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Sample records for fitness factor contribute

  1. Assessing positive matrix factorization model fit: a new method to estimate uncertainty and bias in factor contributions at the measurement time scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Hemann

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A Positive Matrix Factorization receptor model for aerosol pollution source apportionment was fit to a synthetic dataset simulating one year of daily measurements of ambient PM2.5 concentrations, comprised of 39 chemical species from nine pollutant sources. A novel method was developed to estimate model fit uncertainty and bias at the daily time scale, as related to factor contributions. A circular block bootstrap is used to create replicate datasets, with the same receptor model then fit to the data. Neural networks are trained to classify factors based upon chemical profiles, as opposed to correlating contribution time series, and this classification is used to align factor orderings across the model results associated with the replicate datasets. Factor contribution uncertainty is assessed from the distribution of results associated with each factor. Comparing modeled factors with input factors used to create the synthetic data assesses bias. The results indicate that variability in factor contribution estimates does not necessarily encompass model error: contribution estimates can have small associated variability across results yet also be very biased. These findings are likely dependent on characteristics of the data.

  2. Does a Fitness Factor Contribute to the Association between Intelligence and Health Outcomes? Evidence from Medical Abnormality Counts among 3654 US Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arden, Rosalind; Gottfredson, Linda S.; Miller, Geoffrey

    2009-01-01

    We suggest that an over-arching "fitness factor" (an index of general genetic quality that predicts survival and reproductive success) partially explains the observed associations between health outcomes and intelligence. As a proof of concept, we tested this idea in a sample of 3654 US Vietnam veterans aged 31-49 who completed five cognitive…

  3. FACTORING TO FIT OFF DIAGONALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    imply an upper bound on the number of factors. When applied to somatotype data, the method improved substantially on centroid solutions and indicated a reinterpretation of earlier factoring studies. (Author)

  4. Two overlapping two-component systems in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae contribute to full fitness in rice by regulating virulence factors expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Dehong; Yao, Xiaoyan; Duan, Meng; Luo, Yufeng; Liu, Biao; Qi, Pengyuan; Sun, Ming; Ruan, Lifang

    2016-01-01

    Two-component signal transduction systems (TCSs) are widely used by bacteria to adapt to the environment. In the present study, StoS (stress tolerance-related oxygen sensor) and SreKRS (salt response kinase, regulator, and sensor) were found to positively regulate extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production and swarming in the rice pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). Surprisingly, the absence of stoS or sreKRS did not attenuate virulence. To better understand the intrinsic functions of StoS and SreKRS, quantitative proteomics isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) was employed. Consistent with stoS and sreK mutants exhibiting a similar phenotype, the signalling circuits of StoS and SreKRS overlapped. Carbohydrate metabolism proteins and chemotaxis proteins, which could be responsible for EPS and swarming regulation, respectively, were reprogrammed in stoS and sreK mutants. Moreover, StoS and SreKRS demonstrated moderate expression of the major virulence factor, hypersensitive response and pathogenicity (Hrp) proteins through the HrpG-HrpX circuit. Most importantly, Xoo equipped with StoS and SreKRS outcompetes strains without StoS or SreKRS in co-infected rice and grows outside the host. Therefore, we propose that StoS and SreKRS adopt a novel strategy involving the moderation of Hrp protein expression and the promotion of EPS and motility to adapt to the environment. PMID:26957113

  5. Contribution of cardiorespiratory fitness to the obesity paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuley, Paul A; Beavers, Kristen M

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) has been overlooked as a potential modifier of the inverse association between obesity and mortality (the so-called obesity paradox), observed in patients with known or suspected cardiovascular (CV) disease. Evidence from five observational cohort studies of 30,104 patients (87% male) with CV disease indicates that CRF significantly alters the obesity paradox. There is general agreement across studies that the obesity paradox persists among patients with low CRF, regardless of whether adiposity is assessed by body mass index, waist circumference, or percentage body fat. However, among patients with high CRF, risk of all-cause mortality is lowest for the overweight category in some, but not all, studies, suggesting that higher levels of fitness may modify the relationship between body fatness and survival in patients manifesting an obesity paradox. Further study is needed to better characterize the joint contribution of CRF and obesity on mortality in diverse populations. © 2014.

  6. Factors contributing to adolescent obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kloub, Manal I; Froelicher, Erika S

    2009-06-01

    Obesity in children is a significant public health concern. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in Jordanian children, and adolescents has increased in the last decade. The consequences of obesity to health in childhood and adulthood have both medical, and economic cost to individuals and society. This paper reviews the factors that contribute to adolescent obesity and emphasizes behavioral and environmental factors. An individual's behaviors such as increased consumption of high caloric foods, increased sedentary activity while decreasing physical activity has been identified as key issues in the development of obesity. Additionally, the current environment in homes, schools, and neighborhoods tend to discourage a healthy lifestyle. A comprehensive approach that involves the whole community is the best strategy for preventing adolescent obesity. Nurses are in a unique position to provide leadership in developing programs for healthier lifestyle choices for adolescents' and adoption of these goals into their daily lives.

  7. Biomedical and psychosocial factors influencing transtibial prosthesis fit: a Delphi survey among health care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baars, Erwin C; Schrier, Ernst; Geertzen, Jan H; Dijkstra, Pieter U

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to reach consensus among professionals caring for prosthesis users, on definitions of biomedical and psychosocial factors, to assess their influence on fit of transtibial prosthesis and to identify new factors. A three-round, internet-based, Delphi survey was conducted among experts recruited via the Dutch National Amputee and Prosthesis Work Group. The main outcome measure was consensus among care professionals on statements concerning new and presented biomechanical and psychosocial factors that influence transtibial prosthesis fit. Fifty-four experts participated in the survey, and consensus was reached on 67% (46/69) of all statements. Consensus on statements relevant for good prosthesis fit was reached in most of the statements concerning psychosocial factors and on statements concerning the biomedical factors "prosthesis support and suspension". Least consensus was reached on statements concerning the biomedical factor "skin problems and pain in the residual limb". Biomedical and psychosocial factors influence transtibial prosthesis fit. Consensus was reached among care professionals in a majority of the presented statements concerning these factors. Implications for Rehabilitation Prosthesis fit and comfort is suboptimal in many prosthesis users. Both biomedical and psychosocial factors influence fit. Biomedical and psychosocial factors should be checked during transtibial prosthesis prescription to achieve and maintain an optimal fit. Consensus on many factors influencing prosthesis fit is achieved among care professionals. Consensus was largest regarding prosthesis support and suspension and least regarding skin problems and pain in the residual limb. This consensus contributes to systematic assessment of prosthesis fit.

  8. Seeing Perfectly Fitting Factor Models That Are Causally Misspecified: Understanding That Close-Fitting Models Can Be Worse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayduk, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    Researchers using factor analysis tend to dismiss the significant ill fit of factor models by presuming that if their factor model is close-to-fitting, it is probably close to being properly causally specified. Close fit may indeed result from a model being close to properly causally specified, but close-fitting factor models can also be seriously…

  9. Seeing Perfectly Fitting Factor Models That Are Causally Misspecified: Understanding That Close-Fitting Models Can Be Worse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayduk, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    Researchers using factor analysis tend to dismiss the significant ill fit of factor models by presuming that if their factor model is close-to-fitting, it is probably close to being properly causally specified. Close fit may indeed result from a model being close to properly causally specified, but close-fitting factor models can also be seriously…

  10. Fit factors for quarter masks and facial size categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, D H

    2000-05-01

    Respirator fit testing is necessary before entering hazardous working environments to ensure that the respirator, when worn, satisfies a minimum fit and that the wearer knows when the respirator fits properly. In the many countries that do not have fit testing or total inward leakage regulations (including Korea), however, many workers wearing respirators may be potentially exposed to hazardous environments. It is necessary to suggest a useful tool to provide an alternative for fit testing in these countries. This study was conducted to evaluate fitting performance for quarter-mask respirators, and fit factors in facial size categories based on face lengths and lip lengths of the wearers. A total of 778 subjects (408 males, 370 females) were fit tested for three quarter masks: Sejin Co. SK-6 (Ulsan, Korea), Yongsung Co. YS-2010 S (Seoul, Korea), and 3 M Co. Series 7500 Medium (MN, USA) masks with a PortaCount 8020 (TSI Co., USA). A facial dimension survey of the subjects was conducted to develop facial size categories, on the basis of face length and lip length. Geometric mean fit factors (GMFFs) of Series 7500 Medium were found to be the highest of the three respirators. All of the respirators were more suitable for males than females in fitting performance. The Series 7500 Medium fitted a large number of the males tested, since the GMFFs for males were above 100 for every box of facial size categories, and high pass proportion rates were shown at an individual fit factor level of 100. The YS-2010 S provides an adequate fit for males in a limited range of facial dimensions. The Series 7500 Medium is more limited in providing adequate fit for females at specific facial dimensions than for males. For adequate fitting performance, the SK-6 is not preferentially recommended for Korean male and female workers due to low GMFFs and pass proportions. The result of this study indicates that after more accurate studies are performed, facial size categories, on the basis of

  11. [Factors associated with low levels of aerobic fitness among adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Eliane Cristina de Andrade; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of low aerobic fitness levels and to analyze the association with sociodemographic factors, lifestyle and excess body fatness among adolescents of southern Brazil. The study included 879 adolescents aged 14 to 19 years the city of São José/SC, Brazil. The aerobic fitness was assessed by Canadian modified test of aerobic fitness. Sociodemographic variables (skin color, age, sex, study turn, economic level), sexual maturation and lifestyle (eating habits, screen time, physical activity, consumption of alcohol and tobacco) were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Excess body fatness was evaluated by sum of skinfolds triceps and subscapular. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Prevalence of low aerobic fitness level was 87.5%. The girls who spent two hours or more in front screen, consumed less than one glass of milk by day, did not smoke and had an excess of body fatness had a higher chance of having lower levels of aerobic fitness. White boys with low physical activity had had a higher chance of having lower levels of aerobic fitness. Eight out of ten adolescents were with low fitness levels aerobic. Modifiable lifestyle factors were associated with low levels of aerobic fitness. Interventions that emphasize behavior change are needed. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Determinant Factors of Physical Fitness in European Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaqout, Mahmoud; Vyncke, Krishna; Moreno, Luis A.;

    2016-01-01

    ’s fitness. Significant but small effects were found for low maternal BMI, high psychosocial well-being and fruit and vegetable intake as protective determinants. Sleep duration, breakfast intake, parental age and education and paternal BMI did not have a consistently significant effect on physical fitness....... The role of determinants depended on children’s sex and the specific PF component. Longitudinal analyses especially highlighted the importance of child’s BMI as physical fitness determinant, independent of physical activity.Conclusions: BMI together with physical activity, diet and psychosocial factors......Objectives: This study was designed to explore the determinants of physical fitness in European children aged 6–11 years, cross-sectionally and longitudinally.Methods: There were sufficient data on 4903 children (50.6 % girls) on measured physical fitness (cardio-respiratory, muscular strength...

  13. Determinant Factors of Physical Fitness in European Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaqout, Mahmoud; Vyncke, Krishna; Moreno, Luis A.

    2016-01-01

    ’s fitness. Significant but small effects were found for low maternal BMI, high psychosocial well-being and fruit and vegetable intake as protective determinants. Sleep duration, breakfast intake, parental age and education and paternal BMI did not have a consistently significant effect on physical fitness....... The role of determinants depended on children’s sex and the specific PF component. Longitudinal analyses especially highlighted the importance of child’s BMI as physical fitness determinant, independent of physical activity.Conclusions: BMI together with physical activity, diet and psychosocial factors...

  14. Factors Contributing to Institutions Achieving Environmental Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Matthew; Card, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine what factors contributed to three universities achieving environmental sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: A case study methodology was used to determine how each factor contributed to the institutions' sustainability. Site visits, fieldwork, document reviews, and interviews with…

  15. Factors Contributing to Institutions Achieving Environmental Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Matthew; Card, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine what factors contributed to three universities achieving environmental sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: A case study methodology was used to determine how each factor contributed to the institutions' sustainability. Site visits, fieldwork, document reviews, and interviews with…

  16. Physical fitness of 9 year olds in England: related factors.

    OpenAIRE

    Kikuchi, S; Rona, R J; Chinn, S

    1995-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--To examine the influence of social factors, passive smoking, and other parental health related factors, as well as anthropometric and other measurements on children's cardiorespiratory fitness. DESIGN--This was a cross sectional study. SETTING--The analysis was based on 22 health areas in England. PARTICIPANTS--The subjects were 299 boys and 282 girls aged 8 to 9 years. Parents did not give positive consent for 15% of the eligible sample. A further 25% of the eligible sample ...

  17. Role of the singular factors in the standard fits for initial parton densities

    CERN Document Server

    Ermolaev, B I; Troyan, S I

    2005-01-01

    Total resummation of double- and single- logarithms of x contributing to the spin-dependent structure function g_1 ensures its steep rise at small $x$. In the asymptotic limit x ->0, the resummation leads to the Regge behavior of g_1 and allows to calculate the non-singlet and singlet intercepts of g_1. DGLAP lacks such a resummation but suggests special phenomenological fits for the initial parton densities such that the singular factors x^{-\\alpha} in the fits mimic the resummation and also provide g_1 with the steep (power-like) rise at the small-x region. Accounting for the total resummaton of logarithms of x allows to drop the singular factors in the fits and leads to remarkable simplifications of the fits.

  18. Cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiovascular workload and risk factors among cleaners; a cluster randomized worksite intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Krustrup, Peter; Jørgensen, Marie Birk

    2012-01-01

    pressure. Primary outcome are cardiorespiratory fitness. DISCUSSION: Information is lacking about whether an improved cardiorespiratory fitness will affect the cardiovascular health, and additionally decrease the objectively measured relative workload, in a population with high physical work demands...... opposing effects on cardiovascular health and mortality from occupational and leisure time physical activity.Trial registrationThe study is registered as ISRCTN86682076.......ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is unevenly distributed among occupational groups. The working environment, as well as lifestyle and socioeconomic status contribute to the disparity and variation in prevalence of these risk factors. High physical work demands have...

  19. Retrospective Injury Epidemiology and Risk Factors for Injury in CrossFit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvo, Alicia M.; Shaefer, Hilary; Rodriguez, Belinda; Li, Tan; Epnere, Katrina; Myer, Gregory D.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the study is to examine injury epidemiology and risk factors for injury in CrossFit athletes. A survey was administered to athletes at four owner-operated facilities in South Florida. Respondents reported number, location of injury, and training exposure from the preceding six months and answered questions regarding potential risk factors for injury. Fifty out of 191 athletes sustained 62 injuries during CrossFit participation in the preceding six months. The most frequently injured locations were the shoulder, knee, and lower back. Injury incidence was 2.3/1000 athlete training hours. Competitors were more likely to be injured (40% v 19%, p = 0.002) and had greater weekly athlete training hours (7.3 ± 7.0 v 4.9 ± 2.9, p gymnastics and powerlifting. While being a competitor was related to injury, increased exposure and length of participation in CrossFit likely underlied this association. Specifically, increased exposure to training in the form of greater weekly athlete training hours and weekly participations may contribute to injury. Increased height and body mass were also related to injury which is likely reflective of increased load utilized during training. Further research is warranted to determine if biomechanical factors associated with greater height and ability to lift greater loads are modifiable factors that can be adapted to reduce the increase risk of injury during CrossFit. Key points The overall rate of injury in CrossFit athletes was 2.3/1000 athlete training hours. The shoulder, knee, and lower back were the most frequently reported locations of injury. In adjusted models, length of participation in CrossFit, physical activity outside of CrossFit, weekly athlete-exposures to CrossFit, and height were associated with injury in CrossFit athletes. PMID:28344451

  20. Factors Contributing to Crashes among Young Drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyndel J. Bates

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Young drivers are the group of drivers most likely to crash. There are a number of factors that contribute to the high crash risk experienced by these drivers. While some of these factors are intrinsic to the young driver, such as their age, gender or driving skill, others relate to social factors and when and how often they drive. This article reviews the factors that affect the risk of young drivers crashing to enable a fuller understanding of why this risk is so high in order to assist in developing effective countermeasures.

  1. Factors Contributing to Crashes among Young Drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Lyndel J; Davey, Jeremy; Watson, Barry; King, Mark J; Armstrong, Kerry

    2014-08-01

    Young drivers are the group of drivers most likely to crash. There are a number of factors that contribute to the high crash risk experienced by these drivers. While some of these factors are intrinsic to the young driver, such as their age, gender or driving skill, others relate to social factors and when and how often they drive. This article reviews the factors that affect the risk of young drivers crashing to enable a fuller understanding of why this risk is so high in order to assist in developing effective countermeasures.

  2. Patients who fall in hospital - Contributing factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Bright

    1983-09-01

    Full Text Available This is a retrospective study of the factors which contributed to accidental injuries sustained by those patients who fell in a White provincial hospital in die period 1 January to 30 June 1982. The research study was undertaken by Diploma in Nursing Administration students during their 3-week hospital practice at a White provincial hospital.

  3. Extraluminal factors contributing to inflammatory bowel disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arvind Batra; Thorsten Stroh; Britta Siegmund

    2011-01-01

    Many identified and yet unknown factors contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).The genome-wide association studies clearly support the earlier developed concept that IBD occurs in genetically predisposed individuals who are exposed to distinct environmental factors, which together result in dysregulation of the mucosal immune system. Thus, the majority of previous studies have focused on the immune response within the intestinal wall. The present review aims to emphasize the contribution of three extraluminal structures to this inflammatory process, namely the mesenteric fat tissue, the lymphatics and the microvasculature.Broadening our view across the intestinal wall will not only facilitate our understanding of the disease,but will also us to identify future therapeutic targets.

  4. Extraluminal factors contributing to inflammatory bowel disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Arvind; Stroh, Thorsten; Siegmund, Britta

    2011-01-01

    Many identified and yet unknown factors contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The genome-wide association studies clearly support the earlier developed concept that IBD occurs in genetically predisposed individuals who are exposed to distinct environmental factors, which together result in dysregulation of the mucosal immune system. Thus, the majority of previous studies have focused on the immune response within the intestinal wall. The present review aims to emphasize the contribution of three extraluminal structures to this inflammatory process, namely the mesenteric fat tissue, the lymphatics and the microvasculature. Broadening our view across the intestinal wall will not only facilitate our understanding of the disease, but will also us to identify future therapeutic targets. PMID:21350706

  5. Identification of contributing factors to pedestrian overpass selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Wu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the efficiency of overpass and the safety level of pedestrian, this paper aims to investigate the contributing factors for selective preference of overpass. Eight overpasses were investigated in Xi’an, and a questionnaire was conducted by the pedestrians near the overpass. Totally, 1131 valid samples (873 used of overpasses and 258 non-used of overpasses were collected. Based on the data, a binary logit (BL model was developed to identify what and how the factors affect the selective preference of overpass. The BL model was calibrated by the maximum likelihood method. Likelihood ratio test and McFadden-R2 were used to analyze the goodness-of-fit of the model. The results show that the BL model has a reasonable goodness-of-fit, and the prediction accuracy of the BL model can reach 81.9%. The BL model showed that the selective preference of overpass was significantly influenced by eight factors, including gender, age, career, education level, license, detour wishes, detour distance, and crossing time. Besides, the odds ratios of significant factors were also analyzed to explain the impacts of the factors on selective preference of overpass.

  6. Gut Microbiota: A Contributing Factor to Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harakeh, Steve M; Khan, Imran; Kumosani, Taha; Barbour, Elie; Almasaudi, Saad B; Bahijri, Suhad M; Alfadul, Sulaiman M; Ajabnoor, Ghada M A; Azhar, Esam I

    2016-01-01

    Obesity, a global epidemic of the modern era, is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and diabetes. The pervasiveness of obesity and overweight in both developed as well as developing populations is on the rise and placing a huge burden on health and economic resources. Consequently, research to control this emerging epidemic is of utmost importance. Recently, host interactions with their resident gut microbiota (GM) have been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of many metabolic diseases, including obesity, diabetes, and CVD. Around 10(14) microorganisms reside within the lower human intestine and many of these 10(14) microorganisms have developed mutualistic or commensal associations with the host and actively involved in many physiological processes of the host. However, dysbiosis (altered gut microbial composition) with other predisposing genetic and environmental factors, may contribute to host metabolic disorders resulting in many ailments. Therefore, delineating the role of GM as a contributing factor to obesity is the main objective of this review. Obesity research, as a field is expanding rapidly due to major advances in nutrigenomics, metabolomics, RNA silencing, epigenetics, and other disciplines that may result in the emergence of new technologies and methods to better interpret causal relationships between microbiota and obesity.

  7. Gut Microbiota: a contributing factor to obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve M Harakeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Obesity, a global epidemic of the modern era, is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD and diabetes. The pervasiveness of obesity and overweight in both developed as well as developing populations is on the rise and placing a huge burden on health and economic resources. Consequently, research to control this emerging epidemic is of utmost importance. Recently, host interactions with their resident gut microbiota (GM have been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of many metabolic diseases, including obesity, diabetes, and CVD. Around 1014 microorganisms reside within the lower human intestine and many of these 1014microorganisms have developed mutualistic or commensal associations with the host and actively involved in many physiological processes of the host. However, dysbiosis (altered gut microbial composition with other predisposing genetic and environmental factors, may contribute to host metabolic disorders resulting in many ailments. Therefore, delineating the role of GM as a contributing factor to obesity is the main objective of this review.Obesity research, as a field is expanding rapidly due to major advances in nutrigenomics, metabolomics, RNA silencing, epigenetics and other disciplines that may result in the emergence of new technologies and methods to better interpret causal relationships between microbiota and obesity.

  8. Gut Microbiota: A Contributing Factor to Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harakeh, Steve M.; Khan, Imran; Kumosani, Taha; Barbour, Elie; Almasaudi, Saad B.; Bahijri, Suhad M.; Alfadul, Sulaiman M.; Ajabnoor, Ghada M. A.; Azhar, Esam I.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity, a global epidemic of the modern era, is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and diabetes. The pervasiveness of obesity and overweight in both developed as well as developing populations is on the rise and placing a huge burden on health and economic resources. Consequently, research to control this emerging epidemic is of utmost importance. Recently, host interactions with their resident gut microbiota (GM) have been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of many metabolic diseases, including obesity, diabetes, and CVD. Around 1014 microorganisms reside within the lower human intestine and many of these 1014 microorganisms have developed mutualistic or commensal associations with the host and actively involved in many physiological processes of the host. However, dysbiosis (altered gut microbial composition) with other predisposing genetic and environmental factors, may contribute to host metabolic disorders resulting in many ailments. Therefore, delineating the role of GM as a contributing factor to obesity is the main objective of this review. Obesity research, as a field is expanding rapidly due to major advances in nutrigenomics, metabolomics, RNA silencing, epigenetics, and other disciplines that may result in the emergence of new technologies and methods to better interpret causal relationships between microbiota and obesity. PMID:27625997

  9. FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO PERINATAL MORTALITY : OPTIMIZING OUTCOME

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    Lakshmi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the various causes of perinatal deaths and adopt strategies to improve perinatal outcome at a referral teaching hospital in North Kerala. METHODS: A prospective observational study conducted at Institute of Maternal and Child Health, Government Medical College, Kozhikode. All perinatal deaths during the period January 2013 to December 2014 were analysed and from this factors responsible for perinatal deaths were identified. RESULTS: Out of total 30,042 deliveries , there were 966 perinatal deaths during the study period. 566 were still births and 400 early neonatal deaths. The perinatal mortality rate was 31.1 per 1000 live births. Perinatal asphyxia was the major cause of perinatal mortality. The important factors contributing to perinatal asphyxia were prematurity (39%, abruptio placenta (19% and MSAF ( 12%. Among the antenatal factors, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy leading to iatrogenic elective preterm delivery were the most important. CONCLUSION: Perinatal asphyxia due to prematurity and low birth weight emerged as the most important cause of perinatal mortality in this study and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were the most important antenatal complication leading to prematurity

  10. Retrospective Injury Epidemiology and Risk Factors for Injury in CrossFit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvo, Alicia M; Shaefer, Hilary; Rodriguez, Belinda; Li, Tan; Epnere, Katrina; Myer, Gregory D

    2017-03-01

    The objective of the study is to examine injury epidemiology and risk factors for injury in CrossFit athletes. A survey was administered to athletes at four owner-operated facilities in South Florida. Respondents reported number, location of injury, and training exposure from the preceding six months and answered questions regarding potential risk factors for injury. Fifty out of 191 athletes sustained 62 injuries during CrossFit participation in the preceding six months. The most frequently injured locations were the shoulder, knee, and lower back. Injury incidence was 2.3/1000 athlete training hours. Competitors were more likely to be injured (40% v 19%, p = 0.002) and had greater weekly athlete training hours (7.3 ± 7.0 v 4.9 ± 2.9, p CrossFit and location of injuries were similar to those previously reported. Injury incidence was similar to related sports, including gymnastics and powerlifting. While being a competitor was related to injury, increased exposure and length of participation in CrossFit likely underlied this association. Specifically, increased exposure to training in the form of greater weekly athlete training hours and weekly participations may contribute to injury. Increased height and body mass were also related to injury which is likely reflective of increased load utilized during training. Further research is warranted to determine if biomechanical factors associated with greater height and ability to lift greater loads are modifiable factors that can be adapted to reduce the increase risk of injury during CrossFit.

  11. Riboflavin Provisioning Underlies Wolbachia’s Fitness Contribution to Its Insect Host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Minoru; Nikoh, Naruo; Hosokawa, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Endosymbiotic bacteria of the genus Wolbachia represent the most successful symbiotic bacteria in the terrestrial ecosystem. The success of Wolbachia has been ascribed to its remarkable phenotypic effects on host reproduction, such as cytoplasmic incompatibility, whereby maternally inherited bacteria can spread in their host populations at the expense of their host’s fitness. Meanwhile, recent theoretical as well as empirical studies have unveiled that weak and/or conditional positive fitness effects may significantly facilitate invasion and spread of Wolbachia infections in host populations. Here, we report a previously unrecognized nutritional aspect, the provision of riboflavin (vitamin B2), that potentially underpins the Wolbachia-mediated fitness benefit to insect hosts. A comparative genomic survey for synthetic capability of B vitamins revealed that only the synthesis pathway for riboflavin is highly conserved among diverse insect-associated Wolbachia strains, while the synthesis pathways for other B vitamins were either incomplete or absent. Molecular phylogenetic and genomic analyses of riboflavin synthesis genes from diverse Wolbachia strains revealed that, in general, their phylogenetic relationships are concordant with Wolbachia’s genomic phylogeny, suggesting that the riboflavin synthesis genes have been stably maintained in the course of Wolbachia evolution. In rearing experiments with bedbugs (Cimex lectularius) on blood meals in which B vitamin contents were manipulated, we demonstrated that Wolbachia’s riboflavin provisioning significantly contributes to growth, survival, and reproduction of the insect host. These results provide a physiological basis upon which Wolbachia-mediated positive fitness consequences are manifested and shed new light on the ecological and evolutionary relevance of Wolbachia infections. PMID:26556278

  12. Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Adiposity, and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Daza, Fernando; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Schmidt-RioValle, Jacqueline; González-Ruíz, Katherine; Correa-Bautista, Jorge E

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in schoolchildren. A secondary aim was to evaluate the degree of association between overall and abdominal adiposity and CRF in a total of 1,875 children and adolescents attending public schools. We expressed CRF performance as the nearest stage (minute) completed and the estimated peak oxygen consumption. A CVRF ( Z score) was calculated and participants were divided into tertiles according to low and high levels of overall (sum of the skinfold thicknesses) and abdominal adiposity. Schoolchildren with a high-level of overall adiposity demonstrated significant differences in seven of the 10 variables analyzed (i.e., systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, triglycerides/high density lipoproteins [HDL-c] ratio, total cholesterol, glucose, C-reactive protein [usCRP], HDL-c, low density lipoproteins [LDL-c], and cardiovascular risk score). Schoolchildren with high levels of both overall and abdominal adiposity and low CRF had the least favorable CVRF score.

  13. The fit factor: the role of fit between ads in understanding cross-media synergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorveld, H.A.M.; Valkenburg, S.M.F.

    2015-01-01

    This research investigates the role of fit between campaign ads in generating cross-media effects. Using an ecologically valid design, this article enhances our understanding of cross-media effects in real life. By combining a content analysis of Dutch cross-media campaigns with a secondary data

  14. The fit factor: the role of fit between ads in understanding cross-media synergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.A.M. Voorveld; S.M.F. Valkenburg

    2015-01-01

    This research investigates the role of fit between campaign ads in generating cross-media effects. Using an ecologically valid design, this article enhances our understanding of cross-media effects in real life. By combining a content analysis of Dutch cross-media campaigns with a secondary data ana

  15. Cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiovascular workload and risk factors among cleaners; a cluster randomized worksite intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korshøj Mette

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is unevenly distributed among occupational groups. The working environment, as well as lifestyle and socioeconomic status contribute to the disparity and variation in prevalence of these risk factors. High physical work demands have been shown to increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and mortality, contrary to leisure time physical activity. High physical work demands in combination with a low cardiorespiratory fitness infer a high relative workload and an excessive risk for cardiovascular mortality. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine whether a worksite aerobic exercise intervention will reduce the relative workload and cardiovascular risk factors by an increased cardiorespiratory fitness. Methods/design A cluster-randomized controlled trial is performed to evaluate the effect of the worksite aerobic exercise intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiovascular risk factors among cleaners. Cleaners are eligible if they are employed ≥ 20 hours/week, at one of the enrolled companies. In the randomization, strata are formed according to the manager the participant reports to. The clusters will be balanced on the following criteria: Geographical work location, gender, age and seniority. Cleaners are randomized to either I a reference group, receiving lectures concerning healthy living, or II an intervention group, performing worksite aerobic exercise “60 min per week”. Data collection will be conducted at baseline, four months and 12 months after baseline, at the worksite during working hours. The data collection will consist of a questionnaire-based interview, physiological testing of health and capacity-related measures, and objective diurnal measures of heart rate, physical activity and blood pressure. Primary outcome is cardiorespiratory fitness. Discussion Information is lacking about whether an improved cardiorespiratory fitness will affect

  16. Cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiovascular workload and risk factors among cleaners; a cluster randomized worksite intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Krustrup, Peter; Jørgensen, Marie Birk;

    2012-01-01

    Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is unevenly distributed among occupational groups. The working environment, as well as lifestyle and socioeconomic status contribute to the disparity and variation in prevalence of these risk factors. High physical work demands have been shown to increase...... the risk for cardiovascular disease and mortality, contrary to leisure time physical activity. High physical work demands in combination with a low cardiorespiratory fitness infer a high relative workload and an excessive risk for cardiovascular mortality. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine...... and cardiovascular risk factors among cleaners. Cleaners are eligible if they are employed ≥ 20 hours/week, at one of the enrolled companies. In the randomization, strata are formed according to the manager the participant reports to. The clusters will be balanced on the following criteria: Geographical work...

  17. Fever after percutaneous nephrolithotomy: contributing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi Aghdas, Farzaneh; Akhavizadegan, Hamed; Aryanpoor, Aryan; Inanloo, Hassan; Karbakhsh, Mojgan

    2006-08-01

    The exact mechanism of fever and urosepsis after percutaneous procedures has not been established. This research studied the frequency of fever after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and the contributing factors. In a cross-sectional study, from September 2003 to March 2004, all 217 patients with nephrolithiasis treated with PCNL at the Labbafinegad Specialized Urology Center were studied. Data were collected before, during, and after surgery. The frequency of fever after PCNL was 25.8% (n=56) although in 62.2% of the cases (n=135), no prophylactic antibiotics had been administered. The mean durations of hospitalization in patients with and without fever were 5.4+/-2.3 and 3.4+/-1.7 days, respectively (p=0.001). Significant correlations were observed between fever and female sex (p=0.005), positive urine culture (p=0.02), and nephrostomy tube insertion (p=0.041). Other variables did not prove to be significant. In logistic regression analysis, female sex and nephrostomy tube insertion were independently related to post-operative fever. Although a considerable proportion of our patients had not received prophylactic antibiotics, the rate of fever after PCNL was no higher than is reported in the literature. Use of only a short course of antibiotics before surgery for staghorn stones did not result in a higher rate of fever. Female sex created a higher risk for fever, probably because of the greater propensity to urinary tract infection. The significant relation of a nephrostomy tube to fever could be attributed to its role as a foreign body or to use in more complicated cases.

  18. An evaluation framework for Health Information Systems: human, organization and technology-fit factors (HOT-fit).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, Maryati Mohd; Kuljis, Jasna; Papazafeiropoulou, Anastasia; Stergioulas, Lampros K

    2008-06-01

    The realization of Health Information Systems (HIS) requires rigorous evaluation that addresses technology, human and organization issues. Our review indicates that current evaluation methods evaluate different aspects of HIS and they can be improved upon. A new evaluation framework, human, organization and technology-fit (HOT-fit) was developed after having conducted a critical appraisal of the findings of existing HIS evaluation studies. HOT-fit builds on previous models of IS evaluation--in particular, the IS Success Model and the IT-Organization Fit Model. This paper introduces the new framework for HIS evaluation that incorporates comprehensive dimensions and measures of HIS and provides a technological, human and organizational fit. Literature review on HIS and IS evaluation studies and pilot testing of developed framework. The framework was used to evaluate a Fundus Imaging System (FIS) of a primary care organization in the UK. The case study was conducted through observation, interview and document analysis. The main findings show that having the right user attitude and skills base together with good leadership, IT-friendly environment and good communication can have positive influence on the system adoption. Comprehensive, specific evaluation factors, dimensions and measures in the new framework (HOT-fit) are applicable in HIS evaluation. The use of such a framework is argued to be useful not only for comprehensive evaluation of the particular FIS system under investigation, but potentially also for any Health Information System in general.

  19. Genome-wide transposon mutagenesis of Proteus mirabilis: Essential genes, fitness factors for catheter-associated urinary tract infection, and the impact of polymicrobial infection on fitness requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sara N.; Zhao, Lili; Wu, Weisheng

    2017-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Proteus mirabilis is a leading cause of catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs), which are often polymicrobial. Numerous prior studies have uncovered virulence factors for P. mirabilis pathogenicity in a murine model of ascending UTI, but little is known concerning pathogenesis during CAUTI or polymicrobial infection. In this study, we utilized five pools of 10,000 transposon mutants each and transposon insertion-site sequencing (Tn-Seq) to identify the full arsenal of P. mirabilis HI4320 fitness factors for single-species versus polymicrobial CAUTI with Providencia stuartii BE2467. 436 genes in the input pools lacked transposon insertions and were therefore concluded to be essential for P. mirabilis growth in rich medium. 629 genes were identified as P. mirabilis fitness factors during single-species CAUTI. Tn-Seq from coinfection with P. stuartii revealed 217/629 (35%) of the same genes as identified by single-species Tn-Seq, and 1353 additional factors that specifically contribute to colonization during coinfection. Mutants were constructed in eight genes of interest to validate the initial screen: 7/8 (88%) mutants exhibited the expected phenotypes for single-species CAUTI, and 3/3 (100%) validated the expected phenotypes for polymicrobial CAUTI. This approach provided validation of numerous previously described P. mirabilis fitness determinants from an ascending model of UTI, the discovery of novel fitness determinants specifically for CAUTI, and a stringent assessment of how polymicrobial infection influences fitness requirements. For instance, we describe a requirement for branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis by P. mirabilis during coinfection due to high-affinity import of leucine by P. stuartii. Further investigation of genes and pathways that provide a competitive advantage during both single-species and polymicrobial CAUTI will likely provide robust targets for therapeutic intervention to reduce P. mirabilis

  20. Retrospective Injury Epidemiology and Risk Factors for Injury in CrossFit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia M. Montalvo, Hilary Shaefer, Belinda Rodriguez, Tan Li, Katrina Epnere, Gregory D. Myer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to examine injury epidemiology and risk factors for injury in CrossFit athletes. A survey was administered to athletes at four owner-operated facilities in South Florida. Respondents reported number, location of injury, and training exposure from the preceding six months and answered questions regarding potential risk factors for injury. Fifty out of 191 athletes sustained 62 injuries during CrossFit participation in the preceding six months. The most frequently injured locations were the shoulder, knee, and lower back. Injury incidence was 2.3/1000 athlete training hours. Competitors were more likely to be injured (40% v 19%, p = 0.002 and had greater weekly athlete training hours (7.3 ± 7.0 v 4.9 ± 2.9, p < 0.001 than non-competitors. Athletes who reported injury also reported significantly higher values for the following risk factors: years of participation (2.7 ± 1.8 v 1.8 ± 1.5, p = 0.001, weekly athlete training hours (7.3 ± 3.8 v 4.9 ± 2.1, p = 0.020, weekly athlete-exposures (6.4 ± 3.8 v 4.7 ± 2.1, p = 0.003, height (1.72 ± 0.09 m v 1.68 ± 0.01 m, p = 0.011, and body mass (78.24 ± 16.86 kg v 72.91 ± 14.77 kg, p = 0.037. Injury rates during CrossFit and location of injuries were similar to those previously reported. Injury incidence was similar to related sports, including gymnastics and powerlifting. While being a competitor was related to injury, increased exposure and length of participation in CrossFit likely underlied this association. Specifically, increased exposure to training in the form of greater weekly athlete training hours and weekly participations may contribute to injury. Increased height and body mass were also related to injury which is likely reflective of increased load utilized during training. Further research is warranted to determine if biomechanical factors associated with greater height and ability to lift greater loads are modifiable factors that can be adapted to reduce

  1. The contribution of Nintendo Wii Fit series in the field of health: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Tripette

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Wii Fit was originally designed as a health and fitness interactive training experience for the general public. There are, however, many examples of Wii Fit being utilized in clinical settings. This article aims to identify the contribution of Wii Fit in the field of health promotion and rehabilitation by: (1 identifying the health-related domains for which the Wii Fit series has been tested, (2 clarifying the effect of Wii Fit in those identified health-related domains and (3 quantifying this effect. Method A systematic literature review was undertaken. The MEDLINE database and Games for Health Journal published content were explored using the search term “Wii-Fit.” Occurrences resulting from manual searches on Google and material suggested by experts in the field were also considered. Included articles were required to have measurements from Wii Fit activities for at least one relevant health indicator. The effect of Wii Fit interventions was assessed using meta-analyses for the following outcomes: activity-specific balance confidence score, Berg balance score (BBC and time-up-and-go test (TUG. Findings A total of 115 articles highlighted that the Wii Fit has been tested in numerous healthy and pathological populations. Out of these, only a few intervention studies have focused on the prevention of chronic diseases. A large proportion of the studies focus on balance training (N = 55. This systematic review highlights several potential benefits of Wii Fit interventions and these positive observations are supported by meta-analyses data (N = 25. For example, the BBC and the TUG respond to a similar extend to Wii Fit interventions compared with traditional training. Conclusion Wii Fit has the potential to be used as a rehabilitation tool in different clinical situations. However, the current literature includes relatively few randomized controlled trials in each population. Further research is therefore required.

  2. Are Fit Indices Biased in Favor of Bi-Factor Models in Cognitive Ability Research?: A Comparison of Fit in Correlated Factors, Higher-Order, and Bi-Factor Models via Monte Carlo Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant B. Morgan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bi-factor confirmatory factor models have been influential in research on cognitive abilities because they often better fit the data than correlated factors and higher-order models. They also instantiate a perspective that differs from that offered by other models. Motivated by previous work that hypothesized an inherent statistical bias of fit indices favoring the bi-factor model, we compared the fit of correlated factors, higher-order, and bi-factor models via Monte Carlo methods. When data were sampled from a true bi-factor structure, each of the approximate fit indices was more likely than not to identify the bi-factor solution as the best fitting. When samples were selected from a true multiple correlated factors structure, approximate fit indices were more likely overall to identify the correlated factors solution as the best fitting. In contrast, when samples were generated from a true higher-order structure, approximate fit indices tended to identify the bi-factor solution as best fitting. There was extensive overlap of fit values across the models regardless of true structure. Although one model may fit a given dataset best relative to the other models, each of the models tended to fit the data well in absolute terms. Given this variability, models must also be judged on substantive and conceptual grounds.

  3. Associations of cardiorespiratory fitness with cardiovascular disease risk factors in middle-aged Chinese women: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Wenfei; Hooker, Steven P; Sun, Yuliang; Xie, Minhao; Su, Hao; Cao, Jianmin

    2014-01-01

    Background High levels of physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are each associated with a favorable cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profile. However, the relationship between CRF and obesity is still inconsistent across studies, and there has been no thorough exploration of the independent contribution of CRF to different CVD risk factors in Chinese women. This study investigated the relationship between CRF and CVD risk factors in 40–49 year old women in Beijing. Meth...

  4. The arginine-ornithine antiporter ArcD contributes to biological fitness of Streptococcus suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulde, Marcus; Willenborg, Joerg; Huber, Claudia; Hitzmann, Angela; Willms, Daniela; Seitz, Maren; Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Goethe, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    The arginine-ornithine antiporter (ArcD) is part of the Arginine Deiminase System (ADS), a catabolic, energy-providing pathway found in a variety of different bacterial species, including the porcine zoonotic pathogen Streptococcus suis. The ADS has recently been shown to play a role in the pathogenicity of S. suis, in particular in its survival in host cells. The contribution of arginine and arginine transport mediated by ArcD, however, has yet to be clarified. In the present study, we showed by experiments using [U-(13)C6]arginine as a tracer molecule that S. suis is auxotrophic for arginine and that bacterial growth depends on the uptake of extracellular arginine. To further study the role of ArcD in arginine metabolism, we generated an arcD-specific mutant strain and characterized its growth compared to the wild-type (WT) strain, a virulent serotype 2 strain. The mutant strain showed a markedly reduced growth in chemically defined media supplemented with arginine when compared to the WT strain, suggesting that ArcD promotes arginine uptake. To further evaluate the in vivo relevance of ArcD, we studied the intracellular bacterial survival of the arcD mutant strain in an epithelial cell culture infection model. The mutant strain was substantially attenuated, and its reduced intracellular survival rate correlated with a lower ability to neutralize the acidified environment. Based on these results, we propose that ArcD, by its function as an arginine-ornithine antiporter, is important for supplying arginine as substrate of the ADS and, thereby, contributes to biological fitness and virulence of S. suis in the host.

  5. The arginine-ornithine antiporter ArcD contributes to biological fitness of Streptococcus suis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus eFulde

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The arginine-ornithine antiporter (ArcD is part of the Arginine Deiminase System (ADS, a catabolic, energy-providing pathway found in a variety of different bacterial species, including the porcine zoonotic pathogen Streptococcus suis. The ADS has recently been shown to play a role in the pathogenicity of S. suis, in particular in its survival in host cells. The contribution of arginine and arginine transport mediated by ArcD, however, has yet to be clarified. In the present study, we showed by experiments using [U-13C6]arginine as a tracer molecule that S. suis is auxotrophic for arginine and that bacterial growth depends on the uptake of extracellular arginine. To further study the role of ArcD in arginine metabolism, we generated an arcD-specific mutant strain and characterized its growth compared to the wild-type (WT strain, a virulent serotype 2 strain. The mutant strain showed a markedly reduced growth rate in chemically defined media supplemented with arginine when compared to the WT strain, indicating that ArcD promotes arginine uptake. To further evaluate the in vivo relevance of ArcD, we studied the intracellular bacterial survival of the arcD mutant strain in an epithelial cell culture infection model. The mutant strain was substantially attenuated, and its reduced intracellular survival rate correlated with a lower ability to neutralize the acidified environment. Based on these results, we propose that ArcD, by its function as an arginine-ornithine antiporter, is important for supplying arginine as substrate of the ADS and, thereby, contributes to biological fitness and virulence of S. suis in the host.

  6. Repeated-sprint ability - part I: factors contributing to fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Olivier; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto; Bishop, David

    2011-08-01

    Short-duration sprints (ability to recover and to reproduce performance in subsequent sprints is probably an important fitness requirement of athletes engaged in these disciplines, and has been termed repeated-sprint ability (RSA). This review (Part I) examines how fatigue manifests during repeated-sprint exercise (RSE), and discusses the potential underpinning muscular and neural mechanisms. A subsequent companion review to this article will explain a better understanding of the training interventions that could eventually improve RSA. Using laboratory and field-based protocols, performance analyses have consistently shown that fatigue during RSE typically manifests as a decline in maximal/mean sprint speed (i.e. running) or a decrease in peak power or total work (i.e. cycling) over sprint repetitions. A consistent result among these studies is that performance decrements (i.e. fatigue) during successive bouts are inversely correlated to initial sprint performance. To date, there is no doubt that the details of the task (e.g. changes in the nature of the work/recovery bouts) alter the time course/magnitude of fatigue development during RSE (i.e. task dependency) and potentially the contribution of the underlying mechanisms. At the muscle level, limitations in energy supply, which include energy available from phosphocreatine hydrolysis, anaerobic glycolysis and oxidative metabolism, and the intramuscular accumulation of metabolic by-products, such as hydrogen ions, emerge as key factors responsible for fatigue. Although not as extensively studied, the use of surface electromyography techniques has revealed that failure to fully activate the contracting musculature and/or changes in inter-muscle recruitment strategies (i.e. neural factors) are also associated with fatigue outcomes. Pending confirmatory research, other factors such as stiffness regulation, hypoglycaemia, muscle damage and hostile environments (e.g. heat, hypoxia) are also likely to compromise

  7. [Muscular fitness and cardiometabolic risk factors among Colombian young adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Meneses-Echavez, José F; González-Ruíz, Katherine; Correa, Jorge Enrique

    2014-10-01

    Objetivo: Determinar la relación entre el fitness muscular (FM) con marcadores de riesgo cardio-metabólico en adultos jóvenes de Colombia. Métodos: Un total de 172 hombres (edad 19,7±2,4 años; peso 65,5±10,7 kg; IMC 22,6±2,8 kg•m-1) sin enfermedad cardiovascular previa fueron invitados a participar en el estudio. El FM se determinó mediante el test de dinamometría prensil y los resultados fueron divididos en cuartiles según los valores de FM y FM/peso corporal. Se calculó el índice lipídico-metabólico según las concentraciones de triglicéridos, c-LDL, c-HDL y glucosa. La circunferencia de cintura (CC), porcentaje de grasa, índice de adiposidad corporal (IAC) e índice de masa corporal (IMC) fueron usados como indicadores de adiposidad. Resultados: Después de ajustar por edad, IMC y CC, se observaron relaciones inversas entre el porcentaje de grasa, la CC, los niveles colesterol, HDL-c y LDL-c, con los valores de FM y FM/peso corporal (p.

  8. Contributions of sociodemographic factors to criminal behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mundia L

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lawrence Mundia, Rohani Matzin, Salwa Mahalle, Malai Hayati Hamid, Ratna Suriani Osman Psychological Studies and Human Development Academic Group, Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah Institute of Education, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Abstract: We explored the extent to which prisoner sociodemographic variables (age, education, marital status, employment, and whether their parents were married or not influenced offending in 64 randomly selected Brunei inmates, comprising both sexes. A quantitative field survey design ideal for the type of participants used in a prison context was employed to investigate the problem. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis with backward elimination identified prisoner marital status and age groups as significantly related to offending. Furthermore, hierarchical multinomial logistic regression analysis with backward elimination indicated that prisoners’ age, primary level education, marital status, employment status, and parental marital status as significantly related to stealing offenses with high odds ratios. All 29 nonrecidivists were false negatives and predicted to reoffend upon release. Similarly, all 33 recidivists were projected to reoffend after release. Hierarchical binary logistic regression analysis revealed age groups (24–29 years and 30–35 years, employed prisoner, and primary level education as variables with high likelihood trends for reoffending. The results suggested that prisoner interventions (educational, counseling, and psychotherapy in Brunei should treat not only antisocial personality, psychopathy, and mental health problems but also sociodemographic factors. The study generated offending patterns, trends, and norms that may inform subsequent investigations on Brunei prisoners. Keywords: crimes, prisoner, sociodemographic, recidivism, interventions, Brunei

  9. Factors Affecting Customer Loyalty of Fitness Centers: An Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Vania Suwono

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Awareness of healthy lifestyle in society is increasing day by day. Therefore, the fitness centers more motivated to focus on these business opportunities. Hence, it is important for companies to understand how to satisfy consumers to obtain consumer loyalty. Main variables were applied to predict customer loyalties areswitching cost, customer value, physical environment, and customer satisfaction. Data was collected through questionnaires distribution to students at private university in Tangerang. Data then was analyzed to by applying multipleregressionswith SPSS software. The results showed that there are three hypotheses are supported. The hypothesis is the relationship between switching cost and customer value, the relationship between customer value and customer satisfaction, and the relationship between customer satisfaction and customer loyalty. There is a hypothesis that is not supported, namely the relationship between the physical environment and customer satisfaction. This study also provides a discussion and offers direction for further research.Kesadaran akan hidup sehat dalam masyarakat semakin meningkat. Oleh karenaitu, perusahaan-perusahaan pusat kebugaran termotivasi untuk focus pada peluang bisnis ini. Dengan demikian, pemahaman akan kepuasan konsumen yang dapat menjadikan konsumen semakin loyal adalah penting bagi perusahaan. Penelitian ini focus pada variable biaya perpindahan, nilai yang diterima konsumen, lingkungan fisik, dan kepuasan konsumen dalam memprediksi loyalitas konsumen. Data dikumpulkan melalui penyebaran kuesioner pada mahasiswa di sebuah universitas swasta. Data kemudian dianalisis dengan menggunakan regresi berganda. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat tiga hipotesis yang didukung. Hipotesis tersebut adalah hubungan antara biaya perpindahan dan nilai yang diterima konsumen, hubungan antara nilai yang diterima konsumen dan kepuasan konsumen, dan hubungan antara kepuasan konsumen dan loyalitas konsumen

  10. Women's Career Success: A Factor Analytic Study of Contributing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskill, LuAnn Ricketts

    1991-01-01

    A survey of 466 women employed in retailing received 205 responses identifying (1) factors influencing the success and advancement of women in retailing and (2) how those factors differ for women in upper versus middle positions. Upper-level executives placed more importance on ambition and abilities; midlevel executives credited opportunity and…

  11. Estimating individual contributions to population growth: evolutionary fitness in ecological time

    OpenAIRE

    Coulson, T.; Benton, T. G.; Lundberg, Per; Dall, S.R.X.; Kendall, B E; Gaillard, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Ecological and evolutionary change is generated by variation in individual performance. Biologists have consequently long been interested in decomposing change measured at the population level into contributions from individuals, the traits they express and the alleles they carry. We present a novel method of estimating individual contributions to population growth and changes in distributions of quantitative traits and alleles. An individual's contribution to population growth is an indi...

  12. Fitting of Hadron Mass Spectra and Contributions to Perturbation Theory of Conformal Quantum Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna Acosta, German Aurelio

    The masses of observed hadrons are fitted according to the kinematic predictions of Conformal Relativity. The hypothesis gives a remarkably good fit. The isospin SU(2) gauge invariant Lagrangian L(,(pi)NN)(x,(lamda)) is used in the calculation of d(sigma)/d(OMEGA) to 2nd-order Feynman graphs for simplified models of (pi)N(--->)(pi)N. The resulting infinite mass sums over the nucleon (Conformal) families are done via the Generalized-Sommerfeld-Watson Transform Theorem. Even though the models are too simple to be realistic, they indicate that if (DELTA)-internal lines were to be included, 2nd-order Feynman graphs may reproduce the experimental data qualitatively. The energy -dependence of the propagator and couplings in Conformal QFT is different from that of ordinary QFT. Suggestions for further work are made in the areas of ultra-violet divergences and OPEC calculations.

  13. Insulin resistance, low cardiorespiratory fitness, and increased exercise blood pressure: contribution of abdominal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huot, Maxime; Arsenault, Benoit J; Gaudreault, Valérie; Poirier, Paul; Pérusse, Louis; Tremblay, Angelo; Bouchard, Claude; Després, Jean-Pierre; Rhéaume, Caroline

    2011-12-01

    Individuals with insulin resistance and low cardiorespiratory fitness are frequently found to have an increased waist circumference and high exercise blood pressure. We tested the hypothesis that the relationships among insulin resistance, low cardiorespiratory fitness, and increased exercise blood pressure may be mediated by an elevated waist circumference. This study included 317 apparently healthy men and women (mean age: 34.8±12.8 years; mean body mass index: 26.1±5.2 kg/m(2)). Exercise blood pressure values were measured using a submaximal ergometer test evaluating physical working capacity. Plasma insulin and glucose levels were measured during a 3-hour oral glucose tolerance test. Multivariate regression analyses showed that waist circumference accounted for 32.8% (Pexercise systolic blood pressure in men and women, respectively. Participants were classified into tertiles according to either insulin response, measured during the oral glucose tolerance test, or fitness levels and then further subdivided into 2 subgroups using sex-specific waist circumference thresholds. Individuals with an increased waist circumference (≥94 cm and ≥80 cm for men and women, respectively) had higher exercise systolic blood pressure compared with individuals with low waist circumference, irrespective of their level of insulin resistance (10.6 versus 6.8, 12.2 versus 7.7, and 13.2 versus 8.7 mm Hg/metabolic equivalent, respectively, for the low, intermediate, and high tertiles; Pfitness levels (13.1 versus 8.2, 12.0 versus 7.9, and 10.6 versus 7.1 mm Hg/metabolic equivalent, respectively, for the low, intermediate, and high tertiles; Pexercise systolic blood pressure, regardless of their insulin sensitivity or level of cardiorespiratory fitness.

  14. The relative contribution of physical fitness to the technical execution score in youth rhythmic gymnastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donti, Olyvia; Kritikou, Maria; Donti, Anastasia; Theodorakou, Kalliopi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study examined the association between physical fitness and a technical execution score in rhythmic gymnasts varying in the performance level. Forty-six young rhythmic gymnasts (age: 9.9 ±1.3 years) were divided into two groups (qualifiers, n=24 and non-qualifiers, n=22) based on the results of the National Championships. Gymnasts underwent a series of physical fitness tests and technical execution was evaluated in a routine without apparatus. There were significant differences between qualifiers and non-qualifiers in the technical execution score (p=0.01, d=1.0), shoulder flexion (p=0.01, d=0.8), straight leg raise (p=0.004, d=0.9), sideways leg extension (p=0.002, d=0.9) and body fat (p=.021, d=0.7), but no differences were found in muscular endurance and jumping performance. The technical execution score for the non-qualifiers was significantly correlated with shoulder extension (r=0.423, pgymnastics. At the lower level of performance (non-qualifiers), physical fitness seems to have a greater effect on the technical execution score. PMID:28149377

  15. nf2 contributions to fermionic four-loop form factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Roman N.; Smirnov, Alexander V.; Smirnov, Vladimir A.; Steinhauser, Matthias

    2017-07-01

    We compute the four-loop contributions to the photon quark and Higgs quark form factors involving two closed fermion loops. We present analytical results for all nonplanar master integrals of the two nonplanar integral families which enter our calculation.

  16. Assessment of factors contributing to flood disaster in Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of factors contributing to flood disaster in Ibadan Metropolis: Implication for environmental health education. ... dumping of refuse inside waterways, the role of environmental health officers and level of adherence to the city master ...

  17. Frequency of pediatric medication administration errors and contributing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Suzan; Kocaman, Gulseren; Ozturk, Candan; Seren, Seyda

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the frequency of pediatric medication administration errors and contributing factors. This research used the undisguised observation method and Critical Incident Technique. Errors and contributing factors were classified through the Organizational Accident Model. Errors were made in 36.5% of the 2344 doses that were observed. The most frequent errors were those associated with administration at the wrong time. According to the results of this study, errors arise from problems within the system.

  18. Factorization and infrared properties of non-perturbative contributions to DIS structure functions

    CERN Document Server

    Ermolaev, B I; Troyan, S I

    2010-01-01

    Analytical expressions for the non-perturbative components of the hadronic scattering amplitudes and the DIS structure functions are not usually obtained from theoretical considerations, but are introduced phenomenologically by fitting the data. We derive some restrictions for such contributions from the general concepts of factorization and integrability. These restrictions are obtained in the context of both k_T and collinear factorizations. We also show that the use of the collinear factorization basically makes the DIS structure functions be dependent on the factorization scale. Our analysis shows that singular factors of the type x^{-a} in the initial parton densities can be used for the singlet component of the structure function F_1, provided a <1, but excludes the use of them for the other structure functions. The restrictions for the non-perturbative contributions we obtain can also be applied to other QCD reactions at high energies.

  19. Exploring the Fitness Centre Industry in Malaysia; What Factors Influence Joining and Retention and Prevents People from Joining

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Helen B

    2008-01-01

    Malaysia’s fitness centre industry has seen rapid growth over the last 6 years with the opening of more than 25 international chain outlets of which the majority is owned by California Fitness, Celebrity Fitness, Fitness First and True Fitness. An increasing population and year on year GDP growth, together with the support of the Malaysian government, contribute to further the growth of the industry. The purpose of the study is to explore, investigate and reveal information about the growth a...

  20. Contribution of garment fit and style to thermal comfort at the lower body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mert, Emel; Böhnisch, Sonja; Psikuta, Agnes; Bueno, Marie-Ange; Rossi, René M.

    2016-12-01

    The heat and mass transfer between the human body and the environment is not only affected by the properties of the fabric, but also by the size of the air gap thickness and the magnitude of the contact area between the body and garment. In this clothing-human-environment system, there is also an interaction between the clothing and the physiological response of the wearer. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of the air gap thickness and the contact area for the male lower body in relation to the garment fit and style using a three-dimensional (3D) body scanning method with a manikin. Moreover, their relation with the physiological response of the lower body was analysed using the physiological modelling. The presented study showed that the change in the air gap thickness and the contact area due to garment fit was greater for legs than the pelvis area due to regional differences of the body. Furthermore, the garment style did not have any effect on the core temperature or total water loss of the lower body, whereas the effect of garment fit on the core temperature and total water loss of lower body was observed only for 40 °C of ambient temperature. The skin temperatures were higher for especially loose garments at thigh than the tight garments. Consequently, the results of this study indicated that the comfort level of the human body for a given purpose can be adjusted by selection of fabric type and the design of ease allowances in the garment depending on the body region.

  1. Contribution of physical fitness, cerebrovascular reserve and cognitive stimulation to cognitive function in post-menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskes, Gail A; Longman, Stewart; Brown, Allison D; McMorris, Carly A; Langdon, Kristopher D; Hogan, David B; Poulin, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Studies of the effects of physical fitness on cognition suggest that exercise can improve cognitive abilities in healthy older adults, as well as delay the onset of age-related cognitive decline. The mechanisms for the positive benefit of exercise and how these effects interact with other variables known to influence cognitive function (e.g., involvement in cognitive activities) are less well understood. The current study examined the associations between the physical fitness, cerebrovascular blood flow regulation and involvement in cognitive activities with neuropsychological function in healthy post-menopausal women. Forty-two healthy women between the ages of 55 and 90 were recruited. Physical fitness (V˙O2 max), cerebrovascular reserve (cerebral blood flow during rest and response to an increase in end-tidal (i.e., arterial) PCO2), and cognitive activity (self-reported number and hours of involvement in cognitive activities) were assessed. The association of these variables with neuropsychological performance was examined through linear regression. Physical fitness, cerebrovascular reserve and total number of cognitive activities (but not total hours) were independent predictors of cognitive function, particularly measures of overall cognitive performance, attention and executive function. In addition, prediction of neuropsychological performance was better with multiple variables than each alone. Cognitive function in older adults is associated with multiple factors, including physical fitness, cerebrovascular health and cognitive stimulation. Interestingly, cognitive stimulation effects appear related more to the diversity of activities, rather than the duration of activity. Further examination of these relationships is ongoing in a prospective cohort study.

  2. Biomedical and psychosocial factors influencing transtibial prosthesis fit : a Delphi survey among health care professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baars, Erwin C.; Schrier, Ernst; Geertzen, Jan H.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We aimed to reach consensus among professionals caring for prosthesis users, on definitions of biomedical and psychosocial factors, to assess their influence on fit of transtibial prosthesis and to identify new factors. Method: A three-round, internet-based, Delphi survey was conducted amon

  3. Biomedical and psychosocial factors influencing transtibial prosthesis fit : a Delphi survey among health care professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baars, Erwin C.; Schrier, Ernst; Geertzen, Jan H.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We aimed to reach consensus among professionals caring for prosthesis users, on definitions of biomedical and psychosocial factors, to assess their influence on fit of transtibial prosthesis and to identify new factors. Method: A three-round, internet-based, Delphi survey was conducted amon

  4. The Contributing Factors of Pragmatic Failure in China's ELT Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qi-yuan

    2013-01-01

    Pragmatic failure is the inability to understand what is meant by what is said, which can often lead to misunderstanding or confusion in cross-cultural communication. For this reason, the present article explores the contributing factors of pragmatic failure in China's ELT Classrooms. According to the exploration, the following factors are found…

  5. Fit for purpose? A review of a medical curriculum and its contribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-11-11

    Nov 11, 2010 ... to integrate education with health systems and produce graduates who can contribute as ... not only the knowledge of the student, but 'involves experiencing a deep, structural shift ... based learning (PBL) in a few countries.[8-10] ..... in which they would work, investigating real- ... At the time we did it, it felt a.

  6. European Clearinghouse - Contributing Factors to Incidents Related to Reactivity Management

    OpenAIRE

    BRUYNOOGHE Christiane; NOEL MARC

    2009-01-01

    In this paper shortcomings in reactivity management reported to the IAEA Incident Reporting System in the period 1981-2008 are investigated and contributing factors to reactivity management incidents are analysed. The aim of theworkwas to identify the initiating factors and associated root causes. Five of the seven factors identified for all events were present in the 1999 Shika-1 event where criticality has been unexpectedly reached and maintained during fifteen minutes. Most of the events r...

