Gebregziabher, Mulugeta; Egede, Leonard; Gilbert, Gregory E; Hunt, Kelly; Nietert, Paul J; Mauldin, Patrick
2012-10-24
With the current focus on personalized medicine, patient/subject level inference is often of key interest in translational research. As a result, random effects models (REM) are becoming popular for patient level inference. However, for very large data sets that are characterized by large sample size, it can be difficult to fit REM using commonly available statistical software such as SAS since they require inordinate amounts of computer time and memory allocations beyond what are available preventing model convergence. For example, in a retrospective cohort study of over 800,000 Veterans with type 2 diabetes with longitudinal data over 5 years, fitting REM via generalized linear mixed modeling using currently available standard procedures in SAS (e.g. PROC GLIMMIX) was very difficult and same problems exist in Stata's gllamm or R's lme packages. Thus, this study proposes and assesses the performance of a meta regression approach and makes comparison with methods based on sampling of the full data. We use both simulated and real data from a national cohort of Veterans with type 2 diabetes (n=890,394) which was created by linking multiple patient and administrative files resulting in a cohort with longitudinal data collected over 5 years. The outcome of interest was mean annual HbA1c measured over a 5 years period. Using this outcome, we compared parameter estimates from the proposed random effects meta regression (REMR) with estimates based on simple random sampling and VISN (Veterans Integrated Service Networks) based stratified sampling of the full data. Our results indicate that REMR provides parameter estimates that are less likely to be biased with tighter confidence intervals when the VISN level estimates are homogenous. When the interest is to fit REM in repeated measures data with very large sample size, REMR can be used as a good alternative. It leads to reasonable inference for both Gaussian and non-Gaussian responses if parameter estimates are
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gebregziabher Mulugeta
2012-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background With the current focus on personalized medicine, patient/subject level inference is often of key interest in translational research. As a result, random effects models (REM are becoming popular for patient level inference. However, for very large data sets that are characterized by large sample size, it can be difficult to fit REM using commonly available statistical software such as SAS since they require inordinate amounts of computer time and memory allocations beyond what are available preventing model convergence. For example, in a retrospective cohort study of over 800,000 Veterans with type 2 diabetes with longitudinal data over 5 years, fitting REM via generalized linear mixed modeling using currently available standard procedures in SAS (e.g. PROC GLIMMIX was very difficult and same problems exist in Stata’s gllamm or R’s lme packages. Thus, this study proposes and assesses the performance of a meta regression approach and makes comparison with methods based on sampling of the full data. Data We use both simulated and real data from a national cohort of Veterans with type 2 diabetes (n=890,394 which was created by linking multiple patient and administrative files resulting in a cohort with longitudinal data collected over 5 years. Methods and results The outcome of interest was mean annual HbA1c measured over a 5 years period. Using this outcome, we compared parameter estimates from the proposed random effects meta regression (REMR with estimates based on simple random sampling and VISN (Veterans Integrated Service Networks based stratified sampling of the full data. Our results indicate that REMR provides parameter estimates that are less likely to be biased with tighter confidence intervals when the VISN level estimates are homogenous. Conclusion When the interest is to fit REM in repeated measures data with very large sample size, REMR can be used as a good alternative. It leads to reasonable inference for
Fitting C² continuous parametric surfaces to frontiers delimiting physiologic structures.
Bayer, Jason D; Epstein, Matthew; Beaumont, Jacques
2014-01-01
We present a technique to fit C(2) continuous parametric surfaces to scattered geometric data points forming frontiers delimiting physiologic structures in segmented images. Such mathematical representation is interesting because it facilitates a large number of operations in modeling. While the fitting of C(2) continuous parametric curves to scattered geometric data points is quite trivial, the fitting of C(2) continuous parametric surfaces is not. The difficulty comes from the fact that each scattered data point should be assigned a unique parametric coordinate, and the fit is quite sensitive to their distribution on the parametric plane. We present a new approach where a polygonal (quadrilateral or triangular) surface is extracted from the segmented image. This surface is subsequently projected onto a parametric plane in a manner to ensure a one-to-one mapping. The resulting polygonal mesh is then regularized for area and edge length. Finally, from this point, surface fitting is relatively trivial. The novelty of our approach lies in the regularization of the polygonal mesh. Process performance is assessed with the reconstruction of a geometric model of mouse heart ventricles from a computerized tomography scan. Our results show an excellent reproduction of the geometric data with surfaces that are C(2) continuous.
Parametric resonance in the early Universe—a fitting analysis
Figueroa, Daniel G.; Torrentí, Francisco
2017-02-01
Particle production via parametric resonance in the early Universe, is a non-perturbative, non-linear and out-of-equilibrium phenomenon. Although it is a well studied topic, whenever a new scenario exhibits parametric resonance, a full re-analysis is normally required. To avoid this tedious task, many works present often only a simplified linear treatment of the problem. In order to surpass this circumstance in the future, we provide a fitting analysis of parametric resonance through all its relevant stages: initial linear growth, non-linear evolution, and relaxation towards equilibrium. Using lattice simulations in an expanding grid in 3+1 dimensions, we parametrize the dynamics' outcome scanning over the relevant ingredients: role of the oscillatory field, particle coupling strength, initial conditions, and background expansion rate. We emphasize the inaccuracy of the linear calculation of the decay time of the oscillatory field, and propose a more appropriate definition of this scale based on the subsequent non-linear dynamics. We provide simple fits to the relevant time scales and particle energy fractions at each stage. Our fits can be applied to post-inflationary preheating scenarios, where the oscillatory field is the inflaton, or to spectator-field scenarios, where the oscillatory field can be e.g. a curvaton, or the Standard Model Higgs.
Parametric Resonance in the Early Universe - A Fitting Analysis
Figueroa, Daniel G.
2017-01-01
Particle production via parametric resonance in the early Universe, is a non-perturbative, non-linear and out-of-equilibrium phenomenon. Although it is a well studied topic, whenever a new scenario exhibits parametric resonance, a full re-analysis is normally required. To avoid this tedious task, many works present often only a simplified linear treatment of the problem. In order to surpass this circumstance in the future, we provide a fitting analysis of parametric resonance through all its relevant stages: initial linear growth, non-linear evolution, and relaxation towards equilibrium. Using lattice simulations in an expanding grid in $3+1$ dimensions, we parametrise the dynamics' outcome scanning over the relevant ingredients: role of the oscillatory field, particle coupling strength, initial conditions, and background expansion rate. We emphasise the inaccuracy of the linear calculation of the decay time of the oscillatory field, and propose a more appropriate definition of this scale based on the subsequ...
Efficient scheme for parametric fitting of data in arbitrary dimensions.
Pang, Ning-Ning; Tzeng, Wen-Jer; Kao, Hisen-Ching
2008-07-01
We propose an efficient scheme for parametric fitting expressed in terms of the Legendre polynomials. For continuous systems, our scheme is exact and the derived explicit expression is very helpful for further analytical studies. For discrete systems, our scheme is almost as accurate as the method of singular value decomposition. Through a few numerical examples, we show that our algorithm costs much less CPU time and memory space than the method of singular value decomposition. Thus, our algorithm is very suitable for a large amount of data fitting. In addition, the proposed scheme can also be used to extract the global structure of fluctuating systems. We then derive the exact relation between the correlation function and the detrended variance function of fluctuating systems in arbitrary dimensions and give a general scaling analysis.
Fitting C2 Continuous Parametric Surfaces to Frontiers Delimiting Physiologic Structures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jason D. Bayer
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We present a technique to fit C2 continuous parametric surfaces to scattered geometric data points forming frontiers delimiting physiologic structures in segmented images. Such mathematical representation is interesting because it facilitates a large number of operations in modeling. While the fitting of C2 continuous parametric curves to scattered geometric data points is quite trivial, the fitting of C2 continuous parametric surfaces is not. The difficulty comes from the fact that each scattered data point should be assigned a unique parametric coordinate, and the fit is quite sensitive to their distribution on the parametric plane. We present a new approach where a polygonal (quadrilateral or triangular surface is extracted from the segmented image. This surface is subsequently projected onto a parametric plane in a manner to ensure a one-to-one mapping. The resulting polygonal mesh is then regularized for area and edge length. Finally, from this point, surface fitting is relatively trivial. The novelty of our approach lies in the regularization of the polygonal mesh. Process performance is assessed with the reconstruction of a geometric model of mouse heart ventricles from a computerized tomography scan. Our results show an excellent reproduction of the geometric data with surfaces that are C2 continuous.
Fitting C 2 Continuous Parametric Surfaces to Frontiers Delimiting Physiologic Structures
Bayer, Jason D.
2014-01-01
We present a technique to fit C 2 continuous parametric surfaces to scattered geometric data points forming frontiers delimiting physiologic structures in segmented images. Such mathematical representation is interesting because it facilitates a large number of operations in modeling. While the fitting of C 2 continuous parametric curves to scattered geometric data points is quite trivial, the fitting of C 2 continuous parametric surfaces is not. The difficulty comes from the fact that each scattered data point should be assigned a unique parametric coordinate, and the fit is quite sensitive to their distribution on the parametric plane. We present a new approach where a polygonal (quadrilateral or triangular) surface is extracted from the segmented image. This surface is subsequently projected onto a parametric plane in a manner to ensure a one-to-one mapping. The resulting polygonal mesh is then regularized for area and edge length. Finally, from this point, surface fitting is relatively trivial. The novelty of our approach lies in the regularization of the polygonal mesh. Process performance is assessed with the reconstruction of a geometric model of mouse heart ventricles from a computerized tomography scan. Our results show an excellent reproduction of the geometric data with surfaces that are C 2 continuous. PMID:24782911
A Parametric Cumulative Sum Statistic for Person Fit
Armstrong, Ronald D.; Shi, Min
2009-01-01
This article develops a new cumulative sum (CUSUM) statistic to detect aberrant item response behavior. Shifts in behavior are modeled with quadratic functions and a series of likelihood ratio tests are used to detect aberrancy. The new CUSUM statistic is compared against another CUSUM approach as well as traditional person-fit statistics. A…
A Parametric Cumulative Sum Statistic for Person Fit
Armstrong, Ronald D.; Shi, Min
2009-01-01
This article develops a new cumulative sum (CUSUM) statistic to detect aberrant item response behavior. Shifts in behavior are modeled with quadratic functions and a series of likelihood ratio tests are used to detect aberrancy. The new CUSUM statistic is compared against another CUSUM approach as well as traditional person-fit statistics. A…
Methods for fitting a parametric probability distribution to most probable number data.
Williams, Michael S; Ebel, Eric D
2012-07-01
Every year hundreds of thousands, if not millions, of samples are collected and analyzed to assess microbial contamination in food and water. The concentration of pathogenic organisms at the end of the production process is low for most commodities, so a highly sensitive screening test is used to determine whether the organism of interest is present in a sample. In some applications, samples that test positive are subjected to quantitation. The most probable number (MPN) technique is a common method to quantify the level of contamination in a sample because it is able to provide estimates at low concentrations. This technique uses a series of dilution count experiments to derive estimates of the concentration of the microorganism of interest. An application for these data is food-safety risk assessment, where the MPN concentration estimates can be fitted to a parametric distribution to summarize the range of potential exposures to the contaminant. Many different methods (e.g., substitution methods, maximum likelihood and regression on order statistics) have been proposed to fit microbial contamination data to a distribution, but the development of these methods rarely considers how the MPN technique influences the choice of distribution function and fitting method. An often overlooked aspect when applying these methods is whether the data represent actual measurements of the average concentration of microorganism per milliliter or the data are real-valued estimates of the average concentration, as is the case with MPN data. In this study, we propose two methods for fitting MPN data to a probability distribution. The first method uses a maximum likelihood estimator that takes average concentration values as the data inputs. The second is a Bayesian latent variable method that uses the counts of the number of positive tubes at each dilution to estimate the parameters of the contamination distribution. The performance of the two fitting methods is compared for two
Zhu, Xiang; Zhang, Dianwen
2013-01-01
We present a fast, accurate and robust parallel Levenberg-Marquardt minimization optimizer, GPU-LMFit, which is implemented on graphics processing unit for high performance scalable parallel model fitting processing. GPU-LMFit can provide a dramatic speed-up in massive model fitting analyses to enable real-time automated pixel-wise parametric imaging microscopy. We demonstrate the performance of GPU-LMFit for the applications in superresolution localization microscopy and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy.
Xiang Zhu; Dianwen Zhang
2013-01-01
We present a fast, accurate and robust parallel Levenberg-Marquardt minimization optimizer, GPU-LMFit, which is implemented on graphics processing unit for high performance scalable parallel model fitting processing. GPU-LMFit can provide a dramatic speed-up in massive model fitting analyses to enable real-time automated pixel-wise parametric imaging microscopy. We demonstrate the performance of GPU-LMFit for the applications in superresolution localization microscopy and fluorescence lifetim...
Parametric Rough Sets with Application to Granular Association Rule Mining
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xu He
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Granular association rules reveal patterns hidden in many-to-many relationships which are common in relational databases. In recommender systems, these rules are appropriate for cold-start recommendation, where a customer or a product has just entered the system. An example of such rules might be “40% men like at least 30% kinds of alcohol; 45% customers are men and 6% products are alcohol.” Mining such rules is a challenging problem due to pattern explosion. In this paper, we build a new type of parametric rough sets on two universes and propose an efficient rule mining algorithm based on the new model. Specifically, the model is deliberately defined such that the parameter corresponds to one threshold of rules. The algorithm benefits from the lower approximation operator in the new model. Experiments on two real-world data sets show that the new algorithm is significantly faster than an existing algorithm, and the performance of recommender systems is stable.
Casellas, J; Tarrés, J; Piedrafita, J; Varona, L
2006-10-01
Given that correct assumptions on the baseline survival function are determinant for the validity of further inferences, specific tools to test the fit of a model to real data become essential in proportional hazards models. In this sense, we have proposed a parametric bootstrap to test the fit of survival models. Monte Carlo simulations are used to generate new data sets from the estimates obtained through the assumed models, and then bootstrap intervals can be established for the survival function along the time space studied. Significant fitting deficiencies are revealed when the real survival function is not included within the bootstrap interval. We tested this procedure in a survival data set of Bruna dels Pirineus beef calves, assuming 4 parametric models (exponential, Weibull, exponential time-dependent, Weibull time-dependent) and the Cox's semiparametric model. Fitting deficiencies were not observed for the Cox's model and the exponential time-dependent model, whereas the Weibull time-dependent model suffered from moderate overestimation at different ages. Thus, the exponential time-dependent model appears to be preferable because of its correct fit for survival data of beef calves and its smaller computational and time requirements. Exponential and Weibull models were completely rejected due to the continuous over- and underestimation of the survival probability reported. Results here highlighted the flexibility of parametric models with time-dependent effects, achieving a fit comparable to nonparametric models.
Fuzzy Partition Models for Fitting a Set of Partitions.
Gordon, A. D.; Vichi, M.
2001-01-01
Describes methods for fitting a fuzzy consensus partition to a set of partitions of the same set of objects. Describes and illustrates three models defining median partitions and compares these methods to an alternative approach to obtaining a consensus fuzzy partition. Discusses interesting differences in the results. (SLD)
A Parametric Model of Shoulder Articulation for Virtual Assessment of Space Suit Fit
Kim, K. Han; Young, Karen S.; Bernal, Yaritza; Boppana, Abhishektha; Vu, Linh Q.; Benson, Elizabeth A.; Jarvis, Sarah; Rajulu, Sudhakar L.
2016-01-01
Shoulder injury is one of the most severe risks that have the potential to impair crewmembers' performance and health in long duration space flight. Overall, 64% of crewmembers experience shoulder pain after extra-vehicular training in a space suit, and 14% of symptomatic crewmembers require surgical repair (Williams & Johnson, 2003). Suboptimal suit fit, in particular at the shoulder region, has been identified as one of the predominant risk factors. However, traditional suit fit assessments and laser scans represent only a single person's data, and thus may not be generalized across wide variations of body shapes and poses. The aim of this work is to develop a software tool based on a statistical analysis of a large dataset of crewmember body shapes. This tool can accurately predict the skin deformation and shape variations for any body size and shoulder pose for a target population, from which the geometry can be exported and evaluated against suit models in commercial CAD software. A preliminary software tool was developed by statistically analyzing 150 body shapes matched with body dimension ranges specified in the Human-Systems Integration Requirements of NASA ("baseline model"). Further, the baseline model was incorporated with shoulder joint articulation ("articulation model"), using additional subjects scanned in a variety of shoulder poses across a pre-specified range of motion. Scan data was cleaned and aligned using body landmarks. The skin deformation patterns were dimensionally reduced and the co-variation with shoulder angles was analyzed. A software tool is currently in development and will be presented in the final proceeding. This tool would allow suit engineers to parametrically generate body shapes in strategically targeted anthropometry dimensions and shoulder poses. This would also enable virtual fit assessments, with which the contact volume and clearance between the suit and body surface can be predictively quantified at reduced time and
An active set algorithm for tracing parametrized optima
Rakowska, J.; Haftka, R. T.; Watson, L. T.
1991-01-01
Optimization problems often depend on parameters that define constraints or objective functions. It is often necessary to know the effect of a change in a parameter on the optimum solution. An algorithm is presented here for tracking paths of optimal solutions of inequality constrained nonlinear programming problems as a function of a parameter. The proposed algorithm employs homotopy zero-curve tracing techniques to track segments where the set of active constraints is unchanged. The transition between segments is handled by considering all possible sets of active constraints and eliminating nonoptimal ones based on the signs of the Lagrange multipliers and the derivatives of the optimal solutions with respect to the parameter. A spring-mass problem is used to illustrate all possible kinds of transition events, and the algorithm is applied to a well-known ten-bar truss structural optimization problem.
Continuity of the Solution Maps for Generalized Parametric Set-Valued Ky Fan Inequality Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Z. Y. Peng
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Under new assumptions, we provide suffcient conditions for the (upper and lower semicontinuity and continuity of the solution mappings to a class of generalized parametric set-valued Ky Fan inequality problems in linear metric space. These results extend and improve some known results in the literature (e.g., Gong, 2008; Gong and Yoa, 2008; Chen and Gong, 2010; Li and Fang, 2010. Some examples are given to illustrate our results.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. E. Artemenko
2011-03-01
Full Text Available The topological and algebraic conditions for formation of ARC-prototype state equation were obtained to diagnose the possibility of application the compact modified method of curve fitting for parametric synthesis of SC-filter directly on its circuit or element’s connection matrix. The formal mathematical apparatus of forming the ARC-prototype’s compact equation of electric equilibrium on the element’s connection matrix was developed, which allows to reduce the dimension of the synthesized filter to the number of prototype’s capacitors. The relations to account nonideal parameters of operational amplifiers for the prototype’s compact equation of electric equilibrium were obtained, which improve the accuracy of parametric synthesis of switched-capacitor networks.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Herick Fernando Moralles
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Given the weaknesses of the parametric VaR (Value-at-Risk calculated by normality assumptions, this paper develops a method of parametric VaR calculation considering ten different probability distributions. Specifically, the distribution to be used for the VaR calculation of a specific asset or portfolio is indicated by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit test. Additionally, the study compares the normality assumptions applicability for the VaR calculation of both individual assets, and to a large portfolio, in the context of market stability. The experiment makes use of a sample of 15 individual assets traded in the Sao Paulo Stock Exchange and the IBOVESPA index, collected in the Economática® database. The goodness-of-fit tests and VaR calculations are performed by a program developed in MATLAB7.1®. This investigation demonstrates that the assumption of normality brings good risk estimates for large portfolios and individual assets.
A Parametric Model of Shoulder Articulation for Virtual Assessment of Space Suit Fit
Kim, K. Han; Young, Karen S.; Bernal, Yaritza; Boppana, Abhishektha; Vu, Linh Q.; Benson, Elizabeth A.; Jarvis, Sarah; Rajulu, Sudhakar L.
2016-01-01
Suboptimal suit fit is a known risk factor for crewmember shoulder injury. Suit fit assessment is however prohibitively time consuming and cannot be generalized across wide variations of body shapes and poses. In this work, we have developed a new design tool based on the statistical analysis of body shape scans. This tool is aimed at predicting the skin deformation and shape variations for any body size and shoulder pose for a target population. This new process, when incorporated with CAD software, will enable virtual suit fit assessments, predictively quantifying the contact volume, and clearance between the suit and body surface at reduced time and cost.
Identifying Attributes of CO2 Leakage Zones in Shallow Aquifers Using a Parametric Level Set Method
Sun, A. Y.; Islam, A.; Wheeler, M.
2016-12-01
Leakage through abandoned wells and geologic faults poses the greatest risk to CO2 storage permanence. For shallow aquifers, secondary CO2 plumes emanating from the leak zones may go undetected for a sustained period of time and has the greatest potential to cause large-scale and long-term environmental impacts. Identification of the attributes of leak zones, including their shape, location, and strength, is required for proper environmental risk assessment. This study applies a parametric level set (PaLS) method to characterize the leakage zone. Level set methods are appealing for tracking topological changes and recovering unknown shapes of objects. However, level set evolution using the conventional level set methods is challenging. In PaLS, the level set function is approximated using a weighted sum of basis functions and the level set evolution problem is replaced by an optimization problem. The efficacy of PaLS is demonstrated through recovering the source zone created by CO2 leakage into a carbonate aquifer. Our results show that PaLS is a robust source identification method that can recover the approximate source locations in the presence of measurement errors, model parameter uncertainty, and inaccurate initial guesses of source flux strengths. The PaLS inversion framework introduced in this work is generic and can be adapted for any reactive transport model by switching the pre- and post-processing routines.
Fitting simulated random events to experimental histograms by means of parametric models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kortner, Oliver E-mail: oliver.kortner@cern.chkortner@mppmu.mpg.de; Zupancic, Crtomir
2003-05-11
Classical chi-square quantities are appropriate tools for fitting analytical parameter-dependent models to (multidimensional) measured histograms. In contrast, this article proposes a family of special chi-squares suitable for fits with models which simulate experimental data by Monte Carlo methods, thus introducing additional randomness. We investigate the dependence of such chi-squares on the number of experimental and simulated events in each bin, and on the theoretical parameter-dependent weight linking the two kinds of events. We identify the unknown probability distributions of the weights and their inter-bin correlations as the main obstacle to a general performance analysis of the proposed chi-square quantities.
On The Robustness of z=0-1 Galaxy Size Measurements Through Model and Non-Parametric Fits
Mosleh, Moein; Franx, Marijn
2013-01-01
We present the size-stellar mass relations of nearby (z=0.01-0.02) SDSS galaxies, for samples selected by color, morphology, Sersic index n, and specific star formation rate. Several commonly-employed size measurement techniques are used, including single Sersic fits, two-component Sersic models and a non-parametric method. Through simple simulations we show that the non-parametric and two-component Sersic methods provide the most robust effective radius measurements, while those based on single Sersic profiles are often overestimates, especially for massive red/early-type galaxies. Using our robust sizes, we show that for all sub-samples, the mass-size relations are shallow at low stellar masses and steepen above ~3-4 x 10^{10}\\Msun. The mass-size relations for galaxies classified as late-type, low-n, and star-forming are consistent with each other, while blue galaxies follow a somewhat steeper relation. The mass-size relations of early-type, high-n, red, and quiescent galaxies all agree with each other but ...
Fit for purpose? Introducing a rational priority setting approach into a community care setting.
Cornelissen, Evelyn; Mitton, Craig; Davidson, Alan; Reid, Colin; Hole, Rachelle; Visockas, Anne-Marie; Smith, Neale
2016-06-20
Purpose - Program budgeting and marginal analysis (PBMA) is a priority setting approach that assists decision makers with allocating resources. Previous PBMA work establishes its efficacy and indicates that contextual factors complicate priority setting, which can hamper PBMA effectiveness. The purpose of this paper is to gain qualitative insight into PBMA effectiveness. Design/methodology/approach - A Canadian case study of PBMA implementation. Data consist of decision-maker interviews pre (n=20), post year-1 (n=12) and post year-2 (n=9) of PBMA to examine perceptions of baseline priority setting practice vis-à-vis desired practice, and perceptions of PBMA usability and acceptability. Findings - Fit emerged as a key theme in determining PBMA effectiveness. Fit herein refers to being of suitable quality and form to meet the intended purposes and needs of the end-users, and includes desirability, acceptability, and usability dimensions. Results confirm decision-maker desire for rational approaches like PBMA. However, most participants indicated that the timing of the exercise and the form in which PBMA was applied were not well-suited for this case study. Participant acceptance of and buy-in to PBMA changed during the study: a leadership change, limited organizational commitment, and concerns with organizational capacity were key barriers to PBMA adoption and thereby effectiveness. Practical implications - These findings suggest that a potential way-forward includes adding a contextual readiness/capacity assessment stage to PBMA, recognizing organizational complexity, and considering incremental adoption of PBMA's approach. Originality/value - These insights help us to better understand and work with priority setting conditions to advance evidence-informed decision making.
A Monte Carlo-adjusted goodness-of-fit test for parametric models describing spatial point patterns
Dao, Ngocanh
2014-04-03
Assessing the goodness-of-fit (GOF) for intricate parametric spatial point process models is important for many application fields. When the probability density of the statistic of the GOF test is intractable, a commonly used procedure is the Monte Carlo GOF test. Additionally, if the data comprise a single dataset, a popular version of the test plugs a parameter estimate in the hypothesized parametric model to generate data for theMonte Carlo GOF test. In this case, the test is invalid because the resulting empirical level does not reach the nominal level. In this article, we propose a method consisting of nested Monte Carlo simulations which has the following advantages: the bias of the resulting empirical level of the test is eliminated, hence the empirical levels can always reach the nominal level, and information about inhomogeneity of the data can be provided.We theoretically justify our testing procedure using Taylor expansions and demonstrate that it is correctly sized through various simulation studies. In our first data application, we discover, in agreement with Illian et al., that Phlebocarya filifolia plants near Perth, Australia, can follow a homogeneous Poisson clustered process that provides insight into the propagation mechanism of these plants. In our second data application, we find, in contrast to Diggle, that a pairwise interaction model provides a good fit to the micro-anatomy data of amacrine cells designed for analyzing the developmental growth of immature retina cells in rabbits. This article has supplementary material online. © 2013 American Statistical Association, Institute of Mathematical Statistics, and Interface Foundation of North America.
Fitting parametric models of diffusion MRI in regions of partial volume
Eaton-Rosen, Zach; Cardoso, M. J.; Melbourne, Andrew; Orasanu, Eliza; Bainbridge, Alan; Kendall, Giles S.; Robertson, Nicola J.; Marlow, Neil; Ourselin, Sebastien
2016-03-01
Regional analysis is normally done by fitting models per voxel and then averaging over a region, accounting for partial volume (PV) only to some degree. In thin, folded regions such as the cerebral cortex, such methods do not work well, as the partial volume confounds parameter estimation. Instead, we propose to fit the models per region directly with explicit PV modeling. In this work we robustly estimate region-wise parameters whilst explicitly accounting for partial volume effects. We use a high-resolution segmentation from a T1 scan to assign each voxel in the diffusion image a probabilistic membership to each of k tissue classes. We rotate the DW signal at each voxel so that it aligns with the z-axis, then model the signal at each voxel as a linear superposition of a representative signal from each of the k tissue types. Fitting involves optimising these representative signals to best match the data, given the known probabilities of belonging to each tissue type that we obtained from the segmentation. We demonstrate this method improves parameter estimation in digital phantoms for the diffusion tensor (DT) and `Neurite Orientation Dispersion and Density Imaging' (NODDI) models. The method provides accurate parameter estimates even in regions where the normal approach fails completely, for example where partial volume is present in every voxel. Finally, we apply this model to brain data from preterm infants, where the thin, convoluted, maturing cortex necessitates such an approach.
Fitting method of pseudo-polynomial for solving nonlinear parametric adjustment
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陶华学; 宫秀军; 郭金运
2001-01-01
The optimal condition and its geometrical characters of the least-square adjustment were proposed. Then the relation between the transformed surface and least-squares was discussed. Based on the above, a non-iterative method, called the fitting method of pseudo-polynomial, was derived in detail. The final least-squares solution can be determined with sufficient accuracy in a single step and is not attained by moving the initial point in the view of iteration. The accuracy of the solution relys wholly on the frequency of Taylor's series. The example verifies the correctness and validness of the method.
Geometric fit of a point set by generalized circles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Körner, Mark-Christopher; Brimberg, Jack; Juel, Henrik;
2010-01-01
In our paper we approximate a set of given points by a general circle. More precisely, given two norms k 1 and k 2 and a set of points in the plane, we consider the problem of locating and scaling the unit circle of norm k 1 such that the sum of weighted distances between the circumference of the...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Birchler, W.D.; Schilling, S.A.
2001-02-01
The purpose of this report is to demonstrate that modern computer-aided design (CAD), computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), and computer-aided engineering (CAE) systems can be used in the Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) to design new and remodel old products, fabricate old and new parts, and reproduce legacy data within the inspection uncertainty limits. In this study, two two-dimensional splines are compared with several modern CAD curve-fitting modeling algorithms. The first curve-fitting algorithm is called the Wilson-Fowler Spline (WFS), and the second is called a parametric cubic spline (PCS). Modern CAD systems usually utilize either parametric cubic and/or B-splines.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Petzoldt, R.W.; Perkins, L.J.
1995-06-16
The authors performed 1-D coupled, neutron-gamma transport calculations for lithium-vanadium blankets and lithium-sodium cauldron pot blankets in cylindrical and spherical geometries. Parametric fits to the data are supplied for subsequent use in systems code models. Scaling relationships are given for various neutronics parameters of interest, including: tritium breeding ratio, neutron energy multiplication, magnet dose rates, magnet heating rates, and integrated magnet fluence.
A deterministic algorithm for fitting a step function to a weighted point-set
Fournier, Hervé
2013-02-01
Given a set of n points in the plane, each point having a positive weight, and an integer k>0, we present an optimal O(nlogn)-time deterministic algorithm to compute a step function with k steps that minimizes the maximum weighted vertical distance to the input points. It matches the expected time bound of the best known randomized algorithm for this problem. Our approach relies on Coles improved parametric searching technique. As a direct application, our result yields the first O(nlogn)-time algorithm for computing a k-center of a set of n weighted points on the real line. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.
Beheshti, Behzad; Desmarais, Michel C.
2015-01-01
This study investigates the issue of the goodness of fit of different skills assessment models using both synthetic and real data. Synthetic data is generated from the different skills assessment models. The results show wide differences of performances between the skills assessment models over synthetic data sets. The set of relative performances…
The Effects of a Goal Setting Intervention on Aerobic Fitness in Middle School Students
McDonald, Samantha M.; Trost, Stewart G.
2015-01-01
Purpose: This study evaluated the effects of a goal setting intervention on aerobic fitness (AF) in 6 to 8 grade students. Method: Students at the intervention school received a lesson on SMART goal setting. Students in the comparison school served as a measurement-only group. AF was assessed via the PACER multi-stage shuttle run test pre and post…
A parametric reconstruction of the cosmological jerk from diverse observational data sets
Mukherjee, Ankan
2016-01-01
A parametric reconstruction of the jerk parameter, the third order derivative of the scale factor expressed in a dimensionless way, has been discussed. Observational constraints on the model parameters have been obtained by Maximum Likelihood Analysis of the models using Supernova Distance Modulus data (SNe), Observational Hubble Data (OHD), Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) data and CMB shift parameter data (CMBShift). The present value of the jerk parameter has been kept open to start with, but the plots of various cosmological parameter like deceleration parameter $q(z)$, jerk parameter $j(z)$, dark energy equation of state parameter $w_{DE}(z)$ indicate that the reconstructed models are very close to a $\\Lambda$CDM model with a slight inclination towards a non-phantom behaviour of the evolution.
Damping by parametric excitation in a set of reduced-order cracked rotor systems
Kulesza, Zbigniew; Sawicki, Jerzy T.
2015-10-01
A common tool utilized for the stability analysis of parametrically excited linear systems, such as rotors with cracked shafts, is Floquet's method. The disadvantage is a long calculation time needed to evaluate the monodromy matrix and instability zones. An efficient alternative is the generalized Bolotin's method, where the instability zones are evaluated quickly, yet the matrices that must be calculated are of large dimensions. In the present paper, the stability analysis is conducted with both Floquet's method and the generalized Bolotin's method. However, the order of the model is reduced to two modes only and stability analyses are performed for the second-order systems obtained with various combinations of the reducing modes. Then, the results of such analyses are collected in an overall stability map. The stability map obtained in this way closely reconstructs the stability map calculated with the full-order model of the rotor, yet the calculation time needed to generate the collected map as well as the dimension of the problem are considerably reduced. The approach is demonstrated with a mathematical model of the machine with the breathing crack modeled using the rigid finite element method. The rotor is not rotating, yet the stiffness of the shaft is varied periodically to simulate the parametric excitation. An interesting indication of the developing shaft crack observed in the generated stability maps is the presence of anti-resonant zones, where the rotor vibration amplitudes quickly decay. It is anticipated that this phenomenon of increased damping at specific excitation frequencies may have potential application for shaft crack detection.
Fitting Set and Root Function%Fitting集与根函数
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
高锐敏; 赵白云; 王长群
2011-01-01
The theories of group classes developed on the foundation of research of finite solvable groups, yet resent years they play more and more important role for the finite group theory in general, fitting class is one of the important group classes. For studying fitting class, this paper investigates the property of fitting set, and constructs a one-to-one correspondence between fitting set and root function, it also proves the product of two root function is root function still, scores the fitting set related to the new root function, gets two key conclusions, which are very important for the studying of fitting class.%群类理论是在有限可解群研究工作的基础上发展起来的,但近年来对有限群论的许多方面都起到越来越大的作用.Fitting类是重要群类之一.为了更深入地研究Fitting类,主要研究了Fitting集所具有的性质,用构造的方法证明了Fitting集与根函数之间可以建立一个一一对应的关系,证明了两个根函数的合成依然是根函数,并刻画了与该合成相关联的Fitting集,得到两个重要的定理,这对于Fitting类的研究具有重要意义.
Kaucikas, M.; Warren, M.; Michailovas, A.; Antanavicius, R.; van Thor, J. J.
2013-02-01
This paper describes the investigation of an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) set-up based on two beta barium borate (BBO) crystals, where the interplay between the crystal orientations, cut angles and air dispersion substantially influenced the OPO performance, and especially the angular spectrum of the output beam. Theory suggests that if two BBO crystals are used in this type of design, they should be of different cuts. This paper aims to provide an experimental manifestation of this fact. Furthermore, it has been shown that air dispersion produces similar effects and should be taken into account. An x-ray crystallographic indexing of the crystals was performed as an independent test of the above conclusions.
Wang, Li; Chen, Yunjie; Pan, Xiaohua; Hong, Xunning; Xia, Deshen
2010-05-15
This paper presents a variational level set approach in a multi-phase formulation to segmentation of brain magnetic resonance (MR) images with intensity inhomogeneity. In our model, the local image intensities are characterized by Gaussian distributions with different means and variances. We define a local Gaussian distribution fitting energy with level set functions and local means and variances as variables. The means and variances of local intensities are considered as spatially varying functions. Therefore, our method is able to deal with intensity inhomogeneity without inhomogeneity correction. Our method has been applied to 3T and 7T MR images with promising results.
Testing a parametric function against a nonparametric alternative in IV and GMM settings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gørgens, Tue; Wurtz, Allan
This paper develops a specification test for functional form for models identified by moment restrictions, including IV and GMM settings. The general framework is one where the moment restrictions are specified as functions of data, a finite-dimensional parameter vector, and a nonparametric real...
van der Stap, Djamilla K D; Rider, Lisa G; Alexanderson, Helene; Huber, Adam M; Gualano, Bruno; Gordon, Patrick; van der Net, Janjaap; Mathiesen, Pernille; Johnson, Liam G; Ernste, Floranne C; Feldman, Brian M; Houghton, Kristin M; Singh-Grewal, Davinder; Kutzbach, Abraham Garcia; Alemo Munters, Li; Takken, Tim
2016-01-01
Currently there are no evidence-based recommendations regarding fitness and strength tests for patients with childhood or adult idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM). This hinders clinicians and researchers in choosing the appropriate fitness- or muscle strength-related outcome measures for these patients. Through a Delphi survey, we aimed to identify a candidate core set of fitness and strength tests for children and adults with IIM. Fifteen experts participated in a Delphi survey that consisted of 5 stages to achieve a consensus. Using an extensive search of published literature and through the work of experts, a candidate core set based on expert opinion and clinimetrics properties was developed. Members of the International Myositis Assessment and Clinical Studies Group were invited to review this candidate core set during the final stage, which led to a final candidate core set. A core set of fitness- and strength-related outcome measures was identified for children and adults with IIM. For both children and adults, different tests were identified and selected for maximal aerobic fitness, submaximal aerobic fitness, anaerobic fitness, muscle strength tests, and muscle function tests. The core set of fitness- and strength-related outcome measures provided by this expert consensus process will assist practitioners and researchers in deciding which tests to use in patients with IIM. This will improve the uniformity of fitness and strength tests across studies, thereby facilitating the comparison of study results and therapeutic exercise program outcomes among patients with IIM.
Dumusque, X.
2016-08-01
Context. Stellar signals are the main limitation for precise radial-velocity (RV) measurements. These signals arise from the photosphere of the stars. The m s-1 perturbation created by these signals prevents the detection and mass characterization of small-mass planetary candidates such as Earth-twins. Several methods have been proposed to mitigate stellar signals in RV measurements. However, without precisely knowing the stellar and planetary signals in real observations, it is extremely difficult to test the efficiency of these methods. Aims: The goal of the RV fitting challenge is to generate simulated RV data including stellar and planetary signals and to perform a blind test within the community to test the efficiency of the different methods proposed to recover planetary signals despite stellar signals. Methods: In this first paper, we describe the simulation used to model the measurements of the RV fitting challenge. Each simulated planetary system includes the signals from instrumental noise, stellar oscillations, granulation, supergranulation, stellar activity, and observed and simulated planetary systems. In addition to RV variations, this simulation also models the effects of instrumental noise and stellar signals on activity observables obtained by HARPS-type high-resolution spectrographs, that is, the calcium activity index log (R'HK) and the bisector span and full width at half maximum of the cross-correlation function. Results: We publish the 15 systems used for the RV fitting challenge including the details about the planetary systems that were injected into each of them. Based on observations collected at the La Silla Parana Observatory, ESO (Chile), with the HARPS spectrograph at the 3.6-m telescope.The simulated data sets are available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/593/A5 and at the wiki of the RV fitting challenge http://https://rv-challenge.wikispaces.com.
Fjodorova, Natalja; Novič, Marjana
2015-09-03
Engineering optimization is an actual goal in manufacturing and service industries. In the tutorial we represented the concept of traditional parametric estimation models (Factorial Design (FD) and Central Composite Design (CCD)) for searching optimal setting parameters of technological processes. Then the 2D mapping method based on Auto Associative Neural Networks (ANN) (particularly, the Feed Forward Bottle Neck Neural Network (FFBN NN)) was described in comparison with traditional methods. The FFBN NN mapping technique enables visualization of all optimal solutions in considered processes due to the projection of input as well as output parameters in the same coordinates of 2D map. This phenomenon supports the more efficient way of improving the performance of existing systems. Comparison of two methods was performed on the bases of optimization of solder paste printing processes as well as optimization of properties of cheese. Application of both methods enables the double check. This increases the reliability of selected optima or specification limits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Parameterization for fitting triangular mesh
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIN Hongwei; WANG Guojin; LIU Ligang; BAO Hujun
2006-01-01
In recent years, with the development of 3D data acquisition equipments, the study on reverse engineering has become more and more important. However, the existing methods for parameterization can hardly ensure that the parametric domain is rectangular, and the parametric curve grid is regular. In order to overcome these limitations, we present a novel method for parameterization of triangular meshes in this paper. The basic idea is twofold: first, because the isotherms in the steady temperature do not intersect with each other, and are distributed uniformly, no singularity (fold-over) exists in the parameterization; second, a 3D harmonic equation is solved by the finite element method to obtain the steady temperature field on a 2D triangular mesh surface with four boundaries. Therefore, our proposed method avoids the embarrassment that it is impossible to solve the 2D quasi-harmonic equation on the 2D triangular mesh without the parametric values at mesh vertices. Furthermore, the isotherms on the temperature field are taken as a set of iso-parametric curves on the triangular mesh surface. The other set of iso-parametric curves can be obtained by connecting the points with the same chord-length on the isotherms sequentially. The obtained parametric curve grid is regular, and distributed uniformly, and can map the triangular mesh surface to the unit square domain with boundaries of mesh surface to boundaries of parametric domain, which ensures that the triangular mesh surface or point cloud can be fitted with the NURBS surface.
Hill, J Grant
2011-07-28
Auxiliary basis sets specifically matched to the correlation consistent cc-pVnZ-PP, cc-pwCVnZ-PP, aug-cc-pVnZ-PP, and aug-cc-pwCVnZ-PP orbital basis sets (used in conjunction with pseudopotentials) for the 5d transition metal elements Hf-Pt have been optimized for use in density fitting second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory and other correlated ab initio methods. Calculations of the second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory correlation energy, for a test set of small to medium sized molecules, indicate that the density fitting error when utilizing these sets is negligible at three to four orders of magnitude smaller than the orbital basis set incompleteness error.
Person-fit statistics, response sets and survey participation in a population-based cohort study
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Müller Jörg M.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Person-fit methodology is a promising technique for identifying subjects whose test scores have questionable validity. Less is known however about this technique’s ability to predict survey participation longitudinally. This study presents theory-derived expectations related to social desirability, the tendency for extreme responding and traitedness for specific deviating answer patterns and an expected consistence of person-fit scores across 27 personality scales. Data from 5,114 subjects (Amelang, 1997 were reanalysed with a polytomous-Rasch model to estimate scale scores and von Davier and Molenaar’s (2003 person-fit statistics. The person-fit statistics of the 27 scales were examined together with the 27 person parameter scores in one common factor analysis. The person-fit scores served as indicators of the latent factor ‘scalability’ while the person-parameter scores were considered to index the bias introduced by social desirability. The sign of factor loadings showed consistency and validity of the tendency for social desirability and extreme responding. Moreover, the personfit- based subject classification derived from the baseline data was able to predict subjects’ participation at a 8,5-year follow-up. However, the nature of those associations was contrary to our predictions. The discussion addresses explanations and practical implications, but also the limitations pertaining to the identification and interpretation of person-fit scores.
Lesley, Marsha L; Livingood, Kristi; Livingwood, Kristi
2015-02-01
InSHAPE (Self Help Action Plan for Empowerment), an exercise and nutrition wellness program, is gaining national recognition for its success in helping individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) improve physical fitness and dietary habits. Although gains have been reported in objective measures of fitness as participants progressed through the year-long program, there is little information about what happens with participants after program completion. To address this gap in knowledge, the authors conducted a longitudinal qualitative study in which 11 InSHAPE participants were interviewed both near the end of their year in the program and 9 months later. Participants identified the trainer's ability to contain their initial feelings of distress and form a working alliance as factors that contributed to their exercise persistence. Current findings suggest that individuals with SMI may need a longer period of time working closely with fitness trainers to sustain physical activity levels achieved during the program. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.
Dumusque, X
2016-01-01
Stellar signals are the main limitation for precise radial-velocity (RV) measurements. These signals arise from the photosphere of the stars. The m/s perturbation created by these signals prevents the detection and mass characterization of small-mass planetary candidates such as Earth-twins. Several methods have been proposed to mitigate stellar signals in RV measurements. However, without precisely knowing the stellar and planetary signals in real observations, it is extremely difficult to test the efficiency of these methods. The goal of the RV fitting challenge is to generate simulated RV data including stellar and planetary signals and to perform a blind test within the community to test the efficiency of the different methods proposed to recover planetary signals despite stellar signals. In this first paper, we describe the simulation used to model the measurements of the RV fitting challenge. Each simulated planetary system includes the signals from instrumental noise, stellar oscillations, granulation,...
Relational Parametricity for Computational Effects
Møgelberg, Rasmus Ejlers
2009-01-01
According to Strachey, a polymorphic program is parametric if it applies a uniform algorithm independently of the type instantiations at which it is applied. The notion of relational parametricity, introduced by Reynolds, is one possible mathematical formulation of this idea. Relational parametricity provides a powerful tool for establishing data abstraction properties, proving equivalences of datatypes, and establishing equalities of programs. Such properties have been well studied in a pure functional setting. Many programs, however, exhibit computational effects, and are not accounted for by the standard theory of relational parametricity. In this paper, we develop a foundational framework for extending the notion of relational parametricity to programming languages with effects.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Diana Tilevik
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Background: The increasing prevalence of penicillin non-susceptible pneumococci (PNSP throughout the world threatens successful treatment of infections caused by this important bacterial pathogen. The rate at which PNSP clones spread in the community is thought to mainly be determined by two key determinants; the volume of penicillin use and the magnitude of the fitness cost in the absence of treatment. The aim of the study was to determine the impacts of penicillin consumption and fitness cost on pneumococcal transmission dynamics in a developed country setting. Methods: An individual-based network model based on real-life demographic data was constructed and applied in a developed country setting (Sweden. A population structure with transmission of carriage taking place within relevant mixing groups, i.e. families, day care groups, school classes, and other close contacts, was considered to properly assess the transmission dynamics for susceptible and PNSP clones. Several scenarios were simulated and model outcomes were statistically analysed. Results: Model simulations predicted that with an outpatient penicillin use corresponding to the sales in Sweden 2010 (118 recipes per 1,000 inhabitants per year, the magnitude of a fitness cost for resistance must be at least 5% to offset the advantage of penicillin resistance. Moreover, even if there is a fitness cost associated with penicillin resistance, a considerable reduction of penicillin usage appears to be required to significantly decrease the incidence of PNSP in a community. Conclusion: The frequency of PNSP clones is hard to reverse by simply reducing the penicillin consumption even if there is a biological cost associated with resistance. However, because penicillin usage does promote further spread of PNSP clones, it is important to keep down penicillin consumption considering future resistance problems.
Quantum algorithm for data fitting.
Wiebe, Nathan; Braun, Daniel; Lloyd, Seth
2012-08-03
We provide a new quantum algorithm that efficiently determines the quality of a least-squares fit over an exponentially large data set by building upon an algorithm for solving systems of linear equations efficiently [Harrow et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 150502 (2009)]. In many cases, our algorithm can also efficiently find a concise function that approximates the data to be fitted and bound the approximation error. In cases where the input data are pure quantum states, the algorithm can be used to provide an efficient parametric estimation of the quantum state and therefore can be applied as an alternative to full quantum-state tomography given a fault tolerant quantum computer.
Radial-velocity fitting challenge. II. First results of the analysis of the data set
Dumusque, X.; Borsa, F.; Damasso, M.; Díaz, R. F.; Gregory, P. C.; Hara, N. C.; Hatzes, A.; Rajpaul, V.; Tuomi, M.; Aigrain, S.; Anglada-Escudé, G.; Bonomo, A. S.; Boué, G.; Dauvergne, F.; Frustagli, G.; Giacobbe, P.; Haywood, R. D.; Jones, H. R. A.; Laskar, J.; Pinamonti, M.; Poretti, E.; Rainer, M.; Ségransan, D.; Sozzetti, A.; Udry, S.
2017-02-01
threshold to attest the veracity of planetary signals for RV measurements with similar properties to those of the different RV fitting challenge systems. Based on observations collected at the La Silla Parana Observatory, ESO (Chile), with the HARPS spectrograph at the 3.6-m telescope.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jennifer K. Cooney
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Purpose. Exercise tests represent an important clinical tool to evaluate cardio-respiratory fitness and to predict future adverse cardiovascular events. However, use of such tests in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA is relatively uncommon despite well-established evidence that low exercise capacity and high CVD mortality are features of this disease. Therefore, this study examined the validity and reliability of a sub-maximal step test for use in RA patients. Methods. Thirty patients (24 females (mean ± SD age 53±10 years performed a sub-maximal step test on two occasions to estimate the criterion measure of cardio-respiratory fitness (V.O2max. A further maximal cycling test provided a direct fitness measurement (V.O2 peak. Pearson correlation coefficient, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC, Bland and Altman plots, and 95% limits of agreement (LOA were used to determine the validity and reliability of the sub-maximal test. Results. Estimated V.O2max correlated well with directly measured V.O2 peak (r=0.79, LoA ±5.7 mL·kg−1·min−1. Test-retest reproducibility for estimated V.O2max was excellent (ICC=0.97, LoA ±2.2 mL·kg−1·min−1. Conclusion. The sub-maximal step test studied here represents a valid and reproducible method to estimate cardio-respiratory fitness in RA patients. This test may be useful for the assessment and management of CVD risk in a clinical setting.
