. J.; Wong, Q. K.; Blount, N. L.; Brau, J.; Frey, R.; Igonkina, O.; Kolb, J. A.; Lu, M.; Rahmat, R.; Sinev, N. B.; Strom, D.; Strube, J.; Torrence, E.; Castelli, G.; Gagliardi, N.; Margoni, M.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Rotondo, M.; Simonetto, F.; Stroili, R.; Voci, C.; Del Amo Sanchez, P.; Ben-Haim, E.; Briand, H.; Calderini, G.; Chauveau, J.; Hamon, O.; Leruste, Ph.; Ocariz, J.; Perez, A.; Prendki, J.; Sitt, S.; Gladney, L.; Biasini, M.; Manoni, E.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Carpinelli, M.; Cervelli, A.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M. A.; Lusiani, A.; Marchiori, G.; Morganti, M.; Neri, N.; Paoloni, E.; Rizzo, G.; Walsh, J. J.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Lu, C.; Olsen, J.; Smith, A. J. S.; Telnov, A. V.; Anulli, F.; Baracchini, E.; Cavoto, G.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Ferroni, F.

    2009-02-01

    A Dalitz plot analysis of approximately 13 000 Ds+ decays to π+π-π+ has been performed. The analysis uses a 384fb-1 data sample recorded by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e+e- storage ring running at center of mass energies near 10.6 GeV. Amplitudes and phases of the intermediate resonances which contribute to this final state are measured. A high precision measurement of the ratio of branching fractions is performed: B(Ds+→π+π-π+)/B(Ds+→K+K-π+)=0.199±0.004±0.009. Using a model-independent partial wave analysis, the amplitude and phase of the S wave have been measured.

  8. B^0 --> K^+ \\pi^- \\pi^0 Dalitz Plot Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, B; Abrams, G S; Adye, T; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Albert, J; Aleksan, Roy; Allison, J; Allmendinger, T; Altenburg, D; Andreotti, M; Angelini, C; Anulli, F; Aston, D; Azzolini, V; Baak, M; Back, J J; Bailey, S; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Band, H R; Banerjee, Sw; Barate, R; Bard, D J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Barrett, M; Bartoldus, R; Batignani, G; Bauer, J M; Beck, T W; Behera, P K; Bellini, F; Benayoun, M; Berger, N; Bernard, D; Berryhill, J W; Best, D; Bettarini, S; Bettoni, D; Bevan, A J; Bhimji, W; Bianchi, F; Biasini, M; Blanc, F; Blaylock, G; Blinov, A E; Blinov, V E; Bloom, P; Bóna, M; Bondioli, M; Bonneaud, G R; Borgland, A W; Bosisio, L; Boutigny, D; Bowerman, D A; Boyarski, A M; Boyd, J T; Bozzi, C; Brandenburg, G; Brandt, T; Brau, J E; Breon, A B; Briand, H; Brochard, F; Brose, J; Brown, C L; Brown, C M; Brown, D; Brown, D N; Bruinsma, M; Brunet, S; Bucci, F; Buchanan, C; Buchmüller, O L; Bugg, W; Bulten, H; Burchat, Patricia R; Button-Shafer, J; Buzzo, A; Côté, D; Cahn, R N; Calabrese, R; Calcaterra, A; Calderini, G; Campagnari, C; Capra, R; Carpinelli, M; Cartaro, C; Cavallo, N; Cavoto, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Chao, M; Charles, E; Charles, M J; Chauveau, J; Chavez, C A; Chen, A; Chen, E; Chen, J C; Chen, S; Cheng, B; Cheng, C H; Chevalier, N; Christ, S; Cibinetto, G; Clark, P J; Claus, R; Cochran, J; Colecchia, F; Coleman, J P; Contri, R; Convery, M R; Cormack, C M; Cossutti, F; Cottingham, W N; Couderc, F; Covarelli, R; Cowan, G; Cowan, R; Crawley, H B; Cremaldi, L M; Cristinziani, M; Crosetti, G; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Dahmes, B; Dallapiccola, C; Danielson, N; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Dauncey, P D; David, P; Davier, M; Davis, C L; Day, C T; De Groot, N; De Nardo, Gallieno; Del Buono, L; Della Ricca, G; Di Lodovico, F; Dickopp, M; Dittongo, S; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dorigo, A; Druzhinin, V P; Dubitzky, R S; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W M; Dvoretskii, A; Eckmann, R; Edwards, A J; Egede, U; Eichenbaum, A M; Eigen, G; Eisner, A M; Elmer, P; Elsen, E E; Emery, S; Ernst, J A; Eschenburg, V; Eschrich, I; Fabozzi, F; Faccini, R; Fan, S; Farbin, A; Feltresi, E; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Field, R C; Finocchiaro, G; Flack, R L; Flächer, H U; Flood, K T; Ford, K E; Ford, W T; Forster, I J; Forti, F; Fortin, D; Foulkes, S D; Franek, B J; Frey, R; Fritsch, M; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gaidot, A; Gaillard, J M; Gaillard, J R; Galeazzi, F; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Gamet, R; Gan, K K; Ganzhur, S F; Gary, J W; Gaspero, M; Gatto, C; Geddes, N I; Gill, M S; Giorgi, M A; Giraud, P F; Giroux, X; Gladney, L; Glanzman, T; Godang, R; Goetzen, K; Golubev, V B; Gopal, G P; Gowdy, S J; Graham, M; Grancagnolo, S; Green, M G; Greene, M G; Grenier, G J; Grenier, P; Gritsan, A V; Grosdidier, G; Groysman, Y; Guo, Q H; Hadavand, H K; Hadig, T; Haire, M; Halyo, V; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Hamon, O; Harrison, P F; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hart, P A; Hartfiel, B L; Harton, J L; Hast, C; Hauke, A; Hawkes, C M; Hearty, C; Held, T; Hertzbach, S S; Heusch, C A; Hicheur, A; Hill, E J; Hitlin, D G; Höcker, A; Hodgkinson, M C; Hollar, J J; Honscheid, K; Hrynóva, T; Hufnagel, D; Hulsbergen, W D; Hutchcroft, D E; Igonkina, O; Innes, W R; Ivanchenko, V N; Izen, J M; Jackson, P D; Jackson, P S; Jacobsen, R G; Jawahery, A; Jayatilleke, S M; Jessop, C P; John, M J J; Johnson, J R; Judd, D; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kagan, H; Karyotakis, Yu; Kass, R; Kelly, M P; Kelsey, M H; Kerth, L T; Khan, A; Kim, H; Kim, P; Kirkby, D; Kitayama, I; Knecht, N S; Koch, H; Kocian, M L; Kofler, R; Kolomensky, Yu G; Koptchev, V B; Kovalskyi, D; Kowalewski, R V; Kozanecki, Witold; Kravchenko, E A; Krishnamurthy, M; Kroeger, R; Kroseberg, J; Kukartsev, G; Kutter, P E; Kyberd, P; Lacker, H M; Lae, C K; Lafferty, G D; Lamsa, J; Lanceri, L; Lange, D J; Langenegger, U; Lankford, A J; Laplace, S; Latham, T E; Lau, Y P; Lavin, D; Lazzaro, A; Le Diberder, F R; Lees, J P; Legendre, M; Leith, D W G S; Lepeltier, V; Leruste, P; Lewandowski, B; Li Gioi, L; Li, H; Libby, J; Lillard, V; Lista, L; Liu, R; LoSecco, J M; Lo Vetere, M; Lockman, W S; Lombardo, V; London, G W; Long, O; Lou, X C; Lu, A; Lü, C; Luitz, S; Luppi, E; Lusiani, A; Lüth, V; Lutz, A M; Lynch, G; Lynch, H L; Lyon, A J; MacFarlane, D B; Macri, M; Malcles, J; Mallik, U; Mancinelli, G; Mandelkern, M A; Manfredi, P F; Mangeol, D J J; Marchiori, G; Margoni, M; Marsiske, H; Martínez-Vidal, F; Mattison, T S; Mayer, B; Mazur, M A; Mazzoni, M A; McKenna, J A; McMahon, T R; Meadows, B T; Messner, R; Meyer, T I; Meyer, W T; Miftakov, V; Mihályi, A; Mir, L M; Mohanty, G B; Mohapatra, A K; Mommsen, R K; Monge, M R; Monorchio, D; Moore, T B; Morandin, M; Morgan, S E; Morganti, M; Morganti, S; Morii, M; Morton, G W; Muheim, F; Müller, D R; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R; Narsky, I; Nash, J A; Nauenberg, U; Neal, H; Negrini, M; Neri, N; Nesom, G; Nicholson, H; Nikolich, M B; Nogowski, R; O'Grady, C P; Ocariz, J; Oddone, P J; Ofte, I; Olaiya, E O; Olivas, A; Olsen, J; Onuchin, A P; Orimoto, T J; Otto, S; Ozcan, V E; Paar, H P; Paick, K; Palano, A; Palombo, F; Pan, Y; Panetta, J; Panvini, R S; Paoloni, E; Paolucci, P; Parry, R J; Passaggio, S; Patel, P M; Patrignani, C; Patteri, P; Payne, D J; Pelizaeus, M; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Peruzzi, I M; Petersen, B A; Petersen, T C; Petrak, S; Petzold, A; Piatenko, T; Piccolo, D; Piccolo, M; Piemontese, L; Pierini, M; Pioppi, M; Piredda, G; Pivk, M; Plaszczynski, S; Playfer, S; Pompili, A; Poropat, P; Porter, F C; Posocco, M; Potter, C T; Prell, S; Prepost, R; Pripstein, M; Pulliam, T; Purohit, M V; Qi, N D; Rahatlou, S; Rahimi, A M; Rama, M; Rankin, P; Ratcliff, B N; Raven, G; Re, V; Reidy, J; Ricciardi, S; Richman, J D; Ritchie, J L; Rizzo, G; Roat, C; Roberts, D A; Robertson, S H; Robutti, E; Roe, N A; Röthel, W; Ronan, Michael T; Roney, J M; Rong, G; Roodman, A; Roos, L; Rosenberg, E I; Rotondo, M; Rubin, A E; Ryd, A; Saeed, M A; Safai-Tehrani, F; Saleem, M; Salnikov, A A; Salvatore, F; Samuel, A; Sanders, D A; Sandrelli, F; Santroni, A; Saremi, S; Sarti, A; Satpathy, A; Schalk, T; Schindler, R H; Schott, G; Schrenk, S; Schubert, J; Schubert, Klaus R; Schumm, B A; Schune, M H; Schwiening, J; Schwierz, R; Schwitters, R F; Sciacca, C; Sciolla, G; Seiden, A; Sekula, S J; Serednyakov, S I; Sharma, V; Shelkov, V G; Shen, B C; Simani, M C; Simi, G; Simonetto, F; Sinev, N B; Skovpen, Yu I; Sloane, R J; Smith, A J S; Smith, J G; Snoek, H L; Snyder, A; Sobie, R J; Soffer, A; Soha, A; Sokoloff, M D; Solodov, E P; Spaan, B; Spanier, S M; Spradlin, P; Stängle, H; Steinke, M; Stelzer, J; Stoker, D P; Stroili, R; Strom, D; Stugu, B; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Summers, D J; Sundermann, J E; T'Jampens, S; Tan, P; Tantot, L; Taras, P; Taylor, F; Taylor, G P; Telnov, A V; Teodorescu, L; Ter-Antonian, R; Therin, G; Thiebaux, C; Thiessen, D; Tiozzo, G; Tisserand, V; Toki, W H; Torrence, E; Tosi, S; Touramanis, C; Treadwell, E; Vasileiadis, G; Vasseur, G; Vavra, J; Verderi, M; Verkerke, W; Vitale, L; Voci, C; Voena, C; Vuagnin, G; Wagner, G; Wagner, S R; Wagoner, D E; Waldi, R; Walsh, J; Wang, K; Wang, P; Wappler, F R; Watson, A T; Weaver, M; Weidemann, A W; Weinstein, A J R; Wenzel, W A; Wilden, L; Williams, D C; Williams, J C; Willocq, S; Wilson, F F; Wilson, J R; Wilson, M G; Wilson, R J; Winter, M A; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Won, E; Wong, Q K; Wormser, G; Wright, D H; Wright, D M; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Xie, Y; Yamamoto, R K; Yang, S; Yarritu, A K; Ye, S; Yéche, C; Yi, J; Young, C C; Yu, Z; Yumiceva, F X; Yushkov, A N; Zallo, A; Zeng, Q; Zghiche, A; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, H W; Zhu, Y S; Zito, M; De Sangro, R; Del Re, D; La Vaissière, C de

    2004-01-01

    We present preliminary results on the Dalitz plot analysis of $B^0 \\to K^+ \\pi^- \\pi^0$ decays. The data sample comprises 213 million $\\Upsilon(4S) \\to B {\\bar B}$ decays collected with the BaBar detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy $B$ Factory at SLAC. We report measurements of the inclusive branching fraction, quasi-two-body fractions and CP-violating charge asymmetries for intermediate states including $K^*(892)^+ \\pi^-$ and $\\rho(770)^- K^+$. Observations of $B^0$ decays to the $K\\pi$ $S$-wave intermediate states, $K_0^*(1430)^+ \\pi^-$ and $K_0^*(1430)^0 \\pi^0$, are reported. Evidence of the decay $B^0 \\to K^*(892)^0 \\pi^0$ is seen. We set upper limits at 90% confidence level on branching fractions of the nonresonant and other less significant intermediate states.

  9. Construction of an experimental plot seeder of wheat planting and compare it by imported one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Eskandari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Researchers frequently include multiple cultivars and fertility levels in field experiments. Therefore, the experiments sowing operation must represent a considerable saving in time and labor, compared to hand sowing. Greater flexibility in experimental design and setup could be achieved by equipment that enables quick changes in the cultivar and fertilizer rates from one plot to the next. A satisfactory seed drill must distribute a given quantity of seed evenly over a predetermined length of coulter row, the coulters must be spaced at exact intervals and depth of sowing must be uniform. In a self-propelled type of plot seeder, no coulter should run in a wheel track as the compaction of the soil can cause observable differences in vigor between plants in such a row and those in un-compacted rows. The machine should sow in succession from a try in which a series of seed pocket separated clearly and must be put into distributer funnel by an assistant operator. The length of gap being varied according to the nature and purpose of the plot. The objectives of this experiment were 1- to design and construct a local self-propelled plot seeder and 2- To compare it with the imported (Wintersteiger plot seeder in cereal breeding programs. Materials and Methods A small-plot seeder was designed and constructed to meet this objective. The unit consists of the following basic components: a toolbar for pulling a set of six blade coulter, an air compressor for lifting and putting down the openers and metering transmission drive wheel, an operators chair and work rack, one belt seed distribution. A cone-celled and rotor seed distributor is used for seed distribution to the openers. The cone system is connected to the gearbox and allows for great flexibility in changing cultivars, crop species, and plot length. This is driven by the separate drive wheel. The cone-celled distributor sows all the seed of the sample in making one complete turn. The

  10. Construction of an experimental plot seeder of wheat planting and compare it by imported one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Eskandari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Researchers frequently include multiple cultivars and fertility levels in field experiments. Therefore, the experiments sowing operation must represent a considerable saving in time and labor, compared to hand sowing. Greater flexibility in experimental design and setup could be achieved by equipment that enables quick changes in the cultivar and fertilizer rates from one plot to the next. A satisfactory seed drill must distribute a given quantity of seed evenly over a predetermined length of coulter row, the coulters must be spaced at exact intervals and depth of sowing must be uniform. In a self-propelled type of plot seeder, no coulter should run in a wheel track as the compaction of the soil can cause observable differences in vigor between plants in such a row and those in un-compacted rows. The machine should sow in succession from a try in which a series of seed pocket separated clearly and must be put into distributer funnel by an assistant operator. The length of gap being varied according to the nature and purpose of the plot. The objectives of this experiment were 1- to design and construct a local self-propelled plot seeder and 2- To compare it with the imported (Wintersteiger plot seeder in cereal breeding programs. Materials and Methods A small-plot seeder was designed and constructed to meet this objective. The unit consists of the following basic components: a toolbar for pulling a set of six blade coulter, an air compressor for lifting and putting down the openers and metering transmission drive wheel, an operators chair and work rack, one belt seed distribution. A cone-celled and rotor seed distributor is used for seed distribution to the openers. The cone system is connected to the gearbox and allows for great flexibility in changing cultivars, crop species, and plot length. This is driven by the separate drive wheel. The cone-celled distributor sows all the seed of the sample in making one complete turn. The

  11. Dalitz plot analysis of the D+ ---> K- pi+ pi+ decay in the FOCUS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, J.M.; Yager, P.M.; /UC, Davis; Anjos, J.C.; Bediaga, I.; Castromonte, C.; Machado, A.A.; Magnin, J.; Massafferri, A.; de Miranda, J.M.; Pepe, I.M.; Polycarpo, E.; /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /CINVESTAV, IPN /Colorado U. /Fermilab /Frascati /Guanajuato U. /Illinois U., Urbana /Indiana U. /Korea U. /Kyungpook Natl. U.

    2007-05-01

    Using data collected by the high energy photoproduction experiment FOCUS at Fermilab we performed a Dalitz plot analysis of the Cabibbo favored decay D{sup +} {yields} K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}. This study uses 53653 Dalitz-plot events with a signal fraction of {approx} 97%, and represents the highest statistics, most complete Dalitz plot analysis for this channel. Results are presented and discussed using two different formalisms. The first is a simple sum of Breit-Wigner functions with freely fitted masses and widths. It is the model traditionally adopted and serves as comparison with the already published analyses. The second uses a K-matrix approach for the dominant S-wave, in which the parameters are fixed by first fitting K{pi} scattering data and continued to threshold by Chiral Perturbation Theory. We show that the Dalitz plot distribution for this decay is consistent with the assumption of two body dominance of the final state interactions and the description of these interactions is in agreement with other data on the K{pi} final state.

  12. iCanPlot: visual exploration of high-throughput omics data using interactive Canvas plotting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit U Sinha

    Full Text Available Increasing use of high throughput genomic scale assays requires effective visualization and analysis techniques to facilitate data interpretation. Moreover, existing tools often require programming skills, which discourages bench scientists from examining their own data. We have created iCanPlot, a compelling platform for visual data exploration based on the latest technologies. Using the recently adopted HTML5 Canvas element, we have developed a highly interactive tool to visualize tabular data and identify interesting patterns in an intuitive fashion without the need of any specialized computing skills. A module for geneset overlap analysis has been implemented on the Google App Engine platform: when the user selects a region of interest in the plot, the genes in the region are analyzed on the fly. The visualization and analysis are amalgamated for a seamless experience. Further, users can easily upload their data for analysis--which also makes it simple to share the analysis with collaborators. We illustrate the power of iCanPlot by showing an example of how it can be used to interpret histone modifications in the context of gene expression.

  13. Tracking Changes in Cardiac Output: Statistical Considerations on the 4-Quadrant Plot and the Polar Plot Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saugel, Bernd; Grothe, Oliver; Wagner, Julia Y

    2015-08-01

    When comparing 2 technologies for measuring hemodynamic parameters with regard to their ability to track changes, 2 graphical tools are omnipresent in the literature: the 4-quadrant plot and the polar plot recently proposed by Critchley et al. The polar plot is thought to be the more advanced statistical tool, but care should be taken when it comes to its interpretation. The polar plot excludes possibly important measurements from the data. The polar plot transforms the data nonlinearily, which may prevent it from being seen clearly. In this article, we compare the 4-quadrant and the polar plot in detail and thoroughly describe advantages and limitations of each. We also discuss pitfalls concerning the methods to prepare the researcher for the sound use of both methods. Finally, we briefly revisit the Bland-Altman plot for the use in this context.

  14. Applying manifold learning to plotting approximate contour trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Shigeo; Fujishiro, Issei; Okada, Masato

    2009-01-01

    A contour tree is a powerful tool for delineating the topological evolution of isosurfaces of a single-valued function, and thus has been frequently used as a means of extracting features from volumes and their time-varying behaviors. Several sophisticated algorithms have been proposed for constructing contour trees while they often complicate the software implementation especially for higher-dimensional cases such as time-varying volumes. This paper presents a simple yet effective approach to plotting in 3D space, approximate contour trees from a set of scattered samples embedded in the high-dimensional space. Our main idea is to take advantage of manifold learning so that we can elongate the distribution of high-dimensional data samples to embed it into a low-dimensional space while respecting its local proximity of sample points. The contribution of this paper lies in the introduction of new distance metrics to manifold learning, which allows us to reformulate existing algorithms as a variant of currently available dimensionality reduction scheme. Efficient reduction of data sizes together with segmentation capability is also developed to equip our approach with a coarse-to-fine analysis even for large-scale datasets. Examples are provided to demonstrate that our proposed scheme can successfully traverse the features of volumes and their temporal behaviors through the constructed contour trees.

  15. Fixing Dataset Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynnes, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Three current search engines are queried for ozone data at the GES DISC. The results range from sub-optimal to counter-intuitive. We propose a method to fix dataset search by implementing a robust relevancy ranking scheme. The relevancy ranking scheme is based on several heuristics culled from more than 20 years of helping users select datasets.

  16. Functional Outcome Following Arthroscopic ACL Reconstruction with Rigid Fix: A Retrospective Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Shervegar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: No uniform consensus exists to decide type of fixation for arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Hypothsis: There is similar functional outcome after rigid fix compared to other methods of fixation which has been published. Study design: Retrospective observational study. Methods: A total of 50 patients underwent arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with hamstring tendons using femoral Rigid fix cross-pin and interference screw tibial fixation. The evaluation methods were clinical examination, IKDC scores, Lysholm and pre injury and post reconstruction Tegner score. Patients were followed up from minimum of 6 months to 4 year seven months. Results: C In our study of sample size 50 we found that mean age of patients was 30.8 Years with male preponderance. Mean post operative IKDC and Lysholm score has been 75.6 and 84.4 respectively.Mean Tegner pre-injury score and post reconstruction score has been 5.4 and 4.26 .Box plot comparison of pre injury and post operativeTegner score reveals a statistically significant difference with respect to paired t test P Conclusions: Arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with femoral rigid fix cross pins and tibial interference screws results in comparable short term to midterm functional results compared to other types of fixation

  17. Split-plot designs for robotic serial dilution assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzas, Jeffrey S; Wager, Carrie G; Lansky, David M

    2011-12-01

    This article explores effective implementation of split-plot designs in serial dilution bioassay using robots. We show that the shortest path for a robot to fill plate wells for a split-plot design is equivalent to the shortest common supersequence problem in combinatorics. We develop an algorithm for finding the shortest common supersequence, provide an R implementation, and explore the distribution of the number of steps required to implement split-plot designs for bioassay through simulation. We also show how to construct collections of split plots that can be filled in a minimal number of steps, thereby demonstrating that split-plot designs can be implemented with nearly the same effort as strip-plot designs. Finally, we provide guidelines for modeling data that result from these designs.

  18. Selecting the optimum plot size for a California design-based stream and wetland mapping program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackey, Leila G; Stein, Eric D

    2014-04-01

    Accurate estimates of the extent and distribution of wetlands and streams are the foundation of wetland monitoring, management, restoration, and regulatory programs. Traditionally, these estimates have relied on comprehensive mapping. However, this approach is prohibitively resource-intensive over large areas, making it both impractical and statistically unreliable. Probabilistic (design-based) approaches to evaluating status and trends provide a more cost-effective alternative because, compared with comprehensive mapping, overall extent is inferred from mapping a statistically representative, randomly selected subset of the target area. In this type of design, the size of sample plots has a significant impact on program costs and on statistical precision and accuracy; however, no consensus exists on the appropriate plot size for remote monitoring of stream and wetland extent. This study utilized simulated sampling to assess the performance of four plot sizes (1, 4, 9, and 16 km(2)) for three geographic regions of California. Simulation results showed smaller plot sizes (1 and 4 km(2)) were most efficient for achieving desired levels of statistical accuracy and precision. However, larger plot sizes were more likely to contain rare and spatially limited wetland subtypes. Balancing these considerations led to selection of 4 km(2) for the California status and trends program.

  19. Validity of the t-plot method to assess microporosity in hierarchical micro/mesoporous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galarneau, Anne; Villemot, François; Rodriguez, Jeremy; Fajula, François; Coasne, Benoit

    2014-11-11

    The t-plot method is a well-known technique which allows determining the micro- and/or mesoporous volumes and the specific surface area of a sample by comparison with a reference adsorption isotherm of a nonporous material having the same surface chemistry. In this paper, the validity of the t-plot method is discussed in the case of hierarchical porous materials exhibiting both micro- and mesoporosities. Different hierarchical zeolites with MCM-41 type ordered mesoporosity are prepared using pseudomorphic transformation. For comparison, we also consider simple mechanical mixtures of microporous and mesoporous materials. We first show an intrinsic failure of the t-plot method; this method does not describe the fact that, for a given surface chemistry and pressure, the thickness of the film adsorbed in micropores or small mesopores (plot method to estimate the micro- and mesoporous volumes of hierarchical samples is then discussed, and an abacus is given to correct the underestimated microporous volume by the t-plot method.

  20. Cross recurrence plot based synchronization of time series

    OpenAIRE

    N. Marwan; Thiel, M.; Nowaczyk, N. R.

    2002-01-01

    The method of recurrence plots is extended to the cross recurrence plots (CRP) which, among others, enables the study of synchronization or time differences in two time series. This is emphasized in a distorted main diagonal in the cross recurrence plot, the line of synchronization (LOS). A non-parametrical fit of this LOS can be used to rescale the time axis of the two data series (whereby one of them is compressed or stretched) so ...

  1. Recurrence plot statistics and the effect of embedding

    OpenAIRE

    March, T. K.; Chapman, S. C.; Dendy, R.O.

    2005-01-01

    Recurrence plots provide a graphical representation of the recurrent patterns in a timeseries, the quantification of which is a relatively new field. Here we derive analytical expressions which relate the values of key statistics, notably determinism and entropy of line length distribution, to the correlation sum as a function of embedding dimension. These expressions are obtained by deriving the transformation which generates an embedded recurrence plot from an unembedded plot. A single unem...

  2. Phase Plots of Complex Functions: a Journey in Illustration

    CERN Document Server

    Wegert, Elias

    2010-01-01

    We propose to visualize complex (meromorphic) functions $f$ by their phase $P_f:=f/|f|$. Color--coding the points on the unit circle converts the function $P_f$ to an image (the phase plot of $f$), which represents the function directly on its domain. We discuss how special properties of $f$ are reflected by their phase plots and indicate several applications. In particular we reformulate a universality theorem for Riemann's Zeta function in the language of phase plots.

  3. Ultrasonic beam-plotting with very small spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Round, W H; Swan, H

    1991-12-01

    A method of pulse-echo ultrasonic beam plotting is described. It differs from traditional pulse-echo beam plotting in that the ultrasonic pulses are scattered off a totally isolated sphere rather than a sphere suspended on a wire. The method also allows extremely small spheres to be used thus providing greater resolution. It is demonstrated that pulse-echo beam plotting using spheres of different size produces different iso-echo amplitude curves.

  4. Coarse-graining time series data: Recurrence plot of recurrence plots and its application for music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukino, Miwa; Hirata, Yoshito; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2016-02-01

    We propose a nonlinear time series method for characterizing two layers of regularity simultaneously. The key of the method is using the recurrence plots hierarchically, which allows us to preserve the underlying regularities behind the original time series. We demonstrate the proposed method with musical data. The proposed method enables us to visualize both the local and the global musical regularities or two different features at the same time. Furthermore, the determinism scores imply that the proposed method may be useful for analyzing emotional response to the music.