  7. RELATIONSHIPS AMONG INDICATORS OF FITNESS, FATNESS AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE RISK FACTORS IN ADOLESCENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Strachan Buchan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In adults, fatness and low cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with a higher prevalence of chronic disease risk and mortality. The association between measures of physical fitness and fatness upon cardiovascular risk in youth, however, is less clear. The effects of adiposity and physical fitness upon cardiovascular disease risk factors in youth are receiving increasing attention but studies that have examined their independent associations are sparse. The purpose of this study thus was to investigate relationships among cardiovascular disease risk factors, four indicators of physical fitness and three indicators of fatness in a healthy adolescent cohort. Forty-eight boys and ten girls, 16.4±0.7 years, volunteered to participate in this cross-sectional study. Measurements included Blood Pressure (BP, three indicators of fatness and fat distribution Body Mass Index (BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, waist circumference, four measures of physical fitness (aerobic fitness, muscular fitness, sprinting speed, agility, weekly food intake and Physical Activity (PA levels. Metabolic CVD risk factors included Total Cholesterol (TC, insulin, High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL, Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL, high-sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (CRP, glucose, fibrinogen, interleukin-6, adiponectin, triglyceride and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1. Relationships between cardiorespiratory fitness and adiponectin (r = 0.443 and between muscular power and glucose (r = 0.430 were significant and moderate. Significant inverse correlations were also noted between adiponectin, sprint (r = -0.456 and agility (r = -0.399 performance. Adiponectin was also significantly and inversely correlated with waist circumference (r = - 0.514 and BMI (r = -0.434. From the regression models, a significant percentage of the variance in cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular fitness, agility and sprint performance (about 74, 53, 46 and 59% was explained by traditional covariates. The

  8. Association of body mass index and aerobic physical fitness with cardiovascular risk factors in children☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Reginaldo; Szmuchrowski, Leszek Antony; Damasceno, Vinícius Oliveira; de Medeiros, Marcelo Lemos; Couto, Bruno Pena; Lamounier, Joel Alves

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify the association between both, body mass index and aerobic fitness, with cardiovascular disease risk factors in children. Methods: Cross-sectional study, carried out in Itaúna-MG, in 2010, with 290 school children ranging from 6 to 10 years-old of both sexes, randomly selected. Children from schools located in the countryside and those with medical restrctions for physical activity were not included. Blood sample was collected after a 12-hour fasting period. Blood pressure, stature and weight were evaluated in accordance with international standards. The following were considered as cardiovascular risk factors: high blood pressure, high total cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides and insulin levels, and low HDL. The statistical analysis included the Spearman's coefficient and the logistic regression, with cardiovascular risk factors as dependent variables. Results: Significant correlations were found, in both sexes, among body mass index and aerobic fitness with most of the cardiovascular risk factors. Children of both sexes with body mass index in the fourth quartile demonstrated increased chances of having high blood insulin and clustering cardiovascular risk factors. Moreover, girls with aerobic fitness in the first quartile also demonstrated increased chances of having high blood insulin and clustering cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusion: The significant associations and the increased chances of having cardiovascular risk factors in children with less aerobic fitness and higher levels of body mass index justify the use of these variables for health monitoring in Pediatrics. PMID:25479851

  9. [Association of body mass index and aerobic physical fitness with cardiovascular risk factors in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Reginaldo; Szmuchrowski, Leszek Antony; Damasceno, Vinícius Oliveira; de Medeiros, Marcelo Lemos; Couto, Bruno Pena; Lamounier, Joel Alves

    2014-09-01

    To identify the association between both, body mass index and aerobic fitness, with cardiovascular disease risk factors in children. Cross-sectional study, carried out in Itaúna-MG, in 2010, with 290 school children ranging from 6 to 10 years-old of both sexes, randomly selected. Children from schools located in the countryside and those with medical restrctions for physical activity were not included. Blood sample was collected after a 12-hour fasting period. Blood pressure, stature and weight were evaluated in accordance with international standards. The following were considered as cardiovascular risk factors: high blood pressure, high total cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides and insulin levels, and low HDL. The statistical analysis included the Spearman's coefficient and the logistic regression, with cardiovascular risk factors as dependent variables. Significant correlations were found, in both sexes, among body mass index and aerobic fitness with most of the cardiovascular risk factors. Children of both sexes with body mass index in the fourth quartile demonstrated increased chances of having high blood insulin and clustering cardiovascular risk factors. Moreover, girls with aerobic fitness in the first quartile also demonstrated increased chances of having high blood insulin and clustering cardiovascular risk factors. The significant associations and the increased chances of having cardiovascular risk factors in children with less aerobic fitness and higher levels of body mass index justify the use of these variables for health monitoring in Pediatrics. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Factorization and infrared properties of non-perturbative contributions to DIS structure functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ermolaev, B.I. [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Greco, M. [University Roma Tre, Department of Physics (Italy); INFN, Rome (Italy); Troyan, S.I. [St. Petersburg Institute of Nuclear Physics, Gatchina (Russian Federation)

    2011-09-15

    In this paper we present a new derivation of QCD factorization. We deduce the k{sub T} and collinear factorizations for the DIS structure functions by consecutive reductions of a more general theoretical construction. We begin by studying the amplitude of forward Compton scattering off a hadron target, representing this amplitude as a set of convolutions of two blobs connected by the simplest, two-parton intermediate states. Each blob in the convolutions can contain both the perturbative and non-perturbative contributions. We formulate conditions for separating the perturbative and non-perturbative contributions and attributing them to the different blobs. After that the convolutions correspond to QCD factorization. Then we reduce this totally unintegrated (basic) factorization first to k{sub T} -factorization and finally to collinear factorization. In order to yield a finite expression for the Compton amplitude, the integration over the loop momentum in the basic factorization must be free of both ultraviolet and infrared singularities. This obvious mathematical requirement leads to theoretical restrictions on the non-perturbative contributions (parton distributions) to the Compton amplitude and the DIS structure functions related to the Compton amplitude through the Optical Theorem. In particular, our analysis excludes the use of the singular factors x{sup -a} (with a >0) in the fits for the quark and gluon distributions because such factors contradict the integrability of the basic convolutions for the Compton amplitude. This restriction is valid for all DIS structure functions in the framework of both k{sub T} -factorization and collinear factorization if we attribute the perturbative contributions only to the upper blob. The restrictions on the non-perturbative contributions obtained in the present paper can easily be extended to other QCD processes where the factorization is exploited. (orig.)

  11. Characterization of MxFIT, an iron deficiency induced transcriptional factor in Malus xiaojinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Lili; Wang, Yi; Yuan, Mudan; Zhang, Xinzhong; Xu, Xuefeng; Han, Zhenhai

    2014-02-01

    Iron deficiency often results in nutritional disorder in fruit trees. Transcription factors play an important role in the regulation of iron uptake. In this study, we isolated an iron deficiency response transcription factor gene, MxFIT, from an iron-efficient apple genotype of Malus xiaojinensis. MxFIT encoded a basic helix-loop-helix protein and contained a 966 bp open reading frame. MxFIT protein was targeted to the nucleus in onion epidermal cells and showed strong transcriptional activation in yeast cells. Spatiotemporal expression analysis revealed that MxFIT was up-regulated in roots under iron deficiency at both mRNA and protein levels, while almost no expression was detected in leaves irrespective of iron supply. Ectopic expression of MxFIT resulted in enhanced iron deficiency responses in Arabidopsis under iron deficiency and stronger resistance to iron deficiency. Thus, MxFIT might be involved in iron uptake and plays an important role in iron deficiency response.

  12. Short term memory, physical fitness, and serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor in obese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini Rossanti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Obesity in adolescents is a major health problem and has been associated with low academic achievement. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, a neurotrophin, plays a role in appetite suppression and memory, and its secretion is enhanced by physical activity. This neurotrophin may be associated with academic achievement in obese. Objective To compare physical fitness and serum BDNF levels to short term memory levels in obese adolescents aged 10–14 years. Methods This comparative, cross-sectional, analytic study was carried out on 40 elementary and high school students in Bandung, West Java, who were recruited by stratified random sampling. Short term memory was assessed by a psychologist using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III Digit Span test (WISC-III Digit Span. Physical fitness was assessed by a clinical exercise physiologist using the Asian Committee on the Standardization of Physical Fitness Test (ACSPFT. Serum BDNF levels were measured by ELISA test in a certified laboratory. ANOVA test was used to assess for a correlation between serum BDNF concentration and short term memory, as well as between physical fitness level and short term memory. Pearson’s correlation test was used to analyze for a correlation between serum BDNF and physical fitness levels. Results The majority of subjects were in the physical fitness categories of moderate or poor. Subjects had a mean BDNF level of 44,227.8 (SD 10,359 pg/mL. There was no statistically significant difference in physical fitness with either serum BDNF or with short term memory levels (P=0.139 and P=0.383, respectively. Also, no correlation was determined between serum BDNF and physical fitness levels (r=0.222; P=0.169. Conclusion In obese adolescents, short term memory levels are not significantly different between physical fitness levels nor between serum BDNF levels.

  13. Short term memory, physical fitness, and serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor in obese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini Rossanti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Obesity in adolescents is a major health problem and has been associated with low academic achievement. Brainderived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, a neurotrophin, plays a role in appetite suppression and memory, and its secretion is enhanced by physical activity. This neurotrophin may be associated with academic achievement in obese. Objective To compare physical fitness and serum BDNF levels to short term memory levels in obese adolescents aged 10–14 years. Methods This comparative, cross-sectional, analytic study was carried out on 40 elementary and high school students in Bandung, West Java, who were recruited by stratified random sampling. Short term memory was assessed by a psychologist using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III Digit Span test (WISC-III Digit Span. Physical fitness was assessed by a clinical exercise physiologist using the Asian Committee on the Standardization of Physical Fitness Test (ACSPFT. Serum BDNF levels were measured by ELISA test in a certified laboratory. ANOVA test was used to assess for a correlation between serum BDNF concentration and short term memory, as well as between physical fitness level and short term memory. Pearson’s correlation test was used to analyze for a correlation between serum BDNF and physical fitness levels. Results The majority of subjects were in the physical fitness categories of moderate or poor. Subjects had a mean BDNF level of 44,227.8 (SD 10,359 pg/mL. There was no statistically significant difference in physical fitness with either serum BDNF or with short term memory levels (P=0.139 and P=0.383, respectively. Also, no correlation was determined between serum BDNF and physical fitness levels (r=0.222; P=0.169. Conclusion In obese adolescents, short term memory levels are not significantly different between physical fitness levels nor between serum BDNF levels.

  14. An exploratory analysis of personality factors contributed to suicide attempts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Suresh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: People who attempt suicide have certain individual predispositions, part of which is contributed by personality traits. Aims: The present study was conducted to identify the psycho-sociodemographic and personality related factors contributing to suicide attempts. Materials and Methods: 104 suicide attempters admitted in various departments and referred to the department of psychiatry of IQRAA Hospital formed the study sample. They were evaluated with a self designed socio-demographic proforma, Eysenck′s Personality Questionnaire Revised, Albert Einstein College of Medicine-Impulsivity Coping Scale, and Past Feelings and Acts of Violence Scale. Statistics Analysis: The data was initially analyzed by percentage of frequencies. Association between socio-demographic and selected psychological factors was analyzed using t-test and Chi-square test. Intercorrelation among psychological factors was calculated by Pearson′s correlation coefficient "r". Results and Conclusion: Factors such as young age, being married, nuclear family, feeling lonely and burden to family, inability to solve the problems of day to day life, and presence of psychiatric diagnosis and personality traits such as neuroticism, impulsivity, and violence were contributed to suicide attempt. A significant positive relationship between these factors was also identified. Findings of the present study call the attention of mental health professionals to identify these high risk factors in susceptible individuals and to modify these factors to prevent them from attempting suicide.

  15. Fitness, fatness and clustering of cardiovascular risk factors in children from Denmark, Estonia and Portugal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars B; Sardinha, Luis B; Froberg, Karsten

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Levels of overweight have increased and fitness has decreased in children. Potentially, these changes may be a threat to future health. Numerous studies have measured changes in body mass index (BMI), but few have assessed the independent effects of low fitness, overweight and physical...... inactivity on cardiovascular (CVD) risk factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional multi-center study including 1 769 children from Denmark, Estonia and Portugal. The main outcome was clustering of CVD risk factors. Independent variables were waist circumference, skinfolds, physical activity and cardio...... significant. Fitness showed the same strength of association with the clustered risk score including systolic blood pressure, triglyceride, HOMA score, and cholesterol:HDL with odds ratio for the upper quartile of 4.97 (95% CI: 3.20-7.73). Physical activity was associated with clustered risk even after...

  16. Correlation between quantitative fit factors and workplace protection factors measured in actual workplace environments at a steel foundry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Ziqing; Coffey, Christopher C; Jensen, Paul A; Campbell, Donald L; Lawrence, Robert B; Myers, Warren R

    2003-01-01

    Past studies have found little or no correlation between workplace protection factors (WPFs) and quantitative fit factors (FFs). This study investigated the effect of good- and poor-fitting half-facepiece, air-purifying respirators on protection in actual workplace environments at a steel foundry and the correlation between WPFs and FFs. Fifteen burners and welders, who wore respirators voluntarily, and chippers participated in this study. Each subject was fit-tested with two respirator models each with three sizes, for a total of six fit-tests. Models and sizes were assigned this way to provide a wide range of FFs among study participants. Each worker donned the respirator twice per day (at the beginning of the shift and following the lunch break) for 2 days. Quantitative FFs were first obtained for each donning using the PortaCount Plus trade mark in a separate room. Without redonning the respirators, workers performed normal work for 1 to 2 hours, and WPFs were measured by collecting ambient and in-facepiece samples simultaneously. A second fit-test was conducted without disturbing the respirator. FFs were obtained by averaging the results from the first and second fit-tests. The resulting FFs had a geometric mean (GM) of 400 (range=10-6010) and a geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 6.1. Of the 55 valid donnings, 43 were good fitting (FFs> or =100) and 12 were poor fitting (FFs<100). The WPFs had a GM of 920 (range=13-230,000) and a GSD of 17.8. The WPFs were found to be significantly correlated with the FFs (R(2)=.55 and p-value=.0001). Therefore, FF was shown to be a meaningful indicator of respirator performance in actual workplace environments.

  17. Rates and risk factors of injury in CrossFitTM: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Sebastian; Booker, Harry; Staines, Jacob; Williams, Sean

    2017-09-01

    CrossFitTM is a strength and conditioning program that has gained widespread popularity since its inception approximately 15 years ago. However, at present little is known about the level of injury risk associated with this form of training. Movement competency, assessed using the Functional Movement ScreenTM (FMS), has been identified as a risk factor for injury in numerous athletic populations, but its role in CrossFit participants is currently unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of injury risk associated with CrossFit training, and examine the influence of a number of potential risk factors (including movement competency). A cohort of 117 CrossFit participants were followed prospectively for 12 weeks. Participants' characteristics, previous injury history and training experience were recorded at baseline, and an FMS assessment was conducted. The overall injury incidence rate was 2.10 per 1000 training hours (90% confidence limits: 1.32-3.33). A multivariate Poisson regression model identified males (rate ratio [RR]: 4.44 ×/÷ 3.30, very likely harmful) and those with previous injuries (RR: 2.35 ×/÷ 2.37, likely harmful) as having a higher injury risk. Inferences relating to FMS variables were unclear in the multivariate model, although number of asymmetries was a clear risk factor in a univariate model (RR per two additional asymmetries: 2.62 ×/÷ 1.53, likely harmful). The injury incidence rate associated with CrossFit training was low, and comparable to other forms of recreational fitness activities. Previous injury and gender were identified as risk factors for injury, whilst the role of movement competency in this setting warrants further investigation.

  18. Efflux Transporter of Siderophore Staphyloferrin A in Staphylococcus aureus Contributes to Bacterial Fitness in Abscesses and Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaminami, Hidemasa; Chen, Chunhui; Truong-Bolduc, Que Chi; Kim, Eu Suk; Wang, Yin; Hooper, David C

    2017-08-01

    The siderophores staphyloferrin A (SA) and staphyloferrin B (SB) of Staphylococcus aureus are essential for iron acquisition in the iron-restricted environment of the host, such as in subcutaneous abscesses. SA and SB are secreted by SfaA and SbnD transporters, respectively. To assess the further function of SfaA and SbnD in S. aureus fitness, we tested its effect on murine abscess models and intracellular replication in epithelial cells. Bacterial fitness in abscesses and in epithelial cells was studied, by comparing the parental strains RN6390 and MW2 and their ΔsfaA and ΔsbnD mutants using competition assays in a murine abscess model and invasion and replication assays with human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549. In the murine abscess model using equal inocula of a ΔsfaA or ΔsbnD mutant and the wild-type RN6390 strain, the ΔsfaA mutant exhibited growth defects of 2.2-fold. Additionally, replication of the ΔsfaA mutant within A549 cells was decreased 3.0-fold. In complementation experiments, the ΔsfaA mutant carrying plasmid-borne sfaA restored the growth fitness in abscesses and epithelial cells. The ΔsbnD mutant, in contrast, showed no growth defect in either abscesses or epithelial cells. Our findings demonstrate that the efflux transporter of the siderophore SA contributes to the ability of S. aureus to replicate in abscesses and epithelial cells. Furthermore, fitness of S. aureus in these sites of replication is not compromised by the absence of transporter SbnD. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  19. Testing the Youth Physical Activity Promotion Model: Fatness and Fitness as Enabling Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Senlin; Welk, Gregory J.; Joens-Matre, Roxane R.

    2014-01-01

    As the prevalence of childhood obesity increases, it is important to examine possible differences in psychosocial correlates of physical activity between normal weight and overweight children. The study examined fatness (weight status) and (aerobic) fitness as Enabling factors related to youth physical activity within the Youth Physical Activity…

  20. Testing the Youth Physical Activity Promotion Model: Fatness and Fitness as Enabling Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Senlin; Welk, Gregory J.; Joens-Matre, Roxane R.

    2014-01-01

    As the prevalence of childhood obesity increases, it is important to examine possible differences in psychosocial correlates of physical activity between normal weight and overweight children. The study examined fatness (weight status) and (aerobic) fitness as Enabling factors related to youth physical activity within the Youth Physical Activity…

  1. An Exploratory Factor Analysis Examining Traits, Perceived Fit and Job Satisfaction in Employed College Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, John R.

    2011-01-01

    This study is an analysis of 24 variables associated with employee attitudes, behaviors and outcomes. A total of 140 college graduates participated in the study. Utilizing exploratory factor analysis (EFA) techniques, the research examined relationships among the following variables: perceived fit, job satisfaction, cognitive ability, vocational…

  2. The Effect of Missing Data Handling Methods on Goodness of Fit Indices in Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köse, Alper

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to examine the effect of missing data on goodness of fit statistics in confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). For this aim, four missing data handling methods; listwise deletion, full information maximum likelihood, regression imputation and expectation maximization (EM) imputation were examined in terms of…

  3. Factors That Contribute to the Adjustment of International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesidor, Jean Kesnold; Sly, Kaye F.

    2016-01-01

    Leaving home to attend college is an important milestone for college students. However, the transition from home to college can be challenging, especially for students studying abroad. In this article, the authors explore factors that contribute to the academic, cultural, social, and psychological adjustments of international students. Adjustment…

  4. Associations between errors and contributing factors in aircraft maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Alan; Williamson, Ann

    2003-01-01

    In recent years cognitive error models have provided insights into the unsafe acts that lead to many accidents in safety-critical environments. Most models of accident causation are based on the notion that human errors occur in the context of contributing factors. However, there is a lack of published information on possible links between specific errors and contributing factors. A total of 619 safety occurrences involving aircraft maintenance were reported using a self-completed questionnaire. Of these occurrences, 96% were related to the actions of maintenance personnel. The types of errors that were involved, and the contributing factors associated with those actions, were determined. Each type of error was associated with a particular set of contributing factors and with specific occurrence outcomes. Among the associations were links between memory lapses and fatigue and between rule violations and time pressure. Potential applications of this research include assisting with the design of accident prevention strategies, the estimation of human error probabilities, and the monitoring of organizational safety performance.

  5. Factors That Contribute to ePortfolio Persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeaux, Tilisa; Cummings, Cynthia; Harapnuik, Dwayne

    2017-01-01

    This study examined factors that contributed to persistent use, or discontinued use, of ePortfolios beyond the program of study, as perceived by former educational technology students in a graduate program. The related literature points to contemporary research that choice, ownership, voice, and authentic learning are growing trends emerging as…

  6. The general environment fit scale: a factor analysis and test of convergent construct validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Christopher R; Jason, Leonard A; Miller, Steven A

    2012-09-01

    Person-environment fit (P-E fit) was initially espoused as an important construct in the field of community psychology; however, most of the theoretical and empirical development of the construct has been conducted by the industrial/organizational (I/O) psychologists and business management fields. In the current study, the GEFS-a P-E fit measure that was developed from organizational perspectives on fit-was administered to 246 attendees of an annual convention for residents and alumni of Oxford House, a network of over 1,400 mutual-help addiction recovery homes. The authors conducted confirmatory factor and convergent construct validity analyses with the GEFS. The results suggested that the theoretical factor structure of the measure adequately fit the data and provided limited support for the measure's validity. Sufficient supply of resident needs by the Oxford House and similarity between residents and their housemates predicted satisfaction with the recovery home, but only perceived similarity to housemates predicted how long residents intended to stay in the Oxford Houses.

  7. The Importance of Physical Fitness versus Physical Activity for Coronary Artery Disease Risk Factors: A Cross-Sectional Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Deborah Rohm; Steinhardt, Mary A.

    1993-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined relationships among physical fitness, physical activity, and risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD) in male police officers. Data from screenings and physical fitness assessments indicated physical activity must be sufficient to influence fitness before obtaining statistically significant risk-reducing…

  8. Pressure Ulcers: Factors Contributing to Their Development in the OR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Dawn; Austin, Melody; McNichol, Laurie; Fencl, Jennifer; Gupta, Sat; Kazi, Haseeb

    2016-03-01

    The prevention of health care-associated pressure ulcers (HAPUs) is an important quality measure because HAPUs are considered a never event. The literature suggests that the prevalence rate of pressure ulcers is 8.5% or higher among patients who undergo surgical procedures that last longer than three hours. We performed a retrospective chart review to determine what factors contribute to the development of pressure ulcers in patients who undergo surgical procedures. The sample population included patients who acquired a pressure ulcer that was not present at admission and developed during their postoperative hospital stay. The project revealed consistent risk factors that may contribute to the development of pressure ulcers in patients who have undergone surgical procedures. These findings can drive the implementation of preventive measures to reduce the occurrence of HAPUs associated with surgical procedures.

  9. Mapping the Relationship of Contributing Factors for Preclinical Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lin; Zhao, Lei; Wong, Adrian; Wang, Defeng; Mok, Vincent

    2015-07-20

    While detecting and validating correlations among the contributing factors to the preclinical phase of Alzheimer's disease (pAD) has been a focus, a potent meta-analysis method to integrate current findings is essential. The entity-relationship diagram with nodes as entities and edges as relationships is a graphical representation that summarizes the relationships among multiple factors in an intuitive manner. Based on this concept, a new meta-analysis approach with this type of diagram is proposed to summarize research about contributing factors of pAD and their interactions. To utilize the information for enriched visualization, width and color of the edges are encoded with reporting times, number of pAD subjects, correlation coefficient, and study design (cross-sectional or longitudinal). The proposed Probabilistic Entity-Relationship Diagram (PERD) demonstrated its effectiveness in this research for studying pAD. Another kind of diagram with occurrence order for some factors was also proposed to provide sequential information of the factors. In addition, PERD could potentially develop into an online application named PERD-online, which would help researchers to pool findings on the same relationships and guide further tests to validate uncertain relationships in PERD. PERD as a generic graphical meta-analysis tool can also be applied in studying other multifactorial diseases.

  10. Cardiovascular risk factor clustering and its association with fitness in nine-year-old rural Norwegian children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Resaland, G K; Mamen, A; Boreham, C

    2010-01-01

    .3). To determine the degree of clustering, six CVD risk factors were selected: homeostasis model assessment score, waist circumference, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein ratio and fitness (VO(2peak)). Clustering was observed in 9.9% of the boys and 13......This paper describes cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor levels in a population-representative sample of healthy, rural Norwegian children and examines the association between fitness and clustering of CVD risk factors. Final analyses included 111 boys and 116 girls (mean age 9.3 +/- 0.......8% of the girls. In a different analysis, fitness was omitted as a CVD risk factor and analyzed against the five remaining CVD risk factors. Low fitness was a strong predictor for clustering of CVD risk factors, and children in the least-fit quartile had significantly poorer CVD risk factor values than all...

  11. STUDY OF AETIOLOGICAL FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO PAEDIATRIC STRABISMUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Dharmaraju

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVES To know various causes, sex distribution, socioeconomic status, onset, severity, visual prognosis of paediatric strabismus. METHODOLOGY The present study was undertaken for a period of 18 months. All the patients were selected from those attending the outpatient department. 50 cases of squint were evaluated thoroughly to know the various factors responsible for squint and how it was caused. RESULTS Total Number of Patients who attended OPD were 72,431 (4000 per month. Total Number of Paediatric squint cases among them were 121. So, Incidence of Paediatric squint in general OP was-0.16%. In the present study of total 121 paediatric squint cases, 21 cases did not fulfil the inclusion criteria and in the remaining 100, cases were included by taking every 2nd patient. Esotropia is seen in 38 children contributing to 76% of total and exotropia is seen in 12 children contributing 24% of total cases. Most common cause of esotropia is Essential Infantile Esotropia contributing to 31% of total esotropias. Males are affected more commonly than females with an incidence of 60%. Esotropia is seen in 38 children contributing to 76% of total and exotropia is seen in 12 children contributing 24% of total cases. In this study, males are affected more commonly than females contributing to 60% of total and females constitute 40% of the total. In this study, incidence of paediatric squint is more commonly seen in lower socioeconomic population contributing 60% of the total. 15 cases are of congenital in onset constituting 30% of total and 35 cases are of acquired in onset constituting 70% of total. Small angle Esotropia and large angle Esotropia: In this study out of total 38 cases of esotropia, large angle esotropias are more common and contributing to 89% of the total. Out of total 50 cases, 16% had an angle of 30⁰. Out of 50 cases, significant family history was present in 15 cases contributing to 30% of total cases. Following early

  12. Environmental risk factors contributing to childhood overweight and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kawalec

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The rising prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and teenagers is a major challenge for public health. Obesity is a complex and heterogeneous disorder, affected by many interacting genetic and non-genetic factors. The aim of this article was to focus on the environmental risk factors for childhood obesity. Among different factors contributing to an increase in BMI, we highlighted the role of exposure to cigarette smoke, DDT, bisphenol A, pesticides, and noise. The correlation between exposure to environmental toxins during prenatal period and obesity development in later life was underlined. According to obesogenic environment hypothesis, some features of distal and proximal neighbourhood also have a pivotal impact on children's behaviour and may contribute to increasing the risk for overweight. The area of residence (urban or rural may affect access to sports facilities or other opportunities for physical activity. Therefore, for designing adequate prophylaxis, it is essential to take into account modifiable risk factors present in residential neighbourhood. Prevention of childhood obesity should integrate activities for both micro- and macro-environment surrounding the child.

  13. Cardiorespiratory fitness, lifestyle factors and cancer risk and mortality in Finnish men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laukkanen, Jari A; Pukkala, Eero; Rauramaa, Rainer; Mäkikallio, Timo H; Toriola, Adetunji T; Kurl, Sudhir

    2010-01-01

    Physical fitness along with lifestyle factors may have important roles in the prevention of cancer. We examined the relationship between common lifestyle factors such as energy expenditure, physical activity and maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)), nutrition and smoking habits and the risk of cancer. A population-based cohort study was carried out in 2268 men from Eastern Finland with no history of cancer. They were followed up for an average of 16.7 years. The outcome measures were cancer incidence (n=387) and cancer mortality (n=159). Men with VO(2max) of more than 33.2 mL/kg/min (highest tertile) had 27% (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.56-0.97) decreased cancer incidence and 37% (95% CI 0.40-0.97) reduced cancer mortality than men with VO(2max) of less than 26.9 mL/kg/min (lowest tertile) after adjustment for age, examination year, alcohol, smoking, socioeconomic status, waist-to-hip ratio and energy, fibre and fat intake. The risk reduction was mainly due to decreased risk of lung cancer in fit men. The adjusted risk of cancer was 0.73 (95% CI 0.55-0.98) among fit (VO(2max)> or =26.9 mL/kg/min) men with the total energy expenditure of physical activity over 2500 kcal/week. A total of 290 active (energy expenditure >2500 kcal and at least 2h of physical activity per week) men with a favourable lifestyle (good fitness, balanced diet and non-smoking) had an adjusted relative risk of 0.63 (95% CI 0.46-0.87) for cancer. Favourable lifestyle including good cardiorespiratory fitness and healthy dietary habits with active and non-smoking lifestyle considerably reduces the risk of cancer. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Risk contributions in an asymptotic multi-factor framework

    CERN Document Server

    Tasche, D

    2005-01-01

    So far, regulatory capital requirements for credit risk portfolios are calculated in a bottom-up approach by determining the requirements at asset level and then adding up them. In contrast, economic capital for a credit risk portfolio is calculated for the portfolio as a whole and then decomposed into risk contributions of assets or sub-portfolios for, e.g., diagnostic purposes like identifying risk concentrations. In the "Asymptotic Single Risk Factor" model that underlies the most important part of the "Basel II Accord", bottom-up and top-down approach yield identical results. However, the model fails in detecting exposure concentrations and recognizing diversification effects. We investigate multi-factor extensions of the ASRF model and derive exact formulae for the risk contributions to Value-at-Risk and Expected Shortfall. As an application of the risk contribution formulae we introduce a new concept for a diversification index. The use of this new index is illustrated with an example calculated with a ...

  15. Violence against women in Pakistan: contributing factors and new interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmaliani, Rozina; Pasha, Aneeta; Hirani, Saima; Somani, Rozina; Hirani, Shela; Asad, Nargis; Cassum, Laila; McFarlane, Judith

    2012-12-01

    Pakistan ranks 125th out of 169 countries on the Gender Development Index and has high prevalence rates of Violence against Women (VAW). Contributing factors toward gender based violence at the micro, meso and macro levels include the acceptability of violence amongst both men and women, internalization of deservability, economic disempowerment, lack of formal education, joint family systems, entrenched patriarchal norms and values, and a lack of awareness of legal and other support systems. These factors have a long-lasting impact on the health of women and children. The gender disparities in the experience of women seeking health care in Pakistan are well-recognized and documented. In the past, common government policy responses to these disparities have included developing the role of community health workers (CHWs) and lady health visitors (LHVs). Despite being commendable initiatives, these too have been unsuccessful in addressing these multi-faceted disparities. Within this complex scenario, new interventions to address VAW and its impact on health in Pakistan include Group Counselling, Economic Skills Building, Health-Based Microfinance, and Family-Based models that increase male involvement, especially at the primary health care level. The purpose of this article is to outline key contributing factors to VAW, explore tested and new interventions, and highlight the opportunities that exist in implementing them.

  16. Orbital Contributions to the Electron g Factor in Semiconductor Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Georg W.; Varjas, Dániel; Skolasinski, Rafal; Soluyanov, Alexey A.; Troyer, Matthias; Wimmer, Michael

    2017-07-01

    Recent experiments on Majorana fermions in semiconductor nanowires [S. M. Albrecht, A. P. Higginbotham, M. Madsen, F. Kuemmeth, T. S. Jespersen, J. Nygård, P. Krogstrup, and C. M. Marcus, Nature (London) 531, 206 (2016), 10.1038/nature17162] revealed a surprisingly large electronic Landé g factor, several times larger than the bulk value—contrary to the expectation that confinement reduces the g factor. Here we assess the role of orbital contributions to the electron g factor in nanowires and quantum dots. We show that an L .S coupling in higher subbands leads to an enhancement of the g factor of an order of magnitude or more for small effective mass semiconductors. We validate our theoretical finding with simulations of InAs and InSb, showing that the effect persists even if cylindrical symmetry is broken. A huge anisotropy of the enhanced g factors under magnetic field rotation allows for a straightforward experimental test of this theory.

  17. Commuter motorcycle crashes in Malaysia: An understanding of contributing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxley, Jennifer; Yuen, Jeremy; Ravi, Mano Deepa; Hoareau, Effie; Mohammed, Mohammed Azman Aziz; Bakar, Harun; Venkataraman, Saraswathy; Nair, Prame Kumar

    2013-01-01

    In Malaysia, two-thirds of reported workplace-related fatal and serious injury incidents are the result of commuting crashes (especially those involving motorcyclists), however, little is known about the contributing factors to these collisions. A telephone survey of 1,750 motorcyclists (1,004 adults who had been involved in a motorcycle commuting crash in the last 2 years and 746 adult motorcyclists who had not been involved in a motorcycle crash in the last 2 years) was undertaken. The contributions of a range of behavioural, attitudinal, employment and travel pattern factors to collision involvement were examined. The findings revealed that the majority of participants were licensed riders, rode substantial distances (most often for work purposes), and reported adopting safe riding practices (helmet wearing and buckling). However, there were some concerning findings regarding speeding behaviour, use of mobile phones while riding, and engaging in other risky behaviours. Participants who had been involved in a collision were younger (aged 25-29 years), had higher exposure (measured by distances travelled, frequency of riding, and riding on high volume and higher speed roads), reported higher rates of riding for work purposes, worked more shift hours and had a higher likelihood of riding at relatively high speeds compared with participants who had not been involved in a collision. Collisions generally occurred during morning and early evening hours, striking another vehicles, and during normal traffic flow. The implications of these findings for policy decisions and development of evidence-based behavioural/training interventions addressing key contributing factors are discussed.

  18. Effects of a Cooperative Learning Strategy on the Effectiveness of Physical Fitness Teaching and Constraining Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsui-Er Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of cooperative learning and traditional learning on the effectiveness and constraining factors of physical fitness teaching under various teaching conditions were studied. Sixty female students in Grades 7–8 were sampled to evaluate their learning of health and physical education (PE according to the curriculum for Grades 1–9 in Taiwan. The data were quantitatively and qualitatively collected and analyzed. The overall physical fitness of the cooperative learning group exhibited substantial progress between the pretest and posttest, in which the differences in the sit-and-reach and bent-knee sit-up exercises achieved statistical significance. The performance of the cooperative learning group in the bent-knee sit-up and 800 m running exercises far exceeded that of the traditional learning group. Our qualitative data indicated that the number of people grouped before a cooperative learning session, effective administrative support, comprehensive teaching preparation, media reinforcement, constant feedback and introspection regarding cooperative learning strategies, and heterogeneous grouping are constraining factors for teaching PE by using cooperative learning strategies. Cooperative learning is considered an effective route for attaining physical fitness among students. PE teachers should consider providing extrinsic motivation for developing learning effectiveness.

  19. Critical Analysis of Factors Contributing to the Formation of Interlanguage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵栩

    2015-01-01

    Interlanguage is a common phenomenon in foreign language learning process.It refers to the language system which is formed in a certain period in learners' second language or foreign language learning process.In the past,behaviorist learning theory and mentalist learning theory has dominated language learning for a long period of time,but both of them have some deficiencies.This paper is to make a critical analysis on the factors contributing to the formation of interlanguage,which reflects the practical importance of interlanguage to language teaching and learning.

  20. Critical Analysis of Factors Contributing to the Formation of Interlanguage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵栩

    2015-01-01

    Interlanguage is a common phenomenon in foreign language learning process.It refers to the language system which is formed in a certain period in learners’ second language or foreign language learning process.In the past,behaviorist learning theory and mentalist learning theory has dominated language learning for a long period of time,but both of them have some deficiencies.This paper is to make a critical analysis on the factors contributing to the formation of interlanguage,which reflects the practical importance of interlanguage to language teaching and learning.

  1. Factors contributing to malnutrition in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung R; Chung, Sun J; Yoo, Sung-Hee

    2016-04-01

    Our objective in this study was to evaluate the nutritional status and to identify clinical, psychosocial, and nutritional factors contributing to malnutrition in Korean patients with Parkinson's disease. We used a descriptive, cross-sectional study design. Of 102 enrolled patients, 26 (25.5%) were malnourished and 27 (26.5%) were at risk of malnutrition based on Mini-Nutritional Assessment scores. Malnutrition was related to activity of daily living score, Hoehn and Yahr stage, duration of levodopa therapy, Beck Depression Inventory and Spielberger's Anxiety Inventory scores, body weight, body weight at onset of Parkinson's disease, and body mass index. On multiple logistic regression analysis, anxiety score, duration of levodopa therapy, body weight at onset of Parkinson's disease, and loss of body weight were significant factors predicting malnutrition in Parkinson's disease patients. Therefore, nutritional assessment, including psychological evaluation, is required for Parkinson's disease patients to facilitate interdisciplinary nutritional intervention for malnourished patients.

  2. Factors that contribute to the willingness to try "street hypnosis".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Orin C; Gao, Xuan

    2014-01-01

    This study takes a context-specific approach to examine people's willingness to try hypnosis under various conditions and the factors that contribute to their willingness. It examined 378 participants, who completed a web-based hypnosis survey. The results showed that people's willingness to try hypnosis varies by context. Specifically, people are more willing to try hypnosis when it is framed as "peak focus" rather than "hypnosis" and when they perceive the environment as being safer. Moreover, factors including participants' demographics, hypnotists' demographics (relative to the subjects'), participants' control bias, and knowledge of hypnosis affect people's degrees of willingness to try hypnosis, depending on the specific context. The results suggest further analysis of hypnosis occurring in public contexts and the effects it may have on attitudes and therapeutic outcomes.

  3. SIDS–CDF Hypothesis Revisited: Cause vs. Contributing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siren, Pontus M. A.

    2017-01-01

    The sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)–critical diaphragm failure (CDF) hypothesis was first published by Siren and Siren in 2011 (1). Since its publication, the hypothesis has continued to generate interest and several colleagues have contributed perspectives and insights to it (2–5). The basic premise of the hypothesis is that the diaphragm is a vital organ that must continuously generate adequate force to maintain ventilation, and that CDF is a terminal event and the cause of death in SIDS. I have argued in two follow-up articles that all SIDS factors either increase the workload of the respiratory muscles, the diaphragm being the primary muscle affected, or reduce its force generating capacity (6, 7). The SIDS–CDF hypothesis posits that SIDS has many contributing factors but only one cause, namely, the failure of the vital respiratory pump. There are several known SIDS factors, such as the prone sleeping position, non-lethal infections, deep sleep, gestational prematurity, low birth weight, cigarette smoke, male gender, and altitude, but of these, some such as the prone sleeping position more significantly both impact diaphragm function and correlate with SIDS. However, SIDS cases are multifactorial and as such can be caused by different combinations of factors. An infection combined with a prone sleeping position and elevated room temperature could lead to SIDS, whereas in other circumstances, low birth weight, cigarette smoke, prone sleeping position, and altitude could result in CDF and SIDS. The SIDS–CDF hypothesis also posits that SIDS does not have a congenital or genetic origin, and that efforts to identify significant genetic anomalies in SIDS victims are unlikely to be successful (8–11). PMID:28138321

  4. Analysing physical fitness and biomechanical factors that determine tennis serve performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertuğrul Gelen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false TR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The purpose of the study is to analyse the fitness and the biomechanical factors which determine the velocity of the ball during serve in tennis (VBTS. The subjects of the study were fifteen male tournament level tennis player between the ages of sixteen and twenty five (18,8 ± 2,70 age/year. The physical fitness measurement of the study were; length, body weight, skinfold, diameter, circumference and length of the body, body composition, isometric handgrip strength, vertical jump, upper extremity range of motion (ROM and isokinetic strength. The angular velocity of racket head, racket handhold, middle finger, wrist, elbow, shoulder and hip joints on three axis during serve shoot were used for the biomechanical measurement.  The relationship between VBTS with physical fitness and biomechanical factors were measured with Pearson Correlation. The analysis showed that there was significant positive relation between VBTS and length, negative relation with mesomorphy; positive relation between ROM of shoulder dominant internal and external rotation, trunk hyper-extension, left lateral flexion and right rotation, negative relation in dominant wrist flexion, positive relation between isokinetic strength characteristics such as shoulder and elbow extension, shoulder internal and external rotation, wrist flexion, handgrip isometric strength, also in biomechanical measures, positive relation between in Y axis elbow, wrist, finger and head of the racket. As a result, fitness and biomechanical parameters that are intensively used in tennis determine VBTS. We think trainers may speed up VBTS by improved parameters and accelerated training programmes.

  5. Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor 1 Contributes to Escherichia coli Meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hsien Wang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available E. coli is the most common Gram-negative bacteria causing neonatal meningitis, and E. coli meningitis continues to be an important cause of mortality and morbidity throughout the world. Recent reports of E. coli meningitis caused by antimicrobial resistant strains are a particular concern. These findings indicate that a novel strategy is needed to identify new targets for prevention and therapy of E. coli meningitis. Cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 (CNF1 is a bacterial virulence factor associated principally with E. coli strains causing urinary tract infection and meningitis. We have shown that CNF1 contributes to E. coli invasion of the blood-brain barrier and penetration into the brain, the essential step in the development of E. coli meningitis, and identified the host receptor for CNF1, 37-kDa laminin receptor precursor (37LRP. CNF1, however, is a cytoplasmic protein and its contribution to E. coli invasion of the blood-brain barrier requires its secretion from the bacterial cytoplasm. No signal peptide is found in the CNF1 sequence. CNF1 secretion is, therefore, a strategy utilized by meningitis-causing E. coli to invade the blood-brain barrier. Elucidation of the mechanisms involved in CNF1 secretion, as shown in this report with the involvement of Fdx and YgfZ provides the novel information on potential targets for prevention and therapy of E. coli meningitis by virtue of targeting the secretion of CNF1.

  6. Energy-dependent fitness: a quantitative model for the evolution of yeast transcription factor binding sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustonen, Ville; Kinney, Justin; Callan, Curtis G; Lässig, Michael

    2008-08-26

    We present a genomewide cross-species analysis of regulation for broad-acting transcription factors in yeast. Our model for binding site evolution is founded on biophysics: the binding energy between transcription factor and site is a quantitative phenotype of regulatory function, and selection is given by a fitness landscape that depends on this phenotype. The model quantifies conservation, as well as loss and gain, of functional binding sites in a coherent way. Its predictions are supported by direct cross-species comparison between four yeast species. We find ubiquitous compensatory mutations within functional sites, such that the energy phenotype and the function of a site evolve in a significantly more constrained way than does its sequence. We also find evidence for substantial evolution of regulatory function involving point mutations as well as sequence insertions and deletions within binding sites. Genes lose their regulatory link to a given transcription factor at a rate similar to the neutral point mutation rate, from which we infer a moderate average fitness advantage of functional over nonfunctional sites. In a wider context, this study provides an example of inference of selection acting on a quantitative molecular trait.

  7. Error-prone initiation factor 2 mutations reduce the fitness cost of antibiotic resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzet, Anna; Pavlov, Michael Y; Nilsson, Annika I; Ehrenberg, Måns; Andersson, Dan I

    2010-01-01

    Mutations in the fmt gene (encoding formyl methionine transferase) that eliminate formylation of initiator tRNA (Met-tRNAi) confer resistance to the novel antibiotic class of peptide deformylase inhibitors (PDFIs) while concomitantly reducing bacterial fitness. Here we show in Salmonella typhimurium that novel mutations in initiation factor 2 (IF2) located outside the initiator tRNA binding domain can partly restore fitness of fmt mutants without loss of antibiotic resistance. Analysis of initiation of protein synthesis in vitro showed that with non-formylated Met-tRNAi IF2 mutants initiated much faster than wild-type IF2, whereas with formylated fMet-tRNAi the initiation rates were similar. Moreover, the increase in initiation rates with Met-tRNAi conferred by IF2 mutations in vitro correlated well with the increase in growth rate conferred by the same mutations in vivo, suggesting that the mutations in IF2 compensate formylation deficiency by increasing the rate of in vivo initiation with Met-tRNAi. IF2 mutants had also a high propensity for erroneous initiation with elongator tRNAs in vitro, which could account for their reduced fitness in vivo in a formylation-proficient strain. More generally, our results suggest that bacterial protein synthesis is mRNA-limited and that compensatory mutations in IF2 could increase the persistence of PDFI-resistant bacteria in clinical settings. PMID:20132454

  8. Identifying the Best-Fitting Factor Structure of the Experience of Close Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Breinholst, Sonja; Niclasen, Janni

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to enhance the understanding of cultural and sample differences in the assessment of attachment by examining the factor structure of the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised (ECR-R). The ECR-R is a self-report measure of adult roman- tic attachment dimensions....... The present study used a Danish sample with the purpose of addressing limitations in previous studies, such as the lack of diversity in cultural back- ground, restricted sample characteristics, and poorly fitting structure models. Participants consisted of 253 parents of children between the ages of 7 and 12...

  9. External Factors Are Only one Element Contributing to Inflation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪红驹; 张晓晶

    2008-01-01

    Our paper first fully examines the stylized facts of the translation of global liquidity into other economic phenomena, transmission of international commodity prices into other forms, the contractionary effects of renminbi appreciation, and the factor price distortion enhanced by external shocks. It then uses the extension of Phillips curve and VAR model to test the impacts of external shocks on domestic inflation. The regression results indicate that: in the short run, world food price is the main reason for domestic inflation; the influence of world oil prices on inflation will take effect in the median and long term; renminbi appreciation is contractionary through a relatively long time; world interest rates have a certain impact on domestic prices; and the translation of global liquidity has no significant effects on domestic prices thanks to the central bank’s offset efforts. In sum, GDP growth is still the root cause of inflation and the external shocks are just one contributing factor. Therefore, the following policies would be vital to curbing inflation: maintaining a moderate rather than excessive growth rate, adjusting the distorted factor price to control investment demand, and increasing the flexibility of the exchange rate regime and making the independent monetary policy the first line of defense against external shocks.

  10. Factors Contributing to Personal Commitment in Chinese Interethnic Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinmiao Zhong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Interethnic relationships are increasingly common in many societies, yet interethnic couples have a higher divorce rate compared to intraethnic couples. Given these facts and the dearth of research, this study aimed to identify factors that contribute to couples’ commitment in interethnic relationships. This study investigated the personal commitment of Chinese interethnic couples in the United Kingdom and the United States. Specifically, whether love, dyadic adjustment and “couple cultural identity” (i.e. acculturation to the partner and couple’s similarity on individualism/collectivism would predict personal commitment and whether each variable would account for unique variance in personal commitment of the participants. Thirty-seven Chinese/non-Chinese heterosexual couples participated in the study and significant relationships between love and personal commitment, dyadic adjustment and personal commitment were found. Also, couple cultural identity was important for women’s personal commitment. Multiple regression and structural equation modelling showed that partners in interethnic relationships defined personal commitment in different ways with men emphasizing love and dyadic adjustment, and women emphasizing love and acculturation to their partner. The discovery of the importance of couple cultural identity in contributing to personal commitment, besides love and dyadic adjustment, helps researchers to gain a greater understanding of such relationships and to extend the research on interethnic relationships.

  11. System-related factors contributing to diagnostic errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thammasitboon, Satid; Thammasitboon, Supat; Singhal, Geeta

    2013-10-01

    Several studies in primary care, internal medicine, and emergency departments show that rates of errors in test requests and result interpretations are unacceptably high and translate into missed, delayed, or erroneous diagnoses. Ineffective follow-up of diagnostic test results could lead to patient harm if appropriate therapeutic interventions are not delivered in a timely manner. The frequency of system-related factors that contribute directly to diagnostic errors depends on the types and sources of errors involved. Recent studies reveal that the errors and patient harm in the diagnostic testing loop have occurred mainly at the pre- and post-analytic phases, which are directed primarily by clinicians who may have limited expertise in the rapidly expanding field of clinical pathology. These errors may include inappropriate test requests, failure/delay in receiving results, and erroneous interpretation and application of test results to patient care. Efforts to address system-related factors often focus on technical errors in laboratory testing or failures in delivery of intended treatment. System-improvement strategies related to diagnostic errors tend to focus on technical aspects of laboratory medicine or delivery of treatment after completion of the diagnostic process. System failures and cognitive errors, more often than not, coexist and together contribute to the incidents of errors in diagnostic process and in laboratory testing. The use of highly structured hand-off procedures and pre-planned follow-up for any diagnostic test could improve efficiency and reliability of the follow-up process. Many feedback pathways should be established so that providers can learn if or when a diagnosis is changed. Patients can participate in the effort to reduce diagnostic errors. Providers should educate their patients about diagnostic probabilities and uncertainties. The patient-safety strategies focusing on the interface between diagnostic system and therapeutic

  12. Factors contributing to the surgical retreatment of mandibular fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Gualberto de Cerqueira Luz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate contributing factors in patients requiring surgical retreatment of mandibular fractures. Of all the patients with mandibular fractures who were treated using internal fixation at a trauma hospital over a seven-year period, 20 patients (4.7% required a second surgery and thus composed the “reoperated” group. The control group comprised 42 consecutive patients with mandibular fractures who were treated at the same clinic and who healed without complications. Medical charts were reviewed for gender, age, substance abuse history, dental condition, etiology, location of fracture, degree of fragmentation, fracture exposure, teeth in the fracture line, associated facial fractures, polytrauma, time elapsed between trauma and initial treatment, surgical approach and fixation system. Statistical analyses were performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 20.0; descriptive statistics and the chi-squared test were used to determine differences between groups. Significant differences in substance abuse (p = 0.006, dental condition (p < 0.001, location of fracture (p = 0.010, degree of fragmentation (p = 0.003 and fracture exposure (p < 0.001 were found. With regard to age and time elapsed between trauma and initial treatment, older patients (31.4 years, SD = 11.1 and a delay in fracture repair (19.1 days, SD = 18.7 were more likely to be associated with reoperation. It was concluded that substance abuse, age, dental condition, location of fracture, degree of fragmentation, fracture exposure and the time between trauma and initial treatment should be considered contributing factors to the occurrence of complications that require surgical retreatment of mandibular fractures.

  13. Influence of cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity levels on cardiometabolic risk factors during menopause transition: A MONET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulnour, Joseph; Razmjou, Sahar; Doucet, Éric; Boulay, Pierre; Brochu, Martin; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Lavoie, Jean-Marc; Prud'homme, Denis

    2016-12-01

    To determine the influence of cardiorespiratory fitness (hereafter "fitness") and physical activity levels on cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal women going through the menopause transition. An ancillary study including 66 premenopausal women who participated to a 5-year observational, longitudinal study (2004 to 2009 in Ottawa) on the effects of menopause transition on body composition and cardiometabolic risk factors. Women underwent a graded exercise test on treadmill to measure peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) at year 1 and 5 and physical activity levels were measured using accelerometers. Cardiometabolic risk factors included: waist circumference, fasting plasma lipids, glucose and insulin levels, HOMA-IR score, c-reactive protein, apolipoprotein B (apoB) and resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Change in fitness was not associated with changes in cardiometabolic risk factors. The changes in total physical activity levels on the other hand showed a significant negative association with apoB levels. Three-way linear mixed model repeated measures, showed lower values of waist circumference, fasting triglycerides, insulin levels, HOMA-IR score, apoB and diastolic blood pressure in women with a fitness ≥ 30.0 mlO2 kg(- 1) min(- 1) compared to women with a fitness fitness and physical activity levels, fitness was associated with more favorable values of cardiometabolic risk factors in women followed for 5 years during the menopause transition.

  14. A Study of Factors Contributing to Denture Stomatitis in a North Indian Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Vinayak Naik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Factors like oral and denture hygiene, presence of saliva, age of the denture, and degree of colonization with Candida albicans are to be evaluated as local contributing factors for causing denture stomatitis. 100 patients aged 30 to 70 years were selected for the study. Among these, 70 patients were labeled test group showing signs of stomatitis and 30 patients as control group as they showed no inflammatory signs. Clinical tests included oral and denture hygiene evaluation, salivary measurements, and age of the dentures, and microscopic investigations were done. Results showed no significant differences between the two groups in terms of saliva, oral and denture hygiene habits, and denture age. Test group showed stomatitis in patients who were wearing dentures for 5 to 10 years compared to control group who were wearing dentures for 10 years and above. Denture age was proportional to Candida colonization and not to degree of inflammation. Significant differences were found in Candida colonization of the fitting surface of the denture between stomatitis and control groups. Poor denture hygiene habits are the most prominent contributing factor for denture stomatitis and colonization.

  15. Biological factors contributing to bark and ambrosia beetle species diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohli, Jostein; Kirkendall, Lawrence R; Smith, Sarah M; Cognato, Anthony I; Hulcr, Jiri; Jordal, Bjarte H

    2017-05-01

    The study of species diversification can identify the processes that shape patterns of species richness across the tree of life. Here, we perform comparative analyses of species diversification using a large dataset of bark beetles. Three examined covariates-permanent inbreeding (sibling mating), fungus farming, and major host type-represent a range of factors that may be important for speciation. We studied the association of these covariates with species diversification while controlling for evolutionary lag on adaptation. All three covariates were significantly associated with diversification, but fungus farming showed conflicting patterns between different analyses. Genera that exhibited interspecific variation in host type had higher rates of species diversification, which may suggest that host switching is a driver of species diversification or that certain host types or forest compositions facilitate colonization and thus allopatric speciation. Because permanent inbreeding is thought to facilitate dispersal, the positive association between permanent inbreeding and diversification rates suggests that dispersal ability may contribute to species richness. Bark beetles are ecologically unique; however, our results indicate that their impressive species diversity is largely driven by mechanisms shown to be important for many organism groups. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  16. Diffusion and entropy production for multi-networks with fitness factors

    CERN Document Server

    Siudem, Grzegorz

    2013-01-01

    A diffusion process at a special class of multi-networks consisting of weakly coupled networks is analytically solved by an appropriate separation of time scales and by reducing the system dynamics to a Markov chain for aggregated variables. A presence of fitness factors describing attractiveness of individual nodes is taken into account. In the case of system of two coupled networks an equation analogous to the First Fick Law with an additional driving force and a corresponding diffusion constant are found. The entropy production is a sum of entropy changes resulting from a network heterogeneity and the entropy of the Markov chain. Our approach can be also used for hierarchical networks where several different time scales are present.

  17. Contribution of thermal and nonthermal factors to the regulation of body temperature in humans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Igor B. Mekjavic; Ola Eiken

    2006-01-01

    .... This reciprocal inhibition theory, presumably reflecting the manner in which thermal factors contribute to homeothermy in humans, does not incorporate the effect of nonthermal factors on temperature regulation...

  18. Contribution factor of wood properties of three poplar clones to strength of laminated veneer lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucheng Bao; Feng Fu; Elvin Choong; Chung-Yun Hse

    2001-01-01

    The term "Contribution Factor" (c.) was introduced in this paper to indicate the contribution ratio of solid wood properties to laminated veneer lumber (LVL) strength. Three poplar (Populus sp.) clones were studied, and the results showed that poplar with good solid wood properties has high Contribution Factor. The average Contribution...

  19. Factors contributing to communication skills development in cochlear implanted children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostojić Sanja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Over the last 10 years more than 300 persons received cochlear implant in Serbia and more than 90% of the recipients were children under 10 years of age. The program of cochlear implantation includes postoperative rehabilitation in which cognitive, integrative and developmental methods are used. The study was conducted to reveal factors affecting communication performance (CP of cochlear implanted (CI children. Special attention was focused on the influence of the duration and intensity of rehabilitation and hearing age on further development of communication skills. Methods. A group of 30 CI children (13 boys and 17 girls aged 2 to 5 years was enrolled in the study. All of the children had average intelligence and no other developmental disorder. They lived in families and attended rehabilitative seances 3 to 5 times a week. Their parents/ caregivers answered structured questionnaire about functioning after pediatric cochlear implantation (FAPCI and the results were the subject of detailed statistical analysis. Results. Analysis of variance did not show any difference between the boys and the girls regarding FAPCI achievements (F (1, 28 = 2.909; p = 0.099 and age aberration in CP score (F (1, 28 = 0.114, p = 0.738. Correlation analysis showed a statistically significant difference in FAPCI scores related to hearing age and duration of rehabilitation. Regression analysis (enter method showed that model consisting of indipendent variables significantly contributed to prediction of overall FAPCI scores and Adjusted R2 value could explain 32% difference in communication skills of participants in this study. Conclusion. Communication skills of CI children evaluated by FAPCI are falling behind normatives for normal hearing children 18.6 months on the average. Hearing age, duration and intensity of rehabilitation have positive predictive value for communication skills development. Later identification of hearing loss and later cochlear

  20. Factors contributing to communication skills development in cochlear implanted children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostojić, Sanja; Djoković, Sanja; Radić-šestić, Marina; Nikolić, Mina; Mikić, Branka; Mirić, Danica

    2015-08-01

    Over the last 10 years more than 300 persons received cochlear implant in Serbia and more than 90% of the recipients were children under 10 years of age. The program of cochlear implantation includes postoperative rehabilitation in which cognitive, integrative and developmental methods are used. The study was conducted to reveal factors affecting communication performance (CP) of cochlear implanted (Cl) children. Special attention was focused on the influence of the duration and intensity of rehabilitation and hearing age on further development of communication skills. A group of 30 CI children (13 boys and 17 girls) aged 2 to 5 years was enrolled in the study. All of the children had average intelligence and no other developmental disorder. They lived in families and attended rehabilitative seances 3 to 5 times a week. Their parents/caregivers answered structured questionnaire about functioning after pediatric cochlear implantation (FAPCI) and the results were the subject of detailed statistical analysis. Analysis of variance did not show any difference between the boys and the girls regarding FAPCI achievements (F(1, 28) = 2.909; p = 0.099) and age aberration in CP score (F(1,28) = 0.114, p = 0.738). Correlation analysis showed a statistically significant difference in FAPCI scores related to hearing age and duration of rehabilitation. Regression analysis (enter method) showed that model consisting of indipendent variables significantly contributed to prediction of overall FAPCI scores and Adjusted R2 value could explain 32% difference in communication skills of participants in this study. Communication skills of CI children evaluated by FAPCI are falling behind normatives for normal hearing children 18.6 months on the average. Hearing age, duration and intensity of rehabilitation have positive predictive value for communication skills development. Later identification of hearing loss and later cochlear implantation lead to delayed development of communication

  1. Prospective association of adiposity and cardiorespiratory fitness with cardiovascular risk factors in healthy children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klakk, H; Grøntved, A; Møller, N C

    2014-01-01

    . Total body fat (TBF) from dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), CRF, blood samples, and blood pressure were obtained in 2008 and 2010 in the Childhood Health, Activity, and Motor Performance School Study in Denmark (CHAMPS study-DK). Greater adiposity......This study aimed to examine the prospective association of three different measures of adiposity and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) with 2-year change in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in children. Two-year longitudinal data in schoolchildren aged 7-11 years (n = 365-729) was used...... at baseline was associated with increased CVD risk factor levels at follow-up. The magnitudes of associations were similar regardless of adiposity measure [TBF%: β 0.30, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.21-0.39; BMI: β 0.24, 95% CI: 0.14-0.33; WC: β 0.20, 95% CI: 0.10-0.31], and no evidence of nonlinear...

  2. The effectiveness of a combined exercise intervention on physical fitness factors related to falls in community-dwelling older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuang J

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Jie Zhuang,1,* Liang Huang,1,2,* Yanqiang Wu,3 Yanxin Zhang2 1School of Kinesiology, Shanghai University of Sport, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Sport and Exercise Science, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; 3Shanghai Municipal Center for Students' Physical Fitness and Health Surveillance, Shanghai, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of an innovative exercise program on muscle strength, balance, and gait kinematics in elderly community-dwellers. The exercise program included strength and balance training and the 8-form Tai Chi Chuan. The measurements were carried out at baseline and 12 weeks, and consisted of four physical performance tests, joint isokinetic strength tests, and three-dimensional gait analysis. Fifty-six community-dwelling older adults aged 60–80 years old were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. After 12 weeks, the intervention group showed a 17.6% improvement in the timed up and go test, accompanied by a 54.7% increase in the 30-second chair stand test score. Significant increases in the score of star excursion balance tests, and the strength of the extensor and flexor muscles at knee and ankle joints were also observed. In addition, the intervention group walked at a faster speed with a longer step length, shorter support phase, and a greater sagittal plane range of motion at the hip and ankle joints. No statistical improvements were seen in the control group. This study provided an effective, evidence-based falls prevention program that can be implemented in community settings to improve physical fitness and reduce fall risks among community-dwelling older adults. The star excursion balance test could be a sensitive measure of physical performance for fall risk assessment in older people. Keywords: Tai Chi Chuan, resistance training, balance, fall prevention, fall

  3. [Graphical procedures for assessing person-fit in item factor analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando Piera, Pere Joan; Morales Vives, Fàbia

    2010-05-01

    Flagging the individuals who did not answer consistently can be very useful in certain applied domains, especially in clinical and personnel selection areas. Identification of inconsistent patterns prevents erroneous interpretations of test scores. Two graphic procedures based on linear factor analysis are proposed in this paper. They allow the possible causes of low intra-individual consistency to be assessed once a pattern has been flagged as inconsistent. Moreover, these procedures allow us to identify the items that have contributed the most to the inconsistency. The procedures are illustrated with some empirical examples in personality. Lastly, implications of the results in the construction of personality measures are discussed.

  4. Contribution of Spaceflight Environmental Factors to Vision Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanello, Susana B.

    2011-01-01

    the combined effects of radiation exposure and iron overload on sensitivity to radiation injury in rat eyes. All main eye structures will be analyzed in this study: retina, lens and cornea. A study in collaboration with the Space Human Factors and Habitability Element (SHFH) investigates the effects of lunar dust exposure on the rat cornea. It is anticipated that common underlying oxidative stress mechanisms of damage may be observed as a result of these three stressors: radiation, nutritional iron and lunar dust. The contribution of fluid shift is addressed by a study using rats subjected to hindlimb suspension. The hypothesis to be tested in this study is that the mechanical stress imparted by the pressure differential across the optic disc and lamina cribosa will impact oxygenation (therefore causing oxidative stress and hypoxia) and cell survival. This study also includes the assessment of two nutritional antioxidant countermeasures: epigallocatechin gallate (green tea) and resveratrol. Finally, as a result of two successful tissue sharing efforts, we are proceeding with the analysis of eye samples of mice aboard two shuttle missions: STS-133 and STS-135. Results from the STS-133 study are presented in an independent abstract. Briefly, the results show that spaceflight represents a source of environmental stress that directly translates into oxidative and cellular stress in the retina. Similar analysis is also planned for the cornea. These samples add large value to our current vision research as they provide data on the direct effects of low-earth orbit spaceflight on eye structures and physiology.

