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Sample records for five-year prospective study

  1. Positive rolandic sharp waves in the EEG of the premature newborn: a five year prospective study.

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    Marret, S; Parain, D; Jeannot, E; Eurin, D; Fessard, C

    1992-07-01

    In a prospective study of 301 premature newborn infants, neonatal tracings were done to evaluate the use of the electroencephalogram (EEG) and positive rolandic sharp waves (PRSW) in the diagnosis and prognosis of periventricular leucomalacia. Each infant had ultrasonographic studies and standardised neurological examinations at 1 year of age or later. Two hundred and eighty infants were followed up at 1 year. This study demonstrated that the absence of PRSW was correlated with a favourable motor development (98.2%) and confirmed the great value of PRSW in the diagnosis and the prognosis of periventricular leucomalacia. PRSW were sensitive (98%) and specific (84%) markers of developmental motor disability and were a sensitive (96%) marker of severe spastic diplegia. A frequency above 2/minute was a specific (92%) sign of severe spastic diplegia. Social and language developmental abnormalities were not correlated with the neonatal EEG.

  2. RUPTURE OF UTERUS - A FIVE YEAR PROSPECTIVE STUDY IN A TEACHING HOSPITAL

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    Saritha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE : Uterine rupture is a preventable obstetric complication. The aim of the study is to know the incidence of uterine rupture, find out the predisposing factors, maternal and foetal outcome in a tertiary teaching hospital and suggest measures to decrease the incidence of rupture uterus. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All cases referred to the hospital with rupture uterus and cases delivered in the hospital with rupture of uterus between July 2010 to June 2015 were included in the study. Age, parity, gestational age, mo de of delivery, type of rupture, surgery done, and foetomaternal outcome were noted. RESULTS : The incidence of rupture uterus in the present study was 1.32 per 1,000 deliveries. Most of these patients were young with mean age of 24.23 years, 1 st and 2 nd gr avida. Previous caesarean scar and traumatic instrumental delivery with forceps were common risk factors. Maternal morbidity was high and maternal mortality was 7.89% and foetal loss was high ( 78.95%. Uterine repair with bilateral tubectomy was the common est surgery performed. CONCLUSION: Causes of rupture uterus are preventable. Proper antenatal care, early referral of patients with risk factors to centres equipped with facilities for surgical intervention and facilities for blood transfusion , c areful mon itoring of women in labour with partogram, judicious use of oxytocin will go a long way in decreasing the incidence of rupture uterus.

  3. The impact of vegan diet on B-12 status in healthy omnivores: five-year prospective study.

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    Mądry, Edyta; Lisowska, Aleksandra; Grebowiec, Philip; Walkowiak, Jarosław

    2012-04-02

    There are no long-term prospective studies assessing the impact of the vegan diet on vitamin B-12 (B-12) status. Many vegans take B-12 supplements irregularly or refuse to adopt them at all, considering them to be "unnatural" products. The use of B-12 fortified food may be an alternative. Therefore, we aimed to estimate the long-term effect of a vegan diet on serum B-12 concentrations in healthy omnivore adults, comparing the influence of natural products consumption and B-12 fortified food. A five year prospective study was carried out comprising 20 omnivore healthy adult subjects, who moved to strict vegan diet for 5 years. Ten volunteers followed vegan diet based entirely on natural products, while the remaining ten subjects consumed food fortified in B-12. In all subjects serum vitamin B-12 concentration was determined before and 6, 12, 24 and 60 months after the implementation of the diet. A significant decrease (p vegan diet. However, observed changes were in fact limited to the subgroup consuming exclusively natural products (p vegan diet is associated with the risk of vitamin B-12 deficiency. B-12 fortified products might constitute a valuable alternative in vegans refusing to take vitamin supplements.

  4. Five-year follow-up of oral health and seizure condition of patients with epilepsy: a prospective observational study.

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    Károlyházy, K; Kivovics, P; Hermann, P; Fejérdy, P; Arányi, Z

    2010-12-01

    A five-year follow up of patients with epilepsy to examine the change in their oral health and seizure condition. A prospective observational controlled epidemiologic study under natural treatment settings. The epilepsy group consisted wholly of patients participating in an epidemiologic survey performed five years previously. The gender- and age-matched control (non-epilepsy) group consisted partly of subjects recovered from the previous study, and partly of new subjects. Data pertaining to the disease were collected and a thorough dental examination was performed. Indices quantifying oral hygiene, the number and condition of the remaining teeth and periodontium, and the degree of prosthetic treatment were measured. Statistical comparison was performed between the patient and the control group of the present study, and pair wise between the previous and the present survey. The epileptic condition of the patients showed significant improvement upon follow-up, in contrast to a significant deterioration in their oral health as compared to the control group. Concerning oral health, dental indices describing oral hygiene and periodontal condition showed the most pronounced decline. The improvement in the epileptic condition of patients is attributed to changes in treatment strategies. As the epileptic condition and oral health of patients changed in opposite directions, socioeconomic and educational factors appear to play a more important role in the poor oral health of these patients than disease-specific factors (e.g. oral cavity injuries, increased exertion on the teeth, antiepileptic drug effects). Furthermore, the periodontal condition seems to be main factor responsible for the unfavourable dental status.

  5. A prospective study of nurses' intentions to leave the profession during their first five years of practice in Sweden.

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    Rudman, Ann; Gustavsson, Petter; Hultell, Daniel

    2014-04-01

    Nursing turnover continues to be a problem for healthcare organizations. Longitudinal research is needed in order to monitor the development of turnover intentions to leave the profession over time. The objectives were: (1) to investigate the prevalence of new graduates' intentions to leave the nursing profession, (2) to prospectively monitor the development of intention to leave during the first five years of professional life, and (3) to study the impact of sex, age, occupational preparedness and burnout (i.e. exhaustion and disengagement) on the development of intention to leave the profession. Longitudinal observational study. Participants were recruited from first-year nursing students at any of the 26 universities in Sweden offering nursing education. Of the 2331 student nurses who were invited to participate in the study, 1702 (73%) gave informed consent and thus constituted the cohort. This cohort was prospectively followed yearly (three times during education and five times post graduation) from late autumn 2002 to spring 2010. Of the 1501 respondents who continued to participate after graduating, 1417 worked as nurses at the time of data collection and responded to the items regarding intention to leave the nursing profession during at least one wave of measurement; these constituted the sample of the present longitudinal study. The outcome variable was intention to leave the nursing profession. This was measured using a scale of three items, covering thoughts of leaving the profession. The main predictor was burnout, and this was measured by the exhaustion and disengagement scale from the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory. Data were analysed using latent growth curve modelling. After five years, every fifth nurse strongly intended to leave the profession. The longitudinal analysis of change in intention to leave showed that levels increased during the first years of employment. High levels of burnout were related to an increase in intention to leave. It is

  6. Analysis of histopathological pattern of kidney biopsy specimens in Kuwait: A single-center, five-year prospective study

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    Emad Abdallah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glomerulonephritis (GN varies in incidence in different geographical areas due to different socioeconomic conditions and ethnicity, genetic variability and environmental factors. Our study is aimed to determine the histopathological pattern of kidney biopsies in Kuwait over the preceding five years. In a prospective study, we analyzed the clinical and pathological data of 214 kidney biopsies that were performed during the period from November 2009 to November 2014 at the Al-Khezam Dialysis Center, Al-Adan Hospital, Kuwait. Kidney biopsies were performed percutaneously using an automated gun guided by ultrasound. The biopsy samples were processed for light microscopy and immunofluorescence. Electron microscopy was performed only in selected cases. Age, gender, serum creatinine, 24-h urinary protein, virology, immunology profiles, indication for renal biopsy and histopathological findings were recorded for analysis. Primary GN was reported in 46.7%, secondary GN was reported in 42.9% and tubulointerstitial disease was reported in 10.3% of the 214 kidney biopsies studied. Among primary GN, membranous GN (MGN was the most common lesion (12.1%, followed by immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN, 11.7%, minimal change disease (9.8%, focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (9.3%, membranoproliferative GN (1.9%, Alport′s syndrome (1.4% and fibrillary GN (0.46%. Among biopsies that showed secondary GN, lupus nephritis was the most common (11.7%, followed by hypertensive glomerulosclerosis (10.3%, crescentic GN (7.1%, diabetic nephropathy (3.3%, thrombotic microangiopathy (2.3%, amyloidosis (2.3%, post-infectious GN (1.4% and myeloma kidney (0.9%. Among biopsies that showed tubulointerstitial disease, acute interstitial nephritis was the most common lesion (6.1%, followed by chronic interstitial nephritis (2.8% and acute tubular necrosis (1.4%. Our study indicates that MGN was the most common primary GN, followed by IgAN, while lupus nephritis was the most

  7. Long term survival of patients with raised pulmonary arterial systolic pressure utilizing echocardiography—a five-year prospective study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maw Pin Tan; Sushil K Bansal; Nu Nu Wynn; Murad Umerov; Angela Gillham; Alison Henderson; Anthony Hildreth; Shahid Junejo

    2012-01-01

    Background Pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (PASP) can be estimated with transthoracic echocardiography. However, the significance of raised PASP on routine echocardiography is uncertain. In this study, we evaluated the mortality and hospitalization rates of subjects with raised PASP in a cohort of patients referred directly by their general practitioners for routine outpatient (open access)echocardiography for further analysis of suspected heart failure. Results A total of 485 subjects were referred for open access echocardiography at our hospital in 2002. A cohort of 209/485 (43%) consecutive subjects with measurable tricuspid regurgitation were followed for a minimum of five years investigating hospitalization rates and survival. Some 62 of 209 (30%) subjects had pulmonary hypertension (PH). Subjects with PH were significantly more likely to have four or more hospital admissions (22% vs. 8%; P 30 days of cumulative hospital stay over five years (29% vs. 13%; P < 0.01). PH was significantly associated with mortality (P = 0.003),Records from the Office of National Statistics revealed that subjects with PH were more likely to have chronic lung diseases recorded as immediate or contributory causes of death (50% vs. 14%; P < 0.05). Conclusions PASP ≥ 36 mmHg on routine echocardiography is associated with recurrent hospital admissions, prolonged hospitalizations and increased cause of mortality. Therefore, the diagnosis of PH on echocardiography deserves further clinical evaluation, with future studies designed at defining a suitable diagnostic strategy.

  8. Take it or leave: a five-year prospective study of workplace bullying and indicators of expulsion in working life.

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    Glambek, Mats; Skogstad, Anders; Einarsen, Ståle

    2015-01-01

    Workplace bullying is often held as a precursor of expulsion in working life, but the claim builds on sparse empirical groundwork. In the present study, bullying is investigated as an antecedent to indicators of expulsion, be it from the workplace (change of employer) or from working life itself (disability benefit recipiency and unemployment), using a nationally representative sample (n=1,613), a five-year time-lag as well as two separate measures of workplace bullying. In line with the hypotheses, logistic regression analyses revealed that both exposure to bullying behaviors and self-labeled bullying are significantly associated with change of employer (OR=1.77 and 2.42, respectively) and disability benefit recipiency (OR=2.81 and 2.95, respectively). Moreover, exposure to bullying behaviors was found to be significantly related to unemployment five years on (OR=4.6). For the self-labeling measure of bullying, this tendency only held true at the 0.1 significance level (OR=3.69, p=0.098). Together, the present results indicate that targets of bullying are at a greater risk of expulsion, both from the workplace and from working life itself, thus representing strong incentives to combat bullying both from the perspective of the individual, the organization and society at large.

  9. Radiographic changes in patients with pseudarthrosis after posterior lumbar interbody arthrodesis using carbon interbody cages: a prospective five-year study.

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    Kanemura, Tokumi; Matsumoto, Akiyuki; Ishikawa, Yoshimoto; Yamaguchi, Hidetoshi; Satake, Kotaro; Ito, Zenya; Yoshida, Go; Sakai, Yoshihito; Imagama, Shiro; Kawakami, Noriaki

    2014-05-21

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate longitudinal radiographic changes at up to five years in patients with pseudarthrosis after posterior lumbar interbody arthrodesis using carbon interbody cages. From 2003 to 2006, prospective longitudinal radiographic and CT (computed tomography) scan evaluations were made at up to five years after posterior lumbar interbody arthrodesis using carbon interbody cages at one or two levels in 153 consecutive patients. At the one-year evaluation, seventeen patients with early pseudarthrosis at nineteen levels were selected as subjects on the basis of one or more of the following characteristics: complete absence of osseous bridging between the upper and lower vertebrae, angular motion of ≥5°, and/or radiolucent zones surrounding the implant. Angular motion, continuity of osseous bridging, grafted bone quantity, and radiolucent zones around the pedicle screws and cages were observed annually until five years. The mean angular motion of five levels that exhibited ≥5° of motion at one year began to decrease significantly thereafter (p = 0.046), and no level showed movement of ≥5° at five years. The mean grade of the radiolucent zones around the screws on CT showed significant improvements at two years (p = 0.039) and three years (p < 0.01). The radiolucent zones around the screws disappeared at twelve of sixteen levels by five years, and the radiolucent zones around the cages disappeared in eleven of seventeen levels by five years. Of eighteen levels with early pseudarthrosis, seven (39%) were assessed as successfully fused at three years and twelve (67%) at five years. Four (80%) of five patients with a radiolucent zone of >1 mm around the entire cage on CT at one year showed continuing pseudarthrosis at five years, whereas only two (15%) of thirteen patients without this finding did (crude relative risk = 5.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.35 to 20.02). A radiolucent zone of >1 mm around the entire cage on CT at one year

  10. The impact of vegan diet on B-12 status in healthy omnivores: five-year prospective study

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    Edyta Mądry

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. There are no long-term prospective studies assessing the impact of the vegan diet on vitamin B-12 (B-12 status. Many vegans take B-12 supplements irregularly or refuse to adopt them at all, considering them to be “unnatural” products. The use of B-12 fortifi ed food may be an alternative. Therefore, we aimed to estimate the long-term effect of a vegan diet on serum B-12 concentrations in healthy omnivore adults, comparing the infl uence of natural products consumption and B-12 fortifi ed food. Material and methods. A fi ve year prospective study was carried out comprising 20 omnivore healthy adult subjects, who moved to strict vegan diet for 5 years. Ten volunteers followed vegan diet based entirely on natural products, while the remaining ten subjects consumed food fortifi ed in B-12. In all subjects serum vitamin B-12 concentration was determined before and 6, 12, 24 and 60 months after the implementation of the diet. Results. A signifi cant decrease (p < 0.0002 of serum B-12 concentrations in the whole studied group was noted after 60 months of vegan diet. However, observed changes were in fact limited to the subgroup consuming exclusively natural products (p < 0.0001. Conclusions. Transition from omnivore to vegan diet is associated with the risk of vitamin B-12 defi ciency. B-12 fortifi ed products might constitute a valuable alternative in vegans refusing to take vitamin supplements.

  11. Workplace bullying as an antecedent of mental health problems: a five-year prospective and representative study.

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    Einarsen, Ståle; Nielsen, Morten Birkeland

    2015-02-01

    The present study investigates the proposed long-term relationship between exposure to workplace bullying and subsequent mental health in the form of anxiety and depression with a time lag of 5 years, exploring potential gender differences in these relationships. The study employs a prospective design with a 5-year time lag in a representative sample of the Norwegian workforce. A cohort of 1,613 employees reported on their exposure to workplace bullying and their symptoms of anxiety and depression at both measurement times. The results showed exposure to workplace bullying to be a significant predictor of mental health problems 5 years on, even after controlling for baseline mental health status, gender, age, job-change, job demands and job control, yet for men only. Baseline levels of mental health problems in terms of symptoms of anxiety and depression did not predict subsequent exposure to bullying at follow-up among women, but anxiety did in the case of men. Workplace bullying poses a serious long-term threat to the health and well-being of workers, at least for men. The results of the study pinpoint the need for mental health treatment as well as for preventive measures in relation to workplace bullying, and pinpoint the need for a gender perspective in these studies.

  12. A Prospective, Longitudinal Study of US Children Unable to Achieve Open-Set Speech Recognition Five Years after Cochlear Implantation

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    Barnard, JM; Fisher, LM; Johnson, KC; Eisenberg, LS; Wang, NY; Quittner, AL; Carson, CM; Niparko, JK

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify characteristics associated with inability to progress to open-set speech recognition in children who are 5 years post cochlear implantation. Study Design Prospective, longitudinal and multidimensional assessment of auditory development over 5 years. Setting Six tertiary cochlear implant (CI) referral centers in the US. Patients Children with severe-to-profound hearing loss who underwent implantation before age 5 years enrolled in the Childhood Development after Cochlear Implant (CDaCI) study, categorized by level of speech recognition ability. Intervention(s) Cochlear implantation prior to 5 years of age and annual assessment of emergent speech recognition skills. Main outcome measure(s) Progression to open-set speech recognition by 5 years after implantation. Results Less functional hearing prior to implantation, older age at onset of amplification, lower maternal sensitivity to communication needs, minority status, and complicated perinatal history were associated with inability to obtain open set speech recognition by 5 years. Conclusions Characteristics of a subpopulation of children with CIs that were associated with an inability to achieve open-set speech recognition after 5 years of CI experience were investigated. These data distinguish pediatric CI recipients at risk for poor auditory development and highlight areas for future interventions to enhance support of early implantation. PMID:25700015

  13. Twenty five years since the first prospective study by Forman et al. (1991) on Helicobacter pylori and stomach cancer risk.

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    Sitas, Freddy

    2016-04-01

    Stomach cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death worldwide, despite its incidence and mortality falling in many places. The discovery in 1984 that a bacterial infection with Helicobacter pylori could cause stomach and duodenal ulcers prompted work in its role in causing gastritis, and led to the first prospective study in 1991 by Forman et al., showing that infection with H.pylori increased the risk of stomach cancer in those infected by almost three-fold. Prior to then, it was hypothesized that stomach was caused by poor diets. While diets may still play a role, the falls in stomach cancer incidence have been associated with reductions in population prevalence of H. pylori. Discovery of the link was accelerated by the use of stored sera from other unrelated studies, and the use of serological assays. Since those discoveries the treatment landscape of gastric disorders has changed significantly, with a rapid uptake of antibiotic and proton pump inhibitors (triple) therapies in those who are H. pylori positive. Over time we have seen falls in gastric cancer, peptic and duodenal ulcers and in many of the procedures previously used to cure peptic ulcer disease, such as vagotomies and gastrectomies. Further still, an oral vaccine against H. pylori, first trialled in China, holds much promise of being the third vaccine against a cancer causing infection. If successful this would lead to a further reduction in H. pylori related conditions, and ultimately gastric cancer, an otherwise lethal disease.

  14. Destructive spondyloarthropathy of the cervical spine in long-term hemodialyzed patients: a five-year clinical radiological prospective study

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    Leone, A.; Marano, P. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Cattolica, Rome (Italy); Sundaram, M. [Dept. of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Cerase, A. [Unit of Neuroradiology, Policlinico ' ' Le Scotte' ' , Siena (Italy); Magnavita, N. [Dept. of Occupational Medicine, Univ. Cattolica, Rome (Italy); Tazza, L. [Dept. of Surgery, Univ. Cattolica, Rome (Italy)

    2001-08-01

    To describe the radiographic features and progression of cervical spine destructive spondyloarthropathy (DSA) in hemodialyzed patients, and to evaluate the relationship between this disease and patient characteristics, biochemical values, and hemodialysis duration. Design and patients: Standard radiographs, and lateral flexion and extension views of the cervical spine, were performed annually for 5 years in 31 hemodialyzed patients who were divided into three groups at the commencement of the study: those showing (I) DSA, (II) vertebral rim erosions (VRE) without DSA, and (III) absence of DSA and VRE. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and computed tomography (CT) were performed in seven and two patients respectively. The imaging features were evaluated for the presence and progression of spondyloarthropathy and correlated with clinical and biochemical variables. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance. The duration of hemodialysis appeared to be the main predictive factor (P=0.0003) for DSA, which was found in six patients (19%). DSA was found to correlate with higher levels of beta2-microglobulin (P<0.00001), parathyroid hormone (P<0.05), and alkaline phosphatase (P<0.05). Clinical symptoms were minimal. In two patients, MR imaging revealed changes mimicking spondylodiscitis. In another patient, CT of the craniocervical junction showed bone resorption due to a pseudotumor, and basilar invagination. DSA of the cervical spine is often clinically silent. Pathogenesis of DSA may be multifactorial but its progression is most influenced by the duration of hemodialysis. On MR imaging, DSA may mimic spondylodiscitis. (orig.)

  15. Do the bullies survive? A five-year, three-wave prospective study of indicators of expulsion in working life among perpetrators of workplace bullying

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    GLAMBEK, Mats; SKOGSTAD, Anders; EINARSEN, Ståle

    2015-01-01

    In recent series of studies, we have shown that targets of workplace bullying are at risk of expulsion in working life, both from current employment (e.g. in terms of changing employer) and from working life itself (e.g. becoming unemployed). The most recent of these, Take It or Leave: A Five-Year Prospective Study of Workplace Bullying and Indicators of Expulsion in Working Life was recently published in Industrial Health, and the present short communication aims to follow up that paper, investigating the possible job “survival” of the perpetrators. A nationally representative sample was employed (n=1,613), and responses were gathered at three time points with a two-year and a five-year time-lag. Outcomes were intention to leave and sickness absence at T1, and sickness absence, change of employer, disability benefit recipiency and unemployment at T2 and T3. The results of regression analyses clearly indicate that the perpetrators’ occupational status is largely unchanged, and remains so over time, as opposed to earlier findings regarding the targets of bullying. PMID:26320732

  16. Disability Pension at the Time of Coronary Revascularisation Is Associated with Higher Five-Year Mortality; A Swedish Nationwide, Register-Based Prospective Cohort Study.

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    Katharina Zetterström

    Full Text Available Although coronary revascularisation by coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI are common procedures, little is known regarding disability pension (DP at the time of coronary revascularisation and its association with mortality. The aim was to investigate the five-year mortality following a first coronary revascularisation among women and men on DP, compared with those not on DP at the time of intervention, accounting for socio-demographic and medical factors.A nationwide prospective population-based cohort study was conducted, using national registers including 70,040 patients (80% men, aged 30-64 years, with a first CABG (n = 24,987; 36% or PCI (n = 45,053; 64% during 1994-2006 in Sweden, who were alive 30 days after the intervention. The main outcome was all-cause and cause-specific mortality within five years or through 31 December 2006, following CABG and PCI, and the exposure was DP at the time of a first coronary revascularisation. Information on DP, patient characteristics, date and cause of death was obtained from nationwide registers. Hazard ratios (HR with 95% confidence intervals (CI for the outcome were estimated, using Cox proportional hazard regression analyses. All analyses were stratified by type of intervention and gender.Four percent died following coronary revascularisation. Cardiovascular disease was the most common cause of death (54%, followed by neoplasms (25%. Regardless of type of intervention, gender and after multivariable adjustments, patients on DP had a higher HR for five-year mortality compared with those not on DP at time of revascularisation (CABG: women HR 2.14; 95% CI 1.59-2.89, men HR 2.09; 1.84-2.38, PCI: women HR 2.25; 1.78-2.83, men HR 1.95; 1.72-2.21. Young women on DP at the time of PCI had a substantially higher HR (HR 4.10; 95% CI: 2.25-7.48.Patients on DP at the time of first coronary revascularisation had a higher five-year risk of mortality compared with

  17. Muscle force, balance and falls in muscular impaired individuals with myotonic dystrophy type 1: a five-year prospective cohort study.

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    Hammarén, Elisabet; Kjellby-Wendt, Gunilla; Lindberg, Christopher

    2015-02-01

    Individuals with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) have progressive muscle weakness with gait and balance impairments. We explored prospectively the natural history of muscle force, gait, balance, balance confidence and walking ability in muscular affected individuals with DM1. After five years data from 43 individuals (m/f:18/25) were analysed. All measures of balance showed statistically significant deterioration (p < 0.001) with averaged yearly loss of function by 3-4%. In the group as a whole, loss of muscle force was statistically significant in all lower limb muscles measured after five years: changes relative to baseline force were median -6% to -18%. For males muscle force loss was statistically significant in all leg muscles, but only in hip flexors for women. After five years 100% of the men had fallen during the previous year and 67% three times or more, in contrast only 60% of the women had fallen in the previous year and 36% three times or more. The proportion of individuals seeking medical care the previous year, after falling, was more than doubled after five years, albeit the number of falls had not changed. Awareness of this increased risk of falls is important for caregivers and patients.

  18. Validation of a multimarker model for assessing risk of type 2 diabetes from a five-year prospective study of 6784 Danish people (Inter99)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urdea, Mickey; Kolberg, Janice; Wilber, Judith

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Improved identification of subjects at high risk for development of type 2 diabetes would allow preventive interventions to be targeted toward individuals most likely to benefit. In previous research, predictive biomarkers were identified and used to develop multivariate models to ass...... or metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: The PreDx DRS provides the absolute risk of diabetes conversion in five years for subjects identified to be "at risk" using the clinical factors....

  19. Five-year results from a prospective multicentre study of percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation demonstrate sustained removal of significant pulmonary regurgitation, improved right ventricular outflow tract obstruction and improved quality of life.

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    Hager, Alfred; Schubert, Stephan; Ewert, Peter; Søndergaard, Lars; Witsenburg, Maarten; Guccione, Paolo; Benson, Lee N; Suárez de Lezo, José; Lung, Te-Hsin; Hess, John; Eicken, Andreas; Berger, Felix

    2017-02-20

    Percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation (PPVI) is used to treat patients with dysfunctional pulmonary valve conduits. Short- and longer-term results from multiple trials have outlined haemodynamic improvements. Our aim was to report the long-term results, including quality of life, from a multicentre trial in Europe and Canada. From October 2007 to April 2009, 71 patients (24 female; median age 19.0 [IQR: 14.0 to 25.0] years) were enrolled in a prospective cohort study. PPVI was performed successfully in 63 patients. At five-year follow-up four patients had died. Moderate and severe pulmonary regurgitation were completely resolved in all except one patient, who needed re-PPVI. Outflow tract obstruction improved significantly from a mean pressure gradient of 37.7±12.1 mmHg before PPVI to 17.3±9.7 mmHg at five-year follow-up; however, 11 patients needed treatment for restenosis. The EQ-5D quality of life utility index and visual analogue scale scores were both significantly improved six months post PPVI and remained so at five years. Five-year results following PPVI demonstrate resolved moderate or severe pulmonary regurgitation, improved right ventricular outflow tract obstruction, and improved quality of life.

  20. Prospective multi-centre study on a composite ceramic femoral component in total knee arthroplasty: Five-year clinical and radiological outcomes.

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    Bergschmidt, Philipp; Bader, Rainer; Ganzer, Dirk; Hauzeur, Christian; Lohmann, Christoph H; Krüger, Alexander; Rüther, Wolfgang; Tigani, Domenico; Rani, Nicola; Esteve, José Luis; Prats, Fernando Lopez; Zorzi, Claudio; Madonna, Vincenzo; Rigotti, Stefano; Benazzo, Francesco; Rossi, Stefano Marco Paolo; Mittelmeier, Wolfram

    2015-06-01

    Enhanced wear resistance of ceramics in general and improved mechanical characteristics of composite ceramics in terms of strength and resistance meet the demands for application in TKA. The aim of this prospective international multi-centre study was to evaluate the 5-year clinical and radiological outcomes of an unconstrained TKA with a composite ceramic femoral component. A total of 107 patients (109 knees) underwent TKA with the MULTIGEN-PLUS Ceramic Knee at seven centres in three European countries. Clinical and radiological assessments were performed preoperatively and postoperatively at 3, 12, 24 and 60 months, using HSS, WOMAC, SF-36 and standardised radiographs. Mean HSS and WOMAC increased significantly from 55.1±11.5 (21-83) and 48.1±16.6 (3-90) preoperatively to 85.6±9.6 (49-98) and 73.3±20.4 (17-100) at 60 months. Mean SF-36 showed significant improvements in patients' quality of life (49.1±17.6 (12-96) preoperatively versus 67.7±23.1 (12-100) at 60 months). Non-progressive radiolucent lines (ceramic knee is comparable to other metallic and ceramic unconstrained TKA systems. Although the assessment of long-term implant survivorship is still pending, the ceramic implants represent a promising solution for patients with allergies against metallic components and furthermore for the general osteoarthritis population due to enhanced wear resistance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Prospective and retrospective evaluation of five-year earthquake forecast models for California

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    Strader, Anne; Schneider, Max; Schorlemmer, Danijel

    2017-10-01

    The Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability was developed to prospectively test earthquake forecasts through reproducible and transparent experiments within a controlled environment. From January 2006 to December 2010, the Regional Earthquake Likelihood Models (RELM) Working Group developed and evaluated thirteen time-invariant prospective earthquake mainshock forecasts. The number, spatial and magnitude components of the forecasts were compared to the observed seismicity distribution using a set of likelihood-based consistency tests. In this RELM experiment update, we assess the long-term forecasting potential of the RELM forecasts. Additionally, we evaluate RELM forecast performance against the Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast (UCERF2) and the National Seismic Hazard Mapping Project (NSHMP) forecasts, which are used for seismic hazard analysis for California. To test each forecast's long-term stability, we also evaluate each forecast from January 2006 to December 2015, which contains both five-year testing periods, and the 40-year period from January 1967 to December 2006. Multiple RELM forecasts, which passed the N-test during the retrospective (January 2006 to December 2010) period, overestimate the number of events from January 2011 to December 2015, although their forecasted spatial distributions are consistent with observed earthquakes. Both the UCERF2 and NSHMP forecasts pass all consistency tests for the two five-year periods; however, they tend to underestimate the number of observed earthquakes over the 40-year testing period. The smoothed seismicity model Helmstetter-et-al.Mainshock outperforms both United States Geological Survey (USGS) models during the second five-year experiment, and contains higher forecasted seismicity rates than the USGS models at multiple observed earthquake locations.

  2. Validation of a multimarker model for assessing risk of type 2 diabetes from a five-year prospective study of 6784 Danish people (Inter99)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urdea, Mickey; Kolberg, Janice; Wilber, Judith;

    2009-01-01

    an individual's risk of developing diabetes. Here we describe the training and validation of the PreDx Diabetes Risk Score (DRS) model in a clinical laboratory setting using baseline serum samples from subjects in the Inter99 cohort, a population-based primary prevention study of cardiovascular disease.......Improved identification of subjects at high risk for development of type 2 diabetes would allow preventive interventions to be targeted toward individuals most likely to benefit. In previous research, predictive biomarkers were identified and used to develop multivariate models to assess...

  3. Accelerated partial breast irradiation with external beam three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy. Five-year results of a prospective phase II clinical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozsa, Emoeke [National Institute of Oncology, Centre of Radiotherapy, Budapest (Hungary); Landesklinikum Wiener Neustadt, Department of Radiooncology and Radiotherapy, Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Meszaros, Norbert; Major, Tibor; Froehlich, Georgina; Stelczer, Gabor; Fodor, Janos; Polgar, Csaba [National Institute of Oncology, Centre of Radiotherapy, Budapest (Hungary); Sulyok, Zoltan [National Institute of Oncology, Centre of Surgery, Budapest (Hungary)

    2014-05-15

    The aim of this study was to report the 5-year results of accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using external beam three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT). Between 2006 and 2011, 44 patients with low-risk, stage I-II breast cancer underwent breast-conserving surgery. Postoperative APBI was given by means of 3D-CRT using three to five non-coplanar fields. The total dose of APBI was 36.9 Gy (nine fractions of 4.1 Gy b.i.d.). The mean follow-up time was 58.2 months for surviving patients. Survival results, side effects, and cosmetic results were assessed. One (2.3 %) local recurrence was observed, for a 5-year actuarial rate of 3.7 %. Neither regional nor distant failure was observed. Two patients died of internal disease. The 5-year disease-free, cancer-specific, and overall survival rates were 96.3, 100, and 95.1 %, respectively. Acute side effects included grade 1 (G1) erythema in 75 %, G1 parenchymal induration in 46 %, and G1 pain in 46 % of patients. No G2 or higher acute side effect occurred. Late side effects included G1, G2, and G3 fibrosis in 44, 7, and 2 % of patients, respectively, G1 skin pigmentation in 12 %, and G1 pain in 2 %. Asymptomatic fat necrosis occurred in 14 %. Cosmetic results were rated excellent or good in 86 % of cases by the patients themselves and 84 % by the physicians. The 5-year local tumor control, toxicity profile, and cosmetic results of APBI delivered with external beam 3D-CRT are encouraging and comparable to other APBI series. (orig.) [German] Evaluation der 5-Jahres-Ergebnisse bezueglich Ueberleben, Tumorkontrolle, Nebenwirkungen und Kosmetik nach Teilbrustbestrahlung (APBI) mittels 3-D-konformaler, akzelerierter Radiotherapie (3D-CRT). Zwischen 2006 und 2011 wurden 44 Patienten mit Brustkrebs im Stadium I-II und niedrigem Risikoprofil brusterhaltend operiert. Die adjuvante, 3-D-konformale APBI wurde mittels 3-5 nonkoplanarer Feldern durchgefuehrt. Die Gesamtdosis betrug 36,9 Gy bei 9 -mal 4,1 Gy b.i.d.. Nach

  4. Beyond Job Satisfaction: A Five-Year Prospective Analysis of the Dispositional Approach to Work Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, Nathan A.; Beehr, Terry A.; Lepisto, Lawrence R.

    2006-01-01

    Mounting evidence indicates a dispositional component to global job satisfaction. Unfortunately, however, relatively little attention has been given to the potential effects of dispositions on work-related attitudes other than global job satisfaction. We used a five-year prospective design to investigate the relationships of affective disposition…

  5. Idaho Supplementation Studies : Five Year Report : 1992-1996.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, Jody P.

    1999-08-01

    In 1991, the Idaho Supplementation Studies (ISS) project was implemented to address critical uncertainties associated with hatchery supplementation of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha populations in Idaho. The project was designed to address questions identified in the Supplementation Technical Work Group (STWG) Five-Year-Workplan (STWG 1988). Two goals of the project were identified: (1) assess the use of hatchery chinook salmon to increase natural populations in the Salmon and Clearwater river drainages, and (2) evaluate the genetic and ecological impacts of hatchery chinook salmon on naturally reproducing chinook salmon populations. Four objectives to achieve these goals were developed: (1) monitor and evaluate the effects of supplementation on presmolt and smolt numbers and spawning escapements of naturally produced fish; (2) monitor and evaluate changes in natural productivity and genetic composition of target and adjacent populations following supplementation; (3) determine which supplementation strategies (broodstock and release stage) provide the quickest and highest response in natural production without adverse effects on productivity; and (4) develop supplementation recommendations. This document reports on the first five years of the long-term portion of the ISS project. Small-scale studies addressing specific hypotheses of the mechanisms of supplementation effects (e.g., competition, dispersal, and behavior) have been completed. Baseline genetic data have also been collected. Because supplementation broodstock development was to occur during the first five years, little evaluation of supplementation is currently possible. Most supplementation adults did not start to return to study streams until 1997. The objectives of this report are to: (1) present baseline data on production and productivity indicators such as adult escapement, redd counts, parr densities, juvenile emigrant estimates, and juvenile survival to Lower Granite Dam (lower Snake

  6. Prospective five-year subsidence analysis of a cementless fully hydroxyapatite-coated femoral hip arthroplasty component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauss, Martin; Van Der Straeten, Catherine; Goossens, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Early subsidence >1.5 mm is considered to be a predictive factor for later aseptic loosening of the femoral component following total hip arthroplasty (THA). The aim of this study was to assess five-year subsidence rates of the cementless hydroxyapatite-coated twinSys stem (Mathys Ltd., Bettlach, Switzerland).This prospective single-surgeon series examined consecutive patients receiving a twinSys stem at Maria Middelares Hospital, Belgium. Patients aged >85 years or unable to come to follow-up were excluded. Subsidence was assessed using Ein Bild Roentgen Analyse--Femoral Component Analysis (EBRA-FCA). Additional clinical and radiographic assessments were performed. Follow-ups were prospectively scheduled at two, five, 12, 24, and 60 months.In total, 218 THA (211 patients) were included. At five years, mean subsidence was 0.66 mm (95% CI: 0.43-0.90). Of the 211 patients, 95.2% had an excellent or good Harris Hip Score. There were few radiological changes. Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated five-year stem survival to be 98.4% (95% CI: 97.6-100%).Subsidence levels of the twinSys femoral stem throughout the five years of follow-up were substantially lower than the 1.5 mm level predictive of aseptic loosening. This was reflected in the high five-year survival rate.

  7. Ozone therapy on Otorhinolaryngology. A five-year study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Figueroa Hernández

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Fundament: The ample active spectre of ozone in medicine is based in a series of properties that positively influence certain metabolic processes, whose alterations are cause for many diseases. Methods: Prospective-descriptive study about the treatment with ozone, besides the conventional therapeutics, to patients bearing affections of possible vascular ethiology as acufenos, peripheral vertiginous syndrome, sudden hypacusia, and others of infectious origin as recurrent suppurated half chronic otitis, rebel to conventional therapeutics. Tran rectal bias was used during three weeks, the results and evolution of patients were controlled. Results: ozone treatment effectiveness was proved (91%, with no intoxication or intolerance, a rapid remission of vertigo was observed in nearly all patients since first sessions, and evident betterment or remission of acufenos and the hypacusia. 

  8. Rural hospitals under PPS: a five-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R G; Zeddies, T C; Zimmerman, M K; McLean, R A

    1990-07-01

    This research examines the impact of prospective payment (PPS) on the financial performance of Kansas hospitals, which are predominantly rural. Financial ratios are presented and regressed on bed size and year. The data suggest that bed size has the strongest effect on financial viability. There are indications of a delayed effect of PPS on the rural, smallest hospitals (fewer than 25 beds), suggesting that non-operating sources of revenue (local property tax mill levies) are being used to subsidize them in the short term. Small hospitals appear to be delaying all capital and long-term costs to survive. The research suggests that the effect of PPS may be long term.

  9. Thirty-Five Years of Studying Work and Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Jeanne M.

    2011-01-01

    The author and Karen Gyllstrom began working on the study that resulted in the highly cited article entitled, "Working Men and Women: Inter-and Intra-role Conflict" (Herman & Gyllstrom, "Psychology of Women Quarterly" 1977) probably more for personal than professional reasons. The study was based on Gyllstrom's master's thesis. The focus of…

  10. Five-year prospective outcome of psychopathology in the adolescent offspring of bipolar parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillegers, MH; Reichart, CG; Wals, M; Verhulst, FC; Ormel, J; Nolen, WA

    2005-01-01

    Objective: For nearly 5 years a prospective high risk cohort study was carried out in the Netherlands among adolescent offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (BD). The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of psychopathology, specifically mood disorders, in adolescents and young

  11. Review of Chinese Wind Power Industry in 2005 and Its Prospects in the Coming Five Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The statistics on Chinese wind power installed capacity for year 2005show that the wind power farm construction grew rapidly but the capability of equipment domesticationremained weak.Loking back at the events occurred in 2005 that have milestone significance for wind power,we can see how they influence the development tendeney.Also,this article points out the progress and lessons wind power in the period of theTenth Five-Year Plan,and emphasizes that the wind power performance in the coming five years shoud be appraised based on the capability of equipment domestication and electric energy sent to network.

  12. Metal ion levels in large-diameter total hip and resurfacing hip arthroplasty-Preliminary results of a prospective five year study after two years of follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurer-Ertl W

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metal-on-metal hip resurfacing is an alternative to metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty, especially for young and physically active patients. However, wear which might be detected by increased serum ion levels is a matter of concern. Methods The aims of this preliminary study were to determine the raise of metal ion levels at 2-years follow-up in a prospective setting and to evaluate differences between patients with either resurfacing or total hip arthroplasty. Furthermore we investigated if the inclination of the acetabular component and the arc of cover would influence these findings. Therefore, 36 patients were followed prospectively. Results The results showed increments for Co and Cr in both implant groups. Patients treated with large-diameter total hip arthroplasty showed fourfold and threefold, respectively, higher levels for Co and Cr compared to the resurfacing group (Co: p  Discussion In order to clarify the biologic effects of ion dissemination and to identify risks concerning long-term toxicity of metals, the exposure should be monitored carefully. Therefore, long-term studies have to be done to determine adverse effects of Co and Cr following metal-on-metal hip replacement.

  13. A FIVE-YEAR STUDY OF HEPATOBILIARY LESIONS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha Sharma

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The hepatobiliary system is composed of liver, biliary tree and gallbladder which occupy the right upper quadrant of the abdomen. The dominant primary diseases of the liver are viral hepatitis, alcoholic liver diseases, cirrhosis, NASH and hepatocellular carcinoma. Primary tumours as well as metastatic carcinomas flourish in hepatic environment. Disorders of the biliary tract affect a significant portion of the world population. Over 95% of biliary tract diseases are attributable to cholelithiasis (gall stones. Gall bladder stones can occur in any age group including infants and newborns. Benign lesions of gall bladder (most common being chronic cholecystitis are much more common than malignant lesions. AIM This study was carried out to study the various histopathological lesions of hepatobiliary system in Jammu and adjoining region. STUDY DESIGN This study is a prospective study conducted for a period of five years. MATERIAL & METHOD This study was done for a period of five years from 1 st Jan 2011 to 31 st Jan 2016 in the Department of Pathology, Govt. Medical College, Jammu and deals with lesions of hepatobiliary system including intrahepatic and extrahepatic biliary ducts, liver and gall bladder. RESULTS A total of 500 cases were studied of which gall bladder lesions constituted 350 cases (70%, 138 (27.6% cases were from liver (27.6%, whereas extrahepatic biliary system constituted 12 cases (2.4% only. In the present study, the overall prevalence of lesions of hepatobiliary system was observed to be higher in females i.e. 287 cases (57.4% as compared to males i.e. 213 cases (42.6%. Benign lesions were more common than malignant lesions. CONCLUSION The present study provides an insight into the varied lesions of hepatobiliary system in this region.

  14. A five year prospective investigation of anterior pituitary function after traumatic brain injury: is hypopituitarism long-term after head trauma associated with autoimmunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanriverdi, Fatih; De Bellis, Annamaria; Ulutabanca, Halil; Bizzarro, Antonio; Sinisi, Antonio A; Bellastella, Giuseppe; Amoresano Paglionico, Vanda; Dalla Mora, Liliana; Selcuklu, Ahmed; Unluhizarci, Kursad; Casanueva, Felipe F; Kelestimur, Fahrettin

    2013-08-15

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been recently recognized as a common cause of pituitary dysfunction. However, there are not sufficient numbers of prospective studies to understand the natural history of TBI induced hypopituitarism. The aim was to report the results of five years' prospective follow-up of anterior pituitary function in patients with mild, moderate and severe TBI. Moreover, we have prospectively investigated the associations between TBI induced hypopituitarism and presence of anti-hypothalamus antibodies (AHA) and anti-pituitary antibodies (APA). Twenty five patients (20 men, five women) were included who were prospectively evaluated 12 months and five years after TBI, and 17 of them also had a third-year evaluation. Growth hormone (GH) deficiency is the most common pituitary hormone deficit at one, three, and five years after TBI. Although most of the pituitary hormone deficiencies improve over time, there were substantial percentages of pituitary hormone deficiencies at the fifth year (28% GH, 4% adrenocorticotropic hormone [ACTH], and 4% gonadotropin deficiencies). Pituitary dysfunction was significantly higher in strongly AHA- and APA-positive (titers ≥1/16) patients at the fifth year. In patients with mild and moderate TBI, ACTH and GH deficiencies may improve over time in a considerable number of patients but, although rarely, may also worsen over the five-year period. However in severe TBI, ACTH and GH status of the patients at the first year evaluation persisted at the fifth year. Therefore, screening pituitary function after TBI for five years is important, especially in patients with mild TBI. Moreover, close strong associations between the presence of high titers of APA and/or AHA and hypopituitarism at the fifth year were shown for the first time.

  15. Motor performance in five-year-old extracorporeal membrane oxygenation survivors: a population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria WG; van der Cammen-van Zijp, Monique HM; Janssen, Anjo JWM; Reuser, Jolanda JCM; Mazer, Petra; van Heijst, Arno FJ; Gischler, Saskia J; Tibboel, Dick; Kollée, Louis AA

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) is a cardio-pulmonary bypass technique to provide life support in acute reversible cardio-respiratory failure when conventional management is not successful. Most neonates receiving ECMO suffer from meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS), congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), sepsis or persistent pulmonary hypertension (PPH). In five-year-old children who underwent VA-ECMO therapy as neonates, we assessed motor performance related to growth, intelligence and behaviour, and the association with the primary diagnosis. Methods In a prospective population-based study (n = 224) 174 five-year-old survivors born between 1993 and 2000 and treated in the two designated ECMO centres in the Netherlands (Radboud University Medical Centre Nijmegen and Sophia Children's Hospital, Erasmus MC – University Medical Center Rotterdam) were invited to undergo follow-up assessment including a paediatric assessment, the movement assessment battery for children (MABC), the revised Amsterdam intelligence test (RAKIT) and the child behaviour checklist (CBCL). Results Twenty-two percent of the children died before the age of five, 86% (n = 149) of the survivors were assessed. Normal development in all domains was found in 49% of children. Severe disabilities were present in 13%, and another 9% had impaired motor development combined with cognitive and/or behavioural problems. Chi-squared tests showed adverse outcome in MABC scores (P < 0.001) compared with the reference population in children with CDH, sepsis and PPH, but not in children with MAS. Compared with the Dutch population height, body mass index (BMI) and weight for height were lower in the CDH group (P < 0.001). RAKIT and CBCL scores did not differ from the reference population. Total MABC scores, socio-economic status, growth and CBCL scores were not related to each other, but negative motor outcome was related to lower intelligence quotient (IQ) scores (r

  16. Assessment of Peer-Led Team Learning in Calculus I: A Five-Year Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, John Conrad; Brania, Abdelkrim

    2015-01-01

    This five-year study of the peer-led team learning (PLTL) paradigm examined its implementation in a Calculus I course at an all-male HBCU institution. For this study we set up a strong control group and measured the effect of PLTL in the teaching and learning of Calculus I through two points of measure: retention and success rates and learning…

  17. Assessment of Peer-Led Team Learning in Calculus I: A Five-Year Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, John Conrad; Brania, Abdelkrim

    2015-01-01

    This five-year study of the peer-led team learning (PLTL) paradigm examined its implementation in a Calculus I course at an all-male HBCU institution. For this study we set up a strong control group and measured the effect of PLTL in the teaching and learning of Calculus I through two points of measure: retention and success rates and learning…

  18. China's Regional Policies: Progress of the 11^th Five Year Plan Period and Prospect of the 12^th Five Year Plan Period%China's Regional Policies: Progress of the 11^th Five Year Plan Period and Prospect of the 12^th Five Year Plan Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Xuebin

    2011-01-01

    During the 11^th Five Year Plan period, China improved its policy system for the overall strategy of regional development, and established and completed the policies intended for the promotion of regional cooperation and interaction. Thereupon, regional development in China took on a series of positive changes such as the enhancement of coordination. During the 12^th Five Year Plan period, China will fully implement and continuously improve the policy measures for development in its four major regions, strengthen differentiated guidance to different regions in line with the planning for major function-oriented zones, and accelerate the establishment of basic systems that facilitate coordinated regional development.

  19. Patient demands, lack of reciprocity, and burnout: a five-year longitudinal study about general practitioners.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, A.B.; Schaufeli, W.B.; Sixma, H.J.; Bosveld, W.; Dierendonck, D. van

    2000-01-01

    This study among a sample of 207 general practitioners (GPs) uses a five-year longitudinal design to test a process model of burnout. On the basis of social exchange and equity theory, it is hypothesized and found that demanding patient contacts produce a lack of reciprocity in the GP-patient

  20. Patient demands, lack of reciprocity, and burnout: a five-year longitudinal study about general practitioners.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, A.B.; Schaufeli, W.B.; Sixma, H.J.; Bosveld, W.; Dierendonck, D. van

    2000-01-01

    This study among a sample of 207 general practitioners (GPs) uses a five-year longitudinal design to test a process model of burnout. On the basis of social exchange and equity theory, it is hypothesized and found that demanding patient contacts produce a lack of reciprocity in the GP-patient rel

  1. Legislator Uses of Public Performance Reports: Findings from a Five-Year Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDavid, James C.; Huse, Irene

    2012-01-01

    A key assumption in efforts to implement and improve cross-government public reporting systems is that legislators will make use of the performance information to enhance accountability and improve program and policy effectiveness. This five-year study is an assessment of expectations and actual uses of annual performance reports by elected…

  2. Five-year outcomes from a prospective trial of image-guided accelerated hypofractionated proton therapy for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Randal H; Bryant, Curtis; Hoppe, Bradford S; Nichols, R Charles; Mendenhall, William M; Flampouri, Stella; Su, Zhong; Li, Zuofeng; Morris, Christopher G; Mendenhall, Nancy P

    2017-07-01

    To report 5-year outcomes of a prospective trial of image-guided accelerated hypofractionated proton therapy (AHPT) for prostate cancer. 215 prostate cancer patients accrued to a prospective institutional review board-approved trial of 70Gy(RBE) in 28 fractions for low-risk disease (n = 120) and 72.5Gy(RBE) in 29 fractions for intermediate-risk disease (n = 95). This trial excluded patients with prostate volumes of ≥60 cm(3) or International Prostate Symptom Scores (IPSS) of ≥15, patients on anticoagulants or alpha-blockers, and patients in whom dose-constraint goals for organs at risk (OAR) could not be met. Toxicities were graded prospectively according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE), version 3.0. This trial can be found on ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00693238). Median follow-up was 5.2 years. Five-year rates of freedom from biochemical and clinical disease progression were 95.9%, 98.3%, and 92.7% in the overall group and the low- and intermediate-risk subsets, respectively. Actuarial 5-year rates of late radiation-related CTCAE v3.0 grade 3 or higher gastrointestinal and urologic toxicities were 0.5% and 1.7%, respectively. Median IPSS before treatment and at 4+ years after treatment were 6 and 5 for low-risk patients and 4 and 6 for intermediate-risk patients. Image-guided AHPT 5-year outcomes show high efficacy and minimal physician-assessed toxicity in selected patients. These results are comparable to the 5-year results of our prospective trials of standard fractionated proton therapy for patients with low-risk and intermediate-risk prostate cancer. Longer follow-up and a larger cohort are necessary to confirm these findings.

  3. Adherence to vaccination guidelines post splenectomy: A five year follow up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boam, Tristan; Sellars, Peter; Isherwood, John; Hollobone, Chloe; Pollard, Cristina; Lloyd, David M; Dennison, Ashley R; Garcea, Giuseppe

    2017-02-08

    Following a splenectomy patients are at increased risk of significant infections. In its most severe form, overwhelming post-splenectomy infection (OPSI) has a mortality rate of up to 80%. In this study we aim to establish the adherence to vaccination and antibiotic national guidelines in splenectomised patients. A retrospective study of 100 patients who underwent splenectomy (21 emergency, 79 elective), in two teaching hospitals was undertaken over a five-year period. Patients were followed up for five years. Hospital and GP records were reviewed for adherence to pre, intra and postoperative vaccination, thromboprophylaxis and antibiotic guidance. Eighty-six eligible patients (91.5%) received their Haemophilus influenzae B, meningococcal C and pneumococcus vaccinations peri-operatively. Eighty-one (86%) received post-operative antibiotics. Ninety-nine percent of patients received thromboprophylaxis treatment. Eighty-nine (95%) were treated with long-term antibiotic prophylaxis. Only 20 patients (23%) had an emergency supply of antibiotics. Ninety-five percent of patients were administered an annual influenza vaccination and 84% of eligible patients received a five-year pneumococcal booster vaccination. Improvement in the management of this patient cohort can be achieved by a multidisciplinary approach involving adherence to national guidelines, standardised trust protocols, patient information leaflets and advice detailing risk of infection, standardised GP letters and a splenectomy register to monitor and manage this vulnerable group of patients. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Five-Year Outcomes from 3 Prospective Trials of Image-Guided Proton Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendenhall, Nancy P., E-mail: menden@shands.ufl.edu [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Hoppe, Bradford S.; Nichols, Romaine C.; Mendenhall, William M.; Morris, Christopher G.; Li, Zuofeng; Su, Zhong [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Williams, Christopher R.; Costa, Joseph [Division of Urology, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Henderson, Randal H. [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To report 5-year clinical outcomes of 3 prospective trials of image-guided proton therapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 211 prostate cancer patients (89 low-risk, 82 intermediate-risk, and 40 high-risk) were treated in institutional review board-approved trials of 78 cobalt gray equivalent (CGE) in 39 fractions for low-risk disease, 78 to 82 CGE for intermediate-risk disease, and 78 CGE with concomitant docetaxel therapy followed by androgen deprivation therapy for high-risk disease. Toxicities were graded according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE), version 3.0. Median follow-up was 5.2 years. Results: Five-year rates of biochemical and clinical freedom from disease progression were 99%, 99%, and 76% in low-, intermediate-, and high-risk patients, respectively. Actuarial 5-year rates of late CTCAE, version 3.0 (or version 4.0) grade 3 gastrointestinal and urologic toxicity were 1.0% (0.5%) and 5.4% (1.0%), respectively. Median pretreatment scores and International Prostate Symptom Scores at >4 years posttreatment were 8 and 7, 6 and 6, and 9 and 8, respectively, among the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk patients. There were no significant changes between median pretreatment summary scores and Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite scores at >4 years for bowel, urinary irritative and/or obstructive, and urinary continence. Conclusions: Five-year clinical outcomes with image-guided proton therapy included extremely high efficacy, minimal physician-assessed toxicity, and excellent patient-reported outcomes. Further follow-up and a larger patient experience are necessary to confirm these favorable outcomes.

  5. Changes of systemic microinflammation after weight loss and regain - a five-year follow up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, Magdalena; Chudek, Jerzy; Szromek, Adam; Zahorska-Markiewicz, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of body mass changes on plasma concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines in obese women after the initially obtained weight reduction in a five-year follow-up period. Thirty out of 42 women with simple obesity (age 41.8 ± 11.9 years; BMI 36.5 ± 4.6 kg/m2) who achieved a greater than 5% weight loss at the end of a three-month weight loss programme were re-examined after five years. In addition to anthropometric and body composition measurements, plasma concentrations of TNF-alpha, sTNFRs and IL-6 were determined. The mean weight loss after the three-month weight loss programme was 7.9 ± 4.4 kg. After five years, body mass was still lower than initially in 14 women, while in 16 it was higher (the so-called 'yo-yo effect'). A significant decrease of plasma TNF-alpha and IL-6 and increase of sTNFR1 and sTNFR2 levels obtained after weight loss therapy were maintained after five years, including in the subgroup with the yo-yo effect. During the follow-up period, the increase of body fat mass was similar in the subgroup that maintained reduced weight (+4.4 ± 10.7 kg) and in the subgroup with the yo-yo effect (+4.1 ± 7.1 kg), while a significant difference was found in changes of body free fat mass (-7.1 ± 7.1 v. -0.7 ± 4.5 kg, respectively). The yo-yo effect has a modest influence on systemic microinflammation and seems not to abolish the benefit achieved via a weight loss programme. This may suggest that the persistence of changes in lifestyle implemented during the programme such as regular physical activity and diet composition may have a significant impact on the level of systemic microinflammation in the obese. (Endokrynol Pol 2012; 63 (6): 432-438).

  6. Prospect on Dyes and Pigments Industry in the Tenth Five-Year Plan%染颜料工业“十五”发展展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪山

    2001-01-01

    A retrospection of dyes and pigments industry as well as its development prospect in the 10th five-year plan are presented.%对染、颜料工业作了回顾并对“十五”发展规划提出了看法

  7. A five years study of fascioliasis and dicrocoeliasis in Iran's slaughterhouses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HRTavakoli; AMahmoodzadeh; MHajia

    2008-01-01

    Objective:Fascioliasis and dicrocoeliasis are the two endemic parasitic diseases of Iran that make lots of eco-nomical damages annually.This study has been performed to evaluate infection rate of domesticated animals to fascioliasis and dicrocoeliasis among of slaughtered animals in slaughterhouses of Iran.Methods:In this cross-sectional study infection rate of slaughtered animals has been analyzed in 28 provinces of Iran during 5 years period (2003-2007).Results:It is indicated that infection rate was 4.84% to fascioliasis and dicrocoeliasis in this five-year study period.Total removed livers were 815 807 and 771 026 numbers from consumption cycle for fascioliasis and dicrocoeliasis respectively from 32 714 926 slaughtered animals.The highest infection rate was Gilan (20.91%),Mazandaran (16.36%),and Esfahan (9.95%)respectively among studied provinces while the lowest infection rate was indicated in Ilam (0.76%),Boushehr (0.84%),and Yazd (1.51%)re-spectively.Our data proved the highest frequency rate were identified in summer and autumn for both fasciolia-sis and dicrocoeliasis.Conclusion:Fascioliasis and dicrocoeliasis are continuously increasing in slaughter ani-mals of Iran.Therefore the results of current study can improve and move up activities against these zoonosis diseases.

  8. Kerosene-a toddler's sin: A five years study at tertiary care hospital in western India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Utsav; Gupta, Sanjay

    2017-04-01

    Acute kerosene poisoning is a preventable health problem in children perceived mainly in developing countries. It influences socioeconomic and cultural status of country due to its contribution in morbidity and mortality. As kerosene is widely used as household energy source in India at rural areas as well as urban, it accounts for significant number of poisoning cases mainly accidental in manner. As there are only handful studies from India on kerosene poisoning in children, we planned this study to evaluate incidence of kerosene poisoning in Western Indian population and its clinico-epidemiotoxicological profile. In this retrospective cross-sectional study, we collected data of all the cases of kerosene poisoning diagnosed during five years from 2009 to 2013 at Shri Krishna hospital situated at Karamsad, Gujarat state of Western India. We observed among total 42 cases, all victims were under 3 years of age. Evening in summer months, rural areas, storage of kerosene in household containers, inadequate parental supervision and door-to-hospitalization period emerged as most serious associated factors. Fever, cough, vomiting, tachypnoea and leucocytosis were commonest manifestations while pneumonia was the most common complication. Signs of central nervous system involvement, leucocytosis and vomiting were significantly correlated with pneumonia. Deaths occurred due to pneumonia. Early diagnosis and treatment of pneumonia may reduce mortality and recommendations are made to reduce the incidence of kerosene poisoning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  9. Five years of Kawasaki disease in the Netherlands a national surveillance study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tacke, C.E.; Breunis, W.B.; Pereira, R.R.; Breur, J.M.; Kuipers, I.M.; Kuijpers, T.W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence, disease presentation, treatment and cardiac outcome of Kawasaki disease (KD) in The Netherlands. Methods: The national Dutch Pediatric Surveillance Unit was used to prospectively register new KD cases from 2008 through 2012.

  10. Correlation of disease spectrum among four Dengue serotypes: a five years hospital based study from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaria, Rajni

    2010-01-01

    The recognition of DF (DHF Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever) is very complicated due to occurrence of a wide spectrum of clinical signs and symptoms during acute phase of illness. Moreover, presence of four serotypes further complicates the prognosis. To investigate the predictors of disease severity and elucidate the prognostic markers among four dengue serotypes, this study was conducted on 320 inpatients having acute febrile illness clinically suspected as DI, over a period of five years. Dengue serotypes were confirmed by multiplex reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR. Eighty patients were positive for DI with presence of Den-1, Den-2, Den-3, and Den-4 in 8, 35, 27 and 10 patients, respectively. The severe clinical manifestations, abdominal pain and hepatomegaly, were comparatively higher in Den-2 patients. Liver aminotransferases levels were also higher in Den-2 patients (app. 5 fold). This study clearly indicates the hyperendemicity of all dengue serotypes. Nucleotide sequencing of Envelope region revealed that the presently emerged Den-3 belongs to type III, having high homology with genotype responsible for number of outbreaks in 1980s. The re-emergence of this deadly type can be suspected to cause more outbreaks in future and is a matter of great concern.

  11. Correlation of disease spectrum among four Dengue serotypes: a five years hospital based study from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajni Kumaria

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The recognition of DF (DHF Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever is very complicated due to occurrence of a wide spectrum of clinical signs and symptoms during acute phase of illness. Moreover, presence of four serotypes further complicates the prognosis. To investigate the predictors of disease severity and elucidate the prognostic markers among four dengue serotypes, this study was conducted on 320 inpatients having acute febrile illness clinically suspected as DI, over a period of five years. Dengue serotypes were confirmed by multiplex reverse transcriptase (RT-PCR. Eighty patients were positive for DI with presence of Den-1, Den-2, Den-3, and Den-4 in 8, 35, 27 and 10 patients, respectively. The severe clinical manifestations, abdominal pain and hepatomegaly, were comparatively higher in Den-2 patients. Liver aminotransferases levels were also higher in Den-2 patients (app. 5 fold. This study clearly indicates the hyperendemicity of all dengue serotypes. Nucleotide sequencing of Envelope region revealed that the presently emerged Den-3 belongs to type III, having high homology with genotype responsible for number of outbreaks in 1980s. The re-emergence of this deadly type can be suspected to cause more outbreaks in future and is a matter of great concern.

  12. Weather conditions and Bell's palsy: five-year study and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milionis Haralampos J

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Climatic or meteorological condition changes have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Bell's palsy (BP. We evaluate the influence of meteorological parameters, such as temperature, humidity, and atmospheric pressure, and their variation and covariation on the incidence of BP and present a review of the literature on the effect of meteorological conditions on facial nerve function. Methods A total of 171 cases of BP admitted to our Department over a five-year period were studied. The meteorological database included daily values of 13 distinct parameters recorded at the meteorological station of the University of Ioannina during this period. A relationship between each meteorological variable and the incidence of BP was investigated by applying (Χ2 test on data from 13 contingency tables. In addition, the influence of different weather types on the incidence of BP was also investigated. For this purpose Cluster Analysis was used to create eight clusters (weather types for the Ioannina prefecture and (Χ2 test was applied on the contingency tables consisting of the days of BP cases for each cluster. Results No significant correlation was found either between BP and each distinct meteorological parameter or between BP and any specific weather. Conclusions Meteorological conditions, such as those dominating in the Northwestern Greece, and/or their changes have little effect on the incidence of BP. Multicenter studies taking into account atmospheric pollution, and climatic differences between countries, are necessary to scrutinize the environmental effects on facial nerve function.

  13. PATTERN OF OVARIAN NEOPLASM IN RURAL POPULATION: A FIVE YEAR STUDY FROM TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE : The aim of the study was to know the morphological pattern of benign and malignant ovarian neoplasms and their distribution in different age groups in rural population of India. MATERIAL AND METHODS : A retrospective study of all cases of ovarian neoplasms diagnosed at department of pathology, Maharaja Medical College, Agroha during period of five year (Aug, 07 — Oct.12 was done. The tumors were classified according to WHO classification after thorough examination of slides and their distribution in different age groups was also noted. RESULTS : There were total fifty three cases of ovarian tumors noted during this period. Benign tumors comprised 81.13% and malignant tumors were 18.86%. Surface epithelial tumor emerged as the commonest variety accounting for 60.37%, followed by germ cell tumor (32.07% and sex cord stromal tumors were least common comprising 7.54 % of all ovarian neoplasm. No metastatic tumor or tumors with borderline malignancy were seen. Serous cystadenoma was the commonest tumor (43.39% followed by mature cystic teratoma (30.23%.Among the malignant tumor, malignant germ cell tumor were the commonest type (40%, followed by 30 %of each surface epithelial tumor and sex cord stromal tumor. CONCLUSION : Benign ovarian tumors are seen more common than malignant tumor. Malignant epithelial tumors are seen after the age of 30 years and malignant germ cell tumor are seen below the age of 30 years. Bilaterality is more commonly seen in malignant o varian neoplasm

  14. CYTOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF MALE BREAST LESIONS IN GREATER GWALIOR : A FIVE YEAR RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagannath

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUNDS: Fine needle aspiration cytology is an effective modality for diagnosis of breast lesions. Usually male breast lesions are benign and affect the young male. Most common lesion is gynaecomastia. Male breast cancer accounts for a small proportion of breast cancers. Male breast cancer usually presents at an advanced age. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the nature of male breast lesions and to determine the cytomorphologic patterns of these lesions. MET HODS: five year retrospective study was conducted in our institution and in that 112 patients underwent fine needle aspiration cytology of the palpable breast lump after thorough physical examination. The cytological diagnosis was classified as benign, inf lammatory, malignant and others. RESULTS: In 112 male patients diagnosed with breast lesions, the most common lesion was gynecomastia (103/112, 91.9%, followed by breast cancer (6/112, 5.4%, inflammatory (2/112, 1.8% and apocrine metaplasia (01/112, 0.9 %. Gynecomastia was commonly found in male patients less than 40 years of age, while breast cancer is seen in male patients over 40 years of age

  15. Corrosion study of steels exposed over five years to the humid tropical atmosphere of Panama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaén, Juan A., E-mail: juan.jaen@up.ac.pa [Departamento de Química Física, Edificio de Laboratorios Científicos-VIP (Panama); Iglesias, Josefina [Laboratorio de Análisis Industriales y Ciencias Ambientales (Panama)

    2017-11-15

    The results of assessing five-year corrosion of low-carbon and conventional weathering steels exposed to the Panamanian tropical atmosphere is presented. Two different test sites, one in Panama City: 5 km from the shoreline of the Pacific Ocean, and another in the marine environment of Fort Sherman, Caribbean coast of Panama; namely, Fort Sherman Coastal site: 100 m from coastline. The corrosion products, formed in the skyward and earthward faces in the studied tropical environment, were mainly identified using room temperature and low temperature (15 K) Mössbauer spectroscopy, and ATR-FTIR. In all samples, lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH) and goethite (α-FeOOH) were the main constituents. Some maghemite (γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), was also identified in Tocumen by Mössbauer spectroscopy and traces of feroxyhyte (δ-FeOOH) using ATR-FTIR. The corrosion rate values obtained are discussed in light of the atmospheric exposure conditions and atmospheric pollutants.

  16. Improving the Agronomy of Alyssum murale for Extensive Phytomining: A Five-Year Field Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bani, Aida; Echevarria, Guillaume; Sulçe, Sulejman; Morel, Jean Louis

    2015-01-01

    Large ultramafic areas exist in Albania, which could be suitable for phytomining with native Alyssum murale. We undertook a five-year field experiment on an ultramafic Vertisol, aimed at optimizing a low-cost Ni-phytoextraction crop of A. murale which is adapted to the Balkans. The following aspects were studied on 18-m2 plots in natural conditions: the effect of (i) plant phenology and element distribution, (ii) plant nutrition and fertilization, (iii) plant cover and weed control and (iv), planting technique (natural cover vs. sown crop). The optimal harvest time was set at the mid-flowering stage when Ni concentration and biomass yield were highest. The application of N, P, and K fertilizers, and especially a split 100-kg ha(-1) N application, increased the density of A. murale against all other species. It significantly increased shoot yield, without reducing Ni concentration. In natural stands, the control of graminaceous weeds required the use of an anti-monocots herbicide. However, after the optimization of fertilization and harvest time, weed control procured little benefit. Finally, cropping sown A. murale was more efficient than enhancing native stands and gave higher biomass and phytoextraction yields; biomass yields progressively improved from 0.3 to 9.0 t ha(-1) and phytoextracted Ni increased from 1.7 to 105 kg ha(-1).