  5. Coarse-graining time series data: Recurrence plot of recurrence plots and its application for music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukino, Miwa; Hirata, Yoshito; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2016-02-01

    We propose a nonlinear time series method for characterizing two layers of regularity simultaneously. The key of the method is using the recurrence plots hierarchically, which allows us to preserve the underlying regularities behind the original time series. We demonstrate the proposed method with musical data. The proposed method enables us to visualize both the local and the global musical regularities or two different features at the same time. Furthermore, the determinism scores imply that the proposed method may be useful for analyzing emotional response to the music.

  6. Four soil orders on a Vermont mountaintop-one-third of the world`s soil orders in a 2500-square-meter research plot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas R. Villars; Scott W. Bailey; Donald S. Ross

    2015-01-01

    As part of the Vermont Long-Term Soil Monitoring Project, five 50 x 50 m plots were established on protected forestland across Vermont. In 2002, ten randomly selected subplots at each monitoring plot were sampled. The 10 pedons sampled at the high-elevation spruce-fir “Forehead” plot on Mount Mansfield were found to include soils of four taxonomic Orders: Entisols,...

  7. 试论修辞谋划%On Rhetorical Plot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江结宝

    2015-01-01

    Rhetorical plot is the overall design,scheme and specification. It can be divided into macro⁃scopic plot,medium plot and microscopic plot,with different types of general plot and special plot.. Rhetori⁃cal plot is the beginning of rhetorical process running through the whole rhetoric process. Rhetoric should pay attention to research of rhetoric plot. Rhetoric plot is different from rhetorical strategy.%修辞谋划是对修辞行为的整体设计、谋定和规约。修辞谋划可分为宏观谋划、中观谋划和微观谋划三个层次,包括一般谋划和特殊谋划两大类型。修辞谋划是修辞过程的起点,并贯穿整个修辞过程,修辞学应该重视修辞谋划的研究。修辞谋划不同于一般所说的“修辞策略”。

  8. Dalitz plot analysis of B-0 -> (D)over-bar(0)pi(+)pi(-) decays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Cartelle, P. Alvarez; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Andreassen, R.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Gutierrez, O. Aquines; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Belogurov, S.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bertolin, A.; Bettler, M. -O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.; Birnkraut, A.; Bizzeti, A.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borgia, A.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N. H.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Campana, P.; Perez, D. Campora; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carniti, P.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casanova Mohr, R.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Garcia, L. Castillo; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cavallero, G.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chefdeville, M.; Cheung, S. -F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Vidal, X. Cid; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collazuol, G.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Counts, I.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dalseno, J.; David, P.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Silva, W.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C. -T.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Deleage, N.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruscio, F.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suarez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dujany, G.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Faerber, C.; Farinelli, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferrari, F.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fol, P.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Garcia Pardinas, J.; Garofoli, J.; Tico, J. Garra; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gastaldi, U.; Gauld, R.; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Geraci, A.; Gerick, D.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianelle, A.; Giani, S.; Gibson, V.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Goebel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gotti, C.; Gandara, M. Grabalosa; Graciani Diaz, R.; Cardoso, L. A. Granado; Grauges, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Gruenberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Hampson, T.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Hess, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Humair, T.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jawahery, A.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Karodia, S.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kenzie, M.; Ketel, T.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koppenburg, P.; Korolev, M.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; La Thi, V. N.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lambert, R. W.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J. -P.; Lefevre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefranois, J.; Leroy, O.

    2015-01-01

    The resonant substructures of B-0 --> (D) over bar (0)pi(+)pi(-) decays are studied with the Dalitz plot technique. In this study a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb(-1) of pp collisions collected by the LHCb detector is used. The branching fraction of the B-0 --> (D) o

  9. Measurement of the $\\eta\\to\\pi^+\\pi^-\\pi^0$ Dalitz plot distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Adlarson, P; Bardan, W; Bashkanov, M; Bergmann, F S; Berłowski, M; Bhatt, H; Bondar, A; Büscher, M; Calén, H; Ciepał, I; Clement, H; Coderre, D; Czerwiński, E; Demmich, K; Doroshkevich, E; Engels, R; Erven, A; Erven, W; Eyrich, W; Fedorets, P; Föhl, K; Fransson, K; Goldenbaum, F; Goslawski, P; Goswami, A; Grigoryev, K; Gullström, C -O; Hauenstein, F; Heijkenskjöld, L; Hejny, V; Hodana, M; Höistad, B; Hüsken, N; Jany, A; Jany, B R; Jarczyk, L; Johansson, T; Kamys, B; Kemmerling, G; Khan, F A; Khoukaz, A; Kirillov, D A; Kistryn, S; Kleines, H; Kłos, B; Krzemień, W; Kulessa, P; Kupść, A; Kuzmin, A; Lalwani, K; Lersch, D; Lorentz, B; Magiera, A; Maier, R; Marciniewski, P; Mariański, B; Martemyanov, B V; Meißner, U -G; Mikirtychiants, M; Morsch, H -P; Moskal, P; Ohm, H; Ozerianska, I; del Rio, E Perez; Piskunov, N M; Podkopał, P; Prasuhn, D; Pricking, A; Pszczel, D; Pysz, K; Pyszniak, A; Redmer, C F; Ritman, J; Roy, A; Rudy, Z; Sawant, S; Schadmand, S; Sefzick, T; Serdyuk, V; Shwartz, B; Siudak, R; Skorodko, T; Skurzok, M; Smyrski, J; Sopov, V; Stassen, R; Stepaniak, J; Stephan, E; Sterzenbach, G; Stockhorst, H; Ströher, H; Szczurek, A; Täschner, A; Trzciński, A; Varma, R; Wolke, M; Wrońska, A; Wüstner, P; Wurm, P; Yamamoto, A; Yuan, X; Yurev, L; Zabierowski, J; Zheng, C; Zieliński, M J; Zink, A; Złomańczuk, J; Żuprański, P; Żurek, M

    2014-01-01

    Dalitz plot distribution of the $\\eta\\to\\pi^+\\pi^-\\pi^0$ decay is determined using a data sample of $1.2\\cdot 10^7$ $\\eta$ mesons from $pd\\to ^3\\textrm{He}\\eta$ reaction at 1 GeV collected by the WASA detector at COSY.

  10. The Application of Stem Analysis Methods to Estimate Carbon Sequestration in Arboreal Shrubs from a Single Measurement of Field Plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter N. Beets

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Repeated measurements of plots are usually made to directly determine carbon stock changes over time. However, it is sometimes only practical or feasible to inventory plots at the end of a period of interest, and stock changes need to be predicted retrospectively from supplementary information on growth rate. This situation applied to the natural stratum of post-1989 forest in New Zealand, for which carbon sequestration over Commitment Period 1 (2008–2012 of the Kyoto Protocol needed to be estimated from inventory data acquired in 2012. A pilot study was undertaken to test and refine methods that could be applied in the national inventory, utilizing plots that had been installed in eligible post-1989 natural forest in 2008. The plots had actual measurements and shrub biomass sampling to directly estimate carbon stocks in 2008. These plots were re-measured and sampled in 2012, and basal disc samples from plants growing adjacent to each plot collected to provide data to model stem annual increment in diameter and height of shrubs growing on the plot. We present the results of this test of methods, and discuss refinements to field procedures and calculation methods to be applied in the national inventory of this stratum of post-1989 forest in 2012.

  11. Fixed textile shutters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.A. Chernova

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the main socio-economic problems in Russia is the high cost and the poor condition of housing.Such goals as cost reduction, reducing installation time and increasing the service life of structures are accomplishing by creating new technologies of erecting buildings and developing ways ofquickconstruction, using different types of fixed formwork. One of themis textstone.Textstone is an artificial construction stone, containing on the outer surface the reinforcing fine-mesh shell with multifunctional properties, formed by the interwoven threads of a vigorous fixed formwork textile material (basalt, linen, silica and other glass yarns adhered by binding material. The innovative construction technology of production and installation of a new generation of textstone buildings has been registered as a brand TextStone. The fundamental difference between texstone and reinforced concrete and all known building materials is that the whole outer surface of solidified light binders is protected by strong, vigorous and fixed formwork made from inexpensive textile materials. Manufacturing textile shells allows using it as an internal finishing material, reducing or eliminating the cost of finishing work.The use of fixed textile construction shutters during the construction of buildings has obvious technical, economic, operational, sanitary and environmental benefits: short construction time (from 3 to 10 days, compact packaging and light weight of fabric shells, high fire resistance, frost resistance, ease of engineering services installation in the hollow communicating shells; minimal amount of finishing, roofing, heat and noise insulation works. Texstone is a durable solid monolithic construction that provides high viability and earthquakes, hurricanes wind, solar sultriness and frost resistance. Material complies with all sanitary and environmental requirements. Due to such physical, mechanical, operational, sanitary and ecological characteristics

  12. Fixed Sagittal Plane Imbalance

    OpenAIRE

    Savage, Jason W.; Patel, Alpesh A.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Literature review. Objective To discuss the evaluation and management of fixed sagittal plane imbalance. Methods A comprehensive literature review was performed on the preoperative evaluation of patients with sagittal plane malalignment, as well as the surgical strategies to address sagittal plane deformity. Results Sagittal plane imbalance is often caused by de novo scoliosis or iatrogenic flat back deformity. Understanding the etiology and magnitude of sagittal malalignment is ...

  13. Macroecology of Australian Tall Eucalypt Forests: Baseline Data from a Continental-Scale Permanent Plot Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Sam W; Prior, Lynda D; Stephens, Helen C; Bowman, David M J S

    2015-01-01

    Tracking the response of forest ecosystems to climate change demands large (≥1 ha) monitoring plots that are repeatedly measured over long time frames and arranged across macro-ecological gradients. Continental scale networks of permanent forest plots have identified links between climate and carbon fluxes by monitoring trends in tree growth, mortality and recruitment. The relationship between tree growth and climate in Australia has been recently articulated through analysis of data from smaller forest plots, but conclusions were limited by (a) absence of data on recruitment and mortality, (b) exclusion of non-eucalypt species, and (c) lack of knowledge of stand age or disturbance histories. To remedy these gaps we established the Ausplots Forest Monitoring Network: a continental scale network of 48 1 ha permanent plots in highly productive tall eucalypt forests in the mature growth stage. These plots are distributed across cool temperate, Mediterranean, subtropical and tropical climates (mean annual precipitation 850 to 1900 mm per year; mean annual temperature 6 to 21°C). Aboveground carbon stocks (AGC) in these forests are dominated by eucalypts (90% of AGC) whilst non-eucalypts in the understorey dominated species diversity and tree abundance (84% of species; 60% of stems). Aboveground carbon stocks were negatively related to mean annual temperature, with forests at the warm end of the temperature range storing approximately half the amount of carbon as forests at the cool end of the temperature range. This may reflect thermal constraints on tree growth detected through other plot networks and physiological studies. Through common protocols and careful sampling design, the Ausplots Forest Monitoring Network will facilitate the integration of tall eucalypt forests into established global forest monitoring initiatives. In the context of projections of rapidly warming and drying climates in Australia, this plot network will enable detection of links between

  14. A Guided Inquiry on Hubble Plots and the Big Bang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forringer, Ted

    2014-01-01

    In our science for non-science majors course "21st Century Physics," we investigate modern "Hubble plots" (plots of velocity versus distance for deep space objects) in order to discuss the Big Bang, dark matter, and dark energy. There are two potential challenges that our students face when encountering these topics for the…

  15. Development of gnuplot plotting package for MAD-X

    CERN Document Server

    Romero Leiro, Freddy Jose

    2015-01-01

    MAD-X is a general purpose software for charged-particle optics design and it needs a visualisation tool to be able to show the data in a more manageable way, this visualisation tools being already in MAD-X are the PLOT and SETPLOT commands. Nonetheless issues like compatibility and the desire of having alternative ways to show the plots in a more portable way have lead to explore the use of open source available software to reproduce the same results. The purpose of this project is to create a package compatible with the MAD-X output format, capable of generating publication quality plots, mainly lattice beamline plots and scatter plots by using the Gnuplot for creating plots. This software must support the same options as the PLOT and SETPLOT commands from MAD-X but additions or improvement over the present version are more than welcome. The main purpose of the program is to pre-process the data in order to be ready for Gnuplot to read it and plot it .This report is mostly a description of the development o...

  16. Conceptual recurrence plots: revealing patterns in human discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus, Daniel; Smith, Andrew; Wiles, Janet

    2012-06-01

    Human discourse contains a rich mixture of conceptual information. Visualization of the global and local patterns within this data stream is a complex and challenging problem. Recurrence plots are an information visualization technique that can reveal trends and features in complex time series data. The recurrence plot technique works by measuring the similarity of points in a time series to all other points in the same time series and plotting the results in two dimensions. Previous studies have applied recurrence plotting techniques to textual data; however, these approaches plot recurrence using term-based similarity rather than conceptual similarity of the text. We introduce conceptual recurrence plots, which use a model of language to measure similarity between pairs of text utterances, and the similarity of all utterances is measured and displayed. In this paper, we explore how the descriptive power of the recurrence plotting technique can be used to discover patterns of interaction across a series of conversation transcripts. The results suggest that the conceptual recurrence plotting technique is a useful tool for exploring the structure of human discourse.

  17. Recurrence plots from altimetry data of some lakes in Africa

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2014-01-01

    The paper shows recurrence plots obtained from time series of the level variations of four lakes in Africa (Nasser, Tana, Chad and Kainji). The data, coming from remote sensing, are provided by the United States Department of Agriculture. The recurrence plots allow a good visual comparison of the behaviours of local drainage basins.

  18. A Guided Inquiry on Hubble Plots and the Big Bang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forringer, Ted

    2014-01-01

    In our science for non-science majors course "21st Century Physics," we investigate modern "Hubble plots" (plots of velocity versus distance for deep space objects) in order to discuss the Big Bang, dark matter, and dark energy. There are two potential challenges that our students face when encountering these topics for the…

  19. Instrumentation for full-year plot-scale runoff monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Replicated 0.34 ha cropping systems plots have been in place since 1991 at the USDA-ARS Goodwater Creek Experimental Watershed in central Missouri. Recently, instrumentation has been installed at 18 of those plots for continuous runoff water quality and quantity monitoring. That installation require...

  20. Precise FIA plot registration using field and dense LIDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetrios Gatziolis

    2009-01-01

    Precise registration of forest inventory and analysis (FIA) plots is a prerequisite for an effective fusion of field data with ancillary spatial information, which is an approach commonly employed in the mapping of various forest parameters. Although the adoption of Global Positioning System technology has improved the precision of plot coordinates obtained during...

  1. Measurement of the ω→π+π−π0 Dalitz plot distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Adlarson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Using the production reactions pd→He3ω and pp→ppω, the Dalitz plot distribution for the ω→π+π−π0 decay is studied with the WASA detector at COSY, based on a combined data sample of (4.408±0.042×104 events. The Dalitz plot density is parametrised by a product of the P-wave phase space and a polynomial expansion in the normalised polar Dalitz plot variables Z and ϕ. For the first time, a deviation from pure P-wave phase space is observed with a significance of 4.1σ. The deviation is parametrised by a linear term 1+2αZ, with α determined to be +0.147±0.036, consistent with the expectations of ρ-meson-type final-state interactions of the P-wave pion pairs.

  2. Computer-based analysis of cardiac state using entropies, recurrence plots and Poincare geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, K C; Chandran, V; Acharya, U R; Lim, C M

    2008-01-01

    Heart rate variability refers to the regulation of the sinoatrial node, the natural pacemaker of the heart by the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system. Heart rate variability is important because it provides a window to observe the heart's ability to respond to normal regulatory impulses that affect its rhythm. A computer-based intelligent system for analysis of cardiac states is very useful in diagnostics and disease management. Parameters are extracted from the heart rate signals and analysed using computers for diagnostics. This paper describes the analysis of normal and seven types of cardiac abnormal signals using approximate entropy (ApEn), sample entropy (SampEn), recurrence plots and Poincare plot patterns. Ranges of these parameters for various cardiac abnormalities are presented with an accuracy of more than 95%. Among the two entropies, ApEn showed better performance for all the cardiac abnormalities. Typical Poincare and recurrence plots are shown for various cardiac abnormalities.

  3. Measurement of the $\\omega \\to \\pi^+ \\pi^- \\pi^0$ Dalitz plot distribution

    CERN Document Server

    :,; Augustyniak, W; Bardan, W; Bashkanov, M; Bergmann, F S; Berłowski, M; Bhatt, H; Bondar, A; Büscher, M; Calén, H; Ciepał, I; Clement, H; Czerwiński, E; Demmich, K; Engels, R; Erven, A; Erven, W; Eyrich, W; Fedorets, P; Föhl, K; Fransson, K; Goldenbaum, F; Goswami, A; Grigoryev, K; Gullström, C -O; Heijkenskjöld, L; Hejny, V; Hüsken, N; Jarczyk, L; Johansson, T; Kamys, B; Kemmerling, G; Khan, F A; Khatri, G; Khoukaz, A; Khreptak, O; Kirillov, D A; Kistryn, S; Kleines, H; Kłos, B; Krzemień, W; Kulessa, P; Kupść, A; Kuzmin, A; Lalwani, K; Lersch, D; Lorentz, B; Magiera, A; Maier, R; Marciniewski, P; Mariański, B; Morsch, H -P; Moskal, P; Ohm, H; del Rio, E Perez; Piskunov, N M; Prasuhn, D; Pszczel, D; Pysz, K; Pyszniak, A; Ritman, J; Roy, A; Rudy, Z; Rundel, O; Sawant, S; Schadmand, S; Schätti-Ozerianska, I; Sefzick, T; Serdyuk, V; Shwartz, B; Sitterberg, K; Skorodko, T; Skurzok, M; Smyrski, J; Sopov, V; Stassen, R; Stepaniak, J; Stephan, E; Sterzenbach, G; Stockhorst, H; Ströher, H; Szczurek, A; Trzciński, A; Varma, R; Wolke, M; Wrońska, A; Wüstner, P; Yamamoto, A; Zabierowski, J; Zieliński, M J; Złomańczuk, J; Żuprański, P; Żurek, M; Kubis, B; Leupold, S

    2016-01-01

    Using the production reactions $pd\\to {}^3\\mbox{He}\\,\\omega$ and $pp\\to pp\\omega$, the Dalitz plot distribution for the $\\omega \\to \\pi^+ \\pi^- \\pi^0$ decay is studied with the WASA detector at COSY, based on a combined data sample of $ (4.408\\pm 0.042) \\times 10^4$ events. The Dalitz plot density is parametrised by a product of the $P$-wave phase space and a polynomial expansion in the normalised polar Dalitz plot variables $Z$ and $\\phi$. For the first time, a deviation from pure $P$-wave phase space is observed with a significance of $4.1\\sigma$. The deviation is parametrised by a linear term $1+2\\alpha Z$, with $\\alpha$ determined to be $+0.147\\pm0.036$, consistent with the expectations of $\\rho$-meson-type final-state interactions of the $P$-wave pion pairs.

  4. Recovery of Bacillus and Pseudomonas spp. from the 'fired plots' under shifting cultivation in northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Anita; Chaudhry, Shivaji; Sharma, Avinash; Choudhary, Vipin Singh; Malviya, Mukesh Kumar; Chamoli, Swati; Rinu, K; Trivedi, Pankaj; Palni, Lok Man S

    2011-01-01

    Soil samples, collected after the fire operations at agricultural sites under shifting cultivation in northeast India, were subjected to physico-chemical and microbial analysis. The fire affected various physico-chemical properties of the soil. Significant differences in pH and electrical conductivity were recorded in soil of fired and fallow plots. Significantly higher amounts of total organic carbon and nitrogen were estimated in fallow plots as compared to the fired. Difference in total phosphates was not significant. The fire operations resulted in stimulation of microbial communities. The bacteria were the most affected group followed by actinomycetes and fungi, respectively. The bacterial and actinomycetes counts were significantly higher in fired plots as compared to the fallow plots. The representative bacterial species recovered from the 'fired plots' belonged to the genus Bacillus and Pseudomonas. 16S rRNA analysis revealed their maximum similarity with B. clausii, B. licheniformis, B. megaterium, B. subtilis, B. thuringiensis, P. aeruginosa and P. stutzeri. Most of these species were found to be positive for phosphate solubilization and antagonism in plate based assays. In view of the importance of Bacillus and Pseudomonas species in plant growth promotion and biocontrol, recovery of these species after fire operations is indicative of the microbiological merit of shifting cultivation.

  5. Split-plot fractional designs: Is minimum aberration enough?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahci, Murat; Ramirez, Jose; Tobias, Randy

    2006-01-01

    Split-plot experiments are commonly used in industry for product and process improvement. Recent articles on designing split-plot experiments concentrate on minimum aberration as the design criterion. Minimum aberration has been criticized as a design criterion for completely randomized fractional...... factorial design and alternative criteria, such as the maximum number of clear two-factor interactions, are suggested (Wu and Hamada (2000)). The need for alternatives to minimum aberration is even more acute for split-plot designs. In a standard split-plot design, there are several types of two...... for completely randomized designs. Consequently, we provide a modified version of the maximum number of clear two-factor interactions design criterion to be used for split-plot designs....

  6. Split-plot fractional designs: Is minimum aberration enough?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahci, Murat; Ramirez, Jose; Tobias, Randy

    2006-01-01

    Split-plot experiments are commonly used in industry for product and process improvement. Recent articles on designing split-plot experiments concentrate on minimum aberration as the design criterion. Minimum aberration has been criticized as a design criterion for completely randomized fractional...... factorial design and alternative criteria, such as the maximum number of clear two-factor interactions, are suggested (Wu and Hamada (2000)). The need for alternatives to minimum aberration is even more acute for split-plot designs. In a standard split-plot design, there are several types of two...... for completely randomized designs. Consequently, we provide a modified version of the maximum number of clear two-factor interactions design criterion to be used for split-plot designs....

  7. Impact of Animal Waste Application on Runoff Water Quality in Field Experimental Plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Animal waste from dairy and poultry operations is an economical and commonly used fertilizer in the state of Louisiana. The application of animal waste to pasture lands not only is a source of fertilizer, but also allows for a convenient method of waste disposal. The disposal of animal wastes on land is a potential nonpoint source of water degradation. Water degradation and human health is a major concern when considering the disposal of large quantities of animal waste. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of animal waste application on biological (fecal coliform, Enterobacter spp. and Escherichia coli and physical/chemical (temperature, pH, nitrate nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, phosphate, copper, zinc, and sulfate characteristics of runoff water in experimental plots. The effects of the application of animal waste have been evaluated by utilizing experimental plots and simulated rainfall events. Samples of runoff water were collected and analyzed for fecal coliforms. Fecal coliforms isolated from these samples were identified to the species level. Chemical analysis was performed following standard test protocols. An analysis of temperature, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, iron, copper, phosphate, potassium, sulfate, zinc and bacterial levels was performed following standard test protocols as presented in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater [1]. In the experimental plots, less time was required in the tilled broiler litter plots for the measured chemicals to decrease below the initial pre-treatment levels. A decrease of over 50% was noted between the first and second rainfall events for sulfate levels. This decrease was seen after only four simulated rainfall events in tilled broiler litter plots whereas broiler litter plots required eight simulated rainfall events to show this same type of reduction. A reverse trend was seen in the broiler litter plots and the tilled broiler plots for potassium

  8. Fixed-Term Homotopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Vazquez-Leal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new tool for the solution of nonlinear differential equations is presented. The Fixed-Term Homotopy (FTH delivers a high precision representation of the nonlinear differential equation using only a few linear algebraic terms. In addition to this tool, a procedure based on Laplace-Padé to deal with the truncate power series resulting from the FTH method is also proposed. In order to assess the benefits of this proposal, two nonlinear problems are solved and compared against other semianalytic methods. The obtained results show that FTH is a power tool capable of generating highly accurate solutions compared with other methods of literature.

  9. CFD Extraction Tool for TecPlot From DPLR Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, David

    2013-01-01

    This invention is a TecPlot macro of a computer program in the TecPlot programming language that processes data from DPLR solutions in TecPlot format. DPLR (Data-Parallel Line Relaxation) is a NASA computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, and TecPlot is a commercial CFD post-processing tool. The Tec- Plot data is in SI units (same as DPLR output). The invention converts the SI units into British units. The macro modifies the TecPlot data with unit conversions, and adds some extra calculations. After unit conversions, the macro cuts a slice, and adds vectors on the current plot for output format. The macro can also process surface solutions. Existing solutions use manual conversion and superposition. The conversion is complicated because it must be applied to a range of inter-related scalars and vectors to describe a 2D or 3D flow field. It processes the CFD solution to create superposition/comparison of scalars and vectors. The existing manual solution is cumbersome, open to errors, slow, and cannot be inserted into an automated process. This invention is quick and easy to use, and can be inserted into an automated data-processing algorithm.