  5. Does Tenure Matter? Factors Influencing Faculty Contributions to Institutional Repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Casey

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Institutional repositories (IRs provide colleges and universities a way to ensure stability of access to and dissemination of digital scholarly communications. Yet, many institutions report that faculty willingness to contribute to IRs is often limited. This study investigates faculty attitudes about IR contributions by tenure status and category of material. METHODS Two focus group interviews were conducted in the spring of 2009 among English department faculty at a large Midwestern university. One group consisted of tenured faculty and the other of tenure-track and adjunct faculty. RESULTS Both groups recognize the benefit of open access to research materials but expressed concern about their intellectual property rights. Untenured faculty spoke more about nonprint research. Both groups also shared concerns about contributing instructional materials, primarily in regard to plagiarism and outdated materials. In regard to faculty service, the tenured group discussed many items they would contribute, while the untenured faculty mentioned very little. DISCUSSION Some minor differences emerged related to experience and tenure status in regard to contributing research and instructional artifacts, but the major variation was the strong support tenured participants gave for contributing service items, compared to the untenured faculty, who did not view this category positively. Tenured faculty viewed the IR as a way to document their own service activities, investigate those of colleagues, and had fewer concerns about plagiarism or other negative effects in the service category. CONCLUSION Promoting faculty contribution of service-related items to an IR may be a way to encourage larger numbers to participate.

  6. Identifying the Best-Fitting Factor Structure of the Experience of Close Relations - Revised in a Scandinavian Example.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Hoff Esbjørn

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to enhance the understanding of cultural and sample differences in the assessment of attachment by examining the factor structure of the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised (ECR-R. The ECR-R is a self-report measure of adult romantic attachment dimensions. The present study used a Danish sample with the purpose of addressing limitations in previous studies, such as the lack of diversity in cultural background, restricted sample characteristics, and poorly fitting structure models. Participants consisted of 253 parents of children between the ages of 7 and 12 years, 53% being mothers. The parents completed the paper version of the questionnaire. Confirmatory Factor Analyses were carried out to determine whether theoretically and empirically established models including one and two factors would also provide adequate fits in a Danish sample. A previous study using the original ECR suggested that Scandinavian samples may best be described using a five-factor solution. Our results indicated that the one- and two-factor models of the ECR-R did not fit the data well. Exploratory Factor Analysis revealed a five-factor model. Our study provides evidence that further investigation is needed to establish which model may provide the best model fit in the Scandinavian countries.

  7. Factors contributing to defaulting scheduled therapy sessions by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    contributing to caregivers' defaulting scheduled rehabilitation therapy sessions. Methods ... disabilities poses excess psychological2,3, physical, and economic strain on the caregiver4. ... Weekly clinics are conducted every. Monday for ...

  8. Educators' Perceptions of Factors Contributing to School Violence in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thematic content analysis was used to report results ... for violence, and violent acts are caused by the complex interaction of differing contributing variables and experiences. (Krug, Dahlberg ...... Warner, B. S., Weist, M. D., & Krulak, A. (1999).

  9. A comparison of the motivational factors between CrossFit participants and other resistance exercise modalities: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, James; Sales, Adele; Carlson, Luke; Steele, James

    2017-09-01

    Understanding resistance exercise motives and participation is essential in increasing exercise adherence and reducing comorbidities. CrossFit is a fitness movement that has seen an explosive growth in popularity worldwide; however, little research has investigated the motivational factors within this "niche" resistance exercise environment. The aim of this study was to explore the motivational factors of CrossFit participants in comparison to other resistance exercise participants. Using an independent-group design, quantitative data was collected using exercise motivations inventory-2 (EMI-2) questionnaire, for a total of 314 male and female participants (CrossFit: N.=68, group resistance exercise: N.=55, alone: N.=125, personal trainer: N.=66). The present study suggest that CrossFit participants were more likely to report higher levels of intrinsic motives, such as enjoyment, challenge and affiliation, whereas personal training clients reported higher values for health related motives such as positive health, ill-health avoidance and weight management. The findings suggest that the motivations for engaging in CrossFit may be similar to those seen in sport participation, and therefore may have an influence on facilitating long-term adherence in comparison with other resistance exercise modalities. This article also discusses health related motives as being extrinsic in nature but reflecting intrinsic characteristics, potentially also facilitating long term adherence. The present research helps develop further understanding of motivational variables within differing resistance exercise modalities.

  10. Convergence, Admissibility, and Fit of Alternative Confirmatory Factor Analysis Models for MTMM Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, Charles E.; Fan, Yi

    2016-01-01

    We compared six different analytic models for multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) data in terms of convergence, admissibility, and model fit to 258 samples of previously reported data. Two well-known models, the correlated trait-correlated method (CTCM) and the correlated trait-correlated uniqueness (CTCU) models, were fit for reference purposes in…

  11. Convergence, Admissibility, and Fit of Alternative Confirmatory Factor Analysis Models for MTMM Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, Charles E.; Fan, Yi

    2016-01-01

    We compared six different analytic models for multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) data in terms of convergence, admissibility, and model fit to 258 samples of previously reported data. Two well-known models, the correlated trait-correlated method (CTCM) and the correlated trait-correlated uniqueness (CTCU) models, were fit for reference purposes in…

  12. The School Absenteeism among High School Students: Contributing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkis, Murat; Arslan, Gökmen; Duru, Erdinç

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the direct and indirect relationship between student school absenteeism, personal factors (academic self- perception, attitudes towards teacher and school, goal valuation and motivation/ self-regulation), family factors (parents' educational level and income), and academic achievement in structural equation…

  13. Low physical activity work-related and other risk factors increased the risk of poor physical fitness in cement workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ditha Diana

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim Low physical activity causes poor physical fitness, which leads to low productivity. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of low work-related physical activity and other risk factors on physical fitness.Methods This study was done in February 2008. Subjects were workers from 15 departments in PT Semen Padang, West Sumatera (Indonesia. Data on physical activities were collected using the questionnaire from the Student Field Work I Guidebook and Hypertension – Geriatric Integrated Program of the Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia2003. Physical fitness was measured using the Harvard Step Test.Results A number of 937 male workers aged 18 – 56 years participated in this study. Poor physical fitness was found in 15.9% of the subjects. Low work-related physical activity, smoking, lack of exercise, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and asthma were dominant risk factors related to poor physical fi tness. Subjects with low compared to high work-related activity had a ten-fold risk of poor physical fitness [adjusted odds ratio (ORa = 10.71; 95% confidence interval (CI = 4.71–24.33]. In term of physical exercise, subjects who had no compared to those who had physical exercise had a six-fold risk of poor physical fitness (ORa = 6.30; 95%CI = 3.69-10.75.Conclusion Low work-related physical activities, smoking, lack of exercise, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and sthma were correlated to poor physical fi tness. It is, among others, therefore necessary to implement exercises for workers with poor physical fitness. (Med J Indones. 2009;18:201-5Key words: exercise test, occupational healths, physical fitness

  14. Factors Contributing to Self Control for Incarcerated Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winquist, Trancita

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine characteristics contributing to high self control for incarcerated youth. Subjects include fifty youth (8 females and 42 males) ages 14 through 18 incarcerated for at least 60 days. Data on subjects' responses from a validated measure (Grasmick et. al. Scale, 1993) and data from historical records, STAR reading…

  15. Influence of cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity levels on cardiometabolic risk factors during menopause transition: A MONET study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Abdulnour

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine the influence of cardiorespiratory fitness (hereafter “fitness” and physical activity levels on cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal women going through the menopause transition. An ancillary study including 66 premenopausal women who participated to a 5-year observational, longitudinal study (2004 to 2009 in Ottawa on the effects of menopause transition on body composition and cardiometabolic risk factors. Women underwent a graded exercise test on treadmill to measure peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak at year 1 and 5 and physical activity levels were measured using accelerometers. Cardiometabolic risk factors included: waist circumference, fasting plasma lipids, glucose and insulin levels, HOMA-IR score, c-reactive protein, apolipoprotein B (apoB and resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Change in fitness was not associated with changes in cardiometabolic risk factors. The changes in total physical activity levels on the other hand showed a significant negative association with apoB levels. Three-way linear mixed model repeated measures, showed lower values of waist circumference, fasting triglycerides, insulin levels, HOMA-IR score, apoB and diastolic blood pressure in women with a fitness ≥30.0 mlO2 kg−1 min−1 compared to women with a fitness <30.0 mlO2 kg−1 min−1 (P < 0.05. However, only fasting triglycerides was lower in women with physical activity levels ≥770.0 Kcal/day (P < 0.05. Between fitness and physical activity levels, fitness was associated with more favorable values of cardiometabolic risk factors in women followed for 5 years during the menopause transition.

  16. Contribution of Physical Fitness Component to Health Status in Elderly Males and Females over 60 years – Short Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Ignacio Cuesta-Vargas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify the physicalfitness (PF level of a cohort of elderly people that are subjected tophysical activity (PA, and to establish a regression model for theevaluation of health status (HS of elderly people based on their PF.This is a Cross-sectional study. Consists of 114 Participants over60 years old, that were recruited from a physical activity program.Were measured variables about anthropometric characteristics,jumping tests with jumping platform, dynamic and static balance, riskof falls, lung capacity, HS and quality of life (QoL. We used Pearson’slinear correlation with 95% Zr. We looked for simple and multiple regression models. We used the bayesianinformation criterion approach and statistical inference to find and calculated a numerical estimate of thebest regression model. We used the dependent variable physical function of SF-12. Physical fitness variablesselected for the models were weight, height, Countermovement Jump test (flight time, Functional Reachtest, lumbosacral flexion mobility, Extended Timed Get Up and Go (ETGUG (10 meters time score andtotal time score. The HS and QoL measurement are important for the prevention of injury during physicalexercise and should be conducted whenever is possible. The regression models proposed in this study can beused as an initial screening of HS or QoL at fitness facilities and fitness clubs that do not provide HS or QoLquestionnaires. However, these models are not an alternative to health care for a detailed determination ofHS and is not intended for use as a final evaluation.

  17. Two outer membrane proteins contribute to cellular fitness in Caulobacter crescentus by preventing intracellular S-layer protein accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, K Wesley; Park, Dan M; Yung, Mimi C; Dohnalkova, Alice C; Smit, John; Jiao, Yongqin

    2016-09-23

    Surface layers, or S-layers, are two-dimensional protein arrays that form the outermost layer of many bacteria and archaea. They serve several functions including physical protection of the cell from environmental threats. The high abundance of S-layer proteins necessitates a highly efficient export mechanism to transport S-layer protein from the cytoplasm to the cell exterior. Caulobacter crescentus is unique in that it has two homologous, seemingly redundant outer membrane proteins, RsaFa and RsaFb, that, together with other components, form a type I protein translocation pathway for S-layer export. These proteins have homology to E. coli TolC, the outer membrane channel of multidrug efflux pumps. Here we provide evidence that, unlike TolC, RsaFa and RsaFb are not involved in either the maintenance of membrane stability or the active export of antimicrobial compounds. Rather, RsaFa and RsaFb are required to prevent intracellular accumulation and aggregation of the S-layer protein RsaA; deletion of RsaFa and RsaFb led to a general growth defect and lowered cellular fitness. Using Western blotting, transmission electron microscopy, and RNA-seq, we show that loss of both RsaFa and RsaFb led to accumulation of insoluble RsaA in the cytoplasm, which in turn caused upregulation of a number of genes involved in protein mis-folding and degradation pathways. These findings provide new insight into the requirement for RsaFa and RsaFb in cellular fitness and tolerance to antimicrobial agents and further our understanding of the S-layer export mechanism on both the transcriptional and translational levels in C. crescentus IMPORTANCE: Decreased growth rate and reduced cell fitness are common side effects of protein production in overexpression systems. Inclusion bodies typically form inside the cell largely due to lack of sufficient export machinery to transport the overexpressed proteins to the extracellular environment. This phenomenon can conceivably also occur in natural

  18. Elite Coaches Views on Factors Contributing to Excellence in Orienteering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeu Ferreira Celestino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En el deporte de orientación, los estudios en el contexto de la excelencia deportiva son aún escasos. Las investigaciones realizadas hasta la fecha se han centrado en el análisis aislado de los factores específicos que contribuyen a la excelencia. El objetivo de este estudio, por tanto, fue identificar los factores que los entrenadores consideran de mayor prevalencia en el desarrollo y mantenimiento de la excelencia en este deporte. Diez entrenadores portugueses e españoles de orientación de nivel elite completaron entrevistas semi-estructuradas y los datos fueran analizados mediante el análisis de contenido. Los resultados mostraron que los entrenadores pusieron gran énfasis en un conjunto de factores personales, designados por factores de influencia primaria, donde se incluyen los atributos psicológicos, la preparación deportiva y los factores genéticos. Los entrenadores también identificaron los factores ambientales que ejercen una influencia secundaria, con especial énfasis en la familia, los aspectos socioculturales y los grupos de pares y de amistad. Por último, los entrenadores de elite reconocieron la necesidad de la interacción e interconexión entre estos factores de influencia primaria y secundaria para el desarrollo y mantenimiento de la excelencia en la orientación.

  19. Factors contributing to therapeutic effects evaluated in acupuncture clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Guang-Xia

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Acupuncture treatment has been widely used for many conditions, while results of the increasing numbers of randomized trials and systematic reviews remain controversial. Acupuncture is a complex intervention of both specific and non-specific factors associated with therapeutic benefit. Apart from needle insertion, issues such as needling sensation, psychological factors, acupoint specificity, acupuncture manipulation, and needle duration also have relevant influences on the therapeutic effects of acupuncture. Taking these factors into consideration would have considerable implications for the design and interpretation of clinical trials.

  20. Examining the factor structure and convergent and discriminant validity of the Levenson self-report psychopathy scale: is the two-factor model the best fitting model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salekin, Randall T; Chen, Debra R; Sellbom, Martin; Lester, Whitney S; MacDougall, Emily

    2014-07-01

    The Levenson, Kiehl, and Fitzpatrick (1995) Self-Report Psychopathy Scale (LSRP) was introduced in the mid-1990s as a brief measure of psychopathy and has since gained considerable popularity. Despite its attractiveness as a brief psychopathy tool, the LSRP has received limited research regarding its factor structure and convergent and discriminant validity. The present study examined the construct validity of the LSRP, testing both its factor structure and the convergent and discriminant validity. Using a community sample of 1,257 undergraduates (869 females; 378 males), we tested whether a 1-, 2-, or 3-factor model best fit the data and examined the links between the resultant factor structures and external correlates. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) findings revealed a 3-factor model best matched the data, followed by an adequate-fitting original 2-factor model. Next, comparisons were made regarding the convergent and discriminant validity of the competing 2- and 3-factor models. Findings showed the LSRP traditional primary and secondary factors had meaningful relations with extratest variables such as neuroticism, stress tolerance, and lack of empathy. The 3-factor model showed particular problems with the Callousness scale. These findings underscore the importance of examining not only CFA fit statistics but also convergent and discriminant validity when testing factor structure models. The current findings suggest that the 2-factor model might still be the best way to interpret the LSRP. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Associated Factors Contributing to Child Stunting in Yemen

    OpenAIRE

    Laetícia Rodrigues de Souza

    2015-01-01

    "Malnutrition is part of a vicious cycle involving associated underlying factors, which means that undernourishment is related not only to biological but also social aspects. As the causes of child malnutrition are complex, there are several models explaining its determinants. We have adapted the conceptual framework developed by Hien and Hoa (2009), which provides a way of understanding how different factors affecting child malnutrition may be connected. This framework allows us to verify ho...

  2. Factors contributing to the rheology of tomato puree

    OpenAIRE

    Abson, Rachael

    2013-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum Iycopersicum) puree is created by homogenising the flesh of tomato fruits. The viscosity of this material and the fibrous content is of commercial interest. Tomato puree consists of suspended particles (consisting of whole cells, broken cells and cellular fragments) in an aqueous serum. The contribution of the non-soluble and soluble material to tomato puree rheology was studied with reference to the varying composition of solids and firmness of tomato fruit at four stages of ...

  3. The Course of Nonspecific Work-Related Upper Limb Disorders and the Influence of Demographic Factors, Psychologic Factors, and Physical Fitness on Clinical Status and Disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijsden-Besseling, Marjon D.; van den Bergh, Karien A.; Staal, J. Bart; de Bie, Rob A.; van den Heuvel, Wim J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the course of nonspecific work-related upper limb disorders (WRULD) and the influence of sociodemographic factors, psychologic factors, and physical fitness on clinical status and functional disability. Design: Retrospective cohort study with cross-sectional analysis among compu

  4. The Effect of Physical Biorhythm Cycle on Some Physical Fitness Factors of Adolescent Volleyball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Zareian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Biorhythm is one of the latest topics in the field of identifying mind’s ergonomics. Of all the performances with which biorhythm deals is the physical performance. The purpose of present research is to study the effect of physical cycle of biorhythm on the designated factors of physical fitness among teenage volleyball players in the city of Qom. In the present field research, 30 people were selected out of volleyball players aged 12 to 15 at random in the city of Qom. Biorhythm cycles were obtained with the biorhythm software. Vertical jump and medicine ball throwing were used as tests associating with muscular power; pull-up and sit-up were used as tests associating with muscular endurance in two states of charged (the second position and discharged (the first position of biorhythm physical cycle. The statistical correlated t test with the significance level of p≤0.05 was used to analyze data. The findings indicated that the tests pertaining to power including Vertical jump and medicine ball throwing were well-correlated with the physical cycle of biorhythm (p=0.042; p=0.019. However, the muscular endurance tests (revised sit-up and pull-up did not show any significant difference between the two states and were not correlated with the physical cycle of biorhythm (p=0.75; p=0.73. The predictions by physical cycle of biorhythm on the muscular power of athletes are correct, but it was not possible with the muscular endurance of athletes. Of course, more researches should be conducted to increase the certainty of correctness predicted by the physical cycle of biorhythm. The prediction of this theory can be used to increase the performances of athletes in sports competitions if the biorhythm cycles prove right.

  5. Metabolic risk factors, physical activity and physical fitness in azorean adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soares-Miranda Luísa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has increased over the last few decades in adolescents and has become an important health challenge worldwide. This study analyzed the relationships between metabolic risk factors (MRF and physical activity (PA and physical fitness (PF in a sample of Azorean adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional school-based study was conducted on 417 adolescents (243 girls aged 15-18 from the Azorean Islands, Portugal. Height, weight, waist circumference, fasting glucose, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and blood pressure were measured. A sum of MRF was computed, and adolescents were classified into three groups: no MRF, one MRF and two or more MRF. PA was assessed by a sealed pedometer. PF was assessed using five tests from the Fitnessgram Test Battery. Dietary intake was obtained using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Results Mean daily steps for girls and boys were 7427 ± 2725 and 7916 ± 3936, respectively. Fifty-nine percent of the adolescents showed at least one MRF and 57.6% were under the healthy zone in the 20 m Shuttle Run Test. Ordinal logistic regression analysis showed that after adjusting for sex, body mass index, socio-economic status and adherence to a Mediterranean diet, adolescents who were in the highest quartile of the pedometer step/counts (≥9423 steps/day and those who achieved the healthy zone in five tests were less likely to have one or more MRF (OR = 0.56;95%CI:0.33-0.95; OR = 0.55;95%CI:0.31-0.98, respectively. Conclusions Daily step counts and PF levels were negatively associated with having one or more MRF among Azorean adolescents. Our findings emphasize the importance of promoting and increasing regular PA and PF to reduce the public health burden of chronic diseases associated with a sedentary lifestyle.

  6. The Impact of BIB Spiraling-Induced Missing Data Patterns on Goodness-of-Fit Tests in Factor Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, David

    1995-01-01

    This article considers the impact of missing data arising from balanced incomplete block (BIB) spiraled designs on the chi-square goodness-of-fit test in factor analysis. The new approach is shown to outperform the pairwise available case method for continuous variables and to be comparatively better for dichotomous variables. (SLD)

  7. Two Outer Membrane Proteins Contribute to Caulobacter crescentus Cellular Fitness by Preventing Intracellular S-Layer Protein Accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overton, K. Wesley; Park, Dan M.; Yung, Mimi C.; Dohnalkova, Alice C.; Smit, John; Jiao, Yongqin; Parales, R. E.

    2016-09-23

    ABSTRACT

    Surface layers, or S-layers, are two-dimensional protein arrays that form the outermost layer of many bacteria and archaea. They serve several functions, including physical protection of the cell from environmental threats. The high abundance of S-layer proteins necessitates a highly efficient export mechanism to transport the S-layer protein from the cytoplasm to the cell exterior.Caulobacter crescentusis unique in that it has two homologous, seemingly redundant outer membrane proteins, RsaFaand RsaFb, which together with other components form a type I protein translocation pathway for S-layer export. These proteins have homology toEscherichia coliTolC, the outer membrane channel of multidrug efflux pumps. Here we provide evidence that, unlike TolC, RsaFaand RsaFbare not involved in either the maintenance of membrane stability or the active export of antimicrobial compounds. Rather, RsaFaand RsaFbare required to prevent intracellular accumulation and aggregation of the S-layer protein RsaA; deletion of RsaFaand RsaFbled to a general growth defect and lowered cellular fitness. Using Western blotting, transmission electron microscopy, and transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq), we show that loss of both RsaFaand RsaFbled to accumulation of insoluble RsaA in the cytoplasm, which in turn caused upregulation of a number of genes involved in protein misfolding and degradation pathways. These findings provide new insight into the requirement for RsaFaand RsaFbin cellular fitness and tolerance to antimicrobial agents and further our understanding of the S-layer export mechanism on both the transcriptional and translational levels in

  8. Factors Contributing to Child Scrambling: Evidence from Ukrainian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykhaylyk, Roksolana

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the word order phenomenon of optional scrambling in Ukrainian. It aims to test factors such as semantic features and object type that have been shown to affect scrambling in other languages. Forty-one children between 2 ; 7 and 6 ; 0, and twenty adult speakers participated in an elicited production experiment. The picture…

  9. Contribution of Educational Factors in the Capacity to Overcome Adversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomar, Joaquina; Montes de Oca, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify factors that predict resilience and social mobility in persons living in extreme poverty in Mexico by analyzing an extensive set of school-related variables. A total of 913 adults were surveyed, with 65.2% women and an average age of 43.71 years. Significant correlations were found between the seven…

  10. Factors contributing to young moped rider accidents in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Mette; Haustein, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    , attention error (52%) was the most frequently assigned accident factor. The majority (78%) of the accidents involved road rule breaching on the part of the moped rider. The results indicate that preventive measures should aim to eliminate violations and increase anticipatory skills among moped riders...

  11. Contribution of Educational Factors in the Capacity to Overcome Adversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomar, Joaquina; Montes de Oca, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify factors that predict resilience and social mobility in persons living in extreme poverty in Mexico by analyzing an extensive set of school-related variables. A total of 913 adults were surveyed, with 65.2% women and an average age of 43.71 years. Significant correlations were found between the seven…

  12. Factors Contributing to Adult Knowledge of Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, John H.; Needham, Mark D.

    2013-01-01

    Historically, most efforts to improve public knowledge of science and technology have focused on improvements in K-12 schooling, although post-secondary education and informal education have also been mentioned as important factors. Currently, little empirical data exist to determine how or when to best leverage science and technology education…

  13. Factors contributing to individual differences in facial expression categorisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Corinne; Guo, Kun

    2016-12-29

    Individuals vary in perceptual accuracy when categorising facial expressions, yet it is unclear how these individual differences in non-clinical population are related to cognitive processing stages at facial information acquisition and interpretation. We tested 104 healthy adults in a facial expression categorisation task, and correlated their categorisation accuracy with face-viewing gaze allocation and personal traits assessed with Autism Quotient, anxiety inventory and Self-Monitoring Scale. The gaze allocation had limited but emotion-specific impact on categorising expressions. Specifically, longer gaze at the eyes and nose regions were coupled with more accurate categorisation of disgust and sad expressions, respectively. Regarding trait measurements, higher autistic score was coupled with better recognition of sad but worse recognition of anger expressions, and contributed to categorisation bias towards sad expressions; whereas higher anxiety level was associated with greater categorisation accuracy across all expressions and with increased tendency of gazing at the nose region. It seems that both anxiety and autistic-like traits were associated with individual variation in expression categorisation, but this association is not necessarily mediated by variation in gaze allocation at expression-specific local facial regions. The results suggest that both facial information acquisition and interpretation capabilities contribute to individual differences in expression categorisation within non-clinical populations.

  14. Genetic Factors in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Contribution to Disease Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccarelli, Fulvia; Perricone, Carlo; Borgiani, Paola; Ciccacci, Cinzia; Rufini, Sara; Cipriano, Enrica; Alessandri, Cristiano; Spinelli, Francesca Romana; Sili Scavalli, Antonio; Novelli, Giuseppe; Valesini, Guido; Conti, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Genetic factors exert an important role in determining Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) susceptibility, interplaying with environmental factors. Several genetic studies in various SLE populations have identified numerous susceptibility loci. From a clinical point of view, SLE is characterized by a great heterogeneity in terms of clinical and laboratory manifestations. As widely demonstrated, specific laboratory features are associated with clinical disease subset, with different severity degree. Similarly, in the last years, an association between specific phenotypes and genetic variants has been identified, allowing the possibility to elucidate different mechanisms and pathways accountable for disease manifestations. However, except for Lupus Nephritis (LN), no studies have been designed to identify the genetic variants associated with the development of different phenotypes. In this review, we will report data currently known about this specific association. PMID:26798662

  15. Method to determine factors contributing to thermoplastic sheet shrinkage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rensch, Greg J.; Frye, Brad A.

    A test method is presented for the determination of shrinkage behavior in vacuum-formed thermoplastic resin sheeting, as presently simulated for various resin lots, sheet-gage thicknesses, sheet orientations, and mold profiles. The thermoforming machine and vacuum-forming mold characteristics are discussed. It is established that the four variable factors exert statistically significant effects on the shrinkage response of three Declar resin lots, but that these are of no real practical significance for either engineering or manufacturing operations.

  16. Lower cardiorespiratory fitness contributes to increased insulin resistance and fasting glycaemia in middle-aged South Asian compared with European men living in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghouri, N; Purves, D; McConnachie, A; Wilson, J; Gill, J M R; Sattar, N

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to determine the extent to which increased insulin resistance and fasting glycaemia in South Asian men, compared with white European men, living in the UK, was due to lower cardiorespiratory fitness (maximal oxygen uptake [VO(2max)]) and physical activity. One hundred South Asian and 100 age- and BMI-matched European men without diagnosed diabetes, aged 40-70 years, had fasted blood taken for measurement of glucose concentration, HOMA-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA(IR)), plus other risk factors, and underwent assessment of physical activity (using accelerometry), VO(2max), body size and composition, and demographic and other lifestyle factors. For 13 South Asian and one European man, HbA1c levels were >6.5% (>48 mmol/mol), indicating potential undiagnosed diabetes; these men were excluded from the analyses. Linear regression models were used to determine the extent to which body size and composition, fitness and physical activity variables explained differences in HOMA(IR) and fasting glucose between South Asian and European men. HOMA(IR) and fasting glucose were 67% (p physical activity and greater total adiposity in South Asians individually explained 68% (95% CI 45%, 91%), 29% (11%, 46%) and 52% (30%, 80%), respectively, and together explained 83% (50%, 119%) (all p fasting glucose. Lower cardiorespiratory fitness is a key factor associated with the excess insulin resistance and fasting glycaemia in middle-aged South Asian, compared with European, men living in the UK.

  17. Sociocultural factors contributing to teenage pregnancy in Zomba district, Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaphagawani, Nanzen Caroline; Kalipeni, Ezekiel

    2017-06-01

    This study explores sociocultural and other risk factors associated with unplanned teenage pregnancy in Zomba district of Malawi. Data were obtained from 505 participants under the age of 20 years using a questionnaire administered through face-to-face interviews held at five antenatal clinics. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics, frequency tables and chi-square analysis which allowed comparative understanding of the sociocultural risk factors for planned and unplanned teenage pregnancy in Zomba district. The findings revealed that teenage pregnancy is a major health and social problem. Over 76% of the teenage respondents in the study had experienced unplanned pregnancy. Among the prominent factors that stood out in the analysis for this high rate of teenage pregnancy were early sex and marriage, low contraceptive use, low educational levels, low socio-economic status, lack of knowledge of reproductive and sexual health, gender inequity, and physical/sexual violence. The consequences on teenage mothers of unplanned pregnancy have been tragic and have compromised their physical, psychological and socioeconomic wellbeing, not just on them but also their families and society at large. The findings point to the need for a multi-sectoral approach to tackle the problem on teenage pregnancy in this district, and likely throughout Malawi.

  18. Stochastic contribution to the growth factor in the LCDM model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, A. L.B.; Andrade, A. P.A.; Letelier, P. S.

    2009-01-01

    We study the effect of noise on the evolution of the growth factor of density perturbations in the context of the LCDM model. Stochasticity is introduced as a Wiener process amplified by an intensity parameter alpha. By comparing the evolution of deterministic and stochastic cases for different values of alpha we estimate the intensity level necessary to make noise relevant for cosmological tests based on large-scale structure data. Our results indicate that the presence of random forces underlying the fluid description can lead to significant deviations from the nonstochastic solution at late times for alpha>0.001.

  19. Neuromuscular factors contributing to in vivo eccentric moment generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, S; Kriellaars, D

    1997-07-01

    Muscle series elasticity and its contribution to eccentric moment generation was examined in humans. While subjects [male, n = 30; age 26.3 +/- 4.8 (SD) yr; body mass 78.8 +/- 13.1 kg] performed an isometric contraction of the knee extensors at 60 degrees of knee flexion, a quick stretch was imposed with a 12 degrees -step displacement at 100 degrees /s. The test was performed at 10 isometric activation levels ranging from 1.7 to 95.2% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). A strong linear relationship was observed between the peak imposed eccentric moment derived from quick stretch and the isometric activation level (y = 1.44x + 7.08; r = 0.99). This increase in the eccentric moment is consistent with an actomyosin-dependent elasticity located in series with the contractile element of muscle. By extrapolating the linear relationship to 100% MVC, the predicted maximum eccentric moment was found to be 151% MVC, consistent with in vitro data. A maximal voluntary, knee extensor strength test was also performed (5-95 degrees, 3 repetitions, +/-50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 degrees/s). The predicted maximum eccentric moment was 206% of the angle- and velocity-matched, maximal voluntary eccentric moments. This was attributed to a potent neural regulatory mechanism that limits the recruitment and/or discharge of motor units during maximal voluntary eccentric contractions.

  20. Factors Contributing to Foreign Direct Investment in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariunzul Javzandorj

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s, globalization has led to a rapid increase in the growth of foreign direct investment (FDI all over the world. Mongolia for more than a decade has been in the process of radical transformation and has taken significant steps to build a market-based economic structure. Foreign Direct Investment plays a very important role in achieving rapid economic growth in the developing countries. This can be achieved by taking advantage of available mobilizing domestic savings, foreign capital, technology transfers, establishment of new premises and favorable foreign policies It is now widely acknowledged that FDI has potential benefits that can accrue to developing countries. This view is mainly based on the neo liberal and development economists. They suggest that FDI is crucial for economic growth as it provides the much needed capital for investment, increases competition in host countries economies, and helps local firms to become more productive by adopting more efficient technology or by investing in human or physical capital [1]. FDI is also said to contribute to growth in a substantive manner because it’s more stable than other forms of capital flows. This paper investigates the key drivers of foreign direct investment (FDI in Mongolia.

  1. Anxiety in early pregnancy: prevalence and contributing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubertsson, C; Hellström, J; Cross, M; Sydsjö, G

    2014-06-01

    Antenatal anxiety symptoms are not only a health problem for the expectant mother. Research has found that maternal anxiety may also have an impact on the developing baby. Therefore, it is important to estimate the prevalence of maternal anxiety and associated factors. The current study aims to estimate the prevalence of anxiety symptoms during the first trimester of pregnancy and to identify associated risk factors. Secondly, to investigate other factors associated with anxiety during early pregnancy including fear of childbirth and a preference for cesarean section. In a population-based community sample of 1,175 pregnant women, 916 women (78%) were investigated in the first trimester (gestation week 8-12). The Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS-A) was used to measure anxiety symptoms. The prevalence of anxiety symptoms (HADS-A scores≥8 during pregnancy) was 15.6% in early pregnancy. Women under 25 years of age were at an increased risk of anxiety symptoms during early pregnancy (OR 2.6, CI 1.7-4.0). Women who reported a language other than Swedish as their native language (OR 4.2, CI 2.7-7.0), reported high school as their highest level of education (OR 1.6, CI 1.1-2.3), were unemployed (OR 3.5, CI 2.1-5.8), used nicotine before pregnancy (OR 1.7, CI 1.1-2.5), and had a self-reported psychiatric history of either depression (OR 3.8, CI 2.6-5.6) or anxiety (OR 5.2, CI 3.5-7.9) before their current pregnancy were all at an increased risk of anxiety symptoms during early pregnancy. Anxiety symptoms during pregnancy increased the rate of fear of birth (OR 3.0, CI 1.9-4.7) and a preference for cesarean section (OR 1.7, CI 1.0-2.8). Caregivers should pay careful attention to history of mental illness to be able to identify women with symptoms of anxiety during early pregnancy. When presenting with symptoms of anxiety, the women might need counseling and or treatment in order to decrease her anxiety.

  2. Personality Factors in Elementary School Children: Contributions to Academic Performance over and above Executive Functions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenschwander, Regula; Cimeli, Patrizia; Rothlisberger, Marianne; Roebers, Claudia M.

    2013-01-01

    Unique contributions of Big Five personality factors to academic performance in young elementary school children were explored. Extraversion and Openness (labeled "Culture" in our study) uniquely contributed to academic performance, over and above the contribution of executive functions in first and second grade children (N = 446). Well…

  3. Personality Factors in Elementary School Children: Contributions to Academic Performance over and above Executive Functions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenschwander, Regula; Cimeli, Patrizia; Rothlisberger, Marianne; Roebers, Claudia M.

    2013-01-01

    Unique contributions of Big Five personality factors to academic performance in young elementary school children were explored. Extraversion and Openness (labeled "Culture" in our study) uniquely contributed to academic performance, over and above the contribution of executive functions in first and second grade children (N = 446). Well…

  4. The Factors Influencing Teaching (FIT)-Choice scale in a Dutch teacher education program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkens-Bruinsma, Marjon; Canrinus, Esther T.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the suitability of the FIT-Choice scale in a Dutch educational context among two cohorts of preservice teachers (Ns = 62, 89), surveyed at the end and the beginning of their one-year program respectively. The relationships between the motivations for becoming a teacher and concur

  5. The Factors Influencing Teaching (FIT)-Choice scale in a Dutch teacher education program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkens-Bruinsma, Marjon; Canrinus, Esther T.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the suitability of the FIT-Choice scale in a Dutch educational context among two cohorts of preservice teachers (Ns = 62, 89), surveyed at the end and the beginning of their one-year program respectively. The relationships between the motivations for becoming a teacher and

  6. The Factors Influencing Teaching (FIT)-Choice Scale in a Dutch Teacher Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokkens-Bruinsma, Marjon; Canrinus, Esther T.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the suitability of the FIT-Choice scale in a Dutch educational context among two cohorts of preservice teachers (Ns = 62, 89), surveyed at the end and the beginning of their one-year program respectively. The relationships between the motivations for becoming a teacher and concurrent commitment were examined, as well as the…

  7. On contributing factors to the winter record low of the northern hemisphere sea ice extent in 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuckar, Neven-Stjepan; Massonnet, Francois; Guemas, Virginie; Garcia-Serrano, Javier; Bellprat, Omar; Doblas-Reyes, Francisco; Acosta, Mario

    2017-04-01

    The northern hemisphere (NH) sea ice extent (SIE) has reached the record low in the satellite era (since November 1978) in March 2015. Would the 2014/15 fall-winter atmosphere yield this sea ice extreme if we reversed in time the long-term change in the ocean and sea ice state? We examine the contributions of the atmosphere and the long-term memory of the ocean and sea ice to the March 2015 record low of the NH SIE with a state-of-the-art ocean-sea-ice general circulation model (OGCM: NEMOv3.3). First, we perform a set of 5-month-long retrospective control simulations initialized on 1 November from 1979 to 2014 to assess the model skill in predicting the NH March SIE. We produce ERA-Interim-forced five ensemble members initialized from the five members of the ORAS4 ocean reanalysis and the associated five-member sea ice reconstruction. A climate variable can be decomposed into the sum of the background state represented as a linear fit over the period of interest and an interannual anomaly with respect to this fit: var(t) = [at + b] + var'(t). More specifically, initial conditions (IC) and surface forcing fields contain: (i) linear-fit background state of IC, (ii) interannual anomaly in IC with respect to factor (i), (iii) linear-fit background state of surface forcing fields, and (iv) interannual anomaly in surface forcing fields with respect to factor (iii). Next, we conduct two sets of sensitivity experiments with IC and surface forcing fields modified in such manner so that one set examine the influence of 2014/15 fall-winter atmospheric conditions, while the other focuses on the influence of change in linear-fit background state of the ocean and sea ice cover. Our forced experiments indicate that the most important factor driving the NH SIE to the record low in March 2015 was surface atmospheric conditions on average contributing at least 54% to the change from the past March states to 2015. The 1 November 2014 interannual anomaly of IC, which on average

  8. Factors contributing to amphibian road mortality in a wetland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haijun GU; Qiang DAI; Qian WANG; Yuezhao WANG

    2011-01-01

    To understand road characteristics and landscape features associated with high road mortality of amphibians in Zoige Wetland National Nature Reserve,we surveyed road mortality along four major roads after rainfall in May and September 2007.Road mortality of three species,Rana kukunoris,Nanorana pleskei and Bufo minshanicus,was surveyed across 225 transects (115 in May and 110 in September).Transects were 100 m long and repeated every two kilometers along the four major roads.We used model averaging to assess factors that might determine amphibian road mortality.We recorded an average of 24.6 amphibian road mortalities per kilometer in May and 19.2 in September.Among road characteristics,road width was positively associated with road morality for R.kukunori and B.minshanicus.Traffic volume also increased the road mortality of B.minshanicus in September.Of the landscape features measured,area proportions of three types of grassland (wet,mesic and dry) within 1 km of the roads,particularly that of wet grassland,significantly increased road mortality for R.kukunori and total mortality across all three species.To most effectively reduce road mortality of amphibians in the Zoige wetlands,we suggest better road design such as avoiding wet grasslands,minimizing road width,underground passes and traffic control measures.The implementation of public transit in the area would reduce traffic volume,and hence mortality [Current Zoology 57 (6):768-774,2011].

  9. Leaving from and returning to nursing practice: contributing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Isabel; Taua, Chris

    2009-07-01

    Many nurses leave nursing and never return. Others return after a period of time. Given the global shortage of nurses a better understanding of these movements is needed. The present study focused on nurses who had been out of nursing for more than five years, and explored factors that influenced their leaving and return to practice. All the nurses who had undertaken a Competency Assessment Programme at a given New Zealand tertiary institution during 2005 were invited to participate. Of the 70 questionnaires mailed out 32 (44.5%) were completed and returned. Quantitative data were analysed using Microsoft Excel, and the qualitative data were coded and analysed by means of content analysis. For each, leaving and returning, three key issues emerged. Nurses left for personal reasons, to seek a career change, or because of poor working conditions. They returned when they had the personal freedom to do so, for fiscal reasons, or because they were motivated by some sense of unfinished business. These findings indicate that it is important for educators involved with Competency Assessment Programmes to collaborate with employers in ensuring that there are opportunities for re-entry to positive work environments, with a degree of flexibility that suits the demographic characteristics of those nurses returning to practice.

  10. Child fitness and father's BMI are important factors in childhood obesity: a school based cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinead Brophy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study examines obesity and factors associated with obesity in children aged 11-13 years in the UK. METHODS: 1147 children from ten secondary schools participated in a health survey that included blood samples, fitness test and anthropometric measures. Factors associated with obesity were examined using multilevel logistic regression. FINDINGS: Of the children examined (490 male; 657 female a third were overweight, 1 in 6 had elevated blood pressure, more than 1 in 10 had high cholesterol, 58% consumed more fat than recommended, whilst 37% were classified as unfit. Children in deprived areas had a higher proportion of risk factors; for example, they had higher blood pressure (20% (deprived compared to 11% (non-deprived, difference: 9.0% (95%CI: 4.7%-13.4%. Obesity is associated with risk factors for heart disease and diabetes. Maintaining fitness is associated with a reduction in the risk factors for heart disease (high blood pressure and cholesterol but not on risk factors for diabetes (insulin levels. In order of importance, the main risk factors for childhood obesity are being unfit, having an obese father, and being large at birth. CONCLUSION: The high proportion of children with risk factors suggests future interventions need to focus on community and policy change to shift the population norm rather than targeting the behaviour of high risk individuals. Interventions need to focus on mothers' lifestyle in pregnancy, fathers' health, as well as promoting fitness among children. Obesity was not associated with deprivation. Therefore, strategies should be adopted in both deprived and non deprived areas.

  11. Biomechanical factors contributing to self-organization in seagrass landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, M.S.; Koehl, M.A.R.; Kopp, B.S.

    2007-01-01

    Field observations have revealed that when water flow is consistently from one direction, seagrass shoots align in rows perpendicular to the primary axis of flow direction. In this study, live Zostera marina shoots were arranged either randomly or in rows perpendicular to the flow direction and tested in a seawater flume under unidirectional flow and waves to determine if shoot arrangement: a) influenced flow-induced force on individual shoots, b) differentially altered water flow through the canopy, and c) influenced light interception by the canopy. In addition, blade breaking strength was compared with flow-induced force to determine if changes in shoot arrangement might reduce the potential for damage to shoots. Under unidirectional flow, both current velocity in the canopy and force on shoots were significantly decreased when shoots were arranged in rows as compared to randomly. However, force on shoots was nearly constant with downstream distance, arising from the trade-off of shoot bending and in-canopy flow reduction. The coefficient of drag was higher for randomly-arranged shoots at low velocities (< 30 cm s- 1) but converged rapidly among the two shoot arrangements at higher velocities. Shoots arranged in rows tended to intercept slightly more light than those arranged randomly. Effects of shoot arrangement under waves were less clear, potentially because we did not achieve the proper plant size?row spacing ratio. At this point, we may only suggest that water motion, as opposed to light capture, is the dominant physical mechanism responsible for these shoot arrangements. Following a computation of the Environmental Stress Factor, we concluded that even photosynthetically active blades may be damaged or broken under frequently encountered storm conditions, irrespective of shoot arrangement. We hypothesize that when flow is generally from one direction, seagrass bed patterns over multiple scales of consideration may arise as a cumulative effect of

  12. Electronic prescription as contributing factor for hospitalized patients' safety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gimenes FRE

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The following study was performed to identify factors related to medication errors in the computerized physician order entry and their advantages and disadvantages according to doctors, nursing team and administrative officers. It is a survey descriptive study carried out at three units of a Brazilian academic hospital in the southeast area. The study was divided in two phases. In the first phase, we analyzed a total of 1,349 prescriptions from general medical unit, surgical and orthopaedic wards during 30 days consecutively. A semi-structured instrument, elaborated by a group of researchers for the study proposals, was used. In the second phase, a semi-structured questionnaire was applied to the health professionals containing closed and open items approaching their opinion about the composition of electronic prescription, the advantages and disadvantages of them, and their suggestions for its improvement. Out of 1,349 prescriptions observed, 17.5% presented deletions, 25.0% medicines written manually and 17.0% of them were incomplete. Some of the advantages pointed by health professionals were its legibility (37.5%, little time spent when elaborating and emitting them (20.5% and the way they are a practical and organized (8%. The disadvantages pointed were repetition of previous prescriptions (34%, typing mistakes (17%, dependence on computers (11% and alterations made manually (7%. We conclude, this way, that the computerized prescription order entry represents a great progress among the strategies used to minimize medication errors caused by prescriptions badly formulated. However, it doesn't eradicate the possibility of medication error occurrences, needing some system modifications.

  13. TECHNIQUES AND FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO DEVELOPING CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Vladimirovna Glukhova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issue of working out and introduction in educational process of higher educational institutions of the innovative technology for developing skills of critical thinking skills of the future specialists. Research is aimed at revealing of the factors promoting formation of students’ critical thinking in high schools; the search of strategy and the receptions actualizing creative abilities of students and helping to formation of an active, independent person. The author gives the reasoned proving that it’s necessary to set up the creative educational environment and adjustment of positive dialogue between the teacher and the trainee for education of such person, development of abilities of an objective reflection, interpretation of the phenomena, formulations of adequate conclusions, well-founded evaluating. Methods. The methods involve the analysis of the philosophical, psychology-pedagogical, methodical literature and the scientific periodical publications; generalisation of the Russian and foreign background, classification and arrangement of the considered issues, supervision. Results. Current approaches to the rendering of critical thinking and a problem of its formation in the scientific literature are considered; the concept «the creative educational environment» is specified; the ways of increasing the educational process efficiency are shown. Scientific novelty. The complex of procedures and the conditions promoting effective development of critical thinking skills is theoretically proved on the basis of the analysis of various information sources. Practical significance. The research outcomes and the recommended methods of critical thinking skills formation can be useful for the professors and lecturers of higher education institutions to optimize subject matter selection, techniques and methods of education under the conditions of dynamically updated educational process. 

  14. A Review of Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Adolescent and Young Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer: Factors that Affect its Decline and Opportunities for Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkman, Amy M; Lakoski, Susan G

    2016-03-01

    Childhood cancer incidence and survivorship rates are increasing, leading to a growing population of survivors that are at risk for competing causes of death, most notably cardiovascular disease (CVD). Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), a key modifiable CVD risk factor, is lower than expected among childhood survivors 5-20 years post-diagnosis. This review discusses the studies that demonstrate lower CRF in survivors of childhood cancer and the potential mechanisms and factors contributing to lower CRF in this population. Both exercise interventions and strategies to improve CRF are considered. The review advocates for more robust clinical research and exercise interventions to improve CRF with the goal of reducing comorbidities and competing CVD risk among childhood cancer survivors into adolescence and young adulthood.

  15. Glutamate decarboxylase-dependent acid resistance in Brucella spp.: distribution and contribution to fitness under extremely acidic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiano, Maria Alessandra; Bastianelli, Daniela; Al Dahouk, Sascha; Köhler, Stephan; Cloeckaert, Axel; De Biase, Daniela; Occhialini, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Brucella is an expanding genus of major zoonotic pathogens, including at least 10 genetically very close species occupying a wide range of niches from soil to wildlife, livestock, and humans. Recently, we have shown that in the new species Brucella microti, the glutamate decarboxylase (Gad)-dependent system (GAD system) contributes to survival at a pH of 2.5 and also to infection in mice by the oral route. In order to study the functionality of the GAD system in the genus Brucella, 47 isolates, representative of all known species and strains of this genus, and 16 strains of the closest neighbor genus, Ochrobactrum, were studied using microbiological, biochemical, and genetic approaches. In agreement with the genome sequences, the GAD system of classical species was not functional, unlike that of most strains of Brucella ceti, Brucella pinnipedialis, and newly described species (B. microti, Brucella inopinata BO1, B. inopinata-like BO2, and Brucella sp. isolated from bullfrogs). In the presence of glutamate, these species were more acid resistant in vitro than classical terrestrial brucellae. Expression in trans of the gad locus from representative Brucella species in the Escherichia coli MG1655 mutant strain lacking the GAD system restored the acid-resistant phenotype. The highly conserved GAD system of the newly described or atypical Brucella species may play an important role in their adaptation to acidic external and host environments. Furthermore, the GAD phenotype was shown to be a useful diagnostic tool to distinguish these latter Brucella strains from Ochrobactrum and from classical terrestrial pathogenic Brucella species, which are GAD negative.

  16. Soccer improves fitness and attenuates cardiovascular risk factors in hypertensive men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Andersen, Lars Juel

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The present study investigated the fitness and health effects of medium-term soccer training for untrained hypertensive middle-aged men. METHODS: Thirty-three untrained males (31-54 y) with mild-to-moderate hypertension were randomised 2:1 to a soccer training group (STG, two 1-h se......, average heart rate was 155±2 bpm or 85±2% HRmax. In STG, systolic and diastolic blood pressures decreased (P...

  17. Low energy R-matrix fits for the 6Li(d,a)4He S factor

    CERN Document Server

    Grineviciute, J; Lamia, L; Spitaleri, C; La Cognata, M

    2014-01-01

    Background: The information about the 6Li(d,a)4He reaction rates of the astrophysical interest can be obtained by extrapolating direct data to the lower energies, or by indirect methods. The indirect Trojan Horse method, as well as various R-matrix and polynomial fits to direct data, estimate the electron screening energies much larger than the adiabatic limit. Calculations that include the subthreshold resonance estimate smaller screening energies. Purpose: Obtain the 6Li(d,a)4He reaction R-matrix parameters and the astrophysical S factor for the energies relevant to the stellar plasmas by fitting the R-matrix formulas for the subthreshold resonances to the S factor data above 60 keV. Methods: The bare S factor is calculated using the single and the two-level R-matrix formulas for the closest to the threshold 0+ and 2+ subthreshold states at 22.2, 20.2 and 20.1 MeV. The electron screening potential Ue is then obtained by fitting it as a single parameter to the low energy data. Results: The low energy S facto...

  18. Perceptual factors contribute more than acoustic factors to sound localization abilities with virtual sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume eAndeol

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human sound localization abilities rely on binaural and spectral cues. Spectral cues arise from interactions between the sound wave and the listener’s body (head related transfer function, HRTF. Large individual differences were reported in localization abilities, even in young normal-hearing adults. Several studies have attempted to determine whether localization abilities depend mostly on acoustic cues or on perceptual processes involved in the analysis of these cues. These studies have yielded inconsistent findings, which could result from methodological issues. Here, we measured sound localization performance with normal and modified acoustic cues (i.e., with individual and non-individual HRTFs, respectively in 20 naïve listeners. Test conditions were chosen to address most methodological issues from past studies. Procedural training was provided prior to sound localization tests. The results showed no direct relationship between behavioral results and an acoustical metric (spectral-shape prominence of individual HRTFs. Despite uncertainties due to technical issues with the normalization of the HRTFs, large acoustic differences between individual and non-individual HRTFs seemed to be needed to produce behavioral effects. A subset of 15 listeners then trained in the sound localization task with individual HRTFs. Training included either visual correct-answer feedback (for the test group or no feedback (for the control group, and was assumed to elicit perceptual learning for the test group only. Few listeners from the control group, but most listeners from the test group, showed significant training-induced learning. For the test group, learning was related to pre-training performance (the poorer the pre-training performance, the greater the learning amount and was retained after one month.The results are interpreted as being in favor of a larger contribution of perceptual factors than of acoustic factors to sound localization abilities

  19. Fitness World - Fremtidig overlevelse

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, Kasper; Klink, Nikolaj; Nielsen, Mie; Carlson, Andre; Boy, Mikkel; Hansen, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Our project is a case study with Fitness World as a baseline. Our project will enhance Fitness Worlds penetration on their current position on the market. Our empiricism includes both qualitative and quantitative methodical approaches by the use of an expert interview and a questionnaire survey. These methods contribute and generate general knowledge about the fitness culture in Denmark and the customers in the fitness industry. We have stated a possible strategic opportunity for Fitness Worl...

  20. The Hunt for Green Every April: Factors Affecting Fitness in Switchgrass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarath, Gautam [US Dept. of Agriculture (USDA), Lincoln, NE (United States). Agricultural Research Service (ARS). Wheat, Sorghum and Forage Research

    2014-12-10

    This grant funded work was undertaken to develop fundamental biological knowledge of the factors affecting the complex plant trait “fitness” in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a plant being developed as a biomass crop. Using a diverse range of latitudinally-adapted switchgrass plants, genomic, molecular and physiological studies were performed to track a number of different aspects of plant genetics and physiology over the course of the growing season. Work was performed on both genetically unrelated and genetically related plants. Plants were established in the field from seedlings raised in a greenhouse, or from clones present in other field nurseries. Field grown plants were used as the source of all tissues. The three objectives of this proposal were:(1) Transcript Profiling, Metabolomics, and C and N Partitioning and Recycling in Crowns and Rhizomes of Switchgrass over two growing seasons; (2) Gene Profiling During Regreening and Dormancy of Bulked Segregants; (3) Extent of Linkage Disequilibrium in Populations for Adaptation and Fitness Traits Being Developed for Central and Northern USA, that Show Significant Heterosis. Objective 1 results: Plants were labeled using 13CO2 (a stable isotope) using an acrylic chamber constructed specifically for this purpose. Plants became labeled with 13C and label decayed in aerial tissues over the course of the growing season. Varying amounts of 13C were recovered in the rhizomes. These data are being analyzed. Plants were also labeled with 15N-urea. Plants absorbed significant amounts of label that was remobilized to the growing shoots. N-dynamics would suggest that a portion of the 15N absorbed into the crowns and rhizomes is sequestered below ground. Variable amounts of 15N were translocated from the shoots to the roots over the course of the growing season. Polar metabolites extracted from a diverse array of rhizomes were analyzed using GCMS. Data

  1. THE HUNT FOR GREEN EVERY APRIL: FACTORS AFFECTING FITNESS IN SWITCHGRASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarath, Gautam [USDA-ARS

    2014-12-10

    This grant funded work was undertaken to develop fundamental biological knowledge of the factors affecting the complex plant trait “fitness” in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a plant being developed as a biomass crop. Using a diverse range of latitudinally-adapted switchgrass plants, genomic, molecular and physiological studies were performed to track a number of different aspects of plant genetics and physiology over the course of the growing season. Work was performed on both genetically unrelated and genetically related plants. Plants were established in the field from seedlings raised in a greenhouse, or from clones present in other field nurseries. Field grown plants were used as the source of all tissues. The three objectives of this proposal were:(1) Transcript Profiling, Metabolomics, and C and N Partitioning and Recycling in Crowns and Rhizomes of Switchgrass over two growing seasons; (2) Gene Profiling During Regreening and Dormancy of Bulked Segregants; (3) Extent of Linkage Disequilibrium in Populations for Adaptation and Fitness Traits Being Developed for Central and Northern USA, that Show Significant Heterosis. Objective 1 results: Plants were labeled using 13CO2 (a stable isotope) using an acrylic chamber constructed specifically for this purpose. Plants became labeled with 13C and label decayed in aerial tissues over the course of the growing season. Varying amounts of 13C were recovered in the rhizomes. These data are being analyzed. Plants were also labeled with 15N-urea. Plants absorbed significant amounts of label that was remobilized to the growing shoots. N-dynamics would suggest that a portion of the 15N absorbed into the crowns and rhizomes is sequestered below ground. Variable amounts of 15N were translocated from the shoots to the roots over the course of the growing season. Polar metabolites extracted from a diverse array of rhizomes were analyzed using GCMS. Data indicated that there was a significant shift in metabolite pools

  2. Cardiometabolic risk improvement in response to a 3-yr lifestyle modification program in men: contribution of improved cardiorespiratory fitness vs. weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borel, Anne-Laure; Nazare, Julie-Anne; Baillot, Aurélie; Alméras, Natalie; Tremblay, Angelo; Bergeron, Jean; Poirier, Paul; Després, Jean-Pierre

    2017-04-01

    Our objective was to examine the respective contributions of changes in visceral adiposity, subcutaneous adiposity, liver fat, and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) to the improvements in cardiometabolic risk markers in response to a 3-yr healthy eating/physical activity lifestyle intervention. Ninety-four out of 144 viscerally obese healthy men completed a 3-yr lifestyle intervention. Body weight, body composition, and fat distribution were assessed by anthropometry and DEXA/computed tomography. CRF, adipokines, lipoprotein/lipid profile, and 75 g of oral glucose tolerance were assessed. CRF and visceral and subcutaneous adiposity significantly improved over the 3-yr intervention, with a nadir in year 1 and a partial regain in year 3 Liver fat (estimated by insulin hepatic extraction) stabilized from year 1 to year 3, whereas HOMA-IR, ISI-Matsuda index, and adiponectin continued to improve. Multivariate analysis revealed that both visceral adiposity and estimated liver fat reductions contributed to the improved ISI-Matsuda index observed over 3 yr (r(2) = 0.28, P healthy eating/physical activity intervention in men improves several cardiometabolic risk markers over the long term (3 yr) despite a partial body weight regain observed between year 1 and year 3 The improvement in CRF contributes to visceral and estimated liver fat losses over the long term, which in turn explain the benefits of the lifestyle intervention on cardiometabolic risk profile. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Searching for the Final Answer: Factors Contributing to Medication Administration Errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, Tess M.

    2001-01-01

    Causal factors contributing to errors in medication administration should be thoroughly investigated, focusing on systems rather than individual nurses. Unless systemic causes are addressed, many errors will go unreported for fear of reprisal. (Contains 42 references.) (SK)

  4. Factors Contribute to Safety Culture in the Manufacturing Industry in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Ong Choon Hee

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explain the role of safety culture in the manufacturing industry in Malaysia and identify factors contribute to safety culture. It is suggested in this study that leadership support, management commitment and safety management system are important factors that contribute to safety culture. This study also provides theoretical implications to guide future research and offers practical implications to the managers in the development of safety culture. Given that ...

  5. Key Factors Contributing The Succes of Informal Sector Business Owners In Makssar

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Abdul

    2013-01-01

    - The purposess of this research are to investigate the key factors contributed to the informal sector businesses success how the key factors formed and how unique the key factaors contributed to daily profit The researh was undertaken in Makassar City South Sulawesi Indonesia by asking 450 respondent using listed indicators mentioned in questionmaires observasing the informal sector bussiness in several street in Makassar and asking the participants to list the importan indicators which a...

  6. Comparing the relative fit of various factor models of the self-consciousness scale in two independent samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, K M

    2000-10-01

    Research shows that using highly self-aware participants yields studies of higher reliability, validity, and statistical power; dispositional self-awareness is commonly measured using the Fenigstein Self-Consciousness Scale (Fenigstein, Scheier, & Buss, 1975). This study used confirmatory factor analysis to compare various factor models that may underlie that scale. Two independent student samples (296 from Bernstein, Teng, & Garbin, 1986, and 350 from a large Canadian university) completed the scale. Using 6 fit criteria, results from both samples supported the Burnkrant and Page (1984) 4-factor model, namely, that self-consciousness consists of 3 principle scales: Social Anxiety, Public Self-Consciousness, and Private Self-Consciousness (divided into Internal State Awareness and Self-Reflectiveness). We discuss the psychometric implications of enhancing scale reliability, validity, and self-awareness.

  7. Multidrug Intrinsic Resistance Factors in Staphylococcus aureus Identified by Profiling Fitness within High-Diversity Transposon Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mithila Rajagopal

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of life-threatening infections worldwide. The MIC of an antibiotic against S. aureus, as well as other microbes, is determined by the affinity of the antibiotic for its target in addition to a complex interplay of many other cellular factors. Identifying nontarget factors impacting resistance to multiple antibiotics could inform the design of new compounds and lead to more-effective antimicrobial strategies. We examined large collections of transposon insertion mutants in S. aureus using transposon sequencing (Tn-Seq to detect transposon mutants with reduced fitness in the presence of six clinically important antibiotics—ciprofloxacin, daptomycin, gentamicin, linezolid, oxacillin, and vancomycin. This approach allowed us to assess the relative fitness of many mutants simultaneously within these libraries. We identified pathways/genes previously known to be involved in resistance to individual antibiotics, including graRS and vraFG (graRS/vraFG, mprF, and fmtA, validating the approach, and found several to be important across multiple classes of antibiotics. We also identified two new, previously uncharacterized genes, SAOUHSC_01025 and SAOUHSC_01050, encoding polytopic membrane proteins, as important in limiting the effectiveness of multiple antibiotics. Machine learning identified similarities in the fitness profiles of graXRS/vraFG, SAOUHSC_01025, and SAOUHSC_01050 mutants upon antibiotic treatment, connecting these genes of unknown function to modulation of crucial cell envelope properties. Therapeutic strategies that combine a known antibiotic with a compound that targets these or other intrinsic resistance factors may be of value for enhancing the activity of existing antibiotics for treating otherwise-resistant S. aureus strains.

  8. Weight Misperception, Self-Reported Physical Fitness, Dieting and Some Psychological Variables as Risk Factors for Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Ruiz-Prieto

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the current study were to explore possible gender differences in weight misperception, self-reported physical fitness, and dieting, and to analyze the relationship between these variables and others, such as self-esteem, body appreciation, general mental health, and eating- and body image-related variables among adolescents. In addition, the specific risk for eating disorders was examined, as well as the possible clusters with respect to the risk status. The sample comprised 655 students, 313 females and 342 males, aged 16.22 ± 4.58. Different scales of perceived overweight, self-reported physical fitness and dieting together with the Body Mass Index (BMI were considered along with instruments such as the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28, Self-Esteem Scale (SES, Body Appreciation Scale (BAS and Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2. Since some gender differences were found with respect to these adolescent groups, it is necessary to design prevention programs that not only focus on traditional factors such as BMI or body image, but also on elements like weight perception, self-reported fitness and nutritional education.

  9. FACTOR 9.2: A Comprehensive Program for Fitting Exploratory and Semiconfirmatory Factor Analysis and IRT Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Ferrando, Pere J.

    2013-01-01

    FACTOR 9.2 was developed for three reasons. First, exploratory factor analysis (FA) is still an active field of research although most recent developments have not been incorporated into available programs. Second, there is now renewed interest in semiconfirmatory (SC) solutions as suitable approaches to the complex structures are commonly found…

  10. The use of seat belts and contributing factors : an international comparison.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mäkinen, T. Wittink, R.D. & Hagenzieker, M.P.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to define factors that contribute to the use or non-use of seat belts. Legislation prescribing compulsory seat belt usage is one of the most important factors. Promotion of the use of seat belts without this legislation is very difficult and time-consuming. So far, the

  11. Factors Contributing to Teachers' Use of Computer Technology in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilakjani, Abbas Pourhosein

    2013-01-01

    There are many factors for teachers to use computer technology in their classrooms. The goal of this study is to identify some of the important factors contributing the teachers' use of computer technology. The first goal of this paper is to discuss computer self-efficacy. The second goal is to explain teaching experience. The third goal is to…

  12. The use of seat belts and contributing factors : an international comparison.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mäkinen, T. Wittink, R.D. & Hagenzieker, M.P.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to define factors that contribute to the use or non-use of seat belts. Legislation prescribing compulsory seat belt usage is one of the most important factors. Promotion of the use of seat belts without this legislation is very difficult and time-consuming. So far, the

  13. η′-g*-g transition form factor with gluon content contribution tested

    OpenAIRE

    Muta, Taizo; Yang, Mao-Zhi

    2000-01-01

    We study the η′-g*-g transition form factor by using the η′ wave function constrained by the experimental data on the η′-γ*-γ transition form factor provided by CLEO and L3. We also take into account the contribution of the possible gluonic content of the η′ meson.

