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Sample records for fitness motor competence

  1. Motor competence and physical fitness in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gísladóttir, Ordís; Haga, Monika; Sigmundsson, Hermundur

    2014-01-01

    In this study we examined the relationship between physical fitness and motor competence in adolescents aged 15 to 16 years. A sample of 94 adolescents participated in the study. To test motor competence, the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 was used. Physical fitness was assessed using the following test items: standing broad jump, 20-m dash, reduced Cooper test, and sit-and-reach test. The results revealed a significant but weak relationship (0.248) between motor competence and physical fitness for the whole sample. More specifically, the correlation between the 2 variables was significant for girls (0.353) but not for boys (0.248). The relatively weak relationship between motor competence and physical fitness suggests that motor competence might not be critical in adolescents to maintain their physical fitness.

  2. The relationship between physical fitness and motor competence in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haga, M

    2008-05-01

    This study examined the relationship between physical fitness and motor competence in children aged 9-10 years. A sample of 67 children (mean age 9.7, SD 0.3 year) participated in the study. To assess motor competence, each child completed the Movement Assessment Battery for Children. Physical fitness was measured by the Test of Physical Fitness, comprising nine different tasks including running, jumping, throwing and climbing. The results show a strong and significant correlation between motor competence and physical fitness within the sample. These results are relevant to the work of maintaining and developing both sufficient physical fitness and motor competence in children as these factors are important contributors to their health and well-being.

  3. Physical fitness and health indices in children, adolescents and adults with high or low motor competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantell, Marja; Crawford, Susan G; Tish Doyle-Baker, P K

    2008-04-01

    The overall purpose of the study was to examine if individuals with low motor competence achieve age-adequate fitness and health. A group of 149 children, adolescents, and adults with low or high motor competence participated in motor, fitness, and health assessments. Individuals with low motor competence did not differ on their basic physiological health parameters, but they had less optimal levels of overall health and fitness indices than those with high motor competence. As a function of age, musculoskeletal fitness was significantly compromised for the low motor competence group. The metabolic indices suggested that the low motor competence group had significantly higher BMI's compared to the high motor competence group. Motor skills and static balance were significant predictors of the BMI. Exercise intensity differed between children in the low and high motor competence group. The findings suggest that individuals with low motor competence have compromised health-related fitness. In order to discriminate between individuals with high and low motor competence, fitness assessment should include at least back extension, curl ups, and sit and reach. In addition, health-related fitness measurements such as BMI, waist circumference, blood lipid profile and bone mineral density are also recommended.

  4. Physical fitness in children with high motor competence is different from that in children with low motor competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haga, Monika

    2009-10-01

    Physical therapists often treat children with low motor competence. Earlier studies have demonstrated poor physical fitness outcomes and a reduced level of physical activity for these children compared with their peers with normal motor skills. The aim of this study was to examine how physical fitness developed over time in 2 groups of children: those with a low level of competence in motor skills (low motor competence [LMC]), and those with a high level of competence in motor skills (high motor competence [HMC]). From an initial sample of 67 children, a group of 18 was identified as having HMC or LMC on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children and was selected for the present study. Eight children (3 girls and 5 boys) comprised the LMC group, and 10 children (4 girls and 6 boys) made up the HMC group. A longitudinal design was implemented, and physical fitness in the 2 groups was evaluated by measuring different fitness components over a period of 32 months. A mixed-effects analysis of variance revealed significant main effects for group and for time but no group x time interaction effect. The LMC group performed less well on all physical fitness measures than the HMC group, and both groups scored significantly higher on the physical fitness test after a period of 32 months. The lack of a significant interaction effect indicated that the relative differences in physical fitness outcomes between the groups were relatively constant over time. This study was limited by the small sample size and lack of assessment of anthropometric variables and children's perceived self-efficacy. Children with LMC are likely to have poor physical fitness compared with children with HMC. The differences in physical fitness outcomes between the groups were relatively constant over time. Given that various physical fitness components are linked to different health outcomes, these consequences are matters of concern for both current health status and later health status in children

  5. Physical Fitness Measures Among Adolescents With High and Low Motor Competence

    OpenAIRE

    Gísladóttir, Þórdís; Haga, Monika; Sigmundsson, Hermundur

    2013-01-01

    Physical fitness level is considered to yield substantial health benefits. Earlier studies have demonstrated poor physical fitness outcomes and reduced level of physical activity among adolescents. There have been very few studies on adolescents concerning motor competence and its possible relationship with physical fitness. This study’s aim was to compare physical fitness in adolescents aged 15 to 16 years with high (...

  6. The Association between Motor Skill Competence and Physical Fitness in Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodden, David; Langendorfer, Stephen; Roberton, Mary Ann

    2009-01-01

    We examined the relationship between competence in three fundamental motor skills (throwing, kicking, and jumping) and six measures of health-related physical fitness in young adults (ages 18-25). We assessed motor skill competence using product scores of maximum kicking and throwing speed and maximum jumping distance. A factor analysis indicated…

  7. The relationship between actual motor competence and physical activity in children: mediating roles of perceived motor competence and health-related physical fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaverdi, Zeinab; Bahram, Abbas; Stodden, David; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether perceived motor competence and components of health-related physical fitness mediated the relationship between actual motor competence and physical activity in 8- to 9-year-old Iranian girls. A convenience sample of 352 girls (mean age = 8.7, SD = 0.3 years) participated in the study. Actual motor competence, perceived motor competence and children's physical activity were assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2, the physical ability sub-scale of Marsh's Self-Description Questionnaire and Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children, respectively. Body mass index, the 600 yard run/walk, curl-ups, push-ups, and back-saver sit and reach tests assessed health-related physical fitness. Preacher & Hayes (2004) bootstrap method was used to assess the potential mediating effects of fitness and perceived competence on the direct relationship between actual motor competence and physical activity. Regression analyses revealed that aerobic fitness (b = .28, 95% CI = [.21, .39]), as the only fitness measure, and perceived competence (b = .16, 95% CI = [.12, .32]) were measures that mediated the relationship between actual motor competence and physical activity with the models. Development of strategies targeting motor skill acquisition, children's self-perceptions of competence and cardiorespiratory fitness should be targeted to promote girls' moderate-to-vigorous physical activity.

  8. Motor Competence Is Associated with Physical Fitness in Four- to Six-Year-Old Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmundsson, Hermundur; Haga, Monika

    2016-01-01

    The health benefits of a physical active lifestyle and physical fitness from a young age are widely recognized as beneficial. This study examined the relationship between physical fitness and motor competence in children aged four- to six-years-old. A sample of 42 children (mean age 5.15 years, SD 0.56 year) participated in the study. To assess…

  9. The relationship between motor competence, physical fitness and self-perception in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedul-Kjelsås, V; Sigmundsson, H; Stensdotter, A-K; Haga, M

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the current research was to explore the relationship between motor competence, physical fitness and self-perception, and to study to which extent this relationship may vary by gender. A sample of 67 children (mean age 11.46 years, SD 0.27) completed Harter's Self-Perception Profile for Children (SPPC), the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC) and the Test of Physical Fitness (TPF) to assess self-perception, motor competence and physical fitness. The SPPC was stronger related to total score on TPF than to total score on MABC. However, when looking at boys and girls separately, this result was found for the boys only. In the group in general, total scores on both TPF and MABC correlated significantly with three of the domains of SPPC (social acceptance, athletic competence and physical appearance) and general self-worth. This relationship varied by gender. Interestingly, TPF was highest correlated with perception of athletic competence in boys but with perception of social acceptance in girls. A high and significant correlation was found between physical fitness and motor competence for both genders. The results indicated a strong relationship between physical fitness, motor competence and self-perception in children that varied by gender. This implies that all these factors are essential contributions in order to facilitate participation in physical activity in children. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. The longitudinal relationship between motor competence and measures of fatness and fitness from childhood into adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Rodrigo Antunes; Bugge, Anna; Ersbøll, Annette K; Stodden, David F; Andersen, Lars B

    2018-05-18

    To examine longitudinal (seven years) relationships among cardiorespiratory fitness (VO 2peak ), body fatness, and motor competence. Data were collected as part of the Copenhagen School Child Intervention Study (CoSCIS). Body fatness was assessed by the sum of four skinfolds. VO 2peak was measured directly in a continuous running protocol. Motor competence was assessed using the Körperkoordinationtest für Kinder. This study used multilevel linear mixed models to evaluate the reciprocal longitudinal association between body fatness, VO 2peak , and motor competence. All regressions were stratified by sex and adjusted by intervention and pubertal status. All variable coefficients were standardized. A reciprocal relationship was observed between children's motor competence with body fatness and VO 2peak at the seven-year follow-up (6-13 years of age). Children with higher motor competence at baseline had a lower risk of having higher body fatness (β boys =-0.45, 95% CI: -0.52 to -0.38; β girls =-0.35, 95% CI: -0.42 to -0.28) and higher VO 2peak (β boys =0.34, 95% CI: 0.27-0.40; β girls =0.27, 95% CI: 0.20-0.33) during childhood. Alternatively, higher body fatness or lower levels of VO 2peak at baseline were associated with lower motor competence during childhood. These data suggest motor competence, body fatness, and VO 2peak demonstrate reciprocal relationships across childhood (6-13 years of age). Interventions addressing motor competence, cardiorespiratory fitness, and body fatness in early childhood are recommended, as intervention effects are likely to be enhanced because of the mutual reciprocal associations between these three variables. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  11. Motor competence and cardiorespiratory fitness have greater influence on body fatness than physical activity across time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima, R A; Pfeiffer, K A; Bugge, A

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the longitudinal associations among physical activity (PA), motor competence (MC), cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak ), and body fatness across 7 years, and also analyzed the possible mediation effects of PA, MC, and VO2peak on the relationships with body fatness. This was a seven...

  12. Chapter 6: Children's Environmental Access in Relation to Motor Competence, Physical Activity, and Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Heather E.; Woods, Amelia Mays; Woods, Martha K.; Castelli, Darla M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine levels of physical activity engagement, motor competence, and physical fitness as related to child access to physical activity facilities in the home and school environments. The present investigation attempts to further efforts to examine the relationship between physical activity levels and access.…

  13. Physical Fitness Measures Among Adolescents With High and Low Motor Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Þórdís Gísladóttir

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Physical fitness level is considered to yield substantial health benefits. Earlier studies have demonstrated poor physical fitness outcomes and reduced level of physical activity among adolescents. There have been very few studies on adolescents concerning motor competence and its possible relationship with physical fitness. This study’s aim was to compare physical fitness in adolescents aged 15 to 16 years with high (HMC and low motor competence (LMC. From an initial sample of 94 adolescents, a group of 18 were identified as having HMC or LMC on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2. Eight adolescents (3 girls and 5 boys comprised the LMC group, and 10 children (5 girls and 5 boys made up the HMC group. To measure physical fitness, four tasks were used: one endurance test, one power test, one speed test (Test of Physical Fitness and one flexibility test (EUROFIT. A one-way ANOVA revealed significant differences between the group with LMC and the HMC group in all tasks except the endurance task (Reduced Cooper Test. The findings suggest that physical fitness components are negatively associated with LMC. However, no significant difference between the two groups in the Reduced Cooper Test might indicate that adolescents with LMC can enhance their cardiovascular fitness despite their poor motor coordination.

  14. Changes in physical fitness and sports participation among children with different levels of motor competence: a 2-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransen, Job; Deprez, Dieter; Pion, Johan; Tallir, Isabel B; D'Hondt, Eva; Vaeyens, Roel; Lenoir, Matthieu; Philippaerts, Renaat M

    2014-02-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate differences in physical fitness and sports participation over 2 years in children with relatively high, average, and low motor competence. Physical fitness and gross motor coordination of 501 children between 6-10 years were measured at baseline and baseline+2 years. The sample compromised 2 age cohorts: 6.00-7.99 and 8.00-9.99 years. An age and sex-specific motor quotient at baseline testing was used to subdivide these children into low (MQ competence groups. Measures of sports participation were obtained through a physical activity questionnaire in 278 of the same children. Repeated Measures MANCOVA and two separate ANOVAs were used to analyze differences in changes in physical fitness and measures of sports participation respectively. Children with high motor competence scored better on physical fitness tests and participated in sports more often. Since physical fitness levels between groups changed similarly over time, low motor competent children might be at risk for being less physically fit throughout their life. Furthermore, since low motor competent children participate less in sports, they have fewer opportunities of developing motor abilities and physical fitness and this may further prevent them from catching up with their peers with an average or high motor competence.

  15. The relationship among physical activity, motor competence and health-related fitness in 14-year-old adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hands, B; Larkin, D; Parker, H; Straker, L; Perry, M

    2009-10-01

    Physical activity, physical fitness and motor competence are important health-related constructs. However, the relationship among them, particularly for children and adolescents, is still unclear. In this study, motor competence (measured by the McCarron Assessment of Neuromuscular Development), pedometer-determined physical activity and physical fitness (aerobic fitness, muscle strength, muscle endurance, flexibility and body composition) were examined in a cohort of 1585 adolescents (771 girls, 814 boys) of mean age 14.06 years. Significant gender differences were observed for all measures except motor competence. Apart from hip and shoulder flexibility, males outperformed females. For both males and females, motor competence was associated with all fitness measures, physical activity was associated only with aerobic fitness and aerobic fitness was associated with physical activity, motor competence, BMI and chest pass. Among males, aerobic fitness was also associated with all other fitness tests. The correlations were, in general, moderate to weak. The results challenge the current focus on physical activity rather than physical fitness as the preferred intervention.

  16. Fitness, motor competence, and body composition are weakly associated with adolescent back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Mark; Straker, Leon; O'Sullivan, Peter; Smith, Anne; Hands, Beth

    2009-06-01

    Cross-sectional survey. To assess the associations between adolescent back pain and fitness, motor competence, and body composition. Although deficits in physical fitness and motor control have been shown to relate to adult back pain, the evidence in adolescents is less clear. In this cross-sectional study, 1608 "Raine" cohort adolescents (mean age, 14 years) answered questions on lifetime, month, and chronic prevalence of back pain, and participated in a range of physical tests assessing aerobic capacity, muscle performance, flexibility, motor competence, and body composition.A history of any diagnosed back pain in the adolescent was obtained from the primary caregiver. After multivariate logistic regression analysis, increased likelihood of back pain in boys was associated with greater aerobic capacity, greater waist girth, and both reduced and greater flexibility. Back pain in girls was associated with greater abdominal endurance, reduced kinesthetic integration, and both reduced and greater back endurance. Lower likelihood of back pain was associated with greater bimanual dexterity in boys and greater lower extremity power in girls. Physical characteristics are commonly cited as important risk factors in back pain development. Although some factors were associated with adolescent back pain, and these differed between boys and girls, they made only a small contribution to logistic regression models for back pain. The results suggest future work should explore the interaction of multiple domains of risk factors (physical, lifestyle, and psychosocial) and subgroups of adolescent back pain, for whom different risk factors may be important.

  17. Motor competence and health related physical fitness in youth: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattuzzo, Maria Teresa; Dos Santos Henrique, Rafael; Ré, Alessandro Hervaldo Nicolai; de Oliveira, Ilana Santos; Melo, Bruno Machado; de Sousa Moura, Mariana; de Araújo, Rodrigo Cappato; Stodden, David

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to review the scientific evidence on associations between motor competence (MC) and components of health related physical fitness (HRPF), in children and adolescents. Systematic review. Systematic search of Academic Search Premier, ERIC, PubMed, PsycInfo, Scopus, SportDiscus, and Web of Science databases was undertaken between October 2012 and December 2013. Studies examining associations between MC and HRPF components (body weight status, cardiorespiratory fitness, musculoskeletal fitness and flexibility) in healthy children and adolescents, published between 1990 and 2013, were included. Risk of bias within studies was assessed using CONSORT and STROBE guidelines. The origin, design, sample, measure of MC, measure of the HRPF, main results and statistics of the studies were analyzed and a narrative synthesis was conducted. Forty-four studies matched all criteria; 16 were classified as low risk of bias and 28 as medium risk. There is strong scientific evidence supporting an inverse association between MC and body weight status (27 out of 33 studies) and a positive association between MC and cardiorespiratory fitness (12 out of 12 studies) and musculoskeletal fitness (7 out of 11 studies). The relationship between MC and flexibility was uncertain. Considering the noted associations between various assessments of MC and with multiple aspects of HRPF, the development of MC in childhood may both directly and indirectly augment HRPF and may serve to enhance the development of long-term health outcomes in children and adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Associations of object control motor skill proficiency, game play competence, physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness among primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Andrew; Eather, Narelle; Duncan, Mitch; Lubans, David Revalds

    2018-06-18

    This study investigated if object control relates to children's game play competence, and examined these competencies as correlates of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness. Game play (Game Performance Assessment Instrument), object control (The Test Gross Motor Development-3), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (Accelerometry), and cardiorespiratory fitness (20-metre shuttle) assessments were completed for 107 children (57% Female, 43% Male) aged 9-12 years (M 10.53, SD 0.65). Two-level regression of object control on game play competence, and object control and game play competence on physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness assessed associations. Object control competence was positively associated with game play competence (Std. B = 0.25, t (104.77) = 2.38, p = 0.001). Game play competence (Std. B = 0.33, t (99.81) = 5.21, p competence (Std. B = 0.20, t (106.93) = 2.96, p = 0.003). Likewise, game competence (Std. B = 0.39, t (104.41) = 4.36, p fitness than object control competence (Std. B = 0.22, t (106.69) = 2.63, p = 0.002). Object control and game competence are both important as correlates of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in children.

  19. The relationship between motor competence and health-related fitness in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Carlos; Rodrigues, Luís P; Meester, An De; Cordovil, Rita

    2017-01-01

    In the last twenty years, there has been increasing evidence that Motor Competence (MC) is vital for developing an active and healthy lifestyle. This study analyses the associations between motor competence and its components, with health-related fitness (HRF). A random sample of 546 children (278 males, mean = 10.77 years) divided into four age groups (7-8; 9-10; 11-12; 13-14 years old) was evaluated. A quantitative MC instrument (evaluating stability, locomotor and manipulative skills), a maximal multistage 20-m shuttle-run test and the handgrip test, height and BMI were used in the analyses. Pearson correlations and standard regression modelling were performed to explore the associations between variables. Moderate to strong significant correlations (0.49 < r < 0.73) were found between MC and HRF, for both sexes, and correlation values were stable across the age groups. The MC model explained 74% of the HRF variance, with the locomotor component being the highest predictor for the entire sample (β = .302; p < .001). Gender-related differences were found when boys and girls were analysed at each age group. Locomotor MC for girls was the most consistent significant predictor of HRF across all age groups (0.47 < β < 0.65; all p≤.001). For boys, significant predictors were locomotor and manipulative MC (0.21 < β < 0.49; all p < .05) in the two younger age groups (7-8 and 9-10 years) and stability (0.50 < β < 0.54; all p≤.001) for the older two age groups (11-12 and 13-14 years). These results support the idea that: (1) the relationship between overall MC and HRF is strong and stable across childhood and early adolescence; (2) when accounting for the different MC components, boys and girls show different relationship patterns with HFR across age.

  20. The relationship between motor competence and health-related fitness in children and adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Luz

    Full Text Available In the last twenty years, there has been increasing evidence that Motor Competence (MC is vital for developing an active and healthy lifestyle. This study analyses the associations between motor competence and its components, with health-related fitness (HRF.A random sample of 546 children (278 males, mean = 10.77 years divided into four age groups (7-8; 9-10; 11-12; 13-14 years old was evaluated. A quantitative MC instrument (evaluating stability, locomotor and manipulative skills, a maximal multistage 20-m shuttle-run test and the handgrip test, height and BMI were used in the analyses. Pearson correlations and standard regression modelling were performed to explore the associations between variables.Moderate to strong significant correlations (0.49 < r < 0.73 were found between MC and HRF, for both sexes, and correlation values were stable across the age groups. The MC model explained 74% of the HRF variance, with the locomotor component being the highest predictor for the entire sample (β = .302; p < .001. Gender-related differences were found when boys and girls were analysed at each age group. Locomotor MC for girls was the most consistent significant predictor of HRF across all age groups (0.47 < β < 0.65; all p≤.001. For boys, significant predictors were locomotor and manipulative MC (0.21 < β < 0.49; all p < .05 in the two younger age groups (7-8 and 9-10 years and stability (0.50 < β < 0.54; all p≤.001 for the older two age groups (11-12 and 13-14 years.These results support the idea that: (1 the relationship between overall MC and HRF is strong and stable across childhood and early adolescence; (2 when accounting for the different MC components, boys and girls show different relationship patterns with HFR across age.

  1. Link between Motor Competence and Health Related Fitness in Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Luz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined motor competence (MC behavior in 6- to 14-year-old children, and investigated the differences in health-related fitness (HRF between high and low MC groups, according to sex and age. A sample of 564 children (288 males participated in this study, divided into three age groups (6–8 years; 9–11 years; 12–14 years. Total MC and its three components (stability, locomotor, and manipulative were assessed with a quantitative instrument. HRF was evaluated using a maximal multistage 20-m shuttle-run test and the handgrip test. Participants were divided into tertiles according to their MC level and high and low MC groups were analyzed. Overall, MC increased across age groups for both sexes, but boys presented better results than girls. The high MC group outperformed their low MC peers in all HRF variables, independent of their age group. Although cardiovascular fitness increased with age for both the high and low MC groups, the differences between these groups were greater in older children compared to younger children, within the study age range. The findings suggest that MC interventions should be considered as an important strategy to enhance HRF, and girls at a young age should be a priority target.

  2. Link between Motor Competence and Health Related Fitness in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Carlos; Cordovil, Rita; Almeida, Gabriela; Rodrigues, Luis P

    2017-06-15

    This study examined motor competence (MC) behavior in 6- to 14-year-old children, and investigated the differences in health-related fitness (HRF) between high and low MC groups, according to sex and age. A sample of 564 children (288 males) participated in this study, divided into three age groups (6⁻8 years; 9⁻11 years; 12⁻14 years). Total MC and its three components (stability, locomotor, and manipulative) were assessed with a quantitative instrument. HRF was evaluated using a maximal multistage 20-m shuttle-run test and the handgrip test. Participants were divided into tertiles according to their MC level and high and low MC groups were analyzed. Overall, MC increased across age groups for both sexes, but boys presented better results than girls. The high MC group outperformed their low MC peers in all HRF variables, independent of their age group. Although cardiovascular fitness increased with age for both the high and low MC groups, the differences between these groups were greater in older children compared to younger children, within the study age range. The findings suggest that MC interventions should be considered as an important strategy to enhance HRF, and girls at a young age should be a priority target.

  3. Perceived sports competence mediates the relationship between childhood motor skill proficiency and adolescent physical activity and fitness: a longitudinal assessment

    OpenAIRE

    van Beurden Eric; Morgan Philip J; Barnett Lisa M; Beard John R

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The purpose of this paper was to investigate whether perceived sports competence mediates the relationship between childhood motor skill proficiency and subsequent adolescent physical activity and fitness. Methods In 2000, children's motor skill proficiency was assessed as part of a school-based physical activity intervention. In 2006/07, participants were followed up as part of the Physical Activity and Skills Study and completed assessments for perceived sports competenc...

  4. Fitness, motor competence and body composition as correlates of adolescent neck/shoulder pain: an exploratory cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Perry, Mark C; Straker, Leon M; O'Sullivan, Peter B; Smith, Anne J; Hands, Beth

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Adolescent neck/shoulder pain (NSP) is a common and sometimes debilitating problem. Several risk factors for this condition have been investigated, but no studies have previously evaluated associations between fitness, motor competence, body composition and adolescent NSP. Methods 1608 males and females of mean age 14 years answered questions on their history of NSP (4 measures), and were tested for aerobic fitness, upper and lower limb power, trunk endurance, grip strengt...

  5. Dynamic relationships between motor skill competence and health-related fitness in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodden, David F; Gao, Zan; Goodway, Jacqueline D; Langendorfer, Stephen J

    2014-08-01

    This cross-sectional study examined associations among motor skill competence (MSC) and health-related fitness (HRF) in youth. A convenient sample of 253 boys and 203 girls (aged 4-13 years) participated in the study. Associations among measures of MSC (throwing and kicking speed and standing long jump distance) and a composite measure of HRF (push-ups, curl-ups, grip strength and PACER test) across five age groups (4-5, 6-7, 8-9, 10-11 and 12-13 yrs.) were assessed using hierarchical regression modeling. When including all children, throwing and jumping were significantly associated with the composite HRF factor for both boys and girls (throw, t = 5.33; jump, t = 4.49) beyond the significant age effect (t = 4.98) with kicking approaching significance (t = 1.73, p = .08). Associations between throwing and kicking speed and HRF appeared to increase from early to middle to late childhood age ranges. Associations between jumping and HRF were variable across age groups. These results support the notion that the relationship between MSC and HRF performance are dynamic and may change across childhood. These data suggest that the development of object control skills in childhood may be important for the development and maintenance of HRF across childhood and into adolescence.

  6. Perceived sports competence mediates the relationship between childhood motor skill proficiency and adolescent physical activity and fitness: a longitudinal assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Lisa M; Morgan, Philip J; van Beurden, Eric; Beard, John R

    2008-08-08

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate whether perceived sports competence mediates the relationship between childhood motor skill proficiency and subsequent adolescent physical activity and fitness. In 2000, children's motor skill proficiency was assessed as part of a school-based physical activity intervention. In 2006/07, participants were followed up as part of the Physical Activity and Skills Study and completed assessments for perceived sports competence (Physical Self-Perception Profile), physical activity (Adolescent Physical Activity Recall Questionnaire) and cardiorespiratory fitness (Multistage Fitness Test). Structural equation modelling techniques were used to determine whether perceived sports competence mediated between childhood object control skill proficiency (composite score of kick, catch and overhand throw), and subsequent adolescent self-reported time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness. Of 928 original intervention participants, 481 were located in 28 schools and 276 (57%) were assessed with at least one follow-up measure. Slightly more than half were female (52.4%) with a mean age of 16.4 years (range 14.2 to 18.3 yrs). Relevant assessments were completed by 250 (90.6%) students for the Physical Activity Model and 227 (82.3%) for the Fitness Model. Both hypothesised mediation models had a good fit to the observed data, with the Physical Activity Model accounting for 18% (R2 = 0.18) of physical activity variance and the Fitness Model accounting for 30% (R2 = 0.30) of fitness variance. Sex did not act as a moderator in either model. Developing a high perceived sports competence through object control skill development in childhood is important for both boys and girls in determining adolescent physical activity participation and fitness. Our findings highlight the need for interventions to target and improve the perceived sports competence of youth.

  7. Perceived sports competence mediates the relationship between childhood motor skill proficiency and adolescent physical activity and fitness: a longitudinal assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Beurden Eric

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this paper was to investigate whether perceived sports competence mediates the relationship between childhood motor skill proficiency and subsequent adolescent physical activity and fitness. Methods In 2000, children's motor skill proficiency was assessed as part of a school-based physical activity intervention. In 2006/07, participants were followed up as part of the Physical Activity and Skills Study and completed assessments for perceived sports competence (Physical Self-Perception Profile, physical activity (Adolescent Physical Activity Recall Questionnaire and cardiorespiratory fitness (Multistage Fitness Test. Structural equation modelling techniques were used to determine whether perceived sports competence mediated between childhood object control skill proficiency (composite score of kick, catch and overhand throw, and subsequent adolescent self-reported time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness. Results Of 928 original intervention participants, 481 were located in 28 schools and 276 (57% were assessed with at least one follow-up measure. Slightly more than half were female (52.4% with a mean age of 16.4 years (range 14.2 to 18.3 yrs. Relevant assessments were completed by 250 (90.6% students for the Physical Activity Model and 227 (82.3% for the Fitness Model. Both hypothesised mediation models had a good fit to the observed data, with the Physical Activity Model accounting for 18% (R2 = 0.18 of physical activity variance and the Fitness Model accounting for 30% (R2 = 0.30 of fitness variance. Sex did not act as a moderator in either model. Conclusion Developing a high perceived sports competence through object control skill development in childhood is important for both boys and girls in determining adolescent physical activity participation and fitness. Our findings highlight the need for interventions to target and improve the perceived sports competence of youth.

  8. Perceived sports competence mediates the relationship between childhood motor skill proficiency and adolescent physical activity and fitness: a longitudinal assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Lisa M; Morgan, Philip J; van Beurden, Eric; Beard, John R

    2008-01-01

    Background The purpose of this paper was to investigate whether perceived sports competence mediates the relationship between childhood motor skill proficiency and subsequent adolescent physical activity and fitness. Methods In 2000, children's motor skill proficiency was assessed as part of a school-based physical activity intervention. In 2006/07, participants were followed up as part of the Physical Activity and Skills Study and completed assessments for perceived sports competence (Physical Self-Perception Profile), physical activity (Adolescent Physical Activity Recall Questionnaire) and cardiorespiratory fitness (Multistage Fitness Test). Structural equation modelling techniques were used to determine whether perceived sports competence mediated between childhood object control skill proficiency (composite score of kick, catch and overhand throw), and subsequent adolescent self-reported time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness. Results Of 928 original intervention participants, 481 were located in 28 schools and 276 (57%) were assessed with at least one follow-up measure. Slightly more than half were female (52.4%) with a mean age of 16.4 years (range 14.2 to 18.3 yrs). Relevant assessments were completed by 250 (90.6%) students for the Physical Activity Model and 227 (82.3%) for the Fitness Model. Both hypothesised mediation models had a good fit to the observed data, with the Physical Activity Model accounting for 18% (R2 = 0.18) of physical activity variance and the Fitness Model accounting for 30% (R2 = 0.30) of fitness variance. Sex did not act as a moderator in either model. Conclusion Developing a high perceived sports competence through object control skill development in childhood is important for both boys and girls in determining adolescent physical activity participation and fitness. Our findings highlight the need for interventions to target and improve the perceived sports competence of youth. PMID:18687148

  9. Motor competence and cardiorespiratory fitness have greater influence on body fatness than physical activity across time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, R A; Pfeiffer, K A; Bugge, A; Møller, N C; Andersen, L B; Stodden, D F

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the longitudinal associations among physical activity (PA), motor competence (MC), cardiorespiratory fitness (VO 2peak ), and body fatness across 7 years, and also analyzed the possible mediation effects of PA, MC, and VO 2peak on the relationships with body fatness. This was a seven-year longitudinal study with three measuring points (mean ages [in years] and respective sample size: 6.75±0.37, n=696; 9.59±1.07, n=617; 13.35±0.34, n=513). PA (moderate-to-vigorous PA-MVPA and vigorous PA-VPA) was monitored using accelerometers. MC was assessed by the "Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder-KTK" test battery. VO 2peak was evaluated using a continuous running protocol until exhaustion. Body fatness was determined by the sum of four skinfolds. Structural equation modeling was performed to evaluate the longitudinal associations among PA, MC, VO 2peak, and body fatness and the potential mediation effects of PA, MC, and VO 2peak . All coefficients presented were standardized (z-scores). MC and VO 2peak directly influenced the development of body fatness, and VO 2peak mediated the associations between MVPA, VPA, MC, and body fatness. MC also mediated the associations between MVPA, VPA, and body fatness. In addition, VO 2peak had the largest total association with body fatness (β=-0.431; Pfitness and MC through developmentally appropriate physical activities, as the synergistic interactions of all three variables impacted body fatness. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Associations of physical fitness and motor competence with reading skills in 9- and 12-year-old children: a longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Sigmundsson, Hermundur; Englund, Kjellrun Thora; Haga, Monika

    2017-01-01

    This longitudinal study explores the association of motor competence and physical fitness with reading skills in children aged 9 and 12 years. Sixty-seven children aged 9 years completed an assessment of motor competence (measured using the Movement Assessment battery for Children), physical fitness (assessed using the Test of Physical Fitness), and reading (measured using the Wordchain test). The testing procedures were repeated after 32 months. For the 9-year-old group, there was a low, neg...

  11. Fitness, motor competence and body composition as correlates of adolescent neck/shoulder pain: an exploratory cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Mark C; Straker, Leon M; O'Sullivan, Peter B; Smith, Anne J; Hands, Beth

    2008-08-15

    Adolescent neck/shoulder pain (NSP) is a common and sometimes debilitating problem. Several risk factors for this condition have been investigated, but no studies have previously evaluated associations between fitness, motor competence, body composition and adolescent NSP. 1608 males and females of mean age 14 years answered questions on their history of NSP (4 measures), and were tested for aerobic fitness, upper and lower limb power, trunk endurance, grip strength, shoulder flexibility, motor competence and anthropometric factors. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to test for associations between NSP and physical variables. There were significant gender differences for most physical and pain variables. After multivariate analysis, males had lower odds of NSP if they had reduced back endurance [OR: 0.66 (95% CI: 0.46-0.97)], reduced persistent control [0.42 (0.19-0.95], and increased muscle power [0.33 (0.12-0.94)], and higher odds of NSP if they had a higher basketball throw [2.47 (1.22-5.00)] and jump performance [3.47 (1.55-7.74)]. Females had lower odds for NSP if they had a reduced jump performance [0.61(0.41-0.92)], a better basketball throw [0.60(0.40-0.90)], lower shoulder flexibility [0.54 (0.30-0.98)] and a higher aerobic capacity [0.61 (0.40-0.93)], and higher odds for NSP if they had greater abdominal endurance [1.57(1.07-2.31)] and greater bimanual dexterity [1.77(1.18-2.65)]. Females showed a U shaped relationship between NSP and back endurance [low: 2.12 (1.20-3.74); high 2.12 (1.18-3.83)]. Adolescent NSP was associated with fitness and motor competence, although the associations varied with gender, and their strength was limited.

  12. Developmental pathways of change in fitness and motor competence are related to overweight and obesity status at the end of primary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Luis P; Stodden, David F; Lopes, Vítor P

    2016-01-01

    To test how different developmental pathways of health-related physical fitness and motor competence tests relate to weight status (overweight and obesity) at the end of primary school. Longitudinal study on growth, health-related physical fitness, and motor competence of 472 primary school children assessed yearly throughout 1st to 4th grade, with an average age of 6.3±0.7 years of age at 1st grade. Children's pathways of change on each of the fitness and motor competence tests were determined along the four years of the study. Participants were divided into three groups according to their rate of change in each test over time: Low Rate of Change, Average Rate of Change, and High Rate of Change. A logistic regression was used to predict the odds ratio of becoming overweight or obese, depending on the developmental pathway of change in fitness and motor competence across childhood. Children with a low or average rate of change in their developmental pathways of fitness and motor competence were several times more prone to become overweight or obese at the end of primary school (OR 2.0 to 6.3), independent of sex and body mass index at baseline. Specifically, a negative developmental pathway (Low Rate of Change) in cardiorespiratory fitness demonstrated over a six-fold elevated risk of being overweight or obese, compared to peers with a positive pathway. Not all children improve their motor competence and fitness levels over time and many actually regress over time. Developing positive fitness and motor competence pathways during childhood protects from obesity and overweight. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Changes in motor skill and fitness measures among children with high and low motor competence: a five-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hands, Beth

    2008-04-01

    Children with low motor competence (LMC) are less able to participate fully in many sports and recreational activities typically enjoyed by their well-coordinated peers. Poor fitness outcomes have been reported for these children, although previous studies have not tracked these outcomes over time. In this study, 19 children (8 girls and 11 boys) with LMC aged between 5 and 7years were matched by age and gender with 19 children with high motor competence (HMC). Six fitness (body composition and cardiovascular endurance) and motor skill (sprint run, standing broad jump and balance) measures were repeated for each group once a year for five years. For each year of the study, the LMC groups performed less well on all measures than the HMC groups. Changes over time were significantly different between groups for cardiovascular endurance, 50-m run and balance, but not for body composition, overhand throw or standing broad jump. Between the two groups, performances were significantly different for all measures, except body composition. These findings confirm the impact of LMC on fitness measures and skill performances over time.

  14. The Role of Perceived and Actual Motor Competency on Children's Physical Activity and Cardiorespiratory Fitness during Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiangli; Thomas, Katherine Thomas; Chen, Yu-Lin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Guided by Stodden et al.'s (2008) conceptual model, the purpose of this study was to examine the associations among perceived competence, actual motor competence (MC), physical activity (PA), and cardiorespiratory fitness in elementary children. The group differences were also investigated as a function of MC levels. Methods: A…

  15. Fitness, motor competence and body composition as correlates of adolescent neck/shoulder pain: an exploratory cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Sullivan Peter B

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent neck/shoulder pain (NSP is a common and sometimes debilitating problem. Several risk factors for this condition have been investigated, but no studies have previously evaluated associations between fitness, motor competence, body composition and adolescent NSP. Methods 1608 males and females of mean age 14 years answered questions on their history of NSP (4 measures, and were tested for aerobic fitness, upper and lower limb power, trunk endurance, grip strength, shoulder flexibility, motor competence and anthropometric factors. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to test for associations between NSP and physical variables. Results There were significant gender differences for most physical and pain variables. After multivariate analysis, males had lower odds of NSP if they had reduced back endurance [OR: 0.66 (95% CI: 0.46–0.97], reduced persistent control [0.42 (0.19–0.95], and increased muscle power [0.33 (0.12–0.94], and higher odds of NSP if they had a higher basketball throw [2.47 (1.22–5.00] and jump performance [3.47 (1.55–7.74]. Females had lower odds for NSP if they had a reduced jump performance [0.61(0.41–0.92], a better basketball throw [0.60(0.40–0.90], lower shoulder flexibility [0.54 (0.30–0.98] and a higher aerobic capacity [0.61 (0.40–0.93], and higher odds for NSP if they had greater abdominal endurance [1.57(1.07–2.31] and greater bimanual dexterity [1.77(1.18–2.65]. Females showed a U shaped relationship between NSP and back endurance [low: 2.12 (1.20–3.74; high 2.12 (1.18–3.83]. Conclusion Adolescent NSP was associated with fitness and motor competence, although the associations varied with gender, and their strength was limited.

  16. Competency profile of Fitness Instructor

    OpenAIRE

    Peterová, Marta

    2011-01-01

    Title: COMPETENCY PROFILE OF FITNESS INSTRUCTOR Objectives: The aim of this work is to find out competencies of fitness instructor and make a competency profile, containing competencies, which are important for excellent fitness instructor. Methods: I applied the method of interview and the method of research in my thesis. The interview was used to make a list of competencies of fitness instructor. The research was applied in the final part of making competency profile, for an attestation of ...

  17. [Children and motor competence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmundsson, H; Haga, M

    2000-10-20

    Recently, the topic of motor competence has figured prominently in the media. The claims made are many, but the research that support the statements is seldom cited. The aim of this review article is to address that deficiency by documenting what is really known about the motor competence of children. Motor competence not only allows children to carry out everyday practical tasks, but it is also an important determinant of their level of self-esteem and of their popularity and status in their peer group. While many studies have shown a significant correlation between motor problems and other problems in the social sphere, it has been difficult to establish causal relationships with any degree of confidence, as there appear to be several interactions which need to be taken into account. Research has shown that 6-10% of Norwegian children in the 7 to 10 year age group have a motor competence well below the norm. It is unusual for motor problems to simply disappear over time. In the absence of intervention the syndrome is likely to continue to manifest itself. More recent research points to some of the circularity in this causal network, children with motor problems having been shown to be less physically active than their peers. In a larger health perspective this in itself can have very serious consequences for the child.

  18. The relationship of gross upper and lower limb motor competence to measures of health and fitness in adolescents aged 13-14 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weedon, Benjamin David; Liu, Francesca; Mahmoud, Wala; Metz, Renske; Beunder, Kyle; Delextrat, Anne; Morris, Martyn G; Esser, Patrick; Collett, Johnny; Meaney, Andy; Howells, Ken; Dawes, Helen

    2018-01-01

    Motor competence (MC) is an important factor in the development of health and fitness in adolescence. This cross-sectional study aims to explore the distribution of MC across school students aged 13-14 years old and the extent of the relationship of MC to measures of health and fitness across genders. A total of 718 participants were tested from three different schools in the UK, 311 girls and 407 boys (aged 13-14 years), pairwise deletion for correlation variables reduced this to 555 (245 girls, 310 boys). Assessments consisted of body mass index, aerobic capacity, anaerobic power, and upper limb and lower limb MC. The distribution of MC and the strength of the relationships between MC and health/fitness measures were explored. Girls performed lower for MC and health/fitness measures compared with boys. Both measures of MC showed a normal distribution and a significant linear relationship of MC to all health and fitness measures for boys, girls and combined genders. A stronger relationship was reported for upper limb MC and aerobic capacity when compared with lower limb MC and aerobic capacity in boys (t=-2.21, degrees of freedom=307, P=0.03, 95% CI -0.253 to -0.011). Normally distributed measures of upper and lower limb MC are linearly related to health and fitness measures in adolescents in a UK sample. NCT02517333.

  19. The relationship of gross upper and lower limb motor competence to measures of health and fitness in adolescents aged 13–14 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Francesca; Mahmoud, Wala; Metz, Renske; Beunder, Kyle; Delextrat, Anne; Morris, Martyn G; Esser, Patrick; Collett, Johnny; Meaney, Andy; Howells, Ken; Dawes, Helen

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Motor competence (MC) is an important factor in the development of health and fitness in adolescence. Aims This cross-sectional study aims to explore the distribution of MC across school students aged 13–14 years old and the extent of the relationship of MC to measures of health and fitness across genders. Methods A total of 718 participants were tested from three different schools in the UK, 311 girls and 407 boys (aged 13–14 years), pairwise deletion for correlation variables reduced this to 555 (245 girls, 310 boys). Assessments consisted of body mass index, aerobic capacity, anaerobic power, and upper limb and lower limb MC. The distribution of MC and the strength of the relationships between MC and health/fitness measures were explored. Results Girls performed lower for MC and health/fitness measures compared with boys. Both measures of MC showed a normal distribution and a significant linear relationship of MC to all health and fitness measures for boys, girls and combined genders. A stronger relationship was reported for upper limb MC and aerobic capacity when compared with lower limb MC and aerobic capacity in boys (t=−2.21, degrees of freedom=307, P=0.03, 95% CI −0.253 to –0.011). Conclusion Normally distributed measures of upper and lower limb MC are linearly related to health and fitness measures in adolescents in a UK sample. Trial registration number NCT02517333. PMID:29629179

  20. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MOTOR COMPETENCE AND PHYSICAL FITNESS IS WEAKER IN THE 15-16 YR. ADOLESCENT AGE GROUP THAN IN YOUNGER AGE GROUPS (4-5 YR. AND 11-12 YR.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haga, Monika; Gísladóttír, Thórdís; Sigmundsson, Hermundur

    2015-12-01

    Developing motor competence and physical fitness can affect the maintenance of a sufficient level of physical activity in children and adolescents. This study assesses the relationship between motor competence and physical fitness from childhood through early adolescence. A cross-sectional sample of 194 participants from 4 to 16 years old were divided into three groups; 4-6 yr. (n=42, M age=5.2, SD 0.6), 11-12 yr. (n=58, M age=12.4, SD=0.3), and 15-16 yr. (n=94, M age=15.9, SD=0.4). To assess motor competence, each child completed the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC). To measure physical fitness, three tasks (strength, speed, and endurance) were selected from the Test of Physical Fitness (TPF). To analyze the significance of the difference between the correlation coefficient in the three age groups (samples) (4-6, 11-12, and 15-16 yr.), Fischer r-to-z transformation was used. The correlation (Pearson's) between motor competence and physical fitness in the age groups was statistically higher for the youngest age groups (4-6 and 11-12 yr.) and the adolescent group (age 15-16). The differences between the two youngest age groups were not statistically significant. The results demonstrate that the correlation between motor competence and physical fitness decreases with age.

  1. Motor Skill Competence and Perceived Motor Competence: Which Best Predicts Physical Activity among Girls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaverdi, Zeinab; Bahram, Abbas; Khalaji, Hassan; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan

    2013-10-01

    The main purpose of this study was to determine which correlate, perceived motor competence or motor skill competence, best predicts girls' physical activity behavior. A sample of 352 girls (mean age=8.7, SD=0.3 yr) participated in this study. To assess motor skill competence and perceived motor competence, each child completed the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and Physical Ability sub-scale of Marsh's Self-Description Questionnaire. Children's physical activity was assessed by the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children. Multiple linear regression model was used to determine whether perceived motor competence or motor skill competence best predicts moderate-to-vigorous self-report physical activity. Multiple regression analysis indicated that motor skill competence and perceived motor competence predicted 21% variance in physical activity (R(2)=0.21, F=48.9, P=0.001), and motor skill competence (R(2)=0.15, ᵝ=0.33, P= 0.001) resulted in more variance than perceived motor competence (R(2)=0.06, ᵝ=0.25, P=0.001) in physical activity. Results revealed motor skill competence had more influence in comparison with perceived motor competence on physical activity level. We suggest interventional programs based on motor skill competence and perceived motor competence should be administered or implemented to promote physical activity in young girls.

  2. Flexibility is associated with motor competence in schoolchildren

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Luís; Póvoas, S.; Mota, Jorge; Okely, A.D.; Coelho-e-Silva, M.J.; Cliff, D.P.; Lopes, Vítor P.; Santos, Rute

    2017-01-01

    Available data on the associations between motor competence (MC) and flexibility are limited and result inconclusive. This study aims to examine the relationship between flexibility and MC in children. The sample comprised 596 Portuguese children (47.1% girls) aged 9.7± 0.6 years. Motor competence was evaluated with the body coordination test, Korperkoordination Test fur Kinder. Cardiorespiratory fitness (20-m shuttle run), muscular strength (curl-up and push-up tests)...

  3. Motor Skill Competence and Perceived Motor Competence: Which Best Predicts Physical Activity among Girls?

    OpenAIRE

    Khodaverdi, Zeinab; Bahram, Abbas; Khalaji, Hassan; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The main purpose of this study was to determine which correlate, perceived motor competence or motor skill competence, best predicts girls? physical activity behavior. Methods A sample of 352 girls (mean age=8.7, SD=0.3 yr) participated in this study. To assess motor skill competence and perceived motor competence, each child completed the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and Physical Ability sub-scale of Marsh?s Self-Description Questionnaire. Children?s physical activit...

  4. Correlates of Gross Motor Competence in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Lisa M; Lai, Samuel K; Veldman, Sanne L C; Hardy, Louise L; Cliff, Dylan P; Morgan, Philip J; Zask, Avigdor; Lubans, David R; Shultz, Sarah P; Ridgers, Nicola D; Rush, Elaine; Brown, Helen L; Okely, Anthony D

    2016-11-01

    Gross motor competence confers health benefits, but levels in children and adolescents are low. While interventions can improve gross motor competence, it remains unclear which correlates should be targeted to ensure interventions are most effective, and for whom targeted and tailored interventions should be developed. The aim of this systematic review was to identify the potential correlates of gross motor competence in typically developing children and adolescents (aged 3-18 years) using an ecological approach. Motor competence was defined as gross motor skill competency, encompassing fundamental movement skills and motor coordination, but excluding motor fitness. Studies needed to assess a summary score of at least one aspect of motor competence (i.e., object control, locomotor, stability, or motor coordination). A structured electronic literature search was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. Six electronic databases (CINAHL Complete, ERIC, MEDLINE Complete, PsycINFO ® , Scopus and SPORTDiscus with Full Text) were searched from 1994 to 5 August 2014. Meta-analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between potential correlates and motor competency if at least three individual studies investigated the same correlate and also reported standardized regression coefficients. A total of 59 studies were identified from 22 different countries, published between 1995 and 2014. Studies reflected the full range of age groups. The most examined correlates were biological and demographic factors. Age (increasing) was a correlate of children's motor competence. Weight status (healthy), sex (male) and socioeconomic background (higher) were consistent correlates for certain aspects of motor competence only. Physical activity and sport participation constituted the majority of investigations in the behavioral attributes and skills category. Whilst we found physical activity to be a positive

  5. Flexibility is associated with motor competence in schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, L; Póvoas, S; Mota, J; Okely, A D; Coelho-E-Silva, M J; Cliff, D P; Lopes, V P; Santos, R

    2017-12-01

    Available data on the associations between motor competence (MC) and flexibility are limited and result inconclusive. This study aims to examine the relationship between flexibility and MC in children. The sample comprised 596 Portuguese children (47.1% girls) aged 9.7 ± 0.6 years. Motor competence was evaluated with the body coordination test, Körperkoordination Test für Kinder. Cardiorespiratory fitness (20-m shuttle run), muscular strength (curl-up and push-up tests), and flexibility (back-saver sit and reach and trunk-lift tests) were evaluated using the Fitnessgram Test Battery. Z-scores by age and gender for the physical fitness tests were constructed. Analysis of variance and regression analysis were performed. Participants in the healthy zone groups of both flexibility tests exhibited significantly better scores of MC than the participants under the healthy zone (P flexibility, as well as the other health-related physical fitness components in schoolchildren to reach adequate levels of MC. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Motor fitness and preschooler children obesity status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Santos, Sandra; Santos, Amanda; Vale, Susana; Mota, Jorge

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between motor fitness (MF) and obesity status in preschool children. The sample comprised 467 children aged 3-6 years. Preschool children body mass index was classified according to International Obesity Task Force and categorised into three levels, normal, overweight and obesity. Total physical activity was assessed by accelerometer and MF test was assessed through two MF tests 10 × 5m shuttle run test (SRT) and a 7 m jumping distance on 2 feet test (J2F). Low MF was considered for MF if SD above 1. A single variable with three categories was created: low MF medium MF and high MF. The prevalence of normal weight, overweight and obesity was 67.6%, 22.7% and 9.7%, respectively. The prevalence of SD > 1 for SRT was 13.7% and 14.4% for J2F, for single variable was 19.2%. Multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that obese preschoolers were more likely six times classified as having low MF level than their non-overweight counterparts (OR: 6.4; IC: 1.3-36.6). This study showed a considerable prevalence of overweight and obesity among preschoolers. Obesity has already been associated with lower MF. Further longitudinal studies are needed to confirm this data.

  7. Motor Competence and its Effect on Positive Developmental Trajectories of Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Leah E; Stodden, David F; Barnett, Lisa M; Lopes, Vitor P; Logan, Samuel W; Rodrigues, Luis Paulo; D'Hondt, Eva

    2015-09-01

    In 2008, Stodden and colleagues took a unique developmental approach toward addressing the potential role of motor competence in promoting positive or negative trajectories of physical activity, health-related fitness, and weight status. The conceptual model proposed synergistic relationships among physical activity, motor competence, perceived motor competence, health-related physical fitness, and obesity with associations hypothesized to strengthen over time. At the time the model was proposed, limited evidence was available to support or refute the model hypotheses. Over the past 6 years, the number of investigations exploring these relationships has increased significantly. Thus, it is an appropriate time to examine published data that directly or indirectly relate to specific pathways noted in the conceptual model. Evidence indicates that motor competence is positively associated with perceived competence and multiple aspects of health (i.e., physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength, muscular endurance, and a healthy weight status). However, questions related to the increased strength of associations across time and antecedent/consequent mechanisms remain. An individual's physical and psychological development is a complex and multifaceted process that synergistically evolves across time. Understanding the most salient factors that influence health and well-being and how relationships among these factors change across time is a critical need for future research in this area. This knowledge could aid in addressing the declining levels of physical activity and fitness along with the increasing rates of obesity across childhood and adolescence.

  8. Minimum Competencies in Undergraduate Motor Development. Guidance Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association for Sport and Physical Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The minimum competency guidelines in Motor Development described herein at the undergraduate level may be gained in one or more motor development course(s) or through other courses provided in an undergraduate curriculum. The minimum guidelines include: (1) Formulation of a developmental perspective; (2) Knowledge of changes in motor behavior…

  9. Associations among Selected Motor Skills and Health-Related Fitness: Indirect Evidence for Seefeldt's Proficiency Barrier in Young Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodden, David F.; True, Larissa K.; Langendorfer, Stephen J.; Gao, Zan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This exploratory study examined the notion of Seefeldt's (1980) hypothesized motor skill "proficiency barrier" related to composite levels of health-related physical fitness (HRF) in young adults. Method: A motor skill competence (MSC) index composed of maximum throwing and kicking speed and jumping distance in 187 young adults…

  10. Physical fitness of primary school children in the reflection of different levels of gross motor coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Ružbarská

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lower level of motor competences may result in unsuccessful engaging of children in physical activities as early as pre-school age and also prepubescent ages. This may subsequently lead to a spiral of forming negative attitudes towards an active lifestyle and may be accompanied by a negative trend in weight status and physical fitness outcomes. Objective: The aim of the study was to identify and analyze differences in physical fitness and somatic parameters of primary school-aged children according to level of their gross motor coordination. Methods:  A sample of 436 children aged 7 to 10 years, of which were 222 girls and 214 boys, performed physical fitness tests - Eurofit test battery. The level of motor coordination was assessed using the test battery Körperkoordination-Test-für-Kinder (KTK. The anthropometric data (body mass, body height, sum of five skinfolds were measured. The one-way ANOVA was used to assess differences in physical fitness test items and anthropometry parameters between children with normal motor quotient (MQ ≥ 86 and decreased levels of gross motor coordination (MQ ≤ 85. Results: Research findings indicate a strongly negative trend in physical development of children with motor deficits (MQ ≤ 85. The results of ANOVA revealed significantly less favourable level of most of the assessed physical fitness parameters in children with decreased level of motor coordination. Conclusions: The findings suggest that physical fitness outcomes of primary school-aged children are associated with a lower level of motor coordination. Motor coordination probably plays an important role in preventing, or moderating the so-called negative trajectory leading to childhood overweight or obesity.

  11. Motor proficiency and physical fitness in active and inactive girls ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In modern day society physical activity levels diminish rapidly among girls and may be a direct consequence of girls experiencing motor difficulties. Therefore the aim of the study was to compare motor proficiency levels and physical fitness levels among active and inactive girls (N=97), aged 12 to 13 years. The BOTMP ...

  12. Is there an association among actual motor competence, perceived motor competence, physical activity, and sedentary behavior in preschool children?

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Vítor P.; Barnett, L.M.; Rodrigues, Luis Paulo

    2016-01-01

    The purpose is to explore relationships among moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), sedentary behavior (SB), and actual gross motor competence (MC) and perceived motor competence (PMC) in young children. Data were collected in 101 children (M age = 4.9 ± 0.93 years). MVPA was measured with accelerometry. Gross MC was assessed with the Portuguese version of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children. PMC was evaluated with the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Accep...