  10. Dalitz plot analysis of B-→D+π-π-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, B.; Bona, M.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; Tico, J. Garra; Grauges, E.; Lopez, L.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Abrams, G. S.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D. N.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Lynch, G.; Osipenkov, I. L.; Ronan, M. T.; Tackmann, K.; Tanabe, T.; Hawkes, C. M.; Soni, N.; Watson, A. T.; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; Asgeirsson, D. J.; Fulsom, B. G.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T. S.; McKenna, J. A.; Barrett, M.; Khan, A.; Blinov, V. E.; Bukin, A. D.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Golubev, V. B.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Solodov, E. P.; Todyshev, K. Yu.; Bondioli, M.; Curry, S.; Eschrich, I.; Kirkby, D.; Lankford, A. J.; Lund, P.; Mandelkern, M.; Martin, E. C.; Stoker, D. P.; Abachi, S.; Buchanan, C.; Atmacan, H.; Gary, J. W.; Liu, F.; Long, O.; Vitug, G. M.; Yasin, Z.; Zhang, L.; Sharma, V.; Campagnari, C.; Hong, T. M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Mazur, M. A.; Richman, J. D.; Beck, T. W.; Eisner, A. M.; Flacco, C. J.; Heusch, C. A.; Kroseberg, J.; Lockman, W. S.; Martinez, A. J.; Schalk, T.; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Wilson, M. G.; Winstrom, L. O.; Cheng, C. H.; Doll, D. A.; Echenard, B.; Fang, F.; Hitlin, D. G.; Narsky, I.; Piatenko, T.; Porter, F. C.; Andreassen, R.; Mancinelli, G.; Meadows, B. T.; Mishra, K.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Bloom, P. C.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Hirschauer, J. F.; Nagel, M.; Nauenberg, U.; Smith, J. G.; Wagner, S. R.; Ayad, R.; Soffer, A.; Toki, W. H.; Wilson, R. J.; Feltresi, E.; Hauke, A.; Jasper, H.; Karbach, M.; Merkel, J.; Petzold, A.; Spaan, B.; Wacker, K.; Kobel, M. J.; Nogowski, R.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Volk, A.; Bernard, D.; Bonneaud, G. R.; Latour, E.; Verderi, M.; Clark, P. J.; Playfer, S.; Watson, J. E.; Andreotti, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabrese, R.; Cecchi, A.; Cibinetto, G.; Franchini, P.; Luppi, E.; Negrini, M.; Petrella, A.; Piemontese, L.; Santoro, V.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Finocchiaro, G.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Rama, M.; Zallo, A.; Buzzo, A.; Contri, R.; Lo Vetere, M.; Macri, M. M.; Monge, M. R.; Passaggio, S.; Patrignani, C.; Robutti, E.; Santroni, A.; Tosi, S.; Chaisanguanthum, K. S.; Morii, M.; Adametz, A.; Marks, J.; Schenk, S.; Uwer, U.; Klose, V.; Lacker, H. M.; Bard, D. J.; Dauncey, P. D.; Tibbetts, M.; Behera, P. K.; Chai, X.; Charles, M. J.; Mallik, U.; Cochran, J.; Crawley, H. B.; Dong, L.; Meyer, W. T.; Prell, S.; Rosenberg, E. I.; Rubin, A. E.; Gao, Y. Y.; Gritsan, A. V.; Guo, Z. J.; Lae, C. K.; Arnaud, N.; Béquilleux, J.; D'Orazio, A.; Davier, M.; da Costa, J. Firmino; Grosdidier, G.; Le Diberder, F.; Lepeltier, V.; Lutz, A. M.; Pruvot, S.; Roudeau, P.; Schune, M. H.; Serrano, J.; Sordini, V.; Stocchi, A.; Wormser, G.; Lange, D. J.; Wright, D. M.; Bingham, I.; Burke, J. P.; Chavez, C. A.; Fry, J. R.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamet, R.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Payne, D. J.; Touramanis, C.; Bevan, A. J.; Clarke, C. K.; di Lodovico, F.; Sacco, R.; Sigamani, M.; Cowan, G.; Paramesvaran, S.; Wren, A. C.; Brown, D. N.; Davis, C. L.; Denig, A. G.; Fritsch, M.; Gradl, W.; Alwyn, K. E.; Bailey, D.; Barlow, R. J.; Jackson, G.; Lafferty, G. D.; West, T. J.; Yi, J. I.; Anderson, J.; Chen, C.; Jawahery, A.; Roberts, D. A.; Simi, G.; Tuggle, J. M.; Dallapiccola, C.; Li, X.; Salvati, E.; Saremi, S.; Cowan, R.; Dujmic, D.; Fisher, P. H.; Henderson, S. W.; Sciolla, G.; Spitznagel, M.; Taylor, F.; Yamamoto, R. K.; Zhao, M.; Patel, P. M.; Robertson, S. H.; Lazzaro, A.; Lombardo, V.; Palombo, F.; Bauer, J. M.; Cremaldi, L.; Godang, R.; Kroeger, R.; Summers, D. J.; Zhao, H. W.; Simard, M.; Taras, P.; Nicholson, H.; de Nardo, G.; Lista, L.; Monorchio, D.; Onorato, G.; Sciacca, C.; Raven, G.; Snoek, H. L.; Jessop, C. P.; Knoepfel, K. J.; Losecco, J. M.; Wang, W. F.; Corwin, L. A.; Honscheid, K.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Morris, J. P.; Rahimi, A. M.; Regensburger, J. J.; Sekula, S. J.; Wong, Q. K.; Blount, N. L.; Brau, J.; Frey, R.; Igonkina, O.; Kolb, J. A.; Lu, M.; Rahmat, R.; Sinev, N. B.; Strom, D.; Strube, J.; Torrence, E.; Castelli, G.; Gagliardi, N.; Margoni, M.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Rotondo, M.; Simonetto, F.; Stroili, R.; Voci, C.; Del Amo Sanchez, P.; Ben-Haim, E.; Briand, H.; Calderini, G.; Chauveau, J.; Hamon, O.; Leruste, Ph.; Ocariz, J.; Perez, A.; Prendki, J.; Sitt, S.; Gladney, L.; Biasini, M.; Manoni, E.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Carpinelli, M.; Cervelli, A.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M. A.; Lusiani, A.; Marchiori, G.; Morganti, M.; Neri, N.; Paoloni, E.; Rizzo, G.; Walsh, J. J.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Lu, C.; Olsen, J.; Smith, A. J. S.; Telnov, A. V.; Anulli, F.; Baracchini, E.; Cavoto, G.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Ferroni, F.; Gaspero, M.

    2009-06-01

    We report on a Dalitz plot analysis of B-→D+π-π- decays, based on a sample of about 383×106 Υ(4S)→B Bmacr decays collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B Factory at SLAC. We find the total branching fraction of the three-body decay: B(B-→D+π-π-)=(1.08±0.03±0.05)×10-3. We observe the established D2*0 and confirm the existence of D0*0 in their decays to D+π-, where the D2*0 and D0*0 are the 2+ and 0+c umacr P-wave states, respectively. We measure the masses and widths of D2*0 and D0*0 to be: mD2*0=(2460.4±1.2±1.2±1.9)MeV/c2, ΓD2*0=(41.8±2.5±2.1±2.0)MeV, mD0*0=(2297±8±5±19)MeV/c2, and ΓD0*0=(273±12±17±45)MeV. The stated errors reflect the statistical and systematic uncertainties, and the uncertainty related to the assumed composition of signal events and the theoretical model.

  11. The Roles of Macrobenthic Mollusks as Bioindicator in Response to Environmental Disturbance : Cumulative k-dominance curves and bubble plots ordination approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putro, Sapto P.; Muhammad, Fuad; Aininnur, Amalia; Widowati; Suhartana

    2017-02-01

    Floating net cage is one of the aquaculture practice operated in Indonesian coastal areas that has been growing rapidly over the last two decades. This study is aimed to assess the roles of macrobenthic mollusks as bioindicator in response to environmental disturbance caused by fish farming activities, and compare the samples within the locations using graphical methods. The research was done at the floating net cage fish farming area in the Awerange Gulf, South Sulawesi, Indonesia at the coordinates between 79°0500‧- 79°1500‧ LS and 953°1500‧- 953°2000‧ BT, at the polyculture and reference areas, which was located 1 km away from farming area. Sampling period was conducted between October 2014 to June 2015. The sediment samples were taken from the two locations with two sampling time and three replicates using Van Veen Grab for biotic and abiotic assessment. Mollusks as biotic parameter were fixed using 4% formalin solution and were preserved using 70% ethanol solution after 1mm mesh size. The macrobenthic mollusks were found as many as 15 species consisting of 14 families and 2 classes (gastropods and bivalves). Based on cumulative k-dominance analysis projected on each station, the line of station K3T1 (reference area; first sampling time) and KJAB P3T2 (polyculture area; second sampling time) are located below others curves, indicating the highest evenness and diversity compared to the other stations, whereas station K2T1 (reference area; first sampling time) and K3T2 (polyculture area, second sampling time) are located on the top, indicate the lowest value of evenness and diversity. Based on the bubble plots NMDS ordination, the four dominant taxa/species did not clearly show involvement in driving/shifting the ordinate position of station on the graph, except T. agilis. However, the two species showed involvement in driving/shifting the ordinate position of two stations of the reference areas from the first sampling time by Rynoclavis sordidula

  12. Using Zoom Technologies to Display HEP Plots and Talks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, G.

    2012-12-01

    Particle physics conferences and experiments generate a huge number of plots and presentations. It is impossible to keep up. A typical conference (like CHEP) will have 100's of plots. A single analysis result from a major experiment will have almost 50 plots. Scanning a conference or sorting out what plots are new is almost a full time job. The advent of multi-core computing and advanced video cards means that we have more processor power available for visualization than any time in the past. This poster describes two related projects that take advantage of this to solve the viewing problem. The first, Collider Plots, has a backend that looks for new plots released by ATLAS, CMS, CDF, and DZERO and organizes them by date, by experiment, and by subgroup for easy viewing and sorting. It maintains links back to associated conference notes and web pages with full result information. The second project, Deep Conference, renders all the slides as a single large zoomable picture. In both cases, much like a web mapping program, details are revealed as you zoom in. In the case of Collider Plots the plots are stacked as histograms to give visual clues for the most recent updates and activity have occurred. Standard plug-in software for a browser allows a user to zoom in on a portion of the conference that looks interesting. As the user zooms further more and more details become visible, allowing the user to make a quick and cheap decision on whether to spend more time on a particular talk or series of plots. Both projects are available at http://deeptalk.phys.washington.edu. The poster discusses the implementation and use as well as cross platform performance and possible future directions.

  13. Fixed and Sunk Costs Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X. Henry; Yang, Bill Z.

    2001-01-01

    Attempts to clarify the concepts of, and the link between, fixed costs and sunk costs. Argues that the root of confusion is the inconsistency in defining the term fixed costs. Consistently defines fixed and sunk costs, and describes how instructors must teach under these definitions. (RLH)

  14. Fixed sagittal plane imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Jason W; Patel, Alpesh A

    2014-12-01

    Study Design Literature review. Objective To discuss the evaluation and management of fixed sagittal plane imbalance. Methods A comprehensive literature review was performed on the preoperative evaluation of patients with sagittal plane malalignment, as well as the surgical strategies to address sagittal plane deformity. Results Sagittal plane imbalance is often caused by de novo scoliosis or iatrogenic flat back deformity. Understanding the etiology and magnitude of sagittal malalignment is crucial in realignment planning. Objective parameters have been developed to guide surgeons in determining how much correction is needed to achieve favorable outcomes. Currently, the goals of surgery are to restore a sagittal vertical axis Sagittal plane malalignment is an increasingly recognized cause of pain and disability. Treatment of sagittal plane imbalance varies according to the etiology, location, and severity of the deformity. Fixed sagittal malalignment often requires complex reconstructive procedures that include osteotomy correction. Reestablishing harmonious spinopelvic alignment is associated with significant improvement in health-related quality-of-life outcome measures and patient satisfaction.

  15. Analysing spatially extended high-dimensional chaos by recurrence plots

    CERN Document Server

    Marwana, Norbert; Foerster, Saskia

    2014-01-01

    Recurrence plot based measures of complexity are capable tools for characterizing complex dynamics. In this letter we show the potential of selected recurrence plot measures for the investigation of even high-dimensional chaos. We apply this method on spatially extended chaos, such as derived from the Lorenz96 model and show that the recurrence plot based measures can qualitatively characterize typical dynamical properties such as chaotic or periodic dynamics. Moreover, we demonstrate its power by analyzing satellite image time series of vegetation cover with contrasting dynamics as a high-dimensional example from the real world.

  16. Recurrence plot analysis of spatially extended high-dimensional dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwan, Norbert; Foerster, Saskia; Kurths, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    Recurrence plot based measures of complexity are capable tools for characterizing complex dynamics. We show the potential of selected recurrence plot measures for the investigation of spatially extended high-dimensional dynamics by applying them to data from the Lorenz96 model. The recurrence plot based measures are able to qualitatively characterize typical dynamical properties such as chaotic or periodic dynamics. Moreover, we demonstrate its power by analyzing satellite image time series of vegetation cover with contrasting dynamics as a spatially extended and potentially high-dimensional example from the real world.

  17. Analysing spatially extended high-dimensional dynamics by recurrence plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwan, Norbert; Foerster, Saskia; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    Recurrence plot based measures of complexity are capable tools for characterizing complex dynamics. We show the potential of selected recurrence plot measures for the investigation of even high-dimensional dynamics. We apply this method on spatially extended chaos, such as derived from the Lorenz96 model and show that the recurrence plot based measures can qualitatively characterize typical dynamical properties such as chaotic or periodic dynamics. Moreover, we demonstrate its power by analyzing satellite image time series of vegetation cover with contrasting dynamics as a spatially extended and potentially high-dimensional example from the real world.

  18. An Analysis of Property Rights in Privately Owned Family Plots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MengXiangzhong

    2005-01-01

    In the present Chinese system of rural land ownership, family plots still supplement the collectively-owned rural economy. As they occupy a very small proportion of the total amount of arable land, there has been little study of their economic effects; indeed, they have been totally neglected. In the past, under the planned economy, family plots could provide a diversified source of livelihood for Chinese farmers; at present, they have become a “bottleneck” obstructing the further industrialization of the rural economy. First of all, the ownership system for family plots fragments the system of land ownership, hindering the legal circulation of land-use,

  19. Dalitz plot distributions in presence of triangle singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szczepaniak, Adam P., E-mail: aszczepa@indiana.edu [Department of Physics, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Theory Center, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47403 (United States)

    2016-06-10

    We discuss properties of three-particle Dalitz distributions in coupled channel systems in presence of triangle singularities. The single channel case was discussed long ago [1] where it was found that as a consequence of unitarity, effects of a triangle singularity seen in the Dalitz plot are not seen in Dalitz plot projections. In the coupled channel case we find the same is true for the sum of intensities of all interacting channels. Unlike the single channel case, however, triangle singularities do remain visible in Dalitz plot projections of individual channels.

  20. Using volcano plots and regularized-chi statistics in genetic association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wentian; Freudenberg, Jan; Suh, Young Ju; Yang, Yaning

    2014-02-01

    Labor intensive experiments are typically required to identify the causal disease variants from a list of disease associated variants in the genome. For designing such experiments, candidate variants are ranked by their strength of genetic association with the disease. However, the two commonly used measures of genetic association, the odds-ratio (OR) and p-value may rank variants in different order. To integrate these two measures into a single analysis, here we transfer the volcano plot methodology from gene expression analysis to genetic association studies. In its original setting, volcano plots are scatter plots of fold-change and t-test statistic (or -log of the p-value), with the latter being more sensitive to sample size. In genetic association studies, the OR and Pearson's chi-square statistic (or equivalently its square root, chi; or the standardized log(OR)) can be analogously used in a volcano plot, allowing for their visual inspection. Moreover, the geometric interpretation of these plots leads to an intuitive method for filtering results by a combination of both OR and chi-square statistic, which we term "regularized-chi". This method selects associated markers by a smooth curve in the volcano plot instead of the right-angled lines which corresponds to independent cutoffs for OR and chi-square statistic. The regularized-chi incorporates relatively more signals from variants with lower minor-allele-frequencies than chi-square test statistic. As rare variants tend to have stronger functional effects, regularized-chi is better suited to the task of prioritization of candidate genes.

  1. Vegetation-plot data and databases in Europe: an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaminée, J.H.J.; Hennekens, S.M.; Chytrý, M.; Rodwell, J.S.

    2009-01-01

    During the last decade many electronic databases of vegetation plots, mainly phytosociological relevés, were established in different European countries. These databases contain information which is extremely valuable for both testing various macroecological hypotheses and for nature conservation

  2. 2012 Four Square Mile survey plots : Kulm WMD

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Map of survey plots for the annual Four-Square-Mile survey conducted on the Kulm Wetland Management District (WMD) as part of a national effort to annually estimate...

  3. The master plot in the audiovisual narrative. The western case.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Félix GONZÁLEZ SÁNCHEZ

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A plot provides us the story that it offers a hyphen and later a film. Plots are limited, however possibilities, argument them that these offer music infinite. At the same time, we can say that all cultures avail themselves of some plots and similar arguments to structure their mythical stories. In addition, United States is the modern nation where better a dialectic relation between the myth and story keeps. At this nation, the significance of the event has been shown and you have gotten free through the myth. We will see through this article how the western is the kind of American cinema what else and better answer for the folkloric traditional story to the cánones, because your plots have been taken directly of the classical legends.

  4. Recurrence plots of sunspots, solar flux and irradiance

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia

    2008-01-01

    The paper shows the recurrence and cross recurrence plots of three time series, concerning data of the solar activity. The data are the sunspot number and the values of solar radio flux at 10.7 cm and of solar total irradiance, which are known as highly correlated. To compare the series, the radio flux and irradiance values are monthly averaged. Recurrence plots display the oscillating behaviour with remarkable features. Moreover, cross recurrence plots help in identifying time lags between the sunspot number maximum and the maximum of radio or irradiance signals, in circumstances where the data values are highly dispersed. Image processing is useful too, in enhancing the monitoring. An interesting behaviour is displayed by cross recurrence plots of irradiance, which are not symmetric with respect to the line of identity.

  5. Field Plot Points for Wupatki National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This spatial dataset in ESRI Coverage format maps field releve plot locations for the vegetation classification and descriptions of the vegetation map at Wupatki...

  6. Analysing spatially extended high-dimensional dynamics by recurrence plots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marwan, Norbert, E-mail: marwan@pik-potsdam.de [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, 14412 Potsdam (Germany); Kurths, Jürgen [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, 14412 Potsdam (Germany); Humboldt Universität zu Berlin, Institut für Physik (Germany); Nizhny Novgorod State University, Department of Control Theory, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Foerster, Saskia [GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Section 1.4 Remote Sensing, Telegrafenberg, 14473 Potsdam (Germany)

    2015-05-08

    Recurrence plot based measures of complexity are capable tools for characterizing complex dynamics. In this letter we show the potential of selected recurrence plot measures for the investigation of even high-dimensional dynamics. We apply this method on spatially extended chaos, such as derived from the Lorenz96 model and show that the recurrence plot based measures can qualitatively characterize typical dynamical properties such as chaotic or periodic dynamics. Moreover, we demonstrate its power by analysing satellite image time series of vegetation cover with contrasting dynamics as a spatially extended and potentially high-dimensional example from the real world. - Highlights: • We use recurrence plots for analysing partially extended dynamics. • We investigate the high-dimensional chaos of the Lorenz96 model. • The approach distinguishes different spatio-temporal dynamics. • We use the method for studying vegetation cover time series.

  7. A framework for plot control in interactive story systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sgouros, N.M.; Papakonstantinou, G.; Tsanakas, P. [National Technical Univ. of Athens, Zographou Campus (Greece)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a framework for plot control in interactive story systems. In this framework, the user takes the place of the main character of the story, the protagonist. The rest of the cast consists of discrete characters, each playing a specific role in the story. A separate module in this system, the plot manager, controls the behavior of the cast and specifies what the protagonist can do. The story plot is dynamically shaped by the interference between cast members and their social interactions. The system accepts as input a story map which provides the main metaphor for organizing the plot and localizes the interaction of the protagonist with the rest of the cast. We are implementing this framework in PEGASUS, an interactive travel story environment for Greek mythology.

  8. Graphical interpretation of confidence curves in rankit plots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyltoft Petersen, Per; Blaabjerg, Ole; Andersen, Marianne

    2004-01-01

    A well-known transformation from the bell-shaped Gaussian (normal) curve to a straight line in the rankit plot is investigated, and a tool for evaluation of the distribution of reference groups is presented. It is based on the confidence intervals for percentiles of the calculated Gaussian...... distribution and the percentage of cumulative points exceeding these limits. The process is to rank the reference values and plot the cumulative frequency points in a rankit plot with a logarithmic (In=log(e)) transformed abscissa. If the distribution is close to In-Gaussian the cumulative frequency points...... presentation, however, makes it easy to disclose deviations from In-Gaussianity, and to make other interpretations of the distributions, e.g., comparison to non-Gaussian distributions in the same plot, where the cumulative frequency percentage can be read from the ordinate. A long list of examples of In...

  9. China's largest tropical rainforest dynamics plot established in Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ A 20-ha Tropical Rainforest Dynamics Plot, located in Xishuangbanna in southwestern Yunnan Province, was recently established by the CAS Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden (XTBG) and the Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve Administration recently.

  10. Field Plot Points for Tuzigoot National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Vegetation field plots at Tuzigoot NM were visited, described, and documented in a digital database. The database consists of 3 parts - (1)Physical Descriptive Data,...

  11. Fixed Access Network Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornaglia, Bruno; Young, Gavin; Marchetta, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Fixed broadband network deployments are moving inexorably to the use of Next Generation Access (NGA) technologies and architectures. These NGA deployments involve building fiber infrastructure increasingly closer to the customer in order to increase the proportion of fiber on the customer's access connection (Fibre-To-The-Home/Building/Door/Cabinet… i.e. FTTx). This increases the speed of services that can be sold and will be increasingly required to meet the demands of new generations of video services as we evolve from HDTV to "Ultra-HD TV" with 4k and 8k lines of video resolution. However, building fiber access networks is a costly endeavor. It requires significant capital in order to cover any significant geographic coverage. Hence many companies are forming partnerships and joint-ventures in order to share the NGA network construction costs. One form of such a partnership involves two companies agreeing to each build to cover a certain geographic area and then "cross-selling" NGA products to each other in order to access customers within their partner's footprint (NGA coverage area). This is tantamount to a bi-lateral wholesale partnership. The concept of Fixed Access Network Sharing (FANS) is to address the possibility of sharing infrastructure with a high degree of flexibility for all network operators involved. By providing greater configuration control over the NGA network infrastructure, the service provider has a greater ability to define the network and hence to define their product capabilities at the active layer. This gives the service provider partners greater product development autonomy plus the ability to differentiate from each other at the active network layer.

  12. Plotting partial correlation and regression in ecological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Moya-Laraño

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiple regression, the General linear model (GLM and the Generalized linear model (GLZ are widely used in ecology. The widespread use of graphs that include fitted regression lines to document patterns in simple linear regression can be easily extended to these multivariate techniques in plots that show the partial relationship of the dependent variable with each independent variable. However, the latter procedure is not nearly as widely used in ecological studies. In fact, a brief review of the recent ecological literature showed that in ca. 20% of the papers the results of multiple regression are displayed by plotting the dependent variable against the raw values of the independent variable. This latter procedure may be misleading because the value of the partial slope may change in magnitude and even in sign relative to the slope obtained in simple least-squares regression. Plots of partial relationships should be used in these situations. Using numerical simulations and real data we show how displaying plots of partial relationships may also be useful for: 1 visualizing the true scatter of points around the partial regression line, and 2 identifying influential observations and non-linear patterns more efficiently than using plots of residuals vs. fitted values. With the aim to help in the assessment of data quality, we show how partial residual plots (residuals from overall model + predicted values from the explanatory variable vs. the explanatory variable should only be used in restricted situations, and how partial regression plots (residuals of Y on the remaining explanatory variables vs. residuals of the target explanatory variable on the remaining explanatory variables should be the ones displayed in publications because they accurately reflect the scatter of partial correlations. Similarly, these partial plots can be applied to visualize the effect of continuous variables in GLM and GLZ for normal distributions and identity link

  13. The Ramachandran plots of glycine and pre-proline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brasseur Robert

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Ramachandran plot is a fundamental tool in the analysis of protein structures. Of the 4 basic types of Ramachandran plots, the interactions that determine the generic and proline Ramachandran plots are well understood. The interactions of the glycine and pre-proline Ramachandran plots are not. Results In glycine, the ψ angle is typically clustered at ψ = 180° and ψ = 0°. We show that these clusters correspond to conformations where either the Ni+1 or O atom is sandwiched between the two Hα atoms of glycine. We show that the shape of the 5 distinct regions of density (the α, αL, βS, βP and βPR regions can be reproduced with electrostatic dipole-dipole interactions. In pre-proline, we analyse the origin of the ζ region of the Ramachandran plot, a region unique to pre-proline. We show that it is stabilized by a COi-1···CδHδi+1 weak hydrogen bond. This is analogous to the COi-1···NHi+1 hydrogen bond that stabilizes the γ region in the generic Ramachandran plot. Conclusion We have identified the specific interactions that affect the backbone of glycine and pre-proline. Knowledge of these interactions will improve current force-fields, and help understand structural motifs containing these residues.

  14. Reviewing ChIPS, The Chandra Imaging and Plotting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J.; Burke, D. J.; Evans, I. N.; Evans, J. D.; McLaughlin, W.

    2015-09-01

    The Chandra Imaging and Plotting System (ChIPS) is a 2D plotting system designed to allow users to easily create, manipulate, and produce publication quality visualizations. ChIPS has a simple but very powerful interactive interface that allows users to dynamically modify the contents and layout of their plots quickly and efficiently, with the results of any changes being immediately visible. ChIPS allows users to construct their plots fully interactively, and then save the final plot commands as a Python script. This bypasses the need to iteratively edit and rerun the script when developing the plot. Features such as undo and redo commands allow users to easily step backwards and forwards through previous commands, while the ability so save ChIPS sessions in a platform-independent state file allows the session to be restored at any time, even on another machine. Because ChIPS offers a Python interface, users can analyze their data using the broad array of modules offered in Python, and visualize the information in ChIPS at the same time. In this paper we explore the design decisions behind the development of ChIPS and some of the lessons learned along the way.

  15. Tracking Changes in Cardiac Output: Statistical Considerations on the 4-Quadrant Plot and the Polar Plot Methodology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saugel, Bernd; Grothe, Oliver; Wagner, Julia Y

    2015-01-01

    When comparing 2 technologies for measuring hemodynamic parameters with regard to their ability to track changes, 2 graphical tools are omnipresent in the literaturethe 4-quadrant plot and the polar...

  16. Hormone Receptor Expression Analyses in Neoplastic and Non-Neoplastic Canine Mammary Tissue by a Bead Based Multiplex Branched DNA Assay: A Gene Expression Study in Fresh Frozen and Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Annika; Lüder Ripoli, Florenza; Hammer, Susanne Conradine; Willenbrock, Saskia; Hewicker-Trautwein, Marion; Kiełbowicz, Zdzisław; Murua Escobar, Hugo; Nolte, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is currently considered the method of choice for steroid hormone receptor status evaluation in human breast cancer and, therefore, it is commonly utilized for assessing canine mammary tumors. In case of low hormone receptor expression, IHC is limited and thus is complemented by molecular analyses. In the present study, a multiplex bDNA assay was evaluated as a method for hormone receptor gene expression detection in canine mammary tissues. Estrogen receptor (ESR1), progesterone receptor (PGR), prolactin receptor (PRLR) and growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene expressions were evaluated in neoplastic and non-neoplastic canine mammary tissues. A set of 119 fresh frozen and 180 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) was comparatively analyzed and used for assay evaluation. Furthermore, a possible association between the hormone receptor expression in different histological subtypes of canine malignant mammary tumors and the castration status, breed and invasive growth of the tumor were analyzed. The multiplex bDNA assay proved to be more sensitive for fresh frozen specimens. Hormone receptor expression found was significantly decreased in malignant mammary tumors in comparison to non-neoplastic tissue and benign mammary tumors. Among the histological subtypes the lowest gene expression levels of ESR1, PGR and PRLR were found in solid, anaplastic and ductal carcinomas. In summary, the evaluation showed that the measurement of hormone receptors with the multiplex bDNA assay represents a practicable method for obtaining detailed quantitative information about gene expression in canine mammary tissue for future studies. Still, comparison with IHC or quantitative real-time PCR is needed for further validation of the present method.

  17. The Application of TD/GC/NICI-MS with an Al2O3-PLOT-S Column for the Determination of Perfluoroalkylcycloalkanes in the Atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yu; Schlager, Hans; Martin, Damien

    2014-01-01

    A modified method for the quantitative determination of atmospheric perfluoroalkylcycloalkanes (PFCs) using thermal desorption coupled with gas chromatography and detection by negative ion chemical ionization-mass spectrometry was developed. Using an optimized analytical system, a commercially available Al2O3 porous layer open tubular (PLOT) capillary column (30 m × 0.25 mm) deactivated with Na2SO4 was used for separation of PFCs. Improvements in the separation of PFCs, the corresponding identification and the limit of detection of PFCs using this method and column are presented. The method was successfully applied to determine the atmospheric background concentrations of a range of PFCs from a number of samples collected at a rural site in Germany. The results of this study suggest that the method outlined using the Al2O3-PLOT-S capillary column has good sensitivity and selectivity, and that it can be deployed in a routine laboratory process for the analysis of PFCs in the future research work. In addition, the ability of this column to separate the isomers of one of the lower boiling PFCs (perfluorodimethylcyclobutane) and its ability to resolve perfluoroethylcyclohexane offer the opportunity for single-column analysis for multiple PFCs.