Parametric Explosion Spectral Model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ford, S R; Walter, W R
2012-01-19
Small underground nuclear explosions need to be confidently detected, identified, and characterized in regions of the world where they have never before occurred. We develop a parametric model of the nuclear explosion seismic source spectrum derived from regional phases that is compatible with earthquake-based geometrical spreading and attenuation. Earthquake spectra are fit with a generalized version of the Brune spectrum, which is a three-parameter model that describes the long-period level, corner-frequency, and spectral slope at high-frequencies. Explosion spectra can be fit with similar spectral models whose parameters are then correlated with near-source geology and containment conditions. We observe a correlation of high gas-porosity (low-strength) with increased spectral slope. The relationship between the parametric equations and the geologic and containment conditions will assist in our physical understanding of the nuclear explosion source.
Parametric Models of Periodogram
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
P. Mohan; A. Mangalam; S. Chattopadhyay
2014-09-01
The maximum likelihood estimator is used to determine fit parameters for various parametric models of the Fourier periodogram followed by the selection of the best-fit model amongst competing models using the Akaike information criteria. This analysis, when applied to light curves of active galactic nuclei can be used to infer the presence of quasi-periodicity and break or knee frequencies. The extracted information can be used to place constraints on the mass, spin and other properties of the putative central black hole and the region surrounding it through theoretical models involving disk and jet physics.
Zicari, Giuseppe; Marro, Silvia; Soardo, Vincenzo; Berruti, Renza; Maggi, Claudio; Cerrato, Elena; Ferrari, Romina; Gulino, Margherita
2014-01-01
Italian legislation (Article 13 of Legislative Decree 31/2001) provides for the possibility of establishing derogations from chemical parametric values for drinking water set by EU legislation (Council Directive 98/83/EC), if the supply of drinking water cannot be maintained by any other reasonable means. A derogation is possible only after obtaining a specific authorization and must be limited to the shortest time possible. This paper presents the history of derogations granted in Italy and the case of arsenic and nickel in Piedmont. From 2003 to 2009, 13 regions requested a derogation (Campania, Emilia Romagna, Latium, Lombardy, Marche, Piedmont, Apulia, Sardinia, Sicily, Tuscany, Trentino Alto Adige, Umbria, Venetia) at different times and for a total of 13 parameters. In 2012, tap water provided to almost one million Italians in 112 municipalities of three regions (Latium, Tuscany and Campania), did not comply with the legal limits for the following parameters: arsenic, boron and fluorides. Currently, in the Piedmont region there are no derogations from the maximum permitted concentrations of contaminants in drinking water. In the past derogations have been applied for the nickel parameter (years 2006-2007) and from the arsenic parameter (years 2006-2008).
van der Stap, Djamilla K.D.; Rider, Lisa G.; Alexanderson, Helene; Huber, Adam M.; Gualano, Bruno; Gordon, Patrick; van der Net, Janjaap; Mathiesen, Pernille; Johnson, Liam G.; Ernste, Floranne C.; Feldman, Brian M.; Houghton, Kristin M.; Singh-Grewal, Davinder; Kutzbach, Abraham Garcia; Munters, Li Alemo; Takken, Tim
2015-01-01
OBJECTIVES Currently there are no evidence-based recommendations regarding which fitness and strength tests to use for patients with childhood or adult idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM). This hinders clinicians and researchers in choosing the appropriate fitness- or muscle strength-related outcome measures for these patients. Through a Delphi survey, we aimed to identify a candidate core-set of fitness and strength tests for children and adults with IIM. METHODS Fifteen experts participated in a Delphi survey that consisted of five stages to achieve a consensus. Using an extensive search of published literature and through the expertise of the experts, a candidate core-set based on expert opinion and clinimetric properties was developed. Members of the International Myositis Assessment and Clinical Studies Group (IMACS) were invited to review this candidate core-set during the final stage, which led to a final candidate core-set. RESULTS A core-set of fitness- and strength-related outcome measures was identified for children and adults with IIM. For both children and adults, different tests were identified and selected for maximal aerobic fitness, submaximal aerobic fitness, anaerobic fitness, muscle strength tests and muscle function tests. CONCLUSIONS The core-set of fitness and strength-related outcome measures provided by this expert consensus process will assist practitioners and researchers in deciding which tests to use in IIM patients. This will improve the uniformity of fitness and strength tests across studies, thereby facilitating the comparison of study results and therapeutic exercise program outcomes among patients with IIM. PMID:26568594
Critical sets in parametric optimization
Jongen, H.Th.; Jonker, P.; Twilt, F.
1986-01-01
We deal with one-parameter families of optimization problems in finite dimensions. The constraints are both of equality and inequality type. The concept of a ‘generalized critical point’ (g.c. point) is introduced. In particular, every local minimum, Kuhn-Tucker point, and point of Fritz John type i
van der Stap, Djamilla K D; Rider, Lisa G; Alexanderson, Helene; Huber, Adam M; Gualano, Bruno; Gordon, Patrick; van der Net, Janjaap|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/14327161X; Mathiesen, Pernille; Johnson, Liam G; Ernste, Floranne C; Feldman, Brian M; Houghton, Kristin M; Singh-Grewal, Davinder; Kutzbach, Abraham Garcia; Munters, Li Alemo; Takken, Tim|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/184586674
OBJECTIVE: Currently there are no evidence-based recommendations regarding fitness and strength tests for patients with childhood or adult idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM). This hinders clinicians and researchers in choosing the appropriate fitness- or muscle strength-related outcome
Zahariev, Federico; De Silva, Nuwan; Gordon, Mark S; Windus, Theresa L; Dick-Perez, Marilu
2017-03-27
A newly created object-oriented program for automating the process of fitting molecular-mechanics parameters to ab initio data, termed ParFit, is presented. ParFit uses a hybrid of deterministic and stochastic genetic algorithms. ParFit can simultaneously handle several molecular-mechanics parameters in multiple molecules and can also apply symmetric and antisymmetric constraints on the optimized parameters. The simultaneous handling of several molecules enhances the transferability of the fitted parameters. ParFit is written in Python, uses a rich set of standard and nonstandard Python libraries, and can be run in parallel on multicore computer systems. As an example, a series of phosphine oxides, important for metal extraction chemistry, are parametrized using ParFit. ParFit is in an open source program available for free on GitHub ( https://github.com/fzahari/ParFit ).
Song, Dong; Wang, Zhuo; Marmarelis, Vasilis Z; Berger, Theodore W
2009-02-01
This paper presents a synergistic parametric and non-parametric modeling study of short-term plasticity (STP) in the Schaffer collateral to hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neuron (SC) synapse. Parametric models in the form of sets of differential and algebraic equations have been proposed on the basis of the current understanding of biological mechanisms active within the system. Non-parametric Poisson-Volterra models are obtained herein from broadband experimental input-output data. The non-parametric model is shown to provide better prediction of the experimental output than a parametric model with a single set of facilitation/depression (FD) process. The parametric model is then validated in terms of its input-output transformational properties using the non-parametric model since the latter constitutes a canonical and more complete representation of the synaptic nonlinear dynamics. Furthermore, discrepancies between the experimentally-derived non-parametric model and the equivalent non-parametric model of the parametric model suggest the presence of multiple FD processes in the SC synapses. Inclusion of an additional set of FD process in the parametric model makes it replicate better the characteristics of the experimentally-derived non-parametric model. This improved parametric model in turn provides the requisite biological interpretability that the non-parametric model lacks.
Effect of tectonic setting on the fit and performance of a long-range earthquake forecasting model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David Alan Rhoades
2012-02-01
Full Text Available The Every Earthquake a Precursor According to Scale (EEPAS long-range earthquake forecasting model has been shown to be informative in several seismically active regions, including New Zealand, California and Japan. In previous applications of the model, the tectonic setting of earthquakes has been ignored. Here we distinguish crustal, plate interface, and slab earthquakes and apply the model to earthquakes with magnitude M≥4 in the Japan region from 1926 onwards. The target magnitude range is M≥ 6; the fitting period is 1966-1995; and the testing period is 1996-2005. In forecasting major slab earthquakes, it is optimal to use only slab and interface events as precursors. In forecasting major interface events, it is optimal to use only interface events as precursors. In forecasting major crustal events, it is optimal to use only crustal events as precursors. For the smoothed-seismicity component of the EEPAS model, it is optimal to use slab and interface events for earthquakes in the slab, interface events only for earthquakes on the interface, and crustal and interface events for crustal earthquakes. The optimal model parameters indicate that the precursor areas for slab earthquakes are relatively small compared to those for earthquakes in other tectonic categories, and that the precursor times and precursory earthquake magnitudes for crustal earthquakes are relatively large. The optimal models fit the learning data sets better than the raw EEPAS model, with an average information gain per earthquake of about 0.4. The average information gain is similar in the testing period, although it is higher for crustal earthquakes and lower for slab and interface earthquakes than in the learning period. These results show that earthquake interactions are stronger between earthquakes of similar tectonic types and that distinguishing tectonic types improves forecasts by enhancing the depth resolution where tectonic categories of earthquakes are
About Bifurcational Parametric Simplification
Gol'dshtein, V; Yablonsky, G
2015-01-01
A concept of "critical" simplification was proposed by Yablonsky and Lazman in 1996 for the oxidation of carbon monoxide over a platinum catalyst using a Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism. The main observation was a simplification of the mechanism at ignition and extinction points. The critical simplification is an example of a much more general phenomenon that we call \\emph{a bifurcational parametric simplification}. Ignition and extinction points are points of equilibrium multiplicity bifurcations, i.e., they are points of a corresponding bifurcation set for parameters. Any bifurcation produces a dependence between system parameters. This is a mathematical explanation and/or justification of the "parametric simplification". It leads us to a conjecture that "maximal bifurcational parametric simplification" corresponds to the "maximal bifurcation complexity." This conjecture can have practical applications for experimental study, because at points of "maximal bifurcation complexity" the number of independent sys...
van der Stap, Djamilla K D; Rider, Lisa G; Alexanderson, Helene; Huber, Adam M; Gualano, Bruno; Gordon, Patrick; van der Net, Janjaap; Mathiesen, Pernille; Johnson, Liam G; Ernste, Floranne C; Feldman, Brian M; Houghton, Kristin M; Singh-Grewal, Davinder; Kutzbach, Abraham Garcia; Munters, Li Alemo; Takken, Tim
2016-01-01
OBJECTIVE: Currently there are no evidence-based recommendations regarding fitness and strength tests for patients with childhood or adult idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM). This hinders clinicians and researchers in choosing the appropriate fitness- or muscle strength-related outcome measure
Parametric and Non-Parametric System Modelling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg
1999-01-01
considered. It is shown that adaptive estimation in conditional parametric models can be performed by combining the well known methods of local polynomial regression and recursive least squares with exponential forgetting. The approach used for estimation in conditional parametric models also highlights how....... For this purpose non-parametric methods together with additive models are suggested. Also, a new approach specifically designed to detect non-linearities is introduced. Confidence intervals are constructed by use of bootstrapping. As a link between non-parametric and parametric methods a paper dealing with neural...... the focus is on combinations of parametric and non-parametric methods of regression. This combination can be in terms of additive models where e.g. one or more non-parametric term is added to a linear regression model. It can also be in terms of conditional parametric models where the coefficients...
SEMI PARAMETRIC ESTIMATION OF RISK-RETURN RELATIONSHIPS
Juan Carlos Escanciano; Juan Carlos Pardo-Fernández; Ingrid Van Keilegom
2013-01-01
This article proposes semi-parametric least squares estimation of parametric risk-return relationships, i.e. parametric restrictions between the conditional mean and the conditional variance of excess returns given a set of unobservable parametric factors. A distinctive feature of our estimator is that it does not require a parametric model for the conditional mean and variance. We establish consistency and asymptotic normality of the estimates. The theory is non-standard due to the presence ...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
林作铨; 李未
1995-01-01
Parametric logic is introduced. The language, semantics and axiom system of parametric logic are defined. Completeness theorem of parametric logic is provided. Parametric logic has formal ability powerful enough to capture a wide class of logic as its special cases, and therefore can be viewed as a uniform basis for modern logics.
Multidimensional Scaling Visualization Using Parametric Entropy
Lopes, António M.; Tenreiro Machado, J. A.; Galhano, Alexandra M.
2015-12-01
This paper studies complex systems using a generalized multidimensional scaling (MDS) technique. Complex systems are characterized by time-series responses, interpreted as a manifestation of their dynamics. Two types of time-series are analyzed, namely 18 stock markets and the gross domestic product per capita of 18 countries. For constructing the MDS charts, indices based on parametric entropies are adopted. Multiparameter entropies allow the variation of the parameters leading to alternative sets of charts. The final MDS maps are then assembled by means of Procrustes’ method that maximizes the fit between the individual charts. Therefore, the proposed method can be interpreted as a generalization to higher dimensions of the standard technique that represents (and discretizes) items by means of single “points” (i.e. zero-dimensional “objects”). The MDS plots, involving one-, two- and three-dimensional “objects”, reveal a good performance in capturing the correlations between data.
Boström, Jonas; Pitoňák, Michal; Aquilante, Francesco; Neogrády, Pavel; Pedersen, Thomas Bondo; Lindh, Roland
2012-06-12
We compute noncovalent intermolecular interaction energies for the S22 test set [Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.2006, 8, 1985-1993] of molecules at the Møller-Plesset and coupled cluster levels of supermolecular theory using density fitting (DF) to approximate all two-electron integrals. The error due to the DF approximation is analyzed for a range of auxiliary basis sets derived from Cholesky decomposition (CD) in conjunction with correlation consistent and atomic natural orbital valence basis sets. A Cholesky decomposition threshold of 10(-4)Eh for full molecular CD and its one-center approximation (1C-CD) generally yields errors below 0.03 kcal/mol, whereas 10(-3)Eh is sufficient to obtain the same level of accuracy or better with the atomic CD (aCD) and atomic compact CD (acCD) auxiliary basis sets. Comparing to commonly used predefined auxiliary basis sets, we find that while the aCD and acCD sets are larger by a factor of 2-4 with triple-ζ AO basis sets, they provide results 1-2 orders of magnitude more accurate.
Parametric Verification of Weighted Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christoffersen, Peter; Hansen, Mikkel; Mariegaard, Anders
2015-01-01
This paper addresses the problem of parametric model checking for weighted transition systems. We consider transition systems labelled with linear equations over a set of parameters and we use them to provide semantics for a parametric version of weighted CTL where the until and next operators ar...... finitely many iterations. To demonstrate the utility of our technique, we have implemented a prototype tool that computes the constraints on parameters for model checking problems.......This paper addresses the problem of parametric model checking for weighted transition systems. We consider transition systems labelled with linear equations over a set of parameters and we use them to provide semantics for a parametric version of weighted CTL where the until and next operators...... are themselves indexed with linear equations. The parameters change the model-checking problem into a problem of computing a linear system of inequalities that characterizes the parameters that guarantee the satisfiability. To address this problem, we use parametric dependency graphs (PDGs) and we propose...
Parametric versus non-parametric simulation
Dupeux, Bérénice; Buysse, Jeroen
2014-01-01
Most of ex-ante impact assessment policy models have been based on a parametric approach. We develop a novel non-parametric approach, called Inverse DEA. We use non parametric efficiency analysis for determining the farm’s technology and behaviour. Then, we compare the parametric approach and the Inverse DEA models to a known data generating process. We use a bio-economic model as a data generating process reflecting a real world situation where often non-linear relationships exist. Results s...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel N. Ardoy
2013-02-01
Full Text Available Objectives: Observational studies have reported an association among physical activity, fitness and lipid profile in youth. The purpose of this study was to analyse the effect of a school-based intervention focused on increasing the number and intensity of Physical Education (PE sessions a week, on adolescents' lipid profile. Methods: A 4-month group-randomized controlled trial was conducted in 67 adolescents (12-14 years-old from South-East Spain, 2007. Three school classes were randomly allocated into control group (CG, experimental group-1 (EG1 and experimental group-2 (EG2. The CG received the usual PE in Spain (2 sessions/week, the EG1 received 4 PE sessions/week, and the EG2 received 4 PE sessions/week of high intensity. The main study outcomes were fasting levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc and triglycerides. All the analyses were adjusted for sex, sexual maturation, attendance and baseline value of the outcome studied. Results: The intervention did not positively affect cardio-metabolic parameters except for LDLc, that was marginally yet significantly reduced in EG2 (-10.4 mg/dl, compared with the CG (+4.1 mg/dl (p = 0.04; no differences were observed however for the LDLc/HDLc ratio. No significant effects were observed in EG1. Discussion: Overall, a 4-month school-based physical activity intervention did not substantially influence lipid profile in adolescents. However, the results suggest that increasing both frequency and intensity of PE sessions had a modest effect on LDLc in youth. Future studies involving larger sample sizes and longer interventions should focus on the separate effects of volume and intensity of PE.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Farnoosh Basaligheh
2015-12-01
Full Text Available One of the conventional methods for temporary support of tunnels is to use steel sets with shotcrete. The nature of a temporary support system demands a quick installation of its structures. As a result, the spacing between steel sets is not a fixed amount and it can be considered as a random variable. Hence, in the reliability analysis of these types of structures, the selection of an appropriate probability distribution function of spacing of steel sets is essential. In the present paper, the distances between steel sets are collected from an under-construction tunnel and the collected data is used to suggest a proper Probability Distribution Function (PDF for the spacing of steel sets. The tunnel has two different excavation sections. In this regard, different distribution functions were investigated and three common tests of goodness of fit were used for evaluation of each function for each excavation section. Results from all three methods indicate that the Wakeby distribution function can be suggested as the proper PDF for spacing between the steel sets. It is also noted that, although the probability distribution function for two different tunnel sections is the same, the parameters of PDF for the individual sections are different from each other.
Why preferring parametric forecasting to nonparametric methods?
Jabot, Franck
2015-05-07
A recent series of papers by Charles T. Perretti and collaborators have shown that nonparametric forecasting methods can outperform parametric methods in noisy nonlinear systems. Such a situation can arise because of two main reasons: the instability of parametric inference procedures in chaotic systems which can lead to biased parameter estimates, and the discrepancy between the real system dynamics and the modeled one, a problem that Perretti and collaborators call "the true model myth". Should ecologists go on using the demanding parametric machinery when trying to forecast the dynamics of complex ecosystems? Or should they rely on the elegant nonparametric approach that appears so promising? It will be here argued that ecological forecasting based on parametric models presents two key comparative advantages over nonparametric approaches. First, the likelihood of parametric forecasting failure can be diagnosed thanks to simple Bayesian model checking procedures. Second, when parametric forecasting is diagnosed to be reliable, forecasting uncertainty can be estimated on virtual data generated with the fitted to data parametric model. In contrast, nonparametric techniques provide forecasts with unknown reliability. This argumentation is illustrated with the simple theta-logistic model that was previously used by Perretti and collaborators to make their point. It should convince ecologists to stick to standard parametric approaches, until methods have been developed to assess the reliability of nonparametric forecasting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Parametric Room Acoustic Workflows
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Parigi, Dario; Svidt, Kjeld; Molin, Erik
2017-01-01
The paper investigates and assesses different room acoustics software and the opportunities they offer to engage in parametric acoustics workflow and to influence architectural designs. The first step consists in the testing and benchmarking of different tools on the basis of accuracy, speed...... and interoperability with Grasshopper 3d. The focus will be placed to the benchmarking of three different acoustic analysis tools based on raytracing. To compare the accuracy and speed of the acoustic evaluation across different tools, a homogeneous set of acoustic parameters is chosen. The room acoustics parameters...... included in the set are reverberation time (EDT, RT30), clarity (C50), loudness (G), and definition (D50). Scenarios are discussed for determining at different design stages the most suitable acoustic tool. Those scenarios are characterized, by the use of less accurate but fast evaluation tools to be used...
Parametric functional principal component analysis.
Sang, Peijun; Wang, Liangliang; Cao, Jiguo
2017-03-10
Functional principal component analysis (FPCA) is a popular approach in functional data analysis to explore major sources of variation in a sample of random curves. These major sources of variation are represented by functional principal components (FPCs). Most existing FPCA approaches use a set of flexible basis functions such as B-spline basis to represent the FPCs, and control the smoothness of the FPCs by adding roughness penalties. However, the flexible representations pose difficulties for users to understand and interpret the FPCs. In this article, we consider a variety of applications of FPCA and find that, in many situations, the shapes of top FPCs are simple enough to be approximated using simple parametric functions. We propose a parametric approach to estimate the top FPCs to enhance their interpretability for users. Our parametric approach can also circumvent the smoothing parameter selecting process in conventional nonparametric FPCA methods. In addition, our simulation study shows that the proposed parametric FPCA is more robust when outlier curves exist. The parametric FPCA method is demonstrated by analyzing several datasets from a variety of applications. © 2017, The International Biometric Society.
Erickson, Tim
2008-01-01
We often look for a best-fit function to a set of data. This article describes how a "pretty good" fit might be better than a "best" fit when it comes to promoting conceptual understanding of functions. In a pretty good fit, students design the function themselves rather than choosing it from a menu; they use appropriate variable names; and they…
Washiyama, K.; Bennaceur, K.; Avez, B.; Bender, M.; Heenen, P.-H.; Hellemans, V.
2012-11-01
Background: Symmetry restoration and configuration mixing in the spirit of the generator coordinate method based on energy density functionals have become widely used techniques in low-energy nuclear structure physics. Recently, it has been pointed out that these techniques are ill defined for standard Skyrme functionals, and a regularization procedure has been proposed to remove the resulting spuriosities from such calculations. This procedure imposes an integer power of the density for the density-dependent terms of the functional. At present, only dated parametrizations of the Skyrme interaction fulfill this condition.Purpose: To construct a set of parametrizations of the Skyrme energy density functional for multireference energy density functional calculations with regularization using the state-of-the-art fitting protocols.Method: The parametrizations were adjusted to reproduce ground-state properties of a selected set of doubly magic nuclei and properties of nuclear matter. Subsequently, these parameter sets were validated against properties of spherical and deformed nuclei.Results: Our parameter sets successfully reproduce the experimental binding energies and charge radii for a wide range of singly magic nuclei. Compared to the widely used SLy5 and to the SIII parametrization that has integer powers of the density, a significant improvement of the reproduction of the data is observed. Similarly, a good description of the deformation properties at A˜80 was obtained.Conclusions: We have constructed new Skyrme parametrizations with integer powers of the density and validated them against a broad set of experimental data for spherical and deformed nuclei. These parametrizations are tailor-made for regularized multireference energy density functional calculations and can be used to study correlations beyond the mean field in atomic nuclei.
Parametrizing Algebraic Curves
Lemmermeyer, Franz
2011-01-01
We present the technique of parametrization of plane algebraic curves from a number theorist's point of view and present Kapferer's simple and beautiful (but little known) proof that nonsingular curves of degree > 2 cannot be parametrized by rational functions.
Hill, J Grant
2013-09-30
Auxiliary basis sets (ABS) specifically matched to the cc-pwCVnZ-PP and aug-cc-pwCVnZ-PP orbital basis sets (OBS) have been developed and optimized for the 4d elements Y-Pd at the second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory level. Calculation of the core-valence electron correlation energies for small to medium sized transition metal complexes demonstrates that the error due to the use of these new sets in density fitting is three to four orders of magnitude smaller than that due to the OBS incompleteness, and hence is considered negligible. Utilizing the ABSs in the resolution-of-the-identity component of explicitly correlated calculations is also investigated, where it is shown that i-type functions are important to produce well-controlled errors in both integrals and correlation energy. Benchmarking at the explicitly correlated coupled cluster with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations level indicates impressive convergence with respect to basis set size for the spectroscopic constants of 4d monofluorides; explicitly correlated double-ζ calculations produce results close to conventional quadruple-ζ, and triple-ζ is within chemical accuracy of the complete basis set limit.
Eckhard, Timo; Valero, Eva M; Hernández-Andrés, Javier; Heikkinen, Ville
2014-03-01
In this work, we evaluate the conditionally positive definite logarithmic kernel in kernel-based estimation of reflectance spectra. Reflectance spectra are estimated from responses of a 12-channel multispectral imaging system. We demonstrate the performance of the logarithmic kernel in comparison with the linear and Gaussian kernel using simulated and measured camera responses for the Pantone and HKS color charts. Especially, we focus on the estimation model evaluations in case the selection of model parameters is optimized using a cross-validation technique. In experiments, it was found that the Gaussian and logarithmic kernel outperformed the linear kernel in almost all evaluation cases (training set size, response channel number) for both sets. Furthermore, the spectral and color estimation accuracies of the Gaussian and logarithmic kernel were found to be similar in several evaluation cases for real and simulated responses. However, results suggest that for a relatively small training set size, the accuracy of the logarithmic kernel can be markedly lower when compared to the Gaussian kernel. Further it was found from our data that the parameter of the logarithmic kernel could be fixed, which simplified the use of this kernel when compared with the Gaussian kernel.
Parametric methods for spatial point processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Møller, Jesper
(This text is submitted for the volume ‘A Handbook of Spatial Statistics' edited by A.E. Gelfand, P. Diggle, M. Fuentes, and P. Guttorp, to be published by Chapmand and Hall/CRC Press, and planned to appear as Chapter 4.4 with the title ‘Parametric methods'.) 1 Introduction This chapter considers...... inference procedures for parametric spatial point process models. The widespread use of sensible but ad hoc methods based on summary statistics of the kind studied in Chapter 4.3 have through the last two decades been supplied by likelihood based methods for parametric spatial point process models....... The increasing development of such likelihood based methods, whether frequentist or Bayesian, has lead to more objective and efficient statistical procedures. When checking a fitted parametric point process model, summary statistics and residual analysis (Chapter 4.5) play an important role in combination...
On Parametric (and Non-Parametric Variation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Neil Smith
2009-11-01
Full Text Available This article raises the issue of the correct characterization of ‘Parametric Variation’ in syntax and phonology. After specifying their theoretical commitments, the authors outline the relevant parts of the Principles–and–Parameters framework, and draw a three-way distinction among Universal Principles, Parameters, and Accidents. The core of the contribution then consists of an attempt to provide identity criteria for parametric, as opposed to non-parametric, variation. Parametric choices must be antecedently known, and it is suggested that they must also satisfy seven individually necessary and jointly sufficient criteria. These are that they be cognitively represented, systematic, dependent on the input, deterministic, discrete, mutually exclusive, and irreversible.
Parametric strong mode-coupling in carbon nanotube mechanical resonators
Li, Shu-Xiao; Zhu, Dong; Wang, Xin-He; Wang, Jiang-Tao; Deng, Guang-Wei; Li, Hai-Ou; Cao, Gang; Xiao, Ming; Guo, Guang-Can; Jiang, Kai-Li; Dai, Xing-Can; Guo, Guo-Ping
2016-08-01
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted much attention for use in nanomechanical devices because of their exceptional properties, such as large resonant frequencies, low mass, and high quality factors. Here, we report the first experimental realization of parametric strong coupling between two mechanical modes on a single CNT nanomechanical resonator, by applying an extra microwave pump. This parametric pump method can be used to couple mechanical modes with arbitrary frequency differences. The properties of the mechanical resonator are detected by single-electron tunneling at low temperature, which is found to be strongly coupled to both modes. The coupling strength between the two modes can be tuned by the pump power, setting the coupling regime from weak to strong. This tunability may be useful in further phonon manipulations in carbon nanotubes.Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted much attention for use in nanomechanical devices because of their exceptional properties, such as large resonant frequencies, low mass, and high quality factors. Here, we report the first experimental realization of parametric strong coupling between two mechanical modes on a single CNT nanomechanical resonator, by applying an extra microwave pump. This parametric pump method can be used to couple mechanical modes with arbitrary frequency differences. The properties of the mechanical resonator are detected by single-electron tunneling at low temperature, which is found to be strongly coupled to both modes. The coupling strength between the two modes can be tuned by the pump power, setting the coupling regime from weak to strong. This tunability may be useful in further phonon manipulations in carbon nanotubes. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Fit of the quality factor and similar results in more devices. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr02853e
Maydeu-Olivares, Albert
2005-01-01
Chernyshenko, Stark, Chan, Drasgow, and Williams (2001) investigated the fit of Samejima's logistic graded model and Levine's non-parametric MFS model to the scales of two personality questionnaires and found that the graded model did not fit well. We attribute the poor fit of the graded model to small amounts of multidimensionality present in…
Parametrically Guided Generalized Additive Models with Application to Mergers and Acquisitions Data.
Fan, Jianqing; Maity, Arnab; Wang, Yihui; Wu, Yichao
2013-01-01
Generalized nonparametric additive models present a flexible way to evaluate the effects of several covariates on a general outcome of interest via a link function. In this modeling framework, one assumes that the effect of each of the covariates is nonparametric and additive. However, in practice, often there is prior information available about the shape of the regression functions, possibly from pilot studies or exploratory analysis. In this paper, we consider such situations and propose an estimation procedure where the prior information is used as a parametric guide to fit the additive model. Specifically, we first posit a parametric family for each of the regression functions using the prior information (parametric guides). After removing these parametric trends, we then estimate the remainder of the nonparametric functions using a nonparametric generalized additive model, and form the final estimates by adding back the parametric trend. We investigate the asymptotic properties of the estimates and show that when a good guide is chosen, the asymptotic variance of the estimates can be reduced significantly while keeping the asymptotic variance same as the unguided estimator. We observe the performance of our method via a simulation study and demonstrate our method by applying to a real data set on mergers and acquisitions.
Parametric Optimization of Hospital Design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Holst, Malene Kirstine; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Christoffersen, L.D.
2013-01-01
Present paper presents a parametric performancebased design model for optimizing hospital design. The design model operates with geometric input parameters defining the functional requirements of the hospital and input parameters in terms of performance objectives defining the design requirements...... and preferences of the hospital with respect to performances. The design model takes point of departure in the hospital functionalities as a set of defined parameters and rules describing the design requirements and preferences....
Parametric Optimization of Hospital Design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Holst, Malene Kirstine; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Christoffersen, L.D.
2013-01-01
Present paper presents a parametric performancebased design model for optimizing hospital design. The design model operates with geometric input parameters defining the functional requirements of the hospital and input parameters in terms of performance objectives defining the design requirements...... and preferences of the hospital with respect to performances. The design model takes point of departure in the hospital functionalities as a set of defined parameters and rules describing the design requirements and preferences....
Controlling Parametric Resonance
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Galeazzi, Roberto; Pettersen, Kristin Ytterstad
2012-01-01
Parametric resonance is a resonant phenomenon which takes place in systems characterized by periodic variations of some parameters. While seen as a threatening condition, whose onset can drive a system into instability, this chapter advocates that parametric resonance may become an advantage if t...
1981-01-01
REPRESENTING THE 5TRETCHED PONQ DE LEON (S.PI.) 9€ ASS _!"Q SHIP FITTED WITH TWO SETS OF DESIGN CONTRAROTATING PROPELLERS (MODEL 5362; PROPELLERS 4731...TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED AN ANALYSIS OF THE PROPULSION EXPERIMENTS PER- Final FORMED ON A MODEL REPRESENTING THE STRETCHED PONCE DE LEON (SPDL...number) A ser ies of propulsion exper ments were performed on Model 5362, representing a Stretched PONCE DE LEON Clas RO/RO ship. The model was fitted
A non-parametric framework for estimating threshold limit values
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ulm Kurt
2005-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background To estimate a threshold limit value for a compound known to have harmful health effects, an 'elbow' threshold model is usually applied. We are interested on non-parametric flexible alternatives. Methods We describe how a step function model fitted by isotonic regression can be used to estimate threshold limit values. This method returns a set of candidate locations, and we discuss two algorithms to select the threshold among them: the reduced isotonic regression and an algorithm considering the closed family of hypotheses. We assess the performance of these two alternative approaches under different scenarios in a simulation study. We illustrate the framework by analysing the data from a study conducted by the German Research Foundation aiming to set a threshold limit value in the exposure to total dust at workplace, as a causal agent for developing chronic bronchitis. Results In the paper we demonstrate the use and the properties of the proposed methodology along with the results from an application. The method appears to detect the threshold with satisfactory success. However, its performance can be compromised by the low power to reject the constant risk assumption when the true dose-response relationship is weak. Conclusion The estimation of thresholds based on isotonic framework is conceptually simple and sufficiently powerful. Given that in threshold value estimation context there is not a gold standard method, the proposed model provides a useful non-parametric alternative to the standard approaches and can corroborate or challenge their findings.
Parametric resonance in ideal magnetohydrodynamics
Zaqarashvili
2000-08-01
We show that an external nonelectromagnetic periodic inhomogeneous force sets up a parametric resonance in an ideal magnetohydrodynamics. Alfven waves with certain wavelengths grow exponentially in amplitude. Nonlinear interaction between the resonant harmonics produces the long-term modulation of amplitudes. The mechanism of the energy transformation from an external nonelectromagnetic force to magnetic oscillations of the system presented here can be used in understanding the physical background of the gravitational action on the magnetized medium. Future application of this theory to several astrophysical problems is briefly discussed.
Source finding, parametrization, and classification for the extragalactic Effelsberg-Bonn H i Survey
Flöer, L.; Winkel, B.; Kerp, J.
2014-09-01
Context. Source extraction for large-scale H i surveys currently involves large amounts of manual labor. For data volumes expected from future H i surveys with upcoming facilities, this approach is not feasible any longer. Aims: We describe the implementation of a fully automated source finding, parametrization, and classification pipeline for the Effelsberg-Bonn H i Survey (EBHIS). With future radio astronomical facilities in mind, we want to explore the feasibility of a completely automated approach to source extraction for large-scale H i surveys. Methods: Source finding is implemented using wavelet denoising methods, which previous studies show to be a powerful tool, especially in the presence of data defects. For parametrization, we automate baseline fitting, mask optimization, and other tasks based on well-established algorithms, currently used interactively. For the classification of candidates, we implement an artificial neural network, which is trained on a candidate set comprised of false positives from real data and simulated sources. Using simulated data, we perform a thorough analysis of the algorithms implemented. Results: We compare the results from our simulations to the parametrization accuracy of the H i Parkes All-Sky Survey (HIPASS) survey. Even though HIPASS is more sensitive than EBHIS in its current state, the parametrization accuracy and classification reliability match or surpass the manual approach used for HIPASS data.
Source finding, parametrization and classification for the extragalactic Effelsberg-Bonn HI Survey
Flöer, Lars; Kerp, Jürgen
2014-01-01
Context. Source extraction for large-scale HI surveys currently involves large amounts of manual labor. For data volumes expected from future HI surveys with upcoming facilities, this approach is not feasible any longer. Aims. We describe the implementation of a fully automated source finding, parametrization, and classification pipeline for the Effelsberg-Bonn HI Survey (EBHIS). With future radio astronomical facilities in mind, we want to explore the feasibility of a completely automated approach to source extraction for large-scale HI surveys. Methods. Source finding is implemented using wavelet denoising methods, which previous studies show to be a powerful tool, especially in the presence of data defects. For parametrization, we automate baseline fitting, mask optimization, and other tasks based on well-established algorithms, currently used interactively. For the classification of candidates, we implement an artificial neural network which is trained on a candidate set comprised of false positives from ...
2015-09-01
Fill cannot. NEC Fit NEC Fit measures more than the crew’s total skill sets. It also accounts for how these sailors are used by crediting an NEC...Abstract Navy enlisted classifications (NECs) denote special skills beyond those associated with a rating. They are used in defining manpower...requirements and in managing personnel by tracking sailors who have acquired these skills . NEC Fit is one of two primary metrics that Navy leadership
Involute Spur Gear Template Development by Parametric Technique ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Nekky Umera
cylindrical coordinate systems to create the involute curve profile. Since spur gear ... with 3 module, 30 Teeth, 20° pressure angle based on parametric technique by using ... and a set of points P2 to P5 is created in the ZY plane. Joining these ..... a three-dimensional part directly from a parametric solid modeled gear file.
Parametric likelihood inference for interval censored competing risks data.
Hudgens, Michael G; Li, Chenxi; Fine, Jason P
2014-03-01
Parametric estimation of the cumulative incidence function (CIF) is considered for competing risks data subject to interval censoring. Existing parametric models of the CIF for right censored competing risks data are adapted to the general case of interval censoring. Maximum likelihood estimators for the CIF are considered under the assumed models, extending earlier work on nonparametric estimation. A simple naive likelihood estimator is also considered that utilizes only part of the observed data. The naive estimator enables separate estimation of models for each cause, unlike full maximum likelihood in which all models are fit simultaneously. The naive likelihood is shown to be valid under mixed case interval censoring, but not under an independent inspection process model, in contrast with full maximum likelihood which is valid under both interval censoring models. In simulations, the naive estimator is shown to perform well and yield comparable efficiency to the full likelihood estimator in some settings. The methods are applied to data from a large, recent randomized clinical trial for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV.
FIT3D: Fitting optical spectra
Sánchez, S. F.; Pérez, E.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; González, J. J.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Cano-Díaz, M.; López-Cobá, C.; Marino, R. A.; Gil de Paz, A.; Mollá, M.; López-Sánchez, A. R.; Ascasibar, Y.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J.
2016-09-01
FIT3D fits optical spectra to deblend the underlying stellar population and the ionized gas, and extract physical information from each component. FIT3D is focused on the analysis of Integral Field Spectroscopy data, but is not restricted to it, and is the basis of Pipe3D, a pipeline used in the analysis of datasets like CALIFA, MaNGA, and SAMI. It can run iteratively or in an automatic way to derive the parameters of a large set of spectra.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Plodinec, M.J.
1998-11-20
After being filled with glass, DWPF canistered waste forms will be welded closed using an upset resistance welding process. This final closure weld must be leaktight, and must remain so during extended storage at SRS. As part of the DWPF Startup Test Program, a parametric study (DWPF-WP-24) has been performed to determine a range of welder operating parameters which will produce acceptable welds. The parametric window of acceptable welds defined by this study is 90,000 + 15,000 lb of force, 248,000 + 22,000 amps of current, and 95 + 15 cycles* for the time of application of the current.
Kalicka, Renata; Pietrenko-Dabrowska, Anna
2007-03-01
In the paper MRI measurements are used for assessment of brain tissue perfusion and other features and functions of the brain (cerebral blood flow - CBF, cerebral blood volume - CBV, mean transit time - MTT). Perfusion is an important indicator of tissue viability and functioning as in pathological tissue blood flow, vascular and tissue structure are altered with respect to normal tissue. MRI enables diagnosing diseases at an early stage of their course. The parametric and non-parametric approaches to the identification of MRI models are presented and compared. The non-parametric modeling adopts gamma variate functions. The parametric three-compartmental catenary model, based on the general kinetic model, is also proposed. The parameters of the models are estimated on the basis of experimental data. The goodness of fit of the gamma variate and the three-compartmental models to the data and the accuracy of the parameter estimates are compared. Kalman filtering, smoothing the measurements, was adopted to improve the estimate accuracy of the parametric model. Parametric modeling gives a better fit and better parameter estimates than non-parametric and allows an insight into the functioning of the system. To improve the accuracy optimal experiment design related to the input signal was performed.
Fitness club
2011-01-01
General fitness Classes Enrolments are open for general fitness classes at CERN taking place on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday lunchtimes in the Pump Hall (building 216). There are shower facilities for both men and women. It is possible to pay for 1, 2 or 3 classes per week for a minimum of 1 month and up to 6 months. Check out our rates and enrol at: http://cern.ch/club-fitness Hope to see you among us! CERN Fitness Club fitness.club@cern.ch
Local and omnibus goodness-of-fit tests in classical measurement error models
Ma, Yanyuan
2010-09-14
We consider functional measurement error models, i.e. models where covariates are measured with error and yet no distributional assumptions are made about the mismeasured variable. We propose and study a score-type local test and an orthogonal series-based, omnibus goodness-of-fit test in this context, where no likelihood function is available or calculated-i.e. all the tests are proposed in the semiparametric model framework. We demonstrate that our tests have optimality properties and computational advantages that are similar to those of the classical score tests in the parametric model framework. The test procedures are applicable to several semiparametric extensions of measurement error models, including when the measurement error distribution is estimated non-parametrically as well as for generalized partially linear models. The performance of the local score-type and omnibus goodness-of-fit tests is demonstrated through simulation studies and analysis of a nutrition data set.
Parametric Differentiation and Integration
Chen, Hongwei
2009-01-01
Parametric differentiation and integration under the integral sign constitutes a powerful technique for calculating integrals. However, this topic is generally not included in the undergraduate mathematics curriculum. In this note, we give a comprehensive review of this approach, and show how it can be systematically used to evaluate most of the…
Parametric Differentiation and Integration
Chen, Hongwei
2009-01-01
Parametric differentiation and integration under the integral sign constitutes a powerful technique for calculating integrals. However, this topic is generally not included in the undergraduate mathematics curriculum. In this note, we give a comprehensive review of this approach, and show how it can be systematically used to evaluate most of the…
Multiple Frequency Parametric Sonar
2015-09-28
300003 1 MULTIPLE FREQUENCY PARAMETRIC SONAR STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST [0001] The invention described herein may be manufactured and...beams. However, the multiple nonlinear interactions are not taken advantage of in order to generate additional efficiencies, bandwidth, and SNR...array. [0050] It will be understood that many additional changes in details, materials , steps, and arrangements of parts which have been described
Parametric Room Acoustic Workflows
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Parigi, Dario; Svidt, Kjeld; Molin, Erik
2017-01-01
The paper investigates and assesses different room acoustics software and the opportunities they offer to engage in parametric acoustics workflow and to influence architectural designs. The first step consists in the testing and benchmarking of different tools on the basis of accuracy, speed and ...
Maydeu-Olivares, Albert
2005-04-01
Chernyshenko, Stark, Chan, Drasgow, and Williams (2001) investigated the fit of Samejima's logistic graded model and Levine's non-parametric MFS model to the scales of two personality questionnaires and found that the graded model did not fit well. We attribute the poor fit of the graded model to small amounts of multidimensionality present in their data. To verify this conjecture, we compare the fit of these models to the Social Problem Solving Inventory-Revised, whose scales were designed to be unidimensional. A calibration and a cross-validation sample of new observations were used. We also included the following parametric models in the comparison: Bock's nominal model, Masters' partial credit model, and Thissen and Steinberg's extension of the latter. All models were estimated using full information maximum likelihood. We also included in the comparison a normal ogive model version of Samejima's model estimated using limited information estimation. We found that for all scales Samejima's model outperformed all other parametric IRT models in both samples, regardless of the estimation method employed. The non-parametric model outperformed all parametric models in the calibration sample. However, the graded model outperformed MFS in the cross-validation sample in some of the scales. We advocate employing the graded model estimated using limited information methods in modeling Likert-type data, as these methods are more versatile than full information methods to capture the multidimensionality that is generally present in personality data.
Two-parametric model of electron beam in computational dosimetry for radiation processing
Lazurik, V. M.; Lazurik, V. T.; Popov, G.; Zimek, Z.
2016-07-01
Computer simulation of irradiation process of various materials with electron beam (EB) can be applied to correct and control the performances of radiation processing installations. Electron beam energy measurements methods are described in the international standards. The obtained results of measurements can be extended by implementation computational dosimetry. Authors have developed the computational method for determination of EB energy on the base of two-parametric fitting of semi-empirical model for the depth dose distribution initiated by mono-energetic electron beam. The analysis of number experiments show that described method can effectively consider random displacements arising from the use of aluminum wedge with a continuous strip of dosimetric film and minimize the magnitude uncertainty value of the electron energy evaluation, calculated from the experimental data. Two-parametric fitting method is proposed for determination of the electron beam model parameters. These model parameters are as follow: E0 - energy mono-energetic and mono-directional electron source, X0 - the thickness of the aluminum layer, located in front of irradiated object. That allows obtain baseline data related to the characteristic of the electron beam, which can be later on applied for computer modeling of the irradiation process. Model parameters which are defined in the international standards (like Ep- the most probably energy and Rp - practical range) can be linked with characteristics of two-parametric model (E0, X0), which allows to simulate the electron irradiation process. The obtained data from semi-empirical model were checked together with the set of experimental results. The proposed two-parametric model for electron beam energy evaluation and estimation of accuracy for computational dosimetry methods on the base of developed model are discussed.
Crash risk analysis for Shanghai urban expressways: A Bayesian semi-parametric modeling approach.
Yu, Rongjie; Wang, Xuesong; Yang, Kui; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed
2016-10-01
Urban expressway systems have been developed rapidly in recent years in China; it has become one key part of the city roadway networks as carrying large traffic volume and providing high traveling speed. Along with the increase of traffic volume, traffic safety has become a major issue for Chinese urban expressways due to the frequent crash occurrence and the non-recurrent congestions caused by them. For the purpose of unveiling crash occurrence mechanisms and further developing Active Traffic Management (ATM) control strategies to improve traffic safety, this study developed disaggregate crash risk analysis models with loop detector traffic data and historical crash data. Bayesian random effects logistic regression models were utilized as it can account for the unobserved heterogeneity among crashes. However, previous crash risk analysis studies formulated random effects distributions in a parametric approach, which assigned them to follow normal distributions. Due to the limited information known about random effects distributions, subjective parametric setting may be incorrect. In order to construct more flexible and robust random effects to capture the unobserved heterogeneity, Bayesian semi-parametric inference technique was introduced to crash risk analysis in this study. Models with both inference techniques were developed for total crashes; semi-parametric models were proved to provide substantial better model goodness-of-fit, while the two models shared consistent coefficient estimations. Later on, Bayesian semi-parametric random effects logistic regression models were developed for weekday peak hour crashes, weekday non-peak hour crashes, and weekend non-peak hour crashes to investigate different crash occurrence scenarios. Significant factors that affect crash risk have been revealed and crash mechanisms have been concluded.
Fitness Club
2011-01-01
The CERN Fitness Club is organising Zumba Classes on the first Wednesday of each month, starting 7 September (19.00 – 20.00). What is Zumba®? It’s an exhilarating, effective, easy-to-follow, Latin-inspired, calorie-burning dance fitness-party™ that’s moving millions of people toward joy and health. Above all it’s great fun and an excellent work out. Price: 22 CHF/person Sign-up via the following form: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Zumba%20Subscription/NewForm.aspx For more info: fitness.club@cern.ch
Interactive Dimensioning of Parametric Models
Kelly, T.
2015-05-01
We propose a solution for the dimensioning of parametric and procedural models. Dimensioning has long been a staple of technical drawings, and we present the first solution for interactive dimensioning: A dimension line positioning system that adapts to the view direction, given behavioral properties. After proposing a set of design principles for interactive dimensioning, we describe our solution consisting of the following major components. First, we describe how an author can specify the desired interactive behavior of a dimension line. Second, we propose a novel algorithm to place dimension lines at interactive speeds. Third, we introduce multiple extensions, including chained dimension lines, controls for different parameter types (e.g. discrete choices, angles), and the use of dimension lines for interactive editing. Our results show the use of dimension lines in an interactive parametric modeling environment for architectural, botanical, and mechanical models. © 2015 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2015 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Heat Transfer Parametric System Identification
1993-06-01
Transfer Parametric System Identification 6. AUTHOR(S Parker, Gregory K. 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND AOORESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...distribution is unlimited. Heat Transfer Parametric System Identification by Gregory K. Parker Lieutenant, United States Navy BS., DeVry Institute of...Modeling Concept ........ ........... 3 2. Lumped Parameter Approach ...... ......... 4 3. Parametric System Identification ....... 4 B. BASIC MODELING
Towards Stabilizing Parametric Active Contours
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Liu, Jinchao; Fan, Zhun; Olsen, Søren Ingvor;
2014-01-01
Numerical instability often occurs in evolving of parametric active contours. This is mainly due to the undesired change of parametrization during evolution. In this paper, we propose a new tangential diffusion term to compensate this undesired change. As a result, the parametrization will converge...
Polarization effect in parametric amplifier
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Junhe Zhou; Jianping Chen; Xinwan Li; Guiling Wu; Yiping Wang
2005-01-01
@@ Polarization effect in parametric amplifiers is studied. Coupled equations are derived from the basic propagation equations and numerical solutions are given for both one-wavelength-pump and two-wavelengthpump systems. Several parametric amplifiers driven by pumps at one wavelength and two wavelengths are analyzed and the polarization independent parametric amplifier is proposed.