  14. $\\eta'-g^*-g$ Transition Form Factor with Gluon Content Contribution Tested

    OpenAIRE

    Muta, Taizo; Yang, Mao-Zhi

    1999-01-01

    We study the $\\eta'-g^*-g$ transition form factor by using the $\\eta'$ wave function constrained by the experimental data on the $\\eta'-\\gamma^*-\\gamma$ transition form factor provided by CLEO and L3 . We also take into account the contribution of the possible gluonic content of the $\\eta'$ meson.

  15. $\\eta'-g*-g$ Transition Form Factor with Gluon Content Contribution Tested

    CERN Document Server

    Muta, T; Muta, Taizo; Yang, Mao-Zhi

    2000-01-01

    We study the $\\eta'-g^*-g$ transition form factor by using the $\\eta'$ wave function constrained by the experimental data on the $\\eta'-\\gamma^*-\\gamma$ transition form factor provided by CLEO and L3 . We also take into account the contribution of the possible gluonic content of the $\\eta'$ meson.

  16. Contribution of the risk factor concept to patient care in coronary heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijler, F.L.

    1983-01-01

    This article deals with the question of whether or not the risk factor concept, a principal aspect of preventive cardiology, has contributed to patient care in coronary heart disease. The risk factors considered are plasma cholesterol, high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes and marked obesity. With

  17. Gag mutations strongly contribute to HIV-1 resistance to protease inhibitors in highly drug-experienced patients besides compensating for fitness loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Dam

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 resistance to protease inhibitors (PI results from mutations in the viral protease (PR that reduce PI binding but also decrease viral replicative capacity (RC. Additional mutations compensating for the RC loss subsequently accumulate within PR and in Gag substrate cleavage sites. We examined the respective contribution of mutations in PR and Gag to PI resistance and RC and their interdependence using a panel of HIV-1 molecular clones carrying different sequences from six patients who had failed multiple lines of treatment. Mutations in Gag strongly and directly contributed to PI resistance besides compensating for fitness loss. This effect was essentially carried by the C-terminal region of Gag (containing NC-SP2-p6 with little or no contribution from MA, CA, and SP1. The effect of Gag on resistance depended on the presence of cleavage site mutations A431V or I437V in NC-SP2-p6 and correlated with processing of the NC/SP2 cleavage site. By contrast, reverting the A431V or I437V mutation in these highly evolved sequences had little effect on RC. Mutations in the NC-SP2-p6 region of Gag can be dually selected as compensatory and as direct PI resistance mutations, with cleavage at the NC-SP2 site behaving as a rate-limiting step in PI resistance. Further compensatory mutations render viral RC independent of the A431V or I437V mutations while their effect on resistance persists.

  18. Injury Rate and Patterns Among CrossFit Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Weisenthal, Benjamin M.; Beck, Christopher A.; Maloney, Michael D.; DeHaven, Kenneth E.; Giordano, Brian D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: CrossFit is a type of competitive exercise program that has gained widespread recognition. To date, there have been no studies that have formally examined injury rates among CrossFit participants or factors that may contribute to injury rates. Purpose: To establish an injury rate among CrossFit participants and to identify trends and associations between injury rates and demographic categories, gym characteristics, and athletic abilities among CrossFit participants. Study Design: ...

  19. Project-Method Fit: Exploring Factors That Influence Agile Method Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Diana K.

    2013-01-01

    While the productivity and quality implications of agile software development methods (SDMs) have been demonstrated, research concerning the project contexts where their use is most appropriate has yielded less definitive results. Most experts agree that agile SDMs are not suited for all project contexts. Several project and team factors have been…

  20. Assessing Model Fit: Caveats and Recommendations for Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, John L.; Nicholls, Adam R.; Clough, Peter J.; Crust, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Despite the limitations of overgeneralizing cutoff values for confirmatory factor analysis (CFA; e.g., Marsh, Hau, & Wen, 2004), they are still often employed as golden rules for assessing factorial validity in sport and exercise psychology. The purpose of this study was to investigate the appropriateness of using the CFA approach with these…

  1. The effects of physical activity and fitness in adolescence on cognition in adulthood and the role of insulin-like growth factor I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferro, D.A.; Deijen, J.B.; Koppes, L.L.; Mechelen, W. van; Twisk, J.W.; Drent, M.L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical activity and fitness in adolescence may improve cognition in adulthood by increasing insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). Methods: As part of the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study, following subjects from age 13 to 42 years, physical activity and fitness of 303

  2. A Comparison of Small-Side Games and Interval Training on Same Selected Physical Fitness Factors in Amateur Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali M Safania

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Soccer is a team sport with an intermittent nature in which the athletes need to improve their physical fitness and skill factors in order to engage in high intensity exercises. The aim of this study was a comparison of small-side game and interval training on some selected physical fitness in amateur soccer players. Approach: Twenty , soccer players (height 165.34±4.75 cm, weight 58.5±5.22 kg , age 15.7±0.7 years, were randomly selected and assigned to two groups (intermittent training, specific training in form of Small-Side Game (SSG 3 times a week for 6 weeks. The intensity of two training programs was similar according to heart rate (70-95% HR max, progressively and time (4 bouts of 4 min at 70% -95% of maximum heart rate with 3 min active rest periods. For measuring the above variables 12-min running test and RAST test were used, respectively. Data analysis by independent and dependent T test, the level of significance in all statistical analyses was set at p≤0.05. Results: Results showed that the 6-week training of both groups significantly increased in all the variables, (Vo2 max, maximum power, minimum power, average power and RSA variable. Conclusion: according to the results of the study, it is recommended to employ specific training in preparatory programs (especially, of in-season, because such training, in a similar amount of time improve the same physical fitness factors of amateur soccer players and they are applicable in soccer players.

  3. Contribution of Quark Structure Term in Nucleon Electric and Magnetic Form Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hong-Min; ZHANG Ben-Ai

    2004-01-01

    The constituent quarks in the nucleon have always been considered as a point-like particle in the relativistic constituent quark model. However its calculation results of GnE agree poorly with the new experimental data. The electromagnetic structure of light front constituent quarks is considered in this paper. We find that the calculation results have good agreement with the new experimental data of GnE after considering the contribution of the quark structure term. This treatment seems to be able to improve the fit to experimental data of Gep/GMp, /Q2F2p/kpF1p,and Gen/GMn as well.

  4. Contribution of Quark Structure Term in Nucleon Electric and Magnetic Form Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGHong-Min; ZHANGBen-Ai

    2004-01-01

    The constituent quarks in the nucleon have always been considered as a point-like particle in the relativisticconstituent quark model. However its calculation results of GEn agree poorly with the new experimental data. Theelectromagnetic structure of light front constituent quarks is considered in this paper. We find that the calculationresults have good agreement with the new experimental data of GEn after considering the contribution of the quarkstructure term. This treatment seems to be able to improve the fit to experimental data of GEp/GMp,√Q2F2p/kpF1p,and GEn/GMn as well.

  5. Factors influencing knowledge contribution:An empirical investigation of social networking website users

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shengli; DENG; Ting; ZHOU; Min; ZHANG

    2012-01-01

    Purpose:In the Web 2.0 era,leveraging the collective power of user knowledge contributions has become an important part of the study of collective intelligence.This research aims to investigate the factors which influence knowledge contribution behavior of social networking sites(SNS)users.Design/methodology/approach:The data were obtained from an online survey of 251 social networking sites users.Structural equation modeling analysis was used to validate the proposed model.Findings:Our survey shows that the individuals’motivation for knowledge contribution,their capability of contributing knowledge,interpersonal trust and their own habits positively influence their knowledge contribution behavior,but reward does not significantly influence knowledge contribution in the online virtual community.Research limitations:Respondents of our online survey are mainly undergraduate and graduate students.A limited sample group cannot represent all of the population.A larger survey involving more SNS users may be useful.Practical implications:The results have provided some theoretical basis for promoting knowledge contribution and user viscosity.Originality/value:Few studies have investigated the impact of social influence and user habits on knowledge contribution behavior of SNS users.This study can make a theoretical contribution by examining how the social influence processes and habits affect one’s knowledge contribution behavior using online communities.

  6. Patient and carer identified factors which contribute to safety incidents in primary care: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernan, Andrea L; Giles, Sally J; Fuller, Jeffrey; Johnson, Julie K; Walker, Christine; Dunbar, James A

    2015-09-01

    Patients can have an important role in reducing harm in primary-care settings. Learning from patient experience and feedback could improve patient safety. Evidence that captures patients' views of the various contributory factors to creating safe primary care is largely absent. The aim of this study was to address this evidence gap. Four focus groups and eight semistructured interviews were conducted with 34 patients and carers from south-east Australia. Participants were asked to describe their experiences of primary care. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim and specific factors that contribute to safety incidents were identified in the analysis using the Yorkshire Contributory Factors Framework (YCFF). Other factors emerging from the data were also ascertained and added to the analytical framework. Thirteen factors that contribute to safety incidents in primary care were ascertained. Five unique factors for the primary-care setting were discovered in conjunction with eight factors present in the YCFF from hospital settings. The five unique primary care contributing factors to safety incidents represented a range of levels within the primary-care system from local working conditions to the upstream organisational level and the external policy context. The 13 factors included communication, access, patient factors, external policy context, dignity and respect, primary-secondary interface, continuity of care, task performance, task characteristics, time in the consultation, safety culture, team factors and the physical environment. Patient and carer feedback of this type could help primary-care professionals better understand and identify potential safety concerns and make appropriate service improvements. The comprehensive range of factors identified provides the groundwork for developing tools that systematically capture the multiple contributory factors to patient safety. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not

  7. Contributing factors in restaurant-associated foodborne disease outbreaks, FoodNet sites, 2006 and 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, L Hannah; Rosenblum, Ida; Nicholas, David; Phan, Quyen; Jones, Timothy F

    2013-11-01

    An estimated 48 million cases of foodborne illness occur each year in the United States, resulting in approximately 128,000 hospitalizations and 3,000 deaths. Over half of all foodborne disease outbreaks reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are associated with eating in restaurants or delicatessens. We reviewed data from restaurant-associated foodborne disease outbreaks to better understand the factors that contribute to these outbreaks. Data on restaurant-associated foodborne disease outbreaks reported by sites participating in the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) were analyzed to characterize contributing factors reported in foodborne disease outbreaks and the levels of evidence used to identify these factors. Of 457 foodborne disease outbreaks reported in 2006 and 2007 by FoodNet sites, 300 (66%) were restaurant associated, and of these 295 (98%) had at least one reported contributing factor. One to nine (with a median of two) contributing factors were reported per outbreak. Of the 257 outbreaks with a single etiology reported, contributing factors associated with food worker health and hygiene were reported for 165 outbreaks (64%), factors associated with food preparation practices within the establishment were reported for 88 outbreaks (34%), and factors associated with contamination introduced before reaching the restaurant were reported for 56 outbreaks (22%). The pronounced role of food workers in propagating outbreaks makes it clear that more work is needed to address prevention at the local level. Food workers should be instructed not to prepare food while ill to prevent the risk of transmitting pathogens.

  8. Factors contributing to popularity of loyalty programs: evidence from emerging markets

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Yan; Zhijian, Cui

    2016-01-01

    Using secondary data from multiple sources, this study empirically examines the factors that contribute to the popularity of loyalty programs in the airline and hotel industries in the context of emerging market economies. We find that the number of partners, the number of redemption options, and the threshold for obtaining elite status all positively contribute to a loyalty program’s popularity. However, the award redemption requirement has the opposite effects on a program’s pop...

  9. Analysis of Environmental Stress Factors Using an Artificial Growth System and Plant Fitness Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meonghun Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The environment promotes evolution. Evolutionary processes represent environmental adaptations over long time scales; evolution of crop genomes is not inducible within the relatively short time span of a human generation. Extreme environmental conditions can accelerate evolution, but such conditions are often stress inducing and disruptive. Artificial growth systems can be used to induce and select genomic variation by changing external environmental conditions, thus, accelerating evolution. By using cloud computing and big-data analysis, we analyzed environmental stress factors for Pleurotus ostreatus by assessing, evaluating, and predicting information of the growth environment. Through the indexing of environmental stress, the growth environment can be precisely controlled and developed into a technology for improving crop quality and production.

  10. Analysis of environmental stress factors using an artificial growth system and plant fitness optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Meonghun; Yoe, Hyun

    2015-01-01

    The environment promotes evolution. Evolutionary processes represent environmental adaptations over long time scales; evolution of crop genomes is not inducible within the relatively short time span of a human generation. Extreme environmental conditions can accelerate evolution, but such conditions are often stress inducing and disruptive. Artificial growth systems can be used to induce and select genomic variation by changing external environmental conditions, thus, accelerating evolution. By using cloud computing and big-data analysis, we analyzed environmental stress factors for Pleurotus ostreatus by assessing, evaluating, and predicting information of the growth environment. Through the indexing of environmental stress, the growth environment can be precisely controlled and developed into a technology for improving crop quality and production.

  11. Group-fitted ab initiosingle- and multiple-scattering EXAFS Debye-Waller factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimakis, Nicholas; Bunker, Grant

    2002-05-01

    X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy is one of the few direct probes of the structure of metalloprotein binding that is equally applicable to proteins in crystals, solutions, and membranes. Despite considerable progress in the calculation of the photoelectron scattering aspects of XAFS, calculation of the vibrational aspects has lagged because of the difficulty of the calculations. We report here initial results that express single- and multiple-scattering Debye-Waller factors as polynomial functions of first shell radial distance for metal-peptide complexes, enabling quantitatively accurate full multiple-scattering XAFS data analysis of active sites of unknown structure at arbitrary temperatures without the use of ad hoc assumptions.

  12. Large-scale screening of a targeted Enterococcus faecalis mutant library identifies envelope fitness factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel Rigottier-Gois

    Full Text Available Spread of antibiotic resistance among bacteria responsible for nosocomial and community-acquired infections urges for novel therapeutic or prophylactic targets and for innovative pathogen-specific antibacterial compounds. Major challenges are posed by opportunistic pathogens belonging to the low GC% gram-positive bacteria. Among those, Enterococcus faecalis is a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections associated with life-threatening issues and increased hospital costs. To better understand the molecular properties of enterococci that may be required for virulence, and that may explain the emergence of these bacteria in nosocomial infections, we performed the first large-scale functional analysis of E. faecalis V583, the first vancomycin-resistant isolate from a human bloodstream infection. E. faecalis V583 is within the high-risk clonal complex 2 group, which comprises mostly isolates derived from hospital infections worldwide. We conducted broad-range screenings of candidate genes likely involved in host adaptation (e.g., colonization and/or virulence. For this purpose, a library was constructed of targeted insertion mutations in 177 genes encoding putative surface or stress-response factors. Individual mutants were subsequently tested for their i resistance to oxidative stress, ii antibiotic resistance, iii resistance to opsonophagocytosis, iv adherence to the human colon carcinoma Caco-2 epithelial cells and v virulence in a surrogate insect model. Our results identified a number of factors that are involved in the interaction between enterococci and their host environments. Their predicted functions highlight the importance of cell envelope glycopolymers in E. faecalis host adaptation. This study provides a valuable genetic database for understanding the steps leading E. faecalis to opportunistic virulence.

  13. Absence of the predisposing factors and signs and symptoms usually associated with overreaching and overtraining in physical fitness centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Ackel-D'Elia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of the well-known predisposing factors and signs and symptoms usually associated with either overreaching or overtraining syndrome in physical fitness centers in São Paulo City, Brazil. METHOD: A questionnaire consisting of 13 question groups pertaining to either predisposing factors (1-7 or signs and symptoms (8-13 was given to 413 subjects. The general training schedule of the volunteers was characterized by workout sessions of 2.18 ± 0.04 h for a total of 11.0 ± 0.3 h/week for 33 ± 2 months independent of the type of exercise performed (walking, running, spinning, bodybuilding and stretching. A mean score was calculated ranging from 1 (completely absent to 5 (severe for each question group. A low occurrence was considered to be a question group score lower than 4, which was observed in all 13 question groups. RESULTS: The psychological evaluation by POMS Mood State Questionnaire indicated a normal non-inverted iceberg. The hematological parameters, creatine kinase activity, cortisol, total testosterone and free testosterone concentrations were within the normal ranges for the majority of the volunteers selected for this analysis (n = 60. CONCLUSION: According to the questionnaire score analysis, no predisposing factors or signs and symptoms usually associated with either overreaching or overtraining were detected among the members of physical fitness centers in São Paulo City, Brazil. This observation was corroborated by the absence of any significant hematological or stress hormone level alterations in blood analyses of the majority of the selected volunteers (n = 60.

  14. 20 CFR 404.1536 - Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. 404.1536... Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to... alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability (as described in §...

  15. Impact of body mass index, physical activity, and other clinical factors on cardiorespiratory fitness (from the Cooper Center longitudinal study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakoski, Susan G; Barlow, Carolyn E; Farrell, Stephen W; Berry, Jarett D; Morrow, James R; Haskell, William L

    2011-07-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is widely accepted as an important reversible cardiovascular risk factor. In the present study, we examined the nonmodifiable and modifiable determinants of CRF within a large healthy Caucasian population of men and women. The study included 20,239 patients presenting to Cooper Clinic (Dallas, Texas) for a comprehensive medical examination from 2000 through 2010. CRF was determined by maximal treadmill exercise testing. Physical activity categories were 0 metabolic equivalent tasks (METs)/min/week (no self-reported moderate or vigorous intensity physical activity), 1 to 449 METs/min/week (not meeting physical activity guideline), 450 to 749 METs/min/week (meeting guideline), and ≥750 METs/min/week (exceeding guideline). Linear regression modeling was used to determine the most robust clinical factors associated with achieved treadmill time. Age, gender, body mass index (BMI), and physical activity were the most important factors associated with CRF, explaining 56% of the variance (R(2) = 0.56). The addition of all other factors combined (current smoking, systolic blood pressure, blood glucose, high-density and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, health status) were associated with CRF (p physical activity on CRF, such that normal-weight (BMI physical activity compared to obese subjects (BMI ≥30 kg/m(2)). Percent body fat, not lean body mass, was the key factor driving this interaction. In conclusion, BMI was the most important clinical risk factor associated with CRF other than nonmodifiable risk factors age and gender. For a similar amount of physical activity, normal-weight subjects achieved a higher CRF level compared to obese subjects. These data suggest that obesity may offset the benefits of physical activity on achieved CRF, even in a healthy population of men and women.

  16. Understanding the contribution of environmental factors in the spread of antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Stephanie

    2015-07-01

    The overuse and abuse of antibiotics have contributed to the global epidemic of antibiotic resistance. Current evidence suggests that widespread dependency on antibiotics and complex interactions between human health, animal husbandry and veterinary medicine, have contributed to the propagation and spread of resistant organisms. The lack of information on pathogens of major public health importance, limited surveillance, and paucity of standards for a harmonised and coordinated approach, further complicates the issue. Despite the widespread nature of antimicrobial resistance, limited focus has been placed on the role of environmental factors in propagating resistance. There are limited studies that examine the role of the environment, specifically water, sanitation and hygiene factors that contribute to the development of resistant pathogens. Understanding these elements is necessary to identify any modifiable interactions to reduce or interrupt the spread of resistance from the environment into clinical settings. This paper discusses some environmental issues that contribute to antimicrobial resistance, including soil related factors, animal husbandry and waste management, potable and wastewater, and food safety, with examples drawn mainly from the Asian region. The discussion concludes that some of the common issues are often overlooked and whilst there are numerous opportunities for environmental factors to contribute to the growing burden of antimicrobial resistance, a renewed focus on innovative and traditional environmental approaches is needed to tackle the problem.

  17. Modelled Group Fitted XAFS Debye-Waller factors for Zn metalloproteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimakis, Nicholas; Bunker, Grant

    2003-03-01

    X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy is one of the few direct methods for determining the structure of metalloprotein active sites that are applicable to noncrystalline proteins in solutions and membranes. Considerable progress has been made in the calculation of photoelectron scattering aspects of XAFS,but calculation of the vibrational aspects has lagged because of the difficulty of the accurate calculations. Recently we have presented initial results that enabled practical numerical evaluation of XAFS multiple scattering Debye Waller Factors (MSDWFs) of Zn ions bound to histidines in metalloproteins. Recently we have refined our Zn-histidine model to provide more accurate first shell single scattering Debye-Waller parameters, and we have developed a model for Zn-cysteine model that described the MSDWFs enabling for the first time quantitative full single- and multiple-scattering XAFS data analysis of Zn/His/Cys sites at arbitrary temperatures, without the use of ad hoc assumptions. This opens up a wide class of important Zn proteins for study by these methods. Illustrative examples will be presented.

  18. Inactivation of a GAL4-Like Transcription Factor Improves Cell Fitness and Product Yield in Glycoengineered Pichia pastoris Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyros, Rebecca; Bukowski, John; Nelson, Stephanie; Sharkey, Nathan; Kim, Sehoon; Copeland, Victoria; Davidson, Robert C.; Chen, Ronghua; Zhuang, Jun; Sethuraman, Natarajan; Stadheim, Terrance A.

    2014-01-01

    With a completely reengineered and humanized glycosylation pathway, glycoengineered Pichia pastoris has emerged as a promising production host for the manufacture of therapeutic glycoproteins. However, the extensive genetic modifications have also negatively affected the overall fitness levels of the glycoengineered host cells. To make glycoengineered Pichia strains more compatible with a scalable industrial fermentation process, we sought to identify genetic solutions to broadly improve cell robustness during fermentation. In this study, we report that mutations within the Pichia pastoris ATT1 (PpATT1) gene (a homolog of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae GAL4 [ScGAL4] transcriptional activator) dramatically increased the cellular fitness levels of glycoengineered Pichia strains. We demonstrate that deletion of the PpATT1 gene enabled glycoengineered Pichia strains to improve their thermal tolerance levels, reduce their cell lysis defects, and greatly improve fermentation robustness. The extension of the duration of fermentation enabled the PpATT1-modified glycoengineered Pichia strains to increase their product yields significantly without any sacrifice in product quality. Because the ATT1 gene could be deleted from any Pichia strains, including empty hosts and protein-expressing production strains alike, we suggest that the findings described in this study are broadly applicable to any Pichia strains used for the production of therapeutic proteins, including monoclonal antibodies, Fc fusions, peptides, hormones, and growth factors. PMID:25344235

  19. Best-fit model of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of the 2010 Medical Council of Canada Qualifying Examination Part I clinical decision-making cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champlain, André F De

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to assess the fit of a number of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis models to the 2010 Medical Council of Canada Qualifying Examination Part I (MCCQE1) clinical decision-making (CDM) cases. The outcomes of this study have important implications for a range of domains, including scoring and test development. The examinees included all first-time Canadian medical graduates and international medical graduates who took the MCCQE1 in spring or fall 2010. The fit of one- to five-factor exploratory models was assessed for the item response matrix of the 2010 CDM cases. Five confirmatory factor analytic models were also examined with the same CDM response matrix. The structural equation modeling software program Mplus was used for all analyses. Out of the five exploratory factor analytic models that were evaluated, a three-factor model provided the best fit. Factor 1 loaded on three medicine cases, two obstetrics and gynecology cases, and two orthopedic surgery cases. Factor 2 corresponded to pediatrics, and the third factor loaded on psychiatry cases. Among the five confirmatory factor analysis models examined in this study, three- and four-factor lifespan period models and the five-factor discipline models provided the best fit. The results suggest that knowledge of broad disciplinary domains best account for performance on CDM cases. In test development, particular effort should be placed on developing CDM cases according to broad discipline and patient age domains; CDM testlets should be assembled largely using the criteria of discipline and age.

  20. Genetic Factors Influencing Coagulation Factor XIII B-Subunit Contribute to Risk of Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanscombe, Ken B; Traylor, Matthew; Hysi, Pirro G; Bevan, Stephen; Dichgans, Martin; Rothwell, Peter M; Worrall, Bradford B; Seshadri, Sudha; Sudlow, Cathie; Williams, Frances M K; Markus, Hugh S; Lewis, Cathryn M

    2015-08-01

    Abnormal coagulation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke, but how this association is mediated and whether it differs between ischemic stroke subtypes is unknown. We determined the shared genetic risk between 14 coagulation factors and ischemic stroke and its subtypes. Using genome-wide association study results for 14 coagulation factors from the population-based TwinsUK sample (N≈2000 for each factor), meta-analysis results from the METASTROKE consortium ischemic stroke genome-wide association study (12 389 cases, 62 004 controls), and genotype data for 9520 individuals from the WTCCC2 ischemic stroke study (3548 cases, 5972 controls-the largest METASTROKE subsample), we explored shared genetic risk for coagulation and stroke. We performed three analyses: (1) a test for excess concordance (or discordance) in single nucleotide polymorphism effect direction across coagulation and stroke, (2) an estimation of the joint effect of multiple coagulation-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms in stroke, and (3) an evaluation of common genetic risk between coagulation and stroke. One coagulation factor, factor XIII subunit B (FXIIIB), showed consistent effects in the concordance analysis, the estimation of polygenic risk, and the validation with genotype data, with associations specific to the cardioembolic stroke subtype. Effect directions for FXIIIB-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms were significantly discordant with cardioembolic disease (smallest P=5.7×10(-04)); the joint effect of FXIIIB-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms was significantly predictive of ischemic stroke (smallest P=1.8×10(-04)) and the cardioembolic subtype (smallest P=1.7×10(-04)). We found substantial negative genetic covariation between FXIIIB and ischemic stroke (rG=-0.71, P=0.01) and the cardioembolic subtype (rG=-0.80, P=0.03). Genetic markers associated with low FXIIIB levels increase risk of ischemic stroke cardioembolic subtype. © 2015 The

  1. Contributing Factors to High-Risk Sexual Behaviors among Iranian Adolescent Girls: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimoradi, Zainab; Kariman, Nourossadat; Simbar, Masoumeh; Ahmadi, Fazlollah

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Adolescence is a period of overwhelming changes and challenges, which expose the adolescents to high-risk behaviors. Risky sexual relationship is one of these behaviors that entails physical risks and psychosocial harms. Various factors have been recognized to shape sexual behaviors in adolescents. This paper is an attempt to investigate the factors contributing to high-risk sexual behaviors in Iranian adolescent girls. Methods: A literature review of the research published by Iranian authors, in Farsi or English language in local and foreign journals, was conducted using PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Scientific Information Database (SID), IranMedex, IranDoc, and Google Scholar. The search in each database included all the years covered at that time using keywords such as “sexual, adolescents, and Iran”, and continued using other keywords such as “sexual behavior, high-risk behavior, sexual risk and reproductive behavior” individually and in combination Results: Sixteen published articles were identified. Factors contributing to high-risk sexual behaviors in girls can be divided into four general groups including personal, family, peer, school and community. Conclusion: Regarding the identified risk and protective factors, appropriate individual, family and school-based interventions can be designed and implemented to strengthen protective factors. While individual and family factors are considered more in research, factors related to peers, school and community have received less attention. Since social values, beliefs and norms are important factors in formation of sexual behaviors, further research regarding these factors is suggested. PMID:28097173

  2. [Physical activity habits in schoolchildren: influential factors and relationships with physical fitness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriscado, Daniel; Muros, José Joaquín; Zabala, Mikel; Dalmau, Josep María

    2014-10-06

    Introducción: Los estilos de vida actuales han provocado un aumento de las actividades sedentarias y una disminución de la actividad física, lo que puede conllevar un empeoramiento de la salud presente y futura de la población infantil. Objetivos: El objetivo del estudio fue describir los hábitos de vida y actividad física de una población de escolares de una ciudad del norte de España, así como analizar las relaciones entre dichos hábitos y la composición corporal, la condición física y algunos factores sociodemográficos. Métodos: El estudio se llevó a cabo sobre una muestra representativa de 329 escolares de sexto de primaria (11-12 años) de las 31 escuelas de Logroño (La Rioja). Se registraron datos sociodemográficos, antropométricos, tensión arterial, desarrollo madurativo, condición física y hábitos de vida y de actividad física. Resultados: Los alumnos de género masculino, quienes practicaban actividades deportivas extraescolares y los que se encontraban en un estadio de desarrollo menor reportaron mayores niveles de actividad física. Se encontraron correlaciones directas entre la práctica y la condición física, especialmente con la capacidad aeróbica (r=0,38), e inversas con las horas frente a la pantalla (r=- 0,18), pero no con la composición corporal. Conclusiones: Dadas las relaciones entre los niveles de actividad y la condición física, estrategias de promoción de la práctica física deberían fomentarse con el fin de mejorar la salud de los jóvenes. Las intervenciones deberían centrarse en favorecer el acceso a las actividades deportivas extraescolares, reducir los hábitos sedentarios y aumentar el nivel de práctica física del género femenino.

  3. Three-year changes in fitness and adiposity are independently associated with cardiovascular risk factors among young danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jago, Russell; Froberg, Karsten; Cooper, Ashley R

    2010-01-01

    , sum of skinfolds (SSF), and blood pressure were assessed. Fasting blood samples were used to calculate total cholesterol (TC), high and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C & LDL-C), triglycerides, insulin, glucose, and HOMA-IR. Regression models examined whether CRF change or SSF change were...... independently or interactively associated with risk variables. RESULTS: Change in SSF was independently associated with change in TC (z = 4.83, P blood pressure. CRF change was independently associated...... with change in TC (z = -3.86, P blood pressure (z = 2.06, P = .040). CONCLUSIONS: Change in fitness and adiposity were independently associated with the development of cardiovascular risk factors among young children suggesting a need to increase CRF...

  4. Factors contributing to poor glycaemic control in diabetic patients at Mopani District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.H. Shiluban

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is not only a major burden in the developed world, it is also an increasing health problem in less developed countries. Although health education could be a tool to achieve better glycaemic control, it is important to understand that health education should be adjusted to patients’ literacy, cultural environment and economic status. Among other factors, lack of money has an influence on the outcome of diabetes mellitus. Thus the purpose of the study is to identify factors contributing to poor glycaemia control in diabetic patients. Data was collected using self-report questionnaire on a convenient sample of 32 diabetic patients and unstructured, open-ended interviews on eight patients’ inorder to allow them freedom of expressing themselves with regard to factors that contribute to poor glycaemic control on diabetic patients. Data was then analysed using a computer program called Statistical Package for Social Sciences. The socioeconomic factors appeared to have significant influence on glycaemic control among participants, for instance 75% of the total subjects (32 indicated that they experienced problems of accessing health care services due to lack of money. Ignorance related to where to seek support system such as educational programme, and nutrition counselling were factors that were identified to contribute to diabetic patients’ poor glycaemia control.Permission to conduct the study was obtained from the Provincial Department of Health and the managers of the institutions where the study was conducted. Recommendations for dealing with the identified factors have been formulated.

  5. Factors contributing to poor glycaemic control in diabetic patients at Mopani District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. H. Shilubane,

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is not only a major burden in the developed world, it is also an increasing health problem in less developed countries. Although health education could be a tool to achieve better glycaemic control, it is important to understand that health education should be adjusted to patients’ literacy, cultural environment and economic status. Among other factors, lack of money has an influence on the outcome of diabetes mellitus. Thus the purpose of the study is to identify factors contributing to poor glycaemia control in diabetic patients. Data was collected using self-report questionnaire on a convenient sample of 32 diabetic patients and unstructured, open-ended interviews on eight patients’ inorder to allow them freedom of expressing themselves with regard to factors that contribute to poor glycaemic control on diabetic patients. Data was then analysed using a computer program called Statistical Package for Social Sciences. The socioeconomic factors appeared to have significant influence on glycaemic control among participants, for instance 75% of the total subjects (32 indicated that they experienced problems of accessing health care services due to lack of money. Ignorance related to where to seek support system such as educational programme, and nutrition counselling were factors that were identified to contribute to diabetic patients’ poor glycaemia control. Permission to conduct the study was obtained from the Provincial Department of Health and the managers of the institutions where the study was conducted. Recommendations for dealing with the identified factors have been formulated.

  6. Wait Not, Want Not: Factors Contributing to the Development of Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Trish

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to examine prevalence and incident rates of both anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. In addition, this article will review the psychological and sociological factors that contribute to the development and maintenance of an eating disorder. Finally, different treatment approaches will be discussed in…

  7. Contributing Factors to Student Success in Anatomy and Physiology: Lower outside Workload and Better Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, David E.; Hannum, Lynn; Gupta, Sat

    2004-01-01

    A study of students of a traditional two-semester Anatomy and Physiology class was made to determine factors that contributed to success in the coursework. The test established a co-relation between the amount of study in mathematics and science done previously in school and final grades in the subject.

  8. Factors Contributing to Perceived Stress among Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Kentya C.; Olotu, Busuyi S.; Thach, Andrew V.; Roberts, Rochelle; Davis, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to report on perceived stress levels, identify its contributing factors, and evaluate the association between perceived stress and usage of university resources to cope with stress among a cross-section of Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) students. Methods: Perceived stress was measured via a web-based survey of…

  9. Factors Contributing to Perceived Stress among Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Kentya C.; Olotu, Busuyi S.; Thach, Andrew V.; Roberts, Rochelle; Davis, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to report on perceived stress levels, identify its contributing factors, and evaluate the association between perceived stress and usage of university resources to cope with stress among a cross-section of Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) students. Methods: Perceived stress was measured via a web-based survey of…

  10. Contributing Factors on Malaysia Preschool Teachers' Belief, Attitude and Competence in Using Play Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantan, Hafsah Binti; Bin Hamdan, Abdul Rahim; Yahya, Fauziah Hj; Saleh, Halimatussadiah Binti; Ong, Mohd Hanafi Bin Azman

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on preschool teachers' belief, attitude, knowledge and competence in using play in Malaysia. Its purpose is to find out indicators significantly contribute to belief, attitude, knowledge and competence in play of preschool teachers in Malaysia. The method used was factor analysis in order to confirm indicators in each variable…

  11. Motivational Factors Contributing to Turkish High School Students' Achievement in Gases and Chemical Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadioglu, Cansel; Uzuntiryaki, Esen

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the contribution of motivational factors to 10th grade students' achievement in gases and chemical reactions in chemistry. Three hundred fifty nine 10th grade students participated in the study. The Gases and Chemical Reactions Achievement Test and the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire were…

  12. Patient-perceived factors contributing to low tuberculosis cure rate at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-04-03

    Apr 3, 2014 ... Objectives: The purpose of the study was to explore and describe the factors contributing to low TB ..... treatment on an empty stomach I experience abdominal pains. I ..... org.za/wp-content/uploads/2010/04/Chapter12.pdf ... in Pakistan', The Lancet 357(9257), 664–669. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-.

  13. Factors Contributing to the Success of Undergraduate Business Students in Management Science Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookshire, Robert G.; Palocsay, Susan W.

    2005-01-01

    The introductory management science (MS) course has historically been recognized as one of the most difficult core courses in the business school curriculum. This study uses multiple regression to examine the factors that contribute to the success of undergraduate business students in an MS course, based on data gathered from the college…

  14. Factors contributing to possession and use of walking aids among persons with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esch, M. van der; Heijmans, M.; Dekker, J.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the possession and use of walking aids among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or osteoarthritis (OA), and to identify factors contributing to possession and actual use of these aids. METHODS: A random sample of 640 patients with RA or OA was derived from a database

  15. An Investigation into Factors Contributing to Iranian Secondary School English Teachers' Job Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soodmand Afshar, Hassan; Doosti, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    This study explored factors contributing to job satisfaction and dissatisfaction of male and female Iranian secondary school English teachers. A Likert-scale 58-item questionnaire was developed which was completed by 210 participants. The questionnaire also included three open-ended questions which investigated participants' motivation and…

  16. Wait Not, Want Not: Factors Contributing to the Development of Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Trish

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to examine prevalence and incident rates of both anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. In addition, this article will review the psychological and sociological factors that contribute to the development and maintenance of an eating disorder. Finally, different treatment approaches will be discussed in…

  17. Contributing Factors to Older Teen Mothers' Academic Success as Very Young Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Jennifer; Abu Rabia, Hazza M.

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the factors contributed to 13 older teen mothers' academic success as very young mothers. The participants were older teen mothers who were pregnant and gave birth at the age of 16 years old or younger, and who have achieved a college degree from an accredited college or university while they raised their…

  18. Factors Contributing to Student Engagement in an Instructional Facebook Group for Undergraduate Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Peter L.; Gregory, Karen M.; Eddy, Erik R.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates factors contributing to student engagement in an educational Facebook group. The study is based on survey results of 138 undergraduate mathematics students at a highly diverse urban public university. Survey measures included engagement in the Facebook group, access to Facebook, comfort using technology, and interest in the…

  19. Subjective and Objective Evaluation of Hypertext Reading Performance: In-Depth Analysis of Contributing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Min-chen

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of reading hypertext on EFL learners' reading comprehension and analysis of contributing factors. Eighty-eight students joined the study. They took two reading comprehension tests: Hypertext Version and Printed text Version. After the tests, they were asked to fill out a questionnaire of…

  20. Latina Resilience in Higher Education: Contributing Factors Including Seasonal Farmworker Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Cristina Santamaria; McCain, Terrence; Gomez-Vilchis, Veronica

    2013-01-01

    Many Latina students overcome multiple obstacles to earn university degrees. Five married Latina women with children and seasonal farmworker backgrounds are the focus of this study which is analyzed through resiliency theory to understand factors contributing to their academic resilience. Variables connected to academic success are explored and…

  1. Small angle X-ray scattering data and structure factor fitting for the study of the quaternary structure of the spermidine N-acetyltransferase SpeG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Weigand

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe the treatment of the small-angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS data used during SpeG quaternary structure study as part of the research article “Substrate induced allosteric change in the quaternary structure of the spermidine N-acetyltransferase SpeG” published in Journal of Molecular Biology [1]. These data were collected on two separate area detectors as separate dilution series of the SpeG and the SpeG with spermine samples along with data from their companion buffers. The data were radially integrated, corrected for incident beam variation, and scaled to absolute units. After subtraction of volume-fraction scaled buffer scattering and division by the SpeG concentration, multiple scattering curves free of an inter-molecular structure factor were derived from the dilution series. Rather than extrapolating to infinite dilution, the structure factor contribution was estimated by fitting to the full set of data provided by dividing the scattering curves of a dilution series by the curve from the most dilute sample in that series.

  2. Fitness -keeping Situation of the Disabled and Affecting Factors Analysis under the Background of National Fitness%全民健身下残疾人体育健身现状及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘桂芳; 刘永磊

    2015-01-01

    探讨全民健身下残疾人体育健身现状,为残疾人体育健身保障机制提供依据文章采用文献资料法、问卷调查法及数理统计法等研究方法,对河南省现有残疾人体育健身现状及影响因素进行调查,研究发现:对体育健身的认识偏差及场地器材匮乏等是影响残疾人参与体育健身的主要因素;建议政府应加大对残疾人体育场地器材的投入,营造残疾人参与体育健身的高保障环境。%In order to explore the current situation of fitness -keeping by the disabled and lay a foundation for safeguard mechanism for fitness -keeping by the disabled,the paper investigates the current situation of fitness -keeping by the disabled in Henan province and affecting factors with research methods of literature,questionnaire and mathematical statistics.Studies show that major factors affecting disabled people’s participation in fitness -keeping are misunderstanding of keeping fit by sports and a lack of sites and equipment.The paper suggests government strengthening the input of sports site and equipment for the disabled to safeguard the environment for the disabled to participate in sports fitness.

  3. Production of autoinducer 2 in Salmonella enterica serovar Thompson contributes to its fitness in chickens but not on cilantro leaf surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandl, M T; Miller, W G; Bates, A H; Mandrell, R E

    2005-05-01

    Food-borne illness caused by Salmonella enterica has been linked traditionally to poultry products but is associated increasingly with fresh fruits and vegetables. We have investigated the role of the production of autoinducer 2 (AI-2) in the ability of S. enterica serovar Thompson to colonize the chicken intestine and the cilantro phyllosphere. A mutant of S. enterica serovar Thompson that is defective in AI-2 production was constructed by insertional mutagenesis of luxS. The population size of the S. enterica serovar Thompson parental strain was significantly higher than that of its LuxS(-) mutant in the intestine, spleen, and droppings of chicks 12 days after their oral inoculation with the strains in a ratio of 1:1. In contrast, no significant difference in the population dynamics of the parental and LuxS(-) strain was observed after their inoculation singly or in mixtures onto cilantro plants. Digital image analysis revealed that 54% of S. enterica serovar Thompson cells were present in large aggregates on cilantro leaves but that the frequency distributions of the size of aggregates formed by the parental strain and the LuxS(-) mutant were not significantly different. Carbon utilization profiles indicated that the AI-2-producing strain utilized a variety of amino and organic acids more efficiently than its LuxS(-) mutant but that most sugars were utilized similarly in both strains. Thus, inherent differences in the nutrients available to S. enterica in the phyllosphere and in the chicken intestine may underlie the differential contribution of AI-2 synthesis to the fitness of S. enterica in these environments.

  4. Factors contributing to the disturbance of coagulation and fibrinolysis in dengue virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Chun Chuang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemorrhage is one of the hallmarks of dengue hemorrhagic fever. However, the mechanisms that cause hemorrhage are unclear. In this review we focus on the possible factors that may be involved in the disturbance of coagulation and fibrinolysis during dengue virus (DENV infection. Factors such as autoantibodies and cytokines induced by DENV infection as well as hemostatic molecules expressed on DENV-infected cells, and DENV viral proteins may all contribute to the defect of hemostasis during DENV infection. It is the combination of these viral and host factors that may tilt the balance of coagulation and fibrinolysis toward bleeding in dengue patients.

  5. Factors Contributing to the Subjective Career Success among Islamic Educators in Primary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesnan Supa`ad

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A very limited research has been done in the field of career development among Islamic education teachers. Most of the previous researches showed an improvement in terms of grades, positions, and responsibilities of their previous routines as an indicator of their career advancement. However, this conceptual (concept paper discusses how personality factors, career planning, and career strategy can provide significant contribution to the success of Islamic education teachers’ career. Based on the Five Factor Model, Gould Planning Model, and the support of previous researches, this paper discusses how these three factors can contribute to the success of Islamic education teachers’ career. This paper also discusses its impact towards Islamic education teachers in Malaysia, schools management, District Education Office, Ministry of Education, and teachers education institutions.

  6. Contribution of thermal and nonthermal factors to the regulation of body temperature in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekjavic, Igor B; Eiken, Ola

    2006-06-01

    The set point has been used to define the regulated level of body temperature, suggesting that displacements of core temperature from the set point initiate heat production (HP) and heat loss (HL) responses. Human and animal experiments have demonstrated that the responses of sweating and shivering do not coincide at a set point but rather establish a thermoeffector threshold zone. Neurophysiological studies have demonstrated that the sensor-to-effector pathways for HP and HL overlap and, in fact, mutually inhibit each other. This reciprocal inhibition theory, presumably reflecting the manner in which thermal factors contribute to homeothermy in humans, does not incorporate the effect of nonthermal factors on temperature regulation. The present review examines the actions of these nonthermal factors within the context of neuronal models of temperature regulation, suggesting that examination of these factors may provide further insights into the nature of temperature regulation. It is concluded that, although there is no evidence to doubt the existence of the HP and HL pathways reciprocally inhibiting one another, it appears that such a mechanism is of little consequence when comparing the effects of nonthermal factors on the thermoregulatory system, since most of these factors seem to exert their influence in the region after the reciprocal cross-inhibition. At any given moment, both thermal and several nonthermal factors will be acting on the thermoregulatory system. It may, therefore, not be appropriate to dismiss the contribution of either when discussing the regulation of body temperature in humans.

  7. Genetic, maternal and placental factors in the association between birth weight and physical fitness: a longitudinal twin study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbert N H Touwslager

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adult cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle strength are related to all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Both are possibly related to birth weight, but it is unclear what the importance is of genetic, maternal and placental factors in these associations. DESIGN: Peak oxygen uptake and measures of strength, flexibility and balance were obtained yearly during adolescence (10-18 years in 114 twin pairs in the Leuven Longitudinal Twin Study. Their birth weights had been collected prospectively within the East Flanders Prospective Twin Survey. RESULTS: We identified linear associations between birth weight and adolescent vertical jump (b = 1.96 cm per kg birth weight, P = 0.02, arm pull (b = 1.85 kg per kg birth weight P = 0.03 and flamingo balance (b = -1.82 attempts to stand one minute per kg birth weight, P = 0.03. Maximum oxygen uptake appeared to have a U-shaped association with birth weight (the smallest and largest children had the lowest uptake, P = 0.01, but this association was no longer significant after adjustment for parental BMI. Using the individual twin's deviation from his own twin pair's average birth weight, we found positive associations between birth weight and adolescent vertical jump (b = 3.49, P = 0.0007 and arm pull (b = 3.44, P = 0.02. Δ scores were calculated within the twin pairs as first born twin minus second born twin. Δ birth weight was associated with Δ vertical jump within MZ twin pairs only (b = 2.63, P = 0.009, which indicates importance of placental factors. CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence for an association between adolescent physical performance (strength, balance and possibly peak oxygen uptake and birth weight. The associations with vertical jump and arm pull were likely based on individual, more specifically placental (in the case of vertical jump factors. Our results should be viewed as hypothesis-generating and need confirmation, but potentially support preventive strategies to optimize

  8. Normal aging and cognition: the unacknowledged contribution of cerebrovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morra, L; Zade, D; McGlinchey, R E; Milberg, W P

    2013-01-01

    Despite the widespread assumption that cognitive decline is an inherent part of the normal aging process, research suggests that part of the variance in age-related cognitive decline is attributable to modifiable factors common in geriatric populations such as cerebrovascular risk factors. We completed a literature search using Science Citation Index and evaluated the most cited articles from the last 10 years to determine the extent to which investigations of normal aging and cognition account for the influence of cerebrovascular risk factors. We found that the majority of the most frequently cited literature does not adequately account for the contribution of cerebrovascular risk factors and therefore, it is possible that many conclusions about normal aging and cognition are flawed or incomplete. Further investigation of the role of cerebrovascular risk factors in age-related cognitive decline is imperative to more accurately understand the effect of aging on cognition.

  9. Analysis of the Contribution of Total Factor Productivity to Agricultural Yield in Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    By analyzing data concerning agricultural development from 1981 to 2010 in Anhui Province,the total factor productivity and growth rate of agriculture from 1981 to 2010 are estimated empirically.By dividing years from 1981 to 2010 into several subintervals,this paper evaluates and analyzes initial stage of reform and opening up,soft landing stage,the stage of financial crisis,the stage of subprime mortgage crisis and the impact of all factors on total factor growth rate of agriculture.Then it analyzes the contribution of growth of total factor productivity to total yield of agricultural economy.The research finds that the growth of total factor productivity in Anhui Province is significant to agricultural development.

  10. The Impact of BIB-Spiralling Induced Missing Data Patterns on Goodness-of-Fit Tests in Factor Analysis. Occasional Paper OP93-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, David

    The impact of the use of data arising from balanced incomplete block (BIB) spiralled designs on the chi-square goodness-of-fit test in factor analysis is considered. Data from BIB designs posses a unique pattern of missing data that can be characterized as missing completely at random (MCAR). Standard approaches to factor analyzing such data rest…

  11. Valence quark contributions for the gamma N -> P11(1440) form factors

    CERN Document Server

    Ramalho, G

    2010-01-01

    Using a covariant spectator quark model we estimate valence quark contributions to the F1*(Q2) and F2*(Q2) transition form factors for the gamma N -> P11(1440) reaction. The Roper resonance, P11(1440), is assumed to be the first radial excitation of the nucleon. The present model requires no extra parameters except for those already fixed by the previous studies for the nucleon. Our results are consistent with the experimental data in the high Q2 region, and those from lattice QCD. We also estimate the meson cloud contributions, focusing on the low Q2 region, where they are expected to be dominant.

  12. Physical and environmental factors contributing to music related injuries among children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKechnie, Natalie C; Jacobs, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This study asserts that a combination of environmental and physical factors influence the child pianist's risk for developing a music related injury. 26 participants (10 piano students, 10 parents, and 6 piano teachers) were included in this study. Piano students were ages 5 to 11 and currently enrolled in piano lessons. Three questionnaires addressed the factors affecting the participant groups (children, parents, and piano teachers). Participants completed one questionnaire about the factors contributing to the development of music related injuries in child pianists. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the results. None of the student participants had pain, discomfort, or a history of music related injuries. The majority of parents and teachers reported that the lighting was the most important environmental factor affecting students' playing in the piano lesson. 70% of parents reported that the presence of family members most greatly affected students' practicing at home. 100% of the teachers and parents reported that the most important physical factors contributing to students' injury-free playing were playing with proper technique and learning effective practice strategies. All parents and students who were taking piano lessons in their homes reported the most satisfaction with their piano lesson environment. The results of this study do not support a relationship between environmental or physical factors and the presence of pain, discomfort, or music related injuries in students.

  13. Factors contributing to sleep deprivation in a multidisciplinary intensive care unit in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie J. Ehlers

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Patients in intensive care units require rest and sleep to recuperate, but might suffer from sleep deprivation due to ongoing unit activities. The study aimed to identify and describe the factors contributing to sleep deprivation in one multi-disciplinary intensive care unit MDICU in a private hospital in South Africa. Quantitative, descriptive research was conducted to identify factors contributing to sleep deprivation in the research setting, and to make recommendations to enhance these patients’ abilities to sleep. Structured interviewswere conducted with 34 adult non-ventilated patients who had spent at least one night in the MDICU and who gave informed consent. Out of the 34 interviewed patients 70.6% n = 24 indicated that they suffered from sleep deprivation in the MDICU. The five major factors contributing to sleep deprivation in a MDICU were, (1 not knowing nurses’ names, noise caused by alarms, (2 stress, (3 inability to understand medical terms, and (3 blood pressure cuffs that restricted patients’ movements and smelled badly. Patients’ abilities to sleep were enhanced by reassuring nurses whose names they knew and with whom they could communicate. By attending to the identified five major factors, patients’ abilities to sleep in a MDICU could be enhanced enabling patients to recuperate faster. The implementation of such measures need not incur financial costs for the MDICU concerned.

  14. Factors contributing to sleep deprivation in a multidisciplinary intensive care unit in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie J. Ehlers

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients in intensive care units require rest and sleep to recuperate, but might suffer from sleep deprivation due to ongoing unit activities. The study aimed to identify and describe the factors contributing to sleep deprivation in one multi-disciplinary intensive care unit (MDICU in a private hospital in South Africa. Quantitative, descriptive research was conducted to identify factors contributing to sleep deprivation in the research setting, and to make recommendations to enhance these patients’ abilities to sleep. Structured interviews were conducted with 34 adult non-ventilated patients who had spent at least one night in the MDICU and who gave informed consent. Out of the 34 interviewed patients 70.6% (n = 24 indicated that they suffered from sleep deprivation in the MDICU. The five major factors contributing to sleep deprivation in a MDICU were, (1 not knowing nurses’ names, noise caused by alarms, (2 stress, (3 inability to understand medical terms, and (3 blood pressure cuffs that restricted patients’ movements and smelled badly. Patients’ abilities to sleep were enhanced by reassuring nurses whose names they knew and with whom they could communicate. By attending to the identified five major factors, patients’ abilities to sleep in a MDICU could be enhanced enabling patients to recuperate faster. The implementation of such measures need not incur financial costs for the MDICU concerned.

  15. Gully erosion: A comparison of contributing factors in two catchments in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mararakanye, Ndifelani; Sumner, Paul D.

    2017-07-01

    Gully erosion is an environmental, agricultural and social problem requiring extensive research and mitigation actions to control. This study assesses the influence of factors contributing to gully erosion using Geographic Information System (GIS) and Information Value (InfVal) statistics from two catchments coded X12 and W55 in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa. Existing spatial data representing contributing factors; soil, geology, vegetation and land use were analyzed. Topographic variables were extracted from a 10 m Digital Elevation Model (DEM) interpolated from map contours, and gullies were mapped from aerial photos with 0.5 m spatial resolution. A zonal approach was used to extract the proportion of gullies in each of the contributing factor classes using GIS software packages, and InfVal weighting was performed to determine the influence of each class. Comparison of the results shows the variation in the level of influence of factors contributing to gully erosion. The findings in catchment X12 support a commonly held assumption that gully formation is influenced by duplex soils underlain by colluvium and alluvial deposits on a lower slope position where overland flow converges and accumulates, resulting in high soil moisture. Gullies were also influenced by soils developed over weathered granite, gneiss and ultramafic rocks. The influence of a granite rock was further highlighted in catchment W55 where there is a variable thickness of very deep Hutton dominant soil form and shallow Lithosols with sandy texture, on an area of moderate to steep slopes where overland flow converges and accumulates, with high stream power in overgrazed grassland. An understanding of these factors will assist future modelling of the vulnerability to gully erosion over a wider geographical area.

  16. The identification of factors contributing to self-reported anomalies in civil aviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrzejczak, Chris; Karwowski, Waldemar; Thompson, William

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyze anomalies voluntarily reported by pilots in civil aviation sector and identify factors leading to such anomalies. Experimental data were obtained from the NASA aviation safety reporting system (ASRS) database. These data contained a range of text records spanning 30 years of civilian aviation, both commercial (airline operations) and general aviation (private aircraft). Narrative data as well as categorical data were used. The associations between incident contributing factors and self-reported anomalies were investigated using data mining and correspondence analysis. The results revealed that a broadly defined human factors category and weather conditions were the main contributors to self-reported civil aviation anomalies. New associations between identified factors and reported anomaly conditions were also reported.

  17. Factors that contribute to the immmunogenicity of therapeutic recombinant human proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukovozov, Ilya; Sabljic, Thomas; Hortelano, Gonzalo; Ofosu, Frederick A

    2008-05-01

    Use of recombinant human proteins has revolutionized medicine by providing over 200 highly purified hormones and proteins that effectively treat many inherited and acquired peptide hormone and protein deficiencies. With the exception of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies, these biological medicines are synthesized by cultured cells using DNA sequences that would yield proteins with identical amino acid sequences as endogenous human proteins. Therefore, there was the broad expectation that recombinant human biological medicines would be non-immunogenic in patients capable of synthesizing even sub-optimal levels of these therapeutic proteins to which they are innately tolerant. However, the widespread clinical use of recombinant human proteins has demonstrated that nearly all of them are immunogenic. This observation suggests that factors additional to differences in amino acid sequences of endogenous and biotherapeutic proteins contribute to the immunogenicity of therapeutic proteins. The main aim of this review is to summarize some of the factors that are known to contribute to the immunogenicity of recombinant therapeutic proteins.

  18. Analysis of contributing factors associated to related patients safety incidents in Intensive Care Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Delgado, M C; Merino de Cos, P; Sirgo Rodríguez, G; Álvarez Rodríguez, J; Gutiérrez Cía, I; Obón Azuara, B; Alonso Ovies, Á

    2015-01-01

    To explore contributing factors (CF) associated to related critical patients safety incidents. SYREC study pos hoc analysis. A total of 79 Intensive Care Departments were involved. The study sample consisted of 1.017 patients; 591 were affected by one or more incidents. The CF were categorized according to a proposed model by the National Patient Safety Agency from United Kingdom that was modified. Type, class and severity of the incidents was analyzed. A total 2,965 CF were reported (1,729 were associated to near miss and 1,236 to adverse events). The CF group more frequently reported were related patients factors. Individual factors were reported more frequently in near miss and task related CF in adverse events. CF were reported in all classes of incidents. The majority of CF were reported in the incidents classified such as less serious, even thought CF patients factors were associated to serious incidents. Individual factors were considered like avoidable and patients factors as unavoidable. The CF group more frequently reported were patient factors and was associated to more severe and unavoidable incidents. By contrast, individual factors were associated to less severe and avoidable incidents. In general, CF most frequently reported were associated to near miss. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  19. CONTRIBUTING FACTORS OF EMPLOYEE’S PERFORMANCE: A CASE STUDY OF LOCAL NGOs IN PESHAWAR CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saqib Shahzad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The research study has been focused to study the contributing factors towards employee’s performance. Performance of employees is one of the most significant factors for the growth and success of every organization. Data was collected through the distribution of questionnaires. 120 questionnaires as the sample size were distributed among the employees of local NGOs. The returned questionnaires were 106 having a response rate of 88.33%. The findings of the study found that job security, relationship with colleagues, relationship with supervisor, working conditions and employee’s empowerment were found to have significant impact on employee’s performance.

  20. Factors Contributing to the Performance of Agricultural Credit in Lombok Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Sjah, Taslim; Cameron, Donald; Russell, Iean W.

    2003-01-01

    In Indonesia, national historical records show increasing agricultural credit provision by government, yet farmers seem to be unable to escape poverty. In addition, the repayment of credit has tended to be lower as years proceed. This paper analyses the performance of credit in terms of agricultural production, farmers' earnings, and credit repayment, and factors contributing to the performance. The analysis is based upon a survey conducted in Central Lombok, where the current KKP government ...

  1. FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO THE IMPLEMENTATION OF WATERFRONT PROJECTS IN PENANG ISLAND

    OpenAIRE

    WOO SUK WAH; ABDELNASER OMRAN

    2012-01-01

    The construction of waterfront projects in Penang Island is a new approach in bringing Penang Island to the next level of development. Projects involving reclamation of land by the edge of the river or the sea, through infrastructure or building projects, have progressed by leaps and bounds over the past few years. This paper aims to identify the factors contributing to the implementation of waterfront projects in Penang Island. Generally, implementation of the waterfront projects is led by f...

  2. Does employee perceptions of fit to job, fit to organisation and fit to community influence job performance? The case of Zimbabwe’s manufacturing sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Chinomona

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The influence of the fit components of job embeddedness (fit to job, fit to organization and fit to community on job performance has not been extensively researched and the relationship is largely unknown.Research purpose: This study investigated the influence of the fit components of job embeddedness (employee fit to job, fit to organization and fit to community on employees’ job performance.Motivation for the study: There is a dearth of studies on the fit components of job embeddedness and the relationship with job performance in developing countries especially in Southern Africa.Research design, approach and method: This cross-sectional study made use of a quantitative survey design. The target population comprised employees working in Zimbabwe’s manufacturing sector (n = 452.Main findings: The results revealed that employee fit to job, fit to organization and fit to community positively influences employees’ job performance.Practical/managerial implications: The findings have implications for human resource managers in Zimbabwe’s manufacturing sector, who are encouraged to consider the three fit factors of job embeddedness during the job applicants interviewing process as they have a significant potential to influence job performance.Contribution/value-addition: The research is one of the primary research papers to investigate the direct effects of the fit components of job embeddedness on employee job performance within the Zimbabwean context. It provides a rich platform for further studies and replication in other industry sectors especially within the African context.

  3. Factors contributing to late breast cancer presentation for health care amongst women in Kumasi, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comfort Asoogo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Delay in presenting breast cancer for health care is dangerous because it can increase the mortality rate amongst affected women. Delaying health care and treatment makes it difficult to manage advanced breast cancer successfully. Understanding the factors that contribute to delays in presentation for health care can save lives.Objectives: The purpose of the study was to describe the factors which contribute to the latepresentation of Ghanaian women with breast cancer for health care at a tertiary hospital in Kumasi, Ghana.Method: A descriptive qualitative research design was utilised to answer the research question: ‘What factors contribute to presenting with late breast cancer for health care amongst Ghanaian women who were treated for breast cancer at a tertiary hospital in Kumasi, Ghana?’ A sample of 30 women diagnosed with breast cancer and presented with Stage II and Stage III participated in the study. Semi-structured interviews and field notes were conducted for data collection. Content data analysis was used in line with the research question.Findings: Five themes were discovered as findings. These were: lack of knowledge about breast cancer; fear of cancer treatment and its outcomes; poverty; traditional and spiritual beliefs and treatments and caring for others.Conclusions: We recommend the development of breast cancer awareness programmes and health education at primary health care level.

  4. ZINC FINGER OF ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA12 (ZAT12) Interacts with FER-LIKE IRON DEFICIENCY-INDUCED TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR (FIT) Linking Iron Deficiency and Oxidative Stress Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Cham Thi Tuyet; Brumbarova, Tzvetina; Ivanov, Rumen; Stoof, Claudia; Weber, Eva; Mohrbacher, Julia; Fink-Straube, Claudia; Bauer, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Plants grown under iron (Fe)-deficient conditions induce a set of genes that enhance the efficiency of Fe uptake by the roots. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the central regulator of this response is the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor FER-LIKE IRON DEFICIENCY-INDUCED TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR (FIT). FIT activity is regulated by protein-protein interactions, which also serve to integrate external signals that stimulate and possibly inhibit Fe uptake. In the search of signaling components regulating FIT function, we identified ZINC FINGER OF ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA12 (ZAT12), an abiotic stress-induced transcription factor. ZAT12 interacted with FIT, dependent on the presence of the ethylene-responsive element-binding factor-associated amphiphilic repression motif. ZAT12 protein was found expressed in the root early differentiation zone, where its abundance was modulated in a root layer-specific manner. In the absence of ZAT12, FIT expression was upregulated, suggesting a negative effect of ZAT12 on Fe uptake. Consistently, zat12 loss-of-function mutants had higher Fe content than the wild type at sufficient Fe. We found that under Fe deficiency, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels were enhanced in a FIT-dependent manner. FIT protein, in turn, was stabilized by H2O2 but only in the presence of ZAT12, showing that H2O2 serves as a signal for Fe deficiency responses. We propose that oxidative stress-induced ZAT12 functions as a negative regulator of Fe acquisition. A model where H2O2 mediates the negative regulation of plant responses to prolonged stress might be applicable to a variety of stress conditions.