  13. EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM FOR SUPPORTING MOTOR AND SOCIAL COMPETENCE OF PRESCHOOLERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu ÖZYÜREK

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Satisfying the need of physical activity of children and promoting their social skills beginning from early childhood have importance by reason of providing a basis for following years. In this study, establishing process of the training program within the scope of “ Examination the Effects of Physical Education and Sports Activities to the Basic Psychomotor skills and Social Skills for Preschool Children ” named project supported by Karabuk University Coordinatorship of Scientific Research Projects has been mentioned. The training program has been intended to promote the motor and social competence of the children aged 48 months and older. In the study it has been given wide publicity to the stages of literature review, educational attainments and indicators fit for purpose, and taking an expert’s opinion. Commentary on practicing the training program integrated with preschool education program and their importances have been discussed.

  14. Fitness Trade-Offs in Competence Differentiation of Bacillus subtilis

    OpenAIRE

    Yüksel, Melih; Power, Jeffrey J.; Ribbe, Jan; Volkmann, Thorsten; Maier, Berenike

    2016-01-01

    In the stationary phase, Bacillus subtilis differentiates stochastically and transiently into the state of competence for transformation (K-state). The latter is associated with growth arrest, and it is unclear how the ability to develop competence is stably maintained, despite its cost. To quantify the effect differentiation has on the competitive fitness of B. subtilis, we characterized the competition dynamics between strains with different probabilities of entering the K-state. The relati...

  15. Effectiveness of Physical Education to Promote Motor Competence in Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Vítor P.; Stodden, David F.; Rodrigues, Luis P.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Motor skill (MS) competence is an important contributing factor for healthy development. Purpose: The goal was to test the effectiveness of primary school physical education (PE) on MS and physical fitness (PF) development. Methods: Three classes (n = 60, aged 9.0 ± 0.9) were randomly assigned to three diverse conditions during a…

  16. Cross-cultural comparison of motor competence in children from Australia and Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardid, Farid; Rudd, James R.; Lenoir, Matthieu; Polman, Remco; Barnett, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    Motor competence in childhood is an important determinant of physical activity and physical fitness in later life. However, childhood competence levels in many countries are lower than desired. Due to the many different motor skill instruments in use, children's motor competence across countries is rarely compared. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the motor competence of children from Australia and Belgium using the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder (KTK). The sample consisted of 244 (43.4% boys) Belgian children and 252 (50.0% boys) Australian children, aged 6–8 years. A MANCOVA for the motor scores showed a significant country effect. Belgian children scored higher on jumping sideways, moving sideways and hopping for height but not for balancing backwards. Moreover, a Chi squared test revealed significant differences between the Belgian and Australian score distribution with 21.3% Belgian and 39.3% Australian children scoring “below average.” The very low levels reported by Australian children may be the result of cultural differences in physical activity contexts such as physical education and active transport. When compared to normed scores, both samples scored significantly worse than children 40 years ago. The decline in children's motor competence is a global issue, largely influenced by increasing sedentary behavior and a decline in physical activity. PMID:26217282

  17. Does childhood motor skill proficiency predict adolescent fitness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Lisa M; Van Beurden, Eric; Morgan, Philip J; Brooks, Lyndon O; Beard, John R

    2008-12-01

    To determine whether childhood fundamental motor skill proficiency predicts subsequent adolescent cardiorespiratory fitness. In 2000, children's proficiency in a battery of skills was assessed as part of an elementary school-based intervention. Participants were followed up during 2006/2007 as part of the Physical Activity and Skills Study, and cardiorespiratory fitness was measured using the Multistage Fitness Test. Linear regression was used to examine the relationship between childhood fundamental motor skill proficiency and adolescent cardiorespiratory fitness controlling for gender. Composite object control (kick, catch, throw) and locomotor skill (hop, side gallop, vertical jump) were constructed for analysis. A separate linear regression examined the ability of the sprint run to predict cardiorespiratory fitness. Of the 928 original intervention participants, 481 were in 28 schools, 276 (57%) of whom were assessed. Two hundred and forty-four students (88.4%) completed the fitness test. One hundred and twenty-seven were females (52.1%), 60.1% of whom were in grade 10 and 39.0% were in grade 11. As children, almost all 244 completed each motor assessments, except for the sprint run (n = 154, 55.8%). The mean composite skill score in 2000 was 17.7 (SD 5.1). In 2006/2007, the mean number of laps on the Multistage Fitness Test was 50.5 (SD 24.4). Object control proficiency in childhood, adjusting for gender (P = 0.000), was associated with adolescent cardiorespiratory fitness (P = 0.012), accounting for 26% of fitness variation. Children with good object control skills are more likely to become fit adolescents. Fundamental motor skill development in childhood may be an important component of interventions aiming to promote long-term fitness.

  18. Associations among Elementary School Children's Actual Motor Competence, Perceived Motor Competence, Physical Activity and BMI: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meester, An; Stodden, David; Brian, Ali; True, Larissa; Cardon, Greet; Tallir, Isabel; Haerens, Leen

    2016-01-01

    Positive associations between motor competence and physical activity have been identified by means of variable-centered analyses. To expand the understanding of these associations, this study used a person-centered approach to investigate whether different combinations (i.e., profiles) of actual and perceived motor competence exist (aim 1); and to examine differences in physical activity levels (aim 2) and weight status (aim 3) among children with different motor competence-based profiles. Children's (N = 361; 180 boys = 50%; Mage = 9.50±1.24yrs) actual motor competence was measured with the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and their perceived motor competence via the Self Perception Profile for Children. We assessed physical activity via accelerometers; height through stadiometers, and weight through scales. Cluster analyses (aim 1) and MANCOVAs (aim 2 & 3) were used to analyze the data. The analysis generated two predictable groups: one group displaying relatively high levels of both actual (M TGMD-2 percentile = 42.54, SD = 2.33) and perceived motor competence (M = 3.42, SD = .37; high-high), and one group with relatively low levels of both (M percentile = 9.71, SD = 3.21; M PMC = 2.52, SD = .35; low-low). One additional group was also identified as having relatively low levels of actual motor competence (M percentile = 4.22, SD = 2.85) but relatively high levels of perceived motor competence (M = 3.52, SD = .30; low-high). The high-high group demonstrated higher daily physical activity (M = 48.39±2.03) and lower BMI (M = 18.13±.43) than the low-low group (MMVPA = 37.93±2.01; MBMI = 20.22±.42). The low-high group had similar physical activity-levels as the low-low group (M = 36.21±2.18) and did not significantly differ in BMI (M = 19.49±.46) from the other two groups. A combination of high actual and perceived motor competence is related to higher physical activity and lower weight status. It is thus recommended to expand health interventions in children

  19. Rapid Automatic Motor Encoding of Competing Reach Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason P. Gallivan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mounting neural evidence suggests that, in situations in which there are multiple potential targets for action, the brain prepares, in parallel, competing movements associated with these targets, prior to implementing one of them. Central to this interpretation is the idea that competing viewed targets, prior to selection, are rapidly and automatically transformed into corresponding motor representations. Here, by applying target-specific, gradual visuomotor rotations and dissociating, unbeknownst to participants, the visual direction of potential targets from the direction of the movements required to reach the same targets, we provide direct evidence for this provocative idea. Our results offer strong empirical support for theories suggesting that competing action options are automatically represented in terms of the movements required to attain them. The rapid motor encoding of potential targets may support the fast optimization of motor costs under conditions of target uncertainty and allow the motor system to inform decisions about target selection.

  20. Flexible competing risks regression modeling and goodness-of-fit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheike, Thomas; Zhang, Mei-Jie

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we consider different approaches for estimation and assessment of covariate effects for the cumulative incidence curve in the competing risks model. The classic approach is to model all cause-specific hazards and then estimate the cumulative incidence curve based on these cause...... models that is easy to fit and contains the Fine-Gray model as a special case. One advantage of this approach is that our regression modeling allows for non-proportional hazards. This leads to a new simple goodness-of-fit procedure for the proportional subdistribution hazards assumption that is very easy...... of the flexible regression models to analyze competing risks data when non-proportionality is present in the data....

  1. Discrete competing risk model with application to modeling bus-motor failure data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, R.

    2010-01-01

    Failure data are often modeled using continuous distributions. However, a discrete distribution can be appropriate for modeling interval or grouped data. When failure data come from a complex system, a simple discrete model can be inappropriate for modeling such data. This paper presents two types of discrete distributions. One is formed by exponentiating an underlying distribution, and the other is a two-fold competing risk model. The paper focuses on two special distributions: (a) exponentiated Poisson distribution and (b) competing risk model involving a geometric distribution and an exponentiated Poisson distribution. The competing risk model has a decreasing-followed-by-unimodal mass function and a bathtub-shaped failure rate. Five classical data sets on bus-motor failures can be simultaneously and appropriately fitted by a general 5-parameter competing risk model with the parameters being functions of the number of successive failures. The lifetime and aging characteristics of the fitted distribution are analyzed.

  2. Fitness Trade-Offs in Competence Differentiation of Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Melih; Power, Jeffrey J; Ribbe, Jan; Volkmann, Thorsten; Maier, Berenike

    2016-01-01

    In the stationary phase, Bacillus subtilis differentiates stochastically and transiently into the state of competence for transformation (K-state). The latter is associated with growth arrest, and it is unclear how the ability to develop competence is stably maintained, despite its cost. To quantify the effect differentiation has on the competitive fitness of B. subtilis, we characterized the competition dynamics between strains with different probabilities of entering the K-state. The relative fitness decreased with increasing differentiation probability both during the stationary phase and during outgrowth. When exposed to antibiotics inhibiting cell wall synthesis, transcription, and translation, cells that differentiated into the K-state showed a selective advantage compared to differentiation-deficient bacteria; this benefit did not require transformation. Although beneficial, the K-state was not induced by sub-MIC concentrations of antibiotics. Increasing the differentiation probability beyond the wt level did not significantly affect the competition dynamics with transient antibiotic exposure. We conclude that the competition dynamics are very sensitive to the fraction of competent cells under benign conditions but less sensitive during antibiotic exposure, supporting the picture of stochastic differentiation as a fitness trade-off.

  3. Participation in sports practice and motor competence in preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel da Rocha Queiroz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent theoretical model suggests that motor competence during early childhood is related to one's current and future health status and that practicing sports seems to be playing a special role in creating such competence. This study aimed to compare performance in gross motor skills among preschoolers participating in regular sports practice (SP and those not participating (NSP, including comparisons by gender. The study uses secondary data from a population-based study of performance regarding the locomotor and object control skills of preschoolers (3 to 5 years old. Preschoolers were assigned to groups SP or NSP, paired by age and sex according to skills: locomotor (n = 54; 30 boys or object control (n = 37; 17 boys. Analysis of variance showed that the SP group outperformed the NSP one, and there were gender differences only within SP group. Starting to practice sports during early childhood helps to build motor competence and benefits both genders.

  4. Gross motor performance and self-perceived motor competence in children with emotional, behavioural, and pervasive developmental disorders: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emck, C.; Bosscher, R.J.; Beek, P.J.; Doreleijers, T.A.H.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Motor performance and self-perceived motor competence have a great impact on the psychosocial development of children in general. In this review, empirical studies of gross motor performance and self-perception of motor competence in children with emotional (depression and anxiety),

  5. Comparison of motor competence levels on two assessments across childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ré, Alessandro H N; Logan, Samuel W; Cattuzzo, Maria T; Henrique, Rafael S; Tudela, Mariana C; Stodden, David F

    2018-01-01

    This study compared performances and motor delay classifications for the Test of Gross Motor Development-2nd edition (TGMD-2) and the Körperkoordinationstest Für Kinder (KTK) in a sample of 424 healthy children (47% girls) between 5 and 10 years of age. Low-to-moderate correlations (r range = 0.34-0.52) were found between assessments across age. In general, both boys and girls demonstrated higher raw scores across age groups. However, percentile scores indicated younger children outperformed older children, denoting a normative percentile-based decrease in motor competence (MC) in the older age groups. In total, the TGMD-2 and KTK classified 39.4% and 18.4% children, respectively, as demonstrating very low MC (percentile ≤5). In conclusion, the TGMD-2 classified significantly more children with motor delays than the KTK and the differences between children's motor skill classification levels by these assessments became greater as the age groups increased. Therefore, the TGMD-2 may demonstrate more susceptibility to sociocultural influences and be more influenced by cumulative motor experiences throughout childhood. Low-to-moderate correlations between assessments also suggest the TGMD-2 and KTK may measure different aspects of MC. As such, it may be important to use multiple assessments to comprehensively assess motor competence.

  6. Cross-cultural comparison of motor competence in children from Australia and Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid eBardid

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Motor competence in childhood is an important determinant of physical activity and physical fitness in later life. However, childhood competence levels in many countries are lower than desired. Due to the many motor skill instruments in use children’s motor competence across countries is rarely compared. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the motor competence of children from Australia and Belgium using the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder (KTK. The sample consisted of 244 (43.4% boys Belgian children and 252 (50.0% boys Australian children, aged 6 to 8 years (Australian 7.6 ± 0.7 and Belgian 7.3 ± 0.9. MANCOVA for the motor scores showed a significant country effect (F = 14.61, p < 0.001. Belgian children scored higher on jumping sideways (F = 6.61, p = 0.01, moving sideways (F = 40.52, p < 0.001 and hopping for height (F = 8.28, p = 0.004 but not for balancing backwards (F = 2.64, p = 0.105. Moreover, a Chi squared test revealed significant differences between the Belgian and Australian score distribution with 21.3% Belgian and 39.3% Australian children scoring ‘below average’ (χ2 = 23.06, p < 0.001. The very low levels reported by Australian children may be the result of cultural differences in physical activity contexts such as physical education and active transport. When compared to normed scores, both samples scored significantly worse than children 40 years ago. The decline in children’s motor competence is a global issue, largely influenced by increasing sedentary behaviour and a decline in physical activity.

  7. Motor Competence in 11-Year-Old Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedul-Kjelsås, Vigdis; Stensdotter, Ann-Katrin; Sigmundsson, Hermundur

    2013-01-01

    By using the Movement Assessment Battery (MABC), the present study investigated possible gender differences in several tasks of motor competence in children. The sample included 67 Norwegian sixth-grade children (Girls N?=?29; Boys?=?39). Boys' performance exceeds that of girls in ball skills and in one of the balance skills. No differences were…

  8. MOTOR STRUCTURE AND BASIC MOVEMENT COMPETENCES IN EARLY CHILD DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rado Pišot

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Motor development consists of dynamic and continuous development in motor behaviour and is reflected in motor competences (on the locomotive, manipulative and postural level and motor abilities (coordination, strength, speed, balance, flexibility, precision and endurance. This is a complex process in which a child acquires motor abilities and knowledge in interaction with inherited and environmental factors. A sample of 603 boys and girls, of which 263 were aged five (age deviation +/- 3 days; 18,5 ± 3,1kg body weight; 109,4 ± 4,3 cm body height and 340 were aged six and a half (age deviation +/- 3 days; 23, 7 ± 4, 3 kg body weight; 121 ± 4,8 cm body height, were involved in this study after written consent was obtained from their parents. The children's motor structure was established through the application of 28 tests that had been verified on the Slovene population and established as adequate for the study of motor abilities in the sample children. The factor analysis was applied to uncover the latent structure of motor space, and PB (Štalec Momirović criteria were used to establish the number of significant basic components. The analysis of the motor space structure revealed certain particularities for each age period. In the sample of 5 year old children, the use of PB criterion revealed four latent motor dimensions, in 6.5 year old children, the latent motor space structure was described with four (boys and five (girls factors. Despite the existence of gender differences in motor space structure and certain particularities in each age period mostly related to the factors which influence movement coordination, several very similar dimensions were discovered in both sexes.

  9. Motor competence and characteristics within the preschool environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    True, Larissa; Pfeiffer, Karin Allor; Dowda, Marsha; Williams, Harriet G; Brown, William H; O'Neill, Jennifer R; Pate, Russell R

    2017-08-01

    Environmental characteristics within preschools that influence children's motor competence are largely unknown. The purpose of the present study was to examine the contribution of various preschool environmental characteristics to children's locomotor, object control, and total gross motor scores. Cross-sectional, observational study of 3-5 year-old children (n=229) from 22 preschools in South Carolina. The Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study (CHAMPS) Motor Skills Protocol assessed MC. Preschool directors provided information regarding policies and practices. The research team measured playgrounds and classrooms, and the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised assessed preschool quality. Time spent in open space and electronic media use were also assessed using direct observation. The aforementioned variables predicted children's object control, locomotor, and total gross motor scores. Classroom size/child ratio, teacher education, playground size, electronic media use, and trips to outside organizations emerged as significant predictors of locomotor score and total motor score. The object control model was non-significant. Preschools may be able to promote motor competence by allowing children more time in open spaces, structured activity experiences, and by expanding existing outdoor playground space whenever possible. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of Health Outcomes Among Children with Different Levels of Motor Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chagas Daniel V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. While evidence suggests that children with the developmental coordination disorder (DCD have worse health outcomes than their typically developing peers, it remains unclear whether children with low motor competence but without DCD are also characterized by worse health outcomes than those with average motor competence. The main purpose of this study was to compare health outcomes between children with low motor competence without DCD and those with average motor competence.

  11. Gender and motor competence affects perceived likelihood and importance of physical activity outcomes among 14 year olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hands, B; Parker, H E; Rose, E; Larkin, D

    2016-03-01

    Perceptions of the effects of physical activity could facilitate or deter future participation. This study explored the differences between gender and motor competence at 14 years of age in the perceptions of likelihood and importance of physical activity outcomes. The sample comprised 1582 14-year-old adolescents (769 girls) from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. Four motor competence groups were formed from a standardized Neuromuscular Developmental Index score (McCarron 1997). Perceptions of the likelihood and the importance of 15 physical activity outcomes were measured by a questionnaire developed for the NSW Schools Fitness and Physical Activity Survey (Booth et al. 1997). Gender (two) × motor competence (four) analyses of variance and Tukey post hoc were conducted on outcome scores (P importance of physical activity outcomes within competition, social friendships and injury domains. Motor competence was significant in the perceived likelihood of physical health (P importance was perceived for academic outcomes for 14 year olds categorized with low compared with high motor competence (P importance. Although level of motor competence at 14 years affected the perceived likelihood of health, social and fun outcomes from future participation in physical activity, adolescents highly valued these outcomes, whereas gender affected competition and winning, outcomes that were less valued. Physical activity that promotes these key and valued outcomes may encourage young people's ongoing involvement in physical activity, especially for those at risk of low participation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Impact of a Pedometer-Based Goal-Setting Intervention on Children's Motivation, Motor Competence, and Physical Activity in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiangli; Chen, Yu-Lin; Jackson, Allen W.; Zhang, Tao

    2018-01-01

    Background: School physical education (PE) programs provide a prime environment for interventions that attempt to develop school-aged children's motor competence and overall physical fitness, while also stimulating competence motivation to engage in physical activity during childhood. It is generally recognized that a pedometer-based intervention…

  13. Self-Perceived and Actual Motor Competence in Young British Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Michael J; Jones, Victoria; O'Brien, Wesley; Barnett, Lisa M; Eyre, Emma L J

    2018-04-01

    Children's perception of their own motor competence is an important correlate of their actual motor competence. The current study is the first to examine this association in British children and the first to use both product and process measures of actual motor competence. A total of 258 children (139 boys and 119 girls; aged 4 to 7 years, Mean = 5.6, SD = .96) completed measures of self-perceived motor competence using the Pictorial Scale for Perceived Movement Competence in Young Children. Children were classified as "Low," "Medium," or "High" perceived competence based on tertile analysis. Actual motor competence was assessed with the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (a process measure) and a composite of 10-m sprint run time, standing long jump distance, and 1-kg seated medicine ball throw (collectively, a product measure). Data for process and product measures were analyzed using a 2 (sex) × 3 (high, medium, low perceived competence) analysis of covariance, with body mass index, calculated from height and mass, and age controlled. Boys obtained significantly higher scores than girls for both the process ( p = .044) and product ( p = .001) measures of actual motor competence. Boys had significantly ( p = .04) higher scores for perceived competence compared to girls. Compared to children classified as medium and high self-perceived competence, children classified as low self-perceived competence had lower process ( p = .001) and product scores (i.e., medium, p = .009 and high, p = .0001) of actual motor competence. Age ( p = .0001) and body mass index ( p = .0001) were significantly associated with product motor competence. Strategies to enhance actual motor competence may benefit children's self-perceived motor competence.

  14. Effectiveness of physical education to promote motor competence in primary school children

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Vítor P.; Stodden, David F.; Rodrigues, Luis Paulo

    2017-01-01

    Motor skill (MS) competence is an important contributing factor for healthy development. The goal was to test the effectiveness of primary school physical education (PE) on MS and physical fitness (PF) development. Three classes (n = 60, aged 9.0 ± 0.9) were randomly assigned to three diverse conditions during a school year: two PE lessons/week (PE-2), three PE lessons/week (PE-3), and no PE lessons control group (CG). BMI, skinfolds, PF (9-min run/walk, sit-up, modified pull-ups), gymnast...

  15. Development and evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Adolescent Motor Competence Questionnaire (AMCQ) for Adolescents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timler, Amanda; McIntyre, Fleur; Cantell, Marja; Crawford, Susan; Hands, Beth

    2016-01-01

    Background: There are no valid and reliable self-report measures designed to identify levelof motor competence and suspected motor difficulties among 12–18 year old adolescents.Aim: This paper reports the development and evaluation of a self-report questionnaire(Adolescent Motor Competence

  16. Motor competence and its effect on positive developmental trajectories of health

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, L.E.; Stodden, David F.; Barnett, L.M.; Lopes, Vítor P.; Logan, S.W.; Rodrigues, Luis Paulo; D'Hondt, E.

    2015-01-01

    In 2008, Stodden and colleagues took a unique developmental approach toward addressing the potential role of motor competence in promoting positive or negative trajectories of physical activity, health-related fitness, and weight status. The conceptual model proposed synergistic relationships among physical activity, motor competence, perceived motor competence, health-related physical fit- ness, and obesity with associations hypothesized to strengthen over time. At the ...

  17. Prediction of Selected Fitness Indicators by Gender, Age, Alienation, and Perceived Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhalter, Nancy A.; Wendt, Janice C.

    2001-01-01

    Examined relationships between physical factors, psychological factors, gender, and age in middle school physical education (PE) students. Data on PE alienation, perceived competency toward physical fitness (PCf) and physical activity (PCp), and various fitness and strength measures indicated that gender and PCf significantly predicted fitness.…

  18. Association between selected physical fitness parameters and esthetic competence in contemporary dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angioi, Manuela; Metsios, George S; Twitchett, Emily; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Wyon, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    The physical demands imposed on contemporary dancers by choreographers and performance schedules make their physical fitness just as important to them as skill development. Nevertheless, it remains to be confirmed which physical fitness components are associated with aesthetic competence. The aim of this study was to: 1. replicate and test a novel aesthetic competence tool for reliability, and 2. investigate the association between selected physical fitness components and aesthetic competence by using this new tool. Seventeen volunteers underwent a series of physical fitness tests (body composition, flexibility, muscular power and endurance, and aerobic capacity) and aesthetic competence assessments (seven individual criteria commonly used by selected dance companies). Inter-rater reliability of the aesthetic competence tool was very high (r = 0.96). There were significant correlations between the aesthetic competence score and jump ability and push-ups (r = 0.55 and r = 0.55, respectively). Stepwise backward multiple regression analysis revealed that the best predictor of aesthetic competence was push-ups (R(2) = 0.30, p = 0.03). Univariate analyses also revealed that the interaction of push-ups and jump ability improved the prediction power of aesthetic competence (R(2) = 0.44, p = 0.004). It is concluded that upper body muscular endurance and jump ability best predict aesthetic competence of the present sample of contemporary dancers. Further research is required to investigate the contribution of other components of aesthetic competence, including upper body strength, lower body muscular endurance, general coordination, and static and dynamic balance.

  19. Associations among Elementary School Children’s Actual Motor Competence, Perceived Motor Competence, Physical Activity and BMI: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodden, David; Brian, Ali; True, Larissa; Cardon, Greet; Tallir, Isabel; Haerens, Leen

    2016-01-01

    Background Positive associations between motor competence and physical activity have been identified by means of variable-centered analyses. To expand the understanding of these associations, this study used a person-centered approach to investigate whether different combinations (i.e., profiles) of actual and perceived motor competence exist (aim 1); and to examine differences in physical activity levels (aim 2) and weight status (aim 3) among children with different motor competence-based profiles. Materials and Methods Children’s (N = 361; 180 boys = 50%; Mage = 9.50±1.24yrs) actual motor competence was measured with the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and their perceived motor competence via the Self Perception Profile for Children. We assessed physical activity via accelerometers; height through stadiometers, and weight through scales. Cluster analyses (aim 1) and MANCOVAs (aim 2 & 3) were used to analyze the data. Results The analysis generated two predictable groups: one group displaying relatively high levels of both actual (M TGMD-2 percentile = 42.54, SD = 2.33) and perceived motor competence (M = 3.42, SD = .37; high-high), and one group with relatively low levels of both (M percentile = 9.71, SD = 3.21; M PMC = 2.52, SD = .35; low-low). One additional group was also identified as having relatively low levels of actual motor competence (M percentile = 4.22, SD = 2.85) but relatively high levels of perceived motor competence (M = 3.52, SD = .30; low-high). The high-high group demonstrated higher daily physical activity (M = 48.39±2.03) and lower BMI (M = 18.13±.43) than the low-low group (MMVPA = 37.93±2.01; MBMI = 20.22±.42). The low-high group had similar physical activity-levels as the low-low group (M = 36.21±2.18) and did not significantly differ in BMI (M = 19.49±.46) from the other two groups. Conclusions A combination of high actual and perceived motor competence is related to higher physical activity and lower weight status. It is thus

  20. Effect of shrink fitting and cutting on iron loss of permanent magnet motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, N.; Morimoto, H.; Yunoki, Y.; Miyagi, D.

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic properties of a motor core are affected by the distortion due to the compression caused by shrink fitting and the distortion caused by punching, etc. In this paper, the B-H curve and iron loss of stator core of actual motor under shrink fitting are measured. It is shown that the maximum permeability is reduced by about 50%, and the iron loss is increased by about 30% due to the shrink fitting. It is illustrated that the loss of motor is increased by about 10%, 4% and 2% due to the shrink fitting, the cutting stress and the eddy current in rotor magnet, respectively

  1. Perceived Motor Competence Differs From Actual Performance in 8-Year-Old Neonatal ECMO Survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toussaint, L.C.; Cammen-van Zijp, M.H. van der; Janssen, A.J.; Tibboel, D.; Heijst, A.F. van; Ijsselstijn, H.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess perceived motor competence, social competence, self-worth, health-related quality of life, and actual motor performancein 8-year-old survivors of neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). METHODS: In a prospective nationwide study, 135 children completed the extended

  2. Perceived competence and enjoyment in predicting students' physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zan

    2008-10-01

    This study investigated the predictive strength of perceived competence and enjoyment on students' physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in physical education classes. Participants (N = 307; 101 in Grade 6, 96 in Grade 7, 110 in Grade 8; 149 boys, 158 girls) responded to questionnaires assessing perceived competence and enjoyment of physical education, then their cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed on the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) test. Physical activity in one class was estimated via pedometers. Regression analyses showed enjoyment (R2 = 16.5) and perceived competence (R2 = 4.2) accounted for significant variance of only 20.7% of physical activity and, perceived competence was the only significant contributor to cardiorespiratory fitness performance (R2 = 19.3%). Only a small amount of variance here leaves 80% unaccounted for. Some educational implications and areas for research are mentioned.

  3. Validity and reliability of a pictorial instrument for assessing perceived motor competence in Portuguese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, V P; Barnett, L M; Saraiva, L; Gonçalves, C; Bowe, S J; Abbott, G; Rodrigues, L P

    2016-09-01

    It is important to assess young children's perceived Fundamental Movement Skill (FMS) competence in order to examine the role of perceived FMS competence in motivation toward physical activity. Children's perceptions of motor competence may vary according to the culture/country of origin; therefore, it is also important to measure perceptions in different cultural contexts. The purpose was to assess the face validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability and construct validity of the 12 FMS items in the Pictorial Scale for Perceived Movement Skill Competence for Young Children (PMSC) in a Portuguese sample. Two hundred one Portuguese children (girls, n = 112), 5 to 10 years of age (7.6 ± 1.4), participated. All children completed the PMSC once. Ordinal alpha assessed internal consistency. A random subsamples (n = 47) were reassessed one week later to determine test-retest reliability with Bland-Altman method. Children were asked questions after the second administration to determine face validity. Construct validity was assessed on the whole sample with a Bayesian Structural Equation Modelling (BSEM) approach. The hypothesized theoretical model used the 12 items and two hypothesized factors: object control and locomotor skills. The majority of children correctly identified the skills and could understand most of the pictures. Test-retest reliability analysis was good, with an agreement ration between 0.99 and 1.02. Ordinal alpha values ranged from acceptable (object control 0.73, locomotor 0.68) to good (all FMS 0.81). The hypothesized BSEM model had an adequate fit. The PMSC can be used to investigate perceptions of children's FMS competence. This instrument can also be satisfactorily used among Portuguese children. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. A window of opportunity? Motor skills and perceptions of competence of children in kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeGear, Mark; Greyling, Lizette; Sloan, Erin; Bell, Rick I; Williams, Buffy-Lynne; Naylor, Patti-Jean; Temple, Viviene A

    2012-03-15

    Our aim was to examine the relationship between motor skill proficiency and perceptions of competence of children in their first year of school. We also explored gender-based differences. Participants were 260 kindergarten children (mean age = 5y 9 m; boys = 52%) from eight schools; representing 78% of eligible children in those schools. Motor skills were measured using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and perceptions of physical competence were assessed using the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children. Motor skill scores were generally low (percentile ranks ranged from 16 - 24) but perceptions of physical competence were positive (boys = 18.1/24.0, girls = 19.5/24.0). A MANOVA showed a significant overall effect for gender (Wilk's lambda = .84 with F (3, 254) = 15.84, p competence among girls was not significant; however all other correlations were modest but significant. Although motor skill levels were quite low, the children generally held positive perceptions of their physical competence. These positive perceptions provide a window of opportunity for fostering skillfulness. The modest relationships between perceptions of competence and motor skill proficiency suggest that the children are beginning to make self-judgments at a young age. Accordingly, opportunities for children to become and feel physically competent need to occur early in their school or preschool life.

  5. Is perceived motor competence a constraint in children's action planning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Carl; Caçola, Priscila; Cordova, Alberto

    2009-06-01

    A form of action representation of developmental interest is reach estimation-the perceptual and cognitive judgment of whether an object is within or out of reach. A common observation among children is overestimation, which, speculatively, has been linked to perceived motor competence (PMC). The authors examined the PMC effect on reachability among 7-, 9-, and 11-year-old children. The authors predicted that with higher PMC, participants would display greater overestimation and that this outcome would show a developmental trend with younger children displaying greater overestimation complementing higher PMC scores. Results revealed no age differences in total error for reach, and all age groups overestimated. Regarding PMC, the 7-year-old childrens' scores were significantly higher than those of their older counterparts. However, relation analyses revealed no support for the idea that PMC was significantly associated with reachability. The findings suggested that a general measure of PMC is not a good predictor of childrens' action planning through reach estimation. Furthermore, if PMC in some form is a psychological constraint, future studies should be tied to context-specific measures of perceived abilities in relation to the specificity of the task.

  6. The relationship between perceived physical competence and fundamental motor skills in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Leah E

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this investigation had two folds. First, it aimed to discover the relationship between perceived physical competence and fundamental motor skills in preschoolers. Secondly, it examined the effect of sex on perceived physical competence and fundamental motor skills within the sample. A total of 119 children (mean age 4.00, SD 0.55 years) participated in this study. The Test of Gross Motor Development--2nd Edition was used to assess fundamental motor skills and the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance was used to assess perceived physical competence. The results show a moderate and significant correlation between perceived physical competence and fundamental motor skills. Sex differences were also found with boys demonstrating more proficient motor skills and reporting higher perceived physical competence compared with girls. The findings provide relevant information to the child development literature and suggest that a positive relationship exist between preschoolers' self-perceptions of the physical ability and fundamental motor skills. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. A window of opportunity? Motor skills and perceptions of competence of children in Kindergarten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LeGear Mark

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our aim was to examine the relationship between motor skill proficiency and perceptions of competence of children in their first year of school. We also explored gender-based differences. Findings Participants were 260 kindergarten children (mean age = 5y 9 m; boys = 52% from eight schools; representing 78% of eligible children in those schools. Motor skills were measured using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and perceptions of physical competence were assessed using the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children. Motor skill scores were generally low (percentile ranks ranged from 16 - 24 but perceptions of physical competence were positive (boys = 18.1/24.0, girls = 19.5/24.0. A MANOVA showed a significant overall effect for gender (Wilk's lambda = .84 with F (3, 254 = 15.84, p Conclusions Although motor skill levels were quite low, the children generally held positive perceptions of their physical competence. These positive perceptions provide a window of opportunity for fostering skillfulness. The modest relationships between perceptions of competence and motor skill proficiency suggest that the children are beginning to make self-judgments at a young age. Accordingly, opportunities for children to become and feel physically competent need to occur early in their school or preschool life.

  8. Motor competence and physical activity in 8-year-old school children with generalized joint hypermobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul-Kristensen, Birgit; Kristensen, Jens Halkjaer; Frausing, Britt

    2009-01-01

    regarding motor competence, self-reported physical activity, and incidence of musculoskeletal pain and injuries. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 524 children in the second grade from 10 public schools was performed. A positive response rate was obtained for 416 (79.4%) children, and 411 (78.4%) children...... were clinically examined and tested for motor competence, whereas questionnaire response to items comprising musculoskeletal pain and injuries, in addition to daily level and duration of physical activity, corresponded to 377 (71.9%) children. RESULTS: In total, 29% of the children had GJH4, 19% had...... in the motor competence tests. CONCLUSION: Motor competence and physical activity are not reduced in primary school children at 8 years of age with GJH or BJHS. It is recommended that a potential negative influence on the musculoskeletal system over time, as a result of GJH, be investigated by longitudinal...

  9. Classification of 11-13 yrs girls’ motor fitness, considering level of physical exercises’ mastering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Ivashchenko

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the prospects of classification of 11-13 yrs girls’ motor fitness, considering level of physical exercises’ mastering. Material: in the research 11 yrs girls (n=51, 12 years (n=54 and 13 years girls (n=63 participated. Results: first function explains results’ variation by 76.7%, second - by 23.3%. It witnesses that it is possible to classify girls’ age distinctions, basing on motor fitness testing, considering level of physical exercises’ mastering. Structural coefficients of first canonic discriminant function points that substantial difference between 11 and 12-13 yrs girls is observed in levels of speed, dynamic and static power; in motor coordination and level of acrobatic exercises’ mastering. Conclusions: analysis of canonic discriminant function’s coefficients showed that system of children and adolescents’ physical education has hierarchic structure. In this system, training of motor abilities depends on formation of motor skills

  10. Physical activity and motor competence present a positive reciprocal longitudinal relationship across childhood and early adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima, Rodrigo A.; Pfeiffer, Karin; Larsen, Lisbeth R.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The current study evaluated the reciprocal longitudinal relationship between physical activity (PA) and motor competence (MC) and the potential mediation of cardiorespiratory endurance across 7 years. Methods: This was a 7-year longitudinal study, the Copenhagen School Child Intervent......Background: The current study evaluated the reciprocal longitudinal relationship between physical activity (PA) and motor competence (MC) and the potential mediation of cardiorespiratory endurance across 7 years. Methods: This was a 7-year longitudinal study, the Copenhagen School Child...

  11. Longitudinal Change in the Relationship between Fundamental Motor Skills and Perceived Competence: Kindergarten to Grade 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff R. Crane

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available As children transition from early to middle childhood, the relationship between motor skill proficiency and perceptions of physical competence should strengthen as skills improve and inflated early childhood perceptions decrease. This study examined change in motor skills and perceptions of physical competence and the relationship between those variables from kindergarten to grade 2. Participants were 250 boys and girls (Mean age = 5 years 8 months in kindergarten. Motor skills were assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and perceptions were assessed using a pictorial scale of perceived competence. Mixed-design analyses of variance revealed there was a significant increase in object-control skills and perceptions from kindergarten to grade 2, but no change in locomotor skills. In kindergarten, linear regression showed that locomotor skills and object-control skills explained 10% and 9% of the variance, respectively, in perceived competence for girls, and 7% and 11%, respectively, for boys. In grade 2, locomotor skills predicted 11% and object-control skills predicted 19% of the variance in perceptions of physical competence, but only among the boys. Furthermore, the relationship between motor skills and perceptions of physical competence strengthened for boys only from early to middle childhood. However, it seems that forces other than motor skill proficiency influenced girls’ perceptions of their abilities in grade 2.

  12. Reduced motor competence in children with obesity is associated with structural differences in the cerebellar peduncles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustijn, Mireille J C M; Deconinck, Frederik J A; D'Hondt, Eva; Van Acker, Lore; De Guchtenaere, Ann; Lenoir, Matthieu; Caeyenberghs, Karen

    2017-08-22

    Previous studies have suggested that neurological factors partly explain the reduced motor competence found in many children with obesity. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to compare motor competence and white matter organization of important pathways for motor control (cerebellar peduncles) in children with and without obesity. Nineteen children with obesity and 25 children with a healthy weight, aged 7-11 years old, were included. Anthropometric measurements were taken and the level of motor competence was assessed using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (2nd Edition). Children's brain was scanned using diffusion weighted imaging preceded by a standard anatomical scan. Fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity were extracted from the cerebellar peduncles. Obese children's level of motor competence was significantly lower than that in healthy weight peers (p obesity compared to children with a healthy weight. After controlling for multiple comparisons (p obesity is accompanied by reduced motor competence and alterations in white matter organization. This suggests that the motor difficulties of children with obesity are not solely due to carrying excess weight, which may have implications for prevention and intervention programs.

  13. Development and Validation of a Survey Instrument for Detecting Basic Motor Competencies in Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuer, Claude; Bund, Andreas; Becker, Werner; Herrmann, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Basic motor competencies (in German: Motorische Basiskompetenzen; MOBAK) are motor performance dispositions formulated as minimum standards that empower children to participate in the culture of human movement. In opposition to movement-specific and process-oriented fundamental movement skills assessing the quality of movement execution, basic…

  14. The effect of an integrated perceived competence and motor intervention in children with developmental coordination disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordstar, Johannes J.; van der Net, Janjaap; Voerman, Lia; Helders, Paul J M; Jongmans, Marian J.

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims Children with DCD have lower self-perceptions and are less physically active than typically developing children. The aim of this quasi-experimental study was to investigate whether an integrated perceived competence and motor intervention affects DCD children's motor performance,

  15. The effect of an integrated perceived competence and motor intervention in children with developmental coordination disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordstar, Johannes J; van der Net, Janjaap; Voerman, Lia; Helders, Paul J M; Jongmans, Marian J

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Children with DCD have lower self-perceptions and are less physically active than typically developing children. The aim of this quasi-experimental study was to investigate whether an integrated perceived competence and motor intervention affects DCD children's motor

  16. Actual motor performance and self-perceived motor competence in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder compared with healthy siblings and peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliers, Ellen A; de Hoog, Marieke L A; Franke, Barbara; Faraone, Stephen V; Rommelse, Nanda N J; Buitelaar, Jan K; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G

    2010-01-01

    : Children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently experience comorbid motor problems, developmental coordination disorder. Also, children with ADHD are said to overestimate their abilities in the cognitive and social domain, the so-called "Positive Illusory Bias." In this cross-sectional study, the relationship between actual motor performance and perceived motor competence was examined. Motor performance was assessed using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children in 100 children and adolescents (age 6-17 years), including 32 children with ADHD combined type, 18 unaffected siblings, and 50 healthy control children. ADHD was diagnosed using Parent and Teacher questionnaires and a clinical interview. Perceived motor competence and interest in the motor domain were rated with the Dutch supplement scale to Harters' Self-Perception Profile for Children, especially focusing on the motor domain (m-CBSK). Children with ADHD had poorer motor performance than unaffected siblings and control children, especially in the field of manual dexterity. However, no relationship was found between motor performance and perceived motor competence. Only children with the very lowest motor performance had a significantly lowered perception of their motor competence. Interest in the motor domain and motor self-perception was positively correlated. Children with ADHD performed poorer on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, but generally overestimated their own motor competence.

  17. Cross-fostering reveals seasonal changes in the relative fitness of two competing species of flycatchers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qvarnstrom, A; Svedin, N; Wiley, C; Veen, T; Gustafsson, L

    Spatial and temporal heterogeneity in relative fitness of competing species is a key factor affecting the structure of communities. However, it is not intuitive whys species that are ecologically similar should differ in their response to environmental changes. Here we show that two sympatric

  18. Activities of daily living in children with hemiparesis: influence of cognitive abilities and motor competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Caroline; Rauchenzauner, Markus; Staudt, Martin; Berweck, Steffen

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the article is to investigate whether motor competence and cognitive abilities influence the quality of performance of activities of daily living (ADL) in children with hemiparesis. Patients and A total of 20 children with hemiparesis (age, 6-12 years; 11 congenital, 9 acquired during childhood) were studied. Motor competence was assessed with the Assisting Hand Assessment, cognitive abilities with the German version of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children IV, and the quality of ADL performance with the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS). The motor skills scale of the AMPS correlated with motor competence, and the process skills scale of the AMPS correlated with cognitive abilities. The quality of ADL performance is influenced not only by motor competence but also by the cognitive abilities of a hemiparetic child. This suggests that, in addition to motor-oriented training programs, an optimal therapy for hemiparetic children should also consider cognitive approaches. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. [Physical fitness and motor ability in obese boys 12 through 14 years of age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H K; Matsuura, Y; Tanaka, K; Inagaki, A

    1993-01-01

    Excess body fat has generally been considered to be an influential factor to physical fitness and motor ability in obese boys. However, little information is available on the physical fitness and motor ability in obese boys. The purpose of this study was to clarify characteristics of physical fitness and motor ability in obese boys. The subjects were three hundreds and five boys aged 12-14 years. Nineteen physical fitness and motor ability items were tested and skinfold thickness was measured at six sites. Bioelectrical impedance was measured using a tetrapolar impedance plethysmograph (Selco SIF-891). Body density was calculated from the formula of Kim et al. The results of comparison clearly indicated that the obese group was significantly poorer in 1,500-m run, 5-min run, 50-m run, running long jump and many other variables, but was superior only in back strength. To analyze the factorial structure in boys, principal factor analysis was applied to the correlation matrix which was calculated with 19 variables, and then five factors were extracted. The obese group was significantly poorer in total body endurance and muscular endurance than the non-obese group. From these results, it was confirmed that the excess body fat could be one of the most important factors that affects the state of many physical fitness and motor ability elements in obese boys. However, the relationships between physical fitness, motor ability and the degree of fatness seem to be rather complicated. A great deal of data should be accumulated for more detailed analysis on the influence of the excess body fat in obese boys.

  20. Intelligence quotient discrepancy indicates levels of motor competence in preschool children at risk for developmental delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu TY

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Tzu-Ying Yu,1 Kuan-Lin Chen,2,3 Willy Chou,4,5 Shu-Han Yang,4 Sheng-Chun Kung,4 Ya-Chen Lee,2 Li-Chen Tung4,6,7 1Department of Occupational Therapy, College of Medicine, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, 2Department of Occupational Therapy, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 3Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 4Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Chi-Mei Medical Center, Tainan, 5Department of Recreation and Health Care Management, Cha Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan, 6School of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, 7School of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan Purpose: This study aimed to establish 1 whether a group difference exists in the motor competence of preschool children at risk for developmental delays with intelligence quotient discrepancy (IQD; refers to difference between verbal intelligence quotient [VIQ] and performance intelligence quotient [PIQ] and 2 whether an association exists between IQD and motor competence.Methods: Children’s motor competence and IQD were determined with the motor subtests of the Comprehensive Developmental Inventory for Infants and Toddlers and Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence™ – Fourth Edition. A total of 291 children were included in three groups: NON-IQD (n=213; IQD within 1 standard deviation [SD], VIQ>PIQ (n=39; VIQ>PIQ greater than 1 SD, and PIQ>VIQ (n=39; PIQ>VIQ greater than 1 SD.Results: The results of one-way analysis of variance indicated significant differences among the subgroups for the “Gross and fine motor” subdomains of the Comprehensive Developmental Inventory for Infants and Toddlers, especially on the subtests of “body-movement coordination” (F=3.87, P<0.05 and “visual-motor coordination” (F=6.90, P<0.05. Motor competence was significantly

  1. The change in perceived motor competence and motor task values during elementary school : Gender and motor performance differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordstar, J.J.; van der Net, J.; Jak, S.; Helders, P.J.M.; Jongmans, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Participation in motor activities is essential for social interaction and life satisfaction in children. Self-perceptions and task values have a central position in why children do or do not participate in (motor) activities. Investigating developmental changes in motor self-perceptions and motor

  2. Configurations of actual and perceived motor competence among children: Associations with motivation for sports and global self-worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardid, Farid; De Meester, An; Tallir, Isabel; Cardon, Greet; Lenoir, Matthieu; Haerens, Leen

    2016-12-01

    The present study used a person-centred approach to examine whether different profiles based on actual and perceived motor competence exist in elementary school children. Multilevel regression analyses were conducted to explore how children with different motor competence-based profiles might differ in their autonomous motivation for sports and global self-worth. Validated questionnaires were administered to 161 children (40% boys; age=8.82±0.66years) to assess their perceived motor competence, global self-worth, and motivation for sports. Actual motor competence was measured with the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder. Cluster analyses identified four motor competence-based profiles: two groups were characterized by corresponding levels of actual and perceived motor competence (i.e., low-low and high-high) and two groups were characterized by divergent levels of actual and perceived motor competence (i.e., high-low and low-high). Children in the low-low and high-low group displayed significantly lower levels of autonomous motivation for sports and lower levels of global self-worth than children in the low-high and high-high group. These findings emphasize that fostering children's perceived motor competence might be crucial to improve their motivation for sports and their global self-worth. Teachers and instructors involved in physical education and youth sports should thus focus on both actual and perceived motor competence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Motor Proficiency and Physical Fitness in Adolescent Males with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chien-Yu

    2014-01-01

    This study compared components of motor proficiency and physical fitness in adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorders, and assessed the associations between the two measures within each group. A total of 62 adolescent males with ("n" = 31) and without ("n" = 31) autism spectrum disorders aged 10-17 years completed…

  4. Relative age effect in physical attributes and motor fitness at different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relative age effect in physical attributes and motor fitness at different birth-month quartile. S.M. Mat-Rasid, M.R. Abdullah, H Juahir, R.M. Musa, A.B.H.M. Maliki, A Adnan, N.A. Kosni, V Eswaramoorthi, N Alias ...

  5. Gross Motor Performance and Physical Fitness in Children with Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud J.; van Wieringen, Piet C. W.; Doreleijers, Theo; Beek, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Gross motor performance appears to be impaired in children with psychiatric disorders but little is known about which skill domains are affected in each disorder, nor about possible accompanying deficits in physical fitness. The present study has sought to provide information about these issues in children with emotional, behavioural, and…

  6. Pedagogical Conditions of Shaping Motor Competence in Physical Education of Students of Special Medical Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. М. Корягін

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Study objective. To define the pedagogical conditions of shaping motor competence in students of special medical groups during physical education at higher educational institutions. Study methods: theoretical analysis, systematization, comparison of different views on the issue under study, methodological and special literature collation, general scientific methods of theoretical level: analogy, analysis, synthesis, abstraction, induction. Study results. The study addresses the issues of indicating the pedagogical conditions necessary for the effective shaping of the motor competence in students of special medical groups during their physical education at higher educational institutions. The data analysis and collation of the data collected from the scientific, methodological and special literature helped outline and organize their index, which is a pre-requisite for ensuring the process effectiveness. We recommend using the study results as a major foundation for re-organization of the scientific and methodological aspects of physical education of students with health problems to ensure their motor competence effectively shaped.

  7. Children's self-perceived bodily competencies and associations with motor skills, body mass index, teachers' evaluations, and parents' concerns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftegaard-Stoeckel, Jan; Groenfeldt, Vivian; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2010-01-01

    The associations between physical competence, self-perceived bodily competence, parental concern for their children's motor skill development, and teachers' evaluation of their bodily competence were assessed in 646 six- to seven-year-olds. Physical competence was assessed by the German motor...... ability test "Korperkoordinationstest fur Kinder", while the children's, their parents', and their teachers' evaluations were obtained through questionnaires. Parental concern, teacher evaluation, and a high body mass index were the strongest predictors of low physical competence (motor skill quotient ...

  8. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Motor Skills in Relation to Cognition and Academic Performance in Children – A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapala, Eero A.

    2013-01-01

    Different elements of physical fitness in children have shown a declining trend during the past few decades. Cardiorespiratory fitness and motor skills have been associated with cognition, but the magnitude of this association remains unknown. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the relationship of cardiorespiratory fitness and motor skills with cognitive functions and academic performance in children up to 13 years of age. Cross-sectional studies suggest that children with higher cardiorespiratory fitness have more efficient cognitive processing at the neuroelectric level, as well as larger hippocampal and basal ganglia volumes, compared to children with lower cardiorespiratory fitness. Higher cardiorespiratory fitness has been associated with better inhibitory control in tasks requiring rigorous attention allocation. Better motor skills have been related to more efficient cognitive functions including inhibitory control and working memory. Higher cardiorespiratory fitness and better motor skills have also been associated with better academic performance. Furthermore, none of the studies on cardiorespiratory fitness have revealed independent associations with cognitive functions by controlling for motor skills. Studies concerning the relationship between motor skills and cognitive functions also did not consider cardiorespiratory fitness in the analyses. The results of this review suggest that high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness and motor skills may be beneficial for cognitive development and academic performance but the evidence relies mainly on cross-sectional studies. PMID:23717355

  9. [The relationship of quality of life (QOL) with physical fitness, competence and stress response in elderly in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Shinichi; Machida, Kazuhiki

    2003-09-01

    In order to evaluate the relationship of quality of life (QOL) with physical fitness, competence and stress response in the elderly population in Japan, a cross sectional field survey of elderly subjects was conducted. This survey was taken in Naguri village, Saitama. The data collected included physical fitness, competence, stress response and QOL in addition to demographic variables. As for physical fitness indexes, grip strength (GS), single leg balance with eyes closed (SLB), bar grip ping reaction time (RT), trunk flexion (RF), ten-meter walking time (WT) and vital capacity (VC) were measured. The SF-36 was used for QOL assessment. A total of 120 elderly subjected participated to the survey. There were 42 males (73.5 +/- 5.74 years) and 78 females (74.2 +/- 6.17 years). The associations between physical health parameters in SF-36 and WT were highly significant: physical functioning (beta = -2.96, p fit indexes of the structural equation model describing the relationships among physical fitness, competence, stress response and QOL indicated excellent fit to the data with GFI = 0.95 and AGFI = 0.88. Stress response showed relatively stronger influence on QOL than physical fitness or competence. Although there were slight differences in degree of influence, physical fitness, stress response and competence were found to be clearly related to QOL in elderly subjects. To keep good QOL status, it is important to maintain good physical fitness and level of competence and to reduce stress response.

  10. Student Team Achievement Divisions: Its Effect on Electrical Motor Installation Knowledge Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafi, Ahmad; Basuki, Ismet

    2018-04-01

    Student team achievement division (STAD) was an active learning strategy with the small group inside of the classroom members. The students would work in small heterogeneous groups (of five to six members) and help one another to comprehend the material given. To achieve the objectives of the study, this research aims to know the effect of STAD on competence of electrical motor installation. The objective of the student competence was knowledge competence. The data was collected from 30 students. the participants were the students of second class at electrical installation techniques, SMKN 1 Pungging Indonesia. The design of empirical test in this research was one shot case study. The result of knowledge test would be compared by criteria for minimum competence, which was 75. Knowledge competence was analyzed with one sample t test technique. From the analysis got average 84.93, which meant average of student competence had reached criteria for minimum competence. From that analyze, It could be concluded that STAD was effective on electrical motor installation knowledge competence. STAD could grow student motivation to learn better than other models. But, in the application of cooperative learning teacher should prepare carefully before the learning process to avoid problems that could arise during group learning such as students who were less active in the groups. The problem could be resolved by away the teachers took around to check each group. It was felt could minimize the problems.

  11. Contribution of organized and nonorganized activity to children's motor skills and fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Louise L; O'Hara, Blythe J; Rogers, Kris; St George, Alexis; Bauman, Adrian

    2014-11-01

    To examine the associations between children's organized physical activity (OPA), nonorganized physical activity (NOPA), and health-related outcomes (fundamental movement skill [FMS] fitness). Cross-sectional survey of children aged 10-16 years (N = 4273). Organized physical activity and NOPA were assessed by self-report, FMS by process-orientated criteria, and fitness by 20-m shuttle run test. Boys spent 97.5 minutes and girls 86.6 minutes in daily physical activity with the majority spent in OPA (boys, 56.3%; girls 60.5%). Organized physical activity increased with grade, whereas NOPA decreased. Organized physical activity and NOPA were associated with fitness, and OPA was consistently associated with FMS competency. Boys' fitness was associated with OPA and NOPA (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.42, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04, 1.94; AOR 1.26, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.54, respectively), FMS competency (side gallop leap, kick) with OPA and catch, and over-arm throw with both OPA and NOPA. Girls' fitness (AOR 2.62, 95% CI: 1.88, 3.66) and FMS competency were consistently associated with OPA. Both OPA and NOPA are important contributors to children's physical activity; however, for girls, OPA was more strongly associated with fitness and FMS competency. Our findings support the importance of providing children with opportunities to engage in daily OPA. School physical education programs are an ideal delivery vehicle for OPA and need to be central to education policy. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  12. Brief Report: Is Perceived Motor Competence a Constraint in Children's Action Planning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Carl; Cacola, Priscila; Cordova, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    A form of action representation of developmental interest is "reach estimation"--the perceptual and cognitive judgment of whether an object is within or out of reach. A common observation among children is overestimation, which, speculatively, has been linked to perceived motor competence (PMC). The authors examined the PMC effect on…

  13. From cognitive motor preparation to visual processing: The benefits of childhood fitness to brain health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berchicci, M; Pontifex, M B; Drollette, E S; Pesce, C; Hillman, C H; Di Russo, F

    2015-07-09

    The association between a fit body and a fit brain in children has led to a rise of behavioral and neuroscientific research. Yet, the relation of cardiorespiratory fitness on premotor neurocognitive preparation with early visual processing has received little attention. Here, 41 healthy, lower and higher fit preadolescent children were administered a modified version of the Eriksen flanker task while electroencephalography (EEG) and behavioral measures were recorded. Event-related potentials (ERPs) locked to the stimulus onset with an earlier than usual baseline (-900/-800 ms) allowed investigation of both the usual post-stimulus (i.e., the P1, N1 and P2) as well as the pre-stimulus ERP components, such as the Bereitschaftspotential (BP) and the prefrontal negativity (pN component). At the behavioral level, aerobic fitness was associated response accuracy, with higher fit children being more accurate than lower fit children. Fitness-related differences selectively emerged at prefrontal brain regions during response preparation, with larger pN amplitude for higher than lower fit children, and at early perceptual stages after stimulus onset, with larger P1 and N1 amplitudes in higher relative to lower fit children. Collectively, the results suggest that the benefits of being aerobically fit appear at the stage of cognitive preparation prior to stimulus presentation and the behavioral response during the performance of a task that challenges cognitive control. Further, it is likely that enhanced activity in prefrontal brain areas may improve cognitive control of visuo-motor tasks, allowing for stronger proactive inhibition and larger early allocation of selective attention resources on relevant external stimuli. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevalence of Generalised Joint Hypermobility, Artralgia and Motor Competence in 10-year old school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remvig, Lars; Kümmel, Christina; Halkjær-Kristensen, Jens

    2011-01-01

    were invited to be clinically examined and tested for motor competence, and to answer a questionnaire about musculoskeletal pain, injuries, and physical activity. Results: The final cohort comprised 315 Caucasian children, 50.5% girls and 54% boys. GJH prevalence was 35.6, 16.8, or 11.1%, depending...... the questionnaire, 56.5% girls and 43.5% boys. Nineteen fulfilled the criterion for BJHS, without difference in frequency of musculoskeletal pain and injuries, motor competence tests or physical activity compared with non-BJHS. Conclusion: GJH prevalence in this cohort is comparable to previous results. Increased......Objectives: Diverging results exist for children regarding the relation between generalized joint hypermobility (GJH) and musculoskeletal complaints, as well as relations between GJH and insufficient motor development, and/or reduced physical activity level. The main purposes were to (1) survey...