Richards, Justin; Foster, Charlie; Townsend, Nick; Bauman, Adrian
2014-06-18
Physical inactivity contributes to poor fitness and mental health disorders. This is of concern in post-conflict low-income settings where non-communicable diseases are emerging and there is limited evidence for physical activity interventions. We examined the effects of a sport-for-development programme on adolescent physical fitness and mental health in Gulu, Uganda. We conducted a single-blinded RCT nested within an observational study with three unbalanced parallel groups. Participants were able-bodied adolescents aged 11-14 years. The intervention comprised an 11-week voluntary competitive sport-for-development football league. Participants who did not subscribe for the intervention formed a non-registered comparison group. Boys who registered for the sport-for-development programme were randomly allocated to the intervention or wait-listed. The girls programme subscription was insufficient to form a wait-list and all registrants received the intervention. Physical fitness was assessed by cardiorespiratory fitness (multi-stage fitness test), muscular power (standing broad jump) and body composition (BMI-for-age). Mental health was measured using the Acholi Psychosocial Assessment Instrument for local depression-like (DLS) and anxiety-like (ALS) syndromes. All randomisation was computer generated and assessors were masked to group allocation. An intention-to-treat analysis of adjusted effect size (ES) was applied. There were 1,462 adolescents in the study (intervention: boys = 74, girls = 81; wait-list: boys = 72; comparison: boys = 472, girls = 763). At four months follow-up there was no significant effect on the boys fitness when comparing intervention vs wait-listed and intervention vs non-registered groups. However, there was a negative effect on DLS when comparing boys intervention vs wait-listed (ES = 0.67 [0.33 to 1.00]) and intervention vs non-registered (ES = 0.25 [0.00 to 0.49]). Similar results were observed for ALS for boys intervention vs wait
Parametrizing modified gravity for cosmological surveys
Gleyzes, Jérôme
2017-09-01
One of the challenges in testing gravity with cosmology is the vast freedom opened when extending General Relativity. For linear perturbations, one solution consists in using the effective field theory of dark energy. Even then, the theory space is described in terms of a handful of free functions of time. This needs to be reduced to a finite number of parameters to be practical for cosmological surveys. We explore in this article how well simple parametrizations, with a small number of parameters, can fit observables computed from complex theories. Imposing the stability of linear perturbations appreciably reduces the theory space we explore. We find that observables are not extremely sensitive to short time-scale variations and that simple, smooth parametrizations are usually sufficient to describe this theory space. Using the Bayesian information criterion, we find that using two parameters for each function (an amplitude and a power-law index) is preferred over complex models for 86% of our theory space.
Chempy: A flexible chemical evolution model for abundance fitting
Rybizki, J.; Just, A.; Rix, H.-W.; Fouesneau, M.
2017-02-01
Chempy models Galactic chemical evolution (GCE); it is a parametrized open one-zone model within a Bayesian framework. A Chempy model is specified by a set of 5-10 parameters that describe the effective galaxy evolution along with the stellar and star-formation physics: e.g. the star-formation history (SFH), the feedback efficiency, the stellar initial mass function (IMF) and the incidence of supernova of type Ia (SN Ia). Chempy can sample the posterior probability distribution in the full model parameter space and test data-model matches for different nucleosynthetic yield sets, performing essentially as a chemical evolution fitting tool. Chempy can be used to confront predictions from stellar nucleosynthesis with complex abundance data sets and to refine the physical processes governing the chemical evolution of stellar systems.
MEMS digital parametric loudspeaker
Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo
2016-03-23
This paper reports on the design and fabrication of MEMS actuator arrays suitable for Digital Sound reconstruction and Parametric Directional Loudspeakers. Two distinct versions of the device were fabricated: one using the electrostatic principle actuation and the other one, the piezoelectric principle. Both versions used similar membrane dimensions, with a diameter of 500 μm. These devices are the smallest Micro-Machined Ultrasound Transducer (MUT) arrays that can be operated for both modes: Digital Sound Reconstruction and Parametric Loudspeaker. The chips consist of an array with 256 transducers, in a footprint of 12 mm by 12 mm. The total single chip size is: 2.3 cm by 2.3 cm, including the contact pads. © 2016 IEEE.
Parametric Resonance in Dynamical Systems
Nijmeijer, Henk
2012-01-01
Parametric Resonance in Dynamical Systems discusses the phenomenon of parametric resonance and its occurrence in mechanical systems,vehicles, motorcycles, aircraft and marine craft, and micro-electro-mechanical systems. The contributors provide an introduction to the root causes of this phenomenon and its mathematical equivalent, the Mathieu-Hill equation. Also included is a discussion of how parametric resonance occurs on ships and offshore systems and its frequency in mechanical and electrical systems. This book also: Presents the theory and principles behind parametric resonance Provides a unique collection of the different fields where parametric resonance appears including ships and offshore structures, automotive vehicles and mechanical systems Discusses ways to combat, cope with and prevent parametric resonance including passive design measures and active control methods Parametric Resonance in Dynamical Systems is ideal for researchers and mechanical engineers working in application fields such as MEM...
Porter, Andrew C.; McSweeney, Maryellen
A Monte Carlo technique was used to investigate the small sample goodness of fit and statistical power of several nonparametric tests and their parametric analogues when applied to data which violate parametric assumptions. The motivation was to facilitate choice among three designs, simple random assignment with and without a concomitant variable…
Fitness Club
2012-01-01
Open to All: http://cern.ch/club-fitness fitness.club@cern.ch Boxing Your supervisor makes your life too tough ! You really need to release the pressure you've been building up ! Come and join the fit-boxers. We train three times a week in Bd 216, classes for beginners and advanced available. Visit our website cern.ch/Boxing General Fitness Escape from your desk with our general fitness classes, to strengthen your heart, muscles and bones, improve you stamina, balance and flexibility, achieve new goals, be more productive and experience a sense of well-being, every Monday, Wednesday and Friday lunchtime, Tuesday mornings before work and Thursday evenings after work – join us for one of our monthly fitness workshops. Nordic Walking Enjoy the great outdoors; Nordic Walking is a great way to get your whole body moving and to significantly improve the condition of your muscles, heart and lungs. It will boost your energy levels no end. Pilates A body-conditioning technique de...
A Comparison of Thawing and Freezing Dark Energy Parametrizations
Pantazis, G; Perivolaropoulos, L
2016-01-01
Dark energy equation of state $w(z)$ parametrizations with two parameters and given monotonicity are generically either convex or concave functions. This makes them suitable for fitting either freezing or thawing quintessence models but not both simultaneously. Fitting a dataset based on a freezing model with an unsuitable (concave when increasing) $w(z)$ parametrization (like CPL) can lead to significant misleading features like crossing of the phantom divide line, incorrect $w(z=0)$, incorrect slope \\etc that are not present in the underlying cosmological model. To demonstrate this fact we generate scattered cosmological data both at the level of $w(z)$ and the luminosity distance $D_L(z)$ based on either thawing or freezing quintessence models and fit them using parametrizations of convex and of concave type. We then compare statistically significant features of the best fit $w(z)$ with actual features of the underlying model. We thus verify that the use of unsuitable parametrizations can lead to misleadin...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
何红波; 周继承; 胡慧芳; 李义兵
2000-01-01
In this paper, the numerical simulation of master equation based on the DBTJ (Double Barrier Tunneling Junctions) of SET ( Single Election Transistor) using genetic algorithm are discussed. The numerical fittings are done for the Coulomb staircase of nanoscale particle self-assembly system. We find genetic algorithms are good for the fitting.%本文在单电子器件半经典的双隧道结模型的基础上,采用 遗传算法通过对主方程的数值求解,对Au纳米粒子组装体系的库仑台阶 现象进行了拟合。我们发现该算法的拟合结果效果很好。
健身操对健康体适能的影响%Inlfuence of Setting-up Exercise on Health Fitness
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
闫巧珍
2014-01-01
The paper studies the inlfuence of setting-up exercise on health iftness based on the current literature both at home and abroad. The result shows that participating in setting-up exercise regularly can effectively improve cardiovascular function, increase muscle strength and muscle endurance. Besides, it can also change body’s composition obviously and improve special people’s health and iftness. The study of the effect of setting-up exercise on health iftness provides references for scientiifc iftness.%运用文献资料法对国内外健身操改善人体健康体适能的现状进行研究。结果表明，长期参加健身操运动，可以有效改善人体心血管功能、肌肉力量和肌肉耐力，对于身体成分的百分比也有明显改变，另外对特殊人群的健康体适能也有明显的提高。探讨健身操对健康体适能的功效，可以为科学的健身提供参考。
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Steinø, Nicolai; Obeling, Esben
2013-01-01
. Therefore, the design of urban space happens in a space of power. And this is something which traditionally the average urban dweller does not have. Urban designers communicate about urban space design in a professional language and through graphics which are not always intelligible to laypersons...... the given time and resource limits. And again, the lay person, whether she is a resident, a local business person, or a NGO representative, is left with little influence, when it comes to the design of urban space. With the advent of parametric design tools, this need no longer be the case. Rather than...
Parametric and Non-Parametric System Modelling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg
1999-01-01
other aspects, the properties of a method for parameter estimation in stochastic differential equations is considered within the field of heat dynamics of buildings. In the second paper a lack-of-fit test for stochastic differential equations is presented. The test can be applied to both linear and non-linear...... networks is included. In this paper, neural networks are used for predicting the electricity production of a wind farm. The results are compared with results obtained using an adaptively estimated ARX-model. Finally, two papers on stochastic differential equations are included. In the first paper, among...... stochastic differential equations. Some applications are presented in the papers. In the summary report references are made to a number of other applications. Resumé på dansk: Nærværende afhandling består af ti artikler publiceret i perioden 1996-1999 samt et sammendrag og en perspektivering heraf. I...
Group Parametrized Tunneling and Local Symmetry Conditions
Harter, William; Mitchell, Justin
2010-06-01
Recently, Hougen showed an ad hoc symmetry-based parameterization scheme for analyzing tunneling dynamics and high resolution spectra of fluxional molecular structure similar to S-parameter analysis of superfine structure in SF_6 or NH_3 maser inversion dynamics by Feynman et.al. The problem is that ad hoc parametrization, like path integration in general, can lead to logjams of parameters or ``paths'' with no way to pick out the relevant ones. We show a way to identify and use relevant parameters for a tunneling Hamiltonian H having global G-symmetry-defined bases by first expressing H as a linear combination bar γ ^i {bar g}_i of operators in dual symmetry group bar G. The coefficients bar γ ^i are parameters that define a complete set of allowed paths for any H with G-symmetry and are related thru spectral decomposition of G to eigensolutions of H. Quantum G vs.bar G duality generalizes lab -vs. -body and state -vs. -particle. The number of relevant bar γ ^i-parameters is reduced if a system tends to stick in states of a local symmetry subgroup LsubsetG so the H spectrum forms level clusters labeled by induced representations d(ℓ)(L)\\uparrowG. A cluster-(ℓ) has one E(epsilon)-level labeled by G species (epsilon) for each L species (ℓ) in Depsilon(G)downarrowL by Frobenius reciprocity. Then we apply local symmetry conditions to each irrep Depsilon(bar γ ^i {bar g}_i) that has already been reduced with respect to local symmetry L. This amounts to setting each off-diagonal component Dj,kepsilon(H) to zero. Local symmetry conditions may tell which bar γ ^i-parameters are redundant or zero and directly determine d(ℓ)\\uparrowG tunneling matrix eigenvalues that give E(epsilon)-levels as well as eigenvectors. Otherwise one may need to choose a particular localizing subgroup chain LsubsetL_1subsetL_2...G and further reduce the number of path parameters to facilitate spectral fitting. J.T. Hougen, 2009 MSS RJ01, {J Mol Spect 123, 197 (1987) W.G. Harter and
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Karen L.; Pedersen, Thomas M.; Udekwu, Klas I.
2012-01-01
of each isolate was determined in a growth competition assay with a reference isolate. Significant fitness costs of 215 were determined for the MRSA isolates studied. There was a significant negative correlation between number of antibiotic resistances and relative fitness. Multiple regression analysis...... to that seen in Denmark. We propose a significant fitness cost of resistance as the main bacteriological explanation for the disappearance of the multiresistant complex 83A MRSA in Denmark following a reduction in antibiotic usage.......Denmark and several other countries experienced the first epidemic of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) during the period 196575, which was caused by multiresistant isolates of phage complex 83A. In Denmark these MRSA isolates disappeared almost completely, being replaced by other...
uvmcmcfit: Parametric models to interferometric data fitter
Bussmann, Shane; Leung, Tsz Kuk (Daisy); Conley, Alexander
2016-06-01
Uvmcmcfit fits parametric models to interferometric data. It is ideally suited to extract the maximum amount of information from marginally resolved observations with interferometers like the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA), Submillimeter Array (SMA), and Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI). uvmcmcfit uses emcee (ascl:1303.002) to do Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) and can measure the goodness of fit from visibilities rather than deconvolved images, an advantage when there is strong gravitational lensing and in other situations. uvmcmcfit includes a pure-Python adaptation of Miriad’s (ascl:1106.007) uvmodel task to generate simulated visibilities given observed visibilities and a model image and a simple ray-tracing routine that allows it to account for both strongly lensed systems (where multiple images of the lensed galaxy are detected) and weakly lensed systems (where only a single image of the lensed galaxy is detected).
Schörgendorfer, Angela; Branscum, Adam J; Hanson, Timothy E
2013-06-01
Logistic regression is a popular tool for risk analysis in medical and population health science. With continuous response data, it is common to create a dichotomous outcome for logistic regression analysis by specifying a threshold for positivity. Fitting a linear regression to the nondichotomized response variable assuming a logistic sampling model for the data has been empirically shown to yield more efficient estimates of odds ratios than ordinary logistic regression of the dichotomized endpoint. We illustrate that risk inference is not robust to departures from the parametric logistic distribution. Moreover, the model assumption of proportional odds is generally not satisfied when the condition of a logistic distribution for the data is violated, leading to biased inference from a parametric logistic analysis. We develop novel Bayesian semiparametric methodology for testing goodness of fit of parametric logistic regression with continuous measurement data. The testing procedures hold for any cutoff threshold and our approach simultaneously provides the ability to perform semiparametric risk estimation. Bayes factors are calculated using the Savage-Dickey ratio for testing the null hypothesis of logistic regression versus a semiparametric generalization. We propose a fully Bayesian and a computationally efficient empirical Bayesian approach to testing, and we present methods for semiparametric estimation of risks, relative risks, and odds ratios when parametric logistic regression fails. Theoretical results establish the consistency of the empirical Bayes test. Results from simulated data show that the proposed approach provides accurate inference irrespective of whether parametric assumptions hold or not. Evaluation of risk factors for obesity shows that different inferences are derived from an analysis of a real data set when deviations from a logistic distribution are permissible in a flexible semiparametric framework.
Fitness Club
2012-01-01
Get in Shape for Summer with the CERN Fitness Club Saturday 23 June 2012 from 14:30 to 16.30 (doors open at 14.00) Germana’s Fitness Workshop. Build strength and stamina, sculpt and tone your body and get your heart pumping with Germana’s workout mixture of Cardio Attack, Power Pump, Power Step, Cardio Combat and Cross-Training. Where: 216 (Pump room – equipped with changing rooms and showers). What to wear: comfortable clothes and indoor sports shoes + bring a drink! How much: 15 chf Sign up here: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Test_Subscription/NewForm.aspx? Join the Party and dance yourself into shape at Marco + Marials Zumba Masterclass. Saturday 30 June 2012 from 15:00 to 16:30 Marco + Mariel’s Zumba Masterclass Where: 216 (Pump room – equipped with changing rooms and showers). What to wear: comfortable clothes and indoor sports shoes + bring a drink! How much: 25 chf Sign up here: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Zumba%20...
Fitness Club
2012-01-01
The CERN Fitness Club is pleased to announce its new early morning class which will be taking place on: Tuesdays from 24th April 07:30 to 08:15 216 (Pump Hall, close to entrance C) – Facilities include changing rooms and showers. The Classes: The early morning classes will focus on workouts which will help you build not only strength and stamina, but will also improve your balance, and coordination. Our qualified instructor Germana will accompany you throughout the workout to ensure you stay motivated so you achieve the best results. Sign up and discover the best way to start your working day full of energy! How to subscribe? We invite you along to a FREE trial session, if you enjoy the activity, please sign up via our website: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Activities/SUBSCRIBE.aspx. * * * * * * * * Saturday 28th April Get in shape for the summer at our fitness workshop and zumba dance party: Fitness workshop with Germana 13:00 to 14:30 - 216 (Pump Hall) Price...
Fitness club
2013-01-01
Nordic Walking Classes Come join the Nordic walking classes and outings offered by the CERN Fitness Club starting September 2013. Our licensed instructor Christine offers classes for people who’ve never tried Nordic Walking and who would like to learn the technique, and outings for people who have completed the classes and enjoy going out as a group. Course 1: Tuesdays 12:30 - 13:30 24 September, 1 October, 8 October, 15 October Course 2: Tuesdays 12:30 - 13:30 5 November, 12 November, 19 November, 26 November Outings will take place on Thursdays (12:30 to 13:30) from 12 September 2013. We meet at the CERN Club Barracks car park (close to Entrance A) 10 minutes before departure. Prices: 50 CHF for 4 classes, including the 10 CHF Club membership. Payments made directly to instructor. Renting Poles: Poles can be rented from Christine at 5 CHF / hour. Subscription: Please subscribe at: http://cern.ch/club-fitness Looking forward to seeing you among us! Fitness Club FitnessClub@c...
Su, Kuan-Hao; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Fang, Yu-Hua Dean
2013-10-01
The aim of this study is to develop and evaluate a novel direct reconstruction method to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of parametric images in dynamic positron-emission tomography (PET), especially for applications in myocardial perfusion studies. Simulation studies were used to test the performance in SNR and computational efficiency for different methods. The NCAT phantom was used to generate simulated dynamic data. Noise realization was performed in the sinogram domain and repeated for 30 times with four different noise levels by varying the injection dose (ID) from standard ID to 1/8 of it. The parametric images were calculated by (1) three direct methods that compute the kinetic parameters from the sinogram and (2) an indirect method, which computes the kinetic parameter with pixel-by-pixel curve fitting in image space using weighted least-squares. The first direct reconstruction maximizes the likelihood function using trust-region-reflective (TRR) algorithm. The second approach uses tabulated parameter sets to generate precomputed time-activity curves for maximizing the likelihood functions. The third approach, as a newly proposed method, assumes separable complete data to derive the M-step for maximizing the likelihood. The proposed method with the separable complete data performs similarly to the other two direct reconstruction methods in terms of the SNR, providing a 5%-10% improvement as compared to the indirect parametric reconstruction under the standard ID. The improvement of SNR becomes more obvious as the noise level increases, reaching more than 30% improvement under 1/8 ID. Advantage of the proposed method lies in the computation efficiency by shortening the time requirement to 25% of the indirect approach and 3%-6% of other direct reconstruction methods. With results provided from this simulation study, direct reconstruction of myocardial blood flow shows a high potential for improving the parametric image quality for clinical use.
Gilkey, Roderick; Kilts, Clint
2007-11-01
Recent neuroscientific research shows that the health of your brain isn't, as experts once thought, just the product of childhood experiences and genetics; it reflects your adult choices and experiences as well. Professors Gilkey and Kilts of Emory University's medical and business schools explain how you can strengthen your brain's anatomy, neural networks, and cognitive abilities, and prevent functions such as memory from deteriorating as you age. The brain's alertness is the result of what the authors call cognitive fitness -a state of optimized ability to reason, remember, learn, plan, and adapt. Certain attitudes, lifestyle choices, and exercises enhance cognitive fitness. Mental workouts are the key. Brain-imaging studies indicate that acquiring expertise in areas as diverse as playing a cello, juggling, speaking a foreign language, and driving a taxicab expands your neural systems and makes them more communicative. In other words, you can alter the physical makeup of your brain by learning new skills. The more cognitively fit you are, the better equipped you are to make decisions, solve problems, and deal with stress and change. Cognitive fitness will help you be more open to new ideas and alternative perspectives. It will give you the capacity to change your behavior and realize your goals. You can delay senescence for years and even enjoy a second career. Drawing from the rapidly expanding body of neuroscience research as well as from well-established research in psychology and other mental health fields, the authors have identified four steps you can take to become cognitively fit: understand how experience makes the brain grow, work hard at play, search for patterns, and seek novelty and innovation. Together these steps capture some of the key opportunities for maintaining an engaged, creative brain.
Parametric lattice Boltzmann method
Shim, Jae Wan
2017-06-01
The discretized equilibrium distributions of the lattice Boltzmann method are presented by using the coefficients of the Lagrange interpolating polynomials that pass through the points related to discrete velocities and using moments of the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. The ranges of flow velocity and temperature providing positive valued distributions vary with regulating discrete velocities as parameters. New isothermal and thermal compressible models are proposed for flows of the level of the isothermal and thermal compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Thermal compressible shock tube flows are simulated by only five on-lattice discrete velocities. Two-dimensional isothermal and thermal vortices provoked by the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability are simulated by the parametric models.
Acomi, Nicoleta; Ancuţa, Cristian; Andrei, Cristian; Boştinǎ, Alina; Boştinǎ, Aurel
2016-12-01
Ships are mainly built to sail and transport cargo at sea. Environmental conditions and state of the sea are communicated to vessels through periodic weather forecasts. Despite officers being aware of the sea state, their sea time experience is a decisive factor when the vessel encounters severe environmental conditions. Another important factor is the loading condition of the vessel, which triggers different behaviour in similar marine environmental conditions. This paper aims to analyse the behaviour of a port container vessel in severe environmental conditions and to estimate the potential conditions of parametric roll resonance. Octopus software simulation is employed to simulate vessel motions under certain conditions of the sea, with possibility to analyse the behaviour of ships and the impact of high waves on ships due to specific wave encounter situations. The study should be regarded as a supporting tool during the decision making process.
Parametric modal transition systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Beneš, Nikola; Křetínský, Jan; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand;
2011-01-01
Modal transition systems (MTS) is a well-studied specification formalism of reactive systems supporting a step-wise refinement methodology. Despite its many advantages, the formalism as well as its currently known extensions are incapable of expressing some practically needed aspects in the refin......Modal transition systems (MTS) is a well-studied specification formalism of reactive systems supporting a step-wise refinement methodology. Despite its many advantages, the formalism as well as its currently known extensions are incapable of expressing some practically needed aspects...... in the refinement process like exclusive, conditional and persistent choices. We introduce a new model called parametric modal transition systems (PMTS) together with a general modal refinement notion that overcome many of the limitations and we investigate the computational complexity of modal refinement checking....
Nanoscale electromechanical parametric amplifier
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aleman, Benjamin Jose; Zettl, Alexander
2016-09-20
This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to a parametric amplifier. In one aspect, a device includes an electron source electrode, a counter electrode, and a pumping electrode. The electron source electrode may include a conductive base and a flexible conductor. The flexible conductor may have a first end and a second end, with the second end of the flexible conductor being coupled to the conductive base. A cross-sectional dimension of the flexible conductor may be less than about 100 nanometers. The counter electrode may be disposed proximate the first end of the flexible conductor and spaced a first distance from the first end of the flexible conductor. The pumping electrode may be disposed proximate a length of the flexible conductor and spaced a second distance from the flexible conductor.
Nanoscale electromechanical parametric amplifier
Aleman, Benjamin Jose; Zettl, Alexander
2016-09-20
This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to a parametric amplifier. In one aspect, a device includes an electron source electrode, a counter electrode, and a pumping electrode. The electron source electrode may include a conductive base and a flexible conductor. The flexible conductor may have a first end and a second end, with the second end of the flexible conductor being coupled to the conductive base. A cross-sectional dimension of the flexible conductor may be less than about 100 nanometers. The counter electrode may be disposed proximate the first end of the flexible conductor and spaced a first distance from the first end of the flexible conductor. The pumping electrode may be disposed proximate a length of the flexible conductor and spaced a second distance from the flexible conductor.
Probabilistic Reachability for Parametric Markov Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hahn, Ernst Moritz; Hermanns, Holger; Zhang, Lijun
2011-01-01
Given a parametric Markov model, we consider the problem of computing the rational function expressing the probability of reaching a given set of states. To attack this principal problem, Daws has suggested to first convert the Markov chain into a finite automaton, from which a regular expression...... is computed. Afterwards, this expression is evaluated to a closed form function representing the reachability probability. This paper investigates how this idea can be turned into an effective procedure. It turns out that the bottleneck lies in the growth of the regular expression relative to the number...... of states (n(log n)).We therefore proceed differently, by tightly intertwining the regular expression computation with its evaluation. This allows us to arrive at an effective method that avoids this blow up in most practical cases. We give a detailed account of the approach, also extending to parametric...
Fitness Club
2012-01-01
Nordic Walking Classes Sessions of four classes of one hour each are held on Tuesdays. RDV barracks parking at Entrance A, 10 minutes before class time. Session 1 = 11.09 / 18.09 / 25.09 / 02.10, 18:15 - 19:15 Session 2 = 25.09 / 02.10 / 09.10 / 16.10, 12:30 - 13:30 Session 3 = 23.10 / 30.10 / 06.11 / 13.11, 12:30 - 13:30 Session 4 = 20.11 / 27.11 / 04.12 / 11.12, 12:30 - 13:30 Prices 40 CHF per session + 10 CHF club membership 5 CHF/hour pole rental Check out our schedule and enroll at http://cern.ch/club-fitness Hope to see you among us! fitness.club@cern.ch In spring 2012 there was a long-awaited progress in CERN Fitness club. We have officially opened a Powerlifting @ CERN, and the number of members of the new section has been increasing since then reaching 70+ people in less than 4 months. Powerlifting is a strength sport, which is simple as 1-2-3 and efficient. The "1-2-3" are the three basic lifts (bench press...
Using non-parametric methods in econometric production analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Czekaj, Tomasz Gerard; Henningsen, Arne
-Douglas function nor the Translog function are consistent with the “true” relationship between the inputs and the output in our data set. We solve this problem by using non-parametric regression. This approach delivers reasonable results, which are on average not too different from the results of the parametric......Econometric estimation of production functions is one of the most common methods in applied economic production analysis. These studies usually apply parametric estimation techniques, which obligate the researcher to specify the functional form of the production function. Most often, the Cobb...... results—including measures that are of interest of applied economists, such as elasticities. Therefore, we propose to use nonparametric econometric methods. First, they can be applied to verify the functional form used in parametric estimations of production functions. Second, they can be directly used...
Using non-parametric methods in econometric production analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Czekaj, Tomasz Gerard; Henningsen, Arne
2012-01-01
by investigating the relationship between the elasticity of scale and the farm size. We use a balanced panel data set of 371~specialised crop farms for the years 2004-2007. A non-parametric specification test shows that neither the Cobb-Douglas function nor the Translog function are consistent with the "true......Econometric estimation of production functions is one of the most common methods in applied economic production analysis. These studies usually apply parametric estimation techniques, which obligate the researcher to specify a functional form of the production function of which the Cobb...... parameter estimates, but also in biased measures which are derived from the parameters, such as elasticities. Therefore, we propose to use non-parametric econometric methods. First, these can be applied to verify the functional form used in parametric production analysis. Second, they can be directly used...
Comparing parametric and nonparametric regression methods for panel data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Czekaj, Tomasz Gerard; Henningsen, Arne
We investigate and compare the suitability of parametric and non-parametric stochastic regression methods for analysing production technologies and the optimal firm size. Our theoretical analysis shows that the most commonly used functional forms in empirical production analysis, Cobb......-Douglas and Translog, are unsuitable for analysing the optimal firm size. We show that the Translog functional form implies an implausible linear relationship between the (logarithmic) firm size and the elasticity of scale, where the slope is artificially related to the substitutability between the inputs....... The practical applicability of the parametric and non-parametric regression methods is scrutinised and compared by an empirical example: we analyse the production technology and investigate the optimal size of Polish crop farms based on a firm-level balanced panel data set. A nonparametric specification test...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vivancos, E; Healy, C; Mueller, F; Whalley, D
2001-05-09
Embedded systems often have real-time constraints. Traditional timing analysis statically determines the maximum execution time of a task or a program in a real-time system. These systems typically depend on the worst-case execution time of tasks in order to make static scheduling decisions so that tasks can meet their deadlines. Static determination of worst-case execution times imposes numerous restrictions on real-time programs, which include that the maximum number of iterations of each loop must be known statically. These restrictions can significantly limit the class of programs that would be suitable for a real-time embedded system. This paper describes work-in-progress that uses static timing analysis to aid in making dynamic scheduling decisions. For instance, different algorithms with varying levels of accuracy may be selected based on the algorithm's predicted worst-case execution time and the time allotted for the task. We represent the worst-case execution time of a function or a loop as a formula, where the unknown values affecting the execution time are parameterized. This parametric timing analysis produces formulas that can then be quickly evaluated at run-time so dynamic scheduling decisions can be made with little overhead. Benefits of this work include expanding the class of applications that can be used in a real-time system, improving the accuracy of dynamic scheduling decisions, and more effective utilization of system resources. This paper describes how static timing analysis can be used to aid in making dynamic scheduling decisions. The WCET of a function or a loop is represented as a formula, where the values affecting the execution time are parameterized. Such formulas can then be quickly evaluated at run-time so dynamic scheduling decisions can be made when scheduling a task or choosing algorithms within a task. Benefits of this parametric timing analysis include expanding the class of applications that can be used in a real
Parametrization of the quark mixing matrix involving its eigenvalues
Chaturvedi, S; Gupta, Virendra
2003-01-01
A parametrization of the $3\\times 3$ Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix, $V$, is presented in which the parameters are the eigenvalues and the components of its eigenvectors. In this parametrization, the small departure of the experimentally determined $V$ from being moduli symmetric (i.e. $|V_{ij}|=|V_{ji}|$) is controlled by the small difference between two of the eigenvalues. In case, any two eigenvalues are equal, one obtains a moduli symmetric $V$ depending on only three parameters. Our parametrization gives very good fits to the available data including CP-violation. Our value of $\\sin 2\\beta\\approx 0.7$ and other parameters associated with the ` unitarity triangle' $V_{11}V_{13}^{*}+V_{21}V_{23}^{*}V_{31}V_{33}^{*}=0$ are in good agreement with data and other analyses.
Fitness club
2013-01-01
Nordic Walking Classes New session of 4 classes of 1 hour each will be held on Tuesdays in May 2013. Meet at the CERN barracks parking at Entrance A, 10 minutes before class time. Dates and time: 07.05, 14.05, 21.05 and 28.05, fom 12 h 30 to 13 h 30 Prices: 40 CHF per session + 10 CHF club membership – 5 CHF / hour pole rental Check out our schedule and enroll at http://cern.ch/club-fitness Hope to see you among us!
Lorenzo Mercuri; Edit Rroji
2014-01-01
Any optimization algorithm based on the risk parity approach requires the formulation of portfolio total risk in terms of marginal contributions. In this paper we use the independence of the underlying factors in the market to derive the centered moments required in the risk decomposition process when the modified versions of Value at Risk and Expected Shortfall are considered. The choice of the Mixed Tempered Stable distribution seems adequate for fitting skewed and heavy tailed distribution...
Non-parametric versus parametric methods in environmental sciences
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muhammad Riaz
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This current report intends to highlight the importance of considering background assumptions required for the analysis of real datasets in different disciplines. We will provide comparative discussion of parametric methods (that depends on distributional assumptions (like normality relative to non-parametric methods (that are free from many distributional assumptions. We have chosen a real dataset from environmental sciences (one of the application areas. The findings may be extended to the other disciplines following the same spirit.
Choi, Jongseong
The performance of a hypersonic flight vehicle will depend on existing materials and fuels; this work presents the performance of the ideal scramjet engine for three different combustion chamber materials and three different candidate fuels. Engine performance is explored by parametric cycle analysis for the ideal scramjet as a function of material maximum service temperature and the lower heating value of jet engine fuels. The thermodynamic analysis is based on the Brayton cycle as similarly employed in describing the performance of the ramjet, turbojet, and fanjet ideal engines. The objective of this work is to explore material operating temperatures and fuel possibilities for the combustion chamber of a scramjet propulsion system to show how they relate to scramjet performance and the seven scramjet engine parameters: specific thrust, fuel-to-air ratio, thrust-specific fuel consumption, thermal efficiency, propulsive efficiency, overall efficiency, and thrust flux. The information presented in this work has not been done by others in the scientific literature. This work yields simple algebraic equations for scramjet performance which are similar to that of the ideal ramjet, ideal turbojet and ideal turbofan engines.
Parametric Mass Reliability Study
Holt, James P.
2014-01-01
The International Space Station (ISS) systems are designed based upon having redundant systems with replaceable orbital replacement units (ORUs). These ORUs are designed to be swapped out fairly quickly, but some are very large, and some are made up of many components. When an ORU fails, it is replaced on orbit with a spare; the failed unit is sometimes returned to Earth to be serviced and re-launched. Such a system is not feasible for a 500+ day long-duration mission beyond low Earth orbit. The components that make up these ORUs have mixed reliabilities. Components that make up the most mass-such as computer housings, pump casings, and the silicon board of PCBs-typically are the most reliable. Meanwhile components that tend to fail the earliest-such as seals or gaskets-typically have a small mass. To better understand the problem, my project is to create a parametric model that relates both the mass of ORUs to reliability, as well as the mass of ORU subcomponents to reliability.
Free response approach in a parametric system
Huang, Dishan; Zhang, Yueyue; Shao, Hexi
2017-07-01
In this study, a new approach to predict the free response in a parametric system is investigated. It is proposed in the special form of a trigonometric series with an exponentially decaying function of time, based on the concept of frequency splitting. By applying harmonic balance, the parametric vibration equation is transformed into an infinite set of homogeneous linear equations, from which the principal oscillation frequency can be computed, and all coefficients of harmonic components can be obtained. With initial conditions, arbitrary constants in a general solution can be determined. To analyze the computational accuracy and consistency, an approach error function is defined, which is used to assess the computational error in the proposed approach and in the standard numerical approach based on the Runge-Kutta algorithm. Furthermore, an example of a dynamic model of airplane wing flutter on a turbine engine is given to illustrate the applicability of the proposed approach. Numerical solutions show that the proposed approach exhibits high accuracy in mathematical expression, and it is valuable for theoretical research and engineering applications of parametric systems.
parfm : Parametric Frailty Models in R
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marco Munda
2012-11-01
Full Text Available Frailty models are getting more and more popular to account for overdispersion and/or clustering in survival data. When the form of the baseline hazard is somehow known in advance, the parametric estimation approach can be used advantageously. Nonetheless, there is no unified widely available software that deals with the parametric frailty model. The new parfm package remedies that lack by providing a wide range of parametric frailty models in R. The gamma, inverse Gaussian, and positive stable frailty distributions can be specified, together with five different baseline hazards. Parameter estimation is done by maximising the marginal log-likelihood, with right-censored and possibly left-truncated data. In the multivariate setting, the inverse Gaussian may encounter numerical difficulties with a huge number of events in at least one cluster. The positive stable model shows analogous difficulties but an ad-hoc solution is implemented, whereas the gamma model is very resistant due to the simplicity of its Laplace transform.
Alternative Astronomical FITS imaging
Varsaki, Eleni E; Fotopoulos, Vassilis; Skodras, Athanassios N
2012-01-01
Astronomical radio maps are presented mainly in FITS format. Astronomical Image Processing Software (AIPS) uses a set of tables attached to the output map to include all sorts of information concerning the production of the image. However this information together with information on the flux and noise of the map is lost as soon as the image of the radio source in fits or other format is extracted from AIPS. This information would have been valuable to another astronomer who just uses NED, for example, to download the map. In the current work, we show a method of data hiding inside the radio map, which can be preserved under transformations, even for example while the format of the map is changed from fits to other lossless available image formats.
Planar Parametrization in Isogeometric Analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gravesen, Jens; Evgrafov, Anton; Nguyen, Dang-Manh
2012-01-01
Before isogeometric analysis can be applied to solving a partial differential equation posed over some physical domain, one needs to construct a valid parametrization of the geometry. The accuracy of the analysis is affected by the quality of the parametrization. The challenge of computing...... and maintaining a valid geometry parametrization is particularly relevant in applications of isogemetric analysis to shape optimization, where the geometry varies from one optimization iteration to another. We propose a general framework for handling the geometry parametrization in isogeometric analysis and shape...... are suitable for our framework. The non-linear methods we consider are based on solving a constrained optimization problem numerically, and are divided into two classes, geometry-oriented methods and analysis-oriented methods. Their performance is illustrated through a few numerical examples....
Planar Parametrization in Isogeometric Analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gravesen, Jens; Evgrafov, Anton; Nguyen, Dang-Manh;
2012-01-01
Before isogeometric analysis can be applied to solving a partial differential equation posed over some physical domain, one needs to construct a valid parametrization of the geometry. The accuracy of the analysis is affected by the quality of the parametrization. The challenge of computing...... and maintaining a valid geometry parametrization is particularly relevant in applications of isogemetric analysis to shape optimization, where the geometry varies from one optimization iteration to another. We propose a general framework for handling the geometry parametrization in isogeometric analysis and shape...... are suitable for our framework. The non-linear methods we consider are based on solving a constrained optimization problem numerically, and are divided into two classes, geometry-oriented methods and analysis-oriented methods. Their performance is illustrated through a few numerical examples....
Parametric Coding of Stereo Audio
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Erik Schuijers
2005-06-01
Full Text Available Parametric-stereo coding is a technique to efficiently code a stereo audio signal as a monaural signal plus a small amount of parametric overhead to describe the stereo image. The stereo properties are analyzed, encoded, and reinstated in a decoder according to spatial psychoacoustical principles. The monaural signal can be encoded using any (conventional audio coder. Experiments show that the parameterized description of spatial properties enables a highly efficient, high-quality stereo audio representation.
Study on Semi-Parametric Statistical Model of Safety Monitoring of Cracks in Concrete Dams
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chongshi Gu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Cracks are one of the hidden dangers in concrete dams. The study on safety monitoring models of concrete dam cracks has always been difficult. Using the parametric statistical model of safety monitoring of cracks in concrete dams, with the help of the semi-parametric statistical theory, and considering the abnormal behaviors of these cracks, the semi-parametric statistical model of safety monitoring of concrete dam cracks is established to overcome the limitation of the parametric model in expressing the objective model. Previous projects show that the semi-parametric statistical model has a stronger fitting effect and has a better explanation for cracks in concrete dams than the parametric statistical model. However, when used for forecast, the forecast capability of the semi-parametric statistical model is equivalent to that of the parametric statistical model. The modeling of the semi-parametric statistical model is simple, has a reasonable principle, and has a strong practicality, with a good application prospect in the actual project.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Meyer Karin
2001-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract A random regression model for the analysis of "repeated" records in animal breeding is described which combines a random regression approach for additive genetic and other random effects with the assumption of a parametric correlation structure for within animal covariances. Both stationary and non-stationary correlation models involving a small number of parameters are considered. Heterogeneity in within animal variances is modelled through polynomial variance functions. Estimation of parameters describing the dispersion structure of such model by restricted maximum likelihood via an "average information" algorithm is outlined. An application to mature weight records of beef cow is given, and results are contrasted to those from analyses fitting sets of random regression coefficients for permanent environmental effects.
Parametric uncertain identification of a robotic system
Angel, L.; Viola, J.; Hernández, C.
2016-07-01
This paper presents the parametric uncertainties identification of a robotic system of one degree of freedom. A MSC-ADAMS / MATLAB co-simulation model was built to simulate the uncertainties that affect the robotic system. For a desired trajectory, a set of dynamic models of the system was identified in presence of variations in the mass, length and friction of the system employing least squares method. Using the input-output linearization technique a linearized model plant was defined. Finally, the maximum multiplicative uncertainty of the system was modelled giving the controller desired design conditions to achieve a robust stability and performance of the closed loop system.
White-light parametric instabilities in plasmas.
Santos, J E; Silva, L O; Bingham, R
2007-06-08
Parametric instabilities driven by partially coherent radiation in plasmas are described by a generalized statistical Wigner-Moyal set of equations, formally equivalent to the full wave equation, coupled to the plasma fluid equations. A generalized dispersion relation for stimulated Raman scattering driven by a partially coherent pump field is derived, revealing a growth rate dependence, with the coherence width sigma of the radiation field, scaling with 1/sigma for backscattering (three-wave process), and with 1/sigma1/2 for direct forward scattering (four-wave process). Our results demonstrate the possibility to control the growth rates of these instabilities by properly using broadband pump radiation fields.
Parametric uncertainty modeling for robust control
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, K.H.; Jørgensen, Sten Bay
1999-01-01
The dynamic behaviour of a non-linear process can often be approximated with a time-varying linear model. In the presented methodology the dynamics is modeled non-conservatively as parametric uncertainty in linear lime invariant models. The obtained uncertainty description makes it possible...... method can be utilized in identification of a nominal model with uncertainty description. The method is demonstrated on a binary distillation column operating in the LV configuration. The dynamics of the column is approximated by a second order linear model, wherein the parameters vary as the operating...... to perform robustness analysis on a control system using the structured singular value. The idea behind the proposed method is to fit a rational function to the parameter variation. The parameter variation can then be expressed as a linear fractional transformation (LFT), It is discussed how the proposed...
Direct parametric reconstruction in dynamic PET myocardial perfusion imaging: in vivo studies
Petibon, Yoann; Rakvongthai, Yothin; El Fakhri, Georges; Ouyang, Jinsong
2017-05-01
side, which incorporates a quadratic penalty function. The parametric images were then calculated using voxel-wise weighted least-square fitting of the reconstructed myocardial PET TACs. For the direct method, parametric images were estimated directly from the dynamic PET sinograms using a maximum a posteriori (MAP) parametric reconstruction algorithm which optimizes an objective function comprised of the Poisson log-likelihood term, the kinetic model and a quadratic penalty function. Maximization of the objective function with respect to each set of parameters was achieved using a preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm with a specifically developed pre-conditioner. The performance of the direct method was evaluated by comparing voxel- and segment-wise estimates of {{K}1} , the tracer transport rate (ml · min-1 · ml-1), to those obtained using the indirect method applied to both OSEM and OSL-MAP dynamic reconstructions. The proposed direct reconstruction method produced {{K}1} maps with visibly lower noise than the indirect method based on OSEM and OSL-MAP reconstructions. At normal count levels, the direct method was shown to outperform the indirect method based on OSL-MAP in the sense that at matched level of bias, reduced regional noise levels were obtained. At lower count levels, the direct method produced {{K}1} estimates with significantly lower standard deviation across noise realizations than the indirect method based on OSL-MAP at matched bias level. In all cases, the direct method yielded lower noise and standard deviation than the indirect method based on OSEM. Overall, the proposed direct reconstruction offered a better bias-variance tradeoff than the indirect method applied to either OSEM and OSL-MAP. Direct parametric reconstruction as applied to in vivo dynamic PET MPI data is therefore a promising method for producing MBF maps with lower variance.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blaise, P.
1996-12-18
Resonance parameters for actinides play a significant role in the neutronic characteristics of all reactor types. All the major integral parameters strongly depend on the nuclear data of the isotopes in the resonance-energy regions.The author sets up a method for the adjustment of resonance parameters taking into account the self-shielding effects and restricting the cross section deconvolution problem to a limited energy region. (N.T.).
Prince, Frank A.
2017-01-01
Building a parametric cost model is hard work. The data is noisy and often does not behave like we want it to. We need statistics to give us an indication of the goodness of our models, but; statistics can be manipulated and mislead. On top of all of that, our own very human biases can lead us astray; causing us to see patterns in the noise and draw false conclusions from the data. Yet, it is the data itself that is the foundation for making better cost estimates and cost models. I believe the mistake we often make is we believe that our models are representative of the data; that our models summarize the experiences, the knowledge, and the stories contained in the data. However, it is the opposite that is true. Our models are but imitations of reality. They give us trends, but not truth. The experiences, the knowledge, and the stories that we need in order to make good cost estimates is bound up in the data. You cannot separate good cost estimating from a knowledge of the historical data. One final thought. It is our attempts to make sense out of the randomness that leads us astray. In order to make progress as cost modelers and cost estimators, we must accept that there are real limitations on our ability to model the past and predict the future. I do not believe we should throw up our hands and say this is the best we can do. Rather, to see real improvement we must first recognize these limitations, avoid the easy but misleading solutions, and seek to find ways to better model the world we live in. I don't have any simple solutions. Perhaps the answers lie in better data or in a totally different approach to simulating how the world works. All I know is that we must do our best to speak truth to ourselves and our customers. Misleading ourselves and our customers will, in the end, result in an inability to have a positive impact on those we serve.
A probabilistic strategy for parametric catastrophe insurance
Figueiredo, Rui; Martina, Mario; Stephenson, David; Youngman, Benjamin
2017-04-01
events. Due to the nature of parametric programmes, it is still necessary to clearly define when a payout is due or not, and so a decision threshold probability above which a loss event is considered to occur must be set, effectively converting the issued probabilities into deterministic binary outcomes. Model skill and value are evaluated over the range of possible threshold probabilities, with the objective of defining the optimal one. The predictive ability of the model is assessed. In terms of value assessment, a decision model is proposed, allowing users to quantify monetarily their expected expenses when different combinations of model event triggering and actual event occurrence take place, directly tackling the problem of basis risk.
Nassar, H.; Lebée, A.; Monasse, L.
2017-01-01
Origami tessellations are particular textured morphing shell structures. Their unique folding and unfolding mechanisms on a local scale aggregate and bring on large changes in shape, curvature and elongation on a global scale. The existence of these global deformation modes allows for origami tessellations to fit non-trivial surfaces thus inspiring applications across a wide range of domains including structural engineering, architectural design and aerospace engineering. The present paper suggests a homogenization-type two-scale asymptotic method which, combined with standard tools from differential geometry of surfaces, yields a macroscopic continuous characterization of the global deformation modes of origami tessellations and other similar periodic pin-jointed trusses. The outcome of the method is a set of nonlinear differential equations governing the parametrization, metric and curvature of surfaces that the initially discrete structure can fit. The theory is presented through a case study of a fairly generic example: the eggbox pattern. The proposed continuous model predicts correctly the existence of various fittings that are subsequently constructed and illustrated.
Analytic parametrizations of the non-perturbative Pomeron and QCD-inspired models
Nicolescu, Basarab; Ezhela, Vladimir V; Gauron, P; Kang, K; Kuyanov, Yu V; Lugovsky, S B; Tkachenko, N P; Kuyanov, Yu. V.
2002-01-01
We consider several classes of analytic parametrizations of hadronic scattering amplitudes, and compare their predictions to all available forward data (proton- proton, antiproton-proton, pion-proton, kaon-proton, photon-proton, photon- photon, sigma-proton). Although these parametrizations are very close for energy larger than 9 GeV, it turns out that they differ markedly at low energy, where a universal Pomeron term ~(ln s)**2 enables one to extend the fit down to 4 GeV.
Low default credit scoring using two-class non-parametric kernel density estimation
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Rademeyer, E
2016-12-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates the performance of two-class classification credit scoring data sets with low default ratios. The standard two-class parametric Gaussian and non-parametric Parzen classifiers are extended, using Bayes’ rule, to include either...
Reliable single chip genotyping with semi-parametric log-concave mixtures.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ralph C A Rippe
Full Text Available The common approach to SNP genotyping is to use (model-based clustering per individual SNP, on a set of arrays. Genotyping all SNPs on a single array is much more attractive, in terms of flexibility, stability and applicability, when developing new chips. A new semi-parametric method, named SCALA, is proposed. It is based on a mixture model using semi-parametric log-concave densities. Instead of using the raw data, the mixture is fitted on a two-dimensional histogram, thereby making computation time almost independent of the number of SNPs. Furthermore, the algorithm is effective in low-MAF situations.Comparisons between SCALA and CRLMM on HapMap genotypes show very reliable calling of single arrays. Some heterozygous genotypes from HapMap are called homozygous by SCALA and to lesser extent by CRLMM too. Furthermore, HapMap's NoCalls (NN could be genotyped by SCALA, mostly with high probability. The software is available as R scripts from the website www.math.leidenuniv.nl/~rrippe.
Parametric Fires for Structural Design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hertz, Kristian
2012-01-01
The authorities, the construction association, and a number of companies in Denmark have supported the author writing a guide for design of building structures for parametric fires. The guide is published by the ministry as a supplement to the building regulations. However, consultants and contra......The authorities, the construction association, and a number of companies in Denmark have supported the author writing a guide for design of building structures for parametric fires. The guide is published by the ministry as a supplement to the building regulations. However, consultants...... and contractors have asked for a reference in English in order to make the guide-lines and the background for them available internationally. The paper therefore presents recommendations from the design guide especially concerning how to assess parametric design fires based on the opening factor method for large...
Validity of Parametrized Quark Propagator
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHUJi-Zhen; ZHOULi-Juan; MAWei-Xing
2005-01-01
Based on an extensively study of the Dyson-Schwinger equations for a fully dressed quark propagator in the “rainbow”approximation, a parametrized fully dressed quark propagator is proposed in this paper. The parametrized propagator describes a confining quark propagator in hadron since it is analytic everywhere in complex p2-plane and has no Lemmann representation. The validity of the new propagator is discussed by comparing its predictions on selfenergy functions A/(p2), Bl(p2) and effective mass M$(p2) of quark with flavor f to their corresponding theoretical results produced by Dyson-Schwinger equations. Our comparison shows that the parametrized quark propagator is a good approximation to the fully dressed quark propagator given by the solutions of Dyson-Schwinger equations in the rainbow approximation and is convenient to use in any theoretical calculations.