  5. Gene duplication and co-evolution of G1/S transcription factor specificity in fungi are essential for optimizing cell fitness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Hendler

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Transcriptional regulatory networks play a central role in optimizing cell survival. How DNA binding domains and cis-regulatory DNA binding sequences have co-evolved to allow the expansion of transcriptional networks and how this contributes to cellular fitness remains unclear. Here we experimentally explore how the complex G1/S transcriptional network evolved in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by examining different chimeric transcription factor (TF complexes. Over 200 G1/S genes are regulated by either one of the two TF complexes, SBF and MBF, which bind to specific DNA binding sequences, SCB and MCB, respectively. The difference in size and complexity of the G1/S transcriptional network across yeast species makes it well suited to investigate how TF paralogs (SBF and MBF and DNA binding sequences (SCB and MCB co-evolved after gene duplication to rewire and expand the network of G1/S target genes. Our data suggests that whilst SBF is the likely ancestral regulatory complex, the ancestral DNA binding element is more MCB-like. G1/S network expansion took place by both cis- and trans- co-evolutionary changes in closely related but distinct regulatory sequences. Replacement of the endogenous SBF DNA-binding domain (DBD with that from more distantly related fungi leads to a contraction of the SBF-regulated G1/S network in budding yeast, which also correlates with increased defects in cell growth, cell size, and proliferation.

  6. Total Factor Productivity and Its Contribution to Malaysia’s Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmah Ismail

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines Total Factor Productivity (TFP growth of the Malaysian economy from 1971 to 2007. By using the method of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA, this study estimates the contribution of technological change and technical efficiency change to the TFP growth and further identifies the determinants of TFP. The results from this study show that for the overall periods between the years 1971 and 2007, the contribution of technological change to TFP is higher than the contribution of technical efficiency change. Similar results are found for the periods 1971-1985 and 1999-2007. Only for the period 1986-1998, the contribution of technical efficiency change exceeds that of technological change. The study found that even though TFP growth is a significant contributor to the economic growth, but its contribution is still lower than the capital and labor. In contrast, capital is the most important contributor to the economic growth of Malaysia. Further, the result shows that the manufacturing output growth is the main contributor to the growth of TFP, followed by the percentage of foreign-owned companies. The percentage of workers with tertiary education is not a significant determinant of TFP growth despite having a positive and the highest coefficient.

  7. Genome-wide gene expression analysis of Bordetella pertussis isolates associated with a resurgence in pertussis: elucidation of factors involved in the increased fitness of epidemic strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Audrey J; van der Lee, Saskia; Mohangoo, Archena; van Gent, Marjolein; van der Ark, Arno; van de Waterbeemd, Bas

    2013-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis (B. pertussis) is the causative agent of whooping cough, which is a highly contagious disease in the human respiratory tract. Despite vaccination since the 1950s, pertussis remains the most prevalent vaccine-preventable disease in developed countries. A recent resurgence pertussis is associated with the expansion of B. pertussis strains with a novel allele for the pertussis toxin (ptx) promoter ptxP3 in place of resident ptxP1 strains. The recent expansion of ptxP3 strains suggests that these strains carry mutations that have increased their fitness. Compared to the ptxP1 strains, ptxP3 strains produce more Ptx, which results in increased virulence and immune suppression. In this study, we investigated the contribution of gene expression changes of various genes on the increased fitness of the ptxP3 strains. Using genome-wide gene expression profiling, we show that several virulence genes had higher expression levels in the ptxP3 strains compared to the ptxP1 strains. We provide the first evidence that wildtype ptxP3 strains are better colonizers in an intranasal mouse infection model. This study shows that the ptxP3 mutation and the genetic background of ptxP3 strains affect fitness by contributing to the ability to colonize in a mouse infection model. These results show that the genetic background of ptxP3 strains with a higher expression of virulence genes contribute to increased fitness.

  8. An observational study of bullying as a contributing factor in youth suicide in Toronto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinyor, Mark; Schaffer, Ayal; Cheung, Amy H

    2014-12-01

    Bullying has been identified as a potential contributing factor in youth suicide. This issue has been highlighted in recent widely publicized media reports, worldwide, in which deceased youth were bullied. We report on an observational study conducted to determine the frequency of bullying as a contributing factor to youth suicide. Coroner records were reviewed for all suicide deaths in youth aged between 10 and 19 in the city of Toronto from 1998 to 2011. Data abstracted were recent stressors (including bullying), clinical variables, such as the presence of mental illness, demographics, and methods of suicide. Ninety-four youth suicides were included in the study. The mean age was 16.8 years, and 70.2% were male. Bullying was present in 6 deaths (6.4%), and there were no deaths where online or cyberbullying was detected. Bullying was the only identified contributing factor in fewer than 5 deaths. The most common stressors identified were conflict with parents (21.3%), romantic partner problems (17.0%), academic problems (10.6%), and criminal and (or) legal problems (10.6%). Any stressor or mental and (or) physical illness was detected in 78.7% of cases. Depression was detected in 40.4% of cases. Our study highlights the need to view suicide in youth as arising from a complex interplay of various biological, psychological, and social factors of which bullying is only one. It challenges simple cause-and-effect models that may suggest that suicide arises from anyone factor, such as bullying.

  9. Physical fitness as a protective factor for cognitive impairment in a prospective population-based study in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, Christine; Erickson, Kirk I; Toro, Pablo; Schröder, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the predictive effects of subjective measures of physical activity (PA) and objective measures of physical fitness (PF) on dementia risk, Participants of the prospective population-based ILSE-study (*1930-1932; 12-year follow-up) were examined at three examination waves (t1 : 1993/94; t2 : 1997/98; t3 : 2005/07). 381 subjects of the original cohort (n = 500) were re-examined at t3. 29% of the subjects who were cognitively healthy at baseline received the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 7% of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Subjects were screened for physical and mental health using medical interviews, physical, and neuropsychological examinations. Participants completed a questionnaire on their current and past PA at t1. Subjects were classified as physically active if they reported a regular sport activity for at least 2 hours per week in the past year. Muscular strength (handgrip) and motor coordination (balance) served as objective indicators of PF. Subjects who passed the balance-test at t1 had a reduced risk of developing MCI/AD at t3 (OR = 0.35, 95%CI 0.19-0.66, p < 0.01) and performed significantly better on various neuropsychological measures. Muscular strength or subjective reports of PA did not predict MCI/AD development. Our results confirm the hypothesis that PF acts as a protective factor for the development of cognitive disorders. In our study, context, motor coordination served as a better predictor than muscular strength or self-rated PA. Since subjects with cognitive disorders due to cerebral and/or systemic disorders were excluded from the analyses, our findings suggest that the effect of skill-related PF extends beyond the reduction of cardiovascular risk factors.

  10. Best-fit model of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of the 2010 Medical Council of Canada Qualifying Examination Part I clinical decision-making cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André F. De Champlain

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aims to assess the fit of a number of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis models to the 2010 Medical Council of Canada Qualifying Examination Part I (MCCQE1 clinical decision-making (CDM cases. The outcomes of this study have important implications for a range of domains, including scoring and test development. Methods: The examinees included all first-time Canadian medical graduates and international medical graduates who took the MCCQE1 in spring or fall 2010. The fit of one- to five-factor exploratory models was assessed for the item response matrix of the 2010 CDM cases. Five confirmatory factor analytic models were also examined with the same CDM response matrix. The structural equation modeling software program Mplus was used for all analyses. Results: Out of the five exploratory factor analytic models that were evaluated, a three-factor model provided the best fit. Factor 1 loaded on three medicine cases, two obstetrics and gynecology cases, and two orthopedic surgery cases. Factor 2 corresponded to pediatrics, and the third factor loaded on psychiatry cases. Among the five confirmatory factor analysis models examined in this study, three- and four-factor lifespan period models and the five-factor discipline models provided the best fit. Conclusion: The results suggest that knowledge of broad disciplinary domains best account for performance on CDM cases. In test development, particular effort should be placed on developing CDM cases according to broad discipline and patient age domains; CDM testlets should be assembled largely using the criteria of discipline and age.

  11. Acinetobacter baumannii: human infections, factors contributing to pathogenesis and animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Michael J; Actis, Luis; Pachón, Jerónimo

    2013-03-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as a medically important pathogen because of the increasing number of infections produced by this organism over the preceding three decades and the global spread of strains with resistance to multiple antibiotic classes. In spite of its clinical relevance, until recently, there have been few studies addressing the factors that contribute to the pathogenesis of this organism. The availability of complete genome sequences, molecular tools for manipulating the bacterial genome, and animal models of infection have begun to facilitate the identification of factors that play a role in A. baumannii persistence and infection. This review summarizes the characteristics of A. baumannii that contribute to its pathogenesis, with a focus on motility, adherence, biofilm formation, and iron acquisition. In addition, the virulence factors that have been identified to date, which include the outer membrane protein OmpA, phospholipases, membrane polysaccharide components, penicillin-binding proteins, and outer membrane vesicles, are discussed. Animal models systems that have been developed during the last 15 years for the study of A. baumannii infection are overviewed, and the recent use of these models to identify factors involved in virulence and pathogenesis is highlighted.

  12. Analyses of the contributing factors associated with foodborne outbreaks in school settings (2000-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venuto, Margaret; Garcia, Kristin

    2015-03-01

    State-reported school foodborne outbreaks account for about 3.8% (n = 464) of all outbreaks and 8.2% (n = 20,667) of all illnesses reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System. Of 464 school foodborne outbreaks, 122 (26%) outbreaks, 7,603 illnesses, and 301 reported food safety errors met the criteria for inclusion in the analyses. The purpose of the authors' study was to examine the role of contributing factors in school foodborne outbreaks. Contamination factors accounted for the greatest proportion (49.2%) of outbreaks involving some level of food handling interaction by a school food service worker, followed by proliferation (34.9%) and survival factors (15.9%). Over 56% of all illnesses were associated with norovirus and food service worker practices. The results of these analyses highlight the importance of effective food safety education programs that focus on the role of contributing factors and prevention of foodborne disease from food safety errors.

  13. Postmyocardial Infarct Remodeling and Heart Failure: Potential Contributions from Pro- and Antiaging Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halliday A. Idikio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial infarction and adverse postinfarct remodeling in older persons lead to poor outcome and need greater understanding of the contributions of age-related factors on abnormal cardiac function and management. In this perspective, how normal aging processes could contribute to the events of post-myocardial infarction and remodeling is reviewed. Post-myocardial infarction and remodeling involve cardiomechanical factors and neurohormonal response. Many factors prevent or accelerate aging including immunosenescence, recruitment and regeneration of stem cells, telomere shortening, oxidative damage, antiaging hormones klotho and melatonin, nutrition, and Sirtiun protein family, and these factors could affect post-MI remodeling and heart failure. Interest in stem cell repair of myocardial infarcts to mitigate post-MI remodeling needs more information on aging of stem cells, and potential effects on stem cell use in infarct repair. Integrating genomics and proteomics methods may help find clinically novel therapy in the management of post-MI remodeling and heart failure in aged individuals.

  14. LEC1-LIKE paralog transcription factor: how to survive extinction and fit in NF-Y protein complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilioti, Zoe; Ganopoulos, Ioannis; Bossis, Ioannis; Tsaftaris, Athanasios

    2014-06-15

    Transcription factor function is crucial for eukaryotic systems. The presence of transcription factor families in genomes represents a significant technical challenge for functional studies. To understand their function, we must understand how they evolved and maintained by organisms. Based on genome scale searches for homologs of LEAFY COTYLEDON-LIKE (L1L; AtNF-YB6), NF-YB transcription factor, we report the discovery and annotation of a complete repertoire of thirteen novel genes that belong to the L1L paralogous gene family of Solanum lycopersicum. Gene duplication events within the species resulted in the expansion of the L1L family. Sequence and structure-based phylogenetic analyses revealed two distinct groups of L1Ls in tomato. Natural selection appears to have contributed to the asymmetric evolution of paralogs. Our results point to key differences among SlL1L paralogs in the presence of motifs, structural features, cysteine composition and expression patterns during plant and fruit development. Furthermore, differences in the binding domains of L1L members suggest that some of them evolved new binding specificities. These results reveal dramatic functional diversification of L1L paralogs for their maintenance in tomato genome. Our comprehensive insights on tomato L1L family should provide the basis for further functional and genetic experimentation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Traffic induced particle resuspension in Paris: Emission factors and source contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, F.; Favez, O.; Pandolfi, M.; Alastuey, A.; Querol, X.; Moukhtar, S.; Bruge, B.; Verlhac, S.; Orza, J. A. G.; Bonnaire, N.; Le Priol, T.; Petit, J.-F.; Sciare, J.

    2016-03-01

    Gaining knowledge on the process of particle resuspension from urban paved roads is of particular importance considering the increasing relevance of this source in urban air quality management and the lack of basic information on emission factors and source contributions. In this study we performed extensive field measurements for the quantification of the emission factors from different types of road in the city of Paris, and investigated the causes of their variability and the contributions to the ambient air PM10 observed across one year at one traffic monitoring site in the ring road of Paris. Results show agreement between lower road dust loadings (RD10: 0.7-2.2 mg m-2) and emission factors (5.4-9.0 mg vehicle-1 km-1) at inner-roads of Paris, compared to the ring road (2.4 mg m-2 and 17 mg vehicle-1 km-1, respectively), where the two parameters are estimated independently. The higher values in the ring road were likely caused by the poor state of pavement and higher share of heavy duty vehicles. Road wear, brake wear and a carbonaceous source, were almost equally responsible for 96% of RD10. At the traffic monitoring site located at the ring road (220,000 vehicle/day), the contributions of road dust emissions were estimated by receptor modeling to be 13% of PM10 on an annual mean (6.3 μg m-3), while the sum of vehicle exhaust and wear accounted for 47% resulting in a total traffic contribution of 60% of PM10. Road salting resulted to be a minor contributor (1% of annual mean) also in winter time (2%).

  16. Factors Contributing to the Waste Generation in Building Projects of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafees Ahmed Memon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Generation of construction waste is a worldwide issue that concerns not only governments but also the building actors involved in construction industry. For developing countries like Pakistan, rising levels of waste generation, due to the rapid growth of towns and cities have become critical issue. Therefore this study is aimed to detect the factors, which are the main causes of construction waste generation. Questionnaire survey has been conducted to achieve this task and RIW (Relative Importance Weight method has been used to analyze the results of this study. The important factors contributing to the generation of construction as identified in this study are: frequent changes/ revision in design during construction process; poor scheduling; unavailability of storage; poor workmanship; poor layout; inefficient planning and scheduling of resources and lack of coordination among supervision staff deployed at site. Based on the identified factors, the study also has presented some suggestions for the reduction of construction waste in building construction projects of Pakistan.

  17. OSD’s Obligation & Expenditure Rate Goals: An Examination of the Factors Contributing to the Interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-30

    Delays (F24) fell below x while four factors rose above x: Shortage of Cost Estimators (F29), Shortage of Business and Finance Management Personnel (F30...ååì~ä=^Åèìáëáíáçå= oÉëÉ~êÅÜ=póãéçëáìã= qÜìêëÇ~ó=pÉëëáçåë= sçäìãÉ=ff= = OSD’s Obligation & Expenditure Rate Goals: An Examination of the Factors ...the Factors Contributing to the Interference 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e

  18. Effects of 2,000 kcal per week of walking and stair climbing on physical fitness and risk factors for coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, A S; Casal, D; Jacobs, D

    1996-01-01

    exercise period and a 5 mm Hg decline during the control period. Mean plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels were unaffected by training, except for a 16% reduction in triglycerides (P stair climbing at a moderate pace and intensity at an energy cost of about 2,000 kcal per week failed to improve physical fitness or risk factors for CHD. A reduction in physical activities other than the prescribed exercise program, as reported by a physical activity recall questionnaire, probably contributed to an absence of an exercise response. A longer and/or a more intense activity program is apparently required to improve these modalities.

  19. Even One Is Too Much: Sole Presence of One of the Risk Factors Overweight, Lack of Exercise, and Smoking Reduces Physical Fitness of Young Soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyk, Dieter; Witzki, Alexander; Willi, Gorges; Rohde, Ulrich; Rüther, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Health and physical fitness are key factors for soldiers. Increased sedentary military work, significant sitting periods during commuting and leisure time, and unhealthy dietary habits have caused a considerable increase in the number of physically unfit soldiers. Even worse, the adoption of harmful lifestyle habits occurs increasingly earlier in life. The aim of this cross-sectional study was (a) to determine the physical fitness of young male soldiers and (b) to investigate the association between physical fitness and both the presence and frequency of the health risk factors overweight, smoking, and lack of exercise. A total of 4,553 volunteers aged 18-25 years performed the Basis Fitness Test consisting of the 3 disciplines agility (11 × 10 m shuttle sprint), strength (flexed-arm hang), and endurance (1,000-m run). The presence and frequency of risk factors were determined by means of anthropometric measures (body mass index, waist circumference) and questionnaire data. The portion of soldiers without risk factors decreased from 49.4% (18-year-olds) to 16.4% for 25-year-olds. Persons without risk factors completed the agility test in 41.1 ± 3.7 seconds, flexed-arm hang in 60.1 ± 19.7 seconds, and 1,000-m run in 235 ± 32 seconds. Physical performance in all dimensions tested (agility, strength, endurance) notably deteriorated with the sole presence of one of the risk factors overweight, smoking, and lack of exercise. Any further risk factor led to further fitness decreases (p young male soldiers. Armed Forces must intensify their efforts to maintain health and performance of their soldiers.

  20. Environmental impact and risk assessments and key factors contributing to the overall uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salbu, Brit

    2016-01-01

    There is a significant number of nuclear and radiological sources that have contributed, are still contributing, or have the potential to contribute to radioactive contamination of the environment in the future. To protect the environment from radioactive contamination, impact and risk assessments are performed prior to or during a release event, short or long term after deposition or prior and after implementation of countermeasures. When environmental impact and risks are assessed, however, a series of factors will contribute to the overall uncertainties. To provide environmental impact and risk assessments, information on processes, kinetics and a series of input variables is needed. Adding problems such as variability, questionable assumptions, gaps in knowledge, extrapolations and poor conceptual model structures, a series of factors are contributing to large and often unacceptable uncertainties in impact and risk assessments. Information on the source term and the release scenario is an essential starting point in impact and risk models; the source determines activity concentrations and atom ratios of radionuclides released, while the release scenario determine the physico-chemical forms of released radionuclides such as particle size distribution, structure and density. Releases will most often contain other contaminants such as metals, and due to interactions, contaminated sites should be assessed as a multiple stressor scenario. Following deposition, a series of stressors, interactions and processes will influence the ecosystem transfer of radionuclide species and thereby influence biological uptake (toxicokinetics) and responses (toxicodynamics) in exposed organisms. Due to the variety of biological species, extrapolation is frequently needed to fill gaps in knowledge e.g., from effects to no effects, from effects in one organism to others, from one stressor to mixtures. Most toxtests are, however, performed as short term exposure of adult organisms

  1. Which factors in raw cow's milk contribute to protection against allergies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Neerven, R J Joost; Knol, Edward F; Heck, Jeroen M L; Savelkoul, Huub F J

    2012-10-01

    Several epidemiologic studies have shown that growing up in a farming environment is associated with a decreased risk of allergies. A factor that correlates strongly with this effect is the early ingestion of unheated cow's milk. Although, to date, no controlled studies on raw milk consumption have been performed to formally demonstrate this effect, several factors in bovine milk have been described that might explain how raw cow's milk consumption can decrease the risk of allergies. In addition, increasing knowledge on the immunologically active factors in breast milk have also contributed to our understanding of the effects of bovine milk in infants because many of the factors in bovine milk are expected to have functional effects in human subjects as well. Here we review these factors and their mechanisms of action and compare their presence in bovine milk and breast milk. A better understanding of these factors, as well as how to retain them, might ultimately lead to the development of mildly processed milk and infant nutrition products that could become a part of preventive strategies to reduce the incidence of allergic disease.

  2. Host and viral factors contributing to CD8+ T cell failure in hepatitis C virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christoph Neumann-Haefelin; Hans Christian Spangenberg; Hubert E Blum; Robert Thimme

    2007-01-01

    Virus-specific CD8+ T cells are thought to be the major anti-viral effector cells in hepatitis C virus (HCV)infection. Indeed, viral clearance is associated with vigorous CD8+ T cell responses targeting multiple epitopes. In the chronic phase of infection, HCV-specific CD8+ T cell responses are usually weak, narrowly focused and display often functional defects regarding cytotoxicity, cytokine production, and proliferative capacity. In the last few years, different mechanisms which might contribute to the failure of HCV-specific CD8+ T cells in chronic infection have been identified,including insufficient CD4+ help, deficient CD8+ T cell differentiation, viral escape mutations, suppression by viral factors, inhibitory cytokines, inhibitory ligands, and regulatory T cells. In addition, host genetic factors such as the host's human leukocyte antigen (HLA) background may play an important role in the efficiency of the HCVspecific CD8+ T cell response and thus outcome of infection. The growing understanding of the mechanisms contributing to T cell failure and persistence of HCV infection will contribute to the development of successful immunotherapeutical and -prophylactical strategies.

  3. Hip instability: a review of hip dysplasia and other contributing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraeutler, Matthew J; Garabekyan, Tigran; Pascual-Garrido, Cecilia; Mei-Dan, Omer

    2016-01-01

    Hip instability has classically been associated with developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) in newborns and children. However, numerous factors may contribute to hip instability in children, adolescents, and adults. This review aims to concisely present the literature on hip instability in patients of all ages in order to guide health care professionals in the appropriate diagnosis and treatment of the various disorders which may contribute to an unstable hip. We reviewed the literature on the diagnosis and surgical management of hip dysplasia and other causes of hip instability. Multiple intra- and extra-articular variables may contribute to hip instability, including acetabular bony coverage, femoral torsion, femoroacetabular impingement, and soft tissue laxity. Physical examination and advanced imaging studies are essential to accurately diagnose the pathology contributing to a patient's unstable hip. Conservative management, including activity modification and physical therapy, may be used as a first-line treatment in patients with intra-articular hip pathology. Patients who continue to experience symptoms of pain or instability should proceed with arthroscopic or open surgical treatment aimed at correcting the underlying pathology. V.

  4. Motivation and engagement in computer-based learning tasks: investigating key contributing factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Ott, Mauro Tavella

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper, drawing on a research project concerning the educational use of digital mind games with primary school students, aims at giving a contribution to the understanding of which are the main factors influencing student motivation during computer-based learning activities. It puts forward some ideas and experience based reflections, starting by considering digital games that are widely recognized as the most promising ICT tools to enhance student motivation. The project results suggest that student genuine engagement in learning activities is mainly related to the actual possession of the skills and of the cognitive capacities needed to perform the task. In this perspective, cognitive overload should be regarded as one of the main reasons contributing to hinder student motivation and, consequently, should be avoided. Other elements such as game attractiveness and experimental setting constraints resulted to have a lower effect on student motivation.

  5. The relative contribution of environmental and genetic factors to phenotypic variation in familial Mediterranean fever (FMF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Brandt, Benny; Berkun, Yackov; Lidar, Merav; Livneh, Avi

    2012-01-10

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autosomal recessive disease, caused by mutations in the FMF gene MEFV (MEditerranean FeVer). It has a large phenotypic diversity even in patients with similar genotypes. Despite evidence that environmental factors (EFs) and genetic factors, including MEFV mutations (such as M694V, E148Q) and background modifier genes (MGs), affect the clinical manifestations of FMF, the relative contribution of each remains unknown. To investigate the relative contribution of environmental and genetic factors to the phenotype of FMF, we compared the intra-pair clinical concordance of 10 mono and 7 dizygotic twins with FMF. The part played by EFs was determined by the phenotypic discordance of the monozygous twins, and the MGs effect was determined by deducing the environmental effect, computed for MZ twins, from the phenotypic discordance of the dizygous twins. The mean±SD of intra-pair concordance was higher in the MZ than in DZ twin group (88.1±13.2 vs. 70.7±14.1 respectively, P valueFMF is estimated as 11.9%±6.6% and the MGs effect as 17.4%±15.5% in average. In FMF the phenotype is affected by MEFV mutations, MGs and EFs in an estimated ratio of about 6:1.5:1 respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Structural equation modeling of factors contributing to quality of life in Japanese patients with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kikuchi Hiromi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To improve quality of life (QOL in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS, it is important to decrease disability and prevent relapse. The aim of this study was to examine the causal and mutual relationships contributing to QOL in Japanese patients with MS, develop path diagrams, and explore interventions with the potential to improve patient QOL. Methods Data of 163 Japanese MS patients were obtained using the Functional Assessment of MS (FAMS and Nottingham Adjustment Scale-Japanese version (NAS-J tests, as well as four additional factors that affect QOL (employment status, change of income, availability of disease information, and communication with medical staff. Data were then used in structural equation modeling to develop path diagrams for factors contributing to QOL. Results The Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS score had a significant effect on the total FAMS score. Although EDSS negatively affected the FAMS symptom score, NAS-J subscale scores of anxiety/depression and acceptance were positively related to the FAMS symptom score. Changes in employment status after MS onset negatively affected all NAS-J scores. Knowledge of disease information improved the total NAS-J score, which in turn improved many FAMS subscale scores. Communication with doctors and nurses directly and positively affected some FAMS subscale scores. Conclusions Disability and change in employment status decrease patient QOL. However, the present findings suggest that other factors, such as acquiring information on MS and communicating with medical staff, can compensate for the worsening of QOL.

  7. Structural equation modeling of factors contributing to quality of life in Japanese patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Hiromi; Mifune, Nobuhiro; Niino, Masaaki; Kira, Jun-Ichi; Kohriyama, Tatsuo; Ota, Kohei; Tanaka, Masami; Ochi, Hirofumi; Nakane, Shunya; Kikuchi, Seiji

    2013-01-22

    To improve quality of life (QOL) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), it is important to decrease disability and prevent relapse. The aim of this study was to examine the causal and mutual relationships contributing to QOL in Japanese patients with MS, develop path diagrams, and explore interventions with the potential to improve patient QOL. Data of 163 Japanese MS patients were obtained using the Functional Assessment of MS (FAMS) and Nottingham Adjustment Scale-Japanese version (NAS-J) tests, as well as four additional factors that affect QOL (employment status, change of income, availability of disease information, and communication with medical staff). Data were then used in structural equation modeling to develop path diagrams for factors contributing to QOL. The Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score had a significant effect on the total FAMS score. Although EDSS negatively affected the FAMS symptom score, NAS-J subscale scores of anxiety/depression and acceptance were positively related to the FAMS symptom score. Changes in employment status after MS onset negatively affected all NAS-J scores. Knowledge of disease information improved the total NAS-J score, which in turn improved many FAMS subscale scores. Communication with doctors and nurses directly and positively affected some FAMS subscale scores. Disability and change in employment status decrease patient QOL. However, the present findings suggest that other factors, such as acquiring information on MS and communicating with medical staff, can compensate for the worsening of QOL.

  8. Structural equation modeling of factors contributing to quality of life in Japanese patients with multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background To improve quality of life (QOL) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), it is important to decrease disability and prevent relapse. The aim of this study was to examine the causal and mutual relationships contributing to QOL in Japanese patients with MS, develop path diagrams, and explore interventions with the potential to improve patient QOL. Methods Data of 163 Japanese MS patients were obtained using the Functional Assessment of MS (FAMS) and Nottingham Adjustment Scale-Japanese version (NAS-J) tests, as well as four additional factors that affect QOL (employment status, change of income, availability of disease information, and communication with medical staff). Data were then used in structural equation modeling to develop path diagrams for factors contributing to QOL. Results The Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score had a significant effect on the total FAMS score. Although EDSS negatively affected the FAMS symptom score, NAS-J subscale scores of anxiety/depression and acceptance were positively related to the FAMS symptom score. Changes in employment status after MS onset negatively affected all NAS-J scores. Knowledge of disease information improved the total NAS-J score, which in turn improved many FAMS subscale scores. Communication with doctors and nurses directly and positively affected some FAMS subscale scores. Conclusions Disability and change in employment status decrease patient QOL. However, the present findings suggest that other factors, such as acquiring information on MS and communicating with medical staff, can compensate for the worsening of QOL. PMID:23339479

  9. Exercise training, physical fitness and the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-1 axis and cytokine balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliakim, Alon; Nemet, Dan

    2010-01-01

    The effect of exercise training on anabolic hormones and inflammatory mediators is particularly important during childhood and puberty, since during this period there is a spontaneous increase in anabolic hormones that leads to the marked puberty-related growth spurt. Therefore, any training-associated hormonal and/or inflammatory effect during this critical period may have profound consequences on growth and development, especially if the effect is maintained for long periods. Several studies suggest the hypothesis that a sudden imposition of a training program which is associated with substantial increase in energy expenditure leads initially to an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines, and as a consequence, to decreases in IGF-1 levels. Further, if the training adaptation is successful, the proinflammatory cytokines fall, and with that decrease, the suppression of IGF-1 diminishes, an anabolic 'rebound' in the GH-IGF-1 axis may ensue, and IGF-1 level exceed the pretraining level. Exactly how and when this switch takes place, and whether the initial catabolic-type stage is necessary for the ultimate anabolic adaptation remains unknown. Consistent with the two phases hypothesis, longer periods of training were indeed associated with stable or with increases in circulating GH and IGF-1 levels. Despite the early training-associated decrease in circulating IGF-1 levels, there is an increase in muscle mass and fitness may improve, suggesting that the local tissue effect of exercise on growth factors differ from systemic effects. Total caloric intake as well as macronutrient content, consumption and timing influence the anabolic and inflammatory response to training. Finally, changes in the balance of anabolic and catabolic hormones and inflammatory mediators during the training season may help elite athletes and their coaches in their training and preparation for competition.

  10. Fitness club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness club

    2011-01-01

    General fitness Classes Enrolments are open for general fitness classes at CERN taking place on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday lunchtimes in the Pump Hall (building 216). There are shower facilities for both men and women. It is possible to pay for 1, 2 or 3 classes per week for a minimum of 1 month and up to 6 months. Check out our rates and enrol at: http://cern.ch/club-fitness Hope to see you among us! CERN Fitness Club fitness.club@cern.ch  

  11. Factors contributing to parental decision-making in disclosing donor conception: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indekeu, A; Dierickx, K; Schotsmans, P; Daniels, K R; Rober, P; D'Hooghe, T

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND In recent years, changes in attitudes towards (non-)disclosure of donor conception to offspring and/or others have been observed. Studies have started to identify possible factors that contribute to these changes that are relevant for clinics, counsellors and policy-makers in their approach to the disclosure process. The aim of this systematic review was to integrate the existing knowledge on factors that influence the disclosure decision-making process of donor conception to offspring and/or others in heterosexual couples, and to discuss future trends and concerns. METHODS A bibliographic search of English, French, German and Dutch language publications of five computerized databases was undertaken from January 1980 to March 2012. A Cochrane Database systematic review approach was applied. RESULTS A total of 43 studies met the inclusion criteria, and these represented 36 study populations. The review shows that the parents' disclosure decision-making process is influenced by a myriad of intrapersonal, interpersonal, social and family life cycle features. These influences were not necessarily independent but rather were interwoven and overlapping. Theoretical frameworks have not yet been used to explain how the different factors influenced disclosure. Methodological limitations of the original publications (lack of information, several factors included in one study, descriptive character of studies) and this review (multiple factors that may interact) which hindered integration of the findings are outlined. CONCLUSIONS Intrapersonal, interpersonal, social and family life cycle factors influence the parents' disclosure decision-making process. The review has demonstrated the need for the development of a theoretical model to enable integration of the identified influencing factors. Further research is needed on the role of stigma, confrontation efficacy, extended family, donor siblings' characteristics, cross-border treatment, culture, gender and socio

  12. Factors Associated with Implementation of the South Carolina Students Health and Fitness Act of 2005: Elementary School Principals' and Physical Activity Directors' Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Miriam Jones

    2012-01-01

    This study explores factors associated with implementation of the physical education and physical activity standards of the South Carolina Students Health and Fitness Act of 2005 in Title I elementary schools. The study was framed using selected components of the diffusion of innovations theory, which looked at characteristics of the law and their…

  13. 20 CFR 416.214 - You are disabled and drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false You are disabled and drug addiction or....214 You are disabled and drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the... because you are disabled and drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to...

  14. 20 CFR 416.936 - Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. 416.936... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Drug Addiction and Alcoholism § 416.936 Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material...

  15. Factors contributing to depressive mood states in everyday life: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemberton, Rachel; Fuller Tyszkiewicz, Matthew D

    2016-08-01

    Although accumulated evidence suggests that fluctuations in depressed mood are common among individuals with depression, and may be associated with onset, duration, and severity of illness, a systematic appraisal of putative predictors of depressed mood is lacking. A systematic search for relevant studies in the literature was conducted using PsycInfo and PubMed databases via EbscoHost in February 2016. The search was limited to articles using the experience sampling method, an approach suitable for capturing in situ fluctuations in mood states. Forty-two studies met inclusion criteria for the review, from which three key risk factors (poor sleep, stress, and significant life events) and two protective factors (physical activity and quality of social interactions) were identified. The majority of papers supported concurrent and lagged associations between these putative protective/risk factors and depressed mood. Despite support for each of the proposed protective/risk factors, few studies evaluated multiple factors in the same study. Moreover, the time course for the effects of these predictors on depressed mood remains largely unknown. The present review identified several putative risk and protective factors for depressed mood. A review of the literature suggests that poor sleep, negative social interactions, and stressful negative events may temporally precede spikes in depressed mood. In contrast, exercise and positive social interactions have been shown to predict subsequent declines in depressed mood. However, the lack of multivariate models in which the unique contributions of various predictors could be evaluated means that the current state of knowledge prevents firm conclusions about which factors are most predictive of depressed mood. More complex modeling of these effects is necessary in order to provide insights useful for clinical treatment in daily life of the depressed mood component of depressive disorders. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by

  16. Endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor contributes to hypoxia-induced skeletal muscle vasodilation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilk, Samson; Herr, Michael D; Sinoway, Lawrence I; Leuenberger, Urs A

    2013-12-01

    Systemic hypoxia causes skeletal muscle vasodilation, thereby preserving O2 delivery to active tissues. Nitric oxide (NO), adenosine, and prostaglandins contribute to this vasodilation, but other factors may also play a role. We tested the hypothesis that regional inhibition of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor with the cytochrome P-450 2C9 antagonist fluconazole, alone or combined with the NO synthase antagonist N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), attenuates hypoxia-induced vasodilation. We compared forearm blood flow (FBF) and skin blood flow before and during brachial artery infusion of fluconazole (0.3 mg/min; trial 1) or fluconazole + L-NMMA (50 mg over 10 min; trial 2) and during systemic hypoxia (10 min, arterial Po2 ~37 mmHg) in infused (experimental) and control forearms of 12 healthy humans. During normoxia, fluconazole and fluconazole + L-NMMA reduced (P vasodilation and could be particularly relevant when other vasodilator systems are impaired.

  17. Psychosocial and Biological Factors Contributing to Body Weight Gain in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shae-Leigh C. Vella

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Overweight and obesity are frequently reported to be a significant issue in schizophrenia resulting in the inherent complications of these disorders. Body weight gain also commonly results from treatment with the most tolerable and efficacious pharmacological treatments, second-generation antipsychotics. However there are numerous other factors that contribute to increased body mass in individuals with schizophrenia prior to the initiation of treatment. With prior research indicating that individuals with schizophrenia have higher rates of overweight and obesity before treatment. Therefore this article provides a review of pertinent issues associated with body weight gain in schizophrenia in an attempt to delineate the impact of both the disease and treatment upon body weight gain. The results of the review indicate that body weight gain in schizophrenia occurs from both psychosocial and biological factors that are further compounded by antipsychotic treatment. The article concludes with recommendations for future research.

  18. Predicting College Success: The Relative Contributions of Five Social/Personality Factors, Five Cognitive/Learning Factors, and SAT Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    To-date, studies have examined simultaneously the relative predictive powers of two or three factors on GPA. The present study examines the relative powers of five social/personality factors, five cognitive/learning factors, and SAT scores to predict freshmen and non-freshmen (sophomores, juniors, seniors) academic success (i.e., GPA). The results revealed many significant predictors of GPA for both freshmen and non-freshmen. However, subsequent regressions showed that only academic self-efficacy, epistemic belief of learning, and high-knowledge integration explained unique variance in GPA (19%-freshmen, 23.2%-non-freshmen). Further for freshmen, SAT scores explained an additional unique 10.6% variance after the influences attributed to these three predictors was removed whereas for non-freshmen, SAT scores failed to explain any additional variance. These results highlight the unique and important contributions of academic self-efficacy, epistemic belief of learning and high-knowledge integration to GPA beyond other previously-identified predictors. PMID:25568884

  19. Predicting College Success: The Relative Contributions of Five Social/Personality Factors, Five Cognitive/Learning Factors, and SAT Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Brenda

    2014-10-01

    To-date, studies have examined simultaneously the relative predictive powers of two or three factors on GPA. The present study examines the relative powers of five social/personality factors, five cognitive/learning factors, and SAT scores to predict freshmen and non-freshmen (sophomores, juniors, seniors) academic success (i.e., GPA). The results revealed many significant predictors of GPA for both freshmen and non-freshmen. However, subsequent regressions showed that only academic self-efficacy, epistemic belief of learning, and high-knowledge integration explained unique variance in GPA (19%-freshmen, 23.2%-non-freshmen). Further for freshmen, SAT scores explained an additional unique 10.6% variance after the influences attributed to these three predictors was removed whereas for non-freshmen, SAT scores failed to explain any additional variance. These results highlight the unique and important contributions of academic self-efficacy, epistemic belief of learning and high-knowledge integration to GPA beyond other previously-identified predictors.

  20. Stereotactic core needle breast biopsy marker migration: An analysis of factors contributing to immediate marker migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ashali; Khalid, Maria; Qureshi, Muhammad M; Georgian-Smith, Dianne; Kaplan, Jonah A; Buch, Karen; Grinstaff, Mark W; Hirsch, Ariel E; Hines, Neely L; Anderson, Stephan W; Gallagher, Katherine M; Bates, David D B; Bloch, B Nicolas

    2017-05-19

    To evaluate breast biopsy marker migration in stereotactic core needle biopsy procedures and identify contributing factors. This retrospective study analyzed 268 stereotactic biopsy markers placed in 263 consecutive patients undergoing stereotactic biopsies using 9G vacuum-assisted devices from August 2010-July 2013. Mammograms were reviewed and factors contributing to marker migration were evaluated. Basic descriptive statistics were calculated and comparisons were performed based on radiographically-confirmed marker migration. Of the 268 placed stereotactic biopsy markers, 35 (13.1%) migrated ≥1 cm from their biopsy cavity. Range: 1-6 cm; mean (± SD): 2.35 ± 1.22 cm. Of the 35 migrated biopsy markers, 9 (25.7%) migrated ≥3.5 cm. Patient age, biopsy pathology, number of cores, and left versus right breast were not associated with migration status (P> 0.10). Global fatty breast density (P= 0.025) and biopsy in the inner region of breast (P = 0.031) were associated with marker migration. Superior biopsy approach (P= 0.025), locally heterogeneous breast density, and t-shaped biopsy markers (P= 0.035) were significant for no marker migration. Multiple factors were found to influence marker migration. An overall migration rate of 13% supports endeavors of research groups actively developing new biopsy marker designs for improved resistance to migration. • Breast biopsy marker migration is documented in 13% of 268 procedures. • Marker migration is affected by physical, biological, and pathological factors. • Breast density, marker shape, needle approach etc. affect migration. • Study demonstrates marker migration prevalence; marker design improvements are needed.

  1. An impaired health related muscular fitness contributes to a reduced walking capacity in patients with schizophrenia: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vancampfort Davy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with schizophrenia report muscle weakness. The relation of this muscle weakness with performing daily life activities such as walking is however not yet studied. The aim of this study was to quantify walking capacity and health related muscular fitness in patients with schizophrenia compared with age-, gender and body mass index (BMI-matched healthy controls. Secondly, we identified variables that could explain the variability in walking capacity and in health related muscular fitness in patients with schizophrenia. Methods A total of 100 patients with schizophrenia and 40 healthy volunteers were initially screened. Eighty patients with schizophrenia (36.8±10.0 years and the 40 age-, gender- and body mass index (BMI-matched healthy volunteers (37.1±10.3 years were finally included. All participants performed a standing broad jump test (SBJ and a six-minute walk test (6MWT and filled out the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Patients additionally had a fasting metabolic laboratory screening and were assessed for psychiatric symptoms. Results Patients with schizophrenia did have lower 6MWT (17.9%, p-minutes/week versus 2463.1±1365.3, p-score and 22.4% (p-score than those without MetS. In multiple regression analysis, 71.8% of the variance in 6MWT was explained by muscular fitness, BMI, presence of MetS and physical activity participation, while 53.9% of the variance in SBJ-score was explained by age, illness duration, BMI and physical activity participation. Conclusions The walking capacity and health-related muscular fitness are impaired in patients with schizophrenia and both should be a major focus in daily clinical practice and future research.

  2. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1a contributes to dendritic overgrowth in tuberous sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Longbo; Feliciano, David M; Huang, Tianxiang; Zhang, Shiliang; Bordey, Angélique

    2016-01-26

    Expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1a (HIF1a) is increased under several pathological conditions such as hyperactive mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Hyperactive mTORC1 and the resulting increased dendritic complexity of neurons are shared molecular and cellular alterations in several neurological disorders associated with cognitive disabilities. Despite some evidence that HIF1a contributes to dendritic overgrowth in vitro, it remains unknown whether increased HIF1a in TSC neurons could contribute to their increased dendritic complexity. To address this use in vivo, we generated TSC neurons by deleting Tsc1 in newborn olfactory bulb (OB) neurons of conditional Tsc1 transgenic mice using neonatal electroporation. In addition to their increased dendritic complexity, Tsc1(null) neurons have been reported to display increased Hif1a mRNA level and HIF1a transcriptional activity. We found that Tsc1(null)-dependent dendritic overgrowth was prevented by knocking down HIF1a or expressing a dominant negative HIF1a. In addition, overexpressing HIF1a in wild-type developing neurons resulted in increased dendritic complexity in vivo. These data highlight that an increase in HIF1a levels contributes to abnormal dendritic patterning in developing neurons under normal conditions and hyperactive mTORC1 conditions as in TSC.

  3. Enhancement of crop photosynthesis by diffuse light: quantifying the contributing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, T; Heuvelink, E; Dueck, T A; Janse, J; Gort, G; Marcelis, L F M

    2014-07-01

    Plants use diffuse light more efficiently than direct light. However, experimental comparisons between diffuse and direct light have been obscured by co-occurring differences in environmental conditions (e.g. light intensity). This study aims to analyse the factors that contribute to an increase in crop photosynthesis in diffuse light and to quantify their relative contribution under different levels of diffuseness at similar light intensities. The hypothesis is that the enhancement of crop photosynthesis in diffuse light results not only from the direct effects of more uniform vertical and horizontal light distribution in the crop canopy, but also from crop physiological and morphological acclimation. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) crops were grown in three greenhouse compartments that were covered by glass with different degrees of light diffuseness (0, 45 and 71 % of the direct light being converted into diffuse light) while maintaining similar light transmission. Measurements of horizontal and vertical photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) distribution in the crop, leaf photosynthesis light response curves and leaf area index (LAI) were used to quantify each factor's contribution to an increase in crop photosynthesis in diffuse light. In addition, leaf temperature, photoinhibition, and leaf biochemical and anatomical properties were studied. The highest degree of light diffuseness (71 %) increased the calculated crop photosynthesis by 7·2 %. This effect was mainly attributed to a more uniform horizontal (33 % of the total effect) and vertical PPFD distribution (21 %) in the crop. In addition, plants acclimated to the high level of diffuseness by gaining a higher photosynthetic capacity of leaves in the middle of the crop and a higher LAI, which contributed 23 and 13 %, respectively, to the total increase in crop photosynthesis in diffuse light. Moreover, diffuse light resulted in lower leaf temperatures and less photoinhibition at the top of the canopy when

  4. GATA factor switching from GATA2 to GATA1 contributes to erythroid differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Mikiko; Kobayashi-Osaki, Maki; Tsutsumi, Shuichi; Pan, Xiaoqing; Ohmori, Shin'ya; Takai, Jun; Moriguchi, Takashi; Ohneda, Osamu; Ohneda, Kinuko; Shimizu, Ritsuko; Kanki, Yasuharu; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    2013-11-01

    Transcription factor GATA2 is highly expressed in hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors, whereas its expression declines after erythroid commitment of progenitors. In contrast, the start of GATA1 expression coincides with the erythroid commitment and increases along with the erythroid differentiation. We refer this dynamic transition of GATA factor expression to as the 'GATA factor switching'. Here, we examined contribution of the GATA factor switching to the erythroid differentiation. In Gata1-knockdown embryos that concomitantly express Gata2-GFP reporter, high-level expression of GFP reporter was detected in accumulated immature hematopoietic cells with impaired differentiation, demonstrating that GATA1 represses Gata2 gene expression in hematopoietic progenitors in vivo. We have conducted chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) on microarray analyses of GATA2 and GATA1, and results indicate that the GATA1-binding sites widely overlap with the sites pre-occupied by GATA2 before the GATA1 expression. Importantly, erythroid genes harboring GATA boxes bound by both GATA1 and GATA2 tend to be expressed in immature erythroid cells, whereas those harboring GATA boxes to which GATA1 binds highly but GATA2 binds only weakly are important for the mature erythroid cell function. Our results thus support the contention that preceding binding of GATA2 helps the following binding of GATA1 and thereby secures smooth expression of the transient-phase genes. © 2013 The Authors Genes to Cells © 2013 by the Molecular Biology Society of Japan and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. Contribution of occupational risk factors to the global burden of disease - a summary of findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingerhut, M.; Driscoll, T.; Nelson, D.I.; Concha-Barrientos, M.; Punnett, L.; Pruss-Ustin, A.; Steenland, K.; Leigh, J.; Corvalan, C. [NIOSH, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2005-07-01

    The World Health Organization conducted a comparative risk assessment to ascertain the contributions of 26 risk factors to the global burden of disease. Five occupational risk factors accounted for an estimated 37% of back pain, 16% of hearing loss, 13% of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 11% of asthma, 9% of lung cancer, 8% of injuries, and 2% of leukemia worldwide. Virtually all cases of silicosis, asbestosis, and coal workers' pneumoconiosis were work-related. Contaminated sharps injuries accounted for 40% of hepatitis B, 40% of hepatitis C, and 4% of HIV/AlDS infections among health care workers. Data limitations, primarily in developing countries, prevented the inclusion of other major occupational risk factors. These selected occupational risks accounted for about 850,000 deaths and 24 million years of healthy life lost each year. The deaths due to these selected occupational risk factors constitute only 43% of the International Labour Organization's estimate of 2 million deaths worldwide due to work-related risks.

  6. Factors contributing to occupational stress experienced by individuals employed in the fast food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michailids, Maria P; Elwkai, Mouafak E-ali

    2003-01-01

    The present study, examined through survey research methodology, the factors or combination of factors which appear to contribute to the experience of occupational stress of individuals working in the fast-food industry. The Occupational Stress Indicator was used. Preliminary findings showed that there exists, several compound factors, which appear to be the most frequently encountered factors by the sample tested, such as the way they feel about their job; the way they behave generally; the way they interpret events around them; the sources of pressure in their job; and the way they cope with stress they experience. It appears that there are statistically significant differences between males and females as regards to the way they respond to stress, the sources of pressure in their job and the way they cope with stress they experience. Also, statistically significant differences exist between individuals in managerial and non-managerial positions, as regards to their personality type, the degree of ambition, and work dedication they possess.

  7. Excess LIGHT contributes to placental impairment, increased secretion of vasoactive factors, hypertension, and proteinuria in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Parchim, Nicholas F; Iriyama, Takayuki; Luo, Renna; Zhao, Cheng; Liu, Chen; Irani, Roxanna A; Zhang, Weiru; Ning, Chen; Zhang, Yujin; Blackwell, Sean C; Chen, Lieping; Tao, Lijian; Hicks, M John; Kellems, Rodney E; Xia, Yang

    2014-03-01

    Preeclampsia, a prevalent hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, is believed to be secondary to uteroplacental ischemia. Accumulating evidence indicates that hypoxia-independent mediators, including inflammatory cytokines and growth factors, are associated with preeclampsia, but it is unclear whether these signals directly contribute to placental damage and disease development in vivo. We report that LIGHT, a novel tumor necrosis factor superfamily member, is significantly elevated in the circulation and placentas of preeclamptic women compared with normotensive pregnant women. Injection of LIGHT into pregnant mice induced placental apoptosis, small fetuses, and key features of preeclampsia, hypertension and proteinuria. Mechanistically, using neutralizing antibodies specific for LIGHT receptors, we found that LIGHT receptors herpes virus entry mediator and lymphotoxin β receptor are required for LIGHT-induced placental impairment, small fetuses, and preeclampsia features in pregnant mice. Accordingly, we further revealed that LIGHT functions through these 2 receptors to induce secretion of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 and endothelin-1, 2 well-accepted pathogenic factors in preeclampsia, and thereby plays an important role in hypertension and proteinuria in pregnant mice. Lastly, we extended our animal findings to human studies and demonstrated that activation of LIGHT receptors resulted in increased apoptosis and elevation of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 secretion in human placental villous explants. Overall, our human and mouse studies show that LIGHT signaling is a previously unrecognized pathway responsible for placental apoptosis, elevated secretion of vasoactive factors, and subsequent maternal features of preeclampsia, and reveal new therapeutic opportunities for the management of the disease.

  8. Factors Contributing to the Hydrologic Effectiveness of a Rain Garden Network (Cincinnati OH USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D. Shuster

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Infiltrative rain gardens can add retention capacity to sewersheds, yet factors contributing to their capacity for detention and redistribution of stormwater runoff are dynamic and often unverified. Over a four-year period, we tracked whole-system water fluxes in a two-tier rain garden network and assessed near-surface hydrology and soil development across construction and operational phases. The monitoring data provided a quantitative basis for determining effectiveness of this stormwater control measure. Based on 233 monitored warm-season rainfall events, nearly half of total inflow volume was detained, with 90 percent of all events producing no flow to the combined sewer. For the events that did result in flow to the combined sewer system, the rain garden delayed flows for an average of 5.5 h. Multivariate analysis of hydrologic fluxes indicated that total event rainfall depth was a predominant hydrologic driver for network outflow during both phases, with average event intensity and daily evapotranspiration as additional, independent factors in regulating retention in the operational phase. Despite sediment loads that can clog the rooting zone, and overall lower-than-design infiltration rates, tradeoffs among soil profile development and hydrology apparently maintained relatively high overall retention effectiveness. Overall, our study identified factors relevant to regulation of retention capacity of a rain garden network. These factors may be generalizable, and guide improvement of new or existing rain garden designs.

  9. Contributions of radiative factors to enhanced dryland warming over East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanting; Guan, Xiaodan; Yu, Haipeng; Xie, Yongkun; Jin, Hongchun

    2017-08-01

    Enhanced near-surface atmospheric warming has occurred over East Asia in recent decades, especially in drylands. Although local factors have been confirmed to provide considerable contributions to this warming, such factors have not been sufficiently analyzed. In this study, we extracted the radiatively forced temperature (RFT) associated with the built-up greenhouse gases, aerosol emission, and various other radiative forcing over East Asia and found a close relationship between RFT and CO2. In addition, using climate model experiments, we explored the responses of temperature changes to black carbon (BC), CO2, and SO4 and found that the enhanced dryland warming induced by CO2 had the largest magnitude and was strengthened by the warming effect of BC. Moreover, the sensitivity of daily maximum and minimum temperature changes to BC, CO2, and SO4 was examined. It showed asymmetric responses of daily maximum and minimum temperature to radiative factors, which led to an obvious change of diurnal temperature range (DTR), especially in drylands. The DTR's response to CO2 is the most significant. Therefore, CO2 not only plays a dominant role in enhanced warming but also greatly affects the decrease of DTR in drylands. However, the mechanisms of these radiative factors' effects in the process of DTR change are not clear and require more investigation.

  10. SAT Performance: Understanding the Contributions of Cognitive/Learning and Social/Personality Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Brenda; McNaughton-Cassill, Mary

    2011-07-01

    This study identifies a number of sources of individual differences in SAT performance by examining the simultaneous contributions of factors from two otherwise disparate research areas, namely cognition/learning and social/personality. Preliminary analysis revealed that just the cognitive/learning measures accounted for 37.8, 41.4 and 21.9% of the variance in SAT, V-SAT and Q-SAT performance, respectively while just the social/personality measures accounted for 21.4, 18.2 and 17.3% of the variance. When combined, cognitive/learning and social/personality factors accounted for even larger amounts of variance in performance; specifically 43.4, 44.6 and 28% for the SAT, V-SAT and Q-SAT, respectively. Finally, the results revealed that three measures consistently predicted performance on the SAT, V-SAT and Q-SAT; two measures were the learning/cognitive factors of working memory and integration of new text-based information with information from long-term memory and one measure was the social/personality factor, test anxiety.

  11. An expert performance approach to examining factors contributing to academic success in organic chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandagopal, Kiruthiga

    Successful completion of the introductory course in organic chemistry is a prerequisite for many graduate and professional science programs, yet the failure rate for this course is notoriously high. To date, there have been few studies examining factors contributing to academic success in organic chemistry. This study demonstrates that the online, longitudinal methods used by investigations of expert performance can examine and successfully identify factors contributing to academic success at the college level. Sixty-four students enrolled in introductory organic chemistry during the Fall 2007 and Spring 2008 semesters completed motivation questionnaires, interviews, diaries, and think-aloud reading and problem-solving tasks at three different points across a semester. Measures of spatial ability, general ability, and background preparation were also collected. Each measure was analyzed to determine significant differences between groups differing in grade-point average (GPA) prior to the start of the course and to identify predictors of organic chemistry grade. Variables measuring background preparation, problem-solving strategies and studying strategies were found to be the best predictors of academic success in organic chemistry. Implications for instruction in organic chemistry and effective studying behaviors are discussed.

  12. Prevalence of and contributing factors to overweight and obesity among the schoolchildren of Podgorica, Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakšić Marina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Objective. Childhood obesity is an emerging public health problem. The national prevalence of child overweight/obesity in Montenegro has increased by one third in the last decade. As the overwhelming majority of Montenegrin population is urban, investigation of obesity and correlates among urban children is of special public health interest. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of and contributing factors to obesity among schoolchildren of Podgorica. Method. The sample included 1,134 schoolchildren (49.8% boys aged 7–12 years, from 10 elementary schools in Podgorica. We measured children’s body mass, body height, and waist circumference to calculate body mass index (BMI and waist-to-height ratio. The research instrument was a closed type of the original questionnaire. Nutritional status was assessed according to the criteria recommended by the American Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, World Health Organization and International Obesity Task Force. Results. Among the investigated children there were 21.2% and 6% overweight and obese children, respectively. Obesity was more frequent among boys (7.6% compared to girls (4.4%. In a multiple regression, childhood obesity was positively related to the following: male gender, younger age, lower number of siblings, parental obesity, and low physical activity. Conclusion. One out of five urban Montenegrin schoolchildren is overweight/obese, with obesity being twice as frequent among boys compared to girls. A program against obesity among urban Montenegrin children should focus on the revealed contributing factors.

  13. Characteristics and contributing factors related to sports injuries in young volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlei, Franciele Marques; Bastos, Fabio Nascimento; Tsutsumi, Gustavo Yuki Cantalejo; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques; Netto Júnior, Jayme; Pastre, Carlos Marcelo

    2013-10-14

    The participation of young in volleyball is becoming increasingly common, and this increased involvement raises concerns about the risk of installation of sports injuries. Therefore, the objectives the study were identify the characteristics of sports injuries in young volleyball players and associate anthropometric and training variables with contributing factors for injuries. A total of 522 volleyball players participating in the High School Olympic Games of the State of São Paulo (Brazil) were interviewed. A reported condition inquiry was used to gather information on injuries, such as anatomic site affected, mechanism and moment of injury, as well as personal and training data. The level of significance was set at 5%. A 19% frequency of injuries was found. Higher age, weight, height, body mass index and training duration values were associated with the occurrence of injuries. The most affected anatomic site was the ankle/foot complex (45 injuries, 36.3%). Direct contact and contactless mechanisms were the main causes of injuries (61 injuries; 49.2% and 48 injuries; 38.7%, respectively). Training was the moment in which most injuries occurred (93 injuries; 75%), independently of personal and training characteristics. Injuries affected the ankle/foot complex with a greater frequency. Direct contact and contactless mechanisms were the most frequently reported and injuries occurred mainly during training sessions. Personal and training characteristics were contributing factors for the occurrence of injuries.

  14. Factors Contributing to Examination Malpractices at Secondary School Level in Kohat Division, Pakistan

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    Qaiser Suleman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research work was to identify the factors that contribute to examination malpractices at secondary school level. The target population of the study was all the heads, teachers and students at secondary school level in Kohat Division (Pakistan. The study was delimited to the 80 male secondary schools. The sample for this study was made up of 840 respondents which were selected through simple random sampling technique. A self-developed semi-structured questionnaire was used as research instrument for data collection. Descriptive statistics i.e., simple percentage, mean, standard deviation and inferential statistics i.e., ANOVA were applied for the statistical analysis of data. The findings of the study explored that there are various factors that contribute to examination malpractices i.e., corruption; poor implementation of examinations rules; students and parental threats; no fear of punishment; inadequate preparation for examination; poor invigilation; collusion; disloyalty of examination bodies; fear of failure; poor morale and economic depression of supervisory staff etc. Furthermore, the findings of the study revealed that bringing of unauthorized materials to examination hall; sending of prepared answers to students by teachers and parents; impersonation; questions and papers leakage; cheating; and scripts changing are the various forms of examination malpractices. Based on findings, it was recommended that examination rules should be implemented effectively and those who were found guilty should be given severe exemplary punishment according to the examination’s rules.

  15. The Extent, Nature and Contributing Factors of Violence Against Iranian Emergency Medical Technicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Workplace Violence (WPV is one of the most complex and dangerous occupational hazards faced by pre-hospital emergency medical technicians (EMTs. Objectives This study aimed to assess the extent, nature and contributing factors of WPV against EMTs in Urmia, Iran. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 120 EMTs from April to October 2014. A questionnaire was used for collecting the data. Descriptive statistics were applied to the data. Results Most of the participants (79% experienced WPV during the past six months. Accident scene was the most important place of violence and the patients’ companions were the main perpetrators of violence. Overall, 76% of violence victims reported “lack of awareness of the EMTs’ duties” as the most important contributing factor for WPV. Conclusions This study highlighted the high frequency of WPV against EMTs. Evidently, the health care systems’ officials would benefit from taking proper actions in this area, particularly by “staff and public education”.

  16. Networks of self-defining memories as a contributing factor to emotional openness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Iliane; Philippe, Frederick L; Lecours, Serge; Roulez, Josiane

    2017-02-06

    Emotional openness is characterised by a capacity to tolerate threatening self-relevant material and an interest towards new emotional situations. We investigated how specific networks of memories could be an important contributing factor to emotional openness. At Phase 1, participants completed measures of personality traits and emotional intelligence, described a self-defining memory, provided other memories associated with it, and rated the valence of each of their memories. A score assessing the complexity of this memory network, comprising the number of memories reported and their valence diversity, was created. Two weeks later, in laboratory, participants watched an anxiety-inducing film and took part in an interview assessing their emotional openness to the film. They completed a cognitive task before and after the film to measure ego depletion. Controlling for traits and emotional intelligence, memory network complexity was positively associated with emotional openness and negatively with ego depletion. The mental organisation of self-defining memories thus appears to be a critical factor contributing to emotional openness.

  17. Identifying contributing factors to fatal and serious injury motorcycle collisions involving children in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxley, Jennifer; Ravi, Mano Deepa; Yuen, Jeremy; Hoareau, Effie; Hashim, Hizal Hanis

    2013-01-01

    In Malaysia, motorcycle crashes constitute approximately 60 percent of all road trauma, and a substantial proportion involve children 16 years and younger. There are, however, many gaps in our knowledge on contributing factors to crashes and injury patterns amongst children killed and seriously injured in motorcycle crashes. The aim of this study was to examine fatal and serious injury motorcycle-related collisions to identify contributing factors and injury patterns amongst child motorcyclists. All identified motorcyclist fatal crashes between 2007 and 2011 (inclusive) were extracted from the national Police-reported crash database (M-ROADS) and a range of variables were selected for examination. A total of 17,677 crashes were extracted where a rider or pillion was killed and of these crashes 2,038 involved children, equating to 12 percent. Examination of crashes involving children revealed that some crashes involved more than two children on the motorcycle, therefore, overall children constituted 9.5% of fatal and 18.4% of serious injury collisions. A high proportion of child fatal or serious injury collisions involved the child as the rider (62%), and this was most common for children aged between 10 and 16 years. The majority of collisions occurred on rural roads, in speed limit zones of 50-70km/h, and approximately one-third occurred at an intersection. Collisions involving another motorcycle or a passenger vehicle contributed to 41% and 53% of the total fatalities and severe injuries, respectively. A high proportion (43.9%) of the children (25.5% riders and 18.8% pillion) sustained head injuries with 37.7% being in the 10-16 age group. Furthermore, 52.4% of the children sustaining head injuries did not wear a helmet. The implications of these findings for countermeasures within a Safe System framework, particularly interventions aimed at reducing the rate of unlicensed riding and helmet wearing, and infrastructure countermeasures are discussed.

  18. Quantitative investigation of physical factors contributing to gold nanoparticle-mediated proton dose enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jongmin; Gonzalez-Lepera, Carlos; Manohar, Nivedh; Kerr, Matthew; Krishnan, Sunil; Cho, Sang Hyun

    2016-03-01

    Some investigators have shown tumor cell killing enhancement in vitro and tumor regression in mice associated with the loading of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) before proton treatments. Several Monte Carlo (MC) investigations have also demonstrated GNP-mediated proton dose enhancement. However, further studies need to be done to quantify the individual physical factors that contribute to the dose enhancement or cell-kill enhancement (or radiosensitization). Thus, the current study investigated the contributions of particle-induced x-ray emission (PIXE), particle-induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE), Auger and secondary electrons, and activation products towards the total dose enhancement. Specifically, GNP-mediated dose enhancement was measured using strips of radiochromic film that were inserted into vials of cylindrical GNPs, i.e. gold nanorods (GNRs), dispersed in a saline solution (0.3 mg of GNRs/g or 0.03% of GNRs by weight), as well as vials containing water only, before proton irradiation. MC simulations were also performed with the tool for particle simulation code using the film measurement setup. Additionally, a high-purity germanium detector system was used to measure the photon spectrum originating from activation products created from the interaction of protons and spherical GNPs present in a saline solution (20 mg of GNPs/g or 2% of GNPs by weight). The dose enhancement due to PIXE/PIGE recorded on the films in the GNR-loaded saline solution was less than the experimental uncertainty of the film dosimetry (PIGE, and activation products contribute minimally to GNP/GNR-mediated proton dose enhancement, whereas Auger/secondary electrons contribute significantly but only at short distances (<100 nm) from GNPs/GNRs.