  18. Does the disturbance hypothesis explain the biomass increase in basin-wide Amazon forest plot data?

    OpenAIRE

    Gloor, M.; Phillips, Oliver L.; Lloyd, J.; Lewis, Simon L.; Malhi, Y; Baker, T. R.; Lopez Gonzalez, G.; J. Peacock; Almeida, S; Alves de Oliveira, Atila Cristina; Alvarez, E; Amaral, Ieda; Arroyo, L.; Aymard, Gerardo; Banki, Olaf

    2009-01-01

    Positive aboveground biomass trends have been reported from old-growth forests across the Amazon basin and hypothesized to reflect a large-scale response to exterior forcing. The result could, however, be an artefact due to a sampling bias induced by the nature of forest growth dynamics. Here, we characterize statistically the disturbance process in Amazon old-growth forests as recorded in 135 forest plots of the RAINFOR network up to 2006, and other independent research programmes, and explo...

  19. Atrial fibrillation detection by heart rate variability in Poincare plot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeon Moongu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atrial fibrillation (AFib is one of the prominent causes of stroke, and its risk increases with age. We need to detect AFib correctly as early as possible to avoid medical disaster because it is likely to proceed into a more serious form in short time. If we can make a portable AFib monitoring system, it will be helpful to many old people because we cannot predict when a patient will have a spasm of AFib. Methods We analyzed heart beat variability from inter-beat intervals obtained by a wavelet-based detector. We made a Poincare plot using the inter-beat intervals. By analyzing the plot, we extracted three feature measures characterizing AFib and non-AFib: the number of clusters, mean stepping increment of inter-beat intervals, and dispersion of the points around a diagonal line in the plot. We divided distribution of the number of clusters into two and calculated mean value of the lower part by k-means clustering method. We classified data whose number of clusters is more than one and less than this mean value as non-AFib data. In the other case, we tried to discriminate AFib from non-AFib using support vector machine with the other feature measures: the mean stepping increment and dispersion of the points in the Poincare plot. Results We found that Poincare plot from non-AFib data showed some pattern, while the plot from AFib data showed irregularly irregular shape. In case of non-AFib data, the definite pattern in the plot manifested itself with some limited number of clusters or closely packed one cluster. In case of AFib data, the number of clusters in the plot was one or too many. We evaluated the accuracy using leave-one-out cross-validation. Mean sensitivity and mean specificity were 91.4% and 92.9% respectively. Conclusions Because pulse beats of ventricles are less likely to be influenced by baseline wandering and noise, we used the inter-beat intervals to diagnose AFib. We visually displayed regularity of the inter

  20. Meta-STEPP: subpopulation treatment effect pattern plot for individual patient data meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin Victoria; Cole, Bernard; Bonetti, Marco; Gelber, Richard D

    2016-09-20

    We have developed a method, called Meta-STEPP (subpopulation treatment effect pattern plot for meta-analysis), to explore treatment effect heterogeneity across covariate values in the meta-analysis setting for time-to-event data when the covariate of interest is continuous. Meta-STEPP forms overlapping subpopulations from individual patient data containing similar numbers of events with increasing covariate values, estimates subpopulation treatment effects using standard fixed-effects meta-analysis methodology, displays the estimated subpopulation treatment effect as a function of the covariate values, and provides a statistical test to detect possibly complex treatment-covariate interactions. Simulation studies show that this test has adequate type-I error rate recovery as well as power when reasonable window sizes are chosen. When applied to eight breast cancer trials, Meta-STEPP suggests that chemotherapy is less effective for tumors with high estrogen receptor expression compared with those with low expression. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Developing robust recurrence plot analysis techniques for investigating infant respiratory patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, Philip I; Wilson, Stephen; Suresh, Sadasivam; Cooper, David M

    2007-01-01

    Recurrence plot analysis is a useful non-linear analysis tool. There are still no well formalised procedures for carrying out this analysis on measured physiological data, and systemising analysis is often difficult. In this paper, the recurrence based embedding is compared to radius based embedding by studying a logistic attractor and measured breathing data collected from sleeping human infants. Recurrence based embedding appears to be a more robust method of carrying out a recurrence analysis when attractor size is likely to be different between datasets. In the infant breathing data, the radius measure calculated at a fixed recurrence, scaled by average respiratory period, allows the accurate discrimination of active sleep from quiet sleep states (AUC=0.975, Sn=098, Sp=0.94).

  2. Split-plot Experiments with Unusual Numbers of Subplot Runs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahci, Murat

    2007-01-01

    In many experimental situations, it may not be feasible or even possible to run experiments in a completely randomized fashion as usually recommended. Under these circumstances, split-plot experiments in which certain factors are changed less frequently than the others are often used. Most...... of the literature on split-plot designs is based on 2-level factorials. For those designs, the number of subplots is a power of 2. There may however be some situations where for cost purposes or physical constraints, we may need to have unusual number of subplots such as 3, 5, 6, etc. In this article, we explore...... this issue and provide some examples based on the Plackett and Burman designs. Also algorithmically constructed D-optimal split-plot designs are compared to those based on Plackett and Burman designs....

  3. D.3.3 PLOT Persuasive Learning Design Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hansen, Sandra Burri

    2012-01-01

    In this third and final deliverable of WP3: Persuasive Learning Designs, the theoretical cross field between persuasion and learning and the practical analysis of the technological learning tools and products which are currently related to the PLOT project, namely the GLOMaker and the 3ET tool......, are linked together as persuasive learning designs are defined and exemplified through the four e-PLOT cases. Based on the literary study of D.3.1 as well as the subsequent discussions and reflections regarding the theoretical foundation and practical application of persuasive learning technologies......, and in acknowledgement that the results of this deliverable are to be applicable in both WP4 and 5, the persuasive learning designs presented in this report are not summarized as patterns. Instead the definition of persuasive learning designs is presented on more general terms and exemplified in relation to the e-PLOT...

  4. Cross recurrence plot based synchronization of time series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Marwan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of recurrence plots is extended to the cross recurrence plots (CRP which, among others, enables the study of synchronization or time differences in two time series. This is emphasized in a distorted main diagonal in the cross recurrence plot, the line of synchronization (LOS. A non-parametrical fit of this LOS can be used to rescale the time axis of the two data series (whereby one of them is compressed or stretched so that they are synchronized. An application of this method to geophysical sediment core data illustrates its suitability for real data. The rock magnetic data of two different sediment cores from the Makarov Basin can be adjusted to each other by using this method, so that they are comparable.

  5. Cross Recurrence Plot Based Synchronization of Time Series

    CERN Document Server

    Marwan, N; Nowaczyk, N R

    2002-01-01

    The method of recurrence plots is extended to the cross recurrence plots (CRP), which among others enables the study of synchronization or time differences in two time series. This is emphasized in a distorted main diagonal in the cross recurrence plot, the line of synchronization (LOS). A non-parametrical fit of this LOS can be used to rescale the time axis of the two data series (whereby one of it is e.g. compressed or stretched) so that they are synchronized. An application of this method to geophysical sediment core data illustrates its suitability for real data. The rock magnetic data of two different sediment cores from the Makarov Basin can be adjusted to each other by using this method, so that they are comparable.

  6. Experts’ Misinterpretation of Box Plots – a Dual Processing Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Lem

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that students often misinterpret the area of the box in box plots as representing the frequency or proportion of observations in that interval, while it actually represents density. This misinterpretation has been shown to be based on the saliency of this area and can be explained by heuristic reasoning as defined by dual process theories. In this study we tested whether expert users of box plots also display this misinterpretation and show signs of the same heuristic reasoning as found in students. Using a reaction time test, we found signs of heuristic reasoning in experts, both with respect to accuracy and reaction times. If even experts have difficulty interpreting box plots, one can question whether these are an appropriate form of representation to use when reporting data and deserve the prominent place they currently have in the statistics curriculum.

  7. Dalitz plot analysis of the D+ $\\to$K $\\pi$+$\\pi$+ decay in the FOCUS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Link, J M; Anjos, J C; Bediaga, I; Castromonte, C; Machado, A A; Magnin, J; Massafferri, A; De Miranda, J M; Pepe, I M; Polycarpo, E; Dos Reis, A C; Carrillo, S; Casimiro, E; Cuautle, E; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Uribe, C; Vázquez, F; Agostino, L; Cinquini, L; Cumalat, J P; Frisullo, V; O'Reilly, B; Segoni, I; Stenson, K; Butler, J N; Cheung, H W K; Chiodini, G; Gaines, I; Garbincius, P H; Garren, L A; Gottschalk, E; Kasper, P H; Kreymer, A E; Kutschke, R; Wang, M; Benussi, L; Bianco, S; Fabbri, F L; Zallo, A; Reyes, M; Cawlfield, C; Kim, D Y; Rahimi, A; Wiss, J; Gardner, R; Kryemadhi, A; Chung, Y S; Kang, J S; Ko, B R; Kwak, J W; Lee, K B; Cho, K; Park, H; Alimonti, G; Barberis, S; Boschini, M; Cerutti, A; D'Angelo, P; Di Corato, M; Dini, P; Edera, L; Erba, S; Inzani, P; Leveraro, F; Malvezzi, S; Menasce, D; Mezzadri, M; Moroni, L; Pedrini, D; Pontoglio, C; Prelz, F; Rovere, M; Sala, S; Davenport, T F; Arena, V; Boca, G; Bonomi, G; Gianini, G; Liguori, G; Lopes-Pegna, D; Merlo, M M; Pantea, D; Ratti, S P; Riccardi, C; Vitulo, P; Göbel, C; Otalora, J; Hernández, H; López, A M; Méndez, H; Paris, A; Quinones, J; Ramírez, J E; Zhang, Y; Wilson, J R; Handler, T; Mitchell, R; Engh, D; Hosack, M; Johns, W E; Luiggi, E; Nehring, M; Sheldon, P D; Vaandering, E W; Webster, M; Sheaff, M; Pennington, Michael R

    2007-01-01

    Using data collected by the high energy photoproduction experiment FOCUS at Fermilab we performed a Dalitz plot analysis of the Cabibbo favored decay D+ to K-pi+ pi+. This study uses 53653 Dalitz-plot events with a signal fraction of ~ 97%, and represents the highest statistics, most complete Dalitz plot analysis for this channel. Results are presented and discussed using two different formalisms. The first is a simple sum of Breit--Wigner functions with freely fitted masses and widths. It is the model traditionally adopted and serves as comparison with the already published analyses. The second uses a K-matrix approach for the dominant S-wave, in which the parameters are fixed by first fitting Kpi scattering data and continued to threshold by Chiral Perturbation Theory. We show that the Dalitz plot distribution for this decay is consistent with the assumption of two body dominance of the final state interactions and the description of these interactions is in agreement with other data on the Kpi final state.

  8. Design criteria and eigensequence plots for satellite computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahba, G.

    1983-01-01

    The use of the degrees of freedom for signal is proposed as a design criteria for comparing different designs for satellite and other measuring systems. It is also proposed that certain eigensequence plots be examined at the design stage along with appropriate estimates of the parameter lambda playing the role of noise to signal ratio. The degrees of freedom for signal and the eigensequence plots may be determined using prior information in the spectral domain which is presently available along with a description of the system, and simulated data for estimating lambda. This work extends the 1972 work of Weinreb and Crosby.

  9. D.3.2 PLOT Persuasive Learning Design Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hansen, Sandra Burri; Schärfe, Henrik; Winther-Nielsen, Nicolai

    2011-01-01

    of the technological learning tools and products which are currently related to the PLOT project, namely the GLOMaker and the 3ET tool, and a selection of GLOs and learning exercises. The primary focus of the analysis is to explore how the theoretical perspectives presented in D.3.1 are represented in these tools......, in particular the notions of persuasive design and constructive alignment. Whilst the report provides a persuasive design perspective on the technologies related to Euro PLOT, it must be stressed that if the document is to function as a basis for further discussion within the consortium, the partners...

  10. [Recurrence plot analysis of HRV for brain ischemia and asphyxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoming; Qiu, Yihong; Zhu, Yisheng

    2008-02-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is the tiny variability existing in the cycles of the heart beats, which reflects the corresponding balance between sympathetic and vagus nerves. Since the nonlinear characteristic of HRV is confirmed, the Recurrence Plot method, a nonlinear dynamic analysis method based on the complexity, could be used to analyze HRV. The results showed the recurrence plot structures and some quantitative indices (L-Mean, L-Entr) during asphyxia insult vary significantly as compared to those in normal conditions, which offer a new method to monitor brain asphyxia injury.

  11. Recurrence plots and recurrence quantification analysis of human motion data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josiński, Henryk; Michalczuk, Agnieszka; Świtoński, Adam; Szczesna, Agnieszka; Wojciechowski, Konrad

    2016-06-01

    The authors present exemplary application of recurrence plots, cross recurrence plots and recurrence quantification analysis for the purpose of exploration of experimental time series describing selected aspects of human motion. Time series were extracted from treadmill gait sequences which were recorded in the Human Motion Laboratory (HML) of the Polish-Japanese Academy of Information Technology in Bytom, Poland by means of the Vicon system. Analysis was focused on the time series representing movements of hip, knee, ankle and wrist joints in the sagittal plane.

  12. Vector plotting as an indication of the approach to flutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, E. G.

    1975-01-01

    A binary flexure-torsion analysis was made to check theoretically a method for predicting flutter which depends on plotting vectorially the amplitudes of response relative to the exciting force and extracting the relevant damping rate. The results of this calculation are given in graphs both of the vector plots themselves and of the estimated damping rate against forward speed. The estimated damping rates are compared with calculated values. The method has the advantage that in a flight flutter test damping can be estimated from continuous excitation records: the method is an extension of the Kennedy and Pancu technique used in ground resonance testing.

  13. On the Nature of Earth-Mars Porkchop Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Ryan C.; Whetsel, Charles W.

    2013-01-01

    Porkchop plots are a quick and convenient tool to help mission designers plan ballistic trajectories between two bodies. Parameter contours give rise to the familiar 'porkchop' shape. Each synodic period the pattern repeats, but not exactly, primarily due to differences in inclination and non-zero eccentricity. In this paper we examine the morphological features of Earth-to-Mars porkchop plots and the orbital characteristics that create them. These results are compared to idealistic and optimized transfers. Conclusions are drawn about 'good' opportunities versus 'bad' opportunities for different mission applications.

  14. On the Nature of Earth-Mars Porkchop Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Ryan C.; Whetsel, Charles W.

    2013-01-01

    Porkchop plots are a quick and convenient tool to help mission designers plan ballistic trajectories between two bodies. Parameter contours give rise to the familiar 'porkchop' shape. Each synodic period the pattern repeats, but not exactly, primarily due to differences in inclination and non-zero eccentricity. In this paper we examine the morphological features of Earth-to-Mars porkchop plots and the orbital characteristics that create them. These results are compared to idealistic and optimized transfers. Conclusions are drawn about 'good' opportunities versus 'bad' opportunities for different mission applications.

  15. PlotXY: A High Quality Plotting System for the Herschel Interactive Processing Environment (HIPE) and the Astronomical Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panuzzo, P.; Li, J.; Caux, E.

    2012-09-01

    The Herschel Interactive Processing Environment (HIPE) was developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) in collaboration with NASA and the Herschel Instrument Control Centres, to provide the astronomical community a complete environment to process and analyze the data gathered by the Herschel Space Observatory. One of the most important components of HIPE is the plotting system (named PlotXY) that we present here. With PlotXY it is possible to produce easily high quality publication-ready 2D plots. It provides a long list of features, with fully configurable components, and interactive zooming. The entire code of HIPE is written in Java and is open source released under the GNU Lesser General Public License version 3. A new version of PlotXY is being developed to be independent from the HIPE code base; it is available to the software development community for the inclusion in other projects at the URL google.com/p/jplot2d/'>http://code.google.com/p/jplot2d/.

  16. Possibilities and limitations of the kinetic plot method in supercritical fluid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pauw, Ruben; Desmet, Gert; Broeckhoven, Ken

    2013-08-30

    Although supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) is becoming a technique of increasing importance in the field of analytical chromatography, methods to compare the performance of SFC-columns and separations in an unbiased way are not fully developed. The present study uses mathematical models to investigate the possibilities and limitations of the kinetic plot method in SFC as this easily allows to investigate a wide range of operating pressures, retention and mobile phase conditions. The variable column length (L) kinetic plot method was further investigated in this work. Since the pressure history is identical for each measurement, this method gives the true kinetic performance limit in SFC. The deviations of the traditional way of measuring the performance as a function of flow rate (fixed back pressure and column length) and the isopycnic method with respect to this variable column length method were investigated under a wide range of operational conditions. It is found that using the variable L method, extrapolations towards other pressure drops are not valid in SFC (deviation of ∼15% for extrapolation from 50 to 200bar pressure drop). The isopycnic method provides the best prediction but its use is limited when operating closer towards critical point conditions. When an organic modifier is used, the predictions are improved for both methods with respect to the variable L method (e.g. deviations decreases from 20% to 2% when 20mol% of methanol is added).

  17. Can We Monitor Ecosystem Function Using Keeling Plot Analyses of Nocturnal Cold-Air Drainage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, B. J.; Ocheltree, T.; Pypker, T.; Unsworth, M. H.; Mix, A. C.; William, R.

    2003-12-01

    The carbon isotope signature of ecosystem respiration, δ 13CR, as measured by the Keeling Plot approach, has been related to short-term variations in weather and ecosystem function in several recent studies. In order to obtain an adequate range of [CO2] and to sample a consistent vegetation type, investigators typically select sampling locations in relatively flat terrain and uniform canopy cover, but these are unusual conditions for many forested ecosystems. In a pilot study, we are collecting samples for Keeling Plot analyses in cold-air drainage systems in small (60-100 ha), deeply-incised watersheds, one covered with old-growth (ca 450-years-old) Douglas-fir/hemlock forest and one covered with young (ca 45-years-old) Douglas-fir forest. We found that the nightly range of [CO2] was typically 380-460 ppm, sufficient to develop good estimates of δ 13CR. At any point in time there was little variation in [CO2] with height through the canopy (0.5-30m), so the required range was obtained by sampling over several hours. There was no indication that samples taken from different heights or at different times of night represented sources with different isotopic signatures. The isotopic signature of respired CO2 in the older watershed averaged about 1 per mil greater than that of the young watershed, and δ 13CR of both locations correlated with modeled stomatal conductance 6 days prior to flask sampling.

  18. PuffinPlot: A versatile, user-friendly program for paleomagnetic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurcock, P. C.; Wilson, G. S.

    2012-06-01

    PuffinPlot is a user-friendly desktop application for analysis of paleomagnetic data, offering a unique combination of features. It runs on several operating systems, including Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux; supports both discrete and long core data; and facilitates analysis of very weakly magnetic samples. As well as interactive graphical operation, PuffinPlot offers batch analysis for large volumes of data, and a Python scripting interface for programmatic control of its features. Available data displays include demagnetization/intensity, Zijderveld, equal-area (for sample, site, and suite level demagnetization data, and for magnetic susceptibility anisotropy data), a demagnetization data table, and a natural remanent magnetization intensity histogram. Analysis types include principal component analysis, Fisherian statistics, and great-circle path intersections. The results of calculations can be exported as CSV (comma-separated value) files; graphs can be printed, and can also be saved as publication-quality vector files in SVG or PDF format. PuffinPlot is free, and the program, user manual, and fully documented source code may be downloaded from http://code.google.com/p/puffinplot/.

  19. Superplot: a graphical interface for plotting and analysing MultiNest output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowlie, Andrew; Bardsley, Michael Hugh

    2016-11-01

    We present an application, Superplot, for calculating and plotting statistical quantities relevant to parameter inference from a "chain" of samples drawn from a parameter space, produced by, e.g., MultiNest. A simple graphical interface allows one to browse a chain of many variables quickly, and make publication quality plots of, inter alia, one- and two-dimensional profile likelihood, posterior pdf (with kernel density estimation), confidence intervals and credible regions. In this short manual, we document installation and basic usage, and define all statistical quantities and conventions. The code is fully compatible with Linux and Windows. All functionality is available on Mac OSX, though it must be invoked by the command line rather than a graphical interface.

  20. Field Plot and Accuracy Assessment Points for Palo Alto Battlefield National Historical Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Accuracy Assessment, Observation and Plot Points. Plot data were collected from 2000-2003; however, minimal attributes were maintained and a plots database was not...

  1. Field Plot and Accuracy Assessment Points for Hagerman Fossil Beds National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Accuracy Assessment, Observation and Plot Points. Plot points were created from the GPS coordinates recorded at the center of each plot to map their distribution and...

  2. How useful are Green-Ampt parameters derived from small rainfall simulation plots for modelling runoff at different plot lengths?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhans, Christoph; Engels, Lien; Tegenbos, Lize; Govers, Gerard; Diels, Jan

    2010-05-01

    Rainfall simulation on small field plots is an invaluable method to derive effective field parameters for infiltration models such as Green-Ampt. Plot scales of ca. 1m² integrate much of the micro-scale variability and processes, which ring-infiltrometers or soil core measurements cannot capture. However, these parameters have to be used with caution on larger scales, because processes such as run-on infiltration can be considerable. The Green-Ampt parameters suction across the wetting front (psi) and effective hydraulic conductivity (Ke) were estimated from rainfall simulations on two ridged fields in Togo, West Africa. Additionally, rainfall events were recorded, and on plots of 1m width and lengths of 1, 4 and 16m, total runoff volume and sediment concentration were measured. The storm runoff hydrographs of the plots were modelled with Chu's Green-Ampt variable rainfall intensity infiltration model, using the field-average parameters derived from the simulations. Potential effects of runoff lag time were assumed negligible. Calculated total runoff volumes were compared to measured runoff volumes. For the 1m plots, runoff was underestimated, as patches of seal in the furrows produced runoff already at rainfall intensities much lower than the average infiltration capacity. For the longer plots, no run-on infiltration or other scale dependent processes were assumed, so the relative error due to scale effects was proportional to the average difference or runoff depth. In contrast to the 1m plots, runoff was overestimated by a factor of 1.2 and 2 for the 4m and 16m plots, respectively. It appears that the application of the Green-Ampt effective hydraulic conductivity derived from rainfall simulations faces two main problems, which are their dependence on one single rainfall intensity and scale-effects by run-on infiltration. Errors necessarily propagate into the scale dependency of erosion and sediment transport, as these processes are directly dependent on runoff

  3. A Conductive Gel for the Plotting of Equipotential Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizalde-Torres, J.; González-Cardel, M.; Vega-Murguía, E. J.; Castillo-González, I.; Rodríguez-Nava, M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a conductive gel that can be used to measure the electrical potential differences on its surface, and has enough consistency to plot equipotential lines. It has a gelation time of less than 10 min, and is suitable for implementing learning experiences in a physics teaching laboratory in a 90 min session. To…

  4. Designing fractional factorial split-plot experiments using integer programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capehart, Shay R.; Keha, Ahmet; Kulahci, Murat

    2011-01-01

    factorial (FF) design, with the restricted randomisation structure to account for the whole plots and subplots. We discuss the formulation of FFSP designs using integer programming (IP) to achieve various design criteria. We specifically look at the maximum number of clear two-factor interactions...

  5. 70 Years of permanent plot research in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, N.A.C.; Schaminée, J.H.J.; Duuren, van L.

    2002-01-01

    Within the framework of the Dutch `Network Ecological Monitoring¿, a large set of new permanent plots has been established to monitor selected plant communities throughout The Netherlands for studying the effects of environmental changes on species composition of semi-natural communities. This

  6. D.3.1 PLOT Persuasive Learning Design Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hansen, Sandra Burri; Schärfe, Henrik; Dinesen, Jens Vilhelm

    2011-01-01

    , constructive alignment, and towards a common understanding of the ethical stances we believe should underpin persuasive efforts. In section 4, we present viewpoints on the four cases, central to the PLOT project. This section is the result of a workshop held at the consortium meeting in Aalborg. Finally...

  7. Designing fractional factorial split-plot experiments using integer programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capehart, Shay R.; Keha, Ahmet; Kulahci, Murat

    2011-01-01

    factorial (FF) design, with the restricted randomisation structure to account for the whole plots and subplots. We discuss the formulation of FFSP designs using integer programming (IP) to achieve various design criteria. We specifically look at the maximum number of clear two-factor interactions...

  8. Constructing General Orthogonal Fractional Factorial Split-Plot Designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sartono, B.; Goos, P.; Schoen, E.

    2015-01-01

    While the orthogonal design of split-plot fractional factorial experiments has received much attention already, there are still major voids in the literature. First, designs with one or more factors acting at more than two levels have not yet been considered. Second, published work on nonregular fra

  9. Omitted Variable Sensitivity Analysis with the Annotated Love Plot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Ben B.; Fredrickson, Mark M.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this research is to make sensitivity analysis accessible not only to empirical researchers but also to the various stakeholders for whom educational evaluations are conducted. To do this it derives anchors for the omitted variable (OV)-program participation association intrinsically, using the Love plot to present a wide range of…

  10. A Simple Interactive Software Package for Plotting, Animating, and Calculating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Larry

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a new open source (free) software package that provides a simple, highly interactive interface for carrying out certain mathematical tasks that are commonly encountered in physics. These tasks include plotting and animating functions, solving systems of coupled algebraic equations, and basic calculus (differentiating and integrating…

  11. A New method of preparing iso-hardness plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V.; Patwardhan, A. K.

    1993-02-01

    A new approach has been used for the preparation of iso-hardness plots, which are very useful in the heat treating of metals and alloys. An alloy white iron containing ~6% Mn, ~5% Cr, and ~3% Cu was heat treated at 800,850,900,950,1000, and 1050 °C and soaked for 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 h, respectively, at each of these temperatures followed by air cooling. It was observed that, although the hardness varied linearly with soaking time, its variation with soaking temperature was nonlinear. This can be represented as: H = 98.285e2021.33/T + (0.037 - 0.316 × 10- 4 T) . t where H is Vickers hardness; T is soaking temperature in K; and t is soaking time in seconds. The variation in hardness has been discussed in light of microstructural changes that can take place upon heat treating. A three-dimensional plot of hardness, soaking temperature, and time was prepared based on the above equation. It revealed that the variation in hardness on heat treating can be represented as a surface instead of lines, where the change in the slope of the surface reflects the various transformations occurring in the alloy system. This iso- hardness plot, consisting of contours of constant hardness, has been prepared by projecting the above-mentioned surface on the soaking temperature- time plane. The method of selection of heat treating parameters based on this iso- hardness plot is discussed.

  12. Subclassifying disordered proteins by the CH-CDF plot method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fei; Oldfield, Christopher; Meng, Jingwei; Hsu, Wei-Lun; Xue, Bin; Uversky, Vladimir N; Romero, Pedro; Dunker, A Keith

    2012-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are associated with a wide range of functions. We suggest that sequence-based subtypes, which we call flavors, may provide the basis for different biological functions. The problem is to find a method that separates IDPs into different flavor / function groups. Here we discuss one approach, the (Charge-Hydropathy) versus (Cumulative Distribution Function) plot or CH-CDF plot, which is based the combined use of the CH and CDF disorder predictors. These two predictors are based on significantly different inputs and methods. This CH-CDF plot partitions all proteins into 4 groups: structured, mixed, disordered, and rare. Studies of the Protein Data Bank (PDB) entries and homologous show different structural biases for each group classified by the CH-CDF plot. The mixed class has more order-promoting residues and more ordered regions than the disordered class. To test whether this partition accomplishes any functional separation, we performed gene ontology (GO) term analysis on each class. Some functions are indeed found to be related to subtypes of disorder: the disordered class is highly active in mitosis-related processes among others. Meanwhile, the mixed class is highly associated with signaling pathways, where having both ordered and disordered regions could possibly be important.