  15. Substantiation of effectiveness of trainings on health related methodic for students with weakened motor fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Kuzmin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to work out methodic, facilitating successful conduct of health related trainings of students withy weakened motor (physical fitness. Material: in the research 47 students with weakened motor fitness participated. Analysis of indicators of morbidity frequency and duration was carried out on the base of medical records’ studying during all academic year. Experimental methodic consisted of three chapters: execution of specifically selected Hatha yoga static postures, breathing exercises and boxing techniques. Breathing exercises were grouped in four complexes. Every complex was fulfilled during 6 trainings, after each of them the next followed. Results: it was found that frequency and duration of diseases statistically confidently decreased in academic year. It was shown that formation of healthy life style skills statistically confidently improved. Conclusions: we have determined: increased students’ interest to physical culture practicing; reduction of frequency and duration of diseases; higher level of formation of healthy life style skills.

  16. Assessing Statistical Competencies in Clinical and Translational Science Education: One Size Does Not Fit All

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsell, Christopher J.; Welty, Leah J.; Mazumdar, Madhu; Thurston, Sally W.; Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Carter, Rickey E.; Pollock, Bradley H.; Cucchiara, Andrew J.; Kopras, Elizabeth J.; Jovanovic, Borko D.; Enders, Felicity T.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Statistics is an essential training component for a career in clinical and translational science (CTS). Given the increasing complexity of statistics, learners may have difficulty selecting appropriate courses. Our question was: what depth of statistical knowledge do different CTS learners require? Methods For three types of CTS learners (principal investigator, co‐investigator, informed reader of the literature), each with different backgrounds in research (no previous research experience, reader of the research literature, previous research experience), 18 experts in biostatistics, epidemiology, and research design proposed levels for 21 statistical competencies. Results Statistical competencies were categorized as fundamental, intermediate, or specialized. CTS learners who intend to become independent principal investigators require more specialized training, while those intending to become informed consumers of the medical literature require more fundamental education. For most competencies, less training was proposed for those with more research background. Discussion When selecting statistical coursework, the learner's research background and career goal should guide the decision. Some statistical competencies are considered to be more important than others. Baseline knowledge assessments may help learners identify appropriate coursework. Conclusion Rather than one size fits all, tailoring education to baseline knowledge, learner background, and future goals increases learning potential while minimizing classroom time. PMID:25212569

  17. Examination of motor skill competency in students: evidence-based physical education curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiyun Chen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Researchers found that children with a competent level of motor skill performance are more likely to be physically active. This study examined how well K-1 students demonstrated motor skill competency in relation to Physical Education Content Standard 1. Methods Participants were K-1 grade students (N = 1,223-1,588; boys = 568–857; girls = 526–695; Mean age = 5.5 yrs old who were enrolled in nine elementary schools. The K-1 students’ motor skill competency in running, weight transferring, hand dribbling, and underhand catching skills was assessed using four PE Metrics skill assessment rubrics in the intervention year 1 and year 2, respectively. Data were analyzed by means of descriptive statistics and independent sample t-tests. Results The students in the intervention year 1 and year 2 cohorts performed at the Competent Level or higher in the four skill assessments. The prevalence of the students’ demonstration of skill competency across the four skills was high in the two intervention years. The intervention year 2 cohort scored significantly higher than the intervention year 1 cohort in the four skill assessments. The boys significantly outperformed than the girls in the two manipulative skills in the intervention year 1 and in the two manipulative skills and the weight transferring skill in the intervention year 2. No gender differences in the running skill in either year were found. Conclusions The evidence-based CATCH PE play a critical role in developing and building K-1 students’ ability to demonstrate motor skill competency in four fundamental skills. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT03015337 , registered date: 1/09/2017, as "retrospectively registered".

  18. Motor competency and social communication skills in preschool children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Francesco; Lorenzo, Alessandro; Lucarelli, Elisabetta; Russo, Luigi; Fanizza, Isabella; Trabacca, Antonio

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association between motor competency and social communication in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) compared with children with Intellectual Disabilities (ID) and typically developing (TD) children. Motor competency, ASD symptoms, and nonverbal Intelligent Quotient (IQ) were investigated through the following tests: Movement Assessment Battery for Children, second edition (MABC-2), Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ), Autism Classification System of Functioning: Social Communication (ACSF:SC) and Leiter International Performances Scale Revised (Leiter-R). The ASD + ID and ID groups had lower MABC-2-manual dexterity mean scores, MABC-2-aiming and catching mean scores, MABC-2-static and dynamic balance mean scores and MABC-2-TTS compared with the TD group (P < 0.05). In addition, the ASD + ID group had lower MABC-2-aiming and catching mean scores compared with the ID group. In the ASD + ID group, we found a significant negative correlation (P < 0.001) between MABC-2-aiming and catching scores with SCQ scores, nonverbal IQ and ACSF:SC levels. Our findings provide new insight into the common neuropsychological mechanisms underlying social communication and motor deficits in ASD. Multiple deficits in motor functioning may be present in ASD and ID, however deficits involving the ability to integrate motor and social cues are somewhat specific to ASD. Autism Res 2018. © 2018 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. This study highlighted the specificity of motor impairment in ASD comparing performances on a frequently used measure of motor impairment between clinical groups (ASD + ID and ID) and a non-clinical group. While previous research has suggested that multiple deficits in motor functioning may be present in ASD, our findings suggest that deficits in tasks involving the ability to integrate visual and motor cues (aiming and catching task) are somewhat specific to

  19. Early motor skill competence as a mediator of child and adult physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D. Loprinzi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In order to effectively promote physical activity (PA during childhood, and across the lifespan, a better understanding of the role of early motor skill development on child and adult PA is needed. Methods: Here, we propose a conceptual model delineating the hypothesized influence of motor skill development on child and adult PA, while providing an overview of the current empirical research related to this model. Results: There is consistent and emerging evidence showing that adequate motor skill competence, particularly locomotor and gross motor skills, is associated with increased PA levels during the preschool, child, and adolescent years, with early motor skill development also influencing enjoyment of PA as well as long-term PA and motor skill performance. The physical education setting appears to be a well-suited environment for motor skill development. Conclusion: Employing appropriate strategies to target motor skill development across the childhood years is of paramount interest in helping shape children's PA behavior, their experiences related to PA, as well as maintain their PA.

  20. Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov home http://www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Fitness Fitness Want to look and feel your best? Physical ... are? Check out this info: What is physical fitness? top Physical fitness means you can do everyday ...

  1. Physical Activity and Motor Competence Present a Positive Reciprocal Longitudinal Relationship Across Childhood and Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Rodrigo A; Pfeiffer, Karin; Larsen, Lisbeth R; Bugge, Anna; Moller, Niels C; Anderson, Lars B; Stodden, David F

    2017-06-01

    The current study evaluated the reciprocal longitudinal relationship between physical activity (PA) and motor competence (MC) and the potential mediation of cardiorespiratory endurance across 7 years. This was a 7-year longitudinal study, the Copenhagen School Child Intervention Study (CoSCIS), with 3 measuring points [mean ages (in years) and respective sample size: 6.75 ± 0.37, n = 696; 9.59 ± 1.07, n = 617; 13.35 ± 0.34, n = 513]. PA was assessed using accelerometers. MC was evaluated by the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder (KTK) test battery. Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO 2 peak) was evaluated using a continuous running protocol until exhaustion. Structural equation modeling was performed to evaluate the longitudinal associations. Vigorous PA (VPA) and MC presented reciprocal longitudinal association during the 7-year follow-up (VPA → MC; β = 0.18; 95% CI: 0.10, 0.26; MC → VPA; β = 0.14; 95% CI: 0.08, 0.21). In addition, VO 2 peak mediated the relationship in both directions (VPA → MC; β = 0.09; 95% CI: 0.06, 0.12; MC → VPA; β = 0.06; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.09). PA and MC presented a positive reciprocal relationship across childhood through early adolescence and VO 2 peak mediated the association in both directions. Interventions targeting to increase PA in children and adolescents should also address the development of MC skills because of the clear positive feedback loop between PA and MC.

  2. Understanding physical (in-) activity, overweight, and obesity in childhood: Effects of congruence between physical self-concept and motor competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utesch, T; Dreiskämper, D; Naul, R; Geukes, K

    2018-04-12

    Both the physical self-concept and actual motor competence are important for healthy future physical activity levels and consequently decrease overweight and obesity in childhood. However, children scoring high on motor competence do not necessarily report high levels of physical self-concept and vice versa, resulting in respective (in-) accuracy also referred to as (non-) veridicality. This study examines whether children's accuracy of physical self-concept is a meaningful predictive factor for their future physical activity. Motor competence, physical self-concept and physical activity were assessed in 3 rd grade and one year later in 4 th grade. Children's weight status was categorized based on WHO recommendations. Polynomial regression with Response surface analyses were conducted with a quasi-DIF approach examining moderating weight status effects. Analyses revealed that children with higher motor competence levels and higher self-perceptions show greater physical activity. Importantly, children who perceive their motor competence more accurately (compared to less) show more future physical activity. This effect is strong for underweight and overweight/obese children, but weak for normal weight children. This study indicates that an accurate self-perception of motor competence fosters future physical activity beyond single main effects, respectively. Hence, the promotion of actual motor competence should be linked with the respective development of accurate self-knowledge.

  3. Anxiety disorders in 8-11-year-old children: motor skill performance and self-perception of competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekornås, Belinda; Lundervold, Astri J; Tjus, Tomas; Heimann, Mikael

    2010-06-01

    This study investigates motor skill performance and self-perceived competence in children with anxiety disorders compared with children without psychiatric disorders. Motor skills and self-perception were assessed in 329 children aged 8 to 11 years, from the Bergen Child Study. The Kiddie-SADS PL diagnostic interview was employed to define a group of children with an anxiety disorder without comorbid diagnosis, and a control group (no diagnosis) matched according to gender, age, and full-scale IQ. Children in the anxiety disorder group displayed impaired motor skills and poor self-perceived peer acceptance and physical competence compared with the control group. Two-thirds of the anxious boys scored on the Motor Assessment Battery for Children (MABC) as having motor problems. The present study demonstrated impaired motor skills in boys with "pure" anxiety disorders. Anxious children also perceived themselves as being less accepted by peers and less competent in physical activities compared with children in the control group.

  4. Multimodal Therapy Involving High-Intensity Interval Training Improves the Physical Fitness, Motor Skills, Social Behavior, and Quality of Life of Boys With ADHD: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meßler, Carolin Friederike; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Sperlich, Billy

    2018-06-01

    To compare the effects of multimodal therapy including supervised high-intensity interval training (HIIT) with those of standard multimodal therapy (TRAD) concerning key variables of physical fitness (peak power and oxygen uptake), motor skills, social behavior, and quality of life in boys with ADHD. A single-center, two-arm randomized, controlled design was used, with 28 boys (8-13 years of age, IQ = 83-136) being randomly assigned to multimodal HIIT (three sessions/week, 4 × 4-min intervals at 95% of peak heart rate) or TRAD. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children II evaluated motor skills and the German version of the hyperkinetic disorder questionnaire for external evaluation by the guardians (FBB-HKS) or German version of the hyperkinetic disorder questionnaire for self-assessment by the children (SBB-HKS) and the KINDL-R questionnaires mental health and health-related quality of life. Both interventions enhanced peak power, and HIIT also reduced submaximal oxygen uptake. HIIT was more effective than TRAD in improving the total score for motor skills (including manual dexterity and ball skills; p HIIT improved physical fitness, motor skills, certain aspects of quality of life, competence, and attention in boys with ADHD.

  5. Do Perceptions of Competence Mediate The Relationship Between Fundamental Motor Skill Proficiency and Physical Activity Levels of Children in Kindergarten?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Jeff R; Naylor, Patti J; Cook, Ryan; Temple, Viviene A

    2015-07-01

    Perceptions of competence mediate the relationship between motor skill proficiency and physical activity among older children and adolescents. This study examined kindergarten children's perceptions of physical competence as a mediator of the relationship between motor skill proficiency as a predictor variable and physical activity levels as the outcome variable; and also with physical activity as a predictor and motor skill proficiency as the outcome. Participants were 116 children (mean age = 5 years 7 months, 58% boys) from 10 schools. Motor skills were measured using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and physical activity was monitored through accelerometry. Perceptions of physical competence were measured using The Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children, and the relationships between these variables were examined using a model of mediation. The direct path between object control skills and moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was significant and object control skills predicted perceived physical competence. However, perceived competence did not mediate the relationship between object control skills and MVPA. The significant relationship between motor proficiency and perceptions of competence did not in turn influence kindergarten children's participation in physical activity. These findings support concepts of developmental differences in the structure of the self-perception system.

  6. Association between sports participation, motor competence and weight status: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrique, Rafael S; Ré, Alessandro H N; Stodden, David F; Fransen, Job; Campos, Carolina M C; Queiroz, Daniel R; Cattuzzo, Maria T

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if baseline motor competence, weight status and sports participation in early childhood predict sports participation two years later. longitudinal study. In 2010, motor competence (object control and locomotor skills), weight status and sports participation were assessed in 292 children between three and five years-of-age. In 2012, sports participation was re-evaluated in 206 of the original 292 children. Logistic regression was implemented to examine if initial sports participation, motor competence and weight status would predict sports participation two years later. In the final model, sports participation in 2010 (OR=9.68, CI: 3.46 to 27.13) and locomotor skills (OR=1.21, CI: 1.01 to 1.46) significantly predicted sports participation after two years. These results suggest that initial sports participation and more advanced locomotor skills in preschool years may be important to promote continued participation in sports across childhood. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The GP tests of competence assessment: which part best predicts fitness to practise decisions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaweera, Hirosha Keshani; Potts, Henry W W; Keshwani, Karim; Valerio, Chris; Baker, Magdalen; Mehdizadeh, Leila; Sturrock, Alison

    2018-01-02

    The General Medical Council (GMC) conducts Tests of Competence (ToC) for doctors referred for Fitness to Practise (FtP) issues. GPs take a single best answer knowledge test, an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE), and a Simulated Surgery (SimSurg) assessment which is a simulated GP consultation. The aim of this study was to examine the similarities between OSCEs and SimSurg to determine whether each assessment contributed something unique to GP ToCs. A mixed methods approach was used. Data were collated on 153 GPs who were required to undertake a ToC as a part of being investigated for FtP issues between February 2010 and October 2016. Using correlation analysis, we examined to what degree performance on the knowledge test, OSCE, and SimSurg related to case examiner recommendations and FtP outcomes, including the unique predictive power of these three assessments. The outcome measures were case examiner recommendations (i) not fit to practise; ii) fit to practise on a limited basis; or iii) fit to practise) as well as FtP outcomes (i) erased/removed from the register; ii) having restrictions/conditions; or iii) be in good standing). For the qualitative component, 45 GP assessors were asked to rate whether they assess the same competencies and which assessment provides better feedback about candidates. There was significant overlap between OSCEs and SimSurg, p < 0.001. SimSurg had additional predictive power in the presence of OSCEs and the knowledge test (p = 0.030) in distinguishing doctors from different FtP categories, while OSCEs did not (p = 0.080). Both the OSCEs (p = 0.004) and SimSurg (p < 0.001) had significant negative correlations with case examiner recommendations when accounting for the effects of the other two assessments. Inductive thematic analysis of the responses to the questionnaire showed that assessors perceived OSCEs to be better suited to target specific knowledge and skills. SimSurg was thought to produce a

  8. More active pre-school children have better motor competence at school starting age: an observational cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Barnett, Lisa M.; Salmon, Jo; Hesketh, Kylie D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Almost half of young children do not achieve minimum recommendations of 60 daily minutes in physical activity. Physical activity is potentially an important determinant of the development of motor competence in children. This study is one of very few longitudinal studies in this area and the first to investigate early childhood physical activity as a predictor of subsequent motor skill competence. Methods Children were assessed as part of the Melbourne InFANT Program longi...

  9. [Comparing development with physical fitness, motor ability, and health of children among various living environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, A; Takimoto, M; Ishida, R

    1989-10-01

    This study had the purpose to compare with development of fitness, motor ability and health among various living environments of the sea-side, the urban, and the mountain districts, where were situated at Nadachi town on the suburbs of Niigata Prefecture. Five hundred thirty-five children (aged 4-15 yrs) were measured at the kindergarten, the fundamental school, and the junior high school. Measuring items of the physique were the height, the weight, the chest circumference, the sitting height, and the foot area. Physical fitness tests were the muscular grip-strength, the lung vital capacity, the closed-eye single-leg balance, the dipping time of the upper extremity, the vertical jump, the standing trunk flexibility, the endurance run, and pull-up. And, motor ability tests were the finger tapping, 5m shuttle run, 50m dash, and the ball throwing. As items of health inspection, the blood pressure (systolic and diasystolic) and the visual ability were adopted. As results of this study, following data were obtained; 1) At the sea-side environment, development of the muscle power, the respiratory function, and the physique were showed much faster rate of growth at the childhood than that of the other ones, significantly (P less than 0.01). 2) At the mountain environment, the arch-bend of the foot print only were appeared larger areas than that of the other ones, significantly (P less than 0.01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Influence of a health-related physical fitness model on students' physical activity, perceived competence, and enjoyment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, You; Gao, Zan; Hannon, James; Shultz, Barry; Newton, Maria; Sibthorp, Jim

    2013-12-01

    This study was designed to explore the effects of a health-related physical fitness physical education model on students' physical activity, perceived competence, and enjoyment. 61 students (25 boys, 36 girls; M age = 12.6 yr., SD = 0.6) were assigned to two groups (health-related physical fitness physical education group, and traditional physical education group), and participated in one 50-min. weekly basketball class for 6 wk. Students' in-class physical activity was assessed using NL-1000 pedometers. The physical subscale of the Perceived Competence Scale for Children was employed to assess perceived competence, and children's enjoyment was measured using the Sport Enjoyment Scale. The findings suggest that students in the intervention group increased their perceived competence, enjoyment, and physical activity over a 6-wk. intervention, while the comparison group simply increased physical activity over time. Children in the intervention group had significantly greater enjoyment.

  11. National programmes for validating physician competence and fitness for practice: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsley, Tanya; Lockyer, Jocelyn; Cogo, Elise; Zeiter, Jeanie; Bursey, Ford; Campbell, Craig

    2016-04-15

    for validating physician competence and fitness for practice. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Relationship between perceived competence and performance during real and virtual motor tasks by children with developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel-Yeger, Batya; Sido, Rotem; Mimouni-Bloch, Aviva; Weiss, Patrice L

    2017-10-01

    (i) To compare children with DCD and typically developing participants via standard motor assessments, two interactive virtual games, measures of physical, social and cognitive self-competence and feedback while playing the virtual games and (ii) To examine the contribution of age and each motor assessment to predict self-competence. Participants were 25 boys with DCD and 25 typically developing boys, aged 5-9 years. They completed the M-ABC-2, the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence, the 6-Minute Walk Test, and then played the two Kinect games and completed the Short Feedback Questionnaire for Children. Children with DCD showed lower physical competence and lower performance than the typical controls in all standard motor assessments. This performance significantly correlated with the children achievements in part of virtual games and with their self-perceived experience while performing within virtual environments. Among the DCD group, Kinect Running game significantly predicted physical and social competence. The significant correlations between the virtual games and standard motor assessments support the feasibility of using these games when evaluating children with DCD for the richer profile they provide. Implications for rehabilitation Clinicians should refer to the impacts of DCD on child's self-competence and daily life. Technological rehabilitation and the use of VR games have the potential to improve self-competence of children with DCD. By including VR games that simulate real life in the intervention for DCD, clinicians may raise child's enjoyment, self-competence and involvement in therapy.

  13. Effects of supplemental training on fitness and aesthetic competence parameters in contemporary dance: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angioi, Manuela; Metsios, George; Twitchett, Emily A; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Wyon, Matthew

    2012-03-01

    Within aesthetic sports such as figure skating and rhythmic gymnastics, physical fitness has been shown to have positive benefits on performance outcomes. Presently the link between physical fitness and aesthetic contemporary dance performance has not been demonstrated within an intervention study. In this study, 24 females engaged in contemporary dance (age 27 ± 5.9 yrs; height 165.3 ± 4.8 cm; weight 59.2 ± 7.6 kg) were recruited and randomly assigned to either an exercise (n = 12) or a control group (n = 12). Three dancers withdrew during the study. The intervention group completed a 6-week conditioning programme comprising two 1-hr sessions of circuit and vibration training per week. The circuit training focused on local muscular endurance and aerobic conditioning and vibration training protocol concentrated on power. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant increases for the conditioning group in lower body muscular power (11%), upper body muscular endurance (22%), aerobic fitness (11%), and aesthetic competence (12%) (p fitness parameters with the exception of aerobic fitness as well as a decrease in aesthetic competence (7%). A 6-week circuit and vibration training programme, which supplemented normal dance commitments, revealed significant increases in selected fitness components and a concomitant increase in aesthetic competence in contemporary professional and student dancers.

  14. Physical activity and motor competence present a positive reciprocal longitudinal relationship across childhood and early adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Rodrigo Antunes; Pfeiffer, Karin Allor; Larsen, Lisbeth Runge; Bugge, Anna; Møller, Niels Christian; Andersen, Lars Bo; Stodden, David F.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The current study evaluated the reciprocal longitudinal relationship between physical activity (PA) and motor competence (MC) and the potential mediation of cardiorespiratory endurance across 7 years. Methods: This was a 7-year longitudinal study, the Copenhagen School Child Intervention Study (CoSCIS), with 3 measuring points [mean ages (in years) and respective sample size: 6.75 ± 0.37, n = 696; 9.59 ± 1.07, n = 617; 13.35 ± 0.34, n = 513]. PA was assessed using accelerometers. ...

  15. Relationships between Health-Related Fitness Knowledge, Perceived Competence, Self- Determination, and Physical Activity Behaviors of High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslem, Liz; Wilkinson, Carol; Prusak, Keven A.; Christensen, William F.; Pennington, Todd

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was (a) to test a hypothesized model of motivation within the context of conceptual physical education (CPE), and (b) to explore the strength and directionality of perceived competence for physical activity as a possible mediator for health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK) and physical activity behaviors. High school…

  16. The MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool-Fitness to Plead: a preliminary evaluation of a research instrument for assessing fitness to plead in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinkunmi, Akintunde A

    2002-01-01

    This study concerns the preliminary evaluation of an instrument, the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool-Fitness to Plead (MacCAT-FP), for assessing competence to stand trial, according to the legal requirements in England and Wales. The purposes of the study were to ascertain whether the instrument can be administered practically to groups of prisoners, both those with mental illness and those without; to examine its internal consistency and interrater reliability; to determine whether it can distinguish between fit and unfit individuals, as judged by expert forensic psychiatrists; and to discover whether it is sensitive to changes over time. The instrument was administered to two groups of remanded prisoners: those transferred to psychiatric units for treatment and those without mental illness. In addition to the MacCAT-FP, scales measuring symptom severity and IQ were administered to all participants. Results suggest that the instrument is practical, with good internal consistency and interrater reliability. The correlation of scores with psychiatrists' opinions as to fitness was 0.77. Scores of unfit patients were significantly different from those of fit individuals. The instrument was able to detect significant differences in scores over time. It is suggested that once the instrument has been further validated for research purposes, it may be developed for clinical application.

  17. Motor competence assessment in children: convergent and discriminant validity between the BOT-2 Short Form and KTK testing batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransen, Job; D'Hondt, Eva; Bourgois, Jan; Vaeyens, Roel; Philippaerts, Renaat M; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated convergent and discriminant validity between two motor competence assessment instruments in 2485 Flemish children: the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency 2 Short Form (BOT-2 Short Form) and the KörperKoördinationsTest für Kinder (KTK). A Pearson correlation assessed the relationship between BOT-2 Short Form total, gross and fine motor composite scores and KTK Motor Quotient in three age cohorts (6-7, 8-9, 10-11 years). Crosstabs were used to measure agreement in classification in children scoring below percentile 5 and 15 and above percentile 85 and 95. Moderately strong positive (r=0.44-0.64) associations between BOT-2 total and gross motor composite scores and KTK Motor Quotient and weak positive correlations between BOT-2 Short Form fine motor composite and KTK Motor Quotient scores (r=0.25-0.37) were found. Levels of agreement were fair to moderate. Therefore, some proof of convergent and discriminant validity between BOT-2 Short Form and KTK was established in this study, underlining the notion that the evaluation of motor competence should not be based upon a single assessment instrument. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A goodness of fit and validity study of the Korean radiological technologists' core job competency model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Chang Seon; Cho, A Ra; Hur, Yera; Choi, Seong Youl

    2017-01-01

    Radiological Technologists deals with the life of a person which means professional competency is essential for the job. Nevertheless, there have been no studies in Korea that identified the job competence of radiologists. In order to define the core job competencies of Korean radiologists and to present the factor models, 147 questionnaires on job competency of radiology were analyzed using 'PASW Statistics Version 18.0' and 'AMOS Version 18.0'. The valid model consisted of five core job competencies ('Patient management', 'Health and safety', 'Operation of equipment', 'Procedures and management') and 17 sub – competencies. As a result of the factor analysis, the RMSEA value was 0.1 and the CFI, and TLI values were close to 0.9 in the measurement model of the five core job competencies. The validity analysis showed that the mean variance extraction was 0.5 or more and the conceptual reliability value was 0.7 or more , And there was a high correlation between subordinate competencies included in each subordinate competencies. The results of this study are expected to provide specific information necessary for the training and management of human resources centered on competence by clearly showing the job competence required for radiologists in Korea's health environment

  19. The change in perceived motor competence and motor task values during elementary school : A longitudinal cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordstar, Johannes J; van der Net, Janjaap; Jak, Suzanne; Helders, Paul J M; Jongmans, Marian J

    Participation in motor activities is essential for social interaction and life satisfaction in children. Self-perceptions and task values have a central position in why children do or do not participate in (motor) activities. Investigating developmental changes in motor self-perceptions and motor

  20. The Relationship Among Motor Proficiency, Physical Fitness, and Body Composition in Children With and Without Visual Impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwen, Suzanne; Hartman, Esther; Visscher, Chris

    This study compares the motor skills and physical fitness of school-age children (6-12 years) with visual impairments (VI; n = 60) and sighted children (n = 60). The relationships between the performance parameters and the children's body composition are investigated as well as the role of the

  1. Wii-Based Exercise Program to Improve Physical Fitness, Motor Proficiency and Functional Mobility in Adults with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, V.; Campos, C.; Sá, A.; Cavadas, M.; Pinto, J.; Simões, P.; Machado, S.; Murillo-Rodríguez, E.; Barbosa-Rocha, N.

    2017-01-01

    Background: People with Down syndrome (DS) usually display reduced physical fitness (aerobic capacity, muscle strength and abnormal body composition), motor proficiency impairments (balance and postural control) and physical functional limitations. Exergames can be an appealing alternative to enhance exercise engagement and compliance, whilst…

  2. Mental illness and legal fitness (competence) to stand trial in New York State: expert opinion and criminal defendants' psychiatric symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eugene; Rosner, Richard; Harmon, Ronnie

    2014-07-01

    Fitness to Stand Trial is a critical concept in the adjudication of justice-involved persons. A retrospective study was conducted to examine criminal defendants' specific psychiatric symptoms and those symptoms' associations with expert opinions on Competence to Stand Trial. One hundred charts were reviewed: 50 Cases (opined as Not Fit) were compared against 50 Controls (opined as Fit) with respect to ratings on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). A significance level of 0.001 was selected a priori. Statistically significant differences were found in seven of the eighteen BPRS symptom constructs (with the highest differences in Conceptual Disorganization and Unusual Thought Content) and two of the four BPRS higher-order syndrome factors (Thinking Disorder and Hostile-Suspiciousness). Consistent with previous reports, psychotic symptoms are found in this study to be inversely associated with Fitness. Validity, reliability, and limitations of this study, as well as directions for future research, are discussed herein. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  3. Systematic Review of the Research on Motor Fitness of 1st-Year Students Attending Polish Institutions of Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Podstawski

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study. To establish: 1 the amount of research on general motor fitness of 1st-year students, conducted at selected Polish institutions of higher education between 1953-2010; 2 the number and kind of motor tests applied in this kind of research as well as the frequency of these tests during the period under study. Material and methods: The material for this research was composed of the publications on motor fitness of the first-year students taking part in specific motor trials applied at Polish tertiary institutions between 1953 - 2010. A diagnostic poll method was used in the research. Results: Fifty-four original research cases conducted in the period under study were observed. Within this period the trials such as: “100m run”, “jump from the run-up”, “grenade throw” and “ shot put” were more popular during the earlier years, while the trials such us: “zig-zag run”, “standing long jump”, and “medicine ball throw” were characteristic of more recent studies. Some of the most popular motor trials were: “standing long jump” – 38 cases, “medicine ball throw” – 30 cases, “zig-zag run” – 28 cases, “shuttle runs” – 9 cases, "short distance runs” – 12 cases, “downward bend from standing position” – 10 cases, and "vertical jump” – 8 cases. Conclusions: 1. Little research concerning the level of physical fitness of first-year students attending Polish tertiary institutions was conducted in the years 1953-2010; 2. The amount of motor fitness research carried out during this period fails to provide constant systematic assessment of the state of the students’ physical condition, which is a result of too large dispersions in time and territory where the measurements were taken; 3. In the motor fitness tests conducted with 1st-year students the determining variable was mainly gender, and only few research cases were found in which general motor fitness was analyzed according to

  4. Pathways to Fitness for Practice: National Vocational Qualifications as a Foundation of Competence in Nurse Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, Lynne

    2001-01-01

    The movement in British nursing education from nursing schools to higher education has been criticized for deficiencies in skills-based training. Adding a competency-based approach using National Vocational Qualifications is a way to ensure that nurses have practical competence as well as knowledge and understanding. (Contains 24 references.) (SK)

  5. The effect of a multi-component camp-based weight-loss program on children's motor skills and physical fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian Traberg; Huang, Tao; Larsen, Lisbeth Runge

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many weight-loss programs in children are performed without specific foci on training both physical fitness and motor skills. The aim of this study was to describe the effect of a one-year weight-loss program on children's motor skills and physical fitness. METHODS: Participants......-respiratory fitness test. Motor skills were assessed by the Movement Assessment Battery for Children - second edition (M-ABC-2), age band 3. RESULTS: Loss to follow-up after 52 weeks was 19 % and 32 % in the DCIA and SIA, respectively. Balance skills were improved post-camp, but not after 52 weeks in children from....... CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the day-camp intervention led to improvements in physical fitness but not in motor skills compared to the standard intervention. Including both motor skills and physical fitness could advantageously be considered in future immersive intervention programmes. TRIAL REGISTRATION...

  6. Developing an assessment based on physical fitness age to evaluate motor function in frail and healthy elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagaichi, Masaki; Anan, Yuya; Hikiji, Yuto; Uratani, Sou

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify a method for assessing physical fitness age that is easy to use with both frail and healthy elderly women and to examine its validity. Principal component analysis was used to develop a formula of physical fitness age from four motor function variables. The subjects comprised 688 (75.7±6.0 years) elderly women, in order to develop a physical fitness scale. The formula for calculating physical fitness age was expressed as physical fitness age =-0.419× grip strength -0.096× balancing on one leg with eyes open -0.737×30 s chair stand +0.503× figure-of-8 walking test +0.47× chronological age +52.68. Measures obtained from subjects in the frail elderly (n=11, 73.0±2.3 years) and exercise (n=10, 70.8±3.1 years) groups were used to examine the validity of the assessment. The mean physical fitness age of the frail elderly group (79.0±3.7 years) was significantly higher than its mean chronological age (73.0±2.3 years, p fitness age of the exercise group (65.6±3.1 years) was significantly lower than the chronological age (70.8±3.1 years, p fitness age scores are applicable to frail and healthy elderly women. Physical fitness age is a valid measure of motor function in elderly women.

  7. The Role of Motor Competence and Body Mass Index in Children's Activity Levels in Physical Education Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spessato, Barbara Coiro; Gabbard, Carl; Valentini, Nadia C.

    2013-01-01

    Our goal was to investigate the role of body mass index (BMI) and motor competence (MC) in children's physical activity (PA) levels during physical education (PE) classes. We assessed PA levels of 5-to-10-year old children ("n" = 264) with pedometers in four PE classes. MC was assessed using the TGMD-2 and BMI values were classified…

  8. Reliability and concurrent validity of a motor skill competence test among 4- to 12-year old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeboer, Joris; Krijger-Hombergen, Michiel; Savelsbergh, Geert; De Vries, Sanne

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the test-retest reliability, internal consistency and concurrent validity of the Athletic Skills Track (AST). During a regular PE lesson, 930 4- to 12-year old children (448 girls, 482 boys) completed two motor skill competence tests: (1) the

  9. The Effect of Teachers Trained in a Fundamental Movement Skills Programme on Children's Self-Perceptions and Motor Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Gavin; Murphy, Marie; McKee, David; Delaney, Brian; Dempster, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Perceived and actual motor competence are hypothesized to have potential links to children and young people's physical activity (PA) levels with a potential consequential link to long-term health. In this cross-sectional study, Harter's (1985, "Manual for the Self-perception Profile for Children." Denver, CO: University of Denver)…

  10. Chapter 3: The Relationship of Physical Fitness and Motor Competence to Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Darla M.; Valley, Julia A.

    2007-01-01

    According to social cognitive theory, self-efficacy influences individual behaviors, such as physical activity engagement patterns, and as a result influences the physical and cognitive benefits that are outcomes from engagement. Children with higher self-efficacy are more likely to participate in physical activity than those with lower…

  11. The Relationship between Preservice Teachers Health-Related Fitness and Movement Competency in Gymnastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Collin Andrew; Webster, Liana; Cribbs, Jason; Wellborn, Benjamin; Lineberger, Matthew Blake; Doan, Rob

    2014-01-01

    The current National Initial Standards for Physical Education Teacher Education state that preservice teachers should achieve and maintain a level of health-related fitness consistent with that expected of K12 learners. However, little research has addressed the relevance of teacher fitness to effective physical education teaching. This study…

  12. Executive functions, visual-motor coordination, physical fitness and academic achievement: Longitudinal relations in typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberer, Nicole; Gashaj, Venera; Roebers, Claudia M

    2018-04-01

    The present longitudinal study included different school readiness factors measured in kindergarten with the aim to predict later academic achievement in second grade. Based on data of N = 134 children, the predictive power of executive functions, visual-motor coordination and physical fitness on later academic achievement was estimated using a latent variable approach. By entering all three predictors simultaneously into the model to predict later academic achievement, significant effects of executive functions and visual-motor coordination on later academic achievement were found. The influence of physical fitness was found to be substantial but indirect via executive functions. The cognitive stimulation hypothesis as well as the automaticity hypothesis are discussed as an explanation for the reported relations. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Organizational-pedagogic technology of formation of motor functioning culture as mean of physical fitness improvement of 5 form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H. Deineko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to analyze influence of organizational-pedagogic technology of formation of motor functioning’s culture of five form pupils in process of physical education; to test experimentally methodic of formation of motor functioning’s culture by means of general gymnastic in physical education system of comprehensive schools’ pupils. Material: The research was conducted in comprehensive school № 67, Kharkov. 57 pupils of five forms (5-А form - 30 pupils, 5-B - 27 pupils participated in the research. Results: we worked out organizational-pedagogic technology of formation of motor functioning’s culture “Main gymnastic at school”, which positively influenced on development of physical fitness of experimental groups’ pupils. Conclusions: it was established that under influence of selected exercises of main gymnastic and introduced competitiveness elements pupils’ movements became more accurate, plastic, acquired higher amplitude, coordination.

  14. Influence of different approaches to training of main movements on physical fitness of 4 years boys with various motor asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Galamandjuk

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: determination of effectiveness of different training main movements’ methods in physical fitness improvement of boys with different manual motor asymmetry. Material: 50 boys with ambidexterity (4 years old age took part in the research. There was used the following: oral questioning, dynamometry and methodic by M.M. Bezrukikh. Results: usage of one of variants of “symmetric” approach determines specificities of motor qualities’ development: among boys with ambidexterity in motor asymmetry variant “first with passive hand, then with active one” and variant “first with active and then with passive hand” ensure improvement of all tested qualities (except flexibility and quickness. Boys with right orientation of manual motor asymmetry demonstrated improvement of all qualities (except coordination in ballistic movements for accuracy, fulfilled by right arm in the first variant. In the second variant all qualities (except already mentioned quickness are improved. Conclusions: with any orientation of manual motor asymmetry the necessary condition of high activity and successful child’s training is development of interaction between cerebral semi-spheres. Coordinated movements by left and right arms strengthen such interaction. That is why it is purposeful to consequently fulfill every movement by every arm and by two arms simultaneously.

  15. Influence of different approaches to training of main movements on physical fitness of 4 years boys with various motor asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galamandjuk L. L.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: determination of effectiveness of different training main movements’ methods in physical fitness improvement of boys with different manual motor asymmetry. Material: 50 boys with ambidexterity (4 years old age took part in the research. There was used the following: oral questioning, dynamometry and methodic by M.M. Bezrukikh. Results: usage of one of variants of “symmetric” approach determines specificities of motor qualities’ development: among boys with ambidexterity in motor asymmetry variant “first with passive hand, then with active one” and variant “first with active and then with passive hand” ensure improvement of all tested qualities (except flexibility and quickness. Boys with right orientation of manual motor asymmetry demonstrated improvement of all qualities (except coordination in ballistic movements for accuracy, fulfilled by right arm in the first variant. In the second variant all qualities (except already mentioned quickness are improved. Conclusions: with any orientation of manual motor asymmetry the necessary condition of high activity and successful child’s training is development of interaction between cerebral semi-spheres. Coordinated movements by left and right arms strengthen such interaction. That is why it is purposeful to consequently fulfill every movement by every arm and by two arms simultaneously.

  16. Effects of a 6-Month Conditioning Program on Motor and Sport Performance in The Group of Children’s Fitness Competitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mlsnová Gabriela

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to determine changes in sport and motor performance of competitors in the category of children’s fitness as a result of conditioning training intervention. We conducted a two-group simultaneous experiment. Experimental group (EG and control group (CG consisted of 18 girls competing in the 12 to 15 years old age categories. EG performed supervised conditioning program over a period of 25 weeks with training frequency 3 times per week. Based on the results of physical tests, competitive and expert assessments of sport performance in the children’s fitness category we found significant effect of our conditioning program to increase sport and motor performance in the experimental group. Subsequently, these improvements could lead to success in domestic and international competitions where they occupied the leading positions. Significant relationships (EG = 19; CG = 10 were found between competitive and expert assessments as well as physical tests results, between expert and competitive assessments of physiques and routines. These changes manifested positively not only in the competitive assessment of the physique but also in the expert “blind“ assessment in the competitive discipline of the physique presentation in quarter turns where we observed significant improvements in the EG. Based on the obtained results we recommend to increase the ratio of conditioning training to gymnastic-dance training to 50 %, inclusion of strengthening and plyometric exercises into the training process and monitor regularly the level of general and specific abilities of the competitors in the individual mezocycles of the annual training cycle.

  17. Fitting and comparing competing models of the species abundance distribution: assessment and prospect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J Matthews

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A species abundance distribution (SAD characterises patterns in the commonness and rarity of all species within an ecological community. As such, the SAD provides the theoretical foundation for a number of other biogeographical and macroecological patterns, such as the species–area relationship, as well as being an interesting pattern in its own right. While there has been resurgence in the study of SADs in the last decade, less focus has been placed on methodology in SAD research, and few attempts have been made to synthesise the vast array of methods which have been employed in SAD model evaluation. As such, our review has two aims. First, we provide a general overview of SADs, including descriptions of the commonly used distributions, plotting methods and issues with evaluating SAD models. Second, we review a number of recent advances in SAD model fitting and comparison. We conclude by providing a list of recommendations for fitting and evaluating SAD models. We argue that it is time for SAD studies to move away from many of the traditional methods available for fitting and evaluating models, such as sole reliance on the visual examination of plots, and embrace statistically rigorous techniques. In particular, we recommend the use of both goodness-of-fit tests and model-comparison analyses because each provides unique information which one can use to draw inferences.

  18. More active pre-school children have better motor competence at school starting age: an observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Lisa M; Salmon, Jo; Hesketh, Kylie D

    2016-10-10

    Almost half of young children do not achieve minimum recommendations of 60 daily minutes in physical activity. Physical activity is potentially an important determinant of the development of motor competence in children. This study is one of very few longitudinal studies in this area and the first to investigate early childhood physical activity as a predictor of subsequent motor skill competence. Children were assessed as part of the Melbourne InFANT Program longitudinal cohort study at 19 months, 3.5 years and 5 years. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (accelerometry) was assessed at each time point. At age 5, children were also assessed in actual (Test of Gross Motor Development-2) and perceived motor competence (Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence). General linear models were performed with all 12 skills (six object control and six locomotor skills), both actual and perceived, at age 5 as the respective outcome variables. Predictor variables alternated between MVPA at 19 months, 3.5 years and 5 years. Based on standardized TGMD-2 scores most children were average or below in their skill level at age 5. MVPA at 19 months was not a predictor of actual or perceived skill at age 5. MVPA at 3.5 years was associated with actual locomotor skill (B = 0.073, p = 0.033) and perceived total skill at 5 years of age (B = 0.059, p = 0.044). MVPA was not a predictor of actual or perceived object control skill at any age. Parents and preschool staff should be informed that more time in MVPA as a preschool child contributes to locomotor skill and to perceptions of skill ability in a child of school starting age. Understanding this relationship will assist in intervention development.

  19. More active pre-school children have better motor competence at school starting age: an observational cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Barnett

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Almost half of young children do not achieve minimum recommendations of 60 daily minutes in physical activity. Physical activity is potentially an important determinant of the development of motor competence in children. This study is one of very few longitudinal studies in this area and the first to investigate early childhood physical activity as a predictor of subsequent motor skill competence. Methods Children were assessed as part of the Melbourne InFANT Program longitudinal cohort study at 19 months, 3.5 years and 5 years. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA (accelerometry was assessed at each time point. At age 5, children were also assessed in actual (Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and perceived motor competence (Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence. General linear models were performed with all 12 skills (six object control and six locomotor skills, both actual and perceived, at age 5 as the respective outcome variables. Predictor variables alternated between MVPA at 19 months, 3.5 years and 5 years. Results Based on standardized TGMD-2 scores most children were average or below in their skill level at age 5. MVPA at 19 months was not a predictor of actual or perceived skill at age 5. MVPA at 3.5 years was associated with actual locomotor skill (B = 0.073, p = 0.033 and perceived total skill at 5 years of age (B = 0.059, p = 0.044. MVPA was not a predictor of actual or perceived object control skill at any age. Conclusion Parents and preschool staff should be informed that more time in MVPA as a preschool child contributes to locomotor skill and to perceptions of skill ability in a child of school starting age. Understanding this relationship will assist in intervention development.

  20. [The module "Motorik" in the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS). Motor fitness and physical activity of children and young people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opper, E; Worth, A; Wagner, M; Bös, K

    2007-01-01

    Motor fitness and physical activity are important aspects of a healthy development in childhood and adolescence. However, the assessment of motor fitness and physical activity is not subject to standardized criteria; furthermore, the samples investigated do not provide a representative image of the whole population. Therefore, the existing data only allow very limited statements on the state and development of motor fitness and physical activity. The "Motorik" module, as part of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS), offers nationwide representative data on the motor fitness and physical activity of children and adolescents for the first time. Besides the baseline-analysis, another aim is to analyse the complex relationship between motor fitness, physical activity and health. Motor fitness, based on the systematisation of motor abilities, was assessed using a test profile. The test profile consists of 11 items measuring cardiorespiratory fitness, strength, coordination and mobility. Physical activity was assessed using a questionnaire containing 51 items on the duration, intensity and frequency of physical activity in everyday life, during leisure time, at school and in sports clubs. The above-mentioned questionnaire subtopics were supplemented by questions on the weekly prevalence of at least 60 minutes of daily physical activity, on material and local conditions, as well as on cognition and motivation for physical activity. In the years 2004 to 2006, the motor fitness and physical activity of 4,529 children and young people between the ages of 4 and 17 years was investigated on 168 sample points in the context of the "Motorik" module. Half of the children and adolescents investigated belong to the middle class, approximately 15% have a background of migration. The majority of the subjects come from small towns, about a quarter live in the city, less than 20% are settled in rural areas.

  1. Novel Wolbachia-transinfected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes possess diverse fitness and vector competence phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna E Fraser

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Wolbachia pipientis from Drosophila melanogaster (wMel is an endosymbiotic bacterium that restricts transmission of human pathogenic flaviviruses and alphaviruses, including dengue, Zika, and chikungunya viruses, when introduced into the mosquito vector Aedes aegypti. To date, wMel-infected Ae. aegypti have been released in field trials in 5 countries to evaluate the effectiveness of this strategy for disease control. Despite the success in establishing wMel-infected mosquitoes in wild populations, and the well-characterized antiviral capabilities of wMel, transinfecting different or additional Wolbachia strains into Ae. aegypti may improve disease impact, and perhaps more importantly, could provide a strategy to account for the possible evolution of resistant arboviruses. Here, we report the successful transinfection of Ae. aegypti with the Wolbachia strains wMelCS (D. melanogaster, wRi (D. simulans and wPip (Culex quinquefasciatus and assess the effects on Ae. aegypti fitness, cytoplasmic incompatibility, tissue tropism and pathogen blocking in a laboratory setting. The results demonstrate that wMelCS provides a similar degree of protection against dengue virus as wMel following an infectious blood meal, and significantly reduces viral RNA levels beyond that of wMel following a direct challenge with infectious virus in mosquitoes, with no additional fitness cost to the host. The protection provided by wRi is markedly weaker than that of wMelCS, consistent with previous characterisations of these lines in Drosophila, while wPip was found to substantially reduce the fitness of Ae. aegypti. Thus, we determine wMelCS as a key candidate for further testing in field-relevant fitness tests and viremic blood feeding challenges in a clinical setting to determine if it may represent an alternative Wolbachia strain with more desirable attributes than wMel for future field testing.

  2. Novel Wolbachia-transinfected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes possess diverse fitness and vector competence phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Johanna E; De Bruyne, Jyotika Taneja; Iturbe-Ormaetxe, Iñaki; Stepnell, Justin; Burns, Rhiannon L; Flores, Heather A; O'Neill, Scott L

    2017-12-01

    Wolbachia pipientis from Drosophila melanogaster (wMel) is an endosymbiotic bacterium that restricts transmission of human pathogenic flaviviruses and alphaviruses, including dengue, Zika, and chikungunya viruses, when introduced into the mosquito vector Aedes aegypti. To date, wMel-infected Ae. aegypti have been released in field trials in 5 countries to evaluate the effectiveness of this strategy for disease control. Despite the success in establishing wMel-infected mosquitoes in wild populations, and the well-characterized antiviral capabilities of wMel, transinfecting different or additional Wolbachia strains into Ae. aegypti may improve disease impact, and perhaps more importantly, could provide a strategy to account for the possible evolution of resistant arboviruses. Here, we report the successful transinfection of Ae. aegypti with the Wolbachia strains wMelCS (D. melanogaster), wRi (D. simulans) and wPip (Culex quinquefasciatus) and assess the effects on Ae. aegypti fitness, cytoplasmic incompatibility, tissue tropism and pathogen blocking in a laboratory setting. The results demonstrate that wMelCS provides a similar degree of protection against dengue virus as wMel following an infectious blood meal, and significantly reduces viral RNA levels beyond that of wMel following a direct challenge with infectious virus in mosquitoes, with no additional fitness cost to the host. The protection provided by wRi is markedly weaker than that of wMelCS, consistent with previous characterisations of these lines in Drosophila, while wPip was found to substantially reduce the fitness of Ae. aegypti. Thus, we determine wMelCS as a key candidate for further testing in field-relevant fitness tests and viremic blood feeding challenges in a clinical setting to determine if it may represent an alternative Wolbachia strain with more desirable attributes than wMel for future field testing.

  3. Associations of Body Mass Index, Motor Performance, and Perceived Athletic Competence with Physical Activity in Normal Weight and Overweight Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Kyle M; Cairney, John; Eisenmann, Joe; Pfeiffer, Karin; Gould, Dan

    2018-01-01

    Children who are overweight and obese display lower physical activity levels than normal weight peers. Measures of weight status, perceived motor competence, and motor skill performance have been identified as potential correlates explaining this discrepancy. 1881 children (955 males; 926 females; 9.9 years) were assessed as part of the Physical Health Activity Study Team project. The age, habitual physical activity participation (PAP), body mass index (BMI), socioeconomic status (SES), motor performance (MP), and perceived athletic competence (PAC) of each child included were assessed. Gender-specific linear regression analyses (main effects model) were conducted to identify the percent variance in PAP explained by the following variables: BMI, MP, and PAC. For males, 18.3% of the variance in PAP was explained by BMI, MP, and PAC. PAC explained 17% of the variance, while MP, BMI, and SES only accounted for 0.6%, 0.7%, and 0.5%, respectively. PAC explained 17.5% of PAP variance in females; MP explained 0.8%. BMI, SES, and chronological age were not significant correlates of PAP in girls. An established repertoire of motor skill performance has been seen as a vehicle to PAP in children; however, this study indicates that PAC should not be overlooked in intervention strategies to promote increased PAP.

  4. Associations of Body Mass Index, Motor Performance, and Perceived Athletic Competence with Physical Activity in Normal Weight and Overweight Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle M. Morrison

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Children who are overweight and obese display lower physical activity levels than normal weight peers. Measures of weight status, perceived motor competence, and motor skill performance have been identified as potential correlates explaining this discrepancy. 1881 children (955 males; 926 females; 9.9 years were assessed as part of the Physical Health Activity Study Team project. The age, habitual physical activity participation (PAP, body mass index (BMI, socioeconomic status (SES, motor performance (MP, and perceived athletic competence (PAC of each child included were assessed. Gender-specific linear regression analyses (main effects model were conducted to identify the percent variance in PAP explained by the following variables: BMI, MP, and PAC. For males, 18.3% of the variance in PAP was explained by BMI, MP, and PAC. PAC explained 17% of the variance, while MP, BMI, and SES only accounted for 0.6%, 0.7%, and 0.5%, respectively. PAC explained 17.5% of PAP variance in females; MP explained 0.8%. BMI, SES, and chronological age were not significant correlates of PAP in girls. An established repertoire of motor skill performance has been seen as a vehicle to PAP in children; however, this study indicates that PAC should not be overlooked in intervention strategies to promote increased PAP.

  5. The Relationship between Actual Fundamental Motor Skill Proficiency, Perceived Motor Skill Confidence and Competence, and Physical Activity in 8–12-Year-Old Irish Female Youth

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    Orlagh Farmer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between actual fundamental motor skill (FMS proficiency, perceived motor confidence and competence, and physical activity (PA among female children (n= 160; mean age = 10.69 ± 1.40 years. The Test of Gross Motor Development-2nd Edition (TGMD-2 was used to assess seven FMSs (locomotor, object-control, and stability. Motor confidence and competence were assessed using a valid skill-specific scale, and a modified version of the Self-Perception Profile for Children. PA levels were assessed using self-report (PA Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C and classified as low, moderate, and high active. One-way and two-way ANOVAs (post-hoc honest significant difference (HSD and correlation coefficients were used to analyse the data. Findings indicate that the majority of youth (71.8% were not meeting the minimum 60 min of daily PA recommended for health, and that 98.1% did not achieve the FMS proficiency expected for their age. While there were high levels of perceived physical self-confidence (PSC reported within FMS skill-specific tasks, there was no significant correlation observed between actual FMS proficiency and perceived PSC among the cohort. Results show that low, moderately, and highly active female participants differ significantly in terms of their overall FMS (p = 0.03 and locomotor (LOC control scores (p = 0.03. Results from a two-way between-groups analysis of variance also revealed no statistically significant interaction effect between PA grouping and physical performance self-concept (PPSC on overall FMS proficiency levels. Results of a multiple linear regression indicate that perceived PSC is a significant predictor (beta = 0.183 of participants’ overall PA levels. Data show a need for targeting low levels of PA, and low FMS proficiency in female youth, and for developing interventions aiming to enhance perceived PSC levels.

  6. Observed fitness may affect niche overlap in competing species via selective social information use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukola, Olli J; Seppänen, Janne-Tuomas; Krams, Indrikis; Torvinen, Satu S; Forsman, Jukka T

    2013-10-01

    Social information transmission is important because it enables horizontal spread of behaviors, not only between conspecifics but also between individuals of different species. Because interspecific social information use is expected to take place among species with similar resource needs, it may have major consequences for the emergence of local adaptations, resource sharing, and community organization. Social information use is expected to be selective, but the conditions promoting it in an interspecific context are not well known. Here, we experimentally test whether pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) use the clutch size of great tits (Parus major) in determining the quality of the observed individual and use it as a basis of decision making. We show that pied flycatchers copied or rejected a novel nest site feature preference of great tits experimentally manipulated to exhibit high or low fitness (clutch size), respectively. Our results demonstrate that the social transmission of behaviors across species can be highly selective in response to observed fitness, plausibly making the phenomenon adaptive. In contrast with the current theory of species coexistence, overlap between realized niches of species could dynamically increase or decrease depending on the observed success of surrounding individuals.