  19. Families, nurses and organisations contributing factors to medication administration error in paediatrics: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albara Alomari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medication error is the most common adverse event for hospitalised children and can lead to significant harm. Despite decades of research and implementation of a number of initiatives, the error rates continue to rise, particularly those associated with administration. Objectives: The objective of this literature review is to explore the factors involving nurses, families and healthcare systems that impact on medication administration errors in paediatric patients. Design: A review was undertaken of studies that reported on factors that contribute to a rise or fall in medication administration errors, from family, nurse and organisational perspectives. The following databases were searched: Medline, Embase, CINAHL and the Cochrane library. The title, abstract and full article were reviewed for relevance. Articles were excluded if they were not research studies, they related to medications and not medication administration errors or they referred to medical errors rather than medication errors. Results: A total of 15 studies met the inclusion criteria. The factors contributing to medication administration errors are communication failure between the parents and healthcare professionals, nurse workload, failure to adhere to policy and guidelines, interruptions, inexperience and insufficient nurse education from organisations. Strategies that were reported to reduce errors were doublechecking by two nurses, implementing educational sessions, use of computerised prescribing and barcoding administration systems. Yet despite such interventions, errors persist. The review highlighted families that have a central role in caring for the child and therefore are key to the administration process, but have largely been ignored in research studies relating to medication administration. Conclusions: While there is a consensus about the factors that contribute to errors, sustainable and effective solutions remain elusive. To date, families have not

  20. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2011-01-01

    The CERN Fitness Club is organising Zumba Classes on the first Wednesday of each month, starting 7 September (19.00 – 20.00). What is Zumba®? It’s an exhilarating, effective, easy-to-follow, Latin-inspired, calorie-burning dance fitness-party™ that’s moving millions of people toward joy and health. Above all it’s great fun and an excellent work out. Price: 22 CHF/person Sign-up via the following form: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Zumba%20Subscription/NewForm.aspx For more info: fitness.club@cern.ch

  1. Factors that contribute to public sector nurses’ turnover in Limpopo province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takalani G. Tshitangano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ongoing worldwide phenomenon of a shortage of about 4.3 million nurses and midwives poses a threat to health service delivery. Limpopo province had the worst nurse shortage of over 60% in 2010. Authors attribute this shortage to turnover of nurses. The quest to describe factors contributing to nurses’ turnover led to this study in Limpopo province,South Africa.Objectives: To explore and describe factors that contribute to nurses’ turnover in Limpopo province of South Africa by assessing public sector nurses’ job satisfaction in relation to common determinants of job satisfaction.Method: A descriptive cross-sectional approach used primary quantitative data collected from 141 of 380 respondents (31.1% response rate contacted incidentally. Self-administered hand delivered questionnaires were used to gather ordinal data, which were analysed in terms off requency and percentage tables using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 6. The sum of positive and negative effects was used to determine satisfaction; if positive effects were greater than negative effects respondents were judged to be satisfied and vice versa.Results: Frequency and percentage tables revealed that nurses in Limpopo province were more dissatisfied (53.9% than satisfied (37.8% with their jobs. Factors which respondents were found to be dissatisfied with included staffing (85.2%, availability of workplace resources(83.7%, salaries (78.8%, workplace safety (73.7%, career development opportunities (64.5% and hours of work (47.6%.Conclusion: Nurses’ turnover is attributed to nurses’ dissatisfaction with staffing, resources, salaries and workplace safety. Attention needs to be given to these specific issues if retentionof nurses is to be achieved.

  2. Factors contributing to attrition behavior in diabetes self-management programs: A mixed method approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Offenheim Ana

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes self-management education is a critical component in diabetes care. Despite worldwide efforts to develop efficacious DSME programs, high attrition rates are often reported in clinical practice. The objective of this study was to examine factors that may contribute to attrition behavior in diabetes self-management programs. Methods We conducted telephone interviews with individuals who had Type 2 diabetes (n = 267 and attended a diabetes education centre. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with attrition behavior. Forty-four percent of participants (n = 118 withdrew prematurely from the program and were asked an open-ended question regarding their discontinuation of services. We used content analysis to code and generate themes, which were then organized under the Behavioral Model of Health Service Utilization. Results Working full and part-time, being over 65 years of age, having a regular primary care physician or fewer diabetes symptoms were contributing factors to attrition behaviour in our multivariable logistic regression. The most common reasons given by participants for attrition from the program were conflict between their work schedules and the centre's hours of operation, patients' confidence in their own knowledge and ability when managing their diabetes, apathy towards diabetes education, distance to the centre, forgetfulness, regular physician consultation, low perceived seriousness of diabetes, and lack of familiarity with the centre and its services. There was considerable overlap between our quantitative and qualitative results. Conclusion Reducing attrition behaviour requires a range of strategies targeted towards delivering convenient and accessible services, familiarizing individuals with these services, increasing communication between centres and their patients, and creating better partnerships between centres and primary care physicians.

  3. An impaired health related muscular fitness contributes to a reduced walking capacity in patients with schizophrenia: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with schizophrenia report muscle weakness. The relation of this muscle weakness with performing daily life activities such as walking is however not yet studied. The aim of this study was to quantify walking capacity and health related muscular fitness in patients with schizophrenia compared with age-, gender and body mass index (BMI)-matched healthy controls. Secondly, we identified variables that could explain the variability in walking capacity and in health related muscular fitness in patients with schizophrenia. Methods A total of 100 patients with schizophrenia and 40 healthy volunteers were initially screened. Eighty patients with schizophrenia (36.8±10.0 years) and the 40 age-, gender- and body mass index (BMI)-matched healthy volunteers (37.1±10.3 years) were finally included. All participants performed a standing broad jump test (SBJ) and a six-minute walk test (6MWT) and filled out the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Patients additionally had a fasting metabolic laboratory screening and were assessed for psychiatric symptoms. Results Patients with schizophrenia did have lower 6MWT (17.9%, pphysically active (1291.0±1201.8 metabolic equivalent-minutes/week versus 2463.1±1365.3, pphysical activity participation, while 53.9% of the variance in SBJ-score was explained by age, illness duration, BMI and physical activity participation. Conclusions The walking capacity and health-related muscular fitness are impaired in patients with schizophrenia and both should be a major focus in daily clinical practice and future research. PMID:23286356

  4. Genome-wide gene expression analysis of Bordetella pertussis isolates associated with a resurgence in pertussis: elucidation of factors involved in the increased fitness of epidemic strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey J King

    Full Text Available Bordetella pertussis (B. pertussis is the causative agent of whooping cough, which is a highly contagious disease in the human respiratory tract. Despite vaccination since the 1950s, pertussis remains the most prevalent vaccine-preventable disease in developed countries. A recent resurgence pertussis is associated with the expansion of B. pertussis strains with a novel allele for the pertussis toxin (ptx promoter ptxP3 in place of resident ptxP1 strains. The recent expansion of ptxP3 strains suggests that these strains carry mutations that have increased their fitness. Compared to the ptxP1 strains, ptxP3 strains produce more Ptx, which results in increased virulence and immune suppression. In this study, we investigated the contribution of gene expression changes of various genes on the increased fitness of the ptxP3 strains. Using genome-wide gene expression profiling, we show that several virulence genes had higher expression levels in the ptxP3 strains compared to the ptxP1 strains. We provide the first evidence that wildtype ptxP3 strains are better colonizers in an intranasal mouse infection model. This study shows that the ptxP3 mutation and the genetic background of ptxP3 strains affect fitness by contributing to the ability to colonize in a mouse infection model. These results show that the genetic background of ptxP3 strains with a higher expression of virulence genes contribute to increased fitness.

  5. Contribution of individual and environmental factors to physical activity level among Spanish adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Serrano-Sanchez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lack of physical activity (PA is a major risk for chronic disease and obesity. The main aims of the present study were to identify individual and environmental factors independently associated with PA and examine the relative contribution of these factors to PA level in Spanish adults. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A population-based cross-sectional sample of 3,000 adults (18-75 years old from Gran Canaria (Spain was selected using a multistage stratified random sampling method. The participants were interviewed at home using a validated questionnaire to assess PA as well as individual and environmental factors. The data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. One demographic variable (education, two cognitive (self-efficacy and perceived barriers, and one social environmental (organized format were independently associated with PA in both genders. Odds ratios ranged between 1.76-2.07 in men and 1.35-2.50 in women (both p<0.05. Individual and environmental factors explained about one-third of the variance in PA level. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Self-efficacy and perceived barriers were the most significant factors to meet an adequate level of PA. The risk of insufficient PA was twofold greater in men with primary or lesser studies and who are employed. In women, living in rural environments increased the risk of insufficient PA. The promotion of organized PA may be an efficient way to increase the level of PA in the general population. Improvement in the access to sport facilities and places for PA is a prerequisite that may be insufficient and should be combined with strategies to improve self-efficacy and overcome perceived barriers in adulthood.

  6. Construct of Dialysis Employee Satisfaction: Acquiring Satisfaction Factors and Their Contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiuzhu; Itoh, Kenji

    2015-10-01

    We developed a construct of dialysis employees' satisfaction as an assessment framework and identified the crucial factors that contribute to overall job satisfaction. We also seek to capture some important characteristics of dialysis professionals' job satisfaction/dissatisfaction in Japan. A questionnaire was developed, including 35 facet-specific job-related satisfaction and 10 general satisfaction items in closed-ended questions. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted between August and October 2013. A total of 799 valid responses (87% of response rate) were collected from 46 physicians, 470 nurses and 251 technologists in the dialysis department of 43 facilities in Japan. Five satisfaction factors were derived by applying principal component analysis with 61% of cumulative variance accounted for. Physicians, nurses and technologists in the dialysis department shared a similar trend of job satisfaction that they were more satisfied with leadership, and communication and teamwork among the five factors, whereas their satisfaction level was relatively low with salary and welfare conditions. Physicians expressed the strongest satisfaction with any factor while nurses were the least satisfied. Nurses' and technologists' overall job satisfaction was mostly determined by satisfaction with self-actualization, and work demands and workload. A five-factor construct of dialysis employee satisfaction was identified. Overall job satisfaction of dialysis nurses and technologists were not overly high in Japan, and this seems to be caused by their relatively low satisfaction with self-actualization and with work demands and workload. Therefore, it is suggested that their work conditions and environment must be improved to support their self-actualization and to reduce their workload.

  7. Cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy: a review of factors contributing to morbidity and mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Andrew D.; Bartlett, Edmund K.

    2016-01-01

    Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is associated with prolonged survival for appropriately selected patients with peritoneal dissemination of abdominal malignancies. CRS and HIPEC has been criticized for perceived high rates of morbidity and mortality. Morbidity and mortality rates of CRS and HIPEC, however, do not appear dissimilar to those of other large abdominal surgeries, particularly when relevant patient and operative factors are accounted for. The risk of morbidity and mortality following this surgery for a given individual can be predicted in part by a variety of patient and operative factors. While strong data are lacking, the limited data that exists on the matter suggests that the independent contribution of the heated intraperitoneal chemotherapy to CRS and HIPEC morbidity is relatively small. A more thorough understanding of the patient and operative factors associated with CRS and HIPEC morbidity and mortality, as well as the specific complications related to the intraperitoneal chemotherapy, can better inform clinicians in multidisciplinary teams and patients alike in the decision-making for this surgery. PMID:26941988

  8. Factors contributing to the off-target transport of pyrethroid insecticides from urban surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, Brant C; Wissel-Tyson, Christopher; Young, Thomas M

    2012-08-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides used in urban and suburban contexts have been found in urban creek sediments and associated with toxicity in aquatic bioassays. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the main factors contributing to the off-target transport of pyrethroid insecticides from surfaces typical of residential landscapes. Controlled rainfall simulations over concrete, bare soil, and turf plots treated individually with pyrethroid insecticides in a suspension concentrate, an emulsifiable concentrate, or a granule formulation were conducted at different rainfall intensities and different product set-time intervals. Pyrethroid mass washoff varied by several orders of magnitude between experimental treatments. Suspension concentrate product application to concrete yielded significantly greater washoff than any other treatment; granule product application to turf yielded the least washoff. Fractional losses at 10 L of runoff ranged from 25.9 to 0.011% of pyrethroid mass applied, and 10 L nominal mass losses ranged from 3970 to 0.18 μg. Mass washoff depended principally on formulation and surface type combination and, to a lesser degree, on set-time interval and rainfall intensity. Treatment effects were analyzed by ANOVA on main factors of formulation, surface type, and set time. Factor effects were not purely additive; a significant interaction between formulation and surface type was noted.

  9. The contribution of endogenous and exogenous factors to male alopecia: a study of identical twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatherwright, James; Liu, Mengyuan T; Amirlak, Bardia; Gliniak, Christy; Totonchi, Ali; Guyuron, Bahman

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential contribution of environmental factors and testosterone on male alopecia. Ninety-two identical male twins were recruited from 2009 to 2011. A comprehensive questionnaire was completed followed by the acquisition of sputum samples for testosterone analysis and standardized digital photography. Frontal, temporal, and vertex hair loss was assessed from these photographs. Hair loss was then correlated with survey responses and testosterone levels between twin pairs. Two independent, blinded observers also rated the photographs for hair thinning. Increased smoking duration (p money spent on hair loss products (p = 0.050) were all associated with increased temporal hair loss. Daily hat use (p = 0.050), higher body mass index (p = 0.012), and higher testosterone levels (p = 0.040) were associated with decreased temporal hair loss. Factors that were significantly associated with increased vertex hair loss included abstinence from alcohol consumption (p = 0.030), consumption of more than four alcoholic drinks per week (p = 0.004), increased smoking duration (p = 0.047), increased exercise duration (p = 0.050), and increased stress duration (p = 0.010). Lower body mass index, more children, increased caffeine consumption, history of skin disease, and abstinence from alcohol were significantly associated with increased hair thinning scores (p exogenous factors may have a clinically significant impact on hair loss. Risk, III.

  10. Endotoxin levels and contribution factors of endotoxins in resident, school, and office environments - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, Heidi; Duchaine, Caroline; Létourneau, Valérie; Mazaheri, Mandana; Laitinen, Sirpa; Clifford, Sam; Mikkola, Raimo; Lappalainen, Sanna; Reijula, Kari; Morawska, Lidia

    2016-10-01

    As endotoxin exposure has known effects on human health, it is important to know the generally existing levels of endotoxins as well as their contributing factors. This work reviews current knowledge on the endotoxin loads in settled floor dust, concentrations of endotoxins in indoor air, and different environmental factors potentially affecting endotoxin levels. The literature review consists of peer-reviewed manuscripts located using Google and PubMed, with search terms based on individual words and combinations. References from relevant articles have also been searched. Analysis of the data showed that in residential, school, and office environments, the mean endotoxin loads in settled floor dust varied between 660 and 107,000 EU/m2, 2180 and 48,000 EU/m2, and 2700 and 12,890 EU/m2, respectively. Correspondingly, the mean endotoxin concentrations in indoor air varied between 0.04 and 1610 EU/m3 in residences, and 0.07 and 9.30 EU/m3 in schools and offices. There is strong scientific evidence indicating that age of houses (or housing unit year category), cleaning, farm or rural living, flooring materials (the presence of carpets), number of occupants, the presence of dogs or cats indoors, and relative humidity affect endotoxin loads in settled floor dust. The presence of pets (especially dogs) was extremely strongly associated with endotoxin concentrations in indoor air. However, as reviewed articles show inconsistency, additional studies on these and other possible predicting factors are needed.

  11. Analysis of the structure factor of dense krypton gas: Bridge contributions and many-body effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aers, G. C.; Dharma-Wardana, M. W. C.

    1984-05-01

    The pair-correlation function g(r) of the Kr-type model fluid with only pair interactions was calculated using the Rosenfeld-Ashcroft modification of the hypernetted-chain (HNC) equation which includes bridge diagrams, and gave results in excellent agreement with Monte Carlo g(r) data. These bridge functions and the known pair potential were used to analyze the neutron-diffraction structure-factor data of Teitsma and Egelstaff, to determine the effective strength of the three-body potential as a function of the density assuming it to be of the Axilrod-Teller (AT) form. The strength of the effective three-body contribution s=ννtheor, where νtheor is the theoretical value, decreases for higher densities, suggesting that the many-body terms (beyond the Axilrod-Teller form) screen the AT interaction as the density increases. The results are very sensitive to the uncertainties in the structure factor S(k) for small k if parameter optimization is used to determine the effective pair potential. However, prediction of the compressibility using s=1 allows us to conclude that νtheor is consistent with the experimental data for low densities, to within the uncertainties in the presently available pair potentials and in the structure-factor data.

  12. Physiologic and fit factor profiles of N95 and P100 filtering facepiece respirators for use in hot, humid environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Hyun; Wu, Tianzhou; Powell, Jeffrey B; Roberge, Raymond J

    2016-02-01

    To determine if hot, humid ambient conditions impact filtering facepiece respirators' (FFRs') fit, and to evaluate differences in physiologic and subjective responses between N95 FFRs and P100 FFRs. Twelve subjects had physiologic monitoring and subjective perceptions monitored over 1 hour of treadmill exercise (5.6 km/h) in an environmental chamber (35°C, relative humidity 50%) wearing an N95 FFR, P100 FFR, or no respirator. Respirator quantitative fit testing was done before and after exercise. There was no significant difference in pass rates for both FFRs on initial fit testing, but subjects who passed were more likely to fail the postexercise test with N95 FFRs (P = .01). Wearing FFRs increased the temperature of facial skin covered by the FFR (P = .009) and breathing discomfort (P = .002). No significant differences were noted in other measured variables (heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, transcutaneous carbon dioxide level, rectal temperature, global skin temperature, core temperature, and subjective perceptions) between controls and FFRs and between FFR models. After 1 hour of exercise in hot, humid ambient conditions, P100 FFRs retained better fit than N95 FFRs, without additional physiologic or subjective impact. Wearing FFRs under these conditions does not add to the body's thermophysiologic or perceptual burdens. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. What factors contribute to the risk of depression in epilepsy?--Tasmanian Epilepsy Register Mood Study (TERMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Cameron J; Salzberg, Michael R; D'Souza, Wendyl J

    2016-03-01

    To model the factors associated with depression in a community sample of people with epilepsy. The factors investigated were derived from proposed risk factors for depression from patients with epilepsy, other chronic illness, and the general population. Multivariate analysis using general linear regression models of factors associated with depression in the Tasmanian Epilepsy Register Mood Study (TERMS), a cross-sectional community sample of 440 patients with epilepsy. A model with acceptable fit was created that explained 66% of the variance of depression. Associated factors included in this model were neuroticism, physical functioning, social support, past history of depression, and stressful life events. In this cross-sectional study designed specifically to investigate depression in epilepsy, we showed that general risk factors for depression in other illness and in the general population are also important in patients with epilepsy, with little support for disease-related risk factors. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  14. Factors contributing to delay in diagnosis and start of treatment of leprosy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicholls, P.G.; Chhina, N; Aaen, Karen Bro

    2005-01-01

    The objective of our research was to identify factors contributing to delay in diagnosis and start of treatment in leprosy, focussing on patients' narratives of help-seeking behaviour. Our research took place in Purulia, West Bengal, India and in Nilphamari, northern Bangladesh. Between January...... and August 2000, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 104 patients that explored each individual's narrative of help-seeking behaviour and the context of beliefs and attitudes towards leprosy. Subsequently we surveyed 356 patients currently receiving treatment for leprosy and recorded specific...... aspects of each help-seeking action and their reports of local beliefs and attitudes towards leprosy. Delay was estimated from time of first symptoms through to start of effective treatment (mean 18 months, median 9 months in Purulia and mean 20 months, median 12 months in Nilphamari). The number of help...

  15. The Pion-Cloud Contribution to the Electromagnetic Nucleon Form Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kupelwieser Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the electromagnetic structure of the nucleon within a hybrid constituent-quark model that comprises, in addition to the 3q valence component, also a 3q+π non-valence component. To this aim we employ a Poincaré-invariant multichannel formulation based on the point-form of relativistic quantum mechanics. With a simple 3-quark wave function for the bare nucleon, i.e. the 3q-component, we obtain reasonable results for the nucleon form factors and predict the meson-cloud contribution to be significant only below Q2 ≲ 0:5 GeV2 amounting to about 10% for Q2 → 0, in accordance with the findings of other authors.

  16. Word problems: A review of linguistic and numerical factors contributing to their difficulty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella eDaroczy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Word problems belong to the most difficult and complex problem types that pupils encounter during their elementary-level mathematical development. In the classroom setting, they are often viewed as merely arithmetic tasks; however, recent research shows that a number of linguistic verbal components not directly related to arithmetic contribute greatly to their difficulty. In this review, we will distinguish three components of word problem difficulty: (i the linguistic complexity of the problem text itself, (ii the numerical complexity of the arithmetic problem, and (iii the relation between the linguistic and numerical complexity of a problem. We will discuss the impact of each of these factors on word problem difficulty and motivate the need for a high degree of control in stimuli design for experiments that manipulate word problem difficulty for a given age group.

  17. Transgenic Nonhuman Primate Models for Human Diseases: Approaches and Contributing Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongchang Chen; Yuyu Niu; Weizhi Ji

    2012-01-01

    Nonhuman primates (NHPs) provide powerful experimental models to study human development,cognitive functions and disturbances as well as complex behavior,because of their genetic and physiological similarities to humans.Therefore,NHPs are appropriate models for the study of human diseases,such as neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's,Alzheimer's and Huntington's diseases,which occur as a result of genetic mutations.However,such diseass afflicting humans do not occur naturally in NHPs.So transgenic NHPs need to be established to understand the etiology of disease pathology and pathogenesis.Compared to rodent genetic models,the generation of transgenic NHPs for human diseases is inefficient,and only a transgenic monkey model for Huntington's disease has been reported.This review focuses on potential approaches and contributing factors for generating transgenic NHPs to study human diseases.

  18. ANALYSIS ON THE PRESENT SITUATION AND CONTRIBUTING FACTORS OF VACANT COMMERCIAL HOUSING IN GUANGZHOU URBAN DISTRICT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Yao-dong; ZHOU Chun-shan; FANG Yuan-ping

    2003-01-01

    According to the on-the-spot sampling investigation, this paper analyzes the conditions of different dis-tricts, different locales and different types of the vacant commercial housing as well as the contributing factors, whichwas completed in recent three years in Guangzhou urban district. It is found that vacant ratio of samples in Guangzhouaccounted for 20. 94%, which is relatively high. The authors argue that real estate industry of Guangzhou has made rapidprogress, at the same time, people should not overlook the vacant commercial housing. It will benefit the sustainable develop-ment of the real estate industry of Guangzhou to carry out effective measures and actively to make use of present vacant housing.

  19. Factors contributing to delayed diagnosis of cancer among Aboriginal people in Australia: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Shaouli; Teng, Tiew-Hwa Katherine; Bessarab, Dawn; Aoun, Samar; Baxi, Siddhartha; Thompson, Sandra C

    2016-01-01

    Background/objectives Delayed presentation of symptomatic cancer is associated with poorer survival. Aboriginal patients with cancer have higher rates of distant metastases at diagnosis compared with non-Aboriginal Australians. This paper examined factors contributing to delayed diagnosis of cancer among Aboriginal Australians from patient and service providers' perspectives. Methods In-depth, open-ended interviews were conducted in two stages (2006–2007 and 2011). Inductive thematic analysis was assisted by use of NVivo looking around delays in presentation, diagnosis and referral for cancer. Participants Aboriginal patients with cancer/family members (n=30) and health service providers (n=62) were recruited from metropolitan Perth and six rural/remote regions of Western Australia. Results Three broad themes of factors were identified: (1) Contextual factors such as intergenerational impact of colonisation and racism and socioeconomic deprivation have negatively impacted on Aboriginal Australians' trust of the healthcare professionals; (2) health service-related factors included low accessibility to health services, long waiting periods, inadequate numbers of Aboriginal professionals and high staff turnover; (3) patient appraisal of symptoms and decision-making, fear of cancer and denial of symptoms were key reasons patients procrastinated in seeking help. Elements of shame, embarrassment, shyness of seeing the doctor, psychological ‘fear of the whole health system’, attachment to the land and ‘fear of leaving home’ for cancer treatment in metropolitan cities were other deterrents for Aboriginal people. Manifestation of masculinity and the belief that ‘health is women's domain’ emerged as a reason why Aboriginal men were reluctant to receive health checks. Conclusions Solutions to improved Aboriginal cancer outcomes include focusing on the primary care sector encouraging general practitioners to be proactive to suspicion of symptoms with appropriate

  20. Factors contributing to the low uptake of medical male circumcision in Mutare Rural District, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene O. Chiringa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medical male circumcision (MMC has become a significant dimension of HIV prevention interventions, after the results of three randomised controlled trials in Uganda, South Africa and Kenya demonstrated that circumcision has a protective effect against contracting HIV of up to 60%. Following recommendations by the World Health Organization, Zimbabwe in 2009 adopted voluntary MMC as an additional HIV prevention strategy to the existing ABC behaviour change model.Purpose: The purpose of this study is thus to investigate the factors contributing to the low uptake of MMC.Methods: The study was a quantitative cross-sectional survey conducted in Mutare rural district, Zimbabwe. Questionnaires with open- and closed-ended questions were administered to the eligible respondents. The target population were male participants aged 15–29 who met the inclusion criteria. The households were systematically selected with a sample size of 234. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences was used to analyse the data.Results: Socioculturally, circumcised men are viewed as worthless (37%, shameful (30% and are tainted as promiscuous (20%, psychological factors reported were infection and delayed healing (39%, being ashamed and dehumanised (58%, stigmatised and discriminated (40.2% and fear of having an erection during treatment period (89.7% whilst socio-economic factors were not having time, as it will take their time from work (58% and complications may arise leading to spending money on treatment (84%.Conclusion: Knowledge deficits regarding male medical circumcision lead to low uptake, education on male medical circumcision and its benefits. Comprehensive sexual health education should target men and dispel negative attitudes related to the use of health services.Keywords: Factors, Low uptake, Medical Male Circumcision (MMC

  1. The contributions of risk factor trends and medical care to cardiovascular mortality trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzati, Majid; Obermeyer, Ziad; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Mayosi, Bongani M; Elliott, Paul; Leon, David A

    2016-01-01

    Ischaemic heart disease, stroke, and other cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are responsible for an estimated 17.5 million annual deaths in the world. If account is taken of population aging, death rates from CVDs are estimated to be steadily decreasing in the world as a whole, and in regions with reliable trend data. The declines in high-income countries and some countries in Latin America have been ongoing for decades with no indication of slowing. In high-income countries, these positive trends have broadly coincided with, and benefited from, declines in smoking and physiological risk factors like blood pressure and serum cholesterol. Improvements in medical care, including effective primary prevention through management of physiological risk factors, better diagnosis and treatment of acute CVDs, and post-hospital care of those with prior CVDs, are also likely to have contributed to declining CVD event and death rates, especially in the past 40 years. However, the measured risk factor and treatment variables neither explain why the decline began when it did, nor much of the similarities and differences in the start time and rate of the decline across countries or between men and women. There have been sharp changes and fluctuations in CVDs in the former communist countries of Europe and the Soviet Union since the fall of communism in the early 1990s, with changes in volume and patterns of alcohol drinking, as a major cause of the rise in Russia and some other former Soviet countries. The challenge of reaching more definitive conclusions concerning the drivers of what constitutes one of the most remarkable international trends in adult mortality in the past half-century in part reflects the paucity of time trend data not only on disease incidence, risk factors, and clinical care, but also on other potential drivers, including infection and associated inflammatory processes throughout the lifecourse. PMID:26076950

  2. Ecosystem Service Value Assessment and Contribution Factor Analysis of Land Use Change in Miyun County, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Unreasonable land use planning can reduce ecosystem service value and result in unsustainable land use. In this paper, the changes of ecosystem service value were investigated by using the GIS and dynamic simulation model of land use in Miyun of Beijing, China, based on the land use at four time points including 1991, 2006, 2021 and one improved scenario, respectively. The results showed the total ecosystem service value of Miyun was about 2968.34 million Yuan in 1991, 3304.72 million Yuan in 2006, 3106.48 million Yuan in 2021, and 3759.77 million Yuan in the improved scenario. In terms of ecosystem service function, the functions of water supply and soil formation and retention accounted for the largest proportion, which were 19.99% and 14.58% respectively; whereas the functions of food supply and recreation and culture were only 1.83% and 5.99%, respectively. Coefficients of sensitivity for forest cover, water bodies and arable land were relatively large, which were 0.73, 0.28 and 0.14, respectively. The contribution factors of total ecosystem service value with the land use change during different periods were mainly the unused land to forest cover and arable land, which respectively accounted for more than 63% and 21% of the contribution rate. These results suggested that sustainable land use planning should be undertaken with emphasis on vegetation restoration and protection of water bodies.

  3. Expression of elongation factor-2 kinase contributes to anoikis resistance and invasion of human glioma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li ZHANG; Yi ZHANG; Xiao-yuan LIU; Zheng-hong QIN; Jin-ming YANG

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether elongation factor-2 kinase (eEF-2 kinase) contributes to the malignant phenotype of glioblastoma multiforme by promoting the migration and invasion of glioma cells. The mechanism involved was also explored.Methods: Human glioma cell lines T98G and LN-229 were used. The expression of eEF-2 kinase was silenced using siRNA, and the invasive potential of tumor cells was assessed using a wound-healing assay and a Matrigel invasion assay. Apoptosis was determined using propidium iodide (PI) staining and Western blot analysis of cleaved caspase-3.Results: Silencing the expression of eEF-2 kinase by siRNA significantly suppressed both the migration and invasion of human glioma cells. Silencing eEF-2 kinase expression also sensitized glioma cells to anoikis, thereby decreasing tumor cell viability in the absence of attachment. Treatment of tumor cells with the caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk down-regulated Bim accumulation and abolished glioma cell sensitivity to anoikis.Conclusion: The results suggest that the expression of eEF-2 kinase contributes to migration and invasion of human glioma cells by protecting them from anoikis. eEF-2 kinase expression may serve as a prognostic marker and a novel target for cancer therapy.

  4. E-Prescribing Errors in Community Pharmacies: Exploring Consequences and Contributing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Jamie A.; Chui, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore types of e-prescribing errors in community pharmacies and their potential consequences, as well as the factors that contribute to e-prescribing errors. Methods Data collection involved performing 45 total hours of direct observations in five pharmacies. Follow-up interviews were conducted with 20 study participants. Transcripts from observations and interviews were subjected to content analysis using NVivo 10. Results Pharmacy staff detected 75 e-prescription errors during the 45 hour observation in pharmacies. The most common e-prescribing errors were wrong drug quantity, wrong dosing directions, wrong duration of therapy, and wrong dosage formulation. Participants estimated that 5 in 100 e-prescriptions have errors. Drug classes that were implicated in e-prescribing errors were antiinfectives, inhalers, ophthalmic, and topical agents. The potential consequences of e-prescribing errors included increased likelihood of the patient receiving incorrect drug therapy, poor disease management for patients, additional work for pharmacy personnel, increased cost for pharmacies and patients, and frustrations for patients and pharmacy staff. Factors that contribute to errors included: technology incompatibility between pharmacy and clinic systems, technology design issues such as use of auto-populate features and dropdown menus, and inadvertently entering incorrect information. Conclusion Study findings suggest that a wide range of e-prescribing errors are encountered in community pharmacies. Pharmacists and technicians perceive that causes of e-prescribing errors are multidisciplinary and multifactorial, that is to say e-prescribing errors can originate from technology used in prescriber offices and pharmacies. PMID:24657055

  5. Contribution of Vibrio parahaemolyticus virulence factors to cytotoxicity, enterotoxicity, and lethality in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiyoshi, Hirotaka; Kodama, Toshio; Iida, Tetsuya; Honda, Takeshi

    2010-04-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus, one of the human-pathogenic vibrios, causes three major types of clinical illness: gastroenteritis, wound infections, and septicemia. Thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) secreted by this bacterium has been considered a major virulence factor of gastroenteritis because it has biological activities, including cytotoxic and enterotoxic activities. Previous reports revealed that V. parahaemolyticus strain RIMD2210633, which contains tdh, has two sets of type III secretion system (T3SS) genes on chromosomes 1 and 2 (T3SS1 and T3SS2, respectively) and that T3SS1 is responsible for cytotoxicity and T3SS2 is involved in enterotoxicity, as well as in cytotoxic activity. However, the relative importance and contributions of TDH and the two T3SSs to V. parahaemolyticus pathogenicity are not well understood. In this study, we constructed mutant strains with nonfunctional T3SSs from the V. parahaemolyticus strain containing tdh, and then the pathogenicities of the wild-type and mutant strains were evaluated by assessing their cytotoxic activities against HeLa, Caco-2, and RAW 264 cells, their enterotoxic activities in rabbit ileal loops, and their lethality in a murine infection model. We demonstrated that T3SS1 was involved in cytotoxic activities against all cell lines used in this study, while T3SS2 and TDH had cytotoxic effects on a limited number of cell lines. T3SS2 was the major contributor to V. parahaemolyticus-induced enterotoxicity. Interestingly, we found that both T3SS1 and TDH played a significant role in lethal activity in a murine infection model. Our findings provide new indications that these virulence factors contribute to and orchestrate each distinct aspect of the pathogenicity of V. parahaemolyticus.

  6. The Effect of Body Position on Physiological Factors that Contribute to Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, Simon A.; Edwards, Bradley A.; Wellman, Andrew; Turton, Anthony; Skuza, Elizabeth M.; Berger, Philip J.; Hamilton, Garun S.

    2015-01-01

    Study objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) resolves in lateral sleep in 20% of patients. However, the effect of lateral positioning on factors contributing to OSA has not been studied. We aimed to measure the effect of lateral positioning on the key pathophysiological contributors to OSA including lung volume, passive airway anatomy/collapsibility, the ability of the airway to stiffen and dilate, ventilatory control instability (loop gain), and arousal threshold. Design: Non-randomized single arm observational study. Setting: Sleep laboratory. Patients/participants: 20 (15M, 5F) continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)-treated severe OSA patients. Interventions: Supine vs. lateral position. Measurements: CPAP dial-downs performed during sleep to measure: (i) Veupnea: asleep ventilatory requirement, (ii) passive V0: ventilation off CPAP when airway dilator muscles are quiescent, (iii) Varousal: ventilation at which respiratory arousals occur, (iv) active V0: ventilation off CPAP when airway dilator muscles are activated during sleep, (v) loop gain: the ratio of the ventilatory drive response to a disturbance in ventilation, (vi) arousal threshold: level of ventilatory drive which leads to arousal, (vii) upper airway gain (UAG): ability of airway muscles to restore ventilation in response to increases in ventilatory drive, and (viii) pharyngeal critical closing pressure (Pcrit). Awake functional residual capacity (FRC) was also recorded. Results: Lateral positioning significantly increased passive V0 (0.33 ± 0.76L/min vs. 3.56 ± 2.94L/min, P Turton A, Skuza EM, Berger PJ, Hamilton GS. The effect of body position on physiological factors that contribute to obstructive sleep apnea. SLEEP 2015;38(9):1469–1478. PMID:25761982

  7. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor enhances Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation potentially contributing to cystic fibrosis pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynan, Aisling; Mawhinney, Leona; Armstrong, Michelle E; O'Reilly, Ciaran; Kennedy, Sarah; Caraher, Emma; Jülicher, Karen; O'Dwyer, David; Maher, Lewena; Schaffer, Kirsten; Fabre, Aurélie; McKone, Edward F; Leng, Lin; Bucala, Richard; Bernhagen, Jürgen; Cooke, Gordon; Donnelly, Seamas C

    2017-08-02

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a key proinflammatory mediator that we have previously shown to be associated with an aggressive clinical phenotype in cystic fibrosis. It possesses unique tautomerase enzymatic activity. However, to date, no human-derived substrate has been identified that has the capacity to interact with this cytokine's unique tautomerase activity. This led us to hypothesize that MIF may have the capacity to interact with external substrates. We describe for the first time how Pseudomonas aeruginosa can utilize human recombinant MIF (rMIF) to significantly (P < 0.01) enhance its endogenous biofilm formation. Our in vivo studies demonstrate that utilizing a small-molecular-weight inhibitor targeting MIF's tautomerase activity (SCD-19) significantly reduces the inflammatory response in a murine pulmonary chronic P. aeruginosa model. In addition, we show that in in vitro experiments, pretreatment of P. aeruginosa with rMIF is associated with reduced bacterial killing by tobramycin. Our novel findings support the concept of an anti-MIF strategy that targets this enzymatic activity as a potential future antibacterial therapeutic approach.-Tynan, A., Mawhinney, L., Armstrong, M. E., O'Reilly, C., Kennedy, S., Caraher, E., Jülicher, K., O'Dwyer, D., Maher, L., Schaffer, K., Fabre, A., McKone, E. F., Leng, L., Bucala, R., Bernhagen, J., Cooke, G., Donnelly, S. C. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor enhances Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation potentially contributing to cystic fibrosis pathogenesis. © FASEB.

  8. Urban Household Carbon Emission and Contributing Factors in the Yangtze River Delta, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xibao; Tan, Yan; Chen, Shuang; Yang, Guishan; Su, Weizhong

    2015-01-01

    Carbon reduction at the household level is an integral part of carbon mitigation. This study analyses the characteristics, effects, contributing factors and policies for urban household carbon emissions in the Yangtze River Delta of China. Primary data was collected through structured questionnaire surveys in three cities in the region – Nanjing, Ningbo, and Changzhou in 2011. The survey data was first used to estimate the magnitude of household carbon emissions in different urban contexts. It then examined how, and to what extent, each set of demographic, economic, behavioral/cognitive and spatial factors influence carbon emissions at the household level. The average of urban household carbon emissions in the region was estimated to be 5.96 tonnes CO2 in 2010. Energy consumption, daily commuting, garbage disposal and long-distance travel accounted for 51.2%, 21.3%, 16.0% and 11.5% of the total emission, respectively. Regulating rapidly growing car-holdings of urban households, stabilizing population growth, and transiting residents’ low-carbon awareness to household behavior in energy saving and other spheres of consumption in the context of rapid population aging and the growing middle income class are suggested as critical measures for carbon mitigation among urban households in the Yangtze River Delta. PMID:25884853

  9. Anaerobes and Bacterial Vaginosis in Pregnancy: Virulence Factors Contributing to Vaginal Colonisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Africa, Charlene W. J.; Nel, Janske; Stemmet, Megan

    2014-01-01

    The aetiology and pathogenesis of bacterial vaginosis (BV) is unclear but it appears to be associated with factors that disrupt the normal acidity of the vagina thus altering the equilibrium between the normal vaginal microbiota. BV has serious implications for female morbidity, including reports of pelvic inflammatory disease, adverse pregnancy outcomes, increased susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections and infertility. This paper reviewed new available information regarding possible factors contributing to the establishment of the BV vaginal biofilm, examined the proposed role of anaerobic microbial species recently detected by new culture-independent methods and discusses developments related to the effects of BV on human pregnancy. The literature search included Pubmed (NLM), LISTA (EBSCO), and Web of Science. Because of the complexity and diversity of population groups, diagnosis and methodology used, no meta-analysis was performed. Several anaerobic microbial species previously missed in the laboratory diagnosis of BV have been revealed while taking cognisance of newly proposed theories of infection, thereby improving our understanding and knowledge of the complex aetiology and pathogenesis of BV and its perceived role in adverse pregnancy outcomes. PMID:25014248

  10. A Model of Factors Contributing to STEM Learning and Career Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Gwen; Barker, Bradley; Welch, Greg; Grandgenett, Neal; Wu, ChaoRong; Nelson, Carl

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop and test a model of factors contributing to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) learning and career orientation, examining the complex paths and relationships among social, motivational, and instructional factors underlying these outcomes for middle school youth. Social cognitive career theory provided the foundation for the research because of its emphasis on explaining mechanisms which influence both career orientations and academic performance. Key constructs investigated were youth STEM interest, self-efficacy, and career outcome expectancy (consequences of particular actions). The study also investigated the effects of prior knowledge, use of problem-solving learning strategies, and the support and influence of informal educators, family members, and peers. A structural equation model was developed, and structural equation modeling procedures were used to test proposed relationships between these constructs. Results showed that educators, peers, and family-influenced youth STEM interest, which in turn predicted their STEM self-efficacy and career outcome expectancy. STEM career orientation was fostered by youth-expected outcomes for such careers. Results suggest that students' pathways to STEM careers and learning can be largely explained by these constructs, and underscore the importance of youth STEM interest.

  11. Urban household carbon emission and contributing factors in the Yangtze River Delta, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xibao Xu

    Full Text Available Carbon reduction at the household level is an integral part of carbon mitigation. This study analyses the characteristics, effects, contributing factors and policies for urban household carbon emissions in the Yangtze River Delta of China. Primary data was collected through structured questionnaire surveys in three cities in the region--Nanjing, Ningbo, and Changzhou in 2011. The survey data was first used to estimate the magnitude of household carbon emissions in different urban contexts. It then examined how, and to what extent, each set of demographic, economic, behavioral/cognitive and spatial factors influence carbon emissions at the household level. The average of urban household carbon emissions in the region was estimated to be 5.96 tonnes CO2 in 2010. Energy consumption, daily commuting, garbage disposal and long-distance travel accounted for 51.2%, 21.3%, 16.0% and 11.5% of the total emission, respectively. Regulating rapidly growing car-holdings of urban households, stabilizing population growth, and transiting residents' low-carbon awareness to household behavior in energy saving and other spheres of consumption in the context of rapid population aging and the growing middle income class are suggested as critical measures for carbon mitigation among urban households in the Yangtze River Delta.

  12. Anaerobes and Bacterial Vaginosis in Pregnancy: Virulence Factors Contributing to Vaginal Colonisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlene W. J. Africa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aetiology and pathogenesis of bacterial vaginosis (BV is unclear but it appears to be associated with factors that disrupt the normal acidity of the vagina thus altering the equilibrium between the normal vaginal microbiota. BV has serious implications for female morbidity, including reports of pelvic inflammatory disease, adverse pregnancy outcomes, increased susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections and infertility. This paper reviewed new available information regarding possible factors contributing to the establishment of the BV vaginal biofilm, examined the proposed role of anaerobic microbial species recently detected by new culture-independent methods and discusses developments related to the effects of BV on human pregnancy. The literature search included Pubmed (NLM, LISTA (EBSCO, and Web of Science. Because of the complexity and diversity of population groups, diagnosis and methodology used, no meta-analysis was performed. Several anaerobic microbial species previously missed in the laboratory diagnosis of BV have been revealed while taking cognisance of newly proposed theories of infection, thereby improving our understanding and knowledge of the complex aetiology and pathogenesis of BV and its perceived role in adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  13. Professional behaviours and factors contributing to nursing professionalism among nurse managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Michiko; Taketomi, Kikuko; Yonemitsu, Yoshikazu; Kawamoto, Rieko

    2016-01-01

    To examine the perception of professional behaviours and factors contributing to nursing professionalism among nurse managers. Professional behaviours influence nursing professionalisation and managers' behaviours strongly impact professional development. In Japan, few studies have examined professional nursing behaviours from the nurse managers' perspective. The Behavioural Inventory for Professionalism in Nursing was performed with 525 nurse managers representing 15 facilities in Japan. The highest professional behaviours score obtained was 'competence and continuing education' and the lowest behavioural score was 'publication and communication'. The results demonstrate that higher nursing professionalism is related significantly to the increased length of nursing experience, a higher level of educational preparation and the current position as a nurse administrator. This study demonstrated that nursing professionalism is influenced by years of experience and nursing management education. Awareness of extrinsic professional factors is important continually to maintain nursing professionalism. The findings of our study may help nurse managers to continue their self-development and to realise the potential of their nursing staff by developing professionalism. These findings also provide an understanding of international professionalism trends to achieve higher levels of nursing professionalism through the evaluation of professional nursing behaviours. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Addictive Behaviors Amongst University Students: Contributing Factors, Student's Perception and Addiction Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Houri

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Factors contributing to addictive behaviors affecting student health are analyzed in this study. Smoking, alcohol consumption, and the use of illegal drugs are assessed in a sample of 290 university students. General averages indicate that 37.2% of students smoke cigarettes, 49.8% drink alcohol regularly, and 17.9% have tried illegal drugs while 4.8% of them use it regularly. Age, academic achievement, gender, religion, family status and financial status were correlated to these addictive behaviors. Major findings show a clear relationship between smoking and most variables. The main factor involved in drinking was found to be religion, while illegal drug consumption was most clearly correlated to parents’ education and monthly income. Students’ self perception regarding smoking and tendency to use illegal drug was assessed showing that 11.7% of smokers consider themselves non-smokers while 11.8% considered trying illegal drugs acceptable. Addiction rates after initial consumption are analyzed showing 74.7% for alcohol, 51.7% for smoking cigarettes and 26.9% for drugs. A risk profile for each addiction type is presented.

  15. The HIV/AIDS Epidemic in the Dominican Republic: Key Contributing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Patria; Malow, Robert; Ruffin, Beverly; Rothe, Eugenio M; Rosenberg, Rhonda

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews HIV/AIDS epidemiological data and recent research conducted in the Dominican Republic, with a focus on explaining the variability in estimated seroincidence and prevalence within the country. HIV seroprevalence estimates range from 1.0% (in the general population) to 11.0% among men who have sex with men (MSM). Some have indicated that the highest HIV seroprevalence occurs in Haitian enclaves called bateyes (US Agency for International Development [USAID], 2008), which are migrant worker shantytowns primarily serving the sugar industry in the Dominican Republic. Others report higher or comparable rates to the bateyes in areas related to the tourism and sex industries. As in other Caribbean and Latin American countries, reported HIV transmission in the Dominican Republic is predominantly due to unprotected heterosexual sex and the infection rate has been increasing disproportionally among women. The Dominican Republic represents two thirds of the Hispaniola island; the western one third is occupied by Haiti, the nation with the highest HIV prevalence in the western hemisphere. Although data is limited, it shows important differences in seroprevalence and incidence between these two countries, but commonalities such as poverty, gender inequalities, and stigma appear to be pivotal factors driving the epidemic. This article will discuss these and other factors that may contribute to the HIV epidemic in the Dominican Republic, as well as highlight the gaps in the literature and provide recommendations to guide further work in this area, particularly in the role of governance in sustainable HIV prevention.

  16. Schools as Sanctuaries: A Systematic Review of Contextual Factors Which Contribute to Student Retention in Alternative Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, Eva; Salmon, Nancy; Murphy, Carol-Anne

    2016-01-01

    Early school leaving is an international concern. Previous research indicates that the school context contributes to early school leaving. This systematic review is aimed to gather marginalised young peoples' perceptions concerning contextual factors that contributed to and interfered with their decisions to stay in alternative education.…

  17. Effects of acute aerobic exercise on a task-switching protocol and brain-derived neurotrophic factor concentrations in young adults with different levels of cardiorespiratory fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chia-Liang; Pan, Chien-Yu; Chen, Fu-Chen; Wang, Chun-Hao; Chou, Feng-Ying

    2016-07-01

    What is the central question of this study? Neurocognitive functions can be enhanced by acute aerobic exercise, which could be associated with changes in serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations. We aimed to explore acute exercise-induced changes in BDNF concentrations, neuropsychological and neurophysiological performances when individuals with different levels of cardiorespiratory fitness performed a cognitive task. What is the main finding and its importance? Only young adults with higher cardiorespiratory fitness could attain switching cost and neurophysiological benefits via acute aerobic exercise. The mechanisms might be fitness dependent. Although acute aerobic exercise could enhance serum BDNF concentrations, changes in peripheral BDNF concentrations could not be the potential factor involved in the beneficial effects on neurocognitive performance. This study investigated the effects of acute aerobic exercise on neuropsychological and neurophysiological performances in young adults with different cardiorespiratory fitness levels when performing a task-switching protocol and explored the potential associations between acute aerobic exercise-induced changes in serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations and various neurocognitive outcomes. Sixty young adults were categorized into one control group (i.e. non-exercise-intervention; n = 20) and two exercise-intervention (EI) groups [i.e. higher (EIH , n = 20) and lower (EIL , n = 20) cardiorespiratory fitness] according to their maximal oxygen consumption. At baseline and after either an acute bout of 30 min of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise or a control period, the neuropsychological and neurophysiological performances and serum BDNF concentrations were measured when the participants performed a task-switching protocol involving executive control and greater demands on working memory. The results revealed that although acute aerobic exercise decreased reaction

  18. Factors contributing to delay in parasite clearance in uncomplicated falciparum malaria in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijuade Abayomi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum is common in many endemic and other settings but there is no clear recommendation on when to change therapy when there is delay in parasite clearance after initiation of therapy in African children. Methods The factors contributing to delay in parasite clearance, defined as a clearance time > 2 d, in falciparum malaria were characterized in 2,752 prospectively studied children treated with anti-malarial drugs between 1996 and 2008. Results 1,237 of 2,752 children (45% had delay in parasite clearance. Overall 211 children (17% with delay in clearance subsequently failed therapy and they constituted 72% of those who had drug failure, i.e., 211 of 291 children. The following were independent risk factors for delay in parasite clearance at enrolment: age less than or equal to 2 years (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.13, 95% confidence interval [CI]1.44-3.15, P 50,000/ul (AOR = 2.21, 95% CI = 1.77-2.75, P 20000/μl a day after treatment began, were independent risk factors for delay in clearance. Non-artemisinin monotherapies were associated with delay in clearance and treatment failures, and in those treated with chloroquine or amodiaquine, with pfmdr 1/pfcrt mutants. Delay in clearance significantly increased gametocyte carriage (P Conclusion Delay in parasite clearance is multifactorial, is related to drug resistance and treatment failure in uncomplicated malaria and has implications for malaria control efforts in sub-Saharan Africa.

  19. Biological, Psychological, and Sociocultural Factors Contributing to the Drive for Muscularity in Weight-Training Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Catharina; Rollitz, Laura; Voracek, Martin; Hennig-Fast, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    The drive for muscularity and associated behaviors (e.g., exercising and dieting) are of growing importance for men in Western societies. In its extreme form, it can lead to body image concerns and harmful behaviors like over-exercising and the misuse of performance-enhancing substances. Therefore, investigating factors associated with the drive for muscularity, especially in vulnerable populations like bodybuilders and weight trainers can help identify potential risk and protective factors for body image problems. Using a biopsychosocial framework, the aim of the current study was to explore different factors associated with drive for muscularity in weight-training men. To this purpose, German-speaking male weight trainers (N = 248) completed an online survey to determine the extent to which biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors contribute to drive for muscularity and its related attitudes and behaviors. Using multiple regression models, findings showed that media ideal body internalization was the strongest positive predictor for drive for muscularity, while age (M = 25.9, SD = 7.4) held the strongest negative association with drive for muscularity. Dissatisfaction with muscularity, but not with body fat, was related to drive for muscularity. The fat-free mass index, a quantification of the actual degree of muscularity of a person, significantly predicted drive for muscularity-related behavior but not attitudes. Body-related aspects of self-esteem, but not global self-esteem, were significant negative predictors of drive for muscularity. Since internalization of media body ideals presented the highest predictive value for drive for muscularity, these findings suggest that media body ideal internalizations may be a risk factor for body image concerns in men, leading, in its most extreme form to disordered eating or muscle dysmorphia. Future research should investigate the relations between drive for muscularity, age, body composition

  20. Biological, Psychological, and Sociocultural Factors Contributing to the Drive for Muscularity in Weight-Training Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Catharina; Rollitz, Laura; Voracek, Martin; Hennig-Fast, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    The drive for muscularity and associated behaviors (e.g., exercising and dieting) are of growing importance for men in Western societies. In its extreme form, it can lead to body image concerns and harmful behaviors like over-exercising and the misuse of performance-enhancing substances. Therefore, investigating factors associated with the drive for muscularity, especially in vulnerable populations like bodybuilders and weight trainers can help identify potential risk and protective factors for body image problems. Using a biopsychosocial framework, the aim of the current study was to explore different factors associated with drive for muscularity in weight-training men. To this purpose, German-speaking male weight trainers (N = 248) completed an online survey to determine the extent to which biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors contribute to drive for muscularity and its related attitudes and behaviors. Using multiple regression models, findings showed that media ideal body internalization was the strongest positive predictor for drive for muscularity, while age (M = 25.9, SD = 7.4) held the strongest negative association with drive for muscularity. Dissatisfaction with muscularity, but not with body fat, was related to drive for muscularity. The fat-free mass index, a quantification of the actual degree of muscularity of a person, significantly predicted drive for muscularity-related behavior but not attitudes. Body-related aspects of self-esteem, but not global self-esteem, were significant negative predictors of drive for muscularity. Since internalization of media body ideals presented the highest predictive value for drive for muscularity, these findings suggest that media body ideal internalizations may be a risk factor for body image concerns in men, leading, in its most extreme form to disordered eating or muscle dysmorphia. Future research should investigate the relations between drive for muscularity, age, body composition

  1. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2012-01-01

    Open to All: http://cern.ch/club-fitness  fitness.club@cern.ch Boxing Your supervisor makes your life too tough ! You really need to release the pressure you've been building up ! Come and join the fit-boxers. We train three times a week in Bd 216, classes for beginners and advanced available. Visit our website cern.ch/Boxing General Fitness Escape from your desk with our general fitness classes, to strengthen your heart, muscles and bones, improve you stamina, balance and flexibility, achieve new goals, be more productive and experience a sense of well-being, every Monday, Wednesday and Friday lunchtime, Tuesday mornings before work and Thursday evenings after work – join us for one of our monthly fitness workshops. Nordic Walking Enjoy the great outdoors; Nordic Walking is a great way to get your whole body moving and to significantly improve the condition of your muscles, heart and lungs. It will boost your energy levels no end. Pilates A body-conditioning technique de...

  2. Fatigue in patients receiving maintenance dialysis: a review of definitions, measures, and contributing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhamb, Manisha; Weisbord, Steven D; Steel, Jennifer L; Unruh, Mark

    2008-08-01

    Fatigue is a debilitating symptom or side effect experienced by many patients on long-term dialysis therapy. Fatigue has a considerable effect on patient health-related quality of life and is viewed as being more important than survival by some patients. Renal providers face many challenges when attempting to reduce fatigue in dialysis patients. The lack of a reliable, valid, and sensitive fatigue scale complicates the accurate identification of this symptom. Symptoms of daytime sleepiness and depression overlap with fatigue, making it difficult to target specific therapies. Moreover, many chronic health conditions common in the long-term dialysis population may lead to the development of fatigue and contribute to the day-to-day and diurnal variation in fatigue in patients. Key to improving the assessment and treatment of fatigue is improving our understanding of potential mediators, as well as potential therapies. Cytokines have emerged as an important mediator of fatigue and have been studied extensively in patients with cancer-related fatigue. In addition, although erythropoietin-stimulating agents have been shown to mitigate fatigue, the recent controversy regarding erythropoietin-stimulating agent dosing in patients with chronic kidney disease suggests that erythropoietin-stimulating agent therapy may not serve as the sole therapy to improve fatigue in this population. In conclusion, fatigue is an important and often underrecognized symptom in the dialysis population. Possible interventions for minimizing fatigue in patients on long-term dialysis therapy should aim at improving health care provider awareness, developing improved methods of measurement, understanding the pathogenesis better, and managing known contributing factors.

  3. Abnormal cardiovascular response to exercise in hypertension: contribution of neural factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jere H

    2017-06-01

    During both dynamic (e.g., endurance) and static (e.g., strength) exercise there are exaggerated cardiovascular responses in hypertension. This includes greater increases in blood pressure, heart rate, and efferent sympathetic nerve activity than in normal controls. Two of the known neural factors that contribute to this abnormal cardiovascular response are the exercise pressor reflex (EPR) and functional sympatholysis. The EPR originates in contracting skeletal muscle and reflexly increases sympathetic efferent nerve activity to the heart and blood vessels as well as decreases parasympathetic efferent nerve activity to the heart. These changes in autonomic nerve activity cause an increase in blood pressure, heart rate, left ventricular contractility, and vasoconstriction in the arterial tree. However, arterial vessels in the contracting skeletal muscle have a markedly diminished vasoconstrictor response. The markedly diminished vasoconstriction in contracting skeletal muscle has been termed functional sympatholysis. It has been shown in hypertension that there is an enhanced EPR, including both its mechanoreflex and metaboreflex components, and an impaired functional sympatholysis. These conditions set up a positive feedback or vicious cycle situation that causes a progressively greater decrease in the blood flow to the exercising muscle. Thus these two neural mechanisms contribute significantly to the abnormal cardiovascular response to exercise in hypertension. In addition, exercise training in hypertension decreases the enhanced EPR, including both mechanoreflex and metaboreflex function, and improves the impaired functional sympatholysis. These two changes, caused by exercise training, improve the muscle blood flow to exercising muscle and cause a more normal cardiovascular response to exercise in hypertension. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  4. FACTORS CONTRIBUTION TO THE ADOPTION OF PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES BY POTATO GROWERS IN NORTHWEST BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B.M. Sharif Uddin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to determine the factors which contribute to the adoption of potato production technologies by the growers. The adoption of potato production technologies by the growers was measured by computing of scores of proper land preparation, cultivation of modern variety, fertilizer dose, fertilizer application method, irrigation, plant protection measures, seed quality, intercultural operations, planting time, seed size and planting space. Data were collected from randomly selected 232 potato growers by using interview schedule in three Upazilla of Rajshahi district in Bangladesh during July 2010 to February 2011. Out of 11 technologies relating to the adoption of potato production, recommended irrigation was at the top of highest ranking by the adoption index and plant spacing was the lowest. Majority (46.55% of the growers had medium adoption compared to high (29.74% and low (23.71% adoption. Pearson correlation test depicted that out of 22 variables, 16 had significant positive relationship with the adoption of potato production technologies. Results of stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that seven variables namely: innovativeness, potato production knowledge, aspiration, potato problem awareness, group contact, peer relationship and attitude contributed significantly which altogether explained to the extent of 65.30% of the total variation to the adoption of potato production technologies. Path analysis indicated that these variables had both direct and indirect effects to the adoption behaviour. Potato growers who had more innovativeness, better knowledge in connection to potato production, more aspiration, more contact with group members, more peer relation and more favourable attitude were found to better adopt the potato production technologies.

  5. Factors contributing to rapid wear and osteolysis in hips with modular acetabular bearings made of hylamer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, D L; Campbell, P A; McClung, C D; Schmalzried, T P

    2000-01-01

    There have been several reports of osteolysis associated with rapid wear of Hylamer. A detailed analysis of retrieved implants and tissues can identify factors contributing to rapid wear and osteolysis. The mean linear wear rate of 12 liners was 0.49 mm/y, and 11 of 12 hips had progressive retroacetabular osteolysis. The average patient age was 50 years, and the mean implantation time was 50 months. All liners were sterilized by gamma irradiation in air. There was an 11-month difference in the average shelf-life of the 3 liners that were white and those that were darker in color. The volumetric wear rate of the white liners was 30% less than that of the others, suggesting a difference in the wear resistance of the liners as a function of shelf life. The mean average surface roughness (Ra) and the mean maximum surface roughness (R(max)) of the femoral heads were increased 3-fold and 50-fold compared with typical values for unused femoral heads. Evidence of 3-body wear, such as metal particles embedded in the liners, was commonly present. The pattern of backside liner deformation and burnishing was consistent with relative motion between the liner and the shell. In addition to generating Hylamer wear particles, repetitive axial motion between the liner and shell could generate fluid pressure, which transmitted through holes in the acetabular shell could cause or contribute to the development of retroacetabular osteolysis. Hylamer particles of variable shape and size, consistent with generation by several wear modes, were isolated from periprosthetic tissues.

  6. Improving the Goodness-of-Fits Associated with the Current and Proposed Combat Active Replacement Factors (CARF) Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Likelihood Observations (or Sum Wgts) = 84 Whole Model Test L-R Model -Loglikelihood ChiSquare OF Prob>ChiSq Difference 0.17655182 0.3531 3 0.9498...Full 13.874747 Reduced Goodness Of Fit Statistic Pearson Deviance AICc 36.2558 14.0512988 ChiSquare 1.1301 1.1236 Effect Tests Source...AAO_TOTAL BEST_COST AAO_ TOTAL*BEST _COST Parameter Estimates OF Prob>ChiSq 80 1.0000 80 1.0000 L-R OF ChiSquare Prob>ChiSq 0.1814729 0.6701

  7. Leptin, vitamin D, and cardiorespiratory fitness as risk factors for insulin resistance in European adolescents: gender differences in the HELENA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Pavón, David; Sesé, María A; Valtueña, Jara; Cuenca-García, Magdalena; González-Gross, Marcela; Gottrand, Frederic; Kafatos, Anthony; Manios, Yannis; Widhalm, Kurt; de Henauw, Stefaan; Polito, Angela; Pérez-López, Faustino R; Moreno, Luis A

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the relevance of a set of risk factors for insulin resistance in adolescents from Europe and to consider their possible gender-specific associations. The Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence Cross-Sectional Study (HELENA-CSS) was conducted in 1053 European adolescents (mean age, 14.9 years) in a school setting in 9 countries. Three anthropometric markers of body fat and a dietary index were calculated. Total energy intake was estimated from a questionnaire. C-reactive protein, leptin, and vitamin D were assessed, and physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and muscular strength were measured. Center, socioeconomic status, pubertal status, and season were used as potential confounders. The main outcome was the homeostasis model assessment used as a marker of insulin resistance. Correlations, analyses of covariance, and logistic regression models were used. In males, leptin was the only risk factor for insulin resistance after adjusting for confounders including markers of body fat (odds ratios (ORs) from 1.49 to 1.60). In females, leptin, vitamin D, and fitness were the remaining independent risk factors for insulin resistance after adjustments (OR 2.11; 95% confidential interval (CI) 1.29-3.45; OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.31-0.80; and OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.33-0.87, respectively). Our observations suggest a gender dimorphism in the identification of risk factors for high insulin resistance. Preventive strategies should focus on improving modifiable factors such as cardiorespiratory fitness and on ensuring vitamin D sufficiency. Randomized controlled trials focusing on these strategies are necessary to test their efficacy.