  13. Developing Box Plots While Navigating the Maze of Data Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Bruce; Fitzallen, Noleine

    2013-01-01

    The learning sequence described in this article was developed to provide students with a demonstration of the development of box plots from authentic data as an illustration of the advantages gained from using multiple forms of data representation. The sequence follows an authentic process that starts with a problem to which data representations…

  14. Igloo-Plot: a tool for visualization of multidimensional datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntal, Bhusan K; Ghosh, Tarini Shankar; Mande, Sharmila S

    2014-01-01

    Advances in science and technology have resulted in an exponential growth of multivariate (or multi-dimensional) datasets which are being generated from various research areas especially in the domain of biological sciences. Visualization and analysis of such data (with the objective of uncovering the hidden patterns therein) is an important and challenging task. We present a tool, called Igloo-Plot, for efficient visualization of multidimensional datasets. The tool addresses some of the key limitations of contemporary multivariate visualization and analysis tools. The visualization layout, not only facilitates an easy identification of clusters of data-points having similar feature compositions, but also the 'marker features' specific to each of these clusters. The applicability of the various functionalities implemented herein is demonstrated using several well studied multi-dimensional datasets. Igloo-Plot is expected to be a valuable resource for researchers working in multivariate data mining studies. Igloo-Plot is available for download from: http://metagenomics.atc.tcs.com/IglooPlot/.

  15. Box-and-Whisker Plots Applied to Food Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Joao E. V.; Miranda, Ricardo M.; Figueiredo, Antonio F.; Barbosa, Jardel P.; Brasil, Edykarlos M.

    2016-01-01

    Box-and-whisker plots or simply boxplots are powerful graphical representations that give an overview of a data set. In this work five different examples illustrate the applications of boxplots in food chemistry. The examples involve relative sweetness of sugars and sugar alcohols with respect to sucrose, the potassium content of fruits and…

  16. Non-parametric and least squares Langley plot methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. W. Kiedron

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Langley plots are used to calibrate sun radiometers primarily for the measurement of the aerosol component of the atmosphere that attenuates (scatters and absorbs incoming direct solar radiation. In principle, the calibration of a sun radiometer is a straightforward application of the Bouguer–Lambert–Beer law V=V>/i>0e−τ ·m, where a plot of ln (V voltage vs. m air mass yields a straight line with intercept ln (V0. This ln (V0 subsequently can be used to solve for τ for any measurement of V and calculation of m. This calibration works well on some high mountain sites, but the application of the Langley plot calibration technique is more complicated at other, more interesting, locales. This paper is concerned with ferreting out calibrations at difficult sites and examining and comparing a number of conventional and non-conventional methods for obtaining successful Langley plots. The eleven techniques discussed indicate that both least squares and various non-parametric techniques produce satisfactory calibrations with no significant differences among them when the time series of ln (V0's are smoothed and interpolated with median and mean moving window filters.

  17. Box-and-Whisker Plots Applied to Food Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Joao E. V.; Miranda, Ricardo M.; Figueiredo, Antonio F.; Barbosa, Jardel P.; Brasil, Edykarlos M.

    2016-01-01

    Box-and-whisker plots or simply boxplots are powerful graphical representations that give an overview of a data set. In this work five different examples illustrate the applications of boxplots in food chemistry. The examples involve relative sweetness of sugars and sugar alcohols with respect to sucrose, the potassium content of fruits and…

  18. Richness and Abundance of Lianas with Different Diameter Classes in Permanent Plots in the Amazon in Mato Grosso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Ferraz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Lianas are an important component of the structure and diversity of tropical forests and the Amazon biome is one of few natural protected areas that still support the highest level of biodiversity in the world. Generally in disturbed forests high densities of lianas are found than mature forests. The aim of this study is to investigate the richness among families and lianas abundance with different diameter classes in permanent plots in the Amazon of Mato Grosso. To the survey were placed 8 plots of 40 x 250 in a forest fragment that has been management for 30 years, where we sampled lianas species with diameter breast height (DBH ≥ 1 cm. There were sampled 3970 stems in the permanent plots, and the two most abundant were 2 and 6 with 594 and 573 individuals respectively. The richest families were Sapindaceae, Dilleniaceae, Menispermaceae and Fabaceae. These results confirm the hypothesis that disturbed areas have more density of lianas with small DBH.

  19. Comparative water balance study of forest and fallow plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Móricz N

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Increasing pressure on groundwater due to land use change (e.g., afforestation and future climate change will alter the recharge of groundwater aquifers, causing shifts in water table levels and hence influencing the avai­lable groundwater resources. The effect of land use change on groundwater resources has initiated a major scientific debate during the last decades between foresters and experts in water management in Hungary and in several other countries. The aim of this study was to compare water balances of two different vegetation covers, a groundwater dependent oak forest and a nearby fallow area in the Hungarian Lowland. Water balance components for an oak and a fallow plots, exposed to similar weather conditions and with similar soils, were estimated and compared by calibrating the Hydrus 1-D model using mea­sured soil water content and groundwater levels. The difference in the groundwater consumption was analyzed in details during dry and wet growing seasons. Transpiration at the fallow plot was only about two-thirds of that in the oak forest, while groundwater consumption was three times higher in the forest than at the fallow plot throughout the two-year study. During the dry growing season, the proportion of groundwater use from the total transpiration reached up to 90% at the oak plot. According to the model, in the dry growing season in 2007 both vegetation covers relied significantly on groundwater resources, while in 2008 the consumption of groundwater was notably reduced due to the wet weather at both plots.

  20. Aquifer test interpretation using derivative analysis and diagnostic plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Espriú, Antonio; Real-Rangel, Roberto; Cortés-Salazar, Iván; Castro-Herrera, Israel; Luna-Izazaga, Gabriela; Sánchez-León, Emilio

    2017-04-01

    Pumping tests remain a method of choice to deduce fundamental aquifer properties and to assess well condition. In the oil and gas (O&G) industry, well testing has been the core technique in examining reservoir behavior over the last 50 years. The pressure derivative by Bourdet, it is perhaps, the most significant single development in the history of well test analysis. Recently, the so-called diagnostics plots (e.g. drawdown and drawdown derivative in a log-log plot) have been successfully tested in aquifers. However, this procedure is still underutilized by groundwater professionals. This research illustrates the applicability range, advantages and drawbacks (e.g. smoothing procedures) of diagnostic plots using field examples from a wide spectrum of tests (short/long tests, constant/variable flow rates, drawdown/buildup stages, pumping well/observation well) in dissimilar geological conditions. We analyze new and pre-existent aquifer tests in Mexico, USA, Canada, Germany, France and Saudi Arabia. In constant flow rate tests, our results show that derivative analysis is an easy, robust and powerful tool to assess near-borehole damage effects, formation heterogeneity, boundaries, flow regimes, infinite-acting radial stages, i.e., valid Theisian framework, and fracture-driven flow. In step tests, the effectiveness relies on high-frequency drawdown measurements. Moreover, we adapt O&G analytical solutions to cater for the conditions in groundwater systems. In this context, further parameters can be computed analytically from the plots, such as skin factor, head losses, wellbore storage, distance to the boundary, channel-aquifer and/or fracture zone width, among others. Therefore, diagnostic plots should be considered a mandatory tool for pumping tests analysis among hydrogeologists. This project has been supported by DGAPA (UNAM) under the research project PAPIIT IN-112815.

  1. Quality analysis and clinical application of RNA extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples%福尔马林固定石蜡包埋样本提取的RNA质量分析及其临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛洋; 曾富春; 舒骏; 丛伟

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the quality and clinical application of RNA extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embed-ded samples. Methods A total of 994 FFPE samples were collected and RNA was extracted. The quality of RNA was evaluated and the RNA was used for detection of the gene mutation status of EML4-ALK and ROS1 gene. Sanger sequencing was used for assessing the accuracy of gene mutation detection by using RNA samples. Results The A260/A280 and A260/A230 of RNA from 994 cas-es of FFPE samples were not less than 1.8, the average concentration of RNA was 204.23ng/μl and all of 992 RNA samples could be effectively amplified. The results of EML4-ALK and ROS1 gene fusion detection were consistent with that of Sanger sequenc-ing. Conclusions The RNA extracted from FFPE samples is of high quality and suitable for subsequent gene mutation detection by qRT-PCR, which can provide scientific and reliable evidence for selection of tumor targeting drugs.%目的:评估国内福尔马林固定石蜡包埋(formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded,FFPE)样本抽提的RNA质量及其临床应用。方法收集FFPE样本994例,采用RNA分离纯化试剂盒提取纯化RNA,检测提取RNA的质量,并检测RNA样本中的EML4-ALK和ROS1基因突变状态,同时采用Sanger测序法验证使用RNA样本进行基因突变检测的准确性。结果从994例FFPE样本中分离提取的RNA的A260/A280和A260/A230均能达到1.8以上,平均浓度为204.23ng/μl,992例样本均能进行有效扩增。 RNA样本的EML4-ALK和ROS1基因融合检测结果与Sanger测序结果一致。结论从FFPE样本中分离得到的RNA质量良好,适用于后续的基因突变检测,可为肿瘤靶向药物的选择提供科学、可靠的依据。

  2. A tool to determine crown and plot canopy transparency for forest inventory and analysis phase 3 plots using digital photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew F. Winn; Philip A. Araman

    2012-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program collects crown foliage transparency estimates for individual trees on Phase 3 (P3) inventory plots. The FIA crown foliage estimate is obtained from a pair of perpendicular side views of the tree. Researchers with the USDA Forest Service Southern Research Station have developed a computer program that...

  3. Plot-scale testing and sensitivity analysis of Be7 based soil erosion conversion models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Alex; Abdelli, Wahid; Barri, Bashar Al; Iurian, Andra; Gaspar, Leticia; Mabit, Lionel; Millward, Geoff; Ryken, Nick; Blake, Will

    2016-04-01

    Over the past 2 decades, a growing number of studies have recognised the potential for short-lived cosmogenic Be-7 (half-life 53 days) to be used as a tracer to evaluate soil erosion from short-term inter-rill erosion to hillslope sediment budgets. While conversion modelling approaches are now established for event-scale and extended-time-series applications, there is a lack of validation and sensitivity analysis to underpin confidence in their use across a full range of agro-climatic zones. This contribution aims to close this gap in the context of the maritime temperate climate of southwest UK. Two plots of 4 x 35 m were ploughed and tilled at the beginning of winter 2013/2014 in southwest UK to create (1) a bare, sloped soil surface and (2) a bare flat reference site. The bounded lower edge of the plot fed into a collection bin for overland flow and associated sediment. The tilled surface had a low bulk density and high permeability at the start of the experiment (ksat > 100 mm/hr). Hence, despite high rainfall in December (200 mm), notable overland flow was observed only after intense rain storms during late 2013 and early January 2014 when the soil profile was saturated i.e. driven by Saturation Overland Flow (SOF). At the time of SOF initiation, ca. 70% of the final Be-7 inventory had been delivered to the site. Subsequent to a series SOF events across a 1 month period, the plot soil surface was intensively sampled to quantify Be-7 inventory patterns and develop a tracer budget. Captured eroded sediment was dried, weighed and analysed for Be-7. All samples were analysed for particle size by laser granulometry. Be-7 inventory data were converted to soil erosion estimates using (1) standard profile distribution model, (2) the extended time series distribution model and (3) a new 'antecedent rainfall' extended time series model to account for lack of soil erosion prior to soil saturation. Results were scaled up to deliver a plot-scale sediment budget to include

  4. National Radiological Fixed Lab Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Radiological Fixed Laboratory Data Asset includes data produced in support of various clients such as other EPA offices, EPA Regional programs, DOE,...

  5. Elevated Fixed Platform Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Elevated Fixed Platform (EFP) is a helicopter recovery test facility located at Lakehurst, NJ. It consists of a 60 by 85 foot steel and concrete deck built atop...

  6. A comparison of trenched plot techniques for partitioning soil respiration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Bronson, Dustin; Bladyka, Emma; Gower, Stith T.

    2011-07-16

    Partitioning the soil surface CO{sub 2} flux (R{sub S}) flux is an important step in understanding ecosystem-level carbon cycling, given that R{sub S} is poorly constrained and its source components may have different responses to climate change. Trenched plots are a classic method of separating the R{sub S} source fluxes, but labor-intensive and may cause considerable disturbance to the soil environment. This study tested if various methods of plant suppression in trenched plots affected R{sub S} fluxes, quantified the R{sub S} response to soil temperature and moisture changes, and estimated the heterotrophic contribution to R{sub S}. It was performed in a boreal black spruce (Picea mariana) plantation, using a complete randomized design, during the 2007 growing season (May-November). Trenched plots had significantly lower R{sub S} than control plots, with differences appearing {approx}100 days after trenching; spatial variability doubled after trenching but then declined throughout the experiment. Most trenching treatments had significantly lower (by {approx}0.5 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) R{sub S} than the controls, and there was no significant difference in R{sub S} among the various trenching treatments. Soil temperature at 2 cm explained more R{sub S} variability than did 10-cm temperature or soil moisture. Temperature sensitivity (Q10) declined in the control plots from {approx}2.6 (at 5 C) to {approx}1.6 (at 15 C); trenched plots values were higher, from 3.1 at 5 C to 1.9 at 15 C. We estimated R{sub S} for the study period to be 241 {+-} 40 g C m{sup -2}, with roots contributing 64% of R{sub S} after accounting for fine root decay, and 293 g C m{sup -2} for the entire year. These findings suggest that laborious hand weeding of vegetation may be usefully replaced by other methods, easing future studies of this large and poorly-understood carbon flux.

  7. Fixed Exchange Rates and Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Michael W. Klein; Jay C. Shambaugh

    2004-01-01

    A classic argument for a fixed exchange rate is its promotion of trade. Empirical support for this, however, is mixed. While one branch of research consistently shows a small negative effect of exchange rate volatility on trade, another, more recent, branch presents evidence of a large positive impact of currency unions on trade. This paper helps resolve this disconnect. Our results, which use a new data-based classification of fixed exchange rate regimes, show a large, significant effect of ...

  8. Integrating field plots, lidar, and landsat time series to provide temporally consistent annual estimates of biomass from 1990 to present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren B. Cohen; Hans-Erik Andersen; Sean P. Healey; Gretchen G. Moisen; Todd A. Schroeder; Christopher W. Woodall; Grant M. Domke; Zhiqiang Yang; Robert E. Kennedy; Stephen V. Stehman; Curtis Woodcock; Jim Vogelmann; Zhe Zhu; Chengquan. Huang

    2015-01-01

    We are developing a system that provides temporally consistent biomass estimates for national greenhouse gas inventory reporting to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Our model-assisted estimation framework relies on remote sensing to scale from plot measurements to lidar strip samples, to Landsat time series-based maps. As a demonstration, new...

  9. Constraints on the unitarity triangle angle gamma from Dalitz plot analysis of B-0 -> DK+pi(-) decays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaij, R.; Beteta, C. Abellan; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Cartelle, P. Alvarez; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Andreassi, G.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Gutierrez, O. Aquines; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Bellee, V.; Belloli, N.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bertolin, A.; Betti, F.; Bettler, M. -O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bifani, S.; Billoir, P.; Bird, T.; Birnkraut, A.; Bizzeti, A.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borgheresi, A.; Borghi, S.; Borisyak, M.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Braun, S.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N. H.; Buchanan, E.; Burr, C.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Campana, P.; Perez, D. Campora; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carniti, P.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Garcia, L. Castillo; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cavallero, G.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chefdeville, M.; Cheung, S. -F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Vidal, X. Cid; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collazuol, G.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A.; Torres, M. Cruz; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dall'Occo, E.; Dalseno, J.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Aguiar Francisco, O.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C. -T.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Deleage, N.; Demmer, M.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruscio, F.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suarez, A.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dufour, L.; Dujany, G.; Dungs, K.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Farber, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R.; Fazzini, D.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferrari, F.; Rodrigues, F. Ferreira; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fleuret, F.; Fohl, K.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forshaw, D. C.; Forty, R.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Garcia Pardinas, J.; Tico, J. Garra; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Gerick, D.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Giani, S.; Gibson, V.; Girard, O. G.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Gobel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gotti, C.; Gandara, M. Grabalosa; Graciani Diaz, R.; Cardoso, L. A. Granado; Grauges, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Gruenberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadavizadeh, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Heister, A.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Hess, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hongming, L.; Hulsbergen, W.; Humair, T.; Hushchyn, M.; Hutchcroft, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jawahery, A.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Karodia, S.; Kecke, M.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kenzie, M.; Ketel, T.; Khairullin, E.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Kirn, T.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koppenburg, P.; Kozeiha, M.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krokovny, P.; Krzemien, W.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kuonen, A. K.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J. -P.; Lefevre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrancois, J.; Lemos Cid, E.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Likhomanenko, T.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Loh, D.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lucchesi, D.; Lucio Martinez, M.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Lusiani, A.; Machefert, F.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Maguire, K.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Manning, P.; Mapelli, A.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marino, P.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massacrier, L. M.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathad, A.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mauri, A.; Maurin, B.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Melnychuk, D.; Merk, M.; Merli, A.; Michielin, E.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M. -N.; Mitzel, D. S.; Rodriguez, J. Molina; Monroy, I. A.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Morda, A.; Morello, M. J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A. B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Mueller, J.; Mueller, V.; Mussini, M.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nandi, A.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Niess, V.; Nieswand, S.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Rodrigues, B. Osorio; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Otto, A.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Pappenheimer, C.; Parker, W.; Parkes, C.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patrignani, C.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Altarelli, M. Pepe; Perazzini, S.; Perret, P.; Pescatore, L.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Petruzzo, M.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pikies, M.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Piucci, A.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Poikela, T.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polyakov, I.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Price, J. D.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Navarro, A. Puig; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Quagliani, R.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rama, M.; Ramos Pernas, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Raven, G.; Redi, F.; Reichert, S.; dos Reis, A. C.; Renaudin, V.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Lopez, J. A. Rodriguez; Perez, P. Rodriguez; Rogozhnikov, A.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Ronayne, J. W.; Rotondo, M.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sagidova, N.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santimaria, M.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schael, S.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmelzer, T.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schubiger, M.; Schune, M. -H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Sergi, A.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Siddi, B. G.; Coutinho, R. Silva; Silva de Oliveira, L.; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, I. T.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Stefkova, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Stevenson, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Tayduganov, A.; Tekampe, T.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Todd, J.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Trabelsi, K.; Traill, M.; Tresch, M.; Trisovic, A.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vacca, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Gomez, R. Vazquez; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vazquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; van Veghel, M.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Volkov, V.; Vollhardt, A.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voss, C.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Weiden, A.; Whitehead, M.; Wicht, J.; Wilkinson, G.; Williams, T.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wraight, K.; Wright, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yu, J.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhelezov, A.; Zheng, Y.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.; Zhukov, V.; Zucchelli, S.

    2016-01-01

    The first study is presented of CP violation with an amplitude analysis of the Dalitz plot of B-0 -> DK+pi(-) decays, with D -> K+pi(-), K+K-, and pi(+)pi(-). The analysis is based on a data sample corresponding to 3.0 fb(-1) of pp collisions collected with the LHCb detector. No significant CP

  10. Constraints on the unitarity triangle angle gamma from Dalitz plot analysis of B-0 -> DK+pi(-) decays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaij, R.; Beteta, C. Abellan; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Cartelle, P. Alvarez; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Andreassi, G.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Gutierrez, O. Aquines; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Bellee, V.; Belloli, N.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bertolin, A.; Betti, F.; Bettler, M. -O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bifani, S.; Billoir, P.; Bird, T.; Birnkraut, A.; Bizzeti, A.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borgheresi, A.; Borghi, S.; Borisyak, M.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Braun, S.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N. H.; Buchanan, E.; Burr, C.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Campana, P.; Perez, D. Campora; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carniti, P.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Garcia, L. Castillo; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cavallero, G.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chefdeville, M.; Cheung, S. -F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Vidal, X. Cid; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collazuol, G.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A.; Torres, M. Cruz; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dall'Occo, E.; Dalseno, J.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Aguiar Francisco, O.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C. -T.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Deleage, N.; Demmer, M.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruscio, F.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suarez, A.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dufour, L.; Dujany, G.; Dungs, K.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Farber, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R.; Fazzini, D.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferrari, F.; Rodrigues, F. Ferreira; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fleuret, F.; Fohl, K.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forshaw, D. C.; Forty, R.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Garcia Pardinas, J.; Tico, J. Garra; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Gerick, D.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Giani, S.; Gibson, V.; Girard, O. G.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Gobel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gotti, C.; Gandara, M. Grabalosa; Graciani Diaz, R.; Cardoso, L. A. Granado; Grauges, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Gruenberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadavizadeh, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Heister, A.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Hess, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hongming, L.; Hulsbergen, W.; Humair, T.; Hushchyn, M.; Hutchcroft, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jawahery, A.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Karodia, S.; Kecke, M.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kenzie, M.; Ketel, T.; Khairullin, E.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Kirn, T.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koppenburg, P.; Kozeiha, M.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krokovny, P.; Krzemien, W.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kuonen, A. K.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J. -P.; Lefevre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrancois, J.; Lemos Cid, E.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Likhomanenko, T.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Loh, D.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lucchesi, D.; Lucio Martinez, M.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Lusiani, A.; Machefert, F.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Maguire, K.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Manning, P.; Mapelli, A.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marino, P.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massacrier, L. M.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathad, A.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mauri, A.; Maurin, B.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Melnychuk, D.; Merk, M.; Merli, A.; Michielin, E.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M. -N.; Mitzel, D. S.; Rodriguez, J. Molina; Monroy, I. A.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Morda, A.; Morello, M. J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A. B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Mueller, J.; Mueller, V.; Mussini, M.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nandi, A.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Niess, V.; Nieswand, S.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Rodrigues, B. Osorio; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Otto, A.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Pappenheimer, C.; Parker, W.; Parkes, C.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patrignani, C.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Altarelli, M. Pepe; Perazzini, S.; Perret, P.; Pescatore, L.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Petruzzo, M.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pikies, M.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Piucci, A.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Poikela, T.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polyakov, I.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Price, J. D.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Navarro, A. Puig; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Quagliani, R.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rama, M.; Ramos Pernas, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Raven, G.; Redi, F.; Reichert, S.; dos Reis, A. C.; Renaudin, V.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Lopez, J. A. Rodriguez; Perez, P. Rodriguez; Rogozhnikov, A.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Ronayne, J. W.; Rotondo, M.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sagidova, N.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santimaria, M.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schael, S.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmelzer, T.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schubiger, M.; Schune, M. -H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Sergi, A.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Siddi, B. G.; Coutinho, R. Silva; Silva de Oliveira, L.; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, I. T.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Stefkova, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Stevenson, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Tayduganov, A.; Tekampe, T.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Todd, J.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Trabelsi, K.; Traill, M.; Tresch, M.; Trisovic, A.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vacca, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Gomez, R. Vazquez; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vazquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; van Veghel, M.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Volkov, V.; Vollhardt, A.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voss, C.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Weiden, A.; Whitehead, M.; Wicht, J.; Wilkinson, G.; Williams, T.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wraight, K.; Wright, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yu, J.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhelezov, A.; Zheng, Y.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.; Zhukov, V.; Zucchelli, S.

    2016-01-01

    The first study is presented of CP violation with an amplitude analysis of the Dalitz plot of B-0 -> DK+pi(-) decays, with D -> K+pi(-), K+K-, and pi(+)pi(-). The analysis is based on a data sample corresponding to 3.0 fb(-1) of pp collisions collected with the LHCb detector. No significant CP viola

  11. Enhancing Parent-Child Shared Book Reading Interactions: Promoting References to the Book's Plot and Socio-Cognitive Themes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aram, Dorit; Fine, Yaara; Ziv, Margalit

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the efficacy of an intervention designed to promote parents' and preschoolers' references to storybooks' plot and socio-cognitive themes during shared reading within a sample of 58 families from low-SES background. All parents were given four books, one new book weekly, and were instructed to read each book four times per week…

  12. Steroid hormone runoff from agricultural test plots applied with municipal biosolids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yun-Ya; Gray, James L.; Furlong, Edward T.; Davis, Jessica G.; ReVollo, Rhiannon C.; Borch, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The potential presence of steroid hormones in runoff from sites where biosolids have been used as agricultural fertilizers is an environmental concern. A study was conducted to assess the potential for runoff of seventeen different hormones and two sterols, including androgens, estrogens, and progestogens from agricultural test plots. The field containing the test plots had been applied with biosolids for the first time immediately prior to this study. Target compounds were isolated by solid-phase extraction (water samples) and pressurized solvent extraction (solid samples), derivatized, and analyzed by gas chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Runoff samples collected prior to biosolids application had low concentrations of two hormones (estrone -1 and androstenedione -1) and cholesterol (22.5 ± 3.8 μg L-1). In contrast, significantly higher concentrations of multiple estrogens (-1), androgens (-1), and progesterone (-1) were observed in runoff samples taken 1, 8, and 35 days after biosolids application. A significant positive correlation was observed between antecedent rainfall amount and hormone mass loads (runoff). Hormones in runoff were primarily present in the dissolved phase (hormones from biosolids-amended agricultural fields, directly to surface waters or redistributed to terrestrial sites away from the point of application via runoff. Although concentrations decrease over time, 35 days is insufficient for complete degradation of hormones in soil at this site.

  13. Chitosan-based hydrogel tissue scaffolds made by 3D plotting promotes osteoblast proliferation and mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, I-Hsin; Chang, Shih-Hsin; Lin, Hsin-Yi

    2015-05-13

    A 3D plotting system was used to make chitosan-based tissue scaffolds with interconnected pores using pure chitosan (C) and chitosan cross-linked with pectin (CP) and genipin (CG). A freeze-dried chitosan scaffold (CF/D) was made to compare with C, to observe the effects of structural differences. The fiber size, pore size, porosity, compression strength, swelling ratio, drug release efficacy, and cumulative weight loss of the scaffolds were measured. Osteoblasts were cultured on the scaffolds and their proliferation, type I collagen production, alkaline phosphatase activity, calcium deposition, and morphology were observed. C had a lower swelling ratio, degradation, porosity and drug release efficacy and a higher compressional stiffness and cell proliferation compared to CF/D (p < 0.05). Of the 3D-plotted samples, cells on CP exhibited the highest degree of mineralization after 21 d (p < 0.05). CP also had the highest swelling ratio and fastest drug release, followed by C and CG (p < 0.05). Both CP and CG were stiffer and degraded more slowly in saline solution than C (p < 0.05). In summary, 3D-plotted scaffolds were stronger, less likely to degrade and better promoted osteoblast cell proliferation in vitro compared to the freeze-dried scaffolds. C, CP and CG were structurally similar, and the different crosslinking caused significant changes in their physical and biological performances.