  17. Reducing chemotherapy use in clinically high-risk, genomically low-risk pN0 and pN1 early breast cancer patients: five-year data from the prospective, randomised phase 3 West German Study Group (WSG) PlanB trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitz, Ulrike; Gluz, Oleg; Christgen, Matthias; Kates, Ronald E; Clemens, Michael; Malter, Wolfram; Nuding, Benno; Aktas, Bahriye; Kuemmel, Sherko; Reimer, Toralf; Stefek, Andrea; Lorenz-Salehi, Fatemeh; Krabisch, Petra; Just, Marianne; Augustin, Doris; Liedtke, Cornelia; Chao, Calvin; Shak, Steven; Wuerstlein, Rachel; Kreipe, Hans H; Harbeck, Nadia

    2017-06-29

    The prospective phase 3 PlanB trial used the Oncotype DX(®) Recurrence Score(®) (RS) to define a genomically low-risk subset of clinically high-risk pN0-1 early breast cancer (EBC) patients for treatment with adjuvant endocrine therapy (ET) alone. Here, we report five-year data evaluating the prognostic value of RS, Ki-67, and other traditional clinicopathological parameters. A central tumour bank was prospectively established within PlanB. Following an early amendment, hormone receptor (HR)+ , pN0-1 RS ≤ 11 patients were recommended to omit chemotherapy. Patients with RS ≥ 12, pN2-3, or HR-negative/HER2-negative disease were randomised to anthracycline-containing or anthracycline-free chemotherapy. Primary endpoint: disease-free survival (DFS). PlanB Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01049425. From 2009 to 2011, PlanB enrolled 3198 patients (central tumour bank, n = 3073) with the median age of 56 years, 41.1% pN+, and 32.5% grade 3 EBC. Chemotherapy was omitted in 348/404 (86.1%) eligible RS ≤ 11 patients. After 55 months of median follow-up, five-year DFS in ET-treated RS ≤ 11 patients was 94% (in both pN0 and pN1) versus 94% (RS 12-25) and 84% (RS > 25) in chemotherapy-treated patients (p five-year overall survival (OS) was 99 versus 97% and 93%, respectively (p 2 cm, and RS, but not IHC4 or Ki-67 were independent adverse factors. If RS was excluded, IHC4 or both Ki-67 and PR entered the model. The impact of RS was particularly pronounced in patients with intermediate Ki-67 (>10%, five-year outcomes in clinically high-risk, genomically low-risk (RS ≤ 11) pN0-1 patients without adjuvant chemotherapy support using RS with standardised pathology for treatment decisions in HR+ HER2-negative EBC. Ki-67 has the potential to support patient selection for genomic testing.

  18. A Five-Year Study on the Employability of UKM Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoon, Koh Aik; Din, Laily; Ahmad, Shaharuddin; Hamzah, Mohd Fauzi; Samah, Fatin Nur Diana Abu

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the employability of UKM graduates for the past five years (2006-2010). The employability of our graduates has consistently improved through the years. Medical and dental cohorts have less problems finding gainful employment compared with cohorts from other disciplines. Since 2008, our graduates have made inroads into sectors…

  19. Growth in Children with Cerebral Palsy during five years after Selective Dorsal Rhizotomy: a practice-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Philippe

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight is reported as a side effect of SDR. The aims were to study the development of weight, height and body mass index (BMI during five years after SDR. Methods This prospective, longitudinal and practice-based study included all 56 children with CP spastic diplegia undergoing SDR from the start in March 1993 to April 2003 in our hospital. The preoperative Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS levels were I-II in 17, III in 15, IV-V in 24 children. Median age at SDR was 4.3 years (range 2.4-7.4 years. Weight and height/recumbent length were measured. Swedish growth charts for typically developing children generated weight, height and BMI z-scores for age and gender. Results The preoperative median z-scores were for height -1.92 and for body mass index (BMI -0.22. Five years later, the median BMI z-score was increased by + 0.57 (p + 2 SD increased (p The individual growth was highly variable, but a tendency towards increasing stunting with age was seen in severe gross motor dysfunction (GMFCS levels IV-V and the opposite, a slight catch-up of height in children with walking ability (GMFCS levels I-III. Conclusions These are the first available subtype- and GMFCS-specific longitudinal growth data for children with CP spastic diplegia. Their growth potential according to these data should be regarded as a minimum, as some children were undernourished. It is unknown whether the spasticity reduction through SDR increased the weight gain velocity, or if the relative weight increase was part of the general "obesity epidemic". For some children the weight increase was highly desirable. In others, it resulted in overweight and obesity with risk of negative health effects. Weight and height should be monitored to enable early prevention of weight aberrations also causing problems with mobility, activity and participation.

  20. Motor performance in five-year-old extracorporeal membrane oxygenation survivors: A population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) is a cardio-pulmonary bypass technique to provide life support in acute reversible cardio-respiratory failure when conventional management is not successful. Most neonates receiving ECMO suffer from meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS), congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), sepsis or persistent pulmonary hypertension (PPH). In five-year-old children who underwent VA-ECMO therapy as neonates, we assessed motor...

  1. Serial determination of cyclic citrullinated peptide autoantibodies predicted five-year radiological outcomes in a prospective cohort of patients with early rheumatoid arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Olivier; Nicaise-Roland, Pascale; Santos, Marie dos; Labarre, Colette; Dougados, Maxime; Goupille, Philippe; Cantagrel, Alain; Sibilia, Jean; Combe, Bernard

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of serially determined anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibodies for predicting structural joint damage in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA), compared to a single baseline determination. Ninety-nine RA patients with disease durations of less than one year and no history of disease-modifying antirheumatic drug therapy were followed prospectively for at least five years. Anti-CCP2 concentrations were measured using a second-generation ELISA. Sharp scores as modified by van der Heijde were determined on hand and foot radiographs. Anti-CCP2 antibodies were detected in 55.5% of patients at baseline and 63.6% at any time during the first three years. Presence of anti-CCP2 at any time during the first three years was associated with radiographic damage at baseline (odds ratio (OR), 3.66; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.99–13.54) and with five year progression of the total Sharp score (OR, 3.17; 95% CI, 1.3–7.7), erosion score (OR, 5.3; 95% CI, 1.4–19.2) and joint space narrowing score (OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.15–6.8). The presence of anti-CCP2 or IgM RF at baseline did not predict these outcomes. Patients with negative anti-CCP2 tests throughout follow-up had less radiographic progression than patients with increasing anti-CCP2 concentrations; they did not differ from patients with decreasing anti-CCP2 antibody levels. HLADRB1* typing showed that progression of the mean modified Sharp score was not correlated with the presence of the shared epitope alleles. In conclusion, serially determined anti-CCP2 antibodies during the first three years of follow-up performs better than baseline determination for predicting radiographic progression in patients with early RA. PMID:16469118

  2. Survival analysis of gastric cancer patients using Cox model: a five year study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biglarian A

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Gastric cancer is the second most common cancer and known as the second cause of death due to cancers worldwide. Adenocarcinoma is the most fatal cancer in Iran and a patient with this kind of cancer, has a lower lifetime than others. In this research, the survival of patients with gastric carcinoma who were registered at Taleghani Hospital, were studied."n"nMethods: 291 patients with Gastric carcinoma who had received care, chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy, at Taleghani Hospital in Tehran from 2002 to 2007 were studied as a historical cohort. Their survival rates and its relationship with 12 risk factors were assessed."n"nResults: Of the 291 patients with Gastric carcinoma, 70.1 percent were men and others (29.9% were women. The mean age of men was 62.26 years and of women was 59.32 years at the time of diagnosis. Most of patients (93.91% were advanced stage and metastasis. The Cox proportional hazards model showed that age at diagnosis, tumor stage and histology type with survival time had significant relationships (p=0.039, p=0.042 and p=0.032 respectively."n"n Conclusion: The five-year survival rate and median lifetime of gastric cancer patients who underwent chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy are very

  3. Prognostic significance of transient myocardial ischaemia after first acute myocardial infarction: five year follow up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mickley, H; Nielsen, J R; Berning, J

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the five year prognostic significance of transient myocardial ischaemia on ambulatory monitoring after a first acute myocardial infarction, and to compare the diagnostic and long term prognostic value of ambulatory ST segment monitoring, maximal exercise testing...... episodes of transient ST segment depression, of which 98% were silent. Over a mean of 5 (range 4 to 6) years of follow up, patients with ambulatory ischaemia were no more likely to have objective end points than patients without ischaemic episodes. If, however, subjective events were included...

  4. Five year prognosis in patients with angina identified in primary care: incident cohort study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Buckley, Brian S

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the risk of acute myocardial infarction, invasive cardiac procedures, and mortality among patients with newly diagnosed angina over five years. DESIGN: Incident cohort study of patients with primary care data linked to secondary care and mortality data. SETTING: 40 primary care practices in Scotland. PARTICIPANTS: 1785 patients with a diagnosis of angina as their first manifestation of ischaemic heart disease, 1 January 1998 to 31 December 2001. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Adjusted hazard ratios for acute myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass grafting, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, death from ischaemic heart disease, and all cause mortality, adjusted for demographics, lifestyle risk factors, and comorbidity at cohort entry. RESULTS: Mean age was 62.3 (SD 11.3). Male sex was associated with an increased risk of acute myocardial infarction (hazard ratio 2.01, 95% confidence interval 1.35 to 2.97), death from ischaemic heart disease (2.80, 1.73 to 4.53), and all cause mortality (1.82, 1.33 to 2.49). Increasing age was associated with acute myocardial infarction (1.04, 1.02 to 1.06, per year of age increase), death from ischaemic heart disease (1.09, 1.06 to 1.11, per year of age increase), and all cause mortality (1.09, 1.07 to 1.11, per year of age increase). Smoking was associated with subsequent acute myocardial infarction (1.94, 1.31 to 2.89), death from ischaemic heart disease (2.12, 1.32 to 3.39), and all cause mortality (2.11, 1.52 to 2.95). Obesity was associated with death from ischaemic heart disease (2.01, 1.17 to 3.45) and all cause mortality (2.20, 1.52 to 3.19). Previous stroke was associated with all cause mortality (1.78, 1.13 to 2.80) and chronic kidney disease with death from ischaemic heart disease (5.72, 1.74 to 18.79). Men were more likely than women to have coronary artery bypass grafting or percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty after a diagnosis of angina; older people were less likely to

  5. Microbiological and host features associated with corynebacteriosis in cancer patients: a five-year study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAS Martins

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available During a five-year period, 932 clinical isolates from cancer patients treated in a Brazilian reference centre were identified as corynebacteria; 86% of the cultures came from patients who had been clinically and microbiologically classified as infected and 77.1% of these patients had been hospitalised (71.1% from surgical wards. The adult solid tumour was the most common underlying malignant disease (66.7%. The univariate and multivariate analyses showed that hospitalised patients had a six-fold greater risk (OR = 5.5, 95% CI = 1.15-26.30 p = 0.033 related to 30-day mortality. The predominant species were Corynebacterium amycolatum (44.7%, Corynebacterium minutissimum (18.3% and Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum (8.5%. The upper urinary tracts, surgical wounds, lower respiratory tracts, ulcerated tumours and indwelling venous catheters were the most frequent sources of C. amycolatum strains. Corynebacterium jeikeium infection occurred primarily in neutropenic patients who have used venous catheters, while infection caused by C. amycolatum and other species emerged mainly in patients with solid tumours.

  6. Vital status after five-year follow-up of nonagenarians with functional and/or cognitive impairment at baseline: the NonaSantfeliu study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formiga, F; Ferrer, A; Rodriguez Molinero, A; Fraga, A; Cuerpo, S; Pujol, R

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate vital status after five years of follow-up in a cohort of nonagenarians with functional and/or cognitive impairment at baseline. Prospective cohort study. A community-based study. Nonagenarians enrolled in the NonaSantfeliu study. Functional status was determined by the Lawton-Brody and Barthel indexes (BI), while cognition was assessed using the Spanish version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MEC). Nonagenarians scoring up to 59 points on the BI were defined as individuals with significant functional impairment. Nonagenarians with cognitive decline were defined as those individuals with a score of 23 or less on the MEC. Subjects scoring < 60 on the BI and < 24 on the MEC were considered to show combined impairment (both functional and cognitive). Sixty-three of 71 (88.8%) subjects with a BI < 60 and 73 of 84 (86.9%) with a MEC score < 24 had died after five years. Forty-eight of 53 nonagenarians (90%) with combined impairment died during the same follow-up period. A prior diagnosis of heart failure was the only variable associated with higher mortality in the three groups of subjects. Most of the nonagenarian subjects with functional and/or cognitive impairment at baseline had died at five-year follow-up.

  7. Understanding the Educational Experiences of Science Teachers in a Five-Year Teacher Education Program: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Nitin

    This qualitative study provides an overview of educational experiences of six in-service and three pre-service secondary science teachers in the Benedum Collaborative Five-Year Teacher Education Program at a land-grant university. The researcher interviewed secondary science teachers on the experiences they found meaningful in various program components that influenced their teacher identity, beliefs about science pedagogy, and their sense of preparedness for teaching. Document analysis of teachers' journals and lesson plans supplemented the qualitative data in addition to the researcher's role and knowledge as an outsider (non-Benedum graduate) and insider (facilitator and instructor in the technology integration based classes for one year) of the Benedum Collaborative Five-Year Teacher Education Program. Findings also supported the Holmes (1986) and Goodlad (1990) views for extended field experiences and "collaborative culture" in teacher education for well-prepared teachers.

  8. Twenty-five years of RENHIS: a history of histopathological studies within EUVAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Daalen, Emma; Ferrario, Franco; Noël, Laure-Hélène; Waldherr, Rüdiger; Hagen, E Christiaan; Bruijn, Jan A; Bajema, Ingeborg M

    2015-04-01

    In the early 1990s, an international working group of experienced renal pathologists, the Renal Histology group, set up a scoring system for biopsies with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA)-associated glomerulonephritis. This scoring system subdivided glomerular, interstitial and vascular lesions and served as a tool for the evaluation of all renal biopsies from studies of the European Vasculitis Study Group (EUVAS). Histopathological studies gave new insights into the prediction of renal outcome in patients with ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis. Percentage of normal glomeruli and a selected number of interstitial parameters were reliable predictors of long-term follow-up glomerular filtration rate in all studies. Out of these results, a histopathological classification distinguishing focal, crescentic, mixed and sclerotic classes of ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis was developed. Until today, 13 studies have validated this classification system. Future studies will try to determine if and how renal histology could be helpful in guiding treatment of ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis.

  9. Assessing Honor Code Effectiveness: Results of a Multipronged Approach from a Five Year Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sledge, Sally; Pringle, Pam

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an ongoing study at a small public university to assess student, faculty and alumni perceptions of academic integrity and business ethics. The phases of the research are detailed for application or replication by other institutions of higher education. The study involves anonymous surveys and academic integrity-based…

  10. The predictive value of microalbuminuria in IDDM. A five-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almdal, T; Nörgaard, K; Feldt-Rasmussen, B

    1994-01-01

    patients with normoalbuminuria (UAE collection. The annual increase in UAE was calculated by linear regression analysis of log-transformed UAE on time. This study was conducted at the outpatient clinic of the Steno Diabetes Center...

  11. A five year study on the susceptibility of isolates from various parts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-06

    Oct 6, 2008 ... Benin Teaching Hospital clinics were used for the study. ... faecalis 200, Enterobacter aerogenes 175, Acinetobacter baumannii 150, ... Key words: Antibiogram, bacteria, isolates, wound, infections. .... possess ESBL, are reported to be susceptible to .... is the most common pseudomonad causing human.

  12. A Meta-Analysis of Motivational Interviewing: Twenty-Five Years of Empirical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundahl, Brad W.; Kunz, Chelsea; Brownell, Cynthia; Tollefson, Derrik; Burke, Brian L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors investigated the unique contribution motivational interviewing (MI) has on counseling outcomes and how MI compares with other interventions. Method: A total of 119 studies were subjected to a meta-analysis. Targeted outcomes included substance use (tobacco, alcohol, drugs, marijuana), health-related behaviors (diet,…

  13. The Epidemiology of Tuberculosis in Tabriz, Iran: A Five Year Retrospective Study

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    Raheleh Sadat Sajadi Nia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tuberculosis is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Approximately 10-20% of tuberculosis is Extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB, which is much higher (50% in patients suffering from immunity defects such as AIDS. EPTB diagnosis is difficult mostly because of various clinical manifestations and aggressive procedures needed for its diagnosis. The main goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of EPTB in the north west of Iran and also to investigate the different clinical characteristics of the studied population, the various clinical manifestations and organ involvement of EPTB, as well.Methods: This study was carried out retrospectively using the data from Tabriz Tuberculosis and Lung Disease Research Center from 2007 through 2011. Questionnaires were designed to extract relevant information to describe characteristics of EPTB affected population and also various clinical manifestations and organ involvement of the disease among the patients.Results: The study included 203 EPTB cases notified from 2007 through 2011 including, 91 (44.83% males and 112 (55.17% females. The mean age of the patients was 46.55 ± 18.3. The main extra pulmonary involvements of the studied population were lymphadenitis (9.35%, pleural (7.39% and spinal (5.42% among males and lymphadenitis (17.24%, ocular (7.88%, pleural (6.40% and spinal (5.91% among females, respectively.Conclusion: Since EPTB diagnosis is a challenging and time sparing attempt even by the expert physicians, there is a need to perform further researches in order to identify the main clinical manifestations and organ involvement of EPTB in patients.

  14. 回顾与展望:“十一五”以来我国成人教育社会学研究%Review and Prospect:China's Sociological Studies on Adult Education since the Eleventh Five-Year Plan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马启鹏; 卢筱媚

    2014-01-01

    Since the Eleventh Five-Year Plan, China’s sociological studies on adult education has made a considerable progress in research projects, works and papers publication, especially in the interaction of adult education and some sociological aspects involving socialization, culture, social stratification, mobility, and special social groups, which plays a fundamental role in extending the domains of sociological study on adult education and building the disciplinary framework of the sociological adult education. This paper reveals such problems in the existent studies as focus on adult education with inadequate sociological analysis, the deviation of study orientation, the simplification of research methods, etc. It would help promote the extension and quality of further researches.%“十一五”以来,我国的成人教育社会学研究在课题立项、著作出版、论文的选题和发表等诸多方面取得了长足发展,特别是对社会化、社会文化、社会分层及流动、社会特殊群体等与成人教育的互动性研究,对拓展成人教育社会学的研究范域,构建成人教育社会学的学科架构起到了奠基作用。揭示研究中存在的如“成人教育”有余、“社会学”不足,研究取向偏离、方法单一等问题,对今后此项研究的领域拓展和质量提升具有重要意义。

  15. Five-year change of periodontal diseases in the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP).

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    Gätke, Daniela; Holtfreter, Birte; Biffar, Reiner; Kocher, Thomas

    2012-04-01

    To assess the extent of remission and progression of periodontal diseases among adults in a Northeast German Region. The Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP) is a population-based cohort study with baseline examinations conducted in 1997-2001 and 5-year-follow-up in 2002-2006. The study comprised 2558 subjects aged 20-81 years. Periodontal status was assessed by probing depth (PD) and attachment level (AL), measured at four surfaces per tooth, half-mouth. An event was defined as AL progression or remission of ≥3 mm on ≥2 sites. Average change in mean AL (mean PD) was 0.10 mm (-0.05 mm) during follow-up, equalling 0.02 mm/year (-0.01 mm/year). Adjusted for gender and follow-up time, change in mean AL was significantly higher in 20-29- and 60-69-year-old patients compared with 50-59-year-old patients (p events of progression (remission) in AL per 100 person-years were observed. In multivariate models, risk factors for progression comprised current smoking, middle or low education, being single or divorced and diabetes (p factors distributions. Periodontal progression was moderate. Periodontal prophylaxis and motivation to reduce risk factors should especially be addressed to patients having unfavourable risk factor distributions. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. Aeroallergens in West Crete, Greece: A five year (2010-2014) aerobiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Chariton E; Kiagiadaki, Devora E; Bonatos, Stilianos I; Katotomichelakis, Michael; Danielides, Vassilios; Proimos, Efklidis K

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the analytic observational study was to present air-pollen counting program results for a 5-year period. Airborne pollens and fungi collection, from both urban and sub-urban areas, were obtained using a special Burkard pollen trap installed on the roof of Chania General Hospital. Aeroallergen concentration measurement was made in a standardized way with fixation of the material collected and then counting using an optical microscope. Annual and total circulating pollen and fungi counts for the study period are presented. In the year 2014, the highest total annual count was recorded, while 2013 was the year with the lowest one. Months with the highest average concentrations were June for the years 2010 and 2011 (1291 and 1114.6 grains/m(3), respectively) and May for the consecutive 3 years 2012-2014 (1120, 890 and 1353.1 g/m(3), respectively). Peak periods for circulating aeroallergens were April-June. Trees pollen accounted for the majority of circulating aeroallergens (615.9 and 677.1 g/m(3) during peak periods in the years 2012 and 2014), while fungi accounted for the majority of circulating aeroallergens (818.5, 729.4, 890.7 spores/m(3)), during the peak periods in the years 2010, 2011 and 2013. Variability in peak airborne allergen periods could be partly explained by the differences in climatic conditions during the study period.

  17. A five-year study on the epidemiological approaches to cholera in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafi, Moharam; Goya, Mohammad Mahdi; Hajia, Massoud

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cholera is considered a key indicator of social development but still is reported in various cities of Iran. The present study aimed to analyze the available information regarding cholera outbreaks since 2010 in Iran. Methods: All cases reported to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Ministry of Health and Education who had been confirmed as cholera cases by the Health Reference Laboratory, were entered into this study since 2010. A specific spreadsheet was designed to ensure the safe keeping of the patient records. Results: A total of 1522 patients were clinically diagnosed as cholera with laboratory confirmation over the study period. Cholera was detected in 26 Provinces and 115 cities during this period. Mean age of the patients was 35.1±17, both the Inaba and Ogawa strains were isolated. The highest mortality and the morbidity rate was 1.98% in 2013. The most cholera prevalent provinces in order of frequency were Baluchistan, Alborz, Gilan, Golestan and Qom, as well as Tehran. Inaba serotype was the most common cause of mortality and morbidity in 2013. Conclusion: These findings indicate significant outbreaks of cholera in some of the provinces of Iran and warrant appropriate treatment and preventive measures. PMID:27757199

  18. A five years study on drug-related deaths in Campania (Italy

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    Renata Borriello

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The study regards n. 267 drug related deaths submitted to toxicological analyses for forensic purpose, since 2008 to 2012, at the Laboratory of Forensic Toxicology of the Second University of Napoli (SUN, Italy. Among the cases studied (94% males and 6% females the 13.1% regards foreign citizens. METHODS: For each case autopsy findings and all drugs detected were recorded. In addition other epidemiological data such as age, race, gender, place and circumstance of death were also supplied. A systematic toxicological analysis (STA for illicit drug, other pharmaceuticals, new psychotropic substances and ethanol has been applied on the specimens collected at autopsy and all positive results were confirmed by a quantitative analysis (GC/MS or LC-MS/MS. RESULTS: Toxicological results shows that simultaneous use of multiple illicit drugs was responsible of the largest mortality rate (57.7%, in both males and females. In the poly-drug use the cocaine was the most detected substance. The association of heroin/cocaine was identified in the 22.5% of deaths. The finding of only one drug was correlated with an opiate drug for the 14.2% and with cocaine for the 4.5% of cases. The distribution by age and gender demonstrates an increase in deaths among males aged over 30 years and among women older than 35 years. The territorial distribution of the deaths in the different surrounding areas and in the residential quarters of the Naples city demonstrates that the 76% of deaths occurred in a place different from the usual residence. CONCLUSION: Results obtained demonstrate that prevails, at present, the need to specifically explore the changing patterns of poly-drug use among addicts, because studying the prevalence of mortality subsequent to the consumption of a single illicit drug may be insufficient to guide preventive policies in public health.

  19. Recurrent tuberculosis and associated factors: A five - year countrywide study in Uzbekistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadoev, Jamshid; Asadov, Damin; Harries, Anthony D; Parpieva, Nargiza; Tayler-Smith, Katie; Isaakidis, Petros; Ali, Engy; Hinderaker, Sven Gudmund; Ogtay, Gozalov; Ramsay, Andrew; Jalolov, Avazbek; Dara, Masoud

    2017-01-01

    In Uzbekistan, despite stable and relatively high tuberculosis treatment success rates, relatively high rates of recurrent tuberculosis have recently been reported. Recurrent tuberculosis is when a patient who was treated for pulmonary tuberculosis and cured, later develops the disease again. This requires closer analysis to identify possible causes and recommend interventions to improve the situation. Using countrywide data, this study aimed to analyse trends in recurrent tuberculosis cases and describe their associations with socio-demographic and clinical factors. Countrywide retrospective cohort study comparing recurrent tuberculosis patients with all new tuberculosis patients registered within the NTP between January 2006 and December 2010 using routinely collected data. Determinants studied were baseline characteristics and treatment outcomes. Of 107,380 registered patients during the period January 2006 and December 2010, 9358 (8.7%) were recurrent cases. Between 2006 and 2008, the number of recurrent cases per annum increased from 1530 to 2081, then fell slightly thereafter from 2081 to 1888 cases. The proportion of all notified cases during this period increased from 6.5% to 9.9%. Factors associated with recurrent tuberculosis included age (35-55 years old), having smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis, residing in certain areas of Uzbekistan, having particular co-morbidities (including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and HIV), and being unemployed, a pensioner or disabled. Recurrent tuberculosis patients also had a higher likelihood of having an unfavourable treatment outcome. Despite signs of declining national tuberculosis notifications between 2006 and 2010, the relative proportion of recurrent cases appears to have increased. These findings, together with the identification of possible risk factors associated with recurrent tuberculosis, highlight various areas where Uzbekistan needs to focus its tuberculosis control efforts, particularly in

  20. Lower limb amputation rate in diabetic foot patients: a five year study

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    Mofid A

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is a common endocrine disorder with increasing prevalence. Diabetic foot is a costly and serious chronic complication of diabetes mellitus that if it does not controlled will cause severe morbidities in patients with diabetes mellitus. Based on the study of center of management and prevention of diseases about 230 milliard Rials were expended for direct costs of diabetes annually and instruction of patients about protection of foots in some countries, decrease rate of amputation between 44 to 85% and infact instruction of diabetic patients is the base of treatment and prevention of complications of diabetes mellitus."nMethods: In a cross sectional study with attention to one of important causes of refer of diabetic patients to hospitals diabetic ulcers of foots, we discuss about risk factors and ways of treatment and prevention of them. The study done on patients admitted in endocrinology unit of Imam Khomeini hospital. For analysis we used SPSS 11.5 program. Although the costs for patients are calculated."nResults: In this study from 245 patients that admitted because of diabetic foot (63.26% male and 36.73% female, 74 patients have done amputation. From these 74 patients (30.2%, 65.67% were male and 24.32% were female. Age average was 58.24+12.29 years And the mean duration of DM was 10.56+8.32 years and the past history of diabetic foot was present in 45.95% of them. Past history of smoking was present in 66.21% of patients."nConclusion: From 245 patients from 1996 to 2001 that admitted because of diabetic foot, 155 patients (63.26% were male and 90 patients (36.73% were female. From this numbers the most of them were in 60-70 years old and the least were 20-30 years old. Gender of most of them was male. For treatment of this complication a lot of costs were necessary and instruction of patients decrease this complications.

  1. The impact of depression on survival of Parkinson's disease patients: a five-year study

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    Cláudia Débora Silberman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the survival rate in a cohort of Parkinson's disease patients with and without depression. METHODS: A total of 53 Parkinson's disease subjects were followed up from 2003-2008 and 21 were diagnosed as depressed. Mean time of follow up was 3.8 (SD 95% = 1.5 years for all the sample and there was no significant difference in mean time of follow up between depressed and nondepressed Parkinson's disease patients. Survival curves rates were fitted using the Kaplan-Meier method. In order to compare survival probabilities according to the selected covariables the Log-Rank test was used. Multivariate analysis with Cox regression was performed aiming at estimating the effect of predictive covariables on the survival. RESULTS: The cumulative global survival of this sample was 83% with nine deaths at the end of the study - five in the depressed and four in the nondepressed group, and 55.6% died in the first year of observation, and none died at the fourth and fifth year of follow up. CONCLUSION: Our finding point toward incremental death risk in depressed Parkinson's disease patients.

  2. Five-year study of quality of life in myotonic dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peric, S; Vujnic, M; Dobricic, V; Marjanovic, A; Basta, I; Novakovic, I; Lavrnic, D; Rakocevic-Stojanovic, V

    2016-11-01

    Background - Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is the most common muscular dystrophy in adults. There is a complete lack of studies that assessed quality of life (QoL) trajectory during time in DM1 cohorts. Aim - To analyze changes of QoL in patients with DM1 during a 5-year follow-up period and to assess responsiveness of the SF-36 questionnaire. Patients and Method - At the baseline, this study comprised 84 DM1 patients, of whom 62 were retested after the mean period of 64.2 ± 3.9 months. Severity of muscular weakness was assessed using the Muscular Impairment Rating Scale (MIRS). Patients completed Serbian version of the SF-36 questionnaire as a measure of health-related QoL. Results - After 5 years, MIRS score of our DM1 patients showed significant progression of 0.5 grade (P < 0.01). All mental subdomains, role physical, and total SF-36 scores significantly improved after 5 years (P < 0.01). Unexpectedly, worsening of muscular weakness from mild to severe was in association with improvement of QoL. Conclusion - QoL improved in our cohort of DM1 patients during a 5-year period despite the progression of the disease. SF-36 should be used with caution as a patient-reported outcome measure in DM1 clinical trials.

  3. "THYROID GLAND INVOLVEMENT IN CANCER OF THE LARYNX: A FIVE-YEAR MULTICENTER STUDY"

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    B. Naghibzadeh J.Mehdizadeh

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Intra-operative management of thyroid gland in laryngeal cancer is controversial. To determine the rate of thyroid involvement in patients with laryngeal cancer treated by radical surgical excision, we reviewed the records during 1996-2000 in Imam Khomeini Hospital, Cancer Institute, and Amir Alam Hospital.We studied several factors such as age, gender, and tumor location, presence of thyroid involvement, tumor staging and tumor grading. Thyroid involvement was confirmed by pathologic findings. Two hundred and eighty patients were included in this study. The results showed that only 4.64% of patients (13 cases of 280 treated by laryngectomy had thyroid involvement. Direct invasion was responsible for thyroid involvement in all cases. It was most prevalent in the sixth decade of life and seen in stages 3 and 4 of laryngeal cancer. Thyroid involvement appeared more in men, and in all cases cancer was squamous cell carcinoma. We recommend limited indications for laryngectomy and thyroid lobotomy, including glottic tumor with subglottic invasion, subglottic tumor, intralaryngeal tumor with transcartilage invasion, tumor of sinus piriformis (in stage 4, glottic and supraglottic tumors stage III or IV, which should be individualized. In suspected cases such as those with abnormal thyroid consistency, the decision should be made during laryngectomy .

  4. Five-year comparative study on conventional and laser-assisted therapy of periimplantitis and periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Georg; Neckel, Claus P.

    2000-03-01

    Numerous groups have recommended the use of the diode laser to decontaminate infected root and implant surfaces. The aim of this study was to show the outcome after laser assisted and conventional therapy of periimplantitis and periodontitis administering approved treatment protocols. Between 1994 and 1999 a total of 50 patients with periimplantitis (20) and periodontitis (30) were treated in two groups each. Clinical, microbiological and radiographic evaluation was performed before and 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 60 months after treatment. In addition to the conventional treatment protocol, flap surgery, the tooth or implant surface was decontaminated with a 810 nm diode laser using 1 Watt output for 20 sec (CW mode). All accessible surfaces were decontaminated at the follow up dates. In the periimplantitis group recurrence of the marker bacteria was higher and faster over time for the conventionally operated patients. Also the clinical and radiographic reevaluation showed significantly better results. The laser group of the periodontitis patients also showed significantly better outcome in terms of clinical evaluation, microbiological counts, radiographic evaluation and tooth loss. In comparison to other long term studies our results for the conventional therapy were adequate, the laser assisted therapy brought up significantly better and reproducible results.

  5. Clinical and therapeutic aspects of candidemia: a five year single centre study.

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    Matteo Bassetti

    Full Text Available Candida is an important cause of bloodstream infections (BSI in nosocomial settings causing significant mortality and morbidity. This study was performed to evaluate contemporary epidemiology, species distribution, antifungal susceptibility and outcome of candida BSI in an Italian hospital.All consecutive patients who developed candidemia at Santa Maria della Misericordia University Hospital (Italy between January 2009 and June 2014 were enrolled in the study.A total of 204 episodes of candidemia were identified during the study period with an incidence of 0.79 episodes/1000 admissions. C. albicans was isolated in 60.3% of cases, followed by C. parapsilosis (16.7%, C. glabrata (11.8% and C. tropicalis (6.4%. Of all Candida BSI, 124 (60.8 % occurred in patients admitted to IMW, 31/204 (15.2 % in ICUs, 33/204 (16.2% in surgical units and 16/204 (7.8% in Hematology/Oncology wards. Overall, 47% of patients died within 30 days from the onset of candidemia. C. parapsilosis and C. glabrata candidemia were associated with the lowest mortality rate (36%, while patients with C. tropicalis BSI had the highest mortality rate (58.3%. Lower mortality rates were detected in patients receiving therapy within 48 hours from the time of execution of the blood cultures (57,1% vs 38,9%, P < 0.05. At multivariate analysis, steroids treatment (OR = 0.27, p = 0.005 and CVC removal (OR = 3.77, p = 0.014 were independently associated with lower and higher survival probability, respectively. Candidemia in patients with peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC showed to be associated with higher mortality in comparison with central venous catheters (CVC, Short catheters and Portacath and no CVC use. For each point increase of APACHE III score, survival probability decreased of 2%. Caspofungin (OR = 3.45, p = 0.015 and Amphothericin B lipid formulation (OR = 15.26, p = 0.033 were independently associated with higher survival probability compared with no treatment.

  6. Five-year scintigraphic study of children with Perthes' disease

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    Fotter, R.; Lammer, J.; Ritter, G.

    1982-08-01

    The value of bone scintigraphy in the diagnosis and follow-up of Perthes' disease has been studied in 179 patients. Amongst 63 patients with Perthes' disease, there were 11 in whom the diagnosis could be made by scintigraphy before there were radiological signs. This enables early treatment to be carried out and leads to a shorter course of the disease and improved end-result. Scintigraphy alone makes it possible to judge the actual state of revitalisation of the necrotic femoral head. From this, it is possible to derive the indications for a displacement osteotomy before the radiological signs of a 'head at risk' appear.

  7. Parental involvement in the development of children's reading skill: a five-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sénéchal, Monique; LeFevre, Jo-Anne

    2002-01-01

    This article presents the findings of the final phase of a 5-year longitudinal study with 168 middle- and upper middle-class children in which the complex relations among early home literacy experiences, subsequent receptive language and emergent literacy skills, and reading achievement were examined. Results showed that children's exposure to books was related to the development of vocabulary and listening comprehension skills, and that these language skills were directly related to children's reading in grade 3. In contrast, parent involvement in teaching children about reading and writing words was related to the development of early literacy skills. Early literacy skills directly predicted word reading at the end of grade 1 and indirectly predicted reading in grade 3. Word reading at the end of grade 1 predicted reading comprehension in grade 3. Thus, the various pathways that lead to fluent reading have their roots in different aspects of children's early experiences.

  8. Psychological criteria for contraindication in lung transplant candidates: a five-year study*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojaij, Elaine Marques; Romano, Bellkiss Wilma; Costa, André Nathan; Afonso, Jose Eduardo; de Camargo, Priscila Cilene Leon Bueno; Carraro, Rafael Medeiros; Campos, Silvia Vidal; Samano, Marcos Naoyuki; Teixeira, Ricardo Henrique de Oliveira Braga

    2015-01-01

    Lung transplantation presents a wide range of challenges for multidisciplinary teams that manage the care of the recipients. Transplant teams should perform a thorough evaluation of transplant candidates, in order to ensure the best possible post-transplant outcomes. That is especially true for the psychologist, because psychological issues can arise at any point during the perioperative period. The objective of our study was to evaluate the psychological causes of contraindication to waiting list inclusion in a referral program for lung transplantation. We retrospectively analyzed data on psychological issues presented by lung transplant candidates, in order to understand these matters in our population and to reflect upon ways to improve the selection process. PMID:26176522

  9. Influence of mandatory generic substitution on pharmaceutical sales patterns: a national study over five years

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    Allebeck Peter

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mandatory generic substitution was introduced in Sweden in October 2002 in order to try to curb escalating pharmaceutical expenditure. The aim of this study was to investigate how sales patterns for substitutable and non-substitutable pharmaceuticals have developed since the introduction of mandatory generic substitution; furthermore, to compare sales patterns in different groups of the population, based on patients' age and gender. Methods Five therapeutic groups comprising both substitutable and non-substitutable pharmaceuticals were included. The study period was from January 2000 to June 2005. National sales data were used, covering volumes of dispensed prescription medicines (expressed in defined daily doses per 1000 inhabitants and day of each pharmacological substance in the therapeutic groups for each age and gender group. Sales patterns for substitutable and non-substitutable pharmaceuticals were compared using a descriptive approach. Results In most therapeutic groups there has been an increase in the volumes of substitutable pharmaceuticals sold since the introduction of the reform, ranging from one third to three times the initial volume; whereas the volumes of non-substitutable pharmaceuticals have levelled out or declined. There were few gender differences in sales patterns of substitutable and non-substitutable drugs. In three therapeutic groups, sales patterns differed across different age groups, and there was a tendency for volumes of recently introduced non-substitutable pharmaceuticals to be proportionally higher in the youngest age groups. Conclusion Since the introduction of the reform, there has been a proportionally larger increase in sales of substitutable pharmaceuticals compared with sales of non-substitutable pharmaceuticals. This indicates that the reform might have contributed to larger sales of less expensive pharmaceuticals.

  10. Streptococcus agalactiae infection in cancer patients: a five-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, B A S; Martins, C A S; Mendonça, J C; Miranda, P S D; Sanches, G F; Mattos-Guaraldi, A L; Nagao, P E

    2016-06-01

    Although the highest burden of Streptococcus agalactiae infections has been reported in industrialized countries, studies on the characterization and epidemiology are still limited in developing countries and implementation of control strategies remains undefined. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the epidemiological, clinical, and microbiological aspects of S. agalactiae infections in cancer patients treated at a Reference Brazilian National Cancer Institute - INCA, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We reviewed the clinical and laboratory records of all cancer patients identified as having invasive S. agalactiae disease during 2010-2014. The isolates were identified by biochemical analysis and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. A total of 263 strains of S. agalactiae were isolated from cancer patients who had been clinically and microbiologically classified as infected. S. agalactiae infections were mostly detected among adults with solid tumors (94 %) and/or patients who have used indwelling medical devices (77.2 %) or submitted to surgical procedures (71.5 %). Mortality rates (in-hospital mortality during 30 days after the identification of S. agalactiae) related to invasive S. agalactiae infections (n = 28; 31.1 %) for the specific category of neoplasic diseases were: gastrointestinal (46 %), head and neck (25 %), lung (11 %), hematologic (11 %), gynecologic (4 %), and genitourinary (3 %). We also found an increase in S. agalactiae resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin and the emergence of penicillin-less susceptible isolates. A remarkable number of cases of invasive infections due to S. agalactiae strains was identified, mostly in adult patients. Our findings reinforce the need for S. agalactiae control measures in Brazil, including cancer patients.

  11. OPEN INGUINAL HERNIA REPAIR BY MOSQUITO NET MESH: A FIVE YEARS RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

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    Anil

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available : In inguinal hernia tension free hernioplasty using polypropylene mesh by Lichenstein and Schulman’s method is accepted all over the world. But cost of the mesh is a major contributor to the cost of repair in rural India. A retrospective study of 105 Inguinal hernia operated patients from 1st March 2007 to 30th October 2011 was undertaken to evaluate efficacy and cost benefit of Mosquito Net Mesh (MNM as against conventional mesh repair. All patients were operated under spinal anaesthesia. The ETO sterilized MNM of size 7.5cm by 13cm was used for repair. The incidence of complications, recurrence and cost benefit was investigated after a mean follow up of 37 months. The rate of seroma formation (n=0, hematoma formation (n=0, superficial infection in the form of erythema (n=3, serous discharge after stitch removal (n=7, chronic pain (n=4 and recurrence (n=2 were low. The cost benefit was 40% - 50% of the total cost of the repair by using MNM. ETO sterilized MNM forms a cheap, safe and efficient alternative to the conventional and costly polypropylene mesh in open tension free repair of inguinal hernia in adults.

  12. Trends of Various Techniques of Tubectomy: A Five Year Study in a Tertiary Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanna, Naveen; Channabasappa, Ramalingappa Antartani

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Female sterilization is one of the best and effective methods of contraception for women who have completed their family. Tubectomy during caesarean operation and minilaparotomy are popular methods in developing countries whereas laparoscopic sterilization and hysteroscopic tubal occlusion are the preferred methods in developed countries. Aim To know the trends, incidence and immediate complications of methods of female sterilizations performed at our institute. Materials and Methods This is a retrospective analytical study conducted at our tertiary care centre from January 2010 to December 2014 in Karnataka Institute of Medical Sciences, Hubli, Karnataka. The case files of all the patients who underwent sterilization were taken from the medical records section and reviewed in detail. The cases were grouped as caesarean tubectomy, minilaparotomy and laparoscopic sterilization, based on the abdominal entry. For minilaparotomy and during caesarean tubectomy, modified pomeroy’s technique was used. For laparoscopic sterilization, falope rings were used. Data was analysed by Karl Pearson’s correlation co-efficient method and Chi-Square test. The p-value asepsis could be compromised when female sterilization is done in large numbers in camps. Hence target related approach towards female sterilization should be avoided. Laparoscopic sterilization has more procedure related complications, which can be better handled in tertiary care centres. PMID:26894125

  13. Obstetric hysterectomy, still a life saving tool in modern day obstetrics: a five year study

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    Neetu Singh

    2014-06-01

    Results: During the study period, 105 emergency obstetric hysterectomies were performed giving an incidence of 0.54% .The incidence of hysterectomy following vaginal delivery was 0.54% and that of caesarean hysterectomy was 2.08%. It was most common in the age group 26-35 years (66.66% and in women of parity 3-4 (71.42%.Rupture uterus was the most common indication accounting for 59.04% cases followed by Atonic PPH (18.09%. Febrile illness and wound infection were the two most common co-morbidities. Maternal mortality was 5.71%. Conclusions: Emergency obstetric hysterectomy is potentially a life saving procedure which every obstetrician must be familiar with in cases of catastrophic rupture uterus and intractable haemorrhage. With the help of prostaglandins, modern policies of active management of labor, timely performance of caesarean section, internal iliac artery ligation, compression sutures etc. obstetric hysterectomy should be made a more rare procedure. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(3.000: 540-543

  14. A five-year study of mortality in a busy ski population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, J T; Moore, S M; Rich, T H

    1977-01-01

    A 5-year study of a busy ski population in Utah revealed a total at-risk period of approximately 3.5 million skier-days. While the morbidity (fractures, strains, sprains, and occasionally more severe injuries) associated with skiing is well recognized and considered by most physicians concerned to be distributed somewhat unevenly within the various skills of skiing, the authors have identified an exceedingly low mortality among the same population. Six individuals died as a result of injuries directly attributable to skiing. Three of these were considered to be advanced skiers and three were of intermediate skill. In three instances the environment was considered to play a role in the accident. Two of these victims were skiing out of control, one as a result of ice-covered snow and one as a result of speed in combination with a small jump. The third victim was crushed in an avalanche. One accident was completely unexplained, the skier having skied without apparent attempt at checking or change of course into a nonrecreational area. The two remaining skiers of intermediate skill both suffered injuries incident to falling forward with considerable force onto a relatively flat, hard snow surface. Notwithstanding the intense and sometimes prolonged exertion at relatively high altitudes (9,400 to 11,000 ft or 2.9 to 3.3 km), only one skier with a previous history of atherosclerotic heart disease died while skiing. One additional middle-aged skier with similar history died at the conclusion of the day.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Disturbance frequency and community structure in a twenty-five year intervention study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trexler, J.C.; Loftus, W.F.; Perry, S.

    2005-01-01

    Models of community regulation commonly incorporate gradients of disturbance inversely related to the role of biotic interactions in regulating intermediate trophic levels. Higher trophic-level organisms are predicted to be more strongly limited by intermediate levels of disturbance than are the organisms they consume. We used a manipulation of the frequency of hydrological disturbance in an intervention analysis to examine its effects on small-fish communities in the Everglades, USA. From 1978 to 2002, we monitored fishes at one long-hydroperiod (average 350 days) and at one short-hydroperiod (average 259 days; monitoring started here in 1985) site. At a third site, managers intervened in 1985 to diminish the frequency and duration of marsh drying. By the late 1990s, the successional dynamics of density and relative abundance at the intervention site converged on those of the long-hydroperiod site. Community change was manifested over 3 to 5 years following a dry-down if a site remained inundated; the number of days since the most recent drying event and length of the preceding dry period were useful for predicting population dynamics. Community dissimilarity was positively correlated with the time since last dry. Community dynamics resulted from change in the relative abundance of three groups of species linked by life-history responses to drought. Drought frequency and intensity covaried in response to hydrological manipulation at the landscape scale; community-level successional dynamics converged on a relatively small range of species compositions when drought return-time extended beyond 4 years. The density of small fishes increased with diminution of drought frequency, consistent with disturbance-limited community structure; less-frequent drying than experienced in this study (i.e., longer return times) yields predator-dominated regulation of small-fish communities in some parts of the Everglades. ?? Springer-Verlag 2005.

  16. Five-year Study of Patients with Lactating Adenoma and Review of the Literature

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    Asiie Olfatbakhsh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lactating adenoma is a benign breast mass related to physiological changes during pregnancy and increased estrogen level. Fibroadenoma and breast cancer should be considered in the differential diagnosis of this lesion. The purpose of this study was to report cases of lactating adenoma in Breast Cancer Research Center (BCRC and review the relevant literature.Methods: All patients with histological diagnosis of lactating adenoma between April 2010 and December 2015 were selected. Patients’ data were extracted from their medical records and follow-up of the patients were done through in-person examination or rarely by telephone call.Results: A total of 22 patients with pathological diagnosis of lactating adenoma were enrolled. The mean age of patients was 27±4.6 years. Fourteen patients were in breast-feeding period and eight were pregnant at the time of diagnosis. The chief complaint was breast mass in 16 patients and pain 6 patients. The mean size of masses was 4.1 cm (1.8-8 cm. For 13 patients, core needle biopsy (CNB and for 6 patients open biopsy were performed and for the other 3 patients vacuum-assisted biopsy were done. In 5 patients, excisional biopsy was done in the follow-up period that one of them proved to be medullary carcinoma and other cases were benign.Conclusions: Lactating adenoma commonly presents as a palpable mass during the breastfeeding period or the third trimester of pregnancy. The most common ultrasonographic appearance is a hypoechoic mass with regular borders. It usually regresses after cessation of breastfeeding, however in patients with mass enlargement during the follow-up, period pathologic evaluation of the lesion through core needle biopsy should be performed to rule out coexistent carcinoma.

  17. Clinical performance of CEREC AC Bluecam conservative ceramic restorations after five years--A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejatidanesh, Farahnaz; Amjadi, Mehrak; Akouchekian, Mohadese; Savabi, Omid

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the clinical performance of CAD/CAM partial coverage posterior restorations made by CEREC AC Bluecam system after 5 years. 159 ceramic partial coverage posterior restorations were placed in 109 patients in a private practice. The restorations were made using CEREC AC Bluecam with CEREC Blocs or Empress CAD blocks. The clinical performance of the restorations was evaluated with modified California Dental Association (CDA) guidelines, gingival and plaque indices, probing pocket depth, and bleeding on probing in a period of 5 years. Patients' satisfaction was assessed using visual analogue scale. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze survival probability of the restorations (α=0.05). The restorations included 102CEREC Blocs and 57 Empress CAD. The survival rates of CEREC Blocs and Empress CAD blocks were 96.0% and 94.6%, respectively (P=0.67). A total of 7 (4.5%) failures were found. The failures were not significantly influenced by restoration size, type and position of teeth. The ceramic fracture was significantly more in nonvital teeth (P=0.04). The periodontal parameters were not significantly different between the restored and control teeth except plaque index. The mean score of patients' satisfaction was 94.4 ± 8.1. Chair-side CEREC AC ceramic partial coverage posterior restorations were clinically successful restorations with mean survival rate of 95.5% after 5 years. Conservative chair-side CAD/CAM ceramic restorations with less reduction of tooth structure can be a successful restorative method with acceptable survival rate and patient's satisfaction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Spatial variability studies in São Paulo, Brazil along the last twenty five years

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    Sidney Rosa Vieira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil properties vary in space due to many causes. For this reason it is wise to know the magnitude and behaviour of the variability for adequate data analysis and decision making. Our work on spatial variability of soil properties in São Paulo, Brazil began in 1982 with a very simple soil sampling in a small field. Much progress has been made since then on sampling designs, field equipment and methods, and mostly on computation equipment and softwares. This paper reports the results corresponding to some aspects of this progress, as far as the field, analysis and computation work are concerned. The objective of this study was to illustrate the use of geostatistics in data analysis for three sampling conditions on long term no-tillage system. The analysis is done on a wide range of field scales, variables, sampling schemes as well as repeating sampling scheme for the same variable in different years. Semivariograms are compared for the same variables in different scales and sampling dates and depths as to provide a guide for sampling spacing and number of samples. Normalized crop yield parameters for many years are used in the discussion of time variability and on the use of yield maps to locate management zones. The time of the year in which measurements of soil physical properties are made affected the results both in terms of descriptive statistical and spatial dependence parameters. Crop yields changed (soybean decrease and maize increase with time of no-tillage but the real cause was not identified. The length of time with no-tillage affected the range of dependence for the main crops (increased for soybean, maize and oats and therefore increased the size of the homogeneous management zones. The evolution of the sampling grid from 20 m with 63 sampling points to 10 m with 302 sampling points allowed for a much better knowledge of the spatial variability of crop yields but it had the reverse effect on the spatial variability of soil physical

  19. Professional quality of life and organizational changes: a five-year observational study in Primary Care

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    Cortes-Rubio Jose

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The satisfaction and the quality of life perceived by professionals have implications for the performance of health organizations. We have assessed the variations in professional quality of life (PQL and their explanatory factors during a services management decentralization process. Methods It was designed as a longitudinal analytical observational study in a Health Area in Madrid, Spain. Three surveys were sent out during an ongoing management decentralization process between 2001 and 2005. The professionals surveyed were divided into three groups: Group I (97.3% physicians, group II (92.5% nurses and group III (auxiliary personnel. Analysis of the tendency and elaboration of an explanatory multivariate model was made. The PQL -35 questionnaire, based on Karasek's demand-control theory, was used to measure PQL. This questionnaire recognizes three PQL dimensions: management support (MS, workload (WL and intrinsic motivation (IM. Results 1444 responses were analyzed. PQL increased 0.16 (CI 95% 0.04 – 0.28 points in each survey. Group II presents over time a higher PQL score than group I of 0.38 (IC 95% 0.18 – 0.59 points. There is no difference between groups I and III. For each point that MS increases, PQL increases between 0.44 and 0.59 points. PQL decreases an average of between 0.35 and 0.49 point, for each point that WL increases. Age appears to have a marginal association with PQL (CI 95% 0.00 – 0.02, as it occurs with being single or not having a stable relationship (CI 95% 0.01 – 0.41. Performing management tasks currently or in the past is related to poorer PQL perception (CI 95% -0.45 – -0.06, and the same occurs with working other than morning shifts (CI 95% -0.03 – -0.40 points. PQL is not related to sex, location of the centre (rural/urban, time spent working in the organization or contractual situation. Conclusion With the improvement in work control and avoiding increases in workloads, PQL

  20. The course of mental health after miscarriage and induced abortion: a longitudinal, five-year follow-up study

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    Bødtker Anne

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Miscarriage and induced abortion are life events that can potentially cause mental distress. The objective of this study was to determine whether there are differences in the patterns of normalization of mental health scores after these two pregnancy termination events. Methods Forty women who experienced miscarriages and 80 women who underwent abortions at the main hospital of Buskerud County in Norway were interviewed. All subjects completed the following questionnaires 10 days (T1, six months (T2, two years (T3 and five years (T4 after the pregnancy termination: Impact of Event Scale (IES, Quality of Life, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, and another addressing their feelings about the pregnancy termination. Differential changes in mean scores were determined by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA and inter-group differences were assessed by ordinary least squares methods. Results Women who had experienced a miscarriage had more mental distress at 10 days and six months after the pregnancy termination than women who had undergone an abortion. However, women who had had a miscarriage exhibited significantly quicker improvement on IES scores for avoidance, grief, loss, guilt and anger throughout the observation period. Women who experienced induced abortion had significantly greater IES scores for avoidance and for the feelings of guilt, shame and relief than the miscarriage group at two and five years after the pregnancy termination (IES avoidance means: 3.2 vs 9.3 at T3, respectively, p Conclusion The course of psychological responses to miscarriage and abortion differed during the five-year period after the event. Women who had undergone an abortion exhibited higher scores during the follow-up period for some outcomes. The difference in the courses of responses may partly result from the different characteristics of the two pregnancy termination events.

  1. The course of mental health after miscarriage and induced abortion: a longitudinal, five-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broen, Anne Nordal; Moum, Torbjørn; Bødtker, Anne Sejersted; Ekeberg, Oivind

    2005-12-12

    Miscarriage and induced abortion are life events that can potentially cause mental distress. The objective of this study was to determine whether there are differences in the patterns of normalization of mental health scores after these two pregnancy termination events. Forty women who experienced miscarriages and 80 women who underwent abortions at the main hospital of Buskerud County in Norway were interviewed. All subjects completed the following questionnaires 10 days (T1), six months (T2), two years (T3) and five years (T4) after the pregnancy termination: Impact of Event Scale (IES), Quality of Life, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and another addressing their feelings about the pregnancy termination. Differential changes in mean scores were determined by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and inter-group differences were assessed by ordinary least squares methods. Women who had experienced a miscarriage had more mental distress at 10 days and six months after the pregnancy termination than women who had undergone an abortion. However, women who had had a miscarriage exhibited significantly quicker improvement on IES scores for avoidance, grief, loss, guilt and anger throughout the observation period. Women who experienced induced abortion had significantly greater IES scores for avoidance and for the feelings of guilt, shame and relief than the miscarriage group at two and five years after the pregnancy termination (IES avoidance means: 3.2 vs 9.3 at T3, respectively, p abortion had significantly higher HADS anxiety scores at all four interviews (p abortion differed during the five-year period after the event. Women who had undergone an abortion exhibited higher scores during the follow-up period for some outcomes. The difference in the courses of responses may partly result from the different characteristics of the two pregnancy termination events.

  2. Five-year follow-up of a prospective randomised trial comparing ceramic-on-metal and metal-on-metal bearing surfaces in total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouten, R; Malone, A A; Frampton, C M; Tiffen, C; Hooper, G

    2017-10-01

    The primary aim of this independent prospective randomised trial was to compare serum metal ion levels for ceramic-on-metal (CoM) and metal-on-metal (MoM) bearing surfaces in total hip arthroplasty (THA). Our one-year results demonstrated elevation in metal ion levels above baseline with no significant difference between the CoM and MoM groups. This paper reviews the five-year data. The implants used in each patient differed only in respect to the type of femoral head (ceramic or metal). At five-year follow-up of the 83 enrolled patients, data from 67 (36 CoM, 31 MoM) was available for comparison. The mean serum cobalt (Co) and chromium (Cr) ion levels remained above baseline in both groups (CoM: Co 1.16 μg/l (0.41 to 14.67), Cr 1.05 μg/l (0.16 to 12.58); MoM: Co 2.93 μg/l (0.35 to 30.29), Cr 1.85 μg/l (0.36 to 17.00)) but the increase was significantly less in the CoM cohort (Co difference p = 0.001, Cr difference p = 0.002). These medium-term results, coupled with lower revision rates from national joint registries, suggest that the performance of CoM THA may be superior to that of MoM. While both bearing combinations have since been withdrawn these results provide useful information for planning clinical surveillance of CoM THAs and warrants continued monitoring. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:1298-1303. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  3. Elephant (Loxodonta africana) home ranges in Sabi Sand Reserve and Kruger National Park: a five-year satellite tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Bindi; Holland, John D; Minot, Edward O

    2008-01-01

    During a five-year GPS satellite tracking study in Sabi Sand Reserve (SSR) and Kruger National Park (KNP) we monitored the daily movements of an elephant cow (Loxodonta africana) from September 2003 to August 2008. The study animal was confirmed to be part of a group of seven elephants therefore her position is representative of the matriarchal group. We found that the study animal did not use habitat randomly and confirmed strong seasonal fidelity to its summer and winter five-year home ranges. The cow's summer home range was in KNP in an area more than four times that of her SSR winter home range. She exhibited clear park habitation with up to three visits per year travelling via a well-defined northern or southern corridor. There was a positive correlation between the daily distance the elephant walked and minimum daily temperature and the elephant was significantly closer to rivers and artificial waterholes than would be expected if it were moving randomly in KNP and SSR. Transect lines established through the home ranges were surveyed to further understand the fine scale of the landscape and vegetation representative of the home ranges.

  4. Elephant (Loxodonta africana home ranges in Sabi Sand Reserve and Kruger National Park: a five-year satellite tracking study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindi Thomas

    Full Text Available During a five-year GPS satellite tracking study in Sabi Sand Reserve (SSR and Kruger National Park (KNP we monitored the daily movements of an elephant cow (Loxodonta africana from September 2003 to August 2008. The study animal was confirmed to be part of a group of seven elephants therefore her position is representative of the matriarchal group. We found that the study animal did not use habitat randomly and confirmed strong seasonal fidelity to its summer and winter five-year home ranges. The cow's summer home range was in KNP in an area more than four times that of her SSR winter home range. She exhibited clear park habitation with up to three visits per year travelling via a well-defined northern or southern corridor. There was a positive correlation between the daily distance the elephant walked and minimum daily temperature and the elephant was significantly closer to rivers and artificial waterholes than would be expected if it were moving randomly in KNP and SSR. Transect lines established through the home ranges were surveyed to further understand the fine scale of the landscape and vegetation representative of the home ranges.

  5. Elephant (Loxodonta africana) Home Ranges in Sabi Sand Reserve and Kruger National Park: A Five-Year Satellite Tracking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Bindi; Holland, John D.; Minot, Edward O.

    2008-01-01

    During a five-year GPS satellite tracking study in Sabi Sand Reserve (SSR) and Kruger National Park (KNP) we monitored the daily movements of an elephant cow (Loxodonta africana) from September 2003 to August 2008. The study animal was confirmed to be part of a group of seven elephants therefore her position is representative of the matriarchal group. We found that the study animal did not use habitat randomly and confirmed strong seasonal fidelity to its summer and winter five-year home ranges. The cow's summer home range was in KNP in an area more than four times that of her SSR winter home range. She exhibited clear park habitation with up to three visits per year travelling via a well-defined northern or southern corridor. There was a positive correlation between the daily distance the elephant walked and minimum daily temperature and the elephant was significantly closer to rivers and artificial waterholes than would be expected if it were moving randomly in KNP and SSR. Transect lines established through the home ranges were surveyed to further understand the fine scale of the landscape and vegetation representative of the home ranges. PMID:19065264

  6. Associations of Child Temperament with Child Overweight and Breakfast Habits: A Population Study in Five-Year-Olds

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    Thea Steen Skogheim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the associations of child temperament with overweight/obesity and breakfast habits. Participants were 17,409 five-year-olds whose mothers partake in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa, and completed a questionnaire at the child’s 5th birthday. Temperament was assessed as externalizing, internalizing and sociable temperament. Breakfast habits differentiated between “every day”, “4 to 6 times a week”, and “0 to 3 times a week”. The child’s weight status was determined by Body Mass Index-percentiles and categorized as normal weight versus overweight/obese. Children with externalizing temperament had higher odds of being overweight and higher odds of not eating breakfast daily. Children high in internalizing temperament had higher odds of not eating breakfast daily, but not of being overweight. Children with average scores of sociability were more prone to being overweight but had normal breakfast habits. All results were adjusted for key confounders. That five-year-olds high in externalizing temperament had a higher risk to be overweight adds important information to the literature. The association of externalizing temperament with child breakfast habits so early in life is intriguing, as parents mostly control eating patterns in children that young. Mechanisms mediating this association should be explored.

  7. The experiences of women engineers who have completed one to five years of professional engineering employment: A phenomenological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan M.

    Women engineers remain underrepresented in employment in engineering fields in the United States. Feminist theory views this gender disparity beyond equity in numbers for women engineers and looks at structural issues of women's access, opportunities, and quality of experience in the workplace. Research on women's success and persistence in engineering education is diverse; however, there are few studies that focus on the early years of women's careers in engineering and less using a phenomenological research design. Experiences of women engineers who have completed one to five years of professional engineering employment are presented using a phenomenological research design. Research questions explored the individual and composite experiences for the co-researchers of the study as well as challenges and advantages of the phenomenon of having completed one to five years of professional engineering employment. Themes that emanated from the data were a feeling that engineering is a positive profession, liking math and science from an early age, having experiences of attending math and science camps or learning and practicing engineering interests with their fathers for some co-researchers. Other themes included a feeling of being different as a woman in the engineering workplace, taking advantage of opportunities for training, education, and advancement to further their careers, and the role of informal and formal mentoring in developing workplace networks and engineering expertise. Co-researchers negotiated issues of management quality and support, experiences of gender discrimination in the workplace, and having to make decisions balancing their careers and family responsibilities. Finally, the women engineers for this research study expressed intentions to persist in their careers while pursuing expertise and experience in their individual engineering fields.

  8. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy in the treatment of head and neck cancer: results after five years of a randomized study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santarelli, M.; Raffetto, N.; Torcia, P.; Vitturini, A.; Tombolini, V.; Maurizi Enrici, R. [Istituto di radiologia Universita Roma ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Rome (Italy)

    1999-11-01

    Purpose: this study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of two regimens of chemoradiotherapy in the treatment of locally advanced head and neck cancer. Methods: from 1992 to 1997, 127 patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer (stage III-IV) were randomized. Sixty-six patients (group a), 42 male and 24 female, with a median age of 48 years (range 40-72) received during radiotherapy two courses (1.-6. week) of chemotherapy with carbo-platin (300 mg/m{sup 2} day 1) and etoposide (60 mg/m{sup 2} days 1 to 3). Sixty-one patients (group b), 40 male and 21 female, with a median age of 51 years (range 42-69) received two cycles of chemotherapy with 5 FU (750 mg/m{sup 2} days 1 to 5) and MIT C ( 10 mg/m{sup 2} day 1). The median dose of radiotherapy was 60 Gy (range 55-66 Gy) 180 cGy /d 5w. Results: the actuarial five-year survival rate(Kaplan-Meier) was 38 % for group a (CBDCA+etoposide+RT) and 25 % for group b (5FU+MIT C+RT). The difference was statistically significant (p = 0.036). Toxicity group a: mucositis G III in 41 patients and G IV in 16; dysphagia G III in 46 patients and IV in 5; leukopenia in 24 patients; 28 patients required nutritional therapy. Toxicity group b: mucositis G III in 38 patients and G IV in 17; dysphagia G III in 48 patients and G IV in 3; leukopenia in 23 patients; 25 patients needed nutritional therapy. Conclusions: the data of the actuarial survival five-year rate suggest that concomitant chemotherapy in group a (CBDCA+etoposide+RT) is better than the concomitant chemotherapy in group b (5FU+MIT C+RT). (author)

  9. Five-Year Incidence of Chronic Kidney Disease (Stage 3-5) and Associated Risk Factors in a Spanish Cohort: The MADIABETES Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinero-Fort, Miguel A.; San Andrés-Rebollo, Francisco J.; de Burgos-Lunar, Carmen; Gómez-Campelo, Paloma; Chico-Moraleja, Rosa M.; López de Andrés, Ana; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the incidence rate of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) stage 3-5 (persistent decreased kidney function under 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2) among patients with type 2 diabetes over five years, to identify the risk factors associated with CKD, and develop a risk table to predict five-year CKD stage 3-5 risk stratification for clinical use. Design The MADIABETES Study is a prospective cohort study of 3,443 outpatients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, sampled from 56 primary health care centers (131 general practitioners) in Madrid (Spain). Results The cumulative incidence of CKD stage 3-5 at five-years was 10.23% (95% CI = 9.12–11.44) and the incidence density was 2.07 (95% CI = 1.83–2.33) cases per 1,000 patient-months or 2.48 (95% CI = 2.19–2.79) cases per 100 patient-years. The highest hazard ratio (HR) for developing CKD stage 3-5 was albuminuria ≥300 mg/g (HR = 4.57; 95% CI= 2.46-8.48). Furthermore, other variables with a high HR were age over 74 years (HR = 3.20; 95% CI = 2.13–4.81), a history of Hypertension (HR = 2.02; 95% CI = 1.42–2.89), Myocardial Infarction (HR= 1.72; 95% IC= 1.25–2.37), Dyslipidemia (HR = 1.68; 95% CI 1.30–2.17), duration of diabetes mellitus ≥ 10 years (HR = 1.46; 95% CI = 1.14-1.88) and Systolic Blood Pressure >149 mmHg (HR = 1.52; 95% CI = 1.02–2.24). Conclusions After a five-year follow-up, the cumulative incidence of CKD is concordant with rates described in Spain and other countries. Albuminuria ≥ 300 mg/g and age over 74 years were the risk factors more strongly associated with developing CKD (Stage 3-5). Blood Pressure, lipid and albuminuria control could reduce CKD incidence of CKD in patients with T2DM. PMID:25856231

  10. Gender difference on five-year outcomes of EXCEL biodegradable polymer-coated sirolimus-eluting stents implantation: results from the CREATE study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lei; QIAO Bing; HAN Ya-ling; LI Yi; XU Kai; ZHANG Quan-yu; YANG Li-xia

    2013-01-01

    Background The gender difference on long-term outcome in unselected patients after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has not yet been fully investigated.This study aimed to evaluate the gender difference on five-year outcomes following EXCEL biodegradable polymer-coated sirolimus-eluting stenting in patients with coronary disease.Methods A total of 2077 "all comers",consisting of 1528 (73.6%) men and 549 (26.4%) women,who were exclusively treated with EXCEL coronary stents were enrolled in the prospective CREATE study at 59 centers from four countries.After propensity score matching,the baseline characteristics of the two groups were well matched.Recommended antiplatelet regimen was clopidogrel and aspirin for six months followed by chronic aspirin therapy.The primary outcome that was the rate of major adverse cardiac events (MACE),defined as a composite of cardiac mortality,non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI) and target lesion revascularization (TLR),and stent thrombosis (ST) at five years were compared between the two gender groups.Results In the two groups,women had higher proportions of clinical risk factors,such as being elderly,diabetes mellitus,hypertension and hyperlipidemia,compared to men.Besides,the mean target vessel number per patient was higher and the mean reference vessel diameter smaller for women.Men had higher risks of cardiac death (3.7% vs.1.6%,P=0.021) and MACE (8.4% vs.4.7%,P=0.004) at five years compared with women.However,the cumulative hazards of non-fatal MI and TLR were similar between men and women.The incidence of Academic Research Consortium (ARC) definite or probable stent thrombosis was similar between the two groups (1.3% vs.1.0%,P=0.639).Prolonged clopidogrel therapy (>6 months) did not reduce the cumulative hazards of ST from six months to five years in both men (x2=0.098,log rank P=0.754) and women (x2=2.043,log rank P=0.153) patients.Conclusions Women had a lower MACE and cardiac death rate than men

  11. Five-year change in physical activity is associated with changes in cardiovascular disease risk factors: the Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aadahl, Mette; von Huth Smith, L; Pisinger, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    questions on lifestyle and provided blood samples and anthropometric measures at baseline and after five years. Multiple regression analyses were performed with five-year value of each cardiovascular biomarker as outcome and change in physical activity level as explanatory variable. RESULTS: Approximately....... Change in physical activity level induced a significant change in HDL concentration in men only. Women's use of hormone replacement therapy may partly explain this gender difference....