  8. 20 CFR 404.1535 - How we will determine whether your drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... will determine whether your drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the... drug addiction or alcoholism, we must determine whether your drug addiction or alcoholism is a... medical evidence of your drug addiction or alcoholism. (1) The key factor we will examine in...

  9. The sigma factor RpoS is required for stress tolerance and environmental fitness of Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, Virginia O; Loper, Joyce E

    2005-09-01

    Many micro-organisms exist in natural habitats that are subject to severe or dramatically fluctuating environmental conditions. Such is the case for bacteria inhabiting plant surfaces, where they are exposed to UV irradiation, oxygen radicals, and large fluctuations in temperature and moisture. This study focuses on the role of RpoS, a central regulator of stationary-phase gene expression in bacterial cells, in stress response and environmental fitness of Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5. Strain Pf-5 is a rhizosphere-inhabiting bacterium that suppresses plant diseases caused by several plant-pathogenic fungi and oomycetes. Previous studies demonstrated that rpoS was required for osmotic and oxidative stress resistance of Pf-5. The results of this study demonstrate a role for rpoS in tolerance of Pf-5 to freezing, starvation, UV irradiation and desiccation stress. In field studies, an rpoS mutant was compromised in rhizosphere colonization of plants in dry soil, whereas similar rhizosphere populations were established by Pf-5 and an rpoS mutant in well-irrigated soils. RpoS is a key determinant in stress response and environmental fitness of the rhizosphere bacterium P. fluorescens Pf-5.

  10. Microparticles in vascular disorders: how tissue factor-exposing vesicles contribute to pathology and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinjan, Ankie; Böing, Anita N; Sturk, Auguste; Nieuwland, Rienk

    2012-10-01

    Coagulation is initiated by tissue factor (TF). Coagulant TF is constitutively expressed by extravascular cells, but there is increasing evidence that TF can also be present within the blood, in particular during pathological conditions. Such TF is exposed on circulating cell-derived vesicles, and its presence has been associated with development of disseminated intravascular coagulation and venous thrombosis. For example, the presence of TF-exposing vesicles in the blood of cancer patients may be associated with their high risk of developing venous thromboembolism. Remarkably, high levels of coagulant TF-exposing vesicles are present in other body fluids such as saliva and urine of healthy persons, suggesting that these vesicles play a physiological role. We postulate that the presence of TF-exposing vesicles in body fluids as saliva and urine provides an additional source of coagulant TF that promotes coagulation, thereby reducing blood loss and contributing to host defence by reducing the risk of microorganisms entering the "milieu intérieur".

  11. Factors Contribute to Delay Project Construction in Higher Learning Education Case Study UKM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Tawil

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The delay in construction project completion is a common phenomenon that occurs in the construction industry, especially where the government projects are concerned. This survey will center on the Ninth Malaysia Plan project delay as evidenced in the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia campus. It will generally examine delay-related issues, which include the definition, type and category of delay, as well as the contributing factors (theoretically or practically that lead to delay in the project implementation. Data was compiled from literature review, interview and survey. Data obtained from the survey was analysed using the ‘relative Important Index (RII’ whereby the source with the highest RII is one that mostly influences the delay. The critical source of delay is due to the fact that the project contractor does not have enough working capital, the late advance payment, the delay in the client or consultant endorsing the study, issues involving contractor management, the scarcity of construction materials and new instructions for additional construction work.

  12. Passive Smoking in China: Contributing Factors and Areas for Future Interventions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To reduce tobacco consumption and exposure to passive smoking in China.Methods Discussion consisting of 80 focus groups and 35 interviews were held in three rural intervention counties of Jiangxi,Henan,and Sichuan Provinces. Participants came from hospitals,schools,rural areas,and urban areas.Results Tobacco use and exposure to passive smoking were widely prevalent in the investigated schools,hospitals,county towns,and rural areas. Knowledge of the risks for passive smoking on health is lacking,especially in rural areas. Barriers to the control of tobacco use in public places include reluctance of administrators to implement tobacco control policies,lack of consistent policies,difficulties with regulations and enforcement,and reluctance of non-smokers to exercise their right to clean air.Conclusion To curb the current tobacco epidemic in China,tobacco control efforts must focus on reducing exposure to passive smoking. A strategy should be formulated to reduce the factors that contribute to tobacco use and exposure to passive smoking.

  13. Factors contributing to teenage pregnancy in the Capricorn district of the Limpopo Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothiba, Tebogo M; Maputle, Maria S

    2012-07-11

    Teenage pregnancy refers to pregnancy of a woman of less than 19 years. It is found commonly amongst young people who have been disadvantaged and have poor expectations with regard to either their education or job market. Adolescents may lack knowledge of access to conventional methods of preventing pregnancy, as they may be afraid to seek such information. The study purpose was to identify factors contributing to teenage pregnancy in one village in the Capricorn District of the Limpopo Province. A quantitative descriptive research approach was chosen. Population consisted of all pregnant teenagers attending antenatal care during June to August 2007 at one clinic in the Capricorn District of the Limpopo Province. Simple random probability sampling was used to include 100 pregnant teenagers who satisfied the inclusion criteria. Data were collected through structured self-administered questionnaires. Descriptive statistical data analysis was used. Ethical considerations were ensured. Findings were classified as demographic data where 24% of the respondents were aged between 15-16 years and 76% were aged between 17-19 years. Findings further revealed that 60% of the respondents started to engage in sex at 13-15 years; 48% of the teenagers' partners were 21 years and above, 44% depended on a single parents' income; 20% father's income, 16% received a social grant and 8% lived on the pension fund of the grandparents. Pregnancy prevention strategies were recommended based on the results. The strategies focused on reproductive health services, male involvement and adult-teenager communication programmes.

  14. Factors contributing to ongoing intimate partner abuse: childhood betrayal trauma and dependence on one's perpetrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Rebecca L; Deprince, Anne P

    2013-05-01

    Identifying the factors that contribute to ongoing intimate partner abuse (IPA) among survivors of childhood abuse is essential to developing appropriate interventions. The current study assessed prospectively whether childhood betrayal trauma (BT) history and women's potential dependence on their perpetrators (unemployment, number of children below 13) increased women's risk of ongoing victimization, while controlling for trauma-related symptoms (PTSD, depression, dissociation). Women survivors of IPA (N = 190) from an urban U.S. city were recruited based on an IPA incident reported to the police. At the initial interview, women reported on childhood betrayal trauma experiences, their employment status, number of children, and current trauma-related symptoms. Women returned 6 months later and reported on ongoing events of victimization (physical, sexual, psychological aggression, and injury) in their relationships with the initial IPA perpetrator. Results showed that higher levels of childhood BT were associated with ongoing victimization over the course of 6 months. Women's unemployment status predicted greater physical and sexual aggression and injuries. Higher levels of depression and lower levels of PTSD symptoms were also associated with increases in physical, sexual, and psychological aggression, and bodily injury. The findings have important implications for interventions by demonstrating the need to process women's betrayal trauma experiences, target depression symptoms, and increase women's economic opportunities to prevent further victimization.

  15. Gastrointestinal factors contribute to glucometabolic disturbances in nondiabetic patients with end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idorn, Thomas; Knop, Filip K; Jørgensen, Morten; Holst, Jens J; Hornum, Mads; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo

    2013-05-01

    Nondiabetic patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have disturbed glucose metabolism, the underlying pathophysiology of which is unclear. To help elucidate this, we studied patients with ESRD and either normal or impaired glucose tolerance (10 each NGT or IGT, respectively) and 11 controls using an oral glucose tolerance test and an isoglycemic intravenous glucose infusion on separate days. Plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon, and incretin hormones were measured repeatedly, and gastrointestinal-mediated glucose disposal (GIGD) based on glucose amounts utilized, and incretin effect based on incremental insulin responses, were calculated. The GIGD was significantly reduced in both ESRD groups compared with controls. Incretin effects were 69% (controls), 55% (ESRD with NGT), and 41% (ESRD with IGT), with a significant difference between controls and ESRDs with IGT. Fasting concentrations of glucagon and incretin hormones were significantly increased in patients with ESRD. Glucagon suppression was significantly impaired in both groups with ESRD compared with controls, while the baseline-corrected incretin hormone responses were unaltered between groups. Thus, patients with ESRD had reduced GIGD, a diminished incretin effect in those with IGT, and severe fasting hyperglucagonemia that seemed irrepressible in response to glucose stimuli. These factors may contribute to disturbed glucose metabolism in ESRD.

  16. [Accidental intravenous injection of potassium chloride: analysis of contributing factors and barriers to risk reduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvin, A; Vantard, N; Charpiat, B; Pral, N; Leboucher, G; Philip-Girard, F; Viale, J-P

    2009-05-01

    Errors linked to injectable potassium chloride (KCl) have been the cause of deaths which have occurred for many years. Following an accidental direct intravenous injection of KCl of no clinical consequence for the patient, we have analyzed the contributive factors, established an action plan to prevent this risk and finally assessed its impact. Among the causes leading to medication errors, we have identified those linked to the handling of the drugs by nurses, the team, the work conditions, the organization, the institutional context and finally to the drug itself. The risk reduction procedure involved a withdrawal of injectable KCI ampoules from wards, possible in 52% of the care units, a reorganization of storage for the others. The subsequent monitoring of floorstocks revealed that these measures were insufficient and that the risks prevailed due to the presence of KCI ampoules in drawers assigned to other ionic solutions. A study carried out among the medical and nursing personnel revealed that 61.2% of the doctors thought that the risk existed in their ward and 68% of the nurses considered themselves to be exposed to the risk of a medication error. The drug supply chain of our institution, as in numerous others, is not safe. Hospitals are not yet organized adequately to prevent the occurrence of such an error. The comparison with foreign organizations of drug dispensation allows us to think that the improvement and professionalization of the drug supply chain will both be assets in the prevention of such medication errors.

  17. The contribution of interindividual factors to variability of response in transcranial direct current stimulation studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia M Li

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been an explosion of research using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS for investigating and modulating human cognitive and motor function in healthy populations. It has also been used in many studies seeking to improve deficits in disease populations. With the slew of studies reporting ‘promising results’ for everything from motor recovery after stroke to boosting memory function, one could be easily seduced by the idea of tDCS being the next panacea for all neurological ills. However, huge variability exists in the reported effects of tDCS, with great variability in the effect sizes and even contradictory results reported. In this review, we consider the interindividual factors that may contribute to this variability. In particular, we discuss the importance of baseline neuronal state and features, anatomy, age and the inherent variability in the injured brain. We additionally consider how interindividual variability affects the results of motor evoked potential (MEP testing with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS, which, in turn, can lead to apparent variability in response to tDCS in motor studies.

  18. Osteoporosis in Japan: factors contributing to the low incidence of hip fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, T

    1994-01-01

    Hip fracture incidence seems to be lower in Japan than in many Western countries, but the difference is apparently becoming smaller with progressive Westernization of the Japanese lifestyle and nutritional habits. Nutrition cannot explain the lower incidence of hip fracture. A lower calcium intake prevails in Japan. Genetic differences in body build, including a lower center of gravity, better motor function and agility, well developed hip musculature and small but more fracture-resistant bones secondary to a difference in life- and work-style may contribute to fewer falls and a lower fracture rate among Japanese than among their Western counterparts. Such traditional lifestyle habits as sitting directly on the floor are rapidly decreasing, and time will tell how much of the low incidence of hip fracture in Japan can be explained by lifestyle and how much by genetic and other factors. The Japanese women who now enjoy a low hip fracture incidence led a hard physical life when they were young. This may be a lesson to the young of future generations in how to avoid bone fractures when they are old. Bone health may be achieved by enjoying life through sports or even the tea ceremony in place of the hard physical work of their ancestors, which is gradually disappearing.

  19. New perspectives on contributing factors to the monthly behavior of the aa geomagnetic index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Blanca; Pazos, Marni; González, Luis Xavier

    2016-12-01

    We studied the Aa geomagnetic index ( aa index daily average) behavior on a monthly timescale using data from 1868 to 2015 for cycles 11-24. We identified solar- and lunar-associated periodicities in the Aa time series and found statistically significant Aa minima values a few days before the full Moon and high Aa values during the new Moon. When considering all the cycles, it was clear that the deepest Aa minima occurred during the Aa descending activity phase. However, when the cycles were separated according to the direction of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), the Aa minima came from the contribution of cycles with the IMF pointing toward the Sun (Type 1). Furthermore, during the descending phase of cycles with the IMF pointing away from the Sun (Type 2), the smallest Aa index values were found along with smaller changes compared to Type 1 cases. This behavior implies that during Type 1 cycles there are larger Aa perturbations than during Type 2 cycles. It is very likely that the mechanisms responsible for the Aa monthly behavior are a combination of solar and lunar effects that depend on several factors: (a) the Moon phases (new and full Moon), (b) the phase of the solar cycle (ascending or descending), and (c) the direction of the interplanetary magnetic field (away or toward the Sun).

  20. The contribution of tumor and host tissue factor expression to oncogene-driven gliomagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Nathalie; Meehan, Brian; Garnier, Delphine; Hashemi, Maryam; Montermini, Laura; Lee, Tae Hoon; Milsom, Chloe; Pawlinski, Rafal; Ohlfest, John; Anderson, Mark; Mackman, Nigel; Rak, Janusz

    2014-11-14

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive form of glial brain tumors, associated with angiogenesis, thrombosis, and upregulation of tissue factor (TF), the key cellular trigger of coagulation and signaling. Since TF is upregulated by oncogenic mutations occurring in different subsets of human brain tumors we investigated whether TF contributes to tumourigenesis driven by oncogenic activation of EGFR (EGFRvIII) and RAS pathways in the brain. Here we show that TF expression correlates with poor prognosis in glioma, but not in GBM. In situ, the TF protein expression is heterogeneously expressed in adult and pediatric gliomas. GBM cells harboring EGFRvIII (U373vIII) grow aggressively as xenografts in SCID mice and their progression is delayed by administration of monoclonal antibodies blocking coagulant (CNTO 859) and signaling (10H10) effects of TF in vivo. Mice in which TF gene is disrupted in the neuroectodermal lineage exhibit delayed progression of spontaneous brain tumors driven by oncogenic N-ras and SV40 large T antigen (SV40LT) expressed under the control of sleeping beauty transposase. Reduced host TF levels in low-TF/SCID hypomorphic mice mitigated growth of glioma subcutaneously but not in the brain. Thus, we suggest that tumor-associated TF may serve as therapeutic target in the context of oncogene-driven disease progression in a subset of glioma.

  1. Differential contribution of transcription factors to Arabidopsis thaliana defence against Spodoptera littoralis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian eSchweizer

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In response to insect herbivory, Arabidopsis plants activate the synthesis of the phytohormone jasmonate-isoleucine (JA-Ile, which binds to a complex consisting of the receptor COI1 and JAZ repressors. Upon proteasome-mediated JAZ degradation, basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors (TFs MYC2, MYC3, and MYC4 become activated and this results in the expression of defence genes. Although the jasmonate (JA pathway is known to be essential for the massive transcriptional reprogramming that follows herbivory, there is however little information on other TFs that are required for defence against herbivores and whether they contribute significantly to JA-dependent defence gene expression. By transcriptome profiling, we identified 41 TFs that were induced in response to herbivory by the generalist Spodoptera littoralis. Among them, nine genes, including WRKY18, WRKY40, ANAC019, ANAC055, ZAT10, ZAT12, AZF2, ERF13, and RRTF1, were found to play a significant role in resistance to S. littoralis herbivory. However, compared to the triple mutant myc234 that is as sensitive as coi1-1 to herbivory, knockout lines of these nine TFs were only partially more sensitive to S. littoralis and showed only minor gene expression changes at the whole genome level. Data thus reveal that MYC2, MYC3, and MYC4 are master regulators of Arabidopsis resistance to a generalist herbivore and identify new genes involved in insect defence.

  2. ES1 is a mitochondrial enlarging factor contributing to form mega-mitochondria in zebrafish cones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Takamasa; Wada, Yasutaka; Kawamura, Satoru

    2016-03-01

    Total mass of mitochondria increases during cell proliferation and differentiation through mitochondrial biogenesis, which includes mitochondrial proliferation and growth. During the mitochondrial growth, individual mitochondria have been considered to be enlarged independently of mitochondrial fusion. However, molecular basis for this enlarging process has been poorly understood. Cone photoreceptor cells in the retina possess large mitochondria, so-called mega-mitochondria that have been considered to arise via the enlarging process. Here we show that ES1 is a novel mitochondria-enlarging factor contributing to form mega-mitochondria in cones. ES1 is specifically expressed in cones and localized to mitochondria including mega-mitochondria. Knockdown of ES1 markedly reduced the mitochondrial size in cones. In contrast, ectopic expression of ES1 in rods significantly increased both the size of individual mitochondria and the total mass of the mitochondrial cluster without changing the number of them. RNA-seq analysis showed that ERRα and its downstream mitochondrial genes were significantly up-regulated in the ES1-expressing rods, suggesting facilitation of mitochondrial enlargement via ERRα-dependent processes. Furthermore, higher energy state was detected in the ES1-expressing rods, indicating that the enlarged mitochondria by ES1 are capable of producing high energy. ES1 is the mitochondrial protein that is first found to promote enlargement of individual mitochondria.

  3. Does the Evaluation of Coagulation Factors Contribute to Etiological Diagnosis of Pleural Effusions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Marcelo Alexandre Costa; Vargas, Francisco Suso; de Andrade Marinho, Felipe Costa; D’Amico, Élbio Antonio; Rocha, Tânia Rubia Flores; Teixeira, Lisete Ribeiro

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to identify the participation of the coagulation system in the differential diagnosis of pleural effusions. INTRODUCTION Imbalance between immunologic and metabolic factors triggers a sequence of events resulting in pleural reactions and accumulation of fluid. The coagulation system, which is fundamental for the maintenance of homeostasis, contributes to the inflammatory process responsible for pleural effusions, and participates in cellular proliferation and migration as well as in the synthesis of inflammatory mediators. METHODS We evaluated the laboratory profile of coagulation and fibrinolysis in 54 pleural fluids (15 transudates and 39 exudates). RESULTS The coagulation system acts according to the pathophysiologic mechanisms involved in the development of pleural effusions. In inflammatory effusions (exudates), there is activation of coagulation with increased levels of fragment 1+2 and thrombin-antithrombin complex in addition to reduction of fibrinogen levels due to fibrinolysis and fibrin tissue incorporation. As a consequence, there is activation of the fibrinolytic system with increased levels of fibrin degradation products, including the D-dimer. These changes are not sufficient for differentiation of different subgroups of exudates. In transudates, these events were observed to a lesser degree. CONCLUSION The coagulation system plays an important role in the development of pleural diseases. Coagulation tests show differences between transudates and exudates but not among exudate subgroups. Understanding the physiopathological mechanisms of pleural disorders may help to define new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. PMID:19759883

  4. Does the evaluation of coagulation factors contribute to etiological diagnosis of pleural effusions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Alexandre Costa Vaz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify the participation of the coagulation system in the differential diagnosis of pleural effusions. INTRODUCTION: Imbalance between immunologic and metabolic factors triggers a sequence of events resulting in pleural reactions and accumulation of fluid. The coagulation system, which is fundamental for the maintenance of homeostasis, contributes to the inflammatory process responsible for pleural effusions, and participates in cellular proliferation and migration as well as in the synthesis of inflammatory mediators. METHODS: We evaluated the laboratory profile of coagulation and fibrinolysis in 54 pleural fluids (15 transudates and 39 exudates. RESULTS: The coagulation system acts according to the pathophysiologic mechanisms involved in the development of pleural effusions. In inflammatory effusions (exudates, there is activation of coagulation with increased levels of fragment 1+2 and thrombin-antithrombin complex in addition to reduction of fibrinogen levels due to fibrinolysis and fibrin tissue incorporation. As a consequence, there is activation of the fibrinolytic system with increased levels of fibrin degradation products, including the D-dimer. These changes are not sufficient for differentiation of different subgroups of exudates. In transudates, these events were observed to a lesser degree. CONCLUSION: The coagulation system plays an important role in the development of pleural diseases. Coagulation tests show differences between transudates and exudates but not among exudate subgroups. Understanding the physiopathological mechanisms of pleural disorders may help to define new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.

  5. Using qualitative methods to understand factors contributing to patient satisfaction among dermatology patients: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Caitlin; Singh, Sanminder; Gibbons, Brittany; Clark, Caitlin; Torres, Josefina; Cheng, Michelle Y; Wang, Elizabeth A; Armstrong, April W

    2017-09-11

    In this systematic review, we aimed to synthesize data that identify factors contributing to patient satisfaction in dermatology care using qualitative methods. We performed a comprehensive search of the literature using the PubMed database for articles published between January 1, 2000 and February 9, 2015. The initial search yielded 186 articles, of which 13 were included after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. The systematic review of 13 articles included a total of 330 patients. Using in-field observations and semistructured interviews, studies found that qualitative methods and analysis increased the provider's sensitivity to patient needs and enhanced patient care. Analyses using qualitative methods found increased patient satisfaction in their healthcare provider is associated with (1) confidence in the provider's diagnosis, (2) perception of patient-centered, individualized recommendations and (3) quality of patient education and provider explanation during a visit. Patient satisfaction is measured using either quantitative or qualitative methods. Quantitative methods result in standardized data that often does not capture the nuances of patient experience. In contrast, qualitative methodology is integral to gathering patient perspectives on patient care and satisfaction and should be included in future research models.

  6. What factors contribute to successful appeals of nursing homes’ deficiencies in the informal dispute resolution process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Weimer, David L.; Spector, William D.; Bailey, Lauren; Harrington, Charlene

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To determine what factors contribute to successful appeals of nursing home deficiencies in the Informal Dispute Resolution (IDR) process. Design We merged CMS data about IDRs with OSCAR data about nursing home characteristics. We performed multivariate statistical analyses to predict successful appeals as a function of characteristics of the deficiency being appealed, the survey that triggered the deficiency, characteristics of the nursing home, and the state. Setting All nursing homes nationally in the period 2005–2008. Measurements Successful appeals were defined as those in which the deficiency was removed or its severity or scope reduced. Independent variables included the CMS measures of severity and scope of deficiency, abuse and neglect, substandard care, total number of deficiencies in the survey, whether the IDR was triggered by a survey or complaint, facility ownership and reputation, and state stringency of regulation. Results 26% of submitted IDRs were successful in 2005–2008. Success was more likely for less severe deficiencies, when deficiencies were triggered by a survey rather than a complaint, and when fewer deficiencies were included in the appeal. Facility ownership and state stringency of regulation were not significantly associated with the IDR success. Conclusions Overall, 2.6% of deficiencies issued were overturned through the IDR process. Further study is required to determine the appropriateness of these overturned cases and the opportunities they offer to improve the survey process. PMID:23141210

  7. Unsustainable charcoal production as a contributing factor to woodland fragmentation in southeast Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruuska, Eeva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Drawing from a holistic research approach, this paper contributes to the studies of land cover change and sustainable development in Kenya, and to the planning of sustainable future in Dakatcha Woodland, SE Kenya. As an un-protected global hotspot for biodiversity, Dakatcha Woodland has suffered from unsustainable forest resource use. The relation of charcoal production to land cover change and its socio-economic impact are studied in detail. A supervised land cover classification formed using four SPOT satellite images from 2005/06 and 2011 revealed that the woodland is fragmenting and the Important Bird Area (IBA demarcation should be reconsidered. Through in-situ observation, household questionnaires and semi-structured expert interviews it was found that more than half of the 90 households assessed are involved in charcoal production which is higher figure than peer studies have suggested, and that the charcoal network offers income to many, but bears an negative impact on the environment. It was discovered that, like in Kenya, in Dakatcha Woodland, too, the demand for woodfuels (charcoal and fuelwood is one of the key drivers of deforestation and land degradation. As such, woodfuel energy is a cross cutting issue, tying together forest resources, livelihoods and sustainable development, and thus demands further research. Forest management of Dakatcha Woodland must be planned in accordance with all stakeholders in a sustainable manner, drawing from agroforestry and participatory forest management systems, and keeping environmental factors in mind for the maintenance of ecosystem services.

  8. Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF contributes to the pain hypersensitivity following surgical incision in the rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jian-Yi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathogenic role of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the incisional pain is poorly understood. The present study explores the role of the BDNF in the incision-induced pain hypersensitivity. Methods A longitudinal incision was made in one plantar hind paw of isoflurane-anesthetized rats. Dorsal root ganglias (DRG and spinal cords were removed at various postoperative times (1–72 h. Expression pattern of BDNF was determined by immunohistochemistry and double-labeling immunofluorescence. Lidocaine-induced blockade of sciatic nerve function was used to determine the importance of afferent nerve activity on BDNF expression in the DRG and spinal cord after incision. BDNF antibody was administered intrathecally (IT or intraperitoneal (IP to modulate the spinal BDNF or peripheral BDNF after incision. Results After hind-paw incision, the BDNF was upregulated in the ipsilateral lumbar DRG and spinal cord whereas thoracic BDNF remained unchanged in response to incision. The upregulated BDNF was mainly expressed in the large-sized neurons in DRG and the neurons and the primary nerve terminals in the spinal cord. Sciatic nerve blockade prevented the increase of BDNF in the DRG and spinal cord. IT injection of BDNF antibody greatly inhibited the mechanical allodynia induced by incision whereas IP administration had only marginal effect. Conclusion The present study showed that incision induced the segmental upregulation of BDNF in the DRG and spinal cord through somatic afferent nerve transmission, and the upregulated BDNF contributed to the pain hypersensitivity induced by surgical incision.

  9. Fitness cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karen L.; Pedersen, Thomas M.; Udekwu, Klas I.

    2012-01-01

    of each isolate was determined in a growth competition assay with a reference isolate. Significant fitness costs of 215 were determined for the MRSA isolates studied. There was a significant negative correlation between number of antibiotic resistances and relative fitness. Multiple regression analysis...... to that seen in Denmark. We propose a significant fitness cost of resistance as the main bacteriological explanation for the disappearance of the multiresistant complex 83A MRSA in Denmark following a reduction in antibiotic usage.......Denmark and several other countries experienced the first epidemic of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) during the period 196575, which was caused by multiresistant isolates of phage complex 83A. In Denmark these MRSA isolates disappeared almost completely, being replaced by other...

  10. Replication and recombination factors contributing to recombination-dependent bypass of DNA lesions by template switch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Vanoli

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Damage tolerance mechanisms mediating damage-bypass and gap-filling are crucial for genome integrity. A major damage tolerance pathway involves recombination and is referred to as template switch. Template switch intermediates were visualized by 2D gel electrophoresis in the proximity of replication forks as X-shaped structures involving sister chromatid junctions. The homologous recombination factor Rad51 is required for the formation/stabilization of these intermediates, but its mode of action remains to be investigated. By using a combination of genetic and physical approaches, we show that the homologous recombination factors Rad55 and Rad57, but not Rad59, are required for the formation of template switch intermediates. The replication-proficient but recombination-defective rfa1-t11 mutant is normal in triggering a checkpoint response following DNA damage but is impaired in X-structure formation. The Exo1 nuclease also has stimulatory roles in this process. The checkpoint kinase, Rad53, is required for X-molecule formation and phosphorylates Rad55 robustly in response to DNA damage. Although Rad55 phosphorylation is thought to activate recombinational repair under conditions of genotoxic stress, we find that Rad55 phosphomutants do not affect the efficiency of X-molecule formation. We also examined the DNA polymerase implicated in the DNA synthesis step of template switch. Deficiencies in translesion synthesis polymerases do not affect X-molecule formation, whereas DNA polymerase δ, required also for bulk DNA synthesis, plays an important role. Our data indicate that a subset of homologous recombination factors, together with DNA polymerase δ, promote the formation of template switch intermediates that are then preferentially dissolved by the action of the Sgs1 helicase in association with the Top3 topoisomerase rather than resolved by Holliday Junction nucleases. Our results allow us to propose the choreography through which different

  11. Contribution of genetic background, traditional risk factors, and HIV-related factors to coronary artery disease events in HIV-positive persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotger, Margalida; Glass, Tracy R; Junier, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have increased rates of coronary artery disease (CAD). The relative contribution of genetic background, HIV-related factors, antiretroviral medications, and traditional risk factors to CAD has not been fully evaluated in the set...

  12. Contribution of genetic background, traditional risk factors, and HIV-related factors to coronary artery disease events in HIV-positive persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rotger, Margalida; Glass, Tracy R; Junier, Thomas; Lundgren, Jens; Neaton, James D; Poloni, Estella S; van 't Wout, Angélique B; Lubomirov, Rubin; Colombo, Sara; Martinez, Raquel; Rauch, Andri; Günthard, Huldrych F; Neuhaus, Jacqueline; Wentworth, Deborah; van Manen, Danielle; Gras, Luuk A; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Albini, Laura; Torti, Carlo; Jacobson, Lisa P; Li, Xiuhong; Kingsley, Lawrence A; Carli, Federica; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Ford, Emily S; Sereti, Irini; Hadigan, Colleen; Martinez, Esteban; Arnedo, Mireia; Egaña-Gorroño, Lander; Gatell, Jose M; Law, Matthew; Bendall, Courtney; Petoumenos, Kathy; Rockstroh, Jürgen; Wasmuth, Jan-Christian; Kabamba, Kabeya; Delforge, Marc; De Wit, Stephane; Berger, Florian; Mauss, Stefan; de Paz Sierra, Mariana; Losso, Marcelo; Belloso, Waldo H; Leyes, Maria; Campins, Antoni; Mondi, Annalisa; De Luca, Andrea; Bernardino, Ignacio; Barriuso-Iglesias, Mónica; Torrecilla-Rodriguez, Ana; Gonzalez-Garcia, Juan; Arribas, José R; Fanti, Iuri; Gel, Silvia; Puig, Jordi; Negredo, Eugenia; Gutierrez, Mar; Domingo, Pere; Fischer, Julia; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Alonso-Villaverde, Carlos; Macken, Alan; Woo, James; McGinty, Tara; Mallon, Patrick; Mangili, Alexandra; Skinner, Sally; Wanke, Christine A; Reiss, Peter; Weber, Rainer; Bucher, Heiner C; Fellay, Jacques; Telenti, Amalio; Tarr, Philip E; Schölvinck, Elisabeth H.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have increased rates of coronary artery disease (CAD). The relative contribution of genetic background, HIV-related factors, antiretroviral medications, and traditional risk factors to CAD has not been fully evaluated in the settin

  13. The effect of selected lifestyle factors and diet on mortality of men with documented physical fitness in the city of Łódź

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Śmigielski

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is still uncertain if having at least moderate physical fitness is a necessary and sufficient condition for lowering the risk of death. The aforementioned statement constituted the basis for undertaking the study concerning the effect of particular health-related behaviours on the likelihood of survival in subjects with a moderate and high physical fitness. Materials and Methods: The study sample, i.e. 204 men aged 30-59 years living in Łódź, Poland, was selected within the CINDI WHO Programme and examined over the years 1980-1990 and 2003-2004. In each subject approximate values of one week energy expenditures associated with performing physical exercise of at least moderate intensity (> 1000 kcal/week were estimated. Physical efficiency in the study group was evaluated basing on the results of the submaximal effort test. Information about selected socio-demographic characteristics, consumption of alcohol, cigarette smoking and diet was gathered. The vital status of the examined sample was checked in 2009. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to identify factors which influence the survival of examined population. Results: The probability of death was more than fourfold higher in the case of individuals who eat "beef or pork meat", as compared to those who consumed these products rarely or never. On the other hand, the subjects who declared regular consumption of yellow cheese had nearly fourfold lower death probability. Current smoking was found to be a significant negative risk factor while moderate consumption of beer a protective one. The level of physical fitness (VO2max did not significantly influence mortality. Conclusions: The results of the performed analyses indicate negative effect associated with consumption of beef/pork meat and smoking. Furthermore, the data pertaining to the consumption of yellow cheese as a potent protective factor for men's health requires further verification. The

  14. Aerobic fitness is associated with low cardiovascular disease risk: the impact of lifestyle on early risk factors for atherosclerosis in young healthy Swedish individuals – the Lifestyle, Biomarker, and Atherosclerosis study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernström M

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Maria Fernström,1,* Ulrika Fernberg,2,* Gabriella Eliason,1 Anita Hurtig-Wennlöf1 1Department of Medical Diagnostics, Medical Faculty, School of Health Sciences, 2Medical Faculty, School of Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: The progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD and atherosclerosis is slow and develops over decades. In the cross-sectional Swedish Lifestyle, Biomarker, and Atherosclerosis study, 834 young, self-reported healthy adults aged 18.0–25.9 years have been studied to identify early risk factors for atherosclerosis.Purpose: The aims of this study were to 1 assess selected cardiometabolic biomarkers, carotid intima–media thickness (cIMT as a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, and lifestyle-related indicators (food habits, handgrip strength, and oxygen uptake, VO2 max; 2 analyze the assofciations between cIMT and lifestyle factors; and 3 identify subjects at risk of CVD using a risk score and to compare the characteristics of subjects with and without risk of CVD.Method: Blood samples were taken in a fasting state, and food habits were reported through a questionnaire. cIMT was measured by ultrasound, and VO2 max was measured by ergometer bike test. The risk score was calculated according to Wildman.Result: cIMT (mean ± standard deviation was 0.50±0.06 mm, and VO2 max values were 37.8±8.5 and 42.9±9.9 mL/kg/min, in women and men, respectively. No correlation was found between aerobic fitness expressed as VO2 max (mL/kg/min and cIMT. Using Wildman’s definition, 12% of the subjects were classified as being at risk of CVD, and 15% had homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. A total of 35% of women and 25% of men had lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol than recommended. Food habits did not differ between those at risk and those not at risk. However, aerobic fitness measured as VO2 max (mL/kg/min differed; 47% of the

  15. A quantitative investigation of the effect of a close-fitting superconducting shield on the coil factor of a solenoid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarøe, Morten; Monaco, R.; Koshelet, V.;

    2009-01-01

    Superconducting shields are commonly used to suppress external magnetic interference. We show, that an error of almost an order of magnitude can occur in the coil factor in realistic configurations of the solenoid and the shield. The reason is that the coil factor is determined by not only...

  16. Personal and environmental factors contributing to participation in romantic relationships and sexual activity of young adults with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegerink, Diana J H G; Stam, Henk J; Ketelaar, Marjolijn; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Roebroeck, Marij E

    2012-01-01

    To study determinants of romantic relationships and sexual activity of young adults with cerebral palsy (CP), focusing on personal and environmental factors. A cohort study was performed with 74 young adults (46 men; 28 women) aged 20-25 years (SD 1.4) with CP (49% unilateral CP, 76% GMFCS level I, 85% MACS level I). All participants were of normal intelligence. Romantic relationships, sexual activity (outcome measures), personal and environmental factors (associated factors) were assessed. Associations were analyzed using logistic regression analyses. More females than males with CP were in a current romantic relationship. Self-esteem, sexual esteem and feelings of competence regarding self-efficacy contributed positively to having current romantic relationships. A negative parenting style contributed negatively. Age and gross motor functioning explained 20% of the variance in experience with intercourse. In addition, sexual esteem and taking initiative contributed significantly to intercourse experience. For young adults with CP personal factors (20-35% explained variances) seem to contribute more than environmental factors (9-12% explained variances) to current romantic relationships and sexual experiences. We advice parents and professionals to focus on self-efficacy, self-esteem and sexual self-esteem in development of young adults with CP. [ • The severity of gross motor functioning contributed somewhat to sexual activities, but not to romantic relationships.• High self-efficacy, self-esteem and sexual self-esteem can facilitate involvement in romantic and sexual relationships for young adults with CP.

  17. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2012-01-01

    Get in Shape for Summer with the CERN Fitness Club Saturday 23 June 2012 from 14:30 to 16.30 (doors open at 14.00) Germana’s Fitness Workshop. Build strength and stamina, sculpt and tone your body and get your heart pumping with Germana’s workout mixture of Cardio Attack, Power Pump, Power Step, Cardio Combat and Cross-Training. Where: 216 (Pump room – equipped with changing rooms and showers). What to wear: comfortable clothes and indoor sports shoes + bring a drink! How much: 15 chf Sign up here: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Test_Subscription/NewForm.aspx? Join the Party and dance yourself into shape at Marco + Marials Zumba Masterclass. Saturday 30 June 2012 from 15:00 to 16:30 Marco + Mariel’s Zumba Masterclass Where: 216 (Pump room – equipped with changing rooms and showers). What to wear: comfortable clothes and indoor sports shoes + bring a drink! How much: 25 chf Sign up here: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Zumba%20...

  18. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2012-01-01

      The CERN Fitness Club is pleased to announce its new early morning class which will be taking place on: Tuesdays from 24th April 07:30 to 08:15 216 (Pump Hall, close to entrance C) – Facilities include changing rooms and showers. The Classes: The early morning classes will focus on workouts which will help you build not only strength and stamina, but will also improve your balance, and coordination. Our qualified instructor Germana will accompany you throughout the workout  to ensure you stay motivated so you achieve the best results. Sign up and discover the best way to start your working day full of energy! How to subscribe? We invite you along to a FREE trial session, if you enjoy the activity, please sign up via our website: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Activities/SUBSCRIBE.aspx. * * * * * * * * Saturday 28th April Get in shape for the summer at our fitness workshop and zumba dance party: Fitness workshop with Germana 13:00 to 14:30 - 216 (Pump Hall) Price...

  19. Fitness club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness club

    2013-01-01

      Nordic Walking Classes Come join the Nordic walking classes and outings offered by the CERN Fitness Club starting September 2013. Our licensed instructor Christine offers classes for people who’ve never tried Nordic Walking and who would like to learn the technique, and outings for people who have completed the classes and enjoy going out as a group. Course 1: Tuesdays 12:30 - 13:30 24 September, 1 October, 8 October, 15 October Course 2: Tuesdays 12:30 - 13:30 5 November, 12 November, 19 November, 26 November Outings will take place on Thursdays (12:30 to 13:30) from 12 September 2013. We meet at the CERN Club Barracks car park (close to Entrance A) 10 minutes before departure. Prices: 50 CHF for 4 classes, including the 10 CHF Club membership. Payments made directly to instructor. Renting Poles: Poles can be rented from Christine at 5 CHF / hour. Subscription: Please subscribe at: http://cern.ch/club-fitness Looking forward to seeing you among us! Fitness Club FitnessClub@c...

  20. Cognitive fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilkey, Roderick; Kilts, Clint

    2007-11-01

    Recent neuroscientific research shows that the health of your brain isn't, as experts once thought, just the product of childhood experiences and genetics; it reflects your adult choices and experiences as well. Professors Gilkey and Kilts of Emory University's medical and business schools explain how you can strengthen your brain's anatomy, neural networks, and cognitive abilities, and prevent functions such as memory from deteriorating as you age. The brain's alertness is the result of what the authors call cognitive fitness -a state of optimized ability to reason, remember, learn, plan, and adapt. Certain attitudes, lifestyle choices, and exercises enhance cognitive fitness. Mental workouts are the key. Brain-imaging studies indicate that acquiring expertise in areas as diverse as playing a cello, juggling, speaking a foreign language, and driving a taxicab expands your neural systems and makes them more communicative. In other words, you can alter the physical makeup of your brain by learning new skills. The more cognitively fit you are, the better equipped you are to make decisions, solve problems, and deal with stress and change. Cognitive fitness will help you be more open to new ideas and alternative perspectives. It will give you the capacity to change your behavior and realize your goals. You can delay senescence for years and even enjoy a second career. Drawing from the rapidly expanding body of neuroscience research as well as from well-established research in psychology and other mental health fields, the authors have identified four steps you can take to become cognitively fit: understand how experience makes the brain grow, work hard at play, search for patterns, and seek novelty and innovation. Together these steps capture some of the key opportunities for maintaining an engaged, creative brain.

  1. Energy Metabolism Disorder as a Contributing Factor of Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Comparative Proteomic and Metabolomic Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yu Yang

    increased in FLS cells after HIF-1α knockdown.It was found that enhanced anaerobic catabolism and reduced aerobic oxidation regulated by HIF pathway are newly recognized factors contributing to the progression of RA, and low glucose and high lactic acid concentration in synovial fluid may be the potential biomarker of RA.

  2. Factors contributing to the temperature beneath plaster or fiberglass cast material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Michael J; Hutchinson, Mark R

    2008-01-01

    Background Most cast materials mature and harden via an exothermic reaction. Although rare, thermal injuries secondary to casting can occur. The purpose of this study was to evaluate factors that contribute to the elevated temperature beneath a cast and, more specifically, evaluate the differences of modern casting materials including fiberglass and prefabricated splints. Methods The temperature beneath various types (plaster, fiberglass, and fiberglass splints), brands, and thickness of cast material were measured after they were applied over thermometer which was on the surface of a single diameter and thickness PVC tube. A single layer of cotton stockinette with variable layers and types of cast padding were placed prior to application of the cast. Serial temperature measurements were made as the cast matured and reached peak temperature. Time to peak, duration of peak, and peak temperature were noted. Additional tests included varying the dip water temperature and assessing external insulating factors. Ambient temperature, ambient humidity and dip water freshness were controlled. Results Outcomes revealed that material type, cast thickness, and dip water temperature played key roles regarding the temperature beneath the cast. Faster setting plasters achieved peak temperature quicker and at a higher level than slower setting plasters. Thicker fiberglass and plaster casts led to greater peak temperature levels. Likewise increasing dip-water temperature led to elevated temperatures. The thickness and type of cast padding had less of an effect for all materials. With a definition of thermal injury risk of skin injury being greater than 49 degrees Celsius, we found that thick casts of extra fast setting plaster consistently approached dangerous levels (greater than 49 degrees for an extended period). Indeed a cast of extra-fast setting plaster, 20 layers thick, placed on a pillow during maturation maintained temperatures over 50 degrees of Celsius for over 20

  3. Factors contributing to the temperature beneath plaster or fiberglass cast material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutchinson Mark R

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most cast materials mature and harden via an exothermic reaction. Although rare, thermal injuries secondary to casting can occur. The purpose of this study was to evaluate factors that contribute to the elevated temperature beneath a cast and, more specifically, evaluate the differences of modern casting materials including fiberglass and prefabricated splints. Methods The temperature beneath various types (plaster, fiberglass, and fiberglass splints, brands, and thickness of cast material were measured after they were applied over thermometer which was on the surface of a single diameter and thickness PVC tube. A single layer of cotton stockinette with variable layers and types of cast padding were placed prior to application of the cast. Serial temperature measurements were made as the cast matured and reached peak temperature. Time to peak, duration of peak, and peak temperature were noted. Additional tests included varying the dip water temperature and assessing external insulating factors. Ambient temperature, ambient humidity and dip water freshness were controlled. Results Outcomes revealed that material type, cast thickness, and dip water temperature played key roles regarding the temperature beneath the cast. Faster setting plasters achieved peak temperature quicker and at a higher level than slower setting plasters. Thicker fiberglass and plaster casts led to greater peak temperature levels. Likewise increasing dip-water temperature led to elevated temperatures. The thickness and type of cast padding had less of an effect for all materials. With a definition of thermal injury risk of skin injury being greater than 49 degrees Celsius, we found that thick casts of extra fast setting plaster consistently approached dangerous levels (greater than 49 degrees for an extended period. Indeed a cast of extra-fast setting plaster, 20 layers thick, placed on a pillow during maturation maintained temperatures over 50 degrees of

  4. Factors contributing to teenage pregnancy in the Capricorn district of the Limpopo Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tebogo M. Mothiba

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Teenage pregnancy refers to pregnancy of a woman of less than 19 years. It is found commonly amongst young people who have been disadvantaged and have poor expectations with regard to either their education or job market. Adolescents may lack knowledge of access to conventional methods of preventing pregnancy, as they may be afraid to seek such information. The study purpose was to identify factors contributing to teenage pregnancy in one village in the Capricorn District of the Limpopo Province.A quantitative descriptive research approach was chosen. Population consisted of all pregnant teenagers attending antenatal care during June to August 2007 at one clinic in the Capricorn District of the Limpopo Province. Simple random probability sampling was used to include 100 pregnant teenagers who satisfied the inclusion criteria. Data were collected through structured self-administered questionnaires. Descriptive statistical data analysis was used. Ethical considerations were ensured.Findings were classified as demographic data where 24% of the respondents were aged between 15–16 years and 76% were aged between 17–19 years. Findings further revealed that 60% of the respondents started to engage in sex at 13–15 years; 48% of the teenagers’ partners were 21 years and above, 44% depended on a single parents’ income; 20% father’s income, 16% received a social grant and 8% lived on the pension fund of the grandparents.Pregnancy prevention strategies were recommended based on the results. The strategies focused on reproductive health services, male involvement and adult-teenager communication programmes.

  5. [Fungal aetiologies and contributing factors of interdigital tinea pedis among policemen in Abidjan (Ivory Coast)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiki-Barro, P C M; Konaté, A; Angora, E K; Kassi, F K; Bosson-Vanga, H; Bedia-Tanoh, A V; Djohan, V; Yavo, W; Menan, E I H

    2017-09-05

    Fungal interdigital tinea pedis are poorly documented in Ivory Coast. This study aimed to determine the distribution of fungal species and contributing factors of the disease among policemen in Abidjan. Our cross-sectional study was carried out at the police school in Abidjan. Our patients consisted of symptomatic or non-symptomatic police students. Samples of scales or serosities taken from inter-toes spaces were examinated with KOH mount and cultured on Sabouraud-chloramphenicol and Sabouraud-chloramphenicol-actidione media. The method of identification depended on the observed fungus. Among the 303 police students with clinical lesions of the inter-toe folds, 233 (76.9%; IC 95%=71.9-81.4) had a positive diagnosis after mycological examination. Lesions were predominantly located in the 3rd and 4th interdigital plantar spaces, with desquamation (100%) followed by maceration (82.5%) as the predominant functional sign. Dermatophytes accounted for 86.3% of the strains isolated with as majority species : Trichophyton interdigitale (40.3%), Microsporum langeronii (30.0%) and Trichophyton rubrum (15.5%). Yeasts accounted for 13.7% of the strains with Candida albicans (7.7%) as the most found species. The duration at the police school (P=0.004) and the practice of sports activities (P=0.0001) were statistically associated with the occurrence of the disease. A good hygiene of feet would reduce the incidence of the disease among the defense and security forces. Also, investigations for the influence of the seasons in the occurrence of interdigital tinea pedis will allow a better understand of epidemiology of this dermatomycosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Tumor necrosis factor-α produced in the kidney contributes to angiotensin II-dependent hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiandong; Patel, Mehul B; Griffiths, Robert; Mao, Alice; Song, Young-soo; Karlovich, Norah S; Sparks, Matthew A; Jin, Huixia; Wu, Min; Lin, Eugene E; Crowley, Steven D

    2014-12-01

    Immune system activation contributes to the pathogenesis of hypertension and the resulting progression of chronic kidney disease. In this regard, we recently identified a role for proinflammatory Th1 T-lymphocyte responses in hypertensive kidney injury. Because Th1 cells generate interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), we hypothesized that interferon-γ and TNF-α propagate renal damage during hypertension induced by activation of the renin-angiotensin system. Therefore, after confirming that mice genetically deficient of Th1 immunity were protected from kidney glomerular injury despite a preserved hypertensive response, we subjected mice lacking interferon-γ or TNF-α to our model of hypertensive chronic kidney disease. Interferon deficiency had no impact on blood pressure elevation or urinary albumin excretion during chronic angiotensin II infusion. By contrast, TNF-deficient (knockout) mice had blunted hypertensive responses and reduced end-organ damage in our model. As angiotensin II-infused TNF knockout mice had exaggerated endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression in the kidney and enhanced nitric oxide bioavailability, we examined the actions of TNF-α generated from renal parenchymal cells in hypertension by transplanting wild-type or TNF knockout kidneys into wild-type recipients before the induction of hypertension. Transplant recipients lacking TNF solely in the kidney had blunted hypertensive responses to angiotensin II and augmented renal endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression, confirming a role for kidney-derived TNF-α to promote angiotensin II-induced blood pressure elevation by limiting renal nitric oxide generation.

  7. The effect of weight loss by ketogenic diet on the body composition, performance-related physical fitness factors and cytokines of Taekwondo athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhyu, Hyun-Seung; Cho, Su-Youn

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the weight loss through 3 weeks of ketogenic diet on performance-related physical fitness and inflammatory cytokines in Taekwondo athletes. The subjects selected for this research were 20 Taekwondo athletes of the high schools who participated in a summer camp training program. The subjects were randomly assigned to 2 groups, 10 subjects to each group: the ketogenic diet (KD) group and the non-ketogenic diet (NKD) group. Body composition, performance-related physical fitness factors (2,000 m sprint, Wingate test, grip force, back muscle strength, sit-up, 100 m sprint, standing broad jump, single leg standing) and cytokines (Iinterleukin-6, Interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α) were analyzed before and after 3weeks of ketogenic diet. No difference between the KD and NKD groups in weight, %body fat, BMI and fat free mass. However, the KD group, compared to the NKD group, finished 2,000 m sprint in less time after weight loss, and also felt less fatigue as measured by the Wingate test and showed less increase in tumor necrosis factor-α. This result suggests that KD diet can be helpful for weight category athletes, such as Taekwondo athletes, by improving aerobic capacity and fatigue resistance capacity, and also by exerting positive effect on inflammatory response.

  8. Contributing Factors in Restaurant-Associated Foodborne Disease Outbreaks, FoodNet Sites, 2006 and 2007†

    Science.gov (United States)

    GOULD, L. HANNAH; ROSENBLUM, IDA; NICHOLAS, DAVID; PHAN, QUYEN; JONES, TIMOTHY F.

    2015-01-01

    An estimated 48 million cases of foodborne illness occur each year in the United States, resulting in approximately 128,000 hospitalizations and 3,000 deaths. Over half of all foodborne disease outbreaks reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are associated with eating in restaurants or delicatessens. We reviewed data from restaurant-associated foodborne disease outbreaks to better understand the factors that contribute to these outbreaks. Data on restaurant-associated foodborne disease outbreaks reported by sites participating in the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) were analyzed to characterize contributing factors reported in foodborne disease outbreaks and the levels of evidence used to identify these factors. Of 457 foodborne disease outbreaks reported in 2006 and 2007 by FoodNet sites, 300 (66%) were restaurant associated, and of these 295 (98%) had at least one reported contributing factor. One to nine (with a median of two) contributing factors were reported per outbreak. Of the 257 outbreaks with a single etiology reported, contributing factors associated with food worker health and hygiene were reported for 165 outbreaks (64%), factors associated with food preparation practices within the establishment were reported for 88 outbreaks (34%), and factors associated with contamination introduced before reaching the restaurant were reported for 56 outbreaks (22%). The pronounced role of food workers in propagating outbreaks makes it clear that more work is needed to address prevention at the local level. Food workers should be instructed not to prepare food while ill to prevent the risk of transmitting pathogens. PMID:24215683

  9. Army Corps of Engineers: Factors Contributing to Cost Increases and Schedule Delays in the Olmsted Locks and Dam Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    and Dam Project The following information appears as interactive content in figure 3 when viewed electronically . • 1985: Lower Ohio River...ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS Factors Contributing to Cost Increases and Schedule Delays in the Olmsted Locks and Dam Project ...Contributing to Cost Increases and Schedule Delays in the Olmsted Locks and Dam Project What GAO Found Reports by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

  10. 商业性健身俱乐部会员锻炼坚持性的影响因素%The Exercise Adherence Influence Factors of the Commercial Fitness Center Members

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡慧娟; 张剑利; 陈旭霞

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze fitness center members adhere to physical activity,and to reduce the commercial fitness club membership loss,thus to promote the healthy development of commercial fitness center.On the basis of the sport commitment model proposed by Scanlan,summarizes the influence of the commercial fitness center members exercise adherence factors.The result shows that the fitness class service, fitness coach service,fitness center staff satisfaction,fitness effect,fitness project,fitness membership fee and other factors affect members’exercise adherence.%研究目的是通过分析会员的运动坚持,以减少商业性健身俱乐部会员流失,促进商业性健身俱乐部的良性发展。依据Scanlan提出的运动承诺模型,综述了影响商业性健身俱乐部会员锻炼坚持性的因素。分析认为健身课程服务、健身教练服务、健身俱乐部员工满足感、健身效果、健身项目、健身会费等因素影响会员运动坚持。

  11. Contextual Positive Coping as a Factor Contributing to Resilience After Disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shing, Elaine Z; Jayawickreme, Eranda; Waugh, Christian E

    2016-12-01

    Strategy-situation fit, or contextual coping, posits that the physical and psychological demands associated with stressors are determined in part by the characteristics of each stress situation and may therefore require the use of different coping strategies. In this review, we discuss strategy-situation fit in the context of both natural and manmade disasters as it pertains to positivity and, ultimately, resilience after disasters. We reviewed the relevant literature on positivity and coping with disasters using a contextual approach. We identified several disaster-related characteristics (i.e., cause of disaster, temporal characteristics of disasters, and degree of resource loss) that might influence the efficacy of positive coping strategies. We then discussed strategies that could be useful for promoting resilience with regard to these different characteristics. This work represents an initial step in conceptualizing disaster resiliency within the framework of contextual positive coping. Recommendations for future avenues of research are discussed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2012-01-01

    Nordic Walking Classes Sessions of four classes of one hour each are held on Tuesdays. RDV barracks parking at Entrance A, 10 minutes before class time. Session 1 =  11.09 / 18.09 / 25.09 / 02.10, 18:15 - 19:15 Session 2 = 25.09 / 02.10 / 09.10 / 16.10, 12:30 - 13:30 Session 3 = 23.10 / 30.10 / 06.11 / 13.11, 12:30 - 13:30 Session 4 = 20.11 / 27.11 / 04.12 / 11.12, 12:30 - 13:30 Prices 40 CHF per session + 10 CHF club membership 5 CHF/hour pole rental Check out our schedule and enroll at http://cern.ch/club-fitness   Hope to see you among us!  fitness.club@cern.ch In spring 2012 there was a long-awaited progress in CERN Fitness club. We have officially opened a Powerlifting @ CERN, and the number of members of the new section has been increasing since then reaching 70+ people in less than 4 months. Powerlifting is a strength sport, which is simple as 1-2-3 and efficient. The "1-2-3" are the three basic lifts (bench press...

  13. Effects of 6-month soccer and traditional physical activity programmes on body composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, inflammatory, oxidative stress markers and cardiorespiratory fitness in obese boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabra, André; Katzmarzyk, Peter; Carvalho, Maria José; Seabra, Ana; Coelho-E-Silva, Manuel; Abreu, Sandra; Vale, Susana; Póvoas, Susana; Nascimento, Henrique; Belo, Luís; Torres, Sandra; Oliveira, José; Mota, Jorge; Santos-Silva, Alice; Rêgo, Carla; Malina, Robert M

    2016-10-01

    Physical activity is important in obesity prevention, but the effectiveness of different physical activity modalities remains to be determined among children. The main purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a 6-month soccer programme and a traditional physical activity programme on changes in body composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, inflammatory and oxidative markers, cardiorespiratory fitness and perceived psychological status in obese boys. Eighty-eight boys (8-12 years; BMI > +2 standard deviations of WHO reference values) participated in one of three groups: soccer, traditional activity and control. Soccer and traditional activity programmes involved 3 sessions per week for 60-90 min at an average intensity of 70-80% of maximal heart rate. Control group participated in activities of normal daily living. All boys participated in school physical education, two sessions per week of 45-90-min. Measurements were taken at baseline and after 6 months, and included body size and composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, inflammatory and oxidative markers, cardiorespiratory fitness and perceived psychological status. Physical activity and dietary intake were assessed before and immediately following the intervention. The three groups had similar characteristics at baseline. After 6 months, both intervention groups had significantly lower relative fatness (% fat), waist circumference and total cholesterol, and higher cardiorespiratory fitness, self-esteem, perceived physical competence and attraction to physical activity compared with control group. In conclusion, physical activity interventions over 6 months positively influenced several indicators of health status among obese boys. The results also suggested that soccer has the potential as an effective tool for the prevention and reduction of childhood obesity and associated consequences.

  14. P01.02FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 4 CONTRIBUTES TO 3-DIMENSIONAL GROWTH OF HUMAN GLIOBLASTOMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lötsch, D.; Englinger, B.; Pichler, J.; Hainfellner, J.; Marosi, C.; Czech, T.; Knosp, E.; Buchroithner, J.; Spiegl-Kreinecker, S.; Berger, W.

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma growth is driven by receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)-mediated signals. One of the RTK systems recently coming into focus are the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) high-affinity receptors (FGFR1-FGFR4) due to mutation, overexpression or translocation in several cancer types. FGF/FGFR represents a complex signal network with essential functions in embryonic development, tissue homeostasis and wound healing but also for malignant transformation and growth as well as tumor neoangiogenesis and therapy failure. Several studies have suggested a role of FGFRs in human glioblastoma whereby the information on FGFR4 is sparse. Here we investigated whether FGFR4 as compared to FGFR1 blockade impacts on glioblastoma growth in vitro and in vivo. Both in human glioblastoma cell lines (N = 8) and primary cell cultures from clinical samples (N = 26) we found a widespread expression of several FGFs (e.g. FGF1, FGF2, and FGF5) but also a significant overexpression of FGFR1 and FGFR4 in distinct subgroups as compared to non-malignant brain primo cell cultures. Regarding FGFR1 mRNA, all glioma cell models investigated expressed in addition to the FGFR1-IIIb also the mesenchymal and more oncogenic FGFR1-IIIc splice variant. Application of the FGFR inhibitors (nintedanib, ponatinib) as well as expression of dominant-negative (dn) versions of FGFR1 and FGFR4 significantly reduced in vitro cell growth and clonogenicity in the tested glioma cell models whereby dnFGFR1 tended to be more efficient than dnFGFR4. Accordingly, both dominant-negative FGFRs induced significant apoptosis whereby the effects of dnFGFR1 were again significantly stronger. Surprisingly, the inhibitory effects on anchorage-independent growth in soft agar were opposite with significant mitigation by dnFGFR1 but almost complete blockade by dnFGFR4 in the majority of the glioblastoma models analysed. Additionally, neurosphere formation, indicative for the presence of glioma stem cells, was profoundly reduced by

  15. Factors contributing to decreased protein stability when aspartic acid residues are in {beta}-sheet regions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokkuluri, P. R.; Cai, X.; Raffen, R.; Gu, M.; Stevens, F. J.; Schiffer, M.

    2002-07-01

    Asp residues are significantly under represented in {beta}-sheet regions of proteins, especially in the middle of {beta}-strands, as found by a number of studies using statistical, modeling, or experimental methods. To further understand the reasons for this under representation of Asp, we prepared and analyzed mutants of a {beta}-domain. Two Gln residues of the immunoglobulin light-chain variable domain (V{sub L}) of protein Len were replaced with Asp, and then the effects of these changes on protein stability and protein structure were studied. The replacement of Q38D, located at the end of a {beta}-strand, and that of Q89D, located in the middle of a {beta}-strand, reduced the stability of the parent immunoglobulin VL domain by 2.0 kcal/mol and 5.3 kcal/mol, respectively. Because the Q89D mutant of the wild-type V{sub L}-Len domain was too unstable to be expressed as a soluble protein, we prepared the Q89D mutant in a triple mutant background, V{sub L}-Len M4L/Y27dD/T94H, which was 4.2 kcal/mol more stable than the wild-type V{sub L}-Len domain. The structures of mutants V{sub L}-Len Q38D and V{sub L}-Len Q89D/M4L/Y27dD/T94H were determined by X-ray diffraction at 1.6 A resolution. We found no major perturbances in the structures of these QD mutant proteins relative to structures of the parent proteins. The observed stability changes have to be accounted for by cumulative effects of the following several factors: (1) by changes in main-chain dihedral angles and in side-chain rotomers, (2) by close contacts between some atoms, and, most significantly, (3) by the unfavorable electrostatic interactions between the Asp side chain and the carbonyls of the main chain. We show that the Asn side chain, which is of similar size but neutral, is less destabilizing. The detrimental effect of Asp within a {beta}-sheet of an immunoglobulin-type domain can have very serious consequences. A somatic mutation of a {beta}-strand residue to Asp could prevent the expression of the

  16. Factors contributing to quality of life in COPD patients in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon HY

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hye-Young Kwon,1,2 Eugene Kim2 1Department of Global Health and Population, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA; 2Institute of Health and Environment, Graduate School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea Objectives: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a chronic lung disease, and the burden of COPD is expected to increase in the rapidly aging nation of South Korea. This study aims to examine the factors contributing to health-related quality of life (HRQOL in COPD patients.Patients and methods: This study was based on 6-year-data obtained from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2012. COPD was diagnosed in 2,734 survey participants and the severity was graded according to the criteria set by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease. The EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D index was used to assess the quality of life.Results: The EQ-5D index scores for COPD patients and the general population were 0.915±0.003 and 0.943±0.001, respectively. Males, younger people, and patients with higher education attainment and income levels had a higher utility score. In addition, the adjusted EQ-5D index scores for severity level IV significantly decreased by 0.100 (P=0.041, compared to the severity group I scores. No significant differences were found in stage II and III patients. Comorbidities (excluding cancer and hypertension appeared to negatively influence HRQOL among COPD patients. In particular, depression (EQ-5D index score =-0.089, P=0.0003 and osteoporosis (EQ-5D index score= -0.062, P=0.0039 had a significant influence, while smoking status did not appear to influence patient HRQOL.Conclusion: In this study, we found that the higher the severity of COPD, the lower the quality of life. In particular, patients with depression and osteoporosis had a relatively low utility score. Therefore, these comorbidities should be carefully monitored in order to improve quality

  17. Common Genetic and Nonshared Environmental Factors Contribute to the Association between Socioemotional Dispositions and the Externalizing Factor in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jeanette; Allan, Nicholas; Mikolajewski, Amy J.; Hart, Sara A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Childhood behavioral disorders including conduct disorder (CD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often co-occur. Prior twin research shows that common sets of genetic and environmental factors are associated with these various disorders and they form a latent factor called…

  18. An Evaluation of the Significance of Work-Related Influence Factors on Fitness and the Development of Medical and Orthopaedic Conditions in Military Executives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Michael; Finze, Susanne; Holtherm, Christoph; Hinder, Jens; Lison, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Occupational health promotion is an effective tool to improve the state of health of employees. As part of occupational health promotion in the German Bundeswehr, top-ranking military executives are offered a medical examination and training programme. Health-related data is collected as a basis for training and lifestyle counselling. This data was subjected to a retrospective evaluation in order to identify occupational risk factors and their correlation with cardiovascular resilience, trunk strength, and the development of orthopaedic and internal disorders. A total of 122 military executives (all male, age 54.6 ± 4.2 years) answered a questionnaire aimed at evaluating private and occupational stress factors. The medical history was followed by a medical and orthopaedic examination involving a lactate performance test (treadmill or bicycle ergometry) and an isometric trunk strength measurement. The data obtained was then statistically evaluated. For military executives, work-related travelling and commuting involve a high risk of medical and orthopaedic conditions. Regular exercise leads to improved fitness levels. In order to prevent medical problems, military executives working long hours should regularly take part in fitness and weight training under professional instructions.