  14. Dalitz Plot Analysis of D0-->K0bar K+ K-

    CERN Document Server

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Leruste, P; Malcles, J; Ocariz, J; Roos, L; Therin, G; Behera, P K; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Pioppi, M; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Simi, G; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Paick, K; Wagoner, D E; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lü, C; Miftakov, V; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Safai, F; Tehrani; Voena, C; Christ, S; Schröder, H; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B J; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Aleksan, Roy; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P F; Graziani, G; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, Witold; Legendre, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Vasseur, G; Yéche, C; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Wilson, J R; Yumiceva, F X; Abe, T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmüller, O L; Claus, R; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; De Nardo, Gallieno; Dingfelder, J C; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W M; Fan, S; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hrynóva, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Libby, J; Luitz, S; Lüth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Müller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Soha, A; Stelzer, J; Strube, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Vavra, J; Wagner, S R; Weaver, M; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Ahmed, M; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Saeed, M A; Saleem, M; Wappler, F R; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Kim, H; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bóna, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Poropat, P; Vitale, L; Vuagnin, G; Martínez-Vidal, F; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, S W; Bhuyan, B; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Hamano, K; Jackson, P D; Kowalewski, R V; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Mohanty, G B; Band, H R; Chen, X; Cheng, B; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Flood, K T; Graham, M; Hollar, J J; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Mihályi, A; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Tan, P; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Greene, M G; Neal, H

    2005-01-01

    A Dalitz plot analysis of approximately 12500 D0 events reconstructed in the hadronic decay D0-->K0bar K+ K- is presented. This analysis is based on a data sample of 91.5 fb-1 collected with the BaBar detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e+ e- storage rings at SLAC running at center-of-mass energies on and 40 MeV below the Y4S resonance. The events are selected from e+ e- --> c cbar annihilations using the decay D*+ --> D0 pi+. The following ratio of branching fractions has been obtained: BR = Gamma(D0-->K0bar K+ K-)/Gamma(D0-->K0bar pi+ pi-) = (15.8+/-0.1(stat.)+/-0.5(syst.)x 10-2 Estimates of fractions and phases for resonant and non-resonant contributions to the Dalitz plot are also presented. The a0(980)-->K Kbar projection has been extracted with little background. A search for CP asymmetries on the Dalitz plot has been performed.

  15. The availability of Henkel plots for sintered hard/soft magnetic composite ferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Ailin, E-mail: alxia@126.com [Anhui Key Laboratory of Metal Materials and Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan 243002 (China); Li, Yang; Li, Tingting [Anhui Key Laboratory of Metal Materials and Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan 243002 (China); Su, Shubing [School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Ningbo University of Technology, Ningbo 315016 (China); Jin, Chuangui; Liu, Xianguo [Anhui Key Laboratory of Metal Materials and Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan 243002 (China)

    2016-07-15

    Henkel plots of several kinds of hard/soft magnetic composites with exchange coupling interaction, including SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}/(Ni,Zn)Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}/CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}/Fe–B, were obtained from the recoil loops in the initial magnetization and demagnetization state measured by a vibrating sample magnetometer. It is found that the magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant (K) and coercivity (H{sub c}) of ‘soft’ phases could affect the availability of Henkel plots greatly. The Henkel plot could be used to characterize the existence and strength of exchange coupling interaction only in a composite with a ‘soft’ phase of small K and H{sub c}, and it deviates markedly from the reality for a composite of a ‘soft’ phase of relatively large K and H{sub c}.

  16. Recurrence plots and its quantification analysis applied to the monitoring and surveillance in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naranjo, Alberto R.; Otero, Maria Elena M.; Poveda, Aylin G. [Higher Institute of Technologies and Applied Sciences, Havana City (Cuba)]. E-mails: rolo@instec.cu; mmontesi@instec.cu; Guerra, Alexeis C. [University of Informatic Sciences, Havana City (Cuba)]. E-mail: alexeis@uci.cu

    2007-07-01

    The application of non-linear dynamic methods in many scientific fields has demonstrated its great potentiality in the early detection of significant dynamic singularities. The introduction of these methods oriented to the surveillance of anomalies and failures of nuclear reactors and their fundamental equipment have been demonstrated in the last years. Specifically, Recurrence Plot and its Quantification Analysis are methods currently used in many scientific fields. The paper focuses its attention on the estimation of the Recurrence Plots and its Quantification Analysis applied to signal samples obtained from different types of reactors: research reactor TRIGA MARK-III, BWR/5 and PHWR. Different behaviors are compared in order to look for a pattern for the characterization of the power instability events in the nuclear reactor. These outputs have a great importance for its application in systems of surveillance and monitoring in Nuclear Power Plants. For its introduction in a real time monitoring system, the authors propose some useful approaches. The results indicate the potentiality of the method for its implementation in a system of surveillance and monitoring in Nuclear Power Plants. All the calculations were performed with two computational tools developed by Marwan: Cross Recurrence Plot Toolbox for Matlab (Version 5.7, Release 22) and Visual Recurrence Analysis (Version 4.8). (author)

  17. Dalitz Plot Analysis of D0 to K0K+ K-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, B.; Barate, R.; Boutigny, D.; Couderc, F.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; /Annecy, LAPP; Grauges, E.; /Barcelona, IFAE; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pompili, A.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; Chen, J.C.; Qi, N.D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y.S.; /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys.; Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.; Stugu, B.

    2005-07-12

    A Dalitz plot analysis of approximately 12,500 D{sup 0} events reconstructed in the hadronic decay D{sup 0} {yields} {bar K}{sup 0} K{sup +}K{sup -} is presented. This analysis is based on a data sample of 91.5 fb{sup -1} collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} storage rings at SLAC running at center-of-mass energies on and 40 MeV below the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance. The events are selected from e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} c{bar c} annihilations using the decay D*{sup +} {yields} D{sup 0}{pi}{sup +}. The following ratio of branching fractions has been obtained: BR = {Lambda}(D{sup 0} {yields} {bar K}{sup 0}K{sup +}K{sup -})/{Lambda}(D{sup 0} {yields} {bar K}{sup 0}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}) = (15.8 {+-} 0.1(stat.) {+-} 0.5 (syst.)) x 10{sup -2}. Estimates of fractions and phases for resonant and non-resonant contributions to the Dalitz plot are also presented. The a{sub 0}(980) {yields} {bar K}K projection has been extracted with little background. A search for Cp asymmetries on the Dalitz plot has been performed.

  18. Environmental review for Site A/Plot M, Palos Forest Preserve, Cook County, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biang, R.P.; Yuen, C.R.; Avci, H.I.; Haffenden, R.

    1993-06-01

    This report is an environmental review of two sites known as Site A and Plot M, which are located in the Palos Forest Preserve of the Forest Preserve District of Cook County, approximately 20 mi southwest of downtown Chicago and about 3 mi east of the current site of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). An enlarged map of the area around the sites is shown in a figure. Site A covers about 19 acres, and Plot M covers about 1 acre. This document consists of the following sections: a review of the site history and environment, a description of the conceptual pathway models for both Site A and Plot M and a brief discussion of previous sampling events, a discussion of possible transport pathways, an evaluation of the Phase 2 Work Plan for Site A, a review of the applicable or relevant and appropriate regulations (ARARs), and recommendations for future study. The recommendations are based on an evaluation of previously collected data. Where data were sufficient, a geologic conceptual model was developed. If data were not sufficient to develop a model, recommendations for data collection are made. A new base map was developed for the site by using the base survey conducted in the 1940s, aerial photographs dating back to 1948, and site visits.

  19. 石蜡包埋子宫内膜样腺癌中雌激素硫酸转移酶和甾体硫酸酯酶基因的表达%The expression of estrogen sulfotransferase and steroid sulfatase in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded endometrioid adenocarcinoma samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜展红; 吴宜勇; 张毅; 魏凤华

    2009-01-01

    Objective To explore the expression of estrogen sulfotransferase(EST) and steroid sulfatase (STS) in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded endometrioid adenocarcinoma samples. Methods The RNA of EST and STS in 30 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded endometrium samples were extracted using Roche products. Results The RNA expression of EST and STS were 0.25±0.03 and 0.08±0.02 respectively and the STS/EST was 0.11±0.08 in normal endometrium. While in endometrioid adenocarcinoma the RNA expression of EST and STS were 0.06±0.02 and 0.24±0.92 respectively and the STS/EST was 4.40±0.64. There were significant differences between these two groups. Conclusions (1) Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues could be used to study the endometrioid adenocarcinoma. (2) EST is decreased, STS and STS/EST are increased in human endometrioid adenocarcinoma. STS/EST may be related with the prognosis of the endometrioid adenocarcinoma.%目的 探讨石蜡包埋子宫内膜样腺癌组织中雌激素硫酸转移酶(estrogen sulfotransferase,EST)和甾体硫酸酯酶(steroid sulfatase,STS)的RNA表达. 方法 使用罗氏产品从30例石蜡包埋子宫内膜组织(对照组和患病组各15例)中提取EST、STS的RNA. 结果 对照组RNA的表达EST为0.25±0.03,STS为0.08±0.02,STS与EST比值为0.11±0.08;患病组RNA的表达:EST为0.06±0.02,STS为0.24±0.92,STS与EST比值4.40±0.64,患病组与对照组比较,差异有统计学意义(t分别为-8.223、7.345和11.591,均P<0.05). 结论 (1)石蜡包埋组织是子宫内膜样腺癌基础研究的材料来源;(2)在子宫内膜样腺癌中,EST下降,STS和STS与EST比值升高.

  20. CADASTRAL CLASSIFICATION OF THE LAND PLOTS IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KIRICHEK Yu. O.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Work concerns development of national system of classification of the land plots. The developed classification will allow to solve correctly a number of the corresponding cadastral, land management, estimated and other tasks. The analysis of classifications of lands, improvements and real estate in general is made. The created offers concerning creation of a new classification of the land plots in Ukraine. Today the Ukrainian real estate market has no single system that separates the system property groups, classes and types. This significantly complicates the work and can not fully be aware of the specific situation of real estate market. This task is designed to solve classification properties, it is used to transition from a diversity of individual properties to a limited number of classes of evaluation objects. The classification is different functional purpose (use facilities assessment, which determines the difference in value.

  1. Losing the Plot: the Geological Anti-Narrative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelene Buckland

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Geology has often been treated by literary critics as the producer narratives of earth history which were appropriated or resisted by novelists and poets. This paper will problematise this tradition by considering a widespread problematisation of plot as a mode of rational enquiry in the nineteenth century, and which underpinned much literary and geological discourse. Rooting itself in elite, fashionable literary culture, geology often resisted plot as a means of unravelling and describing earth history. Briefly considering the reading and the writings of geologists including Adam Sedgwick, William Buckland and Charles Lyell, this essay demonstrates that geology is a much different case in 'science and literature' than the evolutionary sciences explored by Gillian Beer and George Levine.

  2. [Eugenics, an element of the literary plots of dystopia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Ewa; Musielak, Michał

    2007-01-01

    The work presents the ideas and assumptions of eugenics, a social philosophy established in 1883 by Francis Galton, which affected the social policies of numerous European countries in the first half of the 20th century. The work shows the effect of eugenics on the literary standards of European prose in the previous century. Two outstanding dystopian novels of the 20th century, The Brave New World by Aldous Huxley and 1984 by George Orwell, situate eugenics as a permanent element of the literary plot of dystopia. Apart from the typical features of this type of novel, for example: personal narration with a trace of irony, a totalitarian state and Newspeak, eugenics is an important element of the literary plot with is aim to exclude and marginalise certain social groups. Eugenics is also one of the main social ideas criticised by both the writers.

  3. Automated drawing of network plots in network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rücker, Gerta; Schwarzer, Guido

    2016-03-01

    In systematic reviews based on network meta-analysis, the network structure should be visualized. Network plots often have been drawn by hand using generic graphical software. A typical way of drawing networks, also implemented in statistical software for network meta-analysis, is a circular representation, often with many crossing lines. We use methods from graph theory in order to generate network plots in an automated way. We give a number of requirements for graph drawing and present an algorithm that fits prespecified ideal distances between the nodes representing the treatments. The method was implemented in the function netgraph of the R package netmeta and applied to a number of networks from the literature. We show that graph representations with a small number of crossing lines are often preferable to circular representations.

  4. The Chymistry of "The Learned Dr Plot" (1640-96).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Anna Marie

    2014-01-01

    In the seventeenth century, there were developing norms of openness in the presentation of scientific knowledge that were at odds with traditions of secrecy among chymists, particularly practitioners of chrysopoeia, or the transmutation of metals. This chapter analyzes how Dr. Robert Plot, the first professor of chymistry at Oxford, negotiated these boundaries within an institutional context. I first delineate his chymical and experimental practice, which incorporated procedures from medieval alchemical sources, particularly the Lullian corpus, as well as more novel practices from seventeenth-century chymistry. Then, I analyze how personal and institutional ambitions and economic considerations shaped to what extent Plot negotiated the boundaries between secrecy and the public dissemination of chymical knowledge.

  5. [Murderers in white coats--the physicians' plot against Stalin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, B

    1997-12-10

    During the Moscow trials in 1936-38 several doctors were sentenced for participating in the murders of party leaders. As others who were accused, the doctors willingly confessed to crimes they could not possibly have committed. A second doctors' plot took place in the autumn of 1952. This time nine doctors, six of them Jews, were arrested for the attempted murder of political leaders. Only the unexpected death of Josef Stalin prevented a new wave of terror. With the single exception of Genrikh Grigorjevitsj Jagoda (1891-1938), head of the NKVD (KGB's predecessor), all those sentenced under the Moscow process are now rehabilitated. The participants of the second doctors' plot were rehabilitated immediately after Stalin's death.

  6. Review article: The mountain motif in the plot of Matthew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert J. Volschenk

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This article reviewed T.L. Donaldson’s book, Jesus on the mountain: A study in Matthean theology, published in 1985 by JSOT Press, Sheffield, and focused on the mountain motif in the structure and plot of the Gospel of Matthew, in addition to the work of Donaldson on the mountain motif as a literary motif and as theological symbol. The mountain is a primary theological setting for Jesus’ ministry and thus is an important setting, serving as one of the literary devices by which Matthew structured and progressed his narrative. The Zion theological and eschatological significance and Second Temple Judaism serve as the historical and theological background for the mountain motif. The last mountain setting (Mt 28:16–20 is the culmination of the three theological themes in the plot of Matthew, namely Christology, ecclesiology and salvation history.

  7. Volcano plots in hydrogen electrocatalysis - uses and abuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaino, Paola; Juarez, Fernanda; Santos, Elizabeth; Schmickler, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Sabatier's principle suggests, that for hydrogen evolution a plot of the rate constant versus the hydrogen adsorption energy should result in a volcano, and several such plots have been presented in the literature. A thorough examination of the data shows, that there is no volcano once the oxide-covered metals are left out. We examine the factors that govern the reaction rate in the light of our own theory and conclude, that Sabatier's principle is only one of several factors that determine the rate. With the exception of nickel and cobalt, the reaction rate does not decrease for highly exothermic hydrogen adsorption as predicted, because the reaction passes through more suitable intermediate states. The case of nickel is given special attention; since it is a 3d metal, its orbitals are compact and the overlap with hydrogen is too low to make it a good catalyst.

  8. Automatic target recognition based on cross-plot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelvin Kian Loong Wong

    Full Text Available Automatic target recognition that relies on rapid feature extraction of real-time target from photo-realistic imaging will enable efficient identification of target patterns. To achieve this objective, Cross-plots of binary patterns are explored as potential signatures for the observed target by high-speed capture of the crucial spatial features using minimal computational resources. Target recognition was implemented based on the proposed pattern recognition concept and tested rigorously for its precision and recall performance. We conclude that Cross-plotting is able to produce a digital fingerprint of a target that correlates efficiently and effectively to signatures of patterns having its identity in a target repository.

  9. Extended Recurrence Plot Analysis and its Application to ERP Data

    CERN Document Server

    Marwan, N; Marwan, Norbert; Meinke, Anja

    2004-01-01

    We present new measures of complexity and their application to event related potential data. The new measures base on structures of recurrence plots and makes the identification of chaos-chaos transitions possible. The application of these measures to data from single-trials of the Oddball experiment can identify laminar states therein. This offers a new way of analyzing event-related activity on a single-trial basis.

  10. Dispatching policy for manufacturing jobs and time-delay plots

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Abstract In this paper, the concepts of chaos and non-linear dynamics are briefly introduced and the tools used in the characterization of a chaotic or non-linear system are discussed for studying the performance of dispatching policies in manufacturing systems. The scheduling of a simple manufacturing system with the help of common assignment rules has been simulated first. The results are studied and analysed with the help of time-delay plots. Some conclusions are drawn and, base...

  11. Method for detecting software anomalies based on recurrence plot analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Michał Mosdorf

    2012-01-01

    Presented paper evaluates method for detecting software anomalies based on recurrence plot analysis of trace log generated by software execution. Described method for detecting software anomalies is based on windowed recurrence quantification analysis for selected measures (e.g. Recurrence rate - RR or Determinism - DET). Initial results show that proposed method is useful in detecting silent software anomalies that do not result in typical crashes (e.g. exceptions).

  12. Method for detecting software anomalies based on recurrence plot analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Mosdorf

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Presented paper evaluates method for detecting software anomalies based on recurrence plot analysis of trace log generated by software execution. Described method for detecting software anomalies is based on windowed recurrence quantification analysis for selected measures (e.g. Recurrence rate - RR or Determinism - DET. Initial results show that proposed method is useful in detecting silent software anomalies that do not result in typical crashes (e.g. exceptions.

  13. Graphical interpretation of confidence curves in rankit plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyltoft Petersen, Per; Blaabjerg, Ole; Andersen, Marianne; Jørgensen, Lone G M; Schousboe, Karoline; Jensen, Esther

    2004-01-01

    A well-known transformation from the bell-shaped Gaussian (normal) curve to a straight line in the rankit plot is investigated, and a tool for evaluation of the distribution of reference groups is presented. It is based on the confidence intervals for percentiles of the calculated Gaussian distribution and the percentage of cumulative points exceeding these limits. The process is to rank the reference values and plot the cumulative frequency points in a rankit plot with a logarithmic (In=log(e)) transformed abscissa. If the distribution is close to In-Gaussian the cumulative frequency points will fit to the straight line describing the calculated In-Gaussian distribution. The quality of the fit is evaluated by adding confidence intervals (CI) to each point on the line and calculating the percentage of points outside the hyperbola-like CI-curves. The assumption was that the 95% confidence curves for percentiles would show 5% of points outside these limits. However, computer simulations disclosed that approximate 10% of the series would have 5% or more points outside the limits. This is a conservative validation, which is more demanding than the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The graphical presentation, however, makes it easy to disclose deviations from In-Gaussianity, and to make other interpretations of the distributions, e.g., comparison to non-Gaussian distributions in the same plot, where the cumulative frequency percentage can be read from the ordinate. A long list of examples of In-Gaussian distributions of subgroups of reference values from healthy individuals is presented. In addition, distributions of values from well-defined diseased individuals may show up as In-Gaussian. It is evident from the examples that the rankit transformation and simple graphical evaluation for non-Gaussianity is a useful tool for the description of sub-groups.

  14. A MATLAB Function for Plotting Phase Planes Interactively

    OpenAIRE

    Forsman, Krister

    1992-01-01

    A MATLAB-function serving as a sort of graphical interface to the MATLAB ODE-solver ode45 is presented. The main use of it is to facilitate phase plane analysis of nonlinear 2-D systems via simulation. The numerical integration of the system is mouse-operated via the ginput-function. After each choice of initial value a simulation is made and plotted in the phase plane.

  15. How to Create and Manipulate Radar Range-Doppler Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    set of wave fronts with constant wavelength, direction, and relative phase. Electromagnetic waves produced by radar transmitters and lasers are... radars . The Matlab function fft orders its DFT amplitudes in a way that renders negative frequencies positive and greater than the Nyquist frequency. I...UNCLASSIFIED How to Create and Manipulate Radar Range–Doppler Plots Don Koks Cyber & Electronic Warfare Division Defence Science and Technology

  16. Crop residue decomposition in Minnesota biochar amended plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyers, S. L.; Spokas, K. A.

    2014-02-01

    Impacts of biochar application at laboratory scales are routinely studied, but impacts of biochar application on decomposition of crop residues at field scales have not been widely addressed. The priming or hindrance of crop residue decomposition could have a cascading impact on soil processes, particularly those influencing nutrient availability. Our objectives were to evaluate biochar effects on field decomposition of crop residue, using plots that were amended with biochars made from different feedstocks and pyrolysis platforms prior to the start of this study. Litterbags containing wheat straw material were buried below the soil surface in a continuous-corn cropped field in plots that had received one of seven different biochar amendments or a non-charred wood pellet amendment 2.5 yr prior to start of this study. Litterbags were collected over the course of 14 weeks. Microbial biomass was assessed in treatment plots the previous fall. Though first-order decomposition rate constants were positively correlated to microbial biomass, neither parameter was statistically affected by biochar or wood-pellet treatments. The findings indicated only a residual of potentially positive and negative initial impacts of biochars on residue decomposition, which fit in line with established feedstock and pyrolysis influences. Though no significant impacts were observed with field-weathered biochars, effective soil management may yet have to account for repeat applications of biochar.

  17. The value of building plots in Italy - pdf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Rosato

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests some analysis on dynamics of building plots value in Italy. This is an important subject, since the study of changes in plots value in space and time enables the evaluation of urban rent, which is essential for a fair and effective planning. The analysis confirm past hypothesis which are well known to real estate market operators. The first resulting fact is that the changes in building plots value are concurrent to those in real estate value and the increase occurring in the last years is in relative terms higher than the past one. This seems to confirm that, during real estate market expansion, most of the increase of buildings’ value is attributable to the land rent. The second observation is about value dynamics over time: it has been observed that, during an expansion in demand, the value significantly increases in central areas, much more than in peripheral ones; this means that absolute rent arising from shortage in urban areas is higher than the differential rent created through urban expansion in peripheral areas. Finally, it was highlighted that the factors affecting the value in building areas play different roles, depending on their location relative to the urban centre, identifying differently structured market segments.

  18. LTRMP Fisheries Data - Stratified Random and Fixed Site Sampling

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Long Term Resource Monitoring Programs (LTRMP) annual fish monitoring began on the Upper Mississippi and Illinois Rivers in 1989. During the first two years...

  19. SOFEPL: A Plotting Postprocessor for ’SOFE’ User’s Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    area General KPLUSDWork List of plots using Area IPLUSD current run KT (created in PLTNED) PLOT IPlot 1 IA(KLPTP+ 2-1) A AData Area PLOT 2Plot 2 IA...reasons: computer turn-around times for big runs are prohibitively long; a short preliminary evalu- ation of performance is needed before a lot of

  20. ResidPlots-2: Computer Software for IRT Graphical Residual Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Tie; Han, Kyung T.; Hambleton, Ronald K.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the ResidPlots-2, a computer software that provides a powerful tool for IRT graphical residual analyses. ResidPlots-2 consists of two components: a component for computing residual statistics and another component for communicating with users and for plotting the residual graphs. The features of the ResidPlots-2 software are…

  1. A Comparison Simulation of Fixed-fixed Type MEMS Switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezazadeh, G.; Sadeghian, H.; Malekpour, E.

    2006-04-01

    In the present work pull-in voltage of fixed-fixed end type MEMS switches with variative electrostatic area has been calculated using a distributed model and applying a full nonlinear finite difference discretizing method. The governing nonlinear differential equation has been derived using of the variational principle for multi domain electromechanical coupled system. The numerical results of the beam with variative electrostatic area with the results of Coupled-Domain Finite Element method have been compared and very good agreement has been achieved.

  2. A computer program for plotting stress-strain data from compression, tension, and torsion tests of materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, A.; Baker, D. J.; Davis, J. G., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    A computer program for plotting stress-strain curves obtained from compression and tension tests on rectangular (flat) specimens and circular-cross-section specimens (rods and tubes) and both stress-strain and torque-twist curves obtained from torsion tests on tubes is presented in detail. The program is written in FORTRAN 4 language for the Control Data 6000 series digital computer with the SCOPE 3.0 operating system and requires approximately 110000 octal locations of core storage. The program has the capability of plotting individual strain-gage outputs and/or the average output of several strain gages and the capability of computing the slope of a straight line which provides a least-squares fit to a specified section of the plotted curve. In addition, the program can compute the slope of the stress-strain curve at any point along the curve. The computer program input and output for three sample problems are presented.

  3. Plot and Personification in “Tehran-e- Makhuf“

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pashaei

    Full Text Available Story is one of the important and influential literary genres that deserves to research on its structure and content .By study and analysis of a story, the reader could comprehend the textual messages and change his attitude toward life and different issues .After defining of the social novel, the author tries to analyze plot and personification in novel of “Tehran-e- Makhuf” and respond to the questions on the method employed for plot and personification and analyze it from plot and its components such as conflict, suspension and resolution and compare the differences and similarities between old tales and modern novels.The plot of “Tehran-e- Makhuf” is not so complex due to its subject and content and natural order of events dominates on artificial discipline and it lacks open plot. Of main elements of plot, conflict is more outstanding here. This novel is full of emotional and moral conflicts and there is no similarity with historical novels that describe good and bad conflicts. Cause and effect relationship is main element of plot that shadows on the story events .In “Tehrna-e- Makhuf”, the author tries to violate the principles and cause to imbalance in natural events sequences with discomposing rational and experiential relationship and take action toward artificiality and unnatural suspension. In creating suspension by emphasis on incidences in some extremist cases, Kazemi tries to found the story based on the considerable sequence of events and this conduct reduces quality of the story significantly and leads to imbalance in rational and acceptable discipline.Kazemi employs direct or reporting personification mostly. This novel lacks diversity in personage considerably .All characters speak in similar style and there is no particular speech style. The personification of Kazemi in “Tehran-e-Makhuf” is continuous and interdependent in style of old tales and novel in European account. In some cases, he approaches to story

  4. PET kinetic analysis --pitfalls and a solution for the Logan plot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yuichi; Naganawa, Mika; Shidahara, Miho; Ikoma, Yoko; Watabe, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    The Logan plot is a widely used algorithm for the quantitative analysis of neuroreceptors using PET because it is easy to use and simple to implement. The Logan plot is also suitable for receptor imaging because its algorithm is fast. However, use of the Logan plot, and interpretation of the formed receptor images should be regarded with caution, because noise in PET data causes bias in the Logan plot estimates. In this paper, we describe the basic concept of the Logan plot in detail and introduce three algorithms for the Logan plot. By comparing these algorithms, we demonstrate the pitfalls of the Logan plot and discuss the solution.

  5. A Visual Basic program to plot sediment grain-size data on ternary diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, L. J.; Eliason, A. H.

    2008-05-01

    Sedimentologic datasets are typically large and compiled into tables or databases, but pure numerical information can be difficult to understand and interpret. Thus, scientists commonly use graphical representations to reduce complexities, recognize trends and patterns in the data, and develop hypotheses. Of the graphical techniques, one of the most common methods used by sedimentologists is to plot the basic gravel, sand, silt, and clay percentages on equilateral triangular diagrams. This means of presenting data is simple and facilitates rapid classification of sediments and comparison of samples.