Validity of Parametrized Quark Propagator
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHU Ji-Zhen; ZHOU Li-Juan; MA Wei-Xing
2005-01-01
Based on an extensively study of the Dyson-Schwinger equations for a fully dressed quark propagator in the "rainbow" approximation, a parametrized fully dressed quark propagator is proposed in this paper. The parametrized propagator describes a confining quark propagator in hadron since it is analytic everywhere in complex p2-plane and has no Lemmann representation. The validity of the new propagator is discussed by comparing its predictions on selfenergy functions Af(p2), Bf(p2) and effective mass Mf(p2) of quark with flavor f to their corresponding theoretical results produced by Dyson-Schwinger equations. Our comparison shows that the parametrized quark propagator is a good approximation to the fully dressed quark propagator given by the solutions of Dyson-Schwinger equations in the rainbow approximation and is convenient to use in any theoretical calculations.
Parametric Thinking in Urban Design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Steinø, Nicolai
2010-01-01
The paper states that most applications of parametric mod- elling to architecture and urban design fall into one of two strands of either form for form’s sake, or the negotiation of environmental con- cerns, while approaches which allow scenarios to be easily tested and modified without the appli...... of the paper. The pros and cons of this simple approach is discussed, and the paper con- cludes, that while it does not represent a suitable solution in all cases, it fills a gap among the existing approaches to parametric urban de- sign.......The paper states that most applications of parametric mod- elling to architecture and urban design fall into one of two strands of either form for form’s sake, or the negotiation of environmental con- cerns, while approaches which allow scenarios to be easily tested and modified without...
Productivity improvement in Korean rice farming: parametric and non-parametric analysis
Kwon, Oh Sang; Lee, Hyunok
2004-01-01
The published empirical literature on frontier production functions is dominated by two broadly defined estimation approaches – parametric and non‐parametric. Using panel data on Korean rice production, parametric and non‐parametric production frontiers are estimated and compared with estimated productivity. The non‐parametric approach employs two alternative measures based on the Malmquist index and the Luenberger indicator, while the parametric approach is closely related to the time‐varian...
Non-parametric analysis of rating transition and default data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fledelius, Peter; Lando, David; Perch Nielsen, Jens
2004-01-01
We demonstrate the use of non-parametric intensity estimation - including construction of pointwise confidence sets - for analyzing rating transition data. We find that transition intensities away from the class studied here for illustration strongly depend on the direction of the previous move b...... but that this dependence vanishes after 2-3 years....
Optimal parametric sensitivity control for a fed-batch reactor
Stigter, J.D.; Keesman, K.J.
2001-01-01
The paper presents a method to derive an optimal parametric sensitivity controller for optimal estimation of a set of parameters in an experiment. The method is demonstrated for a fed batch bio-reactor case study for optimal estimation of the saturation constant Ks and, albeit intuitively, the param
Optimal parametric sensitivity control of a fed-batch reactor
Stigter, J.D.; Keesman, K.J.
2004-01-01
The paper presents an optimal parametric sensitivity controller for estimation of a set of parameters in an experiment. The method is demonstrated for a fed-batch bioreactor case study for optimal estimation of the half-saturation constant KS and the parameter combination µmaxX/Y in which µmax is th
Non-parametric Bayesian inference for inhomogeneous Markov point processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Berthelsen, Kasper Klitgaard; Møller, Jesper
With reference to a specific data set, we consider how to perform a flexible non-parametric Bayesian analysis of an inhomogeneous point pattern modelled by a Markov point process, with a location dependent first order term and pairwise interaction only. A priori we assume that the first order term...
Synthesis for PCTL in Parametric Markov Decision Processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hahn, Ernst Moritz; Han, Tingting; Zhang, Lijun
2011-01-01
In parametric Markov decision processes (PMDPs), transition probabilities are not fixed, but are given as functions over a set of parameters. A PMDP denotes a family of concrete MDPs. This paper studies the synthesis problem for PCTL in PMDPs: Given a specification Φ in PCTL, we synthesise the pa...
Non-parametric analysis of rating transition and default data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fledelius, Peter; Lando, David; Perch Nielsen, Jens
2004-01-01
We demonstrate the use of non-parametric intensity estimation - including construction of pointwise confidence sets - for analyzing rating transition data. We find that transition intensities away from the class studied here for illustration strongly depend on the direction of the previous move...
Biological parametric mapping with robust and non-parametric statistics.
Yang, Xue; Beason-Held, Lori; Resnick, Susan M; Landman, Bennett A
2011-07-15
Mapping the quantitative relationship between structure and function in the human brain is an important and challenging problem. Numerous volumetric, surface, regions of interest and voxelwise image processing techniques have been developed to statistically assess potential correlations between imaging and non-imaging metrices. Recently, biological parametric mapping has extended the widely popular statistical parametric mapping approach to enable application of the general linear model to multiple image modalities (both for regressors and regressands) along with scalar valued observations. This approach offers great promise for direct, voxelwise assessment of structural and functional relationships with multiple imaging modalities. However, as presented, the biological parametric mapping approach is not robust to outliers and may lead to invalid inferences (e.g., artifactual low p-values) due to slight mis-registration or variation in anatomy between subjects. To enable widespread application of this approach, we introduce robust regression and non-parametric regression in the neuroimaging context of application of the general linear model. Through simulation and empirical studies, we demonstrate that our robust approach reduces sensitivity to outliers without substantial degradation in power. The robust approach and associated software package provide a reliable way to quantitatively assess voxelwise correlations between structural and functional neuroimaging modalities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kouramas, K.I.
2011-08-01
This work presents a new algorithm for solving the explicit/multi- parametric model predictive control (or mp-MPC) problem for linear, time-invariant discrete-time systems, based on dynamic programming and multi-parametric programming techniques. The algorithm features two key steps: (i) a dynamic programming step, in which the mp-MPC problem is decomposed into a set of smaller subproblems in which only the current control, state variables, and constraints are considered, and (ii) a multi-parametric programming step, in which each subproblem is solved as a convex multi-parametric programming problem, to derive the control variables as an explicit function of the states. The key feature of the proposed method is that it overcomes potential limitations of previous methods for solving multi-parametric programming problems with dynamic programming, such as the need for global optimization for each subproblem of the dynamic programming step. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Parametric programming of industrial robots
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Szulczyński Paweł
2015-06-01
Full Text Available This article proposes the use of parametric design software, commonly used by architects, in order to obtain complex trajectory and program code for industrial robots. The paper describes the drawbacks of existing solutions and proposes a new script to obtain a correct program. The result of the algorithm was verified experimentally.
Relational Parametricity and Separation Logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Birkedal, Lars; Yang, Hongseok
2008-01-01
Separation logic is a recent extension of Hoare logic for reasoning about programs with references to shared mutable data structures. In this paper, we provide a new interpretation of the logic for a programming language with higher types. Our interpretation is based on Reynolds's relational...... parametricity, and it provides a formal connection between separation logic and data abstraction. Udgivelsesdato: 2008...
Aircraft Trajectory Optimization Using Parametric Optimization Theory
Valenzuela Romero, Alfonso
2012-01-01
In this thesis, a study of the optimization of aircraft trajectories using parametric optimization theory is presented. To that end, an approach based on the use of predefined trajectory patterns and parametric optimization is proposed. The trajectory pat
Having a Ball with Fitness Balls
McNulty, Betty
2011-01-01
Fitness programs can be greatly enhanced with the addition of fitness balls. They are a fun, challenging, economical, and safe way to incorporate a cardiovascular, strength, and stretching program for all fitness levels in a physical education setting. The use of these balls has become more popular during the last decade, and their benefits and…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ali Zare
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Survival analysis is a set of methods used for analysis of the data which exist until the occurrence of an event. This study aimed to compare the results of the use of the semi-parametric Cox model with parametric models to determine the factors influencing the length of stay of patients in the inpatient units of Women Hospital in Tehran, Iran. In this historical cohort study all 3421 charts of the patients admitted to Obstetrics, Surgery and Oncology units in 2008 were reviewed and the required patient data such as medical insurance coverage types, admission months, days and times, inpatient units, final diagnoses, the number of diagnostic tests, admission types were collected. The patient length of stay in hospitals leading to recoverys was considered as a survival variable. To compare the semi-parametric Cox model and parametric (including exponential, Weibull, Gompertz, log-normal, log-logistic and gamma models and find the best model fitted to studied data, Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC and Cox-Snell residual were used. P<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. AIC and Cox-Snell residual graph showed that the gamma model had the lowest AIC (4288.598 and the closest graph to the bisector. The results of the gamma model showed that factors affecting the patient length of stay were admission day, inpatient unit, related physician specialty, emergent admission, final diagnosis and the number of laboratory tests, radiographies and sonographies (P<0.05. The results showed that the gamma model provided a better fit to the studied data than the Cox proportional hazards model. Therefore, it is better for researchers of healthcare field to consider this model in their researches about the patient length of stay (LOS if the assumption of proportional hazards is not fulfilled.
Quantum transformation limits in multiwave parametric interactions
Saygin, M. Yu
2016-10-01
The possibility to realize multiple nonlinear optical processes in a single crystal as means to produce multicolor quantum states favours stability and compactness of optical settings. Hence, this approach can be advantageous compared to the traditional one based on cascaded arrangement of optical elements. However, it comes with an obstacle—the class of accessible quantum states is narrower than that of the cascade counterpart. In this letter, we study this task using an example of three coupled nonlinear optical processes, namely, one parametric down-conversion and two of sum-frequency generation. To this end, the singular value decomposition has been applied to find the cascade representation of the compound field evolution. We have found the link between the parameters of the multiwave processes and the relevant cascade parameters—beam-splitting and squeezing parameters, by means of which the generated quantum states have been characterized. The relation between the squeezing parameters that has been found in the course of this work shows that the squeezing resource, produced in the parametric down-conversion, is shared among the modes involved in the compound interactions. Moreover, we have shown that the degree of two-mode entanglement carried by the up-converted frequencies cannot exceed that of the down-converted frequencies.
Parametric Instability: An Elementary Demonstration and Discussion.
Case, William
1980-01-01
Discusses parametric oscillators and parametric instability. A simple, easy-to-construct system which exhibits parametric instability is presented. The two lowest-order resonances are described and analyzed in detail. The analysis stresses the physical and intuitive aspects of the problem. (Author/HM)
Non-Parametric Inference in Astrophysics
Wasserman, L H; Nichol, R C; Genovese, C; Jang, W; Connolly, A J; Moore, A W; Schneider, J; Wasserman, Larry; Miller, Christopher J.; Nichol, Robert C.; Genovese, Chris; Jang, Woncheol; Connolly, Andrew J.; Moore, Andrew W.; Schneider, Jeff; group, the PICA
2001-01-01
We discuss non-parametric density estimation and regression for astrophysics problems. In particular, we show how to compute non-parametric confidence intervals for the location and size of peaks of a function. We illustrate these ideas with recent data on the Cosmic Microwave Background. We also briefly discuss non-parametric Bayesian inference.
Parametric or nonparametric? A parametricness index for model selection
Liu, Wei; 10.1214/11-AOS899
2012-01-01
In model selection literature, two classes of criteria perform well asymptotically in different situations: Bayesian information criterion (BIC) (as a representative) is consistent in selection when the true model is finite dimensional (parametric scenario); Akaike's information criterion (AIC) performs well in an asymptotic efficiency when the true model is infinite dimensional (nonparametric scenario). But there is little work that addresses if it is possible and how to detect the situation that a specific model selection problem is in. In this work, we differentiate the two scenarios theoretically under some conditions. We develop a measure, parametricness index (PI), to assess whether a model selected by a potentially consistent procedure can be practically treated as the true model, which also hints on AIC or BIC is better suited for the data for the goal of estimating the regression function. A consequence is that by switching between AIC and BIC based on the PI, the resulting regression estimator is si...
Parametric initial conditions for core-collapse supernova simulations
Suwa, Yudai
2016-01-01
We investigate a method to construct parametrized progenitor models for core-collapse supernova simulations. Different from all modern core-collapse supernova studies, which rely on progenitor models from stellar evolution calculations, we follow the methodology of Baron & Cooperstein (1990) to construct initial models. Choosing parametrized spatial distributions of entropy and electron fraction as a function of mass coordinate and solving the equation of hydrostatic equilibrium, we obtain the initial density structures of our progenitor models. First, we calculate structures with parameters fitting broadly the evolutionary model s11.2 of Woosley et al. (2002). We then demonstrate the reliability of our method by performing general relativistic hydrodynamic simulations in spherical symmetry with the isotropic diffusion source approximation to solve the neutrino transport. Our comprehensive parameter study shows that initial models with a small central entropy ($\\lesssim 0.4\\,k_B$ nucleon$^{-1}$) can explo...
Bayesian non parametric modelling of Higgs pair production
Scarpa, Bruno; Dorigo, Tommaso
2017-03-01
Statistical classification models are commonly used to separate a signal from a background. In this talk we face the problem of isolating the signal of Higgs pair production using the decay channel in which each boson decays into a pair of b-quarks. Typically in this context non parametric methods are used, such as Random Forests or different types of boosting tools. We remain in the same non-parametric framework, but we propose to face the problem following a Bayesian approach. A Dirichlet process is used as prior for the random effects in a logit model which is fitted by leveraging the Polya-Gamma data augmentation. Refinements of the model include the insertion in the simple model of P-splines to relate explanatory variables with the response and the use of Bayesian trees (BART) to describe the atoms in the Dirichlet process.
Bayesian non parametric modelling of Higgs pair production
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Scarpa Bruno
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Statistical classification models are commonly used to separate a signal from a background. In this talk we face the problem of isolating the signal of Higgs pair production using the decay channel in which each boson decays into a pair of b-quarks. Typically in this context non parametric methods are used, such as Random Forests or different types of boosting tools. We remain in the same non-parametric framework, but we propose to face the problem following a Bayesian approach. A Dirichlet process is used as prior for the random effects in a logit model which is fitted by leveraging the Polya-Gamma data augmentation. Refinements of the model include the insertion in the simple model of P-splines to relate explanatory variables with the response and the use of Bayesian trees (BART to describe the atoms in the Dirichlet process.
A parametrization of the abstract Ramsey theorem
Mijares, Jose G
2010-01-01
We give a parametrization with perfect subsets of $2^{\\infty}$ of the abstract Ramsey theorem (see \\cite{todo}) Our main tool is an extension of the parametrized version of the combinatorial forcing developed in \\cite{nash} and \\cite{todo}, used in \\cite{mij} to the obtain a parametrization of the abstract Ellentuck theorem. As one of the consequences, we obtain a parametrized version of the Hales-Jewett theorem. Finally, we conclude that the family of perfectly ${\\cal S}$-Ramsey subsets of $2^{\\infty}\\times {\\cal R}$ is closed under the Souslin operation. {\\bf Key words and phrases}: Ramsey theorem, Ramsey space, parametrization.
Parametric Thinking in Urban Design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Steinø, Nicolai
2010-01-01
The paper states that most applications of parametric mod- elling to architecture and urban design fall into one of two strands of either form for form’s sake, or the negotiation of environmental con- cerns, while approaches which allow scenarios to be easily tested and modified without...... of the paper. The pros and cons of this simple approach is discussed, and the paper con- cludes, that while it does not represent a suitable solution in all cases, it fills a gap among the existing approaches to parametric urban de- sign....... the application of complex and expensive technolo- gies are mostly absent, although they seem appropriate in urban de- sign. A survey of existing approaches confirms the statement, and an example of the application of basic knowledge of geometry and para- metric thinking to urban design forms the argument...
Parametric Dwarf Spheroidal Tidal Interaction
Fleck, J J; Fleck, Jean-Julien; Kuhn, Jeff R.
2003-01-01
The time dependent tidal interaction of the Local Group Dwarf Spheroidal (dS) Galaxies with the Milky Way (MW) can fundamentally affect their dynamical properties. The model developed here extends earlier numerical descriptions of dS-MW tidal interactions. We explore the dynamical evolution of dS systems in circular or elliptical MW orbits in the framework of a parametric oscillator. An analytic model is developed and compared with more general numerical solutions and N-body simulation experiments.
Universal Parametrization of Thermal Photon Production in Hadronic Matter
Heffernan, Matthew; Hohler, Paul; Rapp, Ralf
2014-09-01
As the production of photons and dileptons from high-energy collisions is able to provide information on the high temperature and high density phases of nuclear matter, an improved and universal parametrization of the rather involved microscopic calculations is key to honing the theory behind this production. We focus on photon emission rates from hadronic many-body calculations of the in-medium rho spectral function, which includes the effects of baryons and antibaryons. Across a range of temperatures from 0.1 to 0.18 GeV and baryon chemical potentials from 0 to 0.4 GeV, a parametrization of thermal photon rates for energies from 0.2 to 5 GeV is numerically determined through the use of nested fitting methods. This provides a fully functional description of thermal photon production largely within an unprecedented 20% of the calculated values from the spectral function, a significant reduction in error from available parametrizations. The contribution of photons and dileptons from pion-pion bremsstrahlung is evaluated for the importance of its contribution. The functional form, coupled with the comparison to the bremsstrahlung production of thermal photons, will provide a baseline for guiding future studies. As the production of photons and dileptons from high-energy collisions is able to provide information on the high temperature and high density phases of nuclear matter, an improved and universal parametrization of the rather involved microscopic calculations is key to honing the theory behind this production. We focus on photon emission rates from hadronic many-body calculations of the in-medium rho spectral function, which includes the effects of baryons and antibaryons. Across a range of temperatures from 0.1 to 0.18 GeV and baryon chemical potentials from 0 to 0.4 GeV, a parametrization of thermal photon rates for energies from 0.2 to 5 GeV is numerically determined through the use of nested fitting methods. This provides a fully functional description of
A simulation study of person-fit in the Rasch model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Richard Artner
2016-09-01
Full Text Available The validation of individual test scores in the Rasch model (1-PL model is of primary importance, but the decision which person-fit index to choose is still not sufficiently answered. In this work, a simulation study was conducted in order to compare five well known person-fit indices in terms of specificity and sensitivity, under different testing conditions. Furthermore, this study analyzed the decrease in specificity of Andersen´s Likelihood-Ratio test in case of person-misfit, using the median of the raw score as an internal criterion, as well as the positive effect of removing suspicious respondents with the index C*. The three non-parametric indices Ht, C* and U3 performed slightly better than the parametric indices OUTFIT and INFIT. All indices performed better with a higher number of respondents and a higher number of items. Ht, OUTFIT, and INFIT showed huge deviations between nominal and actual specificity levels. The simulation revealed that person-misfit has a huge negative impact on the specificity of Andersen´s Likelihood-Ratio test. However, the removal of suspicious respondents with C* worked quite well and the nominal specificity can be almost respected if the specificity level of C* is set to 0.95.
Large-scale parametric survival analysis.
Mittal, Sushil; Madigan, David; Cheng, Jerry Q; Burd, Randall S
2013-10-15
Survival analysis has been a topic of active statistical research in the past few decades with applications spread across several areas. Traditional applications usually consider data with only a small numbers of predictors with a few hundreds or thousands of observations. Recent advances in data acquisition techniques and computation power have led to considerable interest in analyzing very-high-dimensional data where the number of predictor variables and the number of observations range between 10(4) and 10(6). In this paper, we present a tool for performing large-scale regularized parametric survival analysis using a variant of the cyclic coordinate descent method. Through our experiments on two real data sets, we show that application of regularized models to high-dimensional data avoids overfitting and can provide improved predictive performance and calibration over corresponding low-dimensional models.
Fit for purpose: Australia's National Fitness Campaign.
Collins, Julie A; Lekkas, Peter
2011-12-19
During a time of war, the federal government passed the National Fitness Act 1941 to improve the fitness of the youth of Australia and better prepare them for roles in the armed services and industry. Implementation of the National Fitness Act made federal funds available at a local level through state-based national fitness councils, which coordinated promotional campaigns, programs, education and infrastructure for physical fitness, with volunteers undertaking most of the work. Specifically focused on children and youth, national fitness councils supported the provision of children's playgrounds, youth clubs and school camping programs, as well as the development of physical education in schools and its teaching and research in universities. By the time the Act was repealed in 1994, fitness had become associated with leisure and recreation rather than being seen as equipping people for everyday life and work. The emergence of the Australian National Preventive Health Agency Act 2010 offers the opportunity to reflect on synergies with its historic precedent.
Bifurcations and sensitivity in parametric nonlinear programming
Lundberg, Bruce N.; Poore, Aubrey B.
1990-01-01
The parametric nonlinear programming problem is that of determining the behavior of solution(s) as a parameter or vector of parameters alpha belonging to R(sup r) varies over a region of interest for the problem: Minimize over x the set f(x, alpha):h(x, alpha) = 0, g(x, alpha) is greater than or equal to 0, where f:R(sup (n+r)) approaches R, h:R(sup (n+r)) approaches R(sup q) and g:R(sup (n+r)) approaches R(sup p) are assumed to be at least twice continuously differentiable. Some of these parameters may be fixed but not known precisely and others may be varied to enhance the performance of the system. In both cases a fundamentally important problem in the investigation of global sensitivity of the system is to determine the stability boundaries of the regions in parameter space which define regions of qualitatively similar solutions. The objective is to explain how numerical continuation and bifurcation techniques can be used to investigate the parametric nonlinear programming problem in a global sense. Thus, first the problem is converted to a closed system of parameterized nonlinear equations whose solution set contains all local minimizers of the original problem. This system, which will be represented as F(z,alpha) = O, will include all Karush-Kuhn-Tucker and Fritz John points, both feasible and infeasible solutions, and relative minima, maxima, and saddle points of the problem. The local existence and uniqueness of a solution path (z(alpha), alpha) of this system as well as the solution type persist as long as a singularity in the Jacobian D(sub z)F(z,alpha) is not encountered. Thus the nonsingularity of this Jacobian is characterized in terms of conditions on the problem itself. Then, a class of efficient predictor-corrector continuation procedures for tracing solution paths of the system F(z,alpha) = O which are tailored specifically to the parametric programming problem are described. Finally, these procedures and the obtained information are illustrated
Fitting in a complex chi^2 landscape using an optimized hypersurface sampling
Pardo, L C; Busch, S; Moulin, J -F; Tamarit, J Ll
2011-01-01
Fitting a data set with a parametrized model can be seen geometrically as finding the global minimum of the chi^2 hypersurface, depending on a set of parameters {P_i}. This is usually done using the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. The main drawback of this algorithm is that despite of its fast convergence, it can get stuck if the parameters are not initialized close to the final solution. We propose a modification of the Metropolis algorithm introducing a parameter step tuning that optimizes the sampling of parameter space. The ability of the parameter tuning algorithm together with simulated annealing to find the global chi^2 hypersurface minimum, jumping across chi^2{P_i} barriers when necessary, is demonstrated with synthetic functions and with real data.
Parametric models to relate spike train and LFP dynamics with neural information processing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arpan eBanerjee
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Spike trains and local field potentials resulting from extracellular current flows provide a substrate for neural information processing. Understanding the neural code from simultaneous spike-field recordings and subsequent decoding of information processing events will have widespread applications. One way to demonstrate an understanding of the neural code, with particular advantages for the development of applications, is to formulate a parametric statistical model of neural activity and its covariates. Here, we propose a set of parametric spike-field models (unified models that can be used with existing decoding algorithms to reveal the timing of task or stimulus specific processing. Our proposed unified modeling framework captures the effects of two important features of information processing: time-varying stimulus driven inputs and ongoing background activity that occurs even in the absence of environmental inputs. We have applied this framework for decoding neural latencies in simulated and experimentally recorded spike-field sessions obtained from the lateral intraparietal area (LIP of awake, behaving monkeys performing cued look-and-reach movements to spatial targets. Using both simulated and experimental data, we find that estimates of trial-by-trial parameters are not significantly affected by the presence of ongoing background activity. However, including background activity in the unified model improves goodness of fit for predicting individual spiking events. Trial-by-trial spike-field correlation in visual response onset times are higher when the unified model is used, matching with corresponding values obtained using earlier trial-averaged measures on a previously published data set. Uncovering the relationship between the model parameters and the timing of movements offers new ways to test hypotheses about the relationship between neural activity and behavior.
Parametric models to relate spike train and LFP dynamics with neural information processing.
Banerjee, Arpan; Dean, Heather L; Pesaran, Bijan
2012-01-01
Spike trains and local field potentials (LFPs) resulting from extracellular current flows provide a substrate for neural information processing. Understanding the neural code from simultaneous spike-field recordings and subsequent decoding of information processing events will have widespread applications. One way to demonstrate an understanding of the neural code, with particular advantages for the development of applications, is to formulate a parametric statistical model of neural activity and its covariates. Here, we propose a set of parametric spike-field models (unified models) that can be used with existing decoding algorithms to reveal the timing of task or stimulus specific processing. Our proposed unified modeling framework captures the effects of two important features of information processing: time-varying stimulus-driven inputs and ongoing background activity that occurs even in the absence of environmental inputs. We have applied this framework for decoding neural latencies in simulated and experimentally recorded spike-field sessions obtained from the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) of awake, behaving monkeys performing cued look-and-reach movements to spatial targets. Using both simulated and experimental data, we find that estimates of trial-by-trial parameters are not significantly affected by the presence of ongoing background activity. However, including background activity in the unified model improves goodness of fit for predicting individual spiking events. Uncovering the relationship between the model parameters and the timing of movements offers new ways to test hypotheses about the relationship between neural activity and behavior. We obtained significant spike-field onset time correlations from single trials using a previously published data set where significantly strong correlation was only obtained through trial averaging. We also found that unified models extracted a stronger relationship between neural response latency and trial
Digital spectral analysis parametric, non-parametric and advanced methods
Castanié, Francis
2013-01-01
Digital Spectral Analysis provides a single source that offers complete coverage of the spectral analysis domain. This self-contained work includes details on advanced topics that are usually presented in scattered sources throughout the literature.The theoretical principles necessary for the understanding of spectral analysis are discussed in the first four chapters: fundamentals, digital signal processing, estimation in spectral analysis, and time-series models.An entire chapter is devoted to the non-parametric methods most widely used in industry.High resolution methods a
Parametric methods for estimating covariate-dependent reference limits.
Virtanen, Arja; Kairisto, Veli; Uusipaikka, Esa
2004-01-01
Age-specific reference limits are required for many clinical laboratory measurements. Statistical assessment of calculated intervals must be performed to obtain reliable reference limits. When parametric, covariate-dependent limits are derived, normal distribution theory usually is applied due to its mathematical simplicity and relative ease of fitting. However, it is not always possible to transform data and achieve a normal distribution. Therefore, models other than those based on normal distribution theory are needed. Generalized linear model theory offers one such alternative. Regardless of the statistical model used, the assumptions behind the model should always be examined.
A non-parametric peak finder algorithm and its application in searches for new physics
Chekanov, S
2011-01-01
We have developed an algorithm for non-parametric fitting and extraction of statistically significant peaks in the presence of statistical and systematic uncertainties. Applications of this algorithm for analysis of high-energy collision data are discussed. In particular, we illustrate how to use this algorithm in general searches for new physics in invariant-mass spectra using pp Monte Carlo simulations.
Non-parametric foreground subtraction for 21cm epoch of reionization experiments
Harker, Geraint; Bernardi, Gianni; Brentjens, Michiel A; De Bruyn, A G; Ciardi, Benedetta; Jelic, Vibor; Koopmans, Leon V E; Labropoulos, Panagiotis; Mellema, Garrelt; Offringa, Andre; Pandey, V N; Schaye, Joop; Thomas, Rajat M; Yatawatta, Sarod
2009-01-01
An obstacle to the detection of redshifted 21cm emission from the epoch of reionization (EoR) is the presence of foregrounds which exceed the cosmological signal in intensity by orders of magnitude. We argue that in principle it would be better to fit the foregrounds non-parametrically - allowing the data to determine their shape - rather than selecting some functional form in advance and then fitting its parameters. Non-parametric fits often suffer from other problems, however. We discuss these before suggesting a non-parametric method, Wp smoothing, which seems to avoid some of them. After outlining the principles of Wp smoothing we describe an algorithm used to implement it. We then apply Wp smoothing to a synthetic data cube for the LOFAR EoR experiment. The performance of Wp smoothing, measured by the extent to which it is able to recover the variance of the cosmological signal and to which it avoids leakage of power from the foregrounds, is compared to that of a parametric fit, and to another non-parame...
ProFit: Bayesian galaxy fitting tool
Robotham, A. S. G.; Taranu, D.; Tobar, R.
2016-12-01
ProFit is a Bayesian galaxy fitting tool that uses the fast C++ image generation library libprofit (ascl:1612.003) and a flexible R interface to a large number of likelihood samplers. It offers a fully featured Bayesian interface to galaxy model fitting (also called profiling), using mostly the same standard inputs as other popular codes (e.g. GALFIT ascl:1104.010), but it is also able to use complex priors and a number of likelihoods.
Dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound parametric maps to evaluate intratumoral vascularization.
Pitre-Champagnat, Stephanie; Leguerney, Ingrid; Bosq, Jacques; Peronneau, Pierre; Kiessling, Fabian; Calmels, Lucie; Coulot, Jeremy; Lassau, Nathalie
2015-04-01
The purposes of this study were to assess the reliability of parametric maps from dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound (DCE-US) to reflect the heterogeneous distribution of intratumoral vascularization and to predict the tissue features linked to vasculature. This study was designed to compare DCE-US parametric maps with histologic vascularity measurements. Dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound was performed on 17 melanoma-bearing nude mice after a 0.1-mL bolus injection of SonoVue (Bracco SPA, Milan, Italy). The parametric maps were developed from raw linear data to extract pixelwise 2 semiquantitative parameters related to perfusion and blood volume, namely, area under the curve (AUC) and peak intensity (PI). The mathematical method to fit the time-intensity curve for each pixel was a polynomial model used in clinical routine and patented by the team. Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn on DCE-US parametric maps for whole tumors and for several local areas of 15 mm within each tumor (iROI), the latter reflecting the heterogeneity of intratumoral blood volume. As the criterion standard correlation, microvessel densities (MVDs) were determined for both ROI categories. In detail, for all iROI of 15 mm, MVD and maturity were divided separately for vessels of 0 to 10 μm, 10 to 40 μm, and greater than 40 μm in diameter, and the results were correlated with the ultrasound findings. Among the 17 studied mice, a total of 64 iROIs were analyzed. For the whole-tumor ROI set, AUC and PI values significantly correlated with MVD (rAUC = 0.52 [P = 0.0408] and rPI = 0.70 [P = 0.0026]). In the case of multiple iROI, a strong linear correlation was observed between the DCE-US parameters and the density of vessels ranging in their diameter from 0 to 10 μm (rAUC = 0.68 [P rAUC = 0.98 [P = 0.0003]; rPI = 0.98 [P = 0.0004]), and greater than 40 μm (rAUC = 0.86 [P = 0.0120]; rPI = 0.92 [P = 0.0034]), respectively. However, the DCE-US parameter values of perfusion and blood volume
Fitting of dihedral terms in classical force fields as an analytic linear least-squares problem.
Hopkins, Chad W; Roitberg, Adrian E
2014-07-28
The derivation and optimization of most energy terms in modern force fields are aided by automated computational tools. It is therefore important to have algorithms to rapidly and precisely train large numbers of interconnected parameters to allow investigators to make better decisions about the content of molecular models. In particular, the traditional approach to deriving dihedral parameters has been a least-squares fit to target conformational energies through variational optimization strategies. We present a computational approach for simultaneously fitting force field dihedral amplitudes and phase constants which is analytic within the scope of the data set. This approach completes the optimal molecular mechanics representation of a quantum mechanical potential energy surface in a single linear least-squares fit by recasting the dihedral potential into a linear function in the parameters. We compare the resulting method to a genetic algorithm in terms of computational time and quality of fit for two simple molecules. As suggested in previous studies, arbitrary dihedral phases are only necessary when modeling chiral molecules, which include more than half of drugs currently in use, so we also examined a dihedral parametrization case for the drug amoxicillin and one of its stereoisomers where the target dihedral includes a chiral center. Asymmetric dihedral phases are needed in these types of cases to properly represent the quantum mechanical energy surface and to differentiate between stereoisomers about the chiral center.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jens-Ole
2003-01-01
Artiklen redegør for udbredelsen af fitness blandt unge og diskuterer, hvor det er blevet så populært at dyrke fitness.......Artiklen redegør for udbredelsen af fitness blandt unge og diskuterer, hvor det er blevet så populært at dyrke fitness....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abbas Atefi
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Accuracy of genomic prediction was compared using three parametric and semi parametric methods, including BayesA, Bayesian LASSO and Reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces regression under various levels of heritability (0.15, 0.3 and 0.45, different number of markers (500, 750 and 1000 and generation intervals of validating set. A historical population of 1000 individuals with equal sex ratio was simulated for 100 generations at constant size. It followed by 100 extra generations of gradually reducing size down to 500 individuals in generation 200. Individuals of generation 200 were mated randomly for 10 more generations applying litter size of 5 to expand the historical generation. Finally, 50 males and 500 females chosen from generation 210 were randomly mated to generate 10 more generations of recent population. Individuals born in generation 211 considered as the training set while the validation set was composed of individuals either from generations 213, 215 or 217. The genome comprised one chromosome of 100 cM length carrying 50 QTLs. There was no significant difference between accuracy of investigated methods (p > 0.05 but among three methods, the highest mean accuracy (0.659 was observed for BayesA. By increasing the heritability, the average genomic accuracy increased from 0.53 to 0.75 (p < 0.05. The number of SNPs affected the accuracy and accuracies increased as number of SNPs increased; therefore, the highest accuracy was for the case number of SNPs=1000. With getting away from validating set, the accuracies decreased and the most severe decay observed in the case of low heritability. Decreasing the accuracy across generations affected by marker density but was independent from investigated methods.
Parametric nanomechanical amplification at very high frequency.
Karabalin, R B; Feng, X L; Roukes, M L
2009-09-01
Parametric resonance and amplification are important in both fundamental physics and technological applications. Here we report very high frequency (VHF) parametric resonators and mechanical-domain amplifiers based on nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). Compound mechanical nanostructures patterned by multilayer, top-down nanofabrication are read out by a novel scheme that parametrically modulates longitudinal stress in doubly clamped beam NEMS resonators. Parametric pumping and signal amplification are demonstrated for VHF resonators up to approximately 130 MHz and provide useful enhancement of both resonance signal amplitude and quality factor. We find that Joule heating and reduced thermal conductance in these nanostructures ultimately impose an upper limit to device performance. We develop a theoretical model to account for both the parametric response and nonequilibrium thermal transport in these composite nanostructures. The results closely conform to our experimental observations, elucidate the frequency and threshold-voltage scaling in parametric VHF NEMS resonators and sensors, and establish the ultimate sensitivity limits of this approach.
Parametric estimation of medical care costs under conditions of censoring
Raikou, Maria; McGuire, Alistair
2009-01-01
This paper is concerned with a set of parametric estimators that attempt to provide consistent estimates of average medical care costs under conditions of censoring. The main finding is that incorporation of the inverse of the probability of an individual not being censored in the estimating equations is instrumental in deriving unbiased cost estimates. The success of the approach is dependent on the amount of available information on the cost history process. The value of this information in...
Parametric Modeling of the Mouse Left Ventricular Myocardial Fiber Structure.
Merchant, Samer S; Gomez, Arnold David; Morgan, James L; Hsu, Edward W
2016-09-01
Magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has greatly facilitated detailed quantifications of myocardial structures. However, structural patterns, such as the distinctive transmural rotation of the fibers, remain incompletely described. To investigate the validity and practicality of pattern-based analysis, 3D DTI was performed on 13 fixed mouse hearts and fiber angles in the left ventricle were transformed and fitted to parametric expressions constructed from elementary functions of the prolate spheroidal spatial variables. It was found that, on average, the myocardial fiber helix angle could be represented to 6.5° accuracy by the equivalence of a product of 10th-order polynomials of the radial and longitudinal variables, and 17th-order Fourier series of the circumferential variable. Similarly, the fiber imbrication angle could be described by 10th-order polynomials and 24th-order Fourier series, to 5.6° accuracy. The representations, while relatively concise, did not adversely affect the information commonly derived from DTI datasets including the whole-ventricle mean fiber helix angle transmural span and atlases constructed for the group. The unique ability of parametric models for predicting the 3D myocardial fiber structure from finite number of 2D slices was also demonstrated. These findings strongly support the principle of parametric modeling for characterizing myocardial structures in the mouse and beyond.
Universal Parametrization of Thermal Photon Rates in Hadronic Matter
Heffernan, Matthew; Rapp, Ralf
2014-01-01
Electromagnetic (EM) radiation off strongly interacting matter created in high-energy heavy-ion collisions (HICs) encodes information on the high-temperature phases of nuclear matter. Microscopic calculations of thermal EM emission rates are usually rather involved and not readily accessible to broad applications in models of the fireball evolution which are required to compare to experimental data. An accurate and universal parametrization of the microscopic calculations is thus key to honing the theory behind the EM spectra. Here we provide such a parametrization for photon emission rates from hadronic matter, including the contributions from in-medium rho mesons (which incorporate effects from anti-/baryons), as well as Bremsstrahlung from pi-pi scattering. Individual parametrizations for each contribution are numerically determined through nested fitting functions for photon energies from 0.2 to 5 GeV in chemically equilibrated matter of temperatures 100-180 MeV and baryon chemical potentials 0-400 MeV. S...
Parametric programming of CNC machine tools
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gołębski Rafał
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The article presents the possibilities of parametric programming of CNC machine tools for the SINUMERIK 840D sl control system. The kinds and types of the definition of variables for the control system under discussion described. On the example of the longitudinal cutting cycle, parametric programming possibilities are shown. The program’s code and its implementation in the control system is described in detail. The principle of parametric programming in a high-level language is also explained.
Parametric resonance in neutrino oscillations in matter
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
E Kh Akhmedov
2000-01-01
Neutrino oscillations in matter can exhibit a specific resonance enhancement - parametric resonance, which is different from the MSW resonance. Oscillations of atmospheric and solar neutrinos inside the earth can undergo parametric enhancement when neutrino trajectories cross the core of the earth. In this paper we review the parametric resonance of neutrino oscillations in matter. In particular, physical interpretation of the effect and the prospects of its experimental observation in oscillations of solar and atmospheric neutrinos in the earth are discussed.
Fitness World - Fremtidig overlevelse
Rice, Kasper; Klink, Nikolaj; Nielsen, Mie; Carlson, Andre; Boy, Mikkel; Hansen, Alexander
2015-01-01
Our project is a case study with Fitness World as a baseline. Our project will enhance Fitness Worlds penetration on their current position on the market. Our empiricism includes both qualitative and quantitative methodical approaches by the use of an expert interview and a questionnaire survey. These methods contribute and generate general knowledge about the fitness culture in Denmark and the customers in the fitness industry. We have stated a possible strategic opportunity for Fitness Worl...
Angle-Resolved Spectroscopy of Parametric Fluorescence
Hsu, Feng-kuo
2013-01-01
The parametric fluorescence from a nonlinear crystal forms a conical radiation pattern. We measure the angular and spectral distributions of parametric fluorescence in a beta-barium borate crystal pumped by a 405-nm diode laser employing angle-resolved imaging spectroscopy. The experimental angle-resolved spectra and the generation efficiency of parametric down conversion are compared with a plane-wave theoretical analysis. The parametric fluorescence is used as a broadband light source for the calibration of the instrument spectral response function in the wavelength range from 450 to 1000 nm.
Triminimal parametrization of quark mixing matrix
He, Xiao-Gang; Li, Shi-Wen; Ma, Bo-Qiang
2008-12-01
Starting from a new zeroth order basis for quark mixing (CKM) matrix based on the quark-lepton complementarity and the tribimaximal pattern of lepton mixing, we derive a triminimal parametrization of a CKM matrix with three small angles and a CP-violating phase as its parameters. This new triminimal parametrization has the merits of fast convergence and simplicity in application. With the quark-lepton complementary relations, we derive relations between the two unified triminimal parametrizations for quark mixing obtained in this work and for lepton mixing obtained by Pakvasa-Rodejohann-Weiler. Parametrization deviating from quark-lepton complementarity is also discussed.
Nonlinear Container Ship Model for the Study of Parametric Roll Resonance
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Holden, Christian; Galeazzi, Roberto; Rodríguez, Claudio
2007-01-01
Parametric roll is a critical phenomenon for ships, whose onset may cause roll oscillations up to 40, leading to very dangerous situations and possibly capsizing. Container ships have been shown to be particularly prone to parametric roll resonance when they are sailing in moderate to heavy head...... seas. A Matlab/Simulinkr parametric roll benchmark model for a large container ship has been implemented and validated against a wide set of experimental data. The model is a part of a Matlab/Simulink Toolbox (MSS, 2007). The benchmark implements a 3rd-order nonlinear model where the dynamics of roll...... is strongly coupled with the heave and pitch dynamics. The implemented model has shown good accuracy in predicting the container ship motions, both in the vertical plane and in the transversal one. Parametric roll has been reproduced for all the data sets in which it happened, and the model provides realistic...
Abnormal Returns, Risk, and Options in Large Data Sets
S. Caserta; J. Daníelsson (Jón); C.G. de Vries (Casper)
1998-01-01
textabstractLarge data sets in finance with millions of observations have become widely available. Such data sets enable the construction of reliable semi-parametric estimates of the risk associated with extreme price movements. Our approach is based on semi-parametric statistical extreme value
A systematic fitting scheme for caustic-crossing microlensing events
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kains ...[et al], N.; Jørgensen, Uffe Gråe
2009-01-01
in the parameter space, which lead to several distinct competitive best models. We examine the parameters for each of them, and estimate their physical properties. We find that our fitting strategy locates several minima that are difficult to find with other modelling strategies and is therefore a more appropriate......We outline a method for fitting binary-lens caustic-crossing microlensing events based on the alternative model parametrization proposed and detailed by Cassan. As an illustration of our methodology, we present an analysis of OGLE-2007-BLG-472, a double-peaked Galactic microlensing event...... method to fit this type of event....
Parametric images evaluation of selected phases of the heart cycle with PET
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Just, U.; Will, E.; Beuthien Baumann, B.; Bredow, J. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin der TU Dresden (Germany)
2002-01-01
The standard evaluation of dynamic heart acquisitions with PET uses image data not corrected for heart wall movement. The evaluation of parametric data sets (Patlak Plot) was investigated for gated studies of selected heart phases (diastolic, systolic) and compared to the standard evaluation. Parametric images of selected heart phases have improved resolution. The values for metabolic rate are different for a ''normal'' and gated evaluation, up to 50% more for the systole compared to the normal one. (orig.)
Parametric and Non-Parametric Vibration-Based Structural Identification Under Earthquake Excitation
Pentaris, Fragkiskos P.; Fouskitakis, George N.
2014-05-01
]. Preliminary results indicate that parametric methods are capable of sufficiently providing the structural/modal characteristics such as natural frequencies and damping ratios. The study also aims - at a further level of investigation - to provide a reliable statistically-based methodology for structural health monitoring after major seismic events which potentially cause harming consequences in structures. Acknowledgments This work was supported by the State Scholarships Foundation of Hellas. References [1] J. S. Sakellariou and S. D. Fassois, "Stochastic output error vibration-based damage detection and assessment in structures under earthquake excitation," Journal of Sound and Vibration, vol. 297, pp. 1048-1067, 2006. [2] G. Hloupis, I. Papadopoulos, J. P. Makris, and F. Vallianatos, "The South Aegean seismological network - HSNC," Adv. Geosci., vol. 34, pp. 15-21, 2013. [3] F. P. Pentaris, J. Stonham, and J. P. Makris, "A review of the state-of-the-art of wireless SHM systems and an experimental set-up towards an improved design," presented at the EUROCON, 2013 IEEE, Zagreb, 2013. [4] S. D. Fassois, "Parametric Identification of Vibrating Structures," in Encyclopedia of Vibration, S. G. Braun, D. J. Ewins, and S. S. Rao, Eds., ed London: Academic Press, London, 2001. [5] S. D. Fassois and J. S. Sakellariou, "Time-series methods for fault detection and identification in vibrating structures," Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, vol. 365, pp. 411-448, February 15 2007.
Decision making on fitness landscapes
Arthur, R.; Sibani, P.
2017-04-01
We discuss fitness landscapes and how they can be modified to account for co-evolution. We are interested in using the landscape as a way to model rational decision making in a toy economic system. We develop a model very similar to the Tangled Nature Model of Christensen et al. that we call the Tangled Decision Model. This is a natural setting for our discussion of co-evolutionary fitness landscapes. We use a Monte Carlo step to simulate decision making and investigate two different decision making procedures.
Decision Making on Fitness Landscapes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Arthur, Rudy; Sibani, Paolo
2017-01-01
We discuss fitness landscapes and how they can be modified to account for co-evolution. We are interested in using the landscape as a way to model rational decision making in a toy economic system. We develop a model very similar to the Tangled Nature Model of Christensen et. al. that we call...... the Tangled Decision Model. This is a natural setting for our discussion of co-evolutionary fitness landscapes. We use a Monte Carlo step to simulate decision making and investigate two different decision making procedures....
Descision Making on Fitness Landscapes
Arthur, Rudy
2016-01-01
We discuss fitness landscapes and how they can be modified to account for co-evolution. We are interested in using the landscape as a way to model rational decision making in a toy economic system. We develop a model very similar to the Tangled Nature Model of Christensen et. al. that we call the Tangled Decision Model. This is a natural setting for our discussion of co-evolutionary fitness landscapes. We use a Monte Carlo step to simulate decision making and investigate two different decision making procedures.
Atomistic force field for alumina fit to density functional theory.
Sarsam, Joanne; Finnis, Michael W; Tangney, Paul
2013-11-28
We present a force field for bulk alumina (Al2O3), which has been parametrized by fitting the energies, forces, and stresses of a large database of reference configurations to those calculated with density functional theory (DFT). We use a functional form that is simpler and computationally more efficient than some existing models of alumina parametrized by a similar technique. Nevertheless, we demonstrate an accuracy of our potential that is comparable to those existing models and to DFT. We present calculations of crystal structures and energies, elastic constants, phonon spectra, thermal expansion, and point defect formation energies.
Chrastina, M.; Zejda, M.; Mikulášek, Z.
2010-12-01
The FITS standard allows arbitrary use of name-space for keywords, except some reserved keywords. Result of this freedom is that several keywords have the same meaning. Similar problem is that values of keywords have different physical units. These facts complicate automated data processing and also creation of FITS file archives with simple structure. MUNI-FITS-Utils is a package of Python scripts which have been developed in PyFITS, a Python FITS Module. Scripts are user-friendly and allow manipulating FITS headers to get uniform shape. Further functions will be added soon.
Issues in Evaluating Model Fit With Missing Data
Davey, Adam
2005-01-01
Effects of incomplete data on fit indexes remain relatively unexplored. We evaluate a wide set of fit indexes (?[squared], root mean squared error of appproximation, Normed Fit Index [NFI], Tucker-Lewis Index, comparative fit index, gamma-hat, and McDonald's Centrality Index) varying conditions of sample size (100-1,000 in increments of 50),…
Parametrization of nuclear parton distributions
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
M Hirai; S Kumano; M Miyama
2001-08-01
Optimum nuclear parton distributions are obtained by analysing available experimental data on electron and muon deep inelastic scattering (DIS). The distributions are given at 2 = 1 GeV2 with a number of parameters, which are determined by a 2 analysis of the data. Valencequark distributions are relatively well determined at medium , but they are slightly dependent on the assumed parametrization form particularly at small . Although antiquark distributions are shadowed at small , their behavior is not obvious at medium from the 2 data. The gluon distributions could not be restricted well by the inclusive DIS data; however, the analysis tends to support the gluon shadowing at small . We provide analytical expressions and computer subroutines for calculating the nuclear parton distributions, so that other researchers could use them for applications to other high-energy nuclear reactions.
Design of parametric software tools
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sabra, Jakob Borrits; Mullins, Michael
2011-01-01
the operations and functions of the design method. To evaluate the prototype potentials, surveys with architectural and healthcare design companies are conducted. Evaluation is done by the administration of questionnaires being part of the development of the tools. The results show that architects, designers......The studies investigate the field of evidence-based design used in architectural design practice and propose a method using 2D/3D CAD applications to: 1) enhance integration of evidence-based design knowledge in architectural design phases with a focus on lighting and interior design and 2) assess...... fulfilment of evidence-based design criterion regarding light distribution and location in relation to patient safety in architectural health care design proposals. The study uses 2D/3D CAD modelling software Rhinoceros 3D with plug-in Grasshopper to create parametric tool prototypes to exemplify...
Developing a Parametric Urban Design Tool
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Steinø, Nicolai; Obeling, Esben
2014-01-01
Parametric urban design is a potentially powerful tool for collaborative urban design processes. Rather than making one- off designs which need to be redesigned from the ground up in case of changes, parametric design tools make it possible keep the design open while at the same time allowing...
Parametrizations of Positive Matrices With Applications
Tseng, M C; Ramakrishna, V; Zhou, Hong
2006-01-01
This paper reviews some characterizations of positive matrices and discusses which lead to useful parametrizations. It is argued that one of them, which we dub the Schur-Constantinescu parametrization is particularly useful. Two new applications of it are given. One shows all block-Toeplitz states are PPT. The other application is to relaxation rates.