  19. An Evaluation of the Significance of Work-Related Influence Factors on Fitness and the Development of Medical and Orthopaedic Conditions in Military Executives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Schulze

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational health promotion is an effective tool to improve the state of health of employees. As part of occupational health promotion in the German Bundeswehr, top-ranking military executives are offered a medical examination and training programme. Health-related data is collected as a basis for training and lifestyle counselling. This data was subjected to a retrospective evaluation in order to identify occupational risk factors and their correlation with cardiovascular resilience, trunk strength, and the development of orthopaedic and internal disorders. A total of 122 military executives (all male, age 54.6±4.2 years answered a questionnaire aimed at evaluating private and occupational stress factors. The medical history was followed by a medical and orthopaedic examination involving a lactate performance test (treadmill or bicycle ergometry and an isometric trunk strength measurement. The data obtained was then statistically evaluated. For military executives, work-related travelling and commuting involve a high risk of medical and orthopaedic conditions. Regular exercise leads to improved fitness levels. In order to prevent medical problems, military executives working long hours should regularly take part in fitness and weight training under professional instructions.

  20. Factors that Contribute to Women's Career Development in Organizations: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knorr, Helena

    2005-01-01

    Extensive research has focused on factors that hinder the advancement of women in organizations. However, scarce literature exists about factors that facilitate such development. This paper reviews recent scholarship on women at work, through an analysis of existing literature, in order to identify factors that facilitate the advancement of…

  1. LAMINAR CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER AND FRICTION FACTOR OF AL2O3 NANOFLUID IN CIRCULAR TUBE FITTED WITH TWISTED TAPE INSERTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Syam Sundar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We experimentally investigated the fully developed laminar convective heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of different volume concentrations of Al2O3 nanofluid in a plain tube and fitted with different twist ratios of twisted tape inserts. Experiments were conducted with water and nanofluid in the range of particle volume concentration of , and twisted tape twist ratios of . The nanofluid heat transfer coefficient is high compared to water and further heat transfer enhancement is observed with twisted tape inserts. The pressure drop increases slightly with the inserts, but is comparatively negligible. A generalized regression equation is developed based on the experimental data for the estimation of the Nusselt number and friction factor for water and nanofluid in a plain tube and with twisted tape inserts.

  2. Independent associations of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness with metabolic risk factors in children: the European youth heart study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, U; Anderssen, S A; Froberg, K

    2007-01-01

    of Europe (n = 1709). We examined the independent associations of subcomponents of PA and CRF with metabolic risk factors (waist circumference, BP, fasting glucose, insulin, triacylglycerol and HDL-cholesterol levels). Clustered metabolic risk was expressed as a continuously distributed score calculated...... circumference from the summary score and further adjustment for waist circumference as a confounding factor, the magnitude of the association between CRF and clustered metabolic risk was attenuated (standardised beta = -0.05, 95% CI -0.08, -0.02), whereas the association with total PA was unchanged...... as the average of the standardised values of the six subcomponents. RESULTS: CRF (standardised beta = -0.09, 95% CI -0.12, -0.06), total PA (standardised beta = -0.08, 95% CI -0.10, -0.05) and all other subcomponents of PA were significantly associated with clustered metabolic risk. After excluding waist...

  3. Airport baggage handling--where do human factors fit in the challenges that airports put on a baggage system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenior, O N M

    2012-01-01

    The challenges put on large baggage systems by airports can be summarized as: handling a high number of bags in a short period of time, in a limited space, with all sorts of disruptions, whilst complying with stringent regulation upon security, sustainability and health and safety. The aim of this company case study is to show in the different project phases--as indicated in the system ergonomic approach--how the human factors specialist can play a major part in tackling these challenges. By describing different projects in terms of scope, organization, human factors topics covered, phases and lessons learned, the importance of Human-Computer Interaction, automation as well as manual handling and work organization in baggage is addressed.

  4. Implementation lessons: the importance of assessing organizational "fit" and external factors when implementing evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demby, Hilary; Gregory, Alethia; Broussard, Marsha; Dickherber, Jennifer; Atkins, Shantice; Jenner, Lynne W

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, the demand for evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention programs has increased, but practitioners often struggle to replicate and implement them as designed in real-world community settings. The purpose of this article is to describe the barriers and facilitators encountered during pilot year attempts to implement an evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention program within three types of organizations: (1) small community-based organizations; (2) a school-based organization; and (3) a large decentralized city-sponsored summer youth program. We frame our discussion of these experiences within the context of a systemic, multilevel framework for implementation consisting of (1) core implementation components; (2) organizational components; and (3) external factors. This article explores the organizational and external implementation factors we experienced during the implementation process, describes our lessons learned throughout this process, and offers strategies for other practitioners to proactively address these factors from the start of program planning. These findings may provide useful insight for other organizations looking to implement multi-session, group-level interventions with fidelity.

  5. 20 CFR 416.935 - How we will determine whether your drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Drug Addiction and Alcoholism § 416.935 How we will determine whether your drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to... evidence of your drug addiction or alcoholism, we must determine whether your drug addiction or...

  6. Motivation to Participate in Workplace Training within the Intelligence Community and Beyond: A Study of Contributing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanard, Stephanie Vernice Overton

    2013-01-01

    Organizations can incur extensive costs to fund training typically available to employees free of charge. However, some employees do not participate. The body of research reviewed in adult education focused on relevant studies and models of contributing factors for participation in academia, the workplace, and the community. No studies were found…

  7. Quantifying abortion rates of reproductive organs and effects of contributing factors using time-to-event analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubs, A.M.; Heuvelink, E.; Marcelis, L.F.M.; Hemerik, L.

    2011-01-01

    Time-to-event analysis, or survival analysis, is a method to analyse the timing of events and to quantify the effects of contributing factors. We apply this method to data on the timing of abortion of reproductive organs. This abortion often depends on source and sink strength. We hypothesise that

  8. Quantifying abortion rates of reproductive organs and effects of contributing factors using time-to-event analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubs, A.M.; Heuvelink, E.; Marcelis, L.F.M.; Hemerik, L.

    2011-01-01

    Time-to-event analysis, or survival analysis, is a method to analyse the timing of events and to quantify the effects of contributing factors. We apply this method to data on the timing of abortion of reproductive organs. This abortion often depends on source and sink strength. We hypothesise that t

  9. Factors Contributing to Sexual Violence at Selected Schools for Learners with Mild Intellectual Disability in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyokangi, Doris; Phasha, Nareadi

    2016-01-01

    Background: This paper reports part of the findings of a study which exposed sexual violence in schools for learners with mild intellectual disability in South Africa. Special attention was paid on factors contributing to such a problem. Methods: Data were collected using focus groups and individual interviews with 16 learners with mild…

  10. Factors Contributing to under Representation of Female Teachers in Headship Positions in Primary Schools in Eldoret Municipality, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmao, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses factors contributing to under representation of female teachers in headship positions in Eldoret Municipality Kenya. The study was guided by socialization theory to hierarchical gender prescriptions which gave three distinct theoretical traditions that help, understand sex and gender. Descriptive survey was adopted for the…

  11. Motivation to Participate in Workplace Training within the Intelligence Community and Beyond: A Study of Contributing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanard, Stephanie Vernice Overton

    2013-01-01

    Organizations can incur extensive costs to fund training typically available to employees free of charge. However, some employees do not participate. The body of research reviewed in adult education focused on relevant studies and models of contributing factors for participation in academia, the workplace, and the community. No studies were found…

  12. Fitness club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness club

    2013-01-01

    Nordic Walking Classes New session of 4 classes of 1 hour each will be held on Tuesdays in May 2013. Meet at the CERN barracks parking at Entrance A, 10 minutes before class time. Dates and time: 07.05, 14.05, 21.05 and 28.05, fom  12 h 30 to 13 h 30 Prices: 40 CHF per session + 10 CHF club membership – 5 CHF / hour pole rental Check out our schedule and enroll at http://cern.ch/club-fitness Hope to see you among us! 

  13. Unique and Varied Contributions of Traditional CVD Risk Factors: A Systematic Literature Review of CAD Risk Factors in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foody, Joanne; Huo, Yong; Ji, Linong; Zhao, Dong; Boyd, Dylan; Meng, Hai Jin; Shiff, Susan; Hu, Dayi

    2013-01-01

    This study is the first systematic review of risk factors for stroke in China and supports the importance of current public health initiatives to manage the risk factors appropriately to reduce risk of stroke in high risk patients. Additionally, this study has been co-authored by prominent Chinese and US physicians and researchers with expertise in cardiovascular disease, neurologic disorders, epidemiology, and real world data. While there have been several systematic reviews of real world associations of risk factors for coronary artery disease, none focus specifically on the population of China, where there is growing evidence that such risk factors are poorly treated or uncontrolled, especially in rural areas. To better understand the impact of traditional cardiovascular risk factors on risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) in China, a systematic review of all Chinese observational studies published in either English or Chinese in MEDLINE and EMBASE over the last 5 years was performed and the association between any of 5 traditional risk factors (ie, hypertension, diabetes, elevated lipid levels, obesity, and smoking) and the risk of CAD was studied. The study found a consistent relationship between lipid levels and CAD. Higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol values were associated with greater risk of CAD, with an odds ratio as high as 3.31. Other factors found to be significant contributors to the risk of CAD included hypertension (crude odds ratio range of 1.40-5.11), diabetes (1.50-5.97), and smoking (1.37-5.19). An association between obesity and CAD in China was observed, but the evidence supporting this was considered weak due to the paucity of studies found as part of this review. This review provides a systematic summary of CAD risk factors in China and demonstrates the important differences that exist in CAD risk factors between countries and regions. Approaches to reduce CAD globally must take into account the unique risk factors that drive CAD in

  14. Unique and Varied Contributions of Traditional CVD Risk Factors: A Systematic Literature Review of CAD Risk Factors in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foody, JoAnne; Huo, Yong; Ji, Linong; Zhao, Dong; Boyd, Dylan; Meng, Hai Jin; Shiff, Susan; Hu, Dayi

    2013-01-01

    This study is the first systematic review of risk factors for stroke in China and supports the importance of current public health initiatives to manage the risk factors appropriately to reduce risk of stroke in high risk patients. Additionally, this study has been co-authored by prominent Chinese and US physicians and researchers with expertise in cardiovascular disease, neurologic disorders, epidemiology, and real world data. While there have been several systematic reviews of real world associations of risk factors for coronary artery disease, none focus specifically on the population of China, where there is growing evidence that such risk factors are poorly treated or uncontrolled, especially in rural areas. Background To better understand the impact of traditional cardiovascular risk factors on risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) in China, a systematic review of all Chinese observational studies published in either English or Chinese in MEDLINE and EMBASE over the last 5 years was performed and the association between any of 5 traditional risk factors (ie, hypertension, diabetes, elevated lipid levels, obesity, and smoking) and the risk of CAD was studied. Methods and results The study found a consistent relationship between lipid levels and CAD. Higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol values were associated with greater risk of CAD, with an odds ratio as high as 3.31. Other factors found to be significant contributors to the risk of CAD included hypertension (crude odds ratio range of 1.40–5.11), diabetes (1.50–5.97), and smoking (1.37–5.19). An association between obesity and CAD in China was observed, but the evidence supporting this was considered weak due to the paucity of studies found as part of this review. Conclusions This review provides a systematic summary of CAD risk factors in China and demonstrates the important differences that exist in CAD risk factors between countries and regions. Approaches to reduce CAD globally must take into

  15. Contractors' Perception of factors Contributing to Project Delay: Case Studies of Commercial Projects in Klang Valley, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azlan Shah Ali

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Delay in construction projects is a situation where the project cannot be completed under the planned time. It is a common issue faced in the construction industry all over the world especially in developing countries. In the Malaysian construction industry, 17.3% of construction projects experience more than 3 months delay and some of them are abandoned. Hence, the study of factors contributing to delay is very important in order to reduce the number of projects that experience delay in project delivery. Three objectives of the research have been formulated, namely (1 to identify factors that contribute to delay in construction projects; (2 to analyse and rank the causes of delay rated by contractors; and (3 to study the effects of delay in construction projects. One hundred questionnaires were distributed during data collection stage and only 36 responses received. The respondents only consist of contractors and sub-contractors because the scope of the research focuses on contractors' perception. The data collected was analysed using SPSS software. Seven factors that contribute to delay were identified through literature review, namely contractors' financial difficulties, construction mistakes and defective work, labour shortage, coordination problems, shortage of tools and equipment, material shortage and poor site management. Of those factors, the three most important factors were found to be labour shortage, contractors' financial difficulties and construction mistakes and defective works. Besides project delay, the research shows that cost overrun and extension of time (EOT are the most common effects of delay in construction projects.

  16. A literature review of organisational, individual and teamwork factors contributing to the ICU discharge process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Frances; Chaboyer, Wendy; Wallis, Marianne

    2009-02-01

    It is everyday news that we need more intensive care unit (ICU) beds, thus effective use of existing resources is imperative. The aim of this literature review was to critically analyse current literature on how organizational factors, individual factors and teamwork factors influence the ICU discharge process. A better understanding of discharge practices has the potential to ultimately influence ICU resource availability. Databases including CINAHL, MEDLINE, PROQUEST, SCIENCE DIRECT were searched using key terms such as ICU discharge, discharge process, ICU guidelines and policies, discharge decision-making, ICU organisational factors, ICU and human factors, and ICU patient transfer. Articles' reference lists were also used to locate relevant literature. A total of 21 articles were included in the review. Only a small number of ICUs used written patient discharge guidelines. Consensus, rather than empirical evidence, dictates the importance of guidelines and policies. Premature discharge, discharge after hours and discharge by triage still exist due to resources constraints, even though the literature suggests these are associated with increased mortality. Teamwork and team training appear to be effective in improving efficiency and communication between professions or between clinical areas. However, this aspect has rarely been researched in relation to ICU patient discharge. Intensive care patient discharge is influenced by organisational factors, individual factors and teamwork factors. Organisational interventions are effective in reducing ICU discharge delay and shortening patient hospital stay. More rigorous research is needed to discover how these factors influence the ICU discharge process.

  17. Spatiotemporal Patterns of the Use of Urban Green Spaces and External Factors Contributing to Their Use in Central Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fangzheng; Zhang, Fen; Li, Xiong; Wang, Peng; Liang, Junhui; Mei, Yuting; Cheng, Wenwen; Qian, Yun

    2017-02-27

    Urban green spaces encourage outdoor activity and social communication that contribute to the health of local residents. Examining the relationship between the use of urban green spaces and factors influencing their utilization can provide essential references for green space site selection in urban planning. In contrast to previous studies that focused on internal factors, this study highlights the external factors (traffic convenience, population density and commercial facilities) contributing to the use of urban green spaces. We conducted a spatiotemporal analysis of the distribution of visitors in 208 selected green spaces in central Beijing. We examined the relationship between the spatial pattern of visitor distribution within urban green spaces and external factors, using the Gini coefficient, kernel density estimation, and geographical detectors. The results of the study were as follows. The spatial distribution of visitors within central Beijing's green spaces was concentrated, forming different agglomerations. The three examined external factors are all associated with the use of green spaces. Among them, commercial facilities are the important external factor associated with the use of green spaces. For the selection of sites for urban green spaces, we recommend consideration of external factors in order to balance urban green space utilization.

  18. Spatiotemporal Patterns of the Use of Urban Green Spaces and External Factors Contributing to Their Use in Central Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fangzheng; Zhang, Fen; Li, Xiong; Wang, Peng; Liang, Junhui; Mei, Yuting; Cheng, Wenwen; Qian, Yun

    2017-01-01

    Urban green spaces encourage outdoor activity and social communication that contribute to the health of local residents. Examining the relationship between the use of urban green spaces and factors influencing their utilization can provide essential references for green space site selection in urban planning. In contrast to previous studies that focused on internal factors, this study highlights the external factors (traffic convenience, population density and commercial facilities) contributing to the use of urban green spaces. We conducted a spatiotemporal analysis of the distribution of visitors in 208 selected green spaces in central Beijing. We examined the relationship between the spatial pattern of visitor distribution within urban green spaces and external factors, using the Gini coefficient, kernel density estimation, and geographical detectors. The results of the study were as follows. The spatial distribution of visitors within central Beijing’s green spaces was concentrated, forming different agglomerations. The three examined external factors are all associated with the use of green spaces. Among them, commercial facilities are the important external factor associated with the use of green spaces. For the selection of sites for urban green spaces, we recommend consideration of external factors in order to balance urban green space utilization. PMID:28264451

  19. Spatiotemporal Patterns of the Use of Urban Green Spaces and External Factors Contributing to Their Use in Central Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangzheng Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Urban green spaces encourage outdoor activity and social communication that contribute to the health of local residents. Examining the relationship between the use of urban green spaces and factors influencing their utilization can provide essential references for green space site selection in urban planning. In contrast to previous studies that focused on internal factors, this study highlights the external factors (traffic convenience, population density and commercial facilities contributing to the use of urban green spaces. We conducted a spatiotemporal analysis of the distribution of visitors in 208 selected green spaces in central Beijing. We examined the relationship between the spatial pattern of visitor distribution within urban green spaces and external factors, using the Gini coefficient, kernel density estimation, and geographical detectors. The results of the study were as follows. The spatial distribution of visitors within central Beijing’s green spaces was concentrated, forming different agglomerations. The three examined external factors are all associated with the use of green spaces. Among them, commercial facilities are the important external factor associated with the use of green spaces. For the selection of sites for urban green spaces, we recommend consideration of external factors in order to balance urban green space utilization.

  20. The Analysis of the Contribution of Human Factors to the In-Flight Loss of Control Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancel, Ersin; Shih, Ann T.

    2012-01-01

    In-flight loss of control (LOC) is currently the leading cause of fatal accidents based on various commercial aircraft accident statistics. As the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) emerges, new contributing factors leading to LOC are anticipated. The NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP), along with other aviation agencies and communities are actively developing safety products to mitigate the LOC risk. This paper discusses the approach used to construct a generic integrated LOC accident framework (LOCAF) model based on a detailed review of LOC accidents over the past two decades. The LOCAF model is comprised of causal factors from the domain of human factors, aircraft system component failures, and atmospheric environment. The multiple interdependent causal factors are expressed in an Object-Oriented Bayesian belief network. In addition to predicting the likelihood of LOC accident occurrence, the system-level integrated LOCAF model is able to evaluate the impact of new safety technology products developed in AvSP. This provides valuable information to decision makers in strategizing NASA's aviation safety technology portfolio. The focus of this paper is on the analysis of human causal factors in the model, including the contributions from flight crew and maintenance workers. The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) taxonomy was used to develop human related causal factors. The preliminary results from the baseline LOCAF model are also presented.

  1. Contribution of Arg288 of Escherichia coli elongation factor Tu to translational functionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rattenborg, Thomas; Nautrup-Pedersen, Gitte; Clark, Brian F. C.

    1997-01-01

    -type factor with regard to the association and dissociation of guanine nucleotides, and the intrinsic GTPase activities are unchanged. Furthermore, the mutants were as efficient as the wild-type factor in carrying out protein synthesis in vitro in the presence of an excess of aminoacyl-tRNA. However...

  2. Factors contributing to the differences in work related injury rates between Danish and Swedish construction workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spangenberg, S.; Baarts, C.; Dyreborg, J.;

    2002-01-01

    of injury risk factors at group and individual level for Danish and Swedish workers. LTI-rates and injury risk factors were compared for Danish and Swedish workers during the construction of the combined rail and road link across the 16-km wide sound, Oresund, between Denmark and Sweden. The comparison...

  3. Personal, Familial, and Social Factors Contributing to Addiction Relapse, Ahvaz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayazi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Drug addiction is deemed one of the gravest threats to society. Objectives The objective of this study was to determine what factors (personal, familial, or social are correlated with addiction relapse. Patients and Methods In this descriptive study, 146 addicts referring to addiction treatment centers in the Iranian city of Ahvaz were selected via purposive and non-randomized sampling. The study tool was a researcher-made questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and SPSS software were used for data analysis. Results The results showed that 46.1% of the participants aged between 20 and 30 years. All the subjects had at least one attempt at quitting drug abuse. Single individuals comprised 52.9% of the study population. The most significant physical factors were lack of appetite (23.9%, numbness and pins and needles (23.3%, and bone pain (22.4%, while the most significant mental factor was loneliness (44%. Concerning the social factors, association with addicted and misleading friends (35.2% had the utmost importance. Furthermore, lack of a permanent job (43% and absence of appropriate family relationships (32%, respectively, constituted the most important factors among the career and familial factors. Conclusions Our results showed that many personal, familial, and social factors play a role in addiction relapse. The high prevalence of return to addiction necessitates further strategies for the more optimal control of these factors.

  4. The HMG box transcription factor Sox4 contributes to the development of the endocrine pancreas.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, M.E.; Yang, K.Y.; Kalousova, A.; Janet, L.; Kosaka, Y.; Lynn, F.C.; Wang, J.; Mrejen, C.; Episkopou, V.; Clevers, J.C.; German, M.S.

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the role of the Sry/hydroxymethylglutaryl box (Sox) transcription factors in the development of the pancreas, we determined the expression pattern of Sox factors in the developing mouse pancreas. By RT-PCR, we detected the presence of multiple Sox family members in both the developing

  5. Epidermal growth factor receptor signalling contributes to house dust mite-induced epithelial barrier dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijink, I H; van Oosterhout, A; Kapus, A

    2010-01-01

    Impaired airway epithelial barrier function has emerged as a key factor in the pathogenesis of allergic asthma. We aimed to discern the involvement of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in allergen-induced epithelial barrier impairment, as we previously observed that house dust mite (HDM) s

  6. Cognitive Factors Contributing to Chinese EFL Learners' L2 Writing Performance in Timed Essay Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanbin

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated cognitive factors that might influence Chinese EFL learners' argumentative essay writing in English. The factors that were explored included English (L2) language proficiency, Chinese (L1) writing ability, genre knowledge, use of writing strategies, and working memory capacity in L1 and L2. Data were collected from 136…

  7. Exploring Contributing Factors Leading to the Decision to Drop out of School by Hispanic Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Jennifer; Jones, Don; Mundy, Marie-Anne; Isaacson, Carrie

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors leading Hispanic male students in a mid-sized community in South Texas to dropping out of school, and to determine which, if any, of the factors caused the participant to first consider leaving school at an early age. This quantitative study tested academic systems within Tinto's theory of…

  8. Not So Fast: Inflation in Impact Factors Contributes to Apparent Improvements in Journal Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Bryan D.; Olden, Julian D.

    2010-01-01

    The Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) impact factor has become an important standard for assessing journal quality. Here we propose that impact factors may be subject to inflation analogous to changes in monetary prices in economics. The possibility of inflation came to light as a result of the observation that papers published today tend…

  9. Spatiotemporal variability of reference evapotranspiration and contributing climatic factors in China during 1961-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaoli; Xie, Peiwei; Lai, Chengguang; Chen, Xiaohong; Wu, Xushu; Zeng, Zhaoyang; Li, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Reference evapotranspiration (ETo) is an important parameter for characterization of the hydrological cycle, and it is also important for agricultural, environmental and other studies. The ETo for 4189 grid points in China from 1961 to 2013 was calculated in this study utilizing the FAO Penman-Monteith method (P-M) based on an updated high-resolution (0.5° × 0.5°) gridded dataset. Five climatic variables including wind speed (WS), sunlight duration (SD), relative humidity (RH), maximum daily temperature (Tm) and minimum daily temperature (Tn), were selected to identify the contribution to variability of ETo. The temporal evolution and spatial distribution of each climatic variable was also investigated. Results indicate that (1) ETo distribution in China differed significantly both in seasonal and spatial scale in general, and annual ETo significantly decreased 6.84 mm/decade (P < 0.05); a turning point occurred in 1982 for the temporal variability of ETo and the fluctuation periods of 2.4- and 3.4-years existed in the ETo series. (2) WS was the most influential climatic variable related to ETo variability with relative contribution of 32.31%, followed by Tm (26.65%), SD (19.70%), RH (14.33%) and Tn (7.02%); significant declines (P < 0.05) of WS and SD were indicated in the decrease of ETo while the increase of Tm and Tn and the decrease of RH contributed to enhancing ETo. (3) Relative contributions of climatic variables to ETo were temporally unstable and varied considerably in the nine agricultural regions and the whole China; spatial distribution for relative contribution of various climatic variables showed significant diversity among various agricultural regions. The results have the potential to provide a reference for agricultural production and management in China.

  10. Attribution Analysis of Factors Affecting Middle School Students’Physical Fitness%影响中学生体质健康状况的归因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏兴田; 徐生辉

    2016-01-01

    中学生是青少年的主体,其作为一个特殊的群体,对社会的建设和发展作用至关重要。近年来,教育职能部门出台多项政策法规来全面增强学生体质,但中学生的体质健康状况依旧堪忧。本文通过对影响中学生体质健康状况的学校因素、社会因素、家庭因素进行分析,旨为增强中学生体质健康状况提出建设性意见。%As the main part of teenagers and a special group,middle school students have vital effect on social construction and development.In recent years,despite education departments’effort of issuing a number of policies and regulations to comprehensively strengthen students'physique,the physical health condition of middle school students is still worrying.Through analyzing factors influencing middle school students’physical fitness from school,society and family,the paper aims to come up with constructive suggestions on strengthening high school students’physical fitness.

  11. Description of Various Factors Contributing to Traffic Accidents in Youth and Measures Proposed to Alleviate Recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gicquel, Ludovic; Ordonneau, Pauline; Blot, Emilie; Toillon, Charlotte; Ingrand, Pierre; Romo, Lucia

    2017-01-01

    Traffic accidents are the leading cause of hospitalization in adolescence, with the 18-24-year-old age group accounting for 23% of deaths by traffic accidents. Recurrence rate is also high. One in four teenagers will have a relapse within the year following the first accident. Cognitive impairments known in adolescence could cause risky behaviors, defined as repetitive engagement in dangerous situations such as road accidents. Two categories of factors seem to be associated with traffic accidents: (1) factors specific to the traffic environment and (2) "human" factors, which seem to be the most influential. Moreover, the establishment of a stronger relation to high speed driving increases traffic accident risks and can also be intensified by sensation seeking. Other factors such as substance use (alcohol, drugs, and "binge drinking") are also identified as risk factors. Furthermore, cell phone use while driving and attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity also seem to be important risk factors for car accidents. The family environment strongly influences a young person's driving behavior. Some interventional driving strategies and preventive measures have reduced the risk of traffic accidents among young people, such as the graduated driver licensing program and advertising campaigns. So far, few therapeutic approaches have been implemented. Reason why, we decided to set up an innovative strategy consisting of a therapeutic postaccident group intervention, entitled the ECARR2 protocol, to prevent recurrence among adolescents and young adults identified at risk, taking into account the multiple risk factors.

  12. Description of Various Factors Contributing to Traffic Accidents in Youth and Measures Proposed to Alleviate Recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic Gicquel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Traffic accidents are the leading cause of hospitalization in adolescence, with the 18–24-year-old age group accounting for 23% of deaths by traffic accidents. Recurrence rate is also high. One in four teenagers will have a relapse within the year following the first accident. Cognitive impairments known in adolescence could cause risky behaviors, defined as repetitive engagement in dangerous situations such as road accidents. Two categories of factors seem to be associated with traffic accidents: (1 factors specific to the traffic environment and (2 “human” factors, which seem to be the most influential. Moreover, the establishment of a stronger relation to high speed driving increases traffic accident risks and can also be intensified by sensation seeking. Other factors such as substance use (alcohol, drugs, and “binge drinking” are also identified as risk factors. Furthermore, cell phone use while driving and attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity also seem to be important risk factors for car accidents. The family environment strongly influences a young person’s driving behavior. Some interventional driving strategies and preventive measures have reduced the risk of traffic accidents among young people, such as the graduated driver licensing program and advertising campaigns. So far, few therapeutic approaches have been implemented. Reason why, we decided to set up an innovative strategy consisting of a therapeutic postaccident group intervention, entitled the ECARR2 protocol, to prevent recurrence among adolescents and young adults identified at risk, taking into account the multiple risk factors.

  13. Factors Contributing To The Sustainability Of 5S Programmes In Government Hospitals In Regional Director Of Health Services Area Kurunegala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. K.W.C.U.K Kendangamuwa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction 5S is the stepping stone for many quality improvement concepts and its roots date back to 16th century. When successfully implemented 5S gives many benefits to the organization as well as its stakeholders. Though 5S itself has a tool to sustain most of the organizations find it difficult to sustain the 5S practice over the time. Therefore the objective of this study was to find out the factors contributing to sustainability of 5S programmes in Government Hospitals in RDHS area Kurunegala. Methodology This study was a descriptive cross sectional study with two components. First component was to identify the 5S sustaining hospitals from not sustaining hospitals by validated evaluation sheet. Second component was to determine the factors contributing to sustainability of 5S programmes in selected study setting. Self-administrated questionnaire was used for this purpose. Total study population was 543 employees of all the categories of hospital staff. Calculated sample size was 422 and 375 were responded to the questionnaire giving response rate of 88.9. Results The study revealed that the implemented 5S programmes were sustaining in eight hospitals out of ten i.e. sustaining rate was 80. When it considered the degree of sustainability 50 of the selected hospitals reported more than 70 sustainability. This was considered as favourable trend in government health sector in healthcare quality point of view. Ten factors were studied as contributing factors for the 5S sustainability. Socio- demographic factors were also considered. Those ten factors were top management commitment leadership of the organization commitment of middle amp frontline managers commitment amp satisfaction of employees training amp changing attitude of employees motivation of employees organizational culture group cohesiveness community participation and customer satisfaction. Study revealed that organizational leadership customer satisfaction community

  14. Factor contribution to fire occurrence, size, and burn probability in a subtropical coniferous forest in East China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhixing; Li, Yijia

    2017-01-01

    The contribution of factors including fuel type, fire-weather conditions, topography and human activity to fire regime attributes (e.g. fire occurrence, size distribution and severity) has been intensively discussed. The relative importance of those factors in explaining the burn probability (BP), which is critical in terms of fire risk management, has been insufficiently addressed. Focusing on a subtropical coniferous forest with strong human disturbance in East China, our main objective was to evaluate and compare the relative importance of fuel composition, topography, and human activity for fire occurrence, size and BP. Local BP distribution was derived with stochastic fire simulation approach using detailed historical fire data (1990–2010) and forest-resource survey results, based on which our factor contribution analysis was carried out. Our results indicated that fuel composition had the greatest relative importance in explaining fire occurrence and size, but human activity explained most of the variance in BP. This implies that the influence of human activity is amplified through the process of overlapping repeated ignition and spreading events. This result emphasizes the status of strong human disturbance in local fire processes. It further confirms the need for a holistic perspective on factor contribution to fire likelihood, rather than focusing on individual fire regime attributes, for the purpose of fire risk management. PMID:28207837

  15. Factor contribution to fire occurrence, size, and burn probability in a subtropical coniferous forest in East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Tao; Wang, Yao; Guo, Zhixing; Li, Yijia

    2017-01-01

    The contribution of factors including fuel type, fire-weather conditions, topography and human activity to fire regime attributes (e.g. fire occurrence, size distribution and severity) has been intensively discussed. The relative importance of those factors in explaining the burn probability (BP), which is critical in terms of fire risk management, has been insufficiently addressed. Focusing on a subtropical coniferous forest with strong human disturbance in East China, our main objective was to evaluate and compare the relative importance of fuel composition, topography, and human activity for fire occurrence, size and BP. Local BP distribution was derived with stochastic fire simulation approach using detailed historical fire data (1990-2010) and forest-resource survey results, based on which our factor contribution analysis was carried out. Our results indicated that fuel composition had the greatest relative importance in explaining fire occurrence and size, but human activity explained most of the variance in BP. This implies that the influence of human activity is amplified through the process of overlapping repeated ignition and spreading events. This result emphasizes the status of strong human disturbance in local fire processes. It further confirms the need for a holistic perspective on factor contribution to fire likelihood, rather than focusing on individual fire regime attributes, for the purpose of fire risk management.

  16. Physical activity enhances metabolic fitness independently of cardiorespiratory fitness in marathon runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laye, M J; Nielsen, M B; Hansen, L S

    2015-01-01

    High levels of cardiovascular fitness (CRF) and physical activity (PA) are associated with decreased mortality and risk to develop metabolic diseases. The independent contributions of CRF and PA to metabolic disease risk factors are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that runners who run....... In conclusion subjects with a high amount of PA have more positive metabolic health parameters independent of CRF. PA is thus a good marker against metabolic diseases....

  17. Identification methods of key contributing factors in crashes with high numbers of fatalities and injuries in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yikai; Li, Yiming; King, Mark; Shi, Qin; Wang, Changjun; Li, Pingfan

    2016-11-16

    In China, serious road traffic crashes (SRTCs) are those in which there are 10-30 fatalities, 50-100 serious injuries, or a total cost of 50-100 million RMB (U.S.$8-16 M), and particularly serious road traffic crashes (PSRTCs) are those that are more severe or costly. Due to the large number of fatalities and injuries as well as the negative public reaction they elicit, SRTCs and PSRTCs have become of great concern to China during recent years. The aim of this study is to identify the main factors contributing to these road traffic crashes and to propose preventive measures to reduce their number. 49 contributing factors of the SRTCs and PSRTCs that occurred from 2007 to 2013 were collected from the database "In-depth investigation and analysis system for major road traffic crashes" (IIASMRTC) and were analyzed through the integrated use of principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering to determine the primary and secondary groups of contributing factors. Speeding and overloading of passengers were the primary contributing factors, featuring in up to 66.3 and 32.6% of accidents, respectively. Two secondary contributing factors were road related: lack of or nonstandard roadside safety infrastructure and slippery roads due to rain, snow, or ice. The current approach to SRTCs and PSRTCs is focused on the attribution of responsibility and the enforcement of regulations considered relevant to particular SRTCs and PSRTCs. It would be more effective to investigate contributing factors and characteristics of SRTCs and PSRTCs as a whole to provide adequate information for safety interventions in regions where SRTCs and PSRTCs are more common. In addition to mandating a driver training program and publicization of the hazards associated with traffic violations, implementation of speed cameras, speed signs, markings, and vehicle-mounted Global Positioning Systems (GPS) are suggested to reduce speeding of passenger vehicles, while increasing regular checks by

  18. Biological, Psychological, and Sociocultural Factors Contributing to the Drive for Muscularity in Weight-Training Men

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Catharina; Rollitz, Laura; Voracek, Martin; Hennig-Fast, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    The drive for muscularity and associated behaviors (e.g., exercising and dieting) are of growing importance for men in Western societies. In its extreme form, it can lead to body image concerns and harmful behaviors like over-exercising and the misuse of performance-enhancing substances. Therefore, investigating factors associated with the drive for muscularity, especially in vulnerable populations like bodybuilders and weight trainers can help identify potential risk and protective factors f...

  19. Evaluation of the risk factors contributing to the African swine fever occurrence in Sardinia, Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-López, Beatriz; Perez, Andres M.; Feliziani, Francesco; Rolesu, Sandro; Mur, Lina; José M. Sánchez-Vizcaíno

    2015-01-01

    This study assesses the relation between hypothesized risk factors and African swine fever virus (ASFV) distribution in Sardinia (Italy) after the beginning of the eradication program in 1993, using a Bayesian multivariable logistic regression mixed model. Results indicate that the probability of ASFV occurrence in Sardinia was associated to particular socio-cultural, productive and economical factors found in the region, particularly to large number of confined (i.e., closed) farms (most of ...

  20. Extrahepatic sources of factor VIII potentially contribute to the coagulation cascade correcting the bleeding phenotype of mice with hemophilia A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanolini, Diego; Merlin, Simone; Feola, Maria; Ranaldo, Gabriella; Amoruso, Angela; Gaidano, Gianluca; Zaffaroni, Mauro; Ferrero, Alessandro; Brunelleschi, Sandra; Valente, Guido; Gupta, Sanjeev; Prat, Maria; Follenzi, Antonia

    2015-07-01

    A large fraction of factor VIII in blood originates from liver sinusoidal endothelial cells although extrahepatic sources also contribute to plasma factor VIII levels. Identification of cell-types other than endothelial cells with the capacity to synthesize and release factor VIII will be helpful for therapeutic approaches in hemophilia A. Recent cell therapy and bone marrow transplantation studies indicated that Küpffer cells, monocytes and mesenchymal stromal cells could synthesize factor VIII in sufficient amount to ameliorate the bleeding phenotype in hemophilic mice. To further establish the role of blood cells in expressing factor VIII, we studied various types of mouse and human hematopoietic cells. We identified factor VIII in cells isolated from peripheral and cord blood, as well as bone marrow. Co-staining for cell type-specific markers verified that factor VIII was expressed in monocytes, macrophages and megakaryocytes. We additionally verified that factor VIII was expressed in liver sinusoidal endothelial cells and endothelial cells elsewhere, e.g., in the spleen, lungs and kidneys. Factor VIII was well expressed in sinusoidal endothelial cells and Küpffer cells isolated from human liver, whereas by comparison isolated human hepatocytes expressed factor VIII at very low levels. After transplantation of CD34(+) human cord blood cells into NOD/SCIDγNull-hemophilia A mice, fluorescence activated cell sorting of peripheral blood showed >40% donor cells engrafted in the majority of mice. In these animals, plasma factor VIII activity 12 weeks after cell transplantation was up to 5% and nine of 12 mice survived after a tail clip-assay. In conclusion, hematopoietic cells, in addition to endothelial cells, express and secrete factor VIII: this information should offer further opportunities for understanding mechanisms of factor VIII synthesis and replenishment.

  1. Variation in MAPT is not a contributing factor to the incomplete penetrance in LHON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Gavin; Yu-Wai-Man, Patrick; Griffiths, Philip G; Horvath, Rita; Carelli, Valerio; Zeviani, Massimo; Chinnery, Patrick F

    2011-07-01

    Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a common cause of inherited blindness, primarily due to one of three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations. LHON, which has an unexplained variable penetrance and pathology, is characterised by disruption of the mitochondrial respiratory chain ultimately resulting in degeneration of the retinal ganglion cells. Phosphorylation of the tau protein is known to cause neurodegeneration and variation in MAPT has been associated with a range of neurodegenerative disorders. Given the relationship between MAPT variation and altered mitochondrial respiratory chain function, we hypothesised that MAPT variation could contribute to the risk of blindness in LHON mtDNA mutation carriers. We studied MAPT variation in a large, well characterised LHON cohort, but were unable to find an association between MAPT genetic variation and visual failure in LHON mtDNA mutation carriers. Our findings suggest that genetic variation in MAPT is unlikely to make a major contribution to the risk of blindness among LHON mutation carriers.

  2. An assessment of predominant causal factors of pilot deviations that contribute to runway incursions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Denado M.

    The aim of this study was to identify predominant causal factors of pilot deviations in runway incursions over a two-year period. Runway incursion reports were obtained from NASA's Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS), and a qualitative method was used by classifying and coding each report to a specific causal factor(s). The causal factors that were used were substantiated by research from the Aircraft Owner's and Pilot's Association that found that these causal factors were the most common in runway incursion incidents and accidents. An additional causal factor was also utilized to determine the significance of pilot training in relation to runway incursions. From the reports examined, it was found that miscommunication and situational awareness have the greatest impact on pilots and are most often the major causes of runway incursions. This data can be used to assist airports, airlines, and the FAA to understand trends in pilot deviations, and to find solutions for specific problem areas in runway incursion incidents.

  3. The contributions of sleep-related risk factors to diurnal car accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucidi, Fabio; Mallia, Luca; Violani, Cristiano; Giustiniani, Gabriele; Persia, Luca

    2013-03-01

    This study was intended to estimate the presence and number of individual sleep-related risk factors in a sample of diurnal car accidents and to analyze the extent to which these risk factors tended to be more represented in diurnal accidents involving only one vehicle, involving young drivers or occurring on non-urban roads. Two hundred fifty-three drivers involved in diurnal accidents were interviewed immediately after the accidents to assess their sleepiness-related personal conditions and the circumstances prior to the accident (i.e., individual sleep-related risk factors), such as poor sleep, changes in habitual sleeping patterns, prolonged wakefulness, self-reported acute sleepiness and daytime sleepiness, night-shift jobs and insomnia. A total of 12.3% of the drivers were classified as having at least one of the seven risk factors assessed in the study, supporting the general notion that drivers' sleepiness conditions are crucial, even in diurnal driving circumstances in which they are less likely to depend on chrono-biological processes. Furthermore, consistent with the guiding hypotheses, specific sleep-related risk factors were more evident in single (vs. multiple) car accidents, among young drivers and in car accidents occurring on non-urban roads. In summary, sleep-related risk factors seemed to have a negative impact on drivers' safety in circumstances of diurnal driving, especially when the accidents involved young individuals and occurred on non-urban roads. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cognitive factors contributing to spelling performance in children with prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Leila; Graham, Diana M; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Mattson, Sarah N

    2015-11-01

    Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with impaired school functioning. Spelling performance has not been comprehensively evaluated. We examined whether children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure demonstrate deficits in spelling and related abilities, including reading, and tested whether there are unique underlying mechanisms for observed deficits in this population. Ninety-six school-age children made up 2 groups: children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (AE, n = 49) and control children (CON, n = 47). Children completed select subtests from the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Second Edition and the NEPSY-II. Group differences and relations between spelling and theoretically related cognitive variables were evaluated using multivariate analysis of variance and Pearson correlations. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to assess contributions of group membership and cognitive variables to spelling performance. The specificity of these deficits and underlying mechanisms was tested by examining the relations between reading ability, group membership, and cognitive variables. Groups differed significantly on all variables. Group membership and phonological processing significantly contributed to spelling performance, whereas for reading, group membership and all cognitive variables contributed significantly. For both reading and spelling, group × working memory interactions revealed that working memory contributed independently only for alcohol-exposed children. Alcohol-exposed children demonstrated a unique pattern of spelling deficits. The relation of working memory to spelling and reading was specific to the AE group, suggesting that if prenatal alcohol exposure is known or suspected, working memory ability should be considered in the development and implementation of explicit instruction. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Form Factor Fit for e+e-→π+π-π+π-%e+e-→π+π-π+π-形状因子拟合

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁瑶; 胡海明; 王骏

    2007-01-01

    Based on the experimental data of the cross section e+e- →π+π-π+π- measured by the BABAR collaboration, we apply the theoretical cross section deduced from the extended VMD (Vector Meson Dominance) model to fit these experimental results. It is the first time that the isovector form factor and the relevant parameters are obtained through one decay mode.%基于BABAR实验组对e+e-→π+π-π+π-的反应截面的测量结果,用VMD模型给出的理论截面拟合实验数据,首次从单一反应道得到π+π-π+π-末态形状因子的所有参数值.

  6. Fitting in or opting out: A review of key social-psychological factors influencing a sense of belonging for women in physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Karyn L.; Stout, Jane G.; Pollock, Steven J.; Finkelstein, Noah D.; Ito, Tiffany A.

    2016-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] A number of cultural, social, environmental, and biological factors have been suggested to explain women's relatively lower representation in physics and other science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields. Given its persistence, the causes of gender disparities are likely to be complex and multiply determined. In this review paper, we discuss how a sense of belonging relates to women's interest, persistence, and achievement in physics. We explore what it means to "fit in" and belong in academic contexts, the situational and interpersonal antecedents to belonging, and the consequences of a lack of belonging. We review the empirical evidence for the efficacy of interventions designed to bolster a sense of belonging. Based on these interventions we conclude the paper with a number of practical recommendations to affirm women's sense of belonging and create more welcoming and inclusive physics environments for all students.

  7. Valence quark and meson cloud contributions to the $\\gamma^\\ast N \\to N^\\ast(1520)$ form factors

    CERN Document Server

    Ramalho, G

    2013-01-01

    The covariant spectator quark model is applied to the $\\gamma^\\ast N \\to N^\\ast(1520)$ reaction. The valence quark contributions to the electromagnetic form factors and helicity transition amplitudes are estimated from the covariant structure of the $N^\\ast(1520)$ wave function calibrated by the experimental data for large squared momentum transfer $Q^2$. The difference between the model results and the experimental data is then used to parameterize the low $Q^2$ behavior, where meson cloud effects are assumed to dominate. This parametrization can be very useful for future studies of the reaction, as well as for the extension of the transition form factors to the timelike region.

  8. Evaluation of contributions of orthodontic mini-screw design factors based on FE analysis and the Taguchi method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Li; Yu, Jian-Hong; Liu, Heng-Liang; Lin, Chih-Hao; Lin, Yang-Sung

    2010-08-10

    This study determines the relative effects of changes in bone/mini-screw osseointegration and mini-screw design factors (length, diameter, thread shape, thread depth, material, head diameter and head exposure length) on the biomechanical response of a single mini-screw insertion. Eighteen CAD and finite element (FE) models corresponding to a Taguchi L(18) array were constructed to perform numerical simulations to simulate mechanical responses of a mini-screw placed in a cylindrical bone. The Taguchi method was employed to determine the significance of each design factor in controlling strain. Simulation results indicated that mini-screw material, screw exposure length and screw diameter were the major factors affecting bone strain, with percentage contributions of 63%, 24% and 7%, respectively. Bone strain decreased obviously when screw material had the high elastic modulus of stainless/titanium alloys, a small exposure length and a large diameter. Other factors had no significant on bone strain. The FE analysis combined with the Taguchi method efficiently identified the relative contributions of several mini-screw design factors, indicating that using a strong stainless/titanium alloys as screw material is advantageous, and increase in mechanical stability can be achieved by reducing the screw exposure length. Simulation results also revealed that mini-screw and bone surface contact can provide sufficient mechanical retention to perform immediately load in clinical treatment.

  9. Factors that may contribute to the establishment of mobile learning in institutions – Results from a Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Olaf Zawacki-Richter; Tom Brown; Rhena Delport

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a survey investigating the role that differences in expectations and perceptions of mobile learning and mobile devices play in establishing mobile learning at an educational institution, Responses from institutions with no institutional plans for mobile learning and others that do plan or currently have developed mobile learning programmes were compared. Various factors that may contribute to the establishment of mobile learning in educational institutions were therefore...

  10. Kidney fibroblast growth factor 23 does not contribute to elevation of its circulating levels in uremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mace, Maria L.; Gravesen, Eva; Nordholm, Anders

    2017-01-01

    a disrupted feedback regulatory loop or an extra-skeletal source of this phosphatonin. Since induction of FGF23 expression in injured organs has been reported we decided to examine the regulation of FGF23 gene and protein expressions in the kidney and whether kidney-derived FGF23 contributes to the high...... of the injured kidney to circulating FGF23 levels in uremia appears to be reduced renal extraction of bone-derived FGF23. Kidney-derived FGF23 does not generate high plasma FGF23 levels in uremia and is regulated differently than the corresponding regulation of FGF23 gene expression in bone....

  11. The contributing factors to poor sleep experiences in according to the university students: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Insaf Altun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sleep problems among university students are common; however, the contributing factors to poor sleep experiences are still unclear. The purpose of this study is to examine the contributing factors to poor sleep experiences in university students. Materials and Methods: The study was cross-sectional, and the students completed self-report, anonymous questionnaires provided during an in-class survey. This is a single center study. A descriptive survey was conducted randomly on 256 university students in Turkey. The instruments for data collection consisted of the demographic data, and the contributing factors to poor sleep. Results: The most frequent self-reported cause to poor sleep experiences in according to the university students were exposure psychological problems (67.2%, stress (64.8%, exposure to tobacco smoke in the sleeping room (63,7%, pain (62,9%, having family problems (62,5%, being patient (55,1%, air quality of the room (55,1%, strenuous physical activity (53,9%, fatigue (53,5%, sadness (53,1%, noise that caused by other people in the room (52.0%, room scents (sweat, perfume, humidity, naphthalene, etc. (53.1%, depression (51, 6 %, anxiety, and tension (51, 1%. Conclusion: Students should be encouraged to solve psychological problems, to suitable stress-relieving measures, to follow sleep hygiene practice and adequate time management for academic and social activities.

  12. Weapon Carrying in Israeli Schools: The Contribution of Individual and School Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury-Kassabri, Mona; Astor, Ron Avi; Benbenishty, Rami

    2007-01-01

    The present study employed an ecological perspective to examine the relative predictive power of individual and school contextual factors on weapon carrying at school. The study is based on a nationally representative sample of 10,400 students in Grades 7 through 11 in 162 schools across Israel. Hierarchical logistic modeling examined the…

  13. Weapon Carrying in Israeli Schools: The Contribution of Individual and School Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury-Kassabri, Mona; Astor, Ron Avi; Benbenishty, Rami

    2007-01-01

    The present study employed an ecological perspective to examine the relative predictive power of individual and school contextual factors on weapon carrying at school. The study is based on a nationally representative sample of 10,400 students in Grades 7 through 11 in 162 schools across Israel. Hierarchical logistic modeling examined the…

  14. Factors Contributing to Changes in a Deep Approach to Learning in Different Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postareff, Liisa; Parpala, Anna; Lindblom-Ylänne, Sari

    2015-01-01

    The study explored factors explaining changes in a deep approach to learning. The data consisted of interviews with 12 students from four Bachelor-level courses representing different disciplines. We analysed and compared descriptions of students whose deep approach either increased, decreased or remained relatively unchanged during their courses.…

  15. Math and Science Social Cognitive Variables in College Students: Contributions of Contextual Factors in Predicting Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byars-Winston, Angela M.; Fouad, Nadya A.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of two contextual factors, parental involvement and perceived career barriers, on math/science goals. Using social cognitive career theory (SCCT; Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994), a path model was tested to investigate hypothesized relationships between math- and science-related efficacy beliefs (i.e., task and…

  16. Factors That Contribute to the Development of a Lesbian Sexual Orientation: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunold, Patti Lynne

    Today, homosexuality has become a topic of discussion throughout the psychological community and society at large. However, there is great controversy about the etiology of homosexuality and more specifically, lesbianism. This paper describes a review of the literature to examine the hypothesis that a multitude of factors may influence the…

  17. Risk and Protective Factors Contributing to the Longitudinal Psychosocial Well-Being of Adopted Foster Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmel, Cassandra

    2007-01-01

    This study is based on a statewide longitudinal sample of adopted foster youth and explores the relationship between early pre-adoption risk factors and subsequent elevated levels of psychopathology symptomatology. One central goal of the study was to evaluate the impact of preadoption stressors (prenatal drug/nicotine exposure, early…

  18. Ability and Motivation: Assessing Individual Factors that Contribute to University Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcon, Gene M.; Edwards, Jean M.

    2013-01-01

    The current study explored individual differences in ability and motivation factors of retention in first-year college students. We used discrete-time survival mixture analysis to model university retention. Parents' education, gender, American College Test (ACT) scores, conscientiousness, and trait affectivity were explored as predictors of…

  19. Qualitatively distinct factors contribute to elevated rates of paranoia in autism and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkham, Amy E; Sasson, Noah J; Beaton, Derek; Abdi, Hervé; Kohler, Christian G; Penn, David L

    2012-08-01

    A converging body of clinical and empirical reports indicates that autism features elevated rates of paranoia comparable to those of individuals with paranoid schizophrenia. However, the distinct developmental courses and symptom manifestations of these two disorders suggest that the nature of paranoid ideation may differ between them in important and meaningful ways. To evaluate this hypothesis, we compared patterns of responses on the Paranoia Scale between actively paranoid individuals with schizophrenia (SCZP), individuals with schizophrenia who were not actively paranoid (SCZNP), adults with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and healthy controls. Despite an overall similar level of heightened paranoia in the ASD and SCZP groups, discriminant correspondence analysis (DiCA) revealed that these groups were characterized by unique underlying factors. Paranoia in the SCZP group was defined by a factor based upon victimization, suspicion, and threat of harm. Whereas paranoia in the ASD group was partially characterized by this factor, it was distinguished from SCZP by an additional pattern of responses reflective of increased social cynicism. These findings indicate that paranoia in ASD is supported by qualitative factors distinct from schizophrenia and highlight mechanistic differences in the formation of paranoid ideation that may inform the development of disorder-specific treatments.

  20. Exploring the contribution of psychosocial factors to fatigue in patients with advanced incurable cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Marlies E. W. J.; Goedendorp, Martine M.; Verhagen, Stans A. H. H. V. M.; van der Graaf, Winette T. A.; Bleijenberg, Gijs

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Fatigue is the most frequently occurring and distressing symptom in patients with advanced cancer, caused by multiple factors. Neither a specific histological diagnosis of malignancy nor the type of anticancer treatment seem to be strongly related to fatigue, which support the idea that o

  1. Factors Contributing to Changes in a Deep Approach to Learning in Different Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postareff, Liisa; Parpala, Anna; Lindblom-Ylänne, Sari

    2015-01-01

    The study explored factors explaining changes in a deep approach to learning. The data consisted of interviews with 12 students from four Bachelor-level courses representing different disciplines. We analysed and compared descriptions of students whose deep approach either increased, decreased or remained relatively unchanged during their courses.…

  2. Student Perceptions of Factors Contributing to Community-College-to-University Transfer Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gard, Dwight R.; Paton, Valerie; Gosselin, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    The transfer process includes areas such as academic preparation and advisement, transfer evaluation, financial aid, and psychosocial factors. A descriptive, exploratory method was employed to capture the perceptions of a transfer student cohort regarding their experiences in transitioning from lower division community college enrollment to…

  3. Students' Perceptions of Factors That Contribute to Risk and Success in Accelerated High School Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaunessy-Dedrick, Elizabeth; Suldo, Shannon M.; Roth, Rachel A.; Fefer, Sarah A.

    2015-01-01

    In this qualitative study, we investigated 15 successful and 15 struggling high school students, perceived stressors, coping strategies, and intrapersonal and environmental factors that students perceive to influence their success in college-level courses. We found that students' primary sources of stress involved meeting numerous academic demands…

  4. Factors Contributing to Problem-Solving Performance in First-Semester Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Enrique J.; Shavelson, Richard J.; Nandagopal, Kiruthiga; Szu, Evan; Penn, John

    2014-01-01

    Problem solving is a highly valued skill in chemistry. Courses within this discipline place a substantial emphasis on problem-solving performance and tend to weigh such performance heavily in assessments of learning. Researchers have dedicated considerable effort investigating individual factors that influence problem-solving performance. The…

  5. Factors Contributing to Mathematics Achievement Differences of Turkish and Australian Students in TIMSS 2007 and 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikan, Serkan; van de Vijver, Fons J. R.; Yagmur, Kutlay

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale studies, such as the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), provide data to understand cross-national differences and similarities. In this study, we aimed to identify factors predicting mathematics achievement of Turkish students by comparing to Australian students. First, construct equivalence and item bias…

  6. Factors Contributing to Research Team Effectiveness: Testing a Model of Team Effectiveness in an Academic Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Zoharah; Ahmad, Aminah

    2014-01-01

    Following the classic systems model of inputs, processes, and outputs, this study examined the influence of three input factors, team climate, work overload, and team leadership, on research project team effectiveness as measured by publication productivity, team member satisfaction, and job frustration. This study also examined the mediating…

  7. An explorative study of factors contributing to the job satisfaction of primary care midwives.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warmelink, J.C.; Hoijtink, K.; Noppers, M.; Wiegers, T.A.; Cock, T.P. de; Klomp, T.; Hutton, E.K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: the main objectives of our study was to gain an understanding of how primary care midwives in the Netherlands feel about their work and to identify factors associated with primary care midwives׳ job satisfaction and areas for improvement. Design: a qualitative analysis was used, based on

  8. Which factors in raw cow's milk contribute to protection against allergies?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neerven, van R.J.J.; Knol, E.F.; Heck, J.M.L.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.

    2012-01-01

    Several epidemiologic studies have shown that growing up in a farming environment is associated with a decreased risk of allergies. A factor that correlates strongly with this effect is the early ingestion of unheated cow's milk. Although, to date, no controlled studies on raw milk consumption have

  9. Software Piracy among College Students: A Comprehensive Review of Contributing Factors, Underlying Processes, and Tackling Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhili; Yan, Zheng

    2005-01-01

    This article reviewed empirical studies published in the past 30 years that examined software piracy among college students. It focused on three areas of study: (a) major factors that affect college students' intentions, attitudes, and moral intensity regarding software piracy, (b) various decision-making processes that underlie software piracy…

  10. Understanding Alcohol Abuse among College Students: Contributing Factors and Strategies for Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iconis, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol abuse among college students has become a major public health concern. Individual, environmental, and demographic factors have each been associated with alcohol abuse in that population. In response to the enormous physical, emotional, and legal consequences that occur as a result of the abuse, colleges and universities are developing…

  11. Examining the Factors That Contribute to Successful Database Application Implementation Using the Technology Acceptance Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nworji, Alexander O.

    2013-01-01

    Most organizations spend millions of dollars due to the impact of improperly implemented database application systems as evidenced by poor data quality problems. The purpose of this quantitative study was to use, and extend, the technology acceptance model (TAM) to assess the impact of information quality and technical quality factors on database…

  12. Understanding Free and Complexed Enzyme Mechanisms and Factors Contributing to Cell Wall Recalcitrance (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resch, M.; Donohoe, B.; Katahira, R.; Ashutosh, M.; Beckham, G.; Himmel, M.; Decker, S.

    2014-04-01

    Fungal free enzymes and bacterial complexed cellulosomes deconstruct biomass using different physical mechanisms. Free enzymes, which typically contain a large proportion of GH7 cellobiohydrolase, diffuse throughout the substrate and hydrolyze primarily from the cellulose reducing end, resulting in 'sharpened' macrofibrils. In contrast, complexed cellulosomes contain a diverse array of carbohydrate binding modules and multiple catalytic specificities leading to delamination and physical peeling of the cellulose macrofibril structures. To investigate how cellulose structure contributes to recalcitrance, we compared the deconstruction of cellulose I, II, and III; using free and complexed enzyme systems. We also evaluated both systems on Clean Fractionation and alkaline pretreated biomass, which remove much of the lignin, to determine the impact on enzyme loading reduction. Free fungal enzymes demonstrated a swelling of the outer surface of the plant cell walls while removing localized disruptions, resulting in a smooth surface appearance. Cellulosomes produced cell wall surfaces with localized areas of disruption and little surface layer swelling. These studies contribute to the overall understanding of biomass recalcitrance and how combining different enzymatic paradigms may lead to the formulation of new enzyme cocktails to reduce the cost of producing sugars from plant cell wall carbohydrates.

  13. Contributing factors to an enhanced ice albedo feedback in Arctic sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perovich, D. K.; Jones, K. F.; Light, B.; Holland, M. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Arctic sea ice cover is in decline. In recent years there has been a decrease in summer ice area; a thinning of the ice cover; an increase in the amount of seasonal ice; an earlier onset of summer melt; and a later start of fall freeze up. Decreases in ice concentration substantially increase solar heat input to the ocean. Earlier dates of melt onset reduce ice albedo during a period when incident solar irradiance is large increasing solar heat input to the ice. Seasonal sea ice typically has a smaller albedo than perennial ice throughout the melt season. Thus, the observed shift to a seasonal ice cover causes greater solar heat input to the ice and more melting thereby accelerating ice decay. Thinner ice results in greater transmission of solar heat to the upper ocean, where it contributes to bottom melting, lateral melting, and warming of the water. All of these changes enhance the amount of solar energy deposited in the ice ocean system, and increasing ice melt. We will examine the relative magnitude of each of these changes individually as well as their collective contribution to the ice albedo feedback.

  14. Contributions of other socio-economic factors to the fertility differentials of women by education: a multivariate approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Gupta, P

    1984-01-01

    Data derived from the 1970 US Census indicate that fertility declines with increasing education level. In this paper, the author uses a method she developed earlier for decomposing the difference between rates into several components. Specifically, the difference in average number of children between groups dichotomized on the basis of wife's education is decomposed in terms of 6 other socioeconomic factors--husband's education, husband's occupation, wife's age at marriage, race, wife's labor force status, and family income. The fertility of wives who were not high school graduates was compared to that of high school graduates, and then a similar comparison was made between wives with high school education only and those with college education. All 6 factors examined were found to contribute positively to the overall reduction in number of children when wives advanced from non-high school graduate status to high school graduate status. On the other hand, comparisons between wives with 4 years of high school and those with a college education indicates that the .158 difference between their average number of children increases if the averages are controlled for differences in husband's education, race, or family income. For a more meaningful comparison of the effects of the 6 factors, all were considered simultaneously. Together these factors explained 51.3% of the difference in average number of children between those with and without a high school education, with husband's education making the largest (15.1%) contribution. In terms of college educated versus high school educated wives, the 6 factors explained 72.3% of the fertility difference, with wife's age at marriage making the largest (63.9%) contribution.

  15. Vitamin D status: multifactorial contribution of environment, genes and other factors in healthy Australian adults across a latitude gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Robyn M; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Dear, Keith; Valery, Patricia C; Taylor, Bruce; van der Mei, Ingrid; McMichael, Anthony J; Pender, Michael P; Chapman, Caron; Coulthard, Alan; Kilpatrick, Trevor J; Stankovich, Jim; Williams, David; Dwyer, Terence

    2013-07-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is common and implicated in risk of several human diseases. Evidence on the relative quantitative contribution of environmental, genetic and phenