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Sample records for fixation cancn mexico

  1. Mexico.

    Semaan, Leslie

    The text explores Mexico's history, geography, art, religion, and lifestyles in the context of its complex economy. The text focuses on Mexico's economy and reasons for its current situation. Part I of this teaching unit includes: Teacher Overview, Why Study Mexico, Mexico Fact Sheet, Map of Mexico, the Land and Climate, History, Government,…

  2. Mexico.

    1993-01-01

    The background notes on Mexico provide text and recent statistical information on the geography, population, government, economy, and foreign relations, specifically the North American Free Trade Agreement with US. The 1992 population is estimated at 89 million of which 60% are mestizo (Indian-Spanish), 30% are American Indian, 9% are Caucasian, and 1% are other. 90% are Roman Catholic. There are 8 years of compulsory education. Infant mortality is 30/1000 live births. Life expectancy for males is 68 years and 76 years for females. The labor force is comprised of 30% in services, 24% in agriculture and fishing, 19% in manufacturing, 13% in commerce, 7% in construction, 4% in transportation and communication, and .4% in mining. There are 31 states and a federal district. Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was $3200 in 1991. Military expenditures were .5% of GDP in 1991. The average inflation rate is 19%. Mexico City with 20 million is the largest urban center in the world. In recent years, the economy has been restructured with market oriented reforms; the result has been a growth of GDP of 3.6% in 1991 from 2% in 1987. Dependence on oil exports has decreased. There has been privatization and deregulation of state-owned companies. Subsidies to inefficient companies have been stopped. Tariff rates were reduced. The financial debt has been reduced and turned into a surplus of .8% in 1992. Mexico's foreign debt has been reduced from its high in 1987 of $107 billion. Agricultural reforms have been ongoing for 50 years. Land was redistributed, but standards of living and productivity have improved only slightly. Rural land tenure regulations have been changed, and other economic reforms are expected. Mexico engages in ad hoc international groups and is selective about membership in international organizations.

  3. Mexico

    2003-06-01

    This document summarizes the key energy data for Mexico: 1 - energy organizations and policy: Ministry of energy (SENER), Comision Reguladora de Energia (CRE), Ministry of Finances, Ministry of trade and industrial development (SECOFI), national commission for energy savings (CONAE); 2 - companies: federal commission of electricity (CFE), Minera Carbonifera Rio Escondido (MICARE - coal), Pemex (petroleum); 3 - energy production: resources, electric power, petroleum, natural gas; 4 - energy consumption; 5 - stakes and perspectives. Some economic and energy indicators are summarized in a series of tables: general indicators, supply indicators (reserves, refining and electric capacity, energy production, foreign trade), demand indicators (consumption trends, end use, energy independence, energy efficiency, CO 2 emissions), energy status per year and per energy source. (J.S.)

  4. CSF coccidioides complement fixation

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003526.htm CSF coccidioides complement fixation test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. CSF coccidioides complement fixation is a test that checks ...

  5. Intrascleral IOL Fixation.

    Jacob, Soosan

    2017-01-01

    Intrascleral sutureless intraocular lens (IOL) fixation utilizes direct haptic fixation within the sclera in eyes with deficient capsular support. This has advantages of long-term stability, good control of tilt and decentration, and lesser pseudophakodonesis. This review summarizes various techniques for intrascleral haptic fixation, results, complications, adaptations in special situations, modifications of the technique, combination surgeries, and intrascleral capsular bag fixation techniques (glued capsular hook). Copyright 2017 Asia-Pacific Academy of Ophthalmology.

  6. Guide to radiation fixatives

    Tawil, J.J.; Bold, F.C.

    1983-11-01

    This report identifies and then characterizes a variety of substances available in the market place for potential effectiveness as a fixative on radiologically contaminated surfaces. The substances include both generic chemicals and proprietary products. In selecting a fixative for a particular application, several attributes of the fixative may be relevant to the choice. These attributes include: toxicity, durability, and cleanliness and removability. In addition to the attributes of the fixative, one should also take into account certain characteristics of the site to be treated. These characteristics relate to climate, nature of the surface, use to which the treated surface will be put, subsequent cleanup operations, and type of neighboring surfaces. Finally, costs and potential environmental effects may influence the decision. A variety of fixatives are evaluated with respect to these various attributes and summarized in a reference table

  7. Flexible fixation and fracture healing

    Schmal, Hagen; Strohm, Peter C; Jaeger, Martin

    2011-01-01

    , noncomminuted fractures. External fixation uses external bars for stabilization, whereas internal fixation is realized by subcutaneous placement of locking plates. Both of these "biologic" osteosynthesis methods allow a minimally invasive approach and do not compromise fracture hematoma and periosteal blood...

  8. Sacroiliac Screw Fixation

    E.W. van den Bosch

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this thesis is to evaluate three major aspects of the use of sacroiliac screws in patients with unstable pelvic ring fractures: the optimal technique for sacroiliac screw fixation, the reliability of peroperative fluoroscopy and the late results. We focused on the questions

  9. Isotopes in biological dinitrogen fixation

    1978-10-01

    Nineteen papers were presented at the conference. Some topics discussed are as follows: biochemistry and genetics of dinitrogen fixation; genetics of the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis and of the nitrogen-fixing bacteria; studies on nonsymbiotic dinitrogen fixation in grass-bacteria associations and blue--green algae; use of /sup 15/N and /sup 13/N for the assay of dinitrogen fixation; effects of management practices on dinitrogen fixation; economy of C and N in nitrogen-fixing legumes; and survey of international and national programs on dinitrogen fixation. (HLW)

  10. CARBON DIOXIDE FIXATION.

    FUJITA,E.

    2000-01-12

    Solar carbon dioxide fixation offers the possibility of a renewable source of chemicals and fuels in the future. Its realization rests on future advances in the efficiency of solar energy collection and development of suitable catalysts for CO{sub 2} conversion. Recent achievements in the efficiency of solar energy conversion and in catalysis suggest that this approach holds a great deal of promise for contributing to future needs for fuels and chemicals.

  11. Fixation distance and fixation duration to vertical road signs.

    Costa, Marco; Simone, Andrea; Vignali, Valeria; Lantieri, Claudio; Palena, Nicola

    2018-05-01

    The distance of first-fixation to vertical road signs was assessed in 22 participants while driving a route of 8.34 km. Fixations to road signs were recorded by a mobile eye-movement-tracking device synchronized to GPS and kinematic data. The route included 75 road signs. First-fixation distance and fixation duration distributions were positively skewed. Median distance of first-fixation was 51 m. Median fixation duration was 137 ms with a modal value of 66 ms. First-fixation distance was linearly related to speed and fixation duration. Road signs were gazed at a much closer distance than their visibility distance. In a second study a staircase procedure was used to test the presentation-time threshold that lead to a 75% accuracy in road sign identification. The threshold was 35 ms, showing that short fixations to a road signs could lead to a correct identification. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Fixation Time for Evolutionary Graphs

    Nie, Pu-Yan; Zhang, Pei-Ai

    Evolutionary graph theory (EGT) is recently proposed by Lieberman et al. in 2005. EGT is successful for explaining biological evolution and some social phenomena. It is extremely important to consider the time of fixation for EGT in many practical problems, including evolutionary theory and the evolution of cooperation. This study characterizes the time to asymptotically reach fixation.

  13. Complement fixation test to C burnetii

    ... complement fixation test; Coxiella burnetii - complement fixation test; C burnetii - complement fixation test ... a specific foreign substance ( antigen ), in this case, C burnetii . Antibodies defend the body against bacteria, viruses, ...

  14. Eighth international congress on nitrogen fixation

    1990-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Eighth International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation held May 20--26, 1990 in Knoxville, Tennessee. The volume contains abstracts of individual presentations. Sessions were entitled Recent Advances in the Chemistry of Nitrogen Fixation, Plant-microbe Interactions, Limiting Factors of Nitrogen Fixation, Nitrogen Fixation and the Environment, Bacterial Systems, Nitrogen Fixation in Agriculture and Industry, Plant Function, and Nitrogen Fixation and Evolution.

  15. Enhancing biological nitrogen fixation

    Danso, S.K.A.; Eskew, D.L. (Joint FAO/IAEA Div. of Isotope and Radiation Applications of Atomic Energy for Food and Agricultural Development, Vienna (Austria))

    1984-06-01

    Several co-ordinated research programmes (CRPs) conducted by the Soil Fertility, Irrigation and Crop Production Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division have concentrated on finding the most efficient way of applying nitrogen fertilizers to various crops, using nitrogen-15 (/sup 15/N) as a tracer. The findings of these studies have been adopted in many countries around the world, resulting in savings of nitrogen fertilizers worth many millions of dollars every year. More recently, the Section's CRPs have focused on enhancing the natural process of biological di-nitrogen fixation. The /sup 15/N isotope technique has proven to be very valuable in studies of the legume-Rhizobium symbiosis, allowing many more experiments than before to be done and yielding much new practical information. The Soils Section is now working to extend the use of the technique to other nitrogen-fixing symbioses.

  16. Powering Mexico

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This article examines Mexico's demand for electricity and the market for independent power generation. The topics discussed in the article include the outlook for the 1990s for growth in Mexico's economy and energy demand, renewable energy, energy conservation, small-scale, off-grid renewable energy systems, and estimates of Mexico's market for electric power generating equipment

  17. REVISION ANKLE SYNDESMOSIS FIXATION - FUNCTIONAL OUTCOME AFTER TIGHTROPE ® FIXATION

    Sendhilvelan Rajagopalan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Syndesmotic disruptions are often seen in ankle fractures. Malreduction of these fractures can result in arthritis and instability. A proportion of these patients with malreduction require revision fixation. This study presents the results of revision fixation in such patients, using the Ankle TightRope ® (Arthrex system. METHODS Between January 2000 to December 2009, 124 patients who underwent ankle fracture fixations with syndesmotic stabilisation were analysed. Out of 124 patients, 8 patients were diagnosed with failure of primary stabilisation (based on radiological and clinical criteria and subjected to revision fixation using the Ankle TightRope ® (Arthrex system. Followup was done at periodic time intervals of 3, 6 and 12 months. Both clinical and radiological assessment was performed. Complications and duration of hospital stay was recorded. Functional evaluation was performed using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS scoring system. RESULTS Five patients had good results, one satisfactory and two had poor outcomes. CONCLUSIONS Ankle TightRope ® fixation is an alternative method of stabilisation in patients who require revision syndesmosis fixation. Further studies are required to evaluate this method of revision stabilisation as compared to screws.

  18. Mexico Geoid Heights (MEXICO97)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' geoid height grid for Mexico, and North-Central America, is the MEXICO97 geoid model. The computation used about one million terrestrial and marine gravity...

  19. Permanganate Fixation of Plant Cells

    Mollenhauer, Hilton H.

    1959-01-01

    In an evaluation of procedures explored to circumvent some of the problems of osmium tetroxide-fixation and methacrylate embedding of plant materials, excised segments of root tips of Zea mays were fixed for electron microscopy in potassium permanganate in the following treatment variations: unbuffered and veronal-acetate buffered solutions of 0.6, 2.0, and 5.0 per cent KMnO4 at pH 5.0, 6.0, 6.7, and 7.5, and temperatures of 2–4°C. and 22°C. After fixation the segments were dehydrated, embedded in epoxy resin, sectioned, and observed or photographed. The cells of the central region of the rootcap are described. The fixation procedures employing unbuffered solutions containing 2.0 to 5.0 per cent KMnO4 at a temperature of 22°C. gave particularly good preservation of cell structure and all membrane systems. Similar results were obtained using a solution containing 2.0 per cent KMnO4, buffered with veronal-acetate to pH 6.0, and a fixation time of 2 hours at 22°C. The fixation procedure utilizing veronal-acetate buffered, 0.6 per cent KMnO4 at 2–4°C. and pH 6.7 also gave relatively good preservation of most cellular constituents. However, preservation of the plasma membrane was not so good, nor was the intensity of staining so great, as that with the group of fixatives containing greater concentrations of KMnO4. The other fixation procedures did not give satisfactory preservation of fine structure. A comparison is made of cell structures as fixed in KMnO4 or OsO4. PMID:14423414

  20. External fixation of "intertrochanteric" fractures.

    Gani, Naseem Ul; Kangoo, Khursheed Ahmed; Bashir, Arshad; Muzaffer, Rahil; Bhat, Mohammad Farooq; Farooq, Munir; Badoo, Abdul Rashid; Dar, Imtiyaz Hussian; Wani, Mudassir Maqbool

    2009-10-10

    In developing countries, due to limited availability of modern anesthesia and overcrowding of the hospitals with patients who need surgery, high-risk patients with "intertrochanteric" fractures remain unsuita ble for open reduction and internal fixation.The aim of this study was to analyze the results of external fixation of "intertrochanteric" fractures in high-risk geriatric patients in a developing country.The results of 62 ambulatory high-risk geriatric patients with a mean age of 70 years (range 58-90 years) with "intertrochanteric" fractures, in whom external fixation was performed, are reported.Eight patients died during follow-up due to medical causes unrelated to the surgical procedure. So only 54 patients were available for final assessment. Procedure is simple, performed under local anesthesia, requires less time for surgery and is associated with less blood loss. Good fixation and early ambulation was achieved in most of the patients. Average time to union was 14 weeks. Thirty-one patients developed superficial pin tract infection and 28 patients had average shortening of 15 mm due to impaction and varus angulation. Functional outcome was assessed using Judet's point system. Good to excellent results were achieved in 44 patients.This study demonstrated that external fixation of "intertrochantric" fractures performed under local anesthesia offers significant advantage in ambulatory high-risk geriatric patients especially in a developing country.

  1. Comparison of Outcomes of Operatively Treated Bicondylar Tibial Plateau Fractures by External Fixation and Internal Fixation

    CC Chan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The outcome of bicondylar tibial plateau fractures treated with either external fixation (35 patients or internal fixation (24 patients was reviewed. Outcome measures included the Rasmussen score, clinical complications, development of osteoarthritis and the requirement for total knee replacement (TKR. Twenty-two (92% anatomical reductions were achieved in the internal fixation group compared to 27 (77% in the external fixation group. Infective complications were more common in the external fixation group (9 patients, 26% due to pin tract infection. There were no deep infections in the internal fixation group. The mean Rasmussen score was not significantly different (mean score 32 in external fixation and 29 in internal fixation between the two groups and the incidence of osteoarthritis was the same in both groups. Four patients in the external fixation group underwent a TKR compared to 5 patients in the internal fixation group. Bicondylar tibial plateau fractures have similar outcomes following external or internal fixation.

  2. Understanding Nitrogen Fixation

    Paul J. Chirik

    2012-05-25

    synthesis of ammonia, NH{sub 3}, from its elements, H{sub 2} and N{sub 2}, via the venerable Haber-Bosch process is one of the most significant technological achievements of the past century. Our research program seeks to discover new transition metal reagents and catalysts to disrupt the strong N {triple_bond} N bond in N{sub 2} and create new, fundamental chemical linkages for the construction of molecules with application as fuels, fertilizers and fine chemicals. With DOE support, our group has discovered a mild method for ammonia synthesis in solution as well as new methods for the construction of nitrogen-carbon bonds directly from N{sub 2}. Ideally these achievements will evolve into more efficient nitrogen fixation schemes that circumvent the high energy demands of industrial ammonia synthesis. Industrially, atmospheric nitrogen enters the synthetic cycle by the well-established Haber-Bosch process whereby N{sub 2} is hydrogenated to ammonia at high temperature and pressure. The commercialization of this reaction represents one of the greatest technological achievements of the 20th century as Haber-Bosch ammonia is responsible for supporting approximately 50% of the world's population and serves as the source of half of the nitrogen in the human body. The extreme reaction conditions required for an economical process have significant energy consequences, consuming 1% of the world's energy supply mostly in the form of pollution-intensive coal. Moreover, industrial H{sub 2} synthesis via the water gas shift reaction and the steam reforming of methane is fossil fuel intensive and produces CO{sub 2} as a byproduct. New synthetic methods that promote this thermodynamically favored transformation ({Delta}G{sup o} = -4.1 kcal/mol) under milder conditions or completely obviate it are therefore desirable. Most nitrogen-containing organic molecules are derived from ammonia (and hence rely on the Haber-Bosch and H{sub 2} synthesis processes) and direct synthesis from

  3. Deepwater Nitrogen Fixation: Who's Doing it, Where, and Why?

    Montoya, J. P.; Weber, S.; Vogts, A.; Voss, M.; Saxton, M.; Joye, S. B.

    2016-02-01

    Nitrogen availability frequently limits marine primary production and N2-fixation plays an important role in supporting biological production in surface waters of many oligotrophic regions. Although subsurface waters typically contain high concentrations of nitrate and other nutrients, measurements from a variety of oceanic settings show measurable, and at times high rates of N2-fixation in deep, dark waters below the mixed layer. We have explored the distribution of N2-fixation throughout the water column of the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) during a series of cruises beginning shortly after the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill in 2010 and continuing at roughly annual intervals. These cruises allowed us to sample oligotrophic waters across a range of depths, and to explore the connections between the C and N cycles mediated by release of oil and gas (petrocarbon) from natural seeps as well as anthropogenic sources (e.g., the DWH). We used stable isotope abundances (15N and 13C) in particles and zooplankton in combination with experimental measurements of N2-fixation and CH4 assimilation to assess the contribution of oil- and gas-derived C to the pelagic food web, and the impact of CH4 releases on the pelagic C and N cycles. Our isotopic measurements document the movement of petrocarbon into the pelagic food web, and our experiments revealed that high rates of N2-fixation were widespread in deep water immediately after the DWH incident, and restricted to the vicinity of natural seeps in subsequent years. Unfortunately, these approaches provided no insight into the organisms actually responsible for N2-fixation and CH4-assimilation. We used nano-scale Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (nanoSIMS) to image the organisms responsible for these processes, and molecular approaches to explore the diversity of methanotrophs and diazotrophs present in the system. The ability to resolve isotopic distributions on the scale of individual cells is a critical part of bridging the gap between

  4. Anterior fixation of the axis.

    Traynelis, Vincent C; Fontes, Ricardo B V

    2010-09-01

    Although anterior fixation of the axis is not commonly performed, plate fixation of C2 is an important technique for treating select upper cervical traumatic injuries and is also useful in the surgical management of spondylosis. To report the technique and outcomes of C2 anterior plate fixation for a series of patients in which the majority presented with symptomatic degenerative spondylosis. Forty-six consecutive patients underwent single or multilevel fusions over a 7-year period; 30 of these had advanced degenerative disease manifested by myelopathy or deformity. Exposure was achieved with rostral extension of the standard anterior cervical exposure via careful soft tissue dissection, mobilization of the superior thyroid artery, and the use of a table-mounted retractor. It was not necessary to remove the submandibular gland, section the digastric muscle, or make additional skin incisions. Screws were placed an average of 4.6 mm (+/- 2.3 mm) from the inferior C2 endplate with a mean sagittal trajectory of 15.7 degrees (+/- 7.6 degrees). Short- and long-term procedure-related mortality was 4.4%, and perioperative morbidity was 8.9%. Patients remained intubated an average of 2.5 days following surgery. Dysphagia was initially reported by 15.2% of patients but resolved by the 8th postoperative week in all patients. Arthrodesis was achieved in all patients available for long-term follow-up. Multilevel fusions were not associated with longer hospitalization or morbidity. Anterior plate fixation of the axis for degenerative disease can be accomplished with acceptable morbidity employing an extension of the standard anterolateral route.

  5. Smaller Fixation Target Size Is Associated with More Stable Fixation and Less Variance in Threshold Sensitivity.

    Kazunori Hirasawa

    Full Text Available The aims of this randomized observational case control study were to quantify fixation behavior during standard automated perimetry (SAP with different fixation targets and to evaluate the relationship between fixation behavior and threshold variability at each test point in healthy young participants experienced with perimetry. SAP was performed on the right eyes of 29 participants using the Octopus 900 perimeter, program 32, dynamic strategy. The fixation targets of Point, Cross, and Ring were used for SAP. Fixation behavior was recorded using a wearable eye-tracking glass. All participants underwent SAP twice with each fixation target in a random fashion. Fixation behavior was quantified by calculating the bivariate contour ellipse area (BCEA and the frequency of deviation from the fixation target. The BCEAs (deg2 of Point, Cross, and Ring targets were 1.11, 1.46, and 2.02, respectively. In all cases, BCEA increased significantly with increasing fixation target size (p < 0.05. The logarithmic value of BCEA demonstrated the same tendency (p < 0.05. A positive correlation was identified between fixation behavior and threshold variability for the Point and Cross targets (ρ = 0.413-0.534, p < 0.05. Fixation behavior increased with increasing fixation target size. Moreover, a larger fixation behavior tended to be associated with a higher threshold variability. A small fixation target is recommended during the visual field test.

  6. Overcoming fixation with repeated memory suppression.

    Angello, Genna; Storm, Benjamin C; Smith, Steven M

    2015-01-01

    Fixation (blocks to memories or ideas) can be alleviated not only by encouraging productive work towards a solution, but, as the present experiments show, by reducing counterproductive work. Two experiments examined relief from fixation in a word-fragment completion task. Blockers, orthographically similar negative primes (e.g., ANALOGY), blocked solutions to word fragments (e.g., A_L_ _GY) in both experiments. After priming, but before the fragment completion test, participants repeatedly suppressed half of the blockers using the Think/No-Think paradigm, which results in memory inhibition. Inhibiting blockers did not alleviate fixation in Experiment 1 when conscious recollection of negative primes was not encouraged on the fragment completion test. In Experiment 2, however, when participants were encouraged to remember negative primes at fragment completion, relief from fixation was observed. Repeated suppression may nullify fixation effects, and promote creative thinking, particularly when fixation is caused by conscious recollection of counterproductive information.

  7. Polymeric media for tritium fixation. Supplement I

    Franz, J.A.; Burger, L.L.

    1976-01-01

    Procedures for the fixation of tritium as TH or THO in two different polymeric media are described. The complete procedure for THO fixation in a polyureylene-polyurethane polumer, including polymer molding procedures and leach tests is presented. The catalytic tritiation of polystyrene under very mild conditions using a rhodium catalyst is also described. Thermal stabilities and cost estimates for the polymers examined under this program are discussed. Organic polymers were found to have attractive features for the fixation and storage of concentrated tritium wastes due to the convenience of fixation procedures and favorable properties of the resulting media

  8. Modeling fixation locations using spatial point processes.

    Barthelmé, Simon; Trukenbrod, Hans; Engbert, Ralf; Wichmann, Felix

    2013-10-01

    Whenever eye movements are measured, a central part of the analysis has to do with where subjects fixate and why they fixated where they fixated. To a first approximation, a set of fixations can be viewed as a set of points in space; this implies that fixations are spatial data and that the analysis of fixation locations can be beneficially thought of as a spatial statistics problem. We argue that thinking of fixation locations as arising from point processes is a very fruitful framework for eye-movement data, helping turn qualitative questions into quantitative ones. We provide a tutorial introduction to some of the main ideas of the field of spatial statistics, focusing especially on spatial Poisson processes. We show how point processes help relate image properties to fixation locations. In particular we show how point processes naturally express the idea that image features' predictability for fixations may vary from one image to another. We review other methods of analysis used in the literature, show how they relate to point process theory, and argue that thinking in terms of point processes substantially extends the range of analyses that can be performed and clarify their interpretation.

  9. Methanotrophy induces nitrogen fixation during peatland development

    Larmola, Tuula; Leppänen, Sanna M.; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina; Aarva, Maija; Merilä, Päivi; Fritze, Hannu; Tiirola, Marja

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) accumulation rates in peatland ecosystems indicate significant biological atmospheric N2 fixation associated with Sphagnum mosses. Here, we show that the linkage between methanotrophic carbon cycling and N2 fixation may constitute an important mechanism in the rapid accumulation of N during the primary succession of peatlands. In our experimental stable isotope enrichment study, previously overlooked methane-induced N2 fixation explained more than one-third of the new N input in the younger peatland stages, where the highest N2 fixation rates and highest methane oxidation activities co-occurred in the water-submerged moss vegetation. PMID:24379382

  10. [Comparison of external fixation with or without limited internal fixation for open knee fractures].

    Li, K N; Lan, H; He, Z Y; Wang, X J; Yuan, J; Zhao, P; Mu, J S

    2018-03-01

    Objective: To explore the characteristics and methods of different fixation methods and prevention of open knee joint fracture. Methods: The data of 86 cases of open knee joint fracture admitted from January 2002 to December 2015 in Department of Orthopaedics, Affiliated Hospital of Chengdu University were analyzed retrospectively.There were 65 males and 21 females aged of 38.6 years. There were 38 cases treated with trans articular external fixation alone, 48 cases were in the trans articular external fixation plus auxiliary limited internal fixation group. All the patients were treated according to the same three stages except for different fixation methods. Observation of external fixation and fracture fixation, fracture healing, wound healing and treatment, treatment and related factors of infection control and knee function recovery. χ(2) test was used to analyze data. Results: Eleven patients had primary wound healing, accounting for 12.8%. Seventy-five patients had two wounds healed, accounting for 87.2%. Only 38 cases of trans articular external fixator group had 31 cases of articular surface reduction, accounting for 81.6%; Five cases of trans articular external fixator assisted limited internal fixation group had 5 cases of poor reduction, accounting for 10.4%; There was significant difference between the two groups (χ(2)=44.132, P external fixation group, a total of 23 cases of patients with infection, accounted for 60.5% of external fixation group; trans articular external fixation assisted limited internal fixation group there were 30 cases of patients with infection, accounting for the assistance of external fixator and limited internal fixation group 62.5%; There was significant difference between the two groups(χ(2)=0.035, P >0.05). Five cases of fracture nonunion cases of serious infection, patients voluntarily underwent amputation. The Lysholm Knee Scale: In the external fixation group, 23 cases were less than 50 points, accounting for 60

  11. Improper tube fixation causing a leaky cuff

    Gupta Babita

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaking endotracheal tube cuffs are common problems in intensive care units. We report a case wherein the inflation tube was damaged by the adhesive plaster used for tube fixation and resulted in leaking endotracheal tube cuff. We also give some suggestions regarding the tube fixation and some remedial measures for damaged inflation system.

  12. Nitrogen fixation by legumes in retorted shale

    Hersman, L E; Molitoris, E; Klein, D A

    1981-01-01

    A study was made to determine whether retorted shale additions would significantly affect symbiotic N/sub 2/ fixation. Results indicate that small additions of the shale may stimulate plant growth but with higher concentrations plants are stressed, resulting in a decreased biomass and a compensatory effect of an increased number of nodules and N/sub 2/ fixation potential. (JMT)

  13. Outcome of rail fixator system in reconstructing bone gap

    Amit Lakhani

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: All patients well tolerated rail fixator with good functional results and gap reconstruction. Easy application of rail fixator and comfortable distraction procedure suggest rail fixator a good alternative for gap reconstruction of limbs.

  14. EFFECT OF EMBEDDING METHODS VERSUS FIXATIVE TYPE ON KARYOMETRIC MEASURES

    BOON, ME; VANDERPOEL, HG; TAN, CJA; KOK, LP

    The influence of fixation and embedding methods in seven urologic tumor samples was studied karyometrically for 12 preparatory techniques. Routine histologic formalin fixation was compared with Carbowax and Kryofix fixatives. Also, histologic material was studied embedded in paraffin and plastic

  15. Eighth international congress on nitrogen fixation. Final program

    1990-12-31

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Eighth International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation held May 20--26, 1990 in Knoxville, Tennessee. The volume contains abstracts of individual presentations. Sessions were entitled Recent Advances in the Chemistry of Nitrogen Fixation, Plant-microbe Interactions, Limiting Factors of Nitrogen Fixation, Nitrogen Fixation and the Environment, Bacterial Systems, Nitrogen Fixation in Agriculture and Industry, Plant Function, and Nitrogen Fixation and Evolution.

  16. Polymeric media for tritium fixation

    Franz, J.A.; Burger, L.L.

    1975-01-01

    The synthesis and leach testing of several polymeric media for tritium fixation are presented. Tritiated bakelite, poly(acrylonitrile) and polystyrene successfully fixed tritium. Tritium leach rates at the tracer level appear to be negligible. Advantages and disadvantages of the processes are discussed, and further bench-scale investigations underway are reported. Rough cost estimates are presented for the different media and are compared with alternate approaches such as deep-well injection and long-term tank storage. Polymeric media costs are high compared to deep-well storage and are of the same order of magnitude per liter of water as for isotopic enrichment. With this limitation, polymeric media can be economically feasible only for highly concentrated tritiated wastes. It is recommended that the bakelite and polystyrene processes be examined on a larger scale to permit more accurate cost analysis and process design. (auth)

  17. Radionuclide fixation mechanisms in rocks

    Nakashima, S.

    1991-01-01

    In the safety evaluation of the radioactive waste disposal in geological environment, the mass balance equation for radionuclide migration is given. The sorption of radionuclides by geological formations is conventionally represented by the retardation of the radionuclides as compared with water movement. In order to quantify the sorption of radionuclides by rocks and sediments, the distribution ratio is used. In order to study quantitatively the long term behavior of waste radionuclides in geological environment, besides the distribution ratio concept in short term, slower radionuclide retention reaction involving mineral transformation should be considered. The development of microspectroscopic method for long term reaction path modeling, the behavior of iron during granite and water interaction, the reduction precipitation of radionuclides, radionuclide migration pathways, and the representative scheme of radionuclide migration and fixation in rocks are discussed. (K.I.)

  18. Dinitrogen fixation in aphotic oxygenated marine environments

    Eyal eRahav

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We measured N2 fixation rates from oceanic zones that have traditionally been ignored as sources of biological N2 fixation; the aphotic, fully oxygenated, nitrate (NO3--rich, waters of the oligotrophic Levantine Basin (LB and the Gulf of Aqaba (GA. N2 fixation rates measured from pelagic aphotic waters to depths up to 720 m, during the mixed and stratified periods, ranged from 0.01 nmol N L-1 d-1 to 0.38 nmol N L-1 d-1. N2 fixation rates correlated significantly with bacterial productivity and heterotrophic diazotrophs were identified from aphotic as well as photic depths. Dissolved free amino acid amendments to whole water from the GA enhanced bacterial productivity by 2to 3.5 and N2 fixation rates by ~ 2 fold in samples collected from aphotic depths while in amendments to water from photic depths bacterial productivity increased 2 to 6 fold while N2 fixation rates increased by a factor of 2 to 4 illustrating that both BP an heterotrophic N2 fixation are carbon limited. Experimental manipulations of aphotic waters from the LB demonstrated a significant positive correlation between transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP concentration and N2 fixation rates. This suggests that sinking organic material and high carbon (C: nitrogen (N micro-environments (such as TEP-based aggregates or marine snow could support high heterotrophic N2 fixation rates in oxygenated surface waters and in the aphotic zones. Indeed, our calculations show that aphotic N2 fixation accounted for 37 to 75 % of the total daily integrated N2 fixation rates at both locations in the Mediterranean and Red Seas with rates equal or greater to those measured from the photic layers. Moreover, our results indicate that that while N2 fixation may be limited in the surface waters, aphotic, pelagic N2 fixation may contribute significantly to new N inputs in other oligotrophic basins, yet it is currently not included in regional or global N budgets.

  19. Immaturity of Visual Fixations in Dyslexic Children.

    TIADI eBi Kuyami Guy Aimé

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To our knowledge, behavioral studies recording visual fixations abilities in dyslexic children are scarce. The object of this paper is to explore further the visual fixation ability in dyslexics compared to chronological age-matched and reading age-matched non-dyslexic children. Fifty-five dyslexic children from 7 to 14 years old, fifty-five chronological age-matched non-dyslexic children and fifty-five reading age-matched non-dyslexic children participated to this study. Eye movements from both eyes were recorded horizontally and vertically by a video-oculography system (EyeBrain® T2. The fixation task consisted in fixating a white-filled circle appearing in the centre of the screen for 30 seconds. Results showed that dyslexic children produced a significantly higher number of unwanted saccades than both groups of non-dyslexic children. Moreover, the number of unwanted saccades significantly decreased with age in both groups of non-dyslexic children, but not in dyslexics. Furthermore, dyslexics made more saccades during the last 15 sec of fixation period with respect to both groups of non-dyslexic children. Such poor visual fixation capability in dyslexic children could be due to impaired attention abilities, as well as to an immaturity of the cortical areas controlling the fixation system.

  20. Sutureless Intrascleral Fixated Intraocular Lens Implantation.

    Karadag, Remzi; Celik, Haci Ugur; Bayramlar, Huseyin; Rapuano, Christopher J

    2016-08-01

    To review sutureless intrascleral intraocular lens (IOL) fixation methods. Review of published literature. Sutureless intrascleral IOL fixation methods are newer and have been developed to eliminate the suture-related complications of sutured scleral fixation methods such as suture-induced inflammation or infection and IOL dislocation or subluxation due to suture degradation or suture breakage. Sutureless intrascleral fixation methods aim for intrascleral haptic fixation to achieve stability of the IOL. Various methods of sutureless scleral fixation have been described. Using a needle, a blade, or a trochar, sclerostomies are created in all techniques for intraocular access. Some surgeons prefer to create scleral tunnels, whereas others use scleral flaps for scleral fixation of haptics. The stability of IOLs is attained by the scar tissue formed around the haptics. Short-term results of these new methods are acceptable; studies including more cases with longer follow-up are needed to determine their long-term success. [J Cataract Refract Surg. 2016;32(9):586-597.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. 14CO2 fixation pattern of cyanobacteria

    Erdmann, N.; Schiewer, U.

    1985-01-01

    The 14 CO 2 fixation pattern of three cyanobacteria in the light and dark were studied. Two different chromatographic methods widely used for separating labelled photosynthetic intermediates were compared. After ethanolic extraction, a rather uniform fixation pattern reflecting mainly the β-carboxylation pathway is obtained for all 3 species. Of the intermediates, glucosylglycerol is specific and high citrulline and low malate contents are fairly specific to cyanobacteria. The composition of the 14 CO 2 fixation pattern is hardly affected by changes in temperature or light intensity, but it is severely affected by changes in the water potential of the medium. (author)

  2. Carbon dioxide fixation in isolated Kalanchoe chloroplasts

    Levi, C.; Gibbs, M.

    1975-07-01

    Chloroplasts isolated from Kalanchoe diagremontiana leaves were capable of photosynthesizing at a rate of 5.4 ..mu..moles of CO/sub 2/ per milligram of chlorophyll per hour. The dark rate of fixation was about 1 percent of the light rate. A high photosynthetic rate was associated with low starch content of the leaves. Ribose 5-phosphate, fructose 1, 6-diphosphate, and dithiothreitol stimulated fixation, whereas phosphoenolpyruvate and azide were inhibitors. The products of CO/sub 2/ fixation were primarily those of the photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle. (auth)

  3. September 1985 Mexico City, Mexico Images

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The magnitude 8.1 earthquake occurred off the Pacific coast of Mexico. The damage was concentrated in a 25 square km area of Mexico City, 350 km from the epicenter....

  4. [Effectiveness comparison of suspension fixation plus hinged external fixator and double plate internal fixation in treatment of type C humeral intercondylar fractures].

    Zhang, Jian; Lin, Xu; Zhong, Zeli; Wu, Chao; Tan, Lun

    2017-07-01

    To compare the effectiveness of suspension fixation plus hinged external fixator with double plate internal fixation in the treatment of type C humeral intercondylar fractures. Between January 2014 and April 2016, 30 patients with type C (Association for the Study of Internal Fixation, AO/ASIF) humeral intercondylar fractures were treated. Kirschner wire suspension fixation plus hinged external fixator was used in 14 cases (group A), and double plate internal fixation in 16 cases (group B). There was no significant difference in gender, age, injury cause, disease duration, injury side, and type of fracture between 2 groups ( P >0.05). There was no significant difference in operation time and hospitalization stay between 2 groups ( P >0.05). But the intraoperative blood loss in group A was significantly less than that in group B ( P internal fixation removal, the intraoperative blood loss, and VAS score at 1 day and 3 days after operation in group A were significant better than those in group B ( P external fixator and double plate internal fixation for the treatment of type C humeral intercondylar fractures have ideal outcome in elbow function. But the suspension fixation plus hinged external fixator is better than double plate internal fixation in intraoperative blood loss, postoperative VAS score, and time of internal fixation removal.

  5. Fixation probability on clique-based graphs

    Choi, Jeong-Ok; Yu, Unjong

    2018-02-01

    The fixation probability of a mutant in the evolutionary dynamics of Moran process is calculated by the Monte-Carlo method on a few families of clique-based graphs. It is shown that the complete suppression of fixation can be realized with the generalized clique-wheel graph in the limit of small wheel-clique ratio and infinite size. The family of clique-star is an amplifier, and clique-arms graph changes from amplifier to suppressor as the fitness of the mutant increases. We demonstrate that the overall structure of a graph can be more important to determine the fixation probability than the degree or the heat heterogeneity. The dependence of the fixation probability on the position of the first mutant is discussed.

  6. Fixation of Selenium by Clay Minerals and Iron Oxides

    Hamdy, A. A.; Nielsen, Gunnar Gissel

    1977-01-01

    In studying Se fixation, soil components capable of retaining Se were investigated. The importance of Fe hydrous oxides in the fixation of Se was established. The clay minerals common to soils, such as kaolinite, montmorillonite and vermiculite, all exhibited Se fixation, but greater fixation occ...

  7. Biomechanical Evaluation of Standard Versus Extended Proximal Fixation Olecranon Plates for Fixation of Olecranon Fractures.

    Boden, Allison L; Daly, Charles A; Dalwadi, Poonam P; Boden, Stephanie A; Hutton, William C; Muppavarapu, Raghuveer C; Gottschalk, Michael B

    2018-01-01

    Small olecranon fractures present a significant challenge for fixation, which has resulted in development of plates with proximal extension. Olecranon-specific plates with proximal extensions are widely thought to offer superior fixation of small proximal fragments but have distinct disadvantages: larger dissection, increased hardware prominence, and the increased possibility of impingement. Previous biomechanical studies of olecranon fracture fixation have compared methods of fracture fixation, but to date there have been no studies defining olecranon plate fixation strength for standard versus extended olecranon plates. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the biomechanical utility of the extended plate for treatment of olecranon fractures. Sixteen matched pairs of fresh-frozen human cadaveric elbows were used. Of the 16, 8 matched pairs received a transverse osteotomy including 25% and 8 including 50% of the articular surface on the proximal fragment. One elbow from each pair was randomly assigned to a standard-length plate, and the other elbow in the pair received the extended-length plate, for fixation of the fracture. The ulnae were cyclically loaded and subsequently loaded to failure, with ultimate load, number of cycles, and gap formation recorded. There was no statistically significant difference between the standard and extended fixation plates in simple transverse fractures at either 25% or 50% from the proximal most portion of the articular surface of the olecranon. Standard fixation plates are sufficient for the fixation of small transverse fractures, but caution should be utilized particularly with comminution and nontransverse fracture patterns.

  8. Maxwellian Eye Fixation during Natural Scene Perception

    Jean Duchesne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When we explore a visual scene, our eyes make saccades to jump rapidly from one area to another and fixate regions of interest to extract useful information. While the role of fixation eye movements in vision has been widely studied, their random nature has been a hitherto neglected issue. Here we conducted two experiments to examine the Maxwellian nature of eye movements during fixation. In Experiment 1, eight participants were asked to perform free viewing of natural scenes displayed on a computer screen while their eye movements were recorded. For each participant, the probability density function (PDF of eye movement amplitude during fixation obeyed the law established by Maxwell for describing molecule velocity in gas. Only the mean amplitude of eye movements varied with expertise, which was lower in experts than novice participants. In Experiment 2, two participants underwent fixed time, free viewing of natural scenes and of their scrambled version while their eye movements were recorded. Again, the PDF of eye movement amplitude during fixation obeyed Maxwell’s law for each participant and for each scene condition (normal or scrambled. The results suggest that eye fixation during natural scene perception describes a random motion regardless of top-down or of bottom-up processes.

  9. Variable Nitrogen Fixation in Wild Populus.

    Sharon L Doty

    Full Text Available The microbiome of plants is diverse, and like that of animals, is important for overall health and nutrient acquisition. In legumes and actinorhizal plants, a portion of essential nitrogen (N is obtained through symbiosis with nodule-inhabiting, N2-fixing microorganisms. However, a variety of non-nodulating plant species can also thrive in natural, low-N settings. Some of these species may rely on endophytes, microorganisms that live within plants, to fix N2 gas into usable forms. Here we report the first direct evidence of N2 fixation in the early successional wild tree, Populus trichocarpa, a non-leguminous tree, from its native riparian habitat. In order to measure N2 fixation, surface-sterilized cuttings of wild poplar were assayed using both 15N2 incorporation and the commonly used acetylene reduction assay. The 15N label was incorporated at high levels in a subset of cuttings, suggesting a high level of N-fixation. Similarly, acetylene was reduced to ethylene in some samples. The microbiota of the cuttings was highly variable, both in numbers of cultured bacteria and in genetic diversity. Our results indicated that associative N2-fixation occurred within wild poplar and that a non-uniformity in the distribution of endophytic bacteria may explain the variability in N-fixation activity. These results point to the need for molecular studies to decipher the required microbial consortia and conditions for effective endophytic N2-fixation in trees.

  10. Maxwellian Eye Fixation during Natural Scene Perception

    Duchesne, Jean; Bouvier, Vincent; Guillemé, Julien; Coubard, Olivier A.

    2012-01-01

    When we explore a visual scene, our eyes make saccades to jump rapidly from one area to another and fixate regions of interest to extract useful information. While the role of fixation eye movements in vision has been widely studied, their random nature has been a hitherto neglected issue. Here we conducted two experiments to examine the Maxwellian nature of eye movements during fixation. In Experiment 1, eight participants were asked to perform free viewing of natural scenes displayed on a computer screen while their eye movements were recorded. For each participant, the probability density function (PDF) of eye movement amplitude during fixation obeyed the law established by Maxwell for describing molecule velocity in gas. Only the mean amplitude of eye movements varied with expertise, which was lower in experts than novice participants. In Experiment 2, two participants underwent fixed time, free viewing of natural scenes and of their scrambled version while their eye movements were recorded. Again, the PDF of eye movement amplitude during fixation obeyed Maxwell's law for each participant and for each scene condition (normal or scrambled). The results suggest that eye fixation during natural scene perception describes a random motion regardless of top-down or of bottom-up processes. PMID:23226987

  11. Strain-stress analysis of lower limb with applied fixator

    Mrázek M.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares physiological state of tibia before and after application of an external fixator. The fixator systems’ models but also model of tibia are loaded in the direction of body axis. The paper is focused on the examination of differences in stiffness before and after the application of fixation. Two types of axial external fixators are compared. Both fixators differ in their construction. The first fixator is two-frame and fixation rods are used for fixing the bone tissue (variant I. The second one is fixed into tibia with screws (variant II. We have found out that the two-frame external fixator has much bigger stiffness during limb fixation than the fixator with one body. Much higher deformations compared to physiological state of tibia occur in the variant II.

  12. Nitrogen fixation in trees - 1

    Dobereiner, J.; Gauthier, D.L.; Diem, H.G.; Dommergues, Y.R.; Bonetti, R.; Oliveira, L.A.; Magalhaes, F.M.M.; Faria, S.M. de; Franco, A.A.; Menandro, M.S.

    1984-01-01

    Six papers are presented from the symposium. Dobereiner, J.; Nodulation and nitrogen fixation in leguminous trees, 83-90, (15 ref.), reviews studies on Brazilian species. Gauthier, D.L., Diem, H.G., Dommergues, Y.R., Tropical and subtropical actinorhizal plants, 119-136, (Refs. 50), reports on studies on Casuarinaceae. Bonetti, R., Oliveira, L.A., Magalhaes, F.M.M.; Rhizobium populations and occurrence of VA mycorrhizae in plantations of forest trees, 137-142, (Refs. 15), studies Amazonia stands of Cedrelinga catenaeformis, Calophyllum brasiliense, Dipteryx odorata, D. potiphylla, Carapa guianensis, Goupia glabra, Tabebuia serratifolia, Clarisia racemosa, Pithecellobium racemosum, Vouacapoua pallidior, Eperua bijuga, and Diplotropis species. Nodulation was observed in Cedrelinga catenaeformis and V. pallidior. Faria, S.M. de, Franco, A.A., Menandro, M.S., Jesus, R.M. de, Baitello, J.B.; Aguiar, O.T. de, Doebereiner, J; survey of nodulation in leguminous tree species native to southeastern Brazil, 143-153, (Refs. 7), reports on 119 species, with first reports of nodulation in the genera Bowdichia, Poecilanthe, Melanoxylon, Moldenhaurea (Moldenhawera), and Pseudosamanea. Gaiad, S., Carpanezzi, A.A.; Occurrence of Rhizobium in Leguminosae of silvicultural interest for south Brazil, 155-158, (Refs. 2). Nodulation is reported in Mimosa scabrella, Acacia mearnsii, A. longifolia various trinervis, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, and Erythrina falcata. Magalhaes, L.M.S., Blum, W.E.H., Nodulation and growth of Cedrelinga catanaeformis in experimental stands in the Manaus region - Amazonas, 159-164, (Refs. 5). Results indicate that C. catenaeformis can be used in degraded areas of very low soil fertility.

  13. Nitrogen fixation in denitrified marine waters.

    Camila Fernandez

    Full Text Available Nitrogen fixation is an essential process that biologically transforms atmospheric dinitrogen gas to ammonia, therefore compensating for nitrogen losses occurring via denitrification and anammox. Currently, inputs and losses of nitrogen to the ocean resulting from these processes are thought to be spatially separated: nitrogen fixation takes place primarily in open ocean environments (mainly through diazotrophic cyanobacteria, whereas nitrogen losses occur in oxygen-depleted intermediate waters and sediments (mostly via denitrifying and anammox bacteria. Here we report on rates of nitrogen fixation obtained during two oceanographic cruises in 2005 and 2007 in the eastern tropical South Pacific (ETSP, a region characterized by the presence of coastal upwelling and a major permanent oxygen minimum zone (OMZ. Our results show significant rates of nitrogen fixation in the water column; however, integrated rates from the surface down to 120 m varied by ∼30 fold between cruises (7.5±4.6 versus 190±82.3 µmol m(-2 d(-1. Moreover, rates were measured down to 400 m depth in 2007, indicating that the contribution to the integrated rates of the subsurface oxygen-deficient layer was ∼5 times higher (574±294 µmol m(-2 d(-1 than the oxic euphotic layer (48±68 µmol m(-2 d(-1. Concurrent molecular measurements detected the dinitrogenase reductase gene nifH in surface and subsurface waters. Phylogenetic analysis of the nifH sequences showed the presence of a diverse diazotrophic community at the time of the highest measured nitrogen fixation rates. Our results thus demonstrate the occurrence of nitrogen fixation in nutrient-rich coastal upwelling systems and, importantly, within the underlying OMZ. They also suggest that nitrogen fixation is a widespread process that can sporadically provide a supplementary source of fixed nitrogen in these regions.

  14. Nitrogen Fixation in Denitrified Marine Waters

    Fernandez, Camila; Farías, Laura; Ulloa, Osvaldo

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen fixation is an essential process that biologically transforms atmospheric dinitrogen gas to ammonia, therefore compensating for nitrogen losses occurring via denitrification and anammox. Currently, inputs and losses of nitrogen to the ocean resulting from these processes are thought to be spatially separated: nitrogen fixation takes place primarily in open ocean environments (mainly through diazotrophic cyanobacteria), whereas nitrogen losses occur in oxygen-depleted intermediate waters and sediments (mostly via denitrifying and anammox bacteria). Here we report on rates of nitrogen fixation obtained during two oceanographic cruises in 2005 and 2007 in the eastern tropical South Pacific (ETSP), a region characterized by the presence of coastal upwelling and a major permanent oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). Our results show significant rates of nitrogen fixation in the water column; however, integrated rates from the surface down to 120 m varied by ∼30 fold between cruises (7.5±4.6 versus 190±82.3 µmol m−2 d−1). Moreover, rates were measured down to 400 m depth in 2007, indicating that the contribution to the integrated rates of the subsurface oxygen-deficient layer was ∼5 times higher (574±294 µmol m−2 d−1) than the oxic euphotic layer (48±68 µmol m−2 d−1). Concurrent molecular measurements detected the dinitrogenase reductase gene nifH in surface and subsurface waters. Phylogenetic analysis of the nifH sequences showed the presence of a diverse diazotrophic community at the time of the highest measured nitrogen fixation rates. Our results thus demonstrate the occurrence of nitrogen fixation in nutrient-rich coastal upwelling systems and, importantly, within the underlying OMZ. They also suggest that nitrogen fixation is a widespread process that can sporadically provide a supplementary source of fixed nitrogen in these regions. PMID:21687726

  15. Mexico; Mexique

    NONE

    2003-06-01

    This document summarizes the key energy data for Mexico: 1 - energy organizations and policy: Ministry of energy (SENER), Comision Reguladora de Energia (CRE), Ministry of Finances, Ministry of trade and industrial development (SECOFI), national commission for energy savings (CONAE); 2 - companies: federal commission of electricity (CFE), Minera Carbonifera Rio Escondido (MICARE - coal), Pemex (petroleum); 3 - energy production: resources, electric power, petroleum, natural gas; 4 - energy consumption; 5 - stakes and perspectives. Some economic and energy indicators are summarized in a series of tables: general indicators, supply indicators (reserves, refining and electric capacity, energy production, foreign trade), demand indicators (consumption trends, end use, energy independence, energy efficiency, CO{sub 2} emissions), energy status per year and per energy source. (J.S.)

  16. Graft fixation in cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Brand, J; Weiler, A; Caborn, D N; Brown, C H; Johnson, D L

    2000-01-01

    Cruciate ligament reconstruction has progressed dramatically in the last 20 years. Anatomic placement of ligament substitutes has fostered rehabilitation efforts that stress immediate and full range of motion, immediate weightbearing, neuromuscular strength and coordination, and early return to athletic competition (3 months). This has placed extreme importance on secure graft fixation at the time of ligament reconstruction. Current ligament substitutes require a bony or soft tissue component to be fixed within a bone tunnel or on the periosteum at a distance from the normal ligament attachment site. Fixation devices have progressed from metal to biodegradable and from far to near-normal native ligament attachment sites. Ideally, the biomechanical properties of the entire graft construct would approach those of the native ligament and facilitate biologic incorporation of the graft. Fixation should be done at the normal anatomic attachment site of the native ligament (aperture fixation) and, over time, allow the biologic return of the histologic transition zone from ligament to fibrocartilage, to calcified fibrocartilage, to bone. The purpose of this article is to review current fixation devices and techniques in cruciate ligament surgery.

  17. External fixation of “intertrochanteric” fractures

    Gani, Naseem ul; Kangoo, Khursheed Ahmed; Bashir, Arshad; Muzaffer, Rahil; Bhat, Mohammad Farooq; Farooq, Munir; Badoo, Abdul Rashid; Dar, Imtiyaz Hussian; Wani, Mudassir Maqbool

    2009-01-01

    In developing countries, due to limited availability of modern anesthesia and overcrowding of the hospitals with patients who need surgery, high-risk patients with “intertrochanteric” fractures remain unsuita ble for open reduction and internal fixation. The aim of this study was to analyze the results of external fixation of “intertrochanteric” fractures in high-risk geriatric patients in a developing country. The results of 62 ambulatory high-risk geriatric patients with a mean age of 70 years (range 58–90 years) with “intertrochanteric” fractures, in whom external fixation was performed, are reported. Eight patients died during follow-up due to medical causes unrelated to the surgical procedure. So only 54 patients were available for final assessment. Procedure is simple, performed under local anesthesia, requires less time for surgery and is associated with less blood loss. Good fixation and early ambulation was achieved in most of the patients. Average time to union was 14 weeks. Thirty-one patients developed superficial pin tract infection and 28 patients had average shortening of 15 mm due to impaction and varus angulation. Functional outcome was assessed using Judet's point system. Good to excellent results were achieved in 44 patients. This study demonstrated that external fixation of “intertrochantric” fractures performed under local anesthesia offers significant advantage in ambulatory high-risk geriatric patients especially in a developing country. PMID:21808680

  18. External fixation of “intertrochanteric” fractures

    Naseem ul Gani

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries, due to limited availability of modern anesthesia and overcrowding of the hospitals with patients who need surgery, high-risk patients with “intertro-chanteric” fractures remain unsuitable for open reduction and internal fixation. The aim of this study was to analyze the results of external fixation of “intertro-chanteric” fractures in high-risk geriatric patients in a developing country. The results of 62 ambulatory high-risk geriatric patients with a mean age of 70 years (range 58-90 years with “intertrochanteric” fractures, in whom external fixation was performed, are reported. Eight patients died during follow-up due to medical causes unrelated to the surgical procedure. So only 54 patients were available for final assessment. Procedure is simple, performed under local anesthesia, requires less time for surgery and is associated with less blood loss. Good fixation and early ambulation was achieved in most of the patients. Average time to union was 14 weeks. Thirty-one patients developed superficial pin tract infection and 28 patients had average shortening of 15 mm due to impaction and varus angulation. Functional outcome was assessed using Judet’s point system. Good to excellent results were achieved in 44 patients. This study demonstrated that external fixation of “intertrochantric” fractures performed under local anesthesia offers significant advantage in ambulatory high-risk geriatric patients especially in a developing country.

  19. Loads applied to fixations for chain stretching

    Ahrens, K; Brychta, P

    1985-06-01

    The chains of scraper chain conveyors must be pre-stretched during standstill in order to compensate the elongations occurring during operation. They require frequent retensiening in order to meet the varying operational requirements. During tensioning, the chains are fixed in a point in the top run by means of fixation elements. The authors present a method for calculating the retaining force needed in the fixations. There are three different initial conditions of the chain before trensioning: Tensionsfree chain, pretensioned chain (stressed chain), slack chain. In all three cases, it is important to find out whether or nor the tensioning drive reaches full speed. The method of calculation is illustrated by the example of a scraper chain conveyor; it enables the establishment of rules for tensioning without damaging the chain and is a good basis for the dimensioning of new types of fixation elements.

  20. Biometric recognition via fixation density maps

    Rigas, Ioannis; Komogortsev, Oleg V.

    2014-05-01

    This work introduces and evaluates a novel eye movement-driven biometric approach that employs eye fixation density maps for person identification. The proposed feature offers a dynamic representation of the biometric identity, storing rich information regarding the behavioral and physical eye movement characteristics of the individuals. The innate ability of fixation density maps to capture the spatial layout of the eye movements in conjunction with their probabilistic nature makes them a particularly suitable option as an eye movement biometrical trait in cases when free-viewing stimuli is presented. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, the method is evaluated on three different datasets containing a wide gamut of stimuli types, such as static images, video and text segments. The obtained results indicate a minimum EER (Equal Error Rate) of 18.3 %, revealing the perspectives on the utilization of fixation density maps as an enhancing biometrical cue during identification scenarios in dynamic visual environments.

  1. Tricortical cervical inter-body screw fixation.

    Goel A

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A new tricortical method of screw implantation for anterior cervical interbody plate fixation is described. The screws are placed obliquely such that they engage the anterior cortex of the body and traverse through the cortices adjoining the disc space. By this method the screws not only hold the plate firmly with a tricortical purchase, but by virtue of their course stabilize the two adjoining vertebral bodies by themselves. Sixteen patients were treated by this method. In three of these cases only tricortical screws without the metal plate were used for fixation. The advantages of the technique are discussed.

  2. Cosmetic arm lengthening with monorail fixator.

    Agrawal, Hemendra Kumar; Singh, Balvinder; Garg, Mohit; Khatkar, Vipin; Batra, Sumit; Sharma, Vinod Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Upper limb length discrepancy is a rare occurrence. Humerus shortening may need specialized treatment to restore the functional and cosmetic status of upper limb. We report a case of humerus lengthening of 9 cm with a monorail external fixator and the result was observed during a 2-year follow-up. Humerus lengthening needs specialized focus as it is not only a cosmetic issue but also a functional demand. The monorail unilateral fixator is more functional and cosmetically acceptable, and thus becomes an effective treatment option.

  3. Transient improvements in fixational stability in strabismic amblyopes following bifoveal fixation and reduced interocular suppression.