Parametric form of QCD travelling waves
Peschanski, R.
2005-01-01
We derive parametric travelling-wave solutions of non-linear QCD equations. They describe the evolution towards saturation in the geometric scaling region. The method, based on an expansion in the inverse of the wave velocity, leads to a solvable hierarchy of differential equations. A universal parametric form of travelling waves emerges from the first two orders of the expansion.
Nonlinear parametric instability of wind turbine wings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Jesper Winther; Nielsen, Søren R.K.
2006-01-01
Nonlinear rotor dynamic is characterized by parametric excitation of both linear and nonlinear terms caused by centrifugal and Coriolis forces when formulated in a moving frame of reference. Assuming harmonically varying support point motions from the tower, the nonlinear parametric instability...
Observation of Parametric Instability in Advanced LIGO
Evans, Matthew; Fritschel, Peter; Miller, John; Barsotti, Lisa; Martynov, Denis; Brooks, Aidan; Coyne, Dennis; Abbott, Rich; Adhikari, Rana; Arai, Koji; Bork, Rolf; Kells, Bill; Rollins, Jameson; Smith-Lefebvre, Nicolas; Vajente, Gabriele; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Derosa, Ryan; Effler, Anamaria; Kokeyama, Keiko; Betzweiser, Joseph; Frolov, Valera; Mullavey, Adam; O`Reilly, Brian; Dwyer, Sheila; Izumi, Kiwamu; Kawabe, Keita; Landry, Michael; Sigg, Daniel; Ballmer, Stefan; Massinger, Thomas J; Staley, Alexa; Mueller, Chris; Grote, Hartmut; Ward, Robert; King, Eleanor; Blair, David; Ju, Li; Zhao, Chunnong
2015-01-01
Parametric instabilities have long been studied as a potentially limiting effect in high-power interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Until now, however, these instabilities have never been observed in a kilometer-scale interferometer. In this work we describe the first observation of parametric instability in an Advanced LIGO detector, and the means by which it has been removed as a barrier to progress.
Nonlinear parametric instability of wind turbine wings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Jesper Winther; Nielsen, Søren R.K.
2006-01-01
Nonlinear rotor dynamic is characterized by parametric excitation of both linear and nonlinear terms caused by centrifugal and Coriolis forces when formulated in a moving frame of reference. Assuming harmonically varying support point motions from the tower, the nonlinear parametric instability o...
Semi-Parametric Modelling of Correlation Dynamics
C.M. Hafner (Christian); D.J.C. van Dijk (Dick); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)
2005-01-01
textabstractIn this paper we develop a new semi-parametric model for conditional correlations, which combines parametric univariate GARCH-type specifications for the individual conditional volatilities with nonparametric kernel regression for the conditional correlations. This approach not only
Parametric form of QCD travelling waves
Peschanski, R.
2005-01-01
We derive parametric travelling-wave solutions of non-linear QCD equations. They describe the evolution towards saturation in the geometric scaling region. The method, based on an expansion in the inverse of the wave velocity, leads to a solvable hierarchy of differential equations. A universal parametric form of travelling waves emerges from the first two orders of the expansion.
Grosse, Susan J.
2009-01-01
This article discusses how families can increase family togetherness and improve physical fitness. The author provides easy ways to implement family friendly activities for improving and maintaining physical health. These activities include: walking, backyard games, and fitness challenges.
Generalized Parametrization Dependence in Quantum Gravity
Gies, Holger; Lippoldt, Stefan
2015-01-01
We critically examine the gauge, and field-parametrization dependence of renormalization group flows in the vicinity of non-Gau\\ss{}ian fixed points in quantum gravity. While physical observables are independent of such calculational specifications, the construction of quantum gravity field theories typically relies on off-shell quantities such as $\\beta$ functions and generating functionals and thus face potential stability issues with regard to such generalized parametrizations. We analyze a two-parameter class of covariant gauge conditions, the role of momentum-dependent field rescalings and a class of field parametrizations. Using the product of Newton and cosmological constant as an indicator, the principle of minimum sensitivity identifies stationary points in this parametrization space which show a remarkable insensitivity to the parametrization. In the most insensitive cases, the quantized gravity system exhibits a non-Gau\\ss{}ian UV stable fixed point, lending further support to asymptotically free q...
Wavelet Representation of Contour Sets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bertram, M; Laney, D E; Duchaineau, M A; Hansen, C D; Hamann, B; Joy, K I
2001-07-19
We present a new wavelet compression and multiresolution modeling approach for sets of contours (level sets). In contrast to previous wavelet schemes, our algorithm creates a parametrization of a scalar field induced by its contoum and compactly stores this parametrization rather than function values sampled on a regular grid. Our representation is based on hierarchical polygon meshes with subdivision connectivity whose vertices are transformed into wavelet coefficients. From this sparse set of coefficients, every set of contours can be efficiently reconstructed at multiple levels of resolution. When applying lossy compression, introducing high quantization errors, our method preserves contour topology, in contrast to compression methods applied to the corresponding field function. We provide numerical results for scalar fields defined on planar domains. Our approach generalizes to volumetric domains, time-varying contours, and level sets of vector fields.
Parametric dependencies of JET electron temperature profiles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schunke, B. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Imre, K.; Riedel, K. [New York Univ., NY (United States)
1994-07-01
The JET Ohmic, L-Mode and H-Mode electron temperature profiles obtained from the LIDAR Thomson Scattering Diagnostic are parameterized in terms of the normalized flux parameter and a set of the engineering parameters like plasma current, toroidal field, line averages electron density... It is shown that the electron temperature profiles fit a log-additive model well. It is intended to use the same model to predict the profile shape for D-T discharges in JET and in ITER. 2 refs., 5 figs.
Quasispecies on Fitness Landscapes.
Schuster, Peter
2016-01-01
Selection-mutation dynamics is studied as adaptation and neutral drift on abstract fitness landscapes. Various models of fitness landscapes are introduced and analyzed with respect to the stationary mutant distributions adopted by populations upon them. The concept of quasispecies is introduced, and the error threshold phenomenon is analyzed. Complex fitness landscapes with large scatter of fitness values are shown to sustain error thresholds. The phenomenological theory of the quasispecies introduced in 1971 by Eigen is compared to approximation-free numerical computations. The concept of strong quasispecies understood as mutant distributions, which are especially stable against changes in mutations rates, is presented. The role of fitness neutral genotypes in quasispecies is discussed.
Parametric Matching of Drivetrain For Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Zhang Zhongwei; Yu Hao; Li Yingli
2013-01-01
...; this thesis presents a simulation analysis of the PHEV and the influence on vehicle characteristic by component parameters of drivetrain, and studies the parametric choice and proper parametric...
Human pose tracking by parametric annealing
Kaliamoorthi, Prabhu
2012-01-01
Model based methods to marker-free motion capture have a very high computational overhead that make them unattractive. In this paper we describe a method that improves on existing global optimization techniques to tracking articulated objects. Our method improves on the state-of-the-art Annealed Particle Filter (APF) by reusing samples across annealing layers and by using an adaptive parametric density for diffusion. We compare the proposed method with APF on a scalable problem and study how the two methods scale with the dimensionality, multi-modality and the range of search. Then we perform sensitivity analysis on the parameters of our algorithm and show that it tolerates a wide range of parameter settings. We also show results on tracking human pose from the widely-used Human Eva I dataset. Our results show that the proposed method reduces the tracking error despite using less than 50% of the computational resources as APF. The tracked output also shows a significant qualitative improvement over APF as dem...
Parametric Testing of Launch Vehicle FDDR Models
Schumann, Johann; Bajwa, Anupa; Berg, Peter; Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar
2011-01-01
For the safe operation of a complex system like a (manned) launch vehicle, real-time information about the state of the system and potential faults is extremely important. The on-board FDDR (Failure Detection, Diagnostics, and Response) system is a software system to detect and identify failures, provide real-time diagnostics, and to initiate fault recovery and mitigation. The ERIS (Evaluation of Rocket Integrated Subsystems) failure simulation is a unified Matlab/Simulink model of the Ares I Launch Vehicle with modular, hierarchical subsystems and components. With this model, the nominal flight performance characteristics can be studied. Additionally, failures can be injected to see their effects on vehicle state and on vehicle behavior. A comprehensive test and analysis of such a complicated model is virtually impossible. In this paper, we will describe, how parametric testing (PT) can be used to support testing and analysis of the ERIS failure simulation. PT uses a combination of Monte Carlo techniques with n-factor combinatorial exploration to generate a small, yet comprehensive set of parameters for the test runs. For the analysis of the high-dimensional simulation data, we are using multivariate clustering to automatically find structure in this high-dimensional data space. Our tools can generate detailed HTML reports that facilitate the analysis.
Real zeros of the zero-dimensional parametric piecewise algebraic variety
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
The piecewise algebraic variety is the set of all common zeros of multivariate splines. We show that solving a parametric piecewise algebraic variety amounts to solve a finite number of parametric polynomial systems containing strict inequalities. With the regular decomposition of semi- algebraic systems and the partial cylindrical algebraic decomposition method, we give a method to compute the supremum of the number of torsion-free real zeros of a given zero-dimensional parametric piecewise algebraic variety, and to get distributions of the number of real zeros in every n-dimensional cell when the number reaches the supremum. This method also produces corresponding necessary and suffcient conditions for reaching the supremum and its distributions. We also present an algorithm to produce a necessary and suffcient condition for a given zero-dimensional parametric piecewise algebraic variety to have a given number of distinct torsion-free real zeros in every n-cell in the n-complex.
Free-form geometric modeling by integrating parametric and implicit PDEs.
Du, Haixia; Qin, Hong
2007-01-01
Parametric PDE techniques, which use partial differential equations (PDEs) defined over a 2D or 3D parametric domain to model graphical objects and processes, can unify geometric attributes and functional constraints of the models. PDEs can also model implicit shapes defined by level sets of scalar intensity fields. In this paper, we present an approach that integrates parametric and implicit trivariate PDEs to define geometric solid models containing both geometric information and intensity distribution subject to flexible boundary conditions. The integrated formulation of second-order or fourth-order elliptic PDEs permits designers to manipulate PDE objects of complex geometry and/or arbitrary topology through direct sculpting and free-form modeling. We developed a PDE-based geometric modeling system for shape design and manipulation of PDE objects. The integration of implicit PDEs with parametric geometry offers more general and arbitrary shape blending and free-form modeling for objects with intensity attributes than pure geometric models.
Ionization Cooling using Parametric Resonances
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johnson, Rolland P.
2008-06-07
Ionization Cooling using Parametric Resonances was an SBIR project begun in July 2004 and ended in January 2008 with Muons, Inc., (Dr. Rolland Johnson, PI), and Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) (Dr. Yaroslav Derbenev, Subcontract PI). The project was to develop the theory and simulations of Parametric-resonance Ionization Cooling (PIC) so that it could be used to provide the extra transverse cooling needed for muon colliders in order to relax the requirements on the proton driver, reduce the site boundary radiation, and provide a better environment for experiments. During the course of the project, the theoretical understanding of PIC was developed and a final exposition is ready for publication. Workshops were sponsored by Muons, Inc. in May and September of 2007 that were devoted to the PIC technique. One outcome of the workshops was the interesting and somewhat unexpected realization that the beam emittances using the PIC technique can get small enough that space charge forces can be important. A parallel effort to develop our G4beamline simulation program to include space charge effects was initiated to address this problem. A method of compensating for chromatic aberrations by employing synchrotron motion was developed and simulated. A method of compensating for spherical aberrations using beamline symmetry was also developed and simulated. Different optics designs have been developed using the OptiM program in preparation for applying our G4beamline simulation program, which contains all the power of the Geant4 toolkit. However, no PIC channel design that has been developed has had the desired cooling performance when subjected to the complete G4beamline simulation program. This is believed to be the consequence of the difficulties of correcting the aberrations associated with the naturally large beam angles and beam sizes of the PIC method that are exacerbated by the fringe fields of the rather complicated channel designs that have been
Chen, Yongkang; Weislogel, Mark; Schaeffer, Ben; Semerjian, Ben; Yang, Lihong; Zimmerli, Gregory
2012-01-01
The mathematical theory of capillary surfaces has developed steadily over the centuries, but it was not until the last few decades that new technologies have put a more urgent demand on a substantially more qualitative and quantitative understanding of phenomena relating to capillarity in general. So far, the new theory development successfully predicts the behavior of capillary surfaces for special cases. However, an efficient quantitative mathematical prediction of capillary phenomena related to the shape and stability of geometrically complex equilibrium capillary surfaces remains a significant challenge. As one of many numerical tools, the open-source Surface Evolver (SE) algorithm has played an important role over the last two decades. The current effort was undertaken to provide a front-end to enhance the accessibility of SE for the purposes of design and analysis. Like SE, the new code is open-source and will remain under development for the foreseeable future. The ultimate goal of the current Surface Evolver Fluid Interface Tool (SEFIT) development is to build a fully integrated front-end with a set of graphical user interface (GUI) elements. Such a front-end enables the access to functionalities that are developed along with the GUIs to deal with pre-processing, convergence computation operation, and post-processing. In other words, SE-FIT is not just a GUI front-end, but an integrated environment that can perform sophisticated computational tasks, e.g. importing industry standard file formats and employing parameter sweep functions, which are both lacking in SE, and require minimal interaction by the user. These functions are created using a mixture of Visual Basic and the SE script language. These form the foundation for a high-performance front-end that substantially simplifies use without sacrificing the proven capabilities of SE. The real power of SE-FIT lies in its automated pre-processing, pre-defined geometries, convergence computation operation
Simulation of parametric model towards the fixed covariate of right censored lung cancer data
Afiqah Muhamad Jamil, Siti; Asrul Affendi Abdullah, M.; Kek, Sie Long; Ridwan Olaniran, Oyebayo; Enera Amran, Syahila
2017-09-01
In this study, simulation procedure was applied to measure the fixed covariate of right censored data by using parametric survival model. The scale and shape parameter were modified to differentiate the analysis of parametric regression survival model. Statistically, the biases, mean biases and the coverage probability were used in this analysis. Consequently, different sample sizes were employed to distinguish the impact of parametric regression model towards right censored data with 50, 100, 150 and 200 number of sample. R-statistical software was utilised to develop the coding simulation with right censored data. Besides, the final model of right censored simulation was compared with the right censored lung cancer data in Malaysia. It was found that different values of shape and scale parameter with different sample size, help to improve the simulation strategy for right censored data and Weibull regression survival model is suitable fit towards the simulation of survival of lung cancer patients data in Malaysia.
Quantiles, parametric-select density estimation, and bi-information parameter estimators
Parzen, E.
1982-01-01
A quantile-based approach to statistical analysis and probability modeling of data is presented which formulates statistical inference problems as functional inference problems in which the parameters to be estimated are density functions. Density estimators can be non-parametric (computed independently of model identified) or parametric-select (approximated by finite parametric models that can provide standard models whose fit can be tested). Exponential models and autoregressive models are approximating densities which can be justified as maximum entropy for respectively the entropy of a probability density and the entropy of a quantile density. Applications of these ideas are outlined to the problems of modeling: (1) univariate data; (2) bivariate data and tests for independence; and (3) two samples and likelihood ratios. It is proposed that bi-information estimation of a density function can be developed by analogy to the problem of identification of regression models.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
段存宏
2015-01-01
使用3D激光扫描仪的目的是获取物体的表面形状。现在大多使用拟合的方法对点云数据进行处理来建立曲面。以约束球为例对以最小二乘为准则的拟合法和平差法进行了讨论，拟合法虽然有一定的优点，但同时也存在不能对数据进行精度评定的不足，而平差法正好弥补了这一缺陷。除此之外，平差法还可求出参数的点位中误差，进而可画出误差椭球，丰富了点云数据的处理过程，使点云数据的处理结果趋于形象化，为点云处理提供了新的思路。%T he purpose of using a 3D laser scanner is to obtain the shape of the object surface . Now the fitting method is mostly used to process point cloud data to create the surface .In this study ,we took the restraint ball as an example ,and developed the scientific and deeply discussion on fitting method and the compensation of errors ,based on the rule of the least squares .Al‐though there are certain advantages of the fitting method ,it can’t give the accuracy judgement of the data at the same time .However ,the compensation of errors make up the disadvantage .Be‐sides ,the second method can also make out the point error of the parameters ,then draw out the error ellipsoid .It enriches the process of point cloud data ,make the processing result of point cloud data tend to be visualized ,and provides a new way of thinking for point cloud processing .
Angelis, Georgios I; Matthews, Julian C; Kotasidis, Fotis A; Markiewicz, Pawel J; Lionheart, William R; Reader, Andrew J
2014-11-01
Estimation of nonlinear micro-parameters is a computationally demanding and fairly challenging process, since it involves the use of rather slow iterative nonlinear fitting algorithms and it often results in very noisy voxel-wise parametric maps. Direct reconstruction algorithms can provide parametric maps with reduced variance, but usually the overall reconstruction is impractically time consuming with common nonlinear fitting algorithms. In this work we employed a recently proposed direct parametric image reconstruction algorithm to estimate the parametric maps of all micro-parameters of a two-tissue compartment model, used to describe the kinetics of [[Formula: see text]F]FDG. The algorithm decouples the tomographic and the kinetic modelling problems, allowing the use of previously developed post-reconstruction methods, such as the generalised linear least squares (GLLS) algorithm. Results on both clinical and simulated data showed that the proposed direct reconstruction method provides considerable quantitative and qualitative improvements for all micro-parameters compared to the conventional post-reconstruction fitting method. Additionally, region-wise comparison of all parametric maps against the well-established filtered back projection followed by post-reconstruction non-linear fitting, as well as the direct Patlak method, showed substantial quantitative agreement in all regions. The proposed direct parametric reconstruction algorithm is a promising approach towards the estimation of all individual microparameters of any compartment model. In addition, due to the linearised nature of the GLLS algorithm, the fitting step can be very efficiently implemented and, therefore, it does not considerably affect the overall reconstruction time.
Optimal Parametric Feedback Excitation of Nonlinear Oscillators
Braun, David J.
2016-01-01
An optimal parametric feedback excitation principle is sought, found, and investigated. The principle is shown to provide an adaptive resonance condition that enables unprecedentedly robust movement generation in a large class of oscillatory dynamical systems. Experimental demonstration of the theory is provided by a nonlinear electronic circuit that realizes self-adaptive parametric excitation without model information, signal processing, and control computation. The observed behavior dramatically differs from the one achievable using classical parametric modulation, which is fundamentally limited by uncertainties in model information and nonlinear effects inevitably present in real world applications.
Linear Parametric Model Checking of Timed Automata
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hune, Tohmas Seidelin; Romijn, Judi; Stoelinga, Mariëlle
2001-01-01
of a subclass of parametric timed automata (L/U automata), for which the emptiness problem is decidable, contrary to the full class where it is know to be undecidable. Also we present a number of lemmas enabling the verication eort to be reduced for L/U automata in some cases. We illustrate our approach......We present an extension of the model checker Uppaal capable of synthesize linear parameter constraints for the correctness of parametric timed automata. The symbolic representation of the (parametric) state-space is shown to be correct. A second contribution of this paper is the identication...
Airy beam optical parametric oscillator.
Aadhi, A; Chaitanya, N Apurv; Jabir, M V; Vaity, Pravin; Singh, R P; Samanta, G K
2016-05-04
Airy beam, a non-diffracting waveform, has peculiar properties of self-healing and self-acceleration. Due to such unique properties, the Airy beam finds many applications including curved plasma wave-guiding, micro-particle manipulation, optically mediated particle clearing, long distance communication, and nonlinear frequency conversion. However, many of these applications including laser machining of curved structures, generation of curved plasma channels, guiding of electric discharges in a curved path, study of nonlinear propagation dynamics, and nonlinear interaction demand Airy beam with high power, energy, and wavelength tunability. Till date, none of the Airy beam sources have all these features in a single device. Here, we report a new class of coherent sources based on cubic phase modulation of a singly-resonant optical parametric oscillator (OPO), producing high-power, continuous-wave (cw), tunable radiation in 2-D Airy intensity profile existing over a length >2 m. Based on a MgO-doped periodically poled LiNbO3 crystal pumped at 1064 nm, the Airy beam OPO produces output power more than 8 W, and wavelength tunability across 1.51-1.97 μm. This demonstration gives new direction for the development of sources of arbitrary structured beams at any wavelength, power, and energy in all time scales (cw to femtosecond).
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schmeltz, Line
2017-01-01
Companies experience increasing legal and societal pressure to communicate about their corporate social responsibility (CSR) engagements from a number of different publics. One very important group is that of young consumers who are predicted to be the most important and influential consumer group...... in the near future. From a value- theoretical base, this article empirically explores the role and applicability of ‘fit’ in strategic CSR communication targeted at young consumers. Point of departure is taken in the well-known strategic fit (a logical link between a company’s CSR commitment and its core...... values) and is further developed by introducing two additional fits, the CSR- Consumer fit and the CSR-Consumer-Company fit (Triple Fit). Through a sequential design, the three fits are empirically tested and their potential for meeting young consumers’ expectations for corporate CSR messaging...
Progress on muon parametric-resonance ionization cooling channel development
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
V.S. Morozov, Ya.S. Derbenev, A. Afanasev, K.B. Beard, R.P. Johnson, B. Erdelyi, J.A. Maloney
2012-07-01
Parametric-resonance Ionization Cooling (PIC) is intended as the final 6D cooling stage of a high-luminosity muon collider. To implement PIC, a continuous-field twin-helix magnetic channel was developed. A 6D cooling with stochastic effects off is demonstrated in a GEANT4/G4beamline model of a system where wedge-shaped Be absorbers are placed at the appropriate dispersion points in the twin-helix channel and are followed by short rf cavities. To proceed to cooling simulations with stochastics on, compensation of the beam aberrations from one absorber to another is required. Initial results on aberration compensation using a set of various-order continuous multipole fields are presented. As another avenue to mitigate the aberration effect, we optimize the cooling channel's period length. We observe a parasitic parametric resonance naturally occurring in the channel's horizontal plane due to the periodic beam energy modulation caused by the absorbers and rf. We discuss options for compensating this resonance and/or properly combining it with the induced half-integer parametric resonance needed for PIC.
Parametric effects on glass reaction in the unsaturated test method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Woodland, A.B.; Bates, J.K.; Gerding, T.J.
1991-12-01
The Unsaturated Test Method has been applied to study glass reaction under conditions that may be present at the potential Yucca Mountain site, currently under evaluation for storage of reprocessed high-level nuclear waste. The results from five separate sets of parametric experiments are presented wherein test parameters ranging from water contact volume to sensitization of metal in contact with the glass were examined. The most significant effect was observed when the volume of water, as controlled by the water inject volume and interval period, was such to allow exfoliation of reacted glass to occur. The extent of reaction was also influenced to a lesser extent by the degree of sensitization of the 304L stainless steel. For each experiment, the release of cations from the glass and alteration of the glass were examined. The major alteration product is a smectite clay that forms both from precipitation from solution and from in-situ alteration of the glass itself. It is this clay that undergoes exfoliation as water drips from the glass. A comparison is made between the results of the parametric experiments with those of static leach tests. In the static tests the rates of release become progressively reduced through 39 weeks while, in contrast, they remain relatively constant in the parametric experiments for at least 300 weeks. This differing behavior may be attributable to the dripping water environment where fresh water is periodically added and where evaporation can occur.
Non-parametric Morphologies of Mergers in the Illustris Simulation
Bignone, Lucas A; Sillero, Emanuel; Pedrosa, Susana E; Pellizza, Leonardo J; Lambas, Diego G
2016-01-01
We study non-parametric morphologies of mergers events in a cosmological context, using the Illustris project. We produce mock g-band images comparable to observational surveys from the publicly available Illustris simulation idealized mock images at $z=0$. We then measure non parametric indicators: asymmetry, Gini, $M_{20}$, clumpiness and concentration for a set of galaxies with $M_* >10^{10}$ M$_\\odot$. We correlate these automatic statistics with the recent merger history of galaxies and with the presence of close companions. Our main contribution is to assess in a cosmological framework, the empirically derived non-parametric demarcation line and average time-scales used to determine the merger rate observationally. We found that 98 per cent of galaxies above the demarcation line have a close companion or have experienced a recent merger event. On average, merger signatures obtained from the $G-M_{20}$ criteria anticorrelate clearly with the elapsing time to the last merger event. We also find that the a...
Enhanced parametric processes in binary metamaterials
Gorkunov, Maxim V.; Shadrivov, Ilya V.; Kivshar, Yuri S.
2005-01-01
We suggest double-resonant (binary) metamaterials composed of two types of magnetic resonant elements, and demonstrate that in the nonlinear regime such metamaterials provide unique possibilities for phase-matched parametric interaction and enhanced second-harmonic generation.
Robust and Efficient Parametric Face Alignment
Tzimiropoulos, Georgios; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja
2011-01-01
We propose a correlation-based approach to parametric object alignment particularly suitable for face analysis applications which require efficiency and robustness against occlusions and illumination changes. Our algorithm registers two images by iteratively maximizing their correlation coefficient
Investigation for parametric vibration of rolling mill
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
唐华平; 丁睿; 吴运新; 钟掘
2002-01-01
The vibration unsteady condition of rolling mill caused by flexural vibration of strip has been investigated. The parametric flexural vibration equation of rolled strip has been established. The parametric flexural vibration stability of rolled strip has been studied and the regions of stability and unstability have been determined based on Floquet theory and perturbation method. The flexural-vibration of strip is unstable when the frequency of variable tension is two times as the natural frequency of flexural-vibration strip. The characteristic of current in a temp driving motor's main loop has been studied and tested, it has been proved that there are 6 harmonic component and 12 harmonic component in main loop of driving motor electricity. The vertical vibration of working roller has been tested, the test result approves that the running unsteady is caused by parametric vibration. It attaches importance to the parametric vibration of rolling mill.
Conformally covariant parametrizations for relativistic initial data
Delay, Erwann
2017-01-01
We revisit the Lichnerowicz-York method, and an alternative method of York, in order to obtain some conformally covariant systems. This type of parametrization is certainly more natural for non constant mean curvature initial data.
Cantor Digitalis: chironomic parametric synthesis of singing
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Feugère, Lionel; d’Alessandro, Christophe; Doval, Boris; Perrotin, Olivier
2017-01-01
.... The sound generation system is based on a parametric synthesizer that features a spectral voice source model, a vocal tract model consisting of parallel filters for vocalic formants and cascaded...
Parametrically disciplined operation of a vibratory gyroscope
Shcheglov, Kirill V. (Inventor); Hayworth, Ken J. (Inventor); Challoner, A. Dorian (Inventor); Peay, Chris S. (Inventor)
2008-01-01
Parametrically disciplined operation of a symmetric nearly degenerate mode vibratory gyroscope is disclosed. A parametrically-disciplined inertial wave gyroscope having a natural oscillation frequency in the neighborhood of a sub-harmonic of an external stable clock reference is produced by driving an electrostatic bias electrode at approximately twice this sub-harmonic frequency to achieve disciplined frequency and phase operation of the resonator. A nearly symmetric parametrically-disciplined inertial wave gyroscope that can oscillate in any transverse direction and has more than one bias electrostatic electrode that can be independently driven at twice its oscillation frequency at an amplitude and phase that disciplines its damping to zero in any vibration direction. In addition, operation of a parametrically-disciplined inertial wave gyroscope is taught in which the precession rate of the driven vibration pattern is digitally disciplined to a prescribed non-zero reference value.
Ultra-Broad-Band Optical Parametric Amplifier or Oscillator
Strekalov, Dmitry; Matsko, Andrey; Savchenkov, Anatolly; Maleki, Lute
2009-01-01
A concept for an ultra-broad-band optical parametric amplifier or oscillator has emerged as a by-product of a theoretical study in fundamental quantum optics. The study was originally intended to address the question of whether the two-photon temporal correlation function of light [in particular, light produced by spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC)] can be considerably narrower than the inverse of the spectral width (bandwidth) of the light. The answer to the question was found to be negative. More specifically, on the basis of the universal integral relations between the quantum two-photon temporal correlation and the classical spectrum of light, it was found that the lower limit of two-photon correlation time is set approximately by the inverse of the bandwidth. The mathematical solution for the minimum two-photon correlation time also provides the minimum relative frequency dispersion of the down-converted light components; in turn, the minimum relative frequency dispersion translates to the maximum bandwidth, which is important for the design of an ultra-broad-band optical parametric oscillator or amplifier. In the study, results of an analysis of the general integral relations were applied in the case of an optically nonlinear, frequency-dispersive crystal in which SPDC produces collinear photons. Equations were found for the crystal orientation and pump wavelength, specific for each parametric-down-converting crystal, that eliminate the relative frequency dispersion of collinear degenerate (equal-frequency) signal and idler components up to the fourth order in the frequency-detuning parameter
Bayesian adjustment for covariate measurement errors: a flexible parametric approach.
Hossain, Shahadut; Gustafson, Paul
2009-05-15
In most epidemiological investigations, the study units are people, the outcome variable (or the response) is a health-related event, and the explanatory variables are usually environmental and/or socio-demographic factors. The fundamental task in such investigations is to quantify the association between the explanatory variables (covariates/exposures) and the outcome variable through a suitable regression model. The accuracy of such quantification depends on how precisely the relevant covariates are measured. In many instances, we cannot measure some of the covariates accurately. Rather, we can measure noisy (mismeasured) versions of them. In statistical terminology, mismeasurement in continuous covariates is known as measurement errors or errors-in-variables. Regression analyses based on mismeasured covariates lead to biased inference about the true underlying response-covariate associations. In this paper, we suggest a flexible parametric approach for avoiding this bias when estimating the response-covariate relationship through a logistic regression model. More specifically, we consider the flexible generalized skew-normal and the flexible generalized skew-t distributions for modeling the unobserved true exposure. For inference and computational purposes, we use Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques. We investigate the performance of the proposed flexible parametric approach in comparison with a common flexible parametric approach through extensive simulation studies. We also compare the proposed method with the competing flexible parametric method on a real-life data set. Though emphasis is put on the logistic regression model, the proposed method is unified and is applicable to the other generalized linear models, and to other types of non-linear regression models as well. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Adaptivity Assessment of Regional Semi-Parametric VTEC Modeling to Different Data Distributions
Durmaz, Murat; Onur Karslıoǧlu, Mahmut
2014-05-01
Semi-parametric modelling of Vertical Total Electron Content (VTEC) combines parametric and non-parametric models into a single regression model for estimating the parameters and functions from Global Positioning System (GPS) observations. The parametric part is related to the Differential Code Biases (DCBs), which are fixed unknown parameters of the geometry-free linear combination (or the so called ionospheric observable). On the other hand, the non-parametric component is referred to the spatio-temporal distribution of VTEC which is estimated by applying the method of Multivariate Adaptive Regression B-Splines (BMARS). BMARS algorithm builds an adaptive model by using tensor product of univariate B-splines that are derived from the data. The algorithm searches for best fitting B-spline basis functions in a scale by scale strategy, where it starts adding large scale B-splines to the model and adaptively decreases the scale for including smaller scale features through a modified Gram-Schmidt ortho-normalization process. Then, the algorithm is extended to include the receiver DCBs where the estimates of the receiver DCBs and the spatio-temporal VTEC distribution can be obtained together in an adaptive semi-parametric model. In this work, the adaptivity of regional semi-parametric modelling of VTEC based on BMARS is assessed in different ground-station and data distribution scenarios. To evaluate the level of adaptivity the resulting DCBs and VTEC maps from different scenarios are compared not only with each other but also with CODE distributed GIMs and DCB estimates .
Parametric Transverse Patterns in Broad Aperture Lasers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Grigorieva, E.V.; Kashchenko, S.A.; Mosekilde, Erik
1998-01-01
Parametrically generated optical patterns are investigated for finite and large-scale transverse aperture lasers. Standing and rotating patterns as well as periodic and chaotic pattern alternations are described in the framework of the amplitude equation formalism. Sensitive dependence on the geo......Parametrically generated optical patterns are investigated for finite and large-scale transverse aperture lasers. Standing and rotating patterns as well as periodic and chaotic pattern alternations are described in the framework of the amplitude equation formalism. Sensitive dependence...
Chaos control of parametric driven Duffing oscillators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jin, Leisheng; Mei, Jie; Li, Lijie, E-mail: L.Li@swansea.ac.uk [College of Engineering, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom)
2014-03-31
Duffing resonators are typical dynamic systems, which can exhibit chaotic oscillations, subject to certain driving conditions. Chaotic oscillations of resonating systems with negative and positive spring constants are identified to investigate in this paper. Parametric driver imposed on these two systems affects nonlinear behaviours, which has been theoretically analyzed with regard to variation of driving parameters (frequency, amplitude). Systematic calculations have been performed for these two systems driven by parametric pumps to unveil the controllability of chaos.
Parametric Design of Modular Fixture Structure
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈冰冰
2001-01-01
Based on an example of its typical structure, the concept of modular fixture structure module is presented, and the structure module system of modular fixture is summarized. Then the parametric design of structure is discussed, and its advantages are also emphasized.Furthermore, some specific methods are provided, such as the selection of fixture components, the determination and input of parameters, drawing representative model,and the creation of drawing. Finally an applied example of strcture parametric design is presented.
Upper quantum Lyapunov exponent and parametric oscillators
Jauslin, H. R.; Sapin, O.; Guérin, S.; Wreszinski, W. F.
2004-11-01
We introduce a definition of upper Lyapunov exponent for quantum systems in the Heisenberg representation, and apply it to parametric quantum oscillators. We provide a simple proof that the upper quantum Lyapunov exponent ranges from zero to a positive value, as the parameters range from the classical system's region of stability to the instability region. It is also proved that in the instability region the parametric quantum oscillator satisfies the discrete quantum Anosov relations defined by Emch, Narnhofer, Sewell, and Thirring.
Programmatic Formation: Practical Applications of Parametric Design
Madkour, Yehia; Erhan, Halil; Neumann, Oliver
2009-01-01
Programmatic Formation explores design as a responsive process.The study we present engages the complexity of the surroundings using parametric and generative design methods. It illustrates that responsiveness of designs can be achieved beyond geometric explorations.The parametric models can combine and respond simultaneously to design and its programmatic factors, such as performance-sensitive design-decisions, and constraints.We demonstrate this through a series of case st...
Narrow linewidth pulsed optical parametric oscillator
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
S Das
2010-11-01
Tunable narrow linewidth radiation by optical parametric oscillation has many applications, particularly in spectroscopic investigation. In this paper, different techniques such as injection seeding, use of spectral selecting element like grating, grating and etalon in combination, grazing angle of incidence, entangled cavity configuration and type-II phase matching have been discussed for generating tunable narrow linewidth radiation by singly resonant optical parametric oscillation process.
Parametric resonance in concrete beam-columns
Sharma,Mamta R.; Singh,Arbind K; Benipal,Gurmail S
2014-01-01
A dynamic instability, called parametric resonance, is exhibited by undampedelastic beam-columns when under the action of pulsating axial force. The scope of the existing theory of parametric resonance is restricted to physically linear beam-columns undergoing finite lateral displacements. In this Paper, the dynamic behaviour of physically nonlinear elastic cracked concrete beam-columns under pulsating axial force and constant lateral force is investigated. The constitutive equations derived ...
Chaos control of parametric driven Duffing oscillators
Jin, Leisheng; Mei, Jie; Li, Lijie
2014-03-01
Duffing resonators are typical dynamic systems, which can exhibit chaotic oscillations, subject to certain driving conditions. Chaotic oscillations of resonating systems with negative and positive spring constants are identified to investigate in this paper. Parametric driver imposed on these two systems affects nonlinear behaviours, which has been theoretically analyzed with regard to variation of driving parameters (frequency, amplitude). Systematic calculations have been performed for these two systems driven by parametric pumps to unveil the controllability of chaos.
Zhu, W; Ouyang, J; Rakvongthai, Y; Guehl, N J; Wooten, D W; El Fakhri, G; Normandin, M D; Fan, Y
2016-03-01
Estimation of parametric maps is challenging for kinetic models in dynamic positron emission tomography. Since voxel kinetics tend to be spatially contiguous, the authors consider groups of homogeneous voxels together. The authors propose a novel algorithm to identify the groups and estimate kinetic parameters simultaneously. Uncertainty estimates for kinetic parameters are also obtained. Mixture models were used to fit the time activity curves. In order to borrow information from spatially nearby voxels, the Potts model was adopted. A spatial temporal model was built incorporating both spatial and temporal information in the data. Markov chain Monte Carlo was used to carry out parameter estimation. Evaluation and comparisons with existing methods were carried out on cardiac studies using both simulated data sets and a pig study data. One-compartment kinetic modeling was used, in which K1 is the parameter of interest, providing a measure of local perfusion. Based on simulation experiments, the median standard deviation across all image voxels, of K1 estimates were 0, 0.13, and 0.16 for the proposed spatial mixture models (SMMs), standard curve fitting, and spatial K-means methods, respectively. The corresponding median mean squared biases for K1 were 0.04, 0.06, and 0.06 for abnormal region of interest (ROI); 0.03, 0.03, and 0.04 for normal ROI; and 0.007, 0.02, and 0.05 for the noise region. SMM is a fully Bayesian algorithm which determines the optimal number of homogeneous voxel groups, voxel group membership, parameter estimation, and parameter uncertainty estimation simultaneously. The voxel membership can also be used for classification purposes. By borrowing information from spatially nearby voxels, SMM substantially reduces the variability of parameter estimates. In some ROIs, SMM also reduces mean squared bias.
Parametric Grid Information in the DOE Knowledge Base: Data Preparation, Storage and Access.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hipp, J. R.; Young, C. J.; Moore, S. G.; Shepherd, E. R.; Schultz, C. A.; Myers, S. C.
1999-10-01
The parametric grid capability of the Knowledge Base provides an efficient, robust way to store and access interpolatable information which is needed to monitor the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. To meet both the accuracy and performance requirements of operational monitoring systems, we use a new approach which combines the error estimation of kriging with the speed and robustness of Natural Neighbor Interpolation (NNI). The method involves three basic steps: data preparation (DP), data storage (DS), and data access (DA). The goal of data preparation is to process a set of raw data points to produce a sufficient basis for accurate NNI of value and error estimates in the Data Access step. This basis includes a set of nodes and their connectedness, collectively known as a tessellation, and the corresponding values and errors that map to each node, which we call surfaces. In many cases, the raw data point distribution is not sufficiently dense to guarantee accurate error estimates from the NNI, so the original data set must be densified using a newly developed interpolation technique known as Modified Bayesian Kriging. Once appropriate kriging parameters have been determined by variogram analysis, the optimum basis for NNI is determined in a process we call mesh refinement, which involves iterative kriging, new node insertion, and Delauny triangle smoothing. The process terminates when an NNI basis has been calculated which will fit the kriged values within a specified tolerance. In the data storage step, the tessellations and surfaces are stored in the Knowledge Base, currently in a binary flatfile format but perhaps in the future in a spatially-indexed database. Finally, in the data access step, a client application makes a request for an interpolated value, which triggers a data fetch from the Knowledge Base through the libKBI interface, a walking triangle search for the containing triangle, and finally the NNI interpolation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mladen Skelin
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Scenario-aware dataflow (SADF is a prominent tool for modeling and analysis of dynamic embedded dataflow applications. In SADF the application is represented as a finite collection of synchronous dataflow (SDF graphs, each of which represents one possible application behaviour or scenario. A finite state machine (FSM specifies the possible orders of scenario occurrences. The SADF model renders the tightest possible performance guarantees, but is limited by its finiteness. This means that from a practical point of view, it can only handle dynamic dataflow applications that are characterized by a reasonably sized set of possible behaviours or scenarios. In this paper we remove this limitation for a class of SADF graphs by means of SADF model parametrization in terms of graph port rates and actor execution times. First, we formally define the semantics of the model relevant for throughput analysis based on (max,+ linear system theory and (max,+ automata. Second, by generalizing some of the existing results, we give the algorithms for worst-case throughput analysis of parametric rate and parametric actor execution time acyclic SADF graphs with a fully connected, possibly infinite state transition system. Third, we demonstrate our approach on a few realistic applications from digital signal processing (DSP domain mapped onto an embedded multi-processor architecture.
Physical fitness assessment: an update.
Wilder, Robert P; Greene, Jill Amanda; Winters, Kathryne L; Long, William B; Gubler, K; Edlich, Richard F
2006-01-01
The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) gives the following definition of health-related physical fitness: Physical fitness is defined as a set of attributes that people have or achieve that relates to the ability to perform physical activity. It is also characterized by (1) an ability to perform daily activities with vigor, and (2) a demonstration of traits and capacities that are associated with a low risk of premature development of hypokinetic diseases (e.g., those associated with physical inactivity). Information from an individual's health and medical records can be combined with information from physical fitness assessment to meet the specific health goals and rehabilitative needs of that individual. Attaining adequate informed consent from participants prior to exercise testing is mandatory because of ethical and legal considerations.A physical fitness assessment includes measures of body composition, cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular fitness, and musculoskeletal flexibility. The three common techniques for assessing body composition are hydrostatic weighing, and skinfold measurements, and anthropometric measurements. Cardiorespiratory endurance is a crucial component of physical fitness assessment because of its strong correlation with health and health risks. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) is the traditionally accepted criterion for measuring cardiorespiratory endurance. Although maximal-effort tests must be used to measure VO2max, submaximal exercise can be used to estimate this value. Muscular fitness has historically been used to describe an individual's integrated status of muscular strength and muscular endurance. An individual's muscular strength is specific to a particular muscle or muscle group and refers to the maximal force (N or kg) that the muscle or muscle group can generate. Dynamic strength can be assessed by measuring the movement of an individual's body against an external load. Isokinetic testing may be performed by assessing
Parametric initial conditions for core-collapse supernova simulations
Suwa, Yudai; Müller, Ewald
2016-08-01
We investigate a method to construct parametrized progenitor models for core-collapse supernova simulations. Different from all modern core-collapse supernova studies, which rely on progenitor models from stellar evolution calculations, we follow the methodology of Baron & Cooperstein to construct initial models. Choosing parametrized spatial distributions of entropy and electron fraction as a function of mass coordinate and solving the equation of hydrostatic equilibrium, we obtain the initial density structures of our progenitor models. First, we calculate structures with parameters fitting broadly the evolutionary model s11.2 of Woosley et al. (2002). We then demonstrate the reliability of our method by performing general relativistic hydrodynamic simulations in spherical symmetry with the isotropic diffusion source approximation to solve the neutrino transport. Our comprehensive parameter study shows that initial models with a small central entropy (≲0.4 kB nucleon-1) can explode even in spherically symmetric simulations. Models with a large entropy (≳6 kB nucleon-1) in the Si/O layer have a rather large explosion energy (˜4 × 1050 erg) at the end of the simulations, which is still rapidly increasing.
Tarrio, D; Audouin, L; Berthier, B; Duran, I; Ferrant, L; Isaev, S; Le Naour, C; Paradela, C; Stephan, C; Trubert, D; Abbondanno, U; Aerts, G; Alvarez-Velarde, F; Andriamonje, S; Andrzejewski, J; Assimakopoulos, P; Badurek, G; Baumann, P; Becvar, F; Belloni, F; Berthoumieux, E; Calvino, F; Calviani, M; Cano-Ott, D; Capote, R; Carrapico, C; Carrillo de Albornoz, A; Cennini, P; Chepel, V; Chiaveri, E; Colonna, N; Cortes, G; Couture, A; Cox, J; Dahlfors, M; David, S; Dillmann, I; Dolfini, R; Domingo-Pardo, C; Dridi, W; Eleftheriadis, C; Embid-Segura, M; Ferrari, A; Ferreira-Marques, R; Fitzpatrick, L; Frais-Koelbl, H; Fujii, K; Furman, W; Goncalves, I; Gonzalez-Romero, E; Goverdovski, A; Gramegna, F; Griesmayer, E; Guerrero, C; Gunsing, F; Haas, B; Haight, R; Heil, M; Herrera-Martinez, A; Igashira, M; Jericha, E; Kadi, Y; Kappeler, F; Karadimos, D; Karamanis, D; Kerveno, M; Ketlerov, V; Koehler, P; Konovalov, V; Kossionides, E; Krticka, M; Lampoudis, C; Leeb, H; Lederer, C; Lindote, A; Lopes, I; Losito, R; Lozano, M; Lukic, S; Marganiec, J; Marques, L; Marrone, S; Martinez, T; Massimi, C; Mastinu, P; Mendoza, E; Mengoni, A; Milazzo, P.M; Moreau, C; Mosconi, M; Neves, F; Oberhummer, H; O'Brien, S; Oshima, M; Pancin, J; Papachristodoulou, C; Papadopoulos, C; Patronis, N; Pavlik, A; Pavlopoulos, P; Perrot, L; Pigni, M.T; Plag, R; Plompen, A; Plukis, A; Poch, A; Praena, J; Pretel, C; Quesada, J; Rauscher, T; Reifarth, R; Rosetti, M; Rubbia, C; Rudolf, G; Rullhusen, P; Salgado, J; Santos, C; Sarchiapone, L; Sarmento, R; Savvidis, I; Tagliente, G; Tain, J.L; Tavora, L; Terlizzi, R; Vannini, G; Vaz, P; Ventura, A; Villamarin, D; Vlachoudis, V; Vlastou, R; Voss, F; Walter, S; Wendler, H; Wiescher, M; Wisshak, K
2011-01-01
Neutron-induced fission cross sections for (nat)Pb and (209)Bi were measured with a white-spectrum neutron source at the CERN Neutron Time-of-Flight (n\\_TOF) facility. The experiment, using neutrons from threshold up to 1 GeV, provides the first results for these nuclei above 200 MeV. The cross sections were measured relative to (235)U and (238)U in a dedicated fission chamber with parallel plate avalanche counter detectors. Results are compared with previous experimental data. Upgraded parametrizations of the cross sections are presented, from threshold energy up to 1 GeV. The proposed new sets of fitting parameters improve former results along the whole energy range.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Giardino, P. P.; Kannike, K.; Masina, I.
2014-01-01
Higgs models, models with extra Higgs doublets, supersymmetry, extra particles in the loops, anomalous top couplings, and invisible Higgs decays into Dark Matter. Best fit regions lie around the Standard Model predictions and are well approximated by our 'universal' fit. Latest data exclude the dilaton...
Maiorano, Joseph J.
2001-01-01
Fit 2-B FATHERS is a parenting-skills education program for incarcerated adult males. The goals of this program are for participants to have reduced recidivism rates and a reduced risk of their children acquiring criminal records. These goals are accomplished by helping participants become physically, practically, and socially fit for the demands…
2004-01-01
The mineralogy of 'Bounce' rock was determined by fitting spectra from a library of laboratory minerals to the spectrum of Bounce taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's miniature thermal emission spectrometer. The minerals that give the best fit include pyroxene, plagioclase and olivine -- minerals commonly found in basaltic volcanic rocks -- and typical martian dust produced by the rover's rock abrasion tool.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Karen; Clark
2005-01-01
Summer is a time to exercise and keep fit.Ask yourself these quick questions and check your score below.How fit are you? 1.What is your pulse[脉搏]?Find your pulse in your wrist[手腕], count the number of beats[跳动] in one minute,Now
Vertiz, Virginia C.; Downey, Carolyn J.