  7. Mediating effects of resistance training skill competency on health-related fitness and physical activity: the ATLAS cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jordan J; Morgan, Philip J; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Stodden, David F; Lubans, David R

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the mediating effect of resistance training skill competency on percentage of body fat, muscular fitness and physical activity among a sample of adolescent boys participating in a school-based obesity prevention intervention. Participants were 361 adolescent boys taking part in the Active Teen Leaders Avoiding Screen-time (ATLAS) cluster randomised controlled trial: a school-based program targeting the health behaviours of economically disadvantaged adolescent males considered "at-risk" of obesity. Body fat percentage (bioelectrical impedance), muscular fitness (hand grip dynamometry and push-ups), physical activity (accelerometry) and resistance training skill competency were assessed at baseline and post-intervention (i.e., 8 months). Three separate multi-level mediation models were analysed to investigate the potential mediating effects of resistance training skill competency on each of the study outcomes using a product-of-coefficients test. Analyses followed the intention-to-treat principle. The intervention had a significant impact on the resistance training skill competency of the boys, and improvements in skill competency significantly mediated the effect of the intervention on percentage of body fat and the combined muscular fitness score. No significant mediated effects were found for physical activity. Improving resistance training skill competency may be an effective strategy for achieving improvements in body composition and muscular fitness in adolescent boys.

  8. Media use, sports activities, and motor fitness in childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser-Jovy, Sebastian; Scheu, Anja; Greier, Klaus

    2017-07-01

    Physical activity is one of the key determinants of physical, mental, and social health of children and adolescents. Therefore, the early development of health-relevant behavior patterns is of high relevance. To examine the impact of selected socioeconomic factors as well as media consumption, on sports activities and the motor skills of 10- to 14-year-old secondary school students. Body height and body weight were measured. The motor skills were determined with the Deutschen Motorik Test (DMT 6‑18; German Motor Test). Information about media use, media equipment, recreational sports activities, migration status, and the parents' profession was collected by means of a standardized questionnaire. A total of 391 adolescents have been tested (male 235; female 156). Body mass index (BMI) types are evenly distributed on gender. On a weekday, the pupils spend 10.3 h using media (SD ± 9.1 h). On weekends, media use increases up to 12 h per day on average (SD ± 9.7 h). The number of available media is independent from the age of the respondents and the social status of their families. According to bivariate correlations, heavy media use, a high BMI as well as migration status correlate negatively with both sports activities and motor skills. BMI seems to have the strongest influence on athletic performance (b = 0.41). Media use is an important determinant of juvenile sports activity and motor performance, being part of a complex juvenile leisure behavior.

  9. A suppression hierarchy among competing motor programs drives sequential grooming in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeds, Andrew M; Ravbar, Primoz; Chung, Phuong; Hampel, Stefanie; Midgley, Frank M; Mensh, Brett D; Simpson, Julie H

    2014-08-19

    Motor sequences are formed through the serial execution of different movements, but how nervous systems implement this process remains largely unknown. We determined the organizational principles governing how dirty fruit flies groom their bodies with sequential movements. Using genetically targeted activation of neural subsets, we drove distinct motor programs that clean individual body parts. This enabled competition experiments revealing that the motor programs are organized into a suppression hierarchy; motor programs that occur first suppress those that occur later. Cleaning one body part reduces the sensory drive to its motor program, which relieves suppression of the next movement, allowing the grooming sequence to progress down the hierarchy. A model featuring independently evoked cleaning movements activated in parallel, but selected serially through hierarchical suppression, was successful in reproducing the grooming sequence. This provides the first example of an innate motor sequence implemented by the prevailing model for generating human action sequences. Copyright © 2014, Seeds et al.

  10. Contribution of Organized and Nonorganized Activity to Children's Motor Skills and Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Louise L.; O'Hara, Blythe J.; Rogers, Kris; St George, Alexis; Bauman, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Background: To examine the associations between children's organized physical activity (OPA), nonorganized physical activity (NOPA), and health-related outcomes (fundamental movement skill [FMS] fitness). Methods: Cross-sectional survey of children aged 10-16?years (N?=?4273). Organized physical activity and NOPA were assessed by self-report,…

  11. The identification of high potential archers based on fitness and motor ability variables: A Support Vector Machine approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Zahari; Musa, Rabiu Muazu; P P Abdul Majeed, Anwar; Alim, Muhammad Muaz; Abdullah, Mohamad Razali

    2018-02-01

    Support Vector Machine (SVM) has been shown to be an effective learning algorithm for classification and prediction. However, the application of SVM for prediction and classification in specific sport has rarely been used to quantify/discriminate low and high-performance athletes. The present study classified and predicted high and low-potential archers from a set of fitness and motor ability variables trained on different SVMs kernel algorithms. 50 youth archers with the mean age and standard deviation of 17.0 ± 0.6 years drawn from various archery programmes completed a six arrows shooting score test. Standard fitness and ability measurements namely hand grip, vertical jump, standing broad jump, static balance, upper muscle strength and the core muscle strength were also recorded. Hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis (HACA) was used to cluster the archers based on the performance variables tested. SVM models with linear, quadratic, cubic, fine RBF, medium RBF, as well as the coarse RBF kernel functions, were trained based on the measured performance variables. The HACA clustered the archers into high-potential archers (HPA) and low-potential archers (LPA), respectively. The linear, quadratic, cubic, as well as the medium RBF kernel functions models, demonstrated reasonably excellent classification accuracy of 97.5% and 2.5% error rate for the prediction of the HPA and the LPA. The findings of this investigation can be valuable to coaches and sports managers to recognise high potential athletes from a combination of the selected few measured fitness and motor ability performance variables examined which would consequently save cost, time and effort during talent identification programme. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Physical fitness and performance of polish ice-hockey players competing at different sports levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roczniok Robert

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the values of selected aerobic and anaerobic capacity variables, physical profiles, and to analyze the results of on-ice tests performed by ice-hockey players relegated to a lower league. Performance of 24 ice-hockey players competing in the top league in the 2012/2013 season was analysed to this end. In the 2013/2014 season, 14 of them still played in the top league (the control group, while 10 played in the first league (the experimental group. The study was conducted one week after the end of the playoffs in the seasons under consideration. The results revealed that only in the experimental group the analysed variables changed significantly between the seasons. In the Wingate test, significant changes were only noted in mean relative power (a decrease from 9.91 to 9.14 W/kg; p=0.045 and relative total work (a decrease from 299.17 to 277.22 J/kg; p=0.048. The ramp test indicated significantly lower power output in its final stages (364 compared with 384 W; p=0.034, as well as a significant decrease in relative VO2max (from 52.70 to 48.30 ml/min/kg. Blood lactate concentrations were recorded at the 3rd, 6th, 9th and 12th min of recovery after the ramp test. The rate of post-exercise recovery, ∆LA, recorded after the ramp test turned out to be significantly lower. The times recorded in the on-ice “6x30 m stop” test increased from 32.18 to 33.10 s (p=0.047. The study showed that playing in a lower league where games were less intensive, training sessions shorter and less frequent, had an adverse effect on the performance level of the investigated players. Lower VO2max recorded in the study participants slowed down their rates of post-exercise recovery and led to a significantly worse performance in the 6x30 m stop test, as well as lower relative power and relative total work in the Wingate test.

  13. Relationship between Motor Skill Competency and Executive Function in Children with Down's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, N.; Holfelder, B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies suggest that children with Down's syndrome (DS), a genetically based neurodevelopmental disorder, demonstrate motor problems and cognitive deficits. The first aim of this study was to examine motor skills and executive functions (EFs) in school-age children with DS. The second aim was to investigate the relationship…

  14. Fundamental motor skills, nutritional status, perceived competence, and school performance of Brazilian children in social vulnerability: Gender comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Glauber Carvalho; Valentini, Nadia Cristina; Nobre, Francisco Salviano Sales

    2018-06-01

    Being at risk or in social vulnerability situations can affect important aspects of child development. The aim of this study was to investigate fundamental motor skills (locomotor and object control) and school (writing, arithmetic, reading) performances, the perceived competence and the nutritional status of girls and boys living in social vulnerability in the poorest regions of Brazil. Two hundred eleven (211) children (87 girls, 41%), 7-10-year-old (M = 8.3, SD = 0.9), from public schools in Ceará (Brazil), living in social vulnerability, participated in the study. Children were assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development - 2, the Body Mass Index (BMI), the Self-Perception Profile for Children, and the School Performance Test. Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), adjusted for age, did not show any significant effect for locomotion. There was an effect of gender on the object control. Boys showed higher scores in striking, kicking, throwing, and rolling a ball. Quade's nonparametric analysis showed no difference in BMI between the genders. Most children presented healthy weight. The MANCOVA showed no effect of gender on children's scores on perceived competence on the subscales; moderate scores were found for most children. There were no gender effects on school performance; both boys and girls demonstrated inferior performance. Boys and girls in social vulnerability showed inferior performance in most motor skills, moderate perceived competence and inferior school performance. These results reveal that the appropriate development of these children is at risk and that intervention strategies should be implemented to compensate the difficulties presented. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Improvements in fundamental movement skill competency mediate the effect of the SCORES intervention on physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Kristen E; Morgan, Philip J; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Barnett, Lisa M; Lubans, David R

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have identified a positive association between fundamental movement skill (FMS) competency and physical activity in children; however, the causal pathways have not been established. The aim of this study is to determine if changes in FMS competency mediated the effect of the Supporting Children's Outcomes using Rewards, Exercise and Skills (SCORES) intervention on physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in children. Eight primary schools (25 classes) and 460 children (aged 8.5 ± 0.6, 54% girls) were randomised to the SCORES intervention or control group for the 12-month study. The outcomes were accelerometer-determined moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and cardiorespiratory fitness. The hypothesised mediators were actual FMS competency and perceived sport competence. Mediation analyses were conducted using multilevel linear analysis in MPlus. From the original sample, 138 (30.0%) and 370 (80.4%) children provided useable physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness data at post-test assessments. There were significant treatment effects for locomotor skills and overall FMSs. Changes in MVPA were associated with changes in object-control skills, overall FMSs and perceived competence. The overall FMSs had a significant mediating effect on MVPA (AB = 2.09, CI = 0.01-4.55). Overall FMSs (AB = 1.19, CI = 0.002-2.79) and locomotor skills (AB = 0.74, CI = 0.01-1.69) had a significant mediating effect on cardiorespiratory fitness. The results of this study conclude that actual but not perceived movement skill competency mediated the effect of the SCORES intervention on physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness.

  16. Associations between fine and gross motor skills, aerobic fitness, cognition and academic performance in 7-8 years old Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Rune Rasmussen; Beck, Mikkel Malling; Geertsen, Svend Sparre

    Purpose: The current literature is concentrated around the positive effects of aerobic fitness (AF) on performance in cognitive tests (CP) and academic performance (AP) (reviewed in Hillman 2008). However, motor skills (MS) are often overlooked in this equation, and studies evaluating both AF......, phonological working-memory capacity (PWM), spatial working-memory capacity (SWM), math performance (MP) and fine- and gross-motor skill (FMS & GMS) assessed. Results: Significant associations were found between FMS and MP (P

  17. Development of common principles for the evaluation of quality characteristics of motor activity in the fitness and sports aerobics aesthetic orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galyna Artemyeva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to develop and validate methods for quantifying qualitative indicators special physical preparedness of sportsmen in fitness-aerobics and sports aesthetic orientation. Materials and Methods: an analytical synthesis of these scientific and methodical literature, the use of the theory of similarity and dimensionality, biomechanical analysis of motor activity, processing of video. Results: based on the use of similarity theory presents the methods of quantitative evaluation of qualitative characteristics of motor activity in special physical training, which allow an assessment of motor talent of the athlete and to provide objective guidance to training in particular sport. Conclusions: the presented methods quantify the qualitative indicators of the special motor preparation allow us to estimate a measure of motor gifted individual and his susceptibility to training in particular sport

  18. Model of competence: a conceptual framework for understanding the person-environment interaction for persons with motor disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Jacqueline; Potvin, Louise; Dutil, Elisabeth; Falta, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    The "Model of Competence" has been recently elaborated to help expand our understanding relating to a person's interaction with the environment. Specifically, it seeks to deal with the issues related to the home adaptation (the home layout and equipment) for a person living with motor disabilities. This theoretical model takes into account various characteristics of the person as well as of the environment, by re-grouping six concepts: person, environment, activity, role, competence and handicap situation. The "Model of Competence" is distinct because it includes: (1) both the human and the nonhuman dimension of the environment; (2) personal characteristics other than the strictly physical ones; (3) a clear identification of the interaction between the person and the environment; and (4) a means of operationalizing it via an assessment instrument. This model proposes an innovative approach to the person-environment relation in terms of personalizing accessibility, and thereby offers a new approach to understanding the concept of universal access. It has been developed for research and application, and addresses several disciplines.

  19. A Developmental Perspective on the Role of Motor Skill Competence in Physical Activity: An Emergent Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodden, David F.; Goodway, Jacqueline D.; Langendorfer, Stephen J.; Roberton, Mary Ann; Rudisill, Mary E.; Garcia, Clersida; Garcia, Luis E.

    2008-01-01

    Although significant attention has been paid to promoting the importance of physical activity in children, adolescents, and adults, we do not currently understand how to promote sustained physical activity levels throughout the lifespan. We contend that previous research has failed to consider the dynamic and synergistic role that motor skill…

  20. The effect of vision on walking in children with different levels of motor competency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Palomo Nieto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Motor coordination problems of children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD have been frequently associated with poor visuospatial processing. Objective: The aim this study has been to investigate a role of the vision in the motor control of walking between typical developing children (TD and children at risk of DCD (DCDR. Methods: Participants included 16 TD (mean age 9.1, SD 1.0 years, and 16 DCDR, (mean age 8.7, SD 0.8 years who walked along a 10 meter walkway using the Optojump instrument to assess the spatio-temporal variables of the gait pattern in full vision (FV and non-vision (NV conditions. Data was analyzed in a two-way mixed-effect ANOVA (2 groups - TD vs. DCDR, 2 visual conditions - FV vs. NV with repeated measurement on the last factor (p ≤ .05. Results: The results demonstrated that DCDR children walked slower and with shorter steps than their TD peers. Also, withdrawing the vision affects some parameters of the gait cycle including the stance-phase, single-support, load-response and pre-swing regardless of the level of motor coordination of the children. Conclusions: A higher dependency on visual information or impaired utilization of proprioceptive inputs for execution of simple walk in the stable environment were not confirmed in the children with motor difficulties.

  1. A goodness of fit and validity study of the Korean radiological technologists' core job competency model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Chang Seon [Dept. of Radiological Science, Konyang University College of Medical Sciences, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, A Ra [Dept. of Medical Education, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hur, Yera [Dept. of Medical Education, Konyang University College of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seong Youl [Dept. of Occupational Therapy, Kwangju women’s University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    Radiological Technologists deals with the life of a person which means professional competency is essential for the job. Nevertheless, there have been no studies in Korea that identified the job competence of radiologists. In order to define the core job competencies of Korean radiologists and to present the factor models, 147 questionnaires on job competency of radiology were analyzed using 'PASW Statistics Version 18.0' and 'AMOS Version 18.0'. The valid model consisted of five core job competencies ('Patient management', 'Health and safety', 'Operation of equipment', 'Procedures and management') and 17 sub – competencies. As a result of the factor analysis, the RMSEA value was 0.1 and the CFI, and TLI values were close to 0.9 in the measurement model of the five core job competencies. The validity analysis showed that the mean variance extraction was 0.5 or more and the conceptual reliability value was 0.7 or more , And there was a high correlation between subordinate competencies included in each subordinate competencies. The results of this study are expected to provide specific information necessary for the training and management of human resources centered on competence by clearly showing the job competence required for radiologists in Korea's health environment.

  2. Relationship of aerobic fitness and motor skills with memory and attention in preschoolers (Ballabeina: A cross-sectional and longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barral Jérôme

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The debate about a possible relationship between aerobic fitness and motor skills with cognitive development in children has recently re-emerged, because of the decrease in children's aerobic fitness and the concomitant pressure of schools to enhance cognitive performance. As the literature in young children is scarce, we examined the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationship of aerobic fitness and motor skills with spatial working memory and attention in preschool children. Methods Data from 245 ethnically diverse preschool children (mean age: 5.2 (0.6 years, girls: 49.4% analyzed at baseline and 9 months later. Assessments included aerobic fitness (20 m shuttle run and motor skills with agility (obstacle course and dynamic balance (balance beam. Cognitive parameters included spatial working memory (IDS and attention (KHV-VK. All analyses were adjusted for age, sex, BMI, migration status, parental education, native language and linguistic region. Longitudinal analyses were additionally adjusted for the respective baseline value. Results In the cross-sectional analysis, aerobic fitness was associated with better attention (r = 0.16, p = 0.03. A shorter time in the agility test was independently associated with a better performance both in working memory (r = -0.17, p = 0.01 and in attention (r = -0.20, p = 0.01. In the longitudinal analyses, baseline aerobic fitness was independently related to improvements in attention (r = 0.16, p = 0.03, while baseline dynamic balance was associated with improvements in working memory (r = 0.15, p = 0.04. Conclusions In young children, higher baseline aerobic fitness and motor skills were related to a better spatial working memory and/or attention at baseline, and to some extent also to their future improvements over the following 9 months. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT00674544

  3. Anthropometric Characteristics, Physical Fitness and Motor Coordination of 9 to 11 Year Old Children Participating in a Wide Range of Sports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opstoel, Katrijn; Pion, Johan; Elferink-Gemser, Marije; Hartman, Esther; Willemse, Bas; Philippaerts, Renaat; Visscher, Chris; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent 9 to 11 year old children participating in a specific sport already exhibit a specific anthropometric, physical fitness and motor coordination profile, in line with the requirements of that particular sport. In addition, the profiles

  4. An evaluation of fitness for practice curricula: self-efficacy, support and self-reported competence in preregistration student nurses and midwives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauder, William; Watson, Roger; Topping, Keith; Holland, Karen; Johnson, Martin; Porter, Mary; Roxburgh, Michelle; Behr, Aga

    2008-07-01

    This element of the larger Scottish evaluation aimed to explore differences between access routes, cohorts and higher education institutes (HEI) (universities and colleges) in levels of self-efficacy, student support and self-reported competence in a nationally representative sample of student nurses and midwives. This paper reports findings from the National Review of Pre-Registration Nursing and Midwifery Programmes in Scotland. Fitness for practice curricula have been the heart of many recent developments in nurse and midwifery education. Fitness for practice set out to map out the future direction of preregistration nursing and midwifery education with the aim of ensuring fitness for practice based on healthcare need. There have been no national evaluations of the effectiveness of this strategic objective. Previous major evaluations in the 1990s suggested that students may not have had the skills needed to be fit for practice. The study design was a cross-sectional survey of a stratified random sample of student nurses and midwives (n = 777). Data collected included demographic information, generalised perceived self-efficacy, student support and self-reported competency. Students reported high levels of self-reported competency. There were no significant differences between two cohorts or between students with different access routes. Students rated support from family and friends highest and support from HEI lowest. There was a significant difference in support levels between HEI. Self-efficacy scores were similar to other population means and showed small-moderate correlations with self-report competence. Similarly, self-reported competency appears to be at the higher end of the spectrum, although older students may have a more realistic perception of their competence. However, support from HEI was seen as less satisfactory and varied from one institution to another. This study portrays a relatively positive picture of preregistration fitness for practice

  5. Correlation between the Quality of Attention and Cognitive Competence with Motor Action in Stroke Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Arsic, S.; Konstantinovic, Lj.; Eminovic, F.; Pavlovic, D.; Popovic, M. B.; Arsic, V.

    2015-01-01

    It is considered that cognitive function and attention could affect walking, motion control, and proper conduct during the walk. To determine whether there is a difference in the quality of attention and cognitive ability in stroke patients and patients without neurological damage of similar age and education and to determine whether the connection of attention and cognition affects motor skills, the sample consisted of 50 stroke patients tested with hemiparesis, involved in the process of re...

  6. An investigation of the impact of regular use of the Wii Fit to improve motor and psychosocial outcomes in children with movement difficulties: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, J; Jones, V; Hill, E L; Green, D; Male, I

    2014-03-01

    Children with Developmental Co-ordination Disorder (DCD) experience poor motor and psychosocial outcomes. Interventions are often limited within the healthcare system, and little is known about how technology might be used within schools or homes to promote the motor skills and/or psychosocial development of these children. This study aimed to evaluate whether short, regular school-based sessions of movement experience using a commercially available home video game console (Nintendo's Wii Fit) would lead to benefits in both motor and psychosocial domains in children with DCD. A randomized crossover controlled trial of children with movement difficulties/DCD was conducted. Children were randomly assigned to an intervention (n = 10) or comparison (n = 8) group. The intervention group spent 10 min thrice weekly for 1 month using Wii Fit during the lunch break, while the comparison group took part in their regular Jump Ahead programme. Pre- and post-intervention assessments considered motor proficiency, self-perceived ability and satisfaction and parental assessment of emotional and behavioural problems. Significant gains were seen in motor proficiency, the child's perception of his/her motor ability and reported emotional well-being for many, but not all children. This study provides preliminary evidence to support the use of the Wii Fit within therapeutic programmes for children with movement difficulties. This simple, popular intervention represents a plausible method to support children's motor and psychosocial development. It is not possible from our data to say which children are most likely to benefit from such a programme and particularly what the dose and duration should be. Further research is required to inform across these and other questions regarding the implementation of virtual reality technologies in therapeutic services for children with movement difficulties. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Suspected Motor Problems and Low Preference for Active Play in Childhood Are Associated with Physical Inactivity and Low Fitness in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantomaa, Marko T.; Purtsi, Jarno; Taanila, Anja M.; Remes, Jouko; Viholainen, Helena; Rintala, Pauli; Ahonen, Timo; Tammelin, Tuija H.

    2011-01-01

    Background This prospective longitudinal study investigates whether suspected motor problems and low preference for active play in childhood are associated with physical inactivity and low cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescence. Methodology/Principal Findings The study sample consisted of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC 1986) composed of 5,767 children whose parents responded to a postal inquiry concerning their children's motor skills at age 8 years and who themselves reported their physical activity at age 16 years. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured with a cycle ergometer test at age 16 years. Odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the level of physical activity and fitness were obtained from multinomial logistic regression and adjusted for socio-economic position and body mass index. Low preference for active play in childhood was associated with physical inactivity (boys: OR 3.31, 95% CI 2.42–4.53; girls: OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.36–2.36) and low cardiorespiratory fitness (boys: OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.27–2.74; girls: OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.09–2.11) in adolescence. Suspected gross (OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.33–3.49) and fine (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.35–2.60) motor problems were associated with physical inactivity among boys. Children with suspected motor problems and low preference for active play tended to have an even higher risk of physical inactivity in adolescence. Conclusions/Significance Low preference for active play in childhood was associated with physical inactivity and low cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescence. Furthermore, children with suspected motor problems and low preference for active play tended to have an even higher risk of physical inactivity in adolescence. Identification of children who do not prefer active play and who have motor problems may allow targeted interventions to support their motor learning and participation in active play and thereby promote their physical activity and fitness in later life

  8. Motor Skills and Free-Living Physical Activity Showed No Association Among Preschoolers in 2012 U.S. National Youth Fitness Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Frith, Emily

    2017-04-01

    Albeit limited, some emerging work, using convenience-based samples, has demonstrated that greater motor skill development is associated with higher physical activity among preschool-aged children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate this topic using data from the 2012 National Youth Fitness Survey that included 329 preschool-aged children (3-5 years). Parents proxy-reported their child's physical activity, with motor skill level assessed from the Test of Gross Motor Development-Second Edition (TGMD2). Motor skill levels (Gross Motor Quotient, locomotor or object control) were not associated with preschool free-living physical activity in any analytic model. Thus, in this large sample of preschoolers, contrary to research with older children, motor skill level was not associated with physical activity. Findings are discussed in terms of study limitations of (a) a reliance on parent report of children's physical activity levels and (b) the possibility that physical activity data within the national survey were too limited in range to show possible associations to motor skill development with higher levels of free-living physical activity in preschoolers.

  9. Correlation between the Quality of Attention and Cognitive Competence with Motor Action in Stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Arsic

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is considered that cognitive function and attention could affect walking, motion control, and proper conduct during the walk. To determine whether there is a difference in the quality of attention and cognitive ability in stroke patients and patients without neurological damage of similar age and education and to determine whether the connection of attention and cognition affects motor skills, the sample consisted of 50 stroke patients tested with hemiparesis, involved in the process of rehabilitation, and 50 persons, randomly chosen, without neurological damage. The survey used the following tests: Trail Making (TMT A B test for assessing the flexibility of attention; Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE for cognitive status; Functional Ambulation Category (FAC test to assess the functional status and parameters of walk: speed, frequency, and length of stride; STEP test for assessing the precision of movement and balance. With stroke patients, relationship between age and performance on the MMSE test was marginally significant. The ratio of performance to TMT A B test and years does not indicate statistical significance, while statistical significance between the MMSE test performance and education exists. In stroke patients, performance on MMSE test is correlated with the frequency and length of stride walk. The quality of cognitive function and attention is associated with motor skills but differs in stroke patients and people without neurological damage of similar age. The significance of this correlation can supplement research in neurorehabilitation, improve the quality of medical rehabilitation, and contribute to efficient recovery of these patients.

  10. Correlation between the Quality of Attention and Cognitive Competence with Motor Action in Stroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsic, S; Konstantinovic, Lj; Eminovic, F; Pavlovic, D; Popovic, M B; Arsic, V

    2015-01-01

    It is considered that cognitive function and attention could affect walking, motion control, and proper conduct during the walk. To determine whether there is a difference in the quality of attention and cognitive ability in stroke patients and patients without neurological damage of similar age and education and to determine whether the connection of attention and cognition affects motor skills, the sample consisted of 50 stroke patients tested with hemiparesis, involved in the process of rehabilitation, and 50 persons, randomly chosen, without neurological damage. The survey used the following tests: Trail Making (TMT A B) test for assessing the flexibility of attention; Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) for cognitive status; Functional Ambulation Category (FAC) test to assess the functional status and parameters of walk: speed, frequency, and length of stride; STEP test for assessing the precision of movement and balance. With stroke patients, relationship between age and performance on the MMSE test was marginally significant. The ratio of performance to TMT A B test and years does not indicate statistical significance, while statistical significance between the MMSE test performance and education exists. In stroke patients, performance on MMSE test is correlated with the frequency and length of stride walk. The quality of cognitive function and attention is associated with motor skills but differs in stroke patients and people without neurological damage of similar age. The significance of this correlation can supplement research in neurorehabilitation, improve the quality of medical rehabilitation, and contribute to efficient recovery of these patients.

  11. Family-Based Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial Enhancing Physical Activity and Motor Competence in 4-7-Year-Old Children.

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    Arto Laukkanen

    Full Text Available Little is known of how to involve families in physical activity (PA interventions for children. In this cluster randomized controlled trial, we recruited families with four- to seven-year-old children to participate in a year-long study where parents in the intervention group families (n = 46 received tailored counseling to increase children’s PA. Structured PA was not served. Control group families (n = 45 did not receive any counseling. PA in all children (n = 91; mean age 6.16 ± 1.13 years at the baseline was measured by accelerometers at the baseline and after three, six, nine and 12 months. Motor competence (MC (n = 89 was measured at the baseline and after six and 12 months by a KTK (KörperkoordinationsTest für Kinder and throwing and catching a ball (TCB protocols. The effect of parental counseling on study outcomes was analyzed by a linear mixed-effects model fit by REML and by a Mann-Whitney U test in the case of the TCB. As season was hypothesized to affect counseling effect, an interaction of season on the study outcomes was examined. The results show significant decrease of MVPA in the intervention group when compared to the control group (p < .05. The TCB showed a nearly significant improvement at six months in the intervention group compared to the controls (p = .051, but not at 12 months. The intervention group had a steadier development of the KTK when the interaction of season was taken into account. In conclusion, more knowledge of family constructs associating with the effectiveness of counseling is needed for understanding how to enhance PA in children by parents. However, a hypothesis may be put forward that family-based counseling during an inactive season rather than an active season may provide a more lasting effect on the development of KTK in children.Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN28668090.

  12. The Effects of a Motorized Aquatic Treadmill Exercise Program on Muscle Strength, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and clinical function in Subacute Stroke Patients -- a Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, So Young; Han, Eun Young; Kim, Bo Ryun; Im, Sang Hee

    2018-03-12

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a motorized aquatic treadmill exercise program improve the isometric strength of the knee muscles, cardiorespiratory fitness, arterial stiffness, motor function, balance, functional outcomes and quality of life in subacute stroke patients. Thirty-two patients were randomly assigned to 4-week training sessions of either aquatic therapy(n=19) or land-based aerobic exercise(n=18). Isometric strength was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. Cardiopulmonary fitness was evaluated using a symptom-limited exercise tolerance test and by measuring brachial ankle pulse wave velocity. Moreover, motor function(Fugl-Meyer Assessment[FMA] and FMA-lower limb[FMA-LL]), balance(Berg Balance Scale[BBS]), Activities of daily living(Korean version of the Modified Barthel Index [K-MBI]), and Quality of life(EQ-5D index) were examined. There were no inter-group differences between demographic and clinical characteristics at baseline(p>0.05). The results shows significant improvements in peak oxygen consumption (p=0.02), maximal isometric strength of the bilateral knee extensors (paquatic therapy group. However, only significant improvements in maximal isometric strength in the knee extensors (p=0.03) and flexors (p=0.04) were found within the aquatic therapy group and control group. Water-based aerobic exercise performed on a motorized aquatic treadmill had beneficial effect on isometric muscle strength in the lower limb.

  13. Motor competence in Czech children aged 11-15: What is the incidence of a risk of developmental coordination disorder?

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    Jakub Kokštejn

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Current findings suggest that the prevalence of developmental coordination disorder (DCD ranges widely between countries. A major reason for this wide range of prevalence is how cases of DCD are identified. Gender differences in level of motor competence in children with movement difficulties may play a key role in the choice of type of intervention. Objective: The aim of the study was to reveal the prevalence of significant movement difficulties with high probability of presence of DCD in Czech children aged 11 to 15. At the same time we wanted to assess possible gender differences in different types of the movement difficulties. Methods: A total sample of 507 children (age 11-15 years, 262 boys, 245 girls from all Czech regions was included. The MABC-2 test was used for the identification of movement difficulties with different severity. Children whose total test score (TTS was ≤ 15th percentile were considered at risk for having DCD (children with rDCD. Children whose TTS was ≤ 5th percentile were considered as having significant movement difficulties with high probability of presence of DCD. An analysis of gender differences of children with rDCD in MABC-2 motor components and tests were carried out. Results: From the entire sample, 33 participants (22 boys, 11 girls were identified as at risk of having DCD (rDCD. 1.4% of the total sample met the criterion for significant movement difficulties with high probability of presence of DCD. 5.1% of the total sample met the criterion for identification of the risk for having movement difficulties. Almost twice as high predisposition for the occurrence of movement difficulties was revealed in boys as compared to girls in a population of children with rDCD (OR = 1.95, 95% CI: 1.16-2.74. Girls with rDCD performed better in manual dexterity with a medium effect of the gender (Cohen's d = 0.58, whereas boys with rDCD achieved better results in aiming and catching also with a

  14. Identifying profiles of actual and perceived motor competence among adolescents: associations with motivation, physical activity, and sports participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meester, An; Maes, Jolien; Stodden, David; Cardon, Greet; Goodway, Jacqueline; Lenoir, Matthieu; Haerens, Leen

    2016-11-01

    The present study identified adolescents' motor competence (MC)-based profiles (e.g., high actual and low perceived MC), and accordingly investigated differences in motivation for physical education (PE), physical activity (PA) levels, and sports participation between profiles by using regression analyses. Actual MC was measured with the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder. Adolescents (n = 215; 66.0% boys; mean age = 13.64 ± .58 years) completed validated questionnaires to assess perceived MC, motivation for PE, PA-levels, and sports participation. Actual and perceived MC were only moderately correlated and cluster analyses identified four groups. Two groups of overestimators (low - overestimation, average - overestimation) were identified (51%), who particularly displayed better motivation for PE when compared to their peers who accurately estimated themselves (low - accurate, average - accurate). Moreover, adolescents with low actual MC, but high perceived MC were significantly more active than adolescents with low actual MC who accurately estimated themselves. Results pointed in the same direction for organised sports participation. Underestimators were not found in the current sample, which is positive as underestimation might negatively influence adolescents' motivation to achieve and persist in PA and sports. In conclusion, results emphasise that developing perceived MC, especially among adolescents with low levels of actual MC, seems crucial to stimulate motivation for PE, and engagement in PA and sports.

  15. Developmental pathways of change in health-related fitness and motor competence are related to obesity development in childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Luis Paulo; Lopes, Vítor P.

    2013-01-01

    The epidemic obesity in chi1dhood is well acknowledged worldwide. Althongh researchers agree that explaining models for childhood obesity can include several risk factors, the question remains as to which speci fic predictors can be the touchstone to solving the probIem. In recent years, a modeI of developmental mechanisms influencing the physical activity and weight pathways of children has been presented by Stodden and colleagnes (2008). In this model it is predicted that children ...

  16. From organizational awareness to organizational competency in health care social work: the importance of formulating a "profession-in-environment" fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, William; Silverman, Ed; Allen, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Today's health care environments require organizational competence as well as clinical skill. Economically driven business paradigms and the principles underlying the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 emphasize integrated, collaborative care delivered using transdisciplinary service models. Attention must be focused on achieving patient care goals while demonstrating an appreciation for the mission, priorities and operational constraints of the provider organization. The educational challenge is to cultivate the ability to negotiate "ideology" or ideal practice with the practical realities of health care provider environments without compromising professional ethics. Competently exercising such ability promotes a sound "profession-in-environment" fit and enhances the recognition of social work as a crucial patient care component.

  17. Ensuring dynamic strategic fit of firms that compete globally in alliances and networks: proposing the Global SNA - Strategic Network Analysis - framework

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    T. Diana L. Van Aduard de Macedo-Soares

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to sustain their competitive advantage in the current increasingly globalized and turbulent context, more and more firms are competing globally in alliances and networks that oblige them to adopt new managerial paradigms and tools. However, their strategic analyses rarely take into account the strategic implications of these alliances and networks, considering their global relational characteristics, admittedly because of a lack of adequate tools to do so. This paper contributes to research that seeks to fill this gap by proposing the Global Strategic Network Analysis - SNA - framework. Its purpose is to help firms that compete globally in alliances and networks to carry out their strategic assessments and decision-making with a view to ensuring dynamic strategic fit from both a global and relational perspective.

  18. Mediating effects of motor performance, cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity, and sedentary behaviour on the associations of adiposity and other cardiometabolic risk factors with academic achievement in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapala, Eero A; Lintu, Niina; Eloranta, Aino-Maija; Venäläinen, Taisa; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Ahonen, Timo; Lindi, Virpi; Lakka, Timo A

    2018-03-09

    We investigated the associations of cardiometabolic risk factors with academic achievement and whether motor performance, cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity, or sedentary behaviour mediated these associations. Altogether 175 children 6-8 years-of-age participated in the study. We assessed body fat percentage (BF%), waist circumference, insulin, glucose, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure, leptin, alanine aminotransferase, and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT). Reading fluency, reading comprehension, and arithmetic skills were assessed using standardized tests. Speed/agility, balance, and manual dexterity test results were used to calculate motor performance score and physical activity was assessed by combined heart rate and movement sensor and cardiorespiratory fitness by maximal cycle ergometer test. In boys, BF% was inversely associated with reading fluency (β = -0.262, P = 0.007) and reading comprehension (β = -0.216, P = 0.025). Motor performance mediated these associations. Leptin was inversely related to reading fluency (β = -0.272, P = 0.006) and reading comprehension (β = -0.287, P = 0.003). The inverse association of leptin with reading fluency was mediated by motor performance. In girls, GGT was inversely associated with reading fluency independent of confounders (β = -0.325, P = 0.007). The inverse association of BF% with academic achievement among boys was largely explained by motor performance. Leptin in boys and GGT in girls were inversely associated with academic achievement independent of confounding factors.

  19. Anthropometric Characteristics, Physical Fitness and Motor Coordination of 9 to 11 Year Old Children Participating in a Wide Range of Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elferink-Gemser, Marije; Hartman, Esther; Willemse, Bas; Philippaerts, Renaat; Visscher, Chris; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent 9 to 11 year old children participating in a specific sport already exhibit a specific anthropometric, physical fitness and motor coordination profile, in line with the requirements of that particular sport. In addition, the profiles in children with a different training volume were compared and possible differences in training hours per week between children from a low, moderate, and high level of physical fitness and motor coordination were investigated. Methods and Results Data of 620 children, 347 boys and 273 girls, who participated in the Flemish Sports Compass were used. Only the primary sport of each child was considered and six groups of sports (Ball sports, Dance, Gymnastics, Martial arts, Racquet sports and Swimming) were formed based on common characteristics. Measurements consisted of 17 tests. Independent T-tests and Mann-Whitney U-tests revealed few differences between the groups of sports and the discriminant analyses with the moderate and low active group did not show any significant results (p > .05). However, when discriminating among the high active children, a 85.2 % correct classification between six groups of sports was found (Wilks’ Λ = .137 and p sport per week (2.50 ± 1.84 hours) compared to the children performing best (3.25 ± 2.60 hours) (p = .016) and the children performing above average (2.90 ± 1.96 hours) (p = .029) on physical fitness and motor coordination. Discussion The study showed that in general, children at a young age do not exhibit sport-specific characteristics, except in children with a high training volume. It is possible that on the one hand, children have not spent enough time yet in their sport to develop sport-specific qualities. On the other hand, it could be possible that they do not take individual qualities into account when choosing a sport. PMID:25978313

  20. Multiple-modality exercise and mind-motor training to improve cardiovascular health and fitness in older adults at risk for cognitive impairment: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boa Sorte Silva, Narlon C; Gregory, Michael A; Gill, Dawn P; Petrella, Robert J

    The effects of multiple-modality exercise on arterial stiffening and cardiovascular fitness has not been fully explored. To explore the influence of a 24-week multiple-modality exercise program associated with a mind-motor training in cardiovascular health and fitness in community-dwelling older adults, compared to multiple-modality exercise (M2) alone. Participants (n=127, aged 67.5 [7.3] years, 71% females) were randomized to either M4 or M2 groups. Both groups received multiple-modality exercise intervention (60min/day, 3days/week for 24-weeks); however, the M4 group underwent additional 15min of mind-motor training, whereas the M2 group received 15min of balance training. Participants were assessed at 24-weeks and after a 28-week non-contact follow-up (52-weeks). at 52-weeks, the M4 group demonstrated a greater VO2max (ml/kg/min) compared to the M2 group (mean difference: 2.39, 95% CI: 0. 61 to 4.16, p=0.009). Within-group analysis indicated that the M4 group demonstrated a positive change in VO2max at 24-weeks (mean change: 1.93, 95% CI: 0.82 to 3.05, p=0.001) and 52-weeks (4.02, 95% CI: 2.71 to 5.32, p=0.001). Similarly, the M2 group increased VO2max at 24-weeks (2.28, 95% CI: 1.23 to 3.32, pMind-motor training associated with multiple-modality exercise can positively impact cardiovascular fitness to the same extent as multiple-modality exercise alone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Anthropometric characteristics, physical fitness and motor coordination of 9 to 11 year old children participating in a wide range of sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opstoel, Katrijn; Pion, Johan; Elferink-Gemser, Marije; Hartman, Esther; Willemse, Bas; Philippaerts, Renaat; Visscher, Chris; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent 9 to 11 year old children participating in a specific sport already exhibit a specific anthropometric, physical fitness and motor coordination profile, in line with the requirements of that particular sport. In addition, the profiles in children with a different training volume were compared and possible differences in training hours per week between children from a low, moderate, and high level of physical fitness and motor coordination were investigated. Data of 620 children, 347 boys and 273 girls, who participated in the Flemish Sports Compass were used. Only the primary sport of each child was considered and six groups of sports (Ball sports, Dance, Gymnastics, Martial arts, Racquet sports and Swimming) were formed based on common characteristics. Measurements consisted of 17 tests. Independent T-tests and Mann-Whitney U-tests revealed few differences between the groups of sports and the discriminant analyses with the moderate and low active group did not show any significant results (p > .05). However, when discriminating among the high active children, a 85.2 % correct classification between six groups of sports was found (Wilks' Λ = .137 and p sport per week (2.50 ± 1.84 hours) compared to the children performing best (3.25 ± 2.60 hours) (p = .016) and the children performing above average (2.90 ± 1.96 hours) (p = .029) on physical fitness and motor coordination. The study showed that in general, children at a young age do not exhibit sport-specific characteristics, except in children with a high training volume. It is possible that on the one hand, children have not spent enough time yet in their sport to develop sport-specific qualities. On the other hand, it could be possible that they do not take individual qualities into account when choosing a sport.

  2. Actual motor performance and self-perceived motor competence in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder compared with healthy siblings and peers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fliers, E.A.; Hoog, M.L.A. de; Franke, B.; Faraone, S.V.; Lambregts-Rommelse, N.N.J.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: : Children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently experience comorbid motor problems, developmental coordination disorder. Also, children with ADHD are said to overestimate their abilities in the cognitive and social domain, the so-called "Positive Illusory Bias."

  3. Sport Motor Competencies and the Experience of Social Recognition among Peers in Physical Education--A Video-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimminger, Elke

    2013-01-01

    Background: Being recognized as a competent and accepted member in the peer group is one of the most important basic human needs for children and youth. However, it is the peer group itself that decides which competencies are estimated and which are not, and through this process, a social order as well as peer power constellations is created.…

  4. A simple assessment of physical activity is associated with obesity and motor fitness in pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Otmar; Bolte, Gabriele; Morlock, Gabriele; Rückinger, Simon; von Kries, Rüdiger

    2009-08-01

    Physical activity is an important determinant of energy balance. However, its impact on overweight/obesity has proved difficult to measure in pre-school children and few studies have found significant associations. A set of simple questions was used to distinguish pre-school children with high and low physical activity, and the association of this classification with childhood overweight/obesity and performance in an established motor test was investigated. Survey, cross-sectional. Weight and height were measured in 12,556 children taking part in the obligatory school entrance health examination 2004-5 and 2005-6 in three urban and three rural Bavarian regions. Their parents were asked to answer a questionnaire with a set of questions on physical activity. The mean age of the children evaluated was 5.78 (sd 0.43) years, 6535 (52.1 %) were boys. Physically active children were less likely to be overweight (OR = 0.786, 95 % CI 0.687, 0.898) or obese (OR = 0.655, 95 % CI 0.506, 0.849) and achieved 6.7 (95 % CI 5.8, 7.7) % more jumps per 30 s than less active children in a motor test, adjusted for a number of potentially confounding variables. Classification of pre-school children as physically active or not, based on a small set of questions, revealed significant associations with overweight/obesity and a motor test. Once further validated, this classification might provide a valuable tool to assess the impact of physical activity on the risk of childhood overweight and obesity.

  5. Actual motor performance and self-perceived motor competence in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder compared with healthy siblings and peers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fliers, Ellen A.; de Hoog, Marieke L. A.; Franke, Barbara; Faraone, Stephen V.; Rommelse, Nanda N. J.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W. G.

    2010-01-01

    : Children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently experience comorbid motor problems, developmental coordination disorder. Also, children with ADHD are said to overestimate their abilities in the cognitive and social domain, the so-called "Positive Illusory Bias." In this

  6. Trends in physical activity, health-related fitness, and gross motor skills in children during a two-year comprehensive school physical activity program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusseau, Timothy A; Hannon, James C; Fu, You; Fang, Yi; Nam, Kahyun; Goodrum, Sara; Burns, Ryan D

    2018-01-06

    The purpose of this study was to examine the trends in school-day step counts, health-related fitness, and gross motor skills during a two-year Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP) in children. Longitudinal trend analysis. Participants were a sample of children (N=240; mean age=7.9±1.2 years; 125 girls, 115 boys) enrolled in five low-income schools. Outcome variables consisted of school day step counts, Body Mass Index (BMI), estimated VO 2 Peak , and gross motor skill scores assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development-3rd Edition (TGMD-3). Measures were collected over a two-year CSPAP including a baseline and several follow-up time-points. Multi-level mixed effects models were employed to examine time trends on each continuous outcome variable. Markov-chain transition models were employed to examine time trends for derived binary variables for school day steps, BMI, and estimated VO 2 Peak . There were statistically significant time coefficients for estimated VO 2 Peak (b=1.10mL/kg/min, 95% C.I. [0.35mL/kg/min-2.53mL/kg/min], p=0.009) and TGMD-3 scores (b=7.8, 95% C.I. [6.2-9.3], p<0.001). There were no significant changes over time for school-day step counts or BMI. Boys had greater change in odds of achieving a step count associating with 30min of school day MVPA (OR=1.25, 95% C.I. [1.02-1.48], p=0.044). A two-year CSPAP related to increases in cardio-respiratory endurance and TGMD-3 scores. School day steps and BMI were primarily stable across the two-year intervention. Copyright © 2018 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cost-effectiveness of a structured progressive task-oriented circuit class training programme to enhance walking competency after stroke: The protocol of the FIT-Stroke trial

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    Roelse Hanneke

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most patients who suffer a stroke experience reduced walking competency and health-related quality of life (HRQoL. A key factor in effective stroke rehabilitation is intensive, task-specific training. Recent studies suggest that intensive, patient-tailored training can be organized as a circuit with a series of task-oriented workstations. Primary aim of the FIT-Stroke trial is to evaluate the effects and cost-effectiveness of a structured, progressive task-oriented circuit class training (CCT programme, compared to usual physiotherapeutic care during outpatient rehabilitation in a rehabilitation centre. The task-oriented CCT will be applied in groups of 4 to 6 patients. Outcome will be defined in terms of gait and gait-related ADLs after stroke. The trial will also investigate the generalizability of treatment effects of task-oriented CCT in terms of perceived fatigue, anxiety, depression and perceived HRQoL. Methods/design The multicentre single-blinded randomized trial will include 220 stroke patients discharged to the community from inpatient rehabilitation, who are able to communicate and walk at least 10 m without physical, hands-on assistance. After discharge from inpatient rehabilitation, patients in the experimental group will receive task-oriented CCT two times a week for 12 weeks at the physiotherapy department of the rehabilitation centre. Control group patients will receive usual individual, face-to-face, physiotherapy. Costs will be evaluated by having each patient keep a cost diary for the first 24 weeks after randomisation. Primary outcomes are the mobility part of the Stroke Impact Scale (SIS-3.0 and the EuroQol. Secondary outcomes are the other domains of SIS-3.0, lower limb muscle strength, walking endurance, gait speed, balance, confidence not to fall, instrumental ADL, fatigue, anxiety, depression and HRQoL. Discussion Based on assumptions about the effect of intensity of practice and specificity of

  8. Impact of Nintendo Wii Games on Physical Literacy in Children: Motor Skills, Physical Fitness, Activity Behaviors, and Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda M. George

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical literacy is the degree of fitness, behaviors, knowledge, and fundamental movement skills (agility, balance, and coordination a child has to confidently participate in physical activity. Active video games (AVG, like the Nintendo Wii, have emerged as alternatives to traditional physical activity by providing a non-threatening environment to develop physical literacy. This study examined the impact of AVGs on children’s (age 6–12, N = 15 physical literacy. For six weeks children played one of four pre-selected AVGs (minimum 20 min, twice per week. Pre and post measures of motivation, enjoyment, and physical literacy were completed. Results indicated a near significant improvement in aiming and catching (p = 0.06. Manual dexterity significantly improved in males (p = 0.001, and females felt significantly less pressured to engage in PA (p = 0.008. Overall, there appears to be some positive impact of an AVG intervention on components of physical literacy.

  9. Impact of Nintendo Wii Games on Physical Literacy in Children: Motor Skills, Physical Fitness, Activity Behaviors, and Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Amanda M; Rohr, Linda E; Byrne, Jeannette

    2016-01-15

    Physical literacy is the degree of fitness, behaviors, knowledge, and fundamental movement skills (agility, balance, and coordination) a child has to confidently participate in physical activity. Active video games (AVG), like the Nintendo Wii, have emerged as alternatives to traditional physical activity by providing a non-threatening environment to develop physical literacy. This study examined the impact of AVGs on children's (age 6⁻12, N = 15) physical literacy. For six weeks children played one of four pre-selected AVGs (minimum 20 min, twice per week). Pre and post measures of motivation, enjoyment, and physical literacy were completed. Results indicated a near significant improvement in aiming and catching ( p = 0.06). Manual dexterity significantly improved in males ( p = 0.001), and females felt significantly less pressured to engage in PA ( p = 0.008). Overall, there appears to be some positive impact of an AVG intervention on components of physical literacy.

  10. Aptidão física relacionada ao desempenho motor em escolares de sete a 15 anos Physical fitness related to motor performance in scholars aged seven to 15 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Carvalho Dumith

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Os benefícios do desenvolvimento da aptidão física sobre a saúde estão bem evidenciados na literatura científica. O objetivo do presente estudo foi descrever a aptidão física relacionada ao desempenho motor de crianças e adolescentes e examinar as diferenças de acordo com sexo, idade, tipo de escola (pública ou privada e região geográfica da escola (urbana ou rural. Uma bateria de cinco testes motores foi aplicada a 526 alunos entre sete e 15 anos do ensino fundamental de Rio Grande, RS: salto em distância parado, arremesso de "medicine-ball", barra modificada, corrida de 20 metros e quadrado. Os resultados apontam que o desempenho em todos os testes foi superior para os rapazes e aumentou diretamente com a faixa etária. Estes foram os principais preditores da aptidão física dentre as variáveis examinadas. O tipo de escola só teve influência sobre o desempenho no teste de arremesso de "medicine-ball", em que alunos da rede privada obtiveram valores médios maiores. Escolares da zona urbana atingiram um melhor desempenho em todos os testes, exceto no teste de barra modificada (sem diferença por região geográfica. A realização de pesquisas com o mesmo enfoque em outras regiões do Brasil permitirá explorar a consistência destes achados e compreender possíveis diferenças.There is strong evidence regarding the benefits of physical fitness development upon health. The aim of this study was to describe the physical fitness related to motor performance in children and adolescents, and to examine if there are differences according to sex, age, type of school (public or private and geographic region (urban or rural. A battery comprising of five motor tests were administered to 526 students aged seven to 15 years from elementary schools of Rio Grande, Brazil: stationary long jump, medicine-ball throw, modified pull-up, 20-meter run and 4-meter shuttle-run. The results indicate that the performance in all tests were higher

  11. An assessment of driving fitness in patients with visual impairment to understand the elevated risk of motor vehicle accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunimatsu-Sanuki, Shiho; Iwase, Aiko; Araie, Makoto; Aoki, Yuki; Hara, Takeshi; Nakazawa, Toru; Yamaguchi, Takuhiro; Ono, Hiroshi; Sanuki, Tomoyuki; Itoh, Makoto

    2015-02-27

    To assess the driving fitness of patients with glaucoma by identifying specific areas and degrees of visual field impairment that threaten safe driving. Case-control study. This prospective study included 36 patients with advanced glaucoma, defined as Humphrey field analyzer (HFA; 24-2 SITA standard program) measurements of mean deviation in both eyes of worse than -12 dB, and 36 age-matched and driving exposure time-matched normal subjects. All participants underwent testing in a novel driving simulator (DS) system. Participants were recruited between September 2010 and January 2012. The number of collisions with simulated hazards and braking response time in 14 DS scenarios was recorded. Monocular HFA 24-2 test results from both eyes were merged to calculate the binocular integrated visual field (IVF). The position of the IVF subfields in which the collision-involved patients had lower sensitivity than the collision-uninvolved patients was compared with the track of the hazard. The cut-off value to predict an elevated risk of collisions was determined, as were its sensitivity and specificity, with the area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve. Patients with advanced glaucoma were involved in a significantly higher number of collisions in the DS than the age-matched and driving exposure time-matched normal subjects (119 vs 40, respectively, p<0.0001), especially in four specific DS scenarios. In these four scenarios, IVF sensitivity was significantly lower in the collision-involved patients than in the collision-uninvolved patients in subfields on or near the track of the simulated hazard (p<0.05). The subfields with the largest AUROC curve had values ranging from 0.72 to 0.91 and were located in the paracentral visual field just below the horizontal. Our novel DS system effectively assessed visual impairment, showing that simulators may have future potential in educating patients. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  12. Improving Physical Fitness and Cognitive Functions in Middle School Students: Study Protocol for the Chinese Childhood Health, Activity and Motor Performance Study (Chinese CHAMPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhixiong; Dong, Shanshan; Yin, Jun; Fu, Quan; Ren, Hong; Yin, Zenong

    2018-05-14

    Background : Sedentary lifestyles and their associated harmful consequences are public health concerns that impact more than half of the world's youth population in both developed and developing countries. Methods : The Chinese Childhood Health; Activity and Motor Performance Study (Chinese CHAMPS) was a cluster randomized controlled trial to modify school physical activity policies and the physical education (PE) curriculum; using teacher training and parent engagement to increase opportunities and support students' physical activity and healthy eating. Using a 2 × 2 factorial design, the study tested the incremental effects of increasing the amount and intensity of physical activity, alongside adding support for healthy eating, on health-related and cognitive function outcomes in Chinese middle school students. Results : The intervention was implemented by PE teachers in 12 middle schools in three Chinese cities, with a targeted enrollment of 650 students from August 2015⁻June 2016. The assessment of the outcomes involved a test battery of physical fitness and cognitive functioning at both baseline and at the end of the intervention. Process information on implementation was also collected. Discussion : The Chinese CHAMPS is a multi-level intervention that is designed to test the influences of policy and environmental modifications on the physical activity and eating behaviors of middle school students. It also addresses some key weaknesses in school-based physical activity interventions.

  13. Relationship between motor performance and physical fitness score in 7- to 8-year-old children. DOI: 10.5007/1980-0037.2011v13n2p94

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Felipe Nazario

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available There are many tests for the evaluation of motor performance or physical fitness that take into account different criteria such as movement forms and patterns, time, distance, and repetitions of each task for the analysis of performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between motor performance and physical fitness scores in children. Fifty children of both genders aged 7 to 8 years (25 boys and 25 girls participated in this study. The Test of Gross Motor Development – Second Edition (TGMD-2 was used for the evaluation of motor performance. Physical fitness was assessed by three specific tests proposed by the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD. The results showed statistical significance and weak correlations among some skills such as run, horizontal jump, hop, leap, underhand roll, and medicine ball throw. The equivalent use of both tests may not be adequate since each test has its own peculiarities in terms of assessment criteria.

  14. Relationship between motor performance and physical fitness score in 7- to 8-year-old children. DOI: 10.5007/1980-0037.2011v13n2p94

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruy Jornada Krebs

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available There are many tests for the evaluation of motor performance or physical fitness that take into account different criteria such as movement forms and patterns, time, distance, and repetitions of each task for the analysis of performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between motor performance and physical fitness scores in children. Fifty children of both genders aged 7 to 8 years (25 boys and 25 girls participated in this study. The Test of Gross Motor Development – Second Edition (TGMD-2 was used for the evaluation of motor performance. Physical fitness was assessed by three specific tests proposed by the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD. The results showed statistical significance and weak correlations among some skills such as run, horizontal jump, hop, leap, underhand roll, and medicine ball throw. The equivalent use of both tests may not be adequate since each test has its own peculiarities in terms of assessment criteria.

  15. How fit are children and adolescents with haemophilia in Germany? Results of a prospective study assessing the sport-specific motor performance by means of modern test procedures of sports science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seuser, A; Boehm, P; Ochs, S; Trunz-Carlisi, E; Halimeh, S; Klamroth, R

    2015-07-01

    There are a lot of publications on the physical fitness of patients with haemophilia (PWH), however, most studies only reflect individual sport-specific motor capacities or focus on a single fitness ability. They involve small patient populations. In this respect principal objective of this study was to compare the physical fitness in all respects and the body composition of young PWH to healthy peers based on the most valid data we could get. Twenty-one German haemophilia treatment centres were visited from 2002 to 2009. PWH between 8 and 25 years were included. They performed a five-stage fitness test covering the sport-specific motor capacities for coordination, measured by one leg stand, strength, aerobic fitness and mobility as well as body composition. The patients' results were compared with age- and gender-specific reference values of healthy subjects. Two hundred and eighty-five PWH (mean age 13.2 ± 4.5 years, 164 PWH with severe disease) were included prospectively in the study. PWH are significantly below the reference values of healthy subjects in the one-leg stand test, the mobility of the lower extremity, the strength ratio of chest and back muscles and the endurance test. In body composition, the back strength and the mobility of the upper extremity PWH are significantly above the reference values. There are no significant differences in abdominal strength. In conclusion we found specific differences in different fitness abilities between PWH and healthy subjects. Knowing this, we are able to work out exercise programmes to compensate the diminished fitness abilities for our PWH. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Revision of the Competency Standards for Occupational Therapy Driver Assessors: An overview of the evidence for the inclusion of cognitive and perceptual assessments within fitness-to-drive evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Sally M; Unsworth, Carolyn A

    2017-08-01

    Determination of fitness-to-drive after illness or injury is a complex process typically requiring a comprehensive driving assessment, including off-road and on-road assessment components. The competency standards for occupational therapy driver assessors (Victoria, Australia) define the requirements for performance of a comprehensive driving assessment, and we are currently revising these. Assessment of cognitive and perceptual skills forms an important part of the off-road assessment. The aim of this systematic review of systematic reviews (known as an overview) is to identify what evidence exists for including assessment of cognitive and perceptual skills within fitness-to-drive evaluations to inform revision of the competency standards. Five electronic databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, The Cochrane Library, OT Seeker) were systematically searched. Systematic review articles were appraised by two authors for eligibility. Methodological quality was independently assessed using the AMSTAR tool. Narrative analysis was conducted to summarise the content of eligible reviews. A total of 1228 results were retrieved. Fourteen reviews met the inclusion criteria. Reviews indicated that the components of cognition and perception most frequently identified as being predictive of fitness-to-drive were executive function (n = 13), processing speed (n = 12), visuospatial skills, attention, memory and mental flexibility (n = 11). Components less indicative were perception, concentration (n = 10), praxis (n = 9), language (n = 7) and neglect (n = 6). This overview of systematic reviews supports the inclusion of assessment of a range of cognitive and perceptual skills as key elements in a comprehensive driver assessment and therefore should be included in the revised competency standards for occupational therapy driver assessors. © 2017 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  17. Competence is Competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bramming, Pia

    2004-01-01

    The article will address competence, its' diffusion, application, and the consequence of this application within the field of Human Resource Management (HRM). The concept competence-in-practice will be presented and in conclusion the article will consider implications and possibilities...... of competence-in-practice as an alternative approach to Competence Development within Human Resource Management....

  18. Crianças com dificuldades motoras apresentam baixos níveis de aptidão física? Do children with motor difficulties show low levels of physical fitness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Morais de Almeida Santos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo tem como objetivo analisar se crianças com dificuldades motoras apresentariam baixos níveis de aptidão física relacionada à saúde em relação aos seus pares sem dificuldades. Dezesseis crianças com dificuldades motoras com aproximadamente oito anos foram pareadas em gênero e idade com outras 16 sem dificuldades motoras. Os participantes completaram os testes de aptidão física (sentar e alcançar, salto em distância parado, puxada em suspensão na barra modificado, abdominal e corrida de 9 minutos e os de coordenação motora (MABC-2. Os resultados indicaram diferenças significativas no salto em distância parado, puxada em suspensão na barra modificado, abdominal, mas não para sentar e alcançar e corrida de 9-m. Os resultados são semelhantes aos publicados na literatura internacional, com exceção da corrida de 9 minutos. A ideia de que em algum grau a coordenação é necessária para executar tarefas de aptidão física e pode impactar no desempenho da aptidão física é discutida no presente trabalho.The aim of the present study was to examine whether children with motor difficulties would show levels of health-related components of physical fitness lower than children without such difficulties. Sixteen children with motor difficulties with approximately 8 years of age were age-and gender-matched with other 16 children without motor difficulties. Participants completed the test batteries for physical fitness (seat and reach, standing long jump, sit-up, modified pull-up and 9-minute run and for motor coordination (MABC-2. The results indicated significant differences in standing long jump, sit-up, modified pull-up tests, but not for the seat and reach and the 9-minute run tests. Overall, the results are similar to those published in the international literature, with the exception of cardiorespiratory fitness. The idea that at to some degree coordination is required to perform physical fitness tasks and

  19. Exercisers' perceptions of their fitness instructor's interacting style, perceived competence, and autonomy as a function of self-determined regulation to exercise, enjoyment, affect, and exercise frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puente, Rogelio; Anshel, Mark H

    2010-02-01

    The primary purpose of the present investigation was to test the hypothesis, derived from Self-Determination Theory (SDT), that an individual's perceived competence and autonomy mediate the relationship between the exercisers' perception of their instructor's interaction style and the exercisers' motivation to exercise. A secondary purpose was to identify the affective and behavioral outcomes derived from self-determined regulation. It was hypothesized that SDT would significantly explain and predict exercise behavior. Participants consisted of 238 college students, 103 males and 135 females (M age = 20.4 years, SD = 2.16), who volunteered to participate in the study. They were asked to complete a battery of questionnaires measuring instructor's interacting style, self-regulation to exercise, perceived autonomy and competence, enjoyment, positive and negative affect, and exercise frequency. Using structural equation modeling with observed variables, the results showed that perceived competence and autonomy mediated the relationship between perceived instructor's interacting style and self-determined regulation. It was also found that self-determined regulation was significantly related to exercise enjoyment, positive affect, and exercise frequency. It was concluded that understanding the motivational factors and emotional and behavioral consequences of physical activity will partially explain an individual's motives to engage regularly in exercise.

  20. A holistic measurement model of movement competency in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, J; Butson, M L; Barnett, L; Farrow, D; Berry, J; Borkoles, E; Polman, R

    2016-01-01

    Different countries have different methods for assessing movement competence in children; however, it is unclear whether the test batteries that are used measure the same aspects of movement competence. The aim of this paper was to (1) investigate whether the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2) and Körperkoordinations Test für Kinder (KTK) measure the same aspects of children's movement competence and (2) examine the factorial structure of the TGMD-2 and KTK in a sample of Australian children. A total of 158 children participated (M age = 9.5; SD = 2.2). First, confirmatory factor analysis examined the independent factorial structure of the KTK and TGMD-2. Second, it was investigated whether locomotor, object control and body coordination loaded on the latent variable Movement Competency. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated an adequate fit for both the KTK and TGMD-2. An adequate fit was also achieved for the final model. In this model, locomotor (r = .86), object control (r = .71) and body coordination (r = .52) loaded on movement competence. Findings support our hypothesis that the TGMD-2 and KTK measure discrete aspects of movement competence. Future researchers and practitioners should consider using a wider range of test batteries to assess movement competence.

  1. Motor Skill Development in Italian Pre-School Children Induced by Structured Activities in a Specific Playground.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Tortella

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects and specificity of structured and unstructured activities played at the playground Primo Sport 0246 in Northern Italy on motor skill competence in five years old children. The playground was specifically designed to promote gross motor skills in preschool children; in this study 71 children from local kindergartens came to the park once a week for ten consecutive weeks and were exposed to 30 minutes of free play and 30 minutes of structured activities. Before and after the ten visits, each child completed nine tests to assess levels of motor skills, three for fine-motor skills and six for gross-motor skills. As control, motor skills were also assessed on 39 children from different kindergartens who did not come to the park. The results show that the experimental group who practiced gross-motor activities in the playground for 1 hour a week for 10 weeks improved significantly in 4 out of the 6 gross motor tasks and in none of the fine motor tasks. The data indicate that limited transfer occurred between tasks referring to different domains of motor competences while suggesting cross feeding for improvement of gross-motor skills between different exercises when domains related to physical fitness and strength of specific muscle groups are involved. These results are relevant to the issue of condition(s appropriate for maintaining and developing motor skills in this age group as well as for the planning, organization and implementation of play and physical activities in kindergartens.

  2. Motor Skill Development in Italian Pre-School Children Induced by Structured Activities in a Specific Playground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortella, Patrizia; Haga, Monika; Loras, Håvard; Sigmundsson, Hermundur; Fumagalli, Guido

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects and specificity of structured and unstructured activities played at the playground Primo Sport 0246 in Northern Italy on motor skill competence in five years old children. The playground was specifically designed to promote gross motor skills in preschool children; in this study 71 children from local kindergartens came to the park once a week for ten consecutive weeks and were exposed to 30 minutes of free play and 30 minutes of structured activities. Before and after the ten visits, each child completed nine tests to assess levels of motor skills, three for fine-motor skills and six for gross-motor skills. As control, motor skills were also assessed on 39 children from different kindergartens who did not come to the park. The results show that the experimental group who practiced gross-motor activities in the playground for 1 hour a week for 10 weeks improved significantly in 4 out of the 6 gross motor tasks and in none of the fine motor tasks. The data indicate that limited transfer occurred between tasks referring to different domains of motor competences while suggesting cross feeding for improvement of gross-motor skills between different exercises when domains related to physical fitness and strength of specific muscle groups are involved. These results are relevant to the issue of condition(s) appropriate for maintaining and developing motor skills in this age group as well as for the planning, organization and implementation of play and physical activities in kindergartens.

  3. Motor Skill Development in Italian Pre-School Children Induced by Structured Activities in a Specific Playground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortella, Patrizia; Haga, Monika; Loras, Håvard

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects and specificity of structured and unstructured activities played at the playground Primo Sport 0246 in Northern Italy on motor skill competence in five years old children. The playground was specifically designed to promote gross motor skills in preschool children; in this study 71 children from local kindergartens came to the park once a week for ten consecutive weeks and were exposed to 30 minutes of free play and 30 minutes of structured activities. Before and after the ten visits, each child completed nine tests to assess levels of motor skills, three for fine-motor skills and six for gross-motor skills. As control, motor skills were also assessed on 39 children from different kindergartens who did not come to the park. The results show that the experimental group who practiced gross-motor activities in the playground for 1 hour a week for 10 weeks improved significantly in 4 out of the 6 gross motor tasks and in none of the fine motor tasks. The data indicate that limited transfer occurred between tasks referring to different domains of motor competences while suggesting cross feeding for improvement of gross-motor skills between different exercises when domains related to physical fitness and strength of specific muscle groups are involved. These results are relevant to the issue of condition(s) appropriate for maintaining and developing motor skills in this age group as well as for the planning, organization and implementation of play and physical activities in kindergartens. PMID:27462985

  4. Fitness as 'social heritage': a study of elementary school pupils in Berlin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfister, Gertrud; Reeg, Annemarie

    2006-01-01

    information on attitudes towards the issue of sport and health as well as on sporting activities. In this contribution, we concentrate on the influence of parents and schools on the fitness and motor competencies of the children. The results of the test and the survey clearly showed correlations between...... the fitness level of the pupils and the education level of the parents. According to our results, fitness and physical skills are, at least to a certain extent, socially inherited. The fitness differences found in the different schools can be explained partly by the different social back ground......Health and fitness among children and adolescents is a subject currently receiving public attention. This article focuses on the fitness of German pupils (third and fourth grades) in five schools in Berlin with widely differing social catchment areas as well as children from differing social...

  5. Commentary on "The Effects of Musical Fit On Choice Between Competing Pairs of Cultural Products" by Joanne P.S. Yeoh & Adrian C. North

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Brodsky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Yeoh and North (2009 believe their findings are a clear indication that musical fit can influence product choice among a non-Western sample; pieces of Indian and Malay music primed the selection of one corresponding type of product over another, while when there was no music played the choices indicated no reliable preference for either Indian or Malay items. However, a closer look at their methods of sampling, stimuli, procedures, and results, makes it clear that these conclusions are unfounded.

  6. The effect of the Nintendo Wii Fit on balance control and gross motor function of children with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jelsma, Jennifer; Pronk, Marieke; Ferguson, Gillian; Jelsma-Smit, Dorothee

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the impact of training using the Nintendo Wii Fit in 14 children with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Methods: A single-subject single blinded design with multiple subjects and baselines was utilised. Interactive video gaming (IVG) in lieu of regular physiotherapy was given

  7. STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF TWELVE WEEKS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION CLASS ON PHYSICAL FITNESS AND MOTOR ABILITY IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.Zaher Etemad*and Amrallah Taavon Kerdar

    2017-01-01

    Since the complications of obesity each year impose many social and financial costs, such as health care, disabilities, disabilities and early death, and reduce productivity for human societies. Therefore, accurate evaluation of the status of obesity in different societies can be effective in identifying, treating and preventing obesity in any society, and reducing these costs. Cardiovascular endurance is one of the factors of physical fitness that plays a role in long-term activities Plays a...

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF BODY COMPOSITION, HORMONE PROFILE, PHYSICAL FITNESS, GENERAL PERCEPTUAL MOTOR SKILLS, SOCCER SKILLS AND ON-THE-BALL PERFORMANCE IN SOCCER-SPECIFIC LABORATORY TEST AMONG ADOLESCENT SOCCER PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomi Vänttinen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the development of on-the-ball skills in soccer-specific laboratory test and to examine how traditional measures of body composition, hormone profile, physical fitness, general perceptual motor skills and soccer skills were related to performance measured in open skill environment among 10, 12, and 14-year-old regional male soccer players (n = 12/group. The measured variables were height, weight, fat, muscle mass, testosterone, 10m sprint, agility, counter movement jump, peripheral awareness, Eye- Hand-Foot coordination, passing skill, dribbling skill and on-the-ball skills (performance time and passing accuracy in soccer-specific laboratory test. A significant main effect by age was found in all measured variables except in fat, in peripheral awareness and in passing accuracy. In discriminant analysis 63.9% (λ = 0.603, F = 4.600, p < 0.01 of the players were classified correctly based on physical fitness and general perceptual motor skills into three ability groups originally classified with performance time in soccer-specific laboratory test. Correlation co- efficient analysis with-in age groups revealed that variables associated with performance time in soccer-specific laboratory test were peripheral awareness (r = 0.72, p < 0.01 in 10-year-olds; testosterone (r = -0.70, p < 0.05, dribbling skill (r = 0.73, p < 0.01 and passing skill (r = 0.73, p < 0.01 in 12-year-olds; agility (r = 0.79, p < 0.01, counter movement jump (r = - 0.62, p < 0.01, dribbling skill (r = 0.80, p < 0.01 and passing skill (r = 0.58, p < 0. 05 in 14-year olds. Corresponding relationships with passing accuracy were weight (r = 0.59, p < 0.05, fat (r = 0.66, p < 0.05, 10m sprint (r = 0.71, p < 0.01 and countermovement jump (r = -0.64, p < 0.05 in 10-year-olds; Eye-Hand-Foot coordination (r = 0.63, p < 0.05 in 14-year- olds. The relationship between soccer-specific anticipation time and performance time in soccer- specific

  9. Prevalence and correlates of low fundamental movement skill competency in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Louise L; Reinten-Reynolds, Tracie; Espinel, Paola; Zask, Avigdor; Okely, Anthony D

    2012-08-01

    To describe the demographic and health-related characteristics of school-aged children with low competency in fundamental movement skills (FMS). Cross-sectional representative school-based survey of Australian elementary and high school students (n = 6917) conducted in 2010. Trained field staff measured students' height, weight, and assessed FMS and cardiorespiratory endurance (fitness). Information on students' demographics and physical activity was collected by questionnaire. Overall, the prevalence of students with low motor skill competency was high. Girls with low socioeconomic status (SES) were twice as likely to be less competent in locomotor skills compared with high SES peers. Among boys, there was a strong association between low competency in FMS and the likelihood of being from non-English-speaking cultural backgrounds. There was a clear and consistent association between low competency in FMS and inadequate cardiorespiratory fitness. For boys, there was a clear association between low competency in object-control skills and not meeting physical activity recommendations. Conversely, the odds of being inactive were double among girls who had low competency in locomotor skills. Low competency in FMS is strongly associated with lower cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity levels in children and adolescents. The characteristics of students with competency in FMS differ by gender and skills types and show that interventions need to target girls from low SES backgrounds and boys from non-English-speaking cultural backgrounds. The high prevalence of low competency in FMS among Grade 4 students indicates that FMS interventions need to start during the preschool and early school years.

  10. Fitness club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness club

    2011-01-01

    General fitness Classes Enrolments are open for general fitness classes at CERN taking place on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday lunchtimes in the Pump Hall (building 216). There are shower facilities for both men and women. It is possible to pay for 1, 2 or 3 classes per week for a minimum of 1 month and up to 6 months. Check out our rates and enrol at: http://cern.ch/club-fitness Hope to see you among us! CERN Fitness Club fitness.club@cern.ch  

  11. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2011-01-01

    The CERN Fitness Club is organising Zumba Classes on the first Wednesday of each month, starting 7 September (19.00 – 20.00). What is Zumba®? It’s an exhilarating, effective, easy-to-follow, Latin-inspired, calorie-burning dance fitness-party™ that’s moving millions of people toward joy and health. Above all it’s great fun and an excellent work out. Price: 22 CHF/person Sign-up via the following form: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Zumba%20Subscription/NewForm.aspx For more info: fitness.club@cern.ch

  12. Fodbold Fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Søren

    Samfundet forandrer sig og ligeså gør danskernes idrætsmønstre. Fodbold Fitness, der er afhandlingens omdrejningspunkt, kan iagttages som en reaktion på disse forandringer. Afhandlingen ser nærmere på Fodbold Fitness og implementeringen af dette, der ingenlunde er nogen let opgave. Bennike bidrager...

  13. Fitness cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karen L.; Pedersen, Thomas M.; Udekwu, Klas I.

    2012-01-01

    phage types, predominantly only penicillin resistant. We investigated whether isolates of this epidemic were associated with a fitness cost, and we employed a mathematical model to ask whether these fitness costs could have led to the observed reduction in frequency. Bacteraemia isolates of S. aureus...... from Denmark have been stored since 1957. We chose 40 S. aureus isolates belonging to phage complex 83A, clonal complex 8 based on spa type, ranging in time of isolation from 1957 to 1980 and with varyous antibiograms, including both methicillin-resistant and -susceptible isolates. The relative fitness...... of each isolate was determined in a growth competition assay with a reference isolate. Significant fitness costs of 215 were determined for the MRSA isolates studied. There was a significant negative correlation between number of antibiotic resistances and relative fitness. Multiple regression analysis...

  14. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2012-01-01

    Open to All: http://cern.ch/club-fitness  fitness.club@cern.ch Boxing Your supervisor makes your life too tough ! You really need to release the pressure you've been building up ! Come and join the fit-boxers. We train three times a week in Bd 216, classes for beginners and advanced available. Visit our website cern.ch/Boxing General Fitness Escape from your desk with our general fitness classes, to strengthen your heart, muscles and bones, improve you stamina, balance and flexibility, achieve new goals, be more productive and experience a sense of well-being, every Monday, Wednesday and Friday lunchtime, Tuesday mornings before work and Thursday evenings after work – join us for one of our monthly fitness workshops. Nordic Walking Enjoy the great outdoors; Nordic Walking is a great way to get your whole body moving and to significantly improve the condition of your muscles, heart and lungs. It will boost your energy levels no end. Pilates A body-conditioning technique de...

  15. Teacher competencies

    OpenAIRE

    Svatošová, Kateřina

    2012-01-01

    This diploma thesis deals with adult teacher competencies. It describes current situation in adult education and it focuses on measuring quality level of teacher competencies. There is given the main overview of adult education specifics. These are the prerequisites for defining adult teacher competencies. There is given specific adult teacher competencies and related roles which are generally based on teacher's activities during educational courses. Next part describes present conception of ...

  16. AAOHN Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The AAOHN Competency document is one of the core documents that define occupational health nursing practice. This article provides a description of the process used to update the competencies, as well as a description of the new competencies. © 2015 The Author(s).

  17. Fitness club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness club

    2013-01-01

      Nordic Walking Classes Come join the Nordic walking classes and outings offered by the CERN Fitness Club starting September 2013. Our licensed instructor Christine offers classes for people who’ve never tried Nordic Walking and who would like to learn the technique, and outings for people who have completed the classes and enjoy going out as a group. Course 1: Tuesdays 12:30 - 13:30 24 September, 1 October, 8 October, 15 October Course 2: Tuesdays 12:30 - 13:30 5 November, 12 November, 19 November, 26 November Outings will take place on Thursdays (12:30 to 13:30) from 12 September 2013. We meet at the CERN Club Barracks car park (close to Entrance A) 10 minutes before departure. Prices: 50 CHF for 4 classes, including the 10 CHF Club membership. Payments made directly to instructor. Renting Poles: Poles can be rented from Christine at 5 CHF / hour. Subscription: Please subscribe at: http://cern.ch/club-fitness Looking forward to seeing you among us! Fitness Club FitnessClub@c...

  18. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2012-01-01

    Get in Shape for Summer with the CERN Fitness Club Saturday 23 June 2012 from 14:30 to 16.30 (doors open at 14.00) Germana’s Fitness Workshop. Build strength and stamina, sculpt and tone your body and get your heart pumping with Germana’s workout mixture of Cardio Attack, Power Pump, Power Step, Cardio Combat and Cross-Training. Where: 216 (Pump room – equipped with changing rooms and showers). What to wear: comfortable clothes and indoor sports shoes + bring a drink! How much: 15 chf Sign up here: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Test_Subscription/NewForm.aspx? Join the Party and dance yourself into shape at Marco + Marials Zumba Masterclass. Saturday 30 June 2012 from 15:00 to 16:30 Marco + Mariel’s Zumba Masterclass Where: 216 (Pump room – equipped with changing rooms and showers). What to wear: comfortable clothes and indoor sports shoes + bring a drink! How much: 25 chf Sign up here: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Zumba%20...

  19. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2010-01-01

    Nordic Walking Please note that the subscriptions for the general fitness classes from July to December are open: Subscriptions general fitness classes Jul-Dec 2010 Sign-up to the Fitness Club mailing list here Nordic Walking: Sign-up to the Nordic Walking mailing list here Beginners Nordic walking lessons Monday Lunchtimes (rdv 12:20 for 12:30 departure) 13.09/20.09/27.09/04.10 11.10/18.10/08.11/15.11 22.11/29.11/06.12/20.12 Nordic walking lessons Tuesday evenings (rdv 17:50 for 18:00 departure) 07.09/14.09/21.09/28.09 05.10/12.10/19.10/26.10 Intermediate/Advanced Nordic walking outings (follow the nordic walking lessons before signing up for the outings) every Thursday from 16.09 - 16.12, excluding 28.10 and 09.12 Subscriptions and info: fitness.club@cern.ch  

  20. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2012-01-01

      The CERN Fitness Club is pleased to announce its new early morning class which will be taking place on: Tuesdays from 24th April 07:30 to 08:15 216 (Pump Hall, close to entrance C) – Facilities include changing rooms and showers. The Classes: The early morning classes will focus on workouts which will help you build not only strength and stamina, but will also improve your balance, and coordination. Our qualified instructor Germana will accompany you throughout the workout  to ensure you stay motivated so you achieve the best results. Sign up and discover the best way to start your working day full of energy! How to subscribe? We invite you along to a FREE trial session, if you enjoy the activity, please sign up via our website: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Activities/SUBSCRIBE.aspx. * * * * * * * * Saturday 28th April Get in shape for the summer at our fitness workshop and zumba dance party: Fitness workshop with Germana 13:00 to 14:30 - 216 (Pump Hall) Price...

  1. Criteria, indicators and levels of formed professional functional competences of future teachers of physical culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsutina N.M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available It is shown the structural components of the functional competence of professional teachers of physical education: motivational, cognitive and action-practical. We used the following methods of scientific knowledge, as the analysis of psychological, educational and methodological literature, synthesis, comparison, generalization, specification, classification, ordering Criteria and levels of occupational functional competence of future teachers of physical education. It is determined that the high level of professional formation of the functional competence of future teachers of physical culture is characterized by the motivation to perform professional functions of a teacher of physical culture, fundamental knowledge required to perform professional functions of a teacher of physical culture, a high level of general physical fitness, pronounced specific motor abilities and skills.

  2. Motor Neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Jorn

    2017-01-01

    Motor neurons translate synaptic input from widely distributed premotor networks into patterns of action potentials that orchestrate motor unit force and motor behavior. Intercalated between the CNS and muscles, motor neurons add to and adjust the final motor command. The identity and functional...... in in vitro preparations is far from complete. Nevertheless, a foundation has been provided for pursuing functional significance of intrinsic response properties in motoneurons in vivo during motor behavior at levels from molecules to systems....

  3. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2012-01-01

    Nordic Walking Classes Sessions of four classes of one hour each are held on Tuesdays. RDV barracks parking at Entrance A, 10 minutes before class time. Session 1 =  11.09 / 18.09 / 25.09 / 02.10, 18:15 - 19:15 Session 2 = 25.09 / 02.10 / 09.10 / 16.10, 12:30 - 13:30 Session 3 = 23.10 / 30.10 / 06.11 / 13.11, 12:30 - 13:30 Session 4 = 20.11 / 27.11 / 04.12 / 11.12, 12:30 - 13:30 Prices 40 CHF per session + 10 CHF club membership 5 CHF/hour pole rental Check out our schedule and enroll at http://cern.ch/club-fitness   Hope to see you among us!  fitness.club@cern.ch In spring 2012 there was a long-awaited progress in CERN Fitness club. We have officially opened a Powerlifting @ CERN, and the number of members of the new section has been increasing since then reaching 70+ people in less than 4 months. Powerlifting is a strength sport, which is simple as 1-2-3 and efficient. The "1-2-3" are the three basic lifts (bench press...

  4. Motor-pump unit provided with a lifting appliance of the motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veronesi, Luciano; Francis, W.R.

    1978-01-01

    This invention relates to lifting appliances and particularly concerns a 'pump and motor set' or motor-pump unit fitted with a lifting appliance enabling the motor to be separated from the pump. In nuclear power stations the reactor discharges heat that is carried by the coolant to a distant point away from the reactor to generate steam and electricity conventionally. In order to cause the reactor coolant to flow through the system, coolant motor-pump units are provided in the cooling system. These units are generally of the vertical type with an electric motor fitted vertically on the pump by means of a cylindrical or conical structure called motor support [fr

  5. Self-worth, perceived competence, and behaviour problems in children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Schuengel, C.; Voorman, J.; Stolk, J.; Dallmeijer, A.J.; Vermeer, A; Becher, J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose. To examine the relevance of physical disabilities for self-worth and perceived competence in children with cerebral palsy (CP), and to examine associations between behaviour problems and self-worth and perceived competence. Methods. The Harter scales for self-worth and perceived competence and a new scale for perceived motor competence were used in a sample of 80 children with CP. Their motor functioning was assessed with the Gross Motor Functioning Measure (GMFM) and behaviour probl...

  6. Timespacing competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Helle Pia; Mogensen, Naja Dahlstrup

    2016-01-01

    -generated activity My linguistic world 2014, they are invited to map and talk about their lived experiences as multiple language users seen in the light of place and movement. By demythifying themselves and their linguistic worlds, the children also raise important questions about the notion of linguistic competence....... By perceiving competences from a subjective child perspective, we learn how children do what we call timespacing competence. On that basis, we suggest paying attention to how children themselves timespace competence by focusing (more consistently) on the subjective, social, spatial and temporal dimensions...

  7. Age-related differences in acquisition of perceptual-motor skills: working memory as a mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Kristen M; Partridge, Ty; Raz, Naftali

    2008-03-01

    Aging is associated with reduced performance on information processing speed, memory, and executive functions tasks. Although older adults are also less apt in acquiring new perceptual-motor skills, it is unclear whether and how skill acquisition difficulties are associated with age-related general cognitive differences. We addressed this question by examining structural relations among measures of cognitive resources (working memory) and indices of perceptual-motor skill acquisition (pursuit rotor and mirror tracing) in 96 healthy adults aged 19-80 years of age. Three competing structural models were tested: a single (common) factor model, a dual correlated factors model, and a hierarchical dual-factor model. The third model provided the best fit to the data, indicating age differences in simple perceptual-motor skill are partially mediated by more complex abilities.

  8. Fitness club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness club

    2013-01-01

    Nordic Walking Classes New session of 4 classes of 1 hour each will be held on Tuesdays in May 2013. Meet at the CERN barracks parking at Entrance A, 10 minutes before class time. Dates and time: 07.05, 14.05, 21.05 and 28.05, fom  12 h 30 to 13 h 30 Prices: 40 CHF per session + 10 CHF club membership – 5 CHF / hour pole rental Check out our schedule and enroll at http://cern.ch/club-fitness Hope to see you among us! 

  9. Adjudicative Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, Sharron E.; Palmer, Barton W.; Jeste, Dilip V.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose of review Although the basic standards of adjudicative competence were specified by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1960, there remain a number of complex conceptual and practical issues in interpreting and applying these standards. In this report we provide a brief overview regarding the general concept of adjudicative competence and its assessment, as well as some highlights of recent empirical studies on this topic. Findings Most adjudicative competence assessments are conducted by psychiatrists or psychologists. There are no universal certification requirements, but some states are moving toward required certification of forensic expertise for those conducting such assessments. Recent data indicate inconsistencies in application of the existing standards even among forensic experts, but the recent publication of consensus guidelines may foster improvements in this arena. There are also ongoing efforts to develop and validate structured instruments to aid competency evaluations. Telemedicine-based competency interviews may facilitate evaluation by those with specific expertise for evaluation of complex cases. There is also interest in empirical development of educational methods to enhance adjudicative competence. Summary Adjudicative competence may be difficult to measure accurately, but the assessments and tools available are advancing. More research is needed on methods of enhancing decisional capacity among those with impaired competence. PMID:18650693

  10. Outsourcing competence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.; Delen, G.; van Vlijmen, B.

    2011-01-01

    The topic of this paper, competences needed for outsourcing, is organized by first providing a generic competence scheme, which is subsequently instantiated to the area of sourcing and outsourcing. Sourcing and outsourcing are positioned as different areas of activity, neither one of which is

  11. Competence Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana; Edquist, Charles

    The main question that guides this paper is how governments are focusing (and must focus) on competence building (education and training) when designing and implementing innovation policies. With this approach, the paper aims at filling the gap between the existing literature on competences...... on the one hand, and the real world of innovation policy-making on the other, typically not speaking to each other. With this purpose in mind, this paper discusses the role of competences and competence-building in the innovation process from a perspective of innovation systems; it examines how governments...... and public agencies in different countries and different times have actually approached the issue of building, maintaining and using competences in their innovation systems; it examines what are the critical and most important issues at stake from the point of view of innovation policy, looking particularly...

  12. A multi-modal training programme to improve physical activity, physical fitness and perceived physical ability in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morano, Milena; Colella, Dario; Rutigliano, Irene; Fiore, Pietro; Pettoello-Mantovani, Massimo; Campanozzi, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    Actual and perceived physical abilities are important correlates of physical activity (PA) and fitness, but little research has explored these relationships over time in obese children. This study was designed: (a) to assess the feasibility of a multi-modal training programme promoting changes in PA, fundamental motor skills and real and perceived physical abilities of obese children; and (b) to explore cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between real and perceived physical competence in boys and girls. Forty-one participants (9.2 ± 1.2 years) were assessed before and after an 8-month intervention with respect to body composition, physical fitness, self-reported PA and perceived physical ability. After treatment, obese children reported improvements in the body mass index, PA levels, gross motor performance and actual and perceived physical abilities. Real and perceived physical competence was correlated in boys, but not in girls. Results indicate that a multi-modal programme focused on actual and perceived physical competence as associated with the gradual increase in the volume of activity might be an effective strategy to improve adherence of the participants and to increase the lifelong exercise skills of obese children.

  13. Do school-based interventions focusing on physical activity, fitness, or fundamental movement skill competency produce a sustained impact in these outcomes in children and adolescents? A systematic review of follow-up studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Samuel K; Costigan, Sarah A; Morgan, Philip J; Lubans, David R; Stodden, David F; Salmon, Jo; Barnett, Lisa M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to determine whether typically developing children and adolescents (aged 3-18 years) who have participated in school-based interventions have sustained outcomes in PA, fitness, and/or FMS. A systematic search of six electronic databases (CINAHL® Plus with Full Text, Ovid MEDLINE®, SPORTDiscus™, Scopus, PsycINFO® and ERIC) was conducted from 1995 to 26 July 2012. Included studies were school-based studies (including randomized controlled trials, longitudinal cohort, quasi-experimental, and experimental) that had a positive effect at post intervention in at least one variable and had a follow-up PA, fitness, or FMS assessment at least 6 months after the post-intervention assessment. Risk of bias assessment was guided by the "Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses" statement. The search identified 14 articles, and some studies addressed multiple outcomes: 13 articles assessed PA; three assessed fitness; and two assessed FMS. No study in this review met four key methodological criteria that have been shown to influence results, i.e., clarity on the randomization process, assessor blinding, analyzing participants in their original groups, and retaining sufficient participants through the entire study. Three-quarters (ten of 13) of the studies addressing PA, reported PA behavior change maintenance. The length of follow-up ranged from 6 months to 20 years, and the degree of PA difference reported was between 3 and 14 min per day. Only one of the three studies assessing fitness reported a sustained impact, whilst both studies that assessed FMS reported maintenance of effects. It is likely that PA is a sustainable outcome from interventions in children and adolescents, and there is reasonable evidence that interventions of longer than 1 year and interventions that utilize a theoretical model or framework are effective in producing this sustained impact. It would seem probable that FMS are a sustainable

  14. Interference in ballistic motor learning - is motor interference really sensory?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Petersen, Tue Hvass; Rothwell, John C

    Skill gained after a short period of practice in one motor task can be abolished if a second task is learned shortly afterwards. We hypothesised that interference requires the same circuits to be engaged in the two tasks and provoke competing processes of synaptic plasticity. To test this, subjects...

  15. Classical competing risks

    CERN Document Server

    Crowder, Martin J

    2001-01-01

    If something can fail, it can often fail in one of several ways and sometimes in more than one way at a time. There is always some cause of failure, and almost always, more than one possible cause. In one sense, then, survival analysis is a lost cause. The methods of Competing Risks have often been neglected in the survival analysis literature. Written by a leading statistician, Classical Competing Risks thoroughly examines the probability framework and statistical analysis of data of Competing Risks. The author explores both the theory of the subject and the practicalities of fitting the models to data. In a coherent, self-contained, and sequential account, the treatment moves from the bare bones of the Competing Risks setup and the associated likelihood functions through survival analysis using hazard functions. It examines discrete failure times and the difficulties of identifiability, and concludes with an introduction to the counting-process approach and the associated martingale theory.With a dearth of ...

  16. Rationale, design and methods for a randomised and controlled trial of the impact of virtual reality games on motor competence, physical activity, and mental health in children with developmental coordination disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straker Leon M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A healthy start to life requires adequate motor development and physical activity participation. Currently 5-15% of children have impaired motor development without any obvious disorder. These children are at greater risk of obesity, musculoskeletal disorders, low social confidence and poor mental health. Traditional electronic game use may impact on motor development and physical activity creating a vicious cycle. However new virtual reality (VR game interfaces may provide motor experiences that enhance motor development and lead to an increase in motor coordination and better physical activity and mental health outcomes. VR games are beginning to be used for rehabilitation, however there is no reported trial of the impact of these games on motor coordination in children with developmental coordination disorder. Methods This cross-over randomised and controlled trial will examine whether motor coordination is enhanced by access to active electronic games and whether daily activity, attitudes to physical activity and mental health are also enhanced. Thirty children aged 10-12 years with poor motor coordination (≤ 15th percentile will be recruited and randomised to a balanced ordering of 'no active electronic games' and 'active electronic games'. Each child will participate in both conditions for 16 weeks, and be assessed prior to participation and at the end of each condition. The primary outcome is motor coordination, assessed by kinematic and kinetic motion analysis laboratory measures. Physical activity and sedentary behaviour will be assessed by accelerometry, coordination in daily life by parent report questionnaire and attitudes to physical activity, self-confidence, anxiety and depressed mood will be assessed by self report questionnaire. A sample of 30 will provide a power of > 0.9 for detecting a 5 point difference in motor coordination on the MABC-2 TIS scale (mean 17, sd = 5. Discussion This is the first trial to

  17. Rationale, design and methods for a randomised and controlled trial of the impact of virtual reality games on motor competence, physical activity, and mental health in children with developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straker, Leon M; Campbell, Amity C; Jensen, Lyn M; Metcalf, Deborah R; Smith, Anne J; Abbott, Rebecca A; Pollock, Clare M; Piek, Jan P

    2011-08-18

    A healthy start to life requires adequate motor development and physical activity participation. Currently 5-15% of children have impaired motor development without any obvious disorder. These children are at greater risk of obesity, musculoskeletal disorders, low social confidence and poor mental health. Traditional electronic game use may impact on motor development and physical activity creating a vicious cycle. However new virtual reality (VR) game interfaces may provide motor experiences that enhance motor development and lead to an increase in motor coordination and better physical activity and mental health outcomes. VR games are beginning to be used for rehabilitation, however there is no reported trial of the impact of these games on motor coordination in children with developmental coordination disorder. This cross-over randomised and controlled trial will examine whether motor coordination is enhanced by access to active electronic games and whether daily activity, attitudes to physical activity and mental health are also enhanced. Thirty children aged 10-12 years with poor motor coordination (≤ 15th percentile) will be recruited and randomised to a balanced ordering of 'no active electronic games' and 'active electronic games'. Each child will participate in both conditions for 16 weeks, and be assessed prior to participation and at the end of each condition. The primary outcome is motor coordination, assessed by kinematic and kinetic motion analysis laboratory measures. Physical activity and sedentary behaviour will be assessed by accelerometry, coordination in daily life by parent report questionnaire and attitudes to physical activity, self-confidence, anxiety and depressed mood will be assessed by self report questionnaire. A sample of 30 will provide a power of > 0.9 for detecting a 5 point difference in motor coordination on the MABC-2 TIS scale (mean 17, sd = 5). This is the first trial to examine the impact of new virtual reality games on

  18. Surgical competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Nivritti G; Cheng, Stephen W K; Wong, John

    2003-08-01

    Recent high-profile cases have heightened the need for a formal structure to monitor achievement and maintenance of surgical competence. Logbooks, morbidity and mortality meetings, videos and direct observation of operations using a checklist, motion analysis devices, and virtual reality simulators are effective tools for teaching and evaluating surgical skills. As the operating theater is also a place for training, there must be protocols and guidelines, including mandatory standards for supervision, to ensure that patient care is not compromised. Patients appreciate frank communication and honesty from surgeons regarding their expertise and level of competence. To ensure that surgical competence is maintained and keeps pace with technologic advances, professional registration bodies have been promoting programs for recertification. They evaluate performance in practice, professional standing, and commitment to ongoing education.

  19. Competing Auctions of Skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennes, John; le Maire, Daniel

    We generalize McAfee’s (1993) game of competing sellers to the case of heterogeneous sellers. In the generalized McAfee (GM) game, the equilibrium expected job offer distribution of each worker (seller) type evolves over time as a function of stochastic events. We derive a tractable method...... of solving the GM game. We estimate, using non-parametric methods, a close fit between a benchmark GM game and a cross-section of Danish data on productivity and unemployment. The theoretical properties of the GM game, which relate to on-the-job search, assortative matching, aggregate and match specific...

  20. Does Computer-Based Motor Skill Assessment Training Transfer to Live Assessing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Luke E.; Taliaferro, Andrea; Krause, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Developing competency in motor skill assessment has been identified as a critical need in physical educator preparation. We conducted this study to evaluate (a) the effectiveness of a web-based instructional program--Motor Skill Assessment Program (MSAP)--for developing assessment competency, and specifically (b) whether competency developed by…

  1. Hamiltonian inclusive fitness: a fitter fitness concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, James T

    2013-01-01

    In 1963-1964 W. D. Hamilton introduced the concept of inclusive fitness, the only significant elaboration of Darwinian fitness since the nineteenth century. I discuss the origin of the modern fitness concept, providing context for Hamilton's discovery of inclusive fitness in relation to the puzzle of altruism. While fitness conceptually originates with Darwin, the term itself stems from Spencer and crystallized quantitatively in the early twentieth century. Hamiltonian inclusive fitness, with Price's reformulation, provided the solution to Darwin's 'special difficulty'-the evolution of caste polymorphism and sterility in social insects. Hamilton further explored the roles of inclusive fitness and reciprocation to tackle Darwin's other difficulty, the evolution of human altruism. The heuristically powerful inclusive fitness concept ramified over the past 50 years: the number and diversity of 'offspring ideas' that it has engendered render it a fitter fitness concept, one that Darwin would have appreciated.

  2. 'Situaciones problema' y desarrollo de la competencia motriz en educación física escolar: cuestiones didácticas = Problem situations and developing motor competence in Physical Education at school: didactic questions

    OpenAIRE

    López Ros, Víctor

    2005-01-01

    From the areas of motor learning and the teaching of Physical Education we promote coherent methodological orientations with the present curricular guide that are focused in such a way so that the student is able to act independently. In this sense we may consider the problem situations as a good example for methodological proposals. So as to determine its use and adequateness for Physical Education it is conveniente to analyse the characteristics of the motor tasks that are propo...

  3. "Not just another Wii training": a graded Wii protocol to increase physical fitness in adolescent girls with probable developmental coordination disorder-a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonney, Emmanuel; Rameckers, Eugene; Ferguson, Gillian; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien

    2018-02-22

    Adolescents with low motor competence participate less in physical activity and tend to exhibit decreased physical fitness compared to their peers with high motor competence. It is therefore essential to identify new methods of enhancing physical fitness in this population. Active video games (AVG) have been shown to improve motor performance, yet investigations of its impact on physical fitness are limited. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of the graded Wii protocol in adolescent girls with probable Developmental Coordination Disorder (p-DCD). A single-group pre-post design was conducted to assess the impact of a newly developed Wii protocol in adolescent girls attending school in a low income community of Cape Town, South Africa. Sixteen participants (aged 13-16 years) with p-DCD (≤16th percentile on the MABC-2 test) were recruited. Participants received 45 min Wii training for 14 weeks. Outcome measures included the six-minute walk distance and repeated sprint ability. Information on heart rate, enjoyment and perceived exertion ratings were also collected. Significant improvements in aerobic and anaerobic fitness were observed. The participants reported high enjoyment scores and low perceived exertion ratings. The graded Wii protocol was easily adaptable and required little resources (space, equipment and expertise) to administer. The findings provide preliminary evidence to support the use of the graded Wii protocol for promoting physical fitness in adolescent girls with p-DCD. Further studies are needed to confirm these results and to validate the clinical efficacy of the protocol in a larger sample with a more robust design.

  4. Energy-saving motor; Energiesparmotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindegger, M.

    2002-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes the development and testing of an advanced electrical motor using a permanent-magnet rotor. The aims of the project - to study the technical feasibility and market potential of the Eco-Motor - are discussed and the three phases of the project described. These include the calculation and realisation of a 250-watt prototype operating at 230 V, the measurement of the motor's characteristics as well as those of a comparable asynchronous motor on the test bed at the University of Applied Science in Lucerne, Switzerland, and a market study to establish if the Eco-Motor and its controller can compete against normal asynchronous motors. Also, the results of an analysis of the energy-savings potential is made, should such Eco-Motors be used. Detailed results of the three phases of the project are presented and the prospects of producing such motors in Switzerland for home use as well as for export are examined.

  5. The electric motor handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, R.W.; Feltham, P. (eds.)

    2004-05-01

    This handbook outlines the important role that electric motors play in modern society. It covers the field of motor applications from various motor types to their use and repair. It also presents practical applications of electric motors and methods on motor efficiency. More than half of all electricity generated, and 75 per cent of all industrial electricity consumption is consumed by electric motors. Electrical personnel must be aware of all factors involved in electric motors in order to choose and apply the appropriate size of electric motor. These factors include efficiency, sizing and proper application. The efficient use and maximum life expectancy of electric motors depends on proper motor protection, control and maintenance. This handbook includes articles from leading experts on electric motors in modern electrical systems. The content includes: design considerations; proper electric motor sizing techniques; optimal electric motor application; electric motor protection technology; electric motor control principles; electric motor maintenance and troubleshooting; induction electric motors; electric motor bearing currents; electric motor bearing lubrication; electromagnetism; electric motor enclosures; electric motor testing; electric motor repair; DC electric motor; electric motor starters; electric motor brushes; industrial electric motors; electric motor diagrams; AC electric motors; electric motor wiring; electric motor service; electric motor rewinding; electric motor winding; diagram of electric motor wiring; electric motor kit; and, troubleshooting electric motors. A directory of motor manufacturers and suppliers was also included. refs., tabs., figs.

  6. Commentary: Competency restoration research--complicating an already complex process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotter, Merrill; Greenspan, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Predicting restorability in individuals found not competent to stand trial is an enduring focus of interest among forensic clinicians and academicians. In our commentary, we suggest that to understand this area even more comprehensively, we must look further. We must build on existing research on fitness to stand trial, move beyond diagnosis and a binary competence variable, and include the complex interplay between symptoms and fitness-related capacities that may be associated with lack of adjudicative competence and challenges to restorability.

  7. Fitness to drive after traumatic brain injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, WH; Withaar, FK

    This paper deals with the issue of fitness to drive in patients suffering from traumatic brain injury (TBI). Guidelines for assessment are proposed and three types of studies are reviewed: studies about impairments of attention and information processing, studies of driving competence, and driver

  8. Psychometric Properties of the Teacher-Reported Motor Skills Rating Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Helyn; Murrah, William M.; Cameron, Claire E.; Brock, Laura L.; Cottone, Elizabeth A.; Grissmer, David

    2015-01-01

    Children's early motor competence is associated with social development and academic achievement. However, few studies have examined teacher reports of children's motor skills. This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Motor Skills Rating Scale (MSRS), a 19-item measure of children's teacher-reported motor skills in the classroom.…

  9. A New Low-Cost Hybrid Switched Reluctance Motor for Adjustable-Speed Pump Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Watkins, Steve

    2011-01-01

    with conventional single-phase switched reluctance motors, it has an increased torque density. The cogging torque is beneficially used in this motor for reducing the torque ripple. It is demonstrated that such a motor drive system can be a suitable candidate to advantageously compete with the existing motor drive...

  10. Motor homopolar

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Muñoz, Agustín

    2007-01-01

    Mostramos la construcción de un modelo de motor homopolar, uno de los más antiguos tipos de motores eléctricos. Se caracterizan porque el campo magnético del imán mantiene siempre la misma polaridad (de ahí su nombre, del griego homos, igual), de modo que, cuando una corriente eléctrica atraviesa el campo magnético, aparece una fuerza que hace girar los elementos no fijados mecánicamente. En el sencillísimo motor homopolar colgado (Schlichting y Ucke 2004), el imán puede girar ...

  11. Interference in motor learning - is motor interference sensory?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Lundbye; Petersen, Tue Hvass; Rothwell, John C

    mechanisms determine whether or not interference occurs. We hypothesised that interference requires the same neural circuits to be engaged in the two tasks and provoke competing processes of synaptic plasticity. To test this, subjects learned a ballistic ankle plantarflexion task. Early motor memory...... was disrupted by subsequent learning of a precision tracking task with the same agonist muscle group, but not by learning involving antagonist muscles or by voluntary agonist contractions that did not require learning. If the competing task was learned with the same agonist muscle group 4 hours following...

  12. Application of stepping motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    This book is divided into three parts, which is about practical using of stepping motor. The first part has six chapters. The contents of the first part are about stepping motor, classification of stepping motor, basic theory og stepping motor, characteristic and basic words, types and characteristic of stepping motor in hybrid type and basic control of stepping motor. The second part deals with application of stepping motor with hardware of stepping motor control, stepping motor control by microcomputer and software of stepping motor control. The last part mentions choice of stepping motor system, examples of stepping motor, measurement of stepping motor and practical cases of application of stepping motor.

  13. Different fits satisfy different needs: linking person-environment fit to employee commitment and performance using self-determination theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greguras, Gary J; Diefendorff, James M

    2009-03-01

    Integrating and expanding upon the person-environment fit (PE fit) and the self-determination theory literatures, the authors hypothesized and tested a model in which the satisfaction of the psychological needs for autonomy, relatedness, and competence partially mediated the relations between different types of perceived PE fit (i.e., person-organization fit, person-group fit, and job demands-abilities fit) with employee affective organizational commitment and overall job performance. Data from 163 full-time working employees and their supervisors were collected across 3 time periods. Results indicate that different types of PE fit predicted different types of psychological need satisfaction and that psychological need satisfaction predicted affective commitment and performance. Further, person-organization fit and demands-abilities fit also evidenced direct effects on employee affective commitment. These results begin to explicate the processes through which different types of PE fit relate to employee attitudes and behaviors. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Relationships between physical activity, physical fitness, somatic fitness, and coordination along childhood and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Saraiva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The two main goals of this review were to understand how the relationships between physical activity, physical fitness, somatic fitness, and coordination are established along the motor development of children and adolescents, and how they would influence their future lives. The web based bibliographic database B-On was searched for peer-reviewed publications during the last decade (2000 to 2009. Search criteria included all articles on relationships between any two of the above named factors. Although different methodological designs and variables were found as markers for the same factor, overall results suggested the existence of a clear positive relationship among physical activity, physical fitness, somatic fitness, and coordination from childhood to adolescence, with a special relevance for the relationship between physical activity and coordination. It was also noted a renewed interest on physical activity and motor coordination developmental characteristics and relationships as well as on their lifelong health effects.

  15. Relationships between physical activity, physical fitness, somatic fitness, and coordination along childhood and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Saraiva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The two main goals of this review were to understand how the relationships between physical activity, physical fitness, somatic fitness, and coordination are established along the motor development of children and adolescents, and how they would influence their future lives. The web based bibliographic database B-On was searched for peer-reviewed publications during the last decade (2000 to 2009. Search criteria included all articles on relationships between any two of the above named factors. Although different methodological designs and variables were found as markers for the same factor, overall results suggested the existence of a clear positive relationship among physical activity, physical fitness, somatic fitness, and coordination from childhood to adolescence, with a special relevance for the relationship between physical activity and coordination. It was also noted a renewed interest on physical activity and motor coordination developmental characteristics and relationships as well as on their lifelong health effects.

  16. Deletion analysis of Streptococcus pneumoniae late competence genes distinguishes virulence determinants that are dependent or independent of competence induction

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Luchang; Lin, Jingjun; Kuang, Zhizhou; Vidal, Jorge E.; Lau, Gee W.

    2015-01-01

    The competence regulon of Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is crucial for genetic transformation. During competence development, the alternative sigma factor ComX is activated, which in turn, initiates transcription of 80 “late” competence genes. Interestingly, only 16 late genes are essential for genetic transformation. We hypothesized that these late genes that are dispensable for competence are beneficial to pneumococcal fitness during infection. These late genes were systematically...

  17. Physical Fitness Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes, Alice

    This document presents baseline data on physical fitness that provides an outline for assessing the physical fitness of students. It consists of 4 tasks and a 13-item questionnaire on fitness-related behaviors. The fitness test evaluates cardiorespiratory endurance by a steady state jog; muscular strength and endurance with a two-minute bent-knee…

  18. Unge, sundhed og fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens-Ole

    2003-01-01

    Artiklen redegør for udbredelsen af fitness blandt unge og diskuterer, hvor det er blevet så populært at dyrke fitness.......Artiklen redegør for udbredelsen af fitness blandt unge og diskuterer, hvor det er blevet så populært at dyrke fitness....

  19. Autism as the Low-Fitness Extreme of a Parentally Selected Fitness Indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaner, Andrew; Miller, Geoffrey; Mintz, Jim

    2008-12-01

    Siblings compete for parental care and feeding, while parents must allocate scarce resources to those offspring most likely to survive and reproduce. This could cause offspring to evolve traits that advertise health, and thereby attract parental resources. For example, experimental evidence suggests that bright orange filaments covering the heads of North American coot chicks may have evolved for this fitness-advertising purpose. Could any human mental disorders be the equivalent of dull filaments in coot chicks-low-fitness extremes of mental abilities that evolved as fitness indicators? One possibility is autism. Suppose that the ability of very young children to charm their parents evolved as a parentally selected fitness indicator. Young children would vary greatly in their ability to charm parents, that variation would correlate with underlying fitness, and autism could be the low-fitness extreme of this variation. This view explains many seemingly disparate facts about autism and leads to some surprising and testable predictions.