  12. A modest start, but a steady rise in research use: a longitudinal study of nurses during the first five years in professional life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallin Lars

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Newly graduated nurses are faced with a challenging work environment that may impede their ability to provide evidence-based practice. However, little is known about the trajectory of registered nurses' use of research during the first years of professional life. Thus, the aim of the current study was to prospectively examine the extent of nurses' use of research during the first five years after undergraduate education and specifically assess changes over time. Method Survey data from a prospective cohort of 1,501 Swedish newly graduated nurses within the national LANE study (Longitudinal Analyses of Nursing Education and Entry in Worklife were used to investigate perceived use of research over the first five years as a nurse. The dependent variables consisted of three single items assessing instrumental, conceptual, and persuasive research use, where the nurses rated their use on a five-point scale, from 'never' (1 to 'on almost every shift' (5. These data were collected annually and analyzed both descriptively and by longitudinal growth curve analysis. Results Instrumental use of research was most frequently reported, closely followed by conceptual use, with persuasive use occurring to a considerably lower extent. The development over time showed a substantial general upward trend, which was most apparent for conceptual use, increasing from a mean of 2.6 at year one to 3.6 at year five (unstandardized slope +0.25. However, the descriptive findings indicated that the increase started only after the second year. Instrumental use had a year one mean of 2.8 and a year five mean of 3.5 (unstandardized slope +0.19, and persuasive use showed a year one mean of 1.7 and a year five mean of 2.0 (unstandardized slope +0.09. Conclusion There was a clear trend of increasing research use by nurses during their first five years of practice. The level of the initial ratings also indicated the level of research use in subsequent years

  13. Treatment Outcome of Tuberculosis Patients at Enfraz Health Center, Northwest Ethiopia: A Five-Year Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengistu Endris

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of this study was to assess treatment outcome and associated risk factors among TB patients registered for anti-TB treatment at Enfraz health center, northwest Ethiopia. Methods. A five-year retrospective data (2007–2011 of tuberculosis patients (n=417 registered for anti-TB treatment at Enfraz health center, northwest Ethiopia, were reviewed. Tuberculosis outcomes were following the WHO guidelines. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results. Among 417 study participants, 95 (22.8%, 141 (33.8%, and 181 (43.4% were smear-positive, smear-negative, and extrapulmonary tuberculosis patients, respectively. Of the 417 study participants, 206 (49.4% were tested for HIV. The TB-HIV coinfection was 24/206 (11.7%. Seventeen study participants (4.2% were transferred to other health facilities. Among the 400 study participants, 379 (94.8% had successful treatment outcome (302 treatment completed and 77 cured. The overall death, default, and failure rates were 3.4%, 0.5%, and 1.2%, respectively. There was no significant association between sex, age, residence, type of TB, HIV status, and successful TB treatment outcome. Conclusion. Treatment outcome of patients who attended their anti-TB treatment at Enfraz health center was successful. Therefore, this treatment success rate should be maintained and strengthened to achieve the millennium development goal.

  14. Lymphoma of the thyroid gland: a clinicopathologic study over a period of five years in a tertiary care center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Anjit

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Primary Thyroid Lymphoma (PTL is uncommon, accounting for only 5% of thyroid neoplasms and less than 2.5 to 7% of extranodal lymphomas. The study aims to analyze the histopathological findings and to correlate it with clinical features. Methods: This study includes cases of PTL received in the department of pathology in a tertiary care center, Kerala, south India over a period of 5 years. Patient details and follow up data were obtained by communication with treating doctors and reviewing the hospital records. All cases had a minimum follow up of 6 months. Results: 15 cases of PTL were diagnosed over the five year period. In total 72 cases of extranodal lymphomas were diagnosed, thus forming 20.83% of extra nodal lymphomas. Lymphocytic thyroiditis was present in 93.3%. Most of the cases were Extranodal Marginal Zone B Cell Lymphoma (EMZBCL and Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL. Conclusion: It is important to consider the diagnosis of primary thyroid lymphoma in patients presenting with an enlarging neck mass especially with the history of Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Random microscopic foci of DLBCL or small areas of MZBL could be overlooked examination or missed with limited sampling. The distinction between MZBL and DLBCL in the thyroid is clinically significant. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(3.000: 579-582

  15. A Five-year Follow-up Study on the Efficacy and Safety of Female Tubal Sterilization by Chemical Instillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘云嵘; 吴裕浩; 陈学煌; 黄真嘉; 徐铎; 蔡光宗

    1999-01-01

    A multi-center randomized clinical trial was adopted in the present study. 1705 eligible women with identical demographic and gynecological characteristics were divided into two groups: 871 using phenol-atabrine paste (PAP) and 834 using phenol mucilage (PM). The five-year follow-up rates for the two groups were 97. 5% and 98. 1%, respectively. The multiple decrement life table analysis showed that there was a significant difference in the gross cumulative failure rates between the two groups,The 60th month gross cumulative failure rates for PAP group and PM group were 4. 61% and 11. 87%, respectively, thus indicating the efficacy of PAP to be significantly higher than that of PM. 97. 7% users had cervical smear examinations, but no suspected cancer cells or cancer cells were found. Meanwhile, there was no known diseases related to the chemical reagent. This follow-up study indicates that tubal sterilization by chemical instillation is a simple,safe and efficient female method. It suggested that this method would be introduced to a wider use on the basis of modification in the composition of chemical agents, standardized operational procedure, and improved administrative regulation in the use of this technology.

  16. Japanese Encephalitis vector abundance and infection frequency in Cuddalore District, Tamil Nadu, India: a five-year longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Philip Samuel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An entomological monitoring of Japanese encephalitis vectors from the Cuddalore district, Tamil Nadu was undertaken at biweekly intervals for 1 hr after dusk for five years to find out the abundance and JE virus activity longitudinally in three villages. A total of 95,644 vectors belonging to 31 species constituted predominantly by Culex vishnui subgroup and Culex gelidus 98.5%. JE virus was identified from Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (18, Cx. vishnui (1 and Cx. gelidus (6 giving infection rate of 0.482, 0.608 and 0.221 respectively. Abundance of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and Cx. gelidus differed significantly by area, season and year (P<0.05 whereas Cx. vishuni differed significantly by season and year (P<0.05. Transmission was not observed throughout all the seasons and the infection rate was recorded maximum during Hot-Wet season 0.46 (confidence interval: 0.17-1.02. Culex tritaeniorhynchus dominated the catch and the Culex gelidus steadily increased in its abundance during this period compared to the earlier studies conducted from these areas which acts as a secondary vector along with the major vector, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus.

  17. Descriptive data on cancerous lung lesions detected by auto-fluorescence bronchoscope: A five-year study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmitananda Thakur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Auto-fluorescence bronchoscopy (AFB has been used for the identification and localization of intra-epithelial pre-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions within the bronchus. Objectives: To determine the applicability of AFB for the detection and localization of precancerous and cancerous lesions, in addition to analyzing the morphologic presentation, their association to histological type and the variation between genders. Methods: A five-year study involving 4983 patients, who underwent routine bronchoscopy [B] examination in a local tertiary teaching hospital, was done. The B examination was performed under intratracheal lidocaine, and samples were obtained using suitable approach. One thousand four hundred and eighty-five pathologically confirmed lung cancer patients were included in the study. The following parameters were studied: Morphological presentation, biopsy sites, histology. Differences between the groups were analyzed using Chi square test. Result: One thousand four hundred and eighty-five patients who had hyperplasia or neoplastic lesions were further confirmed as lung cancer pathologically. Lung cancer was more commonly found in the right lung (51.58% vs. 42.82%. The lesion occurred more frequently in the upper lobe than the lower lobe (44.17% vs. 22.42%. Male patients with squamous cell carcinoma showed upper lobe involvement more commonly, while the left main bronchus was more commonly involved in female patients. Adenocarcinoma mostly involved lesion of the upper lobe. Squamous cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma were the major proliferative types (80.15% and 76.16% respectively. Conclusion: AFB is efficient in the detection of pre-invasive and invasive lung lesions. The morphological presentation is associated to the histological type. There is variation in the presentation and histology of cancerous lung lesions between genders.

  18. Review of the Present and Prospects on Buddhist Music in Recent Five Years%近五年来国内佛教音乐研究述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄海玲

    2014-01-01

    近五年国内对佛教音乐的研究重点主要集中在:佛教音乐的概念和功用、佛教音乐的发展、汉传佛教音乐研究、藏传佛教音乐研究、南传佛教音乐研究、佛教音乐的对比研究、佛教音乐旅游资源的科学开发与创新利用研究和从时间、空间不同的两个维度对佛教音乐进行研究等方面。%Research focuses on domestic Buddhist music during recent five years are as follows:Concepts and functions of Bud-dhist music, development and evolution of Buddhist music, three systems of Buddhist music, comparative study of Buddhist music, development and utilization on tourism resources of Buddhist music, and research on Buddhist music from two different dimensions of time and space.

  19. Comparison of adjacent segment degeneration five years after single level cervical fusion and cervical arthroplasty:a retrospective controlled study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yu; ZHAO Yan-bin; PAN Sheng-fa; ZHOU Fei-fei; CHEN Zhong-qiang; LIU Zhong-jun

    2012-01-01

    Background Cervical arthroplasty is indicated to preserve cervical motion and prevent accelerated adjacent segment degeneration.Whether accelerated adjacent segment degeneration is prevented in the long term is unclear.This trial compared adjacent segment degeneration in Bryan disc arthroplasty with that in anterior cervical decompression and fusion five years after the surgery.Methods We studied patients with single level degenerative cervical disc disease.The extent of adjacent segment degeneration was estimated from lateral X-rays.Results Twenty-six patients underwent single level Bryan disc arthroplasty and twenty-four patients underwent single level anterior cervical decompression and fusion.All patients were followed up for an average of sixty months.In the Bryan arthroplasty group,nine(17.6%)segments developed adjacent segment degeneration,which was significantly lower than that(60.4%)in the anterior cervical decompression and fusion group.Eleven segments in the Bryan arthroplasty group developed heterotopic ossification according to McAfee's classification and two segments had range of motion less than 2°.In the heterotopic ossification group,four(19.5%)segments developed adjacent segment degeneration,similar to the number in the non-heterotopic ossification group(16.7%).Adjacent segment degeneration rate was 50% in gradeⅣ?group but 11.8% in gradeⅡ?to Ⅲ.Conclusions Adjacent segment degeneration was accelerated after anterior cervical decompression and fusion.However,Bryan disc arthroplasty avoided accelerated adjacent segment degeneration by preserving motion.Patients with gradeⅣ?heterotopic ossification lost motion,and the rate of adjacent segment degeneration was higher than that in patients without heterotopic ossification.

  20. Five-year science outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    Research on water quality, on solar activity's possible link to earth climate, and on potential resource deposits will be among the top scientific and technological problems to be tackled during the next 5 years, according to a National Research Council (NRC) report, ‘Outlook for Science and Technology: The Next Five Years.’ Written and reviewed by more than 200 scientists, the report is the second in a series describing current research trends; the first report was issued in 1979. The NRC report also offers a concise overview and comparison of the research environments in the United States, the Federal Republic of Germany, the United Kingdom, and France. In addition, the report identifies prospects for new technologies in seven fields with emerging technologies or emerging situations that rely heavily on technology. The fields discussed are recombinant DNA, superconductivity, medical technology, energy storage, potential new resource deposits, the space shuttle and the space telescope, and information processing.

  1. Asymptomatic carotid lesions after endarterectomy of contralateral carotid artery. Five-year follow-up study and prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, T; Helgstrand, U J; Egeblad, M R

    1987-01-01

    patients developed symptoms referable to the territory of the previously asymptomatic ICA (five strokes and eight transient ischemic attacks). Using life-table analysis, the annual stroke rate was estimated to be 1% and 2.2% considering the previously asymptomatic and symptomatic ICA, respectively......Of 185 patients who consecutively underwent carotid endarterectomy five years ago, 135 had a patent asymptomatic contralateral internal carotid artery (ICA). During follow-up (median, 59 months), 36 patients developed new neurologic symptoms (18 strokes and 18 transient ischemic attacks). Thirteen...

  2. Cognitive Ability and Health-Related Behaviors during Adolescence: A Prospective Study across Five Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarrochi, Joseph; Heaven, Patrick C. L.; Skinner, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Longitudinal research on the links between intelligence and health behaviors among adolescents is rare. We report longitudinal data in which we assessed the relationships between intelligence as assessed in Grade 7 and consequential health outcomes in Grade 11. The mean age of respondents (N = 420; 188 males, 232 females) was 12.30 years (SD =…

  3. The Prospect of Innovation Policy in the Future Five Years%十三五的创新政策展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈劲

    2015-01-01

    It is a crucial period for Chinese innovation development in the future five years. Stimulating the creativity of innovation, realizing the original innovation, integrating innovation resources should be the focus of policy innovation. This article put forward further ideas on demand side policy of innovation, supplying side policy of innovation, and environment side policy of innovation from the basic model of innovation.%十三五是我国创新发展的关键时期,激发创新活力、实现原始创新、整合创新资源,应是创新政策的重点。本文从基本的创新政策模型出发,对创新相对应的需求面政策、供给面政策和环境面政策提出了进一步的构想。

  4. China's Sugar Market and Its Prospect in the Next Five Years%中国食糖市场现状与未来5年展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马凯; 徐雪

    2015-01-01

    未来5年,中国食糖产量将经历一个减产周期,此后逐步回升;食糖消费量则将继续保持稳定增长的趋势;国内食糖产需缺口将长期存在,进口规模不断扩大;中长期来看,国内外食糖价格走势将趋于一致,受供求基本面影响,食糖价格有望步入缓慢回升通道。总体来看,未来5年国内食糖产业支持和调控政策的走向将对稳定国内食糖产量起到决定性作用。%In the next five years, China's sugar production will gradually increase after a cut cycle;sugar consumption will continue maintaining a steady growth; the gap between domestic sugar production and demand will exist for a long term and the import scale will expand continuously. In a medium-to long-term, sugar prices at home and abroad tend to change synchronously, rising slowly by the impact of supply and demand fundamentals. Overall, sugar industry and regulatory policy direction will play a decisive role in the stabilization of sugar production in China in the next five years.

  5. Increased rate of arterial stiffening with obesity in adolescents: a five-year follow-up study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frida Dangardt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We prospectively and longitudinally determined the effects of childhood obesity on arterial stiffening and vascular wall changes. Changes in arterial stiffness measured as pulse wave velocity (PWV and vascular morphology of the radial (RA and dorsal pedal arteries (DPA were examined in obese adolescents compared to lean subjects in a 5-year follow-up study. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 28 obese subjects and 14 lean controls participated in both baseline (14 years old and follow-up studies. PWV was measured by tonometer (SphygmoCor® and recorded at RA and carotid artery, respectively. Intima thickness (IT, intima-media thickness (IMT and RA and DPA diameters were measured using high-resolution ultrasound (Vevo 770™. Over the course of 5 years, PWV increased by 25% in the obese subjects as compared to 3% in the controls (p = 0.01. Diastolic blood pressure (DBP increased by 23% in the obese subjects as opposed to 6% in controls (p = 0.009. BMI increased similarly in both groups, as did the IT and IMT. The change in PWV was strongly associated to the baseline BMI z -score (r = 0.51, p<0.001, as was the change in DBP (r = 0.50, p = 0.001. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: During the transition from early to late adolescence, there was a general increase in arterial stiffness, which was aggravated by childhood obesity. The increase in arterial stiffness and DBP after 5 years was closely correlated to the baseline BMI z -score, indicating that childhood obesity has an adverse impact on vascular adaptation.

  6. Incidence of and risk factors for non-vertebral and vertebral fracture in female Chinese patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: a five-year cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, T Y; Griffith, J F; Au, S-K; Tang, X-L; Kwok, A W; Leung, P-C; Li, E K; Tam, L-S

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the incidence of both non-vertebral and vertebral fracture in female patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and to identify risk factors for incident fracture. In a five-year prospective study of 127 female Chinese SLE patients with an average age of 46.9 years (SD: 10.1 years), information on potential risk factors, including demographics, clinical data and bone mineral density (BMD) at lumbar spine and hip by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was collected at baseline. At follow-up, participants reported incident non-vertebral fracture during the study period. Semi-quantitative analysis was used to determine incident vertebral fracture on lateral thoracic and lumbar radiographs, defined as any vertebral body graded normal at baseline and at least mildly deformed (20%-25% reduction or more in any vertebral height) at follow-up. Nine incident non-vertebral fractures occurred in eight patients during the study period. Six patients had one or more incident vertebral fractures. The incidence of non-vertebral and vertebral fracture was 1.26 and 0.94 per 100 patient-years, respectively. In multivariate logistic analyses, independent variables associated with incident non-vertebral fracture were duration of glucocorticoid use and prevalent lumbar spine osteoporosis, while risk factors associated with incident vertebral fracture were higher organ damage and prevalent lumbar spine osteoporosis. The incidence of fracture in SLE patients is lower than the prevalence reported in cross-sectional studies. Lumbar spine BMD appears to have a stronger relationship with incident fracture than hip BMD. This warrants further investigation regarding the optimal site of BMD measurement when predicting fracture risk in SLE patients. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  7. Five-year prognosis after mild to moderate ischemic stroke by stroke subtype: a multi-clinic registry study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumei Lv

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Mild to moderate ischemic stroke is a common presentation in the outpatient setting. Among the various subtypes of stroke, lacunar infarction (LI is generally very common. Currently, little is known about the long-term prognosis and factors associated with the prognosis between LI and non-LI. This study aims to compare the risk of death and acute cardiovascular events between patients with LI and non-LI, and identify potential risk factors associated with these outcomes. METHODS: A total of 710 first-ever ischemic stroke patients (LI: 474, non-LI: 263 from 18 clinics were recruited consecutively from 2003 to 2004. They were prospectively followed-up until the end of 2008. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: After a 5-year follow up, 54 deaths and 96 acute cardiovascular events occurred. Recurrent stroke was the most common cause of death (19 cases, 35.18% and new acute cardiovascular events (75 cases, 78.13%. There were no significant differences between patients with LI and non-LI in their risks of death, new cardiovascular events, and recurrent stroke after adjusting for age, sex, hypertension, diabetes, cardiac diseases, body mass index, dyslipidemia, smoking, alcohol consumption, ADL dependence, and depressive symptoms. Among the modifiable risk factors, diabetes, hypertension, ADL dependency, and symptoms of depression were independent predictors of poor outcomes in patients with LI. In non-LI patients, however, no modifiable risk factors were detected for poor outcomes. CONCLUSION: Long-term outcomes did not differ significantly between LI and non-LI patients. Detecting and managing vascular risk factors and depression as well as functional rehabilitation may improve the prognoses of LI patients.

  8. A clinicopathologic study of glomerular disease: A single-center, five-year retrospective study from Northwest India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Beniwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies published from centers across India have reported different and contradicting patterns of glomerular disease. In this retrospective study, we report our experience from a Tertiary Care Center in Northwest India. A total of 702 renal biopsies performed between 2008 and 2013 were reviewed of which 80 were excluded from the study because of having insufficient records or if the biopsies were taken from an allograft. The study included 411 males (66.1 % and 211 females (33.9% with an age range of 12-70 years (mean 30.34 ± 7.04 years. Majority of the biopsies (93.9% showed some form of glomerulonephritis (GN, either primary (79.4% or secondary glomerular disease (SGD (14.5%. Minimal change disease (MCD was the most common type of primary GN (26.5% of primary GN, followed by membranous nephropathy (MN; 18.8% and focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS; 13.2%. Lupus nephritis (LN was the most frequent SGD (52.2% of secondary GN. Amyloidosis was found in 41.1% and diabetic glomerulosclerosis in 4.4%. LN was also the second most common diagnosis in females after MCD, seen in 19.4% of females. MCD followed by membranoproliferative GN and diffuse proliferative GN were the most common entities in individuals <20 years of age. In the 20-39 years age group, MN was the most common pathology seen. MN was again the most common pathology seen in patients aged above 40 years followed by amyloidosis and FSGS. In this study, MCD was the most common primary GN observed overall from this part of India. MN was the most common GN in individuals above 20 years of age presenting with the nephrotic syndrome. The geographical and regional differences in the pattern of GNs point to the necessity of having a central biopsy registry.

  9. Five-year change in refraction and its ocular components in the 40- to 64-year-old population of the Shahroud eye cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Hassan; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi; Iribarren, Rafael; Emamian, Mohammad Hassan; Fotouhi, Akbar

    2016-11-01

    To assess 5-year refractive changes and their related factors in the 40- to 64-year-old population of Shahroud, Iran. Prospective cohort study. Of the 5190 participants of Phase I, 4737 participated in Phase II (response rate = 91.3%). Participants were tested by refraction, visual acuity, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy and biometry. Myopia was defined as a spherical equivalent more negative than -0.5 dioptre (D) and hyperopia as a spherical equivalent more positive than +0.5 D. Mean 5-year change in spherical equivalent refraction. The mean 5-year change in spherical equivalent refraction was +0.24 D (95% CI: +0.22 to +0.25). After 5 years, 4.77% (95% CI: 4.08 to 5.46) of subjects developed at least 0.5 D of myopia and 22.27% (95% CI: 20.97 to 23.57) developed at least 0.5 D of hyperopia. Five-year changes in refraction included a hyperopic shift in all age groups. The greatest hyperopic shift was seen in middle-aged women. The greatest loss of lens power was observed in hyperopic women and the least in myopic men. Nuclear cataract was associated with a myopic shift in refraction. The axial length and the corneal power had very small changes during this period. Myopes showed the greatest increase in axial length. Corneal power increased by a very small amount in all refractive groups. The most important biometric index related to hyperopic shifts, which were greater in magnitude in women, was loss of lens power, whereas nuclear cataract was associated with myopic shifts. © 2016 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  10. Five-year follow-up after live donor nephrectomy - cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis of a prospective cohort within the era of extended donor eligibility criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janki, S.; Dols, L.F.; Timman, R.; Mulder, E.E.; Dooper, I.M.M.; Wetering, J. van de; Ijzermans, J.N.M.

    2017-01-01

    To establish the outcome of live kidney donors 5 years after donation, we investigated the risk for progressive renal function decline and quality of life (QoL). Data on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), creatinine, hypertension, QoL and survival were assessed in a prospective cohort of

  11. The Burden of Diarrheal Diseases among Children under Five Years of Age in Arba Minch District, Southern Ethiopia, and Associated Risk Factors: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed, Shikur; Tamiru, Dessalegn

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. In Ethiopia diarrhea is the second cause for clinical presentation among under five-year child population next to pneumonia and it is also more common in rural than in urban areas. Methods. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in Arba Minch District. Data were collected using structured questionnaire by trained data collectors. To identify predictors of diarrhea the negative binomial regression model was used to predict and control the effect of confounders. Res...

  12. Five-year results of a prospective randomised controlled clinical trial of posterior computer-aided design-computer-aided manufacturing ZrSiO4 -ceramic crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passia, N; Stampf, S; Strub, J R

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this prospective randomised controlled clinical trial was to evaluate the clinical outcome of shrinkage-free ZrSiO4 -ceramic full-coverage crowns on premolars and molars in comparison with conventional gold crowns over a 5-year period. Two hundred and twenty-three patients were included and randomly divided into two treatment groups. One hundred and twenty-three patients were restored with 123 ZrSiO4 -ceramic crowns, and 100 patients received 100 gold crowns, which served as the control. All crowns were conventionally cemented with glass-ionomer cement. After an observation period of 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 60 months, the survival probability (Kaplan-Meier) for the shrinkage-free ZrSiO4 -ceramic crowns was 98·3%, 92·0%, 84·7%, 79% and 73·2% and for the gold crowns, 99%, 97·9%, 95·7%, 94·6% and 92·3%, respectively. The difference between the test and control group was statistically significant (P = 0·0027). The gold crowns showed a better marginal integrity with less marginal discoloration than the ceramic crowns. The most common failure in the ceramic crown group was fracture of the crown. The 60-month results of this prospective randomised controlled clinical trial suggest that the use of these shrinkage-free ZrSiO4 -ceramic crowns in posterior tooth restorations cannot be recommended.

  13. Five years follow-up following two or three doses of a hepatitis B vaccine in adolescents aged 11-15 years: a randomised controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuriyakose Sherine

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The standard three-dose schedule of hepatitis B vaccines is frequently not completed, especially in adolescents. A primary study has confirmed the equivalence of a two-dose schedule of an Adult formulation of hepatitis B vaccine [Group HBV_2D] to a three-dose schedule of a Paediatric formulation in adolescents (11-15 years [Group HBV_3D]. This follow-up study evaluated the five year persistence of antibody response and immune memory against the hepatitis B surface (anti-HBs antigens five years after completion of primary vaccination. Methods A total of 234 subjects returned at the Year 5 time point, of which 144 subjects received a challenge dose of hepatitis B vaccine. Blood samples were collected yearly and pre- and post-challenge dose to assess anti-HBs antibody concentrations. Results At the end of five years, 79.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 71.7 - 86.1 and 91.4% (95% CI: 82.3 - 96.8 of subjects who received the two-dose and three-dose schedules, respectively had anti-HBs antibody concentrations ≥10 mIU/mL. Post-challenge dose, all subjects had anti-HBs antibody concentration ≥10 mIU/mL and >94% subjects had anti-HBs antibody concentration ≥100 mIU/mL. All subjects mounted a rapid anamnestic response to the challenge dose. Overall, the challenge dose was well-tolerated. Conclusion The two-dose schedule of hepatitis B vaccine confers long-term immunogenicity and shows evidence of immune memory for at least five years following vaccination. Trial registration Clinical Trials NCT00343915, NCT00524576

  14. The Pond 2 selenium volatilization study: A synthesis of five years of experimental results, 1990--1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zawislanski, P.T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.; Jayaweera, G.R.; Biggar, J.W.; Wu, L. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Frankenberger, W.T. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States). Dept. of Soil and Environmental Sciences

    1996-02-01

    Microbial volatilization is a potential remedial measure to decrease the selenium inventory in Kesterson Reservoir soils. Past studies in both the field and the laboratory suggest that a significant percentage of the selenium inventory may be removed in this fashion. The objectives of this study include the quantification of selenium losses and a test of a pilot-scale design which in the future may be used in other parts of the Reservoir.

  15. Critical Thinking Skills and Academic Maturity: Emerging Results from a Five-Year Quality Enhancement Plan (QEP) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toppin, Ian N.; Chitsonga, Shadreck

    2016-01-01

    The QEP that was implemented in this study focused on enhancing students' critical thinking skills. A pretest/posttest approach was used to assess students' critical thinking progress in freshman level core English and Math courses. An intervention was performed involving intensive instruction and assignments relating to a set of reasoning…

  16. Early and late posttraumatic seizures following traumatic brain injury: A five-year follow-up survival study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Najafi

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: All in all, the present study highlighted the role of the trauma severity and GCS as effective factors in the incidence of seizure in patients with TBI. Particular care is advised for patients with these risk factors during the primary handling in the Emergency Units.

  17. SECONDARY HEALTH CONDITIONS IN PERSONS WITH SPINAL CORD INJURY : A LONGITUDINAL STUDY FROM ONE TO FIVE YEARS POST-DISCHARGE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adriaansen, Jacinthe J. E.; Post, Marcel W. M.; de Groot, Sonja; van Asbeck, Floris W. A.; Stolwijk-Swuste, Janneke M.; Tepper, Marga; Lindeman, Eline

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the occurrence of secondary health conditions and their potential risk factors in persons with spinal cord injury from 1 to 5 years after discharge from initial inpatient rehabilitation. Design: Multicentre longitudinal study. Subjects: A total of 139 wheelchair-dependent person

  18. Changes in conceptions and attitudes during five years of intensified conventional insulin treatment in the Stockholm Diabetes Intervention Study (SDIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichard, P; Toomingas, B; Rosenqvist, U

    1994-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that intensified treatment can result in lower blood glucose concentrations and retard microvascular complications. In the Stockholm Diabetes Intervention Study, 96 patients were followed for 5 years; 44 patients received intensified, conventional treatment and 52 patients received regular treatment. Changes in conceptions and attitudes that accompanied intensified treatment were evaluated with questionnaires and semistructured interviews. After education and personal tutoring, HbAlc was significantly lower in patients in the intensified treatment group compared with patients in the regular treatment group. Self-rated well-being and perceived ability to control the diabetes increased more in the patients in the intensified treatment group. Blood glucose testing became more important to the patients in the intensified treatment group, who used the blood glucose tests more frequently whenever necessary, and who acted on the test results. Microvascular complications were retarded or halted.

  19. Pattern of glomerular disease in the Saudi population: A single-center, five-year retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Nawaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Glomerular diseases continue to be the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD globally. Hence, it is important to recognize the pattern of glomerular diseases in different geographical areas in order to understand the patho-biology, incidence and progression of the disorder. Published studies from different centers in Saudi Arabia have reported contradicting results. In this retrospective study, we report our experience at the Armed Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 348 native renal biopsies performed at our center on patients with proteinuria >1 g, hematuria and/or renal impairment during a period of 5 years (between January 2005 and December 2009 were studied by a histopathologist using light microscopy, immunofluorescence and electron microscopy, and were categorized. Results showed that primary glomerular disease accounted for 55.1% of all renal biopsies. The most common histological lesion was focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS (27.6%, followed by minimal change disease (MCD (17.7% and membrano-proliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN (13.0%. Secondary glomerular disease accounted for 37.9% of the glomerular diseases, with lupus nephritis (LN being the most common lesion (54.5%, followed by hypertensive nephrosclerosis (22%, post-infectious glomerulonephritis (7.5%, diabetic nephropathy (DN (6.8% and vasculitides (4.5%. Four percent of all biopsies turned out to be ESRD while biopsy was inadequate in 2.8% of the cases. In conclusion, our study showed that FSGS was the most common primary GN encountered, while LN was the most common secondary GN. We encountered 14 cases of crescentic glomerulonephritis. Also, the prevalence of MPGN, MCD, IgA nephropathy and membranous GN was many folds higher in males when compared with the Western data. We believe that it is mandatory to maintain a Saudi Arabian Renal Biopsy Registry to understand better the pattern of glomerular disease in the Saudi population and to follow

  20. Effects of medical education on attitudes towards mental illness among medical students: a five-year follow-up study.

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    Mino Y

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to clarify the effects of medical education on attitudes towards mental illness among medical students, a follow-up study was conducted. All 100 students entering Kochi Medical School in 1988 were subjects. The initial questionnaire survey was conducted in 1988, and followed up in 1993. Response rate was 69% in the initial survey, and 83% in the follow-up study. By the time of the follow-up, all of the students had completed their medical education, including courses in psychiatry and mental health. Results were as follows: At the follow-up study, 1 a significantly higher percentage of students replied that they accepted the mentally ill as co-workers; 2 significantly favorable changes were observed in attitudes towards psychiatric services; 3 optimism about the effectiveness of treatment for mental illness at an early stage and prevention of mental illness had decreased; and 4 no change was observed in attitudes toward human rights of the mentally ill, except in the case of one item stating that the mentally ill should not have children in order to avoid hereditary handicaps, with which a lower percentage agreed. Conclusively, medical education can play an important role in attitudes towards mental illness.

  1. Cytomorphological evaluation of squamous cell abnormalities observed on cervical smears in government medical college, Jabalpur, India: a five year study

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    Radhika Rajesh Nandwani

    2016-03-01

    Results: The overall frequency of normal, inadequate, inflammatory, and abnormal smears was 11.86%, 5.73%, 74.98% and 13.2% respectively. Atypical squamous cell carcinoma of undermined significance (ASCUS was seen in 3.61%, squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL was seen in 5.36%, low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL was seen in 2.59% while high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL was seen in 2.77%. Invasive carcinoma was seen in 3.69%. The premalignant epithelial abnormalities like ASCUS, LSIL and HSIL were found to be highest in the age group of 31-50 years in our study, which correlated well with other similar studies. Conclusions: Hence we should advocate regular cervical cytology (PAP smear study, which can help to treat cervix lesions early before the progress into cervical cancer. Early detection is the only key to saving a woman's life as the later the abnormalities are discovered; mortality, morbidity and treatment cost all increase. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(3.000: 794-799

  2. Five-Year Follow-up Study of Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance in a Korean Elderly Urban Cohort

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    Lee, Yun-Gyoo; Bang, Soo-Mee; Lee, Jeong-Ok; Kim, Jin Won; Lee, Keun-Wook; Kim, Jee Hyun; Song, Jung Han; Kim, Tae-Hee; Kim, Ki Woong; Lee, Jong-Seok

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We previously reported the prevalence of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) to be 3.3% among an elderly Korean urban cohort recruited during 2005-2006. Here, we report a 5-year follow-up study of the previously identified MGUS cohort. Materials and Methods The 680 participants from the initial cohort were followed-up for a median of 5 years. Sera were collected between 2010 and 2011. Two-step screening was performed with standard serum electrophoresis followed by immunofixation and determination of the serum concentration of monoclonal-protein (M-protein). Results Of the 680 participants (21 with MGUS), 348 (51%) agreed to participate in the follow-up study and 10 were found to have MGUS. Among the 21 MGUS patients initially identified, nine were followed-up, six had persistent M-protein, and one patient had progressed to multiple myeloma (progression rate, 1.0%/yr). The M-protein disappeared in the remaining two individuals. Among the 339 participants without MGUS who were followed-up, four developed an M-protein. There was no significant difference in survival with respect to the presence of MGUS (p=0.66). Conclusion The 5-year follow-up data show that the natural clinical course of MGUS in Korea is similar to that in Western countries. MGUS was not associated with an increased risk of death over the 5-year study period. PMID:25345461

  3. Five-year cohort study of Nosema spp. in Germany: does climate shape virulence and assertiveness of Nosema ceranae?

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    Gisder, Sebastian; Hedtke, Kati; Möckel, Nadine; Frielitz, Marie-Charlotte; Linde, Andreas; Genersch, Elke

    2010-05-01

    Nosema ceranae and Nosema apis are two fungal pathogens belonging to the phylum Microsporidia and infecting the European honeybee, Apis mellifera. Recent studies have suggested that N. ceranae is more virulent than N. apis both at the individual insect level and at the colony level. Severe colony losses could be attributed to N. ceranae infections, and an unusual form of nosemosis is caused by this pathogen. In the present study, data from a 5-year cohort study of the prevalence of Nosema spp. in Germany, involving about 220 honeybee colonies and a total of 1,997 samples collected from these colonies each spring and autumn and analyzed via species-specific PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), are described. Statistical analysis of the data revealed no relation between colony mortality and detectable levels of infection with N. ceranae or N. apis. In addition, N. apis is still more prevalent than N. ceranae in the cohort of the German bee population that was analyzed. A possible explanation for these findings could be the marked decrease in spore germination that was observed after even a short exposure to low temperatures (+4 degrees C) for N. ceranae only. Reduced or inhibited N. ceranae spore germination at low temperatures should hamper the infectivity and spread of this pathogen in climatic regions characterized by a rather cold winter season.

  4. Factors Associated with Unfavorable Treatment Outcomes in New and Previously Treated TB Patients in Uzbekistan: A Five Year Countrywide Study.

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    Jamshid Gadoev

    Full Text Available TB is one of the main health priorities in Uzbekistan and relatively high rates of unfavorable treatment outcomes have recently been reported. This requires closer analysis to explain the reasons and recommend interventions to improve the situation. Thus, by using countrywide data this study sought to determine trends in unfavorable outcomes (lost-to-follow-ups, deaths and treatment failures and describe their associations with socio-demographic and clinical factors.A countrywide retrospective cohort study of all new and previously treated TB patients registered in the National Tuberculosis programme between January 2006 and December 2010.Among 107,380 registered patients, 67% were adults, with smaller proportions of children (10%, adolescents (4% and elderly patients (19%. Sixty per cent were male, 66% lived in rural areas, 1% were HIV-infected and 1% had a history of imprisonment. Pulmonary TB (PTB was present in 77%, of which 43% were smear-positive and 53% were smear-negative. Overall, 83% of patients were successfully treated, 6% died, 6% were lost-to-follow-up, 3% failed treatment and 2% transferred out. Factors associated with death included being above 55 years of age, HIV-positive, sputum smear positive, previously treated, jobless and living in certain provinces. Factors associated with lost-to-follow-up were being male, previously treated, jobless, living in an urban area, and living in certain provinces. Having smear-positive PTB, being an adolescent, being urban population, being HIV-negative, previously treated, jobless and residing in particular provinces were associated with treatment failure.Overall, 83% treatment success rate was achieved. However, our study findings highlight the need to improve TB services for certain vulnerable groups and in specific areas of the country. They also emphasize the need to develop unified monitoring and evaluation tools for drug-susceptible and drug-resistant TB, and call for better TB

  5. Keratomycosis in and around Chandigarh: A five-year study from a north Indian tertiary care hospital

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    Chander Jagdish

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available To find out the prevalence and epidemiological features of keratomycosis in Chandigarh, the present study was carried out jointly by the Departments of Microbiology and Ophthalmology, Government Medical College Hospital, Chandigarh, over a period of 5 years from January 1999 to December 2003. Corneal scrapings were collected from a total of 154 suspected patients of keratomycosis and were processed and identified by standard laboratory techniques. The study revealed that a total of 64 cases (41.55% were positive for fungal agents. Direct microscopy was positive in 52 cases (76.47% and culture in 34 cases (53.12%. Most common fungal isolates were Aspergillus species 14 (41.18%, Fusarium species 8 (23.53%, Candida species 3 (8.82%, Curvularia species 2 (5.88% and Bipolaris species 2 (5.88%. Thus, hyaline filamentous fungi were the most common etiological agents and mechanical trauma with vegetative matter was the most common predisposing factor. Males in age group of 21-50 years were more commonly affected

  6. Bacterial Meningitis: a five year retrospective study among patients who had attended at University of Gondar Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

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    Birehanemeskel Tegene

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Acute Bacterial Meningitis (ABM is an important cause of death and long-term neurological disability. Recent Information on the relative frequency of the isolation and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of these pathogens is scarce in Ethiopia. This study was to document the microbial characteristics, the antibacterial sensitivity pattern, and seasonal variation of community acquired acute bacterial meningitis. The study was retrospective, conducted at university of Gondar referral hospital, serving the rural population of the northwest parts of Ethiopia. A total of three thousand and eighty five cerebrospinal fluid specimens submitted to the bacteriology laboratory for culture and antibiotic susceptibility patterns in a period between January 2006 and December 2010. Analysis of extracted data was performed using SPSS statistical software (Version 17. The etiological agent had been identified in 120 (3.8% of the total 3,085 CSF samples by culture. Thirty-nine (32.5% of them were infants below the age of 12 months. S. pneumoniae was the predominant pathogen accounting for 52 (43.3% of the cases. Whereas N. meningitidis and H. influenzae accounted for 27(22.5%, and 12(10%, respectively. Other gram negative bacilli and S. aureus were isolated from 21(17.2%, and 11(9.2% cases, respectively. Among gram positive organisms S.pneumoniae showed a high level of drug resistance against co-trimoxazole 44(84.3%. Among gram negative bacteria, N.meningitidis was found to be resistant to co-trimoxazole in 25(92.5%. E. coli and salmonella spp. were found to be resistant to most antibiotics except ciprofloxacin. Multiple drug resistance was observed in 58.3% of the isolates. S. pneumoniae remains the major etiological agent of Community Acquired Acute Bacterial Meningitis (CAABM both in adults and children in the study area. 5.7% of S. pneumoniae were resistances to penicillin. Further research should focus on preventable aspects CAABM of, especially pneumococcal

  7. Incidence and Effects of Polypharmacy on Clinical Outcome among Patients Aged 80+: A Five-Year Follow-Up Study.

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    Rong Wang

    Full Text Available Polypharmacy is a problem of growing interest in geriatrics with the increase in drug consumption in recent years, is defined according to the WHO criteria as the, ''concurrent use of five or more different prescription medication". We investigated the clinical characteristics of polypharmacy and identified the effects of polypharmacy on clinical outcome among patients aged 80+ admitted to Chinese PLA general hospital.Older men aged ≥80 years (n = 1562 were included in this study. The included participants attended a structured clinical examination and an interview carried out by a geriatrician and trained nurses. A follow-up survey in 2014 was carried out on survivors in the same way as in 2009. The clinical outcome measured were adverse drug reactions, falls, frailty, disability, cognitive impairment, mortality. The association between polypharmacy and clinical outcome was assessed by logistic regression.The mean (range age of the included participants was 85.2 (80-104 years. Medication exposure was reported by 100% of the population. Mean number of medications reported in this population was 9.56±5.68. The prevalence of polypharmacy (≥6 medications in the present study was 70%. At the time of the follow-up survey, an increase in the number of taken medicines had occurred among half of the survivors. The risk of different outcomes in relation to number of medications rises significantly, the odds ratios were 1.21 (95% confidence interval [CI]1.17-1.28 for adverse drug reactions, 1.18 (95% CI 1.10-1.26 for falls, 1.16 (95% CI 1.09-1.24 for disability, and 1.19 (95% CI 1.12-1.23 for mortality. There was no association between increasing number of medications and cognitive impairment.Our study demonstrates that polypharmacy is very common in the very old patients, and observed that number of medications was a factor associated with difference clinical outcome independently of the age, type of medications prescribed and accompanied

  8. Incidence and Effects of Polypharmacy on Clinical Outcome among Patients Aged 80+: A Five-Year Follow-Up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rong; Chen, Lei; Fan, Li; Gao, Dewei; Liang, Zhiru; He, Jing; Gong, Weiqin; Gao, Linggen

    2015-01-01

    Polypharmacy is a problem of growing interest in geriatrics with the increase in drug consumption in recent years, is defined according to the WHO criteria as the, ''concurrent use of five or more different prescription medication". We investigated the clinical characteristics of polypharmacy and identified the effects of polypharmacy on clinical outcome among patients aged 80+ admitted to Chinese PLA general hospital. Older men aged ≥80 years (n = 1562) were included in this study. The included participants attended a structured clinical examination and an interview carried out by a geriatrician and trained nurses. A follow-up survey in 2014 was carried out on survivors in the same way as in 2009. The clinical outcome measured were adverse drug reactions, falls, frailty, disability, cognitive impairment, mortality. The association between polypharmacy and clinical outcome was assessed by logistic regression. The mean (range) age of the included participants was 85.2 (80-104) years. Medication exposure was reported by 100% of the population. Mean number of medications reported in this population was 9.56±5.68. The prevalence of polypharmacy (≥6 medications) in the present study was 70%. At the time of the follow-up survey, an increase in the number of taken medicines had occurred among half of the survivors. The risk of different outcomes in relation to number of medications rises significantly, the odds ratios were 1.21 (95% confidence interval [CI]1.17-1.28) for adverse drug reactions, 1.18 (95% CI 1.10-1.26) for falls, 1.16 (95% CI 1.09-1.24) for disability, and 1.19 (95% CI 1.12-1.23) for mortality. There was no association between increasing number of medications and cognitive impairment. Our study demonstrates that polypharmacy is very common in the very old patients, and observed that number of medications was a factor associated with difference clinical outcome independently of the age, type of medications prescribed and accompanied comorbidities.

  9. Twenty-Five Years Using the Intermodal Preferential Looking Paradigm to Study Language Acquisition: What Have We Learned?

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    Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Ma, Weiyi; Song, Lulu; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy

    2013-05-01

    The intermodal preferential looking paradigm (IPLP) has proven to be a revolutionary method for the examination of infants' emerging language knowledge. In the IPLP, infants' language comprehension is measured by their differential visual fixation to two images presented side-by-side when only one of the images matches an accompanying linguistic stimulus. Researchers can examine burgeoning knowledge in the areas of phonology, semantics, syntax, and morphology in infants not yet speaking. The IPLP enables the exploration of the underlying mechanisms involved in language learning and illuminates how infants identify the correspondences between language and referents in the world. It has also fostered the study of infants' conceptions of the dynamic events that language will express. Exemplifying translational science, the IPLP is now being investigated for its clinical and diagnostic value. © The Author(s) 2013.

  10. Five-year survey of medical student attrition in a medical school in Nigeria: a pilot study

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    Ogugua A Egwu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Ogugua A Egwu1, Godson E Anyanwu21Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Ebonyi State University, Ebonyi State; 2Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Nigeria, Enugu State, NigeriaBackground: Student attrition represents a waste of career opportunity and, at times, results in a holistic loss of sense of self-worth for the students involved. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nature, causes, and impact of medical student attrition in Nigeria.Method: A pilot analysis was undertaken using the records of students who failed at medical school as a result of inability to pass the second MBBS examination at Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria, between 2002 and 2007. Some of these students were interviewed using a structured questionnaire.Results: Data analysis showed that 58 (7.8% of the students admitted into preclinical class withdrew from their study. Thirty-six (62.1% were males and the rest were females. Thirteen of those withdrawn were interviewed, and 53.8% of them believed they had poor academic ability, while 15.4% attributed their withdrawal to family pressure. No record of guidance or counseling session programs was noted for these students either at the point of withdrawal from the faculty and on the choice of a new career path.Conclusion: As a result of the high attrition rate due to low academic ability, efforts should be made to check students for evidence of this at the point of admission to medicine training. Also, more accommodating teaching programs should be encouraged in faculties to accommodate students with such challenges. Good guidance and counseling programs should be encouraged to handle these inevitable cases of attrition when they occur, to avoid the demoralizing low self-esteem that plagues these individuals for the rest of their lives.Keywords: medical students, attrition, medical education, Nigeria

  11. Five-Year Incidence of Visual Impairment in Middle-Aged Iranians: The Shahroud Eye Cohort Study.

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    Hashemi, Hassan; Mehravaran, Shiva; Emamian, Mohammad Hassan; Fotouhi, Akbar

    2017-02-01

    To study the 5-year incidence of visual impairment and its causes and risk factors, in the middle-aged Iranian sample of the Shahroud Eye Cohort Study (ShECS). Data from subjects who had participated in both phases of the ShECS were used to determine age- and sex-specific incidence rates of visual impairment using the World Health Organization (WHO) definitions for bilateral low vision (visual acuity, VA, >0.5 and ≤1.3 LogMAR in the better eye) and blindness (VA worse than 1.3 LogMAR in the better eye). Risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using multivariable log-binomial regression. Of the 5079 ShECS I survivors, 4737 (93.3%) completed the 5-year follow-up. Their mean age at baseline was 50.9 ± 6.2 years, and 58.9% were female. The incidence of visual impairment was 1.12% (95% CI 0.82-1.42%) by presenting VA and 0.19% (95% CI 0.07-0.32%) by best-corrected VA; leading causes of the former were uncorrected refractive error (81.3%) and diabetic retinopathy (15.1%). In the multivariable model, risk factors for incident visual impairment by presenting VA were older age (RR 1.05, p = 0.044), lower education (RR 0.89, p = 0.002), and diabetes (RR 3.74, p visual impairment in a middle-aged Iranian population. Since age is a major risk factor, the number of visually impaired is expected to increase as the population ages, and less treatable causes such as diabetic retinopathy begin to surface. Measures for tackling uncorrected refractive error and enhancing diabetes screening and preventive programs are recommended.

  12. Five-year results of a randomized trial comparing de novo sirolimus and cyclosporine in renal transplantation: the SPIESSER study.

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    Lebranchu, Y; Snanoudj, R; Toupance, O; Weestel, P-F; Hurault de Ligny, B; Buchler, M; Rerolle, J-P; Thierry, A; Moulin, B; Subra, J-F; Deteix, P; Le Pogamp, P; Finzi, L; Etienne, I

    2012-07-01

    Calcineurin inhibitors improve acute rejection rates and short-term graft survival in renal transplantation, but their continuous use may be deleterious. We evaluated the 5-year outcomes of sirolimus (SRL) versus cyclosporine (CsA) immunosuppressive treatment. This observational study was an extension of the SPIESSER study where deceased donor kidney transplant recipients were randomized before transplantation to a SRL- or CsA-based regimen and followed up 1 year. Data from 131 (63 SRL, 68 CsA) out of 133 patients living with a functional graft at 1 year were collected retrospectively at 5 years posttransplant. Seventy percent of CsA patients versus 54% of SRL patients were still on the allocated treatment at 5 years (p = 0.091), most discontinuations in each group being due to safety issues. In intent-to-treat, mean MDRD eGFR was higher with SRL: 54.2 versus 45.3 mL/min with CsA (p = 0.019); SRL advantage was greater in on-treatment analyses. There were no differences for patient survival (p = 0.873), graft survival (p = 0.121) and acute rejection (p = 0.284). Adverse events were more frequent with SRL (80% vs. 60%, p = 0.015). Results confirmed the high SRL discontinuation rate due to adverse events. Nevertheless, a benefit was evidenced on renal function in patients (more than 50%) still on treatment at 5 years. © Copyright 2012 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  13. Susceptibility of Clinical Candida Species Isolates to Antifungal Agents by E-Test, Southern Iran: A Five Year Study

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    A Alborzi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The incidence of fungal infections in immunocompromised patients, especially by Candida species, has increased in recent years. This study was designed to identify Candida species and determine antifungal susceptibility patterns of 595 yeast strains isolated from various clinical specimens.Material and Methods: Identification of the isolates were determined by the API 20 C AUX kit and antifungal susceptibilities of the species to fluconazole, amphotericin B, ketoconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, and caspofungin were determined by the agar-based E-test method.Results: Candida albicans (48% was the most frequently isolated species, followed by Candida kruzei (16.1%, Candida glabrata (13.5%, Candida kefyr (7.4%, Candida parapsilosis (4.8%, Candida tropicalis (1.7% and other species (8.5%. Resistance varies depending on the species and the respective antifungal agents. Comparing the MIC90 for all the strains, the lower MIC90 was observed for caspofungin (0.5 μg/ml. The MIC90 for all Candida species were 64 μg/ml for fluconazole, 0.75 μg/ml for amphotericin B, 4 μg/ml for ketoconazole, 4 μg/ml for itraconazole, and 2 μg/ml for voriconazole.Conclusions: Species definition and determination of antifungal susceptibility patterns are advised for the proper management and treatment of patients at risk for systemic candidiasis. Resistance to antifungal agents is an alarming sign for the emerging common nosocomial fungal infections.

  14. Biomonitoring of a polluted coastal area (Bay of Muggia, Northern Adriatic Sea): A five-year study using transplanted mussels.

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    Moschino, Vanessa; Del Negro, Paola; De Vittor, Cinzia; Da Ros, Luisa

    2016-06-01

    The subcellular effects of pollution were evaluated using two lysosomal biomarkers in mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, deployed periodically over a period of 5 years in a harbour area in the Bay of Muggia (Gulf of Trieste, North Adriatic Sea) that is strongly influenced by anthropogenic activities. Mussels were collected from a clean marine farm and analysed (sample T0). A sub-sample was transplanted to the harbour site (sample M) and analysed after about 12 weeks. An additional sub-sample was relocated within the farm as a control and was also tested at the end of the 12-week period (sample T1). The transplantation procedures were repeated twice yearly for 5 consecutive years, starting in 2009. Two well-established lysosomal biomarkers, i.e. lysosomal membrane stability and lipofuscin accumulation, were evaluated in hepatopancreas cells. The body condition index and mortality rate were also assessed. Moreover, various pollutants were determined in both mussel flesh, for a better comprehension of the biological response, and sediments, for a general characterization of the study area. As a whole, the applied biomarkers were found to be appropriate for determining the responses of mussels to environmental pollutant loads over time. Variations in lysosomal membrane stability and lipofuscin content were mostly related to total PAHs and metals respectively. Our results confirm the usefulness of active biomonitoring in evaluating pollution trends in marine coastal areas and in particular the value of lysosomal biomarkers as a rapid screening tool for highlighting pollutant effects at least at organism level.

  15. Five Years Seroprevalence Study of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in Lithuanian Pig and Wild Boar Populations

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    Stankevičius Arunas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Serological study of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV infection in pigs and wild boars was conducted in Lithuania between 2009 and 2013. Antibody level was measured using a commercial ELISA. The 4.32% (95% CI 3.92-4.72 out of 9856 examined porcine sera were positive for the PRRSV antibodies. The antibodies were detected in 11.82% (95% CI 10.28-13.36 of all investigated serum samples of sows and gilts. As much as 8.2% of serologically positive samples (95% CI 6.83-9.57 were determined in the piglets under three months of age. Considerably smaller (P < 0.05 seroprevalence was detected in boars (0.62% and fattening pigs (1.84%. From 1357 examined sera of wild boar, collected between 2009 and 2013 hunting seasons, 5.38% (95% CI 4.52-8.2 of samples were positive for PRRSV antibodies in 23 locations out of 50 investigated. The analysis of seroprevalence in different age groups of wild boars showed that PRRSV antibodies were detected in all age groups; however, it was significantly higher in adults than in juveniles or subadults and reached up to 10.02% (95% CI 7.39-12.65.

  16. Types of social participation and psychological distress in Japanese older adults: A five-year cohort study.

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    Amagasa, Shiho; Fukushima, Noritoshi; Kikuchi, Hiroyuki; Oka, Koichiro; Takamiya, Tomoko; Odagiri, Yuko; Inoue, Shigeru

    2017-01-01

    The most effective type of social participation against psychological distress in older adults is not well documented. The aim of this study was to examine whether different types of social participation are associated with changes in psychological distress level in older men and women in Japan. Two thousand seven hundred community-dwelling older adults (aged 65-74 years, 50% women) were randomly selected from the resident registry of three cities. Of these, participants who reported social participation and psychological distress level in the baseline survey in 2010 were followed up. Psychological distress was evaluated based on K6 scales at baseline and follow-up (in 2015). Social participation level was examined using question items from the National Health and Nutrition Survey in Japan. Exploratory factor analysis was used to derive the underlying factor structure. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to examine the association between social participation and changes in psychological distress level after adjusting for covariates stratified by both gender and age group or living arrangement. Data from 825 community-dwelling older adults (45.3% women) were analyzed. Social participation was categorized into two types using factor analysis: community involvement (volunteer activities, community events, clubs for the elderly) and individual relationship (friendship, communication with family and friends, hobbies). During the 5-year follow-up, 29.5% of participants reported a deterioration in psychological distress. Higher community involvement was independently associated with lower risk of psychological distress for older women (β = 0.099, p = 0.047), whereas there were no associations with individual relationship for either gender. Furthermore, in older women living with others, higher community involvement was also associated with lower risk of psychological distress (β = 0.110, p = 0.048). Community involvement provides older women with mental health

  17. Treatment outcome of tuberculosis patients at Gondar University Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. A five - year retrospective study

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    Bekele Assegedech

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Gondar University Teaching Hospital standardized tuberculosis prevention and control programme, incorporating Directly Observed Treatment, Short Course (DOTS started in 2000. According to the proposal of World Health Organization (WHO, treatment outcome is an important indicator of tuberculosis control programs. This study investigated the outcome of tuberculosis treatment at Gondar University Teaching Hospital in Northwest Ethiopia. Methods We analyzed the records of 4000 tuberculosis patients registered at Gondar University Teaching Hospital from September 2003 to May 2008. Treatment outcome and tuberculosis type were categorized according to the national tuberculosis control program guideline. Multivariate analysis using logistic regression model was used to analyse the association between treatment outcome and potential predictor variables. Results From the total of 4000 patients, tuberculosis type was categorized as extrapulmonary in 1133 (28.3%, smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis in 2196 (54.9% and smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis in 671 (16.8% cases. Of all patients, treatment outcome was classified as successfully treated in 1181(29.5%, defaulted in 730 (18.3%, died in 403 (10.1%, treatment failed in six (0.2% and transferred out in 1680 (42.0% patients. Males had the trend to be more likely to experience death or default than females, and the elderly were more likely to die than younger. The proportion of default rate was increased across the years from 97(9.2% to 228(42.9%. Being female, age group 15-24 years, smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis and being urban resident were associated with higher treatment success rate. Conclusion The treatment success rate of tuberculosis patients was unsatisfactorily low (29.5%. A high proportion of patients died (10.1% or defaulted (18.3%, which is a serious public health concern that needs to be addressed urgently.

  18. Risk factors for under-nutrition among children aged one to five years in Udupi taluk of Karnataka, India: A case control study

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    Basit, A; Nair, S.; KB Chakraborthy; Darshan BB; Kamath, A

    2012-01-01

    BackgroundDespite her apparent economic success, India is plagued by a high burden of under-nutrition among children under five. This study was aimed at understanding some of the risk factors for under-nutrition in a region with favourable maternal and child health indicators.MethodA case control study was carried out among children aged one to five years attending the paediatric outpatient department in six rural health care centres in Udupi taluk of Karnataka in Southern India. A total of 1...

  19. [Detection of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar by PCR in children, less than five years of age with diarrhea, in Maracaibo, Venezuela. A preliminary study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracho Mora, Angela; Rivero de Rodríguez, Zulbey; Arraiz, Nailet; Villalobos, Rafael; Urdaneta, Haydee

    2013-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica as a producer of diarrhea, a study was conducted in children, less than five years of age, with diarrhea who attended several out patient clinics of the Servicio Aut6nomo Hospital Universitario, Maracaibo, Venezuela. A macroscopic and microscopic examination with physiological saline, lugol and Kinyoun staining were performed to the stool samples obtained. The remainder of the sample was frozen until DNA extraction, and PCR amplification was performed separately for E. histolytica and E. dispar. Microscopic examination showed no trophozoites and/or cysts of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii, or intestinal coccidians in any of the 50 samples analyzed. Parasites detected were Giardia lamblia (6%), Blastocystis sp. (4%), Pentatrichomonas hominis (2%), Ascaris lumbricoides (2%) and Trichuris trichiura (2%). By PCR, six samples (12%) had DNA of E. dispar and two (4%) had DNA from E. histolytica; no child showed association of both amoebae. The two children who had E. histolytica were one-year-old. E. dispar was detected in younger children. We suggest that the prevalence of E. histolytica in children under five years is really low.

  20. Apolipoprotein e4 affects topographical changes in hippocampal and cortical atrophy in Alzheimer's disease dementia: a five-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeo Jin; Cho, Hanna; Kim, Yun Joong; Ki, Chang-Seok; Chung, Sun Ju; Ye, Byoung Seok; Kim, Hee Jin; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Sung Tae; Lee, Kyung Han; Jeon, Seun; Lee, Jong-Min; Chin, Juhee; Kim, Jeong-Hun; Na, Duk L; Seong, Joon-Kyung; Seo, Sang Won

    2015-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) is a genetic risk factor for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). Once AD manifests clinically, however, the effects of APOE4 are less clear. Therefore, we investigated the longitudinal effects of APOE4 on topographical changes in AD patient brain atrophy. We prospectively recruited 35 patients with AD (19 APOE4 carriers and 16 non-carriers), and 14 normal controls, then followed them for five years. We measured hippocampal deformities and cortical thickness. Hippocampal comparison between APOE4 carriers and non-carriers with AD showed carriers had rapid changes in the head and body, while non-carriers had rapid changes in a small portion of the body. Cortical thickness comparison between APOE4 carriers and non-carriers with AD dementia showed carriers had rapid thinning in the lateral frontal, temporal, and parietal regions, while no region showed more rapid cortical thinning in non-carriers than in carriers. These findings underlined the importance of the APOE4 allele for designing and interpreting future treatment trials in patients with AD dementia.

  1. Civil partnerships five years on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Helen; Gask, Karen; Berrington, Ann

    2011-01-01

    The Civil Partnership Act 2004, which came into force in December 2005 allowing same-sex couples in the UK to register their relationship for the first time, celebrated its fifth anniversary in December 2010. This article examines civil partnership in England and Wales, five years on from its introduction. The characteristics of those forming civil partnerships between 2005 and 2010 including age, sex and previous marital/civil partnership status are examined. These are then compared with the characteristics of those marrying over the same period. Further comparisons are also made between civil partnership dissolutions and divorce. The article presents estimates of the number of people currently in civil partnerships and children of civil partners. Finally the article examines attitudes towards same-sex and civil partner couples both in the UK and in other countries across Europe.

  2. Worksite health screening programs for predicting the development of Metabolic Syndrome in middle-aged employees: a five-year follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jong-Dar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic syndrome (MetS management programs conventionally focus on the adults having MetS. However, risk assessment for MetS development is also important for many adults potentially at risk but do not yet fulfill MetS criteria at screening. Therefore, we conducted this follow-up study to explore whether initial screening records can be efficiently applied on the prediction of the MetS occurrence in healthy middle-aged employees. Methods Utilizing health examination data, a five-year follow-up observational study was conducted for 1384 middle-aged Taiwanese employees not fulfilling MetS criteria. Data analyzed included: gender, age, MetS components, uric acid, insulin, liver enzymes, sonographic fatty liver, hepatovirus infections and lifestyle factors. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI of risk for MetS development. The synergistic index (SI values and their confidence intervals of risk factor combinations were calculated; and were used to estimate the interacting effects of coupling MetS components on MetS development. Results Within five years, 13% (175 out of 1384 participants fulfilled MetS criteria. The ORs for MetS development among adults initially having one or two MetS components were 2.8 and 7.3, respectively (both p Conclusion MetS component count and combination can be used in predicting MetS development for participants potentially at risk. Worksite MetS screening programs simultaneously allow for finding out cases and for assessing risk of MetS development.

  3. FIVE-YEAR RESULTS OF ADJUVANT RADIOTHER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osa, Etin-Osa O.; DeWyngaert, Keith; Roses, Daniel; Speyer, James; Guth, Amber; Axelrod, Deborah; Kerimian, Maria Fenton; Goldberg, Judith D.; Formenti, Silvia C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objective A technique of prone breast radiotherapy delivered by a regimen of accelerated intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with a concurrent boost to the tumor bed, was developed at our institution. We report the five year results of this approach. Methods and Materials Between 2003–2006, 404 patients with Stage I–II breast cancer were prospectively enrolled into two consecutive protocols, institutional trials 03–30 and 05–181, that used the same regimen of 40.5Gy/15 fractions delivered to the index breast over 3 weeks, with a concomitant daily boost to the tumor bed of 0.5Gy (total dose=48Gy). All patients were treated after segmental mastectomy, had negative margins, and nodal assessment. Patients were set up prone: only if lung or heart volumes were in the field was a supine set-up attempted, and chosen if found to better spare these organs. Results 92% of patients were treated prone, 8% supine. 72% had stage I, 28% stage II invasive breast cancer. In-field lung volume ranged from 0 –228.27cc, mean: 19.65cc. In-field heart volume for left breast cancer patients ranged from 0–21.24cc, mean: 1.59cc. There was no heart in the field for right breast cancer patients. At a median follow-up of five years, the five-year cumulative incidence of isolated ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence was 0.82% (95% CI: 0.65–1.04). The five-year cumulative incidence of regional recurrence was 0.53% (95% CI:0.41–0.69) and the five-year overall cumulative death rate was 1.28% (95% CI: 0.48–3.38). 82% (95% CI: 77–85) of patients judged their final cosmetic result as excellent/good. Conclusions Prone accelerated IMRT with a concomitant boost results in excellent local control, optimal sparing of heart and lung, with good cosmesis. RTOG 10–05, a phase III, multi-institutional, randomized trial is ongoing and is evaluating the equivalence of a similar dose and fractionation approach to standard six weeks radiotherapy with a sequential boost. PMID

  4. Treatment Outcome of Tuberculosis Patients under Directly Observed Treatment Short Course and Factors Affecting Outcome in Southern Ethiopia: A Five-Year Retrospective Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebremedhin Gebrezgabiher

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is one of the major public health and socio-economic issues in the 21st century globally. Assessment of TB treatment outcomes, and monitoring and evaluation of its risk factors in Directly Observed Treatment Short Course (DOTS are among the major indicators of the performance of a national TB control program. Hence, this institution-based retrospective study was conducted to determine the treatment outcome of TB patients and investigate factors associated with unsuccessful outcome at Dilla University Referral Hospital, southern Ethiopia. Five years (2008 to 2013 TB record of TB clinic of the hospital was reviewed. A total 1537 registered TB patients with complete information were included. Of these, 942 (61.3% were male, 1015 (66% were from rural areas, 544 (35.4% were smear positive pulmonary TB (PTB+, 816 (53.1% were smear negative pulmonary TB (PTB- and 177(11.5% were extra pulmonary TB (EPTB patients. Records of the 1537 TB patients showed that 181 (11.8% were cured, 1129(73.5% completed treatment, 171 (11.1% defaulted, 52 (3.4% died and 4 (0.3% had treatment failure. The overall mean treatment success rate of the TB patients was 85.2%. The treatment success rate of the TB patients increased from 80.5% in September 2008-August 2009 to 84.8% in September 2012-May 2013. Tuberculosis type, age, residence and year of treatment were significantly associated with unsuccessful treatment outcome. The risk of unsuccessful outcome was significantly higher among TB patients from rural areas (AOR = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.21-2.20 compared to their urban counterparts. Unsuccessful treatment outcome was also observed in PTB- patients (AOR = 1.77, 95% CI: 1.26-2.50 and EPTB (AOR = 2.07, 95% CI: 1.28-3.37 compared to the PTB+ patients. In conclusion, it appears that DOTS have improved treatment success in the hospital during five years. Regular follow-up of patients with poor treatment outcome and provision of health information on TB treatment to

  5. Answer to the dynamic (fretting effect) and static (oxide) behavior of electric contact surfaces: based on a five-year infrared thermographic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paez-Leon, Cristobal D.; Patino, Antonio R.; Aguillon, Luis

    1991-03-01

    This paper describes the results of a five-year study carried out in 38 power substations (230, 115, 34.5 and 13.8 Kv), located in the Western power electric system of CADAFE (Venezuela's national Electric Utility). A total of 154 hot spots were found between 1980 and 1982, a time span considered a reliable source of information in connection with methodology, term and results. The distribution of hot spots found during those years was 77, 33 and 44. The reduction of the spot/substation parameter was found to be 4.1, 3.3 and 3.1, respectively. Every item detected could have been the cause of major interruptions, locally and regionally, or even the system's blackout. The methodology used to determine the major concentration of findings and their location on the equipment, followed the sequence of Pareto's Diagram and Ishikawa's Graphic. Based on the results of the study whose results are presented here, a lubricant and compound-aid connector for Al-Al and bimetallic electric connections was formulated, developed, manufactured, tested (at IREQ laboratories) and traded (CONECTECH CAC- 01). To date, the whole process represents 12 years of work. The connector's behavior and reliability are being tested throughout Venezuela's national electric system (responsible for the supply of around 50,000 Gwh/year) with the use of 12 Tons of CONECTECH CAC-01.

  6. 近五年工作记忆与阅读研究综述%A Review of Recent-five-year Studies on Working Memory and Reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伊凤琴; 陈钦

    2011-01-01

    This is a review of recent-five-year studies on working memory and reading comprehension.Categories and methods of RST are also reviewed.The general findings of recent researches show that working memory is significantly correlated with reading comprehension ability.Learners with high working memory span outperform those with lower working memory span in both literal and inferential dimensions of understanding.Several experimental studies have been done to justify the resource sharing model and task switching hypothesis,but more future researches are needed to clarify the dispute.%综述了近五年来国内外工作记忆与阅读的相关研究,梳理了工作记忆广度测试的分类和方法。近五年的研究表明,工作记忆与阅读理解能力存在显著的正相关,高工作记忆容量的个体无论在字面意思理解方面还是在推理理解方面都强于低容量者。关于资源分享模型和任务转换假设,有些研究者做了实证研究,但仍有待进一步证实。

  7. Risk of maltreatment-related injury: a cross-sectional study of children under five years old admitted to hospital with a head or neck injury or fracture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Jonathan Lee

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine the predictive value and sensitivity of demographic features and injuries (indicators for maltreatment-related codes in hospital discharge records of children admitted with a head or neck injury or fracture. METHODS: STUDY DESIGN: Population-based, cross sectional study. SETTING: NHS hospitals in England. SUBJECTS: Children under five years old admitted acutely to hospital with head or neck injury or fracture. DATA SOURCE: Hospital Episodes Statistics, 1997 to 2009. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Maltreatment-related injury admissions, defined by ICD10 codes, were used to calculate for each indicator (demographic feature and/or type of injury: i the predictive value (proportion of injury admissions that were maltreatment-related; ii sensitivity (proportion of all maltreatment-related injury admissions with the indicator. RESULTS: Of 260,294 childhood admissions for fracture or head or neck injury, 3.2% (8,337 were maltreatment-related. With increasing age of the child, the predictive value for maltreatment-related injury declined but sensitivity increased. Half of the maltreatment-related admissions occurred in children older than one year, and 63% occurred in children with head injuries without fractures or intracranial injury. CONCLUSIONS: Highly predictive injuries accounted for very few maltreatment-related admissions. Protocols that focus on high-risk injuries may miss the majority of maltreated children.

  8. Five-Year Follow-Up of Concomitant Accelerated Hypofractionated Radiation in Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Buccal Mucosa: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Iqbal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In resource limited settings, induction chemotherapy with Gemcitabine and Cisplatinum and concurrent hypofractionated chemoradiation for locally advanced carcinoma of buccal mucosa (BMSCC are a cost effective option but remain under reported. The objective of this study was to report long term survival outcome after concurrent hypofractionated radiotherapy in locally advanced BMSCC. Between February 2005 and 2009, 63 patients received treatment. Induction chemotherapy (IC regimen consisted of two drugs: Gemcitabine and Cisplatin. All patients received 55 Gy of radiation in 20 fractions with concurrent single agent Cisplatin (75 mg/m2. Five-year overall survival (OS, disease-free survival (DFS, and progression-free survival (PFS were determined. Based on AJCC staging, 7 (11% patients were stage III, 31 (49% stage IV a, and 25 (40% stage IVb at presentation. After IC, 8 (18% patients had complete radiological response, 33 (73% had partial response, and 4 (9% had stable disease. After concurrent hypofractionated chemoradiation, thirty-nine (62% patients were complete responders and 24 (38% had stable disease. With a minimum follow-up of 60 months, 5-year OS, DFS, and PFS were 30%, 49%, and 30%, respectively. In locally advanced buccal mucosa squamous cell carcinoma, concurrent hypofractionated chemoradiation results in acceptable survival and regimen related toxicity.

  9. Emergence of the neural network for reading in five-year-old beginning readers of different levels of pre-literacy abilities: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yoshiko; Stevens, Courtney; Dow, Mark; Harn, Beth A; Chard, David J; Neville, Helen J

    2011-08-01

    The present study traced the emergence of the neural circuits for reading in five-year-old children of diverse pre-literacy ability. In the fall and winter of kindergarten, children performed a one-back task with letter versus false font stimuli during fMRI scanning. At the start of kindergarten, children with on-track pre-literacy skills (OT) recruited bilateral temporo-parietal regions for the letter > false font comparison. In contrast, children at-risk for reading difficulty (AR) showed no differential activation in this region. Following 3 months of kindergarten and, for AR children, supplemental reading instruction, OT children showed left-lateralized activation in the temporo-parietal region, whereas AR children showed bilateral activation and recruitment of frontal regions including the anterior cingulate cortex. These data suggest that typical reading development is associated with initial recruitment and subsequent disengagement of right hemisphere homologous regions while atypical reading development may be associated with compensatory recruitment of frontal regions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of cognitive therapy, applied relaxation and nitrous oxide sedation. A five-year follow-up study of patients treated for dental fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willumsen, Tiril; Vassend, Olav

    2003-04-01

    Five years after completing a controlled, randomized treatment trial comparing the effect of nitrous oxide sedation (NO), cognitive therapy (CT), and applied relaxation (AR), all 62 patients who had participated were invited to a follow-up questionnaire study. Forty-three responded. All participants had been to the dentist during the follow-up period. Mean scores (s) on Corah's Dental Anxiety Scale (CDAS) and Symptom Checklist 90 Revised (SCL-90-R, a measure of general psychological distress) were 10.4 (4.1) and 0.35 (0.34), respectively. There were no between-group effects. Significant changes across the assessment phases (at enrollment, after treatment, and 5 years after) were found for both dental fear and general distress (CDAS: F = 137.8, P < 0.01; SCL-90-R: F = 12.5, P < 0.01). However, no significant changes between measures obtained after treatment and at follow-up emerged. Seven participants (3 from the NO group, 2 from the CT group, and 2 from the AR group) had CDAS scores above 14, indicating a recurrent or continual dental fear problem. The majority (81%) assessed the dental fear treatment received 5 years previously to have been useful for them. In conclusion, the favorable effects on dental fear and general psychological distress continued at 5-year follow-up for all treatment groups.

  11. 地勘单位“十三五”规划战略视角转移方向研究%Research on Shift Direction of Strategic Perspective of "Thirteenth Five Year Plan" in Geological Prospecting Units

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟新华

    2016-01-01

    通过回顾总结地勘单位“十二五”时期的发展,分析“十三五”时期可能面临的体制与机制变化,提出“十三五”时期应从总体发展上、问题导向上、制度建设上、重点任务上、发展举措上进行战略视角的转移。一是从总体发展战略上应重新明确队伍、产业、组织结构的总体布局;二是以问题为导向重新构建管理模式、商业模式和盈利模式;三是以制度建优化干部队伍,建立新的激励与约束机制、督察与绩效考核制度;四是以五大新发展理念为引领,以问题导向为出发点,确定未来五年重点任务;五是在发展举措上要抢占制高点、扩大增长点、抓好关键点、培育好创新点。%By reviewing the summary of geological prospecting units in "Twelfth Five Year Plan" period, we analyze the institutional and mechanism change in "Thirteenth Five Year Plan" period we may face, and put forward the direction shift from the following strategic perspectives: the overall development, the problem-oriented, system construction, the key tasks and development measure. Firstly, from the overall development strategy, we should redeifned the team, industry, the overall layout of the organizational structure; Secondly, we should re-build problem-oriented management model, business model and proift model; Thirdly, we should build the system to optimize cadres, establish new incentive and restraint mechanisms, inspectors and performance appraisal system; Fourthly, we should take the five new development concept as the lead, and take problem-oriented as a starting point to determine the key tasks for the next ifve years; Fifthly, we should seize the high ground in the development strategies, expand the growth, seize the key points and foster good innovation.

  12. Change in lumen eccentricity and asymmetry after treatment with Absorb bioresorbable vascular scaffolds in the ABSORB cohort B trial: a five-year serial optical coherence tomography imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwannasom, Pannipa; Sotomi, Yohei; Asano, Taku; Koon, Jaryl Ng Chen; Tateishi, Hiroki; Zeng, Yaping; Tenekecioglu, Erhan; Wykrzykowska, Joanna J; Foin, Nicolas; de Winter, Robbert J; Ormiston, John A; Serruys, Patrick W; Onuma, Yoshinobu

    2017-04-07

    The aim of the study was to investigate long-term changes in lumen eccentricity and asymmetry at five years after implantation of the Absorb bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS). Out of 101 patients from the ABSORB cohort B trial, 28 patients (29 lesions) with serial optical coherence tomography (OCT) examination at four different time points (cohort B1: post-procedure, six months, two, and five years [n=13]; cohort B2: post-procedure, one, three, and five years [n=16]) were evaluated. The longitudinal variance in lumen diameter was assessed by asymmetry index (AI). An asymmetric lesion was defined as AI >0.3. The circularity of the lumen or scaffold was evaluated by the eccentricity index calculated as minimal divided by maximal luminal or scaffold diameter per cross-section. The lowest lumen eccentricity index within a scaffold segment (EIL) five years (post EIL 0.67±0.05 vs. five-year EIL 0.80±0.10, p=0.03) with a modest reduction of the lumen area from baseline to five years by 0.75±0.32 mm2. Asymmetric lumen morphology was observed in 93.1% (n=27) post implantation and persisted until five-year follow-up. On serial OCT analyses, there was a substantial increase in the scaffold EI during the first two years (post 0.70±0.06, six months 0.76±0.08, two years 0.85±0.07); then, it remained stable whereas the lumen circularity improved further. There were no significant differences in major adverse cardiac events regarding the lumen morphology over the five-year follow-up. In patients treated with the Absorb BVS, the cross-sectional circularity improved over five years while the variance in longitudinal diameters remained. Regaining of lumen circularity is mainly caused by reshaping of the scaffold during the first two years.

  13. Study of Nutritional Status and Identification of Associated Risk Factors in Children Below Five Years of Age in an Urban Slum of Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dishant Joy Shah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Child malnutrition is a single large contributor to under-five mortality due to greater susceptibility to infections and slow recovery from illness. Prevalence of malnutrition is high in Madhya Pradesh as compared to other states of India. Aims & Objectives: The study was aimed to find the prevalence, and study the risk factors for malnutrition, in children under the age of five years, in an urban slum, and also recommend appropriate remedial measures. Material and Methods: A community-based, cross-sectional study was conducted on 93 children under the age of 5 years in an urban slum Pipaliya Pende Khan in Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh from August 2013 to October 2013. Anthropometric measurements like weight and height were recorded. They were also made to fill a pretested questionnaire. Descriptive statistical analysis was done. Results: The prevalence of stunting, underweight and wasting according to WHO Child Growth Standards, April 2006 was 62.6% (52.1%, 73.1%, 41.9%(31.4% , 52.5% and 17.4% (9.1% , 25.7% respectively. Stunting was associated with educational status of mother, more prevalent in children of less literate mother. Underweight was associated with both educational status of mother and type of toilet facility. Wasting was more prevalent in Muslim community and families with low socio-economic status. Conclusions: The study shows very high prevalence of the malnutrition, in the given community. The results also confirmed that education status of mother, type of toilet facility, religion and socio-economic status are some of the key determinants of nutritional status of children under the age of 5 years.

  14. Five years of lifestyle intervention improved self-reported mental and physical health in a general population: the Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pisinger, Charlotte; Ladelund, Steen; Glümer, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    screened for ischemic heart disease and repeatedly offered advice and assistance to obtain a healthier lifestyle. Health related quality of life was measured by Short Form 12 (SF-12); completed by 9322 at baseline and 7719 at five-year follow-up. In linear mixed models we investigated the effect...

  15. A Review on the Chinese Meat Production and Sales in the Ninth Five-year-plan and A Prospect in the Tenth Five-year-plan%我国肉类产销的“九五”回顾和“十五”展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨柏萱

    2001-01-01

    本文简单总结了“九五”期间我国肉类产销的情况,并对“十五”期间我国肉类工业的发展作了一些预测,提出了许多建议。%A review on the Chinese meat production and sales in the ninthfive-year-plan is summarized.The development during the tenth five-year-plan is predicted,meanwhile many suggestions are also raised.

  16. 近五年来阅读障碍研究的新进展%The Development of Dyslexia Study in Recent Five Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗璇

    2012-01-01

    In the recent five years, studies of dyslexia have the following points: first, the probing of the previous problems is going deep; second, more and more methods which can help studies appear , e.g. ERP and eye tracking system are using in dyslexia's researches; third, more attention is paid to Chinese dyslexia; fourth, there is a new content appeared, and this content is about genetics research in dyslexia, that is the appearing and development of dyslexia gene SNPs; fifth, the studies between dyslexia and other inorganic sick are connected, and the hottest research is about dyslexia and ADHD.%近五年对阅读障碍的研究主要有:对以前研究问题的不断深入与探讨;出现了新的研究方法,研究手段也更多、更新了(ERP及眼动仪的运用);对汉语阅读障碍研究的重视;在阅读障碍的遗传学研究中出现一个新的内容,即阅读障碍基因SNP s(单核苷酸多态性)研究的出现与发展;将阅读障碍与其他的非器质性病变的病症联系起来进行研究,其中最热的一种就是将阅读障碍与注意了缺陷多动症(ADHD)联系起来研究。

  17. Effectiveness of a Five Year School-Based Intervention Programme to Reduce Adiposity and Improve Fitness and Lifestyle in Indian Children; The SYM-KEM Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhave, Sheila; Pandit, Anand; Yeravdekar, Rajiv; Madkaikar, Vaishali; Chinchwade, Trushna; Shaikh, Nasreen; Shaikh, Tasneem; Naik, Shraddha; Marley-Zagar, Ella; HD Fall, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    Design Non-randomised non-blinded school-based intervention study. Setting Two schools in the cities of Pune and Nasik, India. Participants The intervention group comprised children attending one Pune school from 7-10 years until 12-15 years of age. Two controls groups comprised (1) children of the same age attending a similar school in Nasik, and (2) children in the Pune intervention school but aged 12-15 years at the start of the study. Intervention A 5-year multi-intervention programme, covering three domains: physical activity, diet and general health, and including increased extra- and intra-curricular physical activity sessions; daily yoga-based breathing exercises; making physical activity a ‘scoring’ subject; nutrition education; healthier school meals; removal of fast-food hawkers from the school environs; and health and nutrition education for teachers, pupils and families. Main outcome measures Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, physical fitness according to simple tests of strength, flexibility and endurance; diet; and lifestyle indicators (time watching TV, studying and actively playing). Results After five years the intervention children were fitter than controls in running, long-jump, sit-up and push-up tests (pwaist circumference was lower than in the Pune controls (p=0.004). Conclusions It was possible to achieve multiple health-promoting changes in an academically competitive Indian school. These resulted in improved physical fitness, but had no impact on the children’s BMI or on the prevalence of overweight/obesity. PMID:26420732

  18. Risk factors for under-nutrition among children aged one to five years in Udupi taluk of Karnataka, India: A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Basit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundDespite her apparent economic success, India is plagued by a high burden of under-nutrition among children under five. This study was aimed at understanding some of the risk factors for under-nutrition in a region with favourable maternal and child health indicators.MethodA case control study was carried out among children aged one to five years attending the paediatric outpatient department in six rural health care centres in Udupi taluk of Karnataka in Southern India. A total of 162 children were included in the study, of which 56 were cases. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview the caregivers of the children and the nutritional status was graded according to the Indian Academy of Paediatrics (IAP grading of protein-energy malnutrition.ResultsUnder-nutrition was associated with illness in the last one month [OR- 4.78 (CI: 1.83 -12.45], feeding diluted milk [OR- 14.26 (CI: 4.65 – 43.68] and having more than two children with a birth interval < 2 years [OR- 4.93 (CI: 1.78 – 13.61]. Lack of exclusive breast feeding, level of education of the caregiver and environmental factors like source of water did not have an association.ConclusionChildhood illness, short birth interval and consumption of diluted milk were some of the significant contributory factors noted among this population. Information, Education, Communication (IEC campaigns alleviating food fads and promoting birth spacing is needed.

  19. Ozone therapy on Otorhinolaryngology. A five-year study. Ozonoterapia en Otorrinolaringología. Estudio de cinco años.

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Díaz González; Juan M. Salomón Bacallao; Armando Figueroa Hernández

    2005-01-01

    Fundament: The ample active spectre of ozone in medicine is based in a series of properties that positively influence certain metabolic processes, whose alterations are cause for many diseases. Methods: Prospective-descriptive study about the treatment with ozone, besides the conventional therapeutics, to patients bearing affections of possible vascular ethiology as acufenos, peripheral vertiginous syndrome...

  20. 我国塑料管道行业"十一·五"期间发展概况和"十二·五"期间发展趋势浅析%Review of China Plastics Pipes Industry during the Eleventh Five-year Plan Period and Its Prospect in the Twelfth Five-year Plan Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王占杰

    2011-01-01

    This article discussed the development status about the output and export of the domestic plastics pipes industry during the eleventh five-year plan period. The problems of the plastics pipes industry were pointed out. Finally, the development goals and some suggestion of the plastics pipes industry during the twelfth five-year plan period were given.%综述了我国塑料管道行业在"十一·五"期间的发展状况,包括产量及出口情况;简单介绍了塑料管道的应用领域;指出了"十一·五"期间塑料管道行业存在的问题;最后,提出了"十二·五"期间我国塑料管道行业的发展目标,并对今后的发展给出了一些建议.

  1. Influence of Rural Land Institutional Reform on Urbanization During the 13th Five-Year Plan Period:A Case Study of Jiangsu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen; Xiaohui; Qian; Fang

    2016-01-01

    The rural land institutions have confined the process of China’s urbanization for a long time. During the 13 th Five-Year Plan period, the Chinese government will push forward a new round of rural land institutional reform, so as to promote the restructuring of current rural land use pattern, change related elements concerning urbanization, and realize the transformation of the urbanization mode. Taking Jiangsu Province, a comprehensive pilot site of new urbanization at the provincial level in China, as an example, the paper summarizes the practical experience of rural land institutional reform in Jiangsu during recent years. Further, through analyzing the influence of rural land institutional reform on the urbanization process of Jiangsu Province during the 13 th Five-Year Plan period, the paper puts forward some policy measures, with the hope of providing a lasting impetus for the new urbanization in Jiangsu Province as well as a reference for other provinces in China.

  2. Review of the 11th Five-Year Plan and Prospect of the 12th Five-Year Plan of Zhejiang Silkworm Egg Industry%浙江蚕种业“十一五”回顾与“十二五”展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷利群; 周金钱

    2011-01-01

    “十一五”期间,浙江蚕桑产业受茧丝市场波动的影响呈逐步萎缩的趋势,蚕种生产量随农村需求量减少而下降.但实现了产销基本平衡;在依法管理、强化基础、完善标准、创立储备、加强质监等方面取得了明显的成绩。“十二五”浙江蚕种业面对保障供应出现的新问题,应在贯彻蚕种管理条例、开展标准化蚕种基地建设、实施科技提升工程等方面采取措施,以确保优质蚕种供应。%During the period of "llth Five-Year Plan", a gradually declining trend of Zhejiang sericulture industry appeared by the influence of fluctuations in cocoon and silk market. The production quantity of silkworm egg reduced with the decrease of quantity demanded in rural areas, but a basic balance was finally got between production and sales of silkworm eggs. Remarkable results were achieved in legal management, foundation strengthening, standard improvement, reserve creation, quality management enhancing and other aspects. Into the "12th Five-Year Plan", facing new issues on supply support, Zhejiang silkworm egg industry should take measures on implementing the silkworm egg management regulation, developing the construction of standard silkworm base, carrying out technology upgrade project and other aspects to ensure the supply of good-quality silkworm eggs.

  3. Long term cause specific mortality among 34 489 five year survivors of childhood cancer in Great Britain: population based cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Miranda M; Reulen, Raoul C; Winter, David L; Kelly, Julie; Jenkinson, Helen C; Skinner, Rod; Frobisher, Clare

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether modern treatments for cancer are associated with a net increased or decreased risk of death from neoplastic and non-neoplastic causes among survivors of childhood cancer. Design Population based cohort study. Setting British Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Participants Nationwide population based cohort of 34 489 five year survivors of childhood cancer with a diagnosis from 1940 to 2006 and followed up until 28 February 2014. Main outcome measures Cause specific standardised mortality ratios and absolute excess risks are reported. Multivariable Poisson regression models were utilised to evaluate the simultaneous effect of risk factors. Likelihood ratio tests were used to test for heterogeneity or trend. Results Overall, 4475 deaths were observed, which was 9.1 (95% confidence interval 8.9 to 9.4) times that expected in the general population, corresponding to 64.2 (95% confidence interval 62.1 to 66.3) excess deaths per 10 000 person years. The number of excess deaths from all causes declined among those treated more recently; those treated during 1990-2006 experienced 30% of the excess number of deaths experienced by those treated before 1970. The corresponding percentages for the decline in excess deaths from recurrence or progression and non-neoplastic causes were 30% and 60%, respectively. Among survivors aged 50-59 years, 41% and 22% of excess deaths were attributable to subsequent primary neoplasms and circulatory conditions, respectively, whereas the corresponding percentages among those aged 60 years or more were 31% and 37%. Conclusions The net effects of changes in cancer treatments, and surveillance and management for late effects, over the period 1940 to 2006 was to reduce the excess number of deaths from both recurrence or progression and non-neoplastic causes among those treated more recently. Among survivors aged 60 years or more, the excess number of deaths from circulatory causes exceeds the excess number

  4. Correction: five-year predictors of physical activity decline among adults in low-income communities: a prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Platt Robert W; O'Loughlin Jennifer L; Weiss Deborah R; Paradis Gilles

    2007-01-01

    Abstract After publication it was brought to our attention that the information for one of the variables in Table 1 was incorrect (Weiss, O'Loughlin et al. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2007, 4:2). The variable in question is "Use of a neighborhood facility for activity". In the first column, the first row should read "yes", and the second row, "no". In the second column, the first row should read 25.8 (41) and the second row, 41.3 (152). Table 1 Unad...

  5. Correction: five-year predictors of physical activity decline among adults in low-income communities: a prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Platt Robert W; O'Loughlin Jennifer L; Weiss Deborah R; Paradis Gilles

    2007-01-01

    Abstract After publication it was brought to our attention that the information for one of the variables in Table 1 was incorrect (Weiss, O'Loughlin et al. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2007, 4:2). The variable in question is "Use of a neighborhood facility for activity". In the first column, the first row should read "yes", and the second row, "no". In the second column, the first row should read 25.8 (41) and the second row, 41.3 (152). Table 1 Unad...

  6. Bacteremia in a Long-Term -Care Facility: a Five-Year Prospective Study of 163 Consecutive Episodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.R. Muder; C. Brennen; M.M. Wagener (Marilyn); A.M. Geotz

    1992-01-01

    textabstractThe clinical features, microbiological characteristics, and outcomes of 163 episodes of bacteremia occurring at a long-term-care facility were evaluated. The rate of nosocomial bacteremia increased from 0.20 to 0.36 cases/1,000 patient-days from 1985 to 1989; there was a parallel increas

  7. The effect of five years versus two years of specialised assertive intervention for first episode psychosis - OPUS II: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gluud Christian

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Danish OPUS I trial randomized 547 patients with first-episode psychosis to a two-year early-specialised assertive treatment programme (OPUS versus standard treatment. The two years OPUS treatment had significant positive effects on psychotic and negative symptoms, secondary substance abuse, treatment adherence, lower dosage of antipsychotic medication, and a higher treatment satisfaction. However, three years after end of the OPUS treatment, the positive clinical effects were not sustained, except that OPUS-treated patients were significantly less likely to be institutionalised compared with standard-treated patients. The major objective of the OPUS II trial is to evaluate the effects of five years of OPUS treatment versus two years of OPUS treatment. Methods The OPUS II trial is designed as a randomized, open label, parallel group trial with blinded outcome assessment. Based on our sample size estimation, 400 patients treated in OPUS for two years will be randomized to further three years of OPUS treatment versus standard treatment. The specialized assertive OPUS treatment consists of three core elements: assertive community treatment, psycho-educational family treatment, and social skills training. Discussion It has been hypothesized that there is a critical period from onset up to five years, which represents a window of opportunity where a long-term course can be influenced. Extending the specialized assertive OPUS treatment up to five years may allow the beneficial effects to continue beyond the high-risk period, through consolidation of improved social and functional outcome. Trial registration Clinical Trial.gov NCT00914238

  8. Patch Test Results in Patients with Allergic Contact Dermatitis in the Western Black Sea Region: A Five-Year Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafet

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: In this retrospective study, patch test results of 304 patients with allergic contact dermatitis (ACD, who were tested with the European Standard Series, were evaluated. The aim of the study was to determine the frequency of positive reactions to different sensitizers in patients with ACD and to identify sex and age differences.Material and Method: We evaluated a total of 304 patients (195 (64.1% female and 109 (35.9% male who applied to our clinic between the period of January 2003 and December 2008 and who were tested with patch test with the consideration of ACD. Patch test results were assessed according to the International Contact Dermatitis Research Group at 48 and 72 hours after initial application.Results: Lesions of ACD were found to be most frequent on the hands (65.5%. A total of 95 (31.3% patients had one or more positive patch test reactions. The most common allergens were nickel sulfate (14.8% followed by cobalt chloride (9.2%, potassium dichromate (6.6%, balsam of Peru (3.6%, fragrance mix (3.3%, mercaptobenzothiazole (3% and colophonium (2.3%. Positive reactions to nickel sulfate were more common among women, especially those in younger group. Frequency of contact allergy to lanolin, mercapto mix, epoxy resin, paraben mix and quaternium-15 were relatively low, while no positive reaction was obtained to formaldehyde in any case. In 51.6% of patients with positive reaction, the responsible allergen was detected by testing with the European Standard Series.Conclusion: Although this study shows that sensitization rate to metals and fragrance are still high in our region, as well as in our country, and are more frequent in females than in males, future prospective multicenter studies with large number of patients would point out the adequacy of the European Standard Series in our country. (Turk­derm 2011; 45: 198-202

  9. Fear of nuclear war increases the risk of common mental disorders among young adults: a five-year follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuulio-Henriksson Annamari

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence on the relation between fear of war and mental health is insufficient. We carried out a prospective cohort study to find out whether fear of nuclear war is related to increased risk of common mental disorders. Methods Within two months preceding the outbreak of Persian Gulf War in January 1991, 1518 adolescents [mean age 16.8 years, SD 0.9] filled in a self-administered questionnaire. Of the 1493 respondents, 47% gave their written informed consent to participate in the follow-up study. There were no material differences between those who chose to respond anonymously and those who volunteered to give their name and address for the follow-up study. In 1995, the response to the follow-up questionnaire was 92%. Common mental disorders were assessed by 36-item version of the General Health Questionnaire [GHQ]. A score 5 or higher was considered to indicate caseness. We excluded 23 cases which had used mental health services in the year 1991 or earlier and two cases with deficient responses to GHQ. This left 626 subjects for analysis [400 women]. Results After adjusting for significant mental health risk factors in logistic regression analysis, the risk for common mental disorders was found to be significantly related to the increasing frequency of fear for nuclear war, high scores of trait anxiety and high scores of immature defense style. Elevated risk was confined to the group reporting fear of nuclear war once a week or more often [odds ratio 2.05; 95% confidence interval 1.29–3.27]. Conclusion Frequent fear of nuclear war in adolescents seems to be an indicator for an increased risk for common mental disorders and deserves serious attention.

  10. Incidence Density and Risk Factors of Diabetic Retinopathy Within Type 2 Diabetes: A Five-Year Cohort Study in China (Report 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Liu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A prospective study was carried out from August 2010 to August 2014 in the community of Fengyutan (China. Six hundred and twenty two T2D subjects were collected. The incidence density of diabetic retinopathy (DR was 1.81% person-year (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.21–2.43% person-year. After a Cox regression model analysis and adjusted confounding factors, independent predictors related to the incidence of DR including male gender (adjusted hazard ratios, aHR: 1.47, 95% CI: 1.21–1.62, with hypertension (aHR: 1.49, 95%: 1.12–1.73, duration of diabetes > 10 years (aHR: 2.28, 95%: 2.05–2.42, uncontrolled diabetes (aHR: 1.76, 95%: 1.41–2.01, total cholesterol ≥ 200 mg/dL (aHR: 1.54, 95%: 1.34–1.72 and HbA1c ≥ 7% (mmol/mol (aHR: 2.12, 95%: 1.87–2.32. Duration of T2D revealed the significantly dose-response relationship to the onset of DR. The incidence density of DR in the Chinese community was relatively low in comparison with other studies. More attention should be paid to the T2D patients, especially of male gender, with hypertension, longer duration of diabetes, uncontrolled diabetes, total cholesterol ≥ 200mg/dL and HbA1c ≥ 7% (mmol/mol.

  11. Longitudinal Study of Human Hearings: Its Relationship to Noise and Other Factors. 1. Design of Five Year Study; Data from First Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-03-01

    that exposure to loud noises causes more histological damage in young than in adult guinea pigs (Jauhiainen et al., 1972) and that kittens lose more...particular care . Further, serial studies offer several advantages over cross-sectional studies. The major reasons why serial studies of auditory

  12. Launching PPARC's five year strategy programme

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Over one hundred delegates from Parliament, Whitehall and Industry attended a reception on Tuesday night (25 November) to mark the launch the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council's (PPARC) Five Year Plan" (1 page).

  13. The National Report--Five Years Later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Bob R.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Six theme articles assess the impact five years later of the National Academy of Sciences report, "Understanding Agriculture." Topics discussed include strategic planning, agricultural education's mission, teacher education, policy research needs, and agricultural literacy. (SK)

  14. Expectations of a Five-Year-Old

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    When celebrating the birthday of a five-year-old child, there is never a shortage of good wishes and the hope that the child will have a bright future. However, in spite of these sentiments, one cannot help wondering what kind of person the child will finally grow into. The same concern applies when we observe the five-year-old Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO).

  15. Ozone therapy on Otorhinolaryngology. A five-year study. Ozonoterapia en Otorrinolaringología. Estudio de cinco años.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Díaz González

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Fundament: The ample active spectre of ozone in medicine is based in a series of properties that positively influence certain metabolic processes, whose alterations are cause for many diseases. Methods: Prospective-descriptive study about the treatment with ozone, besides the conventional therapeutics, to patients bearing affections of possible vascular ethiology as acufenos, peripheral vertiginous syndrome, sudden hypacusia, and others of infectious origin as recurrent suppurated half chronic otitis, rebel to conventional therapeutics. Tran rectal bias was used during three weeks, the results and evolution of patients were controlled. Results: ozone treatment effectiveness was proved (91%, with no intoxication or intolerance, a rapid remission of vertigo was observed in nearly all patients since first sessions, and evident betterment or remission of acufenos and the hypacusia.

     

    Fundamento: El amplio espectro de acción del ozono en la medicina se fundamenta en una serie de propiedades que influyen beneficiosamente sobre determinados procesos metabólicos, cuyas alteraciones son causas de múltiples enfermedades. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo- prospectivo sobre el tratamiento con ozono, además de la terapéutica convencional, a pacientes portadores de afecciones de posible etiología vascular como acúfenos, síndrome vertiginoso periférico, hipoacusia súbita y otras de origen infeccioso como las otitis medias crónicas supuradas recidivantes, rebeldes a la terapéutica convencional; se utilizó la vía transrectal durante tres semanas, los resultados y la evolución de los pacientes se controlaron en consulta. Resultados: Se demostró la efectividad del tratamiento con ozono (91% sin muestras de intoxicación o intolerancia; se observó una rápida remisión de los vértigos en casi todos los pacientes desde las

  16. Artificial nests as an alternative to studies of arboreal small mammal populations: a five-year study in the Atlantic Forest, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Loretto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the great diversity of Brazilian Atlantic forest small mammals, natural history of most species is unknown due to their cryptic and nocturnal habits, but also due to the inadequacy of methods to capture some species, especially those of arboreal habits. A new technique, based on the use of artificial nests (AN to record arboreal marsupials, is presented. Artificial nests were combined with traditional live traps to study the population ecology of four didelphid marsupial species. After 62 months of monitoring, 119 individuals were recorded 243 times (total success = 5.2%. Only 26 individuals (22% were recorded by both AN and live trap methods, and two of the four species were never captured by live traps, only by AN. Live traps alone would have provided biased data of the structure of small mammal assemblages, creating artificial tendencies in population dynamics of many species. Detectability estimates based on mark-recapture data could correct bias resulting from the use only live traps, but these estimates require that at least some individuals of each age class or stage are captured. Only the combination of AN and live traps can produce more accurate data on population dynamics and assemblage structure. This study demonstrates that artificial nests represent a new method that should be combined with live traps in studies of small mammal assemblages and populations.

  17. nutritional status of children under five years and associated factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Identification of core factors influencing nutrition of this population supports plans to alleviate child ... This study sought to determine the nutritional status of children under five years and associated ... The primary determinants of malnutrition as.

  18. [Persistence of immune memory to hepatitis B vaccine among infants with normal or high antibody response to primary vaccination: a five-year following-up study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Yan, Bingyu; Liu, Jiaye; Lyu, Jingjing; Feng, Yi; Xu, Aiqiang; Song, Lizhi; Liang, Xiaofeng; Li, Li; Cui, Fuqiang; Zhang, Guomin; Wang, Fuzhen

    2015-12-01

    To examine the immune memory status to hepatitis B vaccine among infants with normal or high antibody response to primary vaccination, 5 years after the primary vaccination and the risk factors associated with the immune memory. Titers of the antibody against hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) were detected, five years after the primary vaccination among children who appeared normal or high response to hepatitis B primary vaccination in infancy. Those whose anti-HBs titers were low than protective level (10 mIU/ml) were given a challenge dose of hepatitis B vaccine and titers of anti-HBs were detected 14 days after the challenge. Positive rate and geometric mean titer (GMT) of anti-HBs were calculated. Level of the anti-HBs titers after primary vaccination, at following-up and after the challenge periods were divided into different levels, respectively. Risk factors associated with the levels of anti-HBs titer after the challenge were examined by univariate analysis that and multivariable analysis. Anti-HBs waned to the level below protective standard among 37.98% of the children with normal or high antibody response to hepatitis B primary vaccination; among those children whose anti-HBs were below the protection standard. The seroconversion rate and GMT of anti-HBs after the challenge dose were 98.95% (757/765) and 2 811.69 mIU/ml [95% Confidence Interval (CI) :2 513.55-3 145.19 mIU/ml] , respectively. Titers and levels of anti-HBs after the challenge, appeared an increase with anti-HBs after primary vaccination and the anti-HBs in the following-up (F=5.46, 10.23 respectively; Pimmune memory could be found among those children with normal or high responses to hepatitis B vaccination, 5 years after the primary vaccination. The intensity of immune memory might be associated with the anti-HBs titer after primary vaccination as well as the anti-HBs titers before the challenge dose was given.

  19. Vitamin E diffused highly cross-linked polyethylene in total hip arthroplasty at five years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nebergall, Audrey K; Greene, M. E.; Laursen, M B

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: The objective of this five-year prospective, blinded, randomised controlled trial (RCT) was to compare femoral head penetration into a vitamin E diffused highly cross-linked polyethylene (HXLPE) liner with penetration into a medium cross-linked polyethylene control liner using radiostereome......AIMS: The objective of this five-year prospective, blinded, randomised controlled trial (RCT) was to compare femoral head penetration into a vitamin E diffused highly cross-linked polyethylene (HXLPE) liner with penetration into a medium cross-linked polyethylene control liner using...... radiostereometric analysis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients scheduled for total hip arthroplasty (THA) were randomised to receive either the study E1 (32 patients) or the control ArComXL polyethylene (35 patients). The median age (range) of the overall cohort was 66 years (40 to 76). RESULTS: The five-year median...... (interquartile range) proximal femoral head penetration into the E1 was -0.05 mm (-0.13 to -0.02) and 0.07 mm (-0.03 to 0.16) for ArComXL. At three and five years, the penetration was significantly greater in the ArComXL group compared with the E1 group (p = 0.029 and p = 0.019, respectively). All patient...

  20. Five-Year Outcome in Stroke Patients Submitted to Thrombolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Célia; Pinho, João; Alves, José Nuno; Santos, Ana Filipa; Ferreira, Maria do Céu; Abreu, Maria João; Oliveira, Liliana; Mota, João; Fontes, João Ramalho; Ferreira, Carla

    2015-08-01

    Little is known on long-term follow-up after thrombolysis in ischemic stroke patients because the majority of studies evaluated outcome at 3 to 12 months. We aimed to assess 5-year outcome after intravenous thrombolysis (IVT). Cohort study based on the prospective registry of all consecutive ischemic stroke patients submitted to IVT in our Stroke Unit. Five-year outcome, including living settings, functional outcome, stroke recurrence, and mortality, was ascertained by telephonic interviews and additional review of clinical records. Multivariate analyses were performed to identify predictors of outcome and mortality. Excellent outcome was defined as modified Rankin scale 0 to 1. Five-year outcome was available for 155/164 patients submitted to IVT. At 5 years, 32.9% of patients had an excellent outcome (95% confidence interval (CI) =25.5-43.3) and mortality was 43.9% (95%CI=36.1-51.7). Increasing age (odds ratio =0.93, 95% CI =0.90-0.97) and increasing National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) 24 h after thrombolysis (odds ratio =0.81, 95% CI =0.74-0.90) were independently associated with a lower likelihood of an excellent 5-year outcome. Age (hazards ratio =1.07, 95% CI =1.03-1.11) and excellent functional outcome 3 months after thrombolysis (hazards ratio =0.28, 95%CI=0.12-0.66) were independently associated with mortality during follow-up. One third of ischemic stroke patients have excellent 5-year outcome after IVT. Younger age, lower NIHSS 24 h after IVT, and excellent 3-month functional outcome are independent predictors of excellent 5-year outcome. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. The Scope of Numeracy after Five Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.L. Vacher

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this editorial is to provide an efficient way for readers and potential authors to see (a what type of papers are published in this journal and (b what subjects are appropriate. The editorial consists mainly of about a dozen pages of tables including live links to the papers’ access/abstract pages to facilitate easy browsing. In the first table, the 85 papers that have been published in the journal’s first five years are classified into: review papers; research papers; case studies; essays; book reviews; columns; and editorials about the journal. In the second table, the papers are inventoried into overlapping sets on: assessment; QL and writing; the construct of QL; focused QL courses and curricula; QL across the curriculum; QL centers; algebra and calculus education; statistics education; intersections with science and engineering; intersections with social sciences; financial numeracy; health numeracy; math anxiety; and cognition. Browsing these links confirms what we said in the first editorial: the scope of Numeracy is huge.

  2. A Study on the Interactive Teaching Mode in Five-year Higher Vocational English Class%五年制高职英语课堂互动式教学模式的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁超

    2012-01-01

    本文在分析五年制高职英语课堂传统教学模式的基础上,研究和探索一种全新的互动式教学模式,以提高学生运用英语进行交际的能力,达到提高教学效率的目的。%As everybody knows, classroom interaction is a common participation of face-to-face interpersonal interaction activities between a teacher and his students. Successful management of classroom interaction is the key to improving teaching efficiency and effectiveness. Based on the analysis of the traditional teaching model of five-year higher vocational English, this article is for the purpose of studying and exploring one brand-new five-year higher vocational English classroom teaching mode, interactive teaching mode, to achieve the goal of training students' communicative competence in English.

  3. Five Years of Advance in Pioneering Spirit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    The past five years are an important period during which China’s special economic zones developed rapidly, and the economic strength of these zones entered upon a new stage. The Pudong New Region, Shanghai, is greeting its second, upsurge of developing both construction and function.

  4. ITER faces further five-year delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clery, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    The €14bn ITER fusion reactor currently under construction in Cadarache, France, will require an additional cash injection of €4.6bn if it is to start up in 2025 - a target date that is already five years later than currently scheduled.

  5. Environmental Health: the first five years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Ozonoff, David

    2007-01-01

    year to year. Last year we published 33 articles (of 64 submitted) and the number of submissions by June this year has already reached 40. The journal has now been in existence for five years, so the time seems ripe for us to assess the health of our journal and the opportunities offered by open access...

  6. Five-Year-Olds' Systematic Errors in Second-Order False Belief Tasks Are Due to First-Order Theory of Mind Strategy Selection : A Computational Modeling Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arslan, Burcu; Taatgen, Niels A; Verbrugge, Rineke

    2017-01-01

    The focus of studies on second-order false belief reasoning generally was on investigating the roles of executive functions and language with correlational studies. Different from those studies, we focus on the question how 5-year-olds select and revise reasoning strategies in second-order false bel

  7. The 2015 five-yearly review

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

      This year CERN celebrates its 60th anniversary. On this occasion, throughout Europe — most recently on July 1st at the UNESCO headquarters in Paris — festivities are being organized to celebrate the Organization’s success as a flagship laboratory of high-energy physics. To ensure that CERN can remain a centre of excellence in the field of fundamental research, the Organization verifies every five years with the help of a five-yearly review procedure whether the financial and social conditions which it proposes to Staff Members allow it to recruit and retain Staff Members of the highest competence and integrity required for the execution of its mission from all its Member States. For Fellows these conditions should remain attractive compared with those in comparable research institutions, while for Associated members of personnel these conditions should allow it to host them in its research facilities taking into account the highest cost-of-living level in the local ...

  8. Prospect of agricultural informationization development in China during "the Twelfth Five-Year Plan"%“十二五”时期中国农业信息化发展前瞻

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺玢

    2012-01-01

    "十二五"时期,中国农业信息化正面临经济快速协调发展、城乡一体化、发展现代农业、新一代信息技术革命等有利机遇,但同时也面临社会认识不到位、农业信息技术产业发展缓慢、农业信息化扶持政策不配套、体制和机制不适应等因素的制约。中国农业信息化的发展趋势是:农业信息化由政府推动向需求拉动转变,农业信息服务向扁平化方向发展,农业信息化由单项技术应用向综合技术集成应用转变。%During the Twelfth Five-year Plan period,China's agricultural informationization faces many opportunities and challenges.First the paper analyzes the opportunities: the rapid economic development,urban-rural integration,the development of modern agriculture,the revolution of new generation information technology.Then the challenges are reviewed: social cognition is beyond the informationization development,agricultural information technology develops slowly,policy support on agricultural informationization does not fit the needs,institutions and mechanisms do not meet the restriction.Then the development tendency is proposed: agricultural informationization will transfer from government promotion to demand promotion,from point-to-point to flat structure,from single technology application to integrated application.

  9. Prospect of Biomanufacturing Industry During the Next National Twelfth Five-Year Plan Period%生物制造产业“十二五”时期发展展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石维忱

    2011-01-01

    The biomanufacturing industry is the important guarantee to support sustainable development of social economy.Biomanufacturing technology is applied widely in chemical industry,food industry,pharmacy industry,paper industry,textile industry,mining industry,energy industry and environmental protection.Biomanufacturing is of great strategic significance to accelerate economic restructuring,transform growth mode,propel economical development,clean development,and safety development,and establish green and sustainable industrial economy system.The current status and existed problems of biomanufacturing industry were presented.The development strategies,directions,and goals of biomanufacturing industry during the next National Twelfth Five-Year Plan period were proposed.%生物制造产业是支撑社会经济可持续发展的重要保障,生物制造技术广泛应用于化工、食品、制药、造纸、纺织、采矿、能源以及环境保护等许多重要领域.生物制造对于我国加快调整经济结构、转变增长方式,节约发展、清洁发展、安全发展,建立绿色与可持续的产业经济体系具有重大战略意义.论述了生物制造产业的发展现状和存在的问题,并对其在"十二五"期间的发展思路、发展方向、发展目标进行了展望.

  10. Current Situation of China's Rural Energy Development and Prospects for the 12th Five Year Plan%中国农村能源发展现状及"十二五"展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田宜水

    2011-01-01

    近年来,我国高度重视农村能源建设,投资力度不断增加,政策法规体系初步建立,农村沼气已实现跨越式发展,太阳能热利用持续快速增长,秸秆能源化利用也取得初步进展.但还存在着优质能源比例低、城乡差距大、投资结构不合理以及市场化程度低等问题.建议在"十二五"期间,按照"因地制宜、多能互补、综合利用、讲求效益"的发展方针,大力推广农村可再生能源和节能技术,采取完善政策法规、开发农村能源市场等措施,促进农村社会经济可持续发展.%In recent years, the Chinese government has paid more attention to rural energy, increasing investment, initially established policies and regulations. The rural biogas is developed very fast, the solar thermal utilization technology continuously grows rapidly, and the energy utilization of straw has also made initial progress. However, there exist many other issues of low ratio of high-quality energy in the rural energy,a large gap between urban and rural areas, irrational investment structure, and the low degree of market. In the 12th Five-Year, in accordance with the principles of "development based on local conditions, and energy supplementary, comprehensive utilization, cost-effective", it promotes rural renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies, improves policies and regulations, develops rural energy markets and uses other measures to promote rural social and economic sustainable development.

  11. Prospective study of factors of prognosis of survival without disease and of global five year and ten-year survival in a series of 90 patients suffering from a stage IIB or III cervical epidermoid carcinoma which had been treated by concomitant chemo-radiotherapy; etude prospective des facteurs pronostiques de survie sans maladie et de survie globale a cinq et dix dans une serie de 90 patientes atteintes d'un carcinome epidermoide du col uterin de stade IIB ou III dont le traitement etait une chimioradiotherapie concomitante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferdi, N.; Djekkoun, R.; Aouati, E.; Chirouf, A.; Aouati, S.; Afiane, M. [CHU de Constantine (Algeria)

    2011-10-15

    The authors report the study of some factors (TNM stage, tumour size, histological sub-type and haemoglobin concentration) of survival without disease and of global survival by analyzing the files of 90 patients who had chemotherapy concomitantly with external radiotherapy (five 1,8 Gy sessions a week for four to five weeks) followed by utero-vaginal curietherapy. It appears that chemo-radiotherapy is well tolerated and that some factors very significantly affect global survival and survival without disease. Concomitant chemo-radiotherapy significantly delays the occurrence of recurrence and metastases, notably for locally advanced tumours. Short communication

  12. Risk of selected postpartum infections after cesarean section compared with vaginal birth: A five-year cohort study of 32,468 women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Rita Andersen; Møller, Jens Kjølseth; Thomsen, Reimar Wernich

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the risk of postpartum infections within 30 days after vaginal birth, emergency, or elective cesarean section (CS). Design. Register-based cohort study in Denmark. Participants. A total of 32,468 women giving birth in hospitals in the County of Aarhus, Denmark, during the p...

  13. Gender Effects on the Major Selection Process--A Five-Year Study: Implications for Marketing Business Programs of Small Private Col1eges to Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolhede, Eric

    2001-01-01

    This 5-year study of undergraduates at a small western private college revealed similarities and differences between males and females in their expectations of business programs (e.g., women's greater desire for experiential learning), which point to product development and promotional strategies that can be targeted toward female students. (EV)

  14. Five-year efficacy of pulmonary vein antrum isolation as a primary ablation strategy for atrial fibrillation : a single-centre cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, Cas; Kassenberg, W; van der Heijden, Jeroen F; Hassink, RJ; van Driel, Vincent J H M; Zuithoff, NPA; Doevendans, Pieter A; Loh, KP

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: Pulmonary vein antrum isolation (PVAI) is the cornerstone of atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation. There is an ongoing discussion on whether and when to add substrate modification to PVAI. This study evaluates (1) long-term efficacy of PVAI as a primary ablation strategy in all patients independe

  15. Fear of cancer recurrence and unmet needs among breast cancer survivors in the first five years. A cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Mai-Britt Bjørklund; Grau, Cai; Zachariae, Robert;

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unclear to which degree the services available after end of treatment are sufficient to meet the needs of women treated for breast cancer. The aim of the present study was to identify patient-reported supportive care needs and the prevalence of fear of cancer recurrence (FCR...

  16. Depression, anxiety and major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events in patients following coronary artery bypass graft surgery: A five year longitudinal cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. Tully (Phillip); H.R. Winefield (Helen); R.A. Baker (Robert); J. Denollet (Johan); S.S. Pedersen (Susanne); G.A. Wittert (Gary); D.A. Turnbull (Deborah)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Although depression and anxiety have been implicated in risk for major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE), a theoretical approach to identifying such putative links is lacking. The objective of this study was to examine the association between theoretic

  17. Influence of environmental and personal factors on social participation: a five year follow-up study in adolescents and young adults with IBD.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannekeet-Helsen, M.J.E.; Calsbeek, H.; Rijken, P.M.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the predictive effects of personal and environmental characteristics on the development of adolescents and young adults with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). Examples of predictors that were examined are: coping style, optimism, parental overprotection and

  18. Influence of environmental and personal factors on social participation: a five year follow-up study in adolescents and young adults with IBD.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannekeet-Helsen, M.J.E.; Calsbeek, H.; Rijken, P.M.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the predictive effects of personal and environmental characteristics on the development of adolescents and young adults with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). Examples of predictors that were examined are: coping style, optimism, parental overprotection and

  19. Five-year follow-up study of a kidney-tonifying herbal Fufang for prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis and fragility fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wei-Min; Zhang, Peng; Huang, Hai; Shen, You-Gao; Yang, Qin-Hua; Cui, Wei-Li; He, Yang-Shu; Wei, Song; Ye, Zhu; Liu, Fang; Qin, Ling

    2012-09-01

    To observe the kidney-tonifying herbal Fufangs with phytoestrogenic epimedium for prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis with both bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture as study endpoints, a 5-year multicenter follow-up study in 194 postmenopausal women (47-70 years old) was conducted in which the subjects were given oral administration of herbal Fufang (10 g/day, twice per day, n = 101) or placebo (n = 93). Both groups were supplemented daily with calcium (600 mg) and vitamin D (400 IU). BMD at distal radius, potential adverse events, and fracture incidence were evaluated at baseline and at 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months. At the end of 5 years, 155 subjects had completed the study, with better adherence in the treatment group (13% dropouts, n = 88 at year 5) as compared with the control group (28% dropouts, n = 67 at year 5) (P treatment group BMD increased significantly from baseline (0.211 ± 0.022 g/cm(2)) to the end of the study (0.284 ± 0.015 g/cm(2)), whereas the control group decreased significantly from baseline (0.212 ± 0.023 g/cm(2)) to 5 years later (0.187 ± 0.022 g/cm(2)) (P treatment group than in the control group, with a relative risk of 0.57 for the treatment group (95% CI, 0.43-0.70, P prevention of postmenopausal bone loss, this 5-year multi-center clinical study demonstrated for the first time its potential for reduction in fragility fracture incidence.

  20. Change in disability profile and quality of life in multiple sclerosis patients: a five-year longitudinal study using the Multiple Sclerosis Impact Profile (MSIP)

    OpenAIRE

    Wynia, K.; van Wijlen, A. T.; Middel, B; Reijneveld, S A; Meilof, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Evidence on the progress of disease severity in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is generally limited in scope. Objectives: To examine the course of a broad spectrum of MS-related disabilities and quality of life (QOL) in relation to disease severity, and responsiveness of the Multiple Sclerosis Impact Profile (MSIP). Methods: The mortality rate was calculated after checking the national population register for vital status of the initial cohort. We performed a longitudinal study among 245...

  1. Assessment of current burden of human rabies at Sir Ronald Ross Institute of Tropical and Communicable Diseases (Government Fever Hospital – Five year study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dukkipati Kalyani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Human rabies has been still endemic in India. There are an increasing number of studies estimating the burden of human rabies, but the true incidence of the disease and endemicity were rarely reported in the literature. The main objectives of the present study were to determine the endemicity and to estimate the current burden of human rabies in and around Sir Ronald Ross Institute of Tropical and Communicable Diseases (SRRIT & CD, Nallakunta, Hyderabad. All cases admitted at SRRIT & CD with signs and symptoms of rabies were studied during the period of January 2009 and December 2013. The annual incidence of human rabies in this hospital was estimated to be 152. It is endemic mainly in urban areas that include many areas in Hyderabad and Secunderabad and also adjacent districts. The majority of the patients were children and adult male, from urban areas, and had not taken post exposure prophylaxis (PEP i.e. wound care, active immunization (ARV and passive immunization (RIG. The main animals responsible for bites were dogs (99%, most of which were stray and the most common bite sites were the extremities. Most common clinical feature was hydrophobia. About 92.76% of these patients had not taken PEP. Human rabies continues to be a dreadful disease in India and the dogs are the principal reservoir, mainly stray dogs. This study provides strong evidence that human rabies is still an endemic disease even in urban areas. This is mainly due to lack of awareness about proper PEP. Improved coverage with modern rabies vaccines, control of rabies due to dogs and other animals and intensifying public education about the disease play main role in the reduction of the disease. [J Med Allied Sci 2017; 7(1.000: 14-19

  2. Five-year efficacy of pulmonary vein antrum isolation as a primary ablation strategy for atrial fibrillation : a single-centre cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Teunissen, Cas; Kassenberg, W; van der Heijden, Jeroen F.; Hassink, RJ; van Driel, Vincent J H M; Zuithoff, NPA; Pieter A Doevendans; Loh, KP

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: Pulmonary vein antrum isolation (PVAI) is the cornerstone of atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation. There is an ongoing discussion on whether and when to add substrate modification to PVAI. This study evaluates (1) long-term efficacy of PVAI as a primary ablation strategy in all patients independently from AF type and (2) predictors of arrhythmia recurrence. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 509 consecutive patients (mean age 57 years, 38.9% non-paroxysmal AF) with AF underwent PVAI. In redo ...

  3. Characteristics of paediatric burns seen at a tertiary centre in a low income country: a five year (2004-2008) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadeyibi, I O; Mustapha, I A; Ibrahim, N A; Faduyile, F I; Faboya, M O; Jewo, P I; Ademiluyi, S A

    2011-05-01

    Children are the most risk prone in cases of burns. The previous epidemiologic study of paediatric burns in Lagos-Nigeria was carried four decades ago. A new study becomes necessary in view of the increasing incidences of petroleum related fire disasters in Nigeria. : Children up to the age of 14 years admitted for major burns at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital (LASUTH), Ikeja-Lagos, Nigeria between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2008 were studied. Information about the demographics, mechanism/circumstances of burns, associated injuries, surface extent (TBSA) and depth, modes of management and outcome, length of admission, and post mortem findings in cases of death were collected. : A total of 298 children with major burns were seen; 198 were males and 100 females. The ages ranged from 1 day to 14 years with mean of 4.56 ± 3.95 years. Forty percent of the cases occurred among the toddlers and 25.5% in the 2-5 years age group. Fire was the leading cause of burns, occurring in 198 (66.4%) cases. The TBSA ranged from 1% to 100% with mean of 29.67 ± 21.98. The mortality rate was 29.9%. Autopsy showed asphyxia as the primary cause of death in 14 (48.27%) cases, multiple organ dysfunctions in 27.59% and septicaemia in 13.79%. This study identifies the main causes of paediatric burns and the major factors responsible for morbidity and mortality at the present time in a low income country. The level of awareness about burns prevention among the populace and health care facilities should be improved. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  4. Accuracy of Cone-beam Computed Tomography and Periapical Radiography in Endodontically Treated Teeth Evaluation: A Five-Year Retrospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of two imaging methods in detecting the apical pathology in endodontically treated teeth. Material and Methods: A clinical examination from a sample of 156 teeth of patients treated by students of masters in endodontics at the Care Center of the Faculty of Dentistry at St. Joseph University, Beirut was done after 5 years of follow-up. Periradicular digital radiographs and a cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT)scans were taken and analyzed ...

  5. Malignant ilnesses in men breast. A twenty-five year study Afecciones malignas de la mama en hombre. Estudio de veinticinco años

    OpenAIRE

    Lidia Torres Ajá

    2007-01-01

    Background: Breast tumors prevailed in female population, nevertheless in male population appear although it is very infrequent to be found. Objective: to describe the clinical-pathologic behavior of breast cancer in Cienfuegos province. Method: A descriptive-retrospective study of breast tumors in males who were surgically treated at the University Hospital ";Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima” in Cienfuegos, Cub...

  6. Creating patient value in glaucoma care: applying quality costing and care delivery value chain approaches--a five-year case study in the Rotterdam Eye Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Korne, Dirk F; Sol, Kees; Custers, Thomas; van Sprundel, Esther; van Ineveld, B Martin; Lemij, Hans G; Klazinga, Niek S

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore in a specific hospital care process the applicability in practice of the theories of quality costing and value chains. In a retrospective case study an in-depth evaluation of the use of a quality cost model (QCM) and the applicability of Porter's care delivery value chain (CDVC) was performed in a specific care process: glaucoma care over the period 2001 to 2006 in the Rotterdam Eye Hospital in The Netherlands. The case study shows a reduction of costs per product by increasing the number of outpatient visits and surgery combined with a higher patient satisfaction. Reduction of costs of non-compliance by using the QCM is small, due to the absence of (external) financial incentives for both the hospital and individual physicians. For CDVC to be supportive to an integrated quality and cost management the notion "patient value" needs far more specification as mutually agreed on by the stakeholders involved and related reimbursement needs to depend on realised outcomes. The case study just focused on one specific care process in one hospital. To determine effects in other areas of health care, it is important to study the use and applicability of the QCM and the CDVC in other care processes and settings. QCM and a CDVC can be useful tools for hospital management to manage the outcomes on both quality and costs, but impact is dependent on the incentives in the context of the existing organisational and reimbursement system and asks for an agreed on operationalisation among the various stakeholders of the notion of patient value.

  7. Five-Year-Olds’ Systematic Errors in Second-Order False Belief Tasks Are Due to First-Order Theory of Mind Strategy Selection: A Computational Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Burcu; Taatgen, Niels A.; Verbrugge, Rineke

    2017-01-01

    The focus of studies on second-order false belief reasoning generally was on investigating the roles of executive functions and language with correlational studies. Different from those studies, we focus on the question how 5-year-olds select and revise reasoning strategies in second-order false belief tasks by constructing two computational cognitive models of this process: an instance-based learning model and a reinforcement learning model. Unlike the reinforcement learning model, the instance-based learning model predicted that children who fail second-order false belief tasks would give answers based on first-order theory of mind (ToM) reasoning as opposed to zero-order reasoning. This prediction was confirmed with an empirical study that we conducted with 72 5- to 6-year-old children. The results showed that 17% of the answers were correct and 83% of the answers were wrong. In line with our prediction, 65% of the wrong answers were based on a first-order ToM strategy, while only 29% of them were based on a zero-order strategy (the remaining 6% of subjects did not provide any answer). Based on our instance-based learning model, we propose that when children get feedback “Wrong,” they explicitly revise their strategy to a higher level instead of implicitly selecting one of the available ToM strategies. Moreover, we predict that children’s failures are due to lack of experience and that with exposure to second-order false belief reasoning, children can revise their wrong first-order reasoning strategy to a correct second-order reasoning strategy. PMID:28293206

  8. Five-Year Cohort Study of Nosema spp. in Germany: Does Climate Shape Virulence and Assertiveness of Nosema ceranae?▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisder, Sebastian; Hedtke, Kati; Möckel, Nadine; Frielitz, Marie-Charlotte; Linde, Andreas; Genersch, Elke

    2010-01-01

    Nosema ceranae and Nosema apis are two fungal pathogens belonging to the phylum Microsporidia and infecting the European honeybee, Apis mellifera. Recent studies have suggested that N. ceranae is more virulent than N. apis both at the individual insect level and at the colony level. Severe colony losses could be attributed to N. ceranae infections, and an unusual form of nosemosis is caused by this pathogen. In the present study, data from a 5-year cohort study of the prevalence of Nosema spp. in Germany, involving about 220 honeybee colonies and a total of 1,997 samples collected from these colonies each spring and autumn and analyzed via species-specific PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), are described. Statistical analysis of the data revealed no relation between colony mortality and detectable levels of infection with N. ceranae or N. apis. In addition, N. apis is still more prevalent than N. ceranae in the cohort of the German bee population that was analyzed. A possible explanation for these findings could be the marked decrease in spore germination that was observed after even a short exposure to low temperatures (+4°C) for N. ceranae only. Reduced or inhibited N. ceranae spore germination at low temperatures should hamper the infectivity and spread of this pathogen in climatic regions characterized by a rather cold winter season. PMID:20228103

  9. Long term (five-year survival following radical surgical treatment plus adjuvant chemotherapy (FAM in advanced gastric cancer: a controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bresciani Cláudio

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Several drugs and their associations are being used for adjuvant or complementary chemotherapy with the aim of improving results of gastric cancer treatment. The objective of this study was to verify the impact of these drugs on nutrition and on survival rate after radical treatment of 53 patients with gastric cancer in stage III of the TNM classification. A control group including 28 patients who had only undergone radical resection was compared to a group of 25 patients who underwent the same operative technique followed by adjuvant polychemotherapy with FAM (5-fluorouracil, Adriamycin, and mitomycin C. In this latter group, chemotherapy toxicity in relation to hepatic, renal, cardiologic, neurological, hematologic, gastrointestinal, and dermatological functions was also studied. There was no significant difference on admission between both groups in relation to gender, race, macroscopic tumoral type of tumor according to the Borrmann classification, location of the tumor in the stomach, length of the gastric resection, or response to cutaneous tests on delayed sensitivity. Chemotherapy was started on average, 2.3 months following surgical treatment. Clinical and laboratory follow-up of all patients continued for 5 years. The following conclusions were reached: 1 The nutritional status and incidence of gastrointestinal manifestation were similar in both groups; 2 There was no occurrence of cardiac, renal, neurological, or hepatic toxicity or death due to the chemotherapeutic method per se; 3 Dermatological alterations and hematological toxicity occurred exclusively in patients who underwent polychemotherapy; 4 There was no significant difference between the rate and site of tumoral recurrence, the disease-free interval, or the survival rate of both study groups; 5 Therefore, we concluded, after a 5-year follow-up, chemotherapy with the FAM regimen did not increase the survival rate.

  10. THE INFLUENCE OF INSULIN RESISTANCE ON THE FORMATION AND PROGRESSION OF METABOLIC SYNDROME COMPONENTS (THE RESULTS OF A FIVE-YEAR STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Roytberg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination of risk factors that make up a metabolic syndrome increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. In the presence of insulin resistance the effects of risk factors combine, thereby increasing the probability of the development of cardiovascular disease and its complications.Aim. To study the effect of insulin resistance on the formation and progression of metabolic syndrome components on the basis of a 5-year follow-up.Material and methods. An outpatient examination of clinically healthy patients aged 20-65 years (n=711; 327 men and 384 women was conducted. The average body mass index did not exceed 34.5 kg/m2. Biochemical blood analysis was performed to assess the state of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Insulin resistance was diagnosed using HOMAIR>2.6.Results. It has been detected that patients with insulin resistance have significantly higher incidence of the combination of three or more components of the metabolic syndrome (p<0.01. The incidence of multicomponent syndrome among the examined patients with insulin resistance was 69.7%, which is 1.8 times higher than in patients with initially preserved tissue sensitivity to insulin.Conclusion. The follow-up study of patients with insulin resistance shows that in the absence of correction of metabolic disorders, the development of multicomponent disorders that make up a metabolic syndrome occurs.

  11. THE INFLUENCE OF INSULIN RESISTANCE ON THE FORMATION AND PROGRESSION OF METABOLIC SYNDROME COMPONENTS (THE RESULTS OF A FIVE-YEAR STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Roytberg

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The combination of risk factors that make up a metabolic syndrome increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. In the presence of insulin resistance the effects of risk factors combine, thereby increasing the probability of the development of cardiovascular disease and its complications.Aim. To study the effect of insulin resistance on the formation and progression of metabolic syndrome components on the basis of a 5-year follow-up.Material and methods. An outpatient examination of clinically healthy patients aged 20-65 years (n=711; 327 men and 384 women was conducted. The average body mass index did not exceed 34.5 kg/m2. Biochemical blood analysis was performed to assess the state of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Insulin resistance was diagnosed using HOMAIR>2.6.Results. It has been detected that patients with insulin resistance have significantly higher incidence of the combination of three or more components of the metabolic syndrome (p<0.01. The incidence of multicomponent syndrome among the examined patients with insulin resistance was 69.7%, which is 1.8 times higher than in patients with initially preserved tissue sensitivity to insulin.Conclusion. The follow-up study of patients with insulin resistance shows that in the absence of correction of metabolic disorders, the development of multicomponent disorders that make up a metabolic syndrome occurs.

  12. Peripheral neuropathies in systemic lupus erythematosus: clinical features, disease associations, and immunologic characteristics evaluated over a twenty-five-year study period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oomatia, A; Fang, H; Petri, M; Birnbaum, J

    2014-04-01

    To characterize peripheral neuropathy subtypes, ancillary studies, and immunologic profiles associated with peripheral neuropathies in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In this 25-year study of 2,097 SLE patients, we characterized peripheral neuropathies due to SLE and compared clinical and SLE-related features in patients with versus those without neuropathy. The prevalence of peripheral neuropathies was 5.9% (123 of 2,097 patients), and 66.7% of these patients (82 of 123) had peripheral neuropathies attributable to SLE. We noted that 17.1% of the patients with peripheral neuropathies due to SLE (14 of 82 patients) had small-fiber neuropathy, which is a painful neuropathy not included in the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) neuropsychiatric SLE (NPSLE) case definitions. SLE patients with small-fiber neuropathies could present with unorthodox neuropathic pain patterns not consistent with a stocking-glove distribution and had associated skin biopsy results suggestive of dorsal root ganglion neuronal cell loss. Compared to SLE patients without peripheral neuropathies, those with peripheral neuropathies had lower mean disease activity (P = 0.01) and higher disease damage (P neuropathies, is warranted. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  13. Five years' experience of transverse groin incision for femoral artery access in arterial reconstructive surgery: parallel observational longitudinal group comparison study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Beirne, Christopher

    2008-07-01

    Vertical groin incisions (VGIs) have been used to access femoral vessels, but reports allude to wound complications. Our aim was to compare VGI with transverse groin incision (TGI) for femoral artery exposure. Over a 5-year interval, 196 patients with 284 femoral artery exposures for supra- and infrainguinal procedures were studied. Primary endpoints were surgical skin site wound infection, seroma, haematoma formation, and major lower limb amputation. Secondary endpoints were graft patency, wound paresthesias, and length of hospital stay. There were 160 TGIs and 124 VGIs. The demographics and risk factor profile were not statistically different between groups. Seroma developed in 4.4% of TGIs and 13.7% of VGIs (p= .005). The complicated skin and soft tissue infection rate was five times greater with VGI (p= .001). The VGI group had a significantly higher rate of major amputation (p= .0005). Significantly higher graft failure rates were observed in the VGI group (p= .011). No paresthesia was reported in any TGI wound. The mean hospital stay was also significantly shorter in the TGI group (p= .006). The study data support and expound on the theory that an alternative incision to VGI offers lower short- and long-term morbidity. Our findings sustain the selection of the TGI in femoral artery surgery for both supra- and infrainguinal procedures without compromise of vessel exposure.