This paper proposes a two-pronged approach for examining an educational program's "quality of fit." The American Association of School Administrators' (AASA's) Curriculum Management Audit for quality indicators is reviewed, using the Downey Quality Fit Framework and Deming's 4 areas of profound knowledge and 14 points. The purpose is to…
Adikaram, K K L B; Hussein, M A; Effenberger, M; Becker, T
2015-01-01
Data processing requires a robust linear fit identification method. In this paper, we introduce a non-parametric robust linear fit identification method for time series. The method uses an indicator 2/n to identify linear fit, where n is number of terms in a series. The ratio Rmax of amax - amin and Sn - amin*n and that of Rmin of amax - amin and amax*n - Sn are always equal to 2/n, where amax is the maximum element, amin is the minimum element and Sn is the sum of all elements. If any series expected to follow y = c consists of data that do not agree with y = c form, Rmax > 2/n and Rmin > 2/n imply that the maximum and minimum elements, respectively, do not agree with linear fit. We define threshold values for outliers and noise detection as 2/n * (1 + k1) and 2/n * (1 + k2), respectively, where k1 > k2 and 0 ≤ k1 ≤ n/2 - 1. Given this relation and transformation technique, which transforms data into the form y = c, we show that removing all data that do not agree with linear fit is possible. Furthermore, the method is independent of the number of data points, missing data, removed data points and nature of distribution (Gaussian or non-Gaussian) of outliers, noise and clean data. These are major advantages over the existing linear fit methods. Since having a perfect linear relation between two variables in the real world is impossible, we used artificial data sets with extreme conditions to verify the method. The method detects the correct linear fit when the percentage of data agreeing with linear fit is less than 50%, and the deviation of data that do not agree with linear fit is very small, of the order of ±10-4%. The method results in incorrect detections only when numerical accuracy is insufficient in the calculation process.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K K L B Adikaram
Full Text Available Data processing requires a robust linear fit identification method. In this paper, we introduce a non-parametric robust linear fit identification method for time series. The method uses an indicator 2/n to identify linear fit, where n is number of terms in a series. The ratio Rmax of amax - amin and Sn - amin*n and that of Rmin of amax - amin and amax*n - Sn are always equal to 2/n, where amax is the maximum element, amin is the minimum element and Sn is the sum of all elements. If any series expected to follow y = c consists of data that do not agree with y = c form, Rmax > 2/n and Rmin > 2/n imply that the maximum and minimum elements, respectively, do not agree with linear fit. We define threshold values for outliers and noise detection as 2/n * (1 + k1 and 2/n * (1 + k2, respectively, where k1 > k2 and 0 ≤ k1 ≤ n/2 - 1. Given this relation and transformation technique, which transforms data into the form y = c, we show that removing all data that do not agree with linear fit is possible. Furthermore, the method is independent of the number of data points, missing data, removed data points and nature of distribution (Gaussian or non-Gaussian of outliers, noise and clean data. These are major advantages over the existing linear fit methods. Since having a perfect linear relation between two variables in the real world is impossible, we used artificial data sets with extreme conditions to verify the method. The method detects the correct linear fit when the percentage of data agreeing with linear fit is less than 50%, and the deviation of data that do not agree with linear fit is very small, of the order of ±10-4%. The method results in incorrect detections only when numerical accuracy is insufficient in the calculation process.
Bifurcations of a parametrically excited oscillator with strong nonlinearity
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
唐驾时; 符文彬; 李克安
2002-01-01
A parametrically excited oscillator with strong nonlinearity, including van der Poi and Duffing types, is studied for static bifurcations. The applicable range of the modified Lindstedt-Poincaré method is extended to 1/2 subharmonic resonance systems. The bifurcation equation of a strongly nonlinear oscillator, which is transformed into a small parameter system, is determined by the multiple scales method. On the basis of the singularity theory, the transition set and the bifurcation diagram in various regions of the parameter plane are analysed.
Process simulation and parametric modeling for strategic project management
Morales, Peter J
2013-01-01
Process Simulation and Parametric Modeling for Strategic Project Management will offer CIOs, CTOs and Software Development Managers, IT Graduate Students an introduction to a set of technologies that will help them understand how to better plan software development projects, manage risk and have better insight into the complexities of the software development process.A novel methodology will be introduced that allows a software development manager to better plan and access risks in the early planning of a project. By providing a better model for early software development estimation and softw
Synthesis for PCTL in Parametric Markov Decision Processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hahn, Ernst Moritz; Han, Tingting; Zhang, Lijun
2011-01-01
In parametric Markov decision processes (PMDPs), transition probabilities are not fixed, but are given as functions over a set of parameters. A PMDP denotes a family of concrete MDPs. This paper studies the synthesis problem for PCTL in PMDPs: Given a specification Φ in PCTL, we synthesise...... by hyper-rectangles, we allow a limited area to remain undecided. We also consider an extension of PCTL with reachability rewards. To demonstrate the applicability of the approach, we apply our technique on a case study, using a preliminary implementation....
Parametric design of tri-axial nested Helmholtz coils.
Abbott, Jake J
2015-05-01
This paper provides an optimal parametric design for tri-axial nested Helmholtz coils, which are used to generate a uniform magnetic field with controllable magnitude and direction. Circular and square coils, both with square cross section, are considered. Practical considerations such as wire selection, wire-wrapping efficiency, wire bending radius, choice of power supply, and inductance and time response are included. Using the equations provided, a designer can quickly create an optimal set of custom coils to generate a specified field magnitude in the uniform-field region while maintaining specified accessibility to the central workspace. An example case study is included.
Parametric design study of tandem mirror fusion reactors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carlson, G.A.
1977-05-27
The parametric design study of the tandem mirror reactor (TMR) is described. The results of this study illustrate the variation of reactor characteristics with changes in the independent design parameters, reveal the set of design parameters which minimizes the cost of the reactor, and show the sensitivity of the optimized design to physics and technological uncertainties. The total direct capital cost of an optimized 1000 MWe TMR is estimated to be $1300/kWe. The direct capital cost of a 2000 MWe plant is less than $1000/kWe.
The Ponzano-Regge model and parametric representation
Li, Dan
2011-01-01
We give a parametric representation of the effective noncommutative field theory derived from a $\\kappa$-deformation of the Ponzano-Regge model and define a generalized Kirchhoff polynomial with $\\kappa$-correction terms, obtained in a $\\kappa$-linear approximation. We then consider the corresponding graph hypersurfaces and the question of how the presence of the correction term affects their motivic nature. We look in particular at the tetrahedron graph, which is the basic case of relevance to quantum gravity. With the help of computer calculations, we verify that the number of points over finite fields of the corresponding hypersurface does not fit polynomials with integer coefficients, hence the hypersurface of the tetrahedron is not polynomially countable. This shows that the correction term can change significantly the motivic properties of the hypersurfaces, with respect to the classical case.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choi, Hongyoon; Yoo, Min Young; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Kang, Keon Wook; Chung, Junekey; Lee, Dong Soo [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2013-09-15
Basal/acetazolamide stress {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has been widely used for evaluation of hemodynamics; however, qualitative and subjective visual assessment of cerebrovascular reserve (CVR) has been performed in clinical settings. The aim of this study was to generate parametric CVR images and evaluate its feasibility of quantification. Basal/acetazolamide stress {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT data from 17 patients who underwent bypass surgery or percutaneous transluminal angioplasty were used. Spatial normalization was performed and parametric CVR images were generated using relative CVR (rCVR) of each voxel proportional to CVR of the whole brain. Binary parametric maps to show area of relatively reduced CVR were generated also using threshold of rCVR < 90 %. We calculated rCVR of internal carotid artery (ICA) using the parametric CVR images and probabilistic maps for ICA territory. Pre- and postprocedural parametric CVR images were obtained and quantitative rCVRs were compared. The rCVRs were evaluated according to visual grades for regional decreased CVR. Postprocedural rCVR obtained from parametric CVR images increased significantly from preprocedural rCVR. The rCVR was significantly correlated with visual grades of reduced CVR for each side of ICA territories. We generated parametric CVR images for basal/acetazolamide stress {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT. As a quantitative measurement, rCVR obtained from the parametric image was feasibly assessed hemodynamic abnormalities with preserved anatomical information.
The Andersen aerobic fitness test
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aadland, Eivind; Terum, Torkil; Mamen, Asgeir
2014-01-01
of agreement) were 26.7±125.2 m for test 2 vs. test 1 (ptest 3 vs. test 2 (p = .514 for mean difference). The equation to estimate VO2peak suggested by Andersen et al. (2008) showed a poor fit in the present sample; thus, we suggest a new equation: VO2peak = 23......BACKGROUND: High aerobic fitness is consistently associated with a favorable metabolic risk profile in children. Direct measurement of peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) is often not feasible, thus indirect tests such as the Andersen test are required in many settings. The present study seeks...... to determine the reliability and validity of the Andersen test in 10-year-old children. METHODS: A total of 118 10-year-old children (67 boys and 51 girls) were recruited from one school and performed four VO2peak tests over three weeks: three Andersen tests (indirect) and one continuous progressive treadmill...
Wang, Bao; Wei, Guowei
2016-01-01
In this work, a systematic protocol is proposed to automatically parametrize implicit solvent models with polar and nonpolar components. The proposed protocol utilizes the classical Poisson model or the Kohn-Sham density functional theory (KSDFT) based polarizable Poisson model for modeling polar solvation free energies. For the nonpolar component, either the standard model of surface area, molecular volume, and van der Waals interactions, or a model with atomic surface areas and molecular volume is employed. Based on the assumption that similar molecules have similar parametrizations, we develop scoring and ranking algorithms to classify solute molecules. Four sets of radius parameters are combined with four sets of charge force fields to arrive at a total of 16 different parametrizations for the Poisson model. A large database with 668 experimental data is utilized to validate the proposed protocol. The lowest leave-one-out root mean square (RMS) error for the database is 1.33k cal/mol. Additionally, five s...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gitte Keidser
2016-04-01
Full Text Available A self-contained, self-fitting hearing aid (SFHA is a device that enables the user to perform both threshold measurements leading to a prescribed hearing aid setting and fine-tuning, without the need for audiological support or access to other equipment. The SFHA has been proposed as a potential solution to address unmet hearing health care in developing countries and remote locations in the developed world and is considered a means to lower cost and increase uptake of hearing aids in developed countries. This article reviews the status of the SFHA and the evidence for its feasibility and challenges and predicts where it is heading. Devices that can be considered partly or fully self-fitting without audiological support were identified in the direct-to-consumer market. None of these devices are considered self-contained as they require access to other hardware such as a proprietary interface, computer, smartphone, or tablet for manipulation. While there is evidence that self-administered fitting processes can provide valid and reliable results, their success relies on user-friendly device designs and interfaces and easy-to-interpret instructions. Until these issues have been sufficiently addressed, optional assistance with the self-fitting process and on-going use of SFHAs is recommended. Affordability and a sustainable delivery system remain additional challenges for the SFHA in developing countries. Future predictions include a growth in self-fitting products, with most future SFHAs consisting of earpieces that connect wirelessly with a smartphone and providers offering assistance through a telehealth infrastructure, and the integration of SFHAs into the traditional hearing health-care model.
Parametrizing arbitrary galaxy morphologies: potentials and pitfalls
Andrae, René; Jahnke, Knud; Melchior, Peter
2011-02-01
Given the enormous galaxy data bases of modern sky surveys, parametrizing galaxy morphologies is a very challenging task due to the huge number and variety of objects. We assess the different problems faced by existing parametrization schemes (CAS, Gini, M20, Sérsic profile, shapelets) in an attempt to understand why parametrization is so difficult and in order to suggest improvements for future parametrization schemes. We demonstrate that morphological observables (e.g. steepness of the radial light profile, ellipticity, asymmetry) are intertwined and cannot be measured independently of each other. We present strong arguments in favour of model-based parametrization schemes, namely reliability assessment, disentanglement of morphological observables and point spread function modelling. Furthermore, we demonstrate that estimates of the concentration and Sérsic index obtained from the Zurich Structure & Morphology catalogue are in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions. We also demonstrate that the incautious use of the concentration index for classification purposes can cause a severe loss of the discriminative information contained in a given data sample. Moreover, we show that, for poorly resolved galaxies, concentration index and M20 suffer from strong discontinuities, i.e. similar morphologies are not necessarily mapped to neighbouring points in the parameter space. This limits the reliability of these parameters for classification purposes. Two-dimensional Sérsic profiles accounting for centroid and ellipticity are identified as the currently most reliable parametrization scheme in the regime of intermediate signal-to-noise ratios and resolutions, where asymmetries and substructures do not play an important role. We argue that basis functions provide good parametrization schemes in the regimes of high signal-to-noise ratios and resolutions. Concerning Sérsic profiles, we show that scale radii cannot be compared directly for profiles of different
Limitations of inclusive fitness.
Allen, Benjamin; Nowak, Martin A; Wilson, Edward O
2013-12-10
Until recently, inclusive fitness has been widely accepted as a general method to explain the evolution of social behavior. Affirming and expanding earlier criticism, we demonstrate that inclusive fitness is instead a limited concept, which exists only for a small subset of evolutionary processes. Inclusive fitness assumes that personal fitness is the sum of additive components caused by individual actions. This assumption does not hold for the majority of evolutionary processes or scenarios. To sidestep this limitation, inclusive fitness theorists have proposed a method using linear regression. On the basis of this method, it is claimed that inclusive fitness theory (i) predicts the direction of allele frequency changes, (ii) reveals the reasons for these changes, (iii) is as general as natural selection, and (iv) provides a universal design principle for evolution. In this paper we evaluate these claims, and show that all of them are unfounded. If the objective is to analyze whether mutations that modify social behavior are favored or opposed by natural selection, then no aspect of inclusive fitness theory is needed.
Grasser, L; Parrain, F; Roux, X Le; Gilles, J -P
2008-01-01
Parametric amplification is an interesting way of artificially increasing a MEMS Quality factor and could be helpful in many kinds of applications. This paper presents a theoretical study of this principle, based on Matlab/Simulink simulations, and proposes design guidelines for parametric structures. A new device designed with this approach is presented together with the corresponding FEM simulation results.
Comparison of reliability techniques of parametric and non-parametric method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Kalaiselvan
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Reliability of a product or system is the probability that the product performs adequately its intended function for the stated period of time under stated operating conditions. It is function of time. The most widely used nano ceramic capacitor C0G and X7R is used in this reliability study to generate the Time-to failure (TTF data. The time to failure data are identified by Accelerated Life Test (ALT and Highly Accelerated Life Testing (HALT. The test is conducted at high stress level to generate more failure rate within the short interval of time. The reliability method used to convert accelerated to actual condition is Parametric method and Non-Parametric method. In this paper, comparative study has been done for Parametric and Non-Parametric methods to identify the failure data. The Weibull distribution is identified for parametric method; Kaplan–Meier and Simple Actuarial Method are identified for non-parametric method. The time taken to identify the mean time to failure (MTTF in accelerating condition is the same for parametric and non-parametric method with relative deviation.
A Nonparametric Approach for Assessing Goodness-of-Fit of IRT Models in a Mixed Format Test
Liang, Tie; Wells, Craig S.
2015-01-01
Investigating the fit of a parametric model plays a vital role in validating an item response theory (IRT) model. An area that has received little attention is the assessment of multiple IRT models used in a mixed-format test. The present study extends the nonparametric approach, proposed by Douglas and Cohen (2001), to assess model fit of three…
Constraints from Cosmography in Various Parametrizations
Aviles, Alejandro; Gruber, Christine; Luongo, Orlando; Quevedo, Hernando
2015-01-01
We use cosmography to present constraints on the kinematics of the Universe without postulating any underlying theoretical model a priori. To this end, we use a Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis to perform comparisons to the supernova Ia union 2 compilation, combined with the Hubble Space Telescope measurements of the Hubble constant, and the Hubble parameter datasets. The cosmographic approach to our analysis is revisited and extended for new notions of redshift presented as alternatives to the redshift z. Furthermore, we introduce a new set of fitting parameters describing the kinematical evolution of the Universe in terms of the equation of state of the Universe and derivatives of the total pressure. Our results are consistent with the ΛCDM model, although alternative models, with nearly constant pressure and no cosmological constant, match the results accurately as well.
Fiber-optic parametric amplifier and oscillator based on intracavity parametric pump technique.
Luo, Zhengqian; Zhong, Wen-De; Tang, Ming; Cai, Zhiping; Ye, Chenchun; Xiao, Xiaosheng
2009-01-15
A cost-effective fiber optical parametric amplifier (FOPA) based on the laser intracavity pump technique has been proposed and demonstrated experimentally. The parametric process is realized by inserting a 1 km highly nonlinear dispersion-shifted fiber (HNL-DSF) into a fiber ring-laser cavity that consists of a high-power erbium-doped fiber (EDF) amplifier and two highly reflective fiber Bragg gratings. Compared with the conventional parametric pump schemes, the proposed pumping technique is free from a tunable semiconductor laser as the pump source and also the pump phase modulation. When the oscillating power of 530 mW in the EDF laser cavity is achieved to pump the HNL-DSF, a peak parametric gain of 27.5 dB and a net gain over 45 nm are obtained. Moreover, a widely tunable fiber-optic parametric oscillator is further developed using the FOPA as a gain medium.
Introducing the Ginga FITS Viewer and Toolkit
Jeschke, E.; Inagaki, T.; Kackley, R.
2013-10-01
We introduce Ginga, a new open-source FITS viewer and toolkit based on Python astronomical packages such as pyfits, numpy, scipy, matplotlib, and pywcs. For developers, we present a set of Python classes for viewing FITS files under the modern Gtk and Qt widget sets and a more full-featured viewer that has a plugin architecture. We further describe how plugins can be written to extend the viewer with many different capabilities. The software may be of interest to software developers who are looking for a solution for integrating FITS visualization into their Python programs and end users interested in a new and different FITS viewer that is not based on Tcl/Tk widget technology. The software has been released under a BSD license.
Phase noise suppression through parametric filtering
Cassella, Cristian; Strachan, Scott; Shaw, Steven W.; Piazza, Gianluca
2017-02-01
In this work, we introduce and experimentally demonstrate a parametric phase noise suppression technique, which we call "parametric phase noise filtering." This technique is based on the use of a solid-state parametric amplifier operating in its instability region and included in a non-autonomous feedback loop connected at the output of a noisy oscillator. We demonstrate that such a system behaves as a parametrically driven Duffing resonator and can operate at special points where it becomes largely immune to the phase fluctuations that affect the oscillator output signal. A prototype of a parametric phase noise filter (PFIL) was designed and fabricated to operate in the very-high-frequency range. The PFIL prototype allowed us to significantly reduce the phase noise at the output of a commercial signal generator operating around 220 MHz. Noise reduction of 16 dB (40×) and 13 dB (20×) were obtained, respectively, at 1 and 10 kHz offsets from the carrier frequency. The demonstration of this phase noise suppression technique opens up scenarios in the development of passive and low-cost phase noise cancellation circuits for any application demanding high quality frequency generation.
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Barsdell, B. R.; Barnes, D. G.; Fluke, C. J.
2011-07-01
Structural parameters are normally extracted from observed galaxies by fitting analytic light profiles to the observations. Obtaining accurate fits to high-resolution images is a computationally expensive task, requiring many model evaluations and convolutions with the imaging point spread function. While these algorithms contain high degrees of parallelism, current implementations do not exploit this property. With ever-growing volumes of observational data, an inability to make use of advances in computing power can act as a constraint on scientific outcomes. This is the motivation behind our work, which aims to implement the model-fitting procedure on a graphics processing unit (GPU). We begin by analysing the algorithms involved in model evaluation with respect to their suitability for modern many-core computing architectures like GPUs, finding them to be well-placed to take advantage of the high memory bandwidth offered by this hardware. Following our analysis, we briefly describe a preliminary implementation of the model fitting procedure using freely-available GPU libraries. Early results suggest a speed-up of around 10× over a CPU implementation. We discuss the opportunities such a speed-up could provide, including the ability to use more computationally expensive but better-performing fitting routines to increase the quality and robustness of fits.
Investigation of coupled optical parametric oscillators for novel applications
Ding, Yujie J.
2016-03-01
In this proceedings article, we summarize our previous results on the novel applications using the coupled optical parametric oscillators (OPO's). In a conventional OPO, a single pump wavelength is capable of generating a pair of the signal and idler beams by placing a bulk nonlinear crystal inside an OPO cavity. When a nonlinear crystal composite consisting of periodically-inverted KTiOPO4 (KTP) plates bonded together by the adhesive-free-bonded (AFB) technique is used instead of the bulk nonlinear crystal, the optical parametric oscillation takes place at two sets of the new wavelengths for the signal and idler beams due to the phase shifts occurring at the interfaces of the adjacent domains making up the composite. These two sets of the signal and idler waves are effectively generated by the two OPO's being coupled to each other. These signals and idlers exhibit ultrastability in terms of their frequency separation. We review the progress made by us on the applications being realized by using such coupled OPO's such as THz generation and restoration of the blurred images after propagating through a distortion plate and a phase plate simulating atmospheric turbulence.
Constructing parametric triangular patches with boundary conditions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hui Liu; Jun Ma; Fuhua Cheng
2008-01-01
The problem of constructing a parametric triangular patch to smoothly connect three surface patches is studied. Usually, these surface patches are defined on different parameter spaces. Therefore, it is necessary to define interpolation conditions, with values from the given surface patches, on the boundary of the triangular patch that can ensure smooth transition between different parameter spaces. In this paper we present a new method to define boundary conditions. Boundary conditions defined by the new method have the same parameter space if the three given surface patches can be converted into the same form through affine transformation. Consequently, any of the classic methods for constructing functional triangular patches can be used directly to construct a parametric triangular patch to connect given surface patches with G continuity. The resulting parametric triangular patch preserves precision of the applied classic method.
Modeling personnel turnover in the parametric organization
Dean, Edwin B.
1991-01-01
A model is developed for simulating the dynamics of a newly formed organization, credible during all phases of organizational development. The model development process is broken down into the activities of determining the tasks required for parametric cost analysis (PCA), determining the skills required for each PCA task, determining the skills available in the applicant marketplace, determining the structure of the model, implementing the model, and testing it. The model, parameterized by the likelihood of job function transition, has demonstrated by the capability to represent the transition of personnel across functional boundaries within a parametric organization using a linear dynamical system, and the ability to predict required staffing profiles to meet functional needs at the desired time. The model can be extended by revisions of the state and transition structure to provide refinements in functional definition for the parametric and extended organization.
Parametric modelling of a knee joint prosthesis.
Khoo, L P; Goh, J C; Chow, S L
1993-01-01
This paper presents an approach for the establishment of a parametric model of knee joint prosthesis. Four different sizes of a commercial prosthesis are used as an example in the study. A reverse engineering technique was employed to reconstruct the prosthesis on CATIA, a CAD (computer aided design) system. Parametric models were established as a result of the analysis. Using the parametric model established and the knee data obtained from a clinical study on 21 pairs of cadaveric Asian knees, the development of a prototype prosthesis that suits a patient with a very small knee joint is presented. However, it was found that modification to certain parameters may be inevitable due to the uniqueness of the Asian knee. An avenue for rapid modelling and eventually economical production of a customized knee joint prosthesis for patients is proposed and discussed.
Non-parametric partitioning of SAR images
Delyon, G.; Galland, F.; Réfrégier, Ph.
2006-09-01
We describe and analyse a generalization of a parametric segmentation technique adapted to Gamma distributed SAR images to a simple non parametric noise model. The partition is obtained by minimizing the stochastic complexity of a quantized version on Q levels of the SAR image and lead to a criterion without parameters to be tuned by the user. We analyse the reliability of the proposed approach on synthetic images. The quality of the obtained partition will be studied for different possible strategies. In particular, one will discuss the reliability of the proposed optimization procedure. Finally, we will precisely study the performance of the proposed approach in comparison with the statistical parametric technique adapted to Gamma noise. These studies will be led by analyzing the number of misclassified pixels, the standard Hausdorff distance and the number of estimated regions.
Parametric Conversion Using Custom MOS Varactors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Iniewski Krzysztof (Kris
2006-01-01
Full Text Available The possible role of customized MOS varactors in amplification, mixing, and frequency control of future millimeter wave CMOS RFICs is outlined. First, the parametric conversion concept is revisited and discussed in terms of modern RF communications systems. Second, the modeling, design, and optimization of MOS varactors are reconsidered in the context of their central role in parametric circuits. Third, a balanced varactor structure is proposed for robust oscillator frequency control in the presence of large extrinsic noise expected in tightly integrated wireless communicators. Main points include the proposal of a subharmonic pumping scheme based on the MOS varactor, a nonequilibrium elastance-voltage model, optimal varactor layout suggestions, custom m-CMOS varactor design and measurement, device-level balanced varactor simulations, and parametric circuit evaluation based on measured device characteristics.
PARAMETRIC DESIGN OF DELTA ROBOT
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mert Gürgen
2016-09-01
Full Text Available This article describes a sophisticated determination and presentation of a workspace volume for a delta robot, with consideration of its kinematic behavior. With the help of theoretical equations, optimization is performed with the aid of the stiffness and dexterity analysis. Theoretical substructure is coded in Matlab and three-dimensional (3D data for delta robot are developed in computer-aided design (CAD environment. In later stages of the project, both 3D and theoretical data are linked together and thus, with the changing design parameter of the robot itself, the Solidworks CAD output adapts and regenerates output with a new set of parameters. To achieve an optimum workspace volume with predefined parameters, a different set of robot parameters are iterated through design optimization in Matlab, and the delta robot design is finalized and illustrated in the 3D CAD environment, Solidworks. This study provides a technical solution to accomplish a generic delta robot with optimized workspace volume.
Stability Analysis of the Parametric Roll Resonance under Non-constant Ship Speed
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Galeazzi, Roberto; Vidic-Perunovic, Jelena; Blanke, Mogens
2008-01-01
The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of a nonconstant ship speed on the onset and development of the parametric roll resonance. A 2-DOF nonlinear surge-roll model is set up and analyzed. Perturbation methods are also applied to evaluate the influence of dynamic variations of surge vel...
The Parametrically Forced Pendulum : A Case Study in 1½ Degree of Freedom
Broer, H.W.; Hoveijn, I.; Noort, M. van; Simó, C.; Vegter, G.
2004-01-01
This paper is concerned with the global coherent (i.e., non-chaotic) dynamics of the parametrically forced pendulum. The system is studied in a 1½ degree of freedom Hamiltonian setting with two parameters, where a spatio-temporal symmetry is taken into account. Our explorations are restricted to lar
A PARAMETRIC FAMILY OF CORRELATION STRUCTURES FOR THE ANALYSIS OF LONGITUDINAL DATA
MUNOZ, A; CAREY, [No Value; SCHOUTEN, JP; SEGAL, M; ROSNER, B
In epidemiological settings, we are often faced with numerous short time series, and a parsimonious parametrization of the correlation structure is desired in order to optimize the efficiency of the estimation procedure. We propose a damped exponential correlation structure for modeling multivariate
Agasisti, Tommaso
2011-01-01
The objective of this paper is an efficiency analysis concerning higher education systems in European countries. Data have been extracted from OECD data-sets (Education at a Glance, several years), using a non-parametric technique--data envelopment analysis--to calculate efficiency scores. This paper represents the first attempt to conduct such an…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Montazeri, Najmeh; Nielsen, Ulrik Dam; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher
2016-01-01
Shipboard wave estimation has been of interest in recent years for the purpose of decision support. In this paper, estimation of sea state is studied using ship responses and a parametric description of directional wave spectra. A set of parameters, characterising a given wave spectrum is estimated...
Measuring the influence of networks on transaction costs using a non-parametric regression technique
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henningsen, Géraldine; Henningsen, Arne; Henning, Christian H.C.A.
. We empirically analyse the effect of networks on productivity using a cross-validated local linear non-parametric regression technique and a data set of 384 farms in Poland. Our empirical study generally supports our hypothesis that networks affect productivity. Large and dense trading networks...
Reliable Single Chip Genotyping with Semi-Parametric Log-Concave Mixtures
R.C.A. Rippe (Ralph); J.J. Meulman (Jacqueline); P.H.C. Eilers (Paul)
2012-01-01
textabstractThe common approach to SNP genotyping is to use (model-based) clustering per individual SNP, on a set of arrays. Genotyping all SNPs on a single array is much more attractive, in terms of flexibility, stability and applicability, when developing new chips. A new semi-parametric method, n
Baldasaro, Ruth E; Bauer, Daniel J
2011-11-30
Many approaches have been proposed to estimate interactions among latent variables. These methods often assume a specific functional form for the interaction, such as a bilinear interaction. Theory is seldom specific enough to provide a functional form for an interaction, however, so a more exploratory, diagnostic approach may often be required. Bauer (2005) proposed a semiparametric approach that allows for the estimation of interaction effects of unknown functional form among latent variables. A structural equation mixture model (SEMM) is first fit to the data. Then an approximation of the interaction is obtained by aggregating over the mixing components. A simulation study is used to examine the performance of this semiparametric approach to two parametric approaches: the latent moderated structures approach (Klein & Moosbrugger, 2000) and the unconstrained product-indicator approach (Marsh, Wen, & Hau, 2004). Data were generated from four functional forms: main effects only, quadratic trend, bilinear interaction, and exponential interaction. Estimates of bias and root mean squared error of approximation were calculated by comparing the surface used to generate the data and the model-implied surface constructed from each approach. As expected, the parametric approaches were more efficient than the SEMM. For the main effects model, bias was similar for both the SEMM and parametric approaches. For the bilinear interaction, the parametric approaches provided nearly identical results, although the SEMM approach was slightly more biased. When the parametric approaches assumed a bilinear interaction and the data were generated from a quadratic trend or an exponential interaction, the parametric approaches generated biased estimates of the true surface. The SEMM approach approximated the true data generation surface with a similarly low level of bias for all the nonlinear surfaces. For example, Figure 1 shows the true surface for the bilinear interaction along with the
Parametric Study Of Window Frame Geometry
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zajas, Jan Jakub; Heiselberg, Per
2013-01-01
This paper describes a parametric study on window frame geometry with the goal of designing frames with very good thermal properties. Three different parametric frame models are introduced, deseribed by a number of variables. In the first part of the study, a process of sensitivity analysis...... is conducted to determine which of the parameters describing the frame have the highest impact on its thermal performance. Afterwards, an optimization process is conducted on each frame in order to optimize the design with regard to three objectives: minimizing the thermal transmittance, maxim izing the net...
Using Parametrics to Facilitate Collaborative Urban Design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Steinø, Nicolai; Benbih, Karima; Obeling, Esben
2013-01-01
in the context of the urban South which is characterized by high urban growth rates, weak planning systems and modest means. The current state of planning and urban development in Morocco is introduced as a context for discussing collaborative urban design and parametric urban design, and some tentative......Collaborative urban design faces three inherent dilemmas of limitations to time and resources, of barriers to language and communication between professionals and stakeholders, and of the reciprocal nature of the relation between influence and understanding. Parametric design tools may address all...
Parametric Study Of Window Frame Geometry
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zajas, Jan Jakub; Heiselberg, Per
2013-01-01
This paper describes a parametric study on window frame geometry with the goal of designing frames with very good thermal properties. Three different parametric frame models are introduced, deseribed by a number of variables. In the first part of the study, a process of sensitivity analysis is co...... energy gain factor and minimizing the material use. Since the objectives contradiet each other, it was found that it is not possible to identifY a single solution that satisfies all these goals. lnstead, a compromise between the objectives has to be found....
Hamiltonian dynamics of the parametrized electromagnetic field
G., J Fernando Barbero; Villaseñor, Eduardo J S
2015-01-01
We study the Hamiltonian formulation for a parametrized electromagnetic field with the purpose of clarifying the interplay between parametrization and gauge symmetries. We use a geometric approach which is tailor-made for theories where embeddings are part of the dynamical variables. Our point of view is global and coordinate free. The most important result of the paper is the identification of sectors in the primary constraint submanifold in the phase space of the model where the number of independent components of the Hamiltonian vector fields that define the dynamics changes. This explains the non-trivial behavior of the system and some of its pathologies.
Parametric Methods for Order Tracking Analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Nielsen, Jesper Kjær
2017-01-01
Order tracking analysis is often used to find the critical speeds at which structural resonances are excited by a rotating machine. Typically, order tracking analysis is performed via non-parametric methods. In this report, however, we demonstrate some of the advantages of using a parametric method...... for order tracking analysis. Specifically, we show that we get a much better time and frequency resolution, obtain a much more robust and accurate estimate of the RPM profile, and are able to perform accurate order tracking analysis even without the tachometer signal....
Hamiltonian dynamics of the parametrized electromagnetic field
Barbero G, J. Fernando; Margalef-Bentabol, Juan; Villaseñor, Eduardo J. S.
2016-06-01
We study the Hamiltonian formulation for a parametrized electromagnetic field with the purpose of clarifying the interplay between parametrization and gauge symmetries. We use a geometric approach which is tailor-made for theories where embeddings are part of the dynamical variables. Our point of view is global and coordinate free. The most important result of the paper is the identification of sectors in the primary constraint submanifold in the phase space of the model where the number of independent components of the Hamiltonian vector fields that define the dynamics changes. This explains the non-trivial behavior of the system and some of its pathologies.
Parametric injection for monoenergetic electron acceleration
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oguchi, A; Takano, K; Hotta, E; Nemoto, K [Department of Energy Sciences Tokyo Institute of Technology 4259 Nagatsuta-cho Midori-ku Yokohama 226-8502 Japan (Japan); Zhidkov, A [Central Research Instistute of Electric Power Industry 2-6-1 Nagasaka Yokosuka Kanagawa 240-0196 Japan (Japan); Nakajima, K [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, KEK 1-1 Oho Tsukuba Ibaraki 305-0801 Japan (Japan)], E-mail: blue-ayu@plasma.es.titech.ac.jp
2008-05-01
Electrons are accelerated in the laser wakefield (LWFA). This mechanism has been studied by 2D or 3D Particle In Cell simulation. However, how the electrons are injected in the wakefield is not understood. In this paper, we consider about the process of self -injection and propose new scheme. When plasma electron density modulates, parametric resonance of electron momentum is induced. The parametric resonance depends on laser waist modulation. We carried out 2D PIC simulation with the initial condition decided from resonance condition. Moreover, we analyze experimental result that generated 200-250 MeV monoenergetic electron beam with 400TW intense laser in CAEP in China.
The Stellar parametrization using Artificial Neural Network
Giridhar, Sunetra; Kunder, Andrea; Muneer, S; Kumar, G Selva
2012-01-01
An update on recent methods for automated stellar parametrization is given. We present preliminary results of the ongoing program for rapid parametrization of field stars using medium resolution spectra obtained using Vainu Bappu Telescope at VBO, Kavalur, India. We have used Artificial Neural Network for estimating temperature, gravity, metallicity and absolute magnitude of the field stars. The network for each parameter is trained independently using a large number of calibrating stars. The trained network is used for estimating atmospheric parameters of unexplored field stars.
Parametric Amplification For Detecting Weak Optical Signals
Hemmati, Hamid; Chen, Chien; Chakravarthi, Prakash
1996-01-01
Optical-communication receivers of proposed type implement high-sensitivity scheme of optical parametric amplification followed by direct detection for reception of extremely weak signals. Incorporates both optical parametric amplification and direct detection into optimized design enhancing effective signal-to-noise ratios during reception in photon-starved (photon-counting) regime. Eliminates need for complexity of heterodyne detection scheme and partly overcomes limitations imposed on older direct-detection schemes by noise generated in receivers and by limits on quantum efficiencies of photodetectors.
2014-01-01
residents also requires a broader expertise and training of the CHOs. Conclusions Access to improved urban health services remains a challenge. However, current policy guidelines for the implementation of a primary health model based on rural experiences and experimental design requires careful review and modifications to meet the needs of the urban settings. PMID:24690310
Adongo, Philip Baba; Phillips, James F; Aikins, Moses; Arhin, Doris Afua; Schmitt, Margaret; Nwameme, Adanna U; Tabong, Philip Teg-Nefaah; Binka, Fred N
2014-04-01
broader expertise and training of the CHOs. Access to improved urban health services remains a challenge. However, current policy guidelines for the implementation of a primary health model based on rural experiences and experimental design requires careful review and modifications to meet the needs of the urban settings.
A Comparison of Parametric and Non-Parametric Methods Applied to a Likert Scale.
Mircioiu, Constantin; Atkinson, Jeffrey
2017-05-10
A trenchant and passionate dispute over the use of parametric versus non-parametric methods for the analysis of Likert scale ordinal data has raged for the past eight decades. The answer is not a simple "yes" or "no" but is related to hypotheses, objectives, risks, and paradigms. In this paper, we took a pragmatic approach. We applied both types of methods to the analysis of actual Likert data on responses from different professional subgroups of European pharmacists regarding competencies for practice. Results obtained show that with "large" (>15) numbers of responses and similar (but clearly not normal) distributions from different subgroups, parametric and non-parametric analyses give in almost all cases the same significant or non-significant results for inter-subgroup comparisons. Parametric methods were more discriminant in the cases of non-similar conclusions. Considering that the largest differences in opinions occurred in the upper part of the 4-point Likert scale (ranks 3 "very important" and 4 "essential"), a "score analysis" based on this part of the data was undertaken. This transformation of the ordinal Likert data into binary scores produced a graphical representation that was visually easier to understand as differences were accentuated. In conclusion, in this case of Likert ordinal data with high response rates, restraining the analysis to non-parametric methods leads to a loss of information. The addition of parametric methods, graphical analysis, analysis of subsets, and transformation of data leads to more in-depth analyses.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eloranta Sandra
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background When the mortality among a cancer patient group returns to the same level as in the general population, that is, the patients no longer experience excess mortality, the patients still alive are considered "statistically cured". Cure models can be used to estimate the cure proportion as well as the survival function of the "uncured". One limitation of parametric cure models is that the functional form of the survival of the "uncured" has to be specified. It can sometimes be hard to find a survival function flexible enough to fit the observed data, for example, when there is high excess hazard within a few months from diagnosis, which is common among older age groups. This has led to the exclusion of older age groups in population-based cancer studies using cure models. Methods Here we have extended the flexible parametric survival model to incorporate cure as a special case to estimate the cure proportion and the survival of the "uncured". Flexible parametric survival models use splines to model the underlying hazard function, and therefore no parametric distribution has to be specified. Results We have compared the fit from standard cure models to our flexible cure model, using data on colon cancer patients in Finland. This new method gives similar results to a standard cure model, when it is reliable, and better fit when the standard cure model gives biased estimates. Conclusions Cure models within the framework of flexible parametric models enables cure modelling when standard models give biased estimates. These flexible cure models enable inclusion of older age groups and can give stage-specific estimates, which is not always possible from parametric cure models.
Validation of two (parametric vs non-parametric) daily weather generators
Dubrovsky, M.; Skalak, P.
2015-12-01
As the climate models (GCMs and RCMs) fail to satisfactorily reproduce the real-world surface weather regime, various statistical methods are applied to downscale GCM/RCM outputs into site-specific weather series. The stochastic weather generators are among the most favourite downscaling methods capable to produce realistic (observed-like) meteorological inputs for agrological, hydrological and other impact models used in assessing sensitivity of various ecosystems to climate change/variability. To name their advantages, the generators may (i) produce arbitrarily long multi-variate synthetic weather series representing both present and changed climates (in the latter case, the generators are commonly modified by GCM/RCM-based climate change scenarios), (ii) be run in various time steps and for multiple weather variables (the generators reproduce the correlations among variables), (iii) be interpolated (and run also for sites where no weather data are available to calibrate the generator). This contribution will compare two stochastic daily weather generators in terms of their ability to reproduce various features of the daily weather series. M&Rfi is a parametric generator: Markov chain model is used to model precipitation occurrence, precipitation amount is modelled by the Gamma distribution, and the 1st order autoregressive model is used to generate non-precipitation surface weather variables. The non-parametric GoMeZ generator is based on the nearest neighbours resampling technique making no assumption on the distribution of the variables being generated. Various settings of both weather generators will be assumed in the present validation tests. The generators will be validated in terms of (a) extreme temperature and precipitation characteristics (annual and 30-years extremes and maxima of duration of hot/cold/dry/wet spells); (b) selected validation statistics developed within the frame of VALUE project. The tests will be based on observational weather series
Elastoplastic frictional contact problem study on interference fits of compressor
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hongwu ZHANG; Aihua LIAO; Changhua WU
2008-01-01
The FE parametric quadratic programming (PQP) method developed from the parametric variational principle (PVP) was used for the analysis of the stress distribution of the 3D elastoplastic frictional contact of an impeller-shaft sleeve-shaft. A locomotive-type turbo-charger compressor with 24 blades under combined cen-trifugal and interference-fit loading was considered in the numerical analysis. The solution of elastoplastic frictional contact problems belongs to unspecified boundary pro-blems where the interaction between two kinds of nonli-nearities should occur. To save time in the numerical computation, a multi-substructure technique was adopted in the structural modeling. The effect of fit tolerance, wall thickness of the shaft sleeve, and rotational speed on the contact stress was discussed in detail in the numerical computation. To decrease the difficulty of the assembly process and ensure the safety of the working state, the amount of interference between the shaft sleeve and shaft by press-fitting should be controlled strictly to avoid the rapid increase of contact stress. The numerical results show that the algorithm has high accuracy and good con-vergence. The study can be referred to in deciding the proper fit tolerance and improving the design and man-ufacturing technology of compressor impellers.
Green-Schwarz superstring. Beltrami parametrization and world-sheet supersymmetric generalization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Binetruy, P.; Girardi, G. (Grenoble-1 Univ., 74 - Annecy (France). Lab. de Physique des Particules); Grimm, R. (Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik)
1989-09-28
We study a generalization of the superstring theory in which both world-sheet and space-time supersymmetries are explicit. This hybrid superstring interpolates between the Green-Schwarz and the Ramond-Neveu-Schwarz formulations. We show that the Beltrami parametrization of the world-sheet provides a natural setting for the description of {kappa}-transformations already in the Green-Schwarz string. We construct the hybrid superstring action using the (1, 1) supersymmetric version of the Beltrami parametrization. We discuss the generalization of {kappa}-transformations. (orig.).
Self-organization in Kerr-cavity-soliton formation in parametric frequency combs
Wen, Y. Henry; Lamont, Michael R. E.; Strogatz, Steven H.; Gaeta, Alexander L.
2016-12-01
We show that self-organization and synchronization underlie Kerr-cavity-soliton formation in parametric frequency combs. By reducing the Lugiato-Lefever equation to a set of phase equations, we find that self-organization arises from a two-stage process via pump-degenerate and pump-nondegenerate four-wave mixing. The reduced phase equations are akin to the Kuramoto model of coupled oscillators and intuitively explain the origin of the pump phase offset, predict antisymmetrization of the intracavity field before phase synchronization, and clarify the role of chaos in Kerr-cavity-soliton formation in parametric combs.
Minimization of Basis Risk in Parametric Earthquake Cat Bonds
Franco, G.
2009-12-01
A catastrophe -cat- bond is an instrument used by insurance and reinsurance companies, by governments or by groups of nations to cede catastrophic risk to the financial markets, which are capable of supplying cover for highly destructive events, surpassing the typical capacity of traditional reinsurance contracts. Parametric cat bonds, a specific type of cat bonds, use trigger mechanisms or indices that depend on physical event parameters published by respected third parties in order to determine whether a part or the entire bond principal is to be paid for a certain event. First generation cat bonds, or cat-in-a-box bonds, display a trigger mechanism that consists of a set of geographic zones in which certain conditions need to be met by an earthquake’s magnitude and depth in order to trigger payment of the bond principal. Second generation cat bonds use an index formulation that typically consists of a sum of products of a set of weights by a polynomial function of the ground motion variables reported by a geographically distributed seismic network. These instruments are especially appealing to developing countries with incipient insurance industries wishing to cede catastrophic losses to the financial markets because the payment trigger mechanism is transparent and does not involve the parties ceding or accepting the risk, significantly reducing moral hazard. In order to be successful in the market, however, parametric cat bonds have typically been required to specify relatively simple trigger conditions. The consequence of such simplifications is the increase of basis risk. This risk represents the possibility that the trigger mechanism fails to accurately capture the actual losses of a catastrophic event, namely that it does not trigger for a highly destructive event or vice versa, that a payment of the bond principal is caused by an event that produced insignificant losses. The first case disfavors the sponsor who was seeking cover for its losses while the
An application of least squares fit mapping to clinical classification.
Yang, Y.; Chute, C. G.
1992-01-01
This paper describes a unique approach, "Least Square Fit Mapping," to clinical data classification. We use large collections of human-assigned text-to-category matches as training sets to compute the correlations between physicians' terms and canonical concepts. A Linear Least Squares Fit (LLSF) technique is employed to obtain a mapping function which optimally fits the known matches given in a training set and probabilistically captures the unknown matches for arbitrary texts. We tested our...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. J. Geer
2007-01-01
Full Text Available This paper evaluates the performance of various linear ozone photochemistry parametrizations using the stratosphere-troposphere data assimilation system of the Met Office. A set of experiments were run for the period 23 September 2003 to 5 November 2003 using the Cariolle (v1.0 and v2.1, LINOZ and Chem2D-OPP (v0.1 and v2.1 parametrizations. All operational meteorological observations were assimilated, together with ozone retrievals from the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS. Experiments were validated against independent data from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE and ozonesondes. Additionally, a simple offline method for comparing the parametrizations is introduced. It is shown that in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere, outside the polar night, ozone analyses are controlled by the photochemistry parametrizations and not by the assimilated observations. The most important factor in getting good results at these levels is to pay attention to the ozone and temperature climatologies in the parametrizations. There should be no discrepancies between the climatologies and the assimilated observations or the model, but there is also a competing demand that the climatologies be objectively accurate in themselves. Conversely, in the lower stratosphere outside regions of heterogeneous ozone depletion, the ozone analyses are dominated by observational increments and the photochemistry parametrizations have little influence. We investigate a number of known problems in LINOZ and Cariolle v1.0 in more detail than previously, and we find discrepancies in Cariolle v2.1 and Chem2D-OPP v2.1, which are demonstrated to have been removed in the latest available versions (v2.8 and v2.6 respectively. In general, however, all the parametrizations work well through much of the stratosphere, helped by the presence of good quality assimilated MIPAS observations.
Barsdell, Benjamin R; Fluke, Christopher J
2011-01-01
Structural parameters are normally extracted from observed galaxies by fitting analytic light profiles to the observations. Obtaining accurate fits to high-resolution images is a computationally expensive task, requiring many model evaluations and convolutions with the imaging point spread function. While these algorithms contain high degrees of parallelism, current implementations do not exploit this property. With evergrowing volumes of observational data, an inability to make use of advances in computing power can act as a constraint on scientific outcomes. This is the motivation behind our work, which aims to implement the model-fitting procedure on a graphics processing unit (GPU). We begin by analysing the algorithms involved in model evaluation with respect to their suitability for modern many-core computing architectures like GPUs, finding them to be well-placed to take advantage of the high memory bandwidth offered by this hardware. Following our analysis, we briefly describe a preliminary implementa...
Fitting the Phenomenological MSSM
AbdusSalam, S S; Quevedo, F; Feroz, F; Hobson, M
2010-01-01
We perform a global Bayesian fit of the phenomenological minimal supersymmetric standard model (pMSSM) to current indirect collider and dark matter data. The pMSSM contains the most relevant 25 weak-scale MSSM parameters, which are simultaneously fit using `nested sampling' Monte Carlo techniques in more than 15 years of CPU time. We calculate the Bayesian evidence for the pMSSM and constrain its parameters and observables in the context of two widely different, but reasonable, priors to determine which inferences are robust. We make inferences about sparticle masses, the sign of the $\\mu$ parameter, the amount of fine tuning, dark matter properties and the prospects for direct dark matter detection without assuming a restrictive high-scale supersymmetry breaking model. We find the inferred lightest CP-even Higgs boson mass as an example of an approximately prior independent observable. This analysis constitutes the first statistically convergent pMSSM global fit to all current data.
The empirical likelihood goodness-of-fit test for regression model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Li-xing ZHU; Yong-song QIN; Wang-li XU
2007-01-01
Goodness-of-fit test for regression modes has received much attention in literature. In this paper, empirical likelihood (EL) goodness-of-fit tests for regression models including classical parametric and autoregressive (AR) time series models are proposed. Unlike the existing locally smoothing and globally smoothing methodologies, the new method has the advantage that the tests are self-scale invariant and that the asymptotic null distribution is chi-squared. Simulations are carried out to illustrate the methodology.
Bifurcations in dynamical systems with parametric excitation
Fatimah, Siti
2002-01-01
This thesis is a collection of studies on coupled nonconservative oscillator systems which contain an oscillator with parametric excitation. The emphasis this study will, on the one hand, be on the bifurcations of the simple solutions such as fixed points and periodic orbits, and on the other hand o
Parametric sensitivity and runaway in tubular reactors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Morbidelli, M.; Varma, A.
1982-09-01
Parametric sensitivity of tubular reactors is analyzed to provide critical values of the heat of reaction and heat transfer parameters defining runaway and stable operations for all positive-order exothermic reactions with finite activation energies, and for all reactor inlet temperatures. Evaluation of the critical values does not involve any trial and error.
A parametric reconstruction of the deceleration parameter
Mamon, Abdulla Al; Das, Sudipta
2017-07-01
The present work is based on a parametric reconstruction of the deceleration parameter q( z) in a model for the spatially flat FRW universe filled with dark energy and non-relativistic matter. In cosmology, the parametric reconstruction technique deals with an attempt to build up a model by choosing some specific evolution scenario for a cosmological parameter and then estimate the values of the parameters with the help of different observational datasets. In this paper, we have proposed a logarithmic parametrization of q( z) to probe the evolution history of the universe. Using the type Ia supernova, baryon acoustic oscillation and the cosmic microwave background datasets, the constraints on the arbitrary model parameters q0 and q1 are obtained (within 1σ and 2σ confidence limits) by χ 2-minimization technique. We have then reconstructed the deceleration parameter, the total EoS parameter ω _tot, the jerk parameter and have compared the reconstructed results of q( z) with other well-known parametrizations of q( z). We have also shown that two model selection criteria (namely, the Akaike information criterion and Bayesian information criterion) provide a clear indication that our reconstructed model is well consistent with other popular models.