    Raveendran, Rajkumar Nallour; Babu, Raiju J; Hess, Robert F; Bobier, William R

    2014-03-01

    To test the hypothesis that fixational stability of the amblyopic eye in strabismics will improve when viewing provides both bifoveal fixation and reduced inter-ocular suppression by reducing the contrast to the fellow eye. Seven strabismic amblyopes (Age: 29.2 ± 9 years; five esotropes and two exotropes) showing clinical characteristics of central suppression were recruited. Interocular suppression was measured by a global motion task. For each participant, a balance point was determined which defined contrast levels for each eye where binocular combination was optimal (interocular suppression minimal). When the balance point could not be determined, this participant was excluded. Bifoveal fixation was established by ocular alignment using a haploscope. Participants dichoptically viewed similar targets (a cross of 2.3° surrounded by a square of 11.3°) at 40 cm. Target contrasts presented to each eye were either high contrast (100% to both eyes) or balanced contrast (attenuated contrast in the fellow fixing eye). Fixation stability was measured over a 5 min period and quantified using bivariate contour ellipse areas in four different binocular conditions; unaligned/high contrast, unaligned/balance point, aligned/high contrast and aligned/balance point. Fixation stability was also measured in six control subjects (Age: 25.3 ± 4 years). Bifoveal fixation in the strabismics was transient (58.15 ± 15.7 s). Accordingly, fixational stability was analysed over the first 30 s using repeated measures anova. Post hoc analysis revealed that for the amblyopic subjects, the fixational stability of the amblyopic eye was significantly improved in aligned/high contrast (p = 0.01) and aligned/balance point (p suppression. However, once initiated, bifoveal fixation is transient with the strabismic eye drifting away from foveal alignment, thereby increasing the angle of strabismus. © 2014 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2014 The College of Optometrists.

  4. New Mexico Parks

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset provides an initial version of the locations of parks in New Mexico, in point form, with limited attributes, compiled using available data from a...

  5. New Mexico State Parks

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset provides an initial version of the generalized physical boundaries of New Mexico State Parks, in polygonal form with limited attributes, compiled using...

  6. New Mexico Ghost Towns

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data provides locations and non-spatial attributes of many ghost towns in the State of New Mexico, compiled from various sources. Locations provided with...

  7. Fixation Characteristics of Severe Amblyopia Subtypes: Which One is Worse?

    Koylu, Mehmet Talay; Ozge, Gokhan; Kucukevcilioglu, Murat; Mutlu, Fatih Mehmet; Ceylan, Osman Melih; Akıncıoglu, Dorukcan; Ayyıldız, Onder

    2017-01-01

    To determine differences in macular sensitivity and fixation patterns in different subtypes of severe amblyopia. This case-control study enrolled a total of 73 male adults, including 18 with pure strabismic severe amblyopia, 19 with pure anisometropic severe amblyopia, 18 with mixed (strabismic plus anizometropic) severe amblyopia, and 18 healthy controls. MP-1 microperimetry was used to evaluate macular sensitivity, location of fixation, and stability of fixation. Mean macular sensitivity, stability of fixation, and location of fixation were significantly worse in all amblyopia subtypes when compared with healthy controls. Intergroup comparisons between amblyopia subtypes revealed that mean macular sensitivity, stability of fixation, and location of fixation were significantly worse in pure strabismic and mixed amblyopic eyes when compared with pure anisometropic amblyopic eyes. Strabismus seems to be a worse prognostic factor in severe amblyopia than anisometropia in terms of fixation characteristics and retinal sensitivity.

  8. English Teaching in Mexico.

    Salazar, Denise

    2002-01-01

    Discusses teaching English in Mexico, a country with important social, cultural, and economic ties to the United States. Looks at the various English teaching situations as well as teacher education for teachers in Mexico. Concludes that the English teaching situation in Mexico reflects great diversity and growth, and that the knowledge of English…

  9. Psychology in Mexico

    Ruiz, Eleonora Rubio

    2011-01-01

    The first formal psychology course taught in Mexico was in 1896 at Mexico's National University; today, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM in Spanish). The modern psychology from Europe and the US in the late 19th century were the primary influences of Mexican psychology, as well as psychoanalysis and both clinical and experimental…

  10. Sacroiliac screw fixation for tile B fractures.

    Bosch, E.W. van den; Zwienen, C.M. van; Hoek van Dijke, G.A.; Snijders, C.J.; Vugt, A.B. van

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this comparative cadaveric study was to investigate whether the stability of partially unstable pelvic fractures can be improved by combining plate fixation of the symphysis with a posterior sacroiliac screw. METHODS: In six specimens, a Tile B1 (open-book) pelvic fracture

  11. Heterotrophic fixation of CO2 in soil

    Šantrůčková, Hana; Bird, M. I.; Elhottová, Dana; Novák, Jaroslav; Picek, T.; Šimek, Miloslav; Tykva, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 2 (2005), s. 218-225 ISSN 0095-3628 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/02/1036; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA6066901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : heterotrophic fixation * CO2 * soil Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.674, year: 2005

  12. Biodegradable interlocking nails for fracture fixation

    van der Elst, M.; Bramer, J. A.; Klein, C. P.; de Lange, E. S.; Patka, P.; Haarman, H. J.

    1998-01-01

    Serious problems such as stress shielding, allergic reactions, and corrosion are associated with the use of metallic fracture fixation devices in fractured long bones. Metal implants often are removed during a second retrieval operation after fracture healing has completed. A biocompatible implant

  13. Headspace analysis of foams and fixatives

    Harper, Kyle [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Truong, Thanh-Tam [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Magwood, Leroy [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Peters, Brent [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nicholson, James [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Washington, II, Aaron L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-07-27

    In the process of decontaminating and decommissioning (D&D) older nuclear facilities, special precautions must be taken with removable or airborne contamination. One possible strategy utilizes foams and fixatives to affix these loose contaminants. Many foams and fixatives are already commercially available, either generically or sold specifically for D&D. However, due to a lack of revelant testing in a radioactive environment, additional verification is needed to confirm that these products not only affix contamination to their surfaces, but also will function in a D&D environment. Several significant safety factors, including flammability and worker safety, can be analyzed through the process of headspace analysis, a technique that analyzes the off gas formed before or during the curing process of the foam/fixative, usually using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). This process focuses on the volatile components of a chemical, which move freely between the solid/liquid form within the sample and the gaseous form in the area above the sample (the headspace). Between possibly hot conditions in a D&D situation and heat created in a foaming reaction, the volatility of many chemicals can change, and thus different gasses can be released at different times throughout the reaction. This project focused on analysis of volatile chemicals involved in the process of using foams and fixatives to identify any potential hazardous or flammable compounds.

  14. Miniplate fixation of Le Fort I osteotomies.

    Rosen, H M

    1986-12-01

    The use of rigid, internal, three-dimensional fixation using vitallium bone plates in 28 consecutive Le Fort I osteotomies is presented. A minimum follow-up period of 6 months was required for inclusion in this patient group. Maxillary movements included advancements (17), intrusions (9), lengthenings (5), and retrusions (2). The majority of maxillae were moved in more than one plane of space. Technical details, complications, and relapse potential are discussed. Advantages of rigid plate fixation include marked reductions in the length of intermaxillary fixation with light training elastics only. Immediate postoperative airway problems are thereby eliminated. Six months of follow-up would appear to indicate a low potential for osseous relapse when compared to wire osteosynthesis, regardless of the direction of maxillary movement. The major disadvantage is the decreased ability of postoperative orthodontics to move dento-osseous segments if skeletal occlusal disharmony persists postoperatively. For this reason, close attention to preoperative planning and operative technique is critical for the success of this fixation method.

  15. Large fluctuations and fixation in evolutionary games

    Assaf, Michael; Mobilia, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    We study large fluctuations in evolutionary games belonging to the coordination and anti-coordination classes. The dynamics of these games, modeling cooperation dilemmas, is characterized by a coexistence fixed point separating two absorbing states. We are particularly interested in the problem of fixation that refers to the possibility that a few mutants take over the entire population. Here, the fixation phenomenon is induced by large fluctuations and is investigated by a semiclassical WKB (Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin) theory generalized to treat stochastic systems possessing multiple absorbing states. Importantly, this method allows us to analyze the combined influence of selection and random fluctuations on the evolutionary dynamics beyond the weak selection limit often considered in previous works. We accurately compute, including pre-exponential factors, the probability distribution function in the long-lived coexistence state and the mean fixation time necessary for a few mutants to take over the entire population in anti-coordination games, and also the fixation probability in the coordination class. Our analytical results compare excellently with extensive numerical simulations. Furthermore, we demonstrate that our treatment is superior to the Fokker–Planck approximation when the selection intensity is finite

  16. 15N in biological nitrogen fixation studies

    Faust, H.

    1986-05-01

    A bibliography with 298 references on the use of the stable nitrogen isotope 15 N in the research on the biological fixation of dinitrogen is presented. The literature pertaining to this bibliography covers the period from 1975 to the middle of 1985. (author)

  17. The effect of fixation on esterases

    Kirkeby, S; Moe, D

    1984-01-01

    The localization of reaction product for non-specific esterase from fresh and aldehyde treated glandular tissue was examined. The electrophoretical studies showed a selective inhibition of certain isoenzymes and a change in mobility of some bands caused by aldehyde fixation. In sections a granular...

  18. Osteomyelitis in burn patients requiring skeletal fixation

    Barret, JP; Desai, MH; Herndon, DN

    Deep and severe burns often present with the exposure of musculoskeletal structures and severe deformities. Skeletal fixation, suspension and/or traction are part of their comprehensive treatment. Several factors put burn patients at risk for osteomyelitis, osteosynthesis material being one of them.

  19. Locking plate fixation for proximal humerus fractures.

    Burke, Neil G

    2012-02-01

    Locking plates are increasingly used to surgically treat proximal humerus fractures. Knowledge of the bone quality of the proximal humerus is important. Studies have shown the medial and dorsal aspects of the proximal humeral head to have the highest bone strength, and this should be exploited by fixation techniques, particularly in elderly patients with osteoporosis. The goals of surgery for proximal humeral fractures should involve minimal soft tissue dissection and achieve anatomic reduction of the head complex with sufficient stability to allow for early shoulder mobilization. This article reviews various treatment options, in particular locking plate fixation. Locking plate fixation is associated with a high complication rate, such as avascular necrosis (7.9%), screw cutout (11.6%), and revision surgery (13.7%). These complications are frequently due to the varus deformation of the humeral head. Strategic screw placement in the humeral head would minimize the possibility of loss of fracture reduction and potential hardware complications. Locking plate fixation is a good surgical option for the management of proximal humerus fractures. Complications can be avoided by using better bone stock and by careful screw placement in the humeral head.

  20. Plasma catalysis for nitrogen fixation reactions

    Patil, B.S.; Wang, Q.; Hessel, V.; Lang, J.; Stankiewicz, A.; Stefanidis, G.

    2016-01-01

    The preferences for localized chemicals production and changing scenarios of renewable electricity cost gives a renewed boost to plasma-assisted valuable chemicals production. Especially, plasma-assisted nitrogen fixation for fertilizer production has the potential to largely change the energy

  1. Comparative study of fixation density maps

    Engelke, U.; Liu, H.; Wang, Junle; Callet, Le P.; Heynderickx, I.E.J.; Zepernick, H.-J.; Maeder, A.

    2013-01-01

    Fixation density maps (FDM) created from eye tracking experiments are widely used in image processing applications. The FDM are assumed to be reliable ground truths of human visual attention and as such, one expects a high similarity between FDM created in different laboratories. So far, no studies

  2. Translaminar screw fixation in the lumbar spine: technique, indications, results

    Grob, D.; Humke, T.

    1998-01-01

    Translaminar screw fixation of the lumbar spine represents a simple and effective technique for short segment fusion in the degenerative spine. Clinical experience with 173 patients who underwent translaminar screw fixation revealed a fusion rate of 94%. The indications for translaminar screw fixation as a primary fixation procedure are: segmental dysfunction, lumbar spinal stenosis with painful degenerative changes, segmental revision surgery after discectomies, and painful disc-related synd...

  3. Characterization for Soil Fixation by Polyelectrolyte Complex

    Choi, Yong Suk; Kwon, Sang Woon; Yang, Heeman; Lee, Kune Woo; Seo, Bumkyoung; Moon, Jei Kwon

    2014-01-01

    According to report, the radioactivity bulk (approx. 95%) is localized within topsoil. Therefore soil surface on topsoil should be fixed to prevent the spreading of the contaminated soils with Cs-137 by wind and water erosion. Many methods have been developing for soil fixation to remove radioactive contaminants in soil and prevent to diffuse radioactive materials. Various materials have been also used as fixatives such as clays, molecular sieves, polymer, and petroleum based products. One of the methods is a soil fixation or solidification using polyelectrolyte. Polyelectrolytes have many ionic groups and make into the polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) due to electrostatic interaction of polyanion and polycation in an aqueous solution. It can be avoids using the chemical cross-linking agents, and reducing the possible toxicity and other undesirable effects of the reagents. PEC can fix soil particles by flocculation and formation of crust between soil. The method can also prevent a spread of radioactive material by floating on a soil surface. Recently, PEC used for the solidification of soil near the Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan. The decontamination efficiency of the surface soils reached 90%, and dust release was effectively suppressed during the removal of surface soils. In this study, it was investigated the fixation of the soil by PEC to avoid the spread of the contamination in addition to the separation of soil and PEC. The physicochemical properties of polyelectrolyte complex solution and the stability of fixed soil by PEC were investigated. The mode of the addition is important to prepare the polyelectrolytes complex without PAA agglomerate. The concentration of salt in the polyelectrolyte complex solution is a very important parameter for the soil fixation

  4. Characterization for Soil Fixation by Polyelectrolyte Complex

    Choi, Yong Suk; Kwon, Sang Woon; Yang, Heeman; Lee, Kune Woo; Seo, Bumkyoung; Moon, Jei Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    According to report, the radioactivity bulk (approx. 95%) is localized within topsoil. Therefore soil surface on topsoil should be fixed to prevent the spreading of the contaminated soils with Cs-137 by wind and water erosion. Many methods have been developing for soil fixation to remove radioactive contaminants in soil and prevent to diffuse radioactive materials. Various materials have been also used as fixatives such as clays, molecular sieves, polymer, and petroleum based products. One of the methods is a soil fixation or solidification using polyelectrolyte. Polyelectrolytes have many ionic groups and make into the polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) due to electrostatic interaction of polyanion and polycation in an aqueous solution. It can be avoids using the chemical cross-linking agents, and reducing the possible toxicity and other undesirable effects of the reagents. PEC can fix soil particles by flocculation and formation of crust between soil. The method can also prevent a spread of radioactive material by floating on a soil surface. Recently, PEC used for the solidification of soil near the Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan. The decontamination efficiency of the surface soils reached 90%, and dust release was effectively suppressed during the removal of surface soils. In this study, it was investigated the fixation of the soil by PEC to avoid the spread of the contamination in addition to the separation of soil and PEC. The physicochemical properties of polyelectrolyte complex solution and the stability of fixed soil by PEC were investigated. The mode of the addition is important to prepare the polyelectrolytes complex without PAA agglomerate. The concentration of salt in the polyelectrolyte complex solution is a very important parameter for the soil fixation.

  5. External fixation combined with delayed internal fixation in treatment of tibial plateau fractures with dislocation.

    Tao, Xingguang; Chen, Nong; Pan, Fugen; Cheng, Biao

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of external fixation, delayed open reduction, and internal fixation in treating tibial plateau fracture with dislocation.Clinical data of 34 patients diagnosed with tibial plateau fracture complicated with dislocation between January 2009 and May 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Fifteen patients in group A underwent early calcaneus traction combined with open reduction and internal fixation and 19 in group B received early external fixation combined with delayed open reduction and internal fixation. Operation time, postoperative complication, bone healing time, knee joint range of motion, initial weight-bearing time, Rasmussen tibial plateau score, and knee function score (HSS) were statistically compared between 2 groups.The mean follow-up time was 18.6 months (range: 5-24 months). The mean operation time in group A was 96 minutes, significantly longer than 71 minutes in group B (P  .05). In group A, initial weight-bearing time in group A was (14.0 ± 3.6) weeks, significantly differing from (12.9 ± 2.8) weeks in group B (P  0.05). Rasmussen tibial plateau score in group A was slightly lower than that in group B (P > .05). The excellent rate of knee joint function in group A was 80% and 84.21% in group B (P > .05).External fixation combined with delayed open reduction and internal fixation is a safer and more efficacious therapy of tibial plateau fracture complicated with dislocation compared with early calcaneus traction and open reduction and internal fixation.

  6. [Treatment of pediatric distal femur fractures by external fixator combined with limited internal fixation].

    Wei, Sheng-wang; Shi, Zhan-ying; Hu, Ju-zheng; Wu, Hao

    2016-03-01

    To discuss the clinical effects of external fixator combined with limited internal fixation in the treatment of pediatric distal femur fractures. From January 2008 to June 2014, 17 children of distal femur fractures were treated by external fixator combined with limited internal fixation. There were 12 males and 5 females, aged from 6 to 13 years old with an average of 10.2 years, ranged in the course of disease from 1 h to 2 d. Preoperative diagnoses were confirmed by X-ray films in all children. There were 11 patients with supracondylar fracture , and 6 patients with intercondylar comminuted fracture. According to AO/ASIF classification, 9 fractures were type A1, 5 cases were type A2,and 3 cases were type C1. The intraoperative and postoperative complications, postoperative radiological examination, lower limbs length and motion of knee joints were observed. Knee joint function was assessed by KSS score. All the patients were followed up from 6 to 38 months with an average of 24.4 months. No nerve or blood vessel injury was found. One case complicated with the external fixation loosening, 2 cases with the infection of pin hole and 3 cases with the leg length discrepancy. Knee joint mobility and length measurement (compared with the contralateral), the average limited inflexion was 10 degrees (0 degrees to 20 degrees), the average limited straight was 4 degrees (0 degrees to 10), the average varus or valgus angle was 3 degrees (0 degrees to 5 degrees). KSS of the injured side was (96.4 +/- 5.0) points at final follow-up, 16 cases got excellent results and 1 good. All fractures obtained healing and no epiphyseal closed early was found. External fixator combined with limited internal fixation has advantages of simple operation, reliable fixation, early functional exercise in treating pediatric distal femurs fractures.

  7. Comparison of skeletal stability after sagittal split ramus osteotomy among mono-cortical plate fixation, bi-cortical plate fixation, and hybrid fixation using absorbable plates and screws.

    Ueki, Koichiro; Moroi, Akinori; Yoshizawa, Kunio; Hotta, Asami; Tsutsui, Takamitsu; Fukaya, Kenichi; Hiraide, Ryota; Takayama, Akihiro; Tsunoda, Tatsuta; Saito, Yuki

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine skeletal stability and plate breakage after sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO) with the mono-cortical plate fixation, bi-cortical plate fixation, and hybrid fixation techniques using absorbable plates and screws. A total of 76 Japanese patients diagnosed with mandibular prognathism with and without maxillary deformity were divided into 3 groups randomly. A total of 28 patients underwent SSRO with mono-cortical plate fixation, 23 underwent SSRO with bi-cortical plate fixation, and 25 underwent SSRO with hybrid fixation. Skeletal stability and horizontal condylar angle were analyzed by axial, frontal, and lateral cephalograms from before the operation to 1 year postoperatively. Breakage of the plate and screws was observed by 3-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT) immediately after surgery and after 1 year. Although there was a significant difference between the mono-cortical plate fixation group and hybrid fixation group regarding right MeAg in T1 (P = 0.0488) and occlusal plane in T1 (P = 0.0346), there were no significant differences between the groups for the other measurements in each time interval. In 2 cases, namely, 6 sides in the mono-cortical plate fixation group, breakage of the absorbable plate was found by 3DCT. However, there was no breakage in the bi-cortical plate fixation group and hybrid fixation group. This study results suggested that there were no significant differences in the postoperative skeletal stability among the 3 groups, and bi-cortical fixation as well as hybrid fixation was a reliable and useful method to prevent plate breakage even if an absorbable material was used. Copyright © 2016 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Nitrogen fixation improvement in Faidherbia albida

    Toure, O.; Dasilva, M.C.; Badji, S.; Dianda, M.; Ndoye, I.; Gueye, M.

    1998-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment investigated growth, N accumulation and N 2 fixation (using the 15 N-dilution method) by Faidherbia albida in comparison with three species of Acacia, with Parkia biglobosa and Tamarindus indica as non-fixing reference plants. Faidherbia albida was mediocre in comparison with A. seyel, therefore seven provenances of the former were examined in a second pot experiment to investigate within-species variability for the same performance components; a provenance from Kabrousse, Senegal, showed particular promise in terms of dry weight and N accumulation, and fixation of N. This promise was confirmed with a 15-month field experiment, but revealed that there is opportunity for further improvement in N 2 -fixing ability. Faidherbia albida is a slow-growing tree, therefore further field experiments with provenance Kabrousse should be longer term in scope. The data indicate that trenching of the 15 N-labelled area may not be necessary. (author)

  9. Intrasacral rod fixation for pediatric lumbopelvic fusion.

    Ilharreborde, Brice; Mazda, Keyvan

    2014-07-01

    This paper reports the authors' 19 years experience with pediatric intrasacral rod fixation. After insertion of two cannulated screws in S1 with and an original template guiding them into the anterior third of the endplate, two short fusion rods were inserted into the sacrum according to Jackson's technique distally to S3. In neuromuscular scoliosis, pelvic obliquity was reduced by connecting the proximal and distal constructs, distraction or compression, and in situ rod bending. In children with high-grade spondylolisthesis, lumbosacral kyphosis was reduced by rotation of the sacrum and in situ bending. There were no direct neurological or vascular injuries. The main complication was infection (7%). No pseudarthrosis or significant loss of correction at the lumbosacral junction was observed during follow-up. Intrasacral rod fixation appears to be safe and reliable for lumbopelvic fusion in pediatric patients.

  10. Scaphoid Fracture Fixation with an Acutrak? Screw

    Loving, Vilert A.; Richardson, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of fixation of a scaphoid fracture using an Acutrak? screw. This screw is cannulated and headless, which allows it to be implanted below the surface of the bone. It uses the same concept of variable thread pitch as the Herbert screw, but unlike the Herbert screw, is fully threaded, with continuously varying pitch along its length. This variable pitch creates constant compression across a fracture as the screw is advanced, and gives the screw its unique appearance. This featur...

  11. High level waste fixation in cermet form

    Kobisk, E.H.; Aaron, W.S.; Quinby, T.C.; Ramey, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    Commercial and defense high level waste fixation in cermet form is being studied by personnel of the Isotopes Research Materials Laboratory, Solid State Division (ORNL). As a corollary to earlier research and development in forming high density ceramic and cermet rods, disks, and other shapes using separated isotopes, similar chemical and physical processing methods have been applied to synthetic and real waste fixation. Generally, experimental products resulting from this approach have shown physical and chemical characteristics which are deemed suitable for long-term storage, shipping, corrosive environments, high temperature environments, high waste loading, decay heat dissipation, and radiation damage. Although leach tests are not conclusive, what little comparative data are available show cermet to withstand hydrothermal conditions in water and brine solutions. The Soxhlet leach test, using radioactive cesium as a tracer, showed that leaching of cermet was about X100 less than that of 78 to 68 glass. Using essentially uncooled, untreated waste, cermet fixation was found to accommodate up to 75% waste loading and yet, because of its high thermal conductivity, a monolith of 0.6 m diameter and 3.3 m-length would have only a maximum centerline temperature of 29 K above the ambient value

  12. Nitrogen fixation in Red Sea seagrass meadows

    Abdallah, Malak

    2017-05-01

    Seagrasses are key coastal ecosystems, providing many ecosystem services. Seagrasses increase biodiversity as they provide habitat for a large set of organisms. In addition, their structure provides hiding places to avoid predation. Seagrasses can grow in shallow marine coastal areas, but several factors regulate their growth and distribution. Seagrasses can uptake different kinds of organic and inorganic nutrients through their leaves and roots. Nitrogen and phosphorous are the most important nutrients for seagrass growth. Biological nitrogen fixation is the conversion of atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia by diazotrophic bacteria. This process provides a significant source of nitrogen for seagrass growth. The nitrogen fixation is controlled by the nif genes which are found in diazotrophs. The main goal of the project is to measure nitrogen fixation rates on seagrass sediments, in order to compare among various seagrass species from the Red Sea. Moreover, we will compare the fixing rates of the Vegetated areas with the bare sediments. This project will help to ascertain the role of nitrogen fixing bacteria in the development of seagrass meadows.

  13. [Complications of open reduction and internal fixation versus external fixation for unstable distal radius fractures: a meta-analysis].

    Yang, Z; Yuan, Z Z; Ma, J X; Ma, X L

    2016-12-20

    Objective: To make a systematic assessment of the complications of open reduction and internal fixation versus external fixation for unstable distal radius fractures. Method: A computer-based online search of PubMed, ScienceDirect, EMBASE, BIOSIS, Springer and Cochrane Library were performed.The randomized and controlled trials of open reduction and internal fixation versus external fixation for unstable distal radius fractures were collected.The included trials were screened out strictly based on the criterion of inclusion and exclusion.The quality of included trials was evaluated.RevMan 5.0 was used for data analysis. Result: A total of 17 studies involving 1 402 patients were included.There were 687 patients with open reduction and internal fixation and 715 with external fixation.The results of Meta-analysis indicated that there were statistically significant differences with regard to the postoperatively total complications, infection, malunion, tendon rupture ( I 2 =8%, RR =0.77(95% CI 0.65-0.91, Z =3.10, P 0.05). Conclusion: Postoperative complications are present in both open reduction and internal fixation and external fixation.Compared with external fixation, open reduction and internal fixation is lower in total complications postoperatively, infection and malunion, but external fixation has lower tendon rupture incidence.

  14. Effectiveness of external fixator combined with T-plate internal fixation for the treatment of comminuted distal radius fractures.

    Han, L R; Jin, C X; Yan, J; Han, S Z; He, X B; Yang, X F

    2015-03-31

    This study compared the efficacy between external fixator combined with palmar T-plate internal fixation and simple plate internal fixation for the treatment of comminuted distal radius fractures. A total of 61 patients classified as type C according to the AO/ASIF classification underwent surgery for comminuted distal radius fractures. There were 54 and 7 cases of closed and open fractures, respectively. Moreover, 19 patients received an external fixator combined with T-plate internal fixation, and 42 received simple plate internal fixation. All patients were treated successfully during 12-month postoperative follow-up. The follow-up results show that the palmar flexion and dorsiflexion of the wrist, radial height, and palmar angle were significantly better in those treated with the external fixator combined with T-plate compared to those treated with the simple plate only (P 0.05). Hence, the effectiveness of external fixator combined with T-plate internal fixation for the treatment of comminuted distal radius fractures was satisfactory. Patients sufficiently recovered wrist, forearm, and hand function. In conclusion, compared to the simple T-plate, the external fixator combined with T-plate internal fixation can reduce the possibility of the postoperative re-shifting of broken bones and keep the distraction of fractures to maintain radial height and prevent radial shortening.

  15. Comparison of screw fixation with elastic fixation methods in the treatment of syndesmosis injuries in ankle fractures.

    Seyhan, Mustafa; Donmez, Ferdi; Mahirogullari, Mahir; Cakmak, Selami; Mutlu, Serhat; Guler, Olcay

    2015-07-01

    17 patients with ankle syndesmosic injury were treated with a 4.5mm single cortical screw fixation (passage of screw 4 cortices) and 15 patients were treated with single-level elastic fixation material. All patients were evaluated according to the AOFAS ankle and posterior foot scale at the third, sixth and twelfth months after the fixation. The ankle range of movement was recorded together with the healthy side. The Student's t test was used for statistical comparisons. No statistical significant difference was observed between the AOFAS scores (p>0.05). The range of dorsiflexion and plantar flexion motion of the elastic fixation group at the 6th and 12th months were significantly better compared to the screw fixation group (pankle syndesmosis injuries. The unnecessary need of a second surgical intervention for removal of the fixation material is another advantageous aspect of this method of fixation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. [Extramedullary fixation combined with intramedullary fixation in the surgical reduction of sagittal mandibular condylar fractures].

    Chuanjun, Chen; Xiaoyang, Chen; Jing, Chen

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the clinical effect of extramedullary fixation combined with intramedullary fixation during the surgical reduction of sagittal mandibular condylar fractures. Twenty-four sagittal fractures of the mandibular condyle in18 patients were fixed by two appliances: intramedullary with one long-screw osteosynthesis or Kirschner wire and extramedullary with one micro-plate. The radiologically-recorded post-operative stability-associated com-plications included the screw/micro-plate loosening, micro-plate twisting, micro-plate fractures, and fragment rotation. The occluding relations, the maximalinter-incisal distances upon mouth opening, and the mandibular deflection upon mouth opening were evaluated based on follow-up clinical examination. Postoperative panoramic X-ray and CT scans showed good repositioning of the fragment, with no redislocation or rotation, no screw/plate loosening, and no plate-twisting or fracture. Clinical examination showed that all patients regained normal mandibular movements, ideal occlusion, and normal maximal inter-incisal distances upon mouth opening. Extramedullary fixation combined with intramedullary fixation is highly recommended for sagittal condylar fractures because of the anti-rotation effect of the fragment and the reasonable place-ment of the fixation appliances.

  17. Fixation of displaced subcapital femoral fractures. Compression screw fixation versus double divergent pins.

    Christie, J; Howie, C R; Armour, P C

    1988-03-01

    One hundred and twenty-seven consecutive patients with displaced subcapital fractures of the femoral neck (Garden Grade III or IV) all under 80 years of age and independently mobile, were randomly allocated to fixation with either double divergent pins or a single sliding screw-plate device. The incidence of non-union and infection in the sliding screw-plate group was significantly higher, and we believe that when internal fixation is considered appropriate multiple pinning should be used. Mobility after treatment was disappointing in about half of the patients, and we feel that internal fixation can only be justified in patients who are physiologically well preserved and who maintain a high level of activity.

  18. Fusion Surgery Required for Recurrent Pediatric Atlantoaxial Rotatory Fixation after Failure of Temporary Fixation with Instrumentation

    Yoshiyuki Matsuyama

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In cases of chronic irreducible and recurrent unstable atlantoaxial rotatory fixation (AARF, closed reduction and its maintenance are often unsuccessful, requiring surgical treatment. The purpose of the present report is to describe a rare case of pediatric AARF that required multiple treatments. A 6-year-old boy was diagnosed as having type 2 AARF. After conservative treatment, the patient was treated with temporary fixation surgery (C1-C2 Magerl without a bone graft in consideration of motion preservation after screw removal. AARF recurred after the screw removal and required fusion surgery (Magerl–Brooks with an iliac bone graft. Ultimately, bone union was achieved and the screws were removed 11 months after the surgery. We recommend surgeons be cautious when choosing temporary fixation surgery for AARF in small children. Further investigation is needed to determine the optimal time before screw removal.

  19. Results of application of external fixation with different types of fixators

    Grubor Predrag

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Extra-focal or external fixation is the method of fracture fixation through the healthy part of the bone using pins or wires. Objective. The aim was to determine which external splints (Ortofix, Mitković, Charnley and Ilizarov had the best biomechanical properties in primary stabilization of spiral, transverse and commutative bone fractures. Methods. To determine the investigation methodology of biomechanical characteristics of the external fixator we used mathematical and computer simulator (software, juvidur physical model and clinical examination. Results. Values of advancing fragments in millimetres obtained by the study of mathematical and computer simulator (software: Charnley - 0.080 mm, Mitković M 20 - 0.785 mm, Ilizarov - 2.245 mm and Ortofix - 1.400 mm. In testing the juvidur model the following values were obtained: the external fixator Mitković M20 - 1.380 mm, Ortofix - 1.470 mm, Ilizarov - 2.410 mm, and Charnley - 2.510 mm. Clinical research of biomechanical characteristics of the effect of vertical force yielded the following results: Mitković M20 - 0.89 mm, Ortofix - 0.14 mm, Charnley - 0.80 mm and Ilizarov - 1.23 mm. Conclusion. When determining the total number of the stability test splints under the effect of vertical force (compression and force effect in antero-posterior, later-lateral plane of cross, spiral and comminuted long bone fractures, the best unified biomechanical stability was shown by the following external fixators: firstly, Mitković M20 (0.93mm, secondly, Charnley fixator (1.14 mm, thirdly, Ortofix (1.22 mm, and fourthly, Ilizarov (1.60 mm.

  20. Management and follow up of tibial plateau fractures by ′T′ clamp external fixator and limited internal fixation

    Thimmegowda M

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tibial plateau fractures are difficult to treat especially when soft tissue is compromised by open reduction and internal fixation. Many methods have be1en tried in the past to manage these cases of which external fixation were shown to be effective as they limit the soft tissue and wound complications. Methods: Complex tibial plateau fractures of sixteen patients were treated by closed reduction, fixation of articular fragments by screws and application of unilateral external fixator. The external fixator was kept in place till fracture united clinically and radiologically. The patients were followed up for at least one year to assess the function of the knee joint Results: The average duration of external fixation was 13 weeks. All the fractures healed. Pin track infection (five patients and instability (six patients of the knee were encountered with this procedure. The average duration of follow up was 62 weeks. The mean range of motion was 1250 arc. The IOWA knee score averaged 90.3 points. Conclusions: External fixation with limited internal fixation may be effective in the management of complex tibial plateau fractures which requires further support from studies with large sample size. ′T′ clamp external fixation with limited Internal fixation is the procedure of choice when alignment, stability, early mobilisation is required in a soft tissue compromised tibial plateau fractures.

  1. Improving Saliency Models by Predicting Human Fixation Patches

    Dubey, Rachit

    2015-04-16

    There is growing interest in studying the Human Visual System (HVS) to supplement and improve the performance of computer vision tasks. A major challenge for current visual saliency models is predicting saliency in cluttered scenes (i.e. high false positive rate). In this paper, we propose a fixation patch detector that predicts image patches that contain human fixations with high probability. Our proposed model detects sparse fixation patches with an accuracy of 84 % and eliminates non-fixation patches with an accuracy of 84 % demonstrating that low-level image features can indeed be used to short-list and identify human fixation patches. We then show how these detected fixation patches can be used as saliency priors for popular saliency models, thus, reducing false positives while maintaining true positives. Extensive experimental results show that our proposed approach allows state-of-the-art saliency methods to achieve better prediction performance on benchmark datasets.

  2. Improving Saliency Models by Predicting Human Fixation Patches

    Dubey, Rachit; Dave, Akshat; Ghanem, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in studying the Human Visual System (HVS) to supplement and improve the performance of computer vision tasks. A major challenge for current visual saliency models is predicting saliency in cluttered scenes (i.e. high false positive rate). In this paper, we propose a fixation patch detector that predicts image patches that contain human fixations with high probability. Our proposed model detects sparse fixation patches with an accuracy of 84 % and eliminates non-fixation patches with an accuracy of 84 % demonstrating that low-level image features can indeed be used to short-list and identify human fixation patches. We then show how these detected fixation patches can be used as saliency priors for popular saliency models, thus, reducing false positives while maintaining true positives. Extensive experimental results show that our proposed approach allows state-of-the-art saliency methods to achieve better prediction performance on benchmark datasets.

  3. Bilateral Laparoscopic Totally Extraperitoneal Repair Without Mesh Fixation

    Dehal, Ahmed; Woodward, Brandon; Johna, Samir; Yamanishi, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Mesh fixation during laparoscopic totally extraperitoneal repair is thought to be necessary to prevent recurrence. However, mesh fixation may increase postoperative chronic pain. This study aimed to describe the experience of a single surgeon at our institution performing this operation. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of the medical records of all patients who underwent bilateral laparoscopic totally extraperitoneal repair without mesh fixation for ing...

  4. Application of monorail fixator for femoral gap nonunion

    Agrawal Hemendra Kumar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Difficult femoral nonunion takes account of infective nonunion and aseptic gap nonunion. Limb length discrepancy and nonunion need to be tackled simultaneously. Conventionally Ilizarov ring fixator is in vogue but it has some limitations. To overcome these, monorail fixator is an effective alternative. Persistent good results can be obtained if we can get a perfect anatomical alignment and good regeneration. Key words: Femur; Ilizarov technique; External fixators

  5. Photosynthetic carbon fixation pathways in Zostera marina and three Florida seagrasses

    Beer, S.; Wetzel, R.G.

    1982-06-01

    The photosynthetic carbon fixation pathways of four seagrass species, Zostera marina L. from Alaska and Thalassia testudinum Banks ex Konig, Syringodium filiforme Kutz. and Halodule wrightii Aschers. from the Gulf of Mexico, were investigated with a /sup 14/C pulse-chase technique. All species were found to be principally of the C/sub 3/ type. However, Thalassia and Halodule had higher initial incorporation rates into organic acids than is typical for terrestrial C/sub 3/ plants. Of 11 seagrass species investigated thus far for C/sub 3/ or C/sub 4/ metabolism using this technique, 10 were found to be principally of the C/sub 3/ type while only one exhibited C/sub 4/ metabolism.

  6. [Aging in Mexico].

    Contreras de Lehr, E

    1986-01-01

    Demographic social and economic aspects of the situation of the elderly in Mexico are described with special emphasis upon education programmes and types of care in nursing homes. Considering the future trends of an increase in Mexico's elderly population, the author calls for more efforts in research and training in the field of gerontology. First results in this area are reported.

  7. Rib Fracture Fixation: Indications and Outcomes.

    Senekjian, Lara; Nirula, Raminder

    2017-01-01

    Rib fractures are a frequently identified injury in the trauma population. Not only are multiple rib fractures painful, but they are associated with an increased risk of adverse outcomes. Pneumonia in particular can be devastating, especially to an elderly patient, but other complications such as prolonged ventilation and increased intensive care and hospital durations of stay have a negative impact on the patient. Computed tomography scan is the best modality to diagnosis rib fractures but the treatment of fractures is still evolving. Currently patient care involves a multidisciplinary approach that includes pain control, aggressive pulmonary therapy, and possibly surgical fixation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Nitrogen fixation on a coral reef

    Mague, T.H.; Holm-Hansen, O.

    1975-06-01

    Benthic, heterocystous blue-green algae (genera Calothrix, Hormothamnion and Nostoc) from Eniwetok Atoll were found to reduce acetylene at rapid rates. Slight acetylene reduction was associated with samples of Rhizoclonium (Chlorophyceae) and Oscillatoria (a cyanophyte lacking heterocysts), but this may have been due to contamination by epiphytes. There was virtually no acetylene reduction by phytoplankton, and nutrient enrichment experiments failed to selectively increase the numbers or activity of N/sub 2/-fixing algae in surface water samples. The Nostoc required light for acetylene reduction. Nitrogen fixation by this species could have supplied up to 11 ..mu..g N/cm/sup 2//day to the ecosystem. (auth)

  9. Distal fingertip replantation without skeletal fixation.

    Sabapathy, S Raja; Venkatramani, Hari; Bharathi, R Ravindra; Sebastin, Sandeep J

    2005-01-01

    The replantation of fingertip amputation (through the nail bed) requires repair of the artery and vein on the palmar side. These structures are present in different planes, with the artery being deeper and the veins superficial. The authors believe that vascular repair in such cases is facilitated by stabilization of the amputated part by nail-bed repair alone. This provides a certain degree of flexibility, which allows for easier placement of clamps in the limited space available. Although Kirschner wires were not used for bony fixation, bony union was achieved in all five cases in which this technique was used.

  10. Overcoming design fixation through education and creativity methods

    Howard, Thomas J.; Maier, Anja; Onarheim, Balder

    2013-01-01

    . The first intervention consisted of educating each team on the phenomena and effects of design fixation. The results showed that this intervention reduced the number of fixation elements in comparison to the control group (p=0.025). The second intervention involved using Dix et als' (2006) 'Bad Ideas...... of ideas produced per group and the groups' fixation ratios, adding to the quantity breads novelty debate. Finally, the study also provided further evidence of the hypothesis by Agogué et al (2011) that example solutions constructed from restrictive partitions have a greater fixation affect....

  11. Percutaneous anterior C1/2 transarticular screw fixation: salvage of failed percutaneous odontoid screw fixation for odontoid fracture

    Wu, Ai-Min; Jin, Hai-Ming; Lin, Zhong-Ke; Chi, Yong-Long; Wang, Xiang-Yang

    2017-01-01

    Background The objective of this study is to investigate the outcomes and safety of using percutaneous anterior C1/2 transarticular screw fixation as a salvage technique for odontoid fracture if percutaneous odontoid screw fixation fails. Methods Fifteen in 108 odontoid fracture patients (planned to be treated by percutaneous anterior odontoid screw fixation) were failed to introduce satisfactory odontoid screw trajectory. To salvage this problem, we chose the percutaneous anterior C1/2 trans...

  12. EXTERNAL FIXATION OF METACARPAL AND PHALANGAL FRACTURES

    Krunoslav Margić

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. In past three years we have used smallexternal fixator in the treatment of: 18 closed fractures of metacarpalbones, 15 phalangeal fractures, four dislocated fracturesof MCP and five of PIP joint, ten arthrodesis, five replantations/revascularisations, two pathological fractures, and infew post-traumatic infection of bones and joints.Results. Results were graded as excellent (completely normalfunction, very good (15° deficit of total ROM, good (30° deficitof total ROM; can flex the fingers to the palm, and poor.Excellent result was obtained in the treatment of all 18 metacarpalfractures. The final results in the treatment of 12 closedfragmentated fractures of phalanges were as follows: excellent3, very good 2, good 2 and five poor results (three patientsin this group have fallen on their hands causing refractureand reoperation. Three of four fractures of MCP joint andfour of five fractures involving PIP joint have good mobility.In eight of ten patients arthrodeses are stable and withoutpain. In two cases pathological fractures were first stabilizedand than the tumor was evacuated and grafted with minimaldissection; booth have good results.Conclusion. Author suggests that, in selected cases, with applicationof small external fixator reasonable good results can beobtained.

  13. Biomechanics of lumbar cortical screw-rod fixation versus pedicle screw-rod fixation with and without interbody support.

    Perez-Orribo, Luis; Kalb, Samuel; Reyes, Phillip M; Chang, Steve W; Crawford, Neil R

    2013-04-15

    Seven different combinations of posterior screw fixation, with or without interbody support, were compared in vitro using nondestructive flexibility tests. To study the biomechanical behavior of a new cortical screw (CS) fixation construct relative to the traditional pedicle screw (PS) construct. The CS is an alternative to the PS for posterior fixation of the lumbar spine. The CS trajectory is more sagittally and cranially oriented than the PS, being anchored in the pars interarticularis. Like PS fixation, CS fixation uses interconnecting rods fastened with top-locking connectors. Stability after bilateral CS fixation was compared with stability after bilateral PS fixation in the setting of intact disc and with direct lateral interbody fixation (DLIF) or transforaminal lateral interbody fixation (TLIF) support. Standard nondestructive flexibility tests were performed in cadaveric lumbar specimens, allowing non-paired comparisons of specific conditions from 28 specimens (4 groups of 7) within a larger experiment of multiple hardware configurations. Condition tested and group from which results originated were as follows: (1) intact (all groups); (2) with L3-L4 bilateral PS-rods (group 1); (3) with bilateral CS-rods (group 2); (4) with DLIF (group 3); (5) with DLIF + CS-rods (group 4); (6) with DLIF + PS-rods (group 3); (7) with TLIF + CS-rods (group 2), and (8) with TLIF + PS-rods (group 2). To assess spinal stability, the mean range of motion, lax zone, and stiff zone at L3-L4 were compared during flexion-extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation. With intact disc, stability was equivalent after PS-rod and CS-rod fixation, except that PS-rod fixation was stiffer during axial rotation. With DLIF support, there was no significant difference in stability between PS-rod and CS-rod fixation. With TLIF support, PS-rod fixation was stiffer than CS-rod fixation during lateral bending. Bilateral CS-rod fixation provided about the same stability in cadaveric specimens

  14. Internal Versus External Fixation of Charcot Midfoot Deformity Realignment.

    Lee, Daniel J; Schaffer, Joseph; Chen, Tien; Oh, Irvin

    2016-07-01

    Internal and external fixation techniques have been described for realignment and arthrodesis of Charcot midfoot deformity. There currently is no consensus on the optimal method of surgical reconstruction. This systematic review compared the clinical results of surgical realignment with internal and external fixation, specifically in regard to return to functional ambulation, ulcer occurrence, nonunion, extremity amputation, unplanned further surgery, deep infection, wound healing problems, peri- or intraoperative fractures, and total cases with any complication. A search of multiple databases for all relevant articles published from January 1, 1990, to March 22, 2014, was performed. A logistic regression model evaluated each of the outcomes and its association with the type of fixation method. The odds of returning to functional ambulation were 25% higher for internal fixation (odds ratio [OR], 1.259). Internal fixation had a 42% reduced rate of ulcer occurrence (OR, 0.578). External fixation was 8 times more likely to develop radiographic nonunion than internal fixation (OR, 8.2). Internal fixation resulted in a 1.5-fold increase in extremity amputation (OR, 1.488), a 2-fold increase in deep infection (OR, 2.068), a 3.4-fold increase in wound healing complications (OR, 3.405), and a 1.5-fold increase in the total number of cases experiencing any complication (OR, 1.525). This was associated with a 20% increase in the need for unplanned further surgery with internal fixation (OR, 1.221). Although internal fixation may decrease the risk of nonunion and increase return to functional ambulation, it had a higher rate of overall complications than external fixation for realignment and arthrodesis of Charcot midfoot deformity. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(4):e595-e601.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Mexico and Central America.

    Bronfman, M

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on migration and HIV/AIDS in Mexico and Central America, including Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Panama. Most migrants travel to the US through Mexico. US-Mexico trade agreements created opportunities for increased risk of HIV transmission. The research literature focuses on Mexico. Most countries, with the exception of Belize and Costa Rica, are sending countries. Human rights of migrants are violated in transit and at destination. Migration policies determine migration processes. The Mexican-born population in the US is about 3% of US population and 8% of Mexico's population. About 22% arrived during 1992-97, and about 500,000 are naturalized US citizens. An additional 11 million have a Mexican ethnic background. Mexican migrants are usually economically active men who had jobs before leaving and were urban people who settled in California, Texas, Illinois, and Arizona. Most Mexican migrants enter illegally. Many return to Mexico. The main paths of HIV transmission are homosexual, heterosexual, and IV-drug-injecting persons. Latino migrants frequently use prostitutes, adopt new sexual practices including anal penetration among men, greater diversity of sexual partners, and use of injectable drugs.

  16. Mexico's nuclear paradox

    Redclift, M.

    1989-01-01

    Opposition to Mexico's nuclear reactors at Laguna Verde has grown during the last two years. The nuclear programme is blamed for being expensive and wasteful, and the decision to rely on the USA contradicts Mexico's espoused policy of greater independence from the USA. The way in which petroleum revenues were used to precipitate the nuclear option is compared with the lack of urgency given to renewable energy and greater energy efficiency. From a social and environmental perspective, as well as an economic one, Mexico's nuclear programme is judged expensive and irrelevant. (author)

  17. STUDY ON SPANNING EXTERNAL FIXATORS FOR PERIARTICULAR OPEN FRACTURES

    Prasanth Maddila

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Open fractures which occur close to any fracture need immobilisation for the soft tissues to heal. Some open fractures are even fixed with provisional fixations to maintain the alignment of the fractures. The provisional fixation needs to be augmented with external support, which can be given by spanning external fixators across a joint. MATERIALS AND METHODS Our study consists of 38 open fractures of the lower limbs, which are of Gustilo-Anderson’s type IIIB, an MT4 of AO-ASIF soft tissue injury classification essentially requiring open wound management as well as fracture fixation. Wound lavage and debridements are carried out till the soft tissues show granulations. The position in which joint is immobilised is functional and with access to open wound for dressings and inspection without any displacement of the fracture as well as creeping granulation tissue. RESULTS All the cases in our study are maintained with functional position till soft tissue cover is achieved and provisional fixation is done with definitive fixation after soft tissue cover with skin grafting. CONCLUSION Spanning external fixators are useful in maintaining functional positions as well as augmenting the provisional fixation of the compound fractures.

  18. Sacroiliac screw fixation: A mini review of surgical technique

    Hernando Raphael Alvis-Miranda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The sacral percutaneous fixation has many advantages but can be associated with a significant exposure to X-ray radiation. Currently, sacroiliac screw fixation represents the only minimally invasive technique to stabilize the posterior pelvic ring. It is a technique that should be used by experienced surgeons. We present a practical review of important aspects of this technique.

  19. Customizable rigid head fixation for infants: technical note.

    Udayakumaran, Suhas; Onyia, Chiazor U

    2016-01-01

    The need and advantages of rigid fixation of the head in cranial surgeries are well documented (Berryhill et al., Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 121:269-273, 1999). Head fixation for neurosurgical procedures in infants and in early years has been a challenge and is fraught with risk. Despite the fact that pediatric pins are designed, rigid head fixation involving direct application of pins to the head of infants and slightly older children is still generally not safe (Agrawal and Steinbok, Childs Nerv Syst 22:1473-1474, 2006). Yet, there are some surgeries in which some form of rigid fixation is required (Agrawal and Steinbok, Childs Nerv Syst 22:1473-1474, 2006). We describe a simple technique to achieve rigid fixation of the head in infants for neurosurgical procedures. This involves applying a head band made of Plaster of Paris (POP) around the head and then applying the fixation pins of the fixation frame directly on to the POP. We have used this technique of head fixation successfully for infants with no complications.

  20. Biomechanical analysis of titanium fixation plates and screws in ...

    Conclusions: It was concluded that the use of double 4-hole straight plates provided the sufficient stability on the osteotomy site when compared with the other rigid fixation methods used in this study. Key words: Bone plates, bone screws, finite element analysis, jaw fixation techniques, mandible, mandibular osteotomy ...

  1. Indications and outcome of Open Reduction and Internal Fixation of ...

    Background: Open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) is a well-established surgical treatment of fractures worldwide. However, the indications and modes of stabilization of long bone fractures vary and are evolving .The general trend now is towards fixation with locked intramedullary nail (i.m nail) rather than plate and ...

  2. Predicting Eye Fixations on Complex Visual Stimuli Using Local Symmetry.

    Kootstra, Gert; de Boer, Bart; Schomaker, Lambert R B

    2011-03-01

    Most bottom-up models that predict human eye fixations are based on contrast features. The saliency model of Itti, Koch and Niebur is an example of such contrast-saliency models. Although the model has been successfully compared to human eye fixations, we show that it lacks preciseness in the prediction of fixations on mirror-symmetrical forms. The contrast model gives high response at the borders, whereas human observers consistently look at the symmetrical center of these forms. We propose a saliency model that predicts eye fixations using local mirror symmetry. To test the model, we performed an eye-tracking experiment with participants viewing complex photographic images and compared the data with our symmetry model and the contrast model. The results show that our symmetry model predicts human eye fixations significantly better on a wide variety of images including many that are not selected for their symmetrical content. Moreover, our results show that especially early fixations are on highly symmetrical areas of the images. We conclude that symmetry is a strong predictor of human eye fixations and that it can be used as a predictor of the order of fixation.

  3. Femoral fractures : indications an[d] biomechanics of external fixation

    A.H. Broekhuizen (Tom); B. van Linge

    1988-01-01

    textabstractInternal fixation can be carried out in various ways. For femoral shaft fractures, an (interlocking) nail is becoming increasingly popular, instead of open realignment of the fracture. External fixation, which has become a generally accepted method of treating fractures of the lower

  4. Application of monorail fixator for femoral gap nonunion.

    Agrawal, Hemendra-Kumar; Jaiman, Ashish; Khatkar, Vipin; Sharma, Vinod-Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Difficult femoral nonunion takes account of infective nonunion and aseptic gap nonunion. Limb length discrepancy and nonunion need to be tackled simultaneously. Conventionally Ilizarov ring fixator is in vogue but it has some limitations. To overcome these, monorail fixator is an effective alternative. Persistent good results can be obtained if we can get a perfect anatomical alignment and good regeneration.

  5. Predicting Eye Fixations on Complex Visual Stimuli Using Local Symmetry

    Kootstra, Geert; de Boer, Bart; Schomaker, Lambertus

    Most bottom-up models that predict human eye fixations are based on contrast features. The saliency model of Itti, Koch and Niebur is an example of such contrast-saliency models. Although the model has been successfully compared to human eye fixations, we show that it lacks preciseness in the

  6. Predicting eye fixations on complex visual stimuli using local symmetry

    Kootstra, G.; de Boer, B.; Schomaker, L.R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Most bottom-up models that predict human eye fixations are based on contrast features. The saliency model of Itti, Koch and Niebur is an example of such contrast-saliency models. Although the model has been successfully compared to human eye fixations, we show that it lacks preciseness in the

  7. [Treatment of femoral neck fracture--preference to internal fixation].

    Minato, Izumi

    2011-03-01

    In the guidelines for the treatment of femoral neck fracture, prosthetic replacement is recommended in displaced one and internal fixation is in undisplaced one. However, in the long view, survived femoral head after internal fixation can be superior to prosthesis which will deteriorate as time goes by. Surgical method should be considered not only by type of fracture but general status of the patient.

  8. Tightrope fixation of ankle syndesmosis injuries: clinical outcome, complications and technique modification.

    Naqvi, Gohar A

    2012-06-01

    Ankle syndesmotic injuries are complex and require anatomic reduction and fixation. Tightrope fixation is a relatively new technique and we present the largest series of syndesmosis fixation using Arthrex Tightrope™ (Naples, FL, USA).

  9. Fixation and escape times in stochastic game learning

    Realpe-Gomez, John; Szczesny, Bartosz; Galla, Tobias; Dall’Asta, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Evolutionary dynamics in finite populations is known to fixate eventually in the absence of mutation. We here show that a similar phenomenon can be found in stochastic game dynamical batch learning, and investigate fixation in learning processes in a simple 2×2 game, for two-player games with cyclic interaction, and in the context of the best-shot network game. The analogues of finite populations in evolution are here finite batches of observations between strategy updates. We study when and how such fixation can occur, and present results on the average time-to-fixation from numerical simulations. Simple cases are also amenable to analytical approaches and we provide estimates of the behaviour of so-called escape times as a function of the batch size. The differences and similarities with escape and fixation in evolutionary dynamics are discussed. (paper)

  10. Les aciers inoxydables dans les fixations

    CETIM

    2010-01-01

    Cet ouvrage, qui fait la synthèse de plusieurs travaux menés par le Cetim, propose une vue d'ensemble sur les aciers inoxydables utilisés pour les fixations. Au sommaire : les normes EN, ISO et ATSM qui s'y rapportent , les désignations symboliques , les nuances et caractéristiques mécaniques , les différentes formes de corrosion, les méthodes pour les détecter , les règles du métier , les mises en oeuvre. L'ouvrage comprend plusieurs fiches matériaux et des tableaux qui présentent les équivalences entre les désignations.

  11. Nitrogen fixation by legumes in retorted shale

    Hersman, L E; Molitoris, E; Klein, D A

    1981-01-01

    Although a soil-shale mixture was employed as the growth medium in this experiment, the results presentd are applicable to the proposed method of disposal mentioned earlier. Under field conditions, when covering the retorted shale with topsoil, some mixing of these materials might occur in the plant root region. In addition, it has been demonstrated that buried shale negatively affects enzyme activities in overburden surface soil. The occurrence of either of those events could affect symbiotic N/sub 2/ fixation in a manner similar to that reported in this paper. Researchers conclude that due to the varied effects of retorted shale on the legumes tested, further evaluation of other legumes may be necessary. Additional research would be required to determine which legumes have potential use for reclamation of retorted shale.

  12. Do you like what you see? The role of first fixation and total fixation duration in consumer choice

    Laan, van der L.N.; Hooge, I.T.C.; Ridder, de D.T.D.; Viergever, M.A.; Smeets, P.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Although there has been recent growing interest in the associations between measures of visual attention and consumer choice, there is still uncertainty about the role of the first fixation in consumer choice and the factors that drive total fixation duration. The study aimed (1) to investigate the

  13. External Fixation versus two-stage Open Reduction Internal Fixation of distal intra-articular Tibia fractures; a Systematic Review

    Ladeby Erichsen, Julie; Jensen, Carsten; Damborg, Frank Lindhøj

    Internal Fixation (ORIF) or External Fixation (EF). Method : A search was conducted using PUBMED, Embase, Cochrane Central, Open Grey, Orthopaedic Proceedings and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. Studies with level of evidence I-IV comparing EF with two-stage ORIF of DIATF in patients...

  14. Do you like what you see? : The role of first fixation and total fixation duration in consumer choice

    van der Laan, Laura N.; Hooge, Ignace T C; De Ridder, Denise T D; Viergever, Max A.; Smeets, Paul A M

    2015-01-01

    Although there has been recent growing interest in the associations between measures of visual attention and consumer choice, there is still uncertainty about the role of the first fixation in consumer choice and the factors that drive total fixation duration. The study aimed (1) to investigate the

  15. Silencing criticism in Mexico

    Ximena Suárez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Journalists and human rights defenders in Mexico are being attacked in an attempt to silence their criticism. Many are forced to flee or risk being assassinated. The consequences are both personal and of wider social significance.