  6. Dalitz-plot analysis of the decays B+/- --> K+/- pi-/+ pi+/-

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, B; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Karyotakis, Yu; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Graugès-Pous, E; Palano, A; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, Michael T; Wenzel, W A; Barrett, M; Ford, K E; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Fritsch, M; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schröder, T; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Burke, J P; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Kelly, M P; Latham, T E; Wilson, F F; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, A E; Blinov, V E; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M A; Mommsen, R K; Röthel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; Hartfiel, B L; Weinstein, A J R; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Long, O; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; MacFarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Lu, A; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Nesom, G; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Yang, S; Jayatilleke, S M; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Ruddick, W O; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Chen, A; Eckhart, E A; Harton, J L; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zeng, Q; Spaan, B; Altenburg, D; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Dickopp, M; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Lacker, H M; Maly, E; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Petzold, A; Schott, G; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Grenier, P; Schrenk, S; Thiebaux, C; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Bard, D J; Clark, P J; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Azzolini, V; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Piemontese, L; Sarti, A; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; De, R; Sangro; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Bailey, S; Brandenburg, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Won, E; Dubitzky, R S; Langenegger, U; Marks, J; Uwer, U; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Gaillard, J R; Morton, G W; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Taylor, G P; Charles, M J; Grenier, G J; Mallik, U; Mohapatra, A K; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Lamsa, J; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Yi, J; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Giroux, X; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Le Diberder, F R; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Petersen, T C; Pierini, M; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Simani, M C; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Chavez, C A; Coleman, J P; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gamet, R; Hutchcroft, D E; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Touramanis, C; Cormack, C M; Di Lodovico, F; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flack, R L; Flächer, H U; Green, M G; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Winter, M A; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Hodgkinson, M C; Lafferty, G D; Naisbit, M T; Williams, J C; Chen, C; Farbin, A; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Lillard, V; Roberts, D A; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Stängle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Koeneke, K; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L M; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M; Bulten, H; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Wilden, L; Jessop, C P; LoSecco, J M; Allmendinger, T; Benelli, G; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pulliam, T; Rahimi, A M; Ter-Antonian, R; Wong, Q K; Brau, J E; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Lu, M; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Colecchia, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; La Vaissière, C de; Hamon, O; John, M J J; Leruste, P; Malcles, J; Ocariz, J; Roos, L; Therin, G; Behera, P K; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Pioppi, M; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Simi, G; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Paick, K; Wagoner, D E; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lü, C; Miftakov, V; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Safai, F; Tehrani; Voena, C; Christ, S; Schröder, H; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B J; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Aleksan, Roy; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P F; Graziani, G; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, Witold; Legendre, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Vasseur, G; Yéche, C; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Wilson, J R; Yumiceva, F X; Abe, T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmüller, O L; Claus, R; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; De Nardo, Gallieno; Dingfelder, J C; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W M; Fan, S; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hrynóva, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Libby, J; Luitz, S; Lüth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Müller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Soha, A; Stelzer, J; Strube, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Vavra, J; Wagner, S R; Weaver, M; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Young, C C; Burchat, Patricia R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Ahmed, M; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Saeed, M A; Saleem, M; Wappler, F R; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Kim, H; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bóna, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Poropat, P; Vitale, L; Vuagnin, G; Martínez-Vidal, F; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, S W; Bhuyan, B; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Hamano, K; Jackson, P D; Kowalewski, R V; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Mohanty, G B; Band, H R; Chen, X; Cheng, B; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Flood, K T; Graham, M; Hollar, J J; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Mihályi, A; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Tan, P; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Greene, M G; Neal, H

    2005-01-01

    We report a Dalitz-plot analysis of the charmless hadronic decays of charged B mesons to the final state K+/- pi-/+ pi+/-. Using a sample of 231.8 +/- 2.6 million BBbar pairs collected by the BaBar detector, we measure the magnitudes and phases of the intermediate resonant and nonresonant amplitudes for both charge conjugate decays. We present measurements of the corresponding branching fractions and their charge asymmetries that supersede those of previous BaBar analyses. We find the charge asymmetries to be consistent with zero.

  7. Plot-scale field experiment of surface hydrologic processes with EOS implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laymon, Charles A.; Macari, Emir J.; Costes, Nicholas C.

    1992-01-01

    Plot-scale hydrologic field studies were initiated at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to a) investigate the spatial and temporal variability of surface and subsurface hydrologic processes, particularly as affected by vegetation, and b) develop experimental techniques and associated instrumentation methodology to study hydrologic processes at increasingly large spatial scales. About 150 instruments, most of which are remotely operated, have been installed at the field site to monitor ground atmospheric conditions, precipitation, interception, soil-water status, and energy flux. This paper describes the nature of the field experiment, instrumentation and sampling rationale, and presents preliminary findings.

  8. Remark on Applied Statistics Algorithm AS030 Half-Normal Plotting

    OpenAIRE

    Hopkins, Tim; Morse, David R.

    1994-01-01

    We provide a Fortran 77 version of the Applied Statistics Algorithm AS30 `Half-Normal Plotting'' originally appearing in the book `Applied Statistics Algorithms'' by P. Griffiths and I.D. Hill. We believe that the new code offers improvements both in readability and maintainability. [The file /pub/misc/statlib/apstat/as030.sh contains the Fortran 77 source code, example driver codes, data and sample results as a Unix shar file. It is available via anonymous ftp from unix.hensa.ac.uk

  9. Estudo do tamanho de parcelas experimentais em povoamentos de Eucalyptus grandis Hill , usando parcelas lineares Determination of the size of experimental plots in eucalyptus grandis hill populations using linear plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Augusto Muniz

    2009-08-01

    variance estimates by the information matrix elements. The basic estimates of reduced variance were obtained through the analysis of variance of a hierarchical classification using a random model. Optimal plot size was determined considering the number of replications required by the t test to detect a true mean difference at 80% level and 5% of probability for 10 and 20 treatments in a randomized block design. The soil heterogeneity coefficient estimated was 0.9049, indicating absence of correlation between contiguous plots. For fixed d and r values, results show that the plot size increases with the coefficient of variation. For fixed CV and d, the plot size decreases as r increases and for fixed CV and r, the plot size reduces with the increases of the true differences between the treatment means.

  10. Diclofenac Induced Fixed Drug Eruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Umeshchandra C Honnaddi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diclofenac is the most commonly used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID for treating various inflammatory and painful conditions. It is generally well tolerated; gastric upset is the most common adverse effect. However very few cases of fixed drug eruptions were reported. Here we present a case of Diclofenac Induced Fixed Drug Eruption. A 62 year old male patient developed fixed drug eruptions with plaques on left thigh two days after receiving diclofenac for osteoarthritic pain. Other etiologies including insect bite, infections were ruled out. One week later after stopping the drug, the lesions were subsided. Diclofenac was strongly suspected as the casual drug. CD8+ effector T-cells have shown to play an important role. However it seems to be a reversible and drug related event. Although it is not life-threatening, fixed drug eruption can have significant effect on the quality of life of patients.Conclusion: Diclofenac is one of the most commonly prescribed NSAIDs by the Physicians. It is usually well tolerated, gastric upset is the most common adverse effect noted with this drug. This case is being reported to highlight a drug as safe as Diclofenac may also be associated with Fixed Drug Eruptions.

  11. The albatross plot: A novel graphical tool for presenting results of diversely reported studies in a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Sean; Jones, Hayley E; Martin, Richard M; Lewis, Sarah J; Higgins, Julian P T

    2017-09-01

    Meta-analyses combine the results of multiple studies of a common question. Approaches based on effect size estimates from each study are generally regarded as the most informative. However, these methods can only be used if comparable effect sizes can be computed from each study, and this may not be the case due to variation in how the studies were done or limitations in how their results were reported. Other methods, such as vote counting, are then used to summarize the results of these studies, but most of these methods are limited in that they do not provide any indication of the magnitude of effect. We propose a novel plot, the albatross plot, which requires only a 1-sided P value and a total sample size from each study (or equivalently a 2-sided P value, direction of effect and total sample size). The plot allows an approximate examination of underlying effect sizes and the potential to identify sources of heterogeneity across studies. This is achieved by drawing contours showing the range of effect sizes that might lead to each P value for given sample sizes, under simple study designs. We provide examples of albatross plots using data from previous meta-analyses, allowing for comparison of results, and an example from when a meta-analysis was not possible. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Research Synthesis Methods Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Lossless Compression of Data into Fixed-Length Packets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiely, Aaron B.; Klimesh, Matthew A.

    2009-01-01

    A computer program effects lossless compression of data samples from a one-dimensional source into fixed-length data packets. The software makes use of adaptive prediction: it exploits the data structure in such a way as to increase the efficiency of compression beyond that otherwise achievable. Adaptive linear filtering is used to predict each sample value based on past sample values. The difference between predicted and actual sample values is encoded using a Golomb code.

  13. Visualisation of gene expression data - the GE-biplot, the Chip-plot and the Gene-plot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittelkow, Yvonne E; Wilson, Susan R

    2003-01-01

    Visualisation methods for exploring microarray data are particularly important for gaining insight into data from gene expression experiments, such as those concerned with the development of an understanding of gene function and interactions. Further, good visualisation techniques are useful for outlier detection in microarray data and for aiding biological interpretation of results, as well as for presentation of overall summaries of the data. The biplot is particularly useful for the display of microarray data as both the genes and the chips can be simultaneously plotted. In this paper we describe several ordination techniques suitable for exploring microarray data, and we call these the GE-biplot, the Chip-plot and the Gene-plot. The general method is first evaluated on synthetic data simulated in accord with current biological interpretation of microarray data. Then it is applied to two well-known data sets, namely the colon data of Alon et al. (1999) and the leukaemia data of Golub et al. (1999). The usefulness of the approach for interpreting and comparing different analyses of the same data is demonstrated.

  14. Efficiency of incomplete split-plot designs – a compromise between traditional split-plot designs and randomised complete block design

    OpenAIRE

    Kristensen, Kristian; Bigongiali, Federica; Østergård, Hanne

    2008-01-01

    The paper shows, how incomplete split-plot designs can be constructed from -designs and how they can be analysed. The incomplete split-plot design can be regarded as both a practical and statistical compromise between traditional split-plot design and randomised complete block design. The efficiency of the design is compared to traditional split-plot design and randomised complete block design using data from 5 trials carried out using incomplete split-plot designs in Denmark through 2004-20...

  15. Particle Distribution in a Fixed Bed Down Draft Wood Gasifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindsgaul, Claus

    2005-01-01

    Char particle samples were collected from six distances above the grate in a fixed bed of a down draft biomass gasifier. Each sample was separated into twelve size fractions by screening through standard sieves in order to determine the local particle size distribution. The ash contents of each...

  16. Evidence of the Big Fix

    CERN Document Server

    Hamada, Yuta; Kawana, Kiyoharu

    2014-01-01

    We give an evidence of the Big Fix. The theory of wormholes and multiverse suggests that the parameters of the Standard Model are fixed in such a way that the total entropy at the late stage of the universe is maximized, which we call the maximum entropy principle. In this paper, we discuss how it can be confirmed by the experimental data, and we show that it is indeed true for the Higgs vacuum expectation value $v_{h}$. We assume that the baryon number is produced by the sphaleron process, and that the current quark masses, the gauge couplings and the Higgs self coupling are fixed when we vary $v_{h}$. It turns out that the existence of the atomic nuclei plays a crucial role to maximize the entropy. This is reminiscent of the anthropic principle, however it is required by the fundamental low in our case.

  17. Evidence of the big fix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Yuta; Kawai, Hikaru; Kawana, Kiyoharu

    2014-06-01

    We give an evidence of the Big Fix. The theory of wormholes and multiverse suggests that the parameters of the Standard Model are fixed in such a way that the total entropy at the late stage of the universe is maximized, which we call the maximum entropy principle. In this paper, we discuss how it can be confirmed by the experimental data, and we show that it is indeed true for the Higgs vacuum expectation value vh. We assume that the baryon number is produced by the sphaleron process, and that the current quark masses, the gauge couplings and the Higgs self-coupling are fixed when we vary vh. It turns out that the existence of the atomic nuclei plays a crucial role to maximize the entropy. This is reminiscent of the anthropic principle, however it is required by the fundamental law in our case.

  18. Magnetic behaviour studies on nanocrystalline cobalt ferrite by employing the Arrott plot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Rajnish, E-mail: rajnishiitr15@gmail.com; Kar, Manoranjan, E-mail: mano@iitp.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Patna, Bihta-801103. India (India)

    2016-05-06

    Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) has been used to analyze the magnetic behavior of ferrimagnetic material (CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) synthesized by the citric acid modified sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern confirms the phase purity of the sample. Its magnetic measurement has been carried out at room temperature in the field range ±1.5T. The magnetocrystalline anisotropy and saturation magnetization of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} are two important parameters which need to be studied for exploring its technological applications like memory device, magnetic sensors etc. Law of Approach (LA) to saturation and the Arrott plot analysis have been carried out to obtain the saturation magnetization. The difference in the saturation magnetization obtained from the two methods gives the qualitative understanding of magnetocrystalline anisotropy and lattice strain present in the sample. The present study explores a new way of analyzing magnetic hysteresis loop of nanocrystalline cobalt ferrite.

  19. Fixed-point signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Padgett, Wayne T

    2009-01-01

    This book is intended to fill the gap between the ""ideal precision"" digital signal processing (DSP) that is widely taught, and the limited precision implementation skills that are commonly required in fixed-point processors and field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). These skills are often neglected at the university level, particularly for undergraduates. We have attempted to create a resource both for a DSP elective course and for the practicing engineer with a need to understand fixed-point implementation. Although we assume a background in DSP, Chapter 2 contains a review of basic theory

  20. Perfect and Imperfect Gauge Fixing

    CERN Document Server

    Shirzad, A

    2006-01-01

    Gauge fixing may be done in different ways. We show that using the chain structure to describe a constrained system, enables us to use either a perfect gauge, in which all gauged degrees of freedom are determined; or an imperfect gauge, in which some first class constraints remain as subsidiary conditions to be imposed on the solutions of the equations of motion. We also show that the number of constants of motion depends on the level in a constraint chain in which the gauge fixing condition is imposed. The relativistic point particle, electromagnetism and the Polyakov string are discussed as examples and perfect or imperfect gauges are distinguished.

  1. Plant species richness enhances nitrogen retention in green roof plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Catherine; Schweinhart, Shelbye; Buffam, Ishi

    2016-10-01

    Vegetated (green) roofs have become common in many cities and are projected to continue to increase in coverage, but little is known about the ecological properties of these engineered ecosystems. In this study, we tested the biodiversity-ecosystem function hypothesis using commercially available green roof trays as replicated plots with varying levels of plant species richness (0, 1, 3, or 6 common green roof species per plot, using plants with different functional characteristics). We estimated accumulated plant biomass near the peak of the first full growing season (July 2013) and measured runoff volume after nearly every rain event from September 2012 to September 2013 (33 events) and runoff fluxes of inorganic nutrients ammonium, nitrate, and phosphate from a subset of 10 events. We found that (1) total plant biomass increased with increasing species richness, (2) green roof plots were effective at reducing storm runoff, with vegetation increasing water retention more than soil-like substrate alone, but there was no significant effect of plant species identity or richness on runoff volume, (3) green roof substrate was a significant source of phosphate, regardless of presence/absence of plants, and (4) dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN = nitrate + ammonium) runoff fluxes were different among plant species and decreased significantly with increasing plant species richness. The variation in N retention was positively related to variation in plant biomass. Notably, the increased biomass and N retention with species richness in this engineered ecosystem are similar to patterns observed in published studies from grasslands and other well-studied ecosystems. We suggest that more diverse plantings on vegetated roofs may enhance the retention capacity for reactive nitrogen. This is of importance for the sustained health of vegetated roof ecosystems, which over time often experience nitrogen limitation, and is also relevant for water quality in receiving waters

  2. Crown condition assessment at the CONECOFOR Permanent Monitoring Plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzo NIBBI

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available A detailed crown condition assessment is currently being carried out at the CONECOFOR (CONtrollo ECOsistemi FORestali, Control of Forest Ecosystems plots. The assessment began in 1996, and during the first two years (1996 and 1997 an assessment form based on previous regional experience was used; in 1998 the new official EU form was adopted. The resulting loss of comparability means that only a few indices can be used in the temporal series 1996-1999. Much effort was devoted to Quality Assurance (QA procedures. The QA program is structured as follows: (i specific field manuals have been adopted and are continuously updated; (ii a national training and intercalibration course (NT&IC is undertaken yearly before beginning the assessment campaign;( iii field checks are carried out yearly on a large number of plots. The results of the QA program have shown that for several indices the quality objectives were not reached, but the quality of the data is improving with time. To express the change in crown conditions in each area, a complex index (CCI = Crown Condition Index was adopted. This index is the result of the sum of the relativized values of all the common indices used during the four years. The following parameters were used: transparency, ramification type, leaf colour alteration extension, leaf damage extension, alteration of leaf distension extension. The range within which the CCI fluctuates was evaluated taking into account all the observations carried out at a given plot throughout the years. The number of cases over a given threshold (outliers was calculated for each year. The threshold for outliers was calculated as the median value plus 2 times the range of the interquartile value. All individual cases exceeding this value are considered outliers. The results are presented for all the areas in which the data set is complete for the four years. The yearly fluctuations are discussed and related to possible causes.

  3. Scaling wood volume estimates from inventory plots to landscapes with airborne LiDAR in temperate deciduous forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levick, Shaun R; Hessenmöller, Dominik; Schulze, E-Detlef

    2016-12-01

    Monitoring and managing carbon stocks in forested ecosystems requires accurate and repeatable quantification of the spatial distribution of wood volume at landscape to regional scales. Grid-based forest inventory networks have provided valuable records of forest structure and dynamics at individual plot scales, but in isolation they may not represent the carbon dynamics of heterogeneous landscapes encompassing diverse land-management strategies and site conditions. Airborne LiDAR has greatly enhanced forest structural characterisation and, in conjunction with field-based inventories, it provides avenues for monitoring carbon over broader spatial scales. Here we aim to enhance the integration of airborne LiDAR surveying with field-based inventories by exploring the effect of inventory plot size and number on the relationship between field-estimated and LiDAR-predicted wood volume in deciduous broad-leafed forest in central Germany. Estimation of wood volume from airborne LiDAR was most robust (R(2) = 0.92, RMSE = 50.57 m(3) ha(-1) ~14.13 Mg C ha(-1)) when trained and tested with 1 ha experimental plot data (n = 50). Predictions based on a more extensive (n = 1100) plot network with considerably smaller (0.05 ha) plots were inferior (R(2) = 0.68, RMSE = 101.01 ~28.09 Mg C ha(-1)). Differences between the 1 and 0.05 ha volume models from LiDAR were negligible however at the scale of individual land-management units. Sample size permutation tests showed that increasing the number of inventory plots above 350 for the 0.05 ha plots returned no improvement in R(2) and RMSE variability of the LiDAR-predicted wood volume model. Our results from this study confirm the utility of LiDAR for estimating wood volume in deciduous broad-leafed forest, but highlight the challenges associated with field plot size and number in establishing robust relationships between airborne LiDAR and field derived wood volume. We are moving into a forest management era where

  4. Driver for solar cell i-v characteristic plots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, G.B.

    1980-01-15

    A bipolar voltage ramp generator applies a linear voltage through a resistor to a solar cell for plotting its current versus voltage (I-v) characteristic between short circuit and open circuit conditions, with automatic stops at the end points. The resistor serves the multiple purpose of providing a current sensing resistor, setting the full-scale current value, and providing a load line with a slope approximately equal to one, such that it will pass through the origin and the approximate center of the i-v curve with about equal distance from that center to each of the end points.

  5. The Alienated Plot in The End of the Road

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽娜

    2014-01-01

    The End of the Road is John Barth’s second novel, and it is the first novel that brought abortion to the focus of public attention, which proves to be a huge success. This paper intends to study the alienation in The End of the Road based on the alienation as a literary style and the alienation embodied in the literary context. Through the analysis of the alienated plot, the pa-per aims to emphasize the internal cause for the end of the different character ’s road.

  6. Flat coalgebraic fixed point logics

    CERN Document Server

    Schröder, Lutz

    2010-01-01

    Fixed point logics have a wide range of applications in computer science, in particular in artificial intelligence and concurrency. The most expressive logics of this type are the mu-calculus and its relatives. However, popular fixed point logics tend to trade expressivity for simplicity and readability, and in fact often live within the single variable fragment of the mu-calculus. The family of such flat fixed point logics includes, e.g., CTL, the *-nesting-free fragment of PDL, and the logic of common knowledge. Here, we extend this notion to the generic semantic framework of coalgebraic logic, thus covering a wide range of logics beyond the standard mu-calculus including, e.g., flat fragments of the graded mu-calculus and the alternating-time mu-calculus (such as ATL), as well as probabilistic and monotone fixed point logics. Our main results are completeness of the Kozen-Park axiomatization and a timed-out tableaux method that matches EXPTIME upper bounds inherited from the coalgebraic mu-calculus but avo...

  7. Landau Gauge Fixing on GPUs

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso, Nuno; Bicudo, Pedro; Oliveira, Orlando

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present and explore the performance of Landau gauge fixing in GPUs using CUDA. We consider the steepest descent algorithm with Fourier acceleration, and compare the GPU performance with a parallel CPU implementation. Using $32^4$ lattice volumes, we find that the computational power of a single Tesla C2070 GPU is equivalent to approximately 256 CPU cores.

  8. Fixed drug eruption to tartrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchard, D C; Varigos, G A

    1997-11-01

    An 11-year-old girl with a recurrent fixed drug eruption to tartrazine on the dorsum of the left hand is presented. Oral provocation tests to both the suspected food, an artificially coloured cheese crisp, and to tartrazine were positive. This case highlights fire need to consider artificial flavours, colours and preservatives as potential culprits in classic drug eruptions.

  9. Adhesives for fixed orthodontic bands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millett, Declan T; Glenny, Anne-Marie; Mattick, Rye Cr; Hickman, Joy; Mandall, Nicky A

    2016-10-25

    Orthodontic treatment involves using fixed or removable appliances (dental braces) to correct the positions of teeth. It has been shown that the quality of treatment result obtained with fixed appliances is much better than with removable appliances. Fixed appliances are, therefore, favoured by most orthodontists for treatment. The success of a fixed orthodontic appliance depends on the metal attachments (brackets and bands) being attached securely to the teeth so that they do not become loose during treatment. Brackets are usually attached to the front and side teeth, whereas bands (metal rings that go round the teeth) are more commonly used on the back teeth (molars). A number of adhesives are available to attach bands to teeth and it is important to understand which group of adhesives bond most reliably, as well as reducing or preventing dental decay during the treatment period. To evaluate the effectiveness of the adhesives used to attach bands to teeth during fixed appliance treatment, in terms of:(1) how often the bands come off during treatment; and(2) whether they protect the banded teeth against decay during fixed appliance treatment. The following electronic databases were searched: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (searched 2 June 2016), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 5) in the Cochrane Library (searched 2 June 2016), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 2 June 2016) and EMBASE Ovid (1980 to 2 June 2016). We searched ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials. No restrictions were placed on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. Randomised and controlled clinical trials (RCTs and CCTs) (including split-mouth studies) of adhesives used to attach orthodontic bands to molar teeth were selected. Patients with full arch fixed orthodontic appliance(s) who had bands attached to molars were included. All review authors

  10. [Heart rate variability study based on a novel RdR RR Intervals Scatter Plot].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongwei; Lu, Xiuyun; Wang, Chunfang; Hua, Youyuan; Tian, Jiajia; Liu, Shihai

    2014-08-01

    On the basis of Poincare scatter plot and first order difference scatter plot, a novel heart rate variability (HRV) analysis method based on scatter plots of RR intervals and first order difference of RR intervals (namely, RdR) was proposed. The abscissa of the RdR scatter plot, the x-axis, is RR intervals and the ordinate, y-axis, is the difference between successive RR intervals. The RdR scatter plot includes the information of RR intervals and the difference between successive RR intervals, which captures more HRV information. By RdR scatter plot analysis of some records of MIT-BIH arrhythmias database, we found that the scatter plot of uncoupled premature ventricular contraction (PVC), coupled ventricular bigeminy and ventricular trigeminy PVC had specific graphic characteristics. The RdR scatter plot method has higher detecting performance than the Poincare scatter plot method, and simpler and more intuitive than the first order difference method.

  11. Can mushrooms fix atmospheric nitrogen?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H S Jayasinghearachchi; Gamini Seneviratne

    2004-09-01

    It is generally reported that fungi like Pleurotus spp. can fix nitrogen (N2). The way they do it is still not clear. The present study hypothesized that only associations of fungi and diazotrophs can fix N2. This was tested in vitro. Pleurotus ostreatus was inoculated with a bradyrhizobial strain nodulating soybean and P. ostreatus with no inoculation was maintained as a control. At maximum mycelial colonization by the bradyrhizobial strain and biofilm formation, the cultures were subjected to acetylene reduction assay (ARA). Another set of the cultures was evaluated for growth and nitrogen accumulation. Nitrogenase activity was present in the biofilm, but not when the fungus or the bradyrhizobial strain was alone. A significant reduction in mycelial dry weight and a significant increase in nitrogen concentration were observed in the inoculated cultures compared to the controls. The mycelial weight reduction could be attributed to C transfer from the fungus to the bradyrhizobial strain, because of high C cost of biological N2 fixation. This needs further investigations using 14C isotopic tracers. It is clear from the present study that mushrooms alone cannot fix atmospheric N2. But when they are in association with diazotrophs, nitrogenase activity is detected because of the diazotrophic N2 fixation. It is not the fungus that fixes N2 as reported earlier. Effective N2 fixing systems, such as the present one, may be used to increase protein content of mushrooms. Our study has implications for future identification of as yet unidentified N2 systems occurring in the environment.

  12. Computational Drafting of Plot Structures for Russian Folk Tales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervás, Pablo

    The plots of stories are known to follow general patterns in terms of their overall structure. This was the basic tenet of structuralist approaches to narratology. Vladimir Propp proposed a procedure for the generation of new tales based on his semi-formal description of the structure of Russian folk tales. This is one of the first existing instances of a creative process described procedurally. The present paper revisits Propp's morphology to build a system that generates instances of Russian folk tales. Propp's view of the folk tale as a rigid sequence of character functions is employed as a plot driver, and some issues that Propp declared relevant but did not explore in detail-such as long-range dependencies between functions or the importance of endings-are given computational shape in the context of a broader architecture that captures all the aspects discussed by Propp. A set of simple evaluation metrics for the resulting outputs is defined inspired on Propp's formalism. The potential of the resulting system for providing a creative story generation system is discussed, and possible lines of future work are discussed.

  13. Recurrence plot for parameters analysing of internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexa, O.; Ilie, C. O.; Marinescu, M.; Vilau, R.; Grosu, D.

    2015-11-01

    In many technical disciplines modem data analysis techniques has been successfully applied to understand the complexity of the system. The growing volume of theoretical knowledge about systems dynamic's offered researchers the opportunity to look for non-linear dynamics in data whose evolution linear models are unable to explain in a satisfactory manner. One approach in this respect is Recurrence Analysis - RA which is a graphical method designed to locate hidden recurring patterns, nonstationarity and structural changes. RA approach arose in natural sciences like physics and biology but quickly was adopted in economics and engineering. Meanwhile. The fast development of computer resources has provided powerful tools to perform this new and complex model. One free software which was used to perform our analysis is Visual Recurrence Analysis - VRA developed by Eugene Kononov. As is presented in this paper, the recurrence plot investigation for the analyzing of the internal combustion engine shows some of the RPA capabilities in this domain. We chose two specific engine parameters measured in two different tests to perform the RPA. These parameters are injection impulse width and engine angular speed and the tests are I11n and I51n. There were computed graphs for each of them. Graphs were analyzed and compared to obtain a conclusion. This work is an incipient research, being one of the first attempts of using recurrence plot for analyzing automotive dynamics. It opens a wide field of action for future research programs.