New Logic Circuit with DC Parametric Excitation
Sugahara, Masanori; Kaneda, Hisayoshi
1982-12-01
It is shown that dc parametric excitation is possible in a circuit named JUDO, which is composed of two resistively-connected Josephson junctions. Simulation study proves that the circuit has large gain and properties suitable for the construction of small, high-speed logic circuits.
Detection of Parametric Roll on Ships
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Galeazzi, Roberto; Blanke, Mogens; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad
2012-01-01
Recent years have shown several incidents with dramatic damage on container vessels caused by parametric resonance. When the resonance starts, the roll oscillation at a sub-harmonic frequency of the wave excitation may be completely unexpected. Timely warning about the onset of the resonance phen...
Parametrization of Fully Dressed Quark Propagator
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
MA Wei-Xing; ZHU Ji-Zhen; ZHOU Li-Juan; SHEN Peng-Nian; HU Zhao-Hui
2005-01-01
Based on an extensive study of the Dyson-Schwinger equations for a fully dressed quark propagator in the "rainbow" approximation, a parametrized form of the quark propagator is suggested. The corresponding quark selfform of the quark propagator proposed in this work describes a confining quark propagation, and is quite convenient to be used in any numerical calculations.
Interdisciplinary parametric design: the XXL experience
Turrin, M.; Sariyildiz, I.S.; Paul, J.C.
2015-01-01
Focusing on large span structures for sport buildings, the paper tackles the role of parametric modelling and performance simulations, to enhance the integration between architectural and engineering design. The general approach contrasts post-engineering processes. In post-engineering, technical pe
Function Parametrization - a Fast Inverse Mapping Method
van Milligen, B. P.; Cardozo, N. J. L.
1991-01-01
Function parametrization (FP) is a method to invert computer models that map physical parameters describing the state of a physical system onto measurements. It find a mapping of the measurements onto the physical parameters that requires little computing time to evaluate. The major advantages of FP
Parametric Architectural Design with Point-clouds
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zwierzycki, Mateusz; Evers, Henrik Leander; Tamke, Martin
2016-01-01
This paper investigates the efforts and benefits of the implementation of point clouds into architectural design processes and tools. Based on a study on the principal work processes of designers with point clouds the prototypical plugin/library - Volvox - was developed for the parametric modelli...
A general framework for parametric survival analysis.
Crowther, Michael J; Lambert, Paul C
2014-12-30
Parametric survival models are being increasingly used as an alternative to the Cox model in biomedical research. Through direct modelling of the baseline hazard function, we can gain greater understanding of the risk profile of patients over time, obtaining absolute measures of risk. Commonly used parametric survival models, such as the Weibull, make restrictive assumptions of the baseline hazard function, such as monotonicity, which is often violated in clinical datasets. In this article, we extend the general framework of parametric survival models proposed by Crowther and Lambert (Journal of Statistical Software 53:12, 2013), to incorporate relative survival, and robust and cluster robust standard errors. We describe the general framework through three applications to clinical datasets, in particular, illustrating the use of restricted cubic splines, modelled on the log hazard scale, to provide a highly flexible survival modelling framework. Through the use of restricted cubic splines, we can derive the cumulative hazard function analytically beyond the boundary knots, resulting in a combined analytic/numerical approach, which substantially improves the estimation process compared with only using numerical integration. User-friendly Stata software is provided, which significantly extends parametric survival models available in standard software. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Interdisciplinary parametric design: the XXL experience
Turrin, M.; Sariyildiz, I.S.; Paul, J.C.
2015-01-01
Focusing on large span structures for sport buildings, the paper tackles the role of parametric modelling and performance simulations, to enhance the integration between architectural and engineering design. The general approach contrasts post-engineering processes. In post-engineering, technical
A THEORY FOR BROADBAND VARACTOR PARAMETRIC AMPLIFIERS
design and synthesis of broadband varactor parametric amplifiers. The circuit considered in this thesis is that of linear variable capacitors embedded...second and more important inherent property is that, due to the frequency-coupling action of the variable capacitor , the scattering coefficient at the
Parametric Primitives for Hand Gesture Recognition
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Baby, Sanmohan; Krüger, Volker
2009-01-01
Imitation learning is considered to be an effective way of teaching humanoid robots and action recognition is the key step to imitation learning. In this paper an online algorithm to recognize parametric actions with object context is presented. Objects are key instruments in understanding an ac...
The fast parametric slantlet transform with applications
Agaian, Sos S.; Tourshan, Khaled; Noonan, Joseph P.
2004-05-01
Transform methods have played an important role in signal and image processing applications. Recently, Selesnick has constructed the new orthogonal discrete wavelet transform, called the slantlet wavelet, with two zero moments and with improved time localization. The discrete slantlet wavelet transform is carried out by an existing filterbank which lacks a tree structure and has a complexity problem. The slantlet wavelet has been successfully applied in compression and denoising. In this paper, we present a new class of orthogonal parametric fast Haar slantlet transform system where the slantlet wavelet and Haar transforms are special cases of it. We propose designing the slantlet wavelet transform using Haar slantlet transform matrix. A new class of parametric filterbanks is developed. The behavior of the parametric Haar slantlet transforms in signal and image denoising is presented. We show that the new technique performs better than the slantlet wavelet transform in denoising for piecewise constant signals. We also show that the parametric Haar slantlet transform performs better than the cosine and Fourier transforms for grey level images.
Parametric Primitives for Hand Gesture Recognition
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Baby, Sanmohan; Krüger, Volker
2009-01-01
Imitation learning is considered to be an effective way of teaching humanoid robots and action recognition is the key step to imitation learning. In this paper an online algorithm to recognize parametric actions with object context is presented. Objects are key instruments in understanding...
Robustness analysis for real parametric uncertainty
Sideris, Athanasios
1989-01-01
Some key results in the literature in the area of robustness analysis for linear feedback systems with structured model uncertainty are reviewed. Some new results are given. Model uncertainty is described as a combination of real uncertain parameters and norm bounded unmodeled dynamics. Here the focus is on the case of parametric uncertainty. An elementary and unified derivation of the celebrated theorem of Kharitonov and the Edge Theorem is presented. Next, an algorithmic approach for robustness analysis in the cases of multilinear and polynomic parametric uncertainty (i.e., the closed loop characteristic polynomial depends multilinearly and polynomially respectively on the parameters) is given. The latter cases are most important from practical considerations. Some novel modifications in this algorithm which result in a procedure of polynomial time behavior in the number of uncertain parameters is outlined. Finally, it is shown how the more general problem of robustness analysis for combined parametric and dynamic (i.e., unmodeled dynamics) uncertainty can be reduced to the case of polynomic parametric uncertainty, and thus be solved by means of the algorithm.
Parametric Transverse Patterns in Broad Aperture Lasers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Grigorieva, E.V.; Kashchenko, S.A.; Mosekilde, Erik
1998-01-01
Parametrically generated optical patterns are investigated for finite and large-scale transverse aperture lasers. Standing and rotating patterns as well as periodic and chaotic pattern alternations are described in the framework of the amplitude equation formalism. Sensitive dependence...... on the geometrical size of the system is demonstrated even in the case of large-scale systems....
The effects of parametrization of the dark energy equation of state
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ke Shi; Yong-Feng Huang; Tan Lu
2011-01-01
We investigate in detail the influence of parametrizations of the dark energy equation of state on reconstructing dark energy geometrical parameters,such as the deceleration parameter q(z) and Om diagnostic.We use a type Ia supernova sample,baryon acoustic oscillation data,cosmic microwave background information along with twelve observational Hubble data points to constrain cosmological parameters.With the joint analysis of these current datasets,we find that the parametrizations of w(z) have little influence on the reconstruction result of q(z) and Om.The same is true for the transition (cosmic deceleration to acceleration) redshift zt,for which we find that for different parametrizations of w(z),the best fitted values of zt are very close to each other (about 0.65).All of our results are in good agreement with the ACDM model.Furthermore,using the combination of datasets,we do not find any signal of decreasing cosmic acceleration as suggested in some recent papers.The results suggest that the influence of the prior w(z) is not as severe as one may anticipate,and thus we can,to some extent,safely use a reasonable parametrization of w(z) to reconstruct some other dark energy parameters (e.g.q(z),Om) with a combination of datasets.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Giardino, P. P.; Kannike, K.; Masina, I.;
2014-01-01
We perform a state-of-the-art global fit to all Higgs data. We synthesise them into a 'universal' form, which allows to easily test any desired model. We apply the proposed methodology to extract from data the Higgs branching ratios, production cross sections, couplings and to analyse composite H...... as an alternative to the Higgs, and disfavour fits with negative Yukawa couplings. We derive for the first time the SM Higgs boson mass from the measured rates, rather than from the peak positions, obtaining M-h = 124.4 +/- 1.6 GeV....
Preliminary investigation to estimate soil NAPL retention using parametric pedotransfer functions
Hernádi, Hilda; Makó, András
2014-10-01
Organic liquid retention of soils is a primary input variable for modelling the nonaqueous phase liquid transport and behaviour in the subsurface. In environmental and soil physical practice, it is mainly determined by scaling based on the water retention of soils or with charts of average empirical values of organic liquid retention or the fitting parameters of hydraulic functions. Predicting the fitting parameters of organic liquid retention curves with pedotransfer functions might be a promising alternative method, but this topic has only been researched to a limited extent. Thus we investigated the applicability of different hydraulic functions (3- and 4- parameter form of the van Genuchten equation and Brutsaert equation) for fitting organic liquid retention characteristics. Multivariate linear regression was used to build and develop pedotransfer functions, modelling relations between original and transformed values of basic soil properties and organic liquid retention. We attempted to generate parametric pedotransfer functions. According to our results, the applicability of hydraulic functions for fitting nonaqueous phase liquid retention curves to the experimental data was proven. The investigations gave promising results for the possibility to estimate soil nonaqueous phase liquid retention with parametric pedotransfer functions.
Two parametric approaches for eigenstructure assignment in second-order linear systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Guangren DUAN
2003-01-01
This paper considers eigenstructure assignment in second-order linear systems via proportional plus derivative feedback. It is shown that the problem is closely related to a type of so-called second-order Sylvester matrix equations. Through establishing two general parametric solutions to this type of matrix equations, two complete parametric methods for the proposed eigenstructure assignment problem are presented. Both methods give simple complete parametric expressions for the feedback gains and the closed-loop eigenvector matrices. The first one mainly depends on a series of singular value decompositions, and is thus nurnerically simple and reliable; the second one utilizes the right factorization of the system, and allows the dosed-loop eigenvalues to be set undetermined and sought via certain optimization procedures. An example shows the effectiveness of the proposed approaches.
Linking the Fits, Fitting the Links: Connecting Different Types of PO Fit to Attitudinal Outcomes
Leung, Aegean; Chaturvedi, Sankalp
2011-01-01
In this paper we explore the linkages among various types of person-organization (PO) fit and their effects on employee attitudinal outcomes. We propose and test a conceptual model which links various types of fits--objective fit, perceived fit and subjective fit--in a hierarchical order of cognitive information processing and relate them to…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. E. Artemenko
2011-10-01
Full Text Available The analytical connections between the topological resistive element’s connection matrix of ARC-prototype and the topological switched capacitor’s connection matrices of resistor’s switch-capacitor equivalents for both phases of SC-circuits were established that permits to analyze a switched-capacitor networks on the base of element’s connection matrix of ARC-prototype. The formal mathematical apparatus of forming the SC-circuits’ difference equations based on element’s connection matrix of ARC-prototype was developed which allows to reduce the dimension of the analyzed model of SC-circuits to the number of prototype’s capacitors.
Non-parametric Tuning of PID Controllers A Modified Relay-Feedback-Test Approach
Boiko, Igor
2013-01-01
The relay feedback test (RFT) has become a popular and efficient tool used in process identification and automatic controller tuning. Non-parametric Tuning of PID Controllers couples new modifications of classical RFT with application-specific optimal tuning rules to form a non-parametric method of test-and-tuning. Test and tuning are coordinated through a set of common parameters so that a PID controller can obtain the desired gain or phase margins in a system exactly, even with unknown process dynamics. The concept of process-specific optimal tuning rules in the nonparametric setup, with corresponding tuning rules for flow, level pressure, and temperature control loops is presented in the text. Common problems of tuning accuracy based on parametric and non-parametric approaches are addressed. In addition, the text treats the parametric approach to tuning based on the modified RFT approach and the exact model of oscillations in the system under test using the locus of a perturbedrelay system (LPRS) meth...
PARAMETRICAL WORDS IN THE SENTIMENT LEXICON
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elena Brunova
2013-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the main features of parametrical words within a sentiment lexicon are determined. The data for the research are client reviews in the Russian language taken from the bank client rating; the domain under study is bank service quality. The lexicon structure and the fragments from the lexicon database are presented. The sentiment lexicon includes two major classes (positive and negative words and three minor classes (increments, polarity modifiers, and polarity anti-modifiers. This lexicon is used as the main tool for the sentiment analysis carried out by two methods: the Naïve Bayes and the REGEX algorithms.Parametrical words are referred to as the words denoting the value of some domain-specific parameter, e.g. a battery life, or time of waiting. To distinguish the main features of parametrical words, the parameters relevant for the bank service quality domain are determined. The results of the research demonstrate that parametrical words can be ranged neither in the positive class, nor in the negative one. The words denoting the increase of a parameter should be ranged in the increment class, as they intensify positive or negative emotions. The words denoting the decrease of a parameter should be ranged in a new class which may be called the decrement class, as they reduce positive or negative emotions. The revised lexicon structure including the decrement class is proposed. The evident progress on the way to the lexicon universalization can be achieved by distinguishing two special classes for lexical increments and decrements. Another helpful idea is to extract bigrams or trigrams which could include parametrical words and the domain attributes they refer to.
An Assessment of the Nonparametric Approach for Evaluating the Fit of Item Response Models
Liang, Tie; Wells, Craig S.; Hambleton, Ronald K.
2014-01-01
As item response theory has been more widely applied, investigating the fit of a parametric model becomes an important part of the measurement process. There is a lack of promising solutions to the detection of model misfit in IRT. Douglas and Cohen introduced a general nonparametric approach, RISE (Root Integrated Squared Error), for detecting…
Fitting manifold surfaces to three-dimensional point clouds.
Grimm, Cindy M; Crisco, Joseph J; Laidlaw, David H
2002-02-01
We present a technique for fitting a smooth, locally parameterized surface model (called the manifold surface model) to unevenly scattered data describing an anatomical structure. These data are acquired from medical imaging modalities such as CT scans or MRI. The manifold surface is useful for problems which require analyzable or parametric surfaces fitted to data acquired from surfaces of arbitrary topology (e.g., entire bones). This surface modeling work is part of a larger project to model and analyze skeletal joints, in particular the complex of small bones within the wrist and hand. To demonstrate the suitability of this model we fit to several different bones in the hand, and to the same bone from multiple people.
Dixon-Watmough, Rebecca; Keogh, Brenda; Naylor, Stuart
2012-01-01
For some time the Association for Science Education (ASE) has been aware that it would be useful to have some resources available to get children talking and thinking about issues related to health, sport and fitness. Some of the questions about pulse, breathing rate and so on are pretty obvious to everyone, and there is a risk of these being…
Donovan, Edward P.
The major objective of this module is to help students understand how water from a source such as a lake is treated to make it fit to drink. The module, consisting of five major activities and a test, is patterned after Individualized Science Instructional System (ISIS) modules. The first activity (Planning) consists of a brief introduction and a…
Vail, Kathleen
1999-01-01
Children who hate gym grow into adults who associate physical activity with ridicule and humiliation. Physical education is reinventing itself, stressing enjoyable activities that continue into adulthood: aerobic dance, weight training, fitness walking, mountain biking, hiking, inline skating, karate, rock-climbing, and canoeing. Cooperative,…
Casey, Stephanie A.
2016-01-01
Statistical association between two variables is one of the fundamental statistical ideas in school curricula. Reasoning about statistical association has been deemed one of the most important cognitive activities that humans perform. Students are typically introduced to statistical association through the study of the line of best fit because it…
Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)
1994-01-01
textabstractIn this paper, a simple Gompertz curve-fitting procedure is proposed. Its advantages include the facts that the stability of the saturation level over the sample period can be checked, and that no knowledge of its value is necessary for forecasting. An application to forecasting the stoc
Maione, Mary Jane
A description is given of a program that provides preventive measures to check obesity in children and young people. The 24-week program is divided into two parts--a nutrition component and an exercise component. At the start and end of the program, tests are given to assess the participants' height, weight, body composition, fitness level, and…
Coleman, A. E.
1981-01-01
Training manual used for preflight conditioning of NASA astronauts is written for audience with diverse backgrounds and interests. It suggests programs for various levels of fitness, including sample starter programs, safe progression schedules, and stretching exercises. Related information on equipment needs, environmental coonsiderations, and precautions can help readers design safe and effective running programs.
Longitudinal, degenerate, and transversal parametric oscillation in a photorefractive media
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, H.C.; Johansen, P.M.
1996-01-01
We present a theoretical model of photorefractive parametric oscillation that covers, for the first time, to our knowledge, the occurrence of the whole spectrum of parametric processes from transversal over degenerate to longitudinal parametric oscillation. It is shown that inclusion of so......-called noneigenwaves is essential for completing the model. We report on the first experiment that shows the transition from transversal over degenerate to longitudinal parametric oscillation. The experimental observations agree well with the theoretical predictions....
Quantifiable fitness tracking using wearable devices.
Bajpai, Anurag; Jilla, Vivek; Tiwari, Vijay N; Venkatesan, Shankar M; Narayanan, Rangavittal
2015-08-01
Monitoring health and fitness is emerging as an important benefit that smartphone users could expect from their mobile devices today. Rule of thumb calorie tracking and recommendation based on selective activity monitoring is widely available today, as both on-device and server based solutions. What is surprisingly not available to the users is a simple application geared towards quantitative fitness tracking. Such an application potentially can be a direct indicator of one's cardio-vascular performance and associated long term health risks. Since wearable devices with various inbuilt sensors like accelerometer, gyroscope, SPO2 and heart rate are increasingly becoming available, it is vital that the enormous data coming from these sensors be used to perform analytics to uncover hidden health and fitness associated facts. A continuous estimation of fitness level employing these wearable devices can potentially help users in setting personalized short and long-term exercise goals leading to positive impact on one's overall health. The present work describes a step in this direction. This work involves an unobtrusive method to track an individual's physical activity seamlessly, estimate calorie consumption during a day by mapping the activity to the calories spent and assess fitness level using heart rate data from wearable sensors. We employ a heart rate based parameter called Endurance to quantitatively estimate cardio-respiratory fitness of a person. This opens up avenues for personalization and adaptiveness by dynamically using individual's personal fitness data towards building robust modeling based on analytical principles.
Biomedical model fitting and error analysis.
Costa, Kevin D; Kleinstein, Steven H; Hershberg, Uri
2011-09-20
This Teaching Resource introduces students to curve fitting and error analysis; it is the second of two lectures on developing mathematical models of biomedical systems. The first focused on identifying, extracting, and converting required constants--such as kinetic rate constants--from experimental literature. To understand how such constants are determined from experimental data, this lecture introduces the principles and practice of fitting a mathematical model to a series of measurements. We emphasize using nonlinear models for fitting nonlinear data, avoiding problems associated with linearization schemes that can distort and misrepresent the data. To help ensure proper interpretation of model parameters estimated by inverse modeling, we describe a rigorous six-step process: (i) selecting an appropriate mathematical model; (ii) defining a "figure-of-merit" function that quantifies the error between the model and data; (iii) adjusting model parameters to get a "best fit" to the data; (iv) examining the "goodness of fit" to the data; (v) determining whether a much better fit is possible; and (vi) evaluating the accuracy of the best-fit parameter values. Implementation of the computational methods is based on MATLAB, with example programs provided that can be modified for particular applications. The problem set allows students to use these programs to develop practical experience with the inverse-modeling process in the context of determining the rates of cell proliferation and death for B lymphocytes using data from BrdU-labeling experiments.
Foreground Bias From Parametric Models of Far-IR Dust Emission
Kogut, A
2016-01-01
We use simple toy models of far-IR dust emission to estimate the accuracy to which the polarization of the cosmic microwave background can be recovered using multi-frequency fits, if the parametric form chosen for the fitted dust model differs from the actual dust emission. Commonly used approximations to the far-IR dust spectrum yield CMB residuals comparable to or larger than the sensitivities expected for the next generation of CMB missions, despite fitting the combined CMB + foreground emission to precision 0.1% or better. The Rayleigh-Jeans approximation to the dust spectrum biases the fitted dust spectral index by Delta beta_d = 0.2 and the inflationary B-mode amplitude by Delta r = 0.03. Fitting the dust to a modified blackbody at a single temperature biases the best-fit CMB by Delta r > 0.003 if the true dust spectrum contains multiple temperature components. A 13-parameter model fitting two temperature components reduces this bias by an order of magnitude if the true dust spectrum is in fact a simple...
Theory of parametrically amplified electron-phonon superconductivity
Babadi, Mehrtash; Knap, Michael; Martin, Ivar; Refael, Gil; Demler, Eugene
2017-07-01
Ultrafast optical manipulation of ordered phases in strongly correlated materials is a topic of significant theoretical, experimental, and technological interest. Inspired by a recent experiment on light-induced superconductivity in fullerenes [M. Mitrano et al., Nature (London) 530, 461 (2016), 10.1038/nature16522], we develop a comprehensive theory of light-induced superconductivity in driven electron-phonon systems with lattice nonlinearities. In analogy with the operation of parametric amplifiers, we show how the interplay between the external drive and lattice nonlinearities lead to significantly enhanced effective electron-phonon couplings. We provide a detailed and unbiased study of the nonequilibrium dynamics of the driven system using the real-time Green's function technique. To this end, we develop a Floquet generalization of the Migdal-Eliashberg theory and derive a numerically tractable set of quantum Floquet-Boltzmann kinetic equations for the coupled electron-phonon system. We study the role of parametric phonon generation and electronic heating in destroying the transient superconducting state. Finally, we predict the transient formation of electronic Floquet bands in time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy experiments as a consequence of the proposed mechanism.
Nonparametric predictive inference for combining diagnostic tests with parametric copula
Muhammad, Noryanti; Coolen, F. P. A.; Coolen-Maturi, T.
2017-09-01
Measuring the accuracy of diagnostic tests is crucial in many application areas including medicine and health care. The Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve is a popular statistical tool for describing the performance of diagnostic tests. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) is often used as a measure of the overall performance of the diagnostic test. In this paper, we interest in developing strategies for combining test results in order to increase the diagnostic accuracy. We introduce nonparametric predictive inference (NPI) for combining two diagnostic test results with considering dependence structure using parametric copula. NPI is a frequentist statistical framework for inference on a future observation based on past data observations. NPI uses lower and upper probabilities to quantify uncertainty and is based on only a few modelling assumptions. While copula is a well-known statistical concept for modelling dependence of random variables. A copula is a joint distribution function whose marginals are all uniformly distributed and it can be used to model the dependence separately from the marginal distributions. In this research, we estimate the copula density using a parametric method which is maximum likelihood estimator (MLE). We investigate the performance of this proposed method via data sets from the literature and discuss results to show how our method performs for different family of copulas. Finally, we briefly outline related challenges and opportunities for future research.
Transport Behavior in Fractured Rock under Conceptual and Parametric Uncertainty
Pham, H. V.; Parashar, R.; Sund, N. L.; Pohlmann, K.
2016-12-01
Lack of hydrogeological data and knowledge leads to uncertainty in numerical modeling, and many conceptualizations are often proposed to represent uncertain model components derived from the same data. This study investigates how conceptual and parametric uncertainty influence transport behavior in three-dimensional discrete fracture networks (DFN). dfnWorks, a parallelized computational suite developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is used to simulate flow and transport in simple 3D percolating DFNs. Model averaging techniques in a Monte-Carlo framework are adopted to effectively predict contaminant plumes and to quantify prediction uncertainty arising from conceptual and parametric uncertainties. The method is applied to stochastic fracture networks with orthogonal sets of background fractures and domain spanning faults. The sources of uncertainty are the boundary conditions and the fault characteristics. Spatial and temporal analyses of the contaminant plumes are conducted to compute influence of the uncertainty sources on the transport behavior. The flow and transport characteristics of 3D stochastic DFNs under uncertainty help in laying the groundwork for model development and analysis of field scale fractured rock systems.
Theory of parametrically amplified electron-phonon superconductivity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Babadi, Mehrtash; Knap, Michael; Martin, Ivar; Refael, Gil; Demler, Eugene
2017-07-01
Ultrafast optical manipulation of ordered phases in strongly correlated materials is a topic of significant theoretical, experimental, and technological interest. Inspired by a recent experiment on light-induced superconductivity in fullerenes [M. Mitrano et al., Nature (London) 530, 461 (2016)], we develop a comprehensive theory of light-induced superconductivity in driven electron-phonon systemswith lattice nonlinearities. In analogy with the operation of parametric amplifiers, we show how the interplay between the external drive and lattice nonlinearities lead to significantly enhanced effective electron-phonon couplings. We provide a detailed and unbiased study of the nonequilibrium dynamics of the driven system using the real-time Green's function technique. To this end, we develop a Floquet generalization of the Migdal-Eliashberg theory and derive a numerically tractable set of quantum Floquet-Boltzmann kinetic equations for the coupled electron-phonon system. We study the role of parametric phonon generation and electronic heating in destroying the transient superconducting state. Finally, we predict the transient formation of electronic Floquet bands in time-and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy experiments as a consequence of the proposed mechanism.
Parametric packet-based audiovisual quality model for IPTV services
Garcia, Marie-Neige
2014-01-01
This volume presents a parametric packet-based audiovisual quality model for Internet Protocol TeleVision (IPTV) services. The model is composed of three quality modules for the respective audio, video and audiovisual components. The audio and video quality modules take as input a parametric description of the audiovisual processing path, and deliver an estimate of the audio and video quality. These outputs are sent to the audiovisual quality module which provides an estimate of the audiovisual quality. Estimates of perceived quality are typically used both in the network planning phase and as part of the quality monitoring. The same audio quality model is used for both these phases, while two variants of the video quality model have been developed for addressing the two application scenarios. The addressed packetization scheme is MPEG2 Transport Stream over Real-time Transport Protocol over Internet Protocol. In the case of quality monitoring, that is the case for which the network is already set-up, the aud...
The parametrization of radio source coordinates in VLBI and its impact on the CRF
Karbon, Maria; Heinkelmann, Robert; Mora-Diaz, Julian; Xu, Minghui; Nilsson, Tobias; Schuh, Harald
2016-04-01
dramatically in time. Hence, each source would have to be modeled individually. Considering this, the shear amount of sources, in our study more than 600 are included, sets practical limitations. We decided to use the multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) procedure to parametrize the source coordinates, as they allow a great deal of automation as it combines recursive partitioning and spline fitting in an optimal way. The algorithm finds the ideal knot positions for the splines and thus the best number of polynomial pieces to fit the data. We investigate linear and cubic splines determined by MARS to "human" determined linear splines and their impact on the CRF. Within this work we try to answer the following questions: How can we find optimal criteria for the definition of the defining and unstable sources? What are the best polynomials for the individual categories? How much can we improve the CRF by extending the parametrization of the sources?
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
康宝生; 贺文杰
2002-01-01
An interpolation scheme constructing shape preserving piecewise de-gree 2k parametric polynomial curves is presented. For the given data set {Qi＝(x1,yi) }n i-0, the shape preserving interpolation curve is Gk continuous.
Parametric Audio Based Decoder and Music Synthesizer for Mobile Applications
Oomen, A.W.J.; Szczerba, M.Z.; Therssen, D.
2011-01-01
This paper reviews parametric audio coders and discusses novel technologies introduced in a low-complexity, low-power consumption audiodecoder and music synthesizer platform developed by the authors. Thedecoder uses parametric coding scheme based on the MPEG-4 Parametric Audio standard. In order to
Fault detection and isolation in systems with parametric faults
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, Hans Henrik
1999-01-01
The problem of fault detection and isolation of parametric faults is considered in this paper. A fault detection problem based on parametric faults are associated with internal parameter variations in the dynamical system. A fault detection and isolation method for parametric faults is formulated...
Open standard CMO for parametric modelling based on semantic web
Bonsma, P.; Bonsma, I.; Zayakova, T.; Van Delft, A.; Sebastian, R.; Böhms, M.
2015-01-01
The Open Standard Concept Modelling Ontology (CMO) with Extensions makes it possible to store parametric modelling semantics and parametric geometry in a Semantic Web environment. The parametric and geometrical part of CMO with Extensions is developed within the EU project Proficient. The nature of
Parametric Audio Based Decoder and Music Synthesizer for Mobile Applications
Oomen, A.W.J.; Szczerba, M.Z.; Therssen, D.
2011-01-01
This paper reviews parametric audio coders and discusses novel technologies introduced in a low-complexity, low-power consumption audiodecoder and music synthesizer platform developed by the authors. Thedecoder uses parametric coding scheme based on the MPEG-4 Parametric Audio standard. In order to
Microwave parametric amplifiers using externally pumped Josephson junctions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, O. H.; Mygind, Jesper; Pedersen, Niels Falsig
1978-01-01
Externally pumped parametric amplifiers are discussed. Theory and experiments on the singly degenerate parametric amplifier based on a Josephson junction are presented. Advantages and limitations of the singly degenerate and doubly degenerate parametric amplifiers are discussed. Some plans and pr...... and proposals for future research are presented....
Extensive fitness and human cooperation.
van Hateren, J H
2015-12-01
Evolution depends on the fitness of organisms, the expected rate of reproducing. Directly getting offspring is the most basic form of fitness, but fitness can also be increased indirectly by helping genetically related individuals (such as kin) to increase their fitness. The combined effect is known as inclusive fitness. Here it is argued that a further elaboration of fitness has evolved, particularly in humans. It is called extensive fitness and it incorporates producing organisms that are merely similar in phenotype. The evolvability of this mechanism is illustrated by computations on a simple model combining heredity and behaviour. Phenotypes are driven into the direction of high fitness through a mechanism that involves an internal estimate of fitness, implicitly made within the organism itself. This mechanism has recently been conjectured to be responsible for producing agency and goals. In the model, inclusive and extensive fitness are both implemented by letting fitness increase nonlinearly with the size of subpopulations of similar heredity (for the indirect part of inclusive fitness) and of similar phenotype (for the phenotypic part of extensive fitness). Populations implementing extensive fitness outcompete populations implementing mere inclusive fitness. This occurs because groups with similar phenotype tend to be larger than groups with similar heredity, and fitness increases more when groups are larger. Extensive fitness has two components, a direct component where individuals compete in inducing others to become like them and an indirect component where individuals cooperate and help others who are already similar to them.
Model-based fitting of compression settings using narrowband stimuli
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kowalewski, Borys; Fereczkowski, Michal; MacDonald, Ewen;
Most state-of-the-art hearing aids apply multi-channel dynamic-range compression (DRC). Studies using speech intelligibility as an outcome measure have shown mixed results in terms of the benefits of compression over linear amplification (e.g. Davies-Venn et al. 2009; Goedegebure et al. 2001, 200...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Guangren DUAN; Yunli WU
2006-01-01
A type of high-order integral observers for matrix second-order linear systems is proposed on the basis of generalized eigenstructure assignment via unified parametric approaches. Through establishing two general parametric solutions to this type of generalized matrix second-order Sylvester matrix equations, two unified complete parametric methods for the proposed observer design problem are presented. Both methods give simple complete parametric expressions for the observer gain matrices. The first one mainly depends on a series of singular value decompositions, and is thus numerically simple and reliable; the second one utilizes the right factorization of the system, and allows eigenvalues of the error system to be set undetermined and sought via certain optimization procedures. A spring-mass-dashpot system is utilized to illustrate the design procedure and show the effect of the proposed approach.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Diptiranjan Behera; S Chakraverty
2015-02-01
This paper proposes two new methods to solve fully fuzzy system of linear equations. The fuzzy system has been converted to a crisp system of linear equations by using single and double parametric form of fuzzy numbers to obtain the non-negative solution. Double parametric form of fuzzy numbers is defined and applied for the first time in this paper for the present analysis. Using single parametric form, the $n \\times n$ fully fuzzy system of linear equations have been converted to a $2n \\times 2n$ crisp system of linear equations. On the other hand, double parametric form of fuzzy numbers converts the n×n fully fuzzy system of linear equations to a crisp system of same order. Triangular and trapezoidal convex normalized fuzzy sets are used for the present analysis. Known example problems are solved to illustrate the efficacy and reliability of the proposed methods.
Mandal, Subhamoy; Nagaraj, Yeshaswini; Ben, Xose Luis Dean; Razansky, Daniel
2015-01-01
In this article, we present a novel scheme for segmenting the image boundary (with the background) in optoacoustic small animal in vivo imaging systems. The method utilizes a multiscale edge detection algorithm to generate a binary edge map. A scale dependent morphological operation is employed to clean spurious edges. Thereafter, an ellipse is fitted to the edge map through constrained parametric transformations and iterative goodness of fit calculations. The method delimits the tissue edges through the curve fitting model, which has shown high levels of accuracy. Thus, this method enables segmentation of optoacoutic images with minimal human intervention, by eliminating need of scale selection for multiscale processing and seed point determination for contour mapping.
Mandal, S; Viswanath, P S; Yeshaswini, N; Dean-Ben, X L; Razansky, D
2015-08-01
In this article, we present a novel scheme for segmenting the image boundary (with the background) in optoacoustic small animal in vivo imaging systems. The method utilizes a multiscale edge detection algorithm to generate a binary edge map. A scale dependent morphological operation is employed to clean spurious edges. Thereafter, an ellipse is fitted to the edge map through constrained parametric transformations and iterative goodness of fit calculations. The method delimits the tissue edges through the curve fitting model, which has shown high levels of accuracy. Thus, this method enables segmentation of optoacoutic images with minimal human intervention, by eliminating need of scale selection for multiscale processing and seed point determination for contour mapping.
An Evaluation of Parametric and Nonparametric Models of Fish Population Response.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haas, Timothy C.; Peterson, James T.; Lee, Danny C.
1999-11-01
Predicting the distribution or status of animal populations at large scales often requires the use of broad-scale information describing landforms, climate, vegetation, etc. These data, however, often consist of mixtures of continuous and categorical covariates and nonmultiplicative interactions among covariates, complicating statistical analyses. Using data from the interior Columbia River Basin, USA, we compared four methods for predicting the distribution of seven salmonid taxa using landscape information. Subwatersheds (mean size, 7800 ha) were characterized using a set of 12 covariates describing physiography, vegetation, and current land-use. The techniques included generalized logit modeling, classification trees, a nearest neighbor technique, and a modular neural network. We evaluated model performance using out-of-sample prediction accuracy via leave-one-out cross-validation and introduce a computer-intensive Monte Carlo hypothesis testing approach for examining the statistical significance of landscape covariates with the non-parametric methods. We found the modular neural network and the nearest-neighbor techniques to be the most accurate, but were difficult to summarize in ways that provided ecological insight. The modular neural network also required the most extensive computer resources for model fitting and hypothesis testing. The generalized logit models were readily interpretable, but were the least accurate, possibly due to nonlinear relationships and nonmultiplicative interactions among covariates. Substantial overlap among the statistically significant (P<0.05) covariates for each method suggested that each is capable of detecting similar relationships between responses and covariates. Consequently, we believe that employing one or more methods may provide greater biological insight without sacrificing prediction accuracy.
An Approach to Derive Parametric L-System Using Genetic Algorithm
Farooq, Humera; Zakaria, M. Nordin; Hassan, Mohd. Fadzil; Sulaiman, Suziah
In computer graphics, L-System is widely used to model artificial plants structures and fractals. The Genetic Algorithm (GA) is the most popular form of Evolutionary Algorithms. This paper examines a method for automatic plant modeling which is based on an integration of GA and Parametric L-System using appropriate fitness function. The approach is specifically based on the implementation of two layered GA to derive the rewriting rules of Parametric L-System. The higher level of GA deals with the evolution of symbols and lower level deals with the evolution of numerical parameters. Initial results derived from the approach are very promising, which shows that complicated branching structures can be easily derived by the multilayered architecture of GA.
A New Method Of Gene Coding For A Genetic Algorithm Designed For Parametric Optimization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Radu BELEA
2003-12-01
Full Text Available In a parametric optimization problem the genes code the real parameters of the fitness function. There are two coding techniques known under the names of: binary coded genes and real coded genes. The comparison between these two is a controversial subject since the first papers about parametric optimization have appeared. An objective analysis regarding the advantages and disadvantages of the two coding techniques is difficult to be done while different format information is compared. The present paper suggests a gene coding technique that uses the same format for both binary coded genes and for the real coded genes. After unifying the real parameters representation, the next criterion is going to be applied: the differences between the two techniques are statistically measured by the effect of the genetic operators over some random generated fellows.
Extensive fitness and human cooperation
van Hateren, J. H.
2015-01-01
Evolution depends on the fitness of organisms, the expected rate of reproducing. Directly getting offspring is the most basic form of fitness, but fitness can also be increased indirectly by helping genetically related individuals (such as kin) to increase their fitness. The combined effect is known
Fitting of Finite Mixture Distributions to Motor Insurance Claims
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Sattayatham
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Problem statement: The modeling of claims is an important task of actuaries. Our problem is in modelling the actual motor insurance claim data set. In this study, we show that the actual motor insurance claim can be fitted by a finite mixture model. Approach: Firstly, we analyse the actual data set and then we choose the finite mixture Lognormal distributions as our model. The estimated parameters of the model are obtained from the EM algorithm. Then, we use the K-S and A-D test for showing how well the finite mixture Lognormal distributions fit the actual data set. We also mention the bootstrap technique in estimating the parameters. Results: From the tests, we found that the finite mixture lognormal distributions fit the actual data set with significant level 0.10. Conclusion: The finite mixture Lognormal distributions can be fitted to motor insurance claims and this fitting is better when the number of components (k are increase.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Haller, Toomas; Leitsalu, Liis; Fischer, Krista
2017-01-01
Ancestry information at the individual level can be a valuable resource for personalized medicine, medical, demographical and history research, as well as for tracing back personal history. We report a new method for quantitatively determining personal genetic ancestry based on genome-wide data....... Numerical ancestry component scores are assigned to individuals based on comparisons with reference populations. These comparisons are conducted with an existing analytical pipeline making use of genotype phasing, similarity matrix computation and our addition-multidimensional best fitting by Mix......Fit. The method is demonstrated by studying Estonian and Finnish populations in geographical context. We show the main differences in the genetic composition of these otherwise close European populations and how they have influenced each other. The components of our analytical pipeline are freely available...
Dinubile, Nicholas A
2008-12-01
The cornerstone of personal health is prevention. The concept of exercise as medicine is a lesson I have preached throughout my career, both with my patients in my private practice as well as through my years working with athletes at all levels including the Philadelphia 76ers basketball team and the Pennsylvania Ballet. It is also a message I relayed as a Special Advisor to the President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports (PCPFS) during the first Bush administration, working closely with my old friend-and fitness advocate and visionary himself-Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger, who served as Chairman to the PCPFS. Arnold's impact on our nation's health was an extremely positive one that was felt in communities from coast-to-coast. Exercise, activity, and prevention were key components of his prescription for change and improved health for our country. He has also always personally inspired me to see my role as a physician and "healer" in a much broader context.
Becerra Rodríguez, Carlos Alfredo
2016-01-01
In the last decade a considerable number of efforts have been devoted into developing Virtual Fitting Rooms (VFR) due to the great popularity of Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) in the fashion design industry. The existence of new technologies such as Kinect, powerful web cameras and smartphones permit us to examine new ways to try on clothes without doing it physically in a store center. This research is primarily dedicated to review some important aspects about...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Ji-Ke; MAO Ze-Pu; BIAN Jian-Ming; CAO Guo-Fu; CAO Xue-Xiang; CHEN Shen-Jian; DENG Zi-Yan; FU Cheng-Dong; GAO Yuan-Ning; HE Kang-Lin; HE Miao; HUA Chun-Fei; HUANG Bin; HUANG Xing-Tao; JI Xiao-Sin; LI Fei; LI Hai-Bo; LI Wei-Dong; LIANG Yu-Tie; LIU Chun-Xiu; LIU Huai-Min; LIU Suo; LIU Ying-Jie; MA Qiu-Mei; MA Xiang; MAO Ya-Jun; MO Xiao-Hu; PAN Ming-Hua; PANG Cai-Ying; PING Rong-Gang; QIN Ya-Hong; QIU Jin-Fa; SUN Sheng-Sen; SUN Yong-Zhao; WANG Liang-Liang; WEN Shuo-Pin; WU Ling-Hui; XIE Yu-Guang; XU Min; YAN Liang; YOU Zheng-Yun; YUAN Chang-Zheng; YUAN Ye; ZHANG Bing-Yun; ZHANG Chang-Chun; ZHANG Jian-Yong; ZHANG Xue-Yao; ZHANG Yao; ZHENG Yang-Heng; ZHU Ke-Jun; ZHU Yong-Sheng; ZHU Zhi-Li; ZOU Jia-Heng
2009-01-01
A track fitting algorithm based on the Kalman filter method has been developed for BESⅢ of BEPCⅡ.The effects of multiple scattering and energy loss when the charged particles go through the detector,non-uniformity of magnetic field (NUMF) and wire sag, etc., have been carefully handled.This algorithm works well and the performance satisfies the physical requirements tested by the simulation data.
Flexible parametric modelling of the cause-specific cumulative incidence function.
Lambert, Paul C; Wilkes, Sally R; Crowther, Michael J
2016-12-22
Competing risks arise with time-to-event data when individuals are at risk of more than one type of event and the occurrence of one event precludes the occurrence of all other events. A useful measure with competing risks is the cause-specific cumulative incidence function (CIF), which gives the probability of experiencing a particular event as a function of follow-up time, accounting for the fact that some individuals may have a competing event. When modelling the cause-specific CIF, the most common model is a semi-parametric proportional subhazards model. In this paper, we propose the use of flexible parametric survival models to directly model the cause-specific CIF where the effect of follow-up time is modelled using restricted cubic splines. The models provide smooth estimates of the cause-specific CIF with the important advantage that the approach is easily extended to model time-dependent effects. The models can be fitted using standard survival analysis tools by a combination of data expansion and introducing time-dependent weights. Various link functions are available that allow modelling on different scales and have proportional subhazards, proportional odds and relative absolute risks as particular cases. We conduct a simulation study to evaluate how well the spline functions approximate subhazard functions with complex shapes. The methods are illustrated using data from the European Blood and Marrow Transplantation Registry showing excellent agreement between parametric estimates of the cause-specific CIF and those obtained from a semi-parametric model. We also fit models relaxing the proportional subhazards assumption using alternative link functions and/or including time-dependent effects. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Using Parametrics to Facilitate Collaborative Urban Design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Steinø, Nicolai; Benbih, Karima; Obeling, Esben
2013-01-01
Collaborative urban design faces three inherent dilemmas of limitations to time and resources, of barriers to language and communication between professionals and stakeholders, and of the reciprocal nature of the relation between influence and understanding. Parametric design tools may address all...... of these dilemmas, as they provide a fast way to test different design scenarios and make it possible keep designs open while at the same time allowing for a level of detailing which is high enough to facilitate an understanding of the generic qualities of proposed designs. This is particularly relevant...... in the context of the urban South which is characterized by high urban growth rates, weak planning systems and modest means. The current state of planning and urban development in Morocco is introduced as a context for discussing collaborative urban design and parametric urban design, and some tentative...
QUALITY PARAMETRES OF EMMER WHEAT LANDRACES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Petr KONVALINA
2009-03-01
Full Text Available Emmer wheat, Triticum dicoccum SCHUEBL, is an old variety of cereals which has been traditionally grown in aride areas. Nowdays, it is mainly grown in Italy, Spain, Turkey, Austria and in the Czech republic. This article deals with a study of quality parametres and selected economic parametres of 6 varieties coming from the genetic resources of emmer wheat. High crude protein content in grain was proved during the trials. Nevertheless, such a characteristic is not suitable for the classical bakery processing (production of leavened products. Low figure of the harvest index is supposed to be the most problematic economic character. However, emmer wheat is a suitable variety for organic farming system. Growing of emmer wheat contributes to an extension of the agrobiodiversity in the countryside and to the suistainable development of a region.
Blending Parametric Patches with Subdivision Surfaces
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李桂清; 李华
2002-01-01
In this paper the problem of blending parametric surfaces using subdivision patches is discussed. A new approach, named removing-boundary, is presented to generate piecewise-smooth subdivision surfaces through discarding the outmost quadrilaterals of the open meshes derived by each subdivision step. Then the approach is employed both to blend parametric bicubic B-spline surfaces and to fill n-sided holes. It is easy to produce piecewisesmooth subdivision surfaces with both convex and concave corners on the boundary, and limit surfaces are guaranteed to be C2 continuous on the boundaries except for a few singular points by the removing-boundary approach. Thus the blending method is very efficient and the blending surface generated is of good effect.
Parametric Design Strategies for Collaborative Urban Design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Steinø, Nicolai; Yıldırım, Miray Baş; Özkar, Mine
2013-01-01
to the collaboration between professionals, participation by different non-professional stakeholders, such as residents, local authorities, non-governmental organizations and investors, is another important component of collaborative urban design processes. The involvement of community in decision making process...... urban space, subject to urban renewal. A key aspect of the workshop therefore, was to develop different design scenarios and to use parametric design software to communicate the scenarios spatially, as well as to mediate between them. Parametric urban design is a potentially powerful tool...... is working alone with distributed design problem packages which means decomposition of design problems into tasks and working on them individually. On the other hand, collaborative design is based on communication. Participants work together on design problems in an integrated design process. In addition...
Rayleigh-type parametric chemical oscillation.
Ghosh, Shyamolina; Ray, Deb Shankar
2015-09-28
We consider a nonlinear chemical dynamical system of two phase space variables in a stable steady state. When the system is driven by a time-dependent sinusoidal forcing of a suitable scaling parameter at a frequency twice the output frequency and the strength of perturbation exceeds a threshold, the system undergoes sustained Rayleigh-type periodic oscillation, wellknown for parametric oscillation in pipe organs and distinct from the usual forced quasiperiodic oscillation of a damped nonlinear system where the system is oscillatory even in absence of any external forcing. Our theoretical analysis of the parametric chemical oscillation is corroborated by full numerical simulation of two well known models of chemical dynamics, chlorite-iodine-malonic acid and iodine-clock reactions.
Rayleigh-type parametric chemical oscillation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ghosh, Shyamolina; Ray, Deb Shankar, E-mail: pcdsr@iacs.res.in [Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India)
2015-09-28
We consider a nonlinear chemical dynamical system of two phase space variables in a stable steady state. When the system is driven by a time-dependent sinusoidal forcing of a suitable scaling parameter at a frequency twice the output frequency and the strength of perturbation exceeds a threshold, the system undergoes sustained Rayleigh-type periodic oscillation, wellknown for parametric oscillation in pipe organs and distinct from the usual forced quasiperiodic oscillation of a damped nonlinear system where the system is oscillatory even in absence of any external forcing. Our theoretical analysis of the parametric chemical oscillation is corroborated by full numerical simulation of two well known models of chemical dynamics, chlorite-iodine-malonic acid and iodine-clock reactions.
Parametric Beamformer for Synthetic Aperture Ultrasound Imaging
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nikolov, Svetoslav; Tomov, Borislav Gueorguiev; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
2006-01-01
. The beamformer consists of a number of identical beamforming blocks, each processing data from several channels and producing part of the image. A number of these blocks can be accommodated in a modern field-programmable gate array device (FPGA), and a whole synthetic aperture system can be implemented using......In this paper a parametric beamformer, which can handle all imaging modalities including synthetic aperture imaging, is presented. The image lines and apodization coefficients are specified parametrically, and the lines can have arbitrary orientation and starting point in 3D coordinates...... several FPGAs. For the current implementation, the input data is sampled at 4 times the center frequency of the excitation pulse and is match-filtered in the frequency domain. In-phase and quadrature data are beamformed with a sub-sample precision of the focusing delays of 1/16th of the sampling period...
Diode-pumped optical parametric oscillator.
Geiger, A R; Hemmati, H; Farr, W H; Prasad, N S
1996-02-01
Diode-pumped optical parametric oscillation has been demonstrated for the first time to our knowledge in a single Nd:MgO:LiNbO(3) nonlinear crystal. The crystal is pumped by a semiconductor diode laser array at 812 nm. The Nd(3+) ions absorb the 812-nm radiation to generate 1084-nm laser oscillation. On internal Q switching the 1084-nm radiation pumps the LiNbO(3) host crystal that is angle cut at 46.5 degrees and generates optical parametric oscillation. The oscillation threshold that is due to the 1084-nm laser pump with a pulse length of 80 ns in a 1-mm-diameter beam was measured to be approximately 1 mJ and produced 0.5-mJ output at 3400-nm signal wavelength.