  14. Seasonal variation in the prevalence of acute undernutrition among children under five years of age in east rural Ethiopia: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egata, Gudina; Berhane, Yemane; Worku, Alemayehu

    2013-09-18

    Malnutrition is a deficiency state of both macro and micronutrients (under--nutrition) and their over consumption (over- nutrition) causing measurable adverse effects on human body structure and function, resulting in specific physical and clinical outcomes. Little has been known about the seasonal variation in the magnitude of acute child under-nutrition and its determinants in low and middle-income countries making difficult the choice of a better nutrition intervention. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of acute under-nutrition and its associated factors on children aged 6 to 36 months in east rural Ethiopia in wet and dry seasons. A longitudinal study was conducted on children aged 6 to 36 months and their mothers (mother-child pairs) from July/August 2010/2011 to January/ February 2011/2012 in east rural Ethiopia. Data were collected from 2,132 mother-child pairs using a pretested structured questionnaire and the UNICEF recommended anthropometric measuring instruments after standardization. The Odds Ratio with 95% confidence interval was estimated to identify the predictors of acute child under nutrition (wasting) using a conditional fixed- effects logistic regression. The prevalence of acute child under-nutrition was 7.4%; 95% CI: (6.3%, 8.5%) in wet and 11. 2%; 95% CI: (9.8%, 12.5%) in dry seasons. Child wasting was more common among children of poor households who had no cooperative bank saving accounts [AOR (95% CI) = 8.2. (1.8, 37.6)], and access to health facilities [AOR (95% CI) = 2.2 (1.4, 3.6)]. Acute child under-nutrition was relatively higher in the dry season. Although season was not significantly associated with child under--nutrition, poverty and poor access to health services were important predictors of wasting in the study setting. Thus, effective community-based nutrition interventions that require a multi--disciplinary approach should be scaled up to curb childhood under-nutrition.

  15. The clinical characteristics and direct medical cost of influenza in hospitalized children: a five-year retrospective study in Suzhou, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There have been few studies on children hospitalized with influenza published from mainland China. We performed a retrospective review of medical charts to describe the epidemiology, clinical features and direct medical cost of laboratory-proven influenza hospitalized children in Suzhou, China. METHODS: Retrospective study on children with documented influenza infection hospitalized at Suzhou Children Hospital during 2005-2009 was conducted using a structured chart review instrument. RESULTS: A total of 480 children were positive by immuno-fluorescent assay for influenza during 2005-2009. The hospitalizations for influenza occurred in 8-12 months of the year, most commonly in the winter with a second late summer peak (August-September. Influenza A accounted for 86.3%, and of these 286 (59.6% were male, and 87.2% were 60 months old had shorter hospital stay (OR = 0.45; children with oxygen treatment tended to have longer hospital stays than those without oxygen treatment (OR = 2.14. The mean cost of each influenza-related hospitalization was US$ 624 (US$ 1323 for children referred to ICU and US$ 617 for those cared for on the wards. High risk children had higher total cost than low-risk patients. CONCLUSION: Compared to other countries, in Suzhou, children hospitalized with influenza have longer hospital stay and higher percentage of pneumonia. The direct medical cost is high relative to family income. Effective strategies of influenza immunization of young children in China may be beneficial in addressing this disease burden.

  16. Five-year stability study of free and total prostate-specific antigen concentrations in serum specimens collected and stored at -70 degrees C or less.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaramuzzino, D A; Schulte, K; Mack, B N; Soriano, T F; Fritsche, H A

    2007-01-01

    The stability of total (t) and free (f) prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in male serum specimens stored at -70 degrees C or lower temperature for 4.7 to 4.9 years was studied. Until now, the stability of these analytes in serum has not been evaluated systematically beyond 2 years of storage at -70 degrees C. Aliquots of frozen serum were thawed in 2001 and 2006 and assayed for tPSA and fPSA using a Dade Behring Dimension(R) RxL analyzer and reagents. tPSA values ranged from 0.07 to 69.94 and 0.00 to 69.83 ng/mL in 2001 and 2006, respectively, whereas fPSA values for the tested specimens ranged from 0.02 to 5.72 and 0.00 to 5.92, respectively. Deming regression analyses showed agreement in assay values over time as tPSA values yielded a slope of 1.0112 and a y-intercept of 0.0195; fPSA values produced a slope 1.0538 and a y-intercept of -0.0442; f/tPSA values yielded a slope of 0.9631 and a y-intercept of 0.1195. A Bland-Altman analysis of the data demonstrated analyte and ratio stability over this time period. We conclude that serum, when collected properly and stored at -70 degrees C or lower temperature, may be used for tPSA and fPSA clinical studies for at least 5 years after collection.

  17. Attributable causes of chronic kidney disease in adults: a five-year retrospective study in a tertiary-care hospital in the northeast of the Malaysian Peninsula

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    Muhammad Salman

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Chronic kidney disease (CKD is an escalating medical and socioeconomic problem worldwide. Information concerning the causes of CKD, which is a prerequisite for reducing the disease burden, is sparse in Malaysia. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the attributable causes of CKD in an adult population at a tertiary referral hospital. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective study at Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM. METHODS: This was an analysis based on medical records of adult patients at HUSM. Data regarding demographics, laboratory investigations, attributable causes and CKD stage were gathered. RESULTS: A total of 851 eligible cases were included. The patients' mean age was 61.18 ± 13.37 years. CKD stage V was found in 333 cases (39.1% whereas stages IV, IIIb, IIIa, and II were seen in 240 (28.2%, 186 (21.9%, 74 (8.7% and 18 (2.1%, respectively. The percentage of CKD stage V patients receiving renal replacement therapy was 15.6%. The foremost attributable causes of CKD were diabetic nephropathy (DN (44.9%, hypertension (HPT (24.2% and obstructive uropathy (9.2%. The difference in the prevalence of CKD due to DN, HPT and glomerulonephritis between patients ≤ 50 and > 50 years old was statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that DN and HPT are the major attributable causes of CKD among patients at a Malaysian tertiary-care hospital. Furthermore, the results draw attention to the possibility that greater emphasis on primary prevention of diabetes and hypertension will have a great impact on reduction of hospital admissions due to CKD in Malaysia.

  18. Five-year Local Control in a Phase II Study of Hypofractionated Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy With an Incorporated Boost for Early Stage Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freedman, Gary M., E-mail: Gary.Freedman@uphs.upenn.edu [Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Anderson, Penny R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Bleicher, Richard J. [Department of Surgical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Litwin, Samuel; Li Tianyu [Department of Biostatistics, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Swaby, Ramona F. [Department of Medical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Ma, Chang-Ming Charlie; Li Jinsheng [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Sigurdson, Elin R. [Department of Surgical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Watkins-Bruner, Deborah [School of Nursing, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Morrow, Monica [Department of Surgical Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Goldstein, Lori J. [Department of Medical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: Conventional radiation fractionation of 1.8-2 Gy per day for early stage breast cancer requires daily treatment for 6-7 weeks. We report the 5-year results of a phase II study of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), hypofractionation, and incorporated boost that shortened treatment time to 4 weeks. Methods and Materials: The study design was phase II with a planned accrual of 75 patients. Eligibility included patients aged {>=}18 years, Tis-T2, stage 0-II, and breast conservation. Photon IMRT and an incorporated boost was used, and the whole breast received 2.25 Gy per fraction for a total of 45 Gy, and the tumor bed received 2.8 Gy per fraction for a total of 56 Gy in 20 treatments over 4 weeks. Patients were followed every 6 months for 5 years. Results: Seventy-five patients were treated from December 2003 to November 2005. The median follow-up was 69 months. Median age was 52 years (range, 31-81). Median tumor size was 1.4 cm (range, 0.1-3.5). Eighty percent of tumors were node negative; 93% of patients had negative margins, and 7% of patients had close (>0 and <2 mm) margins; 76% of cancers were invasive ductal type: 15% were ductal carcinoma in situ, 5% were lobular, and 4% were other histology types. Twenty-nine percent of patients 29% had grade 3 carcinoma, and 20% of patients had extensive in situ carcinoma; 11% of patients received chemotherapy, 36% received endocrine therapy, 33% received both, and 20% received neither. There were 3 instances of local recurrence for a 5-year actuarial rate of 2.7%. Conclusions: This 4-week course of hypofractionated radiation with incorporated boost was associated with excellent local control, comparable to historical results of 6-7 weeks of conventional whole-breast fractionation with sequential boost.

  19. The Role of Parents' Literacy in Malnutrition of Children Under the Age of Five Years in a Semi-Urban Community of Pakistan: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattak, Umme K; Iqbal, Saima P; Ghazanfar, Haider

    2017-06-05

    According to a recent survey, Pakistan was ranked as the third highest country with malnutrition and the under-five child mortality. No realistic solution for this growing problem has been found despite the fact that the struggle to tackle the issue of malnutrition among young Pakistani children has been going on for the last several decades. The objective of our study was to look into the relationship between parental education and malnutrition in Pakistan and to make a recommendation to improve the nutritional condition of the children. We carried a case-control study among 400 mothers from February 2016 to July 2016 in a primary health care center located in a peri-urban community in Pakistan. A self-constructed questionnaire comprising of 75 questions was used to collect the data. The mean age of mother was found to be 27.61 ± 5.130. The majority of the mothers were uneducated 168 (42.0%) while only 116 (29.0%) fathers were uneducated. About 226 (56.5%) of the children had a normal nutritional status while 102 (25.5%) had first-degree malnutrition, 52 (13.0%) had second-degree malnutrition, and 20 (5.0%) had a third-degree malnutrition. Higher paternal educational status (p = 0.008) and maternal educational status (p = 0.011) were found to be significantly associated with normal child nutritional status. It is recommended that the education of parents, especially females, in the rural and semi-urban areas should be promoted and given due importance. The focus of all these programs should be the mother in terms of security, employment, literacy, justice, healthcare, food, shelter, and social equality.

  20. A comparative study on gender disparity in nutritional status in children under five years in rural and urban communities of Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farha Yesmin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Under nutrition is a serious public health problem among children in the developing countries. Though the importance of girl child has been stressed time and again, yet a wide level of disparity still exists, whether implicit or explicit, in nutrition and child care both in the rural and urban areas.  Different underlying factors are responsible for this disparity. Rationale: Girls face discrimination from the moment she is born. The UNICEF intergenerational cycle of malnutrition stresses on the fact that the problem of malnutrition spans generation and is a vicious cycle. Though the importance of girl child has been stressed time and again, yet a wide level of disparity still exists. Therefore this study is conducted to document the gender disparity in nutritional status and compare rural and urban differences. Objective: 1.To compare the gender disparity in nutritional status in children aged 0-5 years in rural and urban areas.2.To assess the different socio-demographic factors influencing the gender disparity. Materials and Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in Kamrup Rural and Kamrup Urban using a pre-tested schedule from August 2013-July 2014.A total of 400 children were examined and their mother’s interviewed. Data was entered into MS-Excel spread sheets for analysis. The statistical analyses were done using SPSS version 16 software. Percentages and Chi square tests were used to analyze epidemiological variables. Results: The prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting in rural area was 31%, 29%, 15.5% respectively whereas in urban it was 39.5%, 36% and 24.5% respectively. In rural area, male child were 32% underweight, 28% stunted and 19% wasted compared to female who were 30% underweight, 30% stunted and 12% wasted. In urban area 48% of female child were underweight, 39% stunted and 27% wasted compared to 31%, 33% and 22% in male child respectively. A significant higher proportion of

  1. Febrile illness management in children under five years of age: a qualitative pilot study on primary health care workers' practices in Zanzibar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltzell, Kimberly; Elfving, Kristina; Shakely, Deler; Ali, Abdullah S; Msellem, Mwinyi; Gulati, Shilpa; Mårtensson, Andreas

    2013-01-28

    In Zanzibar, malaria prevalence dropped substantially in the last decade and presently most febrile patients seen in primary health care facilities (PHCF) test negative for malaria. The availability of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) allows rural health workers to reliably rule out malaria in fever patients. However, additional diagnostic tools to identify alternative fever causes are scarce, often leaving RDT-negative patients without a clear diagnosis and management plan. This pilot study aimed to explore health workers' practices with febrile children and identify factors influencing their diagnostic and management decisions in non-malarial fever patients. Semi-structured key informant interviews were conducted with 12 health workers in six PHCFs in North A district, Zanzibar, April to June 2011. Interviews were coded using Atlas.ti to identify emerging themes that play a role in the diagnosis and management of febrile children. The following themes were identified: 1) health workers use caregivers' history of illness and RDT results for initial diagnostic and management decisions, but suggest caregivers need more education to prevent late presentation and poor health outcomes; 2) there is uncertainty regarding viral versus bacterial illness and health workers feel additional point-of-care diagnostic tests would help with differential diagnoses; 3) stock-outs of medications and limited caregivers' resources are barriers to delivering good care; 4) training, short courses and participation in research as well as; 5) weather also influences diagnostic decision-making. This pilot study found that health workers in Zanzibar use caregiver history of fever and results of malaria RDTs to guide management of febrile children. However, since most febrile children test negative for malaria, health workers believe additional training and point-of-care tests would improve their ability to diagnose and manage non-malarial fevers. Educating caregivers on signs and symptoms of

  2. The relative role of Amazonian and non-Amazonian fires in building up the aerosol optical depth in South America: A five year study (2005-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Videla, Fernando; Barnaba, Francesca; Angelini, Federico; Cremades, Pablo; Gobbi, Gian Paolo

    2013-03-01

    In South America (SA) biomass burning is the major source of atmospheric aerosols. Fires are mostly registered in the dry season (July-November) and are mainly concentrated in the Amazonia and Cerrado regions. Nonetheless, the growing systematic employment of fires for land clearing and pasture maintenance across the SA continent is introducing other, potentially significant, sources of BB aerosols. This study investigates the relative contributions of different SA biomass burning regions in building up the continental aerosol load. To this purpose, the SA continent is divided into four biomass burning source regions and their impact on the aerosol optical depth (AOD) is evaluated in eight different SA target domains. The dataset used includes multi-year (2005-2009) satellite observations of both aerosol and fires and model-based atmospheric trajectories. The methodology followed couples fire counts and atmospheric transport through the definition of a specific quantity, referred to as ‘fire weighted residence time’ (FWRT), which is used to assess the contribution of the four identified fire source regions to the continental aerosol load. Results show that local fires play an important role in building up the regional aerosols load all over SA. Nevertheless, in some regions, contribution of BB aerosols transported from outside their boundaries is comparable to the local one. The major ‘smoke exporter’ regions are found to be the eastern Brazil and the Amazonia-Cerrado regions. In the dry season, due to the typical continental circulation pattern, the first is estimated to contribute to half of the AOD in Northern Amazonia, Southern Amazonia and Cerrado regions, while over 30% of the AOD in Paraguay and North Argentina derives from the Amazonia-Cerrado fires. Due to the presence of the inter-tropical convergence zone, which decouples wind circulation of the two hemispheres, regions north of the Equator (Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname) are found to receive

  3. Malignant ilnesses in men breast. A twenty-five year study Afecciones malignas de la mama en hombre. Estudio de veinticinco años

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    Lidia Torres Ajá

    Full Text Available Background: Breast tumors prevailed in female population, nevertheless in male population appear although it is very infrequent to be found. Objective: to describe the clinical-pathologic behavior of breast cancer in Cienfuegos province. Method: A descriptive-retrospective study of breast tumors in males who were surgically treated at the University Hospital ";Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima” in Cienfuegos, Cuba from January 1st 1981 to December 31st 2005. The variables used were the following: age, affected breast, topographic localization of the tumor, clinical stage at the time of diagnosis, histological variant, type of biopsy used for this purpose, surgical technique applied, and health area belonging to. Results: male breast cancer represented the 0.8 % out of the total of breast cancers which were surgically treated during this studied period. Detection at very advanced clinical stages was confirmed. Conclusions: It is necessary to establish mechanisms for their early detection due to the increment in the incidence of this disease in males.
    Fundamento: Los tumores mamarios prevalecen en la población femenina, sin embargo, en el sexo masculino, aunque es extremadamente infrecuente, también puede aparecer este tipo de afección. Objetivo: Describir el comportamiento clínico patológico del cáncer de mama en hombre, en la provincia Cienfuegos. Método: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo, de todos los casos de tumores mamarios en hombre, operados en el Hospital Universitario ";Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima” de Cienfuegos, desde el 1ro de enero de 1981, hasta el 31 de diciembre de 2005. Las variables analizadas fueron: edad, mama afectada, localización topográfica del tumor, etapa clínica en el momento del diagnóstico, variante histológica, tipo de biopsia

  4. Anti-TNFα agents in elderly patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a study of a group of 105 over sixty five years old patients

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    C. Biasini Rebaioli

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and the safety of anti-TNF-alfa treatment in elderly patients (≥65 years old with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA, in comparison with younger (17-65 years old. Methods: We considered retrospectively 295 patients, affected by RA and treated with anti-TNF-alfa drugs. They were divided in two groups, according to their age, and followed up for two years: over-65-years old patients (190 and under-65-years old patients (105. Effectiveness of drugs was assessed analyzing RA disease activity (DAS28, DAS44, SDAI, functional status (HAQ and serological parameters (CRP before and after anti-TNF-alfa therapy. Safety was studied considering discontinuation rate of biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, and collateral events rate. Results: At baseline, elderly patients showed higher disease activity’s score (DAS 28, DAS44, SDAI, HAQ with important loss of articular function (worse quality of life, HAQ than younger patients (p0.05. Conclusions: Anti-TNF-alfa treatment was efficacious and safe in both groups of patients. These drugs induced improvement in disease activity, apart from the age. No functional improvement was observed in HAQ, showing the irreversible loss of articular function and the incomplete recovery in elderly patients. Age doesn’t interfere with the possibility to treat elderly patients with anti-TNF-alfa drugs.

  5. The complex impact of five years of stress related to life-threatening events on pregnancy outcomes: a preliminary retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keren, M; Keren, N; Eden, A; Tsangen, S; Weizman, A; Zalsman, G

    2015-02-01

    To study the impact of chronic, life-threatening stressors in the form of daily missile attacks, for five consecutive years, on pregnancy outcomes. Charts of deliveries from two neighboring towns in the south of Israel, covering the years 2000 and 2003-2008, were reviewed retrospectively. One city had been exposed to missile attacks, while the other was not. For each year, 100 charts were chosen at random. Significant association was found between exposure to stress and frequency of pregnancy complications (P=0.047) and premature membrane rupture (P=0.029). A more detailed analysis, based on dividing the stressful years into three distinct periods: early (2003-2004), intermediate (2005-2006) and late (2007-2008), revealed that preterm deliveries were significantly more frequent (P=0.044) during the intermediate period, as was premature membrane rupture during the late period (P=0.014). Exposure to chronic life-threatening stress resulted in more pregnancy complications and in particular more premature membrane ruptures. The impact was most significant during the middle period of the 5-year-exposure to the stressor. Hence it seems that factors of duration and habituation may play a role in the impact of chronic, life-threatening stressors on pregnancy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Change in disability profile and quality of life in multiple sclerosis patients: a five-year longitudinal study using the Multiple Sclerosis Impact Profile (MSIP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynia, K; van Wijlen, A T; Middel, B; Reijneveld, S A; Meilof, J F

    2012-05-01

    Evidence on the progress of disease severity in multiple sclerosis (MS) is generally limited in scope. To examine the course of a broad spectrum of MS-related disabilities and quality of life (QOL) in relation to disease severity, and responsiveness of the Multiple Sclerosis Impact Profile (MSIP). The mortality rate was calculated after checking the national population register for vital status of the initial cohort. We performed a longitudinal study among 245 patients with MS attending the Groningen MS Center in the Netherlands. We assessed these patients in 2004 and 2009 using a postal survey including the MSIP to evaluate disabilities, the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Abbreviation version (WHOQOL-BREF) to evaluate QOL, and the ambulation question of the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) to evaluate disease severity. Responsiveness of the MSIP was estimated using standardized response mean (SRM). Increase of disability in the MSIP disability domains and loss of QOL were most prevalent and pronounced in patients with EDSS 0 to QOL scores were remarkably stable in the higher disease severity groups. Mortality rates were highest (24%) in patients with EDSS ≥ 7 to QOL occur especially in the early stages in MS. Health care interventions may lead to health and QOL gains, in particular when offered to patients in the first stage of the MS process. Responsiveness was sufficient for nine of the 11 MSIP domains.

  7. A Five-year Performance Study of Low VOC Coatings over Zinc Thermal Spray for the Protection of Carbon Steel at the Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolody, Mark R.; Curran, Jerome P.; Calle, Luz Marina

    2014-01-01

    The launch facilities at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) are located approximately 1000 feet from the Atlantic Ocean where they are exposed to salt deposits, high humidity, high UV degradation, and acidic exhaust from solid rocket boosters. These assets are constructed from carbon steel, which requires a suitable coating to provide long-term protection to reduce corrosion and its associated costs. While currently used coating systems provide excellent corrosion control performance, they are subject to occupational, safety, and environmental regulations at the Federal and State levels that limit their use. Many contain high volatile organic compounds (VOCs), hazardous air pollutants, and other hazardous materials. Hazardous waste from coating operations include vacuum filters, zinc dust, hazardous paint related material, and solid paint. There are also worker safety issues such as exposure to solvents and isocyanates. To address these issues, top-coated thermal spray zinc coating systems were investigated as a promising environmentally friendly corrosion protection for carbon steel in an acidic launch environment. Additional benefits of the combined coating system include a long service life, cathodic protection to the substrate, no volatile contaminants, and high service temperatures. This paper reports the results of a performance based study to evaluate low VOC topcoats (for thermal spray zinc coatings) on carbon steel for use in a space launch environment.

  8. Five-year outcome of a retrospective cohort study on the rehabilitation of completely edentulous atrophic maxillae with immediately loaded zygomatic implants placed extra-maxillary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maló, Paulo; Nobre, Miguel de Araújo; Lopes, Armando; Ferro, Ana; Moss, Steven

    2014-01-01

    To report retrospectively on the 5-year follow-up results of the rehabilitation of complete edentulous atrophied maxillae, using extra-maxillary zygomatic implants alone or in combination with conventional implants. This retrospective report includes an initial cohort of 39 patients (30 women and 9 men), with a mean age of 53 years, followed for 5 years. The patients were rehabilitated with 39 fixed prostheses and 169 implants (92 zygomatic implants inserted extra-maxillary and 77 conventional dental implants). A provisional prosthesis was manufactured and attached via multiunit abutments secured to the implants on the same day as implant placement. According to patient desires and each clinical situation, either an acrylic resin, a metal-acrylic or metal-ceramic final prosthesis was inserted approximately 6 months after implant placement. Outcome measures were: prosthesis success; implant success; complications; probing pocket depths; marginal bleeding; and marginal bone levels (only for conventional implants). Data were analysed with descriptive statistics. Two patients died after 8 and 30 months of follow-up due to causes unrelated to their oral rehabilitations, and 5 patients dropped out of the study. No prosthesis was lost; one zygomatic implant was removed after 46 months of follow-up, giving cumulative success rates of 97% and 98.8% (patient and implant related, respectively). Twelve complications occurred in 12 patients: 5 sinus infections in 5 patients, all with a previous history of sinusitis and whose sinus membrane was disrupted during surgery; one oroantral communication (leading to removal of the implant), 2 all acrylic resin prostheses fractures, 1 ceramic crown fracture (on a metal-ceramic prosthesis); and 3 screw loosenings. Bleeding on probing was recorded in 6 patients (13 implants). Probing pocket depths >4 mm were present in 13 patients (23 implants) at 5 years of follow-up. The average (standard deviation) marginal bone loss on conventional

  9. Abdominoplastia multifuncional: estudio retrospectivo de 5 años de experiencia con 108 pacientes Multifunctional abdominoplasty: a five year retrospective study with 108 patients

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    C.P.D. Roxo

    2008-09-01

    better results for patients. Through a bimanual maneuver, based on reduction mammaplasty according to Pitanguy's technique, we changed the dissection way, starting from cephalic to podalic and from lateral to medial, becoming resection of the fat flap more simple, quicker and safer to proceed. We emphasize that the most important point in this technique is don't undermine the remaining flaps to create traction vectors that increase vascular security, and because of it, reduce complications like seroma, hematoma, and flap necrosis. Besides, there is no necessity for blood transfusion. In a 5 year perior, we follow up 108 patients, 59 woman and 49 man, with massive weight loss (between 35 to 145 Kg, ages ranging from 18 to 68 years, who underwent multifunctional abdominoplasty with flap resection ranging from 2.2 to 21.5 Kg. The average hospitalization time was 2 to 7 days, returning to regular activities between 10 to 15 days. By this study we demonstrate that multifunctional abdominoplasty is an easily reproducible technique, that allows it's application in any age and brings more security, not only during the procedure but also in the postoperative period, improving the whole body contour.

  10. Geospatial Health: the first five years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürg Utzinger

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Geospatial Health is an international, peer-reviewed scientific journal produced by the Global Network for Geospatial Health (GnosisGIS. This network was founded in 2000 and the inaugural issue of its official journal was published in November 2006 with the aim to cover all aspects of geographical information system (GIS applications, remote sensing and other spatial analytic tools focusing on human and veterinary health. The University of Naples Federico II is the publisher, producing two issues per year, both as hard copy and an open-access online version. The journal is referenced in major databases, including CABI, ISI Web of Knowledge and PubMed. In 2008, it was assigned its first impact factor (1.47, which has now reached 1.71. Geospatial Health is managed by an editor-in-chief and two associate editors, supported by five regional editors and a 23-member strong editorial board. This overview takes stock of the first five years of publishing: 133 contributions have been published so far, primarily original research (79.7%, followed by reviews (7.5%, announcements (6.0%, editorials and meeting reports (3.0% each and a preface in the first issue. A content analysis of all the original research articles and reviews reveals that three quarters of the publications focus on human health with the remainder dealing with veterinary health. Two thirds of the papers come from Africa, Asia and Europe with similar numbers of contributions from each continent. Studies of more than 35 different diseases, injuries and risk factors have been presented. Malaria and schistosomiasis were identified as the two most important diseases (11.2% each. Almost half the contributions were based on GIS, one third on spatial analysis, often using advanced Bayesian geostatistics (13.8%, and one quarter on remote sensing. The 120 original research articles, reviews and editorials were produced by 505 authors based at institutions and universities in 52 countries

  11. PREDICTIONS FOR THE NEXT FIVE YEARS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Beijing Review: Could you explain the domestic backdrop for the 12th Five-Year Plan? Hu Angang: From 2011 to 2015, China will still be in its golden period of development. The fast trend for industrialization, urbanization, knowledge informationization, infrastructure modernization and economic globalization going on now are all interlinked. They support and strengthen each other and are the five major forces driving China's development. The Chinese economy will continue to maintain relatively fast growth with a potential annual growth rate hitting 8-9 percent.

  12. Assessment of Health Status of Successfully Treated Category I Patients under RNTCP Program, Five Years After Treatment Completion and ndash; A Retrospective Cohort Study from A Coastal District of India

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    Kirthinath Ballal

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available "Background: Tuberculosis remains a major public health problem worldwide and also in India. Inspite of RNTCP being a comprehensive programme for effective management and control of tuberculosis, efficacy of DOTS regimen is questioned by private practitioners. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was carried out in a coastal district of India to assess the health status of successfully treated Category I patients under RNTCP program, five years after treatment completion. An interview was conducted with all the available subjects at their residence using a semi-structured pre-tested interview. Results: Out of 224 registered new sputum positive patients, 177 cases were successfully treated during the recruiting year, accounting for a success rate of 79%. Of the 177 treated patients, 118 were traceable during the study period, out of which 100 subjects had survived after 5 years and were available for the interview. Recurrence of TB was reported in 2 patients during the follow up period. Conclusion: This five years follow up study shows a good long term success rate of TB patient's treatment. Hence, it reaffirms the scientific basis of RNTCP policy of DOTS regimen to be the right strategy for TB control. [Natl J Community Med 2016; 7(5.000: 425-429

  13. Five years old already: forward we go

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    Jan Dewing

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available I want to begin by wishing the International Practice Development Journal (IPDJ and everyone connected with it a happy fifth birthday: the IPDJ has completed its first five years, following our launch in June 2011. It’s fair to say that this partnership between the International Practice Development Collaborative and the Foundation of Nursing Studies (FoNS has been a great success, with approximately 160 articles and commentaries published in 10 issues and two special issues. That’s quite a ‘body’ of material. We have published, and will continue to publish, a wide range of articles on practice development and related fields. More remarkable, perhaps, is the collaborative way in which the journal operates; it is an independent journal (not part of a big publishing house, which is funded and governed by members of the collaborative, and managed and published by FoNS. This year the editorial team made the decision to adopt in full the principles of open access in accordance with the Budapest Open Access Initiative definition. This means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Further, users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search or link to the full texts of the articles of this journal without seeking prior permission from the publisher or the author (fons.org/library/journal-about-ipdj. Being free of concerns regarding ‘impact factor’ rating will liberate us in a number of ways. Of course, I recognise the need to work within this rating and other metrics, such as citation measures, but these should not alone determine the merit of a researcher or a journal (Bornmann et al., 2011. We hope that authors and readers will recognise this and continue to support the journal’s growth. Our birthday issue brings something a bit different and, I feel, offers a special treat. Consider this to be like a slice of your favourite birthday cake. Usually the original research

  14. Bon courage! (Five-Yearly Review)

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2006-01-01

    With these words of encouragement the Director General ended his long presentation to the staff on 12 January. And he is not wrong there…we certainly will need courage, not only to complete the LHC and other CERN projects, but also, unfortunately, to defend our employment conditions. Indeed, Mr. Aymar very (too) quickly presented us with his conclusions on the Five-Yearly Review, in a resolutely positive manner. In short, we can say that, beneath a deceptive exterior, a serious attack on our employment conditions is in preparation! Salary levels, careers, family…we are talking about your future! Last June, a huge majority of you approved the Staff Association's demands for this Review.

  15. Long-term outcomes five years after selective dorsal rhizotomy

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    Lagergren Jan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR is a well accepted neurosurgical procedure performed for the relief of spasticity interfering with motor function in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP. The goal is to improve function, but long-term outcome studies are rare. The aims of this study were to evaluate long-term functional outcomes, safety and side effects during five postoperative years in all children with diplegia undergoing SDR combined with physiotherapy. Methods This study group consisted of 35 children, consecutively operated, with spastic diplegia, of which 26 were Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS levels III–V. Mean age was 4.5 years (range 2.5–6.6. They were all assessed by the same multidisciplinary team at pre- and at 6, 12, 18 months, 3 and 5 years postoperatively. Clinical and demographic data, complications and number of rootlets cut were prospectively registered. Deep tendon reflexes and muscle tone were examined, the latter graded with the modified Ashworth scale. Passive range of motion (PROM was measured with a goniometer. Motor function was classified according to the GMFCS and measured with the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-88 and derived into GMFM-66. Parent's opinions about the children's performance of skills and activities and the amount of caregiver assistance were measured with Pediatric Evaluation Disability Inventory (PEDI. Results The mean proportion of rootlets cut in S2-L2 was 40%. Muscle tone was immediately reduced in adductors, hamstrings and dorsiflexors (p Conclusion SDR is a safe and effective method for reducing spasticity permanently without major negative side effects. In combination with physiotherapy, in a group of carefully selected and systematically followed young children with spastic diplegia, it provides lasting functional benefits over a period of at least five years postoperatively.

  16. Five year change in alcohol intake and risk of breast cancer and coronary heart disease among postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Marie K; Hvidtfeldt, Ulla A; Tjønneland, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that postmenopausal women who increase their alcohol intake over a five year period have a higher risk of breast cancer and a lower risk of coronary heart disease compared with stable alcohol intake. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Denmark, 1993...... disease, and all cause mortality during 11 years of follow-up. Information was obtained from the Danish Cancer Register, Danish Hospital Discharge Register, Danish Register of Causes of Death, and National Central Person Register. We estimated hazard ratios according to five year change in alcohol intake...... using Cox proportional hazards models. Results: During the study, 1054, 1750, and 2080 cases of breast cancer, coronary heart disease, and mortality occurred, respectively. Analyses modelling five year change in alcohol intake with cubic splines showed that women who increased their alcohol intake over...

  17. Stent Thrombosis is the Primary Cause of ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction following Coronary Stent Implantation: A Five Year Follow-Up of the SORT OUT II Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, S. L.; Galloe, A. M.; Thuesen, L.;

    2014-01-01

    Background: The widespread use of coronary stents has exposed a growing population to the risk of stent thrombosis, but the importance in terms of risk of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarctions (STEMIs) remains unclear. Methods: We studied five years follow-up data for 2,098 all-comer patients...... treated with coronary stents in the randomized SORT OUT II trial (mean age 63.6 yrs. 74.8% men). Patients who following stent implantation were readmitted with STEMI were included and each patient was categorized ranging from definite-to ruled-out stent thrombosis according to the Academic Research...... Consortium definitions. Multivariate logistic regression was performed on selected covariates to assess odds ratios (ORs) for definite stent thrombosis. Results: 85 patients (4.1%), mean age 62.7 years, 77.1% men, were admitted with a total of 96 STEMIs, of whom 60 (62.5%) had definite stent thrombosis...

  18. Five-year results of a prospective case series of accelerated hypofractionated whole breast radiation with concomitant boost to the surgical bed after conserving surgery for early breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cante, Domenico; Franco, Pierfrancesco; Sciacero, Piera; Girelli, Giuseppe; Marra, Anna Maria; Pasquino, Massimo; Russo, Giuliana; Borca, Valeria Casanova; Mondini, Guido; Paino, Ovidio; Barmasse, Roberto; Tofani, Santi; Numico, Gianmauro; La Porta, Maria Rosa; Ricardi, Umberto

    2013-06-01

    Accelerated hypofractionation (HF) using larger dose per fraction, delivered in fewer fractions over a shorter overall treatment time, is presently a consistent possibility for adjuvant whole breast radiation (WBRT) after breast-conserving surgery for early breast cancer (EBC). Between 2005 and 2008, we submitted 375 consecutive patients to accelerated hypofractionated WBRT after breast-conserving surgery for EBC. The basic course of radiation consisted of 45 Gy in 20 fractions over 4 weeks to the whole breast (2.25 Gy daily) with an additional daily concomitant boost of 0.25 Gy up to 50 Gy to the surgical bed. Overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), disease-free survival (DFS) and local control (LC) were assessed. Late toxicity was scored according to the CTCAE v3.0; acute toxicity using the RTOG/EORTC toxicity scale. Cosmesis was assessed comparing treated and untreated breast. Quality of life (QoL) was determined using EORTC QLQ-C30/QLQ-BR23 questionnaires. With a median follow-up of 60 months (range 42-88), 5 years OS, CSS, DFS and LC were 97.6, 99.4, 96.6 and 100 %, respectively. Late skin and subcutaneous toxicity was generally mild, with few events > grade 2 observed. Cosmetic results were excellent in 75.7 % of patients, good in 20 % and fair in 4.3 %. QoL, assessed both through QLQ-C30/QLQ-BR23, was generally favorable, within the functioning and symptoms domains. Our study is another proof of principle that HF WBRT with a concurrent boost dose to the surgical cavity represents a safe and effective postoperative treatment modality with excellent local control and survival, consistent cosmetic results and mild toxicity.

  19. Neurocysticercosis: A five-year experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doder Radoslava Ž.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Neurocysticercosis (NCC is the most common parasitic disease with wide distribution which is caused by larval forms of Taenia Solium. Our aim was to: show the most common clinical manifestations of patients with NCC and their importance in diagnosing this disease; examine the value of serologic diagnostic methods in blood and cerebrospinal fluid; to emphasize the value of radiological diagnostic methods – CT and MRI of the brain, in relation to the applied protocol of therapy, as well as the impact of anti-parasitic therapy on the outcome of this disease. Material, methods and results 13 patients with NCC (from 35 to 63 years of age, median age 49; 61,5% male and 38,5% female were treated at the Clinic of Infectious Diseases in Novi Sad during a five-year period. Two patients had a positive epidemic data of parasitic diseases of the intestinal tract in childhood. The most common clinical manifestation was headache in 61,5% of patients, and generalized convulsions and hemiparesis in 46,2%. Meningeal inflammation was present in 27,3% of patients. Two of five patients had positive ELISA test for cysticercosis in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid. CT and MRI findings confirmed parenchimal form of NCC in 30,8% of patients, while calcifications were found in 69,2% of patients. All patients were treated with Albendazole, 800 mg a day, in two doses. 30,76% of patients had a favorable outcome of the disease, 53,7% of patients were discharged with complications, and one patient died. Conclusion The most common manifestation of NCC in our patients was headache, followed by general convulsions and hemiparesis. Radiological diagnostic methods – CT and MRI – proved to be most valuable both in diagnostics and follow-up of lesions. All our patients were treated with Albendazole; Dexamethasone was applied in patients with severe inflammatory reaction, and anti-convulsive drugs in patients with convulsions.

  20. French NATO Policy: The Next Five Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    two great European continental powers, shared a strategic interest in preventing any resurgence of German power in the center of Europe. The United...internal structure inherited from de Gaulle and Pompidou made any European or allied role problematic at best. In 1975, large divisions were...substantial • m . . , a l I I I I -12- concern to the French. By opening up the prospects of German unity and more normal interaction in the center of Europe

  1. Five years of data diuresis: what have WEH learned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Jennifer C; Pollock, Jennifer S

    2015-11-01

    This year represents the fifth annual Data Diuresis session of the Water and Electrolyte Homeostasis (WEH) section of the American Physiological Society (APS) at the 2015 Experimental Biology meeting. As opposed to taking a single organ approach to the study of physiology, the WEH section employs an integrative approach to encompass how the different organ systems interact to regulate numerous physiological and pathophysiological processes. The goal of this minireview is to highlight the broad spectrum of research themes that were presented over the first five years of Data Diuresis. Presentation topics include (but are not limited to) oxidative stress, inflammation, obesity, pregnancy, and hypertension spanning the brain, heart and vasculature, and kidney. WEH researchers continue to impact and help drive the direction of physiological research across multiple disciplines, leaving us excited to see what the next five years of Data Diuresis will bring.

  2. Free Flaps in a Resource Constrained Environment: A Five-Year Experience—Outcomes and Lessons Learned

    OpenAIRE

    Nangole, Wanjala F.; Stanley Khainga; Joyce Aswani; Loise Kahoro; Adelaine Vilembwa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Free flap surgery is a routine procedure in many developed countries with good surgical outcomes. In many developing countries, however, these services are not available. In this paper, we audit free flaps done in a resource constrained hospital in Kenya. Objective. This is a five-year audit of free flaps done in a tertiary hospital in Kenya, between 2009 and 2014. Materials and Methods. This was a prospective study of patients operated on with free flaps between 2009 and 2014. ...

  3. Individual external doses below the lowest reference level of 1 mSv per year five years after the 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident among all children in Soma City, Fukushima: A retrospective observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Michio; Nomura, Shuhei; Morita, Tomohiro; Nishikawa, Yoshitaka; Leppold, Claire; Kato, Shigeaki; Kami, Masahiro

    2017-01-01

    After the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, little information has been available on individual doses from external exposure among residents living in radioactively contaminated areas near the nuclear plant; in the present study we evaluated yearly changes in the doses from external exposure after the accident and the effects of decontamination on external exposure. This study considered all children less than 16 years of age in Soma City, Fukushima who participated in annual voluntary external exposure screening programs during the five years after the accident (n = 5,363). In total, 14,405 screening results were collected. The median participant age was eight years. The geometric mean levels of annual additional doses from external exposure attributable to the Fukushima accident, decreased each year: 0.60 mSv (range: not detectable (ND)–4.29 mSv), 0.37 mSv (range: ND–3.61 mSv), 0.22 mSv (range: ND–1.44 mSv), 0.20 mSv (range: ND–1.87 mSv), and 0.17 mSv (range: ND–0.85 mSv) in 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, and 2015, respectively. The proportion of residents with annual additional doses from external exposure of more than 1 mSv dropped from 15.6% in 2011 to zero in 2015. Doses from external exposure decreased more rapidly than those estimated from only physical decay, even in areas without decontamination (which were halved in 395 days from November 15, 2011), presumably due to the weathering effects. While the ratios of geometric mean doses immediately after decontamination to before were slightly lower than those during the same time in areas without decontamination, annual additional doses reduced by decontamination were small (0.04–0.24 mSv in the year of immediately after decontamination was completed). The results of this study showed that the levels of external exposure among Soma residents less than 16 years of age decreased during the five years after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. Decontamination had only

  4. Individual external doses below the lowest reference level of 1 mSv per year five years after the 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident among all children in Soma City, Fukushima: A retrospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubokura, Masaharu; Murakami, Michio; Nomura, Shuhei; Morita, Tomohiro; Nishikawa, Yoshitaka; Leppold, Claire; Kato, Shigeaki; Kami, Masahiro

    2017-01-01

    After the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, little information has been available on individual doses from external exposure among residents living in radioactively contaminated areas near the nuclear plant; in the present study we evaluated yearly changes in the doses from external exposure after the accident and the effects of decontamination on external exposure. This study considered all children less than 16 years of age in Soma City, Fukushima who participated in annual voluntary external exposure screening programs during the five years after the accident (n = 5,363). In total, 14,405 screening results were collected. The median participant age was eight years. The geometric mean levels of annual additional doses from external exposure attributable to the Fukushima accident, decreased each year: 0.60 mSv (range: not detectable (ND)-4.29 mSv), 0.37 mSv (range: ND-3.61 mSv), 0.22 mSv (range: ND-1.44 mSv), 0.20 mSv (range: ND-1.87 mSv), and 0.17 mSv (range: ND-0.85 mSv) in 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, and 2015, respectively. The proportion of residents with annual additional doses from external exposure of more than 1 mSv dropped from 15.6% in 2011 to zero in 2015. Doses from external exposure decreased more rapidly than those estimated from only physical decay, even in areas without decontamination (which were halved in 395 days from November 15, 2011), presumably due to the weathering effects. While the ratios of geometric mean doses immediately after decontamination to before were slightly lower than those during the same time in areas without decontamination, annual additional doses reduced by decontamination were small (0.04-0.24 mSv in the year of immediately after decontamination was completed). The results of this study showed that the levels of external exposure among Soma residents less than 16 years of age decreased during the five years after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. Decontamination had only limited and

  5. a prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Rörster, Elisa geb. Pätel

    2012-01-01

    Bulk fractures only occur on very rare occasions in bilayered all-ceramic crowns, where as veneer fractures, above all chippings, still present a frequent amount of clinical complications. The purpose of the current prospective study was to examine the clinical performance of an anatomically modified framework for a period of two years. All crowns were manufactured following the Cercon process (DeguDent GmbH, Hanau). As is common practice, the frameworks for the control group were made of ...

  6. RESISTENCIA MICROBIANA EN EL CARDIOCENTRO ERNESTO CHE GUEVARA. ESTUDIO DE 5 AÑOS / Microbial resistance at the “Ernesto Che Guevara” Cardiology Hospital. A five year study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nérida Rodríguez Oliva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Objectives: The appearance of nosocomial bacterial resistance represents a problem of growing concern because it largely affects the evolution of patients and the health resources devoted to it. The objective of this work was to determine the most common germs and their microbial resistance. Methods: A descriptive retrospective study was carried out analyzing the result of the isolation of germs from all type of secretions and from the blood cultures of a group ofpatients hospitalized at the Ernesto Che Guevara Cardiology Hospital in a five year period. Results: A total of 397 strains were isolated, 77 Staphylococcus aureus and 320 Enterobacteriaceae. The former presented 100% resistance to penicillin. The Staphylococcus sensitive to methicillin presented 4.9 % resistance to cotrimoxazole and gentamicin. The strains resistant to methicillin or oxacillin had a high resistance to gentamicin (87.5 % and ciprofloxacin (81.2 %, a medium resistance to cefazolin and oxacilline (20.5 %, and just 12.5 percent resistance to cotrimoxazole. Conclusions: the Staphylococcus aureus and the Enterobacteriaceae were the most common germs. The preoperative prophylaxis in these patients must not be done with cefazolin as a routine because the staphylococci resistant to methicillin or oxacillin have influence on other antimicrobials.

  7. 基于全面转企的地勘单位“十三五”发展规划思路%The Idea about “13th Five-year Development Program” with Regard to the Transformation into Enterprises for All Geological Prospecting Units

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟琪

    2015-01-01

    End of the “13th Five-year plan” should be the deadline for the subject of geological institutions to implement the enterprise reform. Therefore, state-owned geological exploration departments must formulate “13th Five-year Plan in accordance with the demand of this regard. In response to this, this paper argues that the ifrst thing business administrators must do is to be ready for the transition of careerists to entrepreneurs. And on this basis, this paper points out that the plan must be concentrated on economic indicator, assets capital, industrial structure, prospecting fruits, investment project, contracting projects, technical innovation, enterprise qualification, management pattern, information platform, talent team, livelihood projects, and corporate culture. And upper-level management departments should regard “13th Five-year Plan” as an important basis for assessing geological exploration units.%“十三五”末期应当是地勘事业单位主体完成企业化的截止期限,国有地勘单位应当按照完成企业化的要求制定“十三五”规划。对此,地勘单位经营管理者首先要做好从事业家向企业家转换的思想准备。在此基础上,规划要围绕经济指标、资产资本、产业结构、找矿成果、投资项目、承包项目、技术创新、企业资质、管理模式、信息平台、人才团队、民生工程、企业文化等方面展开论述。上级管理部门也应将“十三五”规划作为对地勘单位考核的重要依据。

  8. "11th Five Year" Plan on Certification and Accreditation Standardization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ To strengthen the certification and authorization standardization system, the Certification and Accreditation Administration of China (CNCA), and Standardization Administration of China (SAC)have jointly promulgated the "11th Five Year" Plan on Development of Certification and Accreditation Standardization. In compliance with the "11th Five Year" Plan on Development of Certification and Accreditation Cause and the "11th Five Year" Plan on Development of Standardization,the "11th Five Year"Plan on Development of Certification and Accreditation Standardization provides comprehensive guidance to and basis for the certification and accreditation cause during the "11th Five Year".

  9. Investigation of different types of carcinomas among differentiated thyroid cancer patients managed in the Department of Nuclear Medicine at Dr George Mukhari Academic Hospital, South Africa: A five year retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mpumelelo Nyathi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Differentiated thyroid cancers (DTC are abnormal tissues growing around the thyroid gland manifesting in various forms, they vary according to geographic locations and life style. Knowledge of different types of DTC is important in order to implement cost effective treatment strategies. Aims This study was aimed at establishing the types of thyroid cancers among DTC patients managed with radioiodine post-surgery in the Department of Nuclear Medicine at Dr George Mukhari Academic Hospital (DGMAH in South Africa. Methods A retrospective five year (2007–2013 review of patient files managed post-surgery in the Nuclear Medicine Department for various thyroid diseases. A total of 51 patient files were examined. Males and females who received at least a single treatment dose of radioiodine (I-131 qualified for the study thus excluding 26 patients treated for grave’s disease and 9 DTC patients who did not receive a dose of radioiodine. A pie chart was used for categorical variables of the subtypes of carcinomas. Results The follicular carcinoma was the leading malignancy: 8 /16; (50 per cent; followed by the papillary carcinomas amounting to 6/16; (37.5; only one patient was managed for the Hurtle cell carcinoma; 1/16 (6.25 per cent and also one patient for poorly differentiated follicular carcinoma, 1/16; (6.25 per cent. Conclusion Follicular carcinoma was found to be the most common type of DTC managed at DGMAH followed by papillary carcinoma. However, the Hurtle cell carcinoma and the poorly differentiated follicular carcinomas were found to be rare.

  10. Five-year results of a prospective, randomized, controlled study evaluating treatment of intra-bony defects with a natural bone mineral and GTR.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sculean, A.; Schwarz, F.; Chiantella, G.C.; Donos, N.; Arweiler, N.B.; Brecx, M.; Becker, J.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treatment with a natural bone mineral (NBM) and a guided tissue regeneration (GTR) has been shown to promote periodontal regeneration. However, until now there are only very limited data on the long-term clinical results following this regenerative technique. AIM: To present the 5-year r

  11. Primary total hip arthroplasty:a minimum five-year follow-up study%初次全髋关节置换术后5年以上随访结果与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康焱; 廖威明; 邬培慧; 张紫机; 傅明; 盛璞义; 何爱珊; 杨子波; 杨忠汉; 徐栋梁

    2011-01-01

    follow-up rate was 69.96%. The average SF-36 scores on PCS (physical component summary,) was (30. 92 ± 3. 90) points (ranging from 24 to 39 points) preoperatively and (53. 69 ± 3. 97) points (44 to 62 points) at the final follow-up. The arerage MCS (mental component summary) was (45. 91 ± 5. 63) points (range 37 to 56 points) preoperative and (57. 06 ± 7. 26) points (range 43 to 72 points) at the final follow-up. Average Harris Hip Score was (46. 71 ± 10. 76) points preoperatively and (92. 83 ±4. 88) points at the final follow-up. Using the endpoint defined as revision surgery and radiographic loosening, the survivorship rate was 98. 06% for five years, 94. 17% for 10 years, 85. 92% for 15 years, and 81. 55% for 20 years. Hybrid prosthesis and cementless prosthesis survivorship rates were 97. 6. 4% and 94. 4% respectively. Complications included limp ( 17 cases) , prosthesis dislocation (three hips) , deep vein thrombosis (one hip) , periprosthetic fracture (one hips) , aseptic loosening (nine hips) , ectopic ossification (six hips). There was no infection observed. Conclusions Patients in this study had satisfactory clinical and radiographic outcomes at a minimum follow-up of five years. The low follow-up rate and insufficient cases suggest necessity of further follow-up study.

  12. Five Year Olds with Good Conscience Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stapert, Willem; Smeekens, Sanny; Abrams, S; Dowling, AS; King, RA; Brinich, PM

    2011-01-01

    Results from a longitudinal study on factors influencing conscience development contributed to our appreciation of the importance of moral internalization for a child's well-being. In this article we first present a summary of the research on moral development in children, including findings from in

  13. Five year olds with good conscience development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapert, Willem; Smeekens, Sanny

    2011-01-01

    Results from a longitudinal study on factors influencing conscience development contributed to our appreciation of the importance of moral internalization for a child's well-being. In this article we first present a summary of the research on moral development in children, including findings from infant research, with emphasis on the work of Robert N. Emde. Characteristics of classical psychoanalytic theory about superego development are compared with more recent insights. This is followed by a short description of two cheating games--as a measure of conscience development--played with 101 preschoolers. Some contrasts in our empirical data between the fair-play group and the children that cheated are presented and discussed in the light of the theoretical points of view. Finally some reflections on future research and the implications for parenting, prevention and clinical work are followed by suggestions for psychoanalytic theory.

  14. Paleolithic nutrition: twenty-five years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konner, Melvin; Eaton, S Boyd

    2010-12-01

    A quarter century has passed since the first publication of the evolutionary discordance hypothesis, according to which departures from the nutrition and activity patterns of our hunter-gatherer ancestors have contributed greatly and in specifically definable ways to the endemic chronic diseases of modern civilization. Refinements of the model have changed it in some respects, but anthropological evidence continues to indicate that ancestral human diets prevalent during our evolution were characterized by much lower levels of refined carbohydrates and sodium, much higher levels of fiber and protein, and comparable levels of fat (primarily unsaturated fat) and cholesterol. Physical activity levels were also much higher than current levels, resulting in higher energy throughput. We said at the outset that such evidence could only suggest testable hypotheses and that recommendations must ultimately rest on more conventional epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory studies. Such studies have multiplied and have supported many aspects of our model, to the extent that in some respects, official recommendations today have targets closer to those prevalent among hunter-gatherers than did comparable recommendations 25 years ago. Furthermore, doubts have been raised about the necessity for very low levels of protein, fat, and cholesterol intake common in official recommendations. Most impressively, randomized controlled trials have begun to confirm the value of hunter-gatherer diets in some high-risk groups, even as compared with routinely recommended diets. Much more research needs to be done, but the past quarter century has proven the interest and heuristic value, if not yet the ultimate validity, of the model.

  15. Colon cancer surgery. Five years of experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Rubio Silveira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Fundament: Colon-rectal cancer is one of the most frequent neoplams in eastern countries and it is the second most frequent type of cancer just behind cancer of the lungs and of the breast respectively. In spite of the advances in the last few years in regards to treatment, colon cancer is the most frequent cause of death due to cancer. Objective: To know morbimortality due to cancer of the colon after both, surgery and oncological treatment. Method: Descriptive - retrospective sdtudy carried out at the Military hospital ¨Dr. Octavio de la Concepción y de la Pedraja¨ from Camaguey Province from January 1999 to January 2004.The sample was composed by 20 patients operated of well differentiated adenocarcinoma of the colon. The variables under study were: Age, Sex, place, anatomical localization of the tumor, anatomoclinical stage according to Dukes classification, evidencies of far metastases, type of surgery type of oncologic treatment. Results: There was a predominance of males (55% aged more than 45 years old. 55% of the tumors were located in the sigmoid colon. There was a resect of the tumor in 16 cases and only 2 have died due to the disease . Chemotherapy with 5 fluoruracile was applied to 9 patients, with good results.

  16. Risk factors for mortality from acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI in children under five years of age in low and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Sonego

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate risk factors for death from acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI in children in low- and middle-income countries. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. STUDY SELECTION: Observational studies reporting on risk factors for death from ALRI in children below five years in low- and middle income countries. DATA SOURCES: Medline, Embase, Global Health Library, Lilacs, and Web of Science to January 2014. RISK OF BIAS ASSESSMENT: Quality In Prognosis Studies tool with minor adaptations to assess the risk of bias; funnel plots and Egger's test to evaluate publication bias. RESULTS: Out of 10,655 papers retrieved, 77 studies from 39 countries (198,359 children met the inclusion criteria. Host and disease characteristics more strongly associated with ALRI mortality were: diagnosis of very severe pneumonia as per WHO definition (odds ratio 9.42, 95% confidence interval 6.37‒13.92; age below two months (5.22, 1.70‒16.03; diagnosis of Pneumocystis Carinii (4.79, 2.67‒8.61, chronic underlying diseases (4.76, 3.27‒6.93; HIV/AIDS (4.68, 3.72‒5.90; and severe malnutrition (OR 4.27, 3.47‒5.25. Socio-economic and environmental factors significantly associated with increased odds of death from ALRI were: young maternal age (1.84, 1.03‒3.31; low maternal education (1.43, 1.13‒1.82; low socio-economic status (1.62, 1.32‒2.00; second-hand smoke exposure (1.52, 1.20 to 1.93; indoor air pollution (3.02, 2.11‒4.31. Immunisation (0.46, 0.36‒0.58 and good antenatal practices (0.50, 0.31‒0.81 were associated with decreased odds of death. CONCLUSIONS: Host and disease characteristics as well as socio-economic and environmental determinants affect the risk of death from ALRI in children. Together with the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases, interventions to modify underlying risk factors such as poverty, lack of female education, and poor environmental conditions, should be considered among the strategies to

  17. Morbidity Caused by Accidents in Children under Five Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Dorta Figueredo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Accidents or unintentional injuries are a global health problem. In addition, they are considered as one of the leading causes of morbidity in children. Objective: To describe the morbidity caused by accidents in children under the age of five years in the V Health Area in Cienfuegos. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted in Area V Polyclinic, Cienfuegos, aimed at analyzing the morbidity caused by accidents (from June to November 2008 in children from zero to five years who belonged to consultations 3, 4, 23 and 25 of that health area. The demographic variables, type of accident, cause, place of occurrence, adult presence at the time of the accident, request for medical assistance, as well as risk factors were analyzed. Results: 40.2% of the population studied had accidents and the accident frequency rate reached 48.2%. Children aged two, three and less than one year were the most affected as well as males. Falls, burns and foreign body aspiration were the most frequent accidents, occurring mostly at home. Conclusions: Unfortunately adults are not doing everything possible to reduce the occurrence of accidents. They need to be more active in the child vigilance and the elimination of potential triggering factors of the accident.

  18. Risk factors for mortality from acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) in children under five years of age in low and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonego, Michela; Pellegrin, Maria Chiara; Becker, Genevieve; Lazzerini, Marzia

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate risk factors for death from acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) in children in low- and middle-income countries. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Observational studies reporting on risk factors for death from ALRI in children below five years in low- and middle income countries. Medline, Embase, Global Health Library, Lilacs, and Web of Science to January 2014. Quality In Prognosis Studies tool with minor adaptations to assess the risk of bias; funnel plots and Egger's test to evaluate publication bias. Out of 10,655 papers retrieved, 77 studies from 39 countries (198,359 children) met the inclusion criteria. Host and disease characteristics more strongly associated with ALRI mortality were: diagnosis of very severe pneumonia as per WHO definition (odds ratio 9.42, 95% confidence interval 6.37‒13.92); age below two months (5.22, 1.70‒16.03); diagnosis of Pneumocystis Carinii (4.79, 2.67‒8.61), chronic underlying diseases (4.76, 3.27‒6.93); HIV/AIDS (4.68, 3.72‒5.90); and severe malnutrition (OR 4.27, 3.47‒5.25). Socio-economic and environmental factors significantly associated with increased odds of death from ALRI were: young maternal age (1.84, 1.03‒3.31); low maternal education (1.43, 1.13‒1.82); low socio-economic status (1.62, 1.32‒2.00); second-hand smoke exposure (1.52, 1.20 to 1.93); indoor air pollution (3.02, 2.11‒4.31). Immunisation (0.46, 0.36‒0.58) and good antenatal practices (0.50, 0.31‒0.81) were associated with decreased odds of death. Host and disease characteristics as well as socio-economic and environmental determinants affect the risk of death from ALRI in children. Together with the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases, interventions to modify underlying risk factors such as poverty, lack of female education, and poor environmental conditions, should be considered among the strategies to reduce ALRI mortality in children in low- and middle-income countries.

  19. Pediatric HIV-related oral manifestations: a five-year retrospective study Manifestações bucais associadas à infecção pelo HIV em crianças: estudo retrospectivo de cinco anos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Ferreira Soares

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to carry out a five-year retrospective descriptive follow-up of the oral manifestation frequency, systemic condition and type of medication used in HIV-infected children and adolescents after the introduction of combined antiretroviral therapy. Fifty-eight patients were examined in 2001/2002, and their previous medical and dental records (1997 to 2000 were researched from files. There was an occurrence of 7 new cases of AIDS in a sample of 19 children, while 46.5% of the entire sample (n = 58 progressed as to classification of HIV infection. No difference was noted among the frequencies of oral manifestations, categories of the immunosuppression and viral load categories. The oral manifestations in the group of children and adolescents followed up in this study remained stable, even after treatment with combined antiretroviral therapy. However, a downward trend in the frequency of oral candidiasis and parotid enlargement was noted.O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar um acompanhamento descritivo retrospectivo da freqüência de manifestações bucais, da condição sistêmica e do tipo de medicação utilizada em um grupo de crianças e adolescentes infectados pelo HIV após a introdução da terapia anti-retroviral combinada. Cinqüenta e oito pacientes foram examinados em 2001/2002, enquanto seus exames médicos e odontológicos retrospectivos (1997 a 2000 foram pesquisados em prontuário. Foram observados 7 novos casos de AIDS em uma amostra de 19 pacientes, enquanto 46,5% da amostra total (n = 58 progrediram quanto à classificação da infecção pelo HIV. Não foram observadas diferenças entre as freqüências de manifestações bucais, das categorias de imunossupressão e da carga viral. O quadro de manifestações bucais no grupo de crianças e adolescentes acompanhados neste estudo manteve-se estável, mesmo após a introdução da terapia anti-retroviral combinada. Contudo, foi observada uma tendência de

  20. Five-yearly review: where do we stand now?

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    A reminder The first issue of Echo in 2016 announced a year of changes with many challenges for the Staff Association and the staff it represents. Indeed, following the decision of the Council in December 2015 to approve all components of the five-yearly review, many changes were to be implemented in 2016. This is the case of the new career structure, the definition of benchmark jobs (BMJ), the redesign of the advancement and promotions process, etc. Looking back at 2015 and the various statements In December 2015, the CERN Council emphasized: the substantial effort made by the Staff Association and the Management, taking into account the difficult economic situation faced by some Member States, led to the creation of a package of measures as balanced as possible. It is clear however: that there was no alignment of CERN basic salaries with the comparison salaries; that in the new career system, staff will have their advancement prospects, and consequently the level of their pension, reduced with respect to ...

  1. Management of Class I and Class II Amalgam Restorations with Localized Defects: Five-Year Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Martin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Replacement of dental restorations has been the traditional treatment for defective restorations. This five-year prospective clinical trial evaluated amalgam restorations with localized defects that were treated by means of repair or refurbishing. Fifty-two patients (50% female and 50% male, mean age 28.3±18.1 years, range 18–80 with 160 class I and class II defective restorations were included. The study focused on the application of two minimally invasive treatments for localized restoration defects and compared these with no treatment and total replacement as negative and positive controls, respectively. Restorations were assessed by two calibrated examiners according to modified U.S. Public Health Service criteria, including marginal adaptation, anatomic form, secondary caries, and roughness. At five years, recall was examined in 45 patients with 108 restorations (67.5%. The results suggest that repair treatment is as effective as total replacement of restorations with localized defects, reducing biological costs to the patient and providing new tools to the clinician. Refinishing restoration is a useful treatment for localized anatomic form defects.

  2. The 2010 five-yearly review has started

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2009-01-01

    Every five years, the financial and social conditions of members of the personnel are examined according to the procedures defined in Annex A1 of the Staff Rules and Regulations (SR&R). This exercise is called the “five-yearly review” (5YR).

  3. AMBULATORY CARE - SENSITIVE CONDITIONS IN CHILDREN UNDER FIVE YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Araújo Figueiredo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective:analyzethe extent to which the incidence rate of primary care sensitivehospitalizations in children under five years is influenced by the percentage of coverage of theprimary care.Methods:This was a cross-sectional ecological study that combines coverage ofprimary careand theambulatorycare-sensitiveconditionsin 2000 and 2010. We used data from theHospital Information System (HIS and the Information System of Primary Care (SIAB.Results:The data revealed that the increased coverage providedprimary carereductionrateofhospitalization diseases studied. In 2000 the reduction was greater for gastroenteritis (51% inchildren under 01 years and 30% in children 01-04 years in 2010 for respiratory diseases (51% inchildren under 01years and 33% in children aged 01-04 years.Conclusion:we found an association between the coverage ofprimary careand admission rates, however seem to affect othervariables, suggesting the need for further studies.

  4. Vasoconstrictor response to cold in forestry workers: a prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, N; Nielsen, S L

    1988-01-01

    In a five year prospective study of the vasoconstrictor response to cold 37 forestry workers were investigated in 1978 and again in 1983. The subjects were classified into three groups: group A (n = 13): no subjective finger symptoms in 1978 and continued sawing until 1983; group B (n = 12......): no symptoms in 1978 and stopped sawing before 1983; group C (n = 12): vibration induced white finger (VWF) in 1978. A cold provocation test measuring the finger systolic blood pressure with a cuff and strain gauge technique during combined body cooling and finger cooling to 30 degrees, 15 degrees, and 6...... A indicates that a further five years use of anti-vibration chain saws induced an increased hyperreactivity in the vasoconstrictor mechanisms but led to subjective symptoms of VWF in only one subject. The improvement in group C was in accordance with the improvements of subjective finger symptoms...

  5. Five-year risk of interval-invasive second breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Janie M; Buist, Diana S M; Houssami, Nehmat; Dowling, Emily C; Halpern, Elkan F; Gazelle, G Scott; Lehman, Constance D; Henderson, Louise M; Hubbard, Rebecca A

    2015-07-01

    Earlier detection of second breast cancers after primary breast cancer (PBC) treatment improves survival, yet mammography is less accurate in women with prior breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to examine women presenting clinically with second breast cancers after negative surveillance mammography (interval cancers), and to estimate the five-year risk of interval-invasive second cancers for women with varying risk profiles. We evaluated a prospective cohort of 15 114 women with 47 717 surveillance mammograms diagnosed with stage 0-II unilateral PBC from 1996 through 2008 at facilities in the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium. We used discrete time survival models to estimate the association between odds of an interval-invasive second breast cancer and candidate predictors, including demographic, PBC, and imaging characteristics. All statistical tests were two-sided. The cumulative incidence of second breast cancers after five years was 54.4 per 1000 women, with 325 surveillance-detected and 138 interval-invasive second breast cancers. The five-year risk of interval-invasive second cancer for women with referent category characteristics was 0.60%. For women with the most and least favorable profiles, the five-year risk ranged from 0.07% to 6.11%. Multivariable modeling identified grade II PBC (odds ratio [OR] = 1.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.15 to 3.31), treatment with lumpectomy without radiation (OR = 3.27, 95% CI = 1.91 to 5.62), interval PBC presentation (OR = 2.01, 95% CI 1.28 to 3.16), and heterogeneously dense breasts on mammography (OR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.01 to 2.36) as independent predictors of interval-invasive second breast cancers. PBC diagnosis and treatment characteristics contribute to variation in subsequent-interval second breast cancer risk. Consideration of these factors may be useful in developing tailored post-treatment imaging surveillance plans. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved

  6. Paediatric pancreatic problems: A five-year experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lahoti B

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To analyse a tertiary care experience with various pancreatic problems in the paediatric age group and clarify the frequency of various pancreatic diseases in the same patient population as well as the role of surgical or conservative management in their treatment. Patients and Methods: All patients with clinical suspicion of disease pertaining to the pancreas, substantiated by laboratory investigations or imaging modalities over a period of five years are included in our study. Results: Of the total 228 patients with various pancreatic problems, who presented to us, mostly with acute pancreatitis and pancreatic trauma, 64 needed surgical interventions. The total mortality rate encountered was a meagre 3.5%. Conclusion: Paediatric pancreatic disorders are not so infrequent; and a high index of suspicion aided by the newer modalities of investigation greatly helps in the appropriate and timely management.

  7. Prenatal methylmercury poisoning: clinical observations over five years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin-Zaki, L. (Univ. of Baghdad, Iraq); Majeed, M.A.; Elhassani, S.B.; Clarkson, T.W.; Greenwood, M.R.; Doherty, R.A.

    1979-02-01

    Thirty-two infants prenatally exposed to methylmercury and their mothers were examined over a five-year period after the Iraqi methylmercury epidemic. Severity of poisoning in mothers was related to the peak mercury concentration in their hair and in the infants to the maximum concentration in maternal hair during pregnancy. In nine cases of cerebral palsy, methylmercury exposure occurred only during the last trimester. All infants except three (two were orphaned soon after birth and one was bottle-fed) were exposed postnatally via suckling. Whereas the mother's symptoms usually improved, the damage to the fetal nervous system appears to be permanent. Milder cases previously not identified in other studies are reported. The syndrome consists of varying degrees of developmental retardation in addition to exaggerated tendon reflexes and the pathologic extensor plantar reflex (minimal brain damage syndrome).

  8. [Psychogenic paralysis. A prospective study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binzer, M N; Kullgren, G

    2000-10-16

    Patients with motor conversion disorder are frequently seen in neurological departments. Long term prognosis is usually considered to be good, although earlier research has been somewhat unsystematic and mostly retrospective. This study follows a well investigated sample of patients for two to five years and attempts to identify predictors associated with prognosis. Thirty patients with a recent onset of motor conversion disorder were assessed for key psychiatric and demographic variables. They were reassessed two to five years later. Nineteen patients had recovered completely and eight patients had improved, while only three patients were unchanged or worse. Contrary to other follow-up studies none of the patients received a rediagnosis of neurological disease. The presence of a personality disorder, concomitant somatic disease, and low DSM-IV axis V score proved to be associated with poor outcome. The results of this study stresses the need for careful and well-conducted neurological and psychiatric assessments in patients with psychogenic paralyses, bearing in mind the substantial possibility for coinciding illnesses. If this is ensured, it appears that the risk of subsequent neurological rediagnosis is negligible.

  9. “Textile Industry Twelfth Five Year Development Plan” issued

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Recently, the "Textile Industry Twelfth Five Year Development Plan" (hereinafter "Plan") has been issued by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, has been published to the public. The Plan highlights the restructuring, innovation, brand building

  10. The 13th Five-year Plan of CIAE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    In 2015,we drew up the 13th Five-year Plan of CIAE which was characterized by"6-6-3-1"development objective.The five year plan which extends from 2016 to 2020 is composed of general plan,subject plan and division plan.The general plan clarifies the"6-6-3-1"development objective,and outlines the major tasks of CIAE in areas such as R&D and capacity

  11. Course of illness in a sample of 265 patients with first-episode psychosis--five-year follow-up of the Danish OPUS trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelsen, Mette; Jeppesen, Pia; Petersen, Lone; Thorup, Anne; Øhlenschlaeger, Johan; Le Quach, Phuong; Østergaard Christensen, Torben; Krarup, Gertrud; Jørgensen, Per; Nordentoft, Merete

    2009-02-01

    There is an ongoing debate as to whether psychosis is a progressively deteriorating illness or one of progressive amelioration. This paper aims at investigating the rate of recovery and institutionalization and predicting a continuous illness course in a descriptive prospective study of a sub-sample of the OPUS trial of 265 first-episode psychotic patients after five years. Recovery, defined as no psychotic or negative symptoms, living independently, GAF (f)>59, working or studying, was reached for 18% after five years, whereas 13% were institutionalized either at hospital or supported housing after five years. Male gender (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.06 to 3.23), premorbid social functioning (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.33), psychotic symptoms (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.66), and negative symptoms (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.67) were found to predict a continuous illness course at five-year follow-up. Rates of recovery and institutionalization contradict the assumption that the illness deteriorates progressively, since no changes in the rates are seen from two to five years.

  12. 五年制高职英语口语交际能力的培养研究%A Study on Improvement of Students'English Communicative Competence in Five-year System Higher Vocational College

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛丽萍; 李燕; 叶少敏

    2014-01-01

    五年制高职英语教育具有职业性和专业性的特点,其中口语教学是英语教学中的一个重要环节,本文根据高职五年制学生的认知特点和学习发展需要,探讨如何提高学生的英语口语及整体英语水平和交际能力,从而使他们在竞争激烈的求职与工作中更具实力。%English education in five-year system higher vocational education is aimed to the application and profession, in which oral English teaching is one of the most important parts. The researcher analyzes how to improve students' oral English proficiency and communicative competence;thus making them more strength in the fierce competition in their future workplace.

  13. Feasibility Study on Roller Skating in the Five-Year Higher School Sports Teaching%轮滑运动在五年制高等学校体育教学中的可行性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱晓年

    2014-01-01

    轮滑运动是一项深受广大青少年喜爱的体育运动之一,它融娱乐性和健身性于一体,不受场地、气候等条件的影响,有益于青少年的身体健康。从事轮滑的练习能够在心理上和生理上得到很好的锻炼。正因为轮滑运动充分体现了健康与活力的结合,所以深受青少年们的喜爱,将轮滑运动列入五年制高等学校体育教学课程中具有一定的现实意义。%The roller skating is a very popular among the young one of sports ,it combines the entertainment and fitness in one , is not affected by the location ,climate and beneficial to the health of young people .Skating practice can obtain the very good exercise in mental and physical .Because of the roller skating fully embodies the combination of health and vitality ,so by the teenagers love ,will have certain practical significance of roller skating in five year higher school physical education curriculum .

  14. 北京市“十二五”能源发展问题研究%Study on Beijing Energy Development Issues in the 12th Five-year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建民; 唐冬

    2013-01-01

    Based on Beijing economic and social development in the 12thfive-year plan and taking 2010 as a basic period, this paper forecasts the primary energy demand in 2015. The prediction shows that the primary energy demand will reach 99.52 million tee in the 12th Five-year period, under the condition of 8% average annual GDP growth rate and 17% energy consumption reduction of per ten thousands Yuan GDP. The article analyzes problems of energy development in this period and situation.%本文以北京市国民经济和社会发展“十二五”规划为依据,2010年为基期,预测了2015年一次能源需求.预测表明,“十二五”期间,在北京市GDP年均增长率为8%、万元GDP能耗降低17%的情景下,一次能源需求将达到9951.8万tce.文章对满足这样的需求及在此期间的能源发展问题进行了研究.

  15. Labour: A Prospective, Descriptive Study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Symphysis Fundus Height Measurements during Labour: A Prospective, Descriptive Study 49. Introduction ... 800g in about 50% of cases,2 and in term preg- nancies to be as .... Discussion. Prematurity and low birthweight are major causes.

  16. Yorkshire Regional Lymphoma Histopathology panel: analysis of five years' experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, C C; Lauder, I; Kellett, H S; Chorlton, I; Barnes, N; Darwin, C; Cartwright, R A; Boyko, R

    1984-08-01

    Five years' experience of operating a Regional Lymphoma Histopathology Panel is described. During this period, approximately 1400 cases were registered of which nearly 1200 were confirmed as malignant lymphoma. Complete concordance of diagnosis was achieved between submitting pathologists and the Panel in two-thirds of cases of Hodgkin's disease and just over half of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Most discrepancies in diagnosis were found to be of clinical importance in terms of prognosis and/or therapeutic management of patients. In approximately two-thirds of such instances disagreement arose because of wrong assignment of tumour grade within the main lymphoma class but in one-third of cases the main class of lymphoma was wrongly designated. Panel members experienced similar diagnostic problems as submitting pathologists although to a lesser extent. The existence of the panel has not reduced the proportion of cases causing diagnostic difficulty for submitting pathologists or panel members during the 5 year study period. The principal cause of death was ascertained from death certificates and autopsy findings in nearly half the cases dying during the study period. In approximately half of these infection (largely pulmonary) played a major role while most of the remainder died of various cardiovascular, pulmonary or renal disorders. There was no specific pattern relating to the main lymphoma class. It is concluded that whilst the panel fulfils a useful function in resolving diagnostic difficulties and standardizing lymphoma diagnosis its role is restricted somewhat by the limitations imposed by conventional morphological assessments.

  17. Reasons for noncompliance with five-yearly screening flexible sigmoidoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlie Henri Viiala

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Charlie Henri Viiala, John Kevin OlynykSchool of Medicine and Pharmacology, Fremantle Hospital, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, AustraliaObjective: To determine factors influencing the low return rate observed in a program of flexible sigmoidoscopy for average risk screening for colorectal carcinoma.Methods: Flexible sigmoidoscopy-based screening of average risk 55–64 yr olds has been ongoing since 1995. Greater than 3400 primary and 1000 follow up screening examinations have been performed. Participants with a primary screen in 1997–1999 and eligible for rescreening in 2002–2004 were studied. A questionnaire assessing possible reasons for noncompliance was sent to subjects who did not attend the five year repeat screening.Results: 1672 primary screening flexible sigmoidoscopies were performed in 1997–1999 with 1362 being normal or having hyperplastic polyps only. The return rate was 45%: 48% of eligible males and 39% of eligible females had returned (p = 0.001 for difference. 709 questionnaires were mailed with a 50% response rate and 162 requests for repeat flexible sigmoidoscopy were generated. 27% of all respondents had undergone further bowel evaluation since the original normal sigmoidoscopy. Of eligible subjects who refused further screening, 65% did so because of concerns over procedural pain.Conclusions: Reasons for nonattendance relate to uptake of other bowel investigations and pain felt at initial screening. Return rate can be raised with ongoing prompting to attend screening.Keywords: sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, colonic neoplasm, population surveillance, patient compliance 

  18. A Study of Five-year-schooling Vocational Students' Engagement in the English Classroom%五年制高职学生英语课堂参与情况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周春红

    2011-01-01

    This research has adopted the methods of classroom observation,questionnaire and interview to investigate the current situation of five-year-schooling vocational students' engagement in English classroom activities,specifically exploring the influential factors.The research findings have demonstrated that vocational students do not have strong awareness of engagement.Their means of engagement lacks variation and their ability of engagement is poor.They are not provided with sufficient opportunities of participation and most of them are passive in class.What is more,it has been revealed that the influential factors are varied and multiple,including students' English level and affective interference,culture factors as well as teachers' factors.On the basis of the survey,the author proposes some measures to activate students' engagement in English classroom activities,including promoting engagement awareness,improving engagement abilities,increasing engagement opportunities,encouraging initiative and active engagement.%本研究通过课堂观察、问卷和访谈等研究方法,调查了五年制高职生英语课堂参与的状况,并探究了其影响因素。调查结果表明,高职生的英语课堂参与意识薄弱,参与方式单一,参与能力较弱,参与机会欠缺,参与态度消极。另外,研究显示,影响高职生英语课堂参与的因素呈多样化,涉及学生的英语能力和情感因素、文化因素及教师方面因素等。在此基础之上,本研究提出了促进学生积极参与英语课堂学习的措施,包括增强参与意识,提高参与能力,增加参与机会,激励积极主动参与。

  19. Five-yearly Review: What now? Is this the end?

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2006-01-01

    The CERN Staff Association has made every effort over the past months to devise and propose numerous solutions in the framework of the current five-yearly review. The Staff Association has done this in close collaboration with the staff members, through several polls which have all resulted in a massive rejection of the Management's position.

  20. State of logistics - a five-year review

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ittmann, HW

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The state of logistics survey makes it possible to analyse and show trends over the past five years. This relates to quantitative and qualitative logistics issues that were not possible when this survey started in 2004. The paper will show...

  1. The Five-Year Resume: A Career Planning Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laker, Dennis R.; Laker, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    For most college students, lack of career planning wastes time and resources and may result in years of "career drift." Lack of planning can also lead to deception once students begin seeking career-related employment. Faced with a competitive job market, some students inflate and exaggerate their resumes. The five-year resume exercise helps…

  2. Annex A1: cornerstone of the five-yearly review

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    As a reminder; the purpose of the five-yearly review is to review the financial and social conditions of all CERN personnel whether employed (MPE) or associated (MPA)! In December 2015, the CERN Council approved the package proposed by the Management. Early this year, and as final act of the 2015 five-yearly review, the CERN Council may decide, if necessary and appropriate, to review the procedures defined in Annex A1 and applicable to future five-yearly reviews. At the meeting of TREF (TRipartite Employment Forum)  in early March 2016 discussions will take place between all stakeholders (representatives of Member States, Management and the Staff Association) and Council will take a decision in June 2016, on the basis of the Management's recommendations. What does Annex A1 say and where can I find it? Annex A1 (Article S V 1.02) is a part of the Staff Rules and Regulations. This annex defines: The five-yearly review of the financial and social conditions of the staff, fellows and MPA; The a...

  3. Outcome of the 2015 five-yearly review: decision time

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    To ensure that CERN remains a centre of excellence in the field of fundamental research, the Organization verifies every five years with the help of a Five-yearly review procedure whether the financial and social conditions which it proposes to its staff allow it to recruit and retain Staff Members of the highest competence and integrity required for the execution of its mission and coming from all Member States. For Fellows these conditions should remain attractive compared with those in comparable research institutions, while for Associated members of personnel the conditions should allow it to host them in its research facilities taking into account the highest cost-of-living level in the local region of the Organization. Annex A1 of the CERN Staff Rules prescribes the principles of how to manage this Five-Yearly process. Getting ready In order to prepare the 2015 Five-yearly review and to help define the topics which had to be decided by the CERN Council in June 2014, the Staff Association has organized ...

  4. 75 FR 6299 - Registration, Five-Year Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ..., Packers and Stockyards Administration 9 CFR Part 201 RIN 0580-AB03 Registration, Five-Year Terms AGENCY... business organization, state whether it will operate on a calendar year or fiscal year basis, identify the... on amending the regulations under the P&S Act to establish a 5-year time period for registrations, as...

  5. Five-Year Strategic Plan: Fiscal Years 2011-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the U.S. Department of Education (Department) Office of Inspector General (OIG) Strategic Plan for fiscal years 2011 through 2015. This plan describes the focus and direction of OIG's operations over the next five years, establishes its organizational goals, and outlines the strategies it will employ to reach those goals and…

  6. Blood chimerism in dizygotic monochorionic twins during five years observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld; Hansen, Morten Høgh; Haedersdal, Sofie

    2017-01-01

    and again at five years. We found an increase in the proportion of allogeneic cells from 63% to 89% in one twin, and a similar increase in autologous cells in the other twin from 57% to 84%. A paradigm for stem cell therapy could be modelled on this case: induction of tolerance and chimerism by antenatal...

  7. The Perceptions of Five Years Old Group Students' about Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeynep Et, Sümeyra; Memis, Esra Kabatas

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to reveal the perceptions of students of five years old group about scientists. The practice was implemented with 76 students having education in five-age group continuing to various nursery schools located in the center of Kastamonu province. Before starting the practice, the teacher asked the questions of…

  8. Five-Yearly Review: TREF avoids the worst!

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2006-01-01

    In our last edition, we informed you about the Staff Council decision to reject the entire set of proposals for the five-yearly review, on the basis of the Director-General's revised proposals 2 and 10. We also indicated that a total failure could still be avoided at TREF on 4 and 5 October. To our relief, TREF avoided the worst!

  9. The deep, hot biosphere: Twenty-five years of retrospection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, Daniel R; Poudel, Saroj; Stamps, Blake W; Boyd, Eric S; Spear, John R

    2017-07-03

    Twenty-five years ago this month, Thomas Gold published a seminal manuscript suggesting the presence of a "deep, hot biosphere" in the Earth's crust. Since this publication, a considerable amount of attention has been given to the study of deep biospheres, their role in geochemical cycles, and their potential to inform on the origin of life and its potential outside of Earth. Overwhelming evidence now supports the presence of a deep biosphere ubiquitously distributed on Earth in both terrestrial and marine settings. Furthermore, it has become apparent that much of this life is dependent on lithogenically sourced high-energy compounds to sustain productivity. A vast diversity of uncultivated microorganisms has been detected in subsurface environments, and we show that H2, CH4, and CO feature prominently in many of their predicted metabolisms. Despite 25 years of intense study, key questions remain on life in the deep subsurface, including whether it is endemic and the extent of its involvement in the anaerobic formation and degradation of hydrocarbons. Emergent data from cultivation and next-generation sequencing approaches continue to provide promising new hints to answer these questions. As Gold suggested, and as has become increasingly evident, to better understand the subsurface is critical to further understanding the Earth, life, the evolution of life, and the potential for life elsewhere. To this end, we suggest the need to develop a robust network of interdisciplinary scientists and accessible field sites for long-term monitoring of the Earth's subsurface in the form of a deep subsurface microbiome initiative.

  10. A Five-Year Review of Tag Rugby Hand Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, C W; Woods, J F C; Murphy, S; Bollard, S; Kelly, J L; Carroll, S M; O'Shaughnessy, M

    2016-10-01

    Tag rugby is one of the fastest growing sports in Ireland. It is a soft-contact team game that is loosely based on the rugby league format except players try to remove Velcro tags from their opponents' shorts rather than engage in a typical rugby tackle. The purpose of this study was to examine all tag rugby associated hand injuries over a five-year period in three large tertiary referral hospitals in Ireland. Using the patient corresponding system, 228 patients with hand injury related tag rugby injuries were observed from 2010 to 2015. There were 138 males and 90 females in the study and over 40% of patients required surgery. Most of the patients were young professionals with an average age of 30. Twenty-five patients worked in the financial services whilst there were 23 teachers. Fractures accounted for 124 of the 228 injuries and mallet injuries accounted for 53. Eighty percent of all injuries occurred during the tackle. The mean number of days missed from work was 9.1±13.8 days. These injuries resulted in an average of seven hospital appointments per patient. Considering it is a soft-contact sport, it is surprising the number of hand injuries that we have observed. Although safety measures have been introduced to decrease the number of hand injuries in recent years, there is a need for further improvements. Better player education about seeking prompt medical attention once an injury occurs, coupled with longer shorts worn by players may improve measures for the sport. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Collaboration on DIII-D Five Year Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, S

    2003-04-01

    This document summarizes Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) plan for fusion research on the DIII-D Tokamak, located at General Atomics (GA) in San Diego, California, in the time period FY04-FY08. This document is a companion document to the DIII-D Five-Year Program Plan; which hereafter will be referred to as the ''D3DPP''. The LLNL Collaboration on DIII-D is a task-driven program in which we bring to bear the full range of expertise needed to complete specific goals of plasma science research on the DIII-D facility. This document specifies our plasma performance and physics understanding goals and gives detailed plans to achieve those goals in terms of experimental leadership, code development and analysis, and diagnostic development. Our program is designed to be consistent with the long-term mission of the DIII-D program as documented in the D3DPP. The overall DIII-D Program mission is ''to establish the scientific basis for the optimization of the tokamak approach to fusion energy production''. LLNL Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE) supports this mission, and we contribute to two areas of the DIII-D program: divertor physics and advanced tokamak (AT) physics. We lead or contribute to the whole cycle of research: experimental planning, diagnostic development, execution of experiments, and detailed analysis. We plan to continue this style in the next five years. DIII-D has identified three major research themes: AT physics, confinement physics, and mass transport. The LLNL program is part of the AT theme: measurement of the plasma current profile, and the mass transport theme: measurement and modeling of plasma flow. In the AT area, we have focused on the measurement and modeling of the current profile in Advanced Tokamak plasmas. The current profile, and it's effect on MHD stability of the high-{beta} ''AT'' plasma are at the heart of the DIII-D program. LLNL has played a key role in

  12. A comparison of suicidal behavior by burns five years before and five years after the 2011 Tunisian Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Khelil, Mehdi; Zgarni, Amine; Ben Mohamed, Mounir; Allouche, Mohamed; Benzarti, Anis; Banasr, Ahmed; Hamdoun, Moncef

    2017-06-01

    In Tunisia, the phenomenon of self-immolation has increased dramatically since the self-burn of Mohamed Bouazizi which occurred on 17 December 2010. The aim of our study was to compare the casualties' profile of suicide by self-immolation before and after the Tunisian Revolution over a period of 10 years (2006-2015). We conducted a retrospective review including all the cases of self-immolation suicides that occurred in Northern Tunisia five years before and five years after the January 2011 Revolution. We excluded cases of self-immolations committed in governorates other than the north of Tunisia as well as casualties of accidental or criminal burns and those where the context could evoke suicidal immolation but the self-inflicted nature has not been confirmed. The study sample was subdivided in two groups according to the Revolution date: before the Revolution (2006-2010) and after the Revolution (2011-2015). We compared for each group data related to the age, gender, marital status, employment, mental disease history, previous suicide attempts and threats, place of suicide and its motive, the type of fire accelerator, the hospitalization and the average body surface area burned. The number (n=48/24.5% before 2011) of suicide by self-immolation has tripled during the post-revolution period (2011-2015) with a stable trend. The average age (35.6±13.4) has not changed. The male remained predominant before and after the Revolution (sex ratio of respectively 1.67 and 3.23). Marital status (victims being single in n=81 cases/41.3%) and the employment (unemployed in n=128/65.3%) of the casualties have not changed either after 2011. Fewer cases with psychiatric history were reported (n=21/43.7% before against n=52/35.1% after). Self-immolation increased in public places (n=9/18.7% before against n=50/33.8% after) and in an administration (n=2/4.2% before against n=19/12.8% after). More suicides after 2011 were due to financial problems (n=2/4.2% before against n=30

  13. Five years of total quality management: Campbelltown Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, L

    1994-01-01

    There are many articles in the health literature outlining either a framework for total quality management (TQM) or a success story. There is a dearth of literature reflecting the shortcomings of total quality management during implementation. Yet many of the world's most successful companies learn by reflecting about their past, for example, British Petroleum, IBM, Boeing, Xerox. This paper describes, from a general manager's perspective, the practical application of total quality management to a hospital setting over five years. The paper outlines the important ingredients to success and the shortcomings encountered along the way. Supporting literature is cited where appropriate. Strategies that were implemented contrary to common total quality management thinking are highlighted. The paper concludes with an outline of the four key lessons learnt over the five-year period.

  14. Population goal set for China's new five-year plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    China's 7th Five-Year Plan recommends that China's total mainland population be held within the limit of 1.113 billion, with an annual average natural growth rate of about 12.4/1000. As a large number of youths will reach marriage and childbearing age during the course of the 7th Five-Year Plan, the Plan affords a high priority to the family planning program and to the control of population growth. The plan proposes 5 policies and measures to realize its goal: continuous efforts need to be made to give family planning a high priority; late marriage, late childbearing, and the 1-child family should be advocated; ideological and political education should be strengthened; scientific and technological research devoted to family planning should be intensified; and family planning communication and service centers at the county level should be consolidated and strengthened, and the family planning program should be conducted systematically and be ongoing.

  15. The UK Prospective Diabetes Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivarius, Niels de Fine; Andreasen, A.H.

    1998-01-01

    Læserbrev, som kritiserer det store UK Prospective Diabetes Study's forfattere for at overfortolke deres fund, idet marginalt signifikante p-værdier tages som udtryk for slående effekt (af at sænke blodsukkeret). Det sker selvom der f.eks. indgår effektvariabler, som kunne påvirkes af patienternes...

  16. The November $J / \\Psi$ Revolution Twenty-Five Years Later

    CERN Document Server

    Khare, A

    1999-01-01

    Exactly twenty five years ago the world of high energy physics was set on fire by the discovery of a new particle with an unusually narrow width at 3095 MeV, known popularly as the $J/\\Psi$ revolution. This discovery was very decisive in our understanding as well as formulating the current picture regarding the basic constituents of nature. I look back at the discovery, pointing out how unexpected, dramatic and significant it was.

  17. Suicide rates in five-year age-bands after the age of 60 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Ajit; Bhat, Ravi; Zarate-Escudero, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is paucity of studies examining suicide rates in narrow five-year age-bands after the age of 60 years. This study examined suicide rates in eight five-year age-bands between the age of 60 and 99 years because this will allow more precise comparison between the young old (60......-79 years) and the oldest old (80+ years) age groups. METHODS: Data on the number of suicides (International Classification of Diseases - ICD-10 codes, X60-84) in each of the eight five-year age-bands between the age-bands 60-64 years and 95-99 years in both gender for as many years as possible from 2000...... website. RESULTS: In men, suicide rates continued to increase for each of the seven five-year age-bands from 60-64 years to 90-94 years age-band, and then declined slightly for the 95-99 year age-band. In women, suicide rates continued to increase for each of the six five-year age-bands from 60-64 years...

  18. Retrospective evaluation of the five-year and ten-year CSEP-Italy earthquake forecasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Wiemer

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available On August 1, 2009, the global Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP launched a prospective and comparative earthquake predictability experiment in Italy. The goal of this CSEP-Italy experiment is to test earthquake occurrence hypotheses that have been formalized as probabilistic earthquake forecasts over temporal scales that range from days to years. In the first round of forecast submissions, members of the CSEP-Italy Working Group presented 18 five-year and ten-year earthquake forecasts to the European CSEP Testing Center at ETH Zurich. We have considered here the twelve time-independent earthquake forecasts among this set, and evaluated them with respect to past seismicity data from two Italian earthquake catalogs. We present the results of the tests that measure the consistencies of the forecasts according to past observations. As well as being an evaluation of the time-independent forecasts submitted, this exercise provides insight into a number of important issues in predictability experiments with regard to the specification of the forecasts, the performance of the tests, and the trade-off between robustness of results and experiment duration. We conclude with suggestions for the design of future earthquake predictability experiments.

  19. CRAB NEBULA: FIVE-YEAR OBSERVATION WITH ARGO-YBJ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartoli, B.; Catalanotti, S.; D' Ettorre Piazzoli, B.; Di Girolamo, T. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Università di Napoli " Federico II," Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant' Angelo, via Cinthia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Bernardini, P.; D' Amone, A.; De Mitri, I. [Dipartimento Matematica e Fisica " Ennio De Giorgi," Università del Salento, via per Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Bi, X. J.; Cao, Z.; Chen, S. Z. [Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 918, 100049 Beijing (China); Branchini, P.; Budano, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma Tre, via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy); Camarri, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Università di Roma " Tor Vergata," via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Cardarelli, R.; Di Sciascio, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Chen, T. L.; Danzengluobu [Tibet University, 850000 Lhasa, Xizang (China); Creti, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Lecce, via per Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Cui, S. W. [Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050016 Hebei (China); Dai, B. Z., E-mail: vernetto@to.infn.it [Yunnan University, 2 North Cuihu Rd., 650091 Kunming, Yunnan (China); Collaboration: ARGO-YBJ Collaboration; and others

    2015-01-10

    The ARGO-YBJ air shower detector monitored the Crab Nebula gamma-ray emission from 2007 November to 2013 February. The integrated signal, consisting of ∼3.3 × 10{sup 5} events, reached the statistical significance of 21.1 standard deviations. The obtained energy spectrum in the energy range 0.3-20 TeV can be described by a power law function dN/dE = I {sub 0} (E/2 TeV){sup –α}, with a flux normalization I {sub 0} = (5.2 ± 0.2) × 10{sup –12} photons cm{sup –2} s{sup –1} TeV{sup –1} and α = 2.63 ± 0.05, corresponding to an integrated flux above 1 TeV of 1.97 × 10{sup –11} photons cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}. The systematic error is estimated to be less than 30% for the flux normalization and 0.06 for the spectral index. Assuming a power law spectrum with an exponential cutoff dN/dE = I {sub 0} (E/2 TeV){sup –α} exp (–E/E {sub cut}), the lower limit of the cutoff energy E {sub cut} is 12 TeV, at 90% confidence level. Our extended data set allows the study of the TeV emission over long timescales. Over five years, the light curve of the Crab Nebula in 200-day bins is compatible with a steady emission with a probability of 7.3 × 10{sup –2}. A correlated analysis with Fermi-LAT data over ∼4.5 yr using the light curves of the two experiments gives a Pearson correlation coefficient r = 0.56 ± 0.22. Concerning flux variations on timescales of days, a ''blind'' search for flares with a duration of 1-15 days gives no excess with a significance higher than four standard deviations. The average rate measured by ARGO-YBJ during the three most powerful flares detected by Fermi-LAT is 205 ± 91 photons day{sup –1}, consistent with the average value of 137 ± 10 day{sup –1}.

  20. Twenty-five years of study of the atmospheric contamination by means of proton-induced X-ray emission analysis; Veinticinco anos de estudio de la contaminacion atmosferica mediante microanalisis de rayos X inducidos por particula (PIXE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldape U, F.; Flores M, J., E-mail: francisca.aldape@inin.gob.m [ININ, Departamento de Estudios del Ambiente, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    At the present time, the microanalysis technique PIXE is accepted by the scientific community as one of the basic techniques used in the study of airborne particle matter, due to the multiple qualities that this offers for the study of this type of pollutants. The nuclear techniques have important applications in the study and technology of solid materials, archaeology and biomedical studies, and particularly in the study of the particles suspended in the air where the PIXE technique is more used because provides reliable results for the identification and quantification of chemical elements from the aluminum until the uranium, including all the metallic elements. Among the main reasons that have motivated the study of the particles suspended in the air is the fact that these cause effects in the human health. At the moment, the sanitary problems associated to the particles are a reason of great concern in many countries where in very populated cities the total of particles in suspension often surpasses the limits settled down by the World Organization of the Health. (Author)

  1. www.cefalea.it: the first five years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Paolo; Sances, Grazia; Nappi, Giuseppe

    2005-09-01

    The Italian headache disorders website (www.cefalea.it) was launched in 1999 by the CIRNA foundation in partnership with Al.Ce, which is a lay association and member of the World Headache Alliance. In 2004, the website registered almost 130 000 hits (+200% on the 1999 figure). The most visited parts were the sections devoted to topical issues relating to headache, the list of headache specialists, the headache glossary and the support group. This article summarises the website's first five years of activity and highlights the Internet's potential to improve headache-related decision-making, behaviour and outcomes.

  2. Neosporosis in animals--the last five years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Schares, G

    2011-08-04

    Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite of animals. Until 1988, it was misdiagnosed as Toxoplasma gondii. Since its first recognition in 1984 in dogs and the description of a new genus and species Neospora caninum in 1988, neosporosis has emerged as a serious disease of cattle and dogs worldwide. Abortions and neonatal mortality are a major problem in livestock operations and neosporosis is a major cause of abortion in cattle. This review is focused on current status of neosporosis in animals based on papers published in the last five years. Worldwide seroprevalences are tabulated. Strategies for control and prevention are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Use of 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors did not increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia: a five-year follow-up study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng-Fu Hsieh

    Full Text Available This nationwide population-based study investigated the risk of cardiovascular diseases after 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor therapy for benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH using the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD in Taiwan.In total, 1,486 adult patients newly diagnosed with BPH and who used 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors were recruited as the study cohort, along with 9,995 subjects who did not use 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors as a comparison cohort from 2003 to 2008. Each patient was monitored for 5 years, and those who subsequently had cardiovascular diseases were identified. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to compare the risk of cardiovascular diseases between the study and comparison cohorts after adjusting for possible confounding risk factors.The patients who received 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor therapy had a lower cumulative rate of cardiovascular diseases than those who did not receive 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor therapy during the 5-year follow-up period (8.4% vs. 11.2%, P=0.003. In subgroup analysis, the 5-year cardiovascular event hazard ratio (HR was lower among the patients older than 65 years with 91 to 365 cumulative defined daily dose (cDDD 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor use (HR=0.63, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.42 to 0.92; P=0.018, however there was no difference among the patients with 28 to 90 and more than 365 cDDD 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor use (HR=1.14, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.68; P=0.518 and HR=0.83, 95% CI 0.57 to 1.20; P=0.310, respectively.5-alpha-reductase inhibitor therapy did not increase the risk of cardiovascular events in the BPH patients in 5 years of follow-up. Further mechanistic research is needed.

  4. The Study of \\\\\\"Matthew Effect\\\\\\" on Science Productions of Iranian Medical Universities on the basis of \\\\\\"Power- law Relationship\\\\\\" in a Five Year Period in the Web of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Jalalzadeh Asrejadidi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Robert K. Merton has made up the expression of “Matthew effect" in sociology of Science that explains how the eminent scientists frequently get more acknowledgment than unknown researchers, even if their work was similar. The objective of this study is to analyze and visualize the influence of “Matthew effect" on the quantitative (papers and qualitative (citations of scientific publications originated by Iranian Medical Sciences Universities throughout 2002 – 2006. The method of current study was an analytical-descriptive review. All data about publications originated by Iranian Medical Sciences Universities were extracted from the database of Web of Science (WoS. The citations received by Medical Sciences Universities were extracted from the Citation Report. The relationship between the publications and citations was plotted by Excel. We found a non-linear correlation between the publications and citations of Iranian Medical Universities. The first class and other universities group showed a positive impact related to the Matthew effect; whereas this relationship among second class universities and third class universities were negative. Tehran University of Medical Sciences got the first place on the ranking order based on the scale independent indicator while Bushehr Medical Science University was the last one. Analysis of data indicated that there was a non-liner relationship between Iranian scientific profiles and the citations that they received. The Scale-independent Indicators were the most reliable metrics for normalizing the ranking of universities.

  5. "十一五"期间《中国图书馆学报》文献计量分析%Quantitative Study on the Literature of JLSC in the ll-th Five-year Planning Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉梅; 王正兴

    2012-01-01

    The bibliographical metrology on literature is employed in this paper to make statistic research on articles, authors and citations in 607 papers of 30 periodicals from 2006 to 2010. The scientific influence and academic standings have been studied on the basis of present academic achievements.%采用常规文献计量学方法对《中国图书馆学报》2006-2010年5年间30期607篇论文作了发文统计、作者统计和引文分析。并对照若干已有研究成果分析该刊学术影响和地位。

  6. The 2015 Five-yearly review: diversity in the spotlight

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

    Introduction As mentioned in Echo 201, with the Council Decision of last June the CERN 2015 five-yearly review has formally begun. Following the procedure defined in Annex A1 of the Staff Rules and Regulations CERN will thus review its financial and social conditions that should enable it to recruit from all its Member States, and retain, staff of the highest competence and integrity necessary to perform its mission. In addition, these conditions should increase the attractiveness of CERN in all Member States and motivate staff of all ages and all occupations throughout their careers. Annex A1 stipulates that a five-yearly review must include basic salaries (stipends for Fellows and subsistence allowances for associated members of the personnel) and, optionally, may include any other financial or social conditions. For this optional part of the 2015 exercise, the CERN career structure and measures to improve diversity were chosen. Towards a better diversity policy The analysis of the 2013 Staff Associat...

  7. Free Flaps in a Resource Constrained Environment: A Five-Year Experience—Outcomes and Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanjala F. Nangole

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Free flap surgery is a routine procedure in many developed countries with good surgical outcomes. In many developing countries, however, these services are not available. In this paper, we audit free flaps done in a resource constrained hospital in Kenya. Objective. This is a five-year audit of free flaps done in a tertiary hospital in Kenya, between 2009 and 2014. Materials and Methods. This was a prospective study of patients operated on with free flaps between 2009 and 2014. Results. A total of one hundred and thirty-two free flaps in one hundred and twenty patients were performed during the five-year duration. The age range was eight to seventy-two years with a mean of 47.2. All the flaps were done under loupe magnification. The overall flap success rate was eighty-nine percent. Conclusion. Despite the many limitations, free flaps in our setup were successful in the majority of patients operated on. Flap salvage was noted to be low due to infrequent flap monitoring as well as unavailability of theatre space. One therefore has to be meticulous during surgery to reduce any possibilities of reexploration.

  8. The impact of depression on survival of Parkinson's disease patients: a five-year study O impacto da depressão na sobrevida de pacientes com doença de Parkinson: cinco anos de estudo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Débora Silberman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the survival rate in a cohort of Parkinson's disease patients with and without depression. METHODS: A total of 53 Parkinson's disease subjects were followed up from 2003-2008 and 21 were diagnosed as depressed. Mean time of follow up was 3.8 (SD 95% = 1.5 years for all the sample and there was no significant difference in mean time of follow up between depressed and nondepressed Parkinson's disease patients. Survival curves rates were fitted using the Kaplan-Meier method. In order to compare survival probabilities according to the selected covariables the Log-Rank test was used. Multivariate analysis with Cox regression was performed aiming at estimating the effect of predictive covariables on the survival. RESULTS: The cumulative global survival of this sample was 83% with nine deaths at the end of the study - five in the depressed and four in the nondepressed group, and 55.6% died in the first year of observation, and none died at the fourth and fifth year of follow up. CONCLUSION: Our finding point toward incremental death risk in depressed Parkinson's disease patients.OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar a taxa de mortalidade em uma coorte de parkinsonianos com e sem depressão. MÉTODOS: O total de 53 pacientes com doença de Parkinson foi acompanhado de 2003 a 2008, e 21 deles foram avaliados com depressão. O tempo médio de doença foi de 3,8 (DP 95% = 1,5 anos para toda a amostra e não houve diferença significativa entre os parkinsonianos, com e sem depressão, acompanhados durante esse período. Curvas de sobrevida foram obtidas utilizando-se o método de Kaplan-Meier. A fim de comparar as probabilidades de sobrevivência de acordo com as covariáveis ​​selecionadas, o teste Log-Rank foi usado. A análise multivariada com regressão de Cox foi realizada com o objetivo de estimar o efeito de covariáveis ​​preditivas sobre a sobrevivência. RESULTADOS: A sobreviv

  9. The Cultivation of Primary School Students’ Learning Motivation:a Five-year Longitudinal Study%小学生学习动机的培养:五年追踪研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾小娟; 胡卫平; 武宝军

    2012-01-01

    采用聚合交叉研究设计,利用"学思维"活动课程,对某小学1~3年级学生的学习动机进行了4年的干预培养,停止培养一年后,再次收集了数据,分析了变化趋势、即时效果及其长时效应。结果表明:(1)随着年龄的增大,儿童的表层动机和成就动机呈下降趋势;深层动机呈先上升后下降的趋势;(2)男生的表层动机和成就动机都高于女生;(3)年级越高,表层动机、深层动机和成就动机越低;(4)培养一年后,实验组学生的深层动机显著高于控制组,且长时效应显著。%The present study adopted cross-sequential design, explored the changing trends of primary school students’ learning motivation and the effects of the "Learn to Think" curriculum. Participants were primary school students from Grade 1 to Grade 3, who were randomly ascribed to experimental and control groups. Experimental group students attended the LTT for four years, and the delayed effects were measured one year after terminating the intervention. The results suggested that (1) the surface motivation and achievement motivation showed a descending trend, while the deep motivation showed an ascending first and then descending trend. (2) Boys’ surface motivation and achievement motivation were significantly higher than that of girls. (3) The higher the grade was, the lower children’s surface motivation, deep motivation and achievement motivation were. (4) After one-year intervention, the experimental group students’ deep motivation was significantly higher than the control group students’, and delayed effects were significant.

  10. A qualitative study to identify community structures for management of severe malaria: a basis for introducing rectal artesunate in the under five years children in Nakonde District of Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Mary

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a serious illness among children aged 5 years and below in Zambia, which carries with it many adverse effects including anemia and high parasites exposure that lead to infant and childhood mortality. Due to poor accessibility to modern health facilities, malaria is normally managed at home using indigenous and cosmopolitan medicines. In view of problems and implications associated with management of severe malaria at home, rectal artesunate is being proposed as a first aid drug to slow down multiplication of parasites in children before accessing appropriate treatment. Methods A qualitative study using standardised in-depth and Focuss Group Discussions (FGDs guides to collect information from four (4 villages in Nakonde district, was conducted between February and March 2004. The guides were administered on 29 key informants living in the community and those whose children were admitted in the health facility. Participants in the 12 FGDs came from the 4 participating villages. Participants and key informants were fathers, younger and older mothers including grandmothers and other influential people at household level. Others were traditional healers, headmen, village secretaries, tradtional birth attendants, church leaders and black smiths. FGDs and interview transcriptions were coded to identify common themes that were related to recognition, classification and naming of malaria illness, care-seeking behaviour and community treatment practices for severe malaria. Results Parental prior knowledge of the disease was important as the majority of informants (23 out of 29 and participants (69 out of 97 mentioned four combined symptoms that were used to recognise severe malaria. The symptoms were excessive body hotness, convulsions, vomiting yellow things and bulging of the fontanelle. On the other hand, all informants mentioned two or more of symptoms associated with severe malaria. In all 12 FGDs, participants

  11. Five-Year-Olds' Fascination for Television: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hake, Karin

    2001-01-01

    Compared 5-year-olds' understanding of and fascination with a public service and a commercial television program; also compared parents' and children's perspectives. Found that children were particularly fascinated by sequences containing conflicts and aggression. Sixteen of 20 children chose the commercial channel program. Parents showed insight…

  12. Academic substance and location: The national technical university of Athens' five-year program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spyrou, Kostas J.; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    2014-01-01

    hydrodynamics, marine structures, and marine engineering. To be awarded an engineering diploma in Greece, one has to spend a minimum of five years. The program at NTUA has also 10 semesters, out of which nine are dedicated to course study while the tenth is spend on the writing of a thesis. There is no tuition...

  13. 500 Maori PhDs in Five Years: Insights from a Successful Indigenous Higher Education Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Malia Maya

    2010-01-01

    With this thesis, I present a case study of the effort to graduate 500 "Maori" doctorates in five years in New Zealand in order to advance our understanding of a successful Indigenous higher education initiative. By paying careful attention to contextual factors, I describe the theoretical and practical significance of this effort and…

  14. Phonological Awareness and Emerging Reading Skills of Two- to Five-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suortti, Outi; Lipponen, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    This study, conducted in Finnish private and Montessori child care centres, aimed at investigating the development of the phonological awareness (PA) of two- to five-year-old preschool children within a six-month period in relation to emerging letter knowledge and reading skills. The children (N = 72) performed five phonological tasks and a…

  15. Prevalence of rotavirus among children under five years of age with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-08-16

    Aug 16, 2016 ... Diarrheal disease kills 1.8 million children under five years of age yearly.1 It is the ... A prevalence rate of 36.5% reported in a previous study by Wada-Kura15 was ..... Rotavirus diarrhea in Bangladesh children: correlation of ...

  16. Five-year plans, China finance and their consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghua Chen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available An important factor influencing corporate finance and economic growth in China lies in its government sponsored industrial policies. Examining China’s five-year plans during 1991–2010, we find that state-owned firms in government supported industries enjoy faster growth in initial public offerings and higher offer prices. Further, they enjoy faster growth in loans granted by major national banks. However, this preferential access to capital by state-owned firms appears to be achieved at the expense of non-state-owned firms which are crowded out. Government support induces more investment but also brings more overinvestment, which mainly comes from the non-state sector. Finally, supported industries have higher stock market returns and cash flow growth that dampen when state ownership increases.

  17. Educational affairs plan: A five-year strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    A five-year plan is presented to guide the use of NASA resources in administering a focused and consistent set of aeronautics and space science education programs. Major initiatives outlined in this plan fall into two categories: programmatic priorities and institutional priorities. Programmatic priorities for this plan include elementary education, teacher education, underrepresented minority participation, educational technology and the Aerospace Education Services Project (AESP). Institutional priorities highlighted in this plan include university programs, educational publications and their distribution, educational partnerships with public and private organizations, educational research and evaluation, and activities of the educational affairs administration. The plan's aim is to directly and indirectly help to ensure an adequate pool of talented scientists, engineers and technical personnel to keep NASA at the forefront of advancements for the 21st century.

  18. Funding options of the five-yearly remuneration review

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    A package of measures elaborated in the framework of the Five-Yearly Remuneration Review have been discussed at TREF in November 2000, taking due account of the funding options proposed in relation with the package . A recommendation for a final package of measures has been agreed by a TREF Restricted Group, outcome of a conciliation process. The present document has been developed on the basis of this recommendation, presented in document CERN/TRG - 2000/5/Rev. (Report from the TREF restricted group). The Finance Committee is invited to recommend to Council to approve the funding proposal outlined in the present document with the corresponding modifications of the budget estimates proposed with the June 2000 Medium-Term Plan.

  19. THE FIVE YEAR FERMI/GBM MAGNETAR BURST CATALOG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collazzi, A. C. [SciTec, Inc., 100 Wall Street, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Kouveliotou, C.; Horst, A. J. van der; Younes, G. A. [Department of Physics, The George Washington University, 725 21st Street NW, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Kaneko, Y.; Göğüş, E. [Sabancı University, Orhanlı-Tuzla, İstanbul 34956 (Turkey); Lin, L. [François Arago Centre, APC, 10 rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris (France); Granot, J. [Department of Natural Sciences, The Open University of Israel, 1 University Road, P.O. Box 808, Raanana 43537 (Israel); Finger, M. H. [Universities Space Research Association, NSSTC, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Chaplin, V. L. [School of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, 1161 21st Avenue S, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Huppenkothen, D. [Center for Data Science, New York University, 726 Broadway, 7th Floor, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Watts, A. L. [Anton Pannekoek Institute, University of Amsterdam, Postbus 94249, 1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kienlin, A. von [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Baring, M. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, MS-108, P.O. Box 1892, Houston, TX 77251 (United States); Gruber, D. [Planetarium Südtirol, Gummer 5, I-39053 Karneid (Italy); Bhat, P. N. [CSPAR, University of Alabama in Huntsville, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Gibby, M. H., E-mail: acollazzi@scitec.com [Jacobs Technology, Inc., Huntsville, AL (United States); and others

    2015-05-15

    Since launch in 2008, the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) has detected many hundreds of bursts from magnetar sources. While the vast majority of these bursts have been attributed to several known magnetars, there is also a small sample of magnetar-like bursts of unknown origin. Here, we present the Fermi/GBM magnetar catalog, providing the results of the temporal and spectral analyses of 440 magnetar bursts with high temporal and spectral resolution. This catalog covers the first five years of GBM magnetar observations, from 2008 July to 2013 June. We provide durations, spectral parameters for various models, fluences, and peak fluxes for all the bursts, as well as a detailed temporal analysis for SGR J1550–5418 bursts. Finally, we suggest that some of the bursts of unknown origin are associated with the newly discovered magnetar 3XMM J185246.6+0033.7.

  20. Hanford Atomic Products Operation Five-Year Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priode, C.A.; Benoliel, R.W.; Gilbert, W.D.; McGrath, R.E.; Tomlinson, R.E.; Zuhr, H.F. [comps.

    1958-05-19

    The General Electric Company has prepared in past years numerous documents for the Atomic Energy Commission outlining in some detail its current and proposed programs at Hanford. Last year, at the request of the commission, program types of information were consolidated into one document, the HAPO Five Year Program. That document was well received and useful to an extent that the General Electric Company was requested by the Commission to prepare another covering the fiscal years 1959 through 1963. In outlining the five year program for the Hanford Atomic Products Operation, the General Electric Company has made assumptions regarding the US Atomic Energy Commission`s current and future programs and Hanford`s relationship to these programs. Two major objectives of the Commission were considered basic for future planning: first, to provide adequate atomic weapons for national defense; and second, to encourage and assist in the development of atomic energy for peaceful uses. The Hanford contributions to these objectives are conceived to include the acquisition and potential application of new technology in support of: (1) Increased production of plutonium, as nitrate solution, buttons, and as current and future shapes. (2) A program that will provide the technological capability to implement broad changes in the Commission`s programs such as conversion of Hanford reactors to tritium production, the separation and packaging of mixed and specific fission products, the recovery of transuranic elements, the processing of power reactor fuels, and the provision of weapons assembly capability. (3) Optimum costs, operating and capital. (4) New production reactor designs and concepts. (5) Use of plutonium as power reactor fuel. (6) Operation of nuclear reactors and associated plants with assured radiological protection of both workers and people and other forms of life in the environs.

  1. Late mortality among five-year survivors of cancer in childhood and adolescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, Torgil R.; Garwicz, Stanislaw; Perfekt, Roland; Barlow, Lotti; Falck Winther, Jeanette; Glattre, Eystein; Olafsdottir, Gudridur; Olsen, Joergen H.; Ritvanen, Annukka; Sankila, Risto [Univ. Hospital MAS, Malmoe (Sweden). Dept. of Endocrinology

    2004-12-01

    The present study was aimed at assessing differences between the Nordic countries, if any, in late mortality among five-year survivors of childhood cancer. All cases diagnosed before the age of 20 years, between 1960 and 1989, were collected from all Nordic cancer registries. In total, 13,689 patients were identified as five-year survivors and during the extended follow-up 12.3% of them died. Mortality was analysed by decade of diagnosis, for all sites, and for leukaemia, Hodgkin's lymphoma, and central nervous system tumours separately. Analyses were done within a Cox proportional hazards regression framework with adjustments made for gender and age at diagnosis. Hazard ratios were calculated in relation to a weighted Nordic mean based on the proportion of five-year survivors in each country. Overall late mortality was significantly higher in Denmark and Finland than in Norway and Sweden. This could not be explained by inverse differences in five-year survival. The differences diminished over time and had disappeared in the last period. The pattern was similar for both genders. The disappearance of the differences was most probably the effect of a closer collaboration between Nordic paediatric oncologists with development and implementation of common protocols for treatment of childhood cancers in all countries.

  2. The Indian Health Service Early Childhood Caries Collaborative: A Five-year Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricks, Timothy L; Phipps, Kathy R; Bruerd, Bonnie

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess a national initiative's effect on prevalence of early childhood caries and untreated decay in zero- to five-year-old Indian/Alaska Native preschool children. The Indian Health Service (IHS) conducted a five-year Early Childhood Caries Collaborative from October 1, 2009 to September 30, 2014. The program used educational materials and routine communication with the 322 IHS and United States tribal dental programs, with an emphasis on early access to care, dental sealanth, fluoride varnish, and interim therapeutic restorations (ITRs). Prevalence and untreated decay data were obtained through the nationwide oral health survey (2010 and 2014). Data were also collected on access to care, sealants, fluoride, and ITRs. The number of zero- to five-year-olds with a dental visit increased seven percent: dental sealants placed increased 65 percent; and fluoride varnish applications increased 161.2 percent. Between 2010 and 2014, the percentage of one- to two-year-olds with decay experience and untreated decay declined, but the difference was not statistically significant. Early childhood caries prevention strategies, such as early access to dental care, sealants, fluoride varnish, and interim therapeutic restorations, demonstrated some initial improvement in the oral health status of zero- to five-year-old Indian/Alaska Native children.

  3. Does geographical variability influence five-year MACCE rates in the multicentre SYNTAX revascularisation trial?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Andrew K; Chevalier, Bernard; Lefèvre, Thierry; Louvard, Yves; Segurado, Ricardo; Sawaya, Fadi; Spaziano, Marco; Neylon, Antoinette; Serruys, Patrick A; Dawkins, Keith D; Kappetein, Arie Pieter; Mohr, Friedrich-Wilhelm; Colombo, Antonio; Feldman, Ted; Morice, Marie-Claude

    2017-09-20

    The use of multiple geographical sites for randomised cardiovascular trials may lead to important heterogeneity in treatment effects. This study aimed to determine whether treatment effects from different geographical recruitment regions impacted significantly on five-year MACCE rates in the SYNTAX trial. Five-year SYNTAX results (n=1,800) were analysed for geographical variability by site and country for the effect of treatment (CABG vs. PCI) on MACCE rates. Fixed, random, and linear mixed models were used to test clinical covariate effects, such as diabetes, lesion characteristics, and procedural factors. Comparing five-year MACCE rates, the pooled odds ratio (OR) between study sites was 0.58 (95% CI: 0.47-0.71), and countries 0.59 (95% CI: 0.45-0.73). By homogeneity testing, no individual site (X2=93.8, p=0.051) or country differences (X2=25.7, p=0.080) were observed. For random effects models, the intraclass correlation was minimal (ICC site=5.1%, ICC country=1.5%, pfive-year MACCE outcomes (ICC 1.3%-5.2%), nor did revascularisation of the left main vs. three-vessel disease (p=0.241), across site or country subgroups. For CABG patients, the number of arterial (p=0.49) or venous (p=0.38) conduits used also made no difference. Geographic variability has no significant treatment effect on MACCE rates at five years. These findings highlight the generalisability of the five-year outcomes of the SYNTAX study.

  4. Five years of the Normal Oceanic Mantle (NOMan) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utada, Hisashi; Kawakatsu, Hitoshi; Shiobara, Hajime; Baba, Kiyoshi; Isse, Takehi; Suetsugu, Daisuke; NOMan Project Team

    2016-04-01

    The Normal Oceanic Mantle (NOMan) project was carried out for 5 years from 2010, aiming to solve two fundamental questions on the 'normal' oceanic mantle from observational approach, which are: (a) Cause of asthenosphere lubrication, and (b) Amount of water in the mantle transition zone. We selected two study areas (A and B) of similar seafloor age (about 130 and 140 Ma, respectively) in the northwestern Pacific Ocean where the mantle below is supposed to be normal. This presentation will give an overview of five years of the NOMan project, especially of its observational activities and a summary of preliminary results so far obtained. In June 2010, we deployed a small array consisting of 5 (both seismic and EM) sites and started data acquisition from area A, which we call the NOMan pilot experiment. The main observation by long-term seafloor arrays in areas A and B was started by two installation cruises carried out in November 2011 and in August 2012, deploying state-of-the-art ocean bottom seismic and electromagnetic instruments (BBOBS-NXs and EFOSs) in area A that are handled by ROV for installation and recovery. Conventional instruments (BBOBS and OBEM of free-fall/self-pop-up type) were also deployed both in areas A and B. Most of instruments of the pilot experiment were recovered by the cruise in August 2012. So-called advanced instruments (BBOBS-NXs and EFOSs) were equipped with batteries sufficient for 2 years of deployment, but conventional instruments (BBOBSs and OBEMs) only for one year or so. Therefore, we conducted a cruise by W/V Kaiyu in August 2013 to maintain the observation array by retrieving and re-deploying respective instruments. In June 2014, we conducted another W/V Kaiyu cruise, in which we recovered most of conventional instruments in area A after conducting a controlled source seismic experiment by using explosive sources. In September 2014, we completed a recovery cruise by R/V Kairei with ROV Kaiko-7000II. By these two cruises

  5. Estimating the five-year survival of cervical cancer patients treated in hospital universiti sains malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, Nuradhiathy Abd; Mn, Khattak; Zubairi, Yong Zulina; Naing, Nyi Nyi; Zaki, Nik Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the five-year survival among patients with cervical cancer treated in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia. One hundred and twenty cervical cancer patients diagnosed between 1st July 1995 and 30th June 2007 were identified. Data were obtained from medical records. The survival probability was determined using the Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test was applied to compare the survival distribution between groups. The overall five-year survival was 39.7% [95%CI (Confidence Interval): 30.7, 51.3] with a median survival time of 40.8 (95%CI: 34.0, 62.0) months. The log-rank test showed that there were survival differences between the groups for the following variables: stage at diagnosis (p=0.005); and primary treatment (p=0.0242). Patients who were diagnosed at the latest stage (III-IV) were found to have the lowest survival, 18.4% (95%CI: 6.75, 50.1), compared to stage I and II where the five-year survival was 54.7% (95%CI: 38.7, 77.2) and 40.8% (95%CI: 27.7, 60.3), respectively. The five-year survival was higher in patients who received surgery [52.6% (95%CI: 37.5, 73.6)] as a primary treatment compared to the non-surgical group [33.3% (95%CI: 22.9, 48.4)]. The five-year survival of cervical cancer patients in this study was low. The survival of those diagnosed at an advanced stage was low compared to early stages. In addition, those who underwent surgery had higher survival than those who had no surgery for primary treatment.

  6. Totally implantable hearing system: Five-year hearing results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shohet, Jack A; Kraus, Eric M; Catalano, Peter J; Toh, Elizabeth

    2017-04-13

    1) To provide long-term hearing outcome measures of a totally implantable hearing system (implant) and compare to the baseline unaided (BLU) and baseline aided (BLA) conditions, and 2) discuss relevant safety measures. Prospective, nonrandomized, multicenter, single-subject-as-own-control design. Fifty-one subjects with mild to severe sensorineural hearing loss were implanted between 2008 and 2009 and enrolled in this postmarket approval study in the setting of private and hospital-based practices. Forty-nine of these subjects completed the 5-year study, which included annual follow-ups. Primary effectiveness endpoints were speech reception threshold (SRT) and word recognition scores at 50 dB (WRS50s). Secondary effectiveness endpoints were WRSs and the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit (APHAB) scores. Adverse Device Effects (ADEs) and Serious Adverse Device Effects (SADEs) reported during the study period and a comparison of bone conduction scores are submitted as safety measures. Compared to the BLA condition, 1) SRT scores were improved at every annual follow-up; 2) WRS50s were better in 49%, and the same in 41% at the 5-year follow-up; 3) WRSs were improved by 17% at the 5-year follow-up; and 4) APHAB scores were improved in most subscales at every annual follow-up. There were three SADEs in three subjects and 15 ADEs in 11 subjects. Bone conduction scores increased by 3.7 dB at the 5-year follow-up. Average battery life was 4.9 years. The implant compared favorably to the subjects' hearing aid throughout the 5-year period in all of the areas measured and was found to be safe. 2b Laryngoscope, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  7. On the Improvement of Five-year Higher Vocational Col-lege Students' Cultural Quality: A Case Study on Song- shan Shaolin Vocational College of Martial Arts%论高职五年制学生文化素养的提升——以嵩山少林武术职业学院为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周华

    2015-01-01

    The target population of five-year higher vocational e-ducation is junior high school graduates whose learning basis is relatively weak and their learning weariness is severe. So how to carry out the education of five-year higher vocational college stu-dents is particularly important. In view of the problems existing in the cultural quality of the students, this paper studies the im-provement countermeasures, hoping to shape their good personal quality and improve the teaching effect.%五年制高职的教育对象是初中毕业生,学习基础相对薄弱,厌学现象严重.那么,如何对五年制学生进行教育的问题显得尤为重要,文章针对五年制学生文化素质素养方面存在的问题及提升的对策进行研究,希望能通过塑造他们良好的个人素养,实现改善教学效果的目的.

  8. Barreira do Inferno: Five years of ozone research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H.; Motta, A. G.; Azambuja, S. O.

    1983-12-01

    A five-year tropospheric ozone research project carried out from 1978 to 1983 under the aegis of the Institute of Space Research and the Launching Center at Barreira do Inferno is described. The principal means of obtaining data was by sondes launched twice a month from November 1978 until mid-1981. Measurements were made by ECC sondes and by Loki, Super-Loki, and Super-Arcas rockets equipped with optical and fluorescent sounding devices. The interest in ozone research is based on the ability of ozone to absorb ultraviolet radiation and thereby affect stratospheric temperature. Results revealed that average ozone concentration over the Brazilian state of Natal was 0.025 ppm (parts per million) with the maximum concentration occurring at 28 km altitude. It was also found that there was 30 percent higher ozone density over Natal than over regions of lower latitudes. In addition, 15 percent more ozone layer density was measured over Natal than over equatorial areas as determined by satellites. Total ozone measured by ECC sondes and by two Dobson spectrophotometers differed only by 4 percent. Higher concentrations of ozone are attributed to nitrogen concentrations, in contradiction with prevailing views. It is concluded that continued monitoring of ozone density is important for further theoretical investigation of the aeronomy of ozone.

  9. PG 1553+113: five years of observations with MAGIC

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksić, : J; Antonelli, L A; Antoranz, P; Asensio, M; Backes, M; Barrio, J A; Bastieri, D; González, J Becerra; Bednarek, W; Berdyugin, A; Berger, K; Bernardini, E; Biland, A; Blanch, O; Bock, R K; Boller, A; Bonnoli, G; Tridon, D Borla; Braun, I; Bretz, T; Cañellas, A; Carmona, E; Carosi, A; Colin, P; Colombo, E; Contreras, J L; Cortina, J; Cossio, L; Covino, S; Dazzi, F; De Angelis, A; De Caneva, G; del Pozo, E De Cea; De Lotto, B; Mendez, C Delgado; Ortega, A Diago; Doert, M; Domínguez, A; Prester, D Dominis; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Elsaesser, D; Ferenc, D; Fonseca, M V; Font, L; Fruck, C; López, R J García; Garczarczyk, M; Garrido, D; Giavitto, G; Godinović, N; Hadasch, D; Häfner, D; Herrero, A; Hildebrand, D; Höhne-Mönch, D; Hose, J; Hrupec, D; Huber, B; Jogler, T; Kellermann, H; Klepser, S; Krähenbühl, T; Krause, J; La Barbera, A; Lelas, D; Leonardo, E; Lindfors, E; Lombardi, S; López, M; López-Oramas, A; Lorenz, E; Makariev, M; Maneva, G; Mankuzhiyil, N; Mannheim, K; Maraschi, L; Mariotti, M; Martínez, M; Mazin, D; Meucci, M; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Miyamoto, H; Moldón, J; Moralejo, A; Munar-Adrover, P; Nieto, D; Nilsson, K; Orito, R; Oya, I; Paneque, D; Paoletti, R; Pardo, S; Paredes, J M; Partini, S; Pasanen, M; Pauss, F; Perez-Torres, M A; Persic, M; Peruzzo, L; Pilia, M; Pochon, J; Prada, F; Moroni, P G Prada; Prandini, E; Puljak, I; Reichardt, I; Reinthal, R; Rhode, W; Ribó, M; Rico, J; Rügamer, S; Saggion, A; Saito, K; Saito, T Y; Salvati, M; Satalecka, K; Scalzotto, V; Scapin, V; Schultz, C; Schweizer, T; Shayduk, M; Shore, S N; Sillanpää, A; Sitarek, J; Sobczynska, D; Spanier, F; Spiro, S; Stamatescu, V; Stamerra, A; Steinke, B; Storz, J; Strah, N; Surić, T; Takalo, L; Takami, H; Tavecchio, F; Temnikov, P; Terzić, T; Tescaro, D; Teshima, M; Tibolla, O; Torres, D F; Treves, A; Uellenbeck, M; Vankov, H; Vogler, P; Wagner, R M; Weitzel, Q; Zabalza, V; Zandanel, F; Zanin, R; Buson, S; Horan, D; Larsson, S

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of five years (2005-2009) of MAGIC observations of the BL Lac object PG 1553+113 at very high energies (VHEs, E > 100 GeV). Power law fits of the individual years are compatible with a steady mean photon index $\\Gamma$ = 4.27 \\pm 0.14. In the last three years of data, the flux level above 150 GeV shows a clear variability (probability of constant flux < 0.001%). The flux variations are modest, lying in the range from 4% to 11% of the Crab Nebula flux. Simultaneous optical data also show only modest variability that seems to be correlated with VHE gamma ray variability. We also performed a temporal analysis of (all available) simultaneous Fermi/LAT data of PG 1553+113 above 1 GeV, which reveals hints of variability in the 2008-2009 sample. Finally, we present a combination of the mean spectrum measured at very high energies with archival data available for other wavelengths. The mean spectral energy distribution can be modeled with a one-zone Synchrotron Self Compton (SSC) model, whic...

  10. [Declaration of Helsinki: its vicissitudes during the last five years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimovsky, Ezequiel; Saidon, Patricia; Nudelman, Luis; Bignone, Inés

    2002-01-01

    The Declaration of Helsinki is one of the major ethical guidelines for conducting clinical research. Along its existence it has been modified on diverse occasions, the latest one in October 2000. The objective of this article is to carry out a revision of the discussions that were taken up at this latest modification and the debates raised since its promulgation which still continue, fundamentally in relation to the use of placebo in pharmacological clinical investigation. This includes a revision of the most outstanding articles and of the opinions of the participants in the discussions that have been published in the last five years. The scientists' arguments in favor or against the use of placebo are pointed out. We consider that it is difficult to find simple answers to the questions raised by the use of placebo in clinical trials both in developed countries and in countries under development and that the Declaration of Helsinki continues to constitute a guide of ethical ideal which all those involved in clinical research should try to take into consideration.

  11. Vertigo/dizziness in pediatric emergency department: Five years' experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raucci, Umberto; Vanacore, Nicola; Paolino, Maria Chiara; Silenzi, Romina; Mariani, Rosanna; Urbano, Antonella; Reale, Antonino; Villa, Maria Pia; Parisi, Pasquale

    2016-05-01

    Vertigo/Dizziness in childhood is not a rare cause of visits to the emergency department (ED). We analyzed a selected group with vertigo/dizziness to identify signs and symptoms that may help to guide the diagnostic approach and management. A total of 616 children admitted for vertigo to the ED over a five-year period were retrospectively reviewed. Their medical history, clinical characteristics, laboratory and neuroimaging tests, final diagnoses and management were analyzed. Migraine and syncope were the most frequent causes. Two patients were affected by life-threatening cardiac syncope, while structural life-threatening central nervous system diseases were found in 15 patients, none of whom presented with vertigo as an isolated clinical finding. Most cases of vertigo/dizziness in childhood that consist mainly of migraine and syncope are of benign origin. The prompt identification of neurological or cardiological signs or symptoms associated with vertigo in children is mandatory to rule out life-threatening conditions. © International Headache Society 2015.

  12. Five years' experience with capsule endoscopy in a single Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Taylan Kav; Yusuf Bayraktar

    2009-01-01

    Capsule endoscopy (CE) is a novel technology that facilitates highly effective and noninvasive imaging of the small bowel. Although its efficacy in the evaluation of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) has been proven in several trials, data on uses of CE in different small bowel diseases are rapidly accumulating in the literature, and it has been found to be superior to alternative diagnostic tools in a range of such diseases.Based on literature evidence, CE is recommended as a first-line investigation for OGIB after negative bidirectional endoscopy. CE has gained an important role in the diagnosis and follow-up of Crohn's disease and celiac disease and in the surveillance of small bowel tumors and polyps in selected patients. Capsule retention is the major complication, with a frequency of 1%-2%. The purpose of this review was to discuss the procedure, indications, contraindications and adverse effects associated with CE. We also review and share our five-year experience with CE in various small bowel diseases. The recently developed balloon-assisted enteroscopies have both diagnostic and therapeutic capability. At the present time, CE and balloon-assisted enteroscopies are complementary techniques in the diagnosis and management of small bowel diseases.

  13. PG 1553+113: Five Years of Observations with MAGIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksić, J.; Alvarez, E. A.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Asensio, M.; Backes, M.; Barrio, J. A.; Bastieri, D.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Berdyugin, A.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bock, R. K.; Boller, A.; Bonnoli, G.; Borla Tridon, D.; Braun, I.; Bretz, T.; Cañellas, A.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Cossio, L.; Covino, S.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Caneva, G.; De Cea del Pozo, E.; De Lotto, B.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Diago Ortega, A.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Elsaesser, D.; Ferenc, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Fruck, C.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Garrido, D.; Giavitto, G.; Godinović, N.; Hadasch, D.; Häfner, D.; Herrero, A.; Hildebrand, D.; Höhne-Mönch, D.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Huber, B.; Jogler, T.; Kellermann, H.; Klepser, S.; Krähenbühl, T.; Krause, J.; La Barbera, A.; Lelas, D.; Leonardo, E.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; López, M.; López-Oramas, A.; Lorenz, E.; Makariev, M.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Miyamoto, H.; Moldón, J.; Moralejo, A.; Munar-Adrover, P.; Nieto, D.; Nilsson, K.; Orito, R.; Oya, I.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Pardo, S.; Paredes, J. M.; Partini, S.; Pasanen, M.; Pauss, F.; Perez-Torres, M. A.; Persic, M.; Peruzzo, L.; Pilia, M.; Pochon, J.; Prada, F.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puljak, I.; Reichardt, I.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, K.; Saito, T. Y.; Salvati, M.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shayduk, M.; Shore, S. N.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Spiro, S.; Stamatescu, V.; Stamerra, A.; Steinke, B.; Storz, J.; Strah, N.; Surić, T.; Takalo, L.; Takami, H.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Tibolla, O.; Torres, D. F.; Treves, A.; Uellenbeck, M.; Vankov, H.; Vogler, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Weitzel, Q.; Zabalza, V.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.; Buson, S.; Horan, D.; Larsson, S.; D'Ammando, F.

    2012-03-01

    We present the results of five years (2005-2009) of MAGIC observations of the BL Lac object PG 1553+113 at very high energies (VHEs; E > 100 GeV). Power-law fits of the individual years are compatible with a steady mean photon index Γ = 4.27 ± 0.14. In the last three years of data, the flux level above 150 GeV shows a clear variability (probability of constant flux < 0.001%). The flux variations are modest, lying in the range from 4% to 11% of the Crab Nebula flux. Simultaneous optical data also show only modest variability that seems to be correlated with VHE gamma-ray variability. We also performed a temporal analysis of (all available) simultaneous Fermi/Large Area Telescope data of PG 1553+113 above 1 GeV, which reveals hints of variability in the 2008-2009 sample. Finally, we present a combination of the mean spectrum measured at VHEs with archival data available for other wavelengths. The mean spectral energy distribution can be modeled with a one-zone synchrotron self-Compton model, which gives the main physical parameters governing the VHE emission in the blazar jet.

  14. Porcine Bocavirus: Achievements in the Past Five Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Porcine bocavirus is a recently discovered virus that infects pigs and is classified within the Bocavirus genus (family Parvoviridae, subfamily Parvovirinae. The viral genome constitutes linear single-stranded DNA and has three open reading frames that encode four proteins: NS1, NP1, VP1, and VP2. There have been more than seven genotypes discovered to date. These genotypes have been classified into three groups based on VP1 sequence. Porcine bocavirus is much more prevalent in piglets that are co-infected with other pathogens than in healthy piglets. The virus can be detected using PCR, loop-mediated isothermal amplification, cell cultures, indirect immunofluorescence, and other molecular virology techniques. Porcine bocavirus has been detected in various samples, including stool, serum, lymph nodes, and tonsils. Because this virus was discovered only five years ago, there are still many unanswered questions that require further research. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge and primary research achievements regarding porcine bocavirus.

  15. “十一五”国家863计划现代农业技术领域回顾与展望%Retrospect and Prospect of National 863 Program in the Field of Modern Agriculture Technology During the 11th Five Year Plan Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀海; 蒋大华; 魏珣; 孙康泰; 张辉; 朱华平; 车东升; 王旭波; 葛毅强

    2013-01-01

    分析回顾了“十一五”以来国家863计划现代农业技术领域从制订规划、组织实施和加强过程管理等方面落实《国家中长期科学和技术发展规划纲要》开展的工作,列举了我国现代农业技术领域在前沿技术研发、科研工作成果产出和人才基地建设等方面取得的成效,分析了《国家中长期科学和技术发展规划纲要》前期落实过程中存在的问题和挑战,并为今后工作的开展提出了相应的建议。%This paper reviewed the work on carrying out‘Outline of the National Program for Medium-and Long-Term Scientific and Technological development ’ ( OUTLINE ) from developing plan, organizing implementation and strengthening process management, since the 11th Five-year Plan in the field of advanced agriculture technology (AAT) of National High-tech R&D Program (863 Program) were conducted. Achievements in advanced technology development, scientific research output and talents base construction in the field of AAT were listed. Problems and challenges existed during implementing the OUTLINE were analyzed, and relevant suggestions for carrying out future work were also proposed.

  16. Five-year results of a cementless short-hip-stem prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf H. Wittenberg

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Hip prosthesis stems with a short stem length and proximal fixation geometry support a bone-preserving and muscle-sparing implantation and should also allow for revision surgery with a standard hip stem. We present 250 prospectively documented clinical and radiological results from the Metha Short Hip Stem prosthesis (B. Braun-Aesculap, Tuttlingen, Germany after an average follow-up of 4.9 years. The average patient age at surgery was 60 years. Indication for total hip replacement was primary osteoarthrosis (OA (78% of patients, OA based on developmental dyspla- sia of the hip (16%, and other indications (6%. At the last follow-up, the average Harris Hip Score was 97 points. 85% of patients were very satisfied and 14% were satisfied after surgery, whereas 1% were dissatisfied. Pain according to the Visual Analogue Scale improved from 7.4 (min 1.6, max 9.5 pre-operatively to 0.23 (min 0, max 6.6. No joint dislocations occurred when predominantly using 28 mm and 32 mm prosthesis heads. Nine short-stems were revised: three after bacterial infections, two after primary via valsa with penetration of the femoral cortex two and three months after surgery, and three after early aseptic cases of loosening within the first year. A further nine osseously consolidated short-stems had to be replaced due to breakage of the modular titanium cone adapter after an average of 3.1 years (min 1.9, max 4.4. All surgical revisions were performed using primary standard stems. Without taking the material-related adapter failures into account, a five year Kaplan-Meier survival rate of 96.7% (95% confidence interval 93.4-98.3 was determined for the short-stem prostheses. There were no radiological signs of loosening in any of the short-stem prostheses at the last examination. Fine sclerotic lines were detected in Gruen’s AP zones 1 (19% and 2 (10.5%, individual hypertrophies in zone 3 (3.5%, fine seams in zones 4 (5.5% and 5 (4%, without pedestal formations in zone 4

  17. Five Years of Stereo Magnetospheric Imaging by TWINS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, J.; McComas, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    Two Wide-angle Imaging Neutral-atom Spectrometers (TWINS) is the first stereoscopic magnetospheric imager. TWINS is a NASA Explorer Mission of Opportunity performing simultaneous energetic neutral atom (ENA) imaging from two widely-separated Molniya orbits on two different spacecraft, and providing nearly continuous coverage of magnetospheric ENA emissions. The ENA imagers observe energetic neutrals produced from global ion populations, over a broad energy range (1-100 keV/u) with high angular (4∘×4∘) and time (about 1-minute) resolution. TWINS distinguishes hydrogen ENAs from oxygen ENAs. Each TWINS spacecraft also carries a Lyman- α geocoronal imager to monitor the cold exospheric hydrogen atoms that produce ENAs from ions via charge exchange. Complementing the imagers are detectors that measure the local charged particle environment around the spacecraft. During its first five years of science operations, TWINS has discovered new global properties of geospace plasmas and neutrals, fostered understanding of causal relationships, confirmed theories and predictions based on in situ data, and yielded key insights needed to improve geospace models. Analysis and modeling of TWINS data have: (1) obtained continuous (main phase through recovery) global ion spectra, (2) revealed a previously unknown local-time dependence of global pitch angle, (3) developed quantitative determination of ion fluxes from low altitude ENAs (4) determined dynamic connections between local pitch angle and global ion precipitation, (5) confirmed local-time dependence of precipitating ion temperature, (6) imaged global dynamic heating of the magnetosphere, (7) explained why the oxygen ring current survives longer into recovery than hydrogen, and (8) revealed new global exospheric density features and their influence upon ring current decay rates. Over the next several years of the solar cycle, TWINS observations of three-dimensional (3D) global ion dynamics, composition, origins and

  18. [Prospective study in 2 hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Buñuales, M T; Martínez-Sáenz, M S; González-Diego, P; Vallejo-García, M; Gallardo-Anciano, J; Cestafe-Martínez, A

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to know the incidence rate of medication reconciliation at admission and discharge in patients of La Rioja and to improve the patient safety on medication reconciliation. An observational prospective study, part of the Joint Action PaSQ, Work Package 5, European Union Network for Patient Safety and Quality of Care. The study has taken into account the definitions of the Institute for Safe Medication Practices. Any unintended discrepancy in medication between chronic treatment and the treatment prescribed in the hospital was considered as a reconciliation error. A total of 750 patients were included, 9 (1.2%) of whom showed at least one discrepancy. The patients had a total of 3,156 mediations registered: 2,313 prescriptions (73.4%) showed no differences, while 821 prescriptions (26%) were intended discrepancies and 21 prescriptions (0.6%) unintended discrepancies were considered by the physician as reconciliation errors. A percentage of 1.2 of the patients, which represents 0.6% of the medicines (one in 166 medications registered) had reconciliation errors during their hospital stay. A proceeding has been implemented by means of the physician doing the medication reconciliation and reviewing it with the help of a medication reconciliation form. The medication reconciliation is a priority strategic objective to improve the safety of patients. Copyright © 2016 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Educational Intervention on Risk Factors Associated with Malocclusions in Five-year-old Children

    OpenAIRE

    Amarelys Morera Pérez; Nora Sexto Delgado; Boris Yanes Tarancón; Anabel Casanova Lezcano

    2016-01-01

    Background: educational programs aimed at increasing knowledge on oral health and promoting proper oral hygiene habits allow controlling or limiting the development of dento-maxillofacial defects that lead to many aesthetic, functional and mental disorders.Objective: to assess the effectiveness of an educational intervention on risk factors associated with malocclusions in children aged five years. Methods: a quasi-experimental, before and after study was conducted in 67 children living in th...

  20. Five years of experience teaching pathology to dental students using the WebMicroscope

    OpenAIRE

    Lundin Mikael; Szymas Janusz

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background We describe development and evaluation of the user-friendly web based virtual microscopy - WebMicroscope for teaching and learning dental students basic and oral pathology. Traditional students microscopes were replaced by computer workstations. Methods The transition of the basic and oral pathology courses from light to virtual microscopy has been completed gradually over a five-year period. A pilot study was conducted in academic year 2005/2006 to estimate the feasibilit...

  1. Young CAS biologist gets five-year grant from Howard Hughes Medical Institute

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Dr. TANG Chun, an outstanding young biologist from the CAS Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics (WIPM) was announced in January 2012 to have won the first International Early Career Award from Howard Hughes Medical Institute with a five-year grant totaling up to 650,000 US dollars. Dr. Tang is an expert in using novel nuclear magnetic resonance methods to study the behavior and function of proteins,

  2. Twenty-Five Year Site Plan FY2013 - FY2037

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, William H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-12

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory) is the nation's premier national security science laboratory. Its mission is to develop and apply science and technology to ensure the safety, security, and reliability of the United States (U.S.) nuclear stockpile; reduce the threat of weapons of mass destruction, proliferation, and terrorism; and solve national problems in defense, energy, and the environment. The fiscal year (FY) 2013-2037 Twenty-Five Year Site Plan (TYSP) is a vital component for planning to meet the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) commitment to ensure the U.S. has a safe, secure, and reliable nuclear deterrent. The Laboratory also uses the TYSP as an integrated planning tool to guide development of an efficient and responsive infrastructure that effectively supports the Laboratory's missions and workforce. Emphasizing the Laboratory's core capabilities, this TYSP reflects the Laboratory's role as a prominent contributor to NNSA missions through its programs and campaigns. The Laboratory is aligned with Nuclear Security Enterprise (NSE) modernization activities outlined in the NNSA Strategic Plan (May 2011) which include: (1) ensuring laboratory plutonium space effectively supports pit manufacturing and enterprise-wide special nuclear materials consolidation; (2) constructing the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Replacement Nuclear Facility (CMRR-NF); (3) establishing shared user facilities to more cost effectively manage high-value, experimental, computational and production capabilities; and (4) modernizing enduring facilities while reducing the excess facility footprint. Th is TYSP is viewed by the Laboratory as a vital planning tool to develop an effi cient and responsive infrastructure. Long range facility and infrastructure development planning are critical to assure sustainment and modernization. Out-year re-investment is essential for sustaining existing facilities, and will be re-evaluated on an annual

  3. ADS on WWW: Doubling Yearly for Five Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, M. J.; Eichhorn, G.; Accomazzi, A.; Grant, C. S.; Murray, S. S.

    1998-12-01

    It is now five years since the NASA ADS Abstract Service became available on the World Wide Web, in late winter of 1994. Following the explosive growth of the service (when compared with the old propriatory network access system) in the early months of WWW service, ADS growth has settled to doubling yearly. Currently ADS users make 440,000 queries per month, and receive 8,000,000 bibliographic references and 70,000 full-text articles, as well as abstracts, citation histories, links to data, and links to other data centers. Of the 70,000 full-text articles accessed through ADS each month, already 30% are via pointers to the electronic journals. This number is certain to increase. It is difficult to determine the exact number of ADS users. We track usage by the number of unique ``cookies'' which access ADS, and by the number of unique IP addresses. There are difficulties with each technique. In addition many non-astronomers find ADS through portal sites like Yahoo, which skews the statistics. 10,000 unique cookies access the full-text articles each month, 17,000 make queries, and 30,000 visit the site. 91% of full-text users have cookies, but only 65% of site visitors. From another perspective the number of IP addresses from a single typical research site (STScI) which access the full-text data is within 5% of the number of unique cookies assiociated with full-text use from stsci.edu, and also within 5% of the number of AAS members listing an STScI address. The number of unique IP addresses from STScI which make any sort of query to ADS is 40% higher than this. Those who access the full-text average one article per day, those who make queries average two per day. We believe nearly all active astronomy researchers, as well as students and affiliated professionals use ADS on a regular basis.

  4. Rural Transformation and Planning Tactics in the 13th Five-Year Plan Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo; Xiaolong; Xu; Xiao; Li; Min

    2016-01-01

    Rural development has long been the focus of China’s central and local governments. Since the late 2000 s, rural areas have presented new transformation features and development trends. To stimulate rural transformation and development in the 13 th Five-Year Plan period, this paper reviews major ideas on rural development in related disciplines. This study also summarizes main rural transformation features, including the aging population, hollow villages, changes in the allocation of land resource, semi-urbanization, and regional differences in rural development. Finally, it also provides suggestions for planning tactics in the 13 th Five-Year Plan period, such as making differentiated rural development strategies, exploring new methods to stimulate rural stock land planning and use, and enforcing relevant policy and management reforms.

  5. Qinghai Newly Adds 1 Million Tonnes of Copper and 2 Million Tonnes of Lead Zinc In the “Twelfth Five Year Plan” period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The reporter recently learned from Qinghai Province Geological Prospecting Bureau that Qinghai’s geological prospecting for the"Twelfth Five Year Plan"period had made significant breakthroughs,and newly submitted58 orefields.It has been learned that,during the"Twelfth

  6. Risk Factors of Diarrhea in Children Under Five Years in Urban Slums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balakrishna Kalakheti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diarrhea is a leading cause of mortality in children in developing countries and the condition is worse in slums. In order to provide effective preventive and management strategies, it is important to identify factors associated with the disease. This study was carried out to investigate the risk factors of diarrhea in  children under five years of age in urban slums.   Methods: Parents of all children under five years from the urban slums of Tansen municipality, Palpa, Nepal were interviewed using a standardized pretested questionnaire and proforma. Parental variables, environmental factors, and presence of diarrhea in those children in past three months were collected by trained enumerators and the data were analyzed with statistical software SPSS-10.   Results: A total of 450 under five years children were enrolled in the study. There were 216 (48% male and 234 (52% female children with F:M ratio of 1.08:1. Occurrence of diarrhea was lower if the children were breast-fed for more than six months, well-nourished, used fountain water for drinking, or used boiled or treated water. Similarly, diarrhea prevalence was lower if father had a regular job, daily income in the family was more than one US dollar, there was a toilet in the house, practice of hand washing was followed before feeding or preparing food, or there was no child suffering from diarrhea in the neighborhood.   Conclusion: There are a few variables that are significantly related to diarrhea in children under five years of age. In order to decrease the diarrheal episodes in children in the slums of the developing countries, priority could be given in the improvement of those variables.

  7. Elderly patients have similar short term outcomes and five-year survival compared to younger patients after pancreaticoduodenectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamali, Awad; De'Ath, Henry D; Jaber, Bashar; Abuawad, Mahmoud; Barbaro, Salvatore; Hamaday, Zaed; Abu Hilal, Mohammad

    2017-09-01

    Outcomes following pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) in elderly patients in the United Kingdom (UK) remain uncertain. This study aimed to analyse peri-operative outcomes in the elderly, and investigate the impact of age on five-year survival following PD in a UK tertiary centre. All patients who underwent PD in a single Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic unit in the UK between January 2007 to December 2015 were analysed from a prospectively collected database. Individuals were divided into two groups (Group A years and Group B ≥ 75 years "elderly") and outcomes compared. Five hundred and twenty-four patients were included (Group A n = 422, Group B n = 102). Post-operative cardiac events and peri-operative mortality were higher in the elderly (10.8 vs 3.6%, p = 0.008 and 5.9 vs 1.9%, 0.037, respectively). Multivariate analysis revealed only ASA score (OR 0.279, 95% CI 0.063-1.130), post-pancreatectomy haemorrhage (OR 0.055, 95% CI 0.006-0.518) and pulmonary embolism (OR 0.03, 95% CI 0.00-0.148) as independent risk factors for peri-operative mortality. Age was not (OR 0.978, 95% CI 0.911-1.049). Median survival was 22 months in Group A and 19 months in Group B (p = 0.165). Predictors of five-year survival included vascular resection (OR 0.171, 95% CI 0.053-0.549), positive margin (OR 0.256, 95% CI 0.102-0.641), lympho-vascular invasion (OR 0.392, 95% CI 0.160-0.958) and lymph node ratio (OR 67.381, 95% CI 3.301-1375.586), but not age (OR 1.012, 95% CI 0.972-1.054). Older patients have similar peri-operative outcomes and five-year survival compared to younger counterparts after PD in a UK tertiary centre, and should be considered for surgical resection of pancreatic and periampullary cancers. Copyright © 2017 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Does television viewing predict dietary intake five years later in high school students and young adults?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neumark-Sztainer Dianne

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prior research has found that television viewing is associated with poor diet quality, though little is known about its long-term impact on diet, particularly during adolescence. This study examined the associations between television viewing behavior with dietary intake five years later. Methods Survey data, which included television viewing time and food frequency questionnaires, were analyzed for 564 middle school students (younger cohort and 1366 high school students (older cohort who had complete data available at Time 1 (1998–1999 and five years later at Time 2 (mean age at Time 2, 17.2 ± 0.6 and 20.5 ± 0.8 years, respectively. Regression models examined longitudinal associations between Time 1 television viewing behavior and Time 2 dietary intake adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, Time 1 dietary intake, and Time 2 total daily energy intake. Results Respondents were categorized as limited television users (2 hours/daily, moderately high television viewers (2–5 hours/daily, and heavy television viewers (≥5 hours/daily. Among the younger cohort, Time 1 heavy television viewers reported lower fruit intake and higher sugar-sweetened beverage consumption than the other two groups. Among the older cohort, watching five or more hours of television per day at Time 1, predicted lower intakes of fruits, vegetables, whole grain and calcium-rich foods, and higher intakes of trans fat, fried foods, fast food menu items, snack products, and sugar-sweetened beverages (products commonly advertised on television five years later. Conclusion Television viewing in middle and high school predicted poorer dietary intake five years later. Adolescents are primary targets of advertising for fast food restaurants, snack foods, and sugar-sweetened beverages, which may influence their food choices. Television viewing, especially during high school, may have long-term effects on eating choices and contribute to poor eating

  9. Does life satisfaction predict five-year mortality in community-living older adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John, Philip D; Mackenzie, Corey; Menec, Verena

    2015-01-01

    Depression and depressive symptoms predict death, but it is less clear if more general measures of life satisfaction (LS) predict death. Our objectives were to determine: (1) if LS predicts mortality over a five-year period in community-living older adults; and (2) which aspects of LS predict death. 1751 adults over the age of 65 who were living in the community were sampled from a representative population sampling frame in 1991/1992 and followed five years later. Age, gender, and education were self-reported. An index of multimorbidity and the Older American Resource Survey measured health and functional status, and the Terrible-Delightful Scale assessed overall LS as well as satisfaction with: health, finances, family, friends, housing, recreation, self-esteem, religion, and transportation. Cox proportional hazards models examined the influence of LS on time to death. 417 participants died during the five-year study period. Overall LS and all aspects of LS except finances, religion, and self-esteem predicted death in unadjusted analyses. In fully adjusted analyses, LS with health, housing, and recreation predicted death. Other aspects of LS did not predict death after accounting for functional status and multimorbidity. LS predicted death, but certain aspects of LS are more strongly associated with death. The effect of LS is complex and may be mediated or confounded by health and functional status. It is important to consider different domains of LS when considering the impact of this important emotional indicator on mortality among older adults.

  10. Five-yearly Review – the work continues

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Following the decisions taken by the CERN Council in December 2015, and particularly the agreement to implement the new career structure, several projects have been launched since the beginning of 2016. In the framework of the concertation process, the Staff Association has been brought to examine, analyse and take a stance on a variety of topics. In the 252nd and 254th editions of our newsletter “Echo”, as well as during the public meeting of 22 September, the Staff Association has discussed at length: the new salary scale and your position in this scale on 1st September 2016; the benchmark jobs and your provisional placement in a benchmark job. Today, the discussions that require our full attention concern the annual MERIT exercise and promotions, two issues that are extremely sensitive and important for staff members, since they involve advancement and prospects of career evolution. Administrative Circular No. 26 (AC 26): “Recognition of Merit” AC 26 i...

  11. Neurocutaneous syndrome: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radheshyam Purkait

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neurocutaneous syndromes (NCS are a group of genetic disorders that produce a variety of developmental abnormalities of the skin along with an increased risk of neurological complications. Cutaneous manifestations usually appear early in life and progress with time, but neurological features generally present at a later age. There is a paucity of data regarding the evolution of skin lesions and their correlation with the central nervous system involvement in children. Aim: The primary objective was to track the course of skin lesions in various forms of NCS in the pediatric age group. Our secondary aim was to assess whether there was any predictive value of the lesions in relation to the neurological manifestations. Materials and Methods: This prospective longitudinal study was conducted at a tertiary care pediatric dermatology referral clinic of the Institute of Child Health, Kolkata, West Bengal. Children between the age group 0 and 12 years were included in the study on the basis of standard diagnostic criteria for different NCS, during the period from March, 2000 to February, 2004, and each of the enrolled cases were followed up for a duration of six years. Results: The study population comprised of 67 children (35 boys, 32 girls.The mean age of presentation was 33.8±27.8 months (range 10 days to 111 months. The various forms of NCS observed was neurofibromatosis 1(NF1 (n=33, tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC (n=23, Sturge Weber syndrome (n=6, ataxia telangiectasia (n=2, PHACE syndrome (n=1, incontinentia pigmenti (n=1, and hypomelanosis of Ito (n=1. The presentations were varied, ranging from predominantly cutaneous to primarily neurological, depending on the disease entity and age group concerned. There was a significant increase in the number of café au lait macules (CALMs with time (P=0.0002 in NF1, unlike that of hypopigmented macules of TSC (P=0.15. Statistically, no relation was documented between the evolution of skin

  12. 76 FR 78694 - Fresh Garlic From China; Scheduling of an expedited five-year review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ... COMMISSION Fresh Garlic From China; Scheduling of an expedited five-year review AGENCY: United States... five-year review was adequate and that the respondent interested party group response was inadequate... contain new factual information. Any person that is neither a party to the five-year review nor an...

  13. 78 FR 54269 - Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Australia and China; Institution of Five-Year Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ... COMMISSION Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Australia and China; Institution of Five-Year Reviews AGENCY... of merchandise that is within the scope of the five-year reviews, as defined by the Department of... seeking to appear in Commission five-year reviews are advised that they may appear in a review even if...

  14. 78 FR 40172 - Steel Nails From China; Institution of a Five-Year Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... COMMISSION Steel Nails From China; Institution of a Five-Year Review AGENCY: United States International... the scope of the five-year review, as defined by the Department of Commerce. (2) The Subject Country... Commission five-year reviews are advised that they may appear in a review even if they participated...

  15. 75 FR 34959 - Five-Year Review of Oil Pipeline Pricing Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 342 Five-Year Review of Oil Pipeline Pricing Index June... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) invites comments on its five-year review of the oil... (PPI+1.3) as the index for annual changes to the oil pipeline rate ceiling over the five-year period...

  16. 77 FR 15123 - Foundry Coke From China; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... COMMISSION Foundry Coke From China; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review AGENCY: United States... its notice of institution (76 FR 74810, December 1, 2011) of the subject five-year review was adequate... information. Any person that is neither a party to the five-year review nor an interested party may submit a...

  17. 76 FR 74810 - Foundry Coke From China; Institution of a Five-Year Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ... COMMISSION Foundry Coke From China; Institution of a Five-Year Review AGENCY: United States International... duty order on imports of foundry coke from China (66 FR 48025). Following five-year reviews by Commerce... merchandise that is within the scope of the five-year review, as defined by the Department of Commerce. (2...

  18. 77 FR 25744 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From China; Institution of a Five-Year Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... COMMISSION Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From China; Institution of a Five- Year Review AGENCY: United... merchandise that is within the scope of the five-year review, as defined by the Department of Commerce. (2... Commission five-year reviews are advised that they may appear in a review even if they participated...

  19. 78 FR 54272 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From China; Institution of a Five-Year Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ... COMMISSION Steel Wire Garment Hangers From China; Institution of a Five-Year Review AGENCY: United States...: (1) Subject Merchandise is the class or kind of merchandise that is within the scope of the five-year... to the review. Former Commission employees who are seeking to appear in Commission five-year reviews...

  20. 78 FR 39319 - Laminated Woven Sacks From China; Institution of Five-Year Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... 731-TA-1122 (Review)] Laminated Woven Sacks From China; Institution of Five-Year Reviews AGENCY... of merchandise that is within the scope of the five-year reviews, as defined by the Department of.... Former Commission employees who are seeking to appear in Commission five-year reviews are advised that...

  1. 78 FR 65709 - Crawfish Tail Meat From China Institution of a Five-Year Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... COMMISSION Crawfish Tail Meat From China Institution of a Five-Year Review AGENCY: United States... first five-year reviews by Commerce and the Commission, effective August 13, 2003, Commerce issued a... the second five-year reviews by Commerce and the Commission, effective December 11, 2008, Commerce...

  2. 76 FR 78945 - Furfuryl Alcohol From China; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    ... COMMISSION Furfuryl Alcohol From China; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review AGENCY: United States... five-year review was adequate and that the respondent interested party group response was inadequate... contain new factual information. Any person that is neither a party to the five-year review nor an...

  3. 78 FR 65706 - Ferrovanadium From China and South Africa; Institution of Five-Year Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... COMMISSION Ferrovanadium From China and South Africa; Institution of Five- Year Reviews AGENCY: United States... and South Africa (68 FR 4168 and 4169). Following the first five-year reviews by Commerce and the... of merchandise that is within the scope of the five-year reviews, as defined by the Department of...

  4. 76 FR 28809 - Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium; Termination of Five-Year Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium; Termination of Five-Year Review AGENCY: United States... (``Commerce'') initiated and the U.S. International Trade Commission (``Commission'') instituted a five-year... its full five-year review of the countervailing duty order concerning stainless steel plate from...

  5. 77 FR 5052 - Clad Steel Plate From Japan; Institution of a Five-Year Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... COMMISSION Clad Steel Plate From Japan; Institution of a Five-Year Review AGENCY: United States International... (61 FR 34421). Following first five-year reviews by Commerce and the Commission, effective November 16... Japan (66 FR 57703). Following second five-year reviews by Commerce and the Commission, effective March...

  6. 78 FR 33064 - Silicon Metal From Russia; Institution of a Five-Year Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... COMMISSION Silicon Metal From Russia; Institution of a Five-Year Review AGENCY: United States International... order on imports of silicon metal from Russia (68 FR 14578). Following the five-year reviews by Commerce... merchandise that is within the scope of the five-year review, as defined by the Department of Commerce. (2...

  7. 78 FR 31576 - Sodium Hexametaphosphate From China; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... Hexametaphosphate From China; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review AGENCY: United States International Trade... institution (78 FR 7452, February 1, 2013) of the subject five-year review was adequate and that the... neither a party to the five-year review nor an interested party may submit a brief written statement...

  8. 78 FR 46604 - Raw Flexible Magnets From China and Taiwan; Institution of Five-Year Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... COMMISSION Raw Flexible Magnets From China and Taiwan; Institution of Five- Year Reviews AGENCY: United... the scope of the five-year reviews, as defined by the Department of Commerce. (2) The Subject.... Former Commission employees who are seeking to appear in Commission five-year reviews are advised that...

  9. A prospective study of gentamicin ototoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, O; Hansen, M M; Kaaber-Bühler, Søren;

    1978-01-01

    Twenty patients were included in a prospective otoneurological study performed to assess the ototoxicity in gentamicin therapy. Gentamicin was administered intravenously, and the serum level was currently determined. Audiographic and electronystagmographic studies were carried out at the institut...

  10. MOFCOM Defined Major Tasks of Commercial Development during the 12th Five-Year Program Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    According to CPC Central Committee's Proposal for Formulating the 12th Five-Year Program for National Economic and Social Development (2011- 2015) and the 12th Five-Year Program for National Economic and Social Development of the People's Republic of China, MQFCOM defined the guiding ideas, objectives, major tasks of China's commercial development during the 12th Five-Year Program period, after summarizing commercial achievements and experience in the 11th Five-Year Program period and analyzed the domestic and foreign environment during the 12th Five-Year Program.

  11. Forty-five years of split-brain research and still going strong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzaniga, Michael S

    2005-08-01

    Forty-five years ago, Roger Sperry, Joseph Bogen and I embarked on what are now known as the modern split-brain studies. These experiments opened up new frontiers in brain research and gave rise to much of what we know about hemispheric specialization and integration. The latest developments in split-brain research build on the groundwork laid by those early studies. Split-brain methodology, on its own and in conjunction with neuroimaging, has yielded insights into the remarkable regional specificity of the corpus callosum as well as into the integrative role of the callosum in the perception of causality and in our perception of an integrated sense of self.

  12. Gaseous abundances in planetary nebulae: What have we learned in the past five years?

    CERN Document Server

    Delgado-Inglada, G

    2016-01-01

    Nearly 50 years ago, in the proceedings of the first IAU symposium on planetary nebulae, Lawrence H. Aller and Stanley J. Czyzak said that "the problem of determination of the chemical compositions of planetary and other gaseous nebulae constitutes one of the most exasperating problems in astrophysics". Although the situation has greatly improved over the years, many important problems are still open and new questions have arrived to the field, which still is an active field of study. Here I will review some of the main aspects related to the determination of gaseous abundances in PNe and some relevant results derived in the last five year, since the last IAU symposium on PNe.

  13. Five-Year Incidence of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in British Columbia (2010-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golby, Riley; Poirier, Brigitte; Fabros, Marife; Cragg, Jacquelyn J; Yousefi, Masoud; Cashman, Neil

    2016-11-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal degenerative neurological disease with significant effects on quality of life. International studies continue to provide consistent incidence values, though complete case ascertainment remains a challenge. The Canadian population has been understudied, and there are currently no quantitative data on the incidence of ALS in British Columbia (BC). The objectives of this study were to determine the five-year incidence rates of ALS in BC and to characterize the demographic patterns of the disease. The capture-recapture method was employed to estimate ALS incidence over a five-year period (2010-2015). Two sources were used to identify ALS cases: one database from an ALS medical centre and another from a not-for-profit ALS organization. During this time period, there were 690 incident cases within the two sources. The capture-recapture method estimated 57 unobserved cases, corresponding to a crude five-year incidence rate of 3.29 cases per 100,000 (CI 95%=3.05-3.53). The mean age of diagnosis was 64.6 (CI 95%=59.7-69.4), with 63.5 (CI 95%=56.9-70.1) for men and 65.7 (CI 95%=58.6-72.7) for women. There was a slight male preponderance in incidence, with a 1.05:1 ratio to females. Peak numbers in incidence occurred between the ages of 70 and 79. The incidence of ALS in BC was found to be consistent with international findings though nominally higher than that in other Canadian provinces to date.

  14. Chagas disease: national survey of seroprevalence in children under five years of age conducted in 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Russomando

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Since the early 1990s, programs to control Chagas disease in South America have focused on eradicating domiciliary Triatoma infestans, the main vector. Seroprevalence studies of the chagasic infection are included as part of the vector control programs; they are essential to assess the impact of vector control measures and to monitor the prevention of vector transmission. OBJECTIVE To assess the interruption of domiciliary vector transmission of Chagas disease by T. infestans in Paraguay by evaluating the current state of transmission in rural areas. METHODS A survey of seroprevalence of Chagas disease was carried out in a representative sample group of Paraguayans aged one to five years living in rural areas of Paraguay in 2008. Blood samples collected on filter paper from 12,776 children were tested using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Children whose serology was positive or undetermined (n = 41 were recalled to donate a whole blood sample for retesting. Their homes were inspected for current triatomine infestation. Blood samples from their respective mothers were also collected and tested to check possible transmission of the disease by a congenital route. FINDINGS A seroprevalence rate of 0.24% for Trypanosoma cruzi infection was detected in children under five years of age among the country’s rural population. Our findings indicate that T. cruzi was transmitted to these children vertically. The total number of infected children, aged one to five years living in these departments, was estimated at 1,691 cases with an annual incidence of congenital transmission of 338 cases per year. MAIN CONCLUSION We determined the impact of vector control in the transmission of T. cruzi, following uninterrupted vector control measures employed since 1999 in contiguous T. infestans-endemic areas of Paraguay, and this allowed us to estimate the degree of risk of congenital transmission in the country.

  15. Five year review of oropharyngeal cancer patients at University of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies have confirmed the high prevalence of the disease among males, and the roles of alcohol intake and ... transmitted viral infections in the epidemiology of oropharyngeal cancers and a focus for preventive measures. Keywords: Oropharyngeal cancer, risk factor, sexually transmitted viral infection ... from 32 Countries:.

  16. Thirty-five years of Tropical biology: a quantitative history

    OpenAIRE

    Monge-Nájera, Julian; Díaz, Lizeth

    2016-01-01

    Citation indices are unappropriated measures of scientific output and impact. For that reason, nonparametric statistics were preferred to analyze 35 years of publication on Tropical biology in the Revista de Biología Tropical. The most frequent subjects are animal taxonomy, human biology -including medicine- ecology and animal behavior. Botany papers are less frequent and mainly deal with morphology and taxonomy. Applied studies are not predominant. In that period, only one case of unethical ...

  17. Eleventh Five-Year Plan for Space Science Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    China National Space Administration

    2008-01-01

    @@ Preface Space science is a discipline to study the universe,to investigate the fundamental process of molecules and atoms,and reveal,at the underlying roots,the laws of the external world.Space science is a hot research area,a stage of display of the scientific and teclmological capabilities of a country,and moreover,a drivingforce of world technology development.

  18. 近5年来国际女性研究领域研究热点及知识基础可视化分析%Visualized Analysis of the Focus and Knowledge Base of International Women’s Studies over the Past Five Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    开滨

    2016-01-01

    基于多维尺度分析和文献共被引分析对Web of Science引文索引数据库中近5年来女性研究领域的7101篇文献的研究热点和知识基础进行分析的结果表明,该领域的研究热点主要聚为5大类别,分别是女性主义研究、性别研究、女性社会研究、女性暴力研究、女性心理研究,其中性别研究居于核心位置,将其他部分有机结合了起来。该领域的知识基础中包含13篇关键文献,较好地代表了该领域的发展水平。%This paper,based on multidimensional scaling analysis and literature co-citation analysis,analyzes the research focus and knowledge base of 7101 papers of international women’s studies over the past five years from web of science citation index database.The results showed that the research focus of this field mainly falls into five categories:feminist studies,gender studies,female social studies,female violence and female psycho-logical studies,among which gender studies is at the central position and combines other types.The knowledge base of this field contains 13 key literatures,which represent the present development of this field.

  19. Phase Four, Randomized, Double-Blinded, Controlled Trial of Phentolamine Mesylate in Two- to Five-year-old Dental Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersh, Elliot V; Lindemeyer, Rochelle; Berg, Joel H; Casamassimo, Paul S; Chin, Judith; Marberger, Adam; Lin, Brent P; Hutcheson, Matthew C; Moore, Paul A; Group, Pediatric Soft Tissue Anesthesia Recovery

    2017-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate, using a randomized, double-blind methodology: (1) the safety of phentolamine mesylate (Oraverse) in accelerating the recovery of soft tissue anesthesia following the injection of two percent lidocaine plus 1:100,000 epinephrine in two- to five-year-olds; and (2) efficacy in four- to five-year-olds only. One hundred fifty pediatric dental patients underwent routine dental restorative procedures with two percent lidocaine plus 1:100,000 epinephrine with doses based on body weight. Phentolamine mesylate or a sham injection (two to one ratio) was then administered. Subjects were monitored for safety and, in four- to five-year-olds, for efficacy during the two-hour evaluation period. There were no significant differences in adverse events between the phentolamine and sham injections. Compared to sham, phentolamine was not associated with nerve injury, increased analgesic use, or abnormalities of the oral cavity. Phentolamine was associated with transient decreased blood pressure in some children. In four- and five-year-olds, phentolamine induced more rapid recovery of lip anesthesia by 48 minutes (Pfive-year-olds; in four- to five-year-olds, a statistically significant more rapid recovery of lip sensation compared to sham injections was determined.

  20. A five-year review of burn injuries in Irrua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyamu Christopher E

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The management of burns remains a challenge in developing countries. Few data exist to document the extent of the problem. This study provides data from a suburban setting by documenting the epidemiology of burn injury and ascertaining outcome of management. This will help in planning strategies for prevention of burns and reducing severity of complications. Methods A total of 72 patients admitted for burns between January 1st, 2002 and December 31st, 2006 at the Irrua specialist teaching hospital were studied retrospectively. Sources of information were the case notes and operation registers. Data extracted included demographics as well as treatment methods and outcome Results The results revealed male to female ratio of 2.1:1. Over 50% of the injuries occurred at home. There was a seasonal variation with over 40% of injuries occurring between November and January. The commonest etiologic agent was flame burn from kerosene explosion. There were 7 deaths in the series. Conclusion Burns are preventable. We recommend adequate supply of unadulterated petroleum products and establishment of burn centers.

  1. Cytogenetic Analysis for Suspected Chromosomal Abnormalities; A Five Years Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karra, Vijay Kumar; Jindal, Ankur; Puppala, Madhavi; Singh, Pratiksha; Rawat, Kanchan; Kapoor, Seema

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Chromosomal abnormalities are the results of alterations in the number or structure of chromosomes causing significant human morbidity and mortality. They are responsible for a large proportion of miscarriages, developmental delay, disorders of sexual development, congenital malformations and mental retardation. Aim The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of different chromosomal abnormalities in North Indian patients referred for cytogenetic analysis. Materials and Methods Total of 859 patients ranging from newborn to 37 years of age were referred to the division of genetics, Department of Paediatrics between 2010 and 2015, with a variety of clinical disorders; Down syndrome (DS), Turner’s syndrome (TS) and Klinefelter syndrome; amenorrhea; ambiguous sex and multiple congenital malformations. Chromosomal analysis was performed on lymphocyte culture according to standard methods. Results Of the 859 cases studied, 371 (43.1%) had chromosomal abnormalities. The most common autosomal abnormalities were DS 302 (81.4%) and sex chromosomal abnormalities were TS 51 (13.7%). Numerical abnormalities were accounted for 353 (41.0%) and structural abnormalities 18 (2.0%), respectively. Various other chromosomal anomalies were also reported. Conclusion We have reviewed the incidence and distribution of chromosomal abnormalities and found higher rate of chromosomal abnormalities 43.1% in the referred cases. Our data suggest that chromosomal analysis is important tool in the evaluation of genetic disorders and helps clinicians to provide accurate diagnosis and proper genetic counselling. PMID:27790464

  2. Five-year Experience with Perma Facial Implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Raphael, MD

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Augmentation cheiloplasty is becoming an increasingly popular aesthetic procedure despite current methodologies having met with disappointment among surgeons and patients. The goal of this study was to examine the benefits and drawbacks of 1 device in particular—Perma Facial Implant (PFI. The senior authors (P.R. and S.W.H. performed 832 consecutive PFI lip augmentations with excellent results based on photographic documentation, patient satisfaction surveys, unbiased surgeon ratings, and low complication rates. In addition to augmenting thin lips, PFIs hide excess dentition and improve vermilion rhytids and pout. Contrary to alternatives, they are both permanent and reversible. However, they do not level out asymmetries or benefit razor-thin lips without prior lifting or mucosal advancement.

  3. Demographic data and hemodialysis population dynamics in Qatar: A five year survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fituri Omar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemodialysis was initiated in Qatar in 1981, since then the hemodialysis population has been expanding rapidly. This report describes the demographics and outcome of our hemo-dialysis patients during a five years study period. Data of all the patients on regular hemodialysis from January 1 st , 2002 to December 31 st , 2006 were included in this study was collected from the medical records and entered into an especially designed questionnaire. The prevalence of end stage kidney disease in Qatar is 624 patients per million populations with an incidence of 202 patients per million populations per year. Currently, 278 patients are on hemodialysis, 65% of them are Qatari, males represent 51%, whereas 44.6% are between 65-74 years of age. Diabetic nephropathy is the commonest cause of end stage kidney disease (48%, followed by primary glomerulonephritis and hypertensive glomerulopathy. Arteriovenous fistula was the vascular access in 57% of patients. The incidence of Hepatitis B, C and Human immunodeficiency virus had been stable throughhout the study period though our hemodialysis population had increased by 1.5 fold. The first and five years survival rates of our patients were 84 and 53% respectively. Qatar has one of the highest rates of dialysis patients with a good long-term survival report. Peritoneal dialysis remained to be the key solution for the rapidly expanding patients′ pool. Maintenance of national registry of dialysis patients and improving our organ transplant program is an essential goal.

  4. Crab Nebula: five-year observation with ARGO-YBJ

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2015-01-01

    The ARGO-YBJ air shower detector monitored the Crab Nebula gamma ray emission from 2007 November to 2013 February. The integrated signal, consisting of $\\sim$3.3 $\\times$ 10$^5$ events,reached the statistical significance of 21.1 standard deviations. The obtained energy spectrum in the energy range 0.3-20 TeV can be described by a power law function dN/dE = I$_0$ (E / 2 TeV)$^{-\\alpha}$, with a flux normalization I$_0$ = (5.2 $\\pm$ 0.2) $\\times$ 10$^{-12}$ photons cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ TeV$^{-1}$ and $\\alpha$ = 2.63 $\\pm$ 0.05, corresponding to an integrated flux above 1 TeV of 1.97 $\\times$ 10$^{-11}$ photons cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$. The systematic error is estimated to be less than 30$\\%$ for the flux normalization and 0.06 for the spectral index. Assuming a power law spectrum with an exponential cutoff dN/dE = I$_0$ (E / 2 TeV)$^{-\\alpha}$ $\\exp$ (-E / E$_{cut}$), the lower limit of the cutoff energy E$_{cut}$ is 12 TeV, at 90$\\%$ confidence level. Our extended dataset allows the study of the TeV emission over lon...

  5. Five year old preschoolers’ sharing is influenced by anticipated reciprocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingrui eXiong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Whether children share in anticipation of future benefits returned by a partner is an interesting question. In this study, 5-year-old children and an adult partner played a sharing game, in which children donated first and the partner donated afterward. In Experiment 1, the partner’s resources were more attractive than the child’s. In the reciprocal condition, the child was told that s/he would be a recipient when the partner played as a donor. In the nonreciprocal condition, however, the child was told that an anonymous child would be the recipient when the partner donated. Results showed that children shared more with the partner when they knew that they would be a recipient later. In Experiment 2, the child was always the recipient when the partner donated, but the partner’s resources were more desirable than the child’s in the high-value condition, and less desirable in the low-value condition. We found that children were more generous when the partner’s resources were valued higher. These findings demonstrate that 5-year-old preschoolers’ sharing choices take into account the anticipated reciprocity of the recipient, suggesting either self-interested tactical sharing or direct reciprocity in advance of receiving. Specifically, they adjust their sharing behavior depending on whether a partner has the potential to reciprocate, and whether it is worth sharing relative to the value of the payback.

  6. Five-Year Retrospective Review of Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitprapassorn Thienvibul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP is an acute pustular eruption characterized by widespread nonfollicular sterile pustules. The aim of this study is to characterize the etiology, clinical features, laboratory findings, management, and outcome of patients with AGEP in Asians. Patient/Methods. A retrospective analysis was performed on patient who presented with AGEP between August 2008 and November 2012 in a tertiary center in Thailand. Results. Nineteen patients with AGEP were included. AGEP was generally distributed in seventeen patients (89.5% and localized in two (10.5%. Fever and neutrophilia occurred in 52.6% and 68.4%, respectively. Hepatitis was found up to 26.3%. The most common etiology was drugs (94.7%, comprising of antibiotics (73.6%, proton pump inhibitors (10.5%, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (5.3%, and herbal medicine (5.3%. Beta-lactams were the most common causal drug, particularly carbapenems and cephalosporins. This is the first report of Andrographis paniculata as an offending agent for AGEP. We found no differences between various treatment regimens (topical corticosteroid, systemic corticosteroid, and supportive treatment regarding the time from drug cessation to pustules resolution (P=0.171. Conclusions. We have highlighted the presentation of AGEP among Asians. We found high association with systemic drugs. Carbapenems were one of the leading culprit drugs. Finally, a localized variant was observed.

  7. "I Don't Even Know What Blogging Is": The Role of Digital Media in a Five-Year-Old Girl's Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichert, Laura; Anderson, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Using a qualitative lens, this study investigated the role of digital media in the life of a five-year-old girl. The study focused on determining what this five-year-old knew about technology, what digital tools was she currently using and how important were these tools in her everyday life. Data collection included semi-structured interviews…

  8. "I Don't Even Know What Blogging Is": The Role of Digital Media in a Five-Year-Old Girl's Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichert, Laura; Anderson, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Using a qualitative lens, this study investigated the role of digital media in the life of a five-year-old girl. The study focused on determining what this five-year-old knew about technology, what digital tools was she currently using and how important were these tools in her everyday life. Data collection included semi-structured interviews…

  9. Five years MIQE guidelines: the case of the Arabian countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afif M Abdel Nour

    Full Text Available The quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR has become a key molecular enabling technology with an immense range of research, clinical, forensic as well as diagnostic applications. Its relatively moderate instrumentation and reagent requirements have led to its adoption by numerous laboratories, including those located in the Arabian world, where qPCR, which targets DNA, and reverse transcription qPCR (RT-qPCR, which targets RNA, are widely used for region-specific biotechnology, agricultural and human genetic studies. However, it has become increasingly apparent that there are significant problems with both the quality of qPCR-based data as well as the transparency of reporting. This realisation led to the publication of the Minimum Information for Publication of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Experiments (MIQE guidelines in 2009 and their more widespread adoption in the last couple of years. An analysis of the performance of biomedical research in the Arabian world between 2001-2005 suggests that the Arabian world is producing fewer biomedical publications of lower quality than other Middle Eastern countries. Hence we have analysed specifically the quality of RT-qPCR-based peer-reviewed papers published since 2009 from Arabian researchers using a bespoke iOS/Android app developed by one of the authors. Our results show that compliance with 15 essential MIQE criteria was low (median of 40%, range 0-93% and few details on RNA quality controls (22% compliance, assays design (12%, RT strategies (32%, amplification efficiencies (30% and the normalisation process (3%. These data indicate that one of the reasons for the poor performance of Arabian world biomedical research may be the low standard of any supporting qPCR experiments and identify which aspects of qPCR experiments require significant improvements.

  10. Changes in perceived health between one and five years after stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ytterberg, Charlotte; Thorsén, Ann-Mari; Liljedahl, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    the five years after stroke onset. METHODS: Of 83 patients enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of ESD compared to conventional rehabilitation, 50 (home rehabilitation group, n=28, conventional rehabilitation group, n=22) were followed up at one and five years after stroke with regard to perceived...... health using the Sickness Impact Profile. The Mann Whitney U-test was employed for statistical analysis of differences between the groups at one and five years, and the Wilcoxon sign test for differences within each group between one and five years. RESULTS: There was no difference in perceived health...... between the groups at one or five years after stroke with regard to SIP total and the physical and psychosocial dimensions. Perceived health did not change significantly between one and five years in the home rehabilitation group whereas it had deteriorated significantly in the conventional rehabilitation...

  11. In Retrospect, Five Year's Splendid Journey of Wind and Rain,Look into the Future, Five Year's Grand Prospect--Shanxi Phoenix Conveyor Belt Co., Ltd.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

      On January 21, 2006, ShanxiPhoenix Conveyor Belt Co.,Ltd. held the 2005 Honor Convention. Those who attended the conference were Mr. Ren Runhou, Board Chairman of Shanxi Phoenix Conveyor Belt Co., Ltd., Board Chairman & General Manager of Shanxi Luan Mining Group, Mr. Shi Wenlin, Director of Shanxi Phoenix Conveyor Belt Co., Ltd.,Vice General Manager of Shanxi Luan Mining Group, Dr. Feng Weimin, General Manager of Shanxi Phoenix Conveyor Belt Co., Ltd. and Mr. Feng Qiang,Administrative General Manager of Shanxi Phoenix Conveyor Belt Co., Ltd.The conference was presided by Vice General Manager Zhu Junhong.……

  12. In Retrospect, Five Year's Splendid Journey of Wind and Rain,Look into the Future, Five Year's Grand Prospect--Shanxi Phoenix Conveyor Belt Co., Ltd.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ On January 21, 2006, ShanxiPhoenix Conveyor Belt Co.,Ltd. held the 2005 Honor Convention. Those who attended the conference were Mr. Ren Runhou, Board Chairman of Shanxi Phoenix Conveyor Belt Co., Ltd., Board Chairman & General Manager of Shanxi Luan Mining Group, Mr. Shi Wenlin, Director of Shanxi Phoenix Conveyor Belt Co., Ltd.,Vice General Manager of Shanxi Luan Mining Group, Dr. Feng Weimin, General Manager of Shanxi Phoenix Conveyor Belt Co., Ltd. and Mr. Feng Qiang,Administrative General Manager of Shanxi Phoenix Conveyor Belt Co., Ltd.The conference was presided by Vice General Manager Zhu Junhong.

  13. [Epidemiologic behavior of malignant digestive tract tumors over a five year period in Veracruz, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch-Dietlen, F; Jiménez-García, V A; Remes-Troche, J M; Rubio-Arce, J F; López-Salinas, A; Ruiz-Juárez, I; Grube-Pagola, P; Silva-Cañetas, C F

    2012-01-01

    Tumors of the digestive system are considered to be a public health problem because of their elevated mortality rate. In Mexico, gastric cancer and colon cancer rank fourth and fifth, respectively, following tracheal, bronchial, and lung cancer, and there has been an increase in their frequency in the last few years. However, there are no specific studies that have evaluated their epidemiologic behavior in Veracruz. To determine the frequency of digestive system cancer in five health institutions in the city of Veracruz and to describe its epidemiologic behavior over a five-year period. Annual statistics from the following hospitals were reviewed: the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, the Secretaría de Salud, the Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales de los Trabajadores del Estado, Petróleos Mexicanos, and the Secretaría de la Defensa Nacional within the time frame of January 2005 to December 2009. Diagnoses based on histopathology were recorded, along with patient age and sex. A total of 1803 cases of digestive tract cancers were detected: 52% were men and 48% were women. A yearly increase in the number of cases was observed with colon cancer being in first place, followed by stomach cancer and rectal cancer. The increase in digestive system cancer cases over the last five years in Veracruz underlines the need to evaluate the implementation of screening programs for the at-risk population and to study the different etiologic factors involved in its manifestation.

  14. “十一五”期间我国文献情报领域知识发现研究综述%The Studies of Knowledge Discovery Based on LIS Literature during the Period of the "11 th Five - year Plan" in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高新陵; 王正兴

    2011-01-01

    对近年来关于知识发现的大量相关论文从概念关系辨析、知识发现方法体系、文本挖掘与文本趋势挖掘、非相关文献知识发现、数据挖掘研究拓展等方面开展研究,总结“十一五”期间我国文献情报领域知识发现研究成果,重点介绍有关知识发现的内容分析、关联理论、领域驱动、可视化、文本挖掘模型等研究进展,最后分析展望今后该研究领域的研究热点和研究方向。%The paper gives an overview of the study on knowledge mining based on literature information work during the period of the "11 th five -year plan" in our country from many points:The concept relations discrimination, the method system of knowledge mining, mining for texts and trend, mining for texts, disjointed literature knowledge mining, the expand of the data mining study. The paper focuses on the research on content analysis, relevance theory, field driven and text mining model. It points out the research issues and direction in the future.

  15. Personality disorder features as predictors of symptoms five years post-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Irene; Hesse, Morten; Fridell, Mats

    2008-01-01

    Personality disorders are associated with dysfunction in a variety of areas. Recent longitudinal research has shown that personality disorders are also predictive of problems later in life, as well as of poor response to treatment of depression and anxiety. This study assessed whether personality disorder features were associated with psychiatric symptoms in a cohort of women treated for substance abuse in Sweden. Patients were diagnosed with personality disorders using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-II) personality questionnaire and SCID-II interview, and were then administered a self-report questionnaire designed to measure symptoms of psychiatric illness, the Symptoms Checklist-90 (SCL-90), during and five years after treatment. Concurrently, features of all personality disorders, except histrionic, were associated with SCL-90 score. At five-year follow-up, most personality disorders remained associated with SCL-90 score, with the exception of paranoid and schizoid personality disorder. After controlling for baseline score on the SCL-90, conduct disorder, borderline personality disorder, and narcissistic personality disorder remained significantly associated with symptoms at follow-up. After controlling for abstinence and baseline score, only borderline personality disorder features remained associated with SCL-90 score at follow-up. Patients with personality disorders should be monitored after treatment for psychiatric symptoms.

  16. Patients' knowledge of Diabetes five years after the end of an educational program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabel Alves das Chagas

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a cross-sectional study that aims to describe the sociodemographic and clinical conditions of individuals with diabetes mellitus and to analyze their knowledge of treatment five years after the end of an educational program in which they took part. In 2010, 40 individuals who had participated in a diabetes educational program for 12 months in 2005 at a primary care service were interviewed. A form was used for data collection that included their knowledge of the notion, physiopathology, and treatment of the disease; exercise; nutrition; foot care; self-monitoring of capillary blood glucose at home; hypoglycemia; chronic complications; special situations; and family support. The results showed that the volunteers incorporated the information about the notion, physiopathology, and treatment of the disease; exercise; foot care; self-monitoring; care associated with hypoglycemia; chronic complications; and special situations. In contrast, nutrition and family support require further reinforcement. It is concluded that five years after the end of the educational program, the participants kept most of the information provided.

  17. Sitagliptin in type 2 diabetes mellitus: Efficacy after five years of therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derosa, Giuseppe; D'Angelo, Angela; Maffioli, Pamela

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the positive effects of sitagliptin were maintained even after five years of treatment. Starting from 2008 to today, we treated 624 patients, not well controlled by current therapy, with the addition of sitagliptin 100 mg/die. Patients included 216 subjects treated with metformin, 206 treated with sulfonylureas, and 202 treated with pioglitazone. Sitagliptin was added to metformin, sulfonylureas and pioglitazone in monotherapy, respectively, and the data were compared with those of 620 patients treated with sulfonylureas+metformin, pioglitazone+metformin and pioglitazone+sulfonylureas matched for age, sex, diabetes duration. We recorded that the addition of sitagliptin to current hypoglycemic therapy led to a reduction of HbA1c similar to that obtained with sulfonylureas after two years. After five years of treatment, changes in HbA1c suggest a better glycemic control over the long term with sitagliptin compared to other treatments, particularly when compared with sulfonylureas. The other parameters evaluated as fasting plasma glucose, post-prandial plasma glucose and insulin levels, confirm the trends observed for the value of HbA1c. Regarding BMI, it increased with sulfonylureas and pioglitazone compared to sitagliptin. Patients treated with sulfonylureas had a higher incidence of hypoglycemia compared to sitagliptin. In conclusion, sitagliptin seems to maintain its positive effects on glycemia and fasting plasma insulin on the long term.

  18. Variações climáticas e uso de serviços de saúde em crianças asmáticas menores de cinco anos de idade: um estudo ecológico Climate variations and health services use for the treatment of asthmatic children under five years of age: an ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Taques Saldanha

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a variação dos períodos climáticos (seco ou chuvoso e o uso de serviços de saúde para a asma em crianças menores de cinco anos de idade. MÉTODOS: Estudo ecológico, com coleta de dados secundários, através de análise dos prontuários das crianças com até cinco anos de idade e diagnóstico de asma, atendidas no Pronto-Socorro Municipal de Cuiabá. Obedecendo às características geográficas de Cuiabá (MT, foram considerados dois períodos climáticos: o período seco (maio a outubro e o chuvoso (novembro a abril. RESULTADOS: O percentual de atendimentos das crianças consideradas com diagnóstico de asma foi de 12,2% (3.140/25.802, sem diferença entre os sexos. A faixa etária mais acometida foi a de três a cinco anos de idade. A taxa de hospitalização por asma foi de 1,3% (336/25.802, sendo de 10,7% (336/3.140 entre as crianças asmáticas atendidas no pronto-socorro. No período chuvoso o percentual de atendimento ambulatorial por asma foi maior que no período seco: 39,1% (1.228/3.140 versus 60,9% (1.912/3.140. Entretanto, no período seco houve maior percentual de hospitalização: 52,3% (176/336 versus 47,7% (160/336. As diferenças foram significativas (p OBJECTIVE: To study variations in climate (dry or rainy periods and health services use for the treatment of asthma in children under five years of age. METHODS: An ecological study was conducted and involved analysis of the medical charts of all children under the age of five that were diagnosed with asthma and treated in the Municipal Emergency Room of the city of Cuiabá, located in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. In accordance with the geographic location of Cuiabá, two climatic periods were identified: a dry season (from May to October and a rainy season (from November to April. RESULTS: The percentage of children treated that were diagnosed with asthma was 12.2% (3140/25,802, with no gender-based difference. Children from 3 to 5 years of age

  19. Course of illness in a sample of 265 patients with first-episode psychosis--five-year follow-up of the Danish OPUS trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mette; Jeppesen, Pia; Petersen, Lone;

    2009-01-01

    -sample of the OPUS trial of 265 first-episode psychotic patients after five years. Recovery, defined as no psychotic or negative symptoms, living independently, GAF (f)>59, working or studying, was reached for 18% after five years, whereas 13% were institutionalized either at hospital or supported housing after five...

  20. Comparison of Environmental Attitudes and Experiences of Five-Year-Old Children Receiving Preschool Education in the Village and City Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkan, Nazmi; Güngör, Hande; Fetihi, Leyla; Erol, Ahmet; Gülay Ogelman, Hülya

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to compare environmental attitudes and experiences of five-year-old children receiving preschool education in the village and city centre. The first group comprised 54 five-year-old children who received preschool education and attended kindergartens of two primary schools in the Karateke and Kocabas villages of Honaz…

  1. “十一五”时期广东省积极财政政策效应实证研究%An Empirical Study on the Proactive Fiscal Policy Effects of Guangdong Province in the Eleventh Five-Year Plan Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白浚宇; 宁凌

    2013-01-01

    The Eleventh Five-Year Plan period of Guangdong Province saw a continuous rapid economic growth and a concomitant increase in inflation pressure. It is, then, practically significant to examine the effects of the Province’s implementation of proactive fiscal policies. This study focuses on the effects of proactive fiscal policies that Guangdong has enforced during this period. Results show that these policies contribute a lot to the regional economic growth and invite greater pressures on inflation as well. This suggests that it is still necessary that Guangdong should continue the implementation of moderately proactive fiscal policies, while a greater attention should be paid to the total performance of these policies and the preventive control over the inflation expectation.%  “十一五”期间,广东省经济保持快速增长,同时通货膨胀压力也不断凸显。对“十一五”期间广东省积极财政政策效应进行了实证研究。结果显示,实施积极财政政策既促进广东区域经济增长,也带来了通货膨胀压力,表明广东省仍有必要实施适度的积极财政政策,但应更加注重政策实施整体绩效,防控通胀预期。

  2. A five-year analysis of the incidence of glomerulonephritis at Cairo University Hospital-Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Salwa; Fayed, Ahmed; Fadda, Sawsan; Belal, Dawlet

    2012-07-01

    Our study aimed to obtain a comprehensive review of the incidence of biopsy-proven glomerulonephritis (GN) at the Cairo University Hospitals, Egypt, over the last five years. We analyzed the clinical and pathological data of all renal biopsy samples that were performed during the period from July 2003 to July 2008. Renal biopsy samples of 924 patients were referred for pathological assessment during the period of the study [437 male and 487 female patients; their mean age was 26.5 ± 14.6 years (range: 2.5-71 years)]. Focal segmental glomerulo-nephritis was the most frequent cause of primary GN (21.21%), followed by mesangial proliferative GN (18.93%), diffuse proliferative GN (13.96%), focal proliferative GN (12.77%) and membranous GN (10.93%). The results could be explained by the high incidence of lupus nephritis among the study subjects as well as the relatively young age of the study group.

  3. 75 FR 80300 - Five-Year Review of Oil Pipeline Pricing Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... recession-influenced 2009 data, the annual cost increase between 2004 and 2009 is PPI-FG plus 1.62 percent... Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 342 Five-Year Review of Oil Pipeline Pricing Index Issued... issuing this Final Order concluding its third five-year review of the oil pricing index, established in...

  4. 10 CFR 35.655 - Five-year inspection for teletherapy and gamma stereotactic radiosurgery units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Five-year inspection for teletherapy and gamma... Radiosurgery Units § 35.655 Five-year inspection for teletherapy and gamma stereotactic radiosurgery units. (a... and serviced during source replacement or at intervals not to exceed 5 years, whichever comes first...

  5. 77 FR 32668 - Pure Magnesium (Granular) From China; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... COMMISSION Pure Magnesium (Granular) From China; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review AGENCY: United.... Any person that is neither a party to the five-year review nor an interested party may submit a brief... party group response to its notice of institution (77 FR 5049, February 1, 2012) of the subject five...

  6. 77 FR 12326 - Tapered Roller Bearings From China; Scheduling of a Full Five-Year Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Tapered Roller Bearings From China; Scheduling of a Full Five- Year Review AGENCY: United States... responses to its notice of institution of the subject five-year review were such that a full review pursuant...

  7. 77 FR 16859 - Tapered Roller Bearings From China; Scheduling of a Full Five-Year Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Tapered Roller Bearings From China; Scheduling of a Full Five- Year Review AGENCY: United States... Commission determined that responses to its notice of institution of the subject five-year review were such...

  8. 77 FR 72883 - Folding Metal Tables and Chairs From China; Termination of Five-Year Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Folding Metal Tables and Chairs From China; Termination of Five- Year Review AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The subject five-year review was initiated in October...

  9. SAFE AND EFFICIENT OPERATION OF THE WEST-EAST GAS PIPELINE FOR FIVE YEARS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The West-East gas pipeline in China has been operated for five years since the commencement of operation on Oct.1st,2003,Over the past five years the pipeline has maintained its safe,stable and high efficint status and brought favorable economic ,social and environmental effects.

  10. Shevchenko Study: "Eternal" Development Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varenikova Olena

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the definitions of some Ukrainian researchers in the field of Shevchenko study during the 1st third of XX – the beginning of XXI centuries, concerning the unlimited subject of studies, analyses some social-scientific correlation that contributes to the phenomenon of "always new Shevchenko study".

  11. The Role of Parents' Distancing Strategies in the Development of Five-Year-Old Children's Theory of Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galende, Nuria; de Miguel, Manuel Sanchez; Arranz, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the relation between parents' distancing strategies and the performance of five-year-old children (N = 70) in Theory of Mind (ToM) tasks. The children's performances were assessed during individual sessions held at school. The distancing strategies practiced by the parents (cognitive and linguistic scaffolding,…

  12. Five Years After; the Impact of a Participatory Technology Development Programme as Perceived by Smallholder Farmers in Benin and Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, B.; Kobina, A.C.; Gogan, A.C.; Sakyi-Dawson, O.; Kossou, D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The article reports effects on livelihoods of a participatory technology development effort in Benin and Ghana (2001–2006), five years after it ended. Design: The study uses data from all smallholders who participated in seven experimental groups, each facilitated by a PhD researcher. Basel

  13. The Role of Parents' Distancing Strategies in the Development of Five-Year-Old Children's Theory of Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galende, Nuria; de Miguel, Manuel Sanchez; Arranz, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the relation between parents' distancing strategies and the performance of five-year-old children (N = 70) in Theory of Mind (ToM) tasks. The children's performances were assessed during individual sessions held at school. The distancing strategies practiced by the parents (cognitive and linguistic scaffolding,…

  14. Reports from Ministry of Finance: China Nay Begin to Collect Carbon Tax in the Next Five Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The investigation team of Research Institute for Fiscal Science, Ministry of Finance, just published a report on the "Study on the Issue of Beginning to Levy Carbon Tax in China." The report said that the beginning of the collection of carbon tax could be considered in the next five years.

  15. Five Years After; the Impact of a Participatory Technology Development Programme as Perceived by Smallholder Farmers in Benin and Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, B.; Kobina, A.C.; Gogan, A.C.; Sakyi-Dawson, O.; Kossou, D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The article reports effects on livelihoods of a participatory technology development effort in Benin and Ghana (2001–2006), five years after it ended. Design: The study uses data from all smallholders who participated in seven experimental groups, each facilitated by a PhD researcher. Basel

  16. Cortisol Reactions in Five-Year-Olds to Parent-Child Interaction: The Moderating Role of Ego-Resiliency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeekens, Sanny; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne; van Bakel, Hedwig J. A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: This study with five-year-olds is the first to examine whether low-quality interactions with parents elicit physiological stress in children beyond toddlerhood, as evident from elevated cortisol levels in their saliva. It was hypothesised that particularly children with low levels of ego-resiliency--a personality construct reflecting…

  17. Five-year follow-up of knee joint cartilage thickness changes after acute anterior cruciate ligament rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckstein, F; Wirth, W; Lohmander, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture involves increased risk of osteoarthritis. We explored cartilage thickness changes over five years after ACL rupture. Methods: 121 young active adults (26% women, age 18-35 years) with acute traumatic ACL rupture were studied (the KANON...

  18. Five Years After; the Impact of a Participatory Technology Development Programme as Perceived by Smallholder Farmers in Benin and Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterk, B.; Christian, A. K.; Gogan, A. C.; Sakyi-Dawson, O.; Kossou, D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The article reports effects on livelihoods of a participatory technology development effort in Benin and Ghana (2001-2006), five years after it ended. Design: The study uses data from all smallholders who participated in seven experimental groups, each facilitated by a PhD researcher. Baseline data and controls were not available. In…

  19. A retro- and prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Dettweiler, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the reference ranges of hematological parameters in pet rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) on the one hand. We especially looked at the automatically measured hematocrit and the absolute reticulocyte count. On the other hand the causes and the severity of anemia in pet rabbits were studied. The reference range for the automatically measured hematocrit of 68 healthy pet rabbits was between 0,33 and 0,45 l/l. The reference range for reticuloc...