  20. Deletion analysis of Streptococcus pneumoniae late competence genes distinguishes virulence determinants that are dependent or independent of competence induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Luchang; Lin, Jingjun; Kuang, Zhizhou; Vidal, Jorge E; Lau, Gee W

    2015-07-01

    The competence regulon of Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is crucial for genetic transformation. During competence development, the alternative sigma factor ComX is activated, which in turn, initiates transcription of 80 'late' competence genes. Interestingly, only 16 late genes are essential for genetic transformation. We hypothesized that these late genes that are dispensable for competence are beneficial to pneumococcal fitness during infection. These late genes were systematically deleted, and the resulting mutants were examined for their fitness during mouse models of bacteremia and acute pneumonia. Among these, 14 late genes were important for fitness in mice. Significantly, deletion of some late genes attenuated pneumococcal fitness to the same level in both wild-type and ComX-null genetic backgrounds, suggesting that the constitutive baseline expression of these genes was important for bacterial fitness. In contrast, some mutants were attenuated only in the wild-type genetic background but not in the ComX-null background, suggesting that specific expression of these genes during competence state contributed to pneumococcal fitness. Increased virulence during competence state was partially caused by the induction of allolytic enzymes that enhanced pneumolysin release. These results distinguish the role of basal expression versus competence induction in virulence functions encoded by ComX-regulated late competence genes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Association of Physical Fitness with Depression in Women with Fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soriano-Maldonado, Alberto; Estévez-López, Fernando; Segura-Jiménez, Víctor

    2016-01-01

    , muscle strength, flexibility, and motor agility) was assessed using the standardized Senior Fitness Test battery and the handgrip strength test. A standardized composite score for fitness was computed and divided into quintiles. RESULTS: . Overall, the fitness tests presented inverse associations......, arm-curl, and eight-feet up-and-go tests. When all the fitness tests were simultaneously considered, the back-scratch test was the only one independently associated with the total BDI-II score (P = 0.001; R(2) = 0.023). CONCLUSIONS: . Although higher physical fitness was generally associated...

  2. FITS: a function-fitting program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balestrini, S.J.; Chezem, C.G.

    1982-01-01

    FITS is an iterating computer program that adjusts the parameters of a function to fit a set of data points according to the least squares criterion and then lists and plots the results. The function can be programmed or chosen from a library that is provided. The library can be expanded to include up to 99 functions. A general plotting routine, contained in the program but useful in its own right, is described separately in an Appendix.

  3. Family Activities for Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how families can increase family togetherness and improve physical fitness. The author provides easy ways to implement family friendly activities for improving and maintaining physical health. These activities include: walking, backyard games, and fitness challenges.

  4. Computer code FIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohmann, D.; Koehler, T.

    1987-02-01

    This is a description of the computer code FIT, written in FORTRAN-77 for a PDP 11/34. FIT is an interactive program to decude position, width and intensity of lines of X-ray spectra (max. length of 4K channels). The lines (max. 30 lines per fit) may have Gauss- or Voigt-profile, as well as exponential tails. Spectrum and fit can be displayed on a Tektronix terminal. (orig.) [de

  5. Travel medicine advice to UK based international motor sport teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, A

    2000-01-01

    International motor sport teams travel extensively. Over the years, the design and build of racing cars has improved so that morbidity and mortality in motor sport has been lessened. Those team members supporting the competitors need to be physically and mentally fit to perform complicated tasks, despite having traveled. This group of travelers has not been studied to any extent previously. An anonymous questionnaire asking some basic travel medicine related questions was distributed to the support team members of a Rally team, and Formula One Grand Prix team. Both teams were based in the UK, and competed in all the rounds of their respective world championships. Ten Rally team members and 18 Formula One team members responded to the questionnaire. The results showed moderate coverage of commonly used vaccinations; appropriate use of antimalarials and insect repellents, but by no means by all team members; little or no problems with traveler's diarrhea; some tendencies to problems related to jet lag, but no real attempt to prevent the problem; and finally some attempt at skin protection against solar damage. Support teams are reasonably well prepared for the combination of, the rigors of frequent travel, and a demanding job. There is a deficit in vaccine coverage, especially of both hepatitis A and B, some education is needed in preventing skin problems later in life due to sun exposure, and further study of jet lag and its implications might be appropriate.

  6. Fundamental motor skill proficiency is necessary for children's motor activity inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Angelo Barela

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Motor development is influenced by many factors such as practice and appropriate instruction, provided by teachers, even in preschool and elementary school. The goal of this paper was to discuss the misconception that maturation underlies children's motor skill development and to show that physical education, even in early years of our school system, is critical to promote proficiency and enrolment of children's in later motor activities. Motor skill development, as a curricular focus, has been marginalized in many of our physical education proposal and in doing so, we have not promote motor competence in our children who lack proficiency to engage and to participate in later motor activities such as sport-related or recreational.

  7. Musculoskeletal Fitness Measures Are Not Created Equal: An Assessment of School Children in Corpus Christi, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajisafe, Toyin; Garcia, Theresa; Fanchiang, Hsin-Chen

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated current obesity prevalence and associations between musculoskeletal fitness test scores and the odds of being underweight, overweight, or obese compared to having a healthy weight in elementary school children in Corpus Christi, Texas. The sample analyzed consisted of 492 public elementary school children between kindergarten and fifth grade. Their ages ranged from 5 to 11 years. Trunk lift, 90° push-up, curl-up, and back saver sit and reach tests were administered. Weight status was determined using BMI scores and the CDC growth charts. Obesity prevalence remains high among elementary school-aged children in Corpus Christi, Texas. Higher 90° push-up test scores were most consistently associated with decreased odds of being obese as compared to being overweight and having healthy weight except in kindergarten. Conversely, higher trunk lift test scores were associated with increased odds of being obese in second and fourth grades. When children achieved the minimum score to be classified in the Healthy Fitness Zone, those with healthy weight had similarly low musculoskeletal fitness (i.e., abdominal strength and endurance, hamstring flexibility, and trunk extensor strength and flexibility) as peers with overweight and obesity, especially in the lower grades. It was concluded that increased obesity prevalence in higher grades may be precipitated (at least in part) by low musculoskeletal fitness in the lower grades, especially kindergarten. Given previous associations in the literature, low musculoskeletal fitness may be symptomatic of poor motor skill competence in the current sample. These findings suggest a need for early and focused school-based interventions that leverage both known and novel strategies to combat pediatric obesity in Corpus Christi.

  8. Musculoskeletal Fitness Measures Are Not Created Equal: An Assessment of School Children in Corpus Christi, Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyin Ajisafe

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated current obesity prevalence and associations between musculoskeletal fitness test scores and the odds of being underweight, overweight, or obese compared to having a healthy weight in elementary school children in Corpus Christi, Texas. The sample analyzed consisted of 492 public elementary school children between kindergarten and fifth grade. Their ages ranged from 5 to 11 years. Trunk lift, 90° push-up, curl-up, and back saver sit and reach tests were administered. Weight status was determined using BMI scores and the CDC growth charts. Obesity prevalence remains high among elementary school-aged children in Corpus Christi, Texas. Higher 90° push-up test scores were most consistently associated with decreased odds of being obese as compared to being overweight and having healthy weight except in kindergarten. Conversely, higher trunk lift test scores were associated with increased odds of being obese in second and fourth grades. When children achieved the minimum score to be classified in the Healthy Fitness Zone, those with healthy weight had similarly low musculoskeletal fitness (i.e., abdominal strength and endurance, hamstring flexibility, and trunk extensor strength and flexibility as peers with overweight and obesity, especially in the lower grades. It was concluded that increased obesity prevalence in higher grades may be precipitated (at least in part by low musculoskeletal fitness in the lower grades, especially kindergarten. Given previous associations in the literature, low musculoskeletal fitness may be symptomatic of poor motor skill competence in the current sample. These findings suggest a need for early and focused school-based interventions that leverage both known and novel strategies to combat pediatric obesity in Corpus Christi.

  9. Self-worth, perceived competence, and behaviour problems in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuengel, Carlo; Voorman, Jeanine; Stolk, Joop; Dallmeijer, Annet; Vermeer, Adri; Becher, Jules

    2006-10-30

    To examine the relevance of physical disabilities for self-worth and perceived competence in children with cerebral palsy (CP), and to examine associations between behaviour problems and self-worth and perceived competence. The Harter scales for self-worth and perceived competence and a new scale for perceived motor competence were used in a sample of 80 children with CP. Their motor functioning was assessed with the Gross Motor Functioning Measure (GMFM) and behaviour problems with the Child Behaviour Check List administered to parents. Self-worth and perceived competence for children with CP were comparable to the Dutch norm sample, except for perceived athletic competence. Within the CP sample, the GMFM showed a domain-specific effect on perceived motor competence. In the multivariate analysis, internalizing problems were associated negatively with all perceived competence scales and self-worth, whereas aggression was positively associated with perceived motor competence, physical appearance, and self-worth. Children with CP appear resilient against challenges posed to their self-worth caused by their disabilities. The relevance of the physical disability appears to be domain-specific. For internalizing problems and aggression, different theoretical models are needed to account for their associations with self-worth and perceived competence.

  10. Jidosha's Motors

    OpenAIRE

    Shirakawa Okuma, Rosely; Calderón Orejuela, Javier

    2016-01-01

    La tesis narra la situación de una empresa concesionaria de vehículos nuevos, Jidosha's Motors, perteneciente a una corporación japonesa que cuenta con una cultura muy arraigada de ética y de cumplimiento. Se plantean respuestas, se identifican problemas y sus alternativas de solución para una toma adecuada de decisiones por parte de los directivos, siguiendo una estructura de análisis de situaciones de negocios (ASN). Tesis

  11. Cross-limb Interference during motor learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauber, Benedikt; Jensen, Jesper Lundbye; Keller, Martin

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that following skill learning, improvements in motor performance may transfer to the untrained contralateral limb. It is also well known that retention of a newly learned task A can be degraded when learning a competing task B that takes place directly after learning A. Here we...

  12. FITS: a function-fitting program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balestrini, S.J.; Chezem, C.G.

    1982-08-01

    FITS is an iterating computer program that adjusts the parameters of a function to fit a set of data points according to the least squares criterion and then lists and plots the results. The function can be programmed or chosen from a library that is provided. The library can be expanded to include up to 99 functions. A general plotting routine, contained in the program but useful in its own right, is described separately in Appendix A. An example problem file and its solution is given in Appendix B.

  13. Cultural competence and social relationships: a social network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauvrin, M; Lorant, V

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the role of social relationships in the sharing of cultural competence by testing two hypotheses: cultural competence is a socially shared behaviour; and central healthcare professionals are more culturally competent than non-central healthcare professionals. Sustaining cultural competence in healthcare services relies on the assumption that being culturally competent is a socially shared behaviour among health professionals. This assumption has never been tested. Organizational aspects surrounding cultural competence are poorly considered. This therefore leads to a heterogeneous implementation of cultural competence - especially in continental Europe. We carried out a social network analysis in 24 Belgian inpatient and outpatient health services. All healthcare professionals (ego) were requested to fill in a questionnaire (Survey on social relationships of health care professionals) on their level of cultural competence and to identify their professional relationships (alter). We fitted regression models to assess whether (1) at the dyadic level, ego cultural competence was associated with alter cultural competence, and (2) health professionals of greater centrality had greater cultural competence. At the dyadic level, no significant associations were found between ego cultural competence and alter cultural competence, with the exception of subjective exposure to intercultural situations. No significant associations were found between centrality and cultural competence, except for subjective exposure to intercultural situations. Being culturally competent is not a shared behaviour among health professionals. The most central healthcare professionals are not more culturally competent than less central health professionals. Culturally competent health care is not yet a norm in health services. Health care and training authorities should either make cultural competent health care a licensing criteria or reward culturally competent health care

  14. Wskaźnik palców a budowa ciała i sprawność motoryczna mężczyzn trenujących sporty walki i nietrenujących = The digit ratio 2D:4D and body build and motoric fitness of men training martial arts and non-athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Mońka

    2016-12-01

    Magdalena Mońka1, Jadwiga Pietraszewska2   1 Doktorantka na Wydziale Wychowania Fizycznego Akademii Wychowania Fizycznego we Wrocławiu 2 Zakład Antropologii Fizycznej Akademii Wychowania Fizycznego we Wrocławiu   Słowa kluczowe: wskaźnik 2D:4D, sporty walki, budowa ciała, sprawność motoryczna Key words: index 2D:4D, martial arts, body build, motoric fitness     mgr Magdalena Mońka, dr hab. Jadwiga Pietraszewska, prof. nadzw.     Streszczenie               Poziom sprawności fizycznej jest uwarunkowany wieloma czynnikami, w tym również budową morfologiczną. Jednym z elementów morfologicznych jest formuła palców 2D:4D, opisująca stosunek długości palca drugiego do palca czwartego. Wskaźnik palców kształtuje się w życiu płodowym, pod wpływem działania hormonów płciowych i pozostaje niezmiennym w dalszym rozwoju osobniczym. Wysoki poziom testosteronu, odzwierciedlający się w niższych wartościach formuły palców, determinuje lepszą zręczność, wytrzymałość i siłę. Ponadto wpływa na zachowania zawodników, zwiększając skłonność do agresji oraz wolę walki i podjęcia ryzyka.   Cel               Celem niniejszej pracy jest ocena powiązań wskaźnika palców 2D:4D z cechami budowy somatycznej oraz poziomem sprawności motorycznej w grupie zawodników sporów walki i osób nietrenujących. Materiał i metody               Materiał badawczy stanowiły pomiary antropometryczne i wyniki prób motorycznych mężczyzn uprawiających sporty walki (n=28 oraz osób nietrenujących (n=30. Badani to studenci Akademii Wychowania Fizycznego we Wrocławiu w przedziale wiekowym 19-25 lat. U wszystkich badanych zmierzono cechy długościowe, szerokościowe, obwody ciała i fałdy skórno-tłuszczowe oraz długość drugiego (2D i czwartego palca (4D prawej i lewej ręki. Do oceny sprawności motorycznej badanych wykorzystano cztery próby motoryczne: skłon w przód w siadzie, skok w dal z

  15. Multilevel joint competing risk models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunarathna, G. H. S.; Sooriyarachchi, M. R.

    2017-09-01

    Joint modeling approaches are often encountered for different outcomes of competing risk time to event and count in many biomedical and epidemiology studies in the presence of cluster effect. Hospital length of stay (LOS) has been the widely used outcome measure in hospital utilization due to the benchmark measurement for measuring multiple terminations such as discharge, transferred, dead and patients who have not completed the event of interest at the follow up period (censored) during hospitalizations. Competing risk models provide a method of addressing such multiple destinations since classical time to event models yield biased results when there are multiple events. In this study, the concept of joint modeling has been applied to the dengue epidemiology in Sri Lanka, 2006-2008 to assess the relationship between different outcomes of LOS and platelet count of dengue patients with the district cluster effect. Two key approaches have been applied to build up the joint scenario. In the first approach, modeling each competing risk separately using the binary logistic model, treating all other events as censored under the multilevel discrete time to event model, while the platelet counts are assumed to follow a lognormal regression model. The second approach is based on the endogeneity effect in the multilevel competing risks and count model. Model parameters were estimated using maximum likelihood based on the Laplace approximation. Moreover, the study reveals that joint modeling approach yield more precise results compared to fitting two separate univariate models, in terms of AIC (Akaike Information Criterion).

  16. Improving health-related fitness in adolescents: the CrossFit Teens™ randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eather, Narelle; Morgan, Philip James; Lubans, David Revalds

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the preliminary efficacy and feasibility of the CrossFit Teens™ resistance training programme for improving health-related fitness and resistance training skill competency in adolescents. This assessor-blinded randomised controlled trial was conducted in one secondary school in the Hunter Region, Australia, from July to September 2013. Ninety-six (96) students (age = 15.4 (.5) years, 51.5% female) were randomised into intervention (n = 51) or control (n = 45) conditions for 8-weeks (60 min twice per week). Waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), BMI-Z score (primary outcomes), cardiorespiratory fitness (shuttle run test), muscular fitness (standing jump, push-up, handgrip, curl-up test), flexibility (sit and reach) and resistance training skill competency were measured at baseline and immediate post-intervention. Feasibility measures of recruitment, retention, adherence and satisfaction were assessed. Significant group-by-time intervention effects were found for waist circumference [-3.1 cm, P CrossFit Teens™ is a feasible and efficacious programme for improving health-related fitness in adolescents.

  17. Getting CSR communication fit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmeltz, Line

    2017-01-01

    Companies experience increasing legal and societal pressure to communicate about their corporate social responsibility (CSR) engagements from a number of different publics. One very important group is that of young consumers who are predicted to be the most important and influential consumer group...... in the near future. From a value- theoretical base, this article empirically explores the role and applicability of ‘fit’ in strategic CSR communication targeted at young consumers. Point of departure is taken in the well-known strategic fit (a logical link between a company’s CSR commitment and its core...... values) and is further developed by introducing two additional fits, the CSR- Consumer fit and the CSR-Consumer-Company fit (Triple Fit). Through a sequential design, the three fits are empirically tested and their potential for meeting young consumers’ expectations for corporate CSR messaging...

  18. Fragment Impact Toolkit (FIT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevitz, Daniel Wolf [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Key, Brian P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Garcia, Daniel B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-05

    The Fragment Impact Toolkit (FIT) is a software package used for probabilistic consequence evaluation of fragmenting sources. The typical use case for FIT is to simulate an exploding shell and evaluate the consequence on nearby objects. FIT is written in the programming language Python and is designed as a collection of interacting software modules. Each module has a function that interacts with the other modules to produce desired results.

  19. Handwriting development, competency, and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feder, Katya P; Majnemer, Annette

    2007-04-01

    Failure to attain handwriting competency during the school-age years often has far-reaching negative effects on both academic success and self-esteem. This complex occupational task has many underlying component skills that may interfere with handwriting performance. Fine motor control, bilateral and visual-motor integration, motor planning, in-hand manipulation, proprioception, visual perception, sustained attention, and sensory awareness of the fingers are some of the component skills identified. Poor handwriting may be related to intrinsic factors, which refer to the child's actual handwriting capabilities, or extrinsic factors which are related to environmental or biomechanical components, or both. It is important that handwriting performance be evaluated using a valid, reliable, standardized tool combined with informal classroom observation and teacher consultation. Studies of handwriting remediation suggest that intervention is effective. There is evidence to indicate that handwriting difficulties do not resolve without intervention and affect between 10 and 30% of school-aged children. Despite the widespread use of computers, legible handwriting remains an important life skill that deserves greater attention from educators and health practitioners.

  20. Economical motor transport operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, P

    1979-09-01

    Motor transport is one area in a company where energy conservation is a function primarily of operative education and motivation rather than mechanical or technical control and monitoring. Unless the driver wants to save energy by proper operation of the vehicle, there is nothing the company can do to force him, whatever equipment it fits to the vehicles, or incentives it offers. This article gives an overview of the use of energy in road transport and examines a number of actions that can be taken to conserve energy. It discusses the question of the cost-effectiveness of transport energy conservation in the light of the complex issues involved. The problems and opportunities of implementing energy-saving programs are examined. (MCW)

  1. The three faces of ecological fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Kent A

    2011-03-01

    This paper argues that fitness is most usefully understood as those properties of organisms that are explanatory of survival in the broadest sense, not merely descriptive of reproductive success. Borrowing from Rosenberg and Bouchard (2009), fitness in this sense is ecological in that it is defined by the interactions between organisms and environments. There are three sorts of ecological fitness: the well-documented ability to compete, the ability to cooperate (as in mutualistic symbiosis), and a third sense of fitness that has received insufficient attention in evolutionary theory, the ability to construct. Following Lotka, it can be understood thermodynamically as the ability to maintain or enlarge the energy-circulating capacity of an ecosystem. An organism that does this could end with its gene frequency unchanged but its probability of survival enhanced since it would sustain or increase the total carrying capacity of its ecosystem. Photosynthesizers and other autotrophs are obvious candidates for organisms that are fit in the constructive sense, but any organisms, including heterotrophs, can exhibit constructive fitness if they have some mechanism for channeling external flows of free energy into their ecosystems. I will briefly examine the prospects for the human species in the light of these considerations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fitness: Tips for Staying Motivated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Fitness Fitness is for life. Motivate yourself with these practical tips. By Mayo Clinic Staff Have ... 27, 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/fitness/in-depth/fitness/art-20047624 . Mayo Clinic ...

  3. Motor trajectories from birth to 5 years of children born at less than 30 weeks' gestation: early predictors and functional implications. Protocol for a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spittle, Alicia J; McGinley, Jennifer L; Thompson, Deanne; Clark, Ross; FitzGerald, Tara L; Mentiplay, Benjamin F; Lee, Katherine J; Olsen, Joy E; Burnett, Alice; Treyvaud, Karli; Josev, Elisha; Alexander, Bonnie; Kelly, Claire E; Doyle, Lex W; Anderson, Peter J; Cheong, Jeanie Ly

    2016-10-01

    Motor impairments are one of the most frequently reported adverse neurodevelopmental consequences in children born motor impairment at school age. The first 5 years of life are critical for the development of fundamental motor skills. These skills form the basis for more complex skills that are required to competently and confidently participate in schooling, sporting and recreational activities. In children born at motor development from birth to 5 years is not fully understood. The neural alterations that underpin motor impairments in these children are also unclear. It is essential to determine if early clinical evaluations and neuroimaging biomarkers can predict later motor impairment and associated functional problems at 5 years of age. This will help to identify children who will benefit the most from early intervention and improve functional outcomes at school age. The primary aim of this study is to compare the prevalence of motor impairment from birth to 5 years of age between children born at motor assessments in the newborn period in those born at motor functioning at 5 years of age. Secondary aims for children born at motor impairments at 5 years are detectable in the neonatal period; 2) to investigate the association between motor impairments and concurrent deficits in body structure and function at 5 years of age; and 3) to explore how motor impairments at 5 years (including abnormalities of gait, postural control and strength) are associated with concurrent functional outcomes, including physical activity, cognitive ability, learning ability, and behavioural and emotional problems. Prospective longitudinal cohort study. 150 preterm children (born at 36 completed weeks' gestation and weighing > 2499g) admitted to the Royal Women's Hospital, Melbourne, were recruited at birth and will be invited to participate in a 5-year follow-up study. This study will examine previously collected data (from birth to 2 years) that comprise detailed motor assessments

  4. SAP Nuclear Competence Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrlova, Z.

    2009-01-01

    In this issue we continue and introduce the SAP Nuclear Competence Centre and its head Mr. Igor Dzama. SAP Nuclear Competence Centrum is one of the fi rst competence centres outside ENEL headquarters. It should operate in Slovakia and should have competencies within the whole Enel group. We are currently dealing with the issues of organisation and funding. We are trying to balance the accountability to the NPP directors and to the management of the competence centres at Enel headquarters; we are looking at the relations between the competence centres within the group and defining the services that we will provide for the NPPs. author)

  5. Assessment of Innovation Competency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jan Alexis

    2015-01-01

    competency, and communication competency) as well as assessment criteria for a number of skills relevant to these subcompetencies. These assessment criteria, it is argued, largely resonate with existing literature and they provide a detailed glimpse into how assessment of innovation competency could...... of the recorded talk in interaction that occurred in teacher group discussion sessions at 5 upper secondary schools. Based on the analysis, it was possible to extrapolate assessment criteria for 5 subcompetencies relevant to innovation (creative competency, collaboration competency, navigation competency, action...

  6. Limitations of inclusive fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Benjamin; Nowak, Martin A; Wilson, Edward O

    2013-12-10

    Until recently, inclusive fitness has been widely accepted as a general method to explain the evolution of social behavior. Affirming and expanding earlier criticism, we demonstrate that inclusive fitness is instead a limited concept, which exists only for a small subset of evolutionary processes. Inclusive fitness assumes that personal fitness is the sum of additive components caused by individual actions. This assumption does not hold for the majority of evolutionary processes or scenarios. To sidestep this limitation, inclusive fitness theorists have proposed a method using linear regression. On the basis of this method, it is claimed that inclusive fitness theory (i) predicts the direction of allele frequency changes, (ii) reveals the reasons for these changes, (iii) is as general as natural selection, and (iv) provides a universal design principle for evolution. In this paper we evaluate these claims, and show that all of them are unfounded. If the objective is to analyze whether mutations that modify social behavior are favored or opposed by natural selection, then no aspect of inclusive fitness theory is needed.

  7. [Developing Perceived Competence Scale (PCS) for Adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özer, Arif; Gençtanirim Kurt, Dilek; Kizildağ, Seval; Demırtaş Zorbaz, Selen; Arici Şahın, Fatma; Acar, Tülin; Ergene, Tuncay

    2016-01-01

    In this study, Perceived Competence Scale was developed to measure high school students' perceived competence. Scale development process was verified on three different samples. Participants of the research are some high school students in 2011-2012 academic terms from Ankara. Participants' numbers are incorporated in exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and test-retest reliability respectively, as follows: 372, 668 and 75. Internal consistency coefficients (Cronbach's and stratified α) are calculated separately for each group. For data analysis Factor 8.02 and LISREL 8.70 package programs were used. According to results of the analyses, internal consistency coefficients (α) are .90 - .93 for academic competence, .82 - .86 for social competence in the samples that exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis performed. For the whole scale internal consistency coefficient (stratified α) is calculated as .91. As a result of test-retest reliability, adjusted correlation coefficients (r) are .94 for social competence and .90 for academic competence. In addition, to fit indexes and regression weights obtained from factor analysis, findings related convergent and discriminant validity, indicating that competence can be addressed in two dimensions which are academic (16 items) and social (14 items).

  8. Fine motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gross (large, general) motor control. An example of gross motor control is waving an arm in greeting. Problems ... out the child's developmental age. Children develop fine motor skills over time, by practicing and being taught. To ...

  9. Relationship between motor proficiency and body composition in 6- to 10-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmeleira, José; Veiga, Guida; Cansado, Hugo; Raimundo, Armando

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between motor skill competence and body composition of 6- to 10-year-old children. Seventy girls and 86 boys participated. Body composition was measured by body mass index and skinfold thickness. Motor proficiency was evaluated through the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-Short Form, which included measures of gross motor skills and fine motor skills. Significant associations were found for both sexes between the percentage of body fat and (i) the performance in each gross motor task, (ii) the composite score for gross motor skills and (iii) the motor proficiency score. The percentage of body fat was not significantly associated with the majority of the fine motor skills items and with the respective composite score. Considering body weigh categories, children with normal weight had significantly higher scores than their peers with overweight or with obesity in gross motor skills and in overall motor proficiency. Children's motor proficiency is negatively associated with body fat, and normal weight children show better motor competence than those who are overweight or obese. The negative impact of excessive body weight is stronger for gross motor skills that involve dynamic body movements than for stationary object control skills; fine motor skills appear to be relatively independent of the constraints imposed by excessive body weight. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  10. Using Movement Test to Evaluate Effectiveness of Health and Fitness Activities of Students in Higher Education Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pashkevich

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The study objective is to evaluate the possibility of using screening methods for determining the effectiveness of health and fitness activities of students in higher education institutions. Materials and methods. The participants in the experiment were 37 first-year students (17 boys and 20 girls of the School of History of H. S. Skovoroda Kharkiv National Pedagogical University. The experiment lasted during the fall semester. Using the Framingham method for analyzing weekly timing, the study conducted a survey among the students on their level of motor activity and performed a functional movement screen testing. To tentatively evaluate the cause and effect relationship between the level of motor activity and the occurrence of a pathological movement pattern, the study used the Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. The characteristics between the groups were analyzed by using the Mann-Whitney test for comparing the distribution of ordinal variables. Results. The correlation analysis showed that the first-year students’ motor activity was positively related to the results of functional movement screening (R=+0.69, p< 0.05. At the same time, the students (EG1 who mainly had a high level of physical activity at physical education classes showed low values of functional movement evaluation, compared to the students (EG2 participating in extra-curricular physical activity. In EG1, the overall screening score was 10.3±0.7, in EG2 — 14.2±0.9 (p<0.05. Conclusions. The students with insufficient weekly motor activity had risk values of the test (10.3±0.7, which requires further analysis of the causes of a pathological movement pattern. The study results have confirmed the existence of the relationship between motor activity indicators and functional movement evaluation (R=+0.69, p<0.05. This provides a way to use the screening method of determining motor competence for the effectiveness evaluation of health and fitness programs, but further

  11. GOSSIP: SED fitting code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzetti, Paolo; Scodeggio, Marco

    2012-10-01

    GOSSIP fits the electro-magnetic emission of an object (the SED, Spectral Energy Distribution) against synthetic models to find the simulated one that best reproduces the observed data. It builds-up the observed SED of an object (or a large sample of objects) combining magnitudes in different bands and eventually a spectrum; then it performs a chi-square minimization fitting procedure versus a set of synthetic models. The fitting results are used to estimate a number of physical parameters like the Star Formation History, absolute magnitudes, stellar mass and their Probability Distribution Functions.

  12. Fitness Club / Nordic Walking

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2011-01-01

    Nordic Walking at CERN Enrollments are open for Nordic Walking courses and outings at CERN. Classes will be on Tuesdays as of 20 September, and outings for the more experienced will be on Thursdays as of 15 September. We meet at the CERN Club barracks car park (near entrance A). • 18:00 to 19:00 on 20 & 27 September, as well as 4 & 11 October. Check out our schedule and rates and enroll at: http://cern.ch/club-fitness Hope to see you among us! CERN Fitness Club fitness.club@cern.ch  

  13. Developing mathematical modelling competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomhøj, Morten; Jensen, Tomas Højgaard

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the concept of mathematical modelling competence, by which we mean being able to carry through a whole mathematical modelling process in a certain context. Analysing the structure of this process, six sub-competences are identified. Mathematical modelling competence...... cannot be reduced to these six sub-competences, but they are necessary elements in the development of mathematical modelling competence. Experience from the development of a modelling course is used to illustrate how the different nature of the sub-competences can be used as a tool for finding...... the balance between different kinds of activities in a particular educational setting. Obstacles of social, cognitive and affective nature for the students' development of mathematical modelling competence are reported and discussed in relation to the sub-competences....

  14. Competence and Professional Expertise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, A.T.; Heijden, B.I.J.M. van der; Mulder, M.

    2017-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical controversies exist about the understanding and potentials of the concepts of competence and professional expertise. In this chapter, both concepts will be thoroughly conceptualised and discussed. Competence and professional expertise are important as all professionals need

  15. Competence and Professional Expertise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, Arnoud; Van der Heijden, Beatrice

    2018-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical controversies exist about the understanding and potentials of the concepts competence and professional expertise. In this chapter, both concepts will be thoroughly conceptualised and discussed. Competence and professional expertise are important as all professionals need to

  16. Integrating learning assessment and supervision in a competency framework for clinical workplace education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Embo, M.; Driessen, E.; Valcke, M.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2015-01-01

    Although competency-based education is well established in health care education, research shows that the competencies do not always match the reality of clinical workplaces. Therefore, there is a need to design feasible and evidence-based competency frameworks that fit the workplace reality. This

  17. Building Project Competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pemsel, Sofia; Wiewiora, Anna

    This research investigates the development of project competence, and particularly, three related dynamic capabilities (shifting, adapting, leveraging) that contribute to project competence development. In doing so, we make use of the emerging literature on knowledge governance and theorize how...... of dynamic capability building promoting project competence development....

  18. Athletic Coaching Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathanson, Stephen J.

    1979-01-01

    This article describes a study conducted to identify the competencies appropriate for an athletic coach and to incorporate those competencies into a competency based coaching education program for the four-year colleges and universities within the New York state systems. (JMF)

  19. Measuring Your Fitness Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... online calculator. If you'd rather do the math yourself, divide your weight in pounds by your ... Human Services recommends one of the following activity levels for adult fitness and health benefits: 150 minutes ...

  20. The universal Higgs fit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giardino, P. P.; Kannike, K.; Masina, I.

    2014-01-01

    We perform a state-of-the-art global fit to all Higgs data. We synthesise them into a 'universal' form, which allows to easily test any desired model. We apply the proposed methodology to extract from data the Higgs branching ratios, production cross sections, couplings and to analyse composite...... Higgs models, models with extra Higgs doublets, supersymmetry, extra particles in the loops, anomalous top couplings, and invisible Higgs decays into Dark Matter. Best fit regions lie around the Standard Model predictions and are well approximated by our 'universal' fit. Latest data exclude the dilaton...... as an alternative to the Higgs, and disfavour fits with negative Yukawa couplings. We derive for the first time the SM Higgs boson mass from the measured rates, rather than from the peak positions, obtaining M-h = 124.4 +/- 1.6 GeV....

  1. ACSM Fit Society Page

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fitness topics. Expert commentary and features on exercise, nutrition, sports and health offer tips and techniques for maintaining ... Special Populations 2011 -- Behavior Change & Exercise Adherence 2011 -- ... Preparing for Fall Sports 2009 -- Cancer and Exercise 2008 -- Group Exercise 2008 -- ...

  2. Driver fitness medical guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    This guide provides guidance to assist licensing agencies in making decisions about an individuals fitness for driving. This is the first attempt to produce a consolidated document covering medical conditions included in the task agreement between...

  3. Motor control for a brushless DC motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, William J. (Inventor); Faulkner, Dennis T. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to a motor control system for a brushless DC motor having an inverter responsively coupled to the motor control system and in power transmitting relationship to the motor. The motor control system includes a motor rotor speed detecting unit that provides a pulsed waveform signal proportional to rotor speed. This pulsed waveform signal is delivered to the inverter to thereby cause an inverter fundamental current waveform output to the motor to be switched at a rate proportional to said rotor speed. In addition, the fundamental current waveform is also pulse width modulated at a rate proportional to the rotor speed. A fundamental current waveform phase advance circuit is controllingly coupled to the inverter. The phase advance circuit is coupled to receive the pulsed waveform signal from the motor rotor speed detecting unit and phase advance the pulsed waveform signal as a predetermined function of motor speed to thereby cause the fundamental current waveform to be advanced and thereby compensate for fundamental current waveform lag due to motor winding reactance which allows the motor to operate at higher speeds than the motor is rated while providing optimal torque and therefore increased efficiency.

  4. The Langley Fitness Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    NASA Langley recognizes the importance of healthy employees by committing itself to offering a complete fitness program. The scope of the program focuses on promoting overall health and wellness in an effort to reduce the risks of illness and disease and to increase productivity. This is accomplished through a comprehensive Health and Fitness Program offered to all NASA employees. Various aspects of the program are discussed.

  5. dftools: Distribution function fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obreschkow, Danail

    2018-05-01

    dftools, written in R, finds the most likely P parameters of a D-dimensional distribution function (DF) generating N objects, where each object is specified by D observables with measurement uncertainties. For instance, if the objects are galaxies, it can fit a mass function (D=1), a mass-size distribution (D=2) or the mass-spin-morphology distribution (D=3). Unlike most common fitting approaches, this method accurately accounts for measurement in uncertainties and complex selection functions.

  6. Competence for Contract and Competence to Consent to Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    前田, 泰

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes assessing competence to consent to treatment. It focuses on problems of competence for contract and competence to consent to treatment. Finally, it discusses the degree of assessing competence to consent to treatment.

  7. Mechanisms for Human Spatial Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunzelmann, Glenn; Lyon, Don R.

    Research spanning decades has generated a long list of phenomena associated with human spatial information processing. Additionally, a number of theories have been proposed about the representation, organization and processing of spatial information by humans. This paper presents a broad account of human spatial competence, integrated with the ACT-R cognitive architecture. Using a cognitive architecture grounds the research in a validated theory of human cognition, enhancing the plausibility of the overall account. This work posits a close link of aspects of spatial information processing to vision and motor planning, and integrates theoretical perspectives that have been proposed over the history of research in this area. In addition, the account is supported by evidence from neuropsychological investigations of human spatial ability. The mechanisms provide a means of accounting for a broad range of phenomena described in the experimental literature.

  8. Electric wheel hub motor; Elektrischer Radnabenmotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groeninger, Michael; Kock, Alexander [IFAM Bremen (Germany); Horch, Felix [IFAM Bremen (Germany). Komponentenentwicklung; Pleteit, Hermann [IFAM Bremen (Germany). Abt. Giessereitechnologie und Komponentenentwicklung

    2012-02-15

    The bundled competences of the participating Fraunhofer Institutes have made it possible to develop a wheel hub motor that has essentially overcome currently existing technical hurdles, enabling its use in a vehicle. In addition to direct technical challenges such as sealing against external influences, high bearing stiffness requirements, necessary high torque densities and simple integration in the chassis, the safety aspects required by modern vehicles were also taken into account. A drive system that guarantees safe driving states, even in the case of malfunction, was developed through the combination of recuperative braking with a classic mechanical braking system and redundant motor design. (orig.)

  9. Rules, culture, and fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, W M

    1995-01-01

    Behavior analysis risks intellectual isolation unless it integrates its explanations with evolutionary theory. Rule-governed behavior is an example of a topic that requires an evolutionary perspective for a full understanding. A rule may be defined as a verbal discriminative stimulus produced by the behavior of a speaker under the stimulus control of a long-term contingency between the behavior and fitness. As a discriminative stimulus, the rule strengthens listener behavior that is reinforced in the short run by socially mediated contingencies, but which also enters into the long-term contingency that enhances the listener's fitness. The long-term contingency constitutes the global context for the speaker's giving the rule. When a rule is said to be "internalized," the listener's behavior has switched from short- to long-term control. The fitness-enhancing consequences of long-term contingencies are health, resources, relationships, or reproduction. This view ties rules both to evolutionary theory and to culture. Stating a rule is a cultural practice. The practice strengthens, with short-term reinforcement, behavior that usually enhances fitness in the long run. The practice evolves because of its effect on fitness. The standard definition of a rule as a verbal statement that points to a contingency fails to distinguish between a rule and a bargain ("If you'll do X, then I'll do Y"), which signifies only a single short-term contingency that provides mutual reinforcement for speaker and listener. In contrast, the giving and following of a rule ("Dress warmly; it's cold outside") can be understood only by reference also to a contingency providing long-term enhancement of the listener's fitness or the fitness of the listener's genes. Such a perspective may change the way both behavior analysts and evolutionary biologists think about rule-governed behavior.

  10. High efficiency motors; Motores de alta eficiencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uranga Favela, Ivan Jaime [Energia Controlada de Mexico, S. A. de C. V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    This paper is a technical-financial study of the high efficiency and super-premium motors. As it is widely known, more than 60% of the electrical energy generated in the country is used for the operation of motors, in industry as well as in commerce. Therefore the importance that the motors have in the efficient energy use. [Espanol] El presente trabajo es un estudio tecnico-financiero de los motores de alta eficiencia y los motores super premium. Como es ampliamente conocido, mas del 60% de la energia electrica generada en el pais, es utilizada para accionar motores, dentro de la industria y el comercio. De alli la importancia que los motores tienen en el uso eficiente de la energia.

  11. High efficiency motors; Motores de alta eficiencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uranga Favela, Ivan Jaime [Energia Controlada de Mexico, S. A. de C. V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    This paper is a technical-financial study of the high efficiency and super-premium motors. As it is widely known, more than 60% of the electrical energy generated in the country is used for the operation of motors, in industry as well as in commerce. Therefore the importance that the motors have in the efficient energy use. [Espanol] El presente trabajo es un estudio tecnico-financiero de los motores de alta eficiencia y los motores super premium. Como es ampliamente conocido, mas del 60% de la energia electrica generada en el pais, es utilizada para accionar motores, dentro de la industria y el comercio. De alli la importancia que los motores tienen en el uso eficiente de la energia.

  12. Health-Related Physical Fitness in Dutch Children With Developmental Coordination Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hoek, Frouwien D.; Stuive, Ilse; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A.; Holty, Lian; de Blecourt, Alida C. E.; Maathuis, Carel G. B.; van Weert, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare components of health-related physical fitness between Dutch children with clinically diagnosed developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and typically developing children (TDC), and to examine associations between motor performance problems and components of health-related

  13. Fitting the Phenomenological MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    AbdusSalam, S S; Quevedo, F; Feroz, F; Hobson, M

    2010-01-01

    We perform a global Bayesian fit of the phenomenological minimal supersymmetric standard model (pMSSM) to current indirect collider and dark matter data. The pMSSM contains the most relevant 25 weak-scale MSSM parameters, which are simultaneously fit using `nested sampling' Monte Carlo techniques in more than 15 years of CPU time. We calculate the Bayesian evidence for the pMSSM and constrain its parameters and observables in the context of two widely different, but reasonable, priors to determine which inferences are robust. We make inferences about sparticle masses, the sign of the $\\mu$ parameter, the amount of fine tuning, dark matter properties and the prospects for direct dark matter detection without assuming a restrictive high-scale supersymmetry breaking model. We find the inferred lightest CP-even Higgs boson mass as an example of an approximately prior independent observable. This analysis constitutes the first statistically convergent pMSSM global fit to all current data.

  14. Structural equation modeling of motor impairment, gross motor function, and the functional outcome in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Young; Kim, Won-Ho

    2013-05-01

    Physical therapy intervention for children with cerebral palsy (CP) is focused on reducing neurological impairments, improving strength, and preventing the development of secondary impairments in order to improve functional outcomes. However, relationship between motor impairments and functional outcome has not been proved definitely. This study confirmed the construct of motor impairment and performed structural equation modeling (SEM) between motor impairment, gross motor function, and functional outcomes of regarding activities of daily living in children with CP. 98 children (59 boys, 39 girls) with CP participated in this cross-sectional study. Mean age was 11 y 5 mo (SD 1 y 9 mo). The Manual Muscle Test (MMT), the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS), range of motion (ROM) measurement, and the selective motor control (SMC) scale were used to assess motor impairments. Gross motor function and functional outcomes were measured using the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) and the Functional Skills domain of the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) respectively. Measurement of motor impairment was consisted of strength, spasticity, ROM, and SMC. The construct of motor impairment was confirmed though an examination of a measurement model. The proposed SEM model showed good fit indices. Motor impairment effected gross motor function (β=-.0869). Gross motor function and motor impairment affected functional outcomes directly (β=0.890) and indirectly (β=-0.773) respectively. We confirmed that the construct of motor impairment consist of strength, spasticity, ROM, and SMC and it was identified through measurement model analysis. Functional outcomes are best predicted by gross motor function and motor impairments have indirect effects on functional outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Strength Training: For Overall Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Fitness Strength training is an important part of an overall fitness program. Here's what strength training can do for ... is a key component of overall health and fitness for everyone. Lean muscle mass naturally diminishes with ...

  16. Socio-demographic predictors of person–organization fit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Merecz-Kot

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between socio-demographic characteristics and the level of complementary and supplementary person–organization fit (P–O fit. Material and Methods: The study sample was a group of 600 Polish workers, urban residents aged 19–65. Level of P–O fit was measured using the Subjective Person–Organization Fit Questionnaire by Czarnota-Bojarska. The binomial multivariate logistic regression was applied. The analyzes were performed separately for the men and women. Results: Socio-demographic variables explained small percentage of the outcome variability. Gender differences were found. In the case of men shift work decreased complementary and supplementary fit, while long working hours decreased complementary fit. In the women, age was a stimulant of a complementary fit, involuntary job losses predicted both complementary and supplementary misfit. Additionally, relational responsibilities increased probability of supplementary P–O fit in the men. Conclusions: Going beyond personality and competences as the factors affecting P–O fit will allow development of a more accurate prediction of P–O fit. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(1:133–149

  17. DC Motor Parameter Identification Using Speed Step Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the DC motor speed response measurement under a step voltage input, important motor parameters such as the electrical time constant, the mechanical time constant, and the friction can be estimated. A power series expansion of the motor speed response is presented, whose coefficients are related to the motor parameters. These coefficients can be easily computed using existing curve fitting methods. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate the application of this approach. In these experiments, the approach was readily implemented and gave more accurate estimates than conventional methods.

  18. High torque DC motor fabrication and test program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makus, P.

    1976-01-01

    The testing of a standard iron and standard alnico permanent magnet two-phase, brushless dc spin motor for potential application to the space telescope has been concluded. The purpose of this study was to determine spin motor power losses, magnetic drag, efficiency and torque speed characteristics of a high torque dc motor. The motor was designed and built to fit an existing reaction wheel as a test vehicle and to use existing brass-board commutation and torque command electronics. The results of the tests are included in this report.

  19. Multiple systems for motor skill learning

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Dav; Ivry, Richard B.

    2010-01-01

    Motor learning is a ubiquitous feature of human competence. This review focuses on two particular classes of model tasks for studying skill acquisition. The serial reaction time (SRT) task is used to probe how people learn sequences of actions, while adaptation in the context of visuomotor or force field perturbations serves to illustrate how preexisting movements are recalibrated in novel environments. These tasks highlight important issues regarding the representational changes that occur d...

  20. Association of Physical Fitness With Fibromyalgia Severity in Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soriano-Maldonado, Alberto; Henriksen, Marius; Segura-Jiménez, Víctor

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between physical fitness and fibromyalgia (FM) severity in women with FM as well as to assess whether different fitness components present an independent relation with FM severity. DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional study. SETTING: University facilities...... and FM associations. PARTICIPANTS: Women with FM (N=444). INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: FM severity was assessed with the Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQR). Aerobic fitness (6-min walk test), muscle strength (handgrip, chair stand, and arm curl tests), flexibility...... (chair sit and reach and back scratch tests), and motor agility (8 foot Up and Go test) were measured with the Senior Fitness Test battery and digital dynamometry. A standardized composite score (hereafter "global fitness profile") was calculated and divided into quintiles. RESULTS: Overall, physical...

  1. Improving NEC Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    TAD Temporary Additional Duty TFMMS Total Force Manpower Management System UIC Unit Identification Code USFFC United States Fleet Forces Command...not include sailors on temporary additional duty ( TAD ). In addition, for class average Fit, we excluded units that had billets but no onboard

  2. Reliability and Model Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Leanne M.; Edwards, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight the distinction between the reliability of test scores and the fit of psychometric measurement models, reminding readers why it is important to consider both when evaluating whether test scores are valid for a proposed interpretation and/or use. It is often the case that an investigator judges both the…

  3. Motor planning flexibly optimizes performance under uncertainty about task goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Aaron L; Haith, Adrian M

    2017-03-03

    In an environment full of potential goals, how does the brain determine which movement to execute? Existing theories posit that the motor system prepares for all potential goals by generating several motor plans in parallel. One major line of evidence for such theories is that presenting two competing goals often results in a movement intermediate between them. These intermediate movements are thought to reflect an unintentional averaging of the competing plans. However, normative theories suggest instead that intermediate movements might actually be deliberate, generated because they improve task performance over a random guessing strategy. To test this hypothesis, we vary the benefit of making an intermediate movement by changing movement speed. We find that participants generate intermediate movements only at (slower) speeds where they measurably improve performance. Our findings support the normative view that the motor system selects only a single, flexible motor plan, optimized for uncertain goals.

  4. Geothermal FIT Design: International Experience and U.S. Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rickerson, W.; Gifford, J.; Grace, R.; Cory, K.

    2012-08-01

    Developing power plants is a risky endeavor, whether conventional or renewable generation. Feed-in tariff (FIT) policies can be designed to address some of these risks, and their design can be tailored to geothermal electric plant development. Geothermal projects face risks similar to other generation project development, including finding buyers for power, ensuring adequate transmission capacity, competing to supply electricity and/or renewable energy certificates (RECs), securing reliable revenue streams, navigating the legal issues related to project development, and reacting to changes in existing regulations or incentives. Although FITs have not been created specifically for geothermal in the United States to date, a variety of FIT design options could reduce geothermal power plant development risks and are explored. This analysis focuses on the design of FIT incentive policies for geothermal electric projects and how FITs can be used to reduce risks (excluding drilling unproductive exploratory wells).

  5. Defining fitness to practise in Australian radiation therapy: A focus group study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Caroline A.; Jolly, Brian; Schneider-Kolsky, Michal E.; Baird, Marilyn A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper presents the results of a study undertaken to investigate how Australian radiation therapists define fitness to practise. Method: A qualitative approach was taken to data collection with focus groups being employed to gather the data. Analysis was informed by grounded theory. Following ethics approval, three homogeneous focus groups were conducted comprising a total of 21 participants, with 5-8 participants per group. The discussions were transcribed, verified by the researcher and participants, then unitised, coded and a sample checked by a second coder. Findings: There was no consensus on the definition of fitness to practise. The terms professionalism and competence were used interchangeably in some definitions. Four themes emerged from the data, these were; fitness as a continuum (individual differences and longevity in the profession), fitness as behaviour and conduct (professionalism and competence), fitness as a state of mind (attitudes and intangible elements) and fitness as being qualified (course completion means fitness to practise). Three concepts which were not raised were illegal behaviour, impaired practice and dose errors. Conclusion: There is no consensus among radiation therapists about fitness to practise. There was confusion with how Fitness to practise relates to professionalism and competence with little mention of how impairment is interwoven into the notion of fitness to practise. Without an unambiguous definition and robust criteria, making the 'judgement call' as to whether a practitioners' fitness to practise is impaired will continue to be a challenge for educators, departmental managers and registration boards.

  6. Defining fitness to practise in Australian radiation therapy: A focus group study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Caroline A., E-mail: caroline.wright@med.monash.edu.a [Monash University, Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences, Clayton Campus, Wellington Road Clayton, Melbourne, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Jolly, Brian [Monash University, Centre for Medical and Health Sciences Education (Australia); Schneider-Kolsky, Michal E.; Baird, Marilyn A. [Monash University, Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences, Clayton Campus, Wellington Road Clayton, Melbourne, Victoria 3800 (Australia)

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: This paper presents the results of a study undertaken to investigate how Australian radiation therapists define fitness to practise. Method: A qualitative approach was taken to data collection with focus groups being employed to gather the data. Analysis was informed by grounded theory. Following ethics approval, three homogeneous focus groups were conducted comprising a total of 21 participants, with 5-8 participants per group. The discussions were transcribed, verified by the researcher and participants, then unitised, coded and a sample checked by a second coder. Findings: There was no consensus on the definition of fitness to practise. The terms professionalism and competence were used interchangeably in some definitions. Four themes emerged from the data, these were; fitness as a continuum (individual differences and longevity in the profession), fitness as behaviour and conduct (professionalism and competence), fitness as a state of mind (attitudes and intangible elements) and fitness as being qualified (course completion means fitness to practise). Three concepts which were not raised were illegal behaviour, impaired practice and dose errors. Conclusion: There is no consensus among radiation therapists about fitness to practise. There was confusion with how Fitness to practise relates to professionalism and competence with little mention of how impairment is interwoven into the notion of fitness to practise. Without an unambiguous definition and robust criteria, making the 'judgement call' as to whether a practitioners' fitness to practise is impaired will continue to be a challenge for educators, departmental managers and registration boards.

  7. Fitting PAC spectra with stochastic models: PolyPacFit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacate, M. O., E-mail: zacatem1@nku.edu [Northern Kentucky University, Department of Physics and Geology (United States); Evenson, W. E. [Utah Valley University, College of Science and Health (United States); Newhouse, R.; Collins, G. S. [Washington State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (United States)

    2010-04-15

    PolyPacFit is an advanced fitting program for time-differential perturbed angular correlation (PAC) spectroscopy. It incorporates stochastic models and provides robust options for customization of fits. Notable features of the program include platform independence and support for (1) fits to stochastic models of hyperfine interactions, (2) user-defined constraints among model parameters, (3) fits to multiple spectra simultaneously, and (4) any spin nuclear probe.

  8. Effects of interactive games on motor performance in children with spastic cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    AlSaif, Amer A.; Alsenany, Samira

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Motor control and muscle strength impairments are the prime reasons for motor behavior disorders in children with spastic cerebral palsy. These impairments lead to histological changes in muscle growth and the learning of motor skills. Therefore, such children experience reduced muscle force generation and decreased muscle flexibility. We investigated the effect of training with Nintendo Wii Fit games on motor performance in children with spastic cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Method...

  9. Electric motor handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Chalmers, B J

    2013-01-01

    Electric Motor Handbook aims to give practical knowledge in a wide range of capacities such as plant design, equipment specification, commissioning, operation and maintenance. The book covers topics such as the modeling of steady-state motor performance; polyphase induction, synchronous, and a.c. commutator motors; ambient conditions, enclosures, cooling and loss dissipation; and electrical supply systems and motor drives. Also covered are topics such as variable-speed drives and motor control; materials and motor components; insulation types, systems, and techniques; and the installation, sit

  10. Competency-Based Blended Learning: Flipping Professional Practice Classes to Enhance Competence Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Ragg

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, health and human service educational programs have transitioned to competence-based outcomes to enhance the quality of graduating professionals. While such outcomes are a critical step in ensuring professional quality, they require curricular and pedagogical adjustments that do not fit easily within university environments. Technology has eased many problems of fit through the development of hybrid and flipped courses that allow on-campus time to be better focused on developing professional skills. This study explored the question: Can flipped delivery improve competence-based outcomes in social work practice classes? The study assessed pedagogical adjustments that integrated competence-based learning principles with flipped classroom delivery. Principles of organizing the class to maximize competence development are explored and illustrated. Improved competence development and student satisfaction were demonstrated in three flipped practice courses with a combined sample size of 269 Bachelor of Social Work (BSW and Masters of Social Work (MSW students. Researchers concluded that using flipped-classroom methods enhanced the students’ capacity to apply concepts and develop skills. In particular, the ability to receive and process feedback on applied skills was improved.

  11. Extensive fitness and human cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hateren, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Evolution depends on the fitness of organisms, the expected rate of reproducing. Directly getting offspring is the most basic form of fitness, but fitness can also be increased indirectly by helping genetically related individuals (such as kin) to increase their fitness. The combined effect is known

  12. Teaching motor and emotional competencies in university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pere Lavega

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue examinar la relación entre las competencias motrices y emocionales en estudiantes de educación física producidas por diferentes juegos deportivos clasificados en cuatro dominios de acción motriz (psicomotor, cooperación, oposición y cooperación/oposición. La muestra estuvo constituida por 357 estudiantes (155 chicas y 202 chicos de tres universidades: Barcelona y Lleida en España, y Coimbra en Portugal. A través de un estudio cuasi-experimental los estudiantes indicaban en un cuestionario, una vez realizado cada juego, la intensidad que sintieron en trece emociones positivas,negativas y ambiguas. Las 37.128 observaciones registradas se analizaron usando un modelo basado en ecuaciones de estimación generalizadas (GEE, familia Gaussian, enlace identidad y correlación intercambiable. Las emociones variaron notablemente entre las competencias sociomotrices (dominios cooperación, oposición y cooperación/oposición y los juegos psicomotores. Esta investigación confirma el papel relevante de los juegos cuando se trata de enseñar competencias motrices y emocionales en estudiantes universitarios.

  13. IE Information No. 87-08: Degraded motor leads in Limitorque dc motor operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, E.L.

    1992-01-01

    On May 6, 1986 the NRC received from Portland General Electric Company a 10 CFR 21 report concerning a motor failure which occurred at its Trojan Nuclear Power Plant. The failure involved shorting of the motor leads inside a Limitorque motor operator connected to an auxiliary feedwater flow control valve. Upon inspection it was determined that the failure was the result of insulation degradation of the motor leads that had allowed two leads to short together. Recently, the NRC has also learned of a failure at the Turkey Point Nuclear Power Plant in which the steam supply valve for the auxiliary feedwater turbine failed to operate after a Limitorque motor operator experienced a similar motor lead short circuit. The Trojan and the Turkey Point Limitorque operators were found to contain motors manufactured with Nomex-Kapton insulated leads. On January 12--14, 1987, the NRC conducted an inspection at Peerless-Winsmith, Inc., manufacturer of dc motors for Limitorque Co. During this inspection it was determined that the failed Nomex-Kapton leads were different than the leads which were fitted to the motors, tested, and documented in Limitorque Qualification Report B-0009 for dc motor operators. The leads attached to the tested motors were insulated with Nomex plus an epoxy impregnated braided fiberglass sleeve. The NRC knows of no analysis or testing that has been performed to show the Nomex-Kapton leads are acceptable for use in an application requiring environmental qualification. Further, it should be noted that the failures cited above occurred under normal operating conditions, not under the harsh conditions which could occur in areas where environmental qualification is required

  14. Fit-for-Purpose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2013-01-01

    ; completeness to cover the total jurisdiction; and credibility in terms of reliable data being trusted by the users. Accuracy can then be incrementally improved over time when relevant and justified by serving the needs of citizen, business and society in general. Such a fit-for-purpose approach is fundamental...... systems act within adopted land policies that define the legal regulatory pattern for dealing with land issues. Land administration systems - whether highly advanced or very basic – require a spatial framework to operate. This framework provides the fundamental information for dealing with land issues...... concepts may well be seen as the end target but not as the point of entry. When assessing the technology and investment choices the focus should be on building a fit-for-purpose framework that will meet the needs of society today and that can be incrementally improved over time....

  15. Convolution based profile fitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kern, A.; Coelho, A.A.; Cheary, R.W.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In convolution based profile fitting, profiles are generated by convoluting functions together to form the observed profile shape. For a convolution of 'n' functions this process can be written as, Y(2θ)=F 1 (2θ)x F 2 (2θ)x... x F i (2θ)x....xF n (2θ). In powder diffractometry the functions F i (2θ) can be interpreted as the aberration functions of the diffractometer, but in general any combination of appropriate functions for F i (2θ) may be used in this context. Most direct convolution fitting methods are restricted to combinations of F i (2θ) that can be convoluted analytically (e.g. GSAS) such as Lorentzians, Gaussians, the hat (impulse) function and the exponential function. However, software such as TOPAS is now available that can accurately convolute and refine a wide variety of profile shapes numerically, including user defined profiles, without the need to convolute analytically. Some of the most important advantages of modern convolution based profile fitting are: 1) virtually any peak shape and angle dependence can normally be described using minimal profile parameters in laboratory and synchrotron X-ray data as well as in CW and TOF neutron data. This is possible because numerical convolution and numerical differentiation is used within the refinement procedure so that a wide range of functions can easily be incorporated into the convolution equation; 2) it can use physically based diffractometer models by convoluting the instrument aberration functions. This can be done for most laboratory based X-ray powder diffractometer configurations including conventional divergent beam instruments, parallel beam instruments, and diffractometers used for asymmetric diffraction. It can also accommodate various optical elements (e.g. multilayers and monochromators) and detector systems (e.g. point and position sensitive detectors) and has already been applied to neutron powder diffraction systems (e.g. ANSTO) as well as synchrotron based

  16. MixFit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haller, Toomas; Leitsalu, Liis; Fischer, Krista

    2017-01-01

    Ancestry information at the individual level can be a valuable resource for personalized medicine, medical, demographical and history research, as well as for tracing back personal history. We report a new method for quantitatively determining personal genetic ancestry based on genome-wide data....... Numerical ancestry component scores are assigned to individuals based on comparisons with reference populations. These comparisons are conducted with an existing analytical pipeline making use of genotype phasing, similarity matrix computation and our addition-multidimensional best fitting by Mix......Fit. The method is demonstrated by studying Estonian and Finnish populations in geographical context. We show the main differences in the genetic composition of these otherwise close European populations and how they have influenced each other. The components of our analytical pipeline are freely available...

  17. Handbook on linear motor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-10-01

    This book guides the application for Linear motor. It lists classification and speciality of Linear Motor, terms of linear-induction motor, principle of the Motor, types on one-side linear-induction motor, bilateral linear-induction motor, linear-DC Motor on basic of the motor, linear-DC Motor for moving-coil type, linear-DC motor for permanent-magnet moving type, linear-DC motor for electricity non-utility type, linear-pulse motor for variable motor, linear-pulse motor for permanent magneto type, linear-vibration actuator, linear-vibration actuator for moving-coil type, linear synchronous motor, linear electromagnetic motor, linear electromagnetic solenoid, technical organization and magnetic levitation and linear motor and sensor.

  18. Cultural Competence Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garran, Ann Marie; Werkmeister Rozas, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    In 2001, the National Association of Social Workers (NASW) adopted 10 discrete standards of culturally competent practice which undergird our commitment to diversity and social justice. The concept of intersectionality is newly emerging in social work, though, causing us to reflect on our current conceptualizations of cultural competence.…

  19. Financing Competency Based Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Annette

    Literature on the background, causes, and current prevalence of competency based programs is synthesized in this report. According to one analysis of the actual and probable costs of minimum competency testing, estimated costs for test development, test administration, bureaucratic structures, and remedial programs for students who cannot pass the…

  20. Competencies and Their Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drisko, James W.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores competencies and methods for their assessment in higher education and in social work's accreditation standards. Many contemporary policy and educational accreditation efforts employ the model of competency assessment. The current emphasis on accountability in higher education, including the Council on Social Work…

  1. Developing Clinical Competence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.F. Wimmers (Paul)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe development of clinical competence is the main purpose of medical education. The long road to become clinically competent starts on the first day of medical school, and every institution strives to select the best students. The responsibility of medical schools is to train

  2. Intensity Conserving Spectral Fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimchuk, J. A.; Patsourakos, S.; Tripathi, D.

    2015-01-01

    The detailed shapes of spectral line profiles provide valuable information about the emitting plasma, especially when the plasma contains an unresolved mixture of velocities, temperatures, and densities. As a result of finite spectral resolution, the intensity measured by a spectrometer is the average intensity across a wavelength bin of non-zero size. It is assigned to the wavelength position at the center of the bin. However, the actual intensity at that discrete position will be different if the profile is curved, as it invariably is. Standard fitting routines (spline, Gaussian, etc.) do not account for this difference, and this can result in significant errors when making sensitive measurements. Detection of asymmetries in solar coronal emission lines is one example. Removal of line blends is another. We have developed an iterative procedure that corrects for this effect. It can be used with any fitting function, but we employ a cubic spline in a new analysis routine called Intensity Conserving Spline Interpolation (ICSI). As the name implies, it conserves the observed intensity within each wavelength bin, which ordinary fits do not. Given the rapid convergence, speed of computation, and ease of use, we suggest that ICSI be made a standard component of the processing pipeline for spectroscopic data.

  3. Altered resting-state effective connectivity of fronto-parietal motor control systems on the primary motor network following stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inman, Cory S.; James, G. Andrew; Hamann, Stephan; Rajendra, Justin K.; Pagnoni, Giuseppe; Butler, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Previous brain imaging work suggests that stroke alters the effective connectivity (the influence neural regions exert upon each other) of motor execution networks. The present study examines the intrinsic effective connectivity of top-down motor control in stroke survivors (n=13) relative to healthy participants (n=12). Stroke survivors exhibited significant deficits in motor function, as assessed by the Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) of resting-state fMRI data to investigate the relationship between motor deficits and the intrinsic effective connectivity between brain regions involved in motor control and motor execution. An exploratory adaptation of SEM determined the optimal model of motor execution effective connectivity in healthy participants, and confirmatory SEM assessed stroke survivors’ fit to that model. We observed alterations in spontaneous resting-state effective connectivity from fronto-parietal guidance systems to the motor network in stroke survivors. More specifically, diminished connectivity was found in connections from the superior parietal cortex to primary motor cortex and supplementary motor cortex. Furthermore, the paths demonstrated large individual variance in stroke survivors but less variance in healthy participants. These findings suggest that characterizing the deficits in resting-state connectivity of top-down processes in stroke survivors may help optimize cognitive and physical rehabilitation therapies by individually targeting specific neural pathway. PMID:21839174

  4. Unilateral Arm Crank Exercise Test for Assessing Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Individuals with Hemiparetic Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oyake, Kazuaki; Yamaguchi, Tomofumi; Oda, Chihiro

    2017-01-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness assessment with leg cycle exercise testing may be influenced by motor impairments in the paretic lower extremity. Hence, this study examined the usefulness of a unilateral arm crank exercise test to assess cardiorespiratory fitness in individuals with stroke, including s...

  5. Acute exercise improves motor memory consolidation in preadolescent children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Skriver, Kasper Christen; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2017-01-01

    protocols following motor skill practice in a school setting can also improve long-term retention of motor memory in preadolescent children. Methods: Seventy-seven pre-adolescent children (age 10.5 ± 0.75 (SD)) participated in the study. Prior to the main experiment age, BMI, fitness status and general...... immediately after motor skill acquisition facilitates long-term motor memory in pre-adolescent children, presumably by promoting memory consolidation. The results also demonstrate that the effects can be accomplished in a school setting. The positive effect of both a team game (i.e., FLB) and running......Objective: The ability to acquire new motor skills is essential both during childhood and later in life. Recent studies have demonstrated that an acute bout of exercise can improve motor memory consolidation in adults. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether acute exercise...

  6. Interacting adiabatic quantum motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruch, Anton; Kusminskiy, Silvia Viola; Refael, Gil; von Oppen, Felix

    2018-05-01

    We present a field-theoretic treatment of an adiabatic quantum motor. We explicitly discuss a motor called the Thouless motor which is based on a Thouless pump operating in reverse. When a sliding periodic potential is considered to be the motor degree of freedom, a bias voltage applied to the electron channel sets the motor in motion. We investigate a Thouless motor whose electron channel is modeled as a Luttinger liquid. Interactions increase the gap opened by the periodic potential. For an infinite Luttinger liquid the coupling-induced friction is enhanced by electron-electron interactions. When the Luttinger liquid is ultimately coupled to Fermi liquid reservoirs, the dissipation reduces to its value for a noninteracting electron system for a constant motor velocity. Our results can also be applied to a motor based on a nanomagnet coupled to a quantum spin Hall edge.

  7. Chronic motor tic disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic vocal tic disorder; Tic - chronic motor tic disorder ... Chronic motor tic disorder is more common than Tourette syndrome . Chronic tics may be forms of Tourette syndrome. Tics usually start ...

  8. Ten-Competence: Life-Long Competence Development and Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koper, Rob; Specht, Marcus

    2006-01-01

    Koper, R., & Specht, M. (2008). Ten-Competence: Life-Long Competence Development and Learning. In M-A. Cicilia (Ed.), Competencies in Organizational e-learning: concepts and tools (pp. 234-252). Hershey: IGI-Global.

  9. Longitudinal Physical Activity, Body Composition, and Physical Fitness in Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppänen, Marja H; Henriksson, Pontus; Delisle Nyström, Christine; Henriksson, Hanna; Ortega, Francisco B; Pomeroy, Jeremy; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Cadenas-Sanchez, Cristina; Löf, Marie

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate longitudinal associations of objectively measured physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) with body composition and physical fitness at a 12-month follow-up in healthy Swedish 4-yr-old children. The data from the population-based MINISTOP trial were collected between 2014 and 2016, and this study included the 138 children who were in the control group. PA and SB were assessed using the wrist-worn ActiGraph (wGT3x-BT) accelerometer during seven 24-h periods and, subsequently, defined as SB, light-intensity PA, moderate-intensity PA, vigorous-intensity PA (VPA), and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). Body composition was measured using air-displacement plethysmography and physical fitness (cardiorespiratory fitness, lower and upper muscular strength as well as motor fitness) by the PREFIT fitness battery. Linear regression and isotemporal substitution models were applied. Greater VPA and MVPA at the age of 4.5 yr were associated with higher fat-free mass index (FFMI) at 5.5 yr (P fitness, lower body muscular strength, and motor fitness at 12-month follow-up (P = 0.001 to P = 0.031). Substituting 5 min·d of SB, light-intensity PA, or moderate-intensity PA for VPA at the age of 4.5 yr were associated with higher FFMI, and with greater upper and lower muscular strength at 12-month follow-up (P fitness at 12-month follow-up. Our results indicate that promoting high-intensity PA at young ages may have long-term beneficial effects on childhood body composition and physical fitness, in particular muscular strength.

  10. Piezoelectric Motors, an Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Karl Spanner; Burhanettin Koc

    2016-01-01

    Piezoelectric motors are used in many industrial and commercial applications. Various piezoelectric motors are available in the market. All of the piezoelectric motors use the inverse piezoelectric effect, where microscopically small oscillatory motions are converted into continuous or stepping rotary or linear motions. Methods of obtaining long moving distance have various drive and functional principles that make these motors categorized into three groups: resonance-drive (piezoelectric ult...

  11. Electric Motor Thermal Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennion, Kevin S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Thermal management enables more efficient and cost-effective motors. This Annual Merit Review presentation describes the technical accomplishments and progress in electric motor thermal management R&D over the last year. This project supports a broad industry demand for data, analysis methods, and experimental techniques to improve and better understand motor thermal management.

  12. Programmable dc motor controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, J. E.

    1982-11-01

    A portable programmable dc motor controller, with features not available on commercial instruments was developed for controlling fixtures during welding processes. The controller can be used to drive any dc motor having tachometer feedback and motor requirements not exceeding 30 volts, 3 amperes. Among the controller's features are delayed start time, upslope time, speed, and downslope time.

  13. Interference in Ballistic Motor Learning: Specificity and Role of Sensory Error Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Petersen, Tue Hvass; Rothwell, John C.; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2011-01-01

    Humans are capable of learning numerous motor skills, but newly acquired skills may be abolished by subsequent learning. Here we ask what factors determine whether interference occurs in motor learning. We speculated that interference requires competing processes of synaptic plasticity in overlapping circuits and predicted specificity. To test this, subjects learned a ballistic motor task. Interference was observed following subsequent learning of an accuracy-tracking task, but only if the competing task involved the same muscles and movement direction. Interference was not observed from a non-learning task suggesting that interference requires competing learning. Subsequent learning of the competing task 4 h after initial learning did not cause interference suggesting disruption of early motor memory consolidation as one possible mechanism underlying interference. Repeated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of corticospinal motor output at intensities below movement threshold did not cause interference, whereas suprathreshold rTMS evoking motor responses and (re)afferent activation did. Finally, the experiments revealed that suprathreshold repetitive electrical stimulation of the agonist (but not antagonist) peripheral nerve caused interference. The present study is, to our knowledge, the first to demonstrate that peripheral nerve stimulation may cause interference. The finding underscores the importance of sensory feedback as error signals in motor learning. We conclude that interference requires competing plasticity in overlapping circuits. Interference is remarkably specific for circuits involved in a specific movement and it may relate to sensory error signals. PMID:21408054

  14. Student Motivation Associated with Fitness Testing in the Physical Education Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaakkola, Timo Tapio; Sääkslahti, Arja; Yli-Piipari, Sami; Manninen, Mika; Watt, Anthony; Liukkonen, Jarmo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze students' motivation in relation to their participation in fitness testing classes. Participants were 134 Finnish Grade 5 and 8 students. Students completed the contextual motivation and perceived physical competence scales before the fitness testing class and the situational motivation questionnaire…

  15. The relationship between physical growth, the level of activity and the development of motor skills in adolescence : Differences between children with DCD and controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J.; Geuze, R.H.; Kalverboer, A.F.

    This study uses a longitudinal design to explore the relationships between physical growth, motor competence and level of participation in physical activity, during the adolescent growth spurt. Thirty boys were selected, representing the range of motor competence. Out of this sample two groups were

  16. On Verbal Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongxin Dai

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explored a new concept, verbal competence, to present a challenge to Chomsky’s linguistic competence and Hymes’ communicative competence. It is generally acknowledged that Chomsky concerned himself only with the syntactic/grammatical structures, and viewed the speaker’s generation and transformation of syntactic structures as the production of language. Hymes challenged Chomsky’s conception of linguistic competence and argued for an ethnographic or sociolinguistic concept, communicative competence, but his concept is too broad to be adequately grasped and followed in such fields as linguistics and second language acquisition. Communicative competence can include abilities to communicate with nonverbal behaviors, e.g. gestures, postures or even silence. The concept of verbal competence concerns itself with the mental and psychological processes of verbal production in communication. These processes originate from the speaker’s personal experience, in a certain situation of human communication, and with the sudden appearance of the intentional notion, shape up as the meaning images and end up in the verbal expression.

  17. ACCP Clinical Pharmacist Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saseen, Joseph J; Ripley, Toni L; Bondi, Deborah; Burke, John M; Cohen, Lawrence J; McBane, Sarah; McConnell, Karen J; Sackey, Bryan; Sanoski, Cynthia; Simonyan, Anahit; Taylor, Jodi; Vande Griend, Joseph P

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP) is to advance human health by extending the frontiers of clinical pharmacy. Consistent with this mission and its core values, ACCP is committed to ensuring that clinical pharmacists possess the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and behaviors necessary to deliver comprehensive medication management (CMM) in team-based, direct patient care environments. These components form the basis for the core competencies of a clinical pharmacist and reflect the competencies of other direct patient care providers. This paper is an update to a previous ACCP document and includes the expectation that clinical pharmacists be competent in six essential domains: direct patient care, pharmacotherapy knowledge, systems-based care and population health, communication, professionalism, and continuing professional development. Although these domains align with the competencies of physician providers, they are specifically designed to better reflect the clinical pharmacy expertise required to provide CMM in patient-centered, team-based settings. Clinical pharmacists must be prepared to complete the education and training needed to achieve these competencies and must commit to ongoing efforts to maintain competence through ongoing professional development. Collaboration among stakeholders will be needed to ensure that these competencies guide clinical pharmacists' professional development and evaluation by educational institutions, postgraduate training programs, professional societies, and employers. © 2017 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  18. Leadership Competences Among Managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Baczynska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper is to present the results of a survey conducted among managers (N=38 in the framework of the project “Development of the Bounded Leadership Theory”. The research juxtaposes two types of variables: (1 leadership competencies outlined in Kozminski’s theory (i.e. anticipatory, visionary, value-creating, mobilizing, self-reflection with (2 three psychological predispositions of leaders, such as intelligence, personality and ability to influence others. The tested predispositions represented three groups: non-variable traits, or permanent characteristics (intelligence, partially variable characteristics (personality and variable characteristics (influence tactics. Methodology: A total of 38 middle and senior managers, students of the MBA programme at Kozminski University, took part in the survey. Participants flled out a preliminary version of the Leadership Competence Questionnaire, as well as tests pertaining to intelligence, personality and influence tactics. The hypotheses were tested using Spearman’s rho correlation. The research has brought interesting results relating to the correlation between the fve tested competencies and leadership predispositions. Findings: Permanent and partly stable characteristics do not correlate with leadership competencies, i.e. a high score in leadership competencies is not necessarily synonymous with high intelligence levels or positive personality traits. Correlations have been observed between mobilization skills and influence tactics in the surveyed sample, i.e. legitimacy and personal appeals that leaders have recourse to and, in the case of value-creating competencies, an interesting correlation with legitimacy. Originality: The study constitutes an important contribution to the extant literature, as – first and foremost – it represents a new approach to the understanding of leadership competencies. Secondly, it reveals correlations between complex skills, i

  19. Humor Style and Motor Skills: Understanding Vulnerability to Bullying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Plenty

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the role of humor style and motor skills in vulnerability to bullying. 729 adults responded to the Humor Style Questionnaire (HSQ and items retrospectively addressing their motor skills and bullying experiences during childhood. Consistent with recent research, poorer motor skills were associated with a greater extent of having been bullied. An association between stronger motor skills and affiliative humor was found, lending support to a shared biological basis theory underlying social and motor competency processes. Most importantly, being bullied was associated with higher self-defeating humor and lower affiliative humor. This supports earlier theoretical work by Klein and Kuiper (2006 and highlights the role that humor styles play in social interactions that can promote positive peer acceptance and wellbeing.

  20. Competence development in UAS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorslund, Jørgen; Brodersen, Anne Mygind

    As a University of Applied Science (UAS) University College Lillebaelt in Denmark is addressing education, knowledge production and professional development in perspective of life-long and life-wide learning. It is our basic assumption that that internal competence development ? individually...... and organizationally - among UAS educators should be based on same learning concepts as used in professional development to avoid parallelism. Do for yourself, what you preach for others. Second, competence development of faculty is a central element in transformation of our institutions from schools of higher...... education to universities of applied science (UAS). Competence development strategies should thus include objectives for the institutions ability to contribute to knowledge production....

  1. Electromagnetic Spacecraft Propulsion Motor and a Permanent Magnet (PM-Drive) Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadov, B. A.

    2018-04-01

    Ion thrusters are designed to be used for realization of a Mars Sample Return mission. The competing technologies with ion thrusters are electromagnetic spacecraft propulsion motors. I'm an engineer and engage in the creation of the new electromagnetic propulsion motors.

  2. The Relationship Between Fine Motor Skills and Social Development and Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Dehghan

    2017-11-01

    Discussion: According to the results, there is a significant association between fine motor skills with respect to visual-motor skills of hands and social competence and maturity in children, and it can be used as impact factor for to improve in children’s social growth.

  3. Motor/generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickam, Christopher Dale [Glasford, IL

    2008-05-13

    A motor/generator is provided for connecting between a transmission input shaft and an output shaft of a prime mover. The motor/generator may include a motor/generator housing, a stator mounted to the motor/generator housing, a rotor mounted at least partially within the motor/generator housing and rotatable about a rotor rotation axis, and a transmission-shaft coupler drivingly coupled to the rotor. The transmission-shaft coupler may include a clamp, which may include a base attached to the rotor and a plurality of adjustable jaws.

  4. Motor Learning as Young Gymnast's Talent Indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Cagno, Alessandra; Battaglia, Claudia; Fiorilli, Giovanni; Piazza, Marina; Giombini, Arrigo; Fagnani, Federica; Borrione, Paolo; Calcagno, Giuseppe; Pigozzi, Fabio

    2014-12-01

    Talent identification plans are designed to select young athletes with the ability to achieve future success in sports. The aim of the study was to verify the predictive value of coordination and precision in skill acquisition during motor learning, as indicators of talent. One hundred gymnasts, both cadets (aged 11.5 ± 0.5 yr.) and juniors (aged 13.3 ± 0.5 years), competing at the national level, were enrolled in the study. The assessment of motor coordination involved three tests of the validated Hirtz's battery (1985), and motor skill learning involved four technical tests, specific of rhythmic gymnastics. All the tests were correlated with ranking and performance scores reached by each gymnast in the 2011, 2012, and 2013 National Championships. Coordination tests were significantly correlated to 2013 Championships scores (p talent identification and selection procedures it is better to include the evaluation of coordination and motor learning ability.Motor learning assessment concerns performance improvement and the ability to develop it, rather than evaluating the athlete's current performance.In this manner talent identification processes should be focused on the future performance capabilities of athletes.

  5. Piezoelectric Motors, an Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Spanner

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric motors are used in many industrial and commercial applications. Various piezoelectric motors are available in the market. All of the piezoelectric motors use the inverse piezoelectric effect, where microscopically small oscillatory motions are converted into continuous or stepping rotary or linear motions. Methods of obtaining long moving distance have various drive and functional principles that make these motors categorized into three groups: resonance-drive (piezoelectric ultrasonic motors, inertia-drive, and piezo-walk-drive. In this review, a comprehensive summary of piezoelectric motors, with their classification from initial idea to recent progress, is presented. This review also includes some of the industrial and commercial applications of piezoelectric motors that are presently available in the market as actuators.

  6. Motor degradation prediction methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, J.R.; Kelly, J.F.; Delzingaro, M.J.

    1996-12-01

    Motor Operated Valve (MOV) squirrel cage AC motor rotors are susceptible to degradation under certain conditions. Premature failure can result due to high humidity/temperature environments, high running load conditions, extended periods at locked rotor conditions (i.e. > 15 seconds) or exceeding the motor`s duty cycle by frequent starts or multiple valve stroking. Exposure to high heat and moisture due to packing leaks, pressure seal ring leakage or other causes can significantly accelerate the degradation. ComEd and Liberty Technologies have worked together to provide and validate a non-intrusive method using motor power diagnostics to evaluate MOV rotor condition and predict failure. These techniques have provided a quick, low radiation dose method to evaluate inaccessible motors, identify degradation and allow scheduled replacement of motors prior to catastrophic failures.

  7. Neuroplasticity & Motor Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Lundbye

    Practice of a new motor task is usually associated with an improvement in performance. Indeed, if we stop practicing and return the next day to the same task, we find that our performance has been maintained and may even be better than it was at the start of the first day. This improvement...... is a measure of our ability to form and store a motor memory of the task. However, the initial memory of the task is labile and may be subject to interference. During and following motor learning plastic changes occur within the central nervous system. On one hand these changes are driven by motor practice......, on the other hand the changes underlie the formation of motor memory and the retention of improved motor performance. During motor learning changes may occur at many different levels within the central nervous system dependent on the type of task and training. Here, we demonstrate different studies from our...

  8. Motor-Generator Set, PS Main Supply

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1983-01-01

    This is the "new" motor-generator set. It replaced the previous, original, one which had served from the PS start-up in 1959. Ordered in 1965, installed in 1967, it was brought into operation at the beginning of 1968. Regularly serviced and fitted with modern regulation and controls, it still serves at the time of writing (2006) and promises to serve for several more years, as a very much alive museum-piece. See also 6803016 and 0201010.

  9. Syncope and Motor Vehicle Crash Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Numé, Anna-Karin; Gislason, Gunnar; Christiansen, Christine Benn

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Syncope may have serious consequences for traffic safety. Current clinical guideline recommendations on driving following syncope are primarily based on expert consensus. OBJECTIVE: To identify whether there is excess risk of motor vehicle crashes among patients with syncope compared...... vehicle crashes throughout the follow-up period. This study suggests that syncope should be considered as one of several factors in a broad assessment of fitness to drive....

  10. TENCompetence Competence Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervenne, Luk

    2010-01-01

    Vervenne, L. (2007) TENCompetence Competence Observatory. Sources available http://tencompetence.cvs.sourceforge.net/viewvc/tencompetence/wp8/org.tencompetence.co/. Available under the three clause BSD license, copyright TENCompetence Foundation.

  11. Presumptions respecting mental competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madigan, K V; Checkland, D; Silberfeld, M

    1994-04-01

    This paper addresses the role(s) played by presumptions regarding mental competence in the context of clinical assessment of decision-making capacity. In particular, the issue of whether or not the usual common law presumption of competence is appropriate and applicable in cases of reassessment of persons previously found incompetent is discussed. Arguments can be made for either retaining a presumption of competence or adopting a presumption of incompetence in reassessment cases. In addressing the issue and the arguments, the authors conclude that the question is really a public policy issue which requires legislative resolution. In writing this paper, the authors have drawn on their joint clinical experience at the Baycrest Competency Clinic. Though the authors' jurisdiction is the province of Ontario, their intent is to raise awareness and to prompt consideration of this issue both inside and outside Ontario.

  12. Adult educators' core competences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    ” requirements, organising them into four thematic subcategories: (1) communicating subject knowledge; (2) taking students’ prior learning into account; (3) supporting a learning environment; and (4) the adult educator’s reflection on his or her own performance. At the end of his analysis of different competence......Abstract Which competences do professional adult educators need? This research note discusses the topic from a comparative perspective, finding that adult educators’ required competences are wide-ranging, heterogeneous and complex. They are subject to context in terms of national and cultural...... environment as well as the kind of adult education concerned (e.g. basic education, work-related education etc.). However, it seems that it is possible to identify certain competence requirements which transcend national, cultural and functional boundaries. This research note summarises these common or “core...

  13. Developing Leadership Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Lucy; Seemiller, Corey

    2017-12-01

    This chapter provides an overview of leadership competencies including the history of emergence, contemporary uses, common frameworks, challenges, benefits, and future implications. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  14. The validity of parental reports on motor skills performance level in preschool children: a comparison with a standardized motor test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zysset, Annina E; Kakebeeke, Tanja H; Messerli-Bürgy, Nadine; Meyer, Andrea H; Stülb, Kerstin; Leeger-Aschmann, Claudia S; Schmutz, Einat A; Arhab, Amar; Ferrazzini, Valentina; Kriemler, Susi; Munsch, Simone; Puder, Jardena J; Jenni, Oskar G

    2018-05-01

    Motor skills are interrelated with essential domains of childhood such as cognitive and social development. Thus, the evaluation of motor skills and the identification of atypical or delayed motor development is crucial in pediatric practice (e.g., during well-child visits). Parental reports on motor skills may serve as possible indicators to decide whether further assessment of a child is necessary or not. We compared parental reports on fundamental motor skills performance level (e.g., hopping, throwing), based on questions frequently asked in pediatric practice, with a standardized motor test in 389 children (46.5% girls/53.5% boys, M age = 3.8 years, SD = 0.5, range 3.0-5.0 years) from the Swiss Preschoolers' Health Study (SPLASHY). Motor skills were examined using the Zurich Neuromotor Assessment 3-5 (ZNA3-5), and parents filled in an online questionnaire on fundamental motor skills performance level. The results showed that the answers from the parental report correlated only weakly with the objectively assessed motor skills (r = .225, p skills would be desirable, the parent's report used in this study was not a valid indicator for children's fundamental motor skills. Thus, we may recommend to objectively examine motor skills in clinical practice and not to exclusively rely on parental report. What is Known: • Early assessment of motor skills in preschool children is important because motor skills are essential for the engagement in social activities and the development of cognitive abilities. Atypical or delayed motor development can be an indicator for different developmental needs or disorders. • Pediatricians frequently ask parents about the motor competences of their child during well-child visits. What is New: • The parental report on fundamental motor skills performance level used in this study was not a reliable indicator for describing motor development in the preschool age. • Standardized examinations of motor skills are

  15. The development of the physical fitness construct across childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utesch, T; Dreiskämper, D; Strauss, B; Naul, R

    2018-01-01

    The measurement of physical fitness (PF) is an important factor from many different perspectives. PF is a determinant of healthy child development as it is related to several health outcomes. However, existing taxonomies of the construct and frequently used fitness assessments vary concerning their theoretical assumptions and practical implications. From a theoretical perspective, the construct of physical fitness covers a variety of motor domains, such as cardiovascular endurance, strength, coordination, or flexibility (eg, Caspersen et al., 1985). However, most fitness assessments provide a single (composite) score including all items as test outcome. This implicitly relates to a one-dimensional structure of physical fitness, which has been shown for other motor performance assessments in early childhood (eg, Utesch et al., 2016). This study investigated this one-dimensional structure for 6- to 9-year-old children within the item response theory framework (Partial Credit Model). Seven fitness subtests covering a variety of motor dimensions (6-minute run, pushups, sit-ups, standing broad jump, 20 m sprint, jumping sideways, and balancing backwards) were conducted to a total of 790 six-year-olds, 1371 seven-year-olds, 1331 eight-year-olds, and 925 nine-year-olds (48.2% females). Each item was transformed into five performance categories controlling for sex and age. This study indicates that a one-dimensional testing of PF is feasible across middle childhood. Furthermore, for 6- and 7-year-olds, all seven items including balancing backwards can be accumulated to one factor. From the age of about 8 and 9 years balancing backwards seems to become too easy. Altogether, analyses show no diversification of PF across childhood. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Managing Regulatory Body Competence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    In 2001, the IAEA published TECDOC 1254, which examined the way in which the recognized functions of a regulatory body for nuclear facilities results in competence needs. Using the systematic approach to training (SAT), TECDOC 1254 provided a framework for regulatory bodies for managing training and developing and their maintaining their competence. It has been successfully used by many regulators. The IAEA has also introduced a methodology and an assessment tool - Guidelines for Systematic Assessment of Regulatory Competence Needs (SARCoN) - which provides practical guidance on analysing the training and development needs of a regulatory body and, through a gap analysis, guidance on establishing competence needs and how to meet them. In 2009, the IAEA established a steering committee (supported by a bureau) with the mission to advise the IAEA on how it could best assist Member States to develop suitable competence management systems for their regulatory bodies. The committee recommended the development of a safety report on managing staff competence as an integral part of a regulatory body's management system. This Safety Report was developed in response to this request. It supersedes TECDOC 1254, broadens its application to regulatory bodies for all facilities and activities, and builds upon the experience gained through the application of TECDOC 1254 and SARCoN and the feedback received from Member States. This Safety Report applies to the management of adequate competence as needs change, and as such is equally applicable to the needs of States 'embarking' on a nuclear power programme. It also deals with the special case of building up the competence of regulatory bodies as part of the overall process of establishing an 'embarking' State's regulatory system

  17. Competence within Maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    Nerland, Annette Smørholm

    2010-01-01

    Maintenance can be a contributing factor to unwanted events, as well as desired events and states. Human competence can be defined as the ability to perform a specific task, action or function successfully, and is therefore a key factor to proper execution of maintenance tasks. Hence,maintenance will have negative consequences if done wrong, and give positive results when done right. The purpose of this report is to study the many aspects of maintenance competence. Endeavoring to improve ...

  18. Designing for competences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Rene B; Gundersen, Peter Bukovica

    2014-01-01

    of these professionals has changed - and has become more cross-professional, more complex and analytic and reflective competencies have entered the policy papers of these human-professions as central, important forms of knowledge. These bachelor degrees in Denmark within the field of education (teaching and preschool...... and generating solutions in the form of design principles when moving from a focus of knowledge to a focus of competences....

  19. Psychologically Inspired Sensory-Motor Development in Early Robot Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Lee

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We present an implementation of a model of very early sensory-motor development, guided by results from developmental psychology. Behavioural acquisition and growth is demonstrated through constraint-lifting mechanisms initiated by global state variables. The results show how staged competence can be shaped by qualitative behaviour changes produced by anatomical, computational and maturational constraints.

  20. Effects of a water activity intervention programme on motor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a specially designed water activity programme on the motor competency levels of children with Down's syndrome. Six institutionalised children classified as having Down\\'s syndrome, from a school for the mentally retarded, took part in the study. The children\\'s ...

  1. Dance your way to fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000809.htm Dance your way to fitness To use the sharing features on this page, ... to rhythm and music. Many health clubs and fitness centers offer dance workout classes, such as Zumba. ...

  2. Proposed Core Competencies and Empirical Validation Procedure in Competency Modeling: Confirmation and Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baczyńska, Anna K; Rowiński, Tomasz; Cybis, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Competency models provide insight into key skills which are common to many positions in an organization. Moreover, there is a range of competencies that is used by many companies. Researchers have developed core competency terminology to underline their cross-organizational value. The article presents a theoretical model of core competencies consisting of two main higher-order competencies called performance and entrepreneurship. Each of them consists of three elements: the performance competency includes cooperation, organization of work and goal orientation, while entrepreneurship includes innovativeness, calculated risk-taking and pro-activeness. However, there is lack of empirical validation of competency concepts in organizations and this would seem crucial for obtaining reliable results from organizational research. We propose a two-step empirical validation procedure: (1) confirmation factor analysis, and (2) classification of employees. The sample consisted of 636 respondents (M = 44.5; SD = 15.1). Participants were administered a questionnaire developed for the study purpose. The reliability, measured by Cronbach's alpha, ranged from 0.60 to 0.83 for six scales. Next, we tested the model using a confirmatory factor analysis. The two separate, single models of performance and entrepreneurial orientations fit quite well to the data, while a complex model based on the two single concepts needs further research. In the classification of employees based on the two higher order competencies we obtained four main groups of employees. Their profiles relate to those found in the literature, including so-called niche finders and top performers. Some proposal for organizations is discussed.

  3. Evaluating the importance of social motor synchronization and motor skill for understanding autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Paula; Romero, Veronica; Amaral, Joseph L; Duncan, Amie; Barnard, Holly; Richardson, Michael J; Schmidt, R C

    2017-10-01

    Impairments in social interaction and communicating with others are core features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but the specific processes underlying such social competence impairments are not well understood. An important key for increasing our understanding of ASD-specific social deficits may lie with the social motor synchronization that takes place when we implicitly coordinate our bodies with others. Here, we tested whether dynamical measures of synchronization differentiate children with ASD from controls and further explored the relationships between synchronization ability and motor control problems. We found (a) that children with ASD exhibited different and less stable patterns of social synchronization ability than controls; (b) children with ASD performed motor movements that were slower and more variable in both spacing and timing; and (c) some social synchronization that involved motor timing was related to motor ability but less rhythmic synchronization was not. These findings raise the possibility that objective dynamical measures of synchronization ability and motor skill could provide new insights into understanding the social deficits in ASD that could ultimately aid clinical diagnosis and prognosis. Autism Res 2017, 10: 1687-1699. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Methodology review: evaluating person fit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R.R.; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2001-01-01

    Person-fit methods based on classical test theory-and item response theory (IRT), and methods investigating particular types of response behavior on tests, are examined. Similarities and differences among person-fit methods and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Sound person-fit

  5. Fitness for duty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, D.; Matney, C.

    1991-01-01

    A Fitness For Duty training program was developed to satisfy the requirements of the NRC, 10 CFR 26, 10 CFR 707 and to meet requirements at the Westinghouse Savannah River Company. Interactive videodisc technology was selected as the training medium using the TenCore authoring language. Computer-based training was chosen because of the large number of trainees, the advantages of the reduced overall cost, and the increased trainee retention of course material compared to traditional instruction. The resulting training program utilizes extensive role playing exercises in which employees and supervisors are exposed to real life situations. Extensive interactions by the trainees are required in that they must answer questions concerning the behav ior of individuals, random and for-cause drug testing, and the employee assistance program. Feedback is given in each case. Emphasis is placed on recognition of deteriorating job performance

  6. Multivariate rational data fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuyt, Annie; Verdonk, Brigitte

    1992-12-01

    Sections 1 and 2 discuss the advantages of an object-oriented implementation combined with higher floating-point arithmetic, of the algorithms available for multivariate data fitting using rational functions. Section 1 will in particular explain what we mean by "higher arithmetic". Section 2 will concentrate on the concepts of "object orientation". In sections 3 and 4 we shall describe the generality of the data structure that can be dealt with: due to some new results virtually every data set is acceptable right now, with possible coalescence of coordinates or points. In order to solve the multivariate rational interpolation problem the data sets are fed to different algorithms depending on the structure of the interpolation points in then-variate space.

  7. Multiple systems for motor skill learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Dav; Ivry, Richard B

    2010-07-01

    Motor learning is a ubiquitous feature of human competence. This review focuses on two particular classes of model tasks for studying skill acquisition. The serial reaction time (SRT) task is used to probe how people learn sequences of actions, while adaptation in the context of visuomotor or force field perturbations serves to illustrate how preexisting movements are recalibrated in novel environments. These tasks highlight important issues regarding the representational changes that occur during the course of motor learning. One important theme is that distinct mechanisms vary in their information processing costs during learning and performance. Fast learning processes may require few trials to produce large changes in performance but impose demands on cognitive resources. Slower processes are limited in their ability to integrate complex information but minimally demanding in terms of attention or processing resources. The representations derived from fast systems may be accessible to conscious processing and provide a relatively greater measure of flexibility, while the representations derived from slower systems are more inflexible and automatic in their behavior. In exploring these issues, we focus on how multiple neural systems may interact and compete during the acquisition and consolidation of new behaviors. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. This article is categorized under: Psychology > Motor Skill and Performance. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Obesity leads to declines in motor skills across childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, J; East, P; Blanco, E; Sim, E Kang; Castillo, M; Lozoff, B; Gahagan, S

    2016-05-01

    Poor motor skills have been consistently linked with a higher body weight in childhood, but the causal direction of this association is not fully understood. This study investigated the temporal ordering between children's motor skills and weight status at 5 and 10 years. Participants were 668 children (54% male) who were studied from infancy as part of an iron deficiency anaemia preventive trial and follow-up study in Santiago, Chile. All were healthy, full-term and weighing 3 kg or more at birth. Cross-lagged panel modelling was conducted to understand the temporal precedence between children's weight status and motor proficiency. Analyses also examined differences in gross and fine motor skills among healthy weight, overweight, and obese children. A higher BMI at 5 years contributed to declines in motor proficiency from 5 to 10 years. There was no support for the reverse, that is, poor motor skills at 5 years did not predict increases in relative weight from 5 to 10 years. Obesity at 5 years also predicted declines in motor proficiency. When compared with normal weight children, obese children had significantly poorer total and gross motor skills at both 5 and 10 years. Overweight children had poorer total and gross motor skills at 10 years only. The differences in total and gross motor skills among normal weight, overweight and obese children appear to increase with age. There were small differences in fine motor skill between obese and non-obese children at 5 years only. Obesity preceded declines in motor skills and not the reverse. Study findings suggest that early childhood obesity intervention efforts might help prevent declines in motor proficiency that, in turn, may positively impact children's physical activity and overall fitness levels. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. High Working Memory Load Increases Intracortical Inhibition in Primary Motor Cortex and Diminishes the Motor Affordance Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Scott M; Itthipuripat, Sirawaj; Aron, Adam R

    2016-05-18

    Motor affordances occur when the visual properties of an object elicit behaviorally relevant motor representations. Typically, motor affordances only produce subtle effects on response time or on motor activity indexed by neuroimaging/neuroelectrophysiology, but sometimes they can trigger action itself. This is apparent in "utilization behavior," where individuals with frontal cortex damage inappropriately grasp affording objects. This raises the possibility that, in healthy-functioning individuals, frontal cortex helps ensure that irrelevant affordance provocations remain below the threshold for actual movement. In Experiment 1, we tested this "frontal control" hypothesis by "loading" the frontal cortex with an effortful working memory (WM) task (which ostensibly consumes frontal resources) and examined whether this increased EEG measures of motor affordances to irrelevant affording objects. Under low WM load, there were typical motor affordance signatures: an event-related desynchronization in the mu frequency and an increased P300 amplitude for affording (vs nonaffording) objects over centroparietal electrodes. Contrary to our prediction, however, these affordance measures were diminished under high WM load. In Experiment 2, we tested competing mechanisms responsible for the diminished affordance in Experiment 1. We used paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation over primary motor cortex to measure long-interval cortical inhibition. We found greater long-interval cortical inhibition for high versus low load both before and after the affording object, suggesting that a tonic inhibition state in primary motor cortex could prevent the affordance from provoking the motor system. Overall, our results suggest that a high WM load "sets" the motor system into a suppressed state that mitigates motor affordances. Is an irrelevant motor affordance more likely to be triggered when you are under low or high cognitive load? We examined this using physiological measures

  10. Optimal strategy for competence differentiation in bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Scott Wylie

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A phylogenetically diverse subset of bacterial species are naturally competent for transformation by DNA. Transformation entails recombination of genes between different lineages, representing a form of bacterial sex that increases standing genetic variation. We first assess whether homologous recombination by transformation is favored by evolution. Using stochastic population genetic computer simulations in which beneficial and deleterious mutations occur at many loci throughout the whole genome, we find that transformation can increase both the rate of adaptive evolution and the equilibrium level of fitness. Secondly, motivated by experimental observations of Bacillus subtilis, we assume that competence additionally entails a weak persister phenotype, i.e., the rates of birth and death are reduced for these cells. Consequently, persisters evolve more slowly than non-persisters. We show via simulation that strains which stochastically switch into and out of the competent phenotype are evolutionarily favored over strains that express only a single phenotype. Our model's simplicity enables us to derive and numerically solve a system of finite- deterministic equations that describe the evolutionary dynamics. The observed tradeoff between the benefit of recombination and the cost of persistence may explain the previously mysterious observation that only a fractional subpopulation of B. subtilis cells express competence. More generally, this work demonstrates that population genetic forces can give rise to phenotypic diversity even in an unchanging and homogeneous environment.

  11. Superior sensory, motor, and cognitive performance in elderly individuals with multi-year dancing activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Christoph Kattenstroth

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with a progressive decline of mental and physical abilities. Considering the current demographic changes in many civilizations there is an urgent need for measures permitting an independent lifestyle into old age. The critical role of physical exercise in mediating and maintaining physical and mental fitness is well-acknowledged. Dance, in addition to physical activity, combines emotions, social interaction, sensory stimulation, motor coordination and music, thereby creating enriched environmental conditions for human individuals. Here we demonstrate the impact of multi-year (average 16.5 years amateur dancing (AD in a group of elderly subjects (aged 65 to 84 years as compared to education-, gender- and aged-matched controls (CG having no record of dancing or sporting activities. Besides posture and balance parameters, we tested reaction times, motor behavior, tactile and cognitive performance. In each of the different domains investigated, the AD group had a superior performance as compared to the non-dancer CG group. Analysis of individual performance revealed that the best participants of the AD group were not better than individuals of the CG group. Instead, the AD group lacked individuals showing poor performance, which was frequently observed for the CG group. This observation implies that maintaining a regular schedule of dancing into old age can preserve cognitive, motor and perceptual abilities and prevent them from degradation. We conclude that the far-reaching beneficial effects found in the AD group make dance, beyond its ability to facilitate balance and posture, a prime candidate for the preservation of everyday life competence of elderly individuals.

  12. Interference in ballistic motor learning: specificity and role of sensory error signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Petersen, Tue Hvass; Rothwell, John C

    2011-01-01

    Humans are capable of learning numerous motor skills, but newly acquired skills may be abolished by subsequent learning. Here we ask what factors determine whether interference occurs in motor learning. We speculated that interference requires competing processes of synaptic plasticity in overlap......Humans are capable of learning numerous motor skills, but newly acquired skills may be abolished by subsequent learning. Here we ask what factors determine whether interference occurs in motor learning. We speculated that interference requires competing processes of synaptic plasticity...... in overlapping circuits and predicted specificity. To test this, subjects learned a ballistic motor task. Interference was observed following subsequent learning of an accuracy-tracking task, but only if the competing task involved the same muscles and movement direction. Interference was not observed from a non......-learning task suggesting that interference requires competing learning. Subsequent learning of the competing task 4 h after initial learning did not cause interference suggesting disruption of early motor memory consolidation as one possible mechanism underlying interference. Repeated transcranial magnetic...

  13. Motor degradation prediction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, J.R.; Kelly, J.F.; Delzingaro, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Motor Operated Valve (MOV) squirrel cage AC motor rotors are susceptible to degradation under certain conditions. Premature failure can result due to high humidity/temperature environments, high running load conditions, extended periods at locked rotor conditions (i.e. > 15 seconds) or exceeding the motor's duty cycle by frequent starts or multiple valve stroking. Exposure to high heat and moisture due to packing leaks, pressure seal ring leakage or other causes can significantly accelerate the degradation. ComEd and Liberty Technologies have worked together to provide and validate a non-intrusive method using motor power diagnostics to evaluate MOV rotor condition and predict failure. These techniques have provided a quick, low radiation dose method to evaluate inaccessible motors, identify degradation and allow scheduled replacement of motors prior to catastrophic failures

  14. Strategies for developing competency models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrelli, Anne F; Tondora, Janis; Hoge, Michael A

    2005-01-01

    There is an emerging trend within healthcare to introduce competency-based approaches in the training, assessment, and development of the workforce. The trend is evident in various disciplines and specialty areas within the field of behavioral health. This article is designed to inform those efforts by presenting a step-by-step process for developing a competency model. An introductory overview of competencies, competency models, and the legal implications of competency development is followed by a description of the seven steps involved in creating a competency model for a specific function, role, or position. This modeling process is drawn from advanced work on competencies in business and industry.

  15. Psychometric Testing of the Persian Version of the Perceived Perioperative Competence Scale-Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajorpaz, Neda Mirbagher; Tafreshi, Mansoureh Zagheri; Mohtashami, Jamileh; Zayeri, Farid; Rahemi, Zahra

    2017-12-01

    The clinical competence of nursing students in operating room (OR) is an important issue in nursing education. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Persian Perceived Perioperative Competence Scale-Revised (PPCS-R) instrument. This cross-sectional study was conducted across 12 universities in Iran. The psychometric properties and factor structure of the PPCS-R for OR students was examined. Based on the results of factor analysis, seven items were removed from the original version of the scale. The fitness indices of the Persian scale include comparative fit index (CFI) = .90, goodness-of-fit-index (GFI) = .86, adjusted goodness-of-fit index (AGFI) = .90, normed fit index (NFI) = .84, and root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = .04. High validity and reliability indicated the scale's value for measuring perceived perioperative competence of Iranian OR students.

  16. Students' communicative competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šafranj Jelisaveta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Communicative competence is the ability to send messages which promote attainment of goals while maintaining social acceptability. Competent communicators attempt to align themselves with each others goals and methods to produce a smooth, productive and often enjoyable dialogue. The aim of this research was to investigate self-perceived communicative competence (SPCC of students of Engineering Management in General English and English for Specific Purposes (ESP. A longitudinal study was carried out starting with the first year students at the Faculty of Technical Sciences in Novi Sad and was repeated with the same sample of students during their second and third year of study. Participation was voluntary and took place during regular class time. The measure of communicative competence employed was the Self-perceived Communication Competence Scale. The results of the study indicated that differences in SPCC between the years do exist. The SPCC gradually improved between the first, the second and the third year. The research was also motivated by gaining better overview of the teaching activity. An anonymous questionnaire provided many useful hints and ideas for further work and thus, language teacher made a thorough analysis of the overall teaching procedure. However, it is essential to get some feedback and talk to students in order to evaluate both them and ourselves as well as the teaching syllabus.

  17. Hoist motor replacements. Help slash downtime, unplanned outages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, J.

    2004-11-01

    The article describes the design and retrofitting of a 'Dynamic Field Control' system to a P & H 4100 shovel. Designed by Drives and Controls Services Inc., this is a control system operated with a programmable logic control that enhances the performance of the hoist motor on the shovel. Flanders Electric Motor Service fitted prototype M22 motors with these control to P & H 4100 shovels in February 2001. Since then they have been retrofitted successfully to other shovels, in operation in India and Australia. 4 figs.

  18. Cryogenic Electric Motor Tested

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gerald V.

    2004-01-01

    Technology for pollution-free "electric flight" is being evaluated in a number of NASA Glenn Research Center programs. One approach is to drive propulsive fans or propellers with electric motors powered by fuel cells running on hydrogen. For large transport aircraft, conventional electric motors are far too heavy to be feasible. However, since hydrogen fuel would almost surely be carried as liquid, a propulsive electric motor could be cooled to near liquid hydrogen temperature (-423 F) by using the fuel for cooling before it goes to the fuel cells. Motor windings could be either superconducting or high purity normal copper or aluminum. The electrical resistance of pure metals can drop to 1/100th or less of their room-temperature resistance at liquid hydrogen temperature. In either case, super or normal, much higher current density is possible in motor windings. This leads to more compact motors that are projected to produce 20 hp/lb or more in large sizes, in comparison to on the order of 2 hp/lb for large conventional motors. High power density is the major goal. To support cryogenic motor development, we have designed and built in-house a small motor (7-in. outside diameter) for operation in liquid nitrogen.

  19. Hybrid vehicle motor alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Michael Benjamin

    2001-07-03

    A rotor of an electric motor for a motor vehicle is aligned to an axis of rotation for a crankshaft of an internal combustion engine having an internal combustion engine and an electric motor. A locator is provided on the crankshaft, a piloting tool is located radially by the first locator to the crankshaft. A stator of the electric motor is aligned to a second locator provided on the piloting tool. The stator is secured to the engine block. The rotor is aligned to the crankshaft and secured thereto.

  20. Physiotherapy clinical educators? perceptions of student fitness to practise

    OpenAIRE

    Lo, Kristin; Curtis, Heather; Keating, Jennifer L.; Bearman, Margaret

    2017-01-01

    Background Health professional students are expected to maintain Fitness to Practise (FTP) including clinical competence, professional behaviour and freedom from impairment (physical/mental health). FTP potentially affects students, clinicians and clients, yet the impact of supervising students across the spectrum of FTP issues remains relatively under-reported. This study describes clinical educators? perceptions of supporting students with FTP issues. Methods Between November 2012 and Janua...

  1. Sensitization of Parker fittings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilber, W.W.

    1985-09-01

    At your request, ferrules from 316 SS Parker-Hannifen compression fittings at the FFTF have been examined and evaluated to determine the metallurgical condition as related to carbide precipitation in grain boundaries (known as sensitization) and the implications this may have with regard to corrosion resistance. To accomplish this, two ferrules from new stock, two ferrules from old stock and two ferrules that had seen service were examined metallurgically. The samples were prepared for optical metallography. They were viewed in both the etched and unetched condition and analyzed on the scanning electron microscope (SEM) for elemental content. It was confirmed that the ferrules from new stock had a 5 mil thick nitrided layer on the ferrule ID at the lead end and that the 316 SS ferrule material was in the sensitized condition, indicating low resistance to aqueous corrosion. The material from old stock had no nitride layer but was in the sensitized condition indicating low resistance to aqueous corrosion. The ferrules that had seen service had not been nitrided and were not sensitized indicating high resistance to aqueous corrosion

  2. Language competence in movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Helle Pia; Mogensen, Naja Dahlstrup

    2016-01-01

    multilingual children's language and literacy acquisition processes, we direct our focus to a single child's active exploration of what it means to know a language. Through analysis of interviews and researcher generated activities, we see how this child both describes and does language competence......This article examines how, in a multilingual perspective, language competence is experienced, talked about and practiced by language users themselves. By viewing children as active co-creators of the spaces in which language is used, this article contributes to a research tradition in which focus...... is shifted from viewing the individual's language competence as a mental linguistic or communicative property, to viewing language as a series of social and spatial practices. Looking at data from the research project Tegn på Sprog (in the following referred to as Signs of Language), which examines...