Parametric Return Density Estimation for Reinforcement Learning
Morimura, Tetsuro; Kashima, Hisashi; Hachiya, Hirotaka; Tanaka, Toshiyuki
2012-01-01
Most conventional Reinforcement Learning (RL) algorithms aim to optimize decision- making rules in terms of the expected re- turns. However, especially for risk man- agement purposes, other risk-sensitive crite- ria such as the value-at-risk or the expected shortfall are sometimes preferred in real ap- plications. Here, we describe a parametric method for estimating density of the returns, which allows us to handle various criteria in a unified manner. We first extend the Bellman equation for the conditional expected return to cover a conditional probability density of the returns. Then we derive an extension of the TD-learning algorithm for estimating the return densities in an unknown environment. As test instances, several parametric density estimation algorithms are presented for the Gaussian, Laplace, and skewed Laplace dis- tributions. We show that these algorithms lead to risk-sensitive as well as robust RL paradigms through numerical experiments.
Parametric resonance in spherical immersed elastic shells
Ko, William
2014-01-01
We perform a stability analysis for a fluid-structure interaction problem in which a spherical elastic shell or membrane is immersed in a 3D viscous, incompressible fluid. The shell is an idealised structure having zero thickness, and has the same fluid lying both inside and outside. The problem is formulated mathematically using the immersed boundary framework in which Dirac delta functions are employed to capture the two-way interaction between fluid and immersed structure. The elastic structure is driven parametrically via a time-periodic modulation of the elastic membrane stiffness. We perform a Floquet stability analysis, considering the case of both a viscous and inviscid fluid, and demonstrate that the forced fluid-membrane system gives rise to parametric resonances in which the solution becomes unbounded even in the presence of viscosity. The analytical results are validated using numerical simulations with a 3D immersed boundary code for a range of wavenumbers and physical parameter values. Finally, ...
Revisiting Parametric Types and Virtual Classes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Anders Bach; Ernst, Erik
2010-01-01
This paper presents a conceptually oriented updated view on the relationship between parametric types and virtual classes. The traditional view is that parametric types excel at structurally oriented composition and decomposition, and virtual classes excel at specifying mutually recursive families...... of classes whose relationships are preserved in derived families. Conversely, while class families can be specified using a large number of F-bounded type parameters, this approach is complex and fragile; and it is difficult to use traditional virtual classes to specify object composition in a structural...... manner, because virtual classes are closely tied to nominal typing. This paper adds new insight about the dichotomy between these two approaches; it illustrates how virtual constraints and type refinements, as recently introduced in gbeta and Scala, enable structural treatment of virtual types; finally...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bjerck, Mari; Klepp, Ingun Grimstad; Skoland, Eli
Denne rapporten formidler funn fra en litteraturstudie, brukerundersøkelse og markedsundersøkelse gjort i prosjektet Made to Fit. Rapporten svarer på prosjektets hovedmål og delmål som retter seg mot å formidle kunnskap om tilpasning og fremstilling av funksjonelle og gode produkter for handikapp......Denne rapporten formidler funn fra en litteraturstudie, brukerundersøkelse og markedsundersøkelse gjort i prosjektet Made to Fit. Rapporten svarer på prosjektets hovedmål og delmål som retter seg mot å formidle kunnskap om tilpasning og fremstilling av funksjonelle og gode produkter...... for handikappede. Herunder potensialet for å utvikle spesialtilpassede klær i konseptet «Made to Fit», utprøving av metoder og identifisering av kunnskapsstatus på feltet. Rapporten er således delt inn i tre hoveddeler. Første delen bygger videre på prosjektnotatet til Vestvik, Hebrok og Klepp (2013) fra...
Sadegh, M.; Vrugt, J. A.; Gupta, H. V.; Xu, C.
2016-04-01
The flow duration curve is a signature catchment characteristic that depicts graphically the relationship between the exceedance probability of streamflow and its magnitude. This curve is relatively easy to create and interpret, and is used widely for hydrologic analysis, water quality management, and the design of hydroelectric power plants (among others). Several mathematical expressions have been proposed to mimic the FDC. Yet, these efforts have not been particularly successful, in large part because available functions are not flexible enough to portray accurately the functional shape of the FDC for a large range of catchments and contrasting hydrologic behaviors. Here, we extend the work of Vrugt and Sadegh (2013) and introduce several commonly used models of the soil water characteristic as new class of closed-form parametric expressions for the flow duration curve. These soil water retention functions are relatively simple to use, contain between two to three parameters, and mimic closely the empirical FDCs of 430 catchments of the MOPEX data set. We then relate the calibrated parameter values of these models to physical and climatological characteristics of the watershed using multivariate linear regression analysis, and evaluate the regionalization potential of our proposed models against those of the literature. If quality of fit is of main importance then the 3-parameter van Genuchten model is preferred, whereas the 2-parameter lognormal, 3-parameter GEV and generalized Pareto models show greater promise for regionalization.
Reagan, Matthew T.; Moridis, George J.; Seim, Katie S.
2017-06-01
A recent Department of Energy field test on the Alaska North Slope has increased interest in the ability to simulate systems of mixed CO2-CH4 hydrates. However, the physically realistic simulation of mixed-hydrate simulation is not yet a fully solved problem. Limited quantitative laboratory data leads to the use of various ab initio, statistical mechanical, or other mathematic representations of mixed-hydrate phase behavior. Few of these methods are suitable for inclusion in reservoir simulations, particularly for systems with large number of grid elements, 3D systems, or systems with complex geometric configurations. In this work, we present a set of fast parametric relationships describing the thermodynamic properties and phase behavior of a mixed methane-carbon dioxide hydrate system. We use well-known, off-the-shelf hydrate physical properties packages to generate a sufficiently large dataset, select the most convenient and efficient mathematical forms, and fit the data to those forms to create a physical properties package suitable for inclusion in the TOUGH+ family of codes. The mapping of the phase and thermodynamic space reveals the complexity of the mixed-hydrate system and allows understanding of the thermodynamics at a level beyond what much of the existing laboratory data and literature currently offer.
Rozendaal, Rodger A.
1986-01-01
The Variable Sweep Transition Flight Experiment (VSTFE) was initiated to establish a boundary-layer transition data base for laminar flow wing design. For this experiment, full-span upper-surface gloves will be fitted to a variable sweep F-14 aircraft. The results of two initial tasks are documented: a parametric pressure distribution/boundary-layer stability study and the design of an upper-surface glove for Mach 0.8. The first task was conducted to provide a data base from which wing-glove pressure distributions could be selected for glove designs. Boundary-layer stability analyses were conducted on a set of pressure distributions for various wing sweep angles, Mach numbers, and Reynolds number in the range of those anticipated for the flight-test program. The design procedure for the Mach 0.8 glove is described, and boundary-layer stability calculations and pressure distributions are presented both at design and off-design conditions. Also included is the analysis of the clean-up glove (smoothed basic wing) that will be flight-tested initially and the analysis of a Mach 0.7 glove designed at the NASA Langley Research Center.
Nonlinear Container Ship Model for the Study of Parametric Roll Resonance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christian Holden
2007-10-01
Full Text Available Parametric roll is a critical phenomenon for ships, whose onset may cause roll oscillations up to +-40 degrees, leading to very dangerous situations and possibly capsizing. Container ships have been shown to be particularly prone to parametric roll resonance when they are sailing in moderate to heavy head seas. A Matlab/Simulink parametric roll benchmark model for a large container ship has been implemented and validated against a wide set of experimental data. The model is a part of a Matlab/Simulink Toolbox (MSS, 2007. The benchmark implements a 3rd-order nonlinear model where the dynamics of roll is strongly coupled with the heave and pitch dynamics. The implemented model has shown good accuracy in predicting the container ship motions, both in the vertical plane and in the transversal one. Parametric roll has been reproduced for all the data sets in which it happened, and the model provides realistic results which are in good agreement with the model tank experiments.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sen, Tanaji [Fermilab
2016-06-01
We discuss the generation of parametric X-rays (PXR) in the photoinjector at the new FAST facility at Fermilab. Detailed calculations of the intensity spectrum, energy and angular widths and spectral brilliance with a diamond crystal are presented. We also report on expected results with PXR generated while the beam is channeling. The low emittance electron beam makes this facility a promising source for creating brilliant X-rays.
Parametric optimization of inverse trapezoid oleophobic surfaces
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cavalli, Andrea; Bøggild, Peter; Okkels, Fridolin
2012-01-01
In this paper, we introduce a comprehensive and versatile approach to the parametric shape optimization of oleophobic surfaces. We evaluate the performance of inverse trapezoid microstructures in terms of three objective parameters: apparent contact angle, maximum sustainable hydrostatic pressure...... ratio. The inclusion of mechanical robustness in combination with conventional performance characteristics favors solutions relevant for practical applications, as mechanical stability is a critical issue not often addressed in idealized models....
Bridge Engineering-Oriented Parametric Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
周凌远; 李乔
2004-01-01
A new model is proposed to improve the efficiency of structural modeling. In this model, the bridge structural components are expressed with component description, parametric description and geometric description in a software system. This model provides both convenience and flexibility for users in structural modeling process. The object-oriented method is applied in the model implementation. A bridge analysis preprocessor is developed on the basis of this model. It provides an effective way for bridge modeling.
Herceg, Martin; Kvasnica, Michal; Jones, Colin; Morari, Manfred
2013-01-01
The Multi-Parametric Toolbox is a col- lection of algorithms for modeling, control, analysis, and deployment of constrained optimal controllers developed under Matlab. It features a powerful ge- ometric library that extends the application of the toolbox beyond optimal control to various problems arising in computational geometry. The new version 3.0 is a complete rewrite of the original toolbox with a more flexible structure that offers faster integration of new algorithms. The numerical sid...
An introduction to statistical parametric speech synthesis
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Simon King
2011-10-01
Statistical parametric speech synthesis, based on hidden Markov model-like models, has become competitive with established concatenative techniques over the last few years. This paper offers a non-mathematical introduction to this method of speech synthesis. It is intended to be complementary to the wide range of excellent technical publications already available. Rather than offer a comprehensive literature review, this paper instead gives a small number of carefully chosen references which are good starting points for further reading.
Parametrically Driven Nonlinear Oscillators with an Impurity
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张卓; 唐翌
2002-01-01
By virtue of the method of multiple scales, we study a chain of parametrically driven nonlinear oscillators with a mass impurity. An equation is presented to describe the nonlinear wave of small amplitude in the chain.In our derivation, the equation is applicable to any eigenmode of coupled pendulum. Our result shows that a nonpropagation soliton emerges as the lowest or highest eigenmode of coupled pendulum is excited, and the impurity tends to pin the nonpropagation soliton excitation.
Multidimensional Scaling Visualization using Parametric Similarity Indices
Tenreiro Machado, J. A.; António M. Lopes; Alexandra M. Galhano
2015-01-01
In this paper, we apply multidimensional scaling (MDS) and parametric similarity indices (PSI) in the analysis of complex systems (CS). Each CS is viewed as a dynamical system, exhibiting an output time-series to be interpreted as a manifestation of its behavior. We start by adopting a sliding window to sample the original data into several consecutive time periods. Second, we define a given PSI for tracking pieces of data. We then compare the windows for different values of the parameter, an...
Simple parametrization of the. pi. -N amplitude
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McLeod, R.J.; Afnan, I.R.
1985-07-01
We present a simple parametrization of the S-, P-, and D-wave ..pi..-N amplitudes using separable potentials for T/sub ..pi../<1 GeV. The effect of the inelasticity is included in the Green's function while maintaining consistency with unitarity. The P/sub 11/ amplitude is written as a pole plus nonpole in order to describe pion absorption in A> or =2.
Parametric motivation bases of floranimic nomination
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Olga P. Ryabko
2016-09-01
Full Text Available The period of further development in the cognitive theory of nomination has been extensive in recent years. Our research has been concentrated on the formation of conceptual foundations in cognitive theory of flora nomination. The macrofield of flora namings embraces three microfields: parametric, pragmatic and locative-temporal ones. They determine motivation processes in cognitive theory of flora nomination, i.e., the presentation of systematic qualities in flora namings in the English language. The description and characterization of such qualities presupposes the existence of their taxonomic organization and methodology criteria, both general and practical ones. Flora namings on the phenomenological level are considered to be the products of naöve-cognitive consciousness of language speakers. They are determined, from the one hand, by the external perceptive adaptations (parametric nomination and, from the other hand, by practical needs (pure pragmatic nomination and local-temporal nomination. In this article we have concentrated on the complex parametric motivated basis of flora nomination. It is presented by a number of qualities, firstly, by dominative qualities («form», «appearance and manner of growth», «color», secondly, by peripheral qualities («odour», «taste», «size» and, finally, by minor qualities («sound», «weight», «genger». In the structure of complex parametric nomination the only one conerete qualitative element from the whole combination of qualities becomes the leading one. The cultural-archetypal dominant element determines. In each concrete situation, the choice of preferable prototypal motivated quality.
Parametric study of laser photovoltaic energy converters
Walker, G. H.; Heinbockel, J. H.
1987-01-01
Photovoltaic converters are of interest for converting laser power to electrical power in a space-based laser power system. This paper describes a model for photovoltaic laser converters and the application of this model to a neodymium laser silicon photovoltaic converter system. A parametric study which defines the sensitivity of the photovoltaic parameters is described. An optimized silicon photovoltaic converter has an efficiency greater than 50 percent for 1000 W/sq cm of neodymium laser radiation.
Parametric Landau damping of space charge modes
Macridin, Alexandru; Stern, Eric; Amundson, James; Spentzouris, Panagiotis
2016-01-01
Landau damping is the mechanism of plasma and beam stabilization; it is caused by energy transfer from collective modes to incoherent motion of resonant particles. Normally this resonance requires the wave frequency in the particle frame to match the resonant particles frequency. Using the Synergia modeling package to study transverse coherent modes of bunched beams with space charge, we have identified a new kind of damping mechanism, parametric Landau damping, driven by the modulation of the wave-particle interaction.
Parametric Portfolio Policies with Common Volatility Dynamics
Ergemen, Yunus Emre; Taamouti, Abderrahim
2015-01-01
A parametric portfolio policy function is considered that incorporates common stock volatility dynamics to optimally determine portfolio weights. Reducing dimension of the traditional portfolio selection problem significantly, only a number of policy parameters corresponding to first- and second-order characteristics are estimated based on a standard method-of-moments technique. The method, allowing for the calculation of portfolio weight and return statistics, is illustrated with an empirica...
Modified Empirical Parametrization of Fragmentation Cross Sections
Sümmerer, K
2000-01-01
New experimental data obtained mainly at the GSI/FRS facility allow to modify the empirical parametrization of fragmentation cross sections, EPAX. It will be shown that minor modifications of the parameters lead to a much better reproduction of measured cross sections. The most significant changes refer to the description of fragmentation yields close to the projectile and of the memory effect of neutron-deficient projectiles.
Multidimensional Scaling Visualization using Parametric Similarity Indices
Tenreiro Machado, J. A.; Lopes, António M.; Alexandra M. Galhano
2015-01-01
In this paper, we apply multidimensional scaling (MDS) and parametric similarity indices (PSI) in the analysis of complex systems (CS). Each CS is viewed as a dynamical system, exhibiting an output time-series to be interpreted as a manifestation of its behavior. We start by adopting a sliding window to sample the original data into several consecutive time periods. Second, we define a given PSI for tracking pieces of data. We then compare the windows for different values of the parameter, an...
A parametrized optimized effective potential for atoms
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sarsa, A; Galvez, F J; BuendIa, E [Departamento de FIsica Moderna, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)
2003-11-28
The optimized effective potential equations for atoms have been solved by parametrizing the potential. The expansion is tailored to match the known asymptotic behaviour of the effective potential at both short and long distances. Both single configuration and multi-configuration trial wavefunctions are implemented. Applications to several atomic systems are presented, improving on previous works. The results obtained here are very close to those calculated in either the Hartree-Fock (HF) or the multi-configurational HF framework.
Parametric frequency dividers in satellite communications
Kosmopoulos, S. A.; Lo Forti, R.; Saggese, E.
1990-01-01
The performance of two different parametric frequency dividers, using GaAs varactor diodes in a balanced circuit configuration implemented by planar (microstrip) or quasi-planar (finline, coupled finline ) elements respectively, is presented. The almost phase noise free operation of these devices allows the construction of efficient miniature synthesizers or carrier recovering schemes, incorporated on the space segment of Ku- or Ka-band satellite communications systems.
One-dimensional statistical parametric mapping in Python.
Pataky, Todd C
2012-01-01
Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) is a topological methodology for detecting field changes in smooth n-dimensional continua. Many classes of biomechanical data are smooth and contained within discrete bounds and as such are well suited to SPM analyses. The current paper accompanies release of 'SPM1D', a free and open-source Python package for conducting SPM analyses on a set of registered 1D curves. Three example applications are presented: (i) kinematics, (ii) ground reaction forces and (iii) contact pressure distribution in probabilistic finite element modelling. In addition to offering a high-level interface to a variety of common statistical tests like t tests, regression and ANOVA, SPM1D also emphasises fundamental concepts of SPM theory through stand-alone example scripts. Source code and documentation are available at: www.tpataky.net/spm1d/.
Parametric analysis of architectural volumes through genetic algorithms
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pedro Salcedo Lagos
2015-03-01
Full Text Available During the last time, architectural design has developed partly due to new digital design techniques, which allow the generation of geometries based on the definition of initial parameters and the programming of formal relationship between them. Design processes based on these technologies allow to create shapes with the capacity to modify and adapt to multiple constrains or specific evaluation criteria, which raises the problem of identifying the best architectural solution. Several experiences have set up the utilization of genetic algorithm to face this problem. This paper demonstrates the possibility to implement a parametric analysis of architectural volumes with genetic algorithm, in order to combine functional, environmental and structural requirements, with an effective search method to select a variety of proper solutions through digital technologies.
Coupled mode parametric resonance in a vibrating screen model
Slepyan, Leonid I
2013-01-01
We consider a simple dynamic model of the vibrating screen operating in the parametric resonance (PR) mode. This model was used in the course of designing and setting of such a screen in LPMC. The PR-based screen compares favorably with conventional types of such machines, where the transverse oscillations are excited directly. It is characterized by larger values of the amplitude and by insensitivity to damping in a rather wide range. The model represents an initially strained system of two equal masses connected by a linearly elastic string. Self-equilibrated, longitudinal, harmonic forces act on the masses. Under certain conditions this results in transverse, finite-amplitude oscillations of the string. The problem is reduced to a system of two ordinary differential equations coupled by the geometric nonlinearity. Damping in both the transverse and longitudinal oscillations is taken into account. Free and forced oscillations of this mass-string system are examined analytically and numerically. The energy e...
Parametric X-rays from a polycrystalline target
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lobach, Ihar; Benediktovitch, Andrei; Feranchuk, Ilya [Physics Department, Belarusian State University, 4, Nezavisimosti Av., 220030 Minsk (Belarus); Lobko, Alexander [Research Institute for Nuclear Problems, 11 Bobrujskaya Str., 220030 Minsk (Belarus)
2015-10-01
Highlights: • X-ray radiation from relativistic electrons in a polycrystal is described. • Analytical results are found for two models of the polycrystal texture. • Characteristic number of emitted photons for real accelerator is 10{sup 6} s{sup −1}. • Intensity distribution at fixed frequency resembles a set of rings. • Radiation intensities in monocrystals and polycrystals are compared. - Abstract: A theoretical description of parametric X-ray radiation (PXR) from a nanocrystal powder target is presented in terms of the orientation distribution function (ODF). Two models of ODF resulting in the analytical solution for the PXR intensity distribution are used and the characteristic features of this distribution are considered. A promising estimate of the number of the emitted photons is obtained for the case of a nanodiamond powder target using the parameters of ASTA Facility at Fermilab. The PXR spectra from polycrystal and single crystal targets are compared. The application scenarios of PXR from nanocrystals are discussed.
Short-term facilitation may stabilize parametric working memory trace
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vladimir eItskov
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Networks with continuous set of attractors are considered to be a paradigmatic model for parametric working memory, but require fine-tuning of connections and are thus structurally unstable. Here we analyzed the network with ring attractor, where connections are not perfectly tuned and the activity state therefore drifts in the absence of the stabilizing stimulus. We derive an analytical expression for the drift dynamics and conclude that the network cannot function as working memory for a period of several seconds, a typical delay time in monkey memory experiments. We propose that short-term synaptic facilitation in recurrent connections significantly improves the robustness of the model by slowing down the drift of activity bump. Extending the calculation of the drift velocity to network with synaptic facilitation, we conclude that facilitation can slow down the drift by a large factor, rendering the network suitable as a model of working memory.
A variable parameter parametric snake method
Marouf, A.; Houacine, A.
2015-12-01
In this paper, we introduce a new approach to parametric snake method by using variable snake parameters. Adopting fixed parameter values for all points of the snake, as usual, constitutes by itself a limitation that leads to poor performances in terms of convergence and tracking properties. A more adapted choice should be the one that allows selection depending on the image region properties as on the contour shape and position. However, such variability is not an easy task in general and a precise method need to be defined to assure contour point dependent tuning at iterations. We were particularly interested in applying this idea to the recently presented parametric method [1]. In the work mentioned, an attraction term is used to improve the convergence of the standard parametric snake without a significant increase in computational load. We show here, that improved performances can ensue from applying variable parameter concepts. For this purpose, the method is first analyzed and then a procedure is developed to assure an automatic variable parameter tuning. The interest of our approach is illustrated through object segmentation results.
Stellar parametrization from Gaia RVS spectra
Recio-Blanco, A; Prieto, C Allende; Fustes, D; Manteiga, M; Arcay, B; Bijaoui, A; Dafonte, C; Ordenovic, C; Blanco, D Ordoñez
2016-01-01
Among the myriad of data collected by the ESA Gaia satellite, about 150 million spectra will be delivered by the Radial Velocity Spectrometer (RVS) for stars as faint as G_RVS~16. A specific stellar parametrization will be performed for most of these RVS spectra. Some individual chemical abundances will also be estimated for the brightest targets. We describe the different parametrization codes that have been specifically developed or adapted for RVS spectra within the GSP-spec working group of the analysis consortium. The tested codes are based on optimization (FERRE and GAUGUIN), projection (MATISSE) or pattern recognition methods (Artificial Neural Networks). We present and discuss their expected performances in the recovered stellar atmospheric parameters (Teff, log(g), [M/H]) for B- to K- type stars. The performances for the determinations of [alpha/Fe] ratios are also presented for cool stars. For all the considered stellar types, stars brighter than G_RVS~12.5 will be very efficiently parametrized by t...
Modeling Consideration Sets and Brand Choice Using Artificial Neural Networks
B.L.K. Vroomen (Björn); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); J.E.M. van Nierop
2001-01-01
textabstractThe concept of consideration sets makes brand choice a two-step process. House-holds first construct a consideration set which not necessarily includes all available brands and conditional on this set they make a final choice. In this paper we put forward a parametric econometric model f
Fitting Higgs data with nonlinear effective theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buchalla, G.; Cata, O.; Celis, A.; Krause, C. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Fakultaet fuer Physik Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics, Muenchen (Germany)
2016-05-15
In a recent paper we showed that the electroweak chiral Lagrangian at leading order is equivalent to the conventional κ formalism used by ATLAS and CMS to test Higgs anomalous couplings. Here we apply this fact to fit the latest Higgs data. The new aspect of our analysis is a systematic interpretation of the fit parameters within an EFT. Concentrating on the processes of Higgs production and decay that have been measured so far, six parameters turn out to be relevant: c{sub V}, c{sub t}, c{sub b}, c{sub τ}, c{sub γγ}, c{sub gg}. A global Bayesian fit is then performed with the result c{sub V} = 0.98 ± 0.09, c{sub t} = 1.34 ± 0.19, c{sub b} = 0.78 ± 0.18, c{sub τ} = 0.92 ± 0.14, c{sub γγ} = -0.24 ± 0.37, c{sub gg} = -0.30 ± 0.17. Additionally, we show how this leading-order parametrization can be generalized to next-to-leading order, thus improving the κ formalism systematically. The differences with a linear EFT analysis including operators of dimension six are also discussed. One of the main conclusions of our analysis is that since the conventional κ formalism can be properly justified within a QFT framework, it should continue to play a central role in analyzing and interpreting Higgs data. (orig.)
Weiss, I.
2007-01-01
The thesis introduces the new concept of dendroidal set. Dendroidal sets are a generalization of simplicial sets that are particularly suited to the study of operads in the context of homotopy theory. The relation between operads and dendroidal sets is established via the dendroidal nerve functor wh
Casellas, J; Brito, L C
2017-10-01
This technical note presents the program PaGELL v.1.5 (Parametric Genetic Evaluation of Lifespan in Livestock), a flexible software program to analyze (right-censored) longevity data in livestock populations, with a special emphasis on the genetic evaluation of the breeding stock. This software relies on a parametric generalization of the proportional hazard model; more specifically, the baseline hazard function follows a Weibull process and flexibility is gained by including an additional time-dependent effect with the number of change points defined by the user. The program can accommodate 3 different sources of variation (i.e., systematic, permanent environmental, and additive genetic effects) and both fixed and time-dependent patterns (only for systematic and permanent environmental effects). Analyses are performed within a Bayesian context by sampling from the joint posterior distribution of the model, and model fit can be easily determined by the calculation of the deviance information criterion. Although this software has already been used on field data sets, its performance has been double-checked on simulated data set, and results are presented in this technical note. PaGELL v.1.5 was written in Fortran 95 language and, after compiling with the GNU Fortran Compiler v.4.7 and later, it has been tested in Windows, Linux, and MacOS operating systems (both 32- and 64-bit platforms). This program is available at http://www.casellas.info/files/pageII.zip. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sparse-grid, reduced-basis Bayesian inversion: Nonaffine-parametric nonlinear equations
Chen, Peng; Schwab, Christoph
2016-07-01
We extend the reduced basis (RB) accelerated Bayesian inversion methods for affine-parametric, linear operator equations which are considered in [16,17] to non-affine, nonlinear parametric operator equations. We generalize the analysis of sparsity of parametric forward solution maps in [20] and of Bayesian inversion in [48,49] to the fully discrete setting, including Petrov-Galerkin high-fidelity (;HiFi;) discretization of the forward maps. We develop adaptive, stochastic collocation based reduction methods for the efficient computation of reduced bases on the parametric solution manifold. The nonaffinity and nonlinearity with respect to (w.r.t.) the distributed, uncertain parameters and the unknown solution is collocated; specifically, by the so-called Empirical Interpolation Method (EIM). For the corresponding Bayesian inversion problems, computational efficiency is enhanced in two ways: first, expectations w.r.t. the posterior are computed by adaptive quadratures with dimension-independent convergence rates proposed in [49]; the present work generalizes [49] to account for the impact of the PG discretization in the forward maps on the convergence rates of the Quantities of Interest (QoI for short). Second, we propose to perform the Bayesian estimation only w.r.t. a parsimonious, RB approximation of the posterior density. Based on the approximation results in [49], the infinite-dimensional parametric, deterministic forward map and operator admit N-term RB and EIM approximations which converge at rates which depend only on the sparsity of the parametric forward map. In several numerical experiments, the proposed algorithms exhibit dimension-independent convergence rates which equal, at least, the currently known rate estimates for N-term approximation. We propose to accelerate Bayesian estimation by first offline construction of reduced basis surrogates of the Bayesian posterior density. The parsimonious surrogates can then be employed for online data assimilation
Sparse-grid, reduced-basis Bayesian inversion: Nonaffine-parametric nonlinear equations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Peng, E-mail: peng@ices.utexas.edu [The Institute for Computational Engineering and Sciences, The University of Texas at Austin, 201 East 24th Street, Stop C0200, Austin, TX 78712-1229 (United States); Schwab, Christoph, E-mail: christoph.schwab@sam.math.ethz.ch [Seminar für Angewandte Mathematik, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, Römistrasse 101, CH-8092 Zürich (Switzerland)
2016-07-01
We extend the reduced basis (RB) accelerated Bayesian inversion methods for affine-parametric, linear operator equations which are considered in [16,17] to non-affine, nonlinear parametric operator equations. We generalize the analysis of sparsity of parametric forward solution maps in [20] and of Bayesian inversion in [48,49] to the fully discrete setting, including Petrov–Galerkin high-fidelity (“HiFi”) discretization of the forward maps. We develop adaptive, stochastic collocation based reduction methods for the efficient computation of reduced bases on the parametric solution manifold. The nonaffinity and nonlinearity with respect to (w.r.t.) the distributed, uncertain parameters and the unknown solution is collocated; specifically, by the so-called Empirical Interpolation Method (EIM). For the corresponding Bayesian inversion problems, computational efficiency is enhanced in two ways: first, expectations w.r.t. the posterior are computed by adaptive quadratures with dimension-independent convergence rates proposed in [49]; the present work generalizes [49] to account for the impact of the PG discretization in the forward maps on the convergence rates of the Quantities of Interest (QoI for short). Second, we propose to perform the Bayesian estimation only w.r.t. a parsimonious, RB approximation of the posterior density. Based on the approximation results in [49], the infinite-dimensional parametric, deterministic forward map and operator admit N-term RB and EIM approximations which converge at rates which depend only on the sparsity of the parametric forward map. In several numerical experiments, the proposed algorithms exhibit dimension-independent convergence rates which equal, at least, the currently known rate estimates for N-term approximation. We propose to accelerate Bayesian estimation by first offline construction of reduced basis surrogates of the Bayesian posterior density. The parsimonious surrogates can then be employed for online data
Hyper-Fit: Fitting Linear Models to Multidimensional Data with Multivariate Gaussian Uncertainties
Robotham, A S G
2015-01-01
Astronomical data is often uncertain with errors that are heteroscedastic (different for each data point) and covariant between different dimensions. Assuming that a set of D-dimensional data points can be described by a (D - 1)-dimensional plane with intrinsic scatter, we derive the general likelihood function to be maximised to recover the best fitting model. Alongside the mathematical description, we also release the hyper-fit package for the R statistical language (github.com/asgr/hyper.fit) and a user-friendly web interface for online fitting (hyperfit.icrar.org). The hyper-fit package offers access to a large number of fitting routines, includes visualisation tools, and is fully documented in an extensive user manual. Most of the hyper-fit functionality is accessible via the web interface. In this paper we include applications to toy examples and to real astronomical data from the literature: the mass-size, Tully-Fisher, Fundamental Plane, and mass-spin-morphology relations. In most cases the hyper-fit ...
Comparison of ductile-to-brittle transition curve fitting approaches
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cao, L.W. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University (BUAA), Beijing 100191 (China)] [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TR (United Kingdom); Wu, S.J., E-mail: wusj@buaa.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University (BUAA), Beijing 100191 (China); Flewitt, P.E.J. [Interface Analysis Centre, University of Bristol, Bristol BS2 8BS (United Kingdom)] [School of Physics, HH Wills Laboratory, University of Bristol, BS8 1TL (United Kingdom)
2012-05-15
Ductile-to-brittle transition (DBT) curve fitting approaches are compared over the transition temperature range for reactor pressure vessel steels with different kinds of data, including Charpy-V notch impact energy data and fracture toughness data. Three DBT curve fitting methods have been frequently used in the past, including the Burr S-Weibull and tanh distributions. In general there is greater scatter associated with test data obtained within the transition region. Therefore these methods give results with different accuracies, especially when fitting to small quantities of data. The comparison shows that the Burr distribution and tanh distribution can almost equally fit well distributed and large data sets extending across the test temperature range to include the upper and lower shelves. The S-Weibull distribution fit is poor for the lower shelf of the DBT curve. Overall for both large and small quantities of measured data the Burr distribution provides the best description. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Burr distribution offers a better fit than that of a S-Weibull and tanh fit. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Burr and tanh methods show similar fitting ability for a large data set. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Burr method can fit sparse data well distributed across the test temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S-Weibull method cannot fit the lower shelf well and show poor fitting quality.
Invasion fitness, inclusive fitness, and reproductive numbers in heterogeneous populations.
Lehmann, Laurent; Mullon, Charles; Akçay, Erol; Van Cleve, Jeremy
2016-08-01
How should fitness be measured to determine which phenotype or "strategy" is uninvadable when evolution occurs in a group-structured population subject to local demographic and environmental heterogeneity? Several fitness measures, such as basic reproductive number, lifetime dispersal success of a local lineage, or inclusive fitness have been proposed to address this question, but the relationships between them and their generality remains unclear. Here, we ascertain uninvadability (all mutant strategies always go extinct) in terms of the asymptotic per capita number of mutant copies produced by a mutant lineage arising as a single copy in a resident population ("invasion fitness"). We show that from invasion fitness uninvadability is equivalently characterized by at least three conceptually distinct fitness measures: (i) lineage fitness, giving the average individual fitness of a randomly sampled mutant lineage member; (ii) inclusive fitness, giving a reproductive value weighted average of the direct fitness costs and relatedness weighted indirect fitness benefits accruing to a randomly sampled mutant lineage member; and (iii) basic reproductive number (and variations thereof) giving lifetime success of a lineage in a single group, and which is an invasion fitness proxy. Our analysis connects approaches that have been deemed different, generalizes the exact version of inclusive fitness to class-structured populations, and provides a biological interpretation of natural selection on a mutant allele under arbitrary strength of selection.
General broken lines as advanced track fitting method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kleinwort, Claus
2012-01-15
In HEP experiments the description of the trajectory of a charged particle is obtained from a fit to measurements in tracking detectors. The parametrization of the trajectory has to account for bending in the magnetic field, energy loss and multiple scattering in the detector material. General broken lines implement a track model with proper description of multiple scattering leading to linear equations with a special structure of the corresponding matrix allowing for a fast solution with the computing time depending linearly on the number of measurements. The calculation of the full covariance matrix along the trajectory enables the application to track based alignment and calibration of large detectors with global methods. (orig.)
Tarloyan, A. S.; Ishkhanyan, T. A.; Ishkhanyan, A. M.
2016-04-01
We present in total fifteen potentials for which the stationary Klein-Gordon equation is solvable in terms of the confluent Heun functions. Because of the symmetry of the confluent Heun equation with respect to the transposition of its regular singularities, only nine of the potentials are independent. Four of these independent potentials are five-parametric. One of them possesses a four-parametric ordinary hypergeometric sub-potential, another one possesses a four-parametric confluent hypergeometric sub-potential, and one potential possesses four-parametric sub-potentials of both hypergeometric types. The fourth five-parametric potential has a three-parametric confluent hypergeometric sub-potential, which is, however, only conditionally integrable. The remaining five independent Heun potentials are four-parametric and have solutions only in terms of irreducible confluent Heun functions.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brorholt, Grete
"Fit for work - Attraktiv sundhed og sikkerhed på en hospitalsafdeling i Region Hovedstaden" undersøger hvorledes sundhedsvæsenets forandringer påvirker medarbejdere, ledere og organisation. Udgangspunktet for afhandlingen er en interesse for psykisk arbejdsmiljø, og hvordan reformerne i kølvandet...... også belastende arbejdsmiljø. Afhandlingen er baseret på 8 måneders deltagerobservation og interviews på en anæstesiologisk afdeling kombineret med omfattende dokumentlæsning....
Frühwirth, R; Vanlaer, Pascal
2007-01-01
Vertex fitting frequently has to deal with both mis-associated tracks and mis-measured track errors. A robust, adaptive method is presented that is able to cope with contaminated data. The method is formulated as an iterative re-weighted Kalman filter. Annealing is introduced to avoid local minima in the optimization. For the initialization of the adaptive filter a robust algorithm is presented that turns out to perform well in a wide range of applications. The tuning of the annealing schedule and of the cut-off parameter is described, using simulated data from the CMS experiment. Finally, the adaptive property of the method is illustrated in two examples.
Curing dark energy instability with parametrized post-Friedmann treatment
Richarte, Martín G
2014-01-01
We review the parametrized post-Friedmann (PPF) method within the framework of interacting dark energy model for a FRW background. We assess the possibility of using such treatment for curing a "bad" interaction from its large-scale instabilities, usually presented within the standard linear perturbation theory. Regarding the Markov Chain Monte-Carlo analysis, our global fitting combines several cosmological probes including the cosmic microwave background (WMAP9+Planck) data, barion acoustic oscillation (BAO) measurements, JLA sample of supernovae, Hubble constant (HST), and redshift-space distorsion (RSD) measurements through the ${\\rm f}\\sigma_{8}{\\rm (z)}$ data points. The joint observational analysis of ${\\rm Planck+WP+JLA+BAO+HST+RSD}$ data leads to a coupling parameter, $\\xi_{c}=0.00140_{-0.00080}^{+0.00079}$ at $1\\sigma$ level for vanishing momentum transfer potential, whereas the aforesaid value is reduced in a $0.022\\%$ when the momentum transfer potential is switched on. The CMB power spectrum show...
Parametric Probability Distribution Functions for Axon Diameters of Corpus Callosum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Farshid eSepehrband
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Axon diameter is an important neuroanatomical characteristic of the nervous system that alters in the course of neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis. Axon diameters vary, even within a fiber bundle, and are not normally distributed. An accurate distribution function is therefore beneficial, either to describe axon diameters that are obtained from a direct measurement technique (e.g., microscopy, or to infer them indirectly (e.g., using diffusion-weighted MRI. The gamma distribution is a common choice for this purpose (particularly for the inferential approach because it resembles the distribution profile of measured axon diameters which has been consistently shown to be non-negative and right-skewed. In this study we compared a wide range of parametric probability distribution functions against empirical data obtained from electron microscopy images. We observed that the gamma distribution fails to accurately describe the main characteristics of the axon diameter distribution, such as location and scale of the mode and the profile of distribution tails. We also found that the generalized extreme value distribution consistently fitted the measured distribution better than other distribution functions. This suggests that there may be distinct subpopulations of axons in the corpus callosum, each with their own distribution profiles. In addition, we observed that several other distributions outperformed the gamma distribution, yet had the same number of unknown parameters; these were the inverse Gaussian, log normal, log logistic and Birnbaum-Saunders distributions.
Transient processes in the parametric interaction of counter-propagating waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Slabko, V V; Rasskazova, E V; Tkachenko, V A; Moskalev, A K [Siberian Federal University, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Popov, A K [Purdue University, 1205 W State St, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Myslivets, S A [L.V.Kirensky Institute of Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Academgorodok, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)
2015-12-31
We present a comparative analysis of transient processes in media with a negative refractive index for the parametric interaction of co- and counter-propagating waves. The transient time for the interaction of counter-propagating waves is shown to considerably exceed that for the interaction of co-propagating waves. In the case of counter-propagating waves, we present fitting results for the generated wave amplitude as a function of time and for the transient time vs. the amplitude of the pump wave and the length of the medium. (optical metamaterials)
Minimally Parametric Constraints on the Primordial Power Spectrum from Lyman-alpha
Bird, Simeon
2010-01-01
Current analyses of the Lyman-alpha forest assume that the primordial power spectrum of density perturbations obeys a simple power law, a strong theoretical assumption which should be tested. Employing a large suite of numerical simulations which drop this assumption, we reconstruct the shape of the primordial power spectrum using Lyman-alpha data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Our method combines a minimally parametric framework with cross-validation, a technique used to avoid over-fitting the data. Future work will involve predictions for the upcoming Baryon Oscillation Sky Survey (BOSS), which will provide new Lyman-alpha data with vastly decreased statistical errors.
Least Squares Data Fitting with Applications
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Per Christian; Pereyra, Víctor; Scherer, Godela
predictively. The main concern of Least Squares Data Fitting with Applications is how to do this on a computer with efficient and robust computational methods for linear and nonlinear relationships. The presentation also establishes a link between the statistical setting and the computational issues...... with problems of linear and nonlinear least squares fitting will find this book invaluable as a hands-on guide, with accessible text and carefully explained problems. Included are • an overview of computational methods together with their properties and advantages • topics from statistical regression analysis......As one of the classical statistical regression techniques, and often the first to be taught to new students, least squares fitting can be a very effective tool in data analysis. Given measured data, we establish a relationship between independent and dependent variables so that we can use the data...
Least Squares Data Fitting with Applications
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Per Christian; Pereyra, Víctor; Scherer, Godela
As one of the classical statistical regression techniques, and often the first to be taught to new students, least squares fitting can be a very effective tool in data analysis. Given measured data, we establish a relationship between independent and dependent variables so that we can use the data...... predictively. The main concern of Least Squares Data Fitting with Applications is how to do this on a computer with efficient and robust computational methods for linear and nonlinear relationships. The presentation also establishes a link between the statistical setting and the computational issues...... with problems of linear and nonlinear least squares fitting will find this book invaluable as a hands-on guide, with accessible text and carefully explained problems. Included are • an overview of computational methods together with their properties and advantages • topics from statistical regression analysis...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vidania, R. de; Paramio, J. M.; Bauluz, C.
1986-07-01
In this paper we present results of crosslink production in pBR322 DNA along a wide range of 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) concentration. Experimental data were obtained as DNA renaturation percentages, from the shift in hyperchromicity after a temperature-dependent denaturation-renaturation process. the experimental results showed a three-stage profile when represented as a function of the natural logarithms of 8-MOP concentration. an integral parametrization which allows a simultaneous fit of the three observed stages is presented here. the theoretical values of crosslink production determined from the fit are useful to asses the genotoxicity of psoralen-induced crosslinks in plasmid DNA. (Author) 24 refs.
Parametric study of modern airship productivity
Ardema, M. D.; Flaig, K.
1980-01-01
A method for estimating the specific productivity of both hybrid and fully buoyant airships is developed. Various methods of estimating structural weight of deltoid hybrids are discussed and a derived weight estimating relationship is presented. Specific productivity is used as a figure of merit in a parametric study of fully buoyant ellipsoidal and deltoid hybrid semi-buoyant vehicles. The sensitivity of results as a function of assumptions is also determined. No airship configurations were found to have superior specific productivity to transport airplanes.
Non-Parametric Estimation of Correlation Functions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brincker, Rune; Rytter, Anders; Krenk, Steen
In this paper three methods of non-parametric correlation function estimation are reviewed and evaluated: the direct method, estimation by the Fast Fourier Transform and finally estimation by the Random Decrement technique. The basic ideas of the techniques are reviewed, sources of bias are pointed...... out, and methods to prevent bias are presented. The techniques are evaluated by comparing their speed and accuracy on the simple case of estimating auto-correlation functions for the response of a single degree-of-freedom system loaded with white noise....
Generalized fairing algorithm of parametric cubic splines
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Yuan-jun; CAO Yuan
2006-01-01
Kjellander has reported an algorithm for fairing uniform parametric cubic splines. Poliakoff extended Kjellander's algorithm to non-uniform case. However, they merely changed the bad point's position, and neglected the smoothing of tangent at bad point. In this paper, we present a fairing algorithm that both changed point's position and its corresponding tangent vector. The new algorithm possesses the minimum property of energy. We also proved Poliakoff's fairing algorithm is a deduction of our fairing algorithm. Several fairing examples are given in this paper.
Parametric Portfolio Policies with Common Volatility Dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ergemen, Yunus Emre; Taamouti, Abderrahim
A parametric portfolio policy function is considered that incorporates common stock volatility dynamics to optimally determine portfolio weights. Reducing dimension of the traditional portfolio selection problem significantly, only a number of policy parameters corresponding to first- and second......-order characteristics are estimated based on a standard method-of-moments technique. The method, allowing for the calculation of portfolio weight and return statistics, is illustrated with an empirical application to 30 U.S. industries to study the economic activity before and after the recent financial crisis....
Lottery spending: a non-parametric analysis.
Garibaldi, Skip; Frisoli, Kayla; Ke, Li; Lim, Melody
2015-01-01
We analyze the spending of individuals in the United States on lottery tickets in an average month, as reported in surveys. We view these surveys as sampling from an unknown distribution, and we use non-parametric methods to compare properties of this distribution for various demographic groups, as well as claims that some properties of this distribution are constant across surveys. We find that the observed higher spending by Hispanic lottery players can be attributed to differences in education levels, and we dispute previous claims that the top 10% of lottery players consistently account for 50% of lottery sales.
Lottery spending: a non-parametric analysis.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Skip Garibaldi
Full Text Available We analyze the spending of individuals in the United States on lottery tickets in an average month, as reported in surveys. We view these surveys as sampling from an unknown distribution, and we use non-parametric methods to compare properties of this distribution for various demographic groups, as well as claims that some properties of this distribution are constant across surveys. We find that the observed higher spending by Hispanic lottery players can be attributed to differences in education levels, and we dispute previous claims that the top 10% of lottery players consistently account for 50% of lottery sales.
High-Energy Optical Parametric Waveform Synthesizer
Muecke, Oliver D.; Cirmi, G.; Fang, S.; Rossi, G. M.; Chia, Shih-Hsuan; Kärtner, F. X.; Manzoni, C.; Farinello, P.; Cerullo, and G.
2014-01-01
We discuss the ongoing development of a phase-stable, multi-mJ 3-channel parametric waveform synthesizer generating a 2-octave-wide spectrum (0.52-2.4μm). After two amplification stages, the combined >125-μJ output supports 1.9-fs waveforms. First preliminary FROG-characterization results of the second-stage outputs demonstrate the feasibility to recompress all three channels simultaneously close to the Fourier limit. Energy scaling to ~2 mJ is achieved after three amplification stages. The f...
Parametric Regression Models Using Reversed Hazard Rates
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Asokan Mulayath Variyath
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Proportional hazard regression models are widely used in survival analysis to understand and exploit the relationship between survival time and covariates. For left censored survival times, reversed hazard rate functions are more appropriate. In this paper, we develop a parametric proportional hazard rates model using an inverted Weibull distribution. The estimation and construction of confidence intervals for the parameters are discussed. We assess the performance of the proposed procedure based on a large number of Monte Carlo simulations. We illustrate the proposed method using a real case example.
SYNTHESIZED EXPECTED BAYESIAN METHOD OF PARAMETRIC ESTIMATE
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ming HAN; Yuanyao DING
2004-01-01
This paper develops a new method of parametric estimate, which is named as "synthesized expected Bayesian method". When samples of products are tested and no failure events occur, thedefinition of expected Bayesian estimate is introduced and the estimates of failure probability and failure rate are provided. After some failure information is introduced by making an extra-test, a synthesized expected Bayesian method is defined and used to estimate failure probability, failure rateand some other parameters in exponential distribution and Weibull distribution of populations. Finally,calculations are performed according to practical problems, which show that the synthesized expected Bayesian method is feasible and easy to operate.
A computer application for parametric aircraft design
Fraqueiro, Filipe R.; Albuquerque, Pedro F.; Gamboa, Pedro V.
2016-11-01
The present work describes the development and final result of a graphical user interface tailored for a mission-based parametric aircraft design optimization code which targets the preliminary design phase of unmanned aerial vehicles. This development was built from the XFLR5 open source platform and further benefits from two-dimensional aerodynamic data obtained from XFOIL. For a better understanding, the most important graphical windows are shown. In order to demonstrate the graphical user interface interaction with the aircraft designer, the results of a case study which maximizes payload are presented.
Falsifying Oscillation Properties of Parametric Biological Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thao Dang
2013-08-01
Full Text Available We propose an approach to falsification of oscillation properties of parametric biological models, based on the recently developed techniques for testing continuous and hybrid systems. In this approach, an oscillation property can be specified using a hybrid automaton, which is then used to guide the exploration in the state and input spaces to search for the behaviors that do not satisfy the property. We illustrate the approach with the Laub-Loomis model for spontaneous oscillations during the aggregation stage of Dictyostelium.
Parametric Architectural Design with Point-clouds
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zwierzycki, Mateusz; Evers, Henrik Leander; Tamke, Martin
2016-01-01
This paper investigates the efforts and benefits of the implementation of point clouds into architectural design processes and tools. Based on a study on the principal work processes of designers with point clouds the prototypical plugin/library - Volvox - was developed for the parametric modelling...... environment Grasshopper in Rhino. The prototype allows us to discuss the necessary technical layer for the task, benchmark the tool, and finally to evaluate the benefits, that this approach has for architectural practice, through a series of use cases....
ACSM's Health/Fitness Facility Standards and Guidelines. Second Edition.
Peterson, James A., Ed; Tharrett, Stephen J., Ed.
The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) sets the industry standard for certifying professionals involved in health and fitness and their clinical applications. This 5-part publication provides a revised edition of six standards representing the industry's consensus on design and operation of a safe and high-quality health/fitness facility.…
Automated Model Fit Method for Diesel Engine Control Development
Seykens, X.; Willems, F.P.T.; Kuijpers, B.; Rietjens, C.
2014-01-01
This paper presents an automated fit for a control-oriented physics-based diesel engine combustion model. This method is based on the combination of a dedicated measurement procedure and structured approach to fit the required combustion model parameters. Only a data set is required that is consider
Automated Model Fit Method for Diesel Engine Control Development
Seykens, X.; Willems, F.P.T.; Kuijpers, B.; Rietjens, C.
2014-01-01
This paper presents an automated fit for a control-oriented physics-based diesel engine combustion model. This method is based on the combination of a dedicated measurement procedure and structured approach to fit the required combustion model parameters. Only a data set is required that is