  20. Five-Year Survival of Children With Chronic Critical Illness in Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namachivayam, Siva P; Alexander, Janet; Slater, Anthony; Millar, Johnny; Erickson, Simon; Tibballs, James; Festa, Marino; Ganu, Subodh; Segedin, Liz; Schlapbach, Luregn J; Williams, Gary; Shann, Frank; Butt, Warwick

    2015-09-01

    Outcomes for children with chronic critical illness are not defined. We examined the long-term survival of these children in Australia and New Zealand. All cases of PICU chronic critical illness with length of stay more than 28 days and age 16 years old or younger in Australia and New Zealand from 2000 to 2011 were studied. Five-year survival was analyzed using Kaplan-Meir estimates, and risk factors for mortality evaluated using Cox regression. All PICUs in Australia and New Zealand. Nine hundred twenty-four children with chronic critical illness. None. Nine hundred twenty-four children were admitted to PICU for longer than 28 days on 1,056 occasions, accounting for 1.3% of total admissions and 23.5% of bed days. Survival was known for 883 of 924 patients (95.5%), with a median follow-up of 3.4 years. The proportion with primary cardiac diagnosis increased from 27% in 2000-2001 to 41% in 2010-2011. Survival was 81.4% (95% CI, 78.6-83.9) to PICU discharge, 70% (95% CI, 66.7-72.8) at 1 year, and 65.5% (95% CI, 62.1-68.6) at 5 years. Five-year survival was 64% (95% CI, 58.7-68.6) for children admitted in 2000-2005 and 66% (95% CI, 61.7-70) if admitted in 2006-2011 (log-rank test, p = 0.37). After adjusting for admission severity of illness using the Paediatric Index of Mortality 2 score, predictors for 5-year mortality included bone marrow transplant (hazard ratio, 3.66; 95% CI, 2.26-5.92) and single-ventricle physiology (hazard ratio, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.37-2.87). Five-year survival for single-ventricle physiology was 47.2% (95% CI, 34.3-59.1) and for bone marrow transplantation 22.8% (95% CI, 8.7-40.8). Two thirds of children with chronic critical illness survive for at-least 5 years, but there was no improvement between 2000 and 2011. Cardiac disease constitutes an increasing proportion of pediatric chronic critical illness. Bone marrow transplant recipients and single-ventricle physiology have the poorest outcomes.

  1. A retro- and prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Madel, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical, laboratory, imaging and pathological findings of pet rabbits with azotemia (plasma creatinine concentration > 166 µmol/l) and to differentiate prerenal, renal [acute renal failure (ARF) and chronic renal failure (CRF)] and post renal azotemia using several criteria. In addition, the course and causes of azotemia were evaluated and compared between azotemia groups. In a period of 13 years (2000 to 2013), data from 161 pet rabbits (50 animals p...

  2. Characterization of automotive shredder residues before and five years after landfill disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Ionel Cioca

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper illustrates the results of an extensive analytical characterization study of automotive shredder residues (ASR, also known as "fluff”. The analyses concerned material fractions and their content, with special reference to heavy metals (e.g. Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, Cu and arsenic. Elution tests on the original materials were also conducted. Moreover, chemical concentrations of ASR samples after about five years' landfill residence was assessed, in order to verify possible changes resulting from both in-situ leaching and organic matter degradation phenomena. Results show that lead seems to be the most critical element in view of possible ASR acceptance in non-hazardous waste landfills because of its high concentration in raw waste and, especially, of its proven leachability characteristics.

  3. The thermoregulatory theory of yawning: what we know from over five years of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C Gallup

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past five years numerous reports have confirmed and replicated the specific brain cooling and thermal window predictions derived from the thermoregulatory theory of yawning, and no study has found evidence contrary to these findings. Here we review the comparative research supporting this model of yawning among homeotherms, while highlighting a recent report showing how the expression of contagious yawning in humans is altered by seasonal climate variation. The fact that yawning is constrained to a thermal window of ambient temperature provides unique and compelling support in favor of this theory. Heretofore, no existing alternative hypothesis of yawning can explain these results, which have important implications for understanding the potential functional role of this behavior, both physiologically and socially, in humans and other animals. In discussion we stress the broader applications of this work in clinical settings, and counter the various criticisms of this theory.

  4. Referrals and Treatment Completion for Prescription Opioid Admissions: Five Years of National Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Marie, Barbara; Sahker, Ethan; Arndt, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    This study examines sources of referral for prescription opioid admission to substance use disorder treatment facilities and their relative completion success rates using secondary analysis of an existing data set (Treatment Episode Datasets – Discharge). Five years of data from public and private treatment facilities were extracted for client discharges with no prior treatment (N = 2,909,884). Healthcare professionals account for very few referrals to treatment (<10%). Prescription opioid clients referred into treatment had lower treatment success compared to other substance clients and when referred by healthcare providers had lower success rates (OR = 0.72, 95% CI 0.70 – 0.75) than clients from other referral sources. Fewer treatment referrals for prescription opioid misuse by healthcare providers and lower success rates are significant and timely findings due to the prevalence of prescription opioid misuse. Healthcare providers are well positioned to refer early for prescription opioid misuse and continue support of their patients during treatment. PMID:26362002

  5. RETROSPECTIVE AND PROSPECTIVE STUDY OF SNAKE BITE CELLULITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalanand Choudhary

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND This study is planned to assess the incidence and clinical manifestation of cellulitis and other surgical complication in snakebite patients in order to find out the nature and burden of the disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a five-year retrospective and prospective study conducted in the Department of Surgery, Chhattisgarh Institute of Medical Sciences, Bilaspur and Chhattisgarh. Out of total 284 patients admitted with snakebite, 164 (58.7% patients suffered cellulitis and other surgical complications, which was managed and analysed. The categorical data was expressed as rates, ratio and percentage. RESULTS Out of 164 (58.7% patients who developed cellulitis and other changes, 75.2% were males and mean age of the study population was 34.3±14.7 years. Majority of patients had snakebite on lower limb (75.2%. The most common symptom complex was pain + swelling 70.3% at the site of the bite. 25 (15.2% patients underwent wound debridement and 7 (4.26% patients required skin grafting. 2 (1.2% patients suffered from compartment syndrome and required fasciotomy, wound debridement and skin grafting. CONCLUSION The present study shows high incidence of cellulitis and other surgical conditions in patients with snakebite and most common clinical feature was pain + swelling (cellulitis. So, in any case of snakebite, proper precautionary measures should be taken to prevent them. If cellulitis and other surgical condition has already developed, then it should be treated promptly in order to prevent the loss of limb or life.

  6. Five-Year Survival Among Stage IIIA Lung Cancer Patients Receiving Two Different Treatment Modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilfinger, Thomas; Keresztes, Roger; Albano, Denise; Nemesure, Barbara

    2016-07-21

    BACKGROUND Five-year survival rates among stage IIIA lung cancer patients range between 2% and 15%, and there is currently no consensus regarding optimal treatment approaches for these patients. The current investigation evaluated survival outcomes among stage IIIA lung cancer patients receiving 2 different treatment modalities, neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by resection versus chemoradiation alone. MATERIAL AND METHODS This retrospective study is based on 127 patients attending the Lung Cancer Evaluation Center at Stony Brook Cancer Center between 2002 and 2014. Patients were treated either with neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by resection or a regimen of chemoradiation alone. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to compare survival outcomes between groups and Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate treatment effects on survival, while adjusting for possible confounders. RESULTS Approximately one-fourth (n=33) of patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery, whereas 94 patients received definitive chemoradiation. Patients in the surgical group were found to be significantly younger than those receiving chemoradiation alone (60.1 vs. 67.9 years, respectively; p=0.001). Five-year survival among patients receiving preoperative chemotherapy followed by resection was significantly higher than that among patients receiving chemoradiation alone (63% vs. 19%, respectively; p<0.001), whereas the hazard ratio (HR) was 3-4 times greater in the latter group (HR=3.77, 95% confidence interval=1.87, 7.61). CONCLUSIONS Findings from this study indicate that preoperative chemotherapy followed by resection can improve survival outcomes for stage IIIA lung cancer patients compared with chemoradiation alone. The results reflect a select surgical group of patients; thus, the data highlight the need to develop new therapies that may result in more patients being viable surgical candidates.

  7. Five years database of landslides and floods affecting Swiss transportation networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voumard, Jérémie; Derron, Marc-Henri; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2017-04-01

    Switzerland is a country threatened by a lot of natural hazards. Many events occur in built environment, affecting infrastructures, buildings or transportation networks and producing occasionally expensive damages. This is the reason why large landslides are generally well studied and monitored in Switzerland to reduce the financial and human risks. However, we have noticed a lack of data on small events which have impacted roads and railways these last years. This is why we have collect all the reported natural hazard events which have affected the Swiss transportation networks since 2012 in a database. More than 800 roads and railways closures have been recorded in five years from 2012 to 2016. These event are classified into six classes: earth flow, debris flow, rockfall, flood, avalanche and others. Data come from Swiss online press articles sorted by Google Alerts. The search is based on more than thirty keywords, in three languages (Italian, French, German). After verifying that the article relates indeed an event which has affected a road or a railways track, it is studied in details. We get finally information on about sixty attributes by event about event date, event type, event localisation, meteorological conditions as well as impacts and damages on the track and human damages. From this database, many trends over the five years of data collection can be outlined: in particular, the spatial and temporal distributions of the events, as well as their consequences in term of traffic (closure duration, deviation, etc.). Even if the database is imperfect (by the way it was built and because of the short time period considered), it highlights the not negligible impact of small natural hazard events on roads and railways in Switzerland at a national level. This database helps to better understand and quantify this events, to better integrate them in risk assessment.

  8. Road traffic incidents in Uganda: a systematic review of a five-year trend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balikuddembe, Joseph Kimuli; Ardalan, Ali; Khorasani-Zavareh, Davoud; Nejati, Amir; Munanura, Kasiima Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Over the years, Uganda has been one of the low and middle-income countries bearing the heaviest burden of road traffic incidents (RTI). Since the proclamation of the United Nations Decade of Action for Road Safety 2011 – 2020, a number of measures have been taken to reduce the burden. However, they ought to be premised on existing evidence-based research; therefore, the present review ventures to report the most recent five-year trend of RTI in Uganda. Methods: Based on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Data Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines, a systematic review was employed. Using a thematic analysis, the articles were grouped into: trauma etiology, trauma care, mortality, cost, trauma registry and communication, intervention and treatment for final analysis. Results: Of the nineteen articles that were identified to be relevant to the study, the etiology of RTI was inevitably observed to be an important cause of injuries in Uganda. The risk factors cut across: the crash type, injury physiology, cause, victims, setting, age, economic status, and gender. All studies that were reviewed have advanced varying recommendations aimed at responding to the trend of RTIs in Uganda, of which some are in tandem with the five pillars of the United Nations Decade of Action for Road Safety 2011 – 2020. Conclusions: Peripheral measures of the burden of RTIs in Uganda were undertaken within a five-year timeframe (2011-2015) of implementing the United Nations Decade of Action for Road Safety. The measures however, ought to be scaled-up on robust evidence based research available from all the concerned stakeholders beyond Kampala or central region to other parts of Uganda. PMID:28039687

  9. Correlation of TP53 Overexpression and Clinical Parameters with Five-Year Survival in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Syed A; Khan, Hamza A; Irfan, Omar; Samad, Adeel; Mirza, Yumna; Awan, Muhammad S

    2017-06-27

    Introduction TP53 mutation and overexpression have been correlated with poor survival in many cancers including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We aim to understand the role of TP53 overexpression in OSCC in our population and correlate it with five-year survival to test its viability as a prognostic marker for OSCC patients. Materials and methods Patients with biopsy proven OSCC at Aga Khan University Hospital from January 2000 to January 2008 were recruited. Immunohistochemistry was used to establish TP53 status and the results were published. Following up on these patients, five-year data were collected and correlated with TP53 status and other clinicopathologic parameters. Results Overexpression of TP53 was not significantly associated with five-year survival (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.543; 95% CI: 0.911-2.612; p = 0.107). Conclusion Although we had proven statistical relevance when correlated with overall survival in our previous study, we were unable to extend the same relevance to TP53 overexpression when it comes to five-year survival.

  10. Five-year follow-up of cognitive impairment in older adults with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouws, Sigfried N T M; Comijs, Hannie C; Dols, Annemieke; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Stek, Max L

    2016-03-01

    To date, cognitive impairment has been thought to be an integral part of bipolar disorder. In clinical staging models, cognitive impairment is one of the hallmarks to define the clinical stage and it plays an important role in identifying the risk factors for progression to later stages of the illness. It is important to examine neurocognitive performance over longer periods to test the hypothesis of neuroprogression of bipolar disorder. A comprehensive neuropsychological test battery was applied at baseline and five years later to 56 euthymic older outpatients with bipolar disorder (mean age = 68.35 years, range: 60-90 years) and to a demographically matched sample of 44 healthy subjects. A group-by-time repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance was performed to measure changes over time for the two groups. The impact of baseline illness characteristics on the intra-individual change in neurocognitive performance within the bipolar disorder group was studied by using logistic regression analysis. At baseline and at follow-up, patients with bipolar disorder performed worse on all neurocognitive measures compared to the matched healthy subjects. However, there was no significant group-by-time interaction between the patients with bipolar disorder and the comparison group. Although older patients with bipolar disorder had worse cognitive function than healthy subjects, they did not have greater cognitive decline over a five-year period. The change in acquired cognitive impairment of patients with bipolar disorder might parallel the cognitive development as seen in normal aging. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Five years renal transplantation data: Single-center experience from Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ala A Ali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal transplantation is the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage renal disease. In Iraq, renal transplantation started in 1973 and has continued until now with live donor transplantation, since deceased donor transplant program is not approved as yet. Long-term transplant data are still scarce. The aim of our study is to present data on transplantation and medical follow-up at one year and, survival analysis at one, three and five years. A total of 250 renal transplantations were performed at the Nephrology and Renal Transplantation Center, Baghdad between January 2009 and January 2014. It is a living donor, blood group compatible donor program. All patients received triple immunosuppression (calcineurine inhibitor, mycophenolate mofetil or mycophenolic acid, and steroid. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to determine the survival rate. There were 92 live related donors, 143 unrelated donors, and 15 spouse donors. The mean age was 34.07 ± 12.2 years. The one-year graft survival for related and unrelated donor transplants was 98.9% and 91.8%, respectively. Graft survival was lower (82.9% in recipients with acute rejection episodes. The patient survival at one-year was 94%. The three-year graft and patient survival was 91% and 90%, respectively, and five-year survival for grafts and patients was 87.1% and 88%, respectively. The outcome of the renal transplantation in Iraq is improving. Long-term patient follow-up needs more meticulous attention. The development of renal transplant registry is critical for future planning. Moreover, renal transplantation practice in Iraq needs more social, religious, and governmental support.

  12. The external quality assessment scheme: Five years experience as a participating laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhary Rajendra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim : Quality assurance in blood banking includes active participation in the external quality program. Such a program offers valuable benefits to patient care, their safety, and an overall quality of laboratory practices. In the year 2002, we participated in the External Quality Assessment Scheme (EQAS under the World Health Organization (WHO, Bureau of Laboratory Quality Standards, Thailand. Materials and Methods: In the current study we evaluated our EQAS test result of the past five years, from 2003 to 2007. Test results of all blood samples such as ABO grouping, D typing, antibody screening, antibody identification, and transfusion transmitted infection (TTI testing were analyzed and documented. Results: Discordant results in one or more instances were observed with antibody identification, weak D testing, and tests for anti-HIV1/2 and HBsAg. Twice we failed to detect the ′anti-Mia′ antibody in the issued sample and that could be attributed to the absence of the corresponding antigen in the used cell panel. HBsAg was missed due to its critically low titer in the serum and the comparatively low sensitivity of our Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA test kit. Conclusion: All these failures in the last five years have helped us to significantly improve our transfusion service in terms of performance evaluation, patient care and safety issues, and the overall quality of laboratory practices. We therefore recommend all laboratories and hospitals to participate in the EQAS program, which will definitely help them to improve from what they learn.

  13. FAMILY’S ECONOMIC LEVEL AND CULTURE CORRELATE WITH NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF CHILDREN UNDER FIVE YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Muhith

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nutrition is an important thing for human life. Variety in family’s economic level and culture have effect on family’s eating habit. Family with higher economic status have big opportunity to met under fi ve year’s nutrition. Cultural diversity on each family has an impact on the difference of raw food selection, processing methods, and presentation of food. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between family’s economic level and culture with nutritional status of children under fi ve year. Method: Research design was observational analytic with cross sectional approach. The population were mother and their children under fi ve years at Desa Jatigono Kunir, Kabupaten Lumajang. Sampel were 184 respondents, taken by using cluster sampling. Independent variables were family’s economic level and culture. Dependent variable was nutritional status of children under fi ve years. Data were collected by using questionnaire and observational sheet. Then, data were analyzed by using Spearman Rho Test with α<0.05. Result: The results showed that 140 (76.1% respondents have low economic level, 105 (57.1% respondents have negative culture in children’s nutrition, and 89 (48% respondents have good nutritional status. The result of Spearman-rho test showed that family’s economic level (p=0.000 and culture (0.019 have correlated with nutritional status of children under five years. Discussion: It can be concluded that family’s economic level and culture have correlated with nutritional status of children under fi ve years. Nurses should develop health education and counseling to improve family’s knowledge about nutrition, so children will have good nutritional status. Keywords: economic level, family’s culture, nutritional status, children under five years

  14. Early complications and performance of 327 heat-pressed lithium disilicate crowns up to five years

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The prospective follow-up aimed to assess the performance of lithium disilicate crowns and clinical reasons of adverse events compromising survival and quality. MATERIALS AND METHODS 58 patients were treated with 375 heat-pressed monolithic crowns, which were bonded with resin cement. Annual recalls up to five years included a complete dental examination as well as quality assessment using CDA-criteria. Any need for clinical intervention led to higher complication rate and any failure compromised the survival rate. Kaplan-Meier-method was applied to all crowns and a dataset containing one randomly selected crown from each patient. RESULTS Due to drop-outs, 45 patients (31 females, 14 males) with the average age of 43 years (range = 17–73) who had 327 crowns (176 anterior, 151 posterior; 203 upper jaw, 124 lower jaw) were observed and evaluated for between 4 and 51 months (median = 28). Observation revealed 4 chippings, 3 losses of retention, 3 fractures, 3 secondary caries, 1 endodontic problem, and 1 tooth fracture. Four crowns had to be removed. Survival and complication rate was estimated 98.2% and 5.4% at 24 months, and 96.8% and 7.1% at 48 months. The complication rate was significantly higher for root canal treated teeth (12%, P<.01) at 24 months. At the last observation, over 90% of all crowns showed excellent ratings (CDA-rating Alfa) for color, marginal fit, and caries. CONCLUSION Heat pressed lithium disilicate crowns showed an excellent performance. Besides a careful luting, dentists should be aware of patients' biological prerequisites (grade of caries, oral hygiene) to reach full success with these crowns. PMID:27350853

  15. Molecular epidemiological study on children under five years old with diarrhea and the long-term countermeasures for prevention and control of childhood diarrhea in Tangshan city%唐山市5岁以下儿童腹泻分子流行病学研究及长期预防控制对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余亮科; 王林; 陈玉强; 高捷; 赵文喆

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To conduct molecular epidemiological study for children under five years old with diarrhea in Tangshan city, provide data for prevention and treatment of diarrhea, further put foreward long-term countermeasures for prevention and control of childhood diarrhea. Methods:The stool samples of 300 children with acute diarrhea were selected from Tangshan city randomly, after excluding 180 children with bacterial diarrhea, the other 120 children with viral diarrhea underwent rotavirus detection by colloidal gold method, RT-PCR was used to detect astrovirus, diarrheal adenovirus, and human calicivirus. Results; Among the children under five years old with viral diarrhea in Tangshan city, 16. 33% of them were infected by rotavirus, 10.33% of them were infected by astrovirus, 8. 67% of them were infected by diarrheal adenovirus, and 4. 67% of them were infected by human calicivirus. There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of bacterial diarrhea among children in different age groups. The peak periods of childhood diarrhea induced by different viruses varied \\ the peak periods of childhood diarrhea induced by rotavirus, astrovirus, diarrheal adenovirus, and human calicivirus were 6-12 months, 12-28 months, 12-24 months, and 12-18 months, respectively. The change of season had no obvious impact on the causes of diarrhea. Conclusion:Bacterial infection was the most important cause of childhood diarrhea, but for the children with viral diarrhea, rotavirus was the main induced cause. More attention should be paid to the children during every age period to prevent and control bacterial diarrhea, childhood diarrhea induced by different viruses can be treated with corresponding measures according to different peak periods of onset age.%目的:对唐山市5岁以下儿重腹泻进行分子流行病学研究,为腹泻的防治提供数据,进而提出对儿重腹泻的长期预防控制措施.方法:随机抽取唐山市300例儿童急性腹泻的

  16. PRONE ACCELERATED PARTIAL BREAST IRRADIATION AFTER BREAST-CONSERVING SURGERY: FIVE YEAR RESULTS OF 100 PATIENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formenti, Silvia C.; Hsu, Howard; Fenton-Kerimian, Maria; Roses, Daniel; Guth, Amber; Jozsef, Gabor; Goldberg, Judith D.; DeWyngaert, J. Keith

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To report the 5-year results of a prospective trial of three-dimensional conformal external beam radiotherapy (3D-CRT) to deliver accelerated partial breast irradiation in the prone position (P-APBI). Methods Post-menopausal patients with Stage I breast cancer with non palpable <2 cm tumors, negative margins, and negative nodes, positive hormonal receptors, and no extensive intraductal component (EIC) were eligible. The trial was offered only once eligible patients had refused to undergo standard whole-breast radiotherapy. Patients were simulated and treated on a dedicated table for prone set-up. The 3D-CRT delivered was 30 Gy in five 6 Gy/daily fractions over 10 days with port film verification at each treatment. Ipsilateral breast, ipsilateral nodal, contralateral breast, and distant failure (IBF, INF, CBF, DF) were estimated using the cumulative incidence method. Disease-free, overall, and cancer-specific survival (DFS, OS, CSS) were recorded. Results One hundred patients accrued to this IRB- approved prospective trial, one with bilateral breast cancer. One patient withdrew consent after simulation and another elected to interrupt radiotherapy after receiving two treatments. Ninety-eight patients are evaluable for toxicity and, in one case, both breasts were treated with PBI. Median patient age was 68 years (range 53–88 years); in 55% the tumor size was <1 cm. All patients had hormonal receptor positive cancers: 87% underwent adjuvant anti-hormonal therapy. At a median follow-up of 64 months (range, 2–125 months), there was one local recurrence (1% IBF) and one contralateral breast cancer (1% CBF). There were no deaths due to breast cancer by 5 years. Grade 3 late toxicities occurred in 2 patients (1 breast edema, 1 transient breast pain). Cosmesis was rated good/excellent in 89% of patients with at least 36 months follow-up. Conclusions Five-year efficacy and toxicity of 3D-CRT to deliver prone-PBI are comparable to other experiences with similar

  17. CNPC's Remarkable Achievements in Scientific Research during the Eighth Five-Year Plan Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Zhengrong

    1996-01-01

    @@ During the Eighth Five-Year Plan period, the Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development,CNPC made marked progress in applied research (RIPED)of new techniques and new theories and in fundamental research.

  18. Textile Industry Twelfthy-Five-Year-Plan Technology Progress Outline Release

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Nov. 19th, Beijing. China National Textile & Apparel Council release the Textile Industry Twelfthy-Five-Year-Plan Technology Progress Outline. The outline describes the key tasks of technology progress for

  19. Preventing Dental Caries in Children from Birth Through Age Five Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it might mean for you. What are dental caries? Dental caries, also known as tooth decay, occurs when bacteria ... May 2014 Task Force FINAL Recommendation | 1 Preventing Dental Caries in Children from Birth Through Age Five Years ...

  20. Outlook of PetroChina's Technological Development during the 11th Five-Year Plan Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The 11th Five-Year Plan period is a critical time for PetroChina transforming to a transnational enterprise group with international competitiveness, also a turning point for the implementation of its scientific and technological strategy.

  1. Medical Lasers At The Crossroads: Directions For The Next Five Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, Fritz A.

    1988-09-01

    Of course, much can be attributed to our relative youth - the sheer number and scope of the opportunities have distorted focus and strained resources. However, I believe that we have reached a point - a crossroads - where the topography is more clearly defined and where some discernible trends point to the direction this industry will take over the next five years. These will be important years - investors, especially, expect signs of maturity to replace unbounded youthful optimism. How many of us can look back on the business plans we wrote five years ago and not feel chastened (or depressed). Our excuse is that we got everything right except the timing. Well, the "timing" is the next five years! So my talk today will center upon my personal view of these next five years. I wish to emphasize the personal aspect of my discussion: this is my prescription for future happiness.

  2. 2010 Five-Year Plan: Assessment of Health and Environmental Impacts of Uranium Mining and Milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    The five-year plan is intended to compile all activities contributing to the identification and cleanup of legacy uranium milling and mining activities in the Grants Mining District in the State of New Mexico.

  3. The First Five Years of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    In the five years since its installation on the International Space Station, it has collected more than 90 billion cosmic rays. Some of the unexpected results and their possible interpretations will be presented.

  4. 20 CFR 652.212 - When should a State submit modifications to the five-year plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the five-year plan? 652.212 Section 652.212 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION... five-year plan? (a) A State may submit modifications to the five-year plan as necessary during the five... a viable and living document over its five-year life. (b) That portion of the plan addressing the...

  5. Focusing on“50+110”during 12th Five-Year-Plan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Science and technology is the key to improve productivity.As the Chinese textile and apparel industry would stepped into its 12th Five-Year-Plan period(2011-2015),the China National Textile and Apparel Council released the latest"Guidelines for Scientific and Technological Progress for Textile Industry in the 12th Five-Year Plan Period", leading a new round of scientific and technological development revolution.

  6. Five-year clinical and radiological outcomes in 257 consecutive cementless Oxford medial unicompartmental knee arthroplasties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaney, J; Harty, H; Doran, E; O'Brien, S; Hill, J; Dobie, I; Beverland, D

    2017-05-01

    Our aim was to examine the clinical and radiographic outcomes in 257 consecutive Oxford unicompartmental knee arthroplasties (OUKAs) (238 patients), five years post-operatively. A retrospective evaluation was undertaken of patients treated between April 2008 and October 2010 in a regional centre by two non-designing surgeons with no previous experience of UKAs. The Oxford Knee Scores (OKSs) were recorded and fluoroscopically aligned radiographs were assessed post-operatively at one and five years. The median age of the 238 patients was 65.0 years (interquartile range (IQR) 59.0 to 73.0), the median body mas index was 30.0 (IQR 27.5 to 33.0) and 51.7% were male. There were no intra-operative complications. There was a significant improvement in the median OKS at six weeks (34, IQR 31.0 to 37.0), one year (38, IQR 29.0 to 43.0) and five years (37, IQR 27.0 to 42.0) when compared with the pre-operative scores (16, IQR 13.0 to 19.0) (all p = five years. The cumulative survival at five years was 98.8% and the mean survival time was 5.8 years (95% confidence interval 5.6 to 5.9). A total of seven OUKAs (2.7%) were revised; three within five years and four thereafter, between 5.1 and 5.7 years post-operatively. Five (1.9%) had re-operations within five years. The proportion of patients requiring revision at five years is lower than that generally reported for UKA. These findings add support for the use of the cementless OUKA outside the design centre. Longer follow-up is required. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:623-31. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  7. Study on focal points of fundamental research of sciences in Zhejiang Province during the “11th Five Year Program” through entropy analysis%基于熵值法的浙江省“十一五”基础研究热点分析与思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志兰

    2011-01-01

    熵值法是一种科学、简单、实用的综合评价方法.由于熵值法是一种客观赋权法,因此可以避免人为因素带来的偏差.以浙江省“十一五”期间6个基础研究学科领域获得浙江省自然科学基金资助项目的情况作为数据源,采用熵值法对这些数据进行分析总结,揭示了浙江省在基础学科领域的研究热点,并据此对浙江省“十二五”期间基础学科领域的研究发展趋势进行了预测和思考.%Entropy method is scientific, simple, practical and comprehensive to evaluate. As an objective weighting method, it can avoid man-made deviation. This article is based on six fundamental researches in science, which were supported by Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation during the "11th Five-Year Program". By using entropy method to analyze and summarize these data scientifically, we figured out focal points in the fields of fundamental researches, moreover, predicted and considered the trends of developments of the fundamental researches during the "Zhejiang 12th Five-Year Program".

  8. A prospective study of gentamicin ototoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, O; Hansen, M M; Kaaber-Bühler, Søren

    2010-01-01

    Twenty patients were included in a prospective otoneurological study performed to assess the ototoxicity in gentamicin therapy. Gentamicin was administered intravenously, and the serum level was currently determined. Audiographic and electronystagmographic studies were carried out at the institut......Twenty patients were included in a prospective otoneurological study performed to assess the ototoxicity in gentamicin therapy. Gentamicin was administered intravenously, and the serum level was currently determined. Audiographic and electronystagmographic studies were carried out...... at the institution and discontinuation of the treatment and again a few weeks later. Ten patients exhibited ototoxic actions, predominantly cochlear, 4 of the cases being fully reversible. Two patients developed severe hearing loss, associated in one with bilateral extinction of vestibular function. Low serum levels...... of gentamicin did not rule out the possiblity of ototoxicity. These results urge the continuing of prospective studies and indicate that gentamicin should be used only as a link in the primary treatment of severe infection or in cases in which other, less toxic agents have failed....

  9. The Effect of Talking Drawings on Five-Year-Old Turkish Children's Mental Models of the Water Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahi, Berat

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to determine the effect of talking drawings on Turkish preschool children's mental models of the water cycle. The study was conducted in the city of Kastamonu, located in the north-west of Turkey. A total of 40 five-year-old preschool children participated in the study in the spring term of the 2015-2016 school…

  10. Five-Yearly Review 2010 : Confirmation that our salaries are going downhill

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2010-01-01

    A general review of our financial and social conditions takes place every five years: “the five-yearly review”, whose principles and procedures are described in Annex A1 of the Staff Rules and Regulations. The purpose of the five-yearly review is to ensure that the financial and social conditions offered by the Organization allow it to recruit and retain from all its Member States staff members of the highest competence and integrity required for the execution of its mission. The five-yearly review must include basic remuneration (the basic salaries of staff members, the stipends of fellows, and the subsistence allowances of associated members of the personnel) and may include any other financial or social conditions. Start of the 2010 five-yearly review and data collection As we wrote in Echo no. 80, CERN Council approved the document CERN/2862 for the 2010 five-yearly review (hereinafter 2010 5YR) at its meeting on 19th June 2009. This was the Management’s proposal which...

  11. The effect of GWAS identified BMI loci on changes in body weight among middle-aged danes during a five year period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandholt, Camilla Helene; Allin, Kristine Højgaard; Toft, U

    2013-01-01

    Objective Genome-wide association studies have identified genetic variants associating with BMI, however, it is un-clarified whether the same variants also influence body weight fluctuations. Design and Methods Among 3,982 adult individuals that attended both a baseline and a five year follow...... weight during the five years. Changes in lifestyle, including physical activity, diet and smoking habits associated strongly with body weight changes, however, no interactions with the GRS was observed. Conclusion The GRS associated with body weight cross-sectionally, but not with changes over a five...... year period. Body weight changes were influenced by lifestyle changes, however, independently the GRS....

  12. A five-year follow-up study of mild cognitive impairment incidence in two urban and rural communities in Beijing%北京城乡两社区轻度认知功能障碍发病率调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    禚传君; 郑志华; 邵钧; 肖秋霞; PRINCE Martin; 黄悦勤; 刘肇瑞; 王瑛; 刘棉; 李淑然; 李硕; 李玉敏; 肖存利

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To describe the incidence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in an urban and a rural community of Beijing in five years, and to explore socio-demographic and biological risk factors of MCI incidence. Methods:Totally 1859 elderly people aged 65 and over in Xicheng District (urban) and Daxing District (rural) of Beijing were evaluated by a set of fully structured assessments in a one-stage process developed by the international cooperated 10/66 group (including the Geriatric Mental State Schedule Shortened Community Version and Automated Geriatric Examination for Computer Assisted Taxonomy (GMS-AGECAT), Cognitive test battery, Informant Interview Questionnaire, Background Socio- demographic and Risk factor Questionnaire). MCI were diagnosed according to the General MCI criteria developed by the 10/66 group. The 5-years cumulative incidence rate and average annual incidence rate were calculated to describe the status of incidence of MCI, uni- and multivariate Cox regressions were applied for analyzing risk factors. Results: In this follow-up study, 193 subjects were diagnosed as new MCI patients. The 5-year cumulative incidence rate was 10. 38% (95% CI: 9. 00 - 11. 82%), and the average annual incidence rate was 2. 17% (95% CI: 1.76 -2. 30). There were statistical differences of MCI incidence by age, gender, urban-rural area, and education level. Older age (HR =4. 66,95% CI: 1. 41 - 15. 42), living in a rural area (HR = 2. 54, 95% CI: 1. 72 - 3. 75), history of stroke (HR = 3. 04,95% CI: 1. 63 - 5. 68), history of diabetes (HR=2. 00,95%CI:1. 14 -3. 50), lager Waist Hip Ratio (HR =4. 97,95%CI:3. 53 -7.01) were risk factors of MCI occurrence. Having spouse (HR =0. 55, 95%CI:0. 40-0. 76) and physical exercise (HR= 0.34,95% CI: 0. 14 - 0. 84) were the protective factors. Conclusions: The five year cumulative incidence rate of mild cognitive impairment found from this study in elderly people aged 65 and over in Beijing was 10. 38% and the average annual incidence

  13. “十二五”时期印染行业减排对策研究——以绍兴市为例%A Study on Counter Measures for the Emission Reduction of Printing and Dyeing Industry during the 12th Five -Year Period: A Case Study of Shaoxing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许申来; 周昊

    2012-01-01

    通过对绍兴市印染业现状减排的分析,分别从行业布局、工艺设备、企业管理和废水治理4个方面,识别未来印染行业减排所面临的障碍,提出“十二五”时期绍兴市印染行业减排策略:加快产业聚集,优化产业布局;强化环境准入,加强源头控制;加强企业技术进步,促进产业升级;完善相关标准,提高污染防治水平;实施清洁生产,提高企业管理水平;严格监管,加强环保执法。%This paper conducts an analysis on the status of emission reduction in printing - dyeing industry, and identifies the perceived barriers for emission reduction in terms of the industrial layout, technical process and equipment, enterprise management and wastewater treatment. The strategies are put forward for the emission reduction in the printing - dyeing industry in Shaoxing City during the 12th Five - Year Period. They are accelerating the industrial agglomeration, optimizing the industrial layout, enhancing the environmental admission threshold, strengthening pollution source control, improving the technical progress of enterprises, promoting industrial upgrading, improving the relative standards and pollution control, implementing clean production, increasing enterprise management level, strengthening environmental supervision and law enforcement.

  14. Levels of Adherence to Coartem© In the Routine Treatment of Uncomplicated Malaria in Children Aged Below Five Years, in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Jared Otieno Ogolla; Samuel Omulando Ayaya; Christina Agatha Otieno

    2013-01-01

    Background This study sought to determine the level of adherence to Coartem© in the routine treatment of uncomplicated malaria among children under the age of five years in Nyando district, Kenya. Methods: Seventy-three children below the age of five years with microscopically confirmed uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria and prescribed Coartem® during the normal outpatient department hours were included into the study on 27th of April to 15th of May 2009. Adherence was assessed throu...

  15. A five-year analysis of the incidence of glomerulonephritis at Cairo University Hospital-Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salwa Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Our study aimed to obtain a comprehensive review of the incidence of biopsy-proven glomerulonephritis (GN at the Cairo University Hospitals, Egypt, over the last five years. We analyzed the clinical and pathological data of all renal biopsy samples that were performed during the period from July 2003 to July 2008. Renal biopsy samples of 924 patients were referred for pathological assessment during the period of the study [437 male and 487 female patients; their mean age was 26.5 ± 14.6 years (range: 2.5-71 years]. Focal segmental glomerulo-nephritis was the most frequent cause of primary GN (21.21%, followed by mesangial proliferative GN (18.93%, diffuse proliferative GN (13.96%, focal proliferative GN (12.77% and membranous GN (10.93%. The results could be explained by the high incidence of lupus nephritis among the study subjects as well as the relatively young age of the study group.

  16. The incidence of mobility restrictions among elderly people in two Nordic localities. A five-year follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakari-Rantala, Ritva; Avlund, Kirsten; Frändin, Kerstin;

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of limitations in self-reported mobility as well as the decline in measured walking speed and stair-mounting ability over five years among men and women aged 75 at baseline in two Nordic localities. Another purpose was to analyze the relation......The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of limitations in self-reported mobility as well as the decline in measured walking speed and stair-mounting ability over five years among men and women aged 75 at baseline in two Nordic localities. Another purpose was to analyze...... in self-reported mobility as well. However, the relationship between different methods of measurement was not straightforward. This indicates that multiple approaches are needed to obtain thorough knowledge about mobility and its decline among elderly people....

  17. Exclusive breastfeeding of Swedish children and its possible influence on the development of obesity: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludvigsson Jonas F

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity are increasing among children all over the world. Socio-economic factors may influence the development of overweight and obesity in childhood, and it has been proposed that breastfeeding may protect against obesity. The aim of our study was to examine the relationship between exclusive breastfeeding and obesity when potential confounders, such as socioeconomic factors, are considered. Methods The data analyzed was from ABIS (All Babies in Southeast Sweden, a prospective cohort study. All parents with children born between October 1, 1997 and October 1, 1999 in Southeast Sweden (n = 21,700 were asked to participate. Parents were asked to answer periodic questionnaires from the time of the child's birth (n = 16,058 until he/she was five years of age (n = 7,356. Cutoffs for overweight and obesity were defined according to Cole et al, age and gender adjusted. Short-term exclusive breastfeeding was defined as Results At five years of age, 12.9% of the children in the study wereoverweight and 4.3% were obese. At the age of three months, 78.4% of the children were being breastfed exclusively. The median exclusive breastfeeding duration was four months. High maternal BMI > 30 (AOR = 1.07; CI = 1.05–1.09; P Conclusion We cannot exclude the possibility that exclusive breastfeeding influences weight development, but it does not seem to protect against obesity at five years of age.

  18. The BEST study - a prospective study to compare business class ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... a prospective study to compare business class versus economy class air travel as a cause of thrombosis. ... Patients/methods. ... Logistical regression analysis was used to determine the risk factors related to abnormally high D-dimer levels.

  19. Five-Year Cervical (Pre)Cancer Risk of Women Screened by HPV and Cytology Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uijterwaal, Margot H; Polman, Nicole J; Van Kemenade, Folkert J; Van Den Haselkamp, Sander; Witte, Birgit I; Rijkaart, Dorien; Berkhof, Johannes; Snijders, Peter J F; Meijer, Chris J L M

    2015-06-01

    Primary human papillomavirus (HPV)-based cervical screening will be introduced in the Netherlands in 2016. We assessed the 5-year cervical (pre)cancer risk of women with different combinations of HPV and cytology test results. Special attention was paid to risks for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 and 2 or more (CIN3+/2+) of HPV-positive women with a negative triage test, because this determines the safety of a 5-year screening interval for HPV-positive, triage test-negative women. In addition, age-related effects were studied. A total of 25,553 women were screened by HPV testing and cytology in a screening setting. Women were managed on the presence of HPV and/or abnormal cytology. Five-year cumulative incidences for CIN3+/2+ were calculated. Five-year CIN3+(2+) risk was 10.0% (17.7%) among HPV-positive women. When stratified by cytology, the CIN3+(CIN2+) risk was 7.9% (12.9%) for women with normal cytology and 22.2% (45.3%) for women with equivocal or mildly abnormal (i.e., BMD) cytology. For HPV-negative women, the 5-year CIN3+(2+) risk was 0.09% (0.21%). Additional triage of HPV-positive women with normal cytology by repeat cytology at 12 months showed a 5-year CIN3+(2+) risk of 4.1% (7.0%). HPV-non 16/18-positive women with normal cytology at baseline had comparable risks of 3.5% (7.9%). HPV-non 16/18-positive women with normal baseline cytology and normal repeat cytology had a 5-year CIN3+ risk of 0.42%. No age-related effects were detected. In conclusion, HPV-positive women with normal cytology and a negative triage test, either repeat cytology after 12 months or baseline HPV 16/18 genotyping, develop a non-negligible CIN3+ risk over 5 years. Therefore, extension of the screening interval over 5 years only seems possible for HPV screen-negative women. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  20. [Email in a dedicated headache clinic: experience gained over a five-year period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraza, M Isabel; Herrero-Velázquez, Sonia; López-Mesonero, Luis; Ruiz-Piñero, Marina; Posadas, Javier; Guerrero-Peral, Ángel L

    2015-06-16

    The use of email can facilitate communication between the different levels of an organisation. Our primary care physicians have had an email service in the dedicated headache clinic (DHC) since November 2009, and our aim is therefore to analyse the use of email over that five-year period. Data concerning the emails sent up until October 2014 were collected prospectively. The questions were classified as need for referral to the DHC (group 1), progress made by the cases seen in the DHC (group 2), training in headaches (group 3) or the treatment of the headaches suffered by primary care physicians themselves as patients (group 4). A total of 274 email messages were analysed. Monthly consultations have increased (from 1.5 per month during the first year to 7.5 per month during the fifth). Findings showed that 10.2% of the email messages came from rural health centres and 89.8% were sent from urban health centres. Replies were sent within 2 ± 2.8 days (range: 0-24 days). Altogether 130 consultations were classified as belonging to group 1 (47.4%), in which referral through the normal channel was recommended in 60 cases (46.2%), via the preferential channel in 47 (36.2%) and non-referral was suggested in 23 cases (17.6%). Group 2 included 125 emails (45.7%) and in 80 cases there was no need to make a new appointment or to bring forward the existing one (64%). Thirteen visits (4.7%) were classified into group 3 and six (2.2%) in group 4. Our primary care physicians are using the email of the DHC on an increasingly more frequent basis. Its use makes it possible to detect patients whose appointment -whether the first or a follow-up- needs to be brought forward, as well as allowing issues to be solved without the need for referral. It is effective for the treatment of physicians who themselves have headaches and as a tool for continuing education.

  1. Kratom abuse in Ramathibodi Poison Center, Thailand: a five-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakulsrichai, Satariya; Tongpo, Achara; Sriapha, Charuwan; Wongvisawakorn, Sunun; Rittilert, Panee; Kaojarern, Sming; Wananukul, Winai

    2013-01-01

    Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth), a native tree in Southeast Asia, is misused as an abuse drug and becomes legally widespread to several countries. Currently, it is available through the online market or by some shops. The clinical manifestations of Kratom's effects are not well-defined and the clinical studies are limited. This study was designed to identify the characteristics of Kratom poisoning and withdrawal cases from Kratom exposure cases in Ramathibodi Poison Center (RPC), Thailand, during a five-year period. We used a retrospective review of Kratom exposure cases from the RPC toxic surveillance system. A total of 52 Kratom exposure cases were identified. The trend of case consultations has been increasing. There were Kratom poisoning cases (76.9%) and withdrawal cases (23.1%). Common presenting symptoms in the poisoning group were palpitation (22.5%), followed by seizure (17.5%). For the withdrawal group, the common presenting symptoms were myalgia (33.3%), insomnia (16.67%), fatigue (16.67%), and chest discomfort (16.67%). There was a baby with withdrawal symptoms who was delivered from a chronic Kratom-abusing mother, suggesting possible exposure via the transplacental route. There were no deaths in either group. Kratom abuse can cause either poisoning or withdrawal. Most cases in both groups had good prognostic outcome.

  2. Five years post whiplash injury: Symptoms and psychological factors in recovered versus non-recovered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stålnacke Britt-Marie

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have focused on the differences between persons who are recovered after whiplash injury and those who suffer from persistent disability. The primary aim of this study was therefore to examine differences in symptoms, psychological factors and life satisfaction between subjects classified as recovered and those with persistent disability five years after whiplash injury based on the Neck Disability Index (NDI. Methods A set of questionnaires was answered by 158 persons (75 men, 83 women to assess disability (NDI, pain intensity (VAS, whiplash-related symptoms (Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire, RPQ, post-traumatic stress (Impact of Event Scale, IES, depression (Beck's depression inventory, BDI and life satisfaction (LiSat-11. The participants were divided into three groups based on the results of the NDI: recovered (34.8%, mild disability (37.3% and moderate/severe disability (27.3%. Results The moderate/severe group reported significantly higher VAS, BDI and IES scores and lower level of physical health and psychological health compared to the mild and the recovered groups. Less significant differences were reported between the mild and the recovered groups. Conclusions The group with the highest disability score reported most health problems with pain, symptoms, depression, post-traumatic stress and decreased life satisfaction. These findings indicate that classifying these subjects into subgroups based on disability levels makes it possible to optimize the management and treatment after whiplash injury.

  3. Educational Intervention on Risk Factors Associated with Malocclusions in Five-year-old Children

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    Amarelys Morera Pérez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: educational programs aimed at increasing knowledge on oral health and promoting proper oral hygiene habits allow controlling or limiting the development of dento-maxillofacial defects that lead to many aesthetic, functional and mental disorders.Objective: to assess the effectiveness of an educational intervention on risk factors associated with malocclusions in children aged five years. Methods: a quasi-experimental, before and after study was conducted in 67 children living in the Health Area number 2 in Cienfuegos municipality. Risk factors associated with malocclusions were identified, as well as the knowledge needs of the children and their parents. An educational program on risk factors associated with malocclusions was designed and implemented. Surveys were applied before and after the intervention. The variables studied included risk factors associated with malocclusions and the level of knowledge about them. Results: children and parents increased their knowledge about risk factors associated with malocclusions. Ninety four point three percent of the most common oral habits (tongue thrusting, finger-sucking and bottle feeding were eliminated. Conclusion: the intervention was effective since it raised the level of knowledge of the children and their parents and led to the elimination of a considerable number of modifiable risk factors associated with malocclusions.

  4. Changes in Pathological Complete Response Rates after Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Breast Carcinoma over Five Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel C. McFarland

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Historically, neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT was extrapolated from adjuvant regimens. Dual HER2 blockade and the introduction of carboplatin for triple negative breast cancers (TNBC emerged by December 2013 and have improved pathological complete response (pCR rates. The objective of this study was to assess the pCR rates before and after the introduction of these new neoadjuvant regimens. Materials and Methods. Stage I–III breast cancer patients who received NACT were analyzed for rates of pCR by clinical characteristics (i.e., age, BMI, axillary lymphadenopathy, and histologic subtype, by time period (1 = 3/2010–11/2013, 2 = 12/2013–3/2015, and by type of chemotherapy (e.g., anthracycline/taxane only, carboplatin-containing, and HER2 blockade. Results. 113 patients received NACT. Overall pCR rate was 26.5 percent (n=30. The pCR rate increased from 14% to 43.1% (p=0.001 from time period 1 to time period 2 and were associated with HER2 positivity (p=0.003, receiving treatment during time period 2 (p=0.001 and using an anthracycline/taxane plus additional agent type of regimen (p=0.004. Conclusions. Our study revealed a significant difference in rates of pCR over five years. Window of opportunity trials and other trials that utilize pCR analysis should be encouraged.

  5. Changes in Pathological Complete Response Rates after Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Breast Carcinoma over Five Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Daniel C; Naikan, Jessica; Rozenblit, Mariya; Mandeli, John; Bleiweiss, Ira; Tiersten, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Historically, neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) was extrapolated from adjuvant regimens. Dual HER2 blockade and the introduction of carboplatin for triple negative breast cancers (TNBC) emerged by December 2013 and have improved pathological complete response (pCR) rates. The objective of this study was to assess the pCR rates before and after the introduction of these new neoadjuvant regimens. Materials and Methods. Stage I-III breast cancer patients who received NACT were analyzed for rates of pCR by clinical characteristics (i.e., age, BMI, axillary lymphadenopathy, and histologic subtype), by time period (1 = 3/2010-11/2013, 2 = 12/2013-3/2015), and by type of chemotherapy (e.g., anthracycline/taxane only, carboplatin-containing, and HER2 blockade). Results. 113 patients received NACT. Overall pCR rate was 26.5 percent (n = 30). The pCR rate increased from 14% to 43.1% (p = 0.001) from time period 1 to time period 2 and were associated with HER2 positivity (p = 0.003), receiving treatment during time period 2 (p = 0.001) and using an anthracycline/taxane plus additional agent type of regimen (p = 0.004). Conclusions. Our study revealed a significant difference in rates of pCR over five years. Window of opportunity trials and other trials that utilize pCR analysis should be encouraged.

  6. DESyne novolimus-eluting coronary stent is superior to Endeavor zotarolimus-eluting coronary stent at five-year follow-up: final results of the multicentre EXCELLA II randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Javaid; Verheye, Stefan; Abizaid, Alexandre; Ormiston, John; de Vries, Ton; Morrison, Lynn; Toyloy, Sara; Fitzgerald, Peter; Windecker, Stephan; Serruys, Patrick W

    2016-12-10

    Newer-generation drug-eluting stents (DES) have been shown to be superior to first-generation DES. Current-generation DES have zotarolimus, everolimus or biolimus as antiproliferative drugs. Novolimus, a metabolite of sirolimus, has been specifically developed to provide efficacy similar to currently available agents at a lower dose and thus requires a lower polymer load. We report the final five-year outcomes of the EXCELLA II trial comparing a zotarolimus-eluting stent (ZES) with a novolimus-eluting stent (NES). EXCELLA II is a prospective, multicentre, single-blind, non-inferiority clinical trial. Patients (n=210) with a maximum of two de novo lesions in two different epicardial vessels were randomised (2:1) to treatment with either NES (n=139) or ZES (n=71). At five-year follow-up, patients in the NES group had a significantly lower incidence of the patient-oriented (HR 0.53, 95% CI: 0.32-0.87, p=0.013) and device-oriented (HR 0.38, 95% CI: 0.17-0.83, p=0.011) composite endpoints. There was no difference in cardiac death and definite/probable stent thrombosis between the two groups; however, there was a trend towards reduction in myocardial infarction and repeat revascularisation in the NES group at five-year follow-up. At five-year follow-up, the incidence of device- and patient-oriented events was significantly lower in the NES group. Further studies, adequately powered for clinical outcomes, are warranted.

  7. Early colonization with a group of Lactobacilli decreases the risk for allergy at five years of age despite allergic heredity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A Johansson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Microbial deprivation early in life can potentially influence immune mediated disease development such as allergy. The aims of this study were to investigate the influence of parental allergy on the infant gut colonization and associations between infant gut microbiota and allergic disease at five years of age. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Fecal samples were collected from 58 infants, with allergic or non-allergic parents respectively, at one and two weeks as well as at one, two and twelve months of life. DNA was extracted from the fecal samples and Real time PCR, using species-specific primers, was used for detection of Bifidobacterium (B. adolescentis, B. breve, B. bifidum, Clostridium (C. difficile, a group of Lactobacilli (Lactobacillus (L. casei, L. paracasei and L. rhamnosus as well as Staphylococcus (S. aureus. Infants with non-allergic parents were more frequently colonized by Lactobacilli compared to infants with allergic parents (p = 0.014. However, non-allergic five-year olds acquired Lactobacilli more frequently during their first weeks of life, than their allergic counterparts, irrespectively of parental allergy (p = 0.009, p = 0.028. Further the non-allergic children were colonized with Lactobacilli on more occasions during the first two months of life (p = 0.038. Also, significantly more non-allergic children were colonized with B. bifidum at one week of age than the children allergic at five years (p = 0.048. CONCLUSION: In this study we show that heredity for allergy has an impact on the gut microbiota in infants but also that early Lactobacilli (L. casei, L. paracasei, L. rhamnosus colonization seems to decrease the risk for allergy at five years of age despite allergic heredity.

  8. Comparison of Growth Parameters in Five Year-Old Children with and Without History of Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Dehghanpoor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays Low birth weight(LBW or birth weight<2500g is one of the most serious problems among children around the world. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the growth parameters(weight, height, head circumference and BMI of LBW children at the age of five years with normal birth weight (NBW: birth weight: 2500- 4000 g children. Methods: In a cross-sectional analytic study, growth parameters of five year-old children referred to Azadshahr health care center in Yazd, Iran, from December 2008 to June 2009 were evaluated. NBW and LBW children were selected as control and case groups, respectively. Results: Means of all growth parameters were significantly lower in LBW group. Frequency of severe failure to thrive and short stature was significantly higher in LBW group. Frequency of underweight was higher in LBW group and frequency of obesity was higher in NBW one. Frequency of underweight was higher in LBW girls. Conclusion: Considering that growth in LBW children is slower than NBW children in the first five years of life, it is necessary to emphasize the importance of growth assessment of LBW children for early and timely diagnosis, work-up and management of growth retardation and prevention of subsequent problems.

  9. Three- and Five-Year Follow-Up of a Combined Inpatient-Outpatient Treatment of Obese Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibylle Adam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. “The combined DAK therapy for obesity in children and adolescents” combines a 6-week inpatient with a 10.5-month outpatient treatment. The aim of the study is to evaluate whether the therapeutic achievements are maintained two and four years after intervention. Method. All subjects who had participated in the 12-month program in 2004/2005 were included in the follow-up study. Body weight, height, and physical fitness were assessed through direct measurements, behaviour, and quality of life by self-report questionnaires. Statistical analysis is based on an intention-to-treat analysis. Results. The response rate after three years was 63.4% and 42.2% after five years. Within three years, participants reduced their BMI-SDS significantly by 0.20 (SD 0.49 and by 0.15 (SD 0.51 within five years. Significant positive changes could be observed with respect to the participants eating behaviour. Similarly, the food intake, particularly the consumption of calorie-reduced beverages, increased significantly while that of nonrecommended foods decreased. Improvement was also seen in the subjective quality of life as well as several aspects of self-perception. Conclusion. Compared to baseline data, significant reduction of BMI-SDS and positive changes of health-related behaviours could be observed even three and five years after the start of the initial program.

  10. Three- and five-year follow-up of a combined inpatient-outpatient treatment of obese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Sibylle; Westenhoefer, Joachim; Rudolphi, Birgit; Kraaibeek, Hanna-Kathrin

    2013-01-01

    Aim. "The combined DAK therapy for obesity in children and adolescents" combines a 6-week inpatient with a 10.5-month outpatient treatment. The aim of the study is to evaluate whether the therapeutic achievements are maintained two and four years after intervention. Method. All subjects who had participated in the 12-month program in 2004/2005 were included in the follow-up study. Body weight, height, and physical fitness were assessed through direct measurements, behaviour, and quality of life by self-report questionnaires. Statistical analysis is based on an intention-to-treat analysis. Results. The response rate after three years was 63.4% and 42.2% after five years. Within three years, participants reduced their BMI-SDS significantly by 0.20 (SD 0.49) and by 0.15 (SD 0.51) within five years. Significant positive changes could be observed with respect to the participants eating behaviour. Similarly, the food intake, particularly the consumption of calorie-reduced beverages, increased significantly while that of nonrecommended foods decreased. Improvement was also seen in the subjective quality of life as well as several aspects of self-perception. Conclusion. Compared to baseline data, significant reduction of BMI-SDS and positive changes of health-related behaviours could be observed even three and five years after the start of the initial program.

  11. Validity of self-reported criminal justice system involvement in substance abusing women at five-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesse Morten

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have compared self-reported criminal behaviour with high-quality databases of criminal offences and judicial sanctions. Self-reported problems from drug abusers are generally believed to be valid. We assessed the validity of self-reported theft, drug offences and prison sentences from a five-year follow-up of female substance abusers who were originally treated in a compulsory care unit in Lund, run by the Swedish Board of Institutional Care. Methods Data from a total of 106 of a consecutive sample of 132 women inter-viewed in a five-year follow-up. All were thoroughly assessed for somatic complaints, psychiatric and psychological problems, background factors with standardized instruments. Data over the five years were linked to official records of judicial sanctions, retrieved from The National Council for Crime Prevention, Stockholm, Sweden. Register data have a full cover for the whole cohort. The current data base contain full data back to 1975 up to 2004. Results Agreement was assessed for each year, as well as for the total period. Statistical control was performed for other types of crimes and prison. Although statistically significant, agreement was modest, and in contrast to previous studies, patients under-reported violence charges. Conclusion The findings suggest that self-reports of criminal behaviour from women can be used with some caution, and that the validity of self-report may vary between types of criminal justice system involvement.

  12. The Control Study of the Incidence of Fasting Hyperglycemia between Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Hepatitis B Patients in Recent Five Years%肝癌及乙肝患者近5年空腹高血糖发病状况对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪正平; 陆玲玲; 袁佳平; 薛学峰; 尹燕慈; 黄飞

    2014-01-01

    Objective :To study the incidence of fasting hyperglycemia between hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)and hepatitis B patients in recent five years .Methods :468 male patients with HCC were selected for our study (group 1 ,rate of DM precedes HCC patients was 25 .9% ) .We divided 1 046 HBV patients into the chronic hepatitis B/cirrhosis (group 2) ,the fatty liver (group 3) and the B ultrasound image hepatic“normal”(group 4) as control .HBV markers , anti-HCV ,FBG ,BMI and blood pressure were detected .Results:In group 1:rate of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and diabetes mellitus (DM ) were 17 .2% and 17% respectively (P>0 .05) in HBsAg-positive patients ;those were 15 .4%and 17 .9% (P>0 .05) in HBsAg-negative;there were no correlation between DM and HBV infection (r= -0 .007) . In the four groups :The incidence of IFG were similar in each group (P>0 .05);the rate of DM in four groups were 17.3% ,16 .7% ,26 .2% and 9 .1% respectively .There were no difference between Group 1 and 2 (P>0 .05) ,yet sta-tistical differences between 1 and 3/4(P=0 .008 ,P=0 .001) .BMI in group 1 ,2 ,4 was lower than group 3 .The blood pressure in group 1 and group 2 were significantly lower than that in group 3 and the group 4 (P0 .05) .The risk age of DM is 60~69 years old in group 1 (26.4% ) ,group 3 (35 .1% ) ,group 4 (12 .2% ) ,but 50~59 years old in group 2 (22 .5% ) .Conclusion:There are no correlation in DM and HBV in HCC patients ,but in CHB and LC .Hepatitis B associated with fatty liver is higher risk of DM ,overweight or obese is the main factors .In patients with HCC ,CHB and LC ,severity of Liver disease may accel-erate the process from IFG to DM .%目的:以乙肝患者为对照,对近5年来肝细胞肝癌(HCC )空腹高血糖发病状况作对照研究。方法:HCC的男性患者468例(①HCC组,其DM先于 HCC确诊者25.9%),对照人群1046例分为慢乙肝/肝硬化(②CHB/LC)组、③脂肪肝组和B超提示肝“正常”图像组(④肝

  13. Five-year prognosis in an incident cohort of people presenting with acute myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin R Simpson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Following an AMI, it is important for patients and their physicians to appreciate the subsequent risk of death, and the potential benefits of invasive cardiac procedures and secondary preventive therapy. Studies, to-date, have focused largely on high-risk populations. We wished to determine the risk of death in a population-derived cohort of 2,887 patients after a first acute myocardial infarction (AMI. METHODS: Logistic regression and survival analysis were conducted to investigate the effect of different baseline characteristics, pharmacological therapies and revascularization procedures on coronary heart disease (CHD and all-cause mortality outcomes. RESULTS: Within five years 44.4% of patients died (27.1% short-term [30 kg/m2; AHR = 1.39, 95%CI 1.01-1.90 increased the risk of longer-term mortality independent of other risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: It is encouraging that the coronary procedure PTCA and pharmacological secondary prevention therapies were found to be strongly associated with an important reduced risk of subsequent death, although not all patients received these interventions. Smoking, being obese and having cardiovascular related disease at baseline were also associated with an increased likelihood of longer-term mortality, independent of other baseline characteristics. Thus, the provision of smoking cessation, advice on diet (for obese patients and optimal treatment is likely to be crucial for reducing mortality in all patients after AMI.

  14. Longitudinal Impact of the Project PATHS on Adolescent Risk Behavior: What Happened after Five Years?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. L. Shek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the longitudinal impact of the Project PATHS, a large-scale curriculum-based positive youth development program in Hong Kong, on the development of adolescents’ risk behavior over a period of five years. Using a longitudinal randomized controlled design, eight waves of data were collected from 19 experimental schools in which students participated in the Project PATHS (=2,850 at Wave 8 and 24 control schools without joining the Project PATHS (=3,640 at Wave 8. At each wave, students responded to measures assessing their current risk behaviors, including delinquency, use of different types of drug, and their intentions of participating in risk behaviors in the future. Results demonstrated that adolescents receiving the program exhibited significantly slower increases in delinquent behaviors and substance use as compared to the control participants. During two years after the completion of the program, differences in youth risk behaviors in the two groups still existed. These results suggest that the Project PATHS has long-term effect in preventing adolescent problem behavior through promoting positive youth development.

  15. [Factors associated with malnutrition in children aged under five years in Lubumbashi (DRC)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukatay, Abdon W M; Kalenga, Prosper M K; Dramaix, Michèle; Hennart, Philippe; Schirvel, Carole; Kabamba, Lydia M; Kabyla, Benjamin I; Donnen, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Nutritional status of children is a global indicator of children's well-being and, indirectly, of the community's well-being. The first objective of this work is to assess the nutritional status of children under five years-old living in a suburb of the city of Lubumbashi, DR Congo, at the end of the 1998-2003 armed conflict. The second objective aims to identify some predictors of malnutrition. A multivariate logistic regression was applied to the results of a cross-sectional survey of 1963 children from selected households. In addition to the anthropometric variables, living conditions were also used. We observed 33.5% stunted growth and 3.8% emaciation. After logistic regression, a low maternal educational level (less than 7 years), the absence of a drinking water tap available in the house or yard, male gender, and age of children ( > 11 months) were all significantly associated with increased risk of stunted growth. Moreover, decreased appetite, diarrhea and age of children ( < 12 months) were significant predictors of emaciation. Compared to the classification of the World Health Organization, our results indicate that the prevalence of stunting is high and the prevalence of emaciation is low. Interventions against malnutrition should consider the various predictors discussed in this study in order to reduce mortality and morbidity in children and contribute to their well-being.

  16. Five-year evaluation of premarital screening program for hemoglobinopathies in the province of Mersin, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosun, Fatma; Bilgin, Adnan; Kızılok, Atakan; Arpacı, Abdullah; Yüreğir, Güneş T

    2006-06-05

    The prevalences of hemoglobin S (HbS) and β-thalassemia (β-thal) are high in Mersin, Turkey. In this study, the results of a five-year premarital screening program in Mersin province are reported. A total of 79,000 persons including 31,498 couples were screened in this program. Hematological analyses and electrophoresis were done to identify carriers. The results were given confidentially and at-risk couples were counselled on reproductive options and prenatal diagnosis. The carrier rates of hemoglobins (Hb) (HbS, HbD, HbE) and of β-thal were 1.21%, 0.17%, 0.04% and 2.04%, respectively. One hundred and thirty-four couples were at-risk, of whom 67.2% had health insurance. Twenty-seven couples did not become pregnant, six were divorced and 11 could not be reached. Of the 135 pregnancies, 80 had prenatal diagnosis. Five stillbirths occurred, and 18 homozygous babies were born to couples that did not seek prenatal diagnosis. Two families with prenatal diagnosis had affected babies: one was a late referral and the other due to religious reasons. For a successful screening program, emphasis must be on extensive and intensive informative programs for the public as a whole. Prenatal diagnosis should be offered free of charge as a basic public service. For a healthy population, knowledge and a shared responsibility between the public and the government are necessary.

  17. Evaluation of a five-year Bloomberg Global Road Safety Program in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S; Hoe, C; Özkan, T; Lajunen, T J; Vursavas, F; Sener, S; Hyder, A A

    2017-03-01

    Turkey was included in the Bloomberg Philanthropies funded Global Road Safety Program (2010-14) with Ankara and Afyonkarahisar (Afyon) selected for interventions to manage speed and encourage seat-belt use. The objectives of this study are to present the monitoring and evaluation findings of seat-belt use and speed in Afyon and Ankara over the five years and to assess overall impact of the program on road traffic injury, and death rates in Turkey. Quasi-experimental before after without comparison. In collaboration with the Middle East Technical University, roadside observations and interviews were coupled with secondary data to monitor changes in risk factors and outcomes at the two intervention sites. The percentage of seat-belt use among drivers and front-seat passengers in Afyon and Ankara increased significantly between 2010 and 2014 with increased self-reported use and preceded by an increase in tickets (fines) for not using seat belts. There were uneven improvements in speed reduction. In Afyon, the average speed increased significantly from 46.3 km/h in 2012 to about 52.7 km/h in 2014 on roads where the speed limits were 50 km/h. In Ankara, the average speed remained less than 55 km/h during the program period (range: 50-54 km/h; P evaluation program, with suitable controls. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. An overview of Aqua MODIS after five-year on-orbit operation and calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, W.; Xiong, X.; Wenny, B.; Xie, X.; Wu, A.; Che, N.; Sun, J.; Salomonson, V.

    2007-10-01

    Launched in May 2002, the Aqua MODIS has successfully operated on-orbit for more than five years and continuously produced many high quality data products that have significantly contributed to studies of the Earth's climate and environmental changes. The MODIS collects data in 36 spectral bands ranging from the visible (VIS) to the long-wave infrared (LWIR) spectral region and at three (nadir) spatial resolutions: 250m (2 bands), 500m (5 bands), and 1km (29 bands). Bands 1-19 and 26 are the reflective solar bands (RSB) with wavelengths from 0.41 to 2.2μm and bands 20-25 and 27-36 are the thermal emissive bands (TEB) with wavelengths from 3.7 to 14.4μm. The MODIS on-board calibrators, noticeably improved over those of its heritage sensors, include a solar diffuser (SD), a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM), a blackbody (BB), a spectro-radiometric calibration assembly (SRCA), and a space view (SV) port. This paper provides an overview of Aqua MODIS on-orbit operation and calibration activities with emphasis on the performance of its on-board calibrators. Results discussed in this paper include TEB and RSB detector noise characterization, short-term stability and long-term response change. The sensor's overall spectral (RSB) and spatial (RSB and TEB) parameters are also presented in this paper.

  19. Imitation of suprasegmental patterns by five-year-old children with adequate and inadequate articulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadden, B B; Asp, C W; Tonkovich, J D; Mason, D

    1980-08-01

    Ten five-year-old children with adequate articulation skills and 10 five-year-old children with inadequate articulation skills were administered the Templin-Darley Test of Articulation and the Test of Rhythm and Intonation Patterns (TRIP). Differences between the adequate and inadequate groups in terms of the mean percentage correct and the correlations between TRIP and Templin-Darley Test scores within groups were statistically nonsignificant. Item analysis revealed no differences between groups in the pattern of performance on the three subtests of the TRIP or on specific test items. The possible effects of therapy enrollment on suprasegmental test performance are discussed, and future research needs are suggested.

  20. A Summary of the 11th Five-Year Development Program of SG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yunzhou; Zhang Weidong; Jin Wen

    2006-01-01

    @@ During the 10th Five Year period, achieved great development, yet certain problems needed to be solved. From macroscopic point of view, being an infrastructure in national economy, power grid in China has been relatively weak. Looking into power industry inside, problems exist. For instance, unified planning functions are weakened, optimal disposition in larger scopes is unreachable, power grid technology and equipment are in urgent need of upgrad and self-development capability of power grid is inadequate. To have these problems well solved becomes critical tasks in the 11th Five Year period.