  14. Dark-lines in bifurcation plots of nonlinear dynamic systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Zhi-Ying; Shen Yun-Wen; Liu Meng-Jun

    2005-01-01

    Based on the regressive character of chaotic motion in nonlinear dynamic systems, a numerical regression algorithm is developed, which can be used to research the dark-lines passing through chaotic regions in bifurcation plots. The dark-lines of the parabolic mapping are obtained by using the numerical regression algorithm, and compared with those that are accurately acquired through dark-line equations. Thus the validity of this algorithm is proved. Furthermore,for the Brussel oscillation system and the piecewise linear dynamic system of a gear pair, the dark-lines are researched by using the regression algorithm. By researching the dark-lines in the bifurcation plots of nonlinear dynamic systems,the periodic windows embedded in chaotic regions can be ascertained by tangential points of dark-lines, and the turning points of chaotic attractors can be also obtained by intersected points. The results show that this algorithm is helpful to analyse dynamic behaviour of systems and control chaotic motion.

  15. A method to quantify FRET stoichiometry with phasor plot analysis and acceptor lifetime ingrowth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, WeiYue; Avezov, Edward; Schlachter, Simon C; Gielen, Fabrice; Laine, Romain F; Harding, Heather P; Hollfelder, Florian; Ron, David; Kaminski, Clemens F

    2015-03-10

    FRET is widely used for the study of protein-protein interactions in biological samples. However, it is difficult to quantify both the FRET efficiency (E) and the affinity (Kd) of the molecular interaction from intermolecular FRET signals in samples of unknown stoichiometry. Here, we present a method for the simultaneous quantification of the complete set of interaction parameters, including fractions of bound donors and acceptors, local protein concentrations, and dissociation constants, in each image pixel. The method makes use of fluorescence lifetime information from both donor and acceptor molecules and takes advantage of the linear properties of the phasor plot approach. We demonstrate the capability of our method in vitro in a microfluidic device and also in cells, via the determination of the binding affinity between tagged versions of glutathione and glutathione S-transferase, and via the determination of competitor concentration. The potential of the method is explored with simulations.

  16. Information extraction from FN plots of tungsten microemitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mussa, Khalil O. [Department of Physics, Mu' tah University, Al-Karak (Jordan); Mousa, Marwan S., E-mail: mmousa@mutah.edu.jo [Department of Physics, Mu' tah University, Al-Karak (Jordan); Fischer, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.fischer@physik.tu-chemnitz.de [Institut für Physik, Technische Universität Chemnitz, Chemnitz (Germany)

    2013-09-15

    Tungsten based microemitter tips have been prepared both clean and coated with dielectric materials. For clean tungsten tips, apex radii have been varied ranging from 25 to 500 nm. These tips were manufactured by electrochemical etching a 0.1 mm diameter high purity (99.95%) tungsten wire at the meniscus of two molar NaOH solution. Composite micro-emitters considered here are consisting of a tungsten core coated with different dielectric materials—such as magnesium oxide (MgO), sodium hydroxide (NaOH), tetracyanoethylene (TCNE), and zinc oxide (ZnO). It is worthwhile noting here, that the rather unconventional NaOH coating has shown several interesting properties. Various properties of these emitters were measured including current–voltage (IV) characteristics and the physical shape of the tips. A conventional field emission microscope (FEM) with a tip (cathode)–screen (anode) separation standardized at 10 mm was used to electrically characterize the electron emitters. The system was evacuated down to a base pressure of ∼10{sup −8}mbar when baked at up to ∼180°C overnight. This allowed measurements of typical field electron emission (FE) characteristics, namely the IV characteristics and the emission images on a conductive phosphorus screen (the anode). Mechanical characterization has been performed through a FEI scanning electron microscope (SEM). Within this work, the mentioned experimental results are connected to the theory for analyzing Fowler–Nordheim (FN) plots. We compared and evaluated the data extracted from clean tungsten tips of different radii and determined deviations between the results of different extraction methods applied. In particular, we derived the apex radii of several clean and coated tungsten tips by both SEM imaging and analyzing FN plots. The aim of this analysis is to support the ongoing discussion on recently developed improvements of the theory for analyzing FN plots related to metal field electron emitters, which in

  17. Infiltration and water storage in forest soils at the plot and the micro- catchment scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimm, Eva-Maria; Lange, Benjamin; Lüscher, Peter; Germann, Peter; Weingartner, Rolf

    2010-05-01

    Tree roots generate and conserve hydrologically active macropores. We explored the influence of root density on infiltration and water storage at six 1-m2 plots along an 8-m transect between two mature trees (spruce). The soil is a Flysch-based stagnic Cambisol with a flow-impeding horizon at a depth of about 60 cm. At a plot the experimental set up consisted of a 1m x 1m sprinkler and five Decagon HS-10 soil-moisture probes that were horizontally mounted from a trench into the centre of each horizon. We irrigated each plot three times at 24-hour intervals during one hour with a rate of 70 mm h-1. Data logging was at 60-seconds intervals that produced time series of water contents due to irrigation and drainage. After irrigation, soil cores of 10 cm diameter were sampled. Roots were extracted from the cores and their densities were optically analysed with the program "whinRIZO". The application of a rivulet approach to the time series of water contents produced the thickness F (μm) and the specific contact length L (m m-2) per cross-sectional area of the water films that represent Stokes-flow. The procedure leads to estimates of storage capacity and hydraulic connectivity in the vertical and lateral directions along the transect. Extrapolation from the transect to the micro-catchment scale is based on maps showing the spatial arrangements of trees, shrubs and soil properties like thickness and hydrological parameters of horizons.

  18. Insights into gait disorders: walking variability using phase plot analysis, Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, Patrick; Dawes, Helen; Collett, Johnny; Howells, Ken

    2013-09-01

    Gait variability may have greater utility than spatio-temporal parameters and can, be an indication for risk of falling in people with Parkinson's disease (PD). Current methods rely on prolonged data collection in order to obtain large datasets which may be demanding to obtain. We set out to explore a phase plot variability analysis to differentiate typically developed adults (TDAs) from PD obtained from two 10 m walks. Fourteen people with PD and good mobility (Rivermead Mobility Index≥8) and ten aged matched TDA were recruited and walked over 10-m at self-selected walking speed. An inertial measurement unit was placed over the projected centre of mass (CoM) sampling at 100 Hz. Vertical CoM excursion was derived to determine modelled spatiotemporal data after which the phase plot analysis was applied producing a cloud of datapoints. SDA described the spread and SDB the width of the cloud with β the angular vector of the data points. The ratio (∀) was defined as SDA: SDB. Cadence (p=.342) and stride length (p=.615) did not show a significance between TDA and PD. A difference was found for walking speed (p=.041). Furthermore a significant difference was found for β (p=.010), SDA (p=.004) other than SDB (p=.385) or ratio ∀ (p=.830). Two sequential 10-m walks showed no difference in PD for cadence (p=.193), stride length (p=.683), walking speed (p=.684) and β (p=.194), SDA (p=.051), SDB (p=.145) or ∀ (p=.226). The proposed phase plot analysis, performed on CoM motion could be used to reliably differentiate PD from TDA over a 10-m walk.

  19. On Fixing number of Functigraphs

    OpenAIRE

    Fazil, Muhammad; Javaid, Imran; Murtaza, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    The fixing number of a graph $G$ is the order of the smallest subset $S$ of its vertex set $V(G)$ such that stabilizer of $S$ in $G$, $\\Gamma_{S}(G)$ is trivial. Let $G_{1}$ and $G_{2}$ be disjoint copies of a graph $G$, and let $g:V(G_{1})\\rightarrow V(G_{2})$ be a function. A functigraph $F_{G}$ consists of the vertex set $V(G_{1})\\cup V(G_{2})$ and the edge set $E(G_{1})\\cup E(G_{2})\\cup \\{uv:v=g(u)\\}$. In this paper, we study the behavior of the fixing number in passing from $G$ to $F_{G}...

  20. Oral rehabilitation with fixed prosthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe Velásquez, Romel; Dpto. Académico Estomatología Rehabilitadora. Facultad Odontología. UNMSM. Lima, Perú.; Salcedo Moncada, Doris; Dpto. Académico Estomatología Rehabilitadora. Facultad Odontología. UNMSM. Lima, Perú.; Ochoa Tataje, Julio; Dpto. Académico Estomatología Rehabilitadora. Facultad Odontología. UNMSM. Lima, Perú; Horna Palomino, Hernán; Dpto. Académico Estomatología Rehabilitadora. Facultad Odontología. UNMSM. Lima, Perú.; Herrera Cisneros, Marco; Dpto. Académico Estomatología Rehabilitadora. Facultad Odontología. UNMSM. Lima, Perú.; Paz Fernández, Juan José; Dpto. Académico Estomatología Rehabilitadora. Facultad Odontología. UNMSM. Lima, Perú.

    2014-01-01

    This treatment was carried out in a 58 years old male patient, who has had the antecedent of a car crash accident two years before; he loosed several teeth and fractured others. Pulp necrosis and alteration of occlusal plane occurred. Because of the pathologies presented, it was installed a multidisciplinary treatment phase having periodontal, endodontic, surgical and orthodontic procedures, tehe installation of posts, crowns and fixed bridges. Treatment was carried out for five months. El...

  1. Multiscale recurrence quantification analysis of order recurrence plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mengjia; Shang, Pengjian; Lin, Aijing

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method of multiscale recurrence quantification analysis (MSRQA) to analyze the structure of order recurrence plots. The MSRQA is based on order patterns over a range of time scales. Compared with conventional recurrence quantification analysis (RQA), the MSRQA can show richer and more recognizable information on the local characteristics of diverse systems which successfully describes their recurrence properties. Both synthetic series and stock market indexes exhibit their properties of recurrence at large time scales that quite differ from those at a single time scale. Some systems present more accurate recurrence patterns under large time scales. It demonstrates that the new approach is effective for distinguishing three similar stock market systems and showing some inherent differences.

  2. Recurrence plots and chaotic motion around Kerr black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Kopáček, Ondřej; Karas, Vladimír; Stuchlík, Zdeněk; 10.1063/1.3506071

    2010-01-01

    We study the motion of charged test particles around a Kerr black hole immersed in the asymptotically uniform magnetic field, concluding that off-equatorial stable orbits are allowed in this system. Being interested in dynamical properties of these astrophysically relevant orbits we employ rather novel approach based on the analysis of recurrences of the system to the vicinity of its previous states. We use recurrence plots (RPs) as a tool to visualize recurrences of the trajectory in the phase space. Construction of RPs is simple and straightforward regardless of the dimension of the phase space, which is a major advantage of this approach when compared to the "traditional" methods of the numerical analysis of dynamical systems (for instance the visual survey of Poincar\\'{e} surfaces of section, evaluation of the Lyapunov spectra etc.). We show that RPs and their quantitative measures (obtained from recurrence quantification analysis -- RQA) are powerful tools to detect dynamical regime of motion (regular vs...

  3. Recurrence plots of discrete-time Gaussian stochastic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdani, Sofiane; Bouchara, Frédéric; Lagarde, Julien; Lesne, Annick

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the statistical properties of recurrence plots (RPs) of data generated by discrete-time stationary Gaussian random processes. We analytically derive the theoretical values of the probabilities of occurrence of recurrence points and consecutive recurrence points forming diagonals in the RP, with an embedding dimension equal to 1. These results allow us to obtain theoretical values of three measures: (i) the recurrence rate (REC) (ii) the percent determinism (DET) and (iii) RP-based estimation of the ε-entropy κ(ε) in the sense of correlation entropy. We apply these results to two Gaussian processes, namely first order autoregressive processes and fractional Gaussian noise. For these processes, we simulate a number of realizations and compare the RP-based estimations of the three selected measures to their theoretical values. These comparisons provide useful information on the quality of the estimations, such as the minimum required data length and threshold radius used to construct the RP.

  4. Dalitz Plot Analysis of Ds to K+K-pi+

    CERN Document Server

    Mitchell, R E

    2009-01-01

    We perform a Dalitz plot analysis of the decay Ds to K+K-pi+ with the CLEO-c data set of 586/pb of e+e- collisions accumulated at sqrt(s) = 4.17 GeV. This corresponds to about 0.57 million D_s+D_s(*)- pairs from which we select 14400 candidates with a background of roughly 15%. In contrast to previous measurements we find good agreement with our data only by including an additional f_0(1370)pi+ contribution. We measure the magnitude, phase, and fit fraction of K*(892) K+, phi(1020)pi+, K0*(1430)K+, f_0(980)pi+, f_0(1710)pi+, and f_0(1370)pi+ contributions and limit the possible contributions of other KK and Kpi resonances that could appear in this decay.

  5. Finding the plot in South African reading education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Rule

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that we have lost the plot in South African reading education. To find it, we need to move beyond the predominant mode of reading as oral performance, where the emphasis is on accuracy and pronunciation, to reading as comprehension of meaning in text. While reading research in South Africa has been conducted mainly in school contexts, this case study is of a school and Adult Basic Education and Training Centre in a rural KwaZulu-Natal community near Pietermaritzburg. It found that an oratorical approach to reading dominated in both settings. It suggests that developing the way in which teachers understand the teaching of reading and transforming the teaching practices of those who teach as they were taught in the education system of the apartheid era are key to improving the teaching of reading.

  6. Parallel coordinate plots of maize traits under different magnesium applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jan Bocianowski; Piotr Szulc; Kamila Nowosad

    2015-01-01

    The paral el coordinate plot is proposed as an efifcient tool for visualization of 13 traits of“stay-green”maize (Zea mays L.) cultivar exposed to different methods of magnesium application. The ifeld experiment was conducted in the Department of Agronomy, PoznańUniversity of Life Sciences, on the ifelds of the Department of Teaching and Experimental Station in Swadzim in 2006–2008. Experiment was conducted as a single-factor experiment with seven applications of magnesium in a randomized complete block design with four replicates. The highest mean values of grain yield and 1 000-grain weight were obtained after application of variant T3 of magnesium (10 kg MgO ha–1 soil) in the al three years of study.

  7. Modelling and simulation of load connected fixed blade wind turbine with permanent magnet synchronous generators

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Toma, AS; Taylor, GA; Abbod, M

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the modelling and simulation of a wind turbine driven Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator connected to a load. The system has been tested at different wind speeds. The machine side controller has been designed to match Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) to obtain high extraction of wind power when connected to a load, while the load side controller fixes the DC voltage that is converted to the AC load voltage. Detailed plots of voltage and current profiles are also pre...

  8. Zirconia in fixed implant prosthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guess, Petra Christine; Att, Wael; Strub, Joerg Rudolf

    2012-10-01

    CAD/CAM technology in combination with zirconia ceramic has increasingly gained popularity in implant dentistry. This narrative review presents the current knowledge on zirconia utilized as framework material for implant-borne restorations and implant abutments, laboratory tests and developments, clinical performance, and possible future trends for implant dentistry are addressed. A review of available literature from 1990 through 2010 was conducted with search terms zirconia,"implants,"abutment,"crown," and "fixed dental prosthesis" using electronic databases (PubMed) and manual searching. Latest applications of zirconia in implant dentistry include implant abutments, multiple unit and full-arch frameworks as well as custom-made bars to support fixed and removable prostheses. High biocompatibility, low bacterial surface adhesion as well as favorable chemical properties of zirconia ceramics are reported. Zirconia stabilized with yttrium oxide exhibits high flexural strength and fracture toughness due to a transformation toughening mechanism. Preliminary clinical data confirmed the high stability of zirconia for abutments and as a framework material for implant borne crowns and fixed dental prostheses. Zirconia abutment or framework damage has rarely been encountered. However, veneering porcelain fractures are the most common technical complication in implant-supported zirconia restorations. These porcelain veneer failures have led to concerns regarding differences in coefficient of thermal expansions between core and veneering porcelain and their respective processing techniques. As presently evidence of clinical long-term data is missing, caution with regard to especially extensive implant-borne zirconia frameworks is recommended. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. A fixed-point farrago

    CERN Document Server

    Shapiro, Joel H

    2016-01-01

    This text provides an introduction to some of the best-known fixed-point theorems, with an emphasis on their interactions with topics in analysis. The level of exposition increases gradually throughout the book, building from a basic requirement of undergraduate proficiency to graduate-level sophistication. Appendices provide an introduction to (or refresher on) some of the prerequisite material and exercises are integrated into the text, contributing to the volume’s ability to be used as a self-contained text. Readers will find the presentation especially useful for independent study or as a supplement to a graduate course in fixed-point theory. The material is split into four parts: the first introduces the Banach Contraction-Mapping Principle and the Brouwer Fixed-Point Theorem, along with a selection of interesting applications; the second focuses on Brouwer’s theorem and its application to John Nash’s work; the third applies Brouwer’s theorem to spaces of infinite dimension; and the fourth rests ...

  10. Plant mycorrhizal traits and carbon fates from plot to globe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soudzilovskaia, N.; Cornelissen, H. H. C.

    2016-12-01

    Evidence is accumulating that plant traits related to mycorrhizal symbiosis, i.e. mycorrhizal type and the degree of plant root colonization by mycorrhizal fungi have important consequences for carbon pools and allocation in plants and soil. How plant and soil carbon pools vary among vegetation dominated by plants of different mycorrhizal types is a new and exciting research challenge. Absence of global databases on abundance of mycorrhizal fungi in soil and plant roots retards research aimed to understand involvement of mycorrhizas into soil carbon transformation processes. Using own data and published studies we have assembled currently world-largest database of plant species-per-site degrees root colonization by two most common types of mycorrhizal fungi, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and ectomycorrhizal (EM). The database features records for plant root colonization degrees by AM and EM (above 8000 records in total). Using this database, we demonstrate that the degree of mycorrhizal fungal colonization has globally consistent patterns across plant species. This suggests that the level of plant species-specific root colonization can be used as a plant trait. I will discuss how combining plot-level field data, literature data and mycorrhizal infection trait data may help us to quantify the carbon consequences of relative dominance by arbuscular versus ectomycorrhizal symbiosis in vegetation from plot to global scale. To exemplify this method, I will present an assessment of the impacts of EM shrub encroachment on carbon stocks in sub-arctic tundra, and show how the plant trait data (root, leaf, stem and mycorrhizal colonization traits) could predict (1) impacts of AM and EM vegetation on soil carbon budget and (2) changes in soil carbon budget due to increase of EM plants in an AM-dominated ecosystem and visa versa. This approach may help to predict how global change-mediated vegetation shifts, via mycorrhizal carbon pools and dynamics, may affect terrestric and

  11. Field Plot and Accuracy Assessment Points for Padre Island National Seashore Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Accuracy Assessment, Observation and Plot Points. Currently there are NO DATA in this feature class. As of December 2009, a plots database has not been developed and...

  12. Field Plot and Observation Points for Dinosaur National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This point file displays the 727 vegetation plots and 217 observation points visited in 2002, 2003 and 2004 as part of the vegetation mapping project. Plots and...

  13. Dalitz plot analysis of $B^0 \\to \\overline{D}^0 \\pi^+\\pi^-$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassen, Rolf; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Bel, Lennaert; Belogurov, Sergey; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bertolin, Alessandro; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Birnkraut, Alex; Bizzeti, Andrea; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borgia, Alessandra; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casanova Mohr, Raimon; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Counts, Ian; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pascal; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Di Ruscio, Francesco; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fol, Philip; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garofoli, Justin; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gastaldi, Ugo; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Geraci, Angelo; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, V.V.; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Hampson, Thomas; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Humair, Thibaud; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Karodia, Sarah; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Kenzie, Matthew; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; La Thi, Viet Nga; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Machikhiliyan, Irina V; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Manning, Peter Michael; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mauri, Andrea; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; McSkelly, Ben; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Mitzel, Dominik Stefan; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Janine; Müller, Katharina; Müller, Vanessa; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nicol, Michelle; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Osorio Rodrigues, Bruno; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Otto, Adam; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Aranzazu; Pal, Bilas Kanti; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parkes, Christopher; Parkinson, Christopher John; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Pescatore, Luca; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrolini, Alessandro; Petruzzo, Marco; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Quagliani, Renato; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rakotomiaramanana, Barinjaka; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmelzer, Timon; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sepp, Indrek; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skillicorn, Ian; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Sterpka, Christopher Francis; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Stroili, Roberto; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Tekampe, Tobias; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Todd, Jacob; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Trabelsi, Karim; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ubeda Garcia, Mario; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Whitehead, Mark; Wiedner, Dirk; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Wen Chao; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang

    2015-01-01

    The resonant substructures of $B^0 \\to \\overline{D}^0 \\pi^+\\pi^-$ decays are studied with the Dalitz plot technique. In this study a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb$^{-1}$ of $pp$ collisions collected by the LHCb detector is used. The branching fraction of the $B^0 \\to \\overline{D}^0 \\pi^+\\pi^-$ decay in the region $m(\\overline{D}^0\\pi^{\\pm})>2.1$ GeV$/c^2$ is measured to be $(8.46 \\pm 0.14 \\pm 0.29 \\pm 0.40) \\times 10^{-4}$, where the first uncertainty is statistical, the second is systematic and the last arises from the normalisation channel $B^0 \\to D^*(2010)^-\\pi^+$. The $\\pi^+\\pi^-$ S-wave components are modelled with the Isobar and K-matrix formalisms. Results of the Dalitz plot analyses using both models are presented. A resonant structure at $m(\\overline{D}^0\\pi^-) \\approx 2.8$ GeV$/c^{2}$ is confirmed and its spin-parity is determined for the first time as $J^P = 3^-$. The branching fraction, mass and width of this structure are determined together with those of the $D...

  14. Selection of optimal threshold to construct recurrence plot for structural operational vibration measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dong; Ren, Wei-Xin; Hu, Yi-Ding; Li, Dan

    2015-08-01

    The structural health monitoring (SHM) involves the sampled operational vibration measurements over time so that the structural features can be extracted accordingly. The recurrence plot (RP) and corresponding recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) have become a useful tool in various fields due to its efficiency. The threshold selection is one of key issues to make sure that the constructed recurrence plot contains enough recurrence points. Different signals have in nature different threshold values. This paper is aiming at presenting an approach to determine the optimal threshold for the operational vibration measurements of civil engineering structures. The surrogate technique and Taguchi loss function are proposed to generate reliable data and to achieve the optimal discrimination power point where the threshold is optimum. The impact of selecting recurrence thresholds on different signals is discussed. It is demonstrated that the proposed method to identify the optimal threshold is applicable to the operational vibration measurements. The proposed method provides a way to find the optimal threshold for the best RP construction of structural vibration measurements under operational conditions.

  15. Modified Whittaker plots as an assessment and monitoring tool for vegetation in a lowland tropical rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Patrick; Comiskey, James; Alonso, Alfonso; Dallmeier, Francisco; Nuñez, Percy; Beltran, Hamilton; Baldeon, Severo; Nauray, William; de la Colina, Rafael; Acurio, Lucero; Udvardy, Shana

    2002-05-01

    Resource exploitation in lowland tropical forests is increasing and causing loss of biodiversity. Effective evaluation and management of the impacts of development on tropical forests requires appropriate assessment and monitoring tools. We propose the use of 0.1-ha multi-scale, modified Whittaker plots (MWPs) to assess and monitor vegetation in lowland tropical rainforests. We established MWPs at 4 sites to: (1) describe and compare composition and structure of the sites using MWPs, (2) compare these results to those of 1-ha permanent vegetation plots (BDPs), and (3) evaluate the ability of MWPs to detect changes in populations (statistical power). We recorded more than 400 species at each site. Species composition among the sites was distinctive, while mean abundance and basal area was similar. Comparisons between MWPs and BDPs show that they record similar species composition and abundance and that both perform equally well at detecting rare species. However, MWPs tend to record more species, and power analysis studies show that MWPs were more effective at detecting changes in the mean number of species of trees > or = 10 cm in diameter at breast height (dbh) and in herbaceous plants. Ten MWPs were sufficient to detect a change of 11% in the mean number of herb species, and they were able to detect a 14% change in the mean number of species of trees > or =10 cm dbh. The value of MWPs for assessment and monitoring is discussed, along with recommendations for improving the sampling design to increase power.

  16. The influence of fipronil on Reticulitermes flavipes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) feeding beyond treated plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Shelton

    2013-01-01

    A small-plot field trial was conducted to examine the area of influence of fipronil at incremental distances away from treated plots on the Harrison Experimental Forest near Saucier, MS. Small treated (water and fipronil) plots were surrounded by untreated wooden boards in an eight-point radial pattern, and examined for evidence of termite feeding every 60 d for 1 yr...

  17. Classification of calorimetric titration plots for alkyltrimethylammonium and alkylpyridinium cationic surfactants in aqueous solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijma, K; Engberts, J.B.F.N.; Blandamer, M.J; Cullis, P.M.; Last, P.M.; Irlam, K.D.; Soldi, L.G.

    1997-01-01

    Calorimetric titration plots for deaggregation of micelles formed by alkylpyridinium and alkyltrimethylammonium surfactants are classified into three types, A, B and C, depending on the shape of the plot of the enthalpy of dilution as a function of surfactant concentration. For Type A plots the reco

  18. Fitting Data to Model: Structural Equation Modeling Diagnosis Using Two Scatter Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ke-Hai; Hayashi, Kentaro

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces two simple scatter plots for model diagnosis in structural equation modeling. One plot contrasts a residual-based M-distance of the structural model with the M-distance for the factor score. It contains information on outliers, good leverage observations, bad leverage observations, and normal cases. The other plot contrasts…

  19. Classification of calorimetric titration plots for alkyltrimethylammonium and alkylpyridinium cationic surfactants in aqueous solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijma, K; Engberts, J.B.F.N.; Blandamer, M.J; Cullis, P.M.; Last, P.M.; Irlam, K.D.; Soldi, L.G.

    1997-01-01

    Calorimetric titration plots for deaggregation of micelles formed by alkylpyridinium and alkyltrimethylammonium surfactants are classified into three types, A, B and C, depending on the shape of the plot of the enthalpy of dilution as a function of surfactant concentration. For Type A plots the

  20. Diversity and activity of free-living nitrogen-fixing bacteria and total bacteria in organic and conventionally managed soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Caroline H; James, Angela; Leifert, Carlo; Cooper, Julia M; Cummings, Stephen P

    2011-02-01

    Agricultural soils are heterogeneous environments in which conditions affecting microbial growth and diversity fluctuate widely in space and time. In this study, the molecular ecology of the total bacterial and free-living nitrogen-fixing communities in soils from the Nafferton Factorial Systems Comparison (NFSC) study in northeast England were examined. The field experiment was factorial in design, with organic versus conventional crop rotation, crop protection, and fertility management factors. Soils were sampled on three dates (March, June, and September) in 2007. Total RNA was extracted from all soil samples and reverse transcribed. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) were used to analyze nifH and 16S rRNA genes in order to study free-living diazotrophs and the total bacterial community, respectively. Crop rotation was shown to have a significant effect on total bacterial diversity (and that of free-living N fixers) (P ≤ 0.001). On all three dates, nifH activity was higher in the conventional crop rotation. In contrast, qPCR analysis of free-living N fixers indicated significantly higher levels of activity in conventionally fertilized plots in June (P = 0.0324) and in plots with organic crop protection in September (P = 0.0143). To our knowledge, the effects of organic and conventional farming systems on free-living diazotrophs have never been studied. An increased understanding of the impacts of management practices on free-living N fixers could allow modifications in soil management practices to optimize the activity of these organisms.