  16. New Mexico State Boundary

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Shapefiles are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census MAF/TIGER database. The Census MAF/TIGER database...

  17. New Mexico Federal Lands

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This map layer consists of federally owned or administered lands of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Only areas of 640 acres or more are...

  18. New Mexico Mountain Ranges

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) actively seeks data from and partnerships with Government agencies at all levels and other interested organizations....

  19. Mexico - Surface Weather Observations

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Mexican Surface Daily Observations taken at 94 observatories located throughout Mexico, beginning in 1872 and going up through 1981. The data resided on paper...

  20. A Meta-Analysis for Postoperative Complications in Tibial Plafond Fracture: Open Reduction and Internal Fixation Versus Limited Internal Fixation Combined With External Fixator.

    Wang, Dong; Xiang, Jian-Ping; Chen, Xiao-Hu; Zhu, Qing-Tang

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of tibial plafond fractures is challenging to foot and ankle surgeons. Open reduction and internal fixation and limited internal fixation combined with an external fixator are 2 of the most commonly used methods of tibial plafond fracture repair. However, conclusions regarding the superior choice remain controversial. The present meta-analysis aimed to quantitatively compare the postoperative complications between open reduction and internal fixation and limited internal fixation combined with an external fixator for tibial plafond fractures. Nine studies with 498 fractures in 494 patients were included in the present study. The meta-analysis found no significant differences in bone healing complications (risk ratio [RR] 1.17, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.68 to 2.01, p = .58], nonunion (RR 1.09, 95% CI 0.51 to 2.36, p = .82), malunion or delayed union (RR 1.24, 95% CI 0.57 to 2.69, p = .59), superficial (RR 1.56, 95% CI 0.43 to 5.61, p = .50) and deep (RR 1.89, 95% CI 0.62 to 5.80) infections, arthritis symptoms (RR 1.20, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.58, p = .18), or chronic osteomyelitis (RR 0.31, 95% CI 0.05 to 1.84, p = .20) between the 2 groups. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Mini-Fragment Fixation Is Equivalent to Bicortical Screw Fixation for Horizontal Medial Malleolus Fractures.

    Wegner, Adam M; Wolinsky, Philip R; Robbins, Michael A; Garcia, Tanya C; Amanatullah, Derek F

    2018-05-01

    Horizontal fractures of the medial malleolus occur through application of valgus or abduction force through the ankle that creates a tension failure of the medial malleolus. The authors hypothesize that mini-fragment T-plates may offer improved fixation, but the optimal fixation construct for these fractures remains unclear. Forty synthetic distal tibiae with identical osteotomies were randomized into 4 fixation constructs: (1) two parallel unicortical cancellous screws; (2) two parallel bicortical cortical screws; (3) a contoured mini-fragment T-plate with 2 unicortical screws in the fragment and 2 bicortical screws in the shaft; and (4) a contoured mini-fragment T-plate with 2 bicortical screws in the fragment and 2 unicortical screws in the shaft. Specimens were subjected to offset axial tension loading on a servohydraulic testing system and tracked using high-resolution video. Failure was defined as 2 mm of articular displacement. Analysis of variance followed by a Tukey-Kramer post hoc test was used to assess for differences between groups, with significance defined as Pfragment T-plate constructs (239±83 N/mm and 190±37 N/mm) and the bicortical screw construct (240±17 N/mm) were not statistically different. The mean stiffness values of both mini-fragment T-plate constructs and the bicortical screw construct were higher than that of a parallel unicortical screw construct (102±20 N/mm). Contoured T-plate constructs provide stiffer initial fixation than a unicortical cancellous screw construct. The T-plate is biomechanically equivalent to a bicortical screw construct, but may be superior in capturing small fragments of bone. [Orthopedics. 2018; 41(3):e395-e399.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Doing Business in Mexico

    Zimmermann, Thomas A.

    2002-01-01

    On 1 July 2001, a far-reaching free trade agreement between the EFTA States and Mexico entered into force. ”Doing Business in Mexico” provides targeted assistance to Swiss Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SME) that wish to tap the potential of Mexico as both an export destination and investment location. This comprehensive guide contains information and advice on market research, market entry, and investment in this fascinating country. Part I introduces the reader to this fascinating ...

  3. Mexico tornado climatology

    Manuel Macías Medrano

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A brief introduction on some features of tornado database in Mexico is exposed showing its substantive criteria. We resent a brief analysis about main Mexican tornadoes´ characteristics, based on data collected between 2000 to 2010, talking about spatial and temporal expressions (historical, seasonal and horary in order to show the importance of it destruction capacity and also the people´s vulnerability in Mexico.

  4. Occupational health in Mexico.

    Carreón, Tania; Santos-Burgoa, Carlos; Baron, Sherry; Hernández, Sendy

    2002-01-01

    The authors discuss the maquiladoras and child labor, and offer an overview of the history of occupational safety and health in Mexico that covers laws and regulations, social security, unions, and enforcement of legislation. The organization and structure of the various institutions responsible for occupational safety and health (OSH), as well as administrative procedures, are described. This article concludes with a list of the new challenges for OSH in Mexico.

  5. Phase-Contrast Hounsfield Units of Fixated and Non-Fixated Soft-Tissue Samples

    Willner, Marian; Fior, Gabriel; Marschner, Mathias; Birnbacher, Lorenz; Schock, Jonathan; Braun, Christian; Fingerle, Alexander A.; Noël, Peter B.; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Pfeiffer, Franz; Herzen, Julia

    2015-01-01

    X-ray phase-contrast imaging is a novel technology that achieves high soft-tissue contrast. Although its clinical impact is still under investigation, the technique may potentially improve clinical diagnostics. In conventional attenuation-based X-ray computed tomography, radiological diagnostics are quantified by Hounsfield units. Corresponding Hounsfield units for phase-contrast imaging have been recently introduced, enabling a setup-independent comparison and standardized interpretation of imaging results. Thus far, the experimental values of few tissue types have been reported; these values have been determined from fixated tissue samples. This study presents phase-contrast Hounsfield units for various types of non-fixated human soft tissues. A large variety of tissue specimens ranging from adipose, muscle and connective tissues to liver, kidney and pancreas tissues were imaged by a grating interferometer with a rotating-anode X-ray tube and a photon-counting detector. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of formalin fixation on the quantitative phase-contrast imaging results. PMID:26322638

  6. "Cold" Fixation: Reconciliation of Nitrogen Fixation Rates and Diazotroph Assemblages in the Arctic Ocean

    Fong, A. A.; Waite, A.; Rost, B.; Richter, K. U.

    2016-02-01

    Measurements of biological nitrogen fixation are typically conducted in oligotrophic subtropical and tropical marine environments where concentrations of fixed inorganic nitrogen are low. To date, only a handful of nitrogen fixation studies have been conducted in high latitude marine environments, but further investigation is needed to resolve the distribution of cold ocean diazotrophic assemblages. Nitrogen fixation rates and nifH gene distributions were measured at seven stations from 5°E to 20°E, north of 81°N in the Arctic Ocean at the onset of summer 2015. Discrete water samples in ice-covered regions were collected from the sea surface to 200 m for 15N2-tracer additions and targeted nifH gene and transcript analyses. Previous work suggests that heterotrophic bacteria dominate diazotrophic communities in the Arctic Ocean. Therefore, additional nifH gene surveys of sinking particles were conducted to test for enrichment on organic matter-rich microenvironments. Together, these measurements aim to reconcile diazotrophic activity with microbial community composition, further elucidating how nitrogen fixers could impact current concepts in polar carbon and nutrient cycling.

  7. Free flap reconstructions of tibial fractures complicated after internal fixation.

    Nieminen, H; Kuokkanen, H; Tukiainen, E; Asko-Seljavaara, S

    1995-04-01

    The cases of 15 patients are presented where microvascular soft-tissue reconstructions became necessary after internal fixation of tibial fractures. Primarily, seven of the fractures were closed. Eleven fractures had originally been treated by open reduction and internal fixation using plates and screws, and four by intramedullary nailing. All of the patients suffered from postoperative complications leading to exposure of the bone or fixation material. The internal fixation material was removed and radical revision of dead and infected tissue was carried out in all cases. Soft tissue reconstruction was performed using a free microvascular muscle flap (11 latissimus dorsi, three rectus abdominis, and one gracilis). In eight cases the nonunion of the fracture indicated external fixation. The microvascular reconstruction was successful in all 15 patients. In one case the recurrence of deep infection finally indicated a below-knee amputation. In another case, chronic infection with fistulation recurred postoperatively. After a mean follow-up of 26 months the soft tissue coverage was good in all the remaining 13 cases. All the fractures united. Microvascular free muscle flap reconstruction of the leg is regarded as a reliable method for salvaging legs with large soft-tissue defects or defects in the distal leg. If after internal fixation of the tibial fracture the osteosynthesis material or fracture is exposed, reconstruction of the soft-tissue can successfully be performed by free flap transfer. By radical revision, external fixation, bone grafting, and a free flap the healing of the fracture can be achieved.

  8. Skin Graft Fixation Using Hydrofiber (Aquacel® Extra).

    Yen, Ya-Hui; Lin, Chih-Ming; Hsu, Honda; Chen, Ying-Chen; Chen, Yi-Wen; Li, Wan-Yu; Hsieh, Chia-Nan; Huang, Chieh-Chi

    2018-06-01

    The traditional method of skin graft fixation is with tie-over bollus dressing. The use of splints in the extremities for skin graft fixation is a common practice. However, these splints are heavy and uncomfortable and contribute considerably to our overall medical waste. Hydrofiber (Aquacel Extra) has a strong fluid absorption property and fixates well to the underlying wound once applied. In this study, we used hydrofiber for fixation, avoiding the use of splints after skin grafting. A total of 56 patients reconstructed with split-thickness skin graft that was fixated only with hydrofiber between March 2015 and March 2016 were included in this retrospective study. There were 44 men and 12 women with a mean age of 61 ± 18 years. The defect size ranged from 1 × 1 cm for fingertips to 30 × 12 cm for lower limb defects. The average defect size was 61 ± 78 cm. The mean skin graft take was 96% ± 6%. Because splints were not required, we saved around 48 kg of medical waste over the space of 1 year. The use of hydrofiber for skin graft fixation was effective and technically very simple. Splints were not required with this method, decreasing the medical waste created and increasing patient comfort. We suggest that this is an excellent alternative for skin graft fixation while at the same time decreasing our carbon footprint as surgeons.

  9. Fracture healing using degradable magnesium fixation plates and screws.

    Chaya, Amy; Yoshizawa, Sayuri; Verdelis, Kostas; Noorani, Sabrina; Costello, Bernard J; Sfeir, Charles

    2015-02-01

    Internal bone fixation devices made with permanent metals are associated with numerous long-term complications and may require removal. We hypothesized that fixation devices made with degradable magnesium alloys could provide an ideal combination of strength and degradation, facilitating fracture fixation and healing while eliminating the need for implant removal surgery. Fixation plates and screws were machined from 99.9% pure magnesium and compared with titanium devices in a rabbit ulnar fracture model. Magnesium device degradation and the effect on fracture healing and bone formation were assessed after 4 weeks. Fracture healing with magnesium device fixation was compared with that of titanium devices using qualitative histologic analysis and quantitative histomorphometry. Micro-computed tomography showed device degradation after 4 weeks in vivo. In addition, 2-dimensional micro-computed tomography slices and histologic staining showed that magnesium degradation did not inhibit fracture healing or bone formation. Histomorphology showed no difference in bone-bridging fractures fixed with magnesium and titanium devices. Interestingly, abundant new bone was formed around magnesium devices, suggesting a connection between magnesium degradation and bone formation. Our results show potential for magnesium fixation devices in a loaded fracture environment. Furthermore, these results suggest that magnesium fixation devices may enhance fracture healing by encouraging localized new bone formation. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Design and Optimization of Resorbable Silk Internal Fixation Devices

    Haas, Dylan S.

    Limitations of current material options for internal fracture fixation devices have resulted in a large gap between user needs and hardware function. Metal systems offer robust mechanical strength and ease of implantation but require secondary surgery for removal and/or result in long-term complications (infection, palpability, sensitivity, etc.). Current resorbable devices eliminate the need for second surgery and long-term complications but are still associated with negative host response as well as limited functionality and more difficult implantation. There is a definitive need for orthopedic hardware that is mechanically capable of immediate fracture stabilization and fracture fixation during healing, can safely biodegrade while allowing complete bone remodeling, can be resterilized for reuse, and is easily implantable (self-tapping). Previous work investigated the use of silk protein to produce resorbable orthopedic hardware for non- load bearing fracture fixation. In this study, silk orthopedic hardware was further investigated and optimized in order to better understand the ability of silk as a fracture fixation system and more closely meet the unfulfilled market needs. Solvent-based and aqueous-based silk processing formulations were cross-linked with methanol to induce beta sheet structure, dried, autoclaved and then machined to the desired device/geometry. Silk hardware was evaluated for dry, hydrated and fatigued (cyclic) mechanical properties, in vitro degradation, resterilization, functionalization with osteoinductive molecules and implantation technique for fracture fixation. Mechanical strength showed minor improvements from previous results, but remains comparable to current resorbable fixation systems with the advantages of self-tapping ability for ease of implantation, full degradation in 10 months, ability to be resterilized and reused, and ability to release molecules for osteoinudction. In vivo assessment confirmed biocompatibility, showed

  11. Early Experience with Biodegradable Fixation of Pediatric Mandibular Fractures

    Mazeed, Ahmed Salah; Shoeib, Mohammed Abdel-Raheem; Saied, Samia Mohammed Ahmed; Elsherbiny, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    This clinical study aims to evaluate the stability and efficiency of biodegradable self-reinforced poly-l/dl-lactide (SR-PLDLA) plates and screws for fixation of pediatric mandibular fractures. The study included 12 patients (3–12 years old) with 14 mandibular fractures. They were treated by open reduction and internal fixation by SR-PLDLA plates and screws. Maxillomandibular fixation was maintained for 1 week postoperatively. Clinical follow-up was performed at 1 week, 6 weeks, 3 months, and...

  12. Operative Fixation Options for Elective and Diabetic Ankle Arthrodesis.

    Ramanujam, Crystal L; Stapleton, John J; Zgonis, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    Ankle arthrodesis remains one of the most definitive treatment options for end-stage arthritis, paralysis, posttraumatic and postinfectious conditions, failed total ankle arthroplasty, and severe deformities. The general aims of ankle arthrodesis are to decrease pain and instability, correct the accompanying deformity, and create a stable plantigrade foot. Several surgical approaches have been reported for ankle arthrodesis with internal fixation options. External fixation has also evolved for ankle arthrodesis in certain clinical scenarios. This article provides a comprehensive analysis of midterm to long-term outcomes for ankle arthrodesis using internal and/or external fixation each for elective and diabetic conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Carbon Dioxide Fixation in Isolated Kalanchoe Chloroplasts 1

    Levi, Carolyn; Gibbs, Martin

    1975-01-01

    Chloroplasts isolated from Kalanchoe diagremontiana leaves were capable of photosynthesizing at a rate of 5.4 μmoles of CO2 per milligram of chlorophyll per hour. The dark rate of fixation was about 1% of the light rate. A high photosynthetic rate was associated with low starch content of the leaves. Ribose 5-phosphate, fructose 1,6-diphosphate, and dithiothreitol stimulated fixation, whereas phosphoenolpyruvate and azide were inhibitors. The products of CO2 fixation were primarily those of the photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle. PMID:16659249

  14. Noninvasive patient fixation for extracranial stereotactic radiotherapy

    Lohr, Frank; Debus, Juergen; Frank, Claudia; Herfarth, Klaus; Pastyr, Otto; Rhein, Bernhard; Bahner, Malte L.; Schlegel, Wolfgang; Wannenmacher, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the setup accuracy that can be achieved with a novel noninvasive patient fixation technique based on a body cast attached to a recently developed stereotactic body frame during fractionated extracranial stereotactic radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Thirty-one CT studies (≥ 20 slices, thickness: 3 mm) from 5 patients who were immobilized in a body cast attached to a stereotactic body frame for treatment of para medullary tumors in the thoracic or lumbar spine were evaluated with respect to setup accuracy. The immobilization device consisted of a custom-made wrap-around body cast that extended from the neck to the thighs and a separate head mask, both made from Scotchcast. Each CT study was performed immediately before or after every second or third actual treatment fraction without repositioning the patient between CT and treatment. The stereotactic localization system was mounted and the isocenter as initially located stereo tactically was marked with fiducials for each CT study. Deviation of the treated isocenter as compared to the planned position was measured in all three dimensions. Results: The immobilization device can be easily handled, attached to and removed from the stereotactic frame and thus enables treatment of multiple patients with the same stereotactic frame each day. Mean patient movements of 1.6 mm ± 1.2 mm (laterolateral [LL]), 1.4 mm ± 1.0 mm (anterior-posterior [AP]), 2.3 mm ± 1.3 mm (transversal vectorial error [VE]) and < slice thickness = 3 mm (cranio caudal [CC]) were recorded for the targets in the thoracic spine and 1.4 mm ± 1.0 mm (LL), 1.2 mm ± 0.7 mm (AP), 1.8 mm ± 1.2 mm (VE), and < 3 mm (CC) for the lumbar spine. The worst case deviation was 3.9 mm for the first patient with the target in the thoracic spine (in the LL direction). Combining those numbers (mean transversal VE for both locations and maximum CC error of 3 mm), the mean three-dimensional vectorial patient movement and thus the mean overall

  15. Biomechanical stability of a supra-acetabular pedicle screw internal fixation device (INFIX) vs external fixation and plates for vertically unstable pelvic fractures.

    Vigdorchik, Jonathan M; Esquivel, Amanda O; Jin, Xin; Yang, King H; Onwudiwe, Ndidi A; Vaidya, Rahul

    2012-09-27

    We have recently developed a subcutaneous anterior pelvic fixation technique (INFIX). This internal fixator permits patients to sit, roll over in bed and lie on their sides without the cumbersome external appliances or their complications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical stability of this novel supraacetabular pedicle screw internal fixation construct (INFIX) and compare it to standard internal fixation and external fixation techniques in a single stance pelvic fracture model. Nine synthetic pelves with a simulated anterior posterior compression type III injury were placed into three groups (External Fixator, INFIX and Internal Fixation). Displacement, total axial stiffness, and the stiffness at the pubic symphysis and SI joint were calculated. Displacement and stiffness were compared by ANOVA with a Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons The mean displacement at the pubic symphysis was 20, 9 and 0.8 mm for external fixation, INFIX and internal fixation, respectively. Plate fixation was significantly stiffer than the INFIX and external Fixator (P = 0.01) at the symphysis pubis. The INFIX device was significantly stiffer than external fixation (P = 0.017) at the symphysis pubis. There was no significant difference in SI joint displacement between any of the groups. Anterior plate fixation is stiffer than both the INFIX and external fixation in single stance pelvic fracture model. The INFIX was stiffer than external fixation for both overall axial stiffness, and stiffness at the pubic symphysis. Combined with the presumed benefit of minimizing the complications associated with external fixation, the INFIX may be a more preferable option for temporary anterior pelvic fixation in situations where external fixation may have otherwise been used.

  16. New Mexico Property Tax Districts

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico tax district "OUT" categories and incorporated/municipal "IN" categories as identified on the "Certificate of Tax...

  17. New Mexico State Forestry Districts

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains boundaries of the New Mexico Forestry Districts, plus the names of the district offices. It is in a vector digital structure digitized from a...

  18. HSIP Hospitals in New Mexico

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Hospitals in New Mexico The term "hospital" ... means an institution which- (1) is primarily engaged in providing, by or under the supervision of physicians, to...

  19. Necrotizing fasciitis after internal fixation of fracture of femoral trochanteric ? ??

    Santos, Leandro Em?lio Nascimento; Pires, Robinson Esteves Santos; Figueiredo, Leonardo Brand?o; Soares, Eduardo Augusto Marques

    2014-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a rare and potentially lethal soft tissue infection. We report a case of trochanteric femur fracture in a patient who underwent fracture fixation and developed necrotizing fasciitis. A literature review on the topic will be addressed.

  20. Use of 15N methodology to assess biological nitrogen fixation

    Hardarson, G.

    1990-01-01

    One of the most important characteristics of legumes are their ability in symbiosis with Rhizobium bacteria to fix atmospheric nitrogen for growth. For proper management and a full realization of the benefits of this plant-microbial association, it is necessary to estimate how much nitrogen is fixed under different conditions in the field. It is only after this is known that various factors can be manipulated so as to increase the amount and proportion of N a plant derives from biological fixation. A suitable method for accurately measuring the amount of N crops derive from fixation is therefore an important requirement in any programme aimed at maximizing biological nitrogen fixation. There are several methods available to measure N 2 fixation (Bergersen, 1980) based on (1) increment in N yield and plant growth, (2) nitrogen balance (3) acetylene reduction and (4) the use of isotopes of N. Only isotopic methods will be illustrated here. 20 refs, 2 figs, 9 tabs

  1. Outcome of complex tibial plateau fractures treated with external fixator

    Sushil H Mankar

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: We believe that minimally invasive treatment by percutaneous techniques and external fixation is a fairly reasonable treatment alternative, if near anatomical reduction of joint surface can be confirmed on fluoroscopy.

  2. Biomechanical analysis of titanium fixation plates and screws in ...

    hole Y plates with monocortical screws. 150 N incisal occlusal loads were simulated on the models. The commercial ANSYS software was utilized to calculate the Von Mises stresses on fixative appliances. Results: The highest Von Mises stress ...

  3. Cyanobacteria Occurrence and Nitrogen Fixation Rates in the ...

    Keywords: Cyanobacteria, Nitrogen Fixation, Seagrass, Seaweed Farming. Abstract—The .... during every sampling period, using a mercury thermometer and a ..... Capone, D.G. (1993) Determination of nitrogenase activity in aquatic samples ...

  4. A new 3-dimensional head fixation device for brain imaging

    Goto, Ryoi; Kawashima, Ryuta; Yoshioka, Seiro; Ono, Shuichi; Ito, Hiroshi; Sato, Kazunori; Akaizawa, Takashi; Koyama, Masamichi; Fukuda, Hiroshi

    1995-01-01

    We have developed a new head fixation device for studies of brain function. This device was designed to immobilize subject's heads during image scanning and to precisely reproduce the head position for two different imaging modalities such as MRI and PET. The device consists of a plastic frame, a pillow filled with beads of styrene foam, and a face mask of thermoplastic resin which was originally intended for application in radiotherapy. A bridge for biting was incorporated into the mask for stable fixation. The device enables immobilization of subject's heads with good reproducibility of position at the practical level. Our results indicate that this head fixation system is useful for fixation of head during activation studies using PET. (author)

  5. Nitrogen fixation rates in the eastern Arabian Sea

    Ahmed, A.; Gauns, M.; Kurian, S.; Bardhan, P.; Pratihary, A.K.; Naik, H.; Shenoy, D.M.; Naqvi, S.W.A.

    The Arabian Sea experiences bloom of the diazotroph Trichodesmium during certain times of the year when optimal sea surface temperature and oligotrophic condition favour their growth. We measured nitrogen fixation rates in the euphotic zone during...

  6. Symbiotic N fixation of several soybean varieties and mutants

    Soertini, G.; Hendratno

    1988-01-01

    Symbiotic N fixation of several soybean varieties and mutants. Research activities comprising of three experiments were carried out to screen several soybean varieties and mutants for symbiotic N fixation potential. The first two experiments involved screening of seven rhizobium strains/isolate for effective N fixation. Depending on the medium used, plant response to strains was different. In sterile medium, rhizobium strain USDA 136, 142 and TAL 102 showed a high nitrogen fixation potential. In soil only rhizobium strain USDA 110 had better performance and proved to be competitive to the native strains. Nitrogen-15 dilution method was used to screen nitrogen fixing ability of several soybean varieties and mutants. Guntur variety showed a better response to high dose of N fertilizer without disturbance in its fixing ability. This variety then was considered good to be introduced in the cropping system. (author). 8 refs

  7. Fixation of tritium in a highly stable polymer form

    Steinberg, M.; Colombo, P.; Pruzansky, J.

    1977-01-01

    A method for the fixation of tritium comprises reacting tritiated water with calcium carbide to produce calcium hydroxide and tritiated acetylene, polymerizing the acetylene, and then incorporating the polymer in a solidifying matrix. 2 claims

  8. Improving food and agricultural production. Thailand. Biological nitrogen fixation

    Bowen, G.D.

    1991-01-01

    The aim of the mission was to assist the counterpart scientists in the analysis and interpretation of data relating to nitrogen fixation studies on grain legumes. The report briefly summarizes the discussions that were held with the counterparts

  9. The Role of Personality and Team-Based Product Dissection on Fixation Effects

    Toh, Christine; Miller, Scarlett; Kremer, Gül E. Okudan

    2013-01-01

    Design fixation has been found to be complex in its definition and expression, but it plays an important role in design idea generation. Identifying the factors that influence fixation is crucial in understanding how to enhance the design process and reduce the negative effects of fixation. One way to potentially mitigate fixation is through…

  10. Nitrogen supply of crops by biological nitrogen fixation. 2

    Jensen, E.S.; Andersen, A.J.; Soerensen, H.; Thomsen, J.D.

    1985-02-01

    In the present work the contributions from combined N-sources and symbiotic nitrogen fixation to the nitrogen supply of field-grown peas and field beans were evaluated by means of 15 N fertilizer dilution. The effect of N-fertilizer, supplied at sowing and at different stages of plant development, on nitrogen fixation, yield and protein production in peas, was studied in pot experiments. (author)

  11. A Novel Handmade External Fixator for Phalangeal and Metacarpal Fractures

    Davod Jafari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background The value of external fixation in complex hand injuries is well established. Expenses and technical difficulties of commercial mini external fixator sets have led to the innovation of handmade external fixators. These fixators are used as versatile facilities to treat certain hand fractures. Usually, these structures are made by k-wires crossed filled with cement plastic tube. However, these fixators have multiple deficiencies that should be addressed. Objectives In this study, we described in detail the surgical technique of a handmade concrete like mini external fixator and report its clinical use and results. Methods Our handmade external fixator was applied for 52 patients with 56 fractures. Only 5% of the fractures were closed, non-comminuted extra-articular, and the other 51 fractures were more complex injuries. The mean follow up time was 9.3 months. At the end of the follow up, radiologic and functional assessment (DASH: Disability of arm, shoulder and hand and TAM: Total active motion was evaluated. Results All 56 fractures were united completely. None of the cases experienced pin loosening or reduction loss. Of the fractures, 8.9% malunited due to fracture complexity. The mean dash score was 3.76. TAM was excellent in 45% of the fractures; it was good in 7% and fair in 4%. Conclusions This type of handmade external fixator is simple, lightweight, and cheap. Furthermore, all implements are readily available in most operating fields. The probability of loosening has been greatly diminished because of the concrete like structure. Easy and fast assembly and good clinical and functional results are the other advantages of this technique. Due to the less complication and benefits, this technique could be used for many phalangeal and metacarpal fractures with confidence.

  12. Postinflammatory ossicular fixation: CT analysis with surgical correlation

    Swartz, J.D.; Wolfson, R.J.; Marlowe, F.I.; Popky, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    Postinflammatory ossicular fixation is a common problem encountered by the otologic surgeon upon exploration because of conductive hearing loss in patients with chronic otitis media. These nonotosclerotic noncongenital lesions take three pathologic forms: fibrous tissue fixation (chronic adhesive otitis media), hyalinization of collagen (tympanosclerosis), and new bone formation (fibro-osseous sclerosis). More than 300 patients with the clinical diagnosis of chronic otitis media have been examined. This study encompasses 23 proved cases

  13. External fixation of tibial pilon fractures and fracture healing.

    Ristiniemi, Jukka

    2007-06-01

    Distal tibial fractures are rare and difficult to treat because the bones are subcutaneous. External fixation is commonly used, but the method often results in delayed union. The aim of the present study was to find out the factors that affect fracture union in tibial pilon fractures. For this purpose, prospective data collection of tibial pilon fractures was carried out in 1998-2004, resulting in 159 fractures, of which 83 were treated with external fixation. Additionally, 23 open tibial fractures with significant > 3 cm bone defect that were treated with a staged method in 2000-2004 were retrospectively evaluated. The specific questions to be answered were: What are the risk factors for delayed union associated with two-ring hybrid external fixation? Does human recombinant BMP-7 accelerate healing? What is the role of temporary ankle-spanning external fixation? What is the healing potential of distal tibial bone loss treated with a staged method using antibiotic beads and subsequent autogenous cancellous grafting compared to other locations of the tibia? The following risk factors for delayed healing after external fixation were identified: post-reduction fracture gap of >3 mm and fixation of the associated fibula fracture. Fracture displacement could be better controlled with initial temporary external fixation than with early definitive fixation, but it had no significant effect on healing time, functional outcome or complication rate. Osteoinduction with rhBMP-7 was found to accelerate fracture healing and to shorten the sick leave. A staged method using antibiotic beads and subsequent autogenous cancellous grafting proved to be effective in the treatment of tibial bone loss. Healing potential of the bone loss in distal tibia was at least equally good as in other locations of the tibia.

  14. Bilateral spontaneous subluxation of scleral-fixated intraocular lenses.

    Assia, Ehud I; Nemet, Arie; Sachs, Dani

    2002-12-01

    Two young men with primary ectopic lenses had intracapsular cataract extraction and scleral fixation of posterior chamber intraocular lenses (PC IOLs) using 10-0 polypropylene sutures tied to the IOL eyelets. Three to 9 years after implantation, spontaneous IOL vertical subluxation occurred in all 4 eyes (5 IOL loops), probably because of suture breakage. Late subluxation of a sutured IOL may occur several years after implantation. Double fixation and thicker sutures should be considered, especially in young patients.

  15. Plant densities and modulation of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in soybean

    Marcos Javier de Luca

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Soybean nitrogen (N demands can be supplied to a large extent via biological nitrogen fixation, but the mechanisms of source/sink regulating photosynthesis/nitrogen fixation in high yielding cultivars and current crop management arrangements need to be investigated. We investigated the modulation of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in soybean [Glycine max (L. Merrill] at different plant densities. A field trial was performed in southern Brazil with six treatments, including non-inoculated controls without and with N-fertilizer, both at a density of 320,000 plants ha−1, and plants inoculated with Bradyrhizobium elkanii at four densities, ranging from 40,000 to 320,000 plants ha−1. Differences in nodulation, biomass production, N accumulation and partition were observed at stage R5, but not at stage V4, indicating that quantitative and qualitative factors (such as sunlight infrared/red ratio assume increasing importance during the later stages of plant growth. Decreases in density in the inoculated treatments stimulated photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation per plant. Similar yields were obtained at the different plant densities, with decreases only at the very low density level of 40,000 plants ha−1, which was also the only treatment to show differences in seed protein and oil contents. Results confirm a fine tuning of the mechanisms of source/sink, photosynthesis/nitrogen fixation under lower plant densities. Higher photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation rates are capable of sustaining increased plant growth.

  16. Effects of tissue fixation and dehydration on tendon collagen nanostructure.

    Turunen, Mikael J; Khayyeri, Hanifeh; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel; Isaksson, Hanna

    2017-09-01

    Collagen is the most prominent protein in biological tissues. Tissue fixation is often required for preservation or sectioning of the tissue. This may affect collagen nanostructure and potentially provide incorrect information when analyzed after fixation. We aimed to unravel the effect of 1) ethanol and formalin fixation and 2) 24h air-dehydration on the organization and structure of collagen fibers at the nano-scale using small and wide angle X-ray scattering. Samples were divided into 4 groups: ethanol fixed, formalin fixed, and two untreated sample groups. Samples were allowed to air-dehydrate in handmade Kapton pockets during the measurements (24h) except for one untreated group. Ethanol fixation affected the collagen organization and nanostructure substantially and during 24h of dehydration dramatic changes were evident. Formalin fixation had minor effects on the collagen organization but after 12h of air-dehydration the spatial variation increased substantially, not evident in the untreated samples. Generally, collagen shrinkage and loss of alignment was evident in all samples during 24h of dehydration but the changes were subtle in all groups except the ethanol fixed samples. This study shows that tissue fixation needs to be chosen carefully in order to preserve the features of interest in the tissue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Fractures of the proximal fifth metatarsal: percutaneous bicortical fixation.

    Mahajan, Vivek; Chung, Hyun Wook; Suh, Jin Soo

    2011-06-01

    Displaced intraarticular zone I and displaced zone II fractures of the proximal fifth metatarsal bone are frequently complicated by delayed nonunion due to a vascular watershed. Many complications have been reported with the commonly used intramedullary screw fixation for these fractures. The optimal surgical procedure for these fractures has not been determined. All these observations led us to evaluate the effectiveness of percutaneous bicortical screw fixation for treating these fractures. Twenty-three fractures were operatively treated by bicortical screw fixation. All the fractures were evaluated both clinically and radiologically for the healing. All the patients were followed at 2 or 3 week intervals till fracture union. The patients were followed for an average of 22.5 months. Twenty-three fractures healed uneventfully following bicortical fixation, with a mean healing time of 6.3 weeks (range, 4 to 10 weeks). The average American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) score was 94 (range, 90 to 99). All the patients reported no pain at rest or during athletic activity. We removed the implant in all cases at a mean of 23.2 weeks (range, 18 to 32 weeks). There was no refracture in any of our cases. The current study shows the effectiveness of bicortical screw fixation for displaced intraarticular zone I fractures and displaced zone II fractures. We recommend it as one of the useful techniques for fixation of displaced zone I and II fractures.

  18. Teledermatology in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Brown, Megan

    2016-12-01

    The Health Frontiers in Tijuana (HFiT) clinic is a binational partnership between the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine (San Diego, California); the Universidad Autónoma de Baja California School of Medicine (Tijuana, Mexico); and Desayunador Salesiano Padre Chava, a community grassroots organization in Tijuana, Mexico. Health Frontiers in Tijuana provides accessible quality health care for the underserved in Tijuana's Zona Norte. This article is a narrative meant to share my clinical experience as a dermatology resident who worked with HFiT to establish teledermatology services at this clinic.

  19. Mexico: a solar future

    2016-01-01

    Immersed in the global price instability of fossil fuels and with an upsurge in renewables as the agent for development, countries like Mexico, that largely depend on this resource to generate income and whose national electrical energy generation mainly comes from these fuels, find themselves obliged to take decisions that allow them to maintain their appeal compared to other emerging markets. In this decision-making process, Mexico has been slow to implement its long-awaited Energy Reform that incentivises direct foreign investment and avoids the monopolies that have until recently prevailed in the Mexican energy and electricity sector. (Author)

  20. Evaluation of functional outcome of pilon fractures managed with limited internal fixation and external fixation: A prospective clinical study.

    Meena, Umesh Kumar; Bansal, Mahesh Chand; Behera, Prateek; Upadhyay, Rahul; Gothwal, Gyan Chand

    2017-11-01

    The management of pilon fractures is controversial primarily due to the high rate of complications irrespective of the mode of treatment. Limited internal fixation with external fixation is associated with minimal soft tissue handling. This may reduce the chances of wound dehiscence and infection. This study was designed to evaluate the functional and clinical outcomes in patients treated with limited internal fixation combined with external fixation in pilon fractures. This study was conducted as a prospective clinical study on 56 skeletally mature patients with closed fractures with poor skin condition, and with open grade 1 and grade 2 distal tibial intra-articular fractures. All patients were treated with combined limited internal fixation and ankle spanning external fixation. All fractures in this series united with an average time period of union of 18.3weeks (ranging from 13 weeks to 30 weeks). There was no non-union in any case. There was malunion in 4 cases, varus malunion (>5 degree) in 2 cases and recurvatum in another 2 cases). Excellent to good functional results were observed in 88% cases based on the modified Ovadia and Beals score. The mean ankle dorsiflexion and planter flexion movements were 10.2±5.3 degrees and 27.4±7.2 degrees respectively. infections occurred in 6 patients which included 4 pin tract infections and 2 superficial wound infection, all 6 healed after removal of pin tract and with oral antibiotics. The technique of combined external fixation with internal fixation is safe and effective management option for intra-articular distal tibial fractures.

  1. The importance of regulation of nitrogen fixation

    Menge, D. N.

    2012-12-01

    I am not a proponent of including more detail in models simply because it makes them more realistic. More complexity increases the difficulty of model interpretation, so it only makes sense to include complexity if its benefit exceeds its costs. Biological nitrogen (N) fixation (BNF) is one process for which I feel the benefits of including greater complexity far outweigh the costs. I don't think that just because I work on BNF; I work on BNF because I think that. BNF, a microbial process carried out by free-living and symbiotic microbes, is the dominant N input to many ecosystems, the primary mechanism by which N deficiency can feed back to N inputs, and a main mechanism by which N surplus can develop. The dynamics of BNF, therefore, have huge implications for the rate of carbon uptake and the extent of CO2 fertilization, as well as N export to waterways and N2O emissions to the atmosphere. Unfortunately, there are serious deficiencies in our understanding of BNF. One main deficiency in our understanding is the extent to which various symbiotic N fixing organisms respond to imbalanced nutrition. Theory suggests that these responses, which I will call "strategies," have fundamental consequences for N fixer niches and ecosystem-level N and C cycling. Organisms that fix N regardless of whether they need it, a strategy that I will call "obligate," occupy post-disturbance niches and rapidly lead to N surplus. On the contrary, organisms that only fix as much N as they need, a "facultative" strategy, can occupy a wider range of successional niches, do not produce surplus N, and respond more rapidly to increased atmospheric CO2. In this talk I will show new results showing that consideration of these strategies could on its own explain the latitudinal distribution of symbiotic N fixing trees in North America. Specifically, the transition in N-fixing tree abundance from ~10% of basal area south of 35° latitude to ~1% of basal area north of 35° latitude that we observe

  2. Protection gaps in Mexico

    Andrea Villasenor

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With Mexico a major destination – and transit – country for people displaced by violence in the Northern Triangle of Central America, the Mexican government needs urgently to improve its asylum systems and procedures if they are to be fit for purpose.

  3. The Art of Mexico.

    Saccardi, Marianne

    1997-01-01

    Provides an annotated bibliography of books for grades K and up which explores the folklore, poetry, fiction, and art of Mexico, and focuses on the Mayans and Aztecs and Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo. Also suggests various research, reading, drama, music, social studies, physical education, and art activities and lists related videos and Internet…

  4. [Food security in Mexico].

    Urquía-Fernández, Nuria

    2014-01-01

    An overview of food security and nutrition in Mexico is presented, based on the analysis of the four pillars of food security: availability, access, utilization of food, and stability of the food supply. In addition, the two faces of malnutrition in Mexico were analyzed: obesity and undernourishment. Data were gathered from the food security indicators of the United Nations's Food and Agriculture Organization, from the Mexican Scale of Food Security, and from the National Health and Nutrition Survey. Mexico presents an index of availability of 3 145 kilocalories per person per day, one of the highest indexes in the world, including both food production and imports. In contrast, Mexico is affected by a double burden of malnutrition: whereas children under five present 14% of stunt, 30% of the adult population is obese. Also, more than 18% of the population cannot afford the basic food basket (food poverty). Using perception surveys, people reports important levels of food insecurity, which concentrates in seven states of the Mexican Federation. The production structure underlying these indicators shows a very heterogeneous landscape, which translates in to a low productivity growth across the last years. Food security being a multidimensional concept, to ensure food security for the Mexican population requires a revision and redesign of public productive and social policies, placing a particular focus on strengthening the mechanisms of institutional governance.

  5. Christmas in Mexico.

    Kern County Superintendent of Schools, Bakersfield, CA.

    The Christmas season in Mexico starts on December 16 with "las posadas," a series of religious processions in which families or neighbors reenact Joseph's search for shelter for Mary en route to Bethlehem. Those representing pilgrims travel from home to home until they are finally accepted by those representing innkeepers at a home with…

  6. Comparison of Monolateral External Fixation and Internal Fixation for Skeletal Stabilisation in the Management of Small Tibial Bone Defects following Successful Treatment of Chronic Osteomyelitis.

    Wang, Yicun; Jiang, Hui; Deng, Zhantao; Jin, Jiewen; Meng, Jia; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Jianning; Sun, Guojing; Qian, Hongbo

    2017-01-01

    To compare the salvage rate and complication between internal fixation and external fixation in patients with small bone defects caused by chronic infectious osteomyelitis debridement. 125 patients with chronic infectious osteomyelitis of tibia fracture who underwent multiple irrigation, debridement procedure, and local/systemic antibiotics were enrolled. Bone defects, which were less than 4 cm, were treated with bone grafting using either internal fixation or monolateral external fixation. 12-month follow-up was conducted with an interval of 3 months to evaluate union of bone defect. Patients who underwent monolateral external fixation had higher body mass index and fasting blood glucose, longer time since injury, and larger bone defect compared with internal fixation. No significant difference was observed in incidence of complications (23.5% versus 19.3%), surgery time (156 ± 23 minutes versus 162 ± 21 minutes), and time to union (11.1 ± 3.0 months versus 10.9 ± 3.1 months) between external fixation and internal fixation. Internal fixation had no significant influence on the occurrence of postoperation complications after multivariate adjustment when compared with external fixation. Furthermore, patients who underwent internal fixation experienced higher level of daily living scales and lower level of anxiety. It was relatively safe to use internal fixation for stabilization in osteomyelitis patients whose bone defects were less than 4 cm and infection was well controlled.

  7. The emergence and early evolution of biological carbon-fixation.

    Braakman, Rogier; Smith, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The fixation of CO₂ into living matter sustains all life on Earth, and embeds the biosphere within geochemistry. The six known chemical pathways used by extant organisms for this function are recognized to have overlaps, but their evolution is incompletely understood. Here we reconstruct the complete early evolutionary history of biological carbon-fixation, relating all modern pathways to a single ancestral form. We find that innovations in carbon-fixation were the foundation for most major early divergences in the tree of life. These findings are based on a novel method that fully integrates metabolic and phylogenetic constraints. Comparing gene-profiles across the metabolic cores of deep-branching organisms and requiring that they are capable of synthesizing all their biomass components leads to the surprising conclusion that the most common form for deep-branching autotrophic carbon-fixation combines two disconnected sub-networks, each supplying carbon to distinct biomass components. One of these is a linear folate-based pathway of CO₂ reduction previously only recognized as a fixation route in the complete Wood-Ljungdahl pathway, but which more generally may exclude the final step of synthesizing acetyl-CoA. Using metabolic constraints we then reconstruct a "phylometabolic" tree with a high degree of parsimony that traces the evolution of complete carbon-fixation pathways, and has a clear structure down to the root. This tree requires few instances of lateral gene transfer or convergence, and instead suggests a simple evolutionary dynamic in which all divergences have primary environmental causes. Energy optimization and oxygen toxicity are the two strongest forces of selection. The root of this tree combines the reductive citric acid cycle and the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway into a single connected network. This linked network lacks the selective optimization of modern fixation pathways but its redundancy leads to a more robust topology, making it more

  8. The emergence and early evolution of biological carbon-fixation.

    Rogier Braakman

    Full Text Available The fixation of CO₂ into living matter sustains all life on Earth, and embeds the biosphere within geochemistry. The six known chemical pathways used by extant organisms for this function are recognized to have overlaps, but their evolution is incompletely understood. Here we reconstruct the complete early evolutionary history of biological carbon-fixation, relating all modern pathways to a single ancestral form. We find that innovations in carbon-fixation were the foundation for most major early divergences in the tree of life. These findings are based on a novel method that fully integrates metabolic and phylogenetic constraints. Comparing gene-profiles across the metabolic cores of deep-branching organisms and requiring that they are capable of synthesizing all their biomass components leads to the surprising conclusion that the most common form for deep-branching autotrophic carbon-fixation combines two disconnected sub-networks, each supplying carbon to distinct biomass components. One of these is a linear folate-based pathway of CO₂ reduction previously only recognized as a fixation route in the complete Wood-Ljungdahl pathway, but which more generally may exclude the final step of synthesizing acetyl-CoA. Using metabolic constraints we then reconstruct a "phylometabolic" tree with a high degree of parsimony that traces the evolution of complete carbon-fixation pathways, and has a clear structure down to the root. This tree requires few instances of lateral gene transfer or convergence, and instead suggests a simple evolutionary dynamic in which all divergences have primary environmental causes. Energy optimization and oxygen toxicity are the two strongest forces of selection. The root of this tree combines the reductive citric acid cycle and the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway into a single connected network. This linked network lacks the selective optimization of modern fixation pathways but its redundancy leads to a more robust topology

  9. New Mexico Math Pathways Taskforce Report

    New Mexico Higher Education Department, 2016

    2016-01-01

    In April 2015 New Mexico faculty, Dana Center staff, and New Mexico Higher Education (NMHED) co-presented the need for better math pathways statewide. Faculty from 6 institutions (New Mexico State University, New Mexico Highlands University, Dine College, Eastern New Mexico University, El Paso Community College, and San Juan College) participated…

  10. Optimizing pediatric interdental fixation by use of a paramedian palatal fixation site.

    McNichols, Colton H; Hatef, Daniel A; Cole, Patrick D; Hollier, Larry H

    2012-03-01

    Condylar fractures are the most common injury seen in pediatric mandibular trauma. These injuries often cannot be adequately stabilized by conservative techniques such as splinting. The pediatric condyle fracture often requires a period of intermaxillary fixation. Because of the characteristics of the developing dentition, circumdental wiring is often not possible. Surgeons commonly achieve interdental stabilization by the connection of a circum-mandibular wire and a second wire placed through a drill hole in the piriform aperture. This method can be problematic in the young patient whose palatal suture is still patent. In this brief technical note, the use of a paramedian drill hole through the palate posterior to the maxillary incisors is described. It is believed that this method is superior to other techniques because it avoids injury to the deciduous tooth buds and allows for the maxillary wire to be seated in more structurally sound tissues.

  11. [Staple fixation for the treatment of hamate metacarpal joint injury].

    Tang, Yang-Hua; Zeng, Lin-Ru; Huang, Zhong-Ming; Yue, Zhen-Shuang; Xin, Da-Wei; Xu, Can-Da

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the effcacy of the staple fixation for the treatment of hamate metacarpal joint injury. From May 2009 to November 2012,16 patients with hamate metacarpal joint injury were treated with staple fixation including 10 males and 6 females with an average age of 33.6 years old ranging from 21 to 57 years. Among them, 11 cases were on the fourth or fifth metacarpal base dislocation without fractures, 5 cases were the fourth or fifth metacarpal base dislocation with avulsion fractures of the back of hamatum. Regular X-ray review was used to observe the fracture healing, joint replacement and position of staple fixation. The function of carpometacarpal joint and metacarpophalangeal joint were evaluated according to ASIA (TAM) system evaluation method. All incision were healed well with no infection. All patients were followed up from 16 to 24 months with an average of (10.0 +/- 2.7) months. No dislocation recurred, the position of internal fixator was good,no broken nail and screw withdrawal were occurred. Five patients with avulsion fracture of the back of hamatum achieved bone healing. The function of carpometacarpal joint and metacarpophalangeal was excellent in 10 cases,good in 5 cases, moderate in 1 case. The application of the staple for the treatment of hamatometacarpal joint injury has the advantages of simple operation, small trauma, reliable fixation, early postoperative function exercise and other advantages, which is the ideal operation mode for hamatometacarpal joint injury.

  12. Relative strength of tailor's bunion osteotomies and fixation techniques.

    Haddon, Todd B; LaPointe, Stephan J

    2013-01-01

    A paucity of data is available on the mechanical strength of fifth metatarsal osteotomies. The present study was designed to provide that information. Five osteotomies were mechanically tested to failure using a materials testing machine and compared with an intact fifth metatarsal using a hollow saw bone model with a sample size of 10 for each construct. The osteotomies tested were the distal reverse chevron fixated with a Kirschner wire, the long plantar reverse chevron osteotomy fixated with 2 screws, a mid-diaphyseal sagittal plane osteotomy fixated with 2 screws, the mid-diaphyseal sagittal plane osteotomy fixated with 2 screws, and an additional cerclage wire and a transverse closing wedge osteotomy fixated with a box wire technique. Analysis of variance was performed, resulting in a statistically significant difference among the data at p chevron was statistically the strongest construct at 130 N, followed by the long plantar osteotomy at 78 N. The chevron compared well with the control at 114 N, and they both fractured at the proximal model to fixture interface. The other osteotomies were statistically and significantly weaker than both the chevron and the long plantar constructs, with no statistically significant difference among them at 36, 39, and 48 N. In conclusion, the chevron osteotomy was superior in strength to the sagittal and transverse plane osteotomies and similar in strength and failure to the intact model. Copyright © 2013 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of cemented and uncemented fixation in total knee arthroplasty.

    Brown, Thomas E; Harper, Benjamin L; Bjorgul, Kristian

    2013-05-01

    As a result of reading this article, physicians should be able to :1. Understand the rationale behind using uncemented fixation in total knee arthroplasty.2.Discuss the current literature comparing cemented and uncemented total knee arthroplasty3. Describe the value of radiostereographic analysis in assessing implant stability.4. Appreciate the limitations in the available literature advocating 1 mode of fixation in total knee arthroplasty. Total knee arthroplasty performed worldwide uses either cemented, cementless, or hybrid (cementless femur with a cemented tibia) fixation of the components. No recent literature review concerning the outcomes of cemented vs noncemented components has been performed. Noncemented components offer the potential advantage of a biologic interface between the bone and implants, which could demonstrate the greatest advantage in long-term durable fixation in the follow-up of young patients undergoing arthroplasty. Several advances have been made in the backing of the tibial components that have not been available long enough to yield long-term comparative follow-up studies. Short-term radiostereographic analysis studies have yielded differing results. Although long-term, high-quality studies are still needed, material advances in biologic fixation surfaces, such as trabecular metal and hydroxyapatite, may offer promising results for young and active patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty when compared with traditional cemented options. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Immunohistochemistry of colorectal cancer biomarker phosphorylation requires controlled tissue fixation.

    Abbey P Theiss

    Full Text Available Phosphorylated signaling molecules are biomarkers of cancer pathophysiology and resistance to therapy, but because phosphoprotein analytes are often labile, poorly controlled clinical laboratory practices could prevent translation of research findings in this area from the bench to the bedside. We therefore compared multiple biomarker and phosphoprotein immunohistochemistry (IHC results in 23 clinical colorectal carcinoma samples after either a novel, rapid tissue fixation protocol or a standard tissue fixation protocol employed by clinical laboratories, and we also investigated the effect of a defined post-operative "cold" ischemia period on these IHC results. We found that a one-hour cold ischemia interval, allowed by ASCO/CAP guidelines for certain cancer biomarker assays, is highly deleterious to certain phosphoprotein analytes, specifically the phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor (pEGFR, but shorter ischemic intervals (less than 17 minutes facilitate preservation of phosphoproteins. Second, we found that a rapid 4-hour, two temperature, formalin fixation yielded superior staining in several cases with select markers (pEGFR, pBAD, pAKT compared to a standard overnight room temperature fixation protocol, despite taking less time. These findings indicate that the future research and clinical utilities of phosphoprotein IHC for assessing colorectal carcinoma pathophysiology absolutely depend upon attention to preanalytical factors and rigorously controlled tissue fixation protocols.

  15. Fixation Probability in a Haploid-Diploid Population.

    Bessho, Kazuhiro; Otto, Sarah P

    2017-01-01

    Classical population genetic theory generally assumes either a fully haploid or fully diploid life cycle. However, many organisms exhibit more complex life cycles, with both free-living haploid and diploid stages. Here we ask what the probability of fixation is for selected alleles in organisms with haploid-diploid life cycles. We develop a genetic model that considers the population dynamics using both the Moran model and Wright-Fisher model. Applying a branching process approximation, we obtain an accurate fixation probability assuming that the population is large and the net effect of the mutation is beneficial. We also find the diffusion approximation for the fixation probability, which is accurate even in small populations and for deleterious alleles, as long as selection is weak. These fixation probabilities from branching process and diffusion approximations are similar when selection is weak for beneficial mutations that are not fully recessive. In many cases, particularly when one phase predominates, the fixation probability differs substantially for haploid-diploid organisms compared to either fully haploid or diploid species. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  16. Fixation orientation in ankle fractures with syndesmosis injury.

    Nimick, Craig J; Collman, David R; Lagaay, Pieter

    2013-01-01

    Accurate reduction of the syndesmosis has been shown to be an important prognostic factor for functional outcome in ankle injuries that disrupt the syndesmosis. The purpose of the present case series was to assess the fixation orientation and the position of the fibula within the tibial incisura after open reduction and internal fixation of ankle fractures with syndesmosis injury. Computed tomography was used to assess the accuracy of the reduction. Twelve patients were included in the present case series. A ratio representing the relationship between the tibia and fibula and the orientation of the syndesmotic fixation was measured preoperatively and postoperatively and compared with the uninjured contralateral ankle, representing the patient's normal anatomy. The measurements were accomplished electronically to one tenth of 1 mm using Stentor Intelligent Informatics, I-site, version 3.3.1 (Phillips Electronics; Andover, MA). Posteriorly oriented syndesmotic fixation caused posterior translation of the fibula with respect to the tibia and anteriorly oriented syndesmotic fixation caused anterior translation. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Radon availability in New Mexico

    McLemore, V.T.

    1995-01-01

    The New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources (NMBMMR) in cooperation with the Radiation Licensing and Registration Section of the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have been evaluating geologic and soil conditions that may contribute to elevated levels of indoor radon throughout New Mexico. Various data have been integrated and interpreted in order to determine areas of high radon availability. The purpose of this paper is to summarize some of these data for New Mexico and to discuss geologic controls on the distribution of radon. Areas in New Mexico have been identified from these data as having a high radon availability. It is not the intent of this report to alarm the public, but to provide data on the distribution of radon throughout New Mexico

  18. U.S.-Mexico energy

    1991-05-01

    This paper reports that while Mexico's petrochemical industry has grown rapidly, it now faces shortages both in investment funds and in supplies of basic petrochemicals due to a financial crisis in the 1980s. Mexico has undertaken a series of policy reforms aimed at encouraging foreign and private investment, but these efforts have generally failed to entice U.S. investment in Mexico. U.S. petrochemical companies have cited unfavorable market conditions, insufficient basic petrochemical capacity in Mexico, concern about the reversibility of Mexican reforms, inadequate Mexican protection of intellectual property rights, and lack of investment protection for U.S. businesses as impediments to investment in Mexico. Cooperation between the two nations in overcoming these obstacles could help U.S. petrochemical companies maintain their positions in a competitive global market, while at the same time provide Mexico with much needed capital investment and technological expertise

  19. Pediatric mandibular fractures treated by rigid internal fixation.

    Wong, G B

    1993-09-01

    Mandibular fractures in the pediatric patient population are relatively uncommon. These patients present with their own unique treatment requirements. Most fractures have been treated conservatively by dental splints. Closed reduction techniques with maxillomandibular fixation (MMF) in very young children can pose several concerns, including cooperation, compliance and adequate nutritional intake. Rigid internal fixation of unstable mandibular fractures using miniplates and screws circumvents the need for MMF and allows immediate jaw mobilization. At major pediatric trauma institutions, there has been an increasing trend toward the use of this treatment when open reduction is necessary. This article presents a report of a five-year-old child who presented with bilateral mandibular fractures and was treated by rigid internal fixation and immediate mandibular mobilization.

  20. Buckminsterfullerenes: a non-metal system for nitrogen fixation.

    Nishibayashi, Yoshiaki; Saito, Makoto; Uemura, Sakae; Takekuma, Shin-Ichi; Takekuma, Hideko; Yoshida, Zen-Ichi

    2004-03-18

    In all nitrogen-fixation processes known so far--including the industrial Haber-Bosch process, biological fixation by nitrogenase enzymes and previously described homogeneous synthetic systems--the direct transformation of the stable, inert dinitrogen molecule (N2) into ammonia (NH3) relies on the powerful redox properties of metals. Here we show that nitrogen fixation can also be achieved by using a non-metallic buckminsterfullerene (C60) molecule, in the form of a water-soluble C60:gamma-cyclodextrin (1:2) complex, and light under nitrogen at atmospheric pressure. This metal-free system efficiently fixes nitrogen under mild conditions by making use of the redox properties of the fullerene derivative.

  1. Operative Fixation of Rib Fractures Indications, Techniques, and Outcomes.

    Galos, David; Taylor, Benjamin; McLaurin, Toni

    2017-01-01

    Rib fractures are extremely common injuries and vary in there severity from single nondisplaced fractures to multiple segmental fractures resulting in flail chest and respiratory compromise. Historically, rib fractures have been treated conservatively with pain control and respiratory therapy. However this method may not be the best treatment modality in all situations. Operative fixation of select rib fractures has been increasing in popularity especially in patients with flail chest and respiratory compromise. Newer techniques use muscle sparing approaches and precontoured locking plate technology to obtain stable fixation and allow improved respiration. Current reports shows that rib fracture fixation offers the benefits of improved respiratory mechanics and improved pain control in the severe chest wall injury with resultant improvement in patient outcomes by decreasing time on the ventilator, time in the intensive care unit, and overall hospital length of stay.

  2. Single absorbable polydioxanone pin fixation for distal chevron bunion osteotomies.

    Deorio, J K; Ware, A W

    2001-10-01

    The distal chevron osteotomy is a well-established technique for correction of symptomatic mild to moderate metatarsus primus varus with hallux valgus deformity. Fixation of the osteotomy ranges from none to bone pegs, Kirschner wires, screws, or absorbable pins. We evaluated one surgeon's (J.K.D.) results of distal chevron osteotomy fixation with a single, nonpredrilled, 1.3-mm poly-p-dioxanone pin and analyzed any differences in patients with unilateral or bilateral symptomatic metatarsus primus varus with hallux valgus deformities. All osteotomies healed without evidence of infection, osteolysis, nonunion, or necrosis. Equal correction was achieved in unilateral and bilateral procedures. The technique is quick and easy, and adequate fixation is achieved.

  3. Can we improve fixation and outcomes? Use of bone substitutes.

    Moroni, Antonio; Larsson, Sune; Hoang Kim, Amy; Gelsomini, Letizia; Giannoudis, Peter V

    2009-07-01

    Hip fractures secondary to osteoporosis are common in the elderly. Stabilizing these fractures until union is achieved is a challenge due to poor bone stock and insufficient purchase of the implant to the bone. The reported high rate of complications has prompted extensive research in the development of fixation techniques. Furthermore, manipulation of both the local fracture environment in terms of application of growth factors, scaffolds, and mesenchymal cells and the systemic administration of agents promoting bone formation and bone strength has been considered as a treatment option with promising results. There are only a few evidence-based studies reporting on fixation augmentation techniques. This article reports on the efficacy of bone graft substitutes for the fixation of hip fractures, in particular calcium phosphates, which have been used as granules, cements, and implant coatings.

  4. How Life History Can Sway the Fixation Probability of Mutants

    Li, Xiang-Yi; Kurokawa, Shun; Giaimo, Stefano; Traulsen, Arne

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we study the effects of demographic structure on evolutionary dynamics when selection acts on reproduction, survival, or both. In contrast to the previously discovered pattern that the fixation probability of a neutral mutant decreases while the population becomes younger, we show that a mutant with a constant selective advantage may have a maximum or a minimum of the fixation probability in populations with an intermediate fraction of young individuals. This highlights the importance of life history and demographic structure in studying evolutionary dynamics. We also illustrate the fundamental differences between selection on reproduction and selection on survival when age structure is present. In addition, we evaluate the relative importance of size and structure of the population in determining the fixation probability of the mutant. Our work lays the foundation for also studying density- and frequency-dependent effects in populations when demographic structures cannot be neglected. PMID:27129737

  5. Photosynthetic and nitrogen fixation capability in several soybean mutant lines

    Gandanegara, S.; Hendratno, K.

    1987-01-01

    Photosynthetic and nitrogen fixation capability in several soybean mutant lines. A greenhouse experiment has been carried out to study photosynthetic and nitrogen fixation capability of five mutant lines and two soybean varieties. An amount of 330 uCi of 14 CO 2 was fed to the plants including of the non-fixing reference crop (Chippewa non-nodulating isoline). Nitrogen fixation measurements was carried out using 15 N isotope dilution technique according to A-value concept. Results showed that beside variety/mutant lines, plant growth also has important role in photosynthetic and N fixing capability. Better growth and a higher photosynthetic capability in Orba, mutant lines nos. 63 and 65 resulted in a greater amount of N 2 fixed (mg N/plant) than other mutant lines. (author). 12 refs.; 5 figs

  6. ALARA development in Mexico

    Lopez, M.A.M. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Col Lomas de Barrilaco (Mexico)

    1995-03-01

    Even though the ALARA philosophy was formally implemented in the early 1980`s, to some extent, ALARA considerations already had been incorporated into the design of most commercial equipment and facilities based on experience and engineering development. In Mexico, the design of medical and industrial facilities were based on international recommendations containing those considerations. With the construction of Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Station, formal ALARA groups were created to review some parts of its design, and to prepare the ALARA Program and related procedures necessary for its commercial operation. This paper begins with a brief historical description of ALARA development in Mexico, and then goes on to discuss our regulatory frame in Radiation Protection, some aspects of the ALARA Program, efforts in controlling and reducing of sources of radiation, and finally, future perspectives in the ALARA field.

  7. Neuropsychology in Mexico.

    Ostrosky Shejet, Feggy; Velez Garcia, Alicia

    2016-11-01

    This invited paper explores the diverse pathways that have led to the development of neuropsychology in Mexico. The authors conducted a review of the literature and their own experiences to describe the seminal events and people relevant to the development of this area of research and practice. The master's degree is the usual level of educational attainment for those who wish to practice clinical neuropsychology. As of now, there is not a board certification process in neuropsychology, although there is one in clinical psychology. Neuropsychology and other mental health disciplines in Mexico and Latin America have historically been poorly funded, and have lacked optimal means of communication as to research findings and clinical initiatives and standards. However, there is reason to think that this will be improved upon in coming years.

  8. Biomechanical Strength of Retrograde Fixation in Proximal Third Scaphoid Fractures.

    Daly, Charles A; Boden, Allison L; Hutton, William C; Gottschalk, Michael B

    2018-04-01

    Current techniques for fixation of proximal pole scaphoid fractures utilize antegrade fixation via a dorsal approach endangering the delicate vascular supply of the dorsal scaphoid. Volar and dorsal approaches demonstrate equivalent clinical outcomes in scaphoid wrist fractures, but no study has evaluated the biomechanical strength for fractures of the proximal pole. This study compares biomechanical strength of antegrade and retrograde fixation for fractures of the proximal pole of the scaphoid. A simulated proximal pole scaphoid fracture was produced in 22 matched cadaveric scaphoids, which were then assigned randomly to either antegrade or retrograde fixation with a cannulated headless compression screw. Cyclic loading and load to failure testing were performed and screw length, number of cycles, and maximum load sustained were recorded. There were no significant differences in average screw length (25.5 mm vs 25.6 mm, P = .934), average number of cyclic loading cycles (3738 vs 3847, P = .552), average load to failure (348 N vs 371 N, P = .357), and number of catastrophic failures observed between the antegrade and retrograde fixation groups (3 in each). Practical equivalence between the 2 groups was calculated and the 2 groups were demonstrated to be practically equivalent (upper threshold P = .010). For this model of proximal pole scaphoid wrist fractures, antegrade and retrograde screw configuration have been proven to be equivalent in terms of biomechanical strength. With further clinical study, we hope surgeons will be able to make their decision for fixation technique based on approaches to bone grafting, concern for tenuous blood supply, and surgeon preference without fear of poor biomechanical properties.

  9. Dependence of carbon dioxide concentration on microalgal carbon dioxide fixation

    Yun, Yeoung Sang; Park, Song Moon [Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Environmental Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea); Bolesky, Bohumil [Department of Chemical Engineering, McGill University (Canada)

    1999-10-01

    Batch cultivation of chlorella vulgaris was carried out under various CO{sub 2} concentrations in order to understand and describe mathematically the CO{sub 2} inhibition of microalgal CO{sub 2} fixation. The volumetric CO{sub 2} transfer coefficient from mixture gas to culture medium was estimated from the volumetric O{sub 2} transfer coefficient obtained experimentally. Using this transfer coefficient and aquatic equilibrium relationship between dissolved inorganic carbons, the behavior of dissolved CO{sub 2} was calculated during microalgal culture. When air containing 0.035%(v/v) CO{sub 2} was supplied into microalgal culture, the fixation rate was limited by CO{sub 2} transfer rate. However, the limitation was disappeared by supplying mixture gas containing above 2%(v/v) CO{sub 2} and the dissolved CO{sub 2} concentration was maintained at the saturated value. In the range of CO{sub 2} partial pressure in the flue gases from thermal power sations and steel-making plants, the microalgal CO{sub 2} fixation rate was inhibited. The CO{sub 2} fixation rate was successfully formulated by a new empirical equation as a function of dissolved CO{sub 2} concentration, which could be useful for modeling and simulating the performance of photobioreaction with enriched CO{sub 2}. Also, it was found that the CO{sub 2} inhibition of microalgal CO{sub 2} fixation was reversible and that microalgal CO{sub 2} fixation process could be stable against a shock of unusually high CO{sub 2} concentration. 29 refs., 8 figs.

  10. Internal fixation of mandibular angle fractures: a meta-analysis.

    Regev, Eran; Shiff, Jacob S; Kiss, Alex; Fialkov, Jeffrey A

    2010-06-01

    The degree of rigidity of internal fixation required for the treatment of mandibular angle fractures has long been at the center of debate in the literature. A statistical comparison between rigid fixation and monocortical fixation has been difficult because of multiple terms, definitions, and technical variations. The purpose of this study was to use the meta-analysis tool to combine information from multiple studies and to compare complication rates for different fixation methods. An English language literature search was conducted for articles on mandibular angle fractures. Information was collected on four variables of interest: compression/noncompression technique, monocortical/bicortical screws, number of plates, and location of plates. Five outcome rates were analyzed: infection, reoperation, hardware removal, malunion, and nonunion. Meta-analyses were run using Comprehensive Meta Analysis, version 2.2.03. Twenty-four studies with relevant data on the variables and outcomes of interest met the inclusion criteria. Significantly higher rates of infection, reoperation, and hardware removal were found for compression compared with noncompression, two plates compared with one plate, and for plates located on both the inferior and superior borders as compared with superior or inferior only. There were also significantly higher infection rates for bicortical screws compared with monocortical screws and higher malunion rates for compression compared with noncompression plating techniques. The results of this meta-analysis found lower complication rates with the use of noncompression, monocortical, and single-plate fixation, supporting the trend toward a single, superiorly placed, monocortical miniplate for fixation of mandibular angle fractures.

  11. Fixations on objects in natural scenes: dissociating importance from salience

    Bernard Marius e’t Hart

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The relation of selective attention to understanding of natural scenes has been subject to intense behavioral research and computational modeling, and gaze is often used as a proxy for such attention. The probability of an image region to be fixated typically correlates with its contrast. However, this relation does not imply a causal role of contrast. Rather, contrast may relate to an object’s importance for a scene, which in turn drives attention. Here we operationalize importance by the probability that an observer names the object as characteristic for a scene. We modify luminance contrast of either a frequently named (common/important or a rarely named (rare/unimportant object, track the observers’ eye movements during scene viewing and ask them to provide keywords describing the scene immediately after.When no object is modified relative to the background, important objects draw more fixations than unimportant ones. Increases of contrast make an object more likely to be fixated, irrespective of whether it was important for the original scene, while decreases in contrast have little effect on fixations. Any contrast modification makes originally unimportant objects more important for the scene. Finally, important objects are fixated more centrally than unimportant objects, irrespective of contrast.Our data suggest a dissociation between object importance (relevance for the scene and salience (relevance for attention. If an object obeys natural scene statistics, important objects are also salient. However, when natural scene statistics are violated, importance and salience are differentially affected. Object salience is modulated by the expectation about object properties (e.g., formed by context or gist, and importance by the violation of such expectations. In addition, the dependence of fixated locations within an object on the object’s importance suggests an analogy to the effects of word frequency on landing positions in reading.

  12. Preliminary experience with biodegradable implants for fracture fixation

    Dhillon Mandeep

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Biodegradable implants were designed to overcome the disadvantages of metal-based internal fixation devices. Although they have been in use for four decades internationally, many surgeons in India continue to be skeptical about the mechanical strength of biodegradable implants, hence this study. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was done to assess the feasibility and surgeon confidence level with biodegradable implants over a 12-month period in an Indian hospital. Fifteen fractures (intra-articular, metaphyseal or small bone fractures were fixed with biodegradable implants. The surgeries were randomly scheduled so that different surgeons with different levels of experience could use the implants for fixation. Results: Three fractures (one humeral condyle, two capitulum, were supplemented by additional K-wires fixation. Trans-articular fixator was applied in two distal radius and two pilon fractures where bio-pins alone were used. All fractures united, but in two cases the fracture displaced partially during the healing phase; one fibula due to early walking, and one radius was deemed unstable even after bio-pin and external fixator. Conclusions: Biodegradable -implants are excellent for carefully selected cases of intra-articular fractures and some small bone fractures. However, limitations for use in long bone fractures persist and no great advantage is gained if a "hybrid" composite is employed. The mechanical properties of biopins and screws in isolation are perceived to be inferior to those of conventional metal implants, leading to low confidence levels regarding the stability of reduced fractures; these implants should be used predominantly in fracture patterns in which internal fixation is subjected to minimal stress.

  13. Dust storm, northern Mexico

    1983-01-01

    This large dust storm along the left side of the photo, covers a large portion of the state of Coahuila, Mexico (27.5N, 102.0E). The look angle of this oblique photo is from the south to the north. In the foreground is the Sierra Madre Oriental in the states Coahuila and Nuevo Leon with the Rio Grande River, Amistad Reservoir and Texas in the background.

  14. Seismology in Mexico

    Lomnitz, C.

    1982-01-01

    Mexico is situated at the intersection of four major crustal Plates: the Americas Plate, the Pacific Plate, the Caribbean Plate, and the Cocos Plate. The interaction of these four plates is very complex. The pattern of earthquake risk is, therefore, among the most complicated in the world. The average release of seismic energy each is 55x1021 ergs-more than twice the figure for California. 

  15. Mexico and the CTBT

    Aguirre G, J.; Martinez L, J.; Ruiz E, L. J.; Aragon M, I. B.

    2013-10-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban-Treaty (CTBT) is a treaty that prohibits all the nuclear explosions by anybody and in any place, either on the terrestrial surface, in the atmosphere, under the sea or underground. From the adoption of this Treaty by the United Nations, Mexico has had interest for its entrance in vigor, as integral part to assure the international peace. For this reason, our country signed the Treaty since it was open in September 24, 1996 and three years later ratified it, due to Mexico is part of the group of necessary countries for their entrance in vigor. During 13 years, the country has been committed and helped to the installation of monitoring stations, actions that allow the strengthening of the International System of Surveillance. The purpose of this work is to divulge the Treaty,its technologies and benefits; and also to diffuse the works realized by Mexico regarding the radionuclides monitoring station and noble gases both certified ones for the CTBT. Besides the radionuclides technology, Mexico has taken charge of the installation and operation of the seismic stations and hydro-acoustics that have been certified too. The radionuclides station Rn-44 located in Guerrero Negro, BCS has two technologies, an automated sampler of suspended particles in air brand Cinderella/ARAME and a noble gases system Sauna used for the particles detection of radioactive material gamma emitting and Xenon radioisotopes product of nuclear assays. Both technologies are transmitting data in real time to the International Center of Data. These technologies are shown in this work. (Author)

  16. [Obesity in Mexico].

    Dávila-Torres, Javier; González-Izquierdo, José Jesús; Barrera-Cruz, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Excess body weight (overweight and obesity) is currently recognized as one of the most important challenges of public health in the world, given its size, speed of growth and the negative effect it has on the health of the population that suffers. Overweight and obesity significantly increases the risk of chronic no communicable diseases, premature mortality and the social cost of health. An estimated 90 % of cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus attributable to overweight and obesity. Today, Mexico is second global prevalence of obesity in the adult population, which is ten times higher than that of countries like Japan and Korea. With regard to children, Mexico ranks fourth worldwide obesity prevalence, behind Greece, USA and Italy. In our country, over 70 % of the adult population, between 30 and 60 years are overweight. The prevalence of overweight is higher in men than females, while the prevalence of obesity is higher in women than men. Until 2012, 26 million Mexican adults are overweight and 22 million obese, which represents a major challenge for the health sector in terms of promoting healthy lifestyles in the population and development of public policies to reverse this scenario epidemiology. Mexico needs to plan and implement strategies and action cost effective for the prevention and control of obesity of children, adolescents and adults. Global experience shows that proper care of obesity and overweight, required to formulate and coordinate multisectoral strategies and efficient for enhancing protective factors to health, particularly to modify individual behavior, family and community.

  17. Mobile exhibition in Mexico

    NONE

    1960-04-15

    Since January this year, a mobile atomic energy exhibition has been touring the principal cities of Mexico. In organizing this exhibition, the National Nuclear Energy Commission of Mexico was assisted by the International Atomic Energy Agency which has placed its second mobile radioisotope laboratory at the disposal of the Mexican authorities. In many States of the Republic, the visit of the mobile laboratory has given a powerful impetus to atomic training and research. Universities have made use of the laboratory for the training of young scientists in the basic isotope techniques. As a sequel to the work initiated with its aid, some universities are planning to start regular training courses in this field. The laboratory, which is a gift to the Agency from the United States, has been put to its first assignment in Mexico. It will shortly be sent to Argentina for a period of six months for use in training courses. IAEA's first mobile radioisotope unit, also donated by the United States, has been used for training purposes in Austria, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece and Yugoslavia, and has now been sent to the Far East

  18. Mobile exhibition in Mexico

    1960-01-01

    Since January this year, a mobile atomic energy exhibition has been touring the principal cities of Mexico. In organizing this exhibition, the National Nuclear Energy Commission of Mexico was assisted by the International Atomic Energy Agency which has placed its second mobile radioisotope laboratory at the disposal of the Mexican authorities. In many States of the Republic, the visit of the mobile laboratory has given a powerful impetus to atomic training and research. Universities have made use of the laboratory for the training of young scientists in the basic isotope techniques. As a sequel to the work initiated with its aid, some universities are planning to start regular training courses in this field. The laboratory, which is a gift to the Agency from the United States, has been put to its first assignment in Mexico. It will shortly be sent to Argentina for a period of six months for use in training courses. IAEA's first mobile radioisotope unit, also donated by the United States, has been used for training purposes in Austria, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece and Yugoslavia, and has now been sent to the Far East

  19. Youth programmes in Mexico.

    Rodriguez De Macias, G

    1990-12-01

    Research indicates that in-school adolescents in Mexico have their first sexual contact at the average age of 15.5 years. In 50% of cases, such contact is with a boyfriend or girlfriend, 28.1% with a fiance, and 18.3% with a prostitute. First sexual intercourse occurs with a spouse in only 1.3% of cases. Since only one in six young people in Mexico use a form of contraception, many unwanted pregnancies outside of marriage result. 450,000 births in 1989 were to mothers below 20 years old, with 15% of births annually being among teenage mothers. An estimated three million abortions occur annually in Mexico, and abortions are the fifth major cause of death at the national level. Teen pregnancy is decisively linked with poor living conditions and life expectancy, a relatively lower level of education, and rural residence. As for psychological and anthropological variables, most teens who become pregnant belong to large, unstable families with poor family communication, and are characterized as submissive, highly dependent, and of low self-esteem. Targeting students, workers, and other youths, the MEXFAM Youth Program selects and trains program coordinators over age 21 and volunteer promoters of both sexes aged 16-20 in urban/marginal communities. Promoters offer information to their peers and other youths in their local communities, distribute barrier contraceptives, and channel medical, psychological, and legal services to young people in need. Program procedure is described.

  20. New Mexico Clean Energy Initiatives

    This presentation addresses New Mexico oil and gas development, brownfields, mining development, renewable energy development, renewable resources, renewable standards, solar opportunities, climate change, and energy efficiency.

  1. Soaking morselized allograft in bisphosphonate can impair implant fixation

    Jakobsen, Thomas; Baas, Jørgen; Bechtold, Joan E

    2007-01-01

    biomechanical implant fixation and graft incorporation. In 10 dogs, a pair of titanium implants surrounded by a 2.5-mm gap was inserted into the proximal part of each humerus during two separate surgeries to allow two observation periods. The gap was filled with impacted, morselized allograft soaked in either...... of implants was observed for 12 weeks and the second pair for 4 weeks. Implants were evaluated by histomorphometry and biomechanical pushout test. We found substantially decreased biomechanical implant fixation for all implants surrounded by impacted, morselized allograft that had been soaked in alendronate...

  2. [Usefullness of intrasacral fixation in an extremely unstable lumbosacral spine].

    Nishiura, Tsukasa; Nishiguchi, Mitsuhisa; Kusaka, Noboru; Takayama, Kazuhiro; Maeda, Yasuhiko; Ogihara, Kotaro; Nakagawa, Minoru

    2007-04-01

    Intrasacral fixation technique devised by Jackson is said to provide rigid lumbosacral fixation. We treated 3 cases of lumbosacral lesions using this technique in which lumbosacral segment had become extremely unstable during surgical intervention adding to the effect of original lesions. In all cases, surgeries were performed in 2 stages, intrasacral fixation and anterior stabilization. Case 1: A 52-year-old male was diagnosed fungal discitis and spondylitis at L4 and L5. X-ray showed destruction of the vertebral bodies. L2, L3 and sacrum were fixed posteriorly using the intrasacral fixation technique. One week after the first operation, L4 and L5 vertebral bodies were replaced by long fibula grafts through the extraperitoneal approach. Case 2: A 25-year-old female with cauda equina syndrome and abnormal body form diagnosed as having spondyloptosis in which the entire vertebral body of L5 had descended below the endplate of S1. MR imaging revealed marked canal stenosis at the S1 level. In the first surgery, L5 vertebral body was resected through the transperitoneal approach. After 1 week of bed rest, posterior segments of L5 were resected, L4 was affixed to the sacrum and anterior stabilization was achieved with 2 mesh cages and lumbosacral spine was fixed using the intrasacral fixation technique. Case 3: A 64-year-old female was diagnosed as having pyogenic discitis and osteomyelitis at the L5-S1 level. In spite of successful medical treatment for infection, low back pain continued. Radiologically, L5 vertebral body was shown to have collapsed and slipped anteriorly over the sacrum. L3, L4 and sacrum were fixed by intrasacral fixation. One week after the first operation, the L5/S1 disc and the suppurtive vertebral bodies were resected through the extraperitoneal approach and anterior stabilization was performed with iliac bone grafts. At follow-up for a minimum of 6 months, initial fixation was maintained in all 3 cases and bony fusion was obtained. The

  3. The use of titanium and stainless steel in fracture fixation.

    Hayes, J S; Richards, R G

    2010-11-01

    The use of metal in fracture fixation has demonstrated unrivalled success for many years owing to its high stiffness, strength, biological toleration and overall reliable function. The most prominent materials used are electropolished stainless steel and commercially pure titanium, along with the more recent emergence of titanium alloys. Despite the many differences between electropolished stainless steel and titanium, both materials provide a relatively predictable clinical outcome, and offer similar success for fulfilling the main biomechanical and biological requirements of fracture fixation despite distinctive differences in implant properties and biological responses. This article explores these differences by highlighting the limitations and advantages of both materials, and addresses how this translates to clinical success.

  4. Dinitrogen fixation by blue-green algae from paddy fields

    Thomas, Joseph

    1977-01-01

    Recent work using radioactive nitrogen on the blue-green algae of paddy fields has been reviewed. These algae fix dinitrogen and photoassimilate carbon evolving oxygen, thereby augmenting nitrogen and carbon status of the soil and also providing oxygen to the water-logged rice paddies. Further studies using radioactive isotopes 13 N, 24 Na and 22 Na on their nitrogen fixation, nitrogen assimilation pathways; regulation of nitrogenase, heterocysts production and sporulation and sodium transport and metabolism have been carried out and reported. The field application of blue green algae for N 2 fixation was found to increase the status of soil nitrogen and yield of paddy. (M.G.B.)

  5. Modified fixation with pinning and external fixation components for feline femur multiple-lined fracture: A case report

    Okamoto, Y.; Minami, S.; Matuhashi, A.

    1992-01-01

    A 3-year-old female Japanese domestic cat, weighing 3kg, was referred to us because of right hind leg lameness occuring for 3 days' duration. Radiography of the affected leg revealed severe femoral diaphysial comminuted fracture. The affected leg was treated using wire with an intramedullary Stainman pin being placed completely through the femur. After suturing the wound, both ends of the intramedullary pin exposed both proximally and distally were fixed with external fixation components (two double clamps, two single clamps, two short rods and one long rod) to prevent the pin from rotation. There was a slight gait problem due to the external apparatus and no post-operative infection. The function of the right hind leg gradually recovered. The intramedullary pin and external fixative apparatus were removed on the 52nd day after surgery. This modified fixation appears to offer versatility in the treatment of various fractures in smaller dogs and cats

  6. Comparative study of thyroid fixation of different iodine compounds; Etude comparative de la fixation thyroidienne de differents composes iodes

    Rinaldi, R; Coeur, A; Raynfeld, Ch [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    The aim of this work is to study the thyroid fixation of various iodine compounds in mineral or organic form. The animals (rats) are given therapeutic doses of the derivative orally with the object of saturating the thyroid, and then receive a determined dose of radio-iodine 131 by intra-peritoneal injection; any fixation of this latter is then measured under anaesthetic by means of a scintillation counter. Whatever form of iodine derivative was used whether in ionic (potassium iodide type) or organic form (iodo-tannic syrup) or in the form of elementary iodine (iodinated water), thyroid saturation was always obtained, as shown by practically zero fixation of the 4 {mu}curies of iodine 131 administered by intra-peritoneal injection. (author) [French] Notre travail a pour but l'etude de la fixation thyroidienne de differents composes iodes sous forme minerale ou organique. Les animaux (rats), apres absorption orale de doses therapeutiques de derives destines a saturer leur thyroide recoivent par voie intra-peritoneale une dose determinee de radio-iode {sup 131}I, la fixation eventuelle de ce dernier est ensuite mesuree sous anesthesie en utilisant un compteur a scintillation. Quelle que soit la forme utilisee, c'est-a-dire derive iode sous forme ionique (type iodure de potassium) ou sous forme organique (sirop iodotanique) ou encore sous forme d'iode metalloidique (eau iodee), nous avons obtenu chaque fois une saturation thyroidienne mise en evidence par une fixation pratiquement nulle des 4 {mu}curies de l'iode 131 injectes par voie intraperitoneale. (auteur)

  7. A cell shrinkage artefact in growth plate chondrocytes with common fixative solutions: importance of fixative osmolarity for maintaining morphology

    MY Loqman

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The remarkable increase in chondrocyte volume is a major determinant in the longitudinal growth of mammalian bones. To permit a detailed morphological study of hypertrophic chondrocytes using standard histological techniques, the preservation of normal chondrocyte morphology is essential. We noticed that during fixation of growth plates with conventional fixative solutions, there was a marked morphological (shrinkage artifact, and we postulated that this arose from the hyper-osmotic nature of these solutions. To test this, we fixed proximal tibia growth plates of 7-day-old rat bones in either (a paraformaldehyde (PFA; 4%, (b glutaraldehyde (GA; 2% with PFA (2% with ruthenium hexamine trichloride (RHT; 0.7%, (c GA (2% with RHT (0.7%, or (d GA (1.3% with RHT (0.5% and osmolarity adjusted to a ‘physiological’ level of ~280mOsm. Using conventional histological methods, confocal microscopy, and image analysis on fluorescently-labelled fixed and living chondrocytes, we then quantified the extent of cell shrinkage and volume change. Our data showed that the high osmolarity of conventional fixatives caused a shrinkage artefact to chondrocytes. This was particularly evident when whole bones were fixed, but could be markedly reduced if bones were sagittally bisected prior to fixation. The shrinkage artefact could be avoided by adjusting the osmolarity of the fixatives to the osmotic pressure of normal extracellular fluids (~280mOsm. These results emphasize the importance of fixative osmolarity, in order to accurately preserve the normal volume/morphology of cells within tissues.

  8. Mexico: Rasgos de Su Historia. (Mexico: Highlights of Its History).

    Orozco, Cecilio

    Intended for both teachers and students, this publication, written in Spanish, briefly traces Mexico's history from its Conquest in 1519 to the overthrow of Porfirio Diaz in 1910. The following are briefly discussed: Mexico's Conquest in 1519; events immediately after the fall of Tenochtitlan; the War for Independence; Texas' separation from…

  9. Financing options in Mexico`s energy industry

    McKenna, J.J. [PricewaterhouseCoopers Securities, Houston, TX (United States)

    1999-10-01

    A series of brief notes accompanied this presentation which was divided into seven sections entitled: (1) capital markets update, (2) Mexican financial market update, (3) financing options in the energy industry, (4) the Venezuelan experience at La Apertura, (5) private and strategic equity alternatives, (6) Pricewaterhouse Coopers Securities, and (7) Mexico energy 2005 prediction. The paper focused on how the financial crisis and merger activity in Latin America will impact electricity reform in Mexico. It was noted that under Mexico`s Policy Proposal for Electricity Reform of the Mexican Electricity Industry, the financial community will seek to back companies in power generation, transportation and distribution. The difficulty of financing government businesses undergoing privatization was also discussed with particular emphasis on the challenge of accepting political and regulatory risks. The Latin private equity market and Canadian investment in Mexico was also reviewed. Since NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement) went into affect in 1994, Canadian investment in Mexico has more than tripled. Canadian companies have invested more than C$1.7 billion in Mexico since NAFTA. Pricewaterhouse Coopers Securities is a global investment bank which sees large opportunities in the Mexican energy market. They predict that in five years, Mexico will experience a gradual liberalization of the oil and gas sector, and a full liberalization of the gas pipeline and distribution business and the power generation, transmission and distribution business. 3 figs.

  10. A financial analysis of maxillomandibular fixation versus rigid internal fixation for treatment of mandibular fractures.

    Schmidt, B L; Kearns, G; Gordon, N; Kaban, L B

    2000-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of mandibular fracture treatment by closed reduction with maxillomandibular fixation (CRF) with open reduction and rigid internal fixation (ORIF). This was a retrospective study of 85 patients admitted to the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Service at San Francisco General Hospital and treated for mandibular fractures from January 1 to December 31, 1993. The patients were divided into 2 groups: 1) those treated with CRF and 2) those treated with ORIF. The outcome variables were length of hospital stay, duration of anesthesia, and time in operating room. The charge for primary fracture treatment included the fees for the operation and hospitalization without any complications. Within the group of 85 patients treated for mandibular fractures in 1993, 10 patients treated with CRF and 10 patients treated with ORIF were randomly selected, and hospital billing statements were used to estimate the average charge of primary treatment. The average charge to manage a major postoperative infection also was estimated based on the billing statements of 10 randomly selected patients treated in 1992 (5 treated with CRF, 5 with ORIF) who required hospital admission for the management of a complication. The average total charge was computed by using the average charge for primary treatment plus the incidence of postoperative infection multiplied by the average charge for management of that complication. Eighty-five patients were included in the study. The average charge for primary treatment was $10,100 for the CRF group and $28,362 for the ORIF group. The average charge for the inpatient management of a major postoperative infection was $26,671 for the CRF group and $39,213 for the ORIF group. The average total charge for management of a mandible fracture with CRF was $10,927; the total charge for the ORIF group was $34,636. The results of this retrospective study suggest that the use of CRF in the management of mandibular

  11. Short Segment Fixation Versus Short Segment Fixation With Pedicle Screws at the Fracture Level for Thoracolumbar Burst Fracture

    Anghel S

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The most prevailing surgical procedure in the treatment of thoracolumbar burst fractures, Short Segment Fixation (SSF, is often followed by loss of correction or hardware failure which may be significant enough to require another surgical intervention. In order to take advantage of its benefits but to avoid or diminish the risk and impact of associated drawbacks, some other alternatives have been lately developed among which we refer to short segment fixation with intermediate screws (SSF+IS. This article provides a comparative picture over the effectiveness of the two above-mentioned surgical treatments, focusing on their potential to prevent the loss of correction.

  12. Impact of Crab Bioturbation on Nitrogen-Fixation Rates in Red Sea Mangrove Sediment

    Qashqari, Maryam S.

    2017-01-01

    be uptaken by plants. Hence, biological nitrogen fixation increases the input of nitrogen in the mangrove ecosystem. In this project, we focus on measuring the rates of nitrogen fixation on Red Sea mangrove (Avicennia marina) located at Thuwal, Saudi Arabia

  13. Stress and stability of plate-screw fixation and screw fixation in the treatment of Schatzker type IV medial tibial plateau fracture: a comparative finite element study.

    Huang, Xiaowei; Zhi, Zhongzheng; Yu, Baoqing; Chen, Fancheng

    2015-11-25

    The purpose of this study is to compare the stress and stability of plate-screw fixation and screw fixation in the treatment of Schatzker type IV medial tibial plateau fracture. A three-dimensional (3D) finite element model of the medial tibial plateau fracture (Schatzker type IV fracture) was created. An axial force of 2500 N with a distribution of 60% to the medial compartment was applied to simulate the axial compressive load on an adult knee during single-limb stance. The equivalent von Mises stress, displacement of the model relative to the distal tibia, and displacement of the implants were used as the output measures. The mean stress value of the plate-screw fixation system was 18.78 MPa, which was significantly (P stress value of the triangular fragment in the plate-screw fixation system model was 42.04 MPa, which was higher than that in the screw fixation model (24.18 MPa). But the mean stress of the triangular fractured fragment in the screw fixation model was significantly higher in terms of equivalent von Mises stress (EVMS), x-axis, and z-axis (P < 0.001). This study demonstrated that the load transmission mechanism between plate-screw fixation system and screw fixation system was different and the stability provided by the plate-screw fixation system was superior to the screw fixation system.

  14. [Long-term efficacy of open reduction and internal fixation versus external fixation for unstable distal radius fractures: a meta-analysis].

    Yang, Z; Yuan, Z Z; Ma, J X; Ma, X L

    2017-11-07

    Objective: To make a systematic assessment of the Long-term efficacy of open reduction and internal fixation versus external fixation for unstable distal radius fractures. Methods: A computer-based online search of PubMed, ScienceDirect, EMBASE, BIOSIS, Springer and Cochrane Library were performed. The randomized and controlled trials of open reduction and internal fixation versus external fixation for unstable distal radius fractures were collected. The included trials were screened out strictly based on the criterion of inclusion and exclusion. The quality of included trials was evaluated. RevMan 5.0 was used for data analysis. Results: Sixteen studies involving 1 268 patients were included. There were 618 patients with open reduction and internal fixation and 650 with external fixation. The results of meta-analysis indicated that there were statistically significant differences with regard to the complications postoperatively (infection( I (2)=0%, RR =0.27, 95% CI 0.16-0.45, Z =4.92, P internal fixation and external fixation are effective treatment for unstable distal radius fractures. Compared with external fixation, open reduction and internal fixation provides reduced complications postoperatively, lower DASH scores and better restoration of volar tilt for treatment of distal radius fractures.

  15. Percutaneous Pin Fixation of Gartland Type I11 Supraconylar ...

    S G Lungu M.Med (Orth). Specialist Orthopaedic Surgeon. Zambian Italian Orthopaedic Hospital, Lusaka. Key words: Percutaneous, pin fixation, Gartland type Ill, supracondylar, fractures, and humerus. This was a prospective study of 40 children with severely displaced (Gartland Type 111) supracondylar fractures of the ...

  16. Nitrogen fixation and nodulation of soybean as affected by rhizobial ...

    The study evaluated the efficacy of different adhesives added to rhizobial seed inoculum on soybean nodulation and biological nitrogen fixation in a screen house and under field conditions. The experiment was a 6×3 factorial arranged in Completely Randomized Design and Randomized Complete Block Design for the pot ...

  17. Breeding for traits supportive of nitrogen fixation in legumes

    Herridge, David F.

    2001-01-01

    As the potential economic benefits of enhancing dinitrogen (N 2 ) fixation of crop, pasture and forage legumes are substantial, the idea that legume breeding could play a role in enhancing N 2 fixation was advanced more than 50 years ago. Various programmes have sought to genetically improve a wide range of species, from pasture legumes such as red clover (Trifolium pratense) to the crop legumes like soybean (Glycine max) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). In some the selection trait was yield, whilst in others it was high plant reliance on N 2 fixation (%Ndfa). A third strategy was to optimise legume nodulation through specific nodulation traits, e.g. mass, duration, promiscuous and selective nodulation. Plant genetic variation was sought from natural populations or created through mutagenesis. Although methods for assessing single plants and populations of plants for yield and %Ndfa varied over the years, it is now clear that measurements based on either 15 N or xylem solute analysis are the most reliable. Methodological issues as well as poor focus plagued many of the earlier programmes, since enhancing N 2 fixation essentially involves adapting legumes to fix more N when growing in N-poor soils. Programmes in which plant genotypes are inoculated with effective rhizobia and screened under conditions of low soil N maximise the symbiotic potential of the legume. (author)

  18. Ender’s Nail fixation in paediatric femoral shaft fractures.

    Rajeev Dwivedi

    2013-12-01

    Flynn criteria 34 had excellent and 6 had satisfactory results. No poor results were seen. Conclusion: Ender’s nail fixation can be preferred method of treatment for femoral shaft fractures in age group 5 -15 years as the results are excellent and satisfactory. It is technically simple and can be done in a closed manner. It spares the vascularity and growth plate.

  19. Accuracy of a hexapod parallel robot kinematics based external fixator.

    Faschingbauer, Maximilian; Heuer, Hinrich J D; Seide, Klaus; Wendlandt, Robert; Münch, Matthias; Jürgens, Christian; Kirchner, Rainer

    2015-12-01

    Different hexapod-based external fixators are increasingly used to treat bone deformities and fractures. Accuracy has not been measured sufficiently for all models. An infrared tracking system was applied to measure positioning maneuvers with a motorized Precision Hexapod® fixator, detecting three-dimensional positions of reflective balls mounted in an L-arrangement on the fixator, simulating bone directions. By omitting one dimension of the coordinates, projections were simulated as if measured on standard radiographs. Accuracy was calculated as the absolute difference between targeted and measured positioning values. In 149 positioning maneuvers, the median values for positioning accuracy of translations and rotations (torsions/angulations) were below 0.3 mm and 0.2° with quartiles ranging from -0.5 mm to 0.5 mm and -1.0° to 0.9°, respectively. The experimental setup was found to be precise and reliable. It can be applied to compare different hexapod-based fixators. Accuracy of the investigated hexapod system was high. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Management and quantification of nitrogen fixation in Leucaena leucocephala

    Safo, E.Y.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of pruning and age on N 2 fixation were studied using Leucaena leucocephala isoline K28, with Cassia siamea as the non-N 2 -fixing reference species, at a site of degraded soil fertility typical of much of the farming land in Ghana. The 15 N-dilution method was used to estimate N2 fixation. Cassia siamea consistently produced higher total biomass and total N yields than did L. leucocephala. The mean value for the fraction of N derived from fixation (%Ndfa) was higher for pruned L. leucocephala (36%) than for unpruned trees (18%). There was some underestimation of N 2 fixation as a result of using C. siamea as the reference, and because root N-contents were not determined. Strong, significant linear correlations were observed between foliar and whole-tree (weighted average) percent 15 N atom excess in unpruned L. leucocephala and C. siamea, suggesting that foliar 15 N enrichment can be used to accurately estimate %Ndfa. The results demonstrated that the 15 N-enrichment methodology can provide meaningful estimates of %Ndfa and total N 2 fixed for mixed tree plantations under field conditions, when adequate spacing is provided. (author)

  1. Two isotopic methods for estimation of soybean nitrogen fixation

    Domenach, A.-M.; Chalamet, Alain; Pachiaudi, Christiane

    1979-01-01

    Measurements of rate of nitrogen symbiotic fixation by Soybean were determined by two different methods: variations in the natural abundance of 15 N in plants; use of 'A' value determined from labelled nitrogen applications to the soil. The results from both methods were in good agreement. Rates of fixed nitrogen were similar when using non nodulated Soybean or Ray-Grass as reference [fr

  2. Role of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in the improvement of legume ...

    Role of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in the improvement of legume productivity under stressed environments. R Serraj, J Adu-Gyamfi. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/wajae.v6i1.45613.

  3. Capsule-Fixated Intraocular Lens Implantation in Small Pupil Cases.

    Schojai, Merita; Schultz, Tim; Burkhard Dick, H

    2017-08-01

    To describe a new technique for implantation of capsule-fixated intraocular lenses (IOLs) (FEMTIS; Oculentis, Berlin, Germany) in patients with small pupils. In 4 eyes with small pupils, an anterior capsule-fixated IOL was implanted into the capsular bag after femtosecond laser treatment. The two large and two small flaps of the IOL were elevated to the front of the iris and the anterior capsule. Finally, the iris was flipped over the flaps to ensure a fixation of the capsule inside of the capsulotomy. In all cases, the implantation of anterior capsule-fixated IOLs was possible. No complications occurred during surgery or within the first months after surgery. With the described technique, capsulefixated IOLs can be implanted in eyes with small pupil easily and safely. This type of IOL has great potential to improve the refractive outcome by better prediction of the postoperative IOL position and eliminating IOL rotation after cataract surgery. [J Refract Surg. 2017;33(8):568-570.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Operative fixation of chest wall fractures: an underused procedure?

    Richardson, J David; Franklin, Glen A; Heffley, Susan; Seligson, David

    2007-06-01

    Chest wall fractures, including injuries to the ribs and sternum, usually heal spontaneously without specific treatment. However, a small subset of patients have fractures that produce overlying bone fragments that may produce severe pain, respiratory compromise, and, if untreated mechanically, result in nonunion. We performed open reduction and internal fixation on seven patients with multiple rib fractures-five in the initial hospitalization and two delayed--as well as 35 sternal fractures (19 immediate fixation and 16 delayed). Operative fixation was accomplished using titanium plates and screws in both groups of patients. All patients with rib fractures did well; there were no major complications or infections, and no plates required removal. Clinical results were excellent. There was one death in the sternal fracture group in a patient who was ventilator-dependent preoperatively and extubated himself in the early postoperative period. Otherwise, the results were excellent, with no complications occurring in this group. Three patients had their plates removed after boney union was achieved. No evidence of infection or nonunion occurred. The excellent results achieved in the subset of patients with severe chest wall deformities treated initially at our institution and those referred from outside suggest that operative fixation is a useful modality that is likely underused.

  5. Cyanobacteria Occurrence and Nitrogen Fixation Rates in the ...

    The occurrence and biological nitrogen fixation rates of epiphytic and benthic diazotrophs were studied in seagrass meadows at sites with seaweed farms and at a control site without seaweed farms from two locations, Chwaka Bay and Jambiani, along the east coast of. Zanzibar. Ten species of cyanobacteria were ...

  6. Biomechanical analysis of titanium fixation plates and screws in ...

    2015-08-10

    Aug 10, 2015 ... values on fixative appliances were predicted by means of. 3D FEA. The highest ... such as poor resistance to torsional forces, poor rigidity, and poor stability in ... the adequacy of mathematical models to relate mechanical factors such as ... the risk of bacterial contamination, scarring, postoperative edema ...

  7. Nitrogen fixation and nitrogenase activity of Azotobacter chroococcum

    Brotonegoro, S.

    1974-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to study the effect of some chemical, physical and biological factors on growth, efficiency of nitrogen fixation and nitrogenase activity of Azotobacter chroococcum.

    From biochemical studies with cell-free

  8. Resorbable screws for fixation of autologous bone grafts

    Raghoebar, GM; Liem, RSB; Bos, RRM; van der Wal, JE; Vissink, A

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of resorbable screws made of poly (D,L-lactide) acid (PDLLA) for fixation of autologous bone grafts related to graft regeneration and osseointegration of dental implants. In eight edentulous patients suffering from insufficient retention of their

  9. Serious complication 1?year after sacrospinous ligament fixation

    Faber, Violet J.; van der Vaart, Huub C.; Heggelman, Ben G. F.; Schraffordt Koops, Steven E.

    2008-01-01

    Myositis of the gluteal region caused by group A streptococci 1 year after a sacrospinous ligament fixation was recognised as a serious complication of this procedure. Most likely, the infection was spread to the gluteal region through a port d’entree caused by vaginal atrophy, via the non-resorbable sutures. The patient was treated successfully with antibiotics intravenous and local estrogens.

  10. Button fixation technique for Achilles tendon reinsertion: a biomechanical study.

    Awogni, David; Chauvette, Guillaume; Lemieux, Marie-Line; Balg, Frédéric; Langelier, Ève; Allard, Jean-Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Chronic insertional tendinopathy of the Achilles tendon is a frequent and disabling pathologic entity. Operative treatment is indicated for patients for whom nonoperative management has failed. The treatment can consist of the complete detachment of the tendon insertion and extensive debridement. We biomechanically tested a new operative technique that uses buttons for fixation of the Achilles tendon insertion on the posterior calcaneal tuberosity and compared it with 2 standard bone anchor techniques. A total of 40 fresh-frozen cadaver specimens were used to compare 3 fixation techniques for reinserting the Achilles tendon: single row anchors, double row anchors, and buttons. The ultimate loads and failure mechanisms were recorded. The button assembly (median load 764 N, range 713 to 888) yielded a median fixation strength equal to 202% (range 137% to 251%) of that obtained with the double row anchors (median load 412 N, range 301 to 571) and 255% (range 213% to 317%) of that obtained with the single row anchors (median load 338 N, range 241 to 433N). The most common failure mechanisms were suture breakage with the buttons (55%) and pull out of the implant with the double row (70%) and single row (85%) anchors. The results of the present biomechanical cadaver study have shown that Achilles tendon reinsertion fixation using the button technique provides superior pull out strength than the bone anchors tested. Copyright © 2014 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Estimates of biological nitrogen fixation by Pterocarpus lucens in a ...

    Nitrogen (N2) fixation by Pterocarpus lucens in a natural semi arid ecosystem, in Ferlo, Senegal was estimated using 15N natural abundance (15N) procedure. Other non-fixing trees accompanying P. lucens in the same area were also investigated as control. Results showed an important variation of 15N in leaves between ...

  12. Nodulation and nitrogen fixation in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    Mamadou Gueye

    Nodulation and nitrogen fixation of field grown common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) as influenced by fungicide seed treatment. Ndeye Fatou Diaw GUENE, Adama DIOUF and Mamadou GUEYE*. MIRCEN/ Laboratoire commun de microbiologie IRD-ISRA-UCAD, BP 1386, DAKAR, Senegal. Accepted 23 June 2003.

  13. Fixating the pelvis in the horizontal plane affects gait characteristics

    Veneman, J.F.; Menger, Jasper; van Asseldonk, Edwin H.F.; van der Helm, F.C.T.; van der Kooij, Herman

    2008-01-01

    In assistive devices for neuro-rehabilitation, natural human motions are partly restricted by the device. This may affect the normality of walking during training. This research determines effects on gait of fixating the pelvis translations in the horizontal plane during treadmill walking. Direct

  14. variability in olecranon ao fracture fixation: a radiological study

    ABSTRACT. Background: Tension Band Wire(TBW) fixation of olecranon fracture is a commonly used technique by ... There are many classification systems of this injury of which the Mayo is ... backing out by as much as three times in comparison with those ..... “K” wire. A blinded randomized control outcome based clinical.

  15. Differences in fixations between grasping and viewing objects

    Brouwer, A.M.; Franz, V.H.; Gegenfurtner, K.R.

    2009-01-01

    Where exactly do people look when they grasp an object? An object is usually contacted at two locations, whereas the gaze can only be at one location at the time. We investigated participants' fixation locations when they grasp objects with the contact positions of both index finger and thumb being

  16. Ad gist : Ad communication in a single eye fixation

    Pieters, R.; Wedel, M.

    2012-01-01

    Most ads in practice receive no more than a single eye fixation. This study investigates the limits of what ads can communicate under such adverse exposure conditions. We find that consumers already know at maximum levels of accuracy and with high degree of certainty whether something is an ad or is

  17. Adaptation and fixation in entrepreneurial approaches of a dental laboratory

    Cornelia M. Ferreira

    2014-08-01

    Research purpose: The study described how the dental laboratory adapted its entrepreneurial approaches over time in response to critical changes that occurred and how aspects in the managerial approach became fixated and proved to be essential to success. Motivation for the study: The study provided insight into how the dental laboratory transformed into a stable and prosperous laboratory by the integration of strategic, economic, cultural and social capital through a process of business decision making. Research design, approach and method: A cohort survey research design, based upon the compilation of longitudinal data over three selected time periods, was employed. The design of the measuring instruments and the interpretation of research results were derived from an adapted entrepreneurial-in-network theoretical framework. A triangulation data compilation approach was followed. Main findings: The results revealed that cultural capital in the dental laboratory became fixated on three value principles, whilst the other critical capitals prescribed exist in sufficient volumes and improve to adapt to changing circumstances in the dental market. Practical/managerial implications: Fixated cultural values acted as a ‘parent’-actor in order to guide the righteousness of behaviour, whereas adaptation required sufficient critical capitals and the proper integration thereof. Contribution/value-added: By adopting the entrepreneurship-in-network approach, the researchers incorporated the dynamic and interactive processes of entrepreneurship. Future studies may employ the same design and use multi-varied analyses to show how a business adapt or fixate its approaches in response to crises or changes in the business environment.

  18. Improved coating and fixation methods for scanning electron microscope autoradiography

    Weiss, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    A simple apparatus for emulsion coating is described. The apparatus is inexpensive and easily assembled in a standard glass shop. Emulsion coating for scanning electron microscope autoradiography with this apparatus consistently yields uniform layers. When used in conjunction with newly described fixation methods, this new approach produces reliable autoradiographs of undamaged specimens

  19. N-2 fixation by non-heterocystous cyanobacteria

    Bergman, B.; Gallon, J.R.; Rai, A.N.; Stal, L.J.

    1997-01-01

    Many, though not all, non-heterocystous cyanobacteria can fix N-2. However, very few strains can fix N-2 aerobically. Nevertheless, these organisms may make a substantial contribution to the global nitrogen cycle. In this general review, N-2 fixation by laboratory cultures and natural populations of

  20. Functional Outcome of Internal Fixation of Radial and Ulna Fracture

    mehrdad Mansouri

    2006-02-01

    Conclusion: Anatomic reduction and internal fixation is the standard method for treatment of fractures by displacing radios and ulna in adults. According to results, it seems more intension to motions specially pronation and muscle strengthening foream after surgery will have affect on improving patients’ function specially pronation and Grip strength.

  1. Single-suture scleral fixation of subluxated foldable intraocular lenses.

    Yarangumeli, Alper; Alp, Mehmet Numan; Kural, Gulcan

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the results of single-suture scleral fixation of subluxated foldable intraocular lenses (IOL) in eyes with sufficient residual capsular support. The results of IOL repositioning by single-suture scleral fixation in 6 eyes of 6 patients with IOL subluxation were included. All subluxated IOLs were single-piece hydrophilic acrylic. Subluxation resulted from posterior capsule tears in 3 eyes, zonular dialyses in 2 eyes, and zonular dialysis with a capsulorhexis tear in 1 eye. A similar technique was used in all eyes in which one haptic was externalized through a superior clear corneal incision and tied with a Pair-PAK 10-0 polypropylene suture, and was finally retracted and fixated behind the iris close to the ciliary sulcus at the 12:00 meridian. All patients were followed up for at least 6 months. Best-corrected visual acuities ranged between finger counting and 20/70 (mean logMAR 1.02±0.64) preoperatively, and between 20/100 and 20/20 (mean logMAR 0.22±0.26) at the final postoperative visit. All IOLs remained centered and no significant postoperative complications were encountered except for an IOL tilt which resulted in a considerable oblique astigmatism in one eye. Subluxated foldable IOLs may safely be repositioned and secured with a single scleral fixation suture in selected cases with adequate amount of capsular remnants.

  2. Intraocular lens iris fixation. Clinical and macular OCT outcomes

    2012-01-01

    Background To assess the efficacy, clinical outcomes, visual acuity (VA), incidence of adverse effects, and complications of peripheral iris fixation of 3-piece acrylic IOLs in eyes lacking capsular support. Thirteen patients who underwent implantation and peripheral iris fixation of a 3-piece foldable acrylic PC IOL for aphakia in the absence of capsular support were followed after surgery. Clinical outcomes and macular SD-OCT (Cirrus OCT; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Germany) were analyzed. Findings The final CDVA was 20/40 or better in 8 eyes (62%), 20/60 or better in 12 eyes (92%), and one case of 20/80 due to corneal astigmatism and mild persistent edema. No intraoperative complications were reported. There were seven cases of medically controlled ocular hypertension after surgery due to the presence of viscoelastic in the AC. There were no cases of cystoid macular edema, chronic iridocyclitis, IOL subluxation, pigment dispersion, or glaucoma. Macular edema did not develop in any case by means of SD-OCT. Conclusions We think that this technique for iris suture fixation provides safe and effective results. Patients had substantial improvements in UDVA and CDVA. This surgical strategy may be individualized however; age, cornea status, angle structures, iris anatomy, and glaucoma are important considerations in selecting candidates for an appropriate IOL fixation method. PMID:23050659

  3. Intermediate results of sutureless intrascleral posterior chamber intraocular lens fixation.

    Scharioth, Gabor B; Prasad, Som; Georgalas, Ilias; Tataru, Calin; Pavlidis, Mitrofanis

    2010-02-01

    To report the intermediate multicenter results of a technique of sutureless intrascleral fixation of a standard 3-piece posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC IOL) in the ciliary sulcus. Four European ophthalmology centers. A technique for sutureless intrascleral fixation of the haptics of a standard 3-piece PC IOL was retrospectively evaluated. The technique uses standardized maneuvers to fixate the PC IOL without need for special haptic architecture or preparation or haptic suturing. All patients having IOL implantation by the technique were evaluated for preoperative status (visual acuity, refractive error, preexisting ocular conditions, optical biometry), postoperative status, complications, and need for further surgery. The study evaluated 63 consecutive patients from 4 institutions (4 surgeons). The median follow-up was 7 months. Two dislocated PC IOLs (3.6%) were decentered; the other 61 IOLs (96.8%) were stable and well centered. There were no cases of recurrent dislocation, endophthalmitis, retinal detachment, or glaucoma. Fixation of PC IOL haptics in a limbus-parallel scleral tunnel provided exact centration and axial stability of the IOL and prevented distortion and subluxation in most cases. Copyright 2010 ASCRS and ESCRS. All rights reserved.

  4. Intraocular lens iris fixation. Clinical and macular OCT outcomes

    Garcia-Rojas Leonardo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess the efficacy, clinical outcomes, visual acuity (VA, incidence of adverse effects, and complications of peripheral iris fixation of 3-piece acrylic IOLs in eyes lacking capsular support. Thirteen patients who underwent implantation and peripheral iris fixation of a 3-piece foldable acrylic PC IOL for aphakia in the absence of capsular support were followed after surgery. Clinical outcomes and macular SD-OCT (Cirrus OCT; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Germany were analyzed. Findings The final CDVA was 20/40 or better in 8 eyes (62%, 20/60 or better in 12 eyes (92%, and one case of 20/80 due to corneal astigmatism and mild persistent edema. No intraoperative complications were reported. There were seven cases of medically controlled ocular hypertension after surgery due to the presence of viscoelastic in the AC. There were no cases of cystoid macular edema, chronic iridocyclitis, IOL subluxation, pigment dispersion, or glaucoma. Macular edema did not develop in any case by means of SD-OCT. Conclusions We think that this technique for iris suture fixation provides safe and effective results. Patients had substantial improvements in UDVA and CDVA. This surgical strategy may be individualized however; age, cornea status, angle structures, iris anatomy, and glaucoma are important considerations in selecting candidates for an appropriate IOL fixation method.

  5. Two isotopic methods for estimation of soybean nitrogen fixation

    Domenach, A M; Chalamet, A; Pachiaudi, C [Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France)

    1979-07-16

    Measurements of rate of nitrogen symbiotic fixation by Soybean were determined by two different methods: variations in the natural abundance of /sup 15/N in plants; use of 'A' value determined from labelled nitrogen applications to the soil. The results from both methods were in good agreement. Rates of fixed nitrogen were similar when using non nodulated Soybean or Ray-Grass as reference.

  6. The clinical outcome of lateral mass fixation after decompressive ...

    Ahmed Yehya

    2014-10-11

    Oct 11, 2014 ... Abstract Lateral mass cervical fixation is the technique of choice for posterior cervical stabiliza- tion of the lower ... In group I, neck pain improved in 68.8% and brachialgia improved in 83.3% .... a p value for Student t-test.

  7. Elevated CO2 concentration around alfalfa nodules increases N2 fixation

    Fischinger, Stephanie A.; Hristozkova, Marieta; Mainassara, Zaman-Allah; Schulze, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    Nodule CO2 fixation via PEPC provides malate for bacteroids and oxaloacetate for N assimilation. The process is therefore of central importance for efficient nitrogen fixation. Nodule CO2 fixation is known to depend on external CO2 concentration. The hypothesis of the present paper was that nitrogen fixation in alfalfa plants is enhanced when the nodules are exposed to elevated CO2 concentrations. Therefore nodulated plants of alfalfa were grown in a hydroponic system that allowed separate ae...

  8. Porcine intestinal mast cells. Evaluation of different fixatives for histochemical staining techniques considering tissue shrinkage

    J. Rieger

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Staining of mast cells (MCs, including porcine ones, is critically dependent upon the fixation and staining technique. In the pig, mucosal and submucosal MCs do not stain or stain only faintly after formalin fixation. Some fixation methods are particularly recommended for MC staining, for example the fixation with Carnoy or lead salts. Zinc salt fixation (ZSF has been reported to work excellently for the preservation of fixation-sensitive antigens. The aim of this study was to establish a reliable histological method for counting of MCs in the porcine intestinum. For this purpose, different tissue fixation and staining methods that also allow potential subsequent immunohistochemical investigations were evaluated in the porcine mucosa, as well as submucosa of small and large intestine. Tissues were fixed in Carnoy, lead acetate, lead nitrate, Zamboni and ZSF and stained subsequently with either polychromatic methylene blue, alcian blue or toluidine blue. For the first time our study reveals that ZSF, a heavy metal fixative, preserves metachromatic staining of porcine MCs. Zamboni fixation was not suitable for histochemical visualization of MCs in the pig intestine. All other tested fixatives were suitable. Alcian blue and toluidine blue co-stained intestinal goblet cells which made a prima facie identification of MCs difficult. The polychromatic methylene blue proved to be the optimal staining. In order to compare MC counting results of the different fixation methods, tissue shrinkage was taken into account. As even the same fixation caused shrinkage-differences between tissue from small and large intestine, different factors for each single fixation and intestinal localization had to be calculated. Tissue shrinkage varied between 19% and 57%, the highest tissue shrinkage was found after fixation with ZSF in the large intestine, the lowest one in the small intestine after lead acetate fixation. Our study emphasizes that MC counting results from

  9. Adjacent-segment disease after thoracic pedicle screw fixation.

    Agarwal, Nitin; Heary, Robert F; Agarwal, Prateek

    2018-03-01

    OBJECTIVE Pedicle screw fixation is a technique widely used to treat conditions ranging from spine deformity to fracture stabilization. Pedicle screws have been used traditionally in the lumbar spine; however, they are now being used with increasing frequency in the thoracic spine as a more favorable alternative to hooks, wires, or cables. Although safety concerns, such as the incidence of adjacent-segment disease (ASD) after cervical and lumbar fusions, have been reported, such issues in the thoracic spine have yet to be addressed thoroughly. Here, the authors review the literature on ASD after thoracic pedicle screw fixation and report their own experience specifically involving the use of pedicle screws in the thoracic spine. METHODS Select references from online databases, such as PubMed (provided by the US National Library of Medicine at the National Institutes of Health), were used to survey the literature concerning ASD after thoracic pedicle screw fixation. To include the authors' experience at Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, a retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database was performed to determine the incidence of complications over a 13-year period in 123 consecutive adult patients who underwent thoracic pedicle screw fixation. Children, pregnant or lactating women, and prisoners were excluded from the review. By comparing preoperative and postoperative radiographic images, the occurrence of thoracic ASD and disease within the surgical construct was determined. RESULTS Definitive radiographic fusion was detected in 115 (93.5%) patients. Seven incidences of instrumentation failure and 8 lucencies surrounding the screws were observed. One patient was observed to have ASD of the thoracic spine. The mean follow-up duration was 50 months. CONCLUSIONS This long-term radiographic evaluation revealed the use of pedicle screws for thoracic fixation to be an effective stabilization modality. In particular, ASD seems to be less of a problem in the

  10. Fixation of Soil Using PEC and Separation of Fixed Soil

    Choi, Yong Suk; Yang, Hee-Man; Lee, Kune Woo; Seo, Bum-Kyoung; Moon, Jei Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Radioactive cesium (Cs-137) is the most apprehensive element due to its long half-lives, high solubility in water, and strong radiation emission in the form of gamma rays. Because the radioactivity is localized within topsoil, soil surface on topsoil should be fixed to prevent the spreading of the contaminated soils by wind and water erosion. Many methods have been developing for soil fixation to remove radioactive contaminants in soil and prevent to diffuse radioactive materials. Various materials have been used as fixatives such as clays, molecular sieves, polymer, and petroleum based products. One of the methods is a soil fixation or solidification using polyelectrolyte. Polyelectrolytes have many ionic groups and form the polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) due to electrostatic interaction of anion and cation in an aqueous solution. polyelectrolyte complex can fix soil particles by flocculation and formation of crust between soil. The method can prevent a spread of radioactive material by floating on a soil surface. The decontamination efficiency of the surface soils reached about 90%, and dust release was effectively suppressed during the removal of surface soils. However it has a problem that the removed soil must separate soil and polymer to treat as the waste. In this study, the fixation of soil by polyelectrolyte complex to suppress the spread of contaminant and the separation method of soil and polymer was investigated. The properties of polyelectrolyte complex solution and the stability of fixed soil by polyelectrolyte complex were investigated. The concentration of salt in the polyelectrolyte complex solution is a very important parameter for the soil fixation.

  11. Surface fixation of dried blood by glutaraldehyde and peracetic acid.

    Kampf, G; Bloss, R; Martiny, H

    2004-06-01

    The difficulties of successful prion inactivation by chemical agents has led to changes in recommendations regarding the reprocessing of instruments including flexible endoscopes. One of the changes is the preference for peracetic acid instead of glutaraldehyde in order to avoid fixation of organic material, but the surface fixation by various active agents has not been fully investigated. We used a standardized amount of dried blood soil on metal carriers (on average 22 mg). One part of the carriers was exposed to different disinfectants (four based on peracetic acid, three based on glutaraldehyde, two based on quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC), one based on QAC and amines, one based on phenols and one cleaning agent) and air dried. The difference compared with the non-exposed soiled carrier was taken as the measure of blood removal by exposure to the disinfectants. In addition the other part of the carriers was exposed to a cleaning agent and air dried. The cleaning agent itself was capable of removing more than 99% of the dried blood and served as a control for non-fixation. The rate of fixation of dried blood was calculated as the ratio of the weight of residual soil on 'soiled, disinfected and cleaned' carriers and on 'soiled and disinfected' carriers. All experiments were repeated eight times. Blood removal varied between 90.3% +/- 1.5% (phenol-based disinfectant) and peracetic acid. No other preparations showed a potential for blood fixation (peracetic acid, and support the evidence that effective cleaning should precede the chemical disinfection. Copyright 2004 The Hospital Infection Society

  12. Surgical treatment of neglected clubfoot using external fixator

    Rodrigo Mota Pacheco Fernandes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The definition of neglected clubfoot (NC includes a variable range of complex deformities of the foot that are refractory to conventional treatments or are treated inappropriately. Several etiologies may be related to this. The Ilizarov method has become established as a tool for treating these deformities. It minimizes soft-tissue damage through gradual correction of the deformity, with a high success rate in relation to achieving a plantigrade foot, with low incidence of recurrence. The indications for treatment include severe rigid deformities (Dimeglio III and IV, or adverse skin conditions. Careful clinical and radiological examination is fundamental for proper planning and installation of the external fixator. The techniques used include selection of external fixation assemblies, which can be closed when there is a connection between the leg, hindfoot and forefoot. This closed assembly may or may not be constricted, according to whether hinges are provided or whether use of the natural anatomical hinges during correction of the deformity is envisaged. An open assembly makes it possible to add flexibility to the foot through histogenesis, while allowing closed corrections of greater precision later on. Hexapod fixators are an innovation with high potential for accuracy in correcting deformities. Procedures associated with external fixation include soft-tissue release and bone procedures. These procedures enable corrections that are more anatomical, for different degrees of severity and stiffness of deformity. It can be concluded from analyzing this case series that treatment of neglected clubfoot using an external fixator has a high rate of good and excellent results, with low frequency of complications.

  13. Flanged Intrascleral Intraocular Lens Fixation with Double-Needle Technique.

    Yamane, Shin; Sato, Shimpei; Maruyama-Inoue, Maiko; Kadonosono, Kazuaki

    2017-08-01

    To report the clinical outcomes of a new technique for transconjunctival intrascleral fixation of an intraocular lens (IOL). Prospective, noncomparative, interventional case series. One hundred eyes of 97 consecutive patients with aphakia, dislocated IOL, or subluxated crystalline lens who underwent posterior chamber sutureless implantation of an IOL were studied. Two angled incisions parallel to the limbus were made by 30-gauge thin-wall needles. Haptics of an IOL were externalized with the needles and cauterized to make a flange of the haptics. The flange of the haptics were pushed back and fixed into the scleral tunnels. Best-corrected visual acuity (VA), corneal endothelial cell density, IOL tilt, and complications were determined. The IOLs were fixed with exact centration and axial stability. The mean preoperative best-corrected VA was 0.25 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) units; after surgery, it improved significantly to 0.11 logMAR, 0.09 logMAR, 0.12 logMAR, and 0.04 logMAR at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months, respectively (P IOL tilt was 3.4°±2.5°. The postoperative complications included iris capture by the IOL in 8 eyes (8%), vitreous hemorrhage in 5 eyes (5%), and cystoid macular edema in 1 eye (1%). There were no incidents of postoperative retinal detachment, endophthalmitis, or IOL dislocation. We have developed a new technique for intrascleral IOL fixation. The flanged IOL fixation technique is a simple and minimally invasive method for achieving good IOL fixation with firm haptic fixation. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Ethanol-Glycerin Fixation with Thymol Conservation: A Potential Alternative to Formaldehyde and Phenol Embalming

    Hammer, Niels; Loffler, Sabine; Feja, Christine; Sandrock, Mara; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Bechmann, Ingo; Steinke, Hanno

    2012-01-01

    Anatomical fixation and conservation are required to prevent specimens from undergoing autolysis and decomposition. While fixation is the primary arrest of the structures responsible for autolysis and decomposition, conservation preserves the state of fixation. Although commonly used, formaldehyde has been classified as carcinogenic to humans. For…

  15. The effect of hubs and shortcuts on fixation time in evolutionary graphs

    Askari, Marziyeh; Moradi Miraghaei, Zeinab; Aghababaei Samani, Keivan

    2017-07-01

    How can a new species (like a gene, an idea, or a strategy) take over the whole of a population? This process, which is called fixation, is considerably affected by the structure of the population. There are two key quantities to quantify the fixation process, namely fixation probability and fixation time. Fixation probability has been vastly studied in recent years, but fixation time has not been completely explored, yet. This is because the discovery of a relationship between fixation time and network structure is quite challenging. In this paper we investigate this relationship for a number of well-known complex networks. We show that the existence of a few high-degree nodes (hubs) in the network results in a longer fixation time, while the existence of a few short-cuts decreases the fixation time. Furthermore we investigate the effect of network parameters, such as connection probability, on fixation time. We show that by increasing the density of edges, fixation time decreases for all types of studied networks. Finally, we survey the effect of rewiring probability in a Watts-Strogatz network on fixation time.

  16. The role of minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis in rib fixation : A review

    Bemelman, Michael; Van Baal, Mark; Yuan, Jian Zhang; Leenen, Luke

    2016-01-01

    More than a century ago, the first scientific report was published about fracture fixation with plates. During the 1950's, open reduction and plate fixation for fractures were standardized by the founders of Arbeitsgemeinschaft für osteosynthesefragen/Association for the Study of Internal Fixation.

  17. The interactive effects of temperature and moisture on nitrogen fixation in two temperate-arctic mosses

    Rousk, Kathrin; Pedersen, Pia Agerlund; Dyrnum, Kristine

    2017-01-01

    fixation in mosses under controlled conditions have rarely been investigated separately, rendering the interactive effects of the two climatic factors on N2 fixation unknown. Here, we tested the interactive effects of temperature and moisture on N2 fixation in the two most dominant moss species...

  18. Comparison of /sup 15/N-aided methods for determining symbiotic dinitrogen fixation

    Rennie, R J [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Joint FAO/IAEA Div. of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture

    1979-01-01

    Three methods of calculating the amount of symbiotic dinitrogen fixation in navy beans (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Sanilac) were compared in a greenhouse experiment. /sup 15/N-isotope dilution procedures yielded the most logical estimation of dinitrogen fixation. The classical difference method was not in agreement. Potential errors of the 'A'-value procedure to calculate dinitrogen fixation are discussed.

  19. Four quadrant parallel peripheral screw fixation for displaced femoral neck fractures in elderly patients

    Bhava RJ Satish

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Closed reduction and cannulated cancellous screw fixation gives satisfactory functional results in large group of elderly patients. The four quadrant parallel peripheral (FQPP screw fixation technique gives good stability, allows controlled collapse, avoids fixation failure and achieves predictable bone healing in displaced femoral neck fracture in patients ≥50 years of age.

  20. Natural gas in Mexico

    Ramirez, M.

    1999-01-01

    A series of overhead viewgraphs accompanied this presentation which focused on various aspects of the natural gas industry in Mexico. Some of the viewgraphs depicted statistics from 1998 regarding natural gas throughput from various companies in North America, natural gas reserves around the world, and natural gas reserves in Mexico. Other viewgraphs depicted associated and non-associated natural gas production from 1988 to 1998 in million cubic feet per day. The Burgos Basin and the Cantarell Basin gas production from 1997 to 2004 was also depicted. Other viewgraphs were entitled: (1) gas processing infrastructure for 1999, (2) cryogenic plant at Cd. PEMEX, (3) average annual growth of dry natural gas production for 1997-2004 is estimated at 5.2 per cent, (4) gas flows for December 1998, (5) PGPB- interconnect points, (6) U.S. Mexico gas trade for 1994-1998, (7) PGPB's interconnect projects with U.S., and (8) natural gas storage areas. Technological innovations in the industry include more efficient gas turbines which allow for cogeneration, heat recovery steam generators which reduce pollutant emissions by 21 per cent, cold boxes which increase heat transfer efficiency, and lateral reboilers which reduce energy consumption and total costs. A pie chart depicting natural gas demand by sector shows that natural gas for power generation will increase from 16 per cent in 1997 to 31 per cent in 2004. The opportunities for cogeneration projects were also reviewed. The Comision Federal de Electricidad and independent power producers represent the largest opportunity. The 1997-2001 investment program proposes an 85 per cent sulphur dioxide emission reduction compared to 1997 levels. This presentation also noted that during the 1998-2001 period, total ethane production will grow by 58 tbd. 31 figs

  1. Mexico: Imports or exports?

    Estrada, J.

    2002-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of Mexico's energy sector. Proven oil reserves place Mexico in ninth position in the world and fourth largest in natural gas reserves. Energy is one of the most important economic activities of the country, representing 3 per cent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Oil exports represent 8.4 per cent of total exports. Approximately 40 per cent of total public investment is earmarked for energy projects. The author discusses energy resources and energy sector limitations. The energy sector plan for the period 2001-2006 is discussed. Its goals are to ensure energy supply, to develop the energy sector, to stimulate participation of Mexican enterprises, to promote renewable energy sources, and to strengthen international energy cooperation. The regulatory framework is being adapted to increase private investment. Some graphs are presented, displaying the primary energy production and primary energy consumption. Energy sector reforms are reviewed, as are electricity and natural gas reforms. The energy sector demand for 2000-2010 and investment requirements are reviewed, as well as fuel consumption for power generation. The author discusses the National Pipeline System (SNG) and the bottlenecks caused by pressure efficiency in the northeast, flow restriction on several pipeline segments, variability of the Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) own use, and pressure drop on central regions. The entire prospect for natural gas in the country is reviewed, along with the Strategic Gas Program (PEG) consisting of 20 projects, including 4 non-associated natural gas, 9 exploration and 7 optimization. A section dealing with multiple service contracts is included in the presentation. The authors conclude by stating that the priority is a national energy policy to address Mexico's energy security requirements, to increase natural gas production while promoting the diversification of imports, and a regulatory framework to be updated in light of current

  2. Gulf of Mexico development

    Krenz, D.

    1998-01-01

    In recent years, the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) has seen significant deepwater growth. An overview of the GOM deepwater leaseholds by Shell and developments by competing companies is presented. Deepwater GOM developments, total production from the shelf and from deepwater wells, new offshore pipeline capacity and ownership, and processing plant capacity are also discussed. Significant deepwater growth in the Gulf is anticipated. Despite significant economic and technological challenges, the area is judged to be the prime exploration and production opportunity in the lower 48 states of the USA. tabs., figs

  3. Interpretation of Post-operative Distal Humerus Radiographs After Internal Fixation: Prediction of Later Loss of Fixation

    Claessen, F.M.; Stoop, N.; Doornberg, J.N.; Guitton, T.G.; Bekerom, M.P. van den; Ring, D.; Biert, J.; et al.,

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Stable fixation of distal humerus fracture fragments is necessary for adequate healing and maintenance of reduction. The purpose of this study was to measure the reliability and accuracy of interpretation of postoperative radiographs to predict which implants will loosen or break after

  4. 21 CFR 808.81 - New Mexico.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false New Mexico. 808.81 Section 808.81 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.81 New Mexico. The following New Mexico medical device requirement is... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: New Mexico Statutes Annotated, section 67-36-16(F...

  5. Clinical efficacy and safety of limited internal fixation combined with external fixation for Pilon fracture: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Zhang, Shaobo; Zhang, Yibao; Wang, Shenghong; Zhang, Hua; Liu, Peng; Zhang, Wei; Ma, Jing-Lin; Wang, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the clinical efficacy and complications of limited internal fixation combined with external fixation (LIFEF) and open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) in the treatment of Pilon fracture. Methods: We searched databases including Pubmed, Embase, Web of science, Cochrane Library and China Biology Medicine disc for the studies comparing clinical efficacy and complications of LIFEF and ORIF in the treatment of Pilon fracture. The clinical efficacy was evaluated by the ...

  6. Analysis and an overview of fixators in medicine and the methods of processing materials for producing fixators

    Dalibor Milojko Đenadić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The fixator is a medical device that provides support to fractured biological structures. Metal biomaterials are mainly used for replacing broken or damaged hard tissues such as bones because of their high strenght, toughness and corrosion resistance. Materials such as stainless steel, titanium and aluminium alloys (Ti-6Al-4V, cobalt and chromium alloys, composite materials and other biocompatible materials are used in orthopedy for the stabilization of connective tissue injuries or as a substitute for the bone tissues. Fixators are classified according to the place of installation to external and internal fixators. Widely used medical fixators are pins, rods plates, screws, pipes, wires, nails and external fixators. Conventional and non-conventional methods of processing are used in the production process for all types of fixators. Introduction Fixators are medical devices manufactured to support damaged biological structures. In the field of orthopedic surgery that deals with skeletal disorders such as bone, spine, joints, muscles and tendons injuries and diseases, various metals, titanium and cobalt alloys etc. are used to stabilize the supporting tissue injuries or as a substitute for bone tissues. Metallic implants are frequently used in orthopedic surgery as joint prosthesis (hip, knee and elbow fracture fixation devices (plates, screws, external fixators and devices for the fixation of the spine. In principle, fixators are devided into external and internal ones, depending on the place of installation (outside or inside the body. The most common types of medical fixators are pins, rods and plates. This paper presents some of the most common materials used for the production of fixators, their processing and possibilties of use in medicine for various purposes. Types of fixators and materials used for their production Nowadays, biocompatible materials are usually used for the production of fixators and implants. These materials show good

  7. Glue versus suture for mesh fixation in inguinal hernia repair.

    Chandrasekar, Shruthi; Jeyakumar, S; Ganapathy, Tharun

    2018-03-22

    Inguinal hernia is one of the most common surgical problem presenting to the surgical OPD. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment for inguinal hernia today. Surgery for inguinal hernia has undergone a great evolution over a period of several centuries. Lichenstein's tension free hernioplasty is the one of the first surgeries taught to a surgical resident. The main aim of surgeries in this era is to give the best possible results with the least possible pain, scar and time. This has given rise to so many modifications to the classical Lichenstein's procedure and also to laparoscopic hernioplasty. Pain after inguinal hernia surgery is found to be debilitating and altering the quality of life in several patients, which has been attributed to the traumatic fixation of the mesh with sutures. This has paved way to the development of various atraumatic methods of fixation, tissue glue is one such development. Hence this study, to compare traumatic and atraumatic methods of mesh fixation in inguinal hernia repair. The aim of this study was to compare suture fixation versus tissue glue fixation of the mesh in inguinal hernia repair. Primary objective was to compare the immediate and chronic post-operative pain. Secondary objective was to compare the time taken for the procedure by the two methods in use and also to compare the presence of any complications. and methodology: This study was done in the General Surgery department of XXX hospital, medical college and research centre, kattangulathur after Ethics committee clearance. It is a single blinded study. The study was done on 51 patients consenting for the study and meeting the inclusion criterias from the period of March 2016 to August 2017 out of which 26 were selected for glue mesh fixation and 25 for suture mesh fixation according to simple randomization. The suture group patients underwent classical Lichenstein's tension free hernioplasty and the glue group underwent Lichenstein's hernioplasty with glue where dots of

  8. The influence on the contact condition and initial fixation stability of the main design parameters of a self-expansion type anterior cruciate ligament fixation device

    Kim, Jong Dae; Oh, Chae Youn; Kim, Cheol Sang

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a self-expansion type anterior cruciate ligament fixation device. The proposed fixation device provides graft fixation force by maintaining contact with the bone tunnel. Since the device maintains contact with the bone tunnel by the force that expands by the self-driven elastic force of the device, the main design parameters that determine the performance of this device are the ring thickness and expansion angle. This paper develops the three-dimensional finite element models of the fixation device and bone. By simulation with the developed finite element model, this paper studies the influence of the main design parameters of the device on the maximum stress around the ring when grasping the fixation device. Through the analysis of the stress on the bone tunnel wall when the fixation device comes in contact with the bone tunnel, this paper shows the influence of the main design parameters of the fixation device on the contact condition. In addition, through the analysis of the migration that occur upon application of the pull-out force, this paper studies the influence of the main design parameters on the initial fixation stability of the fixation device

  9. The influence on the contact condition and initial fixation stability of the main design parameters of a self-expansion type anterior cruciate ligament fixation device

    Kim, Jong Dae [Jeonju University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Chae Youn; Kim, Cheol Sang [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    This paper proposes a self-expansion type anterior cruciate ligament fixation device. The proposed fixation device provides graft fixation force by maintaining contact with the bone tunnel. Since the device maintains contact with the bone tunnel by the force that expands by the self-driven elastic force of the device, the main design parameters that determine the performance of this device are the ring thickness and expansion angle. This paper develops the three-dimensional finite element models of the fixation device and bone. By simulation with the developed finite element model, this paper studies the influence of the main design parameters of the device on the maximum stress around the ring when grasping the fixation device. Through the analysis of the stress on the bone tunnel wall when the fixation device comes in contact with the bone tunnel, this paper shows the influence of the main design parameters of the fixation device on the contact condition. In addition, through the analysis of the migration that occur upon application of the pull-out force, this paper studies the influence of the main design parameters on the initial fixation stability of the fixation device

  10. Complications Using Bioabsorbable Cross-Pin Femoral Fixation: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Saqib Hasan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of bioabsorbable cross-pin transcondylar fixation has remained a viable option for femoral fixation in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Although numerous biomechanical studies have demonstrated high fixation strength and minimal slippage with use of this method of fixation, there have been increasing reports of a variety of clinical complications associated with these implants. We reviewed the literature for all complications associated with the Bio-TransFix implant and present a case report of a patient status after ACL reconstruction using Bio-TransFix cross-pin femoral fixation with iliotibial band friction syndrome from a broken cross-pin four month post-operatively.

  11. Fixation of a human rib by an intramedullary telescoping splint anchored by bone cement.

    Liovic, Petar; Šutalo, Ilija D; Marasco, Silvana F

    2016-09-01

    A novel concept for rib fixation is presented that involves the use of a bioresorbable polymer intramedullary telescoping splint. Bone cement is used to anchor each end of the splint inside the medullary canal on each side of the fracture site. In this manner, rib fixation is achieved without fixation device protrusion from the rib, making the splint completely intramedullary. Finite element analysis is used to demonstrate that such a splint/cement composite can preserve rib fixation subjected to cough-intensity force loadings. Computational fluid dynamics and porcine rib experiments were used to study the anchor formation process required to complete the fixation.

  12. Novel anterior cruciate ligament graft fixation device reduces slippage

    Lopez MJ

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Mandi J Lopez,1 Allen Borne,2 W Todd Monroe,3 Prakash Bommala,1 Laura Kelly,1 Nan Zhang11Laboratory for Equine and Comparative Orthopedic Research, Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, 2Louisiana State University, New Orleans Health Sciences Center, School of Medicine, New Orleans, 3Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Agricultural Center, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USAAbstract: Clinically significant laxity occurs in 10%–30% of knees after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Graft slippage and tension loss at the hamstring graft tibial fixation site during and after reconstruction surgery contribute to postoperative joint laxity and are detrimental to long-term knee stability and graft properties. Limiting graft slippage will reduce associated complications. We sought to compare the in vitro mechanical properties and in vivo joint stabilization, postoperative limb use, and graft incorporation of the novel GraftGrab™ (GG device designed to reduce hamstring graft tibial fixation slippage with the commercially available bioabsorbable Bio-Post™ and spiked washer (BP. Mechanical testing was performed on canine tibia-hamstring graft constructs to quantify initial fixation properties. In vivo joint stabilization, postoperative limb use and graft incorporation of hamstring graft reconstructions were determined in a canine model. Outcomes included tibial translation and ground reaction forces preoperatively and 4 and 8 weeks postoperatively, three-dimensional graft and bone tunnel dimensions at the latter two time points, and graft-bone microstructure, as well as mechanical properties 8 weeks after implantation. Immediately after fixation, all grafts slipped from the BP constructs versus about 30% of GG constructs. In vivo limb use remained low, and tibial translation increased with time in the BP cohort. These results together

  13. EXPERIMENTAL APPROVAL OF COMBINED FIXATION FOR FEMUR LENGTHENING

    M. A. Stepanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Elimination of congenital shortening of lower limb still remains a complex and unsolved orthopaedic task which requires an improved fixation technique as well as adjusted tactics of treatment and rehabilitation procedures.Purpose of the study — experimental approval of femur lengthening technique by external fixation with Ilizarov apparatus and internal fixation by plate.Materials and methods. Femur lengthening was performed in 6 mongrel dogs. Average animal age was 1,5±0,3 years, average weight — 20±5 kg, femur length — 22±2 sm. External apparatus with two supports and a titanium plate of an original design were applied under general anesthesia on the right femur of animals. Lengthening was performed manually at a rate of1 mm per day in 4 stages at a distance of 10% from initial segment length. External apparatus was removed on the last day of distraction after locking the plate. X-ray examination was done on the day of surgery, in 7, 14 and 25 days from the onset of distraction as well as in 14, 30, 60 and 90 days after completion of distraction and removal of external apparatus. Three animals were taken out of experiment in 30 days of fixation, remaining three animals — in 90 days. After euthanasia the authors performed autopsy of the organic femur complex and tissues contacting the plate.Results. The use of operated limb was not restricted during the whole distraction period. The authors observed first roentgenological signs of distraction osteogenesis on 7th day of lengthening. By the end of distraction period, at 25th day, shadows of regenerates demonstrated longitudinal striated structures in all cases. Median lucency area of 1–5 mm was located diagonally and across the regenerate or was intermittent. In 60 days of fixation X-rays demonstrated homogeneous regenerate. External fixation index was 13,9±1,5 days/sm (p≤0,05. The authors observed no cases of implants fracture or deformity during the experiment

  14. Seasonal patterns of periphyton nitrogen fixation in calcareous wetlands

    Liao, X.; Inglett, P.

    2011-12-01

    Periphyton mats are an ecologically important component of the Everglades ecosystem and plays various vital ecological functions. However, nitrogen fixation of periphyton, has received little attention throughout much of the Everglades system. The objective of this study was to characterize the seasonal pattern of periphyton N2 fixation in the Hole-in-the-Donut (HID) of Florida Everglades, where farmed marl prairie wetlands have been restored through complete soil removal (CSR) to reduce nutrient levels. Two restored areas (i.e., cleared in 2000 and 2003) and a reference (natural and unfarmed) marl prairie wetland sites were selected in the HID. Seven times of sampling were performed across the wet and dry season during the 2010 and 2011. The annual fixed nitrogen was approximately 0.4gN m-2 yr-1 in the restored sites which was higher in the reference site (~0.2gN m-2 yr-1). All the three sites showed similar seasonal patterns of N2 fixation that is higher values were observed in the wet season; but the peak value was one month later in reference sits (i.e., September) comparing to the restored areas (i.e., July). The peak of periphyton AR rates in the 2000- and 2003-restored areas appeared in July (i.e., wet season) within the range of 20-79 nmols g-1dw h-1 and 31-53nmols g-1dw h-1, respectively. In contrast, the peak of reference site was observed in September with the range of 2-5 nmols g-1dw h-1. Stable N isotopic ratios (i.e., δ15N) also varied with time but didn't show consistent seasonal pattern as nitrogen fixation. N2 fixation positively correlated with periphyton total phosphorus (TP) and negatively correlated with total nitrogen and phosphorus molar ratios (TN:TP), indicating that N2 fixation would be a indicator of nutrient limitation. In general, δ15N was negatively correlated with nitrogenase activity but the correlation became weakened in the wet season, especially in the flooded July and September, which would be explained by other environmental

  15. Mexico Wind Resource Assessment Project

    Schwartz, M.N.; Elliott, D.L.

    1995-05-01

    A preliminary wind energy resource assessment of Mexico that produced wind resource maps for both utility-scale and rural applications was undertaken as part of the Mexico-U.S. Renewable Energy Cooperation Program. This activity has provided valuable information needed to facilitate the commercialization of small wind turbines and windfarms in Mexico and to lay the groundwork for subsequent wind resource activities. A surface meteorological data set of hourly data in digital form was utilized to prepare a more detailed and accurate wind resource assessment of Mexico than otherwise would have been possible. Software was developed to perform the first ever detailed analysis of the wind characteristics data for over 150 stations in Mexico. The hourly data set was augmented with information from weather balloons (upper-air data), ship wind data from coastal areas, and summarized wind data from sources in Mexico. The various data were carefully evaluated for their usefulness in preparing the wind resource assessment. The preliminary assessment has identified many areas of good-to-excellent wind resource potential and shows that the wind resource in Mexico is considerably greater than shown in previous surveys.

  16. Ball-joint versus single monolateral external fixators for definitive treatment of tibial shaft fractures.

    Beltsios, Michail; Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Savvidou, Olga D; Karamanis, Eirineos; Kokkalis, Zinon T; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J

    2014-07-01

    To compare modular monolateral external fixators with single monolateral external fixators for the treatment of open and complex tibial shaft fractures, to determine the optimal construct for fracture union. A total of 223 tibial shaft fractures in 212 patients were treated with a monolateral external fixator from 2005 to 2011; 112 fractures were treated with a modular external fixator with ball-joints (group A), and 111 fractures were treated with a single external fixator without ball-joints (group B). The mean follow-up was 2.9 years. We retrospectively evaluated the operative time for fracture reduction with the external fixator, pain and range of motion of the knee and ankle joints, time to union, rate of malunion, reoperations and revisions of the external fixators, and complications. The time for fracture reduction was statistically higher in group B; the rate of union was statistically higher in group B; the rate of nonunion was statistically higher in group A; the mean time to union was statistically higher in group A; the rate of reoperations was statistically higher in group A; and the rate of revision of the external fixator was statistically higher in group A. Pain, range of motion of the knee and ankle joints, rates of delayed union, malunion and complications were similar. Although modular external fixators are associated with faster intraoperative fracture reduction with the external fixator, single external fixators are associated with significantly better rates of union and reoperations; the rates of delayed union, malunion and complications are similar.

  17. Time Savings and Surgery Task Load Reduction in Open Intraperitoneal Onlay Mesh Fixation Procedure

    Sanjoy Roy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study assessed the reduction in surgeon stress associated with savings in procedure time for mechanical fixation of an intraperitoneal onlay mesh (IPOM compared to a traditional suture fixation in open ventral hernia repair. Study Design. Nine general surgeons performed 36 open IPOM fixation procedures in porcine model. Each surgeon conducted two mechanical (using ETHICON SECURESTRAPTM Open and two suture fixation procedures. Fixation time was measured using a stopwatch, and related surgeon stress was assessed using the validated SURG-TLX questionnaire. T-tests were used to compare between-group differences, and a two-sided 95% confidence interval for the difference in stress levels was established using nonparametric methodology. Results. The mechanical fixation group demonstrated an 89.1% mean reduction in fixation time, as compared to the suture group (p<0.00001. Surgeon stress scores measured using SURG-TLX were 55.5% lower in the mechanical compared to the suture fixation group (p<0.001. Scores in five of the six sources of stress were significantly lower for mechanical fixation. Conclusions. Mechanical fixation with ETHICON SECURESTRAPTM Open demonstrated a significant reduction in fixation time and surgeon stress, which may translate into improved operating efficiency, improved performance, improved surgeon quality of life, and reduced overall costs of the procedure.

  18. Texas-Mexico multimodal transportation: developments in Mexico

    Boske, Leigh B.

    1994-03-01

    This presentation highlights the results of a recently completed study that examines the Texas- Mexico multimodal transport system already in place, current plans for improvements or expansion, and opportunities and constraints faced by each transport mode -- motor carriage, rail, maritime, and air. Particular emphasis is given to findings regarding transportation developments in Mexico. The study concludes that in Mexico, all modes are working at establishing new services and strategic alliances, intermodal arrangements are on the rise, and private-sector participation in infrastructure improvements is growing daily at Mexican seaports and airports as well as within that nation's highway and rail systems. This presentation looks at developments that concern privatization, deregulation, infrastructure improvements, financing arrangements, and new services in Mexico.

  19. Small bowel obstruction in percutaneous fixation of traumatic pelvic fractures

    Roberto Bini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of external fixation for the initial treatment of unstable, complex pelvic injuries with hemodynamic instability remains an effective treatment for multiply injured patients. Bowel entrapment within a pelvic fracture is a rarely reported, potentially fatal complication. Here, we report a polytrauma patient with pelvic fractures who developed an intestinal obstruction after an external fixation. At an explorative laparotomy, we found an ileum segment trapped in the sacral fracture. Reported cases of bowel entrapment in pelvic fractures, especially in sacral fractures, are exceedingly rare. The diagnosis is often delayed due to difficulty distinguishing entrapment from the more common adynamic ileus. In conclusion, clinicians and radiologists should be aware of this potentially lethal complication of pelvic fractures treatment. To exclude bowel entrapment, patients with persistent ileus or sepsis should undergo early investigations.

  20. Molecular nitrogen fixation and nitrogen cycle in nature

    Virtanen, A I

    1952-01-01

    The origin of nitrogen oxides in the atmosphere is discussed. Evidently only a small proportion of the nitrate-and nitrite-nitrogen found in the precipitation is formed through electric discharges from molecular nitrogen, photochemical nitrogen fixation being probably of greater importance. Formation of nitrate nitrogen through atmospheric oxidation of nitrous oxide (N/sub 2/O) evaporating from the soil is also considered likely. Determination of nitrogen compounds at different altitudes is indispensable for gaining information of the N/sub 2/-fixation in the atmosphere and, in general, of the origin of nitrogen oxides and their decomposition. International cooperation is needed for this as well as for the quantitative determination of the nitrogen compounds removed from the soil by leaching and brought by waters into the seas.

  1. CO2 Fixation by Membrane Separated NaCl Electrolysis

    Park, Hyun Sic; Lee, Ju Sung; Han, Junyoung

    2015-01-01

    for converting CO2 into CaCO3 requires high temperature and high pressure as reaction conditions. This study proposes a method to fixate CaCO3 stably by using relatively less energy than existing methods. After forming NaOH absorbent solution through electrolysis of NaCl in seawater, CaCO3 was precipitated...... crystal product was high-purity calcite. The study shows a successful method for fixating CO2 by reducing carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere while forming high-purity CaCO3.......Atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), a major cause of global warming, have been rising due to industrial development. Carbon capture and storage (CCS), which is regarded as the most effective way to reduce such atmospheric CO2 concentrations, has several environmental and technical...

  2. Bone graft materials in fixation of orthopaedic implants in sheep

    Babiker, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Bone graft is widely used within orthopaedic surgery especially in revision joint arthroplasty and spine fusion. The early implant fixation in the revision situation of loose joint prostheses is important for the long-term survival. Bone autograft has been considered as gold standard in many...... orthopaedic procedures, whereas allograft is the gold standard by replacement of extensive bone loss. However, the use of autograft is associated with donor site morbidity, especially chronic pain. In addition, the limited supply is a significant clinical challenge. Limitations in the use of allograft include...... the risk of bacterial contamination and disease transmission as well as non-union and poor bone quality. Other bone graft and substitutes have been considered as alternative in order to improve implant fixation. Hydroxyapatite and collagen type I composite (HA/Collagen) have the potential in mimicking...

  3. Optimising biological N2 fixation by legumes in farming systems

    Hardarson, Gudni; Atkins, Craig

    2001-01-01

    Whether grown as pulses for grain, as green manure, as pastures or as the tree components of agro-forestry systems, the value of leguminous crops lies in their ability to fix atmospheric N 2 , so reducing the use of expensive fertiliser N and enhancing soil fertility. N 2 fixing legumes provide the basis for developing sustainable farming systems that incorporate integrated nutrient management. By exploiting the stable nitrogen isotope 15 N, it has been possible to reliably measure rates of N 2 fixation in a wide range of agro-ecological field situations involving many leguminous species. The accumulated data demonstrate that there is a wealth of genetic diversity among legumes and their Rhizobium symbionts which can be used to enhance N 2 fixation. Practical agronomic and microbiological means to maximise N inputs by legumes have also been identified. (author)

  4. Fixation Of Mo In Uranium Leach Liquor By Activated Carbon

    Mainar, S.; Guswita, A.; Erni, R.A.; Susilaningtyas

    1996-01-01

    The use of activated carbon for Mo fixation by bulk system is reported. Several factors influencing the fixation process were examined, including contact time, carbon particle size, carbon porosity and the effect of other elements present in Mo containing solutions. Experimental data showed that an adsorption equilibrium of Mo on of activated carbon and 0,85 to 1,18 mm of carbon particle size under forced-convection mass transfer in 100 ml solution that contains + 0,56 m mol of Mo and +. 0,25 m mol Of U was reached after 6 hours period. Under those conditions, about 0,50 m mol of Mo and 0,026 m mol of U were adsorbed into carbon. High concentration of rare earth elements decreased Mo adsorption, hence, the use of activated carbon was not effective to separate Mo from the digestion liquor of Rirang are where Mo was adsorbed, into the carbon + 34,5 %

  5. Monotest in the complement fixation test: the Chorus system

    Laura Meli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The complement fixation test (CFT is a method used for the detection of antibodies against pathogens of infectious diseases, it has been proved to be a useful diagnostic method in the detection of acute disease in many medical laboratories.The test performed manually is time consuming and needs very skilled personnel.This study evaluates the automated Chorus CFT system with 87 serum samples in comparison with manual method using Virion-Serion reagents, against a panel of antigens, such as Adenovirus, Influenza A and B virus, Respiratory Syncythial Virus, Parainfluenza Mix, Mycoplasma Pneumoniae, and Echinococcus. The Chorus system includes standardized reagents and a monotest device to perform the single assay. In comparison to the manual CFT method, the correlation is 91.6% (7/83.The results obtained show that the automated Chorus system can be applied for detecting complement fixation antibodies against different infectious disease agents.

  6. Scleral fixation of a single-piece multifocal intraocular lens.

    Can, Ertugrul; Basaran, M Resat; Gül, Adem

    2013-01-01

    We describe an ab interno technique for injector implantation of a one-piece multifocal intraocular lens (IOL). Transscleral fixation of multifocal posterior chamber IOL implantation using an injector with ab interno technique was performed in an eye of a 9-year-old girl who had undergone pars plana lensectomy 2 years before for bilateral lens subluxation with unknown etiology. No major complications were encountered during a 3-month follow-up of the patient and excellent centration was observed during the follow-up period. Her preoperative best spectacle-corrected distance visual acuity of 20/32 improved to uncorrected distance visual acuity of 20/25. Closed-loop design of IOL served the function of eyelets and position of the IOL was provided using only a 2-point fixation. Intraoperative position adjustment of the IOL provided an excellent centralization of multifocal IOL.

  7. Fixational eye movement: a negligible source of dynamic aberration.

    Mecê, Pedro; Jarosz, Jessica; Conan, Jean-Marc; Petit, Cyril; Grieve, Kate; Paques, Michel; Meimon, Serge

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the contribution of fixational eye movements to dynamic aberration, 50 healthy eyes were examined with an original custom-built Shack-Hartmann aberrometer, running at a temporal frequency of 236Hz, with 22 lenslets across a 5mm pupil, synchronized with a 236Hz pupil tracker. A comparison of the dynamic behavior of the first 21 Zernike modes (starting from defocus) with and without digital pupil stabilization, on a 3.4s sequence between blinks, showed that the contribution of fixational eye movements to dynamic aberration is negligible. Therefore we highlighted the fact that a pupil tracker coupled to an Adaptive Optics Ophthalmoscope is not essential to achieve diffraction-limited resolution.

  8. [Effectiveness comparison of flexible fixation and rigid fixation in treatment of ankle pronation-external rotation fractures with distal tibiofibular syndesmosis].

    Li, Yuewei; Zhang, Minghui; Li, Xiaorong; Chen, Xiaoyong; Deng, Jianlong

    2017-07-01

    To compare the effectiveness of flexible fixation and rigid fixation in the treatment of ankle pronation-external rotation fractures with distal tibiofibular syndesmosis. A retrospective analysis was made on the clinical data of 50 patients with ankle pronation-external rotation fractures and distal tibiofibular syndesmosis treated between January 2013 and December 2015. Suture-button fixation was used in 23 patients (flexible fixation group) and cortical screw fixation in 27 patients (rigid fixation group). There was no significant difference in age, gender, weight, side, fracture type, and time from trauma to surgery between 2 groups ( P >0.05). The operation time, medial clear space (MCS), tibiofibular clear space (TFCS), tibiofibular overlap (TFO), American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score, and Foot and Ankle Disability Index (FADI) score were compared between 2 groups. The operation time was (83.0±9.1) minutes in the flexible fixation group and was (79.6±13.1) minutes in the rigid fixation group, showing no significant difference ( t =1.052, P =0.265). All patients achieved healing of incision by first intention. The patients were followed up 12-20 months (mean, 14 months). The X-ray films showed good healing of fracture in 2 groups. There was no screw fracture, delayed union or nounion. The fracture healing time was (12.1±2.5) months in the flexible fixation group and was (11.3±3.2) months in the rigid fixation group, showing no significant difference between 2 groups ( t =1.024, P =0.192). Reduction loss occurred after removal of screw in 2 cases of the rigid fixation group. At last follow-up, there was no significant difference in MCS, TFCS, TFO, AOFAS score and FADI score between 2 groups ( P >0.05). Suture-button fixation has similar effectiveness to screw fixation in ankle function and imaging findings, and flexible fixation has lower risk of reduction loss of distal tibiofibular syndesmosis than rigid fixation.

  9. Fixation of zygomatic and mandibular fractures with biodegradable plates

    Degala, Saikrishna; Shetty, Sujeeth; Ramya, S

    2013-01-01

    Context: In this prospective study, 13 randomly selected patients underwent treatment for zygomatic?complex fractures (2 site fractures) and mandibular fractures using 1.5 / 2 / 2.5-mm INION CPS biodegradable plates and screws. Aims: To assess the fixation of zygomatic-complex and mandibular fractures with biodegradable copolymer osteosynthesis system. Materials and Methods: In randomly selected 13 patients, zygomatic-complex and mandibular fractures were plated using resorbable plates and sc...

  10. Fixation of zygomatic and mandibular fractures with biodegradable plates.

    Degala, Saikrishna; Shetty, Sujeeth; Ramya, S

    2013-01-01

    In this prospective study, 13 randomly selected patients underwent treatment for zygomatic-complex fractures (2 site fractures) and mandibular fractures using 1.5 / 2 / 2.5-mm INION CPS biodegradable plates and screws. To assess the fixation of zygomatic-complex and mandibular fractures with biodegradable copolymer osteosynthesis system. In randomly selected 13 patients, zygomatic-complex and mandibular fractures were plated using resorbable plates and screws using Champy's principle. All the cases were evaluated clinically and radiologically for the type of fracture, need for the intermaxillary fixation (IMF) and its duration, duration of surgery, fixation at operation, state of reduction at operation, state of bone union after operation, anatomic reduction, paresthesia, occlusal discrepancies, soft tissue infection, immediate and late inflammatory reactions related to biodegradation process, and any need for the removal of the plates. Descriptives, Frequencies, and Chi-square test were used. In our study, the age group range was 5 to 55 years. Road traffic accidents accounted for the majority of patients six, (46.2%). Postoperative occlusal discrepancies were found in seven patients as mild to moderate, which resolved with IMF for 1-8 weeks. There were minimal complications seen and only as soft tissue infection. Use of biodegradable osteosynthesis system is a reliable alternative method for the fixation of zygomatic-complex and mandibular fractures. The biodegradable system still needs to be refined in material quality and handling to match the stability achieved with metal system. Biodegradable plates and screws is an ideal system for pediatric fractures with favorable outcome.

  11. POSSIBILITIES OF CARBON DIOXIDE FIXATION BY MICROALGAE IN REFINERY

    Šingliar, Michal; Mikulec, Jozef; Kušnir, Patrik; Polakovičova, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    Capture and sequestration of carbon dioxide is one of the most critical challenges today for businesses and governments worldwide. Thousands of emitting power plants and industries worldwide face this costly challenge – reduce the CO2 emissions or pay penalties. One possibility for carbon dioxide sequestration is its fixation in microalgae. Microalgae can sequester CO2 from flue gases emitted from fossil fuel-fired refinery plants and units, thereby reducing emissions of a major greenhouse ga...

  12. Measures and limits of models of fixation selection.

    Niklas Wilming

    Full Text Available Models of fixation selection are a central tool in the quest to understand how the human mind selects relevant information. Using this tool in the evaluation of competing claims often requires comparing different models' relative performance in predicting eye movements. However, studies use a wide variety of performance measures with markedly different properties, which makes a comparison difficult. We make three main contributions to this line of research: First we argue for a set of desirable properties, review commonly used measures, and conclude that no single measure unites all desirable properties. However the area under the ROC curve (a classification measure and the KL-divergence (a distance measure of probability distributions combine many desirable properties and allow a meaningful comparison of critical model performance. We give an analytical proof of the linearity of the ROC measure with respect to averaging over subjects and demonstrate an appropriate correction of entropy-based measures like KL-divergence for small sample sizes in the context of eye-tracking data. Second, we provide a lower bound and an upper bound of these measures, based on image-independent properties of fixation data and between subject consistency respectively. Based on these bounds it is possible to give a reference frame to judge the predictive power of a model of fixation selection. We provide open-source python code to compute the reference frame. Third, we show that the upper, between subject consistency bound holds only for models that predict averages of subject populations. Departing from this we show that incorporating subject-specific viewing behavior can generate predictions which surpass that upper bound. Taken together, these findings lay out the required information that allow a well-founded judgment of the quality of any model of fixation selection and should therefore be reported when a new model is introduced.

  13. Development of cermets for high-level radioactive waste fixation

    Aaron, W.S.; Quinby, T.C.; Kobisk, E.H.

    1979-01-01

    A method is currently under development for the solidification and fixation of commercial and defense high-level radioactive wastes in the form of ceramic particles encapsulated by metal, i.e., a cermet. The chemical and physical processing techniques which have been developed and the properties of the resulting cermet bodies are described in this paper. These cermets have the advantages of high thermal conductivity and low leach rates

  14. Salvage of infected total knee arthroplasty with Ilizarov external fixator

    Venkata Gurava Reddy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Knee arthrodesis may be the only option of treatment in cases of chronic infected total knee arthroplasty (TKA with concomitant irreparable extensor mechanism disruption, extensive bone loss or severe systemic morbidities. Circular external fixation offers possible progressive adjustment to stimulate the bony fusion and to make corrections in alignment. We evaluated the results of knee arthrodesis with one or two stage circular external fixator for infected TKA. Materials and Methods: 16 cases of femoro-tibial fusion were retrospectively evaluated. Male-to-female ratio was 10:6. Mean age of the patients was 62.2 years. Cierney-Mader classification was used for anatomical and physiological evaluation while the bone stock deficiency was classified into mild, moderate and severe. Surgical technique involved either single or two stage arthrodesis using circular external fixator. Results: Union was achieved in 15 patients (93.75%. The mean duration for union (frame application time in these patients was 28.33 weeks (range 22 to 36 weeks. Analysis showed that in the group with frame application time of less than 28 weeks, the incidence of mild to moderate bone deficiency was 83.33%, while in the frame application time more than 28 weeks group the incidence was 20% (P-value 0.034. Similarly the incidence of Cierney-Mader 4B (Bl, Bs, Bls was found to be 33.33% in the group of frame application time of less than 28 weeks, while it was 90% in the group with frame application time more than 28 weeks (P-value 0.035. Conclusion: Circular external fixator is a safe and reliable method to achieve knee arthrodesis in cases of deep infection following TKA. Severe bone stock deficiency and Cierney- Mader type B host are likely risk factors for prolonged frame application time. We recommend a two-stage procedure especially when there is compromised host or severe bone loss.

  15. Complications associated with distraction plate fixation of wrist fractures.

    Hanel, Douglas P; Ruhlman, Scott David; Katolik, Leo I; Allan, Christopher H

    2010-05-01

    This article discusses the major and minor complications of distal plating in the light of a cohort study carried out by the authors, who reviewed all patients undergoing bridge distraction plate fixation of distal radius fractures by three surgeons in a single level I trauma center. The article discusses the effectiveness and the complication rates associated with the technique. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Failure analysis of stainless steel femur fixation plate.

    Hussain, P B; Mohammad, M

    2004-05-01

    Failure analysis was performed to investigate the failure of the femur fixation plate which was previously fixed on the femur of a girl. Radiography, metallography, fractography and mechanical testing were conducted in this study. The results show that the failure was due to the formation of notches on the femur plate. These notches act as stress raisers from where the cracks start to propagate. Finally fracture occurred on the femur plate and subsequently, the plate failed.

  17. Bacteria on External Fixators: Which Prep is Best?

    2012-01-01

    aureus (lux). After 12 hours in the broth, a sufficient time to allow biofilm formation ,11 the constructs were individually removed and baseline imaging...difference when cleansing components consisting of stainless steel and alumi- num.15–17 We also found that a simulated external fixator adjustment exposed...Albert E, et al. Direct continuous method for monitoring biofilm infection in a mouse model. Infect Immun. 2003;71: 882–890. 11. Charles CA, Ricotti CA

  18. Mexico City aerosol study

    Falcon, Y.I.; Ramirez, C.R.

    1987-01-01

    A major task in the field of air pollution monitoring is the development of devices for determining the mass and composition of airborne particulate matter as a function of size - and time. The sample collection device must be designed giving consideration to the nature of the aerosol and to the effects of the aerosol on human health. It has been established that particles smaller than 3.5 μm in diameter can penetrate deeply into the human respiratory system, and that larger particles are trapped in the upper respiratory passages. For these reasons, it is desirable to use a dichotomous sampler to collect particles in two size ranges, rather than to collect total particulates on a single filter. The authors discuss a study in Mexico City using a dichotomous sampler

  19. Mexico introduces pentavalent vaccine.

    1999-08-01

    Combination vaccines have been introduced in Mexico. The national immunization program has incorporated the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccines in 1998, and the pentavalent vaccine in 1999. The two categories of antigen composition in combination vaccines are: 1) multiple different antigenic types of a single pathogen, such as the 23 valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, and 2) antigens from different pathogens causing different diseases, such as the DPT and MMR vaccines. Pentavalent vaccines are included in the second category. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, and other diseases produced by Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). Combined diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, and Haemophilus influenza type b (DTP-HB/Hib) vaccine has been distributed to 87% of Mexican children under 1 year of age. Over 800,000 doses of pentavalent vaccine have been administered.

  20. Early Experience with Biodegradable Fixation of Pediatric Mandibular Fractures.

    Mazeed, Ahmed Salah; Shoeib, Mohammed Abdel-Raheem; Saied, Samia Mohammed Ahmed; Elsherbiny, Ahmed

    2015-09-01

    This clinical study aims to evaluate the stability and efficiency of biodegradable self-reinforced poly-l/dl-lactide (SR-PLDLA) plates and screws for fixation of pediatric mandibular fractures. The study included 12 patients (3-12 years old) with 14 mandibular fractures. They were treated by open reduction and internal fixation by SR-PLDLA plates and screws. Maxillomandibular fixation was maintained for 1 week postoperatively. Clinical follow-up was performed at 1 week, 6 weeks, 3 months, and 12 months postoperatively. Radiographs were done at 1 week, 3 months, and 12 months postoperatively to observe any displacement and fracture healing. All fractures healed both clinically and radiologically. No serious complications were reported in the patients. Normal occlusion was achieved in all cases. Biodegradable osteofixation of mandibular fractures offers a valuable clinical solution for pediatric patients getting the benefit of avoiding secondary surgery to remove plates, decreasing the hospital stay, further painful procedures, and psychological impact.

  1. Sorption and fixation of large cations by shale formations

    Brindley, G.W.

    1977-01-01

    Large cations such as Cs + are preferentially sorbed and partially fixed by fine-grained 2 : 1 type layer silicates such as micas, vermiculites, smectites and various mixed-layer minerals. Since these minerals are common constituents of many shale formations, these formations may provide suitable location for the burial of radioactive waste containers. However, the usual investigations of cation sorption and fixation must be extended to the conditions likely to develop in the vicinity of buried radioactive waste. Prior to possible leakage from buried containers, elevated temperatures around the burial site will develop leading to hydrothermal modification of the surrounding mineralogy. A range of temperature and of mineralogy must be envisaged. If and when leakage occurs, an outward diffusion of radioactive ions will occur by solvation in the fluids in the shale. The ratio of radioactive ions/normal ions will diminish outwards from the source. At near distances from the source high temperature modifications of the clay minerals and high concentrations of radioactive cations may lead to saturation of the fixation capacity. At greater distances, little or no thermal modification of the clay minerals and lower concentrations of ions will permit maximum sorption and fixation

  2. New fixation method for maxillary distraction osteogenesis using locking attachments.

    Suzuki, Eduardo Yugo; Buranastidporn, Boonsiva; Ishii, Masatoshi

    2006-10-01

    The external traction hooks of the intraoral splint used in the rigid external distraction (RED) system for maxillary distraction osteogenesis interfere with the surgical procedures. The purpose of this study is to introduce an innovative splint fixation method for maxillary distraction osteogenesis with Locking Attachments and evaluate their advantages, such as reduction of operating time compared with the traditional intraoral splint method. Retrospective comparison of operative times of maxillary Le Fort I osteotomy procedures was carried out with the traditional protocol using the intraoral splint cemented to the maxillary dentition (n = 14), and a removable intraoral splint that is inserted postsurgically (n = 14). Operative procedure times were compared and analyzed statistically using the data extracted from the surgical records. There were no complications inserting the removable splint postsurgically, including pain, discomfort, or time-consuming procedure. Stable and secure splint fixation was obtained before the distraction procedure and the desired treatment goals were obtained in all patients. The total operative procedure times were significantly reduced in the Locking Attachments group by 24% to 41% (approximately 65 minutes) compared with earlier operations involving the conventional splints (P Maxillary distraction osteogenesis with the Locking Attachments is a highly effective fixation approach to manage severe hypoplastic maxilla, eliminating lip constraints resulting from scarring and allowing for easier, more deliberate and careful dissection. The use of the Locking Attachments is reliable in craniofacial surgery and has proved to be advantageous in the reduction of the operating time and surgical risks.

  3. Stress Fractures of Tibia Treated with Ilizarov External Fixator.

    Górski, Radosław; Żarek, Sławomir; Modzelewski, Piotr; Górski, Ryszard; Małdyk, Paweł

    2016-08-30

    Stress fractures are the result of cyclic loading of the bone, which gradually becomes damaged. Most often they are treated by rest or plaster cast and, in rare cases, by internal fixation. There is little published data on initial reposition followed by stabilization with the Ilizarov apparatus in such fractures. Six patients were treated with an external fixator according to the Ilizarov method for a stress fracture of the tibia between 2007 and 2015. Three patients were initially treated conservatively. Due to increasing tibial deformation, they were qualified for surgical treatment with external stabilization. In the other patients, surgery was the first-line treatment. All patients demonstrated risk factors for a stress fracture. After the surgery, they fully loaded the operated limb. No patient developed malunion, nonunion, infection or venous thrombosis. The average time from the first operation to the removal of the external fixator was 19 weeks. Radiographic and clinical outcomes were satisfactory in all patients. 1. The Ilizarov method allows for successful stabilization of stress fractures of the tibia. 2. It may be a good alternative to internal stabilization, especially in patients with multiple comorbidities which affect bone quality and may impair soft tissue healing.

  4. Rib fractures in trauma patients: does operative fixation improve outcome?

    Majak, Peter; Næss, Pål A

    2016-12-01

    Renewed interest in surgical fixation of rib fractures has emerged. However, conservative treatment is still preferred at most surgical departments. We wanted to evaluate whether operative treatment of rib fractures may benefit severely injured patients. Several studies report a reduction in mechanical ventilation time, ICU length of stay (LOS), hospital LOS, pneumonia, need for tracheostomy, pain and costs in operatively treated patients with multiple rib fractures compared with patients treated nonoperatively. Although patient selection and timing of the operation seem crucial for successful outcome, no consensus exists. Mortality reduction has only been shown in a few studies. Most studies are retrospective cohort and case-control studies. Only four randomized control trials exist. Conservative treatment, consisting of respiratory assistance and pain control, is still the treatment of choice in the vast majority of patients with multiple rib fractures. In selected patients, operative fixation of fractured ribs within 72 h postinjury may lead to better outcome. More randomized control trials are needed to further determine who benefits from surgical fixation of rib fractures.

  5. Nitrogen fixation in four dryland tree species in central Chile

    Ovalle, C.; Arredondo, S.; Aronson, J.; Longeri, L.; Avendano, J.

    1998-01-01

    Results are presented from a 5-year experiment using 15 N-enriched fertilizer to determine N 2 fixation in four tree species on degraded soils in a Mediterranean-climate region of central Chile in which there are 5 months of drought. Species tested included three slow-growing but long-lived savannah trees native to southers South America, (acacia caven, Prosopic alba and P. chilensis; Mimosoideae), and Tagasaste (Chamaecytisus proliferus ssp. palmensis; Papilonoideae), a fast-growing but medium-lived tree from the Canary Islands. Tagasaste produced four- to twenty-fold more biomass than the other species, but showed declining N 2 fixation and biomass accumulation during the 5th year, corresponding to the juvenile-to-adult developmental transition. Nitrogen content was significantly higher in Tagasaste and Acacia caven than in the other species. The data revealed inter-specific differences in resource allocation and phenology of N 2 fixation rarely detailed for woody plants in dryland regions. (author)

  6. Treatment Approach for Infection of Healed Fractures After Internal Fixation.

    Lawrenz, Joshua M; Frangiamore, Salvatore J; Rane, Ajinkya A; Cantrell, William Alex; Vallier, Heather A

    2017-11-01

    To review the efficacy of a treatment approach for patients with infection and colonized implants after open reduction and internal fixation of fractures. Retrospective case series. Level one trauma center. Twenty patients were treated for wound infection with colonized implants after open reduction and internal fixation. Surgical debridement, removal of implants, and a short postoperative oral antibiotic course. The course of patients after surgical debridement and removal of implants, including culture results, antibiotic administration, and presence of recurrent clinical infection and radiographic union. Twenty patients had clinical presentations, including skin breakdown, serous drainage, purulent drainage and/or exposed implants, most commonly of the tibia (15 of 20). Mean time from index procedure to debridement with implant removal was 19.7 months. At the time of debridement and implant removal, 18 of 20 (90%) patients had a positive intraoperative culture (16 routine cultures and 2 broth cultures). The most common bacteria were Enterobacter cloacae (5/17) and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (4/17). All patients had soft tissue healing without signs of recurrent infection after mean follow up of 40 months after implant removal. Surgical debridement with implant removal plus a short oral antibiotic course is effective to resolve wound infection with a colonized implant in the setting of healed fracture after internal fixation. Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  7. Awake craniotomy using electromagnetic navigation technology without rigid pin fixation.

    Morsy, Ahmed A; Ng, Wai Hoe

    2015-11-01

    We report our institutional experience using an electromagnetic navigation system, without rigid head fixation, for awake craniotomy patients. The StealthStation® S7 AxiEM™ navigation system (Medtronic, Inc.) was used for this technique. Detailed preoperative clinical and neuropsychological evaluations, patient education and contrast-enhanced MRI (thickness 1.5mm) were performed for each patient. The AxiEM Mobile Emitter was typically placed in a holder, which was mounted to the operating room table, and a non-invasive patient tracker was used as the patient reference device. A monitored conscious sedation technique was used in all awake craniotomy patients, and the AxiEM Navigation Pointer was used for navigation during the procedure. This offers the same accuracy as optical navigation, but without head pin fixation or interference with intraoperative neurophysiological techniques and surgical instruments. The application of the electromagnetic neuronavigation technology without rigid head fixation during an awake craniotomy is accurate, and offers superior patient comfort. It is recommended as an effective adjunctive technique for the conduct of awake surgery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Tissue fixation and autoradiographic negative chemography in rat oral epithelium

    Prime, S.S.; MacDonald, D.G. (Glasgow Dental Hospital (UK))

    1983-01-01

    The effect of routine methods of tissue fixation on autoradiographic negative chemography was investigated in adult rat palatal and tongue epithelia following the incorporation of /sup 3/H thymidine in vivo. Tissues fixed in formalin or Bouin's without acetic acid demonstrated more negative chemography than those fixed in Bouin's fluid, formol-acetic-methanol or Carnoy's solutions. These findings were associated with the lowest silver grain counts per nucleus in the formalin fixed tissues, low grain counts in tissues fixed in Bouin's without acetic acid, but the addition of acetic acid to make complete Bouin's fluid gave results similar to those following fixation with Carnoy's solution. The highest silver grain counts were obtained with tissues fixed in formol-acetic-methanol. The relationship between negative chemography and the labelling indices of tissues was unclear except where the negative chemographic effects were severe. Formalin fixed tissues showed the maximum negative chemographic effects and the lowest labelling indices. Carnoy's solution appeared to be the fixative of choice for cell kinetic studies of oral epithelium.

  9. Liquifying PLDLLA Anchor Fixation in Achilles Reconstruction for Insertional Tendinopathy.

    Boden, Stephanie A; Boden, Allison L; Mignemi, Danielle; Bariteau, Jason T

    2018-04-01

    Insertional Achilles tendinopathy (IAT) is a frequent cause of posterior heel pain and is often associated with Haglund's deformity. Surgical correction for refractory cases of IAT has been well studied; however, the method of tendon fixation to bone in these procedures remains controversial, and to date, no standard technique has been identified for tendon fixation in these surgeries. Often, after Haglund's resection, there is large exposed cancellous surface for Achilles reattachment, which may require unique fixation to optimize outcomes. Previous studies have consistently demonstrated improved patient outcomes after Achilles tendon reconstruction with early rehabilitation with protected weight bearing, evidencing the need for a strong and stable anchoring of the Achilles tendon that allows early weight bearing without tendon morbidity. In this report, we highlight the design, biomechanics, and surgical technique of Achilles tendon reconstruction with Haglund's deformity using a novel technique that utilizes ultrasonic energy to liquefy the suture anchor, allowing it to incorporate into surrounding bone. Biomechanical studies have demonstrated superior strength of the suture anchor utilizing this novel technique as compared with prior techniques. However, future research is needed to ensure that outcomes of this technique are favorable when compared with outcomes using traditional suture anchoring methods. Level V: Operative technique.

  10. Transcriptional Profiling of Nitrogen Fixation in Azotobacter vinelandii▿†

    Hamilton, Trinity L.; Ludwig, Marcus; Dixon, Ray; Boyd, Eric S.; Dos Santos, Patricia C.; Setubal, João C.; Bryant, Donald A.; Dean, Dennis R.; Peters, John W.

    2011-01-01

    Most biological nitrogen (N2) fixation results from the activity of a molybdenum-dependent nitrogenase, a complex iron-sulfur enzyme found associated with a diversity of bacteria and some methanogenic archaea. Azotobacter vinelandii, an obligate aerobe, fixes nitrogen via the oxygen-sensitive Mo nitrogenase but is also able to fix nitrogen through the activities of genetically distinct alternative forms of nitrogenase designated the Vnf and Anf systems when Mo is limiting. The Vnf system appears to replace Mo with V, and the Anf system is thought to contain Fe as the only transition metal within the respective active site metallocofactors. Prior genetic analyses suggest that a number of nif-encoded components are involved in the Vnf and Anf systems. Genome-wide transcription profiling of A. vinelandiicultured under nitrogen-fixing conditions under various metal amendments (e.g., Mo or V) revealed the discrete complement of genes associated with each nitrogenase system and the extent of cross talk between the systems. In addition, changes in transcript levels of genes not directly involved in N2fixation provided insight into the integration of central metabolic processes and the oxygen-sensitive process of N2fixation in this obligate aerobe. The results underscored significant differences between Mo-dependent and Mo-independent diazotrophic growth that highlight the significant advantages of diazotrophic growth in the presence of Mo. PMID:21724999

  11. Photosynthate partitioning and nitrogen fixation of alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil

    Shieh, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    Nodule mass and number are usually correlated with rates of nitrogen fixation in legumes. Birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) with more than twice the nodule number and mass, however, fixes far less nitrogen than alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) at the same age. In this research, photosynthesis and photosynthate partitioning and utilization in relation to nitrogen fixation of alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil were examined in order to determine their relationship to nitrogen fixation potential. Photosynthate to nodules was studied using 14 CO 2 labeling techniques. Partitioning patterns were altered by shading and dark depletion treatments. Efficiency of photosynthate utilization was examined by determining turnover of 14 C photosynthate in nodule metabolites and by studying rates of cyanide-resistant and cyanide-sensitive O 2 uptake. Alfalfa nodule activity was greater than trefoil expressed on a hole pot or nodule dry weight basis. Both shading and dark treatments significantly reduced nodule activity as estimated by the acetylene reduction assay. Shoots of both species were found to be the dominant sinks for photosynthate. Percentage 14 C recovered in alfalfa roots was more than twice that of trefoil at 1,2,3,4 and 24 h after labeling. Greater relative specific radioactivity (RSA) in nodules of both species suggests that they were stronger sinks for current photosynthate than roots

  12. Fixation probability in a two-locus intersexual selection model.

    Durand, Guillermo; Lessard, Sabin

    2016-06-01

    We study a two-locus model of intersexual selection in a finite haploid population reproducing according to a discrete-time Moran model with a trait locus expressed in males and a preference locus expressed in females. We show that the probability of ultimate fixation of a single mutant allele for a male ornament introduced at random at the trait locus given any initial frequency state at the preference locus is increased by weak intersexual selection and recombination, weak or strong. Moreover, this probability exceeds the initial frequency of the mutant allele even in the case of a costly male ornament if intersexual selection is not too weak. On the other hand, the probability of ultimate fixation of a single mutant allele for a female preference towards a male ornament introduced at random at the preference locus is increased by weak intersexual selection and weak recombination if the female preference is not costly, and is strong enough in the case of a costly male ornament. The analysis relies on an extension of the ancestral recombination-selection graph for samples of haplotypes to take into account events of intersexual selection, while the symbolic calculation of the fixation probabilities is made possible in a reasonable time by an optimizing algorithm. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Tissue fixation and autoradiographic negative chemography in rat oral epithelium

    Prime, S.S.; MacDonald, D.G.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of routine methods of tissue fixation on autoradiographic negative chemography was investigated in adult rat palatal and tongue epithelia following the incorporation of 3 H thymidine in vivo. Tissues fixed in formalin or Bouin's without acetic acid demonstrated more negative chemography than those fixed in Bouin's fluid, formol-acetic-methanol or Carnoy's solutions. These findings were associated with the lowest silver grain counts per nucleus in the formalin fixed tissues, low grain counts in tissues fixed in Bouin's without acetic acid, but the addition of acetic acid to make complete Bouin's fluid gave results similar to those following fixation with Carnoy's solution. The highest silver grain counts were obtained with tissues fixed in formol-acetic-methanol. The relationship between negative chemography and the labelling indices of tissues was unclear except where the negative chemographic effects were severe. Formalin fixed tissues showed the maximum negative chemographic effects and the lowest labelling indices. Carnoy's solution appeared to be the fixative of choice for cell kinetic studies of oral epithelium. (author)

  14. Anterior cervical decompression and fusion with caspar plate fixation

    Rehman, L.; Akbar, H.; Das, G.; Hashim, A.S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the role of anterior cervical decompression and fixation with Caspar plating in cervical spine injury on neurological outcome. Study Design: A case series. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Neurosurgery, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, from July 2008 to March 2011. Methodology: Thirty patients admitted with cervical spine injuries were inducted in the study. All cases were evaluated for their clinical features, level of injury and degree of neurological injury was assessed using Frankel grading. Pre and postoperative record with X-rays and MRI were maintained. Cervical traction was applied to patients with sub-luxation. All patients underwent anterior cervical decompression, fusion and Caspar plate fixation. The follow-up period was 6 months with clinical and radiological assessment. Results: Among 30 patients, 24 (80%) were males and 6 (20%) were females. Age ranged from 15 to 55 years. Causes of injury were road traffic accident (n = 20), fall (n = 8) and assault (n = 2). Commonest mode of injury was road traffic accident (66.6%). Postoperative follow-up showed that pain and neurological deficit were improved in 21 patients. There was no improvement in 7 patients, one patient deteriorated and one expired. All patients developed pain at donor site. Conclusion: Anterior decompression, fusion and fixation with Caspar plate is an effective method with good neurological and radiological outcome. However, it is associated with pain at donor site. (author)

  15. New Mexico, 2010 Census Place

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census...

  16. New Mexico, 2010 Congressional Districts

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census...

  17. New Mexico Urban Areas - Current

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Shapefiles are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census MAF/TIGER database. The Census MAF/TIGER database...

  18. August 1973 Veracruz, Mexico Images

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — South of Veracruz, southeastern Mexico. Damage: Severe. The earthquake caused heavy damage in the states of Morelos, Puebla, and Veracruz. Thousands were left...

  19. United States Strategy for Mexico

    Centner, Robert C

    2005-01-01

    The security and stability of Mexico is of national interest to the United States, and a strong, effective alliance between the two countries is pivotal to our national defense strategy and economic prosperity...

  20. Transportation energy use in Mexico

    Sheinbaum, C.; Meyers, S.; Sathaye, J.

    1994-07-01

    This report presents data on passenger travel and freight transport and analysis of the consequent energy use in Mexico during the 1970--1971 period. We describe changes in modal shares for passenger travel and freight transport, and analyze trends in the energy intensity of different modes. We look in more detail at transportation patterns, energy use, and the related environmental problems in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area, and also discuss policies that have been implemented there to reduce emissions from vehicles.

  1. Uranium resources in New Mexico

    McLemore, V.T.; Chenoweth, W.L.

    1989-01-01

    For nearly three decades (1951-1980), the Grants uranium district in northwestern New Mexico produced more uranium than any other district in the world. The most important host rocks containing economic uranium deposits in New Mexico are sandstones within the Jurassic Morrison Formation. Approximately 334,506,000 lb of U 3 O 8 were produced from this unit from 1948 through 1987, accounting for 38% of the total uranium production from the US. All of the economic reserves and most of the resources in New Mexico occur in the Morrison Formation. Uranium deposits also occur in sandstones of Paleozoic, Triassic, Cretaceous, Tertiary, and Quaternary formations; however, only 468,680 lb of U 3 O 8 or 0.14% of the total production from New Mexico have been produced from these deposits. Some of these deposits may have a high resource potential. In contrast, almost 6.7 million lb of U 3 O 8 have been produced from uranium deposits in the Todilto Limestone of the Wanakah Formation (Jurassic), but potential for finding additional economic uranium deposits in the near future is low. Other uranium deposits in New Mexico include those in other sedimentary rocks, vein-type uranium deposits, and disseminated magmatic, pegmatitic, and contact metasomatic uranium deposits in igneous and metamorphic rocks. Production from these deposits have been insignificant (less than 0.08% of the total production from New Mexico), but there could be potential for medium to high-grade, medium-sized uranium deposits in some areas. Total uranium production from New Mexico from 1948 to 1987 amounts to approximately 341,808,000 lb of U 3 O 8 . New Mexico has significant uranium reserves and resources. Future development of these deposits will depend upon an increase in price for uranium and lowering of production costs, perhaps by in-situ leaching techniques

  2. Acromioclavicular joint dislocation: a Dog Bone button fixation alone versus Dog Bone button fixation augmented with acromioclavicular repair-a finite element analysis study.

    Sumanont, Sermsak; Nopamassiri, Supachoke; Boonrod, Artit; Apiwatanakul, Punyawat; Boonrod, Arunnit; Phornphutkul, Chanakarn

    2018-03-20

    Suspension suture button fixation was frequently used to treat acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) dislocation. However, there were many studies reporting about complications and residual horizontal instability after fixation. Our study compared the stability of ACJ after fixation between coracoclavicular (CC) fixation alone and CC fixation combined with ACJ repair by using finite element analysis (FEA). A finite element model was created by using CT images from the normal shoulder. The model 1 was CC fixation with suture button alone, and the model 2 was CC fixation with suture button combined with ACJ repair. Three different forces (50, 100, 200 N) applied to the model in three planes; inferior, anterior and posterior direction load to the acromion. The von Mises stress of the implants and deformation at ACJs was recorded. The ACJ repair in the model 2 could reduce the peak stress on the implant after applying the loading forces to the acromion which the ACJ repair could reduce the peak stress of the FiberWire at suture button about 90% when compared to model 1. And, the ACJ repair could reduce the deformation of the ACJ after applying the loading forces to the acromion in both vertical and horizontal planes. This FEA supports that the high-grade injuries of the ACJ should be treated with CC fixation combined with ACJ repair because this technique provides excellent stability in both vertical and horizontal planes and reduces stress to the suture button.

  3. Management of paediatric tibial fractures using two types of circular external fixator: Taylor spatial frame and Ilizarov circular fixator.

    Tafazal, Suhayl; Madan, Sanjeev S; Ali, Farhan; Padman, Manoj; Swift, Simone; Jones, Stanley; Fernandes, James A

    2014-05-01

    The use of circular fixators for the treatment of tibial fractures is well established in the literature. The aim of this study was to compare the Ilizarov circular fixator (ICF) with the Taylor spatial frame (TSF) in terms of treatment results in consecutive patients with tibial fractures that required operative management. A retrospective analysis of patient records and radiographs was performed to obtain patient data, information on injury sustained, the operative technique used, time duration in frame, healing time and complications of treatment. The minimum follow-up was 24 months. Ten patients were treated with ICF between 2000 and 2005, while 15 patients have been treated with TSF since 2005. Two of the 10 treated with ICF and 5 of the 15 treated with TSF were open fractures. All patients went on to achieve complete union. Mean duration in the frame was 12.7 weeks for ICF and 14.8 weeks for the TSF group. Two patients in the TSF group had delayed union and required additional procedures including adjustment of fixator and bone grafting. There was one malunion in the TSF group that required osteotomy and reapplication of frame. There were seven and nine pin-site infections in the ICF and TSF groups, respectively, all of which responded to antibiotics. There were no refractures in either group. In an appropriate patient, both types of circular fixator are equally effective but have different characteristics, with TSF allowing for postoperative deformity correction. Of concern are the two cases of delayed union in the TSF group, all in patients with high-energy injuries. We feel another larger study is required to provide further clarity in this matter. Level II-comparative study.

  4. Biomechanical Comparison of External Fixation and Compression Screws for Transverse Tarsal Joint Arthrodesis.

    Latt, L Daniel; Glisson, Richard R; Adams, Samuel B; Schuh, Reinhard; Narron, John A; Easley, Mark E

    2015-10-01

    Transverse tarsal joint arthrodesis is commonly performed in the operative treatment of hindfoot arthritis and acquired flatfoot deformity. While fixation is typically achieved using screws, failure to obtain and maintain joint compression sometimes occurs, potentially leading to nonunion. External fixation is an alternate method of achieving arthrodesis site compression and has the advantage of allowing postoperative compression adjustment when necessary. However, its performance relative to standard screw fixation has not been quantified in this application. We hypothesized that external fixation could provide transverse tarsal joint compression exceeding that possible with screw fixation. Transverse tarsal joint fixation was performed sequentially, first with a circular external fixator and then with compression screws, on 9 fresh-frozen cadaveric legs. The external fixator was attached in abutting rings fixed to the tibia and the hindfoot and a third anterior ring parallel to the hindfoot ring using transverse wires and half-pins in the tibial diaphysis, calcaneus, and metatarsals. Screw fixation comprised two 4.3 mm headless compression screws traversing the talonavicular joint and 1 across the calcaneocuboid joint. Compressive forces generated during incremental fixator foot ring displacement to 20 mm and incremental screw tightening were measured using a custom-fabricated instrumented miniature external fixator spanning the transverse tarsal joint. The maximum compressive force generated by the external fixator averaged 186% of that produced by the screws (range, 104%-391%). Fixator compression surpassed that obtainable with screws at 12 mm of ring displacement and decreased when the tibial ring was detached. No correlation was found between bone density and the compressive force achievable by either fusion method. The compression across the transverse tarsal joint that can be obtained with a circular external fixator including a tibial ring exceeds that

  5. Capture of fixation by rotational flow; a deterministic hypothesis regarding scaling and stochasticity in fixational eye movements

    Nicholas Mansel Wilkinson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Visual scan paths exhibit complex, stochastic dynamics. Even during visual fixation, the eye is in constant motion. Fixational drift and tremor are thought to reflect fluctuations in the persistent neural activity of neural integrators in the oculomotor brainstem, which integrate sequences of transient saccadic velocity signals into a short term memory of eye position. Despite intensive research and much progress, the precise mechanisms by which oculomotor posture is maintained remain elusive. Drift exhibits a stochastic statistical profile which has been modelled using random walk formalisms. Tremor is widely dismissed as noise. Here we focus on the dynamical profile of fixational tremor, and argue that tremor may be a signal which usefully reflects the workings of the oculomotor postural control. We identify signatures reminiscent of a certain flavour of transient neurodynamics; toric travelling waves which rotate around a central phase singularity. Spiral waves play an organisational role in dynamical systems at many scales throughout nature, though their potential functional role in brain activity remains a matter of educated speculation. Spiral waves have a repertoire of functionally interesting dynamical properties, including persistence, which suggest that they could in theory contribute to persistent neural activity in the oculomotor postural control system. Whilst speculative, the singularity hypothesis of oculomotor postural control implies testable predictions, and could provide the beginnings of an integrated dynamical framework for eye movements across scales.

  6. Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion using unilateral pedicle screw fixation plus contralateral translaminar facet screw fixation in lumbar degenerative diseases.

    Liu, Fubing; Jiang, Chun; Cao, Yuanwu; Jiang, Xiaoxing; Feng, Zhenzhou

    2014-07-01

    Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) has been used in lumbar degenerative diseases. Some researchers have applied unilateral fixation in TLIF to reduce operational trauma without compromising the clinical outcome, but it is always suspected biomechanically unstable. The supplementary contralateral translaminar facet screw (cTLFS) seemed to be able to overcome the inherent drawbacks of unilateral pedicle screw (uPS) fixation theoretically. This study evaluates the safety, feasibility and efficacy of TLIF using uPS with cTLFS fixation in the treatment of lumbar degenerative diseases (LDD). 50 patients (29 male) underwent the aforementioned surgical technique for their LDD between December 2009 and April 2012. The results were evaluated based on visual analogue scale (VAS) of the leg and back, Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) score and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) were recorded. The radiographic examinations in form of X-ray, computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging was done preoperatively and 1 week, 3 months, 6 months, 12 months and 24 months postoperatively. The student t-test was used for comparison between the preoperative values and postoperative counterparts. P degenerative diseases short termly.

  7. Comparison of two-staged ORIF and limited internal fixation with external fixator for closed tibial plafond fractures.

    Wang, Cheng; Li, Ying; Huang, Lei; Wang, Manyi

    2010-10-01

    To compare the results of two-staged open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) and limited internal fixation with external fixator (LIFEF) for closed tibial plafond fractures. From January 2005 to June 2007, 56 patients with closed type B3 or C Pilon fractures were randomly allocated into groups I and II. Two-staged ORIF was performed in group I and LIFEF in group II. The outcome measures included bone union, nonunion, malunion, pin-tract infection, wound infection, osteomyelitis, ankle joint function, etc. These postoperative data were analyzed with Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) 13.0. Incidence of superficial soft tissue infection (involved in wound infection or pin-tract infection) in group I was lower than that in group II (P delayed union, and arthritis symptoms, with no statistical significance. Both groups resulted similar ankle joint function. Logistic regression analysis indicated that smoking and fracture pattern were the two factors significantly influencing the final outcomes. In the treatment of closed tibial plafond fractures, both two-staged ORIF and LIFEF offer similar results. Patients undergo LIFEF carry significantly greater radiation exposure and higher superficial soft tissue infection rate (usually occurs on pin tract and does not affect the final outcomes).

  8. [DESIGN AND CLINICAL APPLICATION OF LESSER TROCHANTERIC REDUCTION FIXATION SYSTEM].

    Guo, Xiaoze; Zhang, Ying; Xiao, Jin; Xie, Huibin; Yu, Jiefeng

    2015-02-01

    To design and produce a lesser trochanteric reduction fixation system and verify its value and effectiveness. A lesser trochanteric reduction fixation system was designed and produced according to the anatomical features of the lesser trochanteric fractures. Sixty-six patients with intertrochanteric fractures of Evans type III were included between January 2010 and July 2012. Of 66 patients, 32 were treated with dynamic hip screw (DHS) assisted with the lesser trochanteric reduction fixation system (study group), and 34 cases were treated with DHS only (control group). The 2 groups were comparable with no significant difference in gender, age, the reasons, and the types of the fractures (P > 0.05). The operation time, intraoperative blood loss, neck-shaft angle, bone healing time, ratio of successful fixations, and the functional evaluation of the hip joint after operation were compared between 2 groups. The study group had shorter operation time [(58.4 ± 5.3) minutes] and less intraoperative blood loss [(186.3 ± 6.6) mL than the control group [(78.5 ± 6.2)minutes and (246.2 ± 8.7) mL], showing significant differences (t = -14.040, P = 0.000; t = -31.145, P = 0.000). There was no significant difference in neck-shaft angle between study group [(138.6 ± 3.0)] and control group [(139.4 ± 2.9) degrees] (t = -1.044, P = 0.301). The wounds healed by first intention in both groups. The 30 and 31 patients were followed up 12 to 24 months (mean, 15 months) in the study group, and 13 to 25 months (mean, 16 months) in the control group, respectively. All fractures healed well in 2 groups. The study group had significantly shorter healing time [(8.8 ± 2.0) weeks] than the control group [(10.7 ± 3.4) weeks] (t = -2.871, P = 0.006). At 12 months after operation, coxa vara happened in 2 cases of the study group with a successful fixation ratio of 93.3% and in 10 cases of the control group with a successful fixation ratio of 67.7%, showing significant difference (Χ2 = 6

  9. Changes in biomolecular profile in a single nucleolus during cell fixation.

    Kuzmin, Andrey N; Pliss, Artem; Prasad, Paras N

    2014-11-04

    Fixation of biological sample is an essential technique applied in order to "freeze" in time the intracellular molecular content. However, fixation induces changes of the cellular molecular structure, which mask physiological distribution of biomolecules and bias interpretation of results. Accurate, sensitive, and comprehensive characterization of changes in biomolecular composition, occurring during fixation, is crucial for proper analysis of experimental data. Here we apply biomolecular component analysis for Raman spectra measured in the same nucleoli of HeLa cells before and after fixation by either formaldehyde solution or by chilled ethanol. It is found that fixation in formaldehyde does not strongly affect the Raman spectra of nucleolar biomolecular components, but may significantly decrease the nucleolar RNA concentration. At the same time, ethanol fixation leads to a proportional increase (up to 40%) in concentrations of nucleolar proteins and RNA, most likely due to cell shrinkage occurring in the presence of coagulant fixative. Ethanol fixation also triggers changes in composition of nucleolar proteome, as indicated by an overall reduction of the α-helical structure of proteins and increase in the concentration of proteins containing the β-sheet conformation. We conclude that cross-linking fixation is a more appropriate protocol for mapping of proteins in situ. At the same time, ethanol fixation is preferential for studies of RNA-containing macromolecules. We supplemented our quantitative Raman spectroscopic measurements with mapping of the protein and lipid macromolecular groups in live and fixed cells using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering nonlinear optical imaging.

  10. The importance of nodule CO2 fixation for the efficiency of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in pea at vegetative growth and during pod formation.

    Fischinger, Stephanie Anastasia; Schulze, Joachim

    2010-05-01

    Nodule CO2 fixation is of pivotal importance for N2 fixation. The process provides malate for bacteroids and oxaloacetate for nitrogen assimilation. The hypothesis of the present paper was that grain legume nodules would adapt to higher plant N demand and more restricted carbon availability at pod formation through increased nodule CO2 fixation and a more efficient N2 fixation. Growth, N2 fixation, and nodule composition during vegetative growth and at pod formation were studied in pea plants (Pisum sativum L.). In parallel experiments, 15N2 and 13CO2 uptake, as well as nodule hydrogen and CO2 release, was measured. Plants at pod formation showed higher growth rates and N2 fixation per plant when compared with vegetative growth. The specific activity of active nodules was about 25% higher at pod formation. The higher nodule activity was accompanied by higher amino acid concentration in nodules and xylem sap with a higher share of asparagine. Nodule 13CO2 fixation was increased at pod formation, both per plant and per 15N2 fixed unit. However, malate concentration in nodules was only 40% of that during vegetative growth and succinate was no longer detectable. The data indicate that increased N2 fixation at pod formation is connected with strongly increased nodule CO2 fixation. While the sugar concentration in nodules at pod formation was not altered, the concentration of organic acids, namely malate and succinate, was significantly lower. It is concluded that strategies to improve the capability of nodules to fix CO2 and form organic acids might prolong intensive N2 fixation into the later stages of pod formation and pod filling in grain legumes.

  11. Governability in Contemporary Mexico

    Leonardo Curzio Gutiérrez

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Given the difficulties to establish a concept of governability and the frequent ideological usage of the term, it is much more operative to turn to the principle of governability, in the broad sense, which supports itself on five pillars: the political legitimacy of the government, the governmental efficiency to attend to the demands of society, the existence of shared social project, the agreement with the principle special interest groups, and international viability. The analysis of the structure and relevance of these five points during the long period of political transition that Mexico underwent between 1988 and 1997 shows how it was possible for this country to play off certain factors against each other in order to secure governability and safeguard against the consequences of any resultant imbalances. Between 1998-1993, the government of Salinas de Gotari based itself on the viability of a neoliberal project within an international context, and on this projectís attention to domestic demands as well as on the governmentís pact with elites. Institutional integration and legitimacy made up, then, for a process of discreet liberalization and the lack of democratic electoral commitment, which culminated in the PRI’s 1994 elections victory.The assassination of Colosia, though, and the appearance of the EZLN and the subsequent crisis surrounding the peso’s devaluation that accompanied Ernesto Zedilloís rise to power soon led to the collapse of those pillars of support. Crowning the process of the silenttransition were the elections of 1997, which makes it possible to say that in Mexico today there are now smooth elections, but that reform of the State is still unresolved —a subject that includes the reduction of the president’s competence. Seen in the short term, the most direct threats to Mexico’s governability will come as a result of the lack of attention to those demands of society’s underprivileged and the ill

  12. [Case-control study on effects of external fixation combined with limited internal fixation for the treatment of Pilon fractures of Rüedi-Allgower type III].

    Duan, Da-Peng; You, Wu-Lin; Ji, Le; Zhang, Yong-Tao; Dang, Xiao-Qian; Wang, Kun-Zheng

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the effects of three surgical operations in the treatment of Pilon fracture of Rüedi-Allgower type III, and put forward the best therapeutic method. The clinical data of 33 patients with Pilon fracture who received surgical operations (plaster immobilization group, 10 cases; distal tibia anatomical plate group, 11 cases; external fixation with limited internal fixation group, 12 cases) from October 2009 to January 2012 were analyzed. There were 5 males and 5 females, ranging in age from 24 to 61 years in the plaster immobilization group. There were 7 males and 4 females, ranging in age from 21 to 64 years in the distal tibia anatomical plate group. There were 7 males and 5 females, ranging in age from 23 to 67 years in the external fixation with limited internal fixation group. The Ankle X-ray of Pilon fracture after operation, ankle score, early and late complications were collected. Bourne system was used to evaluate ankle joint function. After 8 months to 3 years follow-up, it was found that three kinds of treatment had significant differences in the outcomes and complications (P external fixation with limited internal fixation group got the best results. The number of anatomic reduction cases in the external fixation with limited internal fixation group (7 cases) and the distal tibia anatomical plate group (8 cases) was more than the plaster immobilization group (2 cases). According to the ankle score, 8 patients got an excellent result, 3 good and 1 poor in the limited internal fixation group ,which was better than those of distal tibia anatomical plate group (5 excellent, 4 good and 2 poor) and the plaster immobilization group (3 excellent, 4 good and 3 poor). The number of early and late complications in the external fixation with limited internal fixation group was more than those in the plaster immobilization group and the distal tibia anatomical plate group (Pexternal fixation with limited internal fixation in the treatment of Pilon fracture

  13. Emergency department external fixation for provisional treatment of pilon and unstable ankle fractures

    Craig R Lareau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Unstable ankle fractures and impacted tibial pilon fractures often benefit from provisional external fixation as a temporizing measure prior to definitive fixation. Benefits of external fixation include improved articular alignment, decreased articular impaction, and soft tissue rest. Uniplanar external fixator placement in the Emergency Department (ED ex-fix is a reliable and safe technique for achieving ankle reduction and stability while awaiting definitive fixation. This procedure involves placing transverse proximal tibial and calcaneal traction pins and connecting the pins with two external fixator rods. This technique is particularly useful in austere environments or when the operating room is not immediately available. Additionally, this bedside intervention prevents the patient from requiring general anesthesia and may be a cost-effective strategy for decreasing valuable operating time. The ED ex-fix is an especially valuable procedure in busy trauma centers and during mass casualty events, in which resources may be limited.

  14. Effects of Long-term Fertilization on Potassium Fixation Capacity in Brown Soil

    Li, Na; Guo, Chunlei; Wang, Yue; Gao, Tianyi; Yang, Jinfeng; Han, Xiaori

    2018-01-01

    This study concentrated on the research of features of fixation. The objective of this study was to provide theoretical foundation of rational application of potassium fertilizer along with improving fertilizer availability ratio. A 32 years long-term experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of fertilizer application on potassium changes and the factors affecting K fixation on brown soil by simulation in laboratory. When the concentration of exogenous potassium was in range of 400∼4000 mg·kg-1, potassium fixation capacity increased along with the rise of concentration of exogenous potassium, whereas K fixation rate reduced; Compared with no-potassium fertilizer, application of potassium fertilizer and organic fertilizer reduced soil potassium fixation capacity. Potassium rate and fixation-release of potassium character in soil should be taken into comprehensive consideration for rational fertilization to maintain or improve soil fertility for increasing potassium fertilizers efficiency in agriculture.

  15. When the mean is not enough: Calculating fixation time distributions in birth-death processes.

    Ashcroft, Peter; Traulsen, Arne; Galla, Tobias

    2015-10-01

    Studies of fixation dynamics in Markov processes predominantly focus on the mean time to absorption. This may be inadequate if the distribution is broad and skewed. We compute the distribution of fixation times in one-step birth-death processes with two absorbing states. These are expressed in terms of the spectrum of the process, and we provide different representations as forward-only processes in eigenspace. These allow efficient sampling of fixation time distributions. As an application we study evolutionary game dynamics, where invading mutants can reach fixation or go extinct. We also highlight the median fixation time as a possible analog of mixing times in systems with small mutation rates and no absorbing states, whereas the mean fixation time has no such interpretation.

  16. 75 FR 28555 - Executive Green ICT & Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Mexico City, Mexico

    2010-05-21

    ... Trade Mission to Mexico City, Mexico AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce... Trade Mission to Mexico City from September 27-29, 2010. This Executive led mission will focus on... & Energy Efficiency conference will take place at the World Trade Center in Mexico City. Relevant issues on...

  17. Mexico's critical choices

    Marcos, E.

    1990-01-01

    In Mexico, the 1982 fall in international oil prices shook the national conscience and pushed the Mexican people in search of a new national image and toward the choices they must make to attain that image. But, according to the author of this paper, the country as a whole has already made critical choices for overall strategy and there are reasons for optimism. In the current economic environment of growing domestic demand and enhanced international competitiveness, the author sees PEMEX (the Mexican national oil company) facing not only the challenge of responding to the rapid changes taking place in the Mexican economy, but also making a significant contribution toward the solid and stable growth of the country. The relevant question is how PEMEX will live up to these expectations. This paper describes several steps PEMEX has taken already or is preparing to take in order to meet this challenge, including: investment in the domestic petrochemical industry; entry into the Eurobond market; development of new methods of project financing

  18. New Mexico HUC-10 Boundaries - 2013

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a complete digital hydrologic unit boundary layer to the watershed (10-digit) 10th level for the State of New Mexico. This data set consists of...

  19. New Mexico Museums and Cultural Centers

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset provides an initial version of the locations of museums and cultural centers in New Mexico, in point form, with limited attributes, compiled using...

  20. Mexico Terrain Corrected Free Air Anomalies (97)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' gravity anomaly grid for Mexico, North-Central America and the Western Caribbean Sea is NOT the input data set used in the development of the MEXICO97 model....

  1. New Mexico HUC-8 Boundaries - 2013

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a complete digital hydrologic unit boundary layer to the Subbasin (8-digit) 8th level for the State of New Mexico. This data set consists of...

  2. HSIP Fire Stations in New Mexico

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Fire Stations in New Mexico Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their jobs is...

  3. Contributions of retinal input and phenomenal representation of a fixation object to the saccadic gap effect.

    Ueda, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Kohske; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2013-04-19

    The saccadic "gap effect" refers to a phenomenon whereby saccadic reaction times (SRTs) are shortened by the removal of a visual fixation stimulus prior to target presentation. In the current study, we investigated whether the gap effect was influenced by retinal input of a fixation stimulus, as well as phenomenal permanence and/or expectation of the re-emergence of a fixation stimulus. In Experiment 1, we used an occluded fixation stimulus that was gradually hidden by a moving plate prior to the target presentation, which produced the impression that the fixation stimulus still remained and would reappear from behind the plate. We found that the gap effect was significantly weakened with the occluded fixation stimulus. However, the SRT with the occluded fixation stimulus was still shorter in comparison to when the fixation stimulus physically remained on the screen. In Experiment 2, we investigated whether this effect was due to phenomenal maintenance or expectation of the reappearance of the fixation stimulus; this was achieved by using occluding plates that were an identical color to the background screen, giving the impression of reappearance of the fixation stimulus but not of its maintenance. The result showed that the gap effect was still weakened by the same degree even without phenomenal maintenance of the fixation stimulus. These results suggest that the saccadic gap effect is modulated by both retinal input and subjective expectation of re-emergence of the fixation stimulus. In addition to oculomotor mechanisms, other components, such as attentional mechanisms, likely contribute to facilitation of the subsequent action. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Automated analysis of bacterial preparations manufactured on automatic heat fixation and staining equipment].

    2012-01-01

    Heat fixation of preparations was made in the fixation bath designed by EMKO (Russia). Programmable "Emkosteiner" (EMKO, Russia) was used for trial staining. Reagents set Micko-GRAM-NITsF was applied for Gram's method of staining. It was demostrated that automatic smear fixation equipment and programmable staining ensure high-quality imaging (1% chromaticity variation) good enough for standardization of Gram's staining of microbial preparations.

  5. Nitrogen fixation by free-living organisms in rice soils. Studies with 15N

    Rao, V.R.; Charyulu, P.B.B.N.; Nayak, D.N.; Ramakrishna, C.

    1979-01-01

    Heterotrophic nitrogen fixation as influenced by water regime, organic matter, combined nitrogen and pesticides was investigated in several Indian rice soils by means of the 15 N 2 tracer technique. Soil submergence accelerated nitrogen fixation. Addition of cellulose to both non-flooded and flooded soils enhanced nitrogen fixation. Under submerged conditions, addition of sucrose, glucose and malate in that order stimulated nitrogen fixation in alluvial soil, while only sucrose enhanced nitrogen fixation in laterite soil. Nitrogen fixation in flooded alluvial and laterite soils decreased with increasing concentration of combined nitrogen. Nitrogen fixation was appreciable in acid sulphate and saline soils under both flooded and non-flooded conditions, despite high salinity and acidity. Application of certain pesticides at rates equivalent to recommended field level greatly influenced nitrogen fixation in flooded rice soils. Additions of benomyl (carbamate fungicide) and carbofuran (methyl carbamate insecticide) to alluvial and laterite soils resulted in significant stimulation of nitrogen fixation. Gamma-BHC stimulated nitrogen fixation only in alluvial soil, with considerable inhibition in a laterite soil. Nitrogen fixation by Azospirillum lipoferum was investigated by 15 N 2 . Large variations in 15 N 2 incorporation by A. lipoferum isolated from the roots of several rice cultivars was observed. Specific lines of rice harbouring A. lipoferum with high nitrogenase activity might be selected. Nitrogen fixed by heterotrophic organisms in a complex system such as soil could not be evaluated precisely. Indigenous nitrogen fixation in a flooded soil would be in the range of 5-10 kg N/ha, increasable 3 to 4-fold by appropriate fertilizers and cultural practices

  6. Report About the Design of External Fixator for Treatment of Pelvis and Acetabulum Fractures

    Martin JANEČKA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Main point in this contribution is the design of external fixators applied in traumatology and orthopaedics. These fixators can be used in the treatment of open and unstable (i.e. complicated fractures of pelvis and its acetabulum. Numerical modelling (i.e. Finite Element Method, together with CAD modelling, experiments, material engineering, and nanotechnology are presented as a support for developing of a new design of external fixators.

  7. [Results of femoral lengthening over an intramedullary nail and external fixator].

    Jasiewicz, Barbara; Kacki, Wojciech; Tesiorowski, Maciej; Potaczek, Tomasz

    2008-01-01

    Current techniques of operative limb lengthening usually are based on distraction osteogenesis. One of the techniques is limb lengthening over an intramedullary nail. The goal of this study is to evaluate the results of femoral lengthening over an intramedullary nail. Between 1999 and 200619 femoral "over nail" lengthenings were performed. There were 7 males and 12 females. Mean patients' age at surgery was 15.8 years, and mean initial femoral shortening was 5.1 cm. Operative technique consisted of one-stage implantation of intramedullary nail and external fixator. Ilizarov apparatus was used in 9 patients, monolateral fixator in 10 cases--ORTHOFIX in 9 patients, Wagner fixator--in 1 patient. Intramedullary nail was locked proximally with screws or Schanz pins from external fixator. After distraction phase, external fixator was removed and distal locking screws were applied. Evaluation criteria: obtained lengthening, time of external fixator, treatment time, healing index, external fixation index, range of motion in hip and knee joints and complications according to Paley. The mean lengthening was 4.6 cm, and mean distraction time was 66.6 days. Mean time of external fixation was 115.5 days, and external fixation index was 26.2 days for centimeter. Healing index was 36.9 days for centimeter. In cases with monolateral fixator, healing index did not differ with the whole group. During treatment 18 complications occurred, for a rate of 0.9 complication per segment. Lengthening over an intramedullary nail reduces the time of external fixator. Over nail femoral lengthening can prevent axis deviation following regenerate bending. Complication rate is similar to lengthenings with the classic Ilizarov technique. There are no differences in the treatment time in relation to the type of external fixator.

  8. Effects of macro nutrient concentration on biological N2 fixation by Azotobacter vinelandii ATCC 12837

    Liew Pauline Woan Ying; Nazalan Najimudin; Jong Bor Chyan; Latiffah Noordin; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim; Amir Hamzah Ahmad Ghazali

    2010-01-01

    The dynamic changes of biological N 2 fixation by Azotobacter vinelandii ATCC 12837 under the influence of various macro nutrients, specifically phosphorus (P) and potassium (K), was investigated. In this attempt, Oryza sativa L. var. MR 219 was used as the model plant. Results obtained showed changes in the biological N 2 fixation activities with different macro nutrient(s) manipulations. The research activity enables optimisation of macro nutrients concentration for optimal/ enhanced biological N 2 fixation by A. vinelandii ATCC 12837. (author)

  9. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation and nitrate uptake by the pea crop

    Jensen, E.S.

    1986-08-01

    Symbiotic nitrogen fixation and nitrate uptake by pea plants (Pisum sativum L.) were studied in field and pot experiments using the 15 N isotope dilution technique and spring barley as a non-fixing reference crop. Barley, although not ideal, seemed to be a suitable reference for pea in the 15 N-technique. Maximum N 2 fixation activity of 10 kg N fixed per ha per day was reached around the flat pod growth stage, and the activity decreased rapidly during pod-filling. The pea crop fixed between 100 and 250 kg N ha -1 , corresponding to from 45 to 80 per cent of total crop N. The amount of symbiotically fixed N 2 depended on the climatic conditions in the experimental year, the level of soil mineral N and the pea cultivar. Field-grown pea took up 60 to 70 per cent of the N-fertilizer supplied. The supply of 50 kg NO 3 -N ha -1 inhibited the N 2 fixation approximately 15 per cent. Small amounts of fertilizer N, supplied at sowing (starter-N), slightly stimulated the vegetative growth of pea, but the yields of seed dry matter and protein were not significantly influenced. In the present field experiments the environmental conditions, especially the distribution of rainfall during the growth season, seemed to be more important in determining the protein and dry matter yield of the dry pea crop, than the ability of pea to fix nitrogen symbiotically. However, fertilizer N supplied to pot-grown pea plants at the flat pod growth stage or as split applications significantly increased the yield of seed dry matter and protein. (author)

  10. Fixation of the Achilles tendon insertion using suture button technology.

    Fanter, Nathan J; Davis, Edward W; Baker, Champ L

    2012-09-01

    In the operative treatment of Achilles insertional tendinopathy, no guidelines exist concerning which form of fixation of the Achilles tendon insertion is superior. Transcalcaneal drill pin passage does not place any major plantar structures at risk, and the addition of a Krackow stitch and suture button to the fixation technique provides a significant increase in ultimate load to failure in Achilles tendon insertional repairs. Controlled laboratory study. The Achilles tendon insertions in 6 fresh-frozen cadaveric ankles were detached, and transcalcaneal drill pins were passed. Plantar dissection took place to evaluate the drill pin relationship to the plantar fascia, lateral plantar nerve and artery, flexor digitorum longus tendon, and master knot of Henry. The Achilles tendons were then repaired with a double-row suture anchor construct alone or with a suture button and Krackow stitch added to the double-row suture anchor construct. The repairs were then tested to maximum load to failure at 20 mm/min. The mode of failure was recorded, and the mean maximum load to failure was assessed using the Student t test for distributions with equal variance. Transcalcaneal drill pin passage did not place any selected anatomic structures at risk. The mean maximum load to failure for the suture bridge group was 239.2 N; it was 391.4 N for the group with the suture button (P = .014). The lateral plantar artery was the structure placed at greatest risk from drill pin placement, with a mean distance of 22.7 mm (range, 16.5-29.2 mm) between the pin and artery. In this laboratory study, transcalcaneal drill pin passage appeared to be anatomically safe, and the use of suture button technology with a Krackow stitch for Achilles tendon insertional repair significantly increased repair strength. Achilles tendon insertional repair with suture button fixation and a Krackow stitch may facilitate the earlier institution of postoperative rehabilitation and improve clinical outcomes.

  11. Mechanical design optimization of bioabsorbable fixation devices for bone fractures.

    Lovald, Scott T; Khraishi, Tariq; Wagner, Jon; Baack, Bret

    2009-03-01

    Bioabsorbable bone plates can eliminate the necessity for a permanent implant when used to fixate fractures of the human mandible. They are currently not in widespread use because of the low strength of the materials and the requisite large volume of the resulting bone plate. The aim of the current study was to discover a minimally invasive bioabsorbable bone plate design that can provide the same mechanical stability as a standard titanium bone plate. A finite element model of a mandible with a fracture in the body region is subjected to bite loads that are common to patients postsurgery. The model is used first to determine benchmark stress and strain values for a titanium plate. These values are then set as the limits within which the bioabsorbable bone plate must comply. The model is then modified to consider a bone plate made of the polymer poly-L/DL-lactide 70/30. An optimization routine is run to determine the smallest volume of bioabsorbable bone plate that can perform and a titanium bone plate when fixating fractures of this considered type. Two design parameters are varied for the bone plate design during the optimization analysis. The analysis determined that a strut style poly-L-lactide-co-DL-lactide plate of 690 mm2 can provide as much mechanical stability as a similar titanium design structure of 172 mm2. The model has determined a bioabsorbable bone plate design that is as strong as a titanium plate when fixating fractures of the load-bearing mandible. This is an intriguing outcome, considering that the polymer material has only 6% of the stiffness of titanium.

  12. Fixation-free assessment of the Hirschberg ratio.

    Model, Dmitri; Eizenman, Moshe; Sturm, Veit

    2010-08-01

    To describe a novel methodology by which to measure the Hirschberg ratio (HR) in infants. The methodology does not require fixation on specific points, and measurements are made while infants look naturally at a display. The HR is calculated automatically from measurements of the direction of the optical axis, the position of the pupil center, and corneal reflexes in video images from an advanced two-camera eye-tracking system. The performance of the novel fixation-free procedure (FFP) was evaluated in 43 adults by measuring the average difference and the 95% limits of agreement with the standard fixation-based procedure (FBP). Repeatability of the HR measurements was evaluated by assessing the 95% limits of agreement between two independent measurements. Performance of the FFP was also evaluated in five infants. In adults, the average HR was 12.89 +/- 1.22 degrees/mm for FFP and 12.81 +/- 1.22 degrees/mm for FBP. FFP and FBP measurements were highly correlated (r = 0.95; P limits of agreement between FFP and FBP were +/-0.86 degrees/mm. The 95% limits of agreement of repeated measurements were +/-0.66 degrees/mm for FFP and +/-0.77 degrees/mm for FBP. In infants, the 95% limits of agreement of repeated measurements by FFP were +/-0.63 degrees/mm. In adults, the FFP provides accurate measurements of the HR that are in excellent agreement with measurements by FBP. In infants, measurements of HR by FFP show the same repeatability and consistency.

  13. Laser-assisted fixation of a nitinol stapes prosthesis.

    Schrötzlmair, Florian; Suchan, Fabian; Pongratz, Thomas; Krause, Eike; Müller, Joachim; Sroka, Ronald

    2018-02-01

    Otosclerosis is an inner ear bone disease characterized by fixation of the stapes and consequently progressive hearing loss. One treatment option is the surgical replacement of the stapes by a prosthesis. When so called "smart materials" like nitinol are used, prosthesis fixation can be performed using a laser without manual crimping on the incus. However, specific laser-prosthesis interactions have not been described yet. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the thermo-mechanical properties of the NiTiBOND® prosthesis as a basis for handling instructions for laser-assisted prosthesis fixation. Closure of the NiTiBOND® prosthesis was induced ex vivo by either a diode laser emitting at λ = 940 nm or a CO 2 laser (λ = 10,600 nm). Total energy for closure was determined. Suitable laser parameters (pulse duration, power per pulse, distance between tip of the laser fiber and prosthesis) were assessed. Specific laser-prosthesis interactions were recorded. Especially the diode laser was found to be an appropriate energy source. A total energy deposit of 60 mJ by pulses in near contact application was found to be sufficient for prosthesis closure ex vivo. Energy should be transmitted through a laser fiber equipollent to the prosthesis band diameter. Specific deformation characteristics due to the zonal prosthesis composition have to be taken into account. NiTiBOND® stapes prosthesis can be closed by very little energy when appropriate energy sources like diode lasers are used, suggesting a relatively safe application in vivo. Lasers Surg. Med. 50:153-157, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Assessment of modified gold surfaced titanium implants on skeletal fixation

    Zainali, Kasra; Danscher, Gorm; Jakobsen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    shown to liberate gold ions through the process termed dissolucytosis. Furthermore, gold ions are known to act in an anti-inflammatory manner by inhibiting cellular NF-κB-DNA binding. The present study investigated whether partial coating of titanium implants could augment early osseointegration...... and increase mechanical fixation. Cylindrical porous coated Ti-6Al4V implants partially coated with metallic gold were inserted in the proximal region of the humerus in ten canines and control implants without gold were inserted in contralateral humerus. Observation time was 4 weeks. Biomechanical push out...

  15. Effects of gold coating on experimental implant fixation

    Zainali, Kasra; Danscher, Gorm; Jakobsen, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Insertions of orthopedic implants are traumatic procedures that trigger an inflammatory response. Macrophages have been shown to liberate gold ions from metallic gold. Gold ions are known to act in an antiinflammatory manner by inhibiting cellular NF-kappa B-DNA binding and suppressing I-kappa B......-kinase activation. The present study investigated whether gilding implant Surfaces augmented early implant osseointegration and implant fixation by its modulatory effect on the local inflammatory response. Ion release was traced by autometallographic silver enhancement. Gold-coated cylindrical porous coated Ti6Al4V...

  16. Fixation of metallic sulfosalicylate complexes on an anionic exchange resin

    Cahuzac, S.

    1969-06-01

    Since sulfosalicylate ions have acid-base properties, sulfosalicylate complexes have an apparent stability which varies with the ph. As a result, the fixation of sulfo-salicylates on an anionic exchange resin depends on the ph of the solution in equilibrium with the resin. This research has been aimed at studying the influence of the ph on the fixation on an anionic exchange resin (Dowex 1 x 4) of sulfosalicylate anions on the one hand, and of metallic sulfosalicylate complexes on the other hand. In the first part of this work, a determination has been made, by frontal analysis of the distribution of sulfosalicylate ions in the resin according to the total sulfosalicylate I concentration in the aqueous solution in equilibrium with the resin. The exchange constants of these ions between the resin and the solution have been calculated. In the second part, a study has been made of the fixation of anionic sulfosalicylate complexes of Fe(III), Al(III), Cr(III), Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II), Zn(II), Mn(II), Cd(II), Fe(II) and UO 2 2+ . By measuring the partition coefficients of these different elements between the resin and the solution it has been possible to give interpretation for the modes of fixation of the metallic ions, and to calculate their exchange constant between the resin and the solution. The relationship has been established for each metallic element studied, between its partition coefficient, the ph and the total concentration of the complexing agent in solution. Such a relationship makes it possible to predict, for given conditions, the nature of the species in solution and in the resin, as well as the partition coefficient of a metallic, element. Finally, in the third part of the work, use has been made of results obtained previously, to carry out some separations (Ni 2+ - Co 2+ ; Ni 2+ - Co 2+ - Cu 2+ ; UO 2 2+ - Fe 3+ ; UO 2 2+ - Cr 3+ ; UO 2 2+ - Cu 2+ ; UO 2 2+ - Ni 2+ ; UO 2 2+ - Co 2+ ; UO 2 2+ - Mn 2+ and UO 2 2+ - Cd 2+ ), as well as the purification

  17. Seed protein and nitrogen fixation in chickpea mutant variety Hyprosola

    Schroeder, H E; Gibson, A H; Oram, R N [CSIRO, Division of Plant Industry, Canberra ACT (Australia); Shaikh, M A.Q. [Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture, Mymensingh (Bangladesh)

    1989-01-01

    Full text: 'Hyprosola' is a high yielding, high protein mutant cultivar obtained after gamma irradiation from the variety 'Faridpur-1'. The mutant yields 45 % more protein per unit area. The essential amino acid index is unchanged. It is likely that the high nutritional value in 'Hyprosola' seed protein arises from an increase in the albumin:globulin ratio. Nitrogen fixation rates of the mutant during the first 7 weeks of growth were found to be similar to 'Faridpur-1'. Under field conditions, the mutant may be able to nodulate more rapidly and more extensively than the parent variety. (author)

  18. Abnormalities of fixation, saccade and pursuit in posterior cortical atrophy.

    Shakespeare, Timothy J; Kaski, Diego; Yong, Keir X X; Paterson, Ross W; Slattery, Catherine F; Ryan, Natalie S; Schott, Jonathan M; Crutch, Sebastian J

    2015-07-01

    The clinico-neuroradiological syndrome posterior cortical atrophy is the cardinal 'visual dementia' and most common atypical Alzheimer's disease phenotype, offering insights into mechanisms underlying clinical heterogeneity, pathological propagation and basic visual phenomena (e.g. visual crowding). Given the extensive attention paid to patients' (higher order) perceptual function, it is surprising that there have been no systematic analyses of basic oculomotor function in this population. Here 20 patients with posterior cortical atrophy, 17 patients with typical Alzheimer's disease and 22 healthy controls completed tests of fixation, saccade (including fixation/target gap and overlap conditions) and smooth pursuit eye movements using an infrared pupil-tracking system. Participants underwent detailed neuropsychological and neurological examinations, with a proportion also undertaking brain imaging and analysis of molecular pathology. In contrast to informal clinical evaluations of oculomotor dysfunction frequency (previous studies: 38%, current clinical examination: 33%), detailed eyetracking investigations revealed eye movement abnormalities in 80% of patients with posterior cortical atrophy (compared to 17% typical Alzheimer's disease, 5% controls). The greatest differences between posterior cortical atrophy and typical Alzheimer's disease were seen in saccadic performance. Patients with posterior cortical atrophy made significantly shorter saccades especially for distant targets. They also exhibited a significant exacerbation of the normal gap/overlap effect, consistent with 'sticky fixation'. Time to reach saccadic targets was significantly associated with parietal and occipital cortical thickness measures. On fixation stability tasks, patients with typical Alzheimer's disease showed more square wave jerks whose frequency was associated with lower cerebellar grey matter volume, while patients with posterior cortical atrophy showed large saccadic intrusions

  19. Nitrogen fixation and induction of pseudo-nodules in grass

    Rasul, G.; Hassan, U.; Mehnaz, S.; Malik, K.A.

    1993-01-01

    The rice grown nitrogen depleted saline sols showed higher values for in-situ ARA. Isolations of N/sub 2/ fixing bacteria were carried out on soil Azotobacter was observed in plant rhizosphere. The 2,4-D (0.5 and 1 ppm) with diazo trophic bacteria induced nodule like structure on the wheat roots. The bacteria were found in nodules in the form of micro colonies or bacterial aggregates which were responsible for nitrogen fixation providing optimum 02 concentrations was incorporations /sup 15/N dilution data indicated that 125-46.5% atmosphere N was incorporated in nitrogen pool of inoculated plants. (author)

  20. Fixation in laparoscopic incisional hernia repair: Suture versus tacks

    Adil Bangash

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: To compare the frequency of complications of laparoscopic repair of incisional hernia using fixation of mesh with transabdominal sutures tacks. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted as part of an interventional multicenter trial at the Rehman Medical Institute, Peshawar, Peshawar Institute of Medical Sciences, and Pakistan Institute of Medical Science, Islamabad, from the 1 st of November 2008 till 31 st October 2011. The frequency of complications was calculated as the measure of comparing two methods of fixation in laparoscopic repair of incisional hernia using the IPOM technique. These patients were admitted via the outpatient department and their demographic data were collected on a pro forma basis. Forty-five patients were alternately placed in either group, and group I comprised patients with a ventral hernia that was fixed using spiral tacks whereas the other group was fixed with transabdominal sutures. A polytetraflouroethylene (Dual R mesh was applied in all cases. All data were collected onthe individual pro forma of each patient and was loaded on the SPSS R version 13.0. Results: The BMI in both groups was similar (P=0.94 The mean hospital stay was higher in the PTFE mesh group but the values were not significant (P=1.22.No perioperative death was observed in either group. One patient (2.2% from group I was readmitted with varying complaints and was diagnosed as having subacute intestinal obstruction (P>0.05. A higher but insignificant recurrence rate was observed in the polyester group over a one-year period of follow-up. Three patients (6.6% were diagnosed with recurrences in group I. Instead the PTFE group had a similar recurrence rate recurrence (P=1.00. Conclusion: The rate of recurrence in this study showed no significant difference by either mode of fixation. But statistically significant pain scores and increased operative time to fixation favors the use of tacks that limits to the few inner

  1. A new fixation aid for the radiotherapy of eye tumors

    Buchgeister, Markus; Grisanti, Salvatore; Suesskind, Daniela; Bamberg, Michael; Paulsen, Frank

    2007-01-01

    A modified swim goggle holding a light spot as an optical guide for actively aligning the eye in a reproducible orientation has been constructed to perform radiotherapy of ocular tumors. This device is compatible with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging systems. Image fusion of these data sets yielded clinically acceptable results. The reproducibility of the eye's positioning is tested by repeated CT. The eye's alignment during radiotherapy is monitored by an infrared TV camera with individual markings of the eye's position on the TV-monitor screen. From 2003-2006, 50 patients were treated with this fixation aid by radiosurgery with good patient compliance

  2. Infra-red process for colour fixation on fabrics

    Raymond, D.J.; Biau, D.

    1983-01-01

    Infra-red radiations find wide application in industrial processes as heating, drying, stoving and forming. The results are often far better than those from the other techniques: convection oven, gas IR etc ... They come from the electric IR specific advantages: energy direct transmission, emitter and product spectral coupling, possible selectivity. That is the case in the Textile Industry, where experiments showed that infra-red process heating could be efficient for colour fixation on fabrics. Shorter production cycles and energy saving are the main results

  3. [Domestic external fixator application in the treatment of limb deformities: 7 289 cases application report].

    Qin, S H; Guo, B F; Zheng, X J; Jiao, S F; Xia, H T; Peng, A M; Pan, Q; Zang, J C; Wang, Z J

    2017-09-01

    Objective: To discuss the clinical application and effects of domestic external fixator in the treatment of patients with malformations of limbs. Methods: A total of 7 289 patients with malformation of limbs who had been operated in Qin Sihe orthopedic surgery team from January 1989 to June 2016 were retrospective analyzed. The patients were treated with domestic external fixator, including 4 033 males and 3 256 females, aging from 2 to 82 years with a mean age of 23.4 years. There were 2 732 patients using Ilizarov external fixator, 4 713 patients using hybrid external fixator, 57 patients using monobrachial external fixator, 232 patients using Ilizarov external fixator and hybrid external fixator. The Ilizarov, hybrid and monobrachial external fixator were used in 67, 65 and 0 patients on the upper limbs and in 2 665, 4 616 and 57 patients on the lower limbs. There were 3 028 patients operated on the left limbs, 3 260 patients operated on the right limbs and 1 001 patients operated on the bilateral limbs. The top three types of diseases were sequelae of poliomyelitis, cerebral palsy and post-traumatic stress disorder peromely. Deformity types inclued talipes equinovarus, knee flexion deformity, cavus foot and so on. Results: All the patients were followed up for a period of 2.5 months to 22.4 years, with an average follow-up time of 5.4 years. All of the external fixators were used for single once, and there was no substitute for external fixator quality problem. All the patients were completed surgery goal until removing external fixation except 1 patient gave up treatment and 1 removed the fixator because of metal allergy. The common complications included wire or pin infection and joint movement limitation and so on. Conclusions: The domestic external fixator developed and produced based on the characteristics of Chinese limb deformity disability. The domestic external fixator can be used to treat kinds of limb deformities with the advantages of practical

  4. Working without a Union in New Mexico

    Adele, Niame; Rack, Christine

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors provide a description of the academic climate in New Mexico. Like many other places in the world today, New Mexico is trying to find an identity in an environment that the authors label "increasingly privatized, corporatized, and militarized." New Mexico's higher education salaries are lower than those in…

  5. New Mexico Charter Schools Annual Report

    New Mexico Public Education Department, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, the New Mexico legislature passed changes to the Charter School Act that provided more accountability for both charters and authorizers in New Mexico. As part of that law, the Public Education Department (PED) is asked to submit an annual report on the status of charter schools in New Mexico. This is the first report submitted under that…

  6. California-Mexico gas exports eyed

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that two California utilities have proposed providing natural gas transportation services to Mexico. The arrangement would provide a second U.S. export sales point at the U.S.-Mexico border and perhaps help alleviate an expected surplus of gas pipeline capacity available to California. Mexico currently imports about 200 MMcfd of U.S. gas via pipelines in Texas

  7. Digital Geologic Map of New Mexico - Formations

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The geologic map was created in GSMAP at Socorro, New Mexico by Orin Anderson and Glen Jones and published as the Geologic Map of New Mexico 1:500,000 in GSMAP...

  8. Removal of internal fixation--the effect on patients' complaints: a study of 66 cases of removal of internal fixation after malleolar fractures

    Jacobsen, S; Honnens de Lichtenberg, M; Jensen, C M

    1994-01-01

    To estimate the effect of removal of internal fixation after treatment of malleolar fractures on postoperatively presented complaints, we retrospectively evaluated 66 patients by their records and by personal questionnaires. Of all the patients, 89.4% had one or more complaints. These were...... typically soreness over implant and cicatrix, reduced movement of the ankle joint, and strain-related pain. About 75% of these patients reported improvement after removal. The AO mode of fixation, i.e., typically by lateral semitubular plating and transsyndesmotic screw and a medial screw or pins...... period. We conclude that removal of internal fixation after malleolar fractures is indicated when common types of complaints are presented....

  9. CERN servers go to Mexico

    Stefania Pandolfi

    2015-01-01

    On Wednesday, 26 August, 384 servers from the CERN Computing Centre were donated to the Faculty of Science in Physics and Mathematics (FCFM) and the Mesoamerican Centre for Theoretical Physics (MCTP) at the University of Chiapas, Mexico.   CERN’s Director-General, Rolf Heuer, met the Mexican representatives in an official ceremony in Building 133, where the servers were prepared for shipment. From left to right: Frédéric Hemmer, CERN IT Department Head; Raúl Heredia Acosta, Deputy Permanent Representative of Mexico to the United Nations and International Organizations in Geneva; Jorge Castro-Valle Kuehne, Ambassador of Mexico to the Swiss Confederation and the Principality of Liechtenstein; Rolf Heuer, CERN Director-General; Luis Roberto Flores Castillo, President of the Swiss Chapter of the Global Network of Qualified Mexicans Abroad; Virginia Romero Tellez, Coordinator of Institutional Relations of the Swiss Chapter of the Global Network of Qualified Me...

  10. Health technology assessment in Mexico.

    Gómez-Dantés, Octavio; Frenk, Julio

    2009-07-01

    The history of health technology assessment (HTA) in Mexico is examined, starting with the efforts to incorporate this topic into the policy agenda and culminating with the recent creation of a specialized public agency. Information was gathered through a bibliographic search and interviews with actors involved in HTA in Mexico. HTA efforts were developed in Mexico since the mid-1980s with the participation both of academics and of policy makers, a relationship that eventually led to the creation of the Center for Technological Excellence within the Ministry of Health. Institutionalization of HTA in resource-constrained settings requires the development of a critical mass of researchers involved in this field, the implementation of information efforts, and the establishment of strong relationships between HTA experts and policy makers.

  11. Country watch: Mexico.

    San Miguel Aguirre, E

    1997-01-01

    This article describes the program activities of the Mexican National Commission on Human Rights (CNDH), which in 1994 created a program to address human rights issues of HIV-infected victims. The aim was to answer complaints of discrimination against HIV-infected persons and to modify confrontational attitudes of groups that feel infringed upon by the rights of HIV-infected persons. CNDH formed a task force of HIV/AIDS medical experts, which recommended actions for three types of discriminatory practices. Persons with HIV/AIDS (PWHA) who were confined in prison filed complaints about the lack of necessary medications or medical attention. The Official Mexican Norm for the Prevention and Control of HIV stipulates, in its Manual for the Attention of Complaints Regarding HIV/AIDS, protocols for treatment of PWHA. This manual was distributed to 31 State Human Rights Commissions in Mexico. CNDH implemented an outreach program to educate the public about HIV/AIDS, to offer training courses, and to publish written materials about discrimination against PWHA. The CNDH conducted conferences and training sessions for workers in the health services, where most violations of human rights take place. CNDH works closely with the National Board for the Prevention and Control of AIDS to assess clinical records, train staff handling complaints, and channel complaints that require CNDH intervention. CNDH conducts training workshops for nongovernmental organizations. CNDH is constrained by bureaucratic procedures that slow the process of resolving complaints and by the small CNDH staff responsible for handling the more complex cases. However, CNDH has successfully resolved a number of complaints and improved the prison conditions of PWHA.

  12. Is mask-based stereotactic head-and-neck fixation as precise as stereotactic head fixation for precision radiotherapy?

    Georg, Dietmar; Bogner, Joachim; Dieckmann, Karin; Poetter, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to compare setup accuracy and reproducibility of a stereotactic head and a head-and-neck fixation system, both based on thermoplastic material. Methods and Material: Ten patients were immobilized with a head and a head-and-neck fixation system (both BrainLAB, Germany). Both mask systems were modified with a custom-made mouthpiece and a strip of thermoplastic material attached to the lower part of the mask. During the first treatment session, after positioning patients using room lasers, two orthogonal portal images were taken as reference. Later on, at least five sets of orthogonal portal images were acquired for each patient. The isocentric setup accuracy was determined by comparing field edges and anatomic landmarks and the repositioning accuracy in the mask was obtained by comparing individual anatomic landmarks with respect to the metal balls, fixed on the masks. Systematic and random deviations and resulting three-dimensional (3D) vectors were calculated. Additionally, margins were derived from the systematic and random component of the isocentric setup accuracy. Finally, inter- and intraobserver variations were analyzed. Results: The systematic variation of the isocentric setup accuracy was very similar for the two mask systems, but the random variations were slightly larger for the head-and-neck system, resulting in a 0.4-mm larger 3D vector. The repositioning variations for the head mask were smaller compared with the head-and-neck mask, resulting in smaller 3D vectors for the random (∼0.4 mm) and systematic variations (∼0.6 mm). For both mask systems, a 2-mm margin can be used in lateral and anteroposterior direction, whereas in craniocaudal direction, this margin should be extended to 2.5 mm for the head mask and to 3 mm for the head-and-neck mask. The average absolute differences between two observers were within 0.5 mm, maximum deviations around 1 mm. Conclusion: Thermoplastic mask-based stereotactic head

  13. [Comparison study on locking compress plate external fixator and standard external fixator for treatment of tibial open fractures].

    Wu, Gang; Luo, Xiaozhong; Tan, Lun; Lin, Xu; Wu, Chao; Guo, Yong; Zhong, Zewei

    2013-11-01

    To compare the clinical results of locking compress plate (LCP) as an external fixator and standard external fixator for treatment of tibial open fractures. Between May 2009 and June 2012, 59 patients with tibial open fractures were treated with LCP as an external fixator in 36 patients (group A), and with standard external fixator in 23 patients (group B). There was no significant difference in gender, age, cause of injury, affected side, type of fracture, location, and interval between injury and surgery between 2 groups (P > 0.05). The time of fracture healing and incision healing, the time of partial weight-bearing, the range of motion (ROM) of knee and ankle, and complications were compared between 2 groups. The incidence of pin-track infection in group A (0) was significantly lower than that in group B (21.7%) (P=0.007). No significant difference was found in the incidence of superficial infection and deep infection of incision, and the time of incision healing between 2 groups (P > 0.05). Deep vein thrombosis occurred in 5 cases of group A and 2 cases of group B, showing no significant difference (Chi(2)=0.036, P=0.085). All patients were followed up 15.2 months on average (range, 9-28 months) in group A, and 18.6 months on average (range, 9-47 months) in group B. The malunion rate and nonunion rate showed no significant difference between groups A and B (0 versus 13.0% and 0 versus 8.7%, P > 0.05); the delayed union rate of group A (2.8%) was significantly lower than that of group B (21.7%) (Chi(2)=5.573, P=0.018). Group A had shorter time of fracture healing, quicker partial weight-bearing, greater ROM of the knee and ankle than group B (P fracture, and has good patients' compliance, so it is helpful to do functional exercise, improve fracture healing and function recovery, and reduce the complication incidence.

  14. Web pages: What can you see in a single fixation?

    Jahanian, Ali; Keshvari, Shaiyan; Rosenholtz, Ruth

    2018-01-01

    Research in human vision suggests that in a single fixation, humans can extract a significant amount of information from a natural scene, e.g. the semantic category, spatial layout, and object identities. This ability is useful, for example, for quickly determining location, navigating around obstacles, detecting threats, and guiding eye movements to gather more information. In this paper, we ask a new question: What can we see at a glance at a web page - an artificial yet complex "real world" stimulus? Is it possible to notice the type of website, or where the relevant elements are, with only a glimpse? We find that observers, fixating at the center of a web page shown for only 120 milliseconds, are well above chance at classifying the page into one of ten categories. Furthermore, this ability is supported in part by text that they can read at a glance. Users can also understand the spatial layout well enough to reliably localize the menu bar and to detect ads, even though the latter are often camouflaged among other graphical elements. We discuss the parallels between web page gist and scene gist, and the implications of our findings for both vision science and human-computer interaction.

  15. Navicular stress fractures treated with minimally invasive fixation

    Korula Mani Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Early intervention with minimally invasive surgery has significantly less morbidity and a reliable early return to active sports and is therefore the best option in high-performance athletes. Materials and Methods: Nine athletes with ten stress fractures of the navicular treated at our institution between April 1991 and October 2000. The mean age of the patients was 22.8 years (range 18-50 years. All patients were treated by minimally invasive screw fixation and early weight bearing mobilization without a cast. The average followup was 7 years (range 2-11 years. Results: Seven of the nine patients returned to their pre-fracture level of sporting activity at an average of 5 months (range 3-9 months. One patient returned to full sporting activity following a delay of 2 years due to an associated tibial stress fracture and one patient had an unsatisfactory result. Long term review at an average of 7 years showed that six of these eight patients who returned to sports remained symptom free with two patients experiencing minimal intermittent discomfort after prolonged activity. Conclusions: We recommend percutaneous screw fixation as a reliable, low morbidity procedure allowing early return to full sporting activity without long term complications or recurrences.

  16. Energy Considerations for Plasma-Assisted N-Fixation Reactions

    Aikaterini Anastasopoulou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In a time of increasing concerns about the immense energy consumption and poor environmental performance of contemporary processes in the chemical industry, there is great need to develop novel sustainable technologies that enhance energy efficiency. There is abundant chemical literature on process innovations (laboratory-scale around the plasma reactor itself, which, naturally, is the essential part to be intensified to achieve a satisfactory process. In essence, a plasma process needs attention beyond reaction engineering towards the process integration side and also with strong electrical engineering focus. In this mini-review, we have detailed our future focus on the process and energy intensification of plasma-based N-fixation. Three focal points are mainly stressed throughout the review: (I the integration of renewable energy; (II the power supply system of plasma reactors and (III process design of industrial plasma-assisted nitrogen fixation. These different enabling strategies will be set in a holistic and synergetic picture so as to improve process performance.

  17. Feasibility of purely endoscopic intramedullary fixation of mandibular condyle fractures.

    Frake, Paul C; Goodman, Joseph F; Joshi, Arjun S

    2015-01-01

    The investigators of this study hypothesized that fractures of the mandibular condyle can be repaired using short-segment intramedullary implants and purely endoscopic surgical technique, using a basic science, human cadaver model in an academic center. Endoscopic instrumentation was used through a transoral mucosal incision to place intramedullary implants of 2 cm in length into osteotomized mandibular condyles. The surgical maneuvers that required to insert these implants, including condyle positioning, reaming, implant insertion, and seating of the mandibular ramus, are described herein. Primary outcome was considered as successful completion of the procedure. Ten cadaveric mandibular condyles were successfully repaired with rigid intramedullary internal fixation without the use of external incisions. Both insertion of a peg-type implant and screwing a threaded implant into the condylar head were possible. The inferior portion of the implant remained exposed, and the ramus of the mandible was manipulated into position on the implant using retraction at the sigmoid notch. The results of this study suggest that purely endoscopic repair of fractures of the mandibular condyle is possible by using short-segment intramedullary titanium implants and a transoral endoscopic approach without the need for facial incisions or punctures. The biomechanical advantages of these intramedullary implants, including improved strength and resistance to mechanical failure compared with miniplates, have been recently established. The combination of improved implant design and purely endoscopic technique may allow for improved fixation and reduced surgical- and implant-related morbidity in the treatment of condylar fractures.

  18. Functional outcome of knee arthrodesis with a monorail external fixator.

    Roy, Alfred Cyril; Albert, Sandeep; Gouse, Mohamad; Inja, Dan Barnabas

    2016-04-01

    Several methods for obtaining knee arthrodesis have been described in the literature and world; over, the commonest cause for arthrodesis is a failed arthroplasty. Less commonly, as in this series, post-infective or traumatic causes may also require a knee fusion wherein arthroplasty may not be indicated. We present salient advantages along with the radiological and functional outcome of twenty four patients treated with a single monorail external fixator. All patients went on develop fusion at an average of 5.4 months with an average limb length discrepancy of 3 cm (1.5-6 cm). Improvements in functional outcome as assessed by the lower extremity functional score (LEFS), and the SF-36 was significant (p = 0.000). Knee arthrodesis with a single monorail external fixator is a reasonable single-staged salvage option in patients wherein arthroplasty may not be the ideal choice. The outcome, though far from ideal, is definitely positive and predictable.

  19. Internal Fixation of Cervical Fractures in Three Horses.

    Rossignol, Fabrice; Brandenberger, Olivier; Mespoulhes-Rivière, Céline

    2016-01-01

    To describe the surgical treatment outcome of cervical fractures in 3 horses. Case report. Three client-owned horses with cervical vertebral fractures. Three horses were refered for neck stiffness, pain, and ataxia after a cervical trauma because of a fall. Radiographic examination showed an oblique displaced fracture of the caudal aspect of the body of the second cervical vertebra (C2) in horse 1, an oblique displaced fracture of the caudal aspect of C4 involving the disc between C4 and C5 in horse 2, and a displaced transverse fracture of the body of the axis (C2) extending to the lateral arches and involving the vertebral canal in horse 3. In horse 1, the fracture was reduced and stabilized using a 14-hole narrow DCP plate, applied ventrally, and fixed with cancellous screws. A cervical fusion was performed. In horses 2 and 3, fracture fixation was performed using a 5-hole narrow LCP and 5 mm locking screws. All horses showed improvement and returned to full activity. The fracture healed in all horses. Internal fixation of cervical fracture in these horses was associated with minimal complications, and was associated with healing and a highly functional outcome in all horses. The LCP was preferred and would be recommended for ventral stabilization of selected cases of vertebral fractures. © Copyright 2015 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  20. Postoperative complications associated with external skeletal fixators in cats.

    Beever, Lee; Giles, Kirsty; Meeson, Richard

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify complications associated with external skeletal fixators (ESFs) in cats and to identify potential risk factors. A retrospective review of medical records and radiographs following ESF placement was performed. Case records of 140 cats were reviewed; fixator-associated complications (FACs) occurred in 19% of cats. The region of ESF placement was significantly associated with complication development. Complications developed most frequently in the femur (50%), tarsus (35%) and radius/ulna (33%). Superficial pin tract infection (SPTI) and implant failure accounted for 45% and 41% of all FACs, respectively. SPTI occurred more frequently in the femur, humerus and tibia, with implant failure more frequent in the tarsus. No association between breed, age, sex, weight, fracture type (open vs closed), ESF classification, number of pins per bone segment, degree of fracture load sharing, and the incidence or type of FAC was identified. No association between region of placement, breed, age, sex, weight, fracture type (open vs closed), ESF classification, number of pins per bone segment, fracture load sharing and the time to complication development was identified. Complication development is not uncommon in cats following ESF placement. The higher complication rate in the femur, tarsus and radius/ulna should be considered when reviewing options for fracture management. However, cats appear to have a lower rate of pin tract infections than dogs.

  1. Magnetoactive elastomer as an element of a magnetic retina fixator

    Makarova, L. A.; Nadzharyan, T. A.; Alekhina, Yu A.; Stepanov, G. V.; Kazimirova, E. G.; Perov, N. S.; Kramarenko, E. Yu

    2017-09-01

    We explore the possibility of creating an effective retinal fixator on the basis of magnetoactive elastomers (MAEs) and systems of permanent magnets. MAEs consist of silicone elastomer matrix with embedded magnetic iron microparticles. We study theoretically and experimentally magnetic forces acting between MAE samples and permanent magnets in various configurations. The theoretical model is based around classical magnetostatics and Maxwell equations with different parameters accounting for peculiarities of the material and the setup. Approximation of the experimentally measured magnetization curves for MAE samples was used to find input parameters for the theoretical model. To test the model, we conducted a series of experimental measurements of magnetic forces accompanied by model predictions for the system of one cylindrical magnet and a cuboid MAE sample. Calculated dependences of the average pressure arising from magnetic interactions on the distance between the closest faces of MAE samples and a permanent magnet are in a good agreement with the experimental data. The proof on concept for smaller magnetic systems required for eye surgery includes data for 10 magnets configuration and a thin MAE band. This research demonstrates high prospects of using MAE as an element of a magnetic fixator for treatment of complicated retinal detachments.

  2. Biological nitrogen fixation in non-legume plants.

    Santi, Carole; Bogusz, Didier; Franche, Claudine

    2013-05-01

    Nitrogen is an essential nutrient in plant growth. The ability of a plant to supply all or part of its requirements from biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) thanks to interactions with endosymbiotic, associative and endophytic symbionts, confers a great competitive advantage over non-nitrogen-fixing plants. Because BNF in legumes is well documented, this review focuses on BNF in non-legume plants. Despite the phylogenic and ecological diversity among diazotrophic bacteria and their hosts, tightly regulated communication is always necessary between the microorganisms and the host plant to achieve a successful interaction. Ongoing research efforts to improve knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying these original relationships and some common strategies leading to a successful relationship between the nitrogen-fixing microorganisms and their hosts are presented. Understanding the molecular mechanism of BNF outside the legume-rhizobium symbiosis could have important agronomic implications and enable the use of N-fertilizers to be reduced or even avoided. Indeed, in the short term, improved understanding could lead to more sustainable exploitation of the biodiversity of nitrogen-fixing organisms and, in the longer term, to the transfer of endosymbiotic nitrogen-fixation capacities to major non-legume crops.

  3. Surgical Site Infection Following Fixation of Acetabular Fractures.

    Iqbal, Faizan; Younus, Sajid; Asmatullah; Zia, Osama Bin; Khan, Naveed

    2017-09-01

    Acetabular fractures are mainly caused by high energy trauma. Surgical fixation of these fractures requires extensive surgical exposure which increases the length of operation and blood loss as well. This may increase the risk of surgical site infection. Our aim is to evaluate the prevalence of surgical site infections and the risk factors associated with it so as to minimize its chances. A total of 261 patients who underwent acetabular fracture surgery were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into 2 groups, with or without surgical site infection. Factors examined include patients' gender, age, body mass index (BMI), time between injury and surgery, operative time, estimated blood loss, number of packed red blood cell transfused, length of total intensive care unit (ICU) stay, fracture type, surgical approach, smoking status, patients' comorbids and associated injuries. Fourteen patients (5.4%) developed surgical site infection. Out of 14 infections, 4 were superficial and 10 were deep. The factors that were found to be associated with surgical site infection following acetabular fracture fixation were prolonged operation time, increased BMI, prolonged ICU stay, larger amount of packed red blood cell transfused and associated genitourinary and abdominal trauma. In our study, we conclude that measures should be undertaken to attenuate the chances of surgical site infection in this major surgery by considering the risk factors significantly associated with it.

  4. Fixation and transport of uranium by humic substances (1962)

    Martin, J.

    1962-03-01

    One enter upon the study of the part taken by organic substances in ores that contain uranium in a disseminated form, without mineralization, being considered the reaction between uranium and humus. 'Humic acids' are extracted from the peat by ammonia. By the fact of their ability to cationic exchange, these are forming humates with metal cations; monovalent humates, normally soluble in water, can become insoluble after treatment of humic acids with methanal. The polyvalent humates are insoluble in water, especially humates of U (IV) and uranyl U (VI). Action of Li, Na, K, Mg, Ca uranyl carbonates solutions on the humic acids results in the formation of humates containing uranyl and the other cation. 100 g of humic acids give a fixation of no more than 38 g of uranium as uranyl. In contact with uraniferous weakly concentrated solutions, they fix 4 to 8 g according to pH, with a yield in the extraction greater than 95 per cent. The action of a sodium humate solution on a humate of uranyl give a solution containing a soluble sodium and uranyl humate. The solution is precipitated at various degrees by the polyvalent cations and insoluble humic substances. In all cases, the fixation of uranium with such prepared humic acids corresponds to a chemisorption of uranyl cations. (author) [fr

  5. Motorized injector-assisted intrascleral intraocular lens fixation.

    Hung, Jia-Horung; Wang, Shih-Hao; Teng, Yu-Ti; Hsu, Sheng-Min

    2017-03-01

    For eyes with deficient capsular support, intraocular lens (IOL) implantation has long been a technical challenge. Recently, intrascleral fixation of the haptics of a three-piece posterior chamber IOL has become a popular option. In this procedure, externalization of the leading haptic during IOL injection is a stressful step. We present a modified technique to improve the ease and safety of this step. Our modified technique involves IOL injection with a motorized injector with several important modifications described here. With these modifications, a surgeon can easily maintain the correct orientation of the IOL in a well-controlled manner during IOL injection. The records of 13 patients who underwent this technique were retrospectively evaluated. Corrected-distance visual acuity improved significantly after surgery (pIOL decentration, or vitreous hemorrhage was noted during the follow-up period. In conclusion, the motorized injector-assisted intrascleral IOL fixation technique is a safe and effective alternative to the conventional procedure. This technique makes the process of leading haptic externalization easier and more controllable. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  6. Bioptics in sutureless intrascleral multifocal posterior chamber intraocular lens fixation.

    Pavlidis, Mitrofanis; de Ortueta, Diego; Scharioth, Gabor B

    2011-05-01

    To present a technique for sutureless fixation of a three-piece, multifocal, posterior chamber intraocular lens (IOL) in the ciliary sulcus. A 24-year-old woman presented with bilateral subluxation of the crystalline lens. Two straight sclerotomies were prepared with a 24-gauge cannula 2.0 mm from the limbus 180° apart from each other. The cannula was used to create a 2.0- to 3.0-mm tunnel parallel to the limbus starting from the sclerotomies. The leading haptic of the multifocal IOL was grasped at its tip with end-gripping, 25-gauge forceps and pulled through the sclerotomy. The forceps was used to introduce the IOL haptic into the scleral tunnel parallel to the limbus. Multifocal posterior chamber IOLs were stable and well centered. No postoperative complications occurred in the 16-month follow-up period. Preoperative astigmatism was corrected after IOL implantation with corneal wavefront-guided laser epithelial keratomileusis. Sutureless fixation of multifocal posterior chamber IOL haptics in a scleral tunnel parallel to the limbus can be successful, resulting in long-term centration and three-dimensional axial stability for optimal refractive results. If necessary, postoperative wavefront-guided refractive correction can be performed to optimize final refraction. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Motorized injector-assisted intrascleral intraocular lens fixation

    Jia-Horung Hung

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available For eyes with deficient capsular support, intraocular lens (IOL implantation has long been a technical challenge. Recently, intrascleral fixation of the haptics of a three-piece posterior chamber IOL has become a popular option. In this procedure, externalization of the leading haptic during IOL injection is a stressful step. We present a modified technique to improve the ease and safety of this step. Our modified technique involves IOL injection with a motorized injector with several important modifications described here. With these modifications, a surgeon can easily maintain the correct orientation of the IOL in a well-controlled manner during IOL injection. The records of 13 patients who underwent this technique were retrospectively evaluated. Corrected-distance visual acuity improved significantly after surgery (p<0.05. No postoperative retinal detachment, endophthalmitis, IOL decentration, or vitreous hemorrhage was noted during the follow-up period. In conclusion, the motorized injector-assisted intrascleral IOL fixation technique is a safe and effective alternative to the conventional procedure. This technique makes the process of leading haptic externalization easier and more controllable.

  8. Extracting information of fixational eye movements through pupil tracking

    Xiao, JiangWei; Qiu, Jian; Luo, Kaiqin; Peng, Li; Han, Peng

    2018-01-01

    Human eyes are never completely static even when they are fixing a stationary point. These irregular, small movements, which consist of micro-tremors, micro-saccades and drifts, can prevent the fading of the images that enter our eyes. The importance of researching the fixational eye movements has been experimentally demonstrated recently. However, the characteristics of fixational eye movements and their roles in visual process have not been explained clearly, because these signals can hardly be completely extracted by now. In this paper, we developed a new eye movement detection device with a high-speed camera. This device includes a beam splitter mirror, an infrared light source and a high-speed digital video camera with a frame rate of 200Hz. To avoid the influence of head shaking, we made the device wearable by fixing the camera on a safety helmet. Using this device, the experiments of pupil tracking were conducted. By localizing the pupil center and spectrum analysis, the envelope frequency spectrum of micro-saccades, micro-tremors and drifts are shown obviously. The experimental results show that the device is feasible and effective, so that the device can be applied in further characteristic analysis.

  9. Screening Prosopis (mesquite) germplasm for biomass production and nitrogen fixation

    Felker, P.; Cannell, G.H.; Clark, P.R.; Osborn, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    The nitrogen-fixing trees of the genus Prosopis (mesquite or algaroba) are well adapted to the semi-arid and often saline regions of the world. These trees may produce firewood or pods for livestock food, they may stabilize sand dunes and they may enrich the soil by production of leaf litter supported by nitrogen fixation. A collection of nearly 500 Prosopis accessions representing North and South American and African germplasm has been established. Seventy of these accessions representing 14 taxa are being grown under field conditions where a 30-fold range in biomass productivity among accessions has been estimated. In a greehouse experiment, 13 Prosopis taxa grew on nitrogen-free medium nodulated, and had a 10-fold difference in nitrogen fixation (acetylene reduction). When Prosopis is propagated by seed the resulting trees are extremely variable in growth rate and presence or absence of thorns. Propagation of 6 Prosopis taxa by stem cuttings has been achieved with low success (1 to 10%) in field-grown plants and with higher success (50 to 100%) with young actively growing greenhouse plants.

  10. Designing Distributed Generation in Mexico

    Linvill, Carl [Regulatory Assistance Project, Montepelier, VT (United States); Brutkoski, Donna [Regulatory Assistance Project, Montepelier, VT (United States)

    2017-05-15

    Mexico's energy reform will have far-reaching effects on how people produce and consume electricity in the country. Market liberalization will open the door to an increasing number of options for Mexican residential, commercial, and industrial consumers, and distributed generation (DG), which for Mexico includes generators of less than 500 kilowatts (kW) of capacity connected to the distribution network. Distributed generation is an option for consumers who want to produce their own electricity and provide electricity services to others. This report seeks to provide guidance to Mexican officials on designing DG economic and regulatory policies.

  11. New Mexico Geothermal Data Base

    Witcher, J.C.; Whittier, J.; Morgan, R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the New Mexico Geothermal Data Base (NMGDB) which is a comprehensive public-domain data base of low-temperature geothermal resource information for New Mexico that is designed to assist researchers and developers. A broad range of geoscience, engineering, climatic, economic, and land status information are complied in the dBASE III PLUS data base management system for use on an IBM or IBM-compatible personal computer. A user friendly menu format with on-screen prompts allows easy and convenient use

  12. Fixation and partitioning of heavy metals in slag after incineration of sewage sludge.

    Chen, Tao; Yan, Bo

    2012-05-01

    Fixation of heavy metals in the slag produced during incineration of sewage sludge will reduce emission of the metals to the atmosphere and make the incineration process more environmentally friendly. The effects of incineration conditions (incineration temperature 500-1100°C, furnace residence time 0-60min, mass fraction of water in the sludge 0-75%) on the fixation rates and species partitioning of Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn, Mn and Ni in slag were investigated. When the incineration temperature was increased from 500 to 1100°C, the fixation rate of Cd decreased from 87% to 49%, while the fixation rates of Cu and Mn were stable. The maximum fixation rates for Pb and Zn and for Ni and Cr were reached at 900 and 1100°C, respectively. The fixation rates of Cu, Ni, Cd, Cr and Zn decreased as the residence time increased. With a 20min residence time, the fixation rates of Pb and Mn were low. The maximum fixation rates of Ni, Mn, Zn, Cu and Cr were achieved when the mass fraction of water in the sludge was 55%. The fixation rate of Cd decreased as the water mass fraction increased, while the fixation rate of Pb increased. Partitioning analysis of the metals contained in the slag showed that increasing the incineration temperature and residence time promoted complete oxidation of the metals. This reduced the non-residual fractions of the metals, which would lower the bioavailability of the metals. The mass fraction of water in the sludge had little effect on the partitioning of the metals. Correlation analysis indicated that the fixation rates of heavy metals in the sludge and the forms of heavy metals in the incinerator slag could be controlled by optimization of the incineration conditions. These results show how the bioavailability of the metals can be reduced for environmentally friendly disposal of the incinerator slag. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The role of eye fixation in memory enhancement under stress - An eye tracking study.

    Herten, Nadja; Otto, Tobias; Wolf, Oliver T

    2017-04-01

    In a stressful situation, attention is shifted to potentially relevant stimuli. Recent studies from our laboratory revealed that participants stressed perform superior in a recognition task involving objects of the stressful episode. In order to characterize the role of a stress induced alteration in visual exploration, the present study investigated whether participants experiencing a laboratory social stress situation differ in their fixation from participants of a control group. Further, we aimed at shedding light on the relation of fixation behaviour with obtained memory measures. We randomly assigned 32 male and 31 female participants to a control or a stress condition consisting of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), a public speaking paradigm causing social evaluative threat. In an established 'friendly' control condition (f-TSST) participants talk to a friendly committee. During both conditions, the committee members used ten office items (central objects) while another ten objects were present without being used (peripheral objects). Participants wore eye tracking glasses recording their fixations. On the next day, participants performed free recall and recognition tasks involving the objects present the day before. Stressed participants showed enhanced memory for central objects, accompanied by longer fixation times and larger fixation amounts on these objects. Contrasting this, fixation towards the committee faces showed the reversed pattern; here, control participants exhibited longer fixations. Fixation indices and memory measures were, however, not correlated with each other. Psychosocial stress is associated with altered fixation behaviour. Longer fixation on objects related to the stressful situation may reflect enhanced encoding, whereas diminished face fixation suggests gaze avoidance of aversive, socially threatening stimuli. Modified visual exploration should be considered in future stress research, in particular when focussing on memory for a

  14. Las Tierras de Nuevo Mexico. [The Lands of New Mexico.

    Swadesh, Frances Leon; And Others

    New Mexico was inhabited thousands of years ago. Each group of settlers saw the land in distinct ways. For some, its beauty consisted of its quality, the abundance of water, and the hope of a good harvest. For others, its beautiful sites were of more importance. Thus, each group established its own manner of living on the land and of using it.…

  15. Opportunity for America: Mexico`s coal future

    Loose, V.W.

    1993-09-01

    This study examines the history, current status and future prospects for increased coal use in Mexico. Environmental implications of the power-generation capacity expansion plans are examined in general terms. Mexican environmental law and regulations are briefly reviewed along with the new sense of urgency in the cleanup of existing environmental problems and avoidance of new problems as clearly mandated in recent Mexican government policy initiatives. It is expected that new capital facilities will need to incorporate the latest in process and technology to comply with existing environmental regulation. Technology developments which address these issues are identified. What opportunities have new initiatives caused by the recent diversification of Mexico`s energy economy offered US firms? This report looks at the potential future use of coal in the Mexican energy economy, examining this issue with an eye toward identifying markets that might be available to US coal producers and the best way to approach them. Market opportunities are identified by examining new developments in the Mexican economy generally and the energy economy particularly. These developments are examined in light of the current situation and the history which brought Mexico to its present status.

  16. Phase-contrast X-ray CT imaging of the kidney. Differences between ethanol fixation and formalin fixation

    Shirai, Ryota; Kunii, Takuya; Maruyama, Hiroko; Takeda, Tohoru; Yoneyama, Akio; Lwin, Thet Thet

    2012-01-01

    A phase-contrast X-ray imaging technique using an X-ray interferometer that provides approximately 1000 times higher sensitivity than the conventional X-ray imaging method for low-atomic number elements based on the difference in the mass attenuation coefficient has recently been developed. In the present study, we compared rat kidneys fixed in 100% ethanol and in 10% formalin to evaluate the effects of ethanol in enhancing image contrast in phase-contrast imaging because ethanol causes significant dehydration of tissues and enhances density differences between tissue components. The experiments were conducted at the Photon Factory in Tsukuba, and the X-ray energy was set at 35 keV. Fine anatomical structures in the kidney such as the glomeruli, tubules, and vessels were observed. Particularly clear renal images were obtained with ethanol fixation. The pixel value ratio between the cortex and medulla was about 43% in ethanol-fixed kidneys and 21% in formalin-fixed kidneys. In other words, the contrast in ethanol-fixed kidneys was about two times higher than that in formalin-fixed kidneys. Histological examination showed significantly condensed features in the cortex. The results of this study suggest that the ethanol fixation technique may be useful for enhancing the image contrast of renal structures in the phase-contrast X-ray imaging technique. (author)

  17. An in-vitro biomechanical study of different fixation techniques for the extended trochanteric osteotomy in revision THA.

    Zhu, Zhonglin; Ding, Hui; Shao, Hongyi; Zhou, Yixin; Wang, Guangzhi

    2013-04-09

    The wire fixation and the cable grip fixation have been developed for the extended trochanteric osteotomy (ETO) in the revision of total hip arthroplasty (THA). Many studies reported the postoperative performance of the patients, but with little quantitative biomechanical comparison of the two fixation systems. An in-vitro testing approach was designed to record the loosening between the femoral bed and the greater trochanter after fixations. Ten cadaveric femurs were chosen in this study. Each femur underwent the THA, revision by ETO and fixations. The tension to the greater trochanter was from 0 to 500N in vertical and lateral direction, respectively. The translation and rotation of the greater trochanter with respect to the bony bed were captured by an optical tracking system. In the vertical tension tests, the overall translation of the greater trochanter was observed 0.4 mm in the cable fixations and 7.0 mm in the wire fixations. In the lateral tension tests, the overall motion of the greater trochanter was 2.0 mm and 1.2° in the cable fixations, while it was 6.2 mm and 5.3° in the wire fixations. The result was significantly different between the two fixation systems. The stability of the proximal femur after ETO using different fixations in the revision THA was investigated. The cable grip fixation was significantly more stable than the wire fixation.

  18. Juvenile Justice in Mexico

    Martha Frías Armenta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The first tribunal in Mexico was established in the central state of San Luis Potosi in 1926. The Law Regarding Social Prevention and Juvenile Delinquency for the Federal District and Mexican territories was promulgated in 1928. In 2005, Article 18 of the Mexican Constitution was modified to establish a comprehensive system (“Sistema Integral de justicia” in Spanish of justice for juveniles between 12 and 18 years old who had committed a crime punishable under criminal law. Its objective was to guarantee juveniles all the due process rights established for adults, in addition to the special ones recognized for minors. The constitutional reform also provides a framework that includes special tribunals as well as alternative justice options for juveniles. With these reforms, institutionalization of minors was to be considered an extreme measure applicable only to felonies and to juveniles older than 14. In 2006, all states within the Mexican federation enacted the “Law of justice for adolescents”. This system, at both the federal and state levels, formalizes a new global paradigm with regard to the triangular relationship between children, the State and the Law. It recognizes that children are also bearers of the inherent human rights recognized for all individuals, instead of simply objects in need of protection. However, despite formally aligning Mexican juvenile justice law with the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC, issues of actual substantive rights remained and new ones have appeared. For example, juveniles younger than 14 who have not committed a felony are released from institutions without any rehabilitation or treatment options, and alternative forms of justice were included without evaluating their possibilities of application or their conditions for success. In addition, the economic status of most juvenile detainees continues to be one of the most important determining factors in the administration of justice

  19. Influence of removal of invisible fixation on the saccadic and manual gap effect.

    Ueda, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Kohske; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2014-01-01

    Saccadic and manual reactions to a peripherally presented target are facilitated by removing a central fixation stimulus shortly before a target onset (the gap effect). The present study examined the effects of removal of a visible and invisible fixation point on the saccadic gap effect and the manual gap effect. Participants were required to fixate a central fixation point and respond to a peripherally presented target as quickly and accurately as possible by making a saccade (Experiment 1) or pressing a corresponding key (Experiment 2). The fixation point was dichoptically presented, and visibility was manipulated by using binocular rivalry and continuous flash suppression technique. In both saccade and key-press tasks, removing the visible fixation strongly quickened the responses. Furthermore, the invisible fixation, which remained on the display but suppressed, significantly delayed the saccadic response. Contrarily, the invisible fixation had no effect on the manual task. These results indicate that partially different processes mediate the saccadic gap effect and the manual gap effect. In particular, unconscious processes might modulate an oculomotor-specific component of the saccadic gap effect, presumably via subcortical mechanisms.

  20. Progressive slip after removal of screw fixation in slipped capital femoral epiphysis: two case reports

    Engelsma, Y.; Morgenstern, P.; van der Sluijs, J.A.; Witbreuk, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. In slipped capital femoral epiphysis the femoral neck displaces relative to the head due to weakening of the epiphysis. Early recognition and adequate surgical fixation is essential for a good functional outcome. The fixation should be secured until the closure of the epiphysis to

  1. Fixation and utilization of CO2 by biological and/or chemical processes

    Hiromichi, N.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the carbon dioxide fixation and utilisation by biological and/or chemical processes. It presents research objectives and program contents for the effective fixation of carbon dioxide by micro-organism and its hydrogenation. (TEC). 5 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Fixation of CO2 in air: Synthesis and crystal structure of a µ3-CO3 ...

    Unknown

    Fixation of CO2 in air: Synthesis and crystal structure of a ... from the reaction between copper(I) complexes and dioxygen.2,6,7 ... and co-workers from the reaction of [(L2) ..... followed by water dissociation.13h,24 While fixation of CO2 by ...

  3. Closed External Fixation for Failing or Failed Femoral Shaft Plating in a Developing Country.

    Aliakbar, Adil; Witwit, Ibrahim; Al-Algawy, Alaa A Hussein

    2017-08-01

    Femoral shaft fractures are one of the common injuries that is treated by open reduction, with internal fixation by plate and screws or intramedullary nailing, which can achieve a high union rate. To evaluate the outcome of using closed external fixation to augment a failing plate; with signs of screw loosening and increasing bone/plate gap; a failed plate; broken plate; screws completely out of bone with redisplacement of fracture. A retrospective study on 18 patients, aged between 17-42 years, who presented between 6-18 weeks after initial surgical fixation, with pain, difficulty in limb function, deformity and abnormal movement at fracture site, was done. X-Rays showed plating failure with acceptable amount of callus, which unfortunately had refractured. Cases associated with infection and no radiological evidence of callus formation were excluded from this study. Closed reduction was done by manipulation, then fracture fixation by AO external fixator. The patients were encouraged for full weight bearing as early as possible with dynamization later on. Of the 18 patients who underwent external fixation after close reduction, 15 cases showed bone healing in a period between 11-18 weeks (mean of 14.27 weeks) with good alignment (Radiologically). Removal of external fixator was done followed by physical therapy thereafter. Closed external fixation for treatment of failing or failed femoral plating, achieves good success rate and has less complications, is a short time procedure, especially in a hospital with limited resources.

  4. Dynamic Programming for Re-Mapping Noisy Fixations in Translation Tasks

    Carl, Michael

    2013-01-01

    possible fixated symbols, including those on the line above and below the naïve fixation mapping. In a second step a dynamic programming algorithm applies a number of heuristics to find the best path through the lattice, based on the probable distance in characters, in words and in pixels between...

  5. Theoretical implications for the estimation of dinitrogen fixation by large perennial plant species using isotope dilution

    Dwight D. Baker; Maurice Fried; John A. Parrotta

    1995-01-01

    Estimation of symbiotic N2 fixation associated with large perennial plant species, especially trees, poses special problems because the process must be followed over a potentially long period of time to integrate the total amount of fixation. Estimations using isotope dilution methodology have begun to be used for trees in field studies. Because...

  6. Fixation of patients during irradiations of the neurocranium and visceral cranium

    Bohndorf, W.; Richter, E.

    1983-12-01

    Only few patients are able to exactly maintain during the irradiation a given position of the head without fixation. However, every movement of the head leads to a dose decrease up to 50% within the target volume. Today, fixation and reproducable field adjustment are the conditions of curative radiotherapy. The Wuerzburg model is presented.

  7. [Fixation of patients during irradiation of the neurocranium and visceral cranium].

    Bohndorf, W; Richter, E

    1983-12-01

    Only few patients are able to exactly maintain during the irradiation a given position of the head without fixation. However, every movement of the head leads to a dose decrease up to 50% within the target volume. Today, fixation and reproducible field adjustment are the conditions of curative radiotherapy. The Würzburg model is presented.

  8. Positive Affect Is Associated With Reduced Fixation in a Realistic Medical Simulation.

    Crane, Monique F; Brouwers, Sue; Forrest, Kirsty; Tan, Suyin; Loveday, Thomas; Wiggins, Mark W; Munday, Chris; David, Leila

    2017-08-01

    This study extends previous research by exploring the association between mood states (i.e., positive and negative affect) and fixation in practicing anesthetists using a realistic medical simulation. The impact of practitioner emotional states on fixation is a neglected area of research. Emerging evidence is demonstrating the role of positive affect in facilitating problem solving and innovation, with demonstrated implications for practitioner fixation. Twelve practicing anesthetists (4 females; M age = 39 years; SD = 6.71) were involved in a medical simulation. Prior to the simulation, practitioners rated the frequency they had experienced various positive and negative emotions in the previous three days. During the simulation, the patient deteriorated rapidly, and anesthetists were observed for their degree of fixation. After the simulation, practitioners indicated the frequency of these same emotions during the simulation. Nonparametric correlations were used to explore the independent relationships between positive and negative affect and the behavioral measures. Only positive affect impacted the likelihood of fixation. Anesthetists who reported more frequent recent positive affect in the three days prior to the simulation and during the simulation tended to be less fixated as judged by independent raters, identified a decline in patient oxygen saturation more quickly, and more rapidly implemented the necessary intervention (surgical cricothyroidotomy). These findings have some real-world implications for positive affect in patient safety. This research has broad implications for professions where fixation may impair practice. This research suggests that professional training should teach practitioners to identify their emotions and understand the role of these emotions in fixation.

  9. Ultrastructure of the endolymphatic duct in the rat. Fixation and preservation

    Qvortrup, K; Rostgaard, J

    1993-01-01

    Ten rats were vascular-perfused at subphysiologic as well as physiologic pressures, 80 mmHg and 120 mmHg, respectively, employing a pressure feed-back controlled peristaltic pump and an isotonic perfusate/fixative with colloids (2% Dextran) and a hypertonic perfusate/fixative without colloids, 300...

  10. Step-by-step external fixation of unstable pelvis with separate anterior and posterior modules

    Ivan Viktorovich Borozda

    2016-02-01

    Conclusions: The modular approach applied is the advantage of the transosseous osteosynthesis allowing for a separate anterior (anti-shock fixation and final posterior reposition of the pelvic ring preceded by the stabilization of vital functions. The above mentioned method gives an opportunity to increase the amount of techniques applied for the pelvic external fixation in polytrauma cases.

  11. Long-term warming and litter addition affects nitrogen fixation in a subarctic heath

    Sørensen, Pernille Lærkedal; Michelsen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    the measurements. We analyzed N fixation rates on both whole-ecosystem level and specifically on two moss species: Sphagnum warnstorfii and Hylocomium splendens. The whole-ecosystem N fixation of the warmed plots almost tripled compared with the control plots. However, in the Sphagnum and Hylocomium mosses we...

  12. Sulfur Fixation by Chemically Modified Red Mud Samples Containing Inorganic Additives: A Parametric Study

    Yang Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur retention ability of Bayer red mud from alumina plant was investigated. Bayer red mud modified by fusel salt and waste mother liquor of sodium ferrocyanide as the main sulfur fixation agent and the calcium based natural mineral materials as servicing additives; the experimental results showed the following: (1 Through 10 wt% waste mother liquor of sodium ferrocyanide modifying Bayer red mud, sulfur fixation rate can increase by 13 wt%. (2 Magnesium oxide can obviously improve the sulfur fixation performance of Bayer red mud and up to a maximum sulfur fixation rate of 47 wt% at adding 1 wt% magnesium oxide. (3 Dolomite enhanced the sulfur fixation performances with the sulfur fixation rate of 68 wt% in optimized condition. (4 Vermiculite dust reduced sulfur dioxide during the fixed-sulfur process of modified Bayer red mud, and the desulphurization ration could reach up to a maximum 76 wt% at 950°C. (5 An advanced three-component sulfur fixation agent was investigated, in which the optimized mass ratio of modified Bayer red mud, dolomite, and vermiculite dust was 70 : 28 : 2 in order, and its sulfur fixation efficiency has reached to a maximum 87 wt% under its 20 wt% dosage in the coal.

  13. Using E-Z Reader to Examine the Consequences of Fixation-Location Measurement Error

    Reichle, Erik D.; Drieghe, Denis

    2015-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate about whether fixation durations during reading are only influenced by the processing difficulty of the words being fixated (i.e., the serial-attention hypothesis) or whether they are also influenced by the processing difficulty of the previous and/or upcoming words (i.e., the attention-gradient hypothesis). This article…

  14. N2 Fixation by Grain Legume Varieties as Affected By Rhizobia ...

    acer

    [*Author of Correspondence: hyakubu2009@g-mail.com]. 229. ABSTRACT: ... Yusuf et al, (2006) reported that cowpea fixed. 16-34kgN/ha and ... fixation of legume crops (Michiels et al.,. 1994). ..... Robert, M.B. (1995). ... nitrogen fixation), John.

  15. Size-fractionated biomass, photosynthesis and dark CO2 fixation in a tropical oceanic environment

    Gomes, H.; Goes, J.I.; Parulekar, A.H.

    photosynthesizing at high light intensities of approx 1500 mu E m sup(-2) s sup(-1). Below the euphotic zone (100-200 m), dark fixation of CO sub(2) was qute significant. The average column dark fixation of CO sub(2) was 0.045 g C m sup(-2) day sup(-1), which...

  16. Percutaneous Intramedullary Screw Fixation of Distal Fibula Fractures: A Case Series and Systematic Review

    Loukachov, Vladimir V.; Birnie, Merel F. N.; Dingemans, Siem A.; de Jong, Vincent M.; Schepers, Tim

    2017-01-01

    The current reference standard for unstable ankle fractures is open reduction and internal fixation using a plate and lag screws. This approach requires extensive dissection and wound complications are not uncommon. The use of intramedullary screw fixation might overcome these issues. The aim of our

  17. Assessment of activated porous granules on implant fixation and early bone formation in sheep

    Ming Ding

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: In conclusion, despite nice bone formation and implant fixation in all groups, bioreactor activated graft material did not convincingly induce early implant fixation similar to allograft, and neither bioreactor nor by adding BMA credited additional benefit for bone formation in this model.

  18. Time Savings and Surgery Task Load Reduction in Open Intraperitoneal Onlay Mesh Fixation Procedure

    Roy, Sanjoy; Hammond, Jeffrey; Panish, Jessica; Shnoda, Pullen; Savidge, Sandy; Wilson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Background. This study assessed the reduction in surgeon stress associated with savings in procedure time for mechanical fixation of an intraperitoneal onlay mesh (IPOM) compared to a traditional suture fixation in open ventral hernia repair. Study Design. Nine general surgeons performed 36 open IPOM fixation procedures in porcine model. Each surgeon conducted two mechanical (using ETHICON SECURESTRAPTM Open) and two suture fixation procedures. Fixation time was measured using a stopwatch, and related surgeon stress was assessed using the validated SURG-TLX questionnaire. T-tests were used to compare between-group differences, and a two-sided 95% confidence interval for the difference in stress levels was established using nonparametric methodology. Results. The mechanical fixation group demonstrated an 89.1% mean reduction in fixation time, as compared to the suture group (p Open demonstrated a significant reduction in fixation time and surgeon stress, which may translate into improved operating efficiency, improved performance, improved surgeon quality of life, and reduced overall costs of the procedure. PMID:26240834

  19. The Ilizarov external fixator: what remains of the wire pretension after dynamic loading?

    Renard, A.J.S.; Schutte, B.G.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.; Kampen, A. van

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maintenance of wire pretension in an Ilizarov external fixator is dependent on the torque applied to the fixation bolts. We therefore measured immediately after surgery the clinically applied torques. The median value was only 10 N m (range 8-14N m). We wondered whether this value is

  20. Right Visual Field Advantage in Parafoveal Processing: Evidence from Eye-Fixation-Related Potentials

    Simola, Jaana; Holmqvist, Kenneth; Lindgren, Magnus

    2009-01-01

    Readers acquire information outside the current eye fixation. Previous research indicates that having only the fixated word available slows reading, but when the next word is visible, reading is almost as fast as when the whole line is seen. Parafoveal-on-foveal effects are interpreted to reflect that the characteristics of a parafoveal word can…

  1. Fixation strength analysis of cup to bone material using finite element simulation

    Anwar, Iwan Budiwan; Saputra, Eko; Ismail, Rifky; Jamari, J.; Van Der Heide, Emile

    2016-01-01

    Fixation of acetabular cup to bone material is an important initial stability for artificial hip joint. In general, the fixation in cement less-type acetabular cup uses press-fit and screw methods. These methods can be applied alone or together. Based on literature survey, the additional screw

  2. Effect of lentil cultivar on N2 fixation and N partitioning

    Kurdali, F.; Kalifa, K.; Al-Shamma, M.

    1996-12-01

    The study conducted on five lentil cultivars. the results showed that dry matter production, nodulation and N sup 2 fixation were influenced by the cultivar. Beyond flowering, N sup 2 fixation, soil N uptake, and N and P remobilization differed by the cultivar. (author). 32 Refs., 7 Figs., 9 Tabs

  3. QTL analysis of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in a black bean RIL population

    Dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L) acquires nitrogen (N) from the atmosphere through symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) but it has a low efficiency to fix nitrogen. The objective of this study is to map the genes controlling nitrogen fixation in common bean. A mapping population consisting of 122 recomb...

  4. Symbiotic N2-fixation by the cover crop Pueraria phaseoloides as influenced by litter mineralization

    Vesterager, J.M.; Østerby, S.; Jensen, E.S.

    1995-01-01

    The perennial legume Pueraria phaseoloides is widely used as a cover crop in rubber and oil palm plantations. However, very little knowledge exists on the effect of litter mineralization from P. phaseoloides on its symbiotic N-2- fixation. The contribution from symbiotic N-2-fixation (Ndfa...

  5. Exploring the Boundaries of N2-Fixation in Cereals and Grasses: A Hypothetical and Experimental Framework

    Giller, K.E.; Merckx, R.

    2003-01-01

    Despite more than 40 years of research on free-living and endophytic bacteria associated with cereals and grasses, conclusive examples of impacts of non-symbiotic N2-fixation in agriculture are lacking. All available methods for measurement of N2-fixation associated with cereals and grasses have

  6. Results of Operative Fixation of Fractures of the Ankle at a Tertiary ...

    Background: Operative fixation of ankle fractures is becoming popular in developing countries. The concern however is the outcome of care. The objective was to evaluate the results of open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) of fractures of the ankle in our hospital. Methods: All cases ORIF of fractures of the ankle at the ...

  7. 21 CFR 888.3030 - Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and accessories.

    2010-04-01

    ... appliances and accessories. 888.3030 Section 888.3030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT....3030 Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and accessories. (a) Identification. Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and accessories are devices intended to be...

  8. ( Didelphis virginiana ) from Yucatan, Mexico

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite recognized as a causal agent of toxoplasmosis; zoonotic disease endemic in many countries worldwide, including Mexico. Different species of animals participate in the wild cycle infection, including opossums of the species Didelphis virginiana. Thirteen D. virginiana ...

  9. Radioactive waste management in Mexico

    Paredes, L.; Reyes L, J.; Jimenez D, J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the radioactive waste management in Mexico, particularly the activities that the National Institute of Nuclear Research (NINR) is undertaking in this field. Classification and annual generation of radioactive waste, together with practices and facilities relating to the management of radioactive waste are addressed. The respective national legal framework and policy are outlined. (author)

  10. Shell Trumpets from Western Mexico

    Robert Novella

    1991-11-01

    Full Text Available Marine shells have been used as musical instruments in almost all parts of the world (Izikowitz 1935, including Mesoamerica, where large univalves, also called conch shells in the literature, had a utilitarian function as trumpets. Their use is well documented in most cultural areas of Mesoamerica, as in Western Mexico, through their various occurrences in archaeological contexts and museums collections.

  11. Pemex and Mexico's mixed emotions

    Dombey, D.

    1997-01-01

    Pemex, Mexico's state owned oil company, has long been a byword for overmanning, inefficiency, disregard for the environment and for having all the ills of state incorporation, with few of the benefits. Matters, however, are changing. Pemex wants to be normal. (author)

  12. Alternative Education Spaces in Mexico

    Gray, Chloe

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the architecture of the Red de Innovacion y Aprendizaje (RIA), or Learning and Innovation Network, which is a group of education centres that provide access to computers, the Internet and quality education to low-income communities in Mexico. The RIA began in May 2009 when ten pilot centres were opened in four municipalities…

  13. Mexico: swapping crude for atoms

    Navarro, B.

    1982-01-01

    Mexico, considered the Saudi Arabia of the Western Hemisphere because of its proven and potential petroleum reserves, has surprised the world: it has embarked on the biggest nuclear-electric program in the Third World, only to postpone it days before scheduled approval of an international bidding (on which the atomic energy industry had pinned its hopes). A graph shows Mexican supplies of electricity by source with official projections to 1990. The point of entrance of the first nuclear reactor, originally scheduled for 1982, won't come onstream until 1983; and how nuclear-generated electricity grows close to 5% of the total in 1990. The big question is, will the future President of Mexico give the green light to the atomic megaproject. And if he does, how will Mexico deal with the serious logistics problems and grave ecological implications confronting the industry worldwide. In this issue, the author and Energy Detente touch on these questions and review the nuclear power status of Mexico, as well as addressing some of its global problems. Also presented in this issue is an update of the fuel price/tax series for the Western Hemisphere countries

  14. Village Dogs in Coastal Mexico

    Ruiz Izaguirre, Eliza; Hebinck, P.G.M.; Eilers, C.H.A.M.

    2018-01-01

    Village dogs are important for households in coastal Mexico, yet they are seen as out of place by etic stakeholders (public health and wildlife experts, and animal welfarists). Caregivers of village dogs are considered irresponsible, a view that is reinforced by Mexican policy. We describe two

  15. Structural Damage in Mexico City

    Hall, John F.; Beck, James L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the structural damage in Mexico City caused by the September 19, 1985 earthquake. Photographs which illustrate various features of structural behavior are included. One explanation is presented as to why buildings with fundamental periods of elastic vibration considerably below the predominant two‐second period of the ground motion were most vulnerable to damage.

  16. "Mexico in Transition." Curriculum Units.

    Oregon Univ., Eugene. Foreign Language Resource Center.

    These curriculum units were developed in a National Endowment for the Humanities 1994 summer seminar "Mexico in Transition." The 23 lessons are written in Spanish. Lessons are entitled: (1) "La Migracion Mexicana Vista a Traves del Cuento 'Paso del Norte' de Juan Rulfo" (Jose Jorge Armendariz); (2) "Los Grupos Indigenas de…

  17. Gaze shifts and fixations dominate gaze behavior of walking cats

    Rivers, Trevor J.; Sirota, Mikhail G.; Guttentag, Andrew I.; Ogorodnikov, Dmitri A.; Shah, Neet A.; Beloozerova, Irina N.

    2014-01-01

    Vision is important for locomotion in complex environments. How it is used to guide stepping is not well understood. We used an eye search coil technique combined with an active marker-based head recording system to characterize the gaze patterns of cats walking over terrains of different complexity: (1) on a flat surface in the dark when no visual information was available, (2) on the flat surface in light when visual information was available but not required, (3) along the highly structured but regular and familiar surface of a horizontal ladder, a task for which visual guidance of stepping was required, and (4) along a pathway cluttered with many small stones, an irregularly structured surface that was new each day. Three cats walked in a 2.5 m corridor, and 958 passages were analyzed. Gaze activity during the time when the gaze was directed at the walking surface was subdivided into four behaviors based on speed of gaze movement along the surface: gaze shift (fast movement), gaze fixation (no movement), constant gaze (movement at the body’s speed), and slow gaze (the remainder). We found that gaze shifts and fixations dominated the cats’ gaze behavior during all locomotor tasks, jointly occupying 62–84% of the time when the gaze was directed at the surface. As visual complexity of the surface and demand on visual guidance of stepping increased, cats spent more time looking at the surface, looked closer to them, and switched between gaze behaviors more often. During both visually guided locomotor tasks, gaze behaviors predominantly followed a repeated cycle of forward gaze shift followed by fixation. We call this behavior “gaze stepping”. Each gaze shift took gaze to a site approximately 75–80 cm in front of the cat, which the cat reached in 0.7–1.2 s and 1.1–1.6 strides. Constant gaze occupied only 5–21% of the time cats spent looking at the walking surface. PMID:24973656

  18. Mechanical comparison between lengthened and short sacroiliac screws in sacral fracture fixation: a finite element analysis.

    Zhao, Y; Zhang, S; Sun, T; Wang, D; Lian, W; Tan, J; Zou, D; Zhao, Y

    2013-09-01

    To compare the stability of lengthened sacroiliac screw and standard sacroiliac screw for the treatment of unilateral vertical sacral fractures; to provide reference for clinical applications. A finite element model of Tile type C pelvic ring injury (unilateral Denis type II fracture of the sacrum) was produced. The unilateral sacral fractures were fixed with lengthened sacroiliac screw and sacroiliac screw in six different types of models respectively. The translation and angle displacement of the superior surface of the sacrum (in standing position on both feet) were measured and compared. The stability of one lengthened sacroiliac screw fixation in S1 or S2 segment is superior to that of one sacroiliac screw fixation in the same sacral segment. The stability of one lengthened sacroiliac screw fixation in S1 and S2 segments respectively is superior to that of one sacroiliac screw fixation in S1 and S2 segments respectively. The stability of one lengthened sacroiliac screw fixation in S1 and S2 segments respectively is superior to that of one lengthened sacroiliac screw fixation in S1 or S2 segment. The stability of one sacroiliac screw fixation in S1 and S2 segments respectively is markedly superior to that of one sacroiliac screw fixation in S1 or S2 segment. The vertical and rotational stability of lengthened sacroiliac screw fixation and sacroiliac screw fixation in S2 is superior to that of S1. In a finite element model of type C pelvic ring disruption, S1 and S2 lengthened sacroiliac screws should be utilized for the fixation as regularly as possible and the most stable fixation is the combination of the lengthened sacroiliac screws of S1 and S2 segments. Even if lengthened sacroiliac screws cannot be systematically used due to specific conditions, one sacroiliac screw fixation in S1 and S2 segments respectively is recommended. No matter which kind of sacroiliac screw is used, if only one screw can be implanted, the fixation in S2 segment is more recommended

  19. Design Fixation and Cooperative Learning in Elementary Engineering Design Project: A Case Study

    Yi Luo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a case study examining 3rd, 4th and 5th graders’ design fixation and cooperative learning in an engineering design project. A mixed methods instrument, the Cooperative Learning Observation Protocol (CLOP, was adapted to record frequency and class observation on cooperative learning engagement through detailed field notes. Students’ design journals and reflections were also analyzed for an inductive qualitative analysis. The findings indicate three major themes of design fixation: 1 fixation on common features of things; 2 fixation on popular teenage culture; 3 fixation on the first design idea. In the cooperative learning process of elementary engineering design project, although pupils had demonstrated some abilities to solve concrete problems in a logical fashion, the participants encountered a number of obstacles in the group. Dominance, social loafing, and other problems occurring in the group process might have offset certain benefits of cooperative learning. Implications of the findings are also discussed.

  20. Design fixation and cooperative learning in elementary engineering design project: A case study

    Yi Luo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a case study examining 3rd, 4th and 5th graders’ design fixation and cooperative learning in an engineering design project. A mixed methods instrument, the Cooperative Learning Observation Protocol (CLOP, was adapted to record frequency and class observation on cooperative learning engagement through detailed field notes. Students’ design journals and reflections were also analyzed for an inductive qualitative analysis. The findings indicate three major themes of design fixation: 1 fixation on common features of things; 2 fixation on popular teenage culture; 3 fixation on the first design idea. In the cooperative learning process of elementary engineering design project, although pupils had demonstrated some abilities to solve concrete problems in a logical fashion, the participants encountered a number of obstacles in the group. Dominance, social loafing, and other problems occurring in the group process might have offset certain benefits of cooperative learning. Implications of the findings are also discussed.

  1. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CONSERVATIVE MANAGEMENT VS. EXTERNAL FIXATION OF COMMINUTED DISTAL RADIUS FRACTURES

    Sanjeev Kumar Kare

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Fracture of the distal radius (‘broken wrist’ is a common clinical problem. It can be treated conservatively usually involving wrist immobilisation in a plaster cast or surgically. A key method of surgical fixation is external fixation. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective study was carried out on 66 patients admitted between June 2014 to May 2016 for evaluation of conservative and surgical management of distal radius fractures. RESULTS Excellent, fair or good result was noticed in around 85% of cases managed conservatively and in above 90% of cases managed by external fixator. CONCLUSION There is some evidence to support the use of external fixation for dorsally displaced fractures of the distal radius in adults. Though, there is insufficient evidence to confirm a better functional outcome, external fixation reduces redisplacement gives improved anatomical results and most of the excess surgically-related complications are minor.

  2. Mean-field approximations of fixation time distributions of evolutionary game dynamics on graphs

    Ying, Li-Min; Zhou, Jie; Tang, Ming; Guan, Shu-Guang; Zou, Yong

    2018-02-01

    The mean fixation time is often not accurate for describing the timescales of fixation probabilities of evolutionary games taking place on complex networks. We simulate the game dynamics on top of complex network topologies and approximate the fixation time distributions using a mean-field approach. We assume that there are two absorbing states. Numerically, we show that the mean fixation time is sufficient in characterizing the evolutionary timescales when network structures are close to the well-mixing condition. In contrast, the mean fixation time shows large inaccuracies when networks become sparse. The approximation accuracy is determined by the network structure, and hence by the suitability of the mean-field approach. The numerical results show good agreement with the theoretical predictions.

  3. Stiffness Analysis of the Sarafix External Fixator based on Stainless Steel and Composite Material

    Nedim Pervan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a structural analysis of the CAD model three versions fixators Sarafix which is to explore the possibility of introducing composite materials in the construction of the connecting rod fixators comparing values of displacement and stiffness at characteristic structure points. Namely, we have investigated the constructional performance of fixators Sarafix with a connecting rod formed from three different composite materials, the same matrix (epoxy resin with three different types of fibers (E glass, kevlar 49 and carbonM55J. The results of the structural analysis fixators Sarafix with a connecting rod made of composite materials are compared with the results of tubular connecting rod fixators made of stainless steel. After comparing the results, from the aspect of stiffness, we gave the final considerations about composite material which provides an adequate substitution for the existing material.

  4. High dark inorganic carbon fixation rates by specific microbial groups in the Atlantic off the Galician coast (NW Iberian margin)

    Guerrero-Feijóo, E.; Sintes, E.; Herndl, G.J.; Varela, M.M.

    2018-01-01

    Bulk dark dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) fixation rates were determined and compared to microbial heterotrophic production in subsurface, meso- and bathypelagic Atlantic waters off the Galician coast (NW Iberian margin). DIC fixation rates were slightly higher than heterotrophic production

  5. The Role of Minimally Invasive Plate Osteosynthesis in Rib Fixation: A Review

    Bemelman, Michael; van Baal, Mark; Yuan, Jian Zhang; Leenen, Luke

    2016-01-01

    More than a century ago, the first scientific report was published about fracture fixation with plates. During the 1950’s, open reduction and plate fixation for fractures were standardized by the founders of Arbeitsgemeinschaft für osteosynthesefragen/Association for the Study of Internal Fixation. Since the introduction of plate fixation for fractures, several plates and screws have been developed, all with their own characteristics. To accomplice more fracture stability, it was thought the bigger the plate, the better. The counter side was a compromised blood supply of the bone, often resulting in bone necrosis and ultimately delayed or non-union. With the search and development of new materials and techniques for fracture fixation, less invasive procedures have become increasingly popular. This resulted in the minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) technique for fracture fixation. With the MIPO technique, procedures could be performed with smaller incisions and thus with less soft tissue damage and a better preserved blood supply. The last 5 years rib fixation has become increasingly popular, rising evidence has become available suggesting that surgical rib fixation improves outcome of patients with a flail chest or isolated rib fractures. Many surgical approaches for rib fixation have been described in the old literature, however, most of these techniques are obscure nowadays. Currently mostly large incisions with considerable surgical insult are used to stabilize rib fractures. We think that MIPO deserves a place in the surgical treatment of rib fractures. We present the aspects of diagnosis, preoperative planning and operative techniques in regard to MIPO rib fixation. PMID:26889439

  6. The Role of Minimally Invasive Plate Osteosynthesis in Rib Fixation: A Review

    Michael Bemelman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available More than a century ago, the first scientific report was published about fracture fixation with plates. During the 1950’s, open reduction and plate fixation for fractures were standardized by the founders of Arbeitsgemeinschaft für osteosynthesefragen/Association for the Study of Internal Fixation. Since the introduction of plate fixation for fractures, several plates and screws have been developed, all with their own characteristics. To accomplice more fracture stability, it was thought the bigger the plate, the better. The counter side was a compromised blood supply of the bone, often resulting in bone necrosis and ultimately delayed or non-union. With the search and development of new materials and techniques for fracture fixation, less invasive procedures have become increasingly popular. This resulted in the minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO technique for fracture fixation. With the MIPO technique, procedures could be performed with smaller incisions and thus with less soft tissue damage and a better preserved blood supply. The last 5 years rib fixation has become increasingly popular, rising evidence has becomeavailable suggesting that surgical rib fixation improves outcome of patients with a flail chest or isolated rib fractures. Many surgical approaches for rib fixation have been described in the old literature, however, most of these techniques are obscure nowadays. Currently mostly large incisions with considerable surgical insult are used to stabilize rib fractures. We think that MIPO deserves a place in the surgical treatment of rib fractures. We present the aspects of diagnosis, preoperative planning and operative techniques in regard to MIPO rib fixation.

  7. Biomechanical effect of interspinous process distraction height after lumbar fixation surgery: An in vitro model.

    Fu, Lin; Ma, Jianxiong; Lu, Bin; Jia, Haobo; Zhao, Jie; Kuang, Mingjie; Feng, Rui; Xu, Liyan; Bai, Haohao; Sun, Lei; Wang, Ying; Ma, Xinlong

    2017-07-01

    Pedicle screw fixation may induce abnormal activity at adjacent segment and accelerate the degeneration of lumbar vertebrae. Dynamic stabilizers could provide an intermediate solution between conservative treatment and fusion surgery. Lumbar vertebral segment cephalad to instrumented fixation was the most common localization of adjacent segment degeneration. The aim of this study is to explore the use of interspinous process devices in the lumbar vertebral segment cephalad to fixation segment in changing the mechanical distribution and limiting abnormal activity of the spine. Eight specimens were tested in the following groups: intact group, instability group (bilateral facetectomy at L3-L4), fixation group (bilateral facetectomy and pedicle screw fixation at L3-L4), and hybrid fixation group (fixation at L3-L4 and simulating interspinous device implantation of 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, and 18 mm at L2-L3). Range of motion, motion of vertebral body, and strain distribution change were recorded. The range of motion in extension with 16- and 18-mm hybrid constructs was significantly lower than intact, instability, and fixation groups. In flexion and lateral bending, the strain values of L4 inferior articular process with 18-mm hybrid construct have a significant difference compared with other groups. In axial rotation, under the condition of a contralateral state, the strain values of L2 superior articular process with 18-mm hybrid construct have a significant difference compared with intact and fixation groups. The strain value of the L4 inferior articular process had negative correlation with height distraction in three dimensions, except extension. A negative correlation between the strain value of the L2 superior articular process and distraction height was found in contralateral bending and contralateral axial rotation. Interspinous process devices above the fixation segment can change the mechanical distribution of the spine and limit activity in some of the

  8. Distribution of nitrogen fixation and nitrogenase-like sequences amongst microbial genomes

    2012-01-01

    Background The metabolic capacity for nitrogen fixation is known to be present in several prokaryotic species scattered across taxonomic groups. Experimental detection of nitrogen fixation in microbes requires species-specific conditions, making it difficult to obtain a comprehensive census of this trait. The recent and rapid increase in the availability of microbial genome sequences affords novel opportunities to re-examine the occurrence and distribution of nitrogen fixation genes. The current practice for computational prediction of nitrogen fixation is to use the presence of the nifH and/or nifD genes. Results Based on a careful comparison of the repertoire of nitrogen fixation genes in known diazotroph species we propose a new criterion for computational prediction of nitrogen fixation: the presence of a minimum set of six genes coding for structural and biosynthetic components, namely NifHDK and NifENB. Using this criterion, we conducted a comprehensive search in fully sequenced genomes and identified 149 diazotrophic species, including 82 known diazotrophs and 67 species not known to fix nitrogen. The taxonomic distribution of nitrogen fixation in Archaea was limited to the Euryarchaeota phylum; within the Bacteria domain we predict that nitrogen fixation occurs in 13 different phyla. Of these, seven phyla had not hitherto been known to contain species capable of nitrogen fixation. Our analyses also identified protein sequences that are similar to nitrogenase in organisms that do not meet the minimum-gene-set criteria. The existence of nitrogenase-like proteins lacking conserved co-factor ligands in both diazotrophs and non-diazotrophs suggests their potential for performing other, as yet unidentified, metabolic functions. Conclusions Our predictions expand the known phylogenetic diversity of nitrogen fixation, and suggest that this trait may be much more common in nature than it is currently thought. The diverse phylogenetic distribution of nitrogenase

  9. Distribution of nitrogen fixation and nitrogenase-like sequences amongst microbial genomes

    Dos Santos Patricia C

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The metabolic capacity for nitrogen fixation is known to be present in several prokaryotic species scattered across taxonomic groups. Experimental detection of nitrogen fixation in microbes requires species-specific conditions, making it difficult to obtain a comprehensive census of this trait. The recent and rapid increase in the availability of microbial genome sequences affords novel opportunities to re-examine the occurrence and distribution of nitrogen fixation genes. The current practice for computational prediction of nitrogen fixation is to use the presence of the nifH and/or nifD genes. Results Based on a careful comparison of the repertoire of nitrogen fixation genes in known diazotroph species we propose a new criterion for computational prediction of nitrogen fixation: the presence of a minimum set of six genes coding for structural and biosynthetic components, namely NifHDK and NifENB. Using this criterion, we conducted a comprehensive search in fully sequenced genomes and identified 149 diazotrophic species, including 82 known diazotrophs and 67 species not known to fix nitrogen. The taxonomic distribution of nitrogen fixation in Archaea was limited to the Euryarchaeota phylum; within the Bacteria domain we predict that nitrogen fixation occurs in 13 different phyla. Of these, seven phyla had not hitherto been known to contain species capable of nitrogen fixation. Our analyses also identified protein sequences that are similar to nitrogenase in organisms that do not meet the minimum-gene-set criteria. The existence of nitrogenase-like proteins lacking conserved co-factor ligands in both diazotrophs and non-diazotrophs suggests their potential for performing other, as yet unidentified, metabolic functions. Conclusions Our predictions expand the known phylogenetic diversity of nitrogen fixation, and suggest that this trait may be much more common in nature than it is currently thought. The diverse phylogenetic

  10. Bone compaction enhances fixation of weightbearing titanium implants

    Kold, Søren; Rahbek, Ole; Vestermark, Marianne

    2005-01-01

    are weightbearing, the effects of compaction on weightbearing implants were examined. The hypothesis was that compaction would increase implant fixation compared with conventional drilling. Porous-coated titanium implants were inserted bilaterally into the weightbearing portion of the femoral condyles of dogs....... In each dog, one knee had the implant cavity prepared with drilling, and the other knee was prepared with compaction. Eight dogs were euthanized after 2 weeks, and eight dogs were euthanized after 4 weeks. Femoral condyles from an additional eight dogs represented Time 0. Compacted specimens had higher...... bone-implant contact and periimplant bone density at 0 and 2 weeks, but not at 4 weeks. A biphasic response of compaction was found with a pushout test, as compaction increased ultimate shear strength and energy absorption at 0 and 4 weeks, but not at 2 weeks. This biphasic response indicates...

  11. Nitrogen fixation by the Azolla-Anabaena azollae symbiosis

    Becking, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    A concise outline is presented on the main characteristics of the Azolla association in relation to tropical wetland rice cultivation and the nitrogen economy of paddy soils. Due to the presence of a nitrogen fixing cyanobiont occurring in a special leaf cavity of the Azolla leaf, the water fern Azolla can grow in a nitrogen-deficient environment and is able to contribute considerably to the nitrogen status of the soil. An experimental set-up is presented for how the nitrogen-fixing capacity of Azolla plants can be measured in the field by means of the acetylene reduction assay using a rather simple glass vessel. A comparison was made between 15 N 2 fixation by Azolla and acetylene reduction of Azolla plants under identical conditions

  12. Fixation times in evolutionary games under weak selection

    Altrock, Philipp M; Traulsen, Arne

    2009-01-01

    In evolutionary game dynamics, reproductive success increases with the performance in an evolutionary game. If strategy A performs better than strategy B, strategy A will spread in the population. Under stochastic dynamics, a single mutant will sooner or later take over the entire population or go extinct. We analyze the mean exit times (or average fixation times) associated with this process. We show analytically that these times depend on the payoff matrix of the game in an amazingly simple way under weak selection, i.e. strong stochasticity: the payoff difference Δπ is a linear function of the number of A individuals i, Δπ=u i+v. The unconditional mean exit time depends only on the constant term v. Given that a single A mutant takes over the population, the corresponding conditional mean exit time depends only on the density dependent term u. We demonstrate this finding for two commonly applied microscopic evolutionary processes.

  13. Local Structure Fixation in the Composite Manufacturing Chain

    Girdauskaite, Lina; Krzywinski, Sybille; Rödel, Hartmut; Wildasin-Werner, Andrea; Böhme, Ralf; Jansen, Irene

    2010-12-01

    Compared to metal materials, textile reinforced composites show interesting features, but also higher production costs because of low automation rate in the manufacturing chain at this time. Their applicability is also limited due to quality problems, which restrict the production of complex shaped dry textile preforms. New technologies, design concepts, and cost-effective manufacturing methods are needed in order to establish further fields of application. This paper deals with possible ways to improve the textile deformation process by locally applying a fixative to the structure parallel to the cut. This hinders unwanted deformation in the textile stock during the subsequent stacking and formation steps. It is found that suitable thermoplastic binders, applied in the appropriate manner do not restrict formation of the textile and have no negative influence on the mechanical properties of the composite.

  14. Iron fixation in Egyptian soils using tracer technique

    Massoud, M.A.; Abd-El-Sabour, M.F.; Omar, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    An experiment was carried out in order to investigate the Fe-fixation in Egyptian soils. Different forms of iron were used for the study, i.e., inorganic form, Fe 2 (So 4 ) 3 and chelated forms, i.e., Fe-EDDHA and Fe-DTPA. The forms were labelled with 59Fe. Data showed that the percent fixed Fe values corresponding to Fe 2 (So 4 ) 3 , Fe-EDDHA and Fe-DTPA were 90, 55, 28 respectively. In addition, the absorbed Fe percentage values were 3, 10.7, 24.3 for the three Fe forms respectively. Also the Fe-soluble percentages values were 5.4, 31.6 and 48.1 respectively. The results indicate the effect of Fe fixed. Also it indicates that the soil application of inorganic salt to supply soluble iron to plants seems unpromising due to the high capacity of investigated soils to retain Fe

  15. Studies on phosphorus fixation and release in coffee growing oxisols

    Naik, C.S.K.; Ramaiah, P.K.; Deb, D.L.

    1988-01-01

    A laboratory investigation was made to study the fixation and release of 32 P labelled KH 2 PO 4 in a coffee growing oxisol of Karnataka in presence of certain soil amendments at different incubation periods. The per cent recovery of applied P in 0.01 M CaCl 2 and Bray-1 extractants decreased with increased period of contact with soil. About 70 to 80 per cent of applied P could be recovered from the soil by sequential extraction up to 21 days of incubation. Application of sodium citrate to soil gave higher recovery of applied P than CaCO 3 and FYM by both the extractants. (author). 1 tab

  16. Pectoralis Major Repair With Unicortical Button Fixation And Suture Tape.

    Sanchez, Anthony; Ferrari, Marcio B; Frangiamore, Salvatore J; Sanchez, George; Kruckeberg, Bradley M; Provencher, Matthew T

    2017-06-01

    Although injuries of the pectoralis major muscle are generally uncommon, ruptures of the pectoralis major are occasionally seen in younger, more active patients who participate in weightlifting activities. These injuries usually occur during maximal contraction of the muscle, while in extension and external rotation. In the case of a rupture, operative treatment is advocated especially in young, active patients regardless of the chronicity of the injury. Various surgical techniques for reattachment of the avulsed tendon have been described, but bone tunnel and suture anchor repair techniques are most widely used. In this Technical Note, we present our preferred technique for acute pectoralis major rupture repair involving use of cortical buttons for tendon stump-to-bone fixation.

  17. Functional fixation of autotransplanted tooth germs by using bioresorbable membranes.

    Gérard, Eric; Membre, Hervé; Gaudy, Jean-François; Mahler, Patrick; Bravetti, Pierre

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the contribution of a bioresorbable membrane placement to the healing of immature teeth after autotransplantation of tooth buds. Six cases were selected: 2 transplantations of wisdom teeth, 2 for premolar agenesis, 1 for ectopia, and 1 premolar in an incisor position. The crown of each tooth germ and the marginal alveolar bone were covered with a resorbable membrane. The radicular edification was nearly complete, neither ankylosis nor inflammatory resorption was observable, the pulp vitality was preserved, and the periodontal integration was identical to that of other teeth. The membrane ensured contention and stabilization of the transplant, allowed functional stimulation, permitted protection of the coagulum and periodontal cells, and kept the epithelium at a distance. The transplantations of immature teeth were improved by the use of a resorbable membrane, which caused an optimal functional fixation of the transplanted tooth.

  18. Intermaxillary Fixation Screw Morbidity in Treatment of Mandibular Fractures

    Florescu, Vlad-Andrei; Kofod, Thomas; Pinholt, Else Marie

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the present retrospective study was to investigate the morbidity of screws used for intermaxillary fixation (IMF) in the treatment of mandibular fractures. A review of the published data was also performed for a comparison of outcomes. Our hypothesis was that the use of screws...... for IMF of mandibular fractures would result in minimal morbidity. Materials and Methods Patients treated for mandibular fractures from 2007 to 2013, using screws for IMF, using the international diagnosis code for mandibular fracture, DS026, were anonymously selected (Department of Oral and Maxillofacial...... Surgery, Rigshospitalet, University Hospital of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark). The fracture type, radiographic findings, treatment modality, screw type and number, and root damage were recorded. For the outcome comparison, a review of the published data regarding iatrogenic dental root damage caused...

  19. Hydroxyapatite coatings of fracture fixation plates for orthopedic applications

    Omar, M.A.; Abdullah, N.S.; Yahya, N.M.; Subuki, I.; Hassan, N.; Mohamad, S.M.

    2007-01-01

    The plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings are used on metallic implants to improve their adhesion to bone. The present study investigates the plasma sprayed process of HA on the fracture fixation plates fabricated by metal injection moulding process. The phase and microstructure of the coatings were studied and their microhardness measured. The phase composition of coatings was analyzed by the use of X-ray diffraction method. The homogeneity of the deposit and coating thickness were evaluated using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results suggest that the nature of the coating morphology, phase and crystallinity changes with respect to the plasma sprayed processing parameters. The XRD revealed the presence of both amorphous and crystalline phases. In addition, the powder particles also melt partially in some region and coating microstructure varied from a porous structure to a smooth glassy structure or a typical lamellar structure. (author)

  20. Recognition of Translator Expertise using Sequences of Fixations and Keystrokes

    Gómez, Pascual Martínez; Minocha, Akshay; Huang, Jin

    2014-01-01

    Professional human translation is necessary to meet high quality standards in industry and governmental agencies. Translators engage in multiple activities during their task, and there is a need to model their behavior, with the objective to understand and optimize the translation process....... In recent years, user interfaces enabled us to record user events such as eye-movements or keystrokes. Although there have been insightful descriptive analysis of the translation process, there are multiple advantages in enabling quantitative inference. We present methods to classify sequences of fixations...... and keystrokes into activities and model translation sessions with the objective to recognize translator expertise. We show significant error reductions in the task of recognizing certified translators and their years of experience, and analyze the characterizing patterns....

  1. Fixation Improvement through Biofeedback Rehabilitation in Stargardt Disease

    G. Scuderi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stargardt disease is the most common hereditary macular degeneration in juveniles. It is characterized by macular dystrophy associated with loss of central vision in the first or second decade of life, a “beaten-metal” appearance in the fovea or parafoveal region, yellowish flecks around the macula or in posterior area of the retina, progressive atrophy of the bilateral foveal retinal pigment epithelium, and the “dark choroid” sign on fundus fluorescein angiography in most cases. We report a case of Stargardt disease in a 26-year-old Caucasian female submitted to rehabilitative training with microperimetry MP-1 to find a new preferred retinal locus (PRL and to train her to better her quality of life. Best corrected visual acuity, mean retinal sensitivity, fixation, bivariate contour ellipse area, and speed reading were evaluated before and after the training and results were discussed.

  2. Correlations and fixation of some elements in tree rings

    Goldberg, E.L.; Zolotarev, K.B.; Maksimovskaya, V.V.; Kondratyev, V.I.; Ovchinnikov, D.V.; Naurzbaev, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    High-resolution scanning with Synchrotron Radiation X-ray Fluorescence Analysis (SRXFA) was applied to investigate element distributions in tree rings. Two cores of Siberia Larch have been investigated with resolution 100-200 mkm. Two groups of elements in tree rings with different trends have been found. The members of the first group are Br, Zn, Cl, whose trends correlate with each other. Moreover, trends of Br, Zn, Cl in tree rings are similar to the trend of atmosphere precipitation in the region investigated. Other group of elements are represented by K, Ca, Sr, Mn, Fe, but their trends differ sufficiently from trend of elements of the first group. Extended fixation of elements in tree rings is observed for elements of the first group over the whole interval investigated (150 years). In contrast, elements of the second group mainly accumulate in external part of tree stem

  3. Bone compaction enhances implant fixation in a canine gap model

    Kold, Søren; Rahbek, Ole; Toft, Marianne

    2005-01-01

    A new bone preparation technique, compaction, has increased fixation of implants inserted with exact-fit or press-fit to bone. Furthermore, a demonstrated spring-back effect of compacted bone might be of potential value in reducing the initial gaps that often exist between clinical inserted...... implants and bone. However, it is unknown whether the compression and breakage of trabeculae during the compaction procedure results in impaired gap-healing of compacted bone. Therefore, we compared compaction with conventional drilling in a canine gap model. Grit-blasted titanium implants (diameter 6 mm...... that the beneficial effect of reduced gap size, as compacted bone springs back, is not eliminated by an impaired gap-healing of compacted bone....

  4. 9 CFR 93.427 - Cattle from Mexico.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle from Mexico. 93.427 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.427 Cattle from Mexico. (a) Cattle and other ruminants imported from Mexico, except animals being transported in bond for immediate return to Mexico or...

  5. 7 CFR 319.8-13 - From Northwest Mexico.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false From Northwest Mexico. 319.8-13 Section 319.8-13... for the Entry of Cotton and Covers from Mexico § 319.8-13 From Northwest Mexico. Contingent upon continued freedom of Northwest Mexico and of the West Coast of Mexico from infestations of the pink bollworm...

  6. Radiation fixation of vinyl chloride in an insecticide aerosol container

    Kagiya, V.T.; Takemoto, K.

    1975-01-01

    Recently, a large quantity of vinyl chloride has been used as spraying additive for insecticide aerosols. Since January 1974 when the Food and Drug Administration of the United States of America announced that vinyl chloride causes liver cancer, it has been forbidden in Japan and the United States of America to market insecticide aerosol containers containing vinyl chloride. In Japan, following a government order, about 20 million insecticide aerosol containers have been collected and put into storage. A report is given on the radiation fixation of vinyl chloride as polyvinylchloride powder by gamma-ray-induced polymerization in the aerosol container. Insecticide aerosol containers containing vinyl chloride were irradiated by gamma rays from 60 Co at room temperature. Vinyl chloride polymerized to form powdered polymer in the container. Polymerization conversion increased with the irradiation dose, and after 10 Mrad irradiation, vinyl chloride was not found in the sprayed gas. This establishes that vinyl chloride can be fixed by gamma-ray irradiation in the aerosol container. To accelerate the reaction rate, the effect of various additives on the reaction was investigated. It was found that halogenated hydrocarbons, such as chloroform and carbon tetrachloride, accelerated the initiation of the polymerization, and that a vinyl monomer such as vinyl acetate accelerated the reaction rate due to the promotion of the initiation and the high reactivity of the polyvinylacetate radical to vinyl chloride. Consequently, the required irradiation dose for the fixation of vinyl chloride was decreased to less than 5 Mrad by the addition of various kinds of additives. Following the request of the Ministry of Public Welfare, various technical problems for large-scale treatment are being studied with the co-operation of the Federation of Insecticide Aerosols. (author)

  7. Machining of a bioactive nanocomposite orthopedic fixation device.

    Sparnell, Amie; Aniket; El-Ghannam, Ahmed

    2012-08-01

    Bioactive ceramics bond to bone and enhance bone formation. However, they have poor mechanical properties which restrict their machinability as well as their application as load bearing implants. The goal of this study was to machine bioactive fixation screws using a silica-calcium phosphate nanocomposite (SCPC50). The effect of compact pressure, holding time, and thermal treatment on the microstructure, machinability, and mechanical properties of SCPC50 cylinders were investigated. Samples prepared by powder metallurgy technique at compact pressure range of 100-300 MPa and treated at 900°C/1 h scored a poor machinability rating of (1/5) due to the significant formation of amorphous silicate phase at the grain boundaries. On the other hand, lowering of compact pressure and sintering temperature to 30 MPa/3 h and 700°C/2 h, respectively, minimized the formation of the amorphous phase and raised the machinability rating to (5/5). The modulus of elasticity and ultimate strength of machinable SCPC50 were 10.8 ± 2.0 GPa and 72.8 ± 22.8 MPa, respectively, which are comparable to the corresponding values for adult human cortical bone. qRT-PCR analyses showed that bone cells attached to SCPC50 significantly upregulated osteocalcin mRNA expression as compared to the cells on Ti-6Al-4V. Moreover, cells attached to SCPC50 produced mineralized bone-like tissue within 8 days. On the other hand, cells attached to Ti-6Al-4V failed to produce bone mineral under the same experimental conditions. Results of the study suggest that machinable SCPC50 has the potential to serve as an attractive new material for orthopedic fixation devices. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Angular Stable Miniplate Fixation of Chronic Unstable Scaphoid Nonunion.

    Schormans, Philip M J; Brink, Peter R G; Poeze, Martijn; Hannemann, Pascal F W

    2018-02-01

    Background  Around 5 to 15% of all scaphoid fractures result in nonunion. Treatment of long-lasting scaphoid nonunion remains a challenge for the treating surgeon. Healing of scaphoid nonunion is essential for prevention of scaphoid nonunion advanced collapse and the subsequent predictable pattern of radiocarpal osteoarthritis. Purpose  The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of fixation of the scaphoid nonunion with a volar angular stable miniplate and cancellous bone grafting. We hypothesized that this technique could be successful, even in patients with previous surgery for nonunion and in patients with a long duration of nonunion. Patients and Methods  A total of 21 patients enrolled in a single-center prospective cohort study. Healing of nonunion was assessed on multiplanar computed tomography scan of the wrist at a 3-month interval. Functional outcome was assessed by measuring grip strength, range of motion, and by means of the patient-rated wrist and hand evaluation (PRWHE) questionnaire. Results  During follow-up, 19 out of 21 patients (90%) showed radiological healing of the nonunion. The range of motion did not improve significantly. Postoperative PRWHE scores decreased by 34 points. Healing occurred regardless of the length of time of the nonunion (range: 6-183 months) and regardless of previous surgery (38% of patients). Conclusion  Volar angular stable miniplate fixation with autologous cancellous bone grafting is a successful technique for the treatment of chronic unstable scaphoid nonunion, even in patients with long-lasting nonunion and in patients who underwent previous surgery for a scaphoid fracture. Rotational interfragmentary stability might be an important determining factor for the successful treatment of unstable scaphoid nonunion. Level of Evidence  Level IV.

  9. Lateral column lengthening using allograft interposition and cervical plate fixation.

    Philbin, Terrence M; Pokabla, Christopher; Berlet, Gregory C

    2008-10-01

    Lateral column lengthening has been used successfully in the treatment of stage II adult-acquired pes planovalgus deformity. The purpose of this study is to review the union rate when allograft material is used and the osteotomy stabilized with a cervical plate. A retrospective review was performed on 28 feet in 26 patients who underwent correction of stage II pes planovalgus deformity using a lateral column lengthening with allograft tricortical iliac crest stabilized with a cervical plate. Patients were evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively using a modified American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) Ankle-Hindfoot Scale and the Short Form-12 health survey, as well as radiographically by assessing the talonavicular coverage angle. At a mean follow-up of 9 months, the mean total modified AOFAS score and pain subscore were significantly higher (45.6 and 25.0, respectively) versus preoperatively (27.3 and 11.2, respectively). Graft incorporation occurred in all but one case, and the average length of time to union was 10.06 weeks. Complications included 4 hardware removals, 1 nonunion, 1 graft penetration of the calcaneocuboid joint, and 2 cases of calcaneocuboid joint arthritis. Lateral column lengthening using allograft tricortical iliac crest bone graft with cervical plate fixation is a viable option for the correction of acquired pes planovalgus deformity. Allograft bone avoids donor site morbidity of autogenous iliac crest grafts and was not shown to increase rates of nonunion. Cervical plate fixation avoids the necessity of penetrating the graft with a screw and is associated with high patient satisfaction and radiographic union.

  10. Carbon dioxide fixation by microalgae cultivated in open bioreactors

    Centeno da Rosa, Ana Priscila; Fernandes Carvalho, Lisiane; Goldbeck, Luzia [Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Food, Federal University of Rio Grande (FURG), P.O. Box 474, Rio Grande, RS 96201-900 (Brazil); Vieira Costa, Jorge Alberto, E-mail: dqmjorge@furg.br [Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Food, Federal University of Rio Grande (FURG), P.O. Box 474, Rio Grande, RS 96201-900 (Brazil)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} We studied the growth and CO{sub 2} fixation by Spirulina LEB18 and Chlorella kessleri. {yields} The maximum dailyfixation was obtained for Spirulina with an injection of 6% of CO{sub 2}. {yields} The microalgae presented growth during the 20 d of culture with up to 18% of CO{sub 2}. {yields} The use of CO{sub 2} from industrial generation decreases the cost of producing biomass. - Abstract: The biofixation of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) by microalgae has been proven to be an efficient and economical method, mainly due to the photosynthetic ability of these microorganisms to use this gas as a source of nutrients for their development. The aim of this work was to study the growth of Spirulina LEB18 and Chlorella kessleri microalgae, exposed to controlled and non-controlled conditions, with the injection of different concentrations of CO{sub 2}. The cultures was carried out in 6 L open raceway ponds, under controlled conditions at 30 {sup o}C and 39 {mu}E m{sup -2} s{sup -1} and under non-controlled conditions, protected by a tunnel of transparent film. The experiments were subjected to CO{sub 2} injections at concentrations of 0.038, 6, 12 and 18% (v/v). The highest concentration of biomass (4.95 g L{sup -1}) and maximum daily fixation (0.21 g g{sup -1} d{sup -1}) were obtained for Spirulina LEB18 in culture that was prepared in non-controlled conditions with an injection of 6% (v/v) of CO{sub 2}. C. kessleri had maximum (p < 0.0008) specific growth rate (0.84 d{sup -1}) when grown with 18% (v/v) of CO{sub 2} in non-controlled conditions of cultivation.

  11. Carbon dioxide fixation by microalgae cultivated in open bioreactors

    Centeno da Rosa, Ana Priscila; Fernandes Carvalho, Lisiane; Goldbeck, Luzia; Vieira Costa, Jorge Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We studied the growth and CO 2 fixation by Spirulina LEB18 and Chlorella kessleri. → The maximum dailyfixation was obtained for Spirulina with an injection of 6% of CO 2 . → The microalgae presented growth during the 20 d of culture with up to 18% of CO 2 . → The use of CO 2 from industrial generation decreases the cost of producing biomass. - Abstract: The biofixation of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) by microalgae has been proven to be an efficient and economical method, mainly due to the photosynthetic ability of these microorganisms to use this gas as a source of nutrients for their development. The aim of this work was to study the growth of Spirulina LEB18 and Chlorella kessleri microalgae, exposed to controlled and non-controlled conditions, with the injection of different concentrations of CO 2 . The cultures was carried out in 6 L open raceway ponds, under controlled conditions at 30 o C and 39 μE m -2 s -1 and under non-controlled conditions, protected by a tunnel of transparent film. The experiments were subjected to CO 2 injections at concentrations of 0.038, 6, 12 and 18% (v/v). The highest concentration of biomass (4.95 g L -1 ) and maximum daily fixation (0.21 g g -1 d -1 ) were obtained for Spirulina LEB18 in culture that was prepared in non-controlled conditions with an injection of 6% (v/v) of CO 2 . C. kessleri had maximum (p -1 ) when grown with 18% (v/v) of CO 2 in non-controlled conditions of cultivation.

  12. Fixation method does not affect restoration of rotation center in hip replacements: A single-site retrospective study

    Wegner, Alexander; Kauther, Max Daniel; Landgraeber, Stefan; von Knoch, Marius

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Aseptic loosening is one of the greatest problems in hip replacement surgery. The rotation center of the hip is believed to influence the longevity of fixation. The aim of this study was to compare the influence of cemented and cementless cup fixation techniques on the position of the center of rotation because cemented cup fixation requires the removal of more bone for solid fixation than the cementless technique. Methods We retrospectively compared pre- and post-operativ...

  13. 76 FR 64248 - Gulf of Mexico Reef Fish Fishery; Closure of the 2011 Gulf of Mexico Commercial Sector for...

    2011-10-18

    .... 040205043-4043-01] RIN 0648-XA766 Gulf of Mexico Reef Fish Fishery; Closure of the 2011 Gulf of Mexico... the commercial sector for greater amberjack in the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of the Gulf of Mexico... Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico (FMP). The FMP was prepared by the Gulf of Mexico Fishery...

  14. Is prophylactic fixation a cost-effective method to prevent a future contralateral fragility hip fracture?

    Faucett, Scott C; Genuario, James W; Tosteson, Anna N A; Koval, Kenneth J

    2010-02-01

    : A previous hip fracture more than doubles the risk of a contralateral hip fracture. Pharmacologic and environmental interventions to prevent hip fracture have documented poor compliance. The purpose of this study was to examine the cost-effectiveness of prophylactic fixation of the uninjured hip to prevent contralateral hip fracture. : A Markov state-transition model was used to evaluate the cost and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) for unilateral fixation of hip fracture alone (including internal fixation or arthroplasty) compared with unilateral fixation and contralateral prophylactic hip fixation performed at the time of hip fracture or unilateral fixation and bilateral hip pad protection. Prophylactic fixation involved placement of a cephalomedullary nail in the uninjured hip and was initially assumed to have a relative risk of a contralateral fracture of 1%. Health states included good health, surgery-related complications requiring a second operation (infection, osteonecrosis, nonunion, and malunion), fracture of the uninjured hip, and death. The primary outcome measure was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio estimated as cost per QALY gained in 2006 US dollars with incremental cost-effectiveness ratios below $50,000 per QALY gained considered cost-effective. Sensitivity analyses evaluated the impact of patient age, annual mortality and complication rates, intervention effectiveness, utilities, and costs on the value of prophylactic fixation. : In the baseline analysis, in a 79-year-old woman, prophylactic fixation was not found to be cost-effective (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio = $142,795/QALY). However, prophylactic fixation was found to be a cost-effective method to prevent contralateral hip fracture in: 1) women 71 to 75 years old who had 30% greater relative risk for a contralateral fracture; and 2) women younger than age 70 years. Cost-effectiveness was greater when the additional costs of prophylaxis were less than $6000. However, for

  15. Mexico and the CTBT; Mexico y el CTBT

    Aguirre G, J.; Martinez L, J.; Ruiz E, L. J.; Aragon M, I. B., E-mail: jaguirre@cnsns.gob.mx [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Barragan 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    The Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban-Treaty (CTBT) is a treaty that prohibits all the nuclear explosions by anybody and in any place, either on the terrestrial surface, in the atmosphere, under the sea or underground. From the adoption of this Treaty by the United Nations, Mexico has had interest for its entrance in vigor, as integral part to assure the international peace. For this reason, our country signed the Treaty since it was open in September 24, 1996 and three years later ratified it, due to Mexico is part of the group of necessary countries for their entrance in vigor. During 13 years, the country has been committed and helped to the installation of monitoring stations, actions that allow the strengthening of the International System of Surveillance. The purpose of this work is to divulge the Treaty,its technologies and benefits; and also to diffuse the works realized by Mexico regarding the radionuclides monitoring station and noble gases both certified ones for the CTBT. Besides the radionuclides technology, Mexico has taken charge of the installation and operation of the seismic stations and hydro-acoustics that have been certified too. The radionuclides station Rn-44 located in Guerrero Negro, BCS has two technologies, an automated sampler of suspended particles in air brand Cinderella/ARAME and a noble gases system Sauna used for the particles detection of radioactive material gamma emitting and Xenon radioisotopes product of nuclear assays. Both technologies are transmitting data in real time to the International Center of Data. These technologies are shown in this work. (Author)

  16. Georeferenced Population Datasets of Mexico (GEO-MEX): Urban Place GIS Coverage of Mexico

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Urban Place GIS Coverage of Mexico is a vector based point Geographic Information System (GIS) coverage of 696 urban places in Mexico. Each Urban Place is...

  17. Posterior Fixation with Unilateral Same Segment Pedicle Fixation and Contralateral Hook in Surgical Treatment of Thoracolumbar Burst Fractures

    Farzad Omidi-Kashani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background In surgical treatment of thoracolumbar burst fractures, most authors try to lower the number of vertebrae involved during the surgery. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of a medium-segment posterior spinal fixation in these patients. Patients and Methods We retrospectively reviewed 27 patients (18 male, 9 female with mean age of 39.4 ± 15.0 years old in a before-and-after study. The mean follow-up period was 38.4 ± 15.6 months. We involved 2 intact above vertebrae and one intact below vertebra, inserting a pedicular screw at the fractured level and supplemented the construct with contralateral infralaminar hook. Clinical and radiologic characteristics were assessed with American spinal injury association (ASIA scale, oswestry disability index (ODI, visual analogue scale (VAS, and plain radiography. Data analysis was carried out by SPSS version 11.5 software. Results Mean post traumatic kyphosis was + 15.7° ± 3.3° that was changed to - 8.5° ± 4.3° and +1° ± 4.4° at immediate and last visit after surgery, respectively. Mean loss of correction (LOC was 9.5° ± 1.9° (P < 0.001. At the most recent follow-up visit, mean ODI and VAS were 15.0 ± 14.4 and 2.4 ± 2.5, respectively and 24 cases (88.9% declared excellent or good clinical results. At the last follow-up visit, LOC had no significant correlation neither with VAS nor ODI. Conclusions In surgical treatment of thoracolumbar burst fractures, a medium-segment posterior spinal fixation, although cannot maintain the radiologic reduction of the fractured vertebrae efficiently, is not only associated with acceptable clinical outcome but also spare one lower intact lumbar segment and therefore recommended.

  18. Plate fixation for proximal chevron osteotomy has greater risk for hallux valgus recurrence than Kirschner wire fixation.

    Park, Chul-Hyun; Ahn, Ji-Yong; Kim, Yu-Mi; Lee, Woo-Chun

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the results of hallux valgus surgery between feet fixed with Kirschner wires and those fixed with a plate and screws. Between December 2008 and November 2009, 53 patients (62 feet) were treated with proximal chevron osteotomy and distal soft tissue procedure for symptomatic moderate to severe hallux valgus deformity. Thirty-four patients (41 feet) were stabilised with Kirschner wires (K-wire group) and 19 patients (21 feet) were stabilised with a locking plate (plate group). Clinical results were assessed using American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score. Radiographic parameters were compared between these groups. Recurrence rate at the last follow-up was compared between the K-wire and plate groups. Mean AOFAS score was lower in the plate group, however, the difference between the groups was not statistically significant in AOFAS score at the last follow-up. Hallux valgus angle and intermetatarsal angle were significantly larger in the plate group at the last follow-up. Mean 1-2 metatarsal (MT) distance on immediately postoperative radiographs was significant larger in the plate group. Four (9.8 %) of the 41 feet in the K-wire group and 7 (33.3 %) of the 21 feet in the plate group showed hallux valgus recurrence at the last follow-up. The plate group had a significantly higher risk of recurrence than the K-wire group. Fixation of proximal chevron osteotomy using a plate and screws has a greater risk of hallux valgus recurrence than fixation using Kirschner wires.

  19. Nonphotosynthetic CO2 fixation by alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) roots and nodules

    Anderson, M.P.; Heichel, G.H.; Vance, C.P.

    1987-01-01

    The dependence of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) root and nodule nonphotosynthetic CO 2 fixation on the supply of currently produced photosynthate and nodule nitrogenase activity was examined a various times after phloem-girdling and exposure of nodules to Ar:O 2 . Phloem-girdling was effected 20 hours and exposure to Ar:O 2 was effected 2 to 3 hours before initiation of experiments. Nodule and root CO 2 fixation rates of phloem-girdled plants were reduced to 38 and 50%, respectively, of those of control plants. Exposure to Ar:O 2 decreased nodule CO 2 fixation rates to 45%, respiration rates to 55%, and nitrogenase activities to 51% of those of the controls. The products of nodule CO 2 fixation were exported through the xylem to the shoot mainly as amino acids within 30 to 60 minutes after exposure to 14 CO 2 . In contrast to nodules, roots exported very little radioactivity, and most of the 14 C was exported as organic acids. The nonphotosynthetic CO 2 fixation rate of roots and nodules averaged 26% of the gross respiration rate, i.e. the sum of net respiration and nonphotosynthetic CO 2 assimilation. Nodules fixed CO 2 at a rate 5.6 times that of roots, but since nodules comprised a small portion of root system mass, roots accounted for 76% of the nodulated roots system CO 2 fixation. The results indicate that nodule CO 2 fixation in alfalfa is associated with N assimilation

  20. Rapid maxillary distraction protocol utilizing the halo distraction system and rigid internal fixation.

    Baker, Stephen B; Reid, Russell R; Burkey, Brooke; Bartlett, Scott P

    2007-09-01

    To shorten head frame wear time associated with external halo distraction (HD), we have adapted a protocol for maxillary distraction with the halo system that integrates plate fixation. All patients had a history of cleft lip and/or palate and maxillary retrusion > or = 8 mm. Five patients treated with this protocol and followed for at least 1 year were included in this study. The protocol included a 3-day latency period, variable maxillary distraction, and removal of the halo device with simultaneous rigid internal fixation. Two patients had a variable period of maxillomandibular fixation (MMF), which maintained the maxillary advancement and idealized intercuspal position while permitting further callus maturation. Cephalographs were obtained preoperatively, immediately following distractor removal, and 1 year after rigid internal fixation. The mean age at time of surgery was 18.7 years. The maxillary deficiency ranged from 8 to 15 mm (mean = 10.6 mm). All five patients demonstrated excellent occlusion. Cephalometric analysis 1-year post rigid internal fixation revealed minimal (maxillary distraction followed by MMF to maintain maxillary advancement may reduce halo device wear to 1 to 2 weeks. MMF optimizes occlusion by forcing the maxillary teeth into maximal intercuspal position. Rigid fixation is not only associated with less long-term relapse compared to nonrigid forms of fixation, but also minimizes the incidence of nonunion. This treatment protocol provides the advancement possible with distraction osteogenesis and the accuracy of orthognathic surgery, thereby minimizing external head frame wear.