  3. Epidemia de fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanja Bastos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo refletir sobre uma condição naturalizada e disseminada principalmente pelo campo da nova promoção à saúde e reforçada nos espaços de atuação da educação física, a que se denominou epidemia de fitness. O termo refere-se a hábitos e comportamentos obsessivos com a saúde, beleza e vitalidade, tornando-se alvo de exercício de controle por parte de especialistas. Para discuti-la realizou-se um estudo de caso em que foram submetidos à análise semiótica, por meio do método de leitura isotópica, 59 materiais de divulgação, impressos, coletados na Expo Wellness Rio 2009, uma feira de negócios inserida no Congresso Wellness Rio 2009. As categorias isotópicas que emergiram a partir da análise são as seguintes: saúde/beleza e tecnologia, saúde/beleza e especialidade e saúde/beleza e longevidade. Elas apontam para a potencialização da vitalidade humana como mola propulsora das estratégias discursivas, assim como valor recorrente que embasa ações voltadas para a melhoria das condições de saúde, imbricadas à ideia de longevidade e beleza.

  4. Fitness Landscapes of Functional RNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ádám Kun

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The notion of fitness landscapes, a map between genotype and fitness, was proposed more than 80 years ago. For most of this time data was only available for a few alleles, and thus we had only a restricted view of the whole fitness landscape. Recently, advances in genetics and molecular biology allow a more detailed view of them. Here we review experimental and theoretical studies of fitness landscapes of functional RNAs, especially aptamers and ribozymes. We find that RNA structures can be divided into critical structures, connecting structures, neutral structures and forbidden structures. Such characterisation, coupled with theoretical sequence-to-structure predictions, allows us to construct the whole fitness landscape. Fitness landscapes then can be used to study evolution, and in our case the development of the RNA world.

  5. Leading a Culture of Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    professional fighting force. Numerous studies indicate physical fitness improves cognitive function, the ability to handle stress, injury recovery...4 ―What is Fitness?‖ The CrossFit Journal (October 2002) http://www.crossfit.com (accessed 11 February, 2011). An excellent article beyond the...scope of this paper. Although our definition was derived from Crossfit , it is our position that Crossfit is not, and should not be, the only method to

  6. Physical Fitness in the Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-03-17

    in fitness as the absence of disease or injury . The coach defines fitness as §l’Jse factors responsible for success in a sport. The leader is...lower back and legs to gradually increase your body’s level of activity. This will reduce the risk of injury and prevent unnecessary soreness. Also, a...flexibility. Let’s discuss the importance of muscular fitness and how we can achieve this kind of fitneas through weightlifting or calisthenics. Remember

  7. Modeling Induction Motor Imbalances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armah, Kabenla; Jouffroy, Jerome; Duggen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives a study into the development of a generalized model for a three-phase induction motor that offers flexibility of simulating balanced and unbalanced parameter scenarios. By analyzing the interaction of forces within the motor, we achieve our main objective of deriving the system d...

  8. Artificial molecular motors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassem, Salma; van Leeuwen, Thomas; Lubbe, Anouk S.; Wilson, Miriam R.; Feringa, Ben L.; Leigh, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Motor proteins are nature's solution for directing movement at the molecular level. The field of artificial molecular motors takes inspiration from these tiny but powerful machines. Although directional motion on the nanoscale performed by synthetic molecular machines is a relatively new

  9. To What Extent Can Motor Imagery Replace Motor Execution While Learning a Fine Motor Skill?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobierajewicz, Jagna; Szarkiewicz, Sylwia; Prekoracka-Krawczyk, Anna; Jaskowski, Wojciech; van der Lubbe, Robert Henricus Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Motor imagery is generally thought to share common mechanisms with motor execution. In the present study, we examined to what extent learning a fine motor skill by motor imagery may substitute physical practice. Learning effects were assessed by manipulating the proportion of motor execution and

  10. Higher Efficiency HVAC Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, Charles Joseph [QM Power, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2018-02-13

    The objective of this project was to design and build a cost competitive, more efficient heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) motor than what is currently available on the market. Though different potential motor architectures among QMP’s primary technology platforms were investigated and evaluated, including through the building of numerous prototypes, the project ultimately focused on scaling up QM Power, Inc.’s (QMP) Q-Sync permanent magnet synchronous motors from available sub-fractional horsepower (HP) sizes for commercial refrigeration fan applications to larger fractional horsepower sizes appropriate for HVAC applications, and to add multi-speed functionality. The more specific goal became the research, design, development, and testing of a prototype 1/2 HP Q-Sync motor that has at least two operating speeds and 87% peak efficiency compared to incumbent electronically commutated motors (EC or ECM, also known as brushless direct current (DC) motors), the heretofore highest efficiency HVACR fan motor solution, at approximately 82% peak efficiency. The resulting motor prototype built achieved these goals, hitting 90% efficiency and .95 power factor at full load and speed, and 80% efficiency and .7 power factor at half speed. Q-Sync, developed in part through a DOE SBIR grant (Award # DE-SC0006311), is a novel, patented motor technology that improves on electronically commutated permanent magnet motors through an advanced electronic circuit technology. It allows a motor to “sync” with the alternating current (AC) power flow. It does so by eliminating the constant, wasteful power conversions from AC to DC and back to AC through the synthetic creation of a new AC wave on the primary circuit board (PCB) by a process called pulse width modulation (PWM; aka electronic commutation) that is incessantly required to sustain motor operation in an EC permanent magnet motor. The Q-Sync circuit improves the power factor of the motor by removing all

  11. Eating before competing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, N

    1998-09-01

    Many casual exercisers and competitive athletes believe they should avoid food for several hours before they exercise or compete. Others wonder if they should snack, perhaps on an energy bar before a soccer game. And a few are so nervous that even the thought of food is nauseating.

  12. Competence and the Workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, Nico W.; Elliot, Andrew J.; Dweck, Carol S.; Yeager, David S.

    2017-01-01

    The focus of this chapter on competence at the workplace is on workers’ willingness to perform, which is defined as individuals’ psychological characteristics that affect the degree to which they are inclined to perform their tasks. People may be motivated by either the positive, appetitive

  13. Developing professional competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of university programs for professionals is to qualify the students to act competently in a subsequent job situation. Practical experiences as well as comprehensive research studies have shown that only a limited part of what is learned during the coursework is applied in the subsequent...

  14. Assessing cataract surgical competency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Andrew G.; Greenlee, Emily; Oetting, Thomas A.; Beaver, Hilary A.; Johnson, A. Tim; Boldt, H. Culver; Abramoff, Michael; Olson, Richard; Carter, Keith

    2007-01-01

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education has mandated that all residency training programs teach and assess 6 general competencies.1 A.G. Lee and K.D. Carter, Managing the new mandate in resident education: A blueprint for translating a national mandate into local compliance,

  15. Assessing Culturally Competent Scholarship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendias, Elnora P.; Guevara, Edilma B.

    2001-01-01

    Eight criteria for culturally competent scholarship (contextuality, relevance, communication styles, awareness of identity and power differences, disclosure, reciprocation, empowerment, time) were applied to an international education/research nursing program. Appropriate measures for each were developed and ways to improve the program were…

  16. Evolution of subsidiary competences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Pedersen, Torben; Dhanaraj, Charles

    of competitive advantage of nations, we hypothesize the contingencies under which heterogeneity in host environments influences subsidiary competence configuration. We test our model with data from more than 2,000 subsidiaries in seven Western European countries. Our results provide new insights on the evolution...

  17. Promoting Intercultural Competencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachner, Katherine M., E-mail: kbachner@bnl.gov [Brookhaven National Laboratory (United States)

    2014-07-01

    What is culture? • Culture is the acquired knowledge people use to interpret experience and generate behavior. • It is the way of life a people pass down from one generation to the next through learning. • It is the rules for living and functioning in society that come from growing up in a specific society, and it is a set of acquired skills, habits and society-specific training that gives a group of people its identity. What is intercultural competency? • Cultures can have widely varying perspectives. • These perspectives influence the way that a person develops relationships, responds to situations, and operates in a professional setting. • Intercultural competency is the ability to comprehend and navigate the ways that culture can influence behavior, relationships, and the results of collaboration and interaction. What does becoming interculturally competent entail? • Intercultural preparedness is not merely travelling, learning a foreign language, or being exposed to other cultures. • Developing competency requires thinking about the challenges posed to our work by a multi-cultural workforce in a way that prepares employees and staff for potential incidents or misunderstandings. • It is impossible to avoid all intercultural misunderstandings, but learning to anticipate them and deal with them is key to developing any training program on culture.

  18. Promoting Intercultural Competencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachner, Katherine M.

    2014-01-01

    What is culture? • Culture is the acquired knowledge people use to interpret experience and generate behavior. • It is the way of life a people pass down from one generation to the next through learning. • It is the rules for living and functioning in society that come from growing up in a specific society, and it is a set of acquired skills, habits and society-specific training that gives a group of people its identity. What is intercultural competency? • Cultures can have widely varying perspectives. • These perspectives influence the way that a person develops relationships, responds to situations, and operates in a professional setting. • Intercultural competency is the ability to comprehend and navigate the ways that culture can influence behavior, relationships, and the results of collaboration and interaction. What does becoming interculturally competent entail? • Intercultural preparedness is not merely travelling, learning a foreign language, or being exposed to other cultures. • Developing competency requires thinking about the challenges posed to our work by a multi-cultural workforce in a way that prepares employees and staff for potential incidents or misunderstandings. • It is impossible to avoid all intercultural misunderstandings, but learning to anticipate them and deal with them is key to developing any training program on culture

  19. Competence preservation through education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, U.; Koessler, M.

    2013-01-01

    For fulfilling their tasks GNS depends on personnel with specific knowledge and competence. GNS answers to these challenges by various measures for education and training in order to have skilled personnel available nowadays and in the future. By these measures and the internal organisation regarding responsibilities in radiation protection requirements resulting from the expected Euratom Basic Safety Standards (BSS) are met. (orig.)

  20. Intercultural competence @ SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Poel, Marcel H.

    2015-01-01

    The experiences with intercultural competence training at the Hanze International Business School Groningen may serve as a blueprint for augmenting professional intercultural behaviour at the SME work floor. The set-up of the training is based on current intercultural communication theory and

  1. Nursing Informatics Competency Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    Currently, C Hospital lacks a standardized nursing informatics competency program to validate nurses' skills and knowledge in using electronic medical records (EMRs). At the study locale, the organization is about to embark on the implementation of a new, more comprehensive EMR system. All departments will be required to use the new EMR, unlike…

  2. Assessment Mathematics Teacher's Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnoor, A. G.; Yuanxiang, Guo; Abudhuim, F. S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper aimed to identifying the professional efficiencies for the intermediate schools mathematics teachers and tries to know at what level the math teachers experience those competencies. The researcher used a descriptive research approach, the study data collected from specialist educators and teacher's experts and previous studies to…

  3. Adult educators' core competences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    2016-06-01

    Which competences do professional adult educators need? This research note discusses the topic from a comparative perspective, finding that adult educators' required competences are wide-ranging, heterogeneous and complex. They are subject to context in terms of national and cultural environment as well as the kind of adult education concerned (e.g. basic education, work-related education etc.). However, it seems that it is possible to identify certain competence requirements which transcend national, cultural and functional boundaries. This research note summarises these common or "core" requirements, organising them into four thematic subcategories: (1) communicating subject knowledge; (2) taking students' prior learning into account; (3) supporting a learning environment; and (4) the adult educator's reflection on his or her own performance. At the end of his analysis of different competence profiles, the author notes that adult educators' ability to train adult learners in a way which then enables them to apply and use what they have learned in practice (thus performing knowledge transfer) still seems to be overlooked.

  4. Skills and Competencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasios Orinos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a study aimed to investigate the requirements of the business sector in light of the skills and competencies students should have in order to be recruited. In this fashion, the study intended to measure the importance of the skills and competencies sought by the business world, revealing ways through which students can develop such skills. This project portrayed that, some of the required classes will certainly give students a strong theoretical background but they will neither completely prepare this student with all possible skills or competencies nor provide the student with any practical experience that will enable him/her to be more competitive when entering the business market. In some classes, however, like Public Speaking, which is designed to teach presentation skills, successful students are able to build good communication and interpersonal skills. Additionally, an English writing class will certainly attempt to provide them with strong writing skills, and a business class will possibly demand reading skills. Moreover, a calculus and a statistics class will provide basic arithmetic/mathematical skills. However, through this project it is proven that all of these classes will neglect the indoctrination of creative thinking in students, or make students believe in their own self-worth (self-esteem skills; the courses will also fail to develop the sense of urgency, drive and determination that students should possess not just to compete but also to survive in a business world.

  5. Competing Auctions of Skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennes, John; le Maire, Christian Daniel

    The model of competing sellers McAfee (1993) is applied to a labor market environment with heterogeneous workers, who differ by outside option and skill type, and heterogeneous firms, who differ by the amount of output produced when matched to each possible worker tyoe. We derive both a static...

  6. Competencies in the Heartland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejda, Brent

    2012-01-01

    Although many of the issues facing community colleges are similar, rural community colleges face additional leadership challenges due to limited resources, geographic isolation, and static economies. This chapter focuses on the impact of location on the interpretation and development of the leadership competencies. The chapter concludes with…

  7. Teacher Educator Technology Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulger, Teresa S.; Graziano, Kevin J.; Schmidt-Crawford, Denise A.; Slykhuis, David A.

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. National Educational Technology Plan recommends the need to have a common set of technology competencies specifically for teacher educators who prepare teacher candidates to teach with technology (U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Technology, 2017). This study facilitated the co-creation of the Teacher Educator…

  8. Competencies, skills and assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    This paper is an analysis of the challenge of assessing student learning and how that is affected by using descriptions of competencies as a core element when describing the aims of the learning process. Assessment is modelled as a three step process; characterising, identifying and judging, to a...

  9. Developing osteopathic competencies in geriatrics for medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Donald R; Channell, Millicent King; Basehore, Pamela M; Pomerantz, Sherry C; Ciesielski, Janice; Eigbe, Patrick Arekhandia; Chopra, Anita

    2013-04-01

    Minimum core competencies for allopathic medical students in the specialty area of geriatrics have been developed, comprising 26 competencies divided into 8 topical domains. These competencies are appropriate for osteopathic medical students, but they do not include competencies relating to osteopathic principles and practice (OPP) in geriatrics. There remains a need within the osteopathic profession to develop specialty-specific competencies specific to OPP. To develop more specific and comprehensive minimum competencies in OPP for osteopathic medical students in the field of geriatric medicine. The Delphi technique (a structured communication technique that uses a panel of experts to reach consensus) was adapted to generate new core competencies relating to OPP. Osteopathic geriatricians and members of the Educational Council on Osteopathic Principles (ECOP) of the American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine participated in a breakout session and 2 rounds of surveys. Proposed competencies with 80% of the participants ranking it as "very important and should be added as a competency" were retained. Participants were also asked if they agreed that competencies in OPP should include specific types of osteopathic manipulative treatment techniques for the elderly. Responses were received from 26 osteopathic physician experts: 17 ECOP members and 9 geriatricians. Fourteen proposed competencies were developed: 7 related to the existing topic domains, and 7 were placed into a new domain of osteopathic manipulative medicine (OMM). Six proposed competencies were retained, all of which were in the new OMM domain. These competencies related to using OMM for gait and balance assessment, knowing adverse events and contraindications of OMM, using OMM for pain relief and end-of-life care, using OMM in the hospital and nursing home setting, adapting OMM to fit an elderly individual, and using OMM to address limited range of motion and ability to perform activities of

  10. Linear motor coil assembly and linear motor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    An ironless linear motor (5) comprising a magnet track (53) and a coil assembly (50) operating in cooperation with said magnet track (53) and having a plurality of concentrated multi-turn coils (31 a-f, 41 a-d, 51 a-k), wherein the end windings (31E) of the coils (31 a-f, 41 a-e) are substantially

  11. More automation and less cognitive control of imagined walking movements in high versus low fit older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Godde

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Using motor imagery, we investigated brain activation in simple and complex walking tasks (walking forward and backward on a treadmill and analyzed if the motor status of older adults influenced these activation patterns. 51 older adults (64-79 years of age were trained in motor execution and imagery and then performed the imagination task and two control tasks (standing, counting backward in a horizontal position within a 3T MRI scanner (first person perspective, eyes closed. Walking backward as compared to walking forward required larger activations in the primary motor cortex, supplementary motor area, parietal cortex, thalamus, putamen, and caudatum, but less activation in the cerebellum and brainstem. Motor high-fit individuals showed more activations and larger BOLD signals in motor-related areas compared to low-fit participants but demonstrated lower activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Moreover, parietal activation in high-fit participants remained stable throughout the movement period whereas low-fit participants revealed an early drop in activity in this area accompanied by increasing activity in frontal brain regions. Overall, walking forward seemed to be more automated (more activation in cerebellum and brainstem, whereas walking backward required more resources, e.g. for visual-spatial processing and sensorimotor control. Low-fit subjects in particular seemed to require more cognitive resources for planning and controlling. High-fit subjects, on the contrary, revealed more movement automation and a higher “attention span.” Our results support the hypothesis that high fitness corresponds with more automation and less cognitive control of complex motor tasks, which might help to free up cognitive resources.

  12. Spinal cord: motor neuron diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezania, Kourosh; Roos, Raymond P

    2013-02-01

    Spinal cord motor neuron diseases affect lower motor neurons in the ventral horn. This article focuses on the most common spinal cord motor neuron disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, which also affects upper motor neurons. Also discussed are other motor neuron diseases that only affect the lower motor neurons. Despite the identification of several genes associated with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, the pathogenesis of this complex disease remains elusive. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Interrelations between Competences for Sustainable Development and Research Competences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrechts, Wim; Van Petegem, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore how competences for sustainable development and research interrelate within a context of competence-based higher education. Specific focus is oriented towards strengthening research competences for sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: Following a hermeneutic-interpretive methodology, this…

  14. Competency Analytics Tool: Analyzing Curriculum Using Course Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottipati, Swapna; Shankararaman, Venky

    2018-01-01

    The applications of learning outcomes and competency frameworks have brought better clarity to engineering programs in many universities. Several frameworks have been proposed to integrate outcomes and competencies into course design, delivery and assessment. However, in many cases, competencies are course-specific and their overall impact on the…

  15. Control and sensor techniques for PAD servo motor drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zsurzsan, Tiberiu-Gabriel; Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2015-01-01

    The Piezoelectric Actuator Drive (PAD) is a new type of electrical motor that employs piezoelectric multilayer actuators coupled with a form-fitted micro-mechanical gearing to generate rotary motion. The PAD is precise, having a positioning error of less than 2 arc-seconds. Its typical output...

  16. Female Fitness in the Blogosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Andreasson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes self-portrayals and gender constructions among female personal trainers within an Internet-mediated framework of fitness culture. The empirical material comes from a close examination of three strategically selected blogs. The result shows that some of the blogs clearly build upon what Connell calls emphasized femininity, as a means of legitimizing and constructing appropriate female fitness. In addition, there are also tendencies of sexualization in text and imagery present. As such, these self-representations are framed within a cultural history of body fitness dominated by stereotypical ways of perceiving masculinity and femininity. However, this does not capture the entire presentation of the self among the analyzed fitness bloggers. The blogs also point in the direction of ongoing negotiations and subversions of traditional gender norms. Among other things, they show how irony and humor are used as a means of questioning normative gender constructions while empowering female fitness and bodyliness.

  17. Nuclear fuel element end fitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1980-01-01

    An invention is described whereby end fittings are formed from lattices of mutually perpendicular plates. At the plate intersections, sockets are secured to the end fittings in a manner that permits the longitudinal axes of each of the sockets to align with the respective lines of intersection of the plates. The sockets all protrude above one of the surfaces of the end fitting. Further, a detent is formed in the proturding sides of each of the sockets. Annular grooves are formed in each of the ends of the fuel rods that are to be mounted between the end fittings. The socket detents protrude into the respective annular grooves, thus engaging the grooves and retaining the fuel rods and end fittings in one integral structure. (auth)

  18. FITS Liberator: Image processing software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg Christensen, Lars; Nielsen, Lars Holm; Nielsen, Kaspar K.; Johansen, Teis; Hurt, Robert; de Martin, David

    2012-06-01

    The ESA/ESO/NASA FITS Liberator makes it possible to process and edit astronomical science data in the FITS format to produce stunning images of the universe. Formerly a plugin for Adobe Photoshop, the current version of FITS Liberator is a stand-alone application and no longer requires Photoshop. This image processing software makes it possible to create color images using raw observations from a range of telescopes; the FITS Liberator continues to support the FITS and PDS formats, preferred by astronomers and planetary scientists respectively, which enables data to be processed from a wide range of telescopes and planetary probes, including ESO's Very Large Telescope, the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, ESA's XMM-Newton Telescope and Cassini-Huygens or Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

  19. Fitness Doping and Body Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thualagant, Nicole

    This PhD thesis examines in a first paper the conceptualization of fitness doping and its current limitations. Based on a review of studies on bodywork and fitness doping it is emphasised that the definition of doping does not provide insights into bodywork of both men and women. Moreover......, it is argued that the social and a cultural context are missing in the many epidemiological studies on the prevalence of doping. The second paper explores the difficulties of implementing an anti-doping policy, which was originally formulated in an elite sport context, in a fitness context and more......-based fitness centres. Based on a survey in ten Danish club-based fitness centres and on narratives from semi-structured interviews, it is highlighted that the objectives of bodywork differ according to the users’ age and gender. Two different ways of investing in the body are explored in the paper, namely...

  20. Prevalence and correlates of resistance training skill competence in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jordan J; DeMarco, Matthew; Kennedy, Sarah G; Kelson, Mark; Barnett, Lisa M; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Lubans, David R

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence and correlates of adolescents' resistance training (RT) skill competence. Participants were 548 adolescents (14.1 ± 0.5 years) from 16 schools in New South Wales, Australia. RT skills were assessed using the Resistance Training Skills Battery. Demographics, BMI, muscular fitness, perceived strength, RT self-efficacy, and motivation for RT were also assessed. The proportion demonstrating "competence" and "near competence" in each of the six RT skills were calculated and sex differences explored. Associations between the combined RT skill score and potential correlates were examined using multi-level linear mixed models. Overall, the prevalence of competence was low (range = 3.3% to 27.9%). Females outperformed males on the squat, lunge and overhead press, whereas males performed better on the push-up (p fitness was moderately and positively associated with RT skills among both males (β = 0.34, 95%CIs = 0.23 to 0.46) and females (β = 0.36, 95%CIs = 0.23 to 0.48). Our findings support a link between RT skills and muscular fitness. Other associations were statistically significant but small in magnitude, and should therefore be interpreted cautiously.

  1. Competing opinion diffusion on social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Haibo

    2017-11-01

    Opinion competition is a common phenomenon in real life, such as with opinions on controversial issues or political candidates; however, modelling this competition remains largely unexplored. To bridge this gap, we propose a model of competing opinion diffusion on social networks taking into account degree-dependent fitness or persuasiveness. We study the combined influence of social networks, individual fitnesses and attributes, as well as mass media on people's opinions, and find that both social networks and mass media act as amplifiers in opinion diffusion, the amplifying effect of which can be quantitatively characterized. We analytically obtain the probability that each opinion will ultimately pervade the whole society when there are no committed people in networks, and the final proportion of each opinion at the steady state when there are committed people in networks. The results of numerical simulations show good agreement with those obtained through an analytical approach. This study provides insight into the collective influence of individual attributes, local social networks and global media on opinion diffusion, and contributes to a comprehensive understanding of competing diffusion behaviours in the real world.

  2. Investigating mental fitness and school connectedness in Prince Edward Island and New Brunswick, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murnaghan, Donna; Morrison, William; Laurence, Courtney; Bell, Brandi

    2014-07-01

    As youth struggle with anxiety and depression, promoting positive mental fitness is a primary concern. Canadian school-based mental health programs that focus on positive psychology and positive mental health initiatives emphasize safe and supportive environments, student engagement, resilience, and self-determination. This study examined predictors of mental fitness and its 3 components (autonomy, competence, and relatedness). School Health Action Planning and Evaluation System-Prince Edward Island (SHAPES-PEI) and the New Brunswick Student Wellness Survey (NB SWS) are data collection and feedback systems that survey youth about 4 health behaviors. Grade 7-12 students in Prince Edward Island (N = 3318) and New Brunswick (N = 7314) completed a mental fitness questionnaire in 2008-2009 (PEI) and 2006-2007 (NB). Four linear regression models were conducted to examine student characteristics associated with mental fitness, autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Positive associations were found between school connectedness (p fitness, as well as autonomy, competence, and relatedness. There were also significant relationships between affect, pro-social and antisocial behaviors, tried smoking, and mental fitness. A better understanding of adolescent health and its predictors is needed. By identifying core parameters for mental fitness, we can inform how to address students' needs through appropriate programs and policies supporting healthy school environments. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  3. Documentation of Improvement Competences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jørn; Back, Karsten Kristensen; Korsaa, Morten

    2017-01-01

    This paper demonstrates how a report used in a Master in Project management and Process improvement training at Roskilde University Denmark can be used to evaluate if a student can pass the ECQA SPI Manager exam. It also demonstrates how the structure of the report addresses all necessary...... Manager job role, which is based on the SPI Manifesto and the ImprovAbilityTM model (part of ISO/IEC 33014 Guideline for Process Improvement) among other types of knowledge and research....... competences, which should or could be brought into play during the project – and therefor also in one way or another addresses the quality of the activated competences in the improvement project – a kind of qualification. The clue is that the structure of the report follows the units and element in the SPI...

  4. Developing Creative Competencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Silje Alberthe Kamille

    2012-01-01

    This paper offers a theoretical framework for how to think about and understand creativity – and how to work with the development of creative competencies in design education. Most design students experience recurrent, individual challenges in design work, which have to do with their personal......, psychological configuration. The objective of the present research is to provide new insight into the dynamics underlying our individual strengths and challenges, and develop approaches to help design students come full circle in creative work processes. The paper builds on contemporary theory and techniques...... from the field of psychology, as well as research-in-practice with students at the Kolding School of Design and presents the outline of a model for how to work with and facilitate the development of creative competencies. While the research is still in its early phases, response from participants...

  5. WHO NEEDS INTERCULTURAL COMPETENCES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen-Laura ZARZU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The current essay focuses on the need for formal education in the area of intercultural communication and training of intercultural competences. It builds on cultural identity and diversity literature, on the experiment conducted in the Low Countries in introducing a new topic for students from social sciences referring to intercultural communication and on reports and papers of international companies, organizations and agencies. The argument of globalization which should give equal opportunities to each and every world’s citizen adds pressure on managers dealing with multicultural teams. Intercultural competences gain importance in recruiting, while turning cultural diversity in team performance requires skills, knowledge and experience. Managing cultural diversity presupposes that people are aware, recognize, understand and deal with differences. Thus intercultural communication should be studied as a stand-alone topic or imbedded in other subjects in different forms of education or training, so people are prepared for intercultural, social and professional relationships.

  6. Production competence revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szász, Levente; Demeter, Krisztina; Boer, Harry

    2015-01-01

    to measure production competence as the two-dimensional operational level construct it actually is, and to use Slack’s (1994) importance performance matrix to study its business level performance effects. The three hypotheses developed are tested using a subsample of the International Manufacturing Strategy...... Survey database, which includes 465 manufacturing companies from 21 countries. Findings – The study offers additional empirical support for production competence theory. Going beyond supporting existing theory, the results give more detailed insight by indicating that low operational performance on even...... one important competitive factor leads to lower business performance (order-losing effect); excessive investment in increasing operational performance on any less important competitive factor does not necessarily lead to higher business performance. Practical implications – Using a large empirical...

  7. FIRST robots compete

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    FIRST teams and their robots work to go through the right motions at the FIRST competition. Students from all over the country are at the KSC Visitor Complex for the FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) Southeast Regional competition March 9-11 in the Rocket Garden. Teams of high school students are testing the limits of their imagination using robots they have designed, with the support of business and engineering professionals and corporate sponsors, to compete in a technological battle against other schools' robots. Of the 30 high school teams competing, 16 are Florida teams co-sponsored by NASA and KSC contractors. Local high schools participating are Astronaut, Bayside, Cocoa Beach, Eau Gallie, Melbourne, Melbourne Central Catholic, Palm Bay, Rockledge, Satellite, and Titusville.

  8. Competence, governance, and entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Mahnke, Volker

    This title illustrates modern economics. Because it informs strategic choices, it is relevant to business administration in general, and for strategic management in particular. Two dominant streams may be identified in the literature, namely the "competence" and "governance" perspectives...... on the firm. While there has been little direct discussion between the main proponents of these perspectives, both claim that they are reaching for a "strategic theory of the firm". Such a theory would not only shed light on the classical questions considered in the theory of the firm (e.g. why firms exist......, what determines their boundaries and internal organization), but would also be helpful for informing strategy issues, such as understanding strategic flexibility, strategic options, and the sources of competitive advantage. This volume brings together prominent voices on competence, governance...

  9. Spiritual Competency Scale: Further Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, Stephanie F.; Robertson, Linda A.; Gill, Carman S.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a follow-up analysis of the Spiritual Competency Scale, which initially validated ASERVIC's (Association for Spiritual, Ethical and Religious Values in Counseling) spiritual competencies. The study examined whether the factor structure of the Spiritual Competency Scale would be supported by participants (i.e., ASERVIC…

  10. Accelerated reliability demonstration under competing failure modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Wei; Zhang, Chun-hua; Chen, Xun; Tan, Yuan-yuan

    2015-01-01

    The conventional reliability demonstration tests are difficult to apply to products with competing failure modes due to the complexity of the lifetime models. This paper develops a testing methodology based on the reliability target allocation for reliability demonstration under competing failure modes at accelerated conditions. The specified reliability at mission time and the risk caused by sampling of the reliability target for products are allocated for each failure mode. The risk caused by degradation measurement fitting of the target for a product involving performance degradation is equally allocated to each degradation failure mode. According to the allocated targets, the accelerated life reliability demonstration test (ALRDT) plans for the failure modes are designed. The accelerated degradation reliability demonstration test plans and the associated ALRDT plans for the degradation failure modes are also designed. Next, the test plan and the decision rules for the products are designed. Additionally, the effects of the discreteness of sample size and accepted number of failures for failure modes on the actual risks caused by sampling for the products are investigated. - Highlights: • Accelerated reliability demonstration under competing failure modes is studied. • The method is based on the reliability target allocation involving the risks. • The test plan for the products is based on the plans for all the failure modes. • Both failure mode and degradation failure modes are considered. • The error of actual risks caused by sampling for the products is small enough

  11. Dementia and Legal Competency

    OpenAIRE

    Filaković, Pavo; Petek Erić, Anamarija; Mihanović, Mate; Glavina, Trpimir; Molnar, Sven

    2011-01-01

    The legal competency or capability to exercise rights is level of judgment and decision-making ability needed to manage one's own affairs and to sign official documents. With some exceptions, the person entitles this right in age of majority. It is acquired without legal procedures, however the annulment of legal capacity requires a juristic process. This resolution may not be final and could be revoked thorough the procedure of reverting legal capacity – fully or partially. Given ...

  12. COMPETENCE IN MEDICINE

    OpenAIRE

    Hélio Teixeira MD.

    2005-01-01

    Medical competence is the result of a lifelong evolving process, based on the development of efficiency, experience and ethical principles. Efficiency in medical practice depends on scientific knowledge, technical abilities and communication skills. Experience is a process of personal refinement, breeding knowledge and wisdom. Finally, medical ethics is founded on the quest for justice, compassion and love. Didactically, we can distinguish three phases in the professional evolution of a physi...

  13. Dissociative State and Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ju Lin

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the results of forensic evaluation of the civil competence of a case of alleged dissociative identity disorder (DID and discusses whether such dissociative states substantially jeopardize civil competence. A 40-year-old woman claimed that she had had many personalities since her college days. From the age of 37 to 40, she shopped excessively, which left her with millions of dollars of debt. She ascribed her shopping to a certain identity state, over which she had no control. (In this article, we use the term identity state to replace personality as an objective description of a mental state. She thus raised the petition of civil incompetence. During the forensic evaluation, it was found that the identity states were relatively stable and mutually aware of each other. The switch into another identity state was sometimes under voluntary control. The subject showed consistency and continuity in behavioral patterns across the different identity states, and no matter which identity state she was in, there was no evidence of impairment in her factual knowledge of social situations and her capacity for managing personal affairs. We hence concluded that she was civilly competent despite the claimed DID. Considering that the existence and diagnosis of DID are still under dispute and a diagnosis of DID alone is not sufficient to interdict a person's civil right, important clinical and forensic issues remain to be answered.

  14. [Competence based medical education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabó, Jorge G; Buraschi, Jorge; Olcese, Juan; Buraschi, María; Duro, Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    The strategy of curriculum planning in the majority of the Schools of Medicine has shifted, in the past years, from curriculum models based in contents to outcome oriented curricula. Coincidently the interest in defining and evaluating the clinical competences that a graduate must have has grown. In our country, and particularly in the Associated Hospitals belonging to the Unidad Regional de Enseñanza IV of the UBA School of Medicine, evidence has been gathered showing that the acquisition of clinical competences during the grade is in general insufficient. The foundations and characteristics of PREM (Programa de Requisitos Esenciales Mínimos) are described. PREM is a tool to promote the apprenticeship of abilities and necessary skills for the practice of medicine. The objective of the program is to promote the apprenticeship of a well defined list of core competences considered indispensable for a general practitioner. An outcome oriented curriculum with a clear definition of the expected knowledge, skills and attitudes of a graduate of the programme, the promotion of learning experiences centered in the practice and evaluation tools based in direct observation of the student's performance should contribute to close the gap between what the Medicine Schools traditionally teach and evaluate, and what the doctor needs to know and needs to do to perform correctly its profession.

  15. Motor protein traffic regulation by supply–demand balance of resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciandrini, Luca; Dauloudet, Olivier; Parmeggiani, Andrea; Neri, Izaak; Walter, Jean Charles

    2014-01-01

    In cells and in in vitro assays the number of motor proteins involved in biological transport processes is far from being unlimited. The cytoskeletal binding sites are in contact with the same finite reservoir of motors (either the cytosol or the flow chamber) and hence compete for recruiting the available motors, potentially depleting the reservoir and affecting cytoskeletal transport. In this work we provide a theoretical framework in which to study, analytically and numerically, how motor density profiles and crowding along cytoskeletal filaments depend on the competition of motors for their binding sites. We propose two models in which finite processive motor proteins actively advance along cytoskeletal filaments and are continuously exchanged with the motor pool. We first look at homogeneous reservoirs and then examine the effects of free motor diffusion in the surrounding medium. We consider as a reference situation recent in vitro experimental setups of kinesin-8 motors binding and moving along microtubule filaments in a flow chamber. We investigate how the crowding of linear motor proteins moving on a filament can be regulated by the balance between supply (concentration of motor proteins in the flow chamber) and demand (total number of polymerized tubulin heterodimers). We present analytical results for the density profiles of bound motors and the reservoir depletion, and propose novel phase diagrams that present the formation of jams of motor proteins on the filament as a function of two tuneable experimental parameters: the motor protein concentration and the concentration of tubulins polymerized into cytoskeletal filaments. Extensive numerical simulations corroborate the analytical results for parameters in the experimental range and also address the effects of diffusion of motor proteins in the reservoir. We then propose experiments for validating our models and discuss how the ‘supply–demand’ effects can regulate motor traffic also in in vivo

  16. Motor Vehicle Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these crashes is one part of motor vehicle safety. Here are some things you can do to ... speed or drive aggressively Don't drive impaired Safety also involves being aware of others. Share the ...

  17. Motor Carrier Crash Data -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Contains data on large trucks and buses involved in Federally reportable crashes as per Title 49 U.S.C. Part 390.5 (crashes involving a commercial motor vehicle, and...

  18. Nuclear safety and human competence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, Petre

    2001-01-01

    Competence represents a very well defined ensemble of knowledge and skills, behavior modalities, standard procedures and judgement types that can be used in a given situation, without a priori learning. It is obvious that a person competence should fulfill the needs of the company he works for. For a Nuclear Power Plant operator competence is a constitutive part of his individuality. Competence includes: 1. Knowledge that can be classified in three main items: - procedural and declarative knowledge; - practical knowledge and skills; - fundamental knowledge. 2. 'Non cognitive' knowledge components, such as 'social information', team collective competence, safety education, risks perception and management. The last item presents a special interest for nuclear safety. On the other hand, competence level defines the quality of procedures applied in different operational situations. Competence - procedures relations are presented. Competence fundament results from operator activity analysis. The analyst has to take into consideration several phases of activity in which competence is highlighted like: - genesis, during formation; - transformation, during adaptation to a technical modification; - transfer, from expert to probationer. Competence is subject to a continuous transformation process due to technical and organizational evolutions and 'operator ageing'. Cognitive ageing of operators or the technical ageing of competence often appear to be superimposed. Technical progress acceleration increases the ageing effects of competence. Knowledge - skills dynamic relations are discussed. The changing of organizational form determines appearance of new competence gained from others domains or defined by multidisciplinary studies. Ergonomics can help the changing of organizational form through analysis of operators evolution activity which will generate new competence. Ergonomics can contribute to identify means of raising competence starting from learning process

  19. High Power Density Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kascak, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    With the growing concerns of global warming, the need for pollution-free vehicles is ever increasing. Pollution-free flight is one of NASA's goals for the 21" Century. , One method of approaching that goal is hydrogen-fueled aircraft that use fuel cells or turbo- generators to develop electric power that can drive electric motors that turn the aircraft's propulsive fans or propellers. Hydrogen fuel would likely be carried as a liquid, stored in tanks at its boiling point of 20.5 K (-422.5 F). Conventional electric motors, however, are far too heavy (for a given horsepower) to use on aircraft. Fortunately the liquid hydrogen fuel can provide essentially free refrigeration that can be used to cool the windings of motors before the hydrogen is used for fuel. Either High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) or high purity metals such as copper or aluminum may be used in the motor windings. Superconductors have essentially zero electrical resistance to steady current. The electrical resistance of high purity aluminum or copper near liquid hydrogen temperature can be l/lOO* or less of the room temperature resistance. These conductors could provide higher motor efficiency than normal room-temperature motors achieve. But much more importantly, these conductors can carry ten to a hundred times more current than copper conductors do in normal motors operating at room temperature. This is a consequence of the low electrical resistance and of good heat transfer coefficients in boiling LH2. Thus the conductors can produce higher magnetic field strengths and consequently higher motor torque and power. Designs, analysis and actual cryogenic motor tests show that such cryogenic motors could produce three or more times as much power per unit weight as turbine engines can, whereas conventional motors produce only 1/5 as much power per weight as turbine engines. This summer work has been done with Litz wire to maximize the current density. The current is limited by the amount of heat it

  20. Split-phase motor running as capacitor starts motor and as capacitor run motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahaya Asizehi ENESI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the input parameters of a single phase split-phase induction motor is taken to investigate and to study the output performance characteristics of capacitor start and capacitor run induction motor. The value of these input parameters are used in the design characteristics of capacitor run and capacitor start motor with each motor connected to rated or standard capacitor in series with auxiliary winding or starting winding respectively for the normal operational condition. The magnitude of capacitor that will develop maximum torque in capacitor start motor and capacitor run motor are investigated and determined by simulation. Each of these capacitors is connected to the auxiliary winding of split-phase motor thereby transforming it into capacitor start or capacitor run motor. The starting current and starting torque of the split-phase motor (SPM, capacitor run motor (CRM and capacitor star motor (CSM are compared for their suitability in their operational performance and applications.

  1. Current indirect fitness and future direct fitness are not incompatible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahma, Anindita; Mandal, Souvik; Gadagkar, Raghavendra

    2018-02-01

    In primitively eusocial insects, many individuals function as workers despite being capable of independent reproduction. Such altruistic behaviour is usually explained by the argument that workers gain indirect fitness by helping close genetic relatives. The focus on indirect fitness has left open the question of whether workers are also capable of getting direct fitness in the future in spite of working towards indirect fitness in the present. To investigate this question, we recorded behavioural profiles of all wasps on six naturally occurring nests of Ropalidia marginata , and then isolated all wasps in individual plastic boxes, giving them an opportunity to initiate nests and lay eggs. We found that 41% of the wasps successfully did so. Compared to those that failed to initiate nests, those that did were significantly younger, had significantly higher frequency of self-feeding behaviour on their parent nests but were not different in the levels of work performed in the parent nests. Thus ageing and poor feeding, rather than working for their colonies, constrain individuals for future independent reproduction. Hence, future direct fitness and present work towards gaining indirect fitness are not incompatible, making it easier for worker behaviour to be selected by kin selection or multilevel selection. © 2018 The Author(s).

  2. Deriving future oriented research and competence requirements based on scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Anne-Mette; Harmsen, Hanne; Jensen, Birger Boutrup

    overnight. Consequently companies need to try to be foresighted with regards to what is required to operate successfully not only today but also tomorrow and in five and ten years. Hence, companies are faced with trying to assess how to best prepare themselves for a tomorrow that they can only guess about......The key to a company's survival lies in its ability to adapt itself to an ever changing world. A company's knowledge and competencies must be fitted to the requirements of the environment in which it operates. However, the kind of competencies that ensures a company's survival are not acquired...

  3. Opas CrossFit -harjoitteluun

    OpenAIRE

    Knaapi, Matti

    2014-01-01

    CrossFit on laji, joka pyrkii edistämään terveyttä ja kuntoa. CrossFit saleja löytyy mailmalta yli 10 000 kappaletta. CrossFit -harjoittelussa pyritään parantamaan ihmisen kuntoa mahdollisimman laajalla skaalalla kehittämällä mm. voimaa, kestävyyttä, tarkkuutta, tasapainoa ja eri aineenvaihduntareittejä samanaikaisesti. Terveyden ja kunnon kehittämiseen kuuluu kuntoilun lisäksi myös muita osa-alueita. Ruokavalio ja kehonhuolto ovat tärkeitä osa-alueita hyvän kunnon saavuttamiseksi. Ruokav...

  4. Respirators. Does your face fit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caro, N M; Else, D

    1981-04-01

    The authors carried out a survey of face sizes of men and women of four different ethnic origins and carried out face-seal leakage trials on four corresponding test panels. No single respirator design is likely to fit all members of the workforce, and it may be necessary to stock respirators from more than one manufacturers.Three or four different respirators or size of respirator may be needed. However, the use of lossely-fitting respirators such as Airsteam helmets could remove the necessity for exhaustive fitting procedures.

  5. Dementia and legal competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filaković, Pavo; Erić, Anamarija Petek; Mihanović, Mate; Glavina, Trpimir; Molnar, Sven

    2011-06-01

    The legal competency or capability to exercise rights is level of judgment and decision-making ability needed to manage one's own affairs and to sign official documents. With some exceptions, the person entitles this right in age of majority. It is acquired without legal procedures, however the annulment of legal capacity requires a juristic process. This resolution may not be final and could be revoked thorough the procedure of reverting legal capacity - fully or partially. Given the increasing number of persons with dementia, they are often subjects of legal expertise concerning their legal capacity. On the other part, emphasis on the civil rights of mentally ill also demands their maximal protection. Therefore such distinctive issue is approached with particular attention. The approach in determination of legal competency is more focused on gradation of it's particular aspects instead of existing dual concept: legally capable - legally incapable. The main assumption represents how person with dementia is legally capable and should enjoy all the rights, privileges and obligations as other citizens do. The aspects of legal competency for which person with dementia is going to be deprived, due to protection of one's rights and interests, are determined in legal procedure and then passed over to the guardian decided by court. Partial annulment of legal competency is measure applied when there is even one existing aspect of preserved legal capability (pension disposition, salary or pension disposition, ability of concluding contract, making testament, concluding marriage, divorce, choosing whereabouts, independent living, right to vote, right to decide course of treatment ect.). This measure is most often in favour of the patient and rarely for protection of other persons and their interests. Physicians are expected to precisely describe early dementia symptoms which may influence assessment of specific aspects involved in legal capacity (memory loss, impaired task

  6. Differences in the Fitness Levels of Urban and Rural Middle School Students in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Dario; Bernstein, Eve R.; Podnar, Hrvoje; Vozzolo, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is known that suburban youth are more fit than urban youth in Croatia. Method: Differences (p < 0.05) in fitness levels and motor abilities of 9,164 (F = 4,671, M = 4,493) Croatian children (age range: 11-14 years) from urban (F = 1,380, M = 1,268), mixed rural-urban (F = 274, M = 289), and rural (F = 3017, M = 2936) areas were…

  7. Electrodynamic linear motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munehiro, H

    1980-05-29

    When driving the carriage of a printer through a rotating motor, there are problems regarding the limited accuracy of the carriage position due to rotation or contraction and ageing of the cable. In order to solve the problem, a direct drive system was proposed, in which the printer carriage is driven by a linear motor. If one wants to keep the motor circuit of such a motor compact, then the magnetic flux density in the air gap must be reduced or the motor travel must be reduced. It is the purpose of this invention to create an electrodynamic linear motor, which on the one hand is compact and light and on the other hand has a relatively high constant force over a large travel. The invention is characterised by the fact that magnetic fields of alternating polarity are generated at equal intervals in the magnetic field, and that the coil arrangement has 2 adjacent coils, whose size corresponds to half the length of each magnetic pole. A logic circuit is provided to select one of the two coils and to determine the direction of the current depending on the signals of a magnetic field sensor on the coil arrangement.

  8. Fit Families Program Improves Self-Perception in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archuleta, Martha; VanLeeuwen, Dawn; Turner, Carol

    2016-06-01

    To determine the impact of the Fit Families youth weight management program on self-perception of participants. Fit Families was delivered through Cooperative Extension and provided education to overweight and obese children and their families on healthful eating and physical activity along with building self-esteem and social competence. At the beginning and end of the 7-week program, a convenience sample of 46 youth completed the Self-Perception Profile for Children questionnaire to evaluate changes in self-perception. Youth had improved self-perception in the areas of athletic competence (P = .04) and physical appearance (P = .007) after participating in Fit Families. Fit Families provides a holistic approach to weight management that promotes positive self-perception, which may decrease the burden of depression, anxiety, and low self-esteem obese youth face. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Health education and competency scale: Development and testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Huei-Lih; Kuo, Mei-Ling; Tu, Chin-Tang

    2018-02-01

    To develop a tool for measuring competency in conducting health education and to evaluate its psychometric properties in a population of entry-level nurses. Until now, no generic instrument has been developed specifically for measuring competency in health education, which is an essential competency for nurses. Existing scales are either insufficient for psychometric evaluation or are designed specifically for senior nurses. To evaluate curricula and courses designed for entry-level nurses, educators require an instrument for measuring improvement in core competency from baseline to determine whether the minimum level of ability has been achieved. Item development for the survey instrument used for data collection in this study was based on the results of a literature review. The self-evaluated Health Education Competency Scale developed in this study was used to survey 457 nursing students at two nursing schools and 165 clinical nurses at a medical centre in south Taiwan in 2016. The participants were randomly divided into two equal groups. One group was analysed by exploratory factor analysis with varimax rotation, and one group was analysed by confirmatory factor analysis. Factor analysis yielded a four-factor (assessment, pedagogy, motivation and empowerment) solution (18 items) that accounted for 75.9% of the variance. The total scale and subscales had good reliabilities and construct validity coefficients. For measuring competency in entry-level nurses, the Health Education Competency Scale had a good data fit and sound psychometric properties. The proposed scale can be used to assess health education competency for college nursing students and practising nurses. Furthermore, it can provide educators with valuable insight into the minimum competencies required for entry-level nurses to deliver quality health care to clients and can guide them in the practice of client-based teaching. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Markov process of muscle motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondratiev, Yu; Pechersky, E; Pirogov, S

    2008-01-01

    We study a Markov random process describing muscle molecular motor behaviour. Every motor is either bound up with a thin filament or unbound. In the bound state the motor creates a force proportional to its displacement from the neutral position. In both states the motor spends an exponential time depending on the state. The thin filament moves at a velocity proportional to the average of all displacements of all motors. We assume that the time which a motor stays in the bound state does not depend on its displacement. Then one can find an exact solution of a nonlinear equation appearing in the limit of an infinite number of motors

  11. Electric vehicle motors and controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secunde, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    Improved and advanced components being developed include electronically commutated permanent magnet motors of both drum and disk configuration, an unconventional brush commutated motor, and ac induction motors and various controllers. Test results on developmental motors, controllers, and combinations thereof indicate that efficiencies of 90% and higher for individual components, and 80% to 90% for motor/controller combinations can be obtained at rated power. The simplicity of the developmental motors and the potential for ultimately low cost electronics indicate that one or more of these approaches to electric vehicle propulsion may eventually displace presently used controllers and brush commutated dc motors.

  12. PLURILINGUAL COMPETENCE, STYLES AND VARIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyrki Kalliokoski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores plurilingual competence in respect to language proficiency, language education and pluri- and multilingualism. The notion of communicative competence was introduced by Hymes (1972 as a reaction to chomskyan view of language as an autonomous system. Hymes’ notion of communicative competence originally included plurilingualism. The concept of communicative competence was quickly adopted to applied linguistics but the idea of a linguistic repertoire consisting of the competencies of linguistic varieties was not imported to SLA or language testing. The Hymesian perspective to plurilingualism as an essential dimension of communicative competence was revived in the Common European Framework (CEFR. However,the practice of applying the CEFR has mostly neglected the dimension on plurilingualism and plurilingual competence. The focus in the use of the CEFR has been on the different areas of language skills within one single language at a time, while the application of plurilingual practices has gained very little attention. The Hymesian notion of communicative competence has lived on in the sociolinguistic research tradition, especially within interactional sociolinguistics. The present paper relates the notion of plurilingual competence to its hymesian origin, to recent trends in plurilingual and pluricultural education, and to the sociolinguistic study of style and linguistic variation in multilingual communities. The article uses Finnish L2 data to show how plurilingual competence is used as an interactional resource.From the perspective of language learning, plurilingual competence enables speakers with different linguistic backgrounds to use their shared linguistic repertoire in order to ensure smooth interaction and achieve mutual understanding.

  13. Kinematic Fitting of Detached Vertices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattione, Paul [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

    2007-05-01

    The eg3 experiment at the Jefferson Lab CLAS detector aims to determine the existence of the $\\Xi_{5}$ pentaquarks and investigate the excited $\\Xi$ states. Specifically, the exotic $\\Xi_{5}^{--}$ pentaquark will be sought by first reconstructing the $\\Xi^{-}$ particle through its weak decays, $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ and $\\Lambda\\to\\pi^{-}$. A kinematic fitting routine was developed to reconstruct the detached vertices of these decays, where confidence level cuts on the fits are used to remove background events. Prior to fitting these decays, the exclusive reaction $\\gamma D\\rightarrow pp\\pi^{-}$ was studied in order to correct the track measurements and covariance matrices of the charged particles. The $\\Lambda\\rightarrow p\\pi^{-}$ and $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ decays were then investigated to demonstrate that the kinematic fitting routine reconstructs the decaying particles and their detached vertices correctly.

  14. Statistical topography of fitness landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Jasper

    2011-01-01

    Fitness landscapes are generalized energy landscapes that play an important conceptual role in evolutionary biology. These landscapes provide a relation between the genetic configuration of an organism and that organism’s adaptive properties. In this work, global topographical features of these fitness landscapes are investigated using theoretical models. The resulting predictions are compared to empirical landscapes. It is shown that these landscapes allow, at least with respe...

  15. Desirable design of hose fittings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voigt, Kristian

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the primary functionality of a hose fitting. There has been made a discussion about the different parts of the hose assembly - the nipple, the hose and the outer compression parts. The last subject covered is which criteria should be put up for determining what is a good hose...... fittings. There has been made an uncompleted list of 'Voice of Customer' to this respect. Observations and interviews in industry should expand this list....

  16. The 'fitting problem' in cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, G.F.R.; Stoeger, W.

    1987-01-01

    The paper considers the best way to fit an idealised exactly homogeneous and isotropic universe model to a realistic ('lumpy') universe; whether made explicit or not, some such approach of necessity underlies the use of the standard Robertson-Walker models as models of the real universe. Approaches based on averaging, normal coordinates and null data are presented, the latter offering the best opportunity to relate the fitting procedure to data obtainable by astronomical observations. (author)

  17. Bridging computational approaches to speech production: The semantic–lexical–auditory–motor model (SLAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickok, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    Speech production is studied from both psycholinguistic and motor-control perspectives, with little interaction between the approaches. We assessed the explanatory value of integrating psycholinguistic and motor-control concepts for theories of speech production. By augmenting a popular psycholinguistic model of lexical retrieval with a motor-control-inspired architecture, we created a new computational model to explain speech errors in the context of aphasia. Comparing the model fits to picture-naming data from 255 aphasic patients, we found that our new model improves fits for a theoretically predictable subtype of aphasia: conduction. We discovered that the improved fits for this group were a result of strong auditory-lexical feedback activation, combined with weaker auditory-motor feedforward activation, leading to increased competition from phonologically related neighbors during lexical selection. We discuss the implications of our findings with respect to other extant models of lexical retrieval. PMID:26223468

  18. Rates and risk factors of injury in CrossFit:A prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, Sebastian; Booker, Harry; Staines, Jacob; Williams, Sean

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUNDː CrossFit is a strength and conditioning programme that has gained widespread popularity since its inception approximately 15 years ago. However, at present little is known about the level of injury risk associated with this form of training. Movement competency, assessed using the Functional Movement Screen (FMS), has been identified as a risk factor for injury in numerous athletic populations, but its role in CrossFit participants is currently unclear. The aim of this study was t...

  19. What's in a name? Group fitness class names and women's reasons for exercising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Theresa C; Miller, Bridget M; Adams, Bailey M

    2017-01-01

    The benefits of intrinsic exercise motivation are well recognized, yet extrinsically focused group-fitness class names/descriptions dominate the fitness industry. To explore the impact of how fitness classes are marketed, women (N = 389) were asked to indicate their preference for either intrinsically or extrinsically focused fitness classes based on title/description. Participants who favored intrinsic class names/descriptions were more likely to report greater interest/enjoyment, perceived competence, and greater effort and report exercising for health/fitness-related reasons. Those favoring extrinsic class names/descriptions were more likely to experience tension/pressure when exercising and report exercising for appearance/weight-related reasons. The results demonstrate the importance of wording when marketing fitness classes.

  20. The modern state and problems of training of fitness trainers in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilenko M.N.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The analytical revue of system of professional fitness trainers' training in the USA is presented in the article. Analysis of 40 literature's sources is performed. The mechanisms of obtaining the profession "fitness trainers" ("personal trainers" in the USA are concretized. Investigated, that certification of competence is a necessary condition for a fitness trainers working, but the higher education (on the level of Bachelor's or Master's curriculum isn't needed. Found, that organizations and education institutes are engaged in the certification of fitness specialists. They quickly react to the emergence of new popular fitness technologies, operatively develop educational programs and offer them to the education market. There is a tendency to the emergence of specialized curriculum of Bachelor and Master in higher education. The benefits of the national American education system of future fitness trainers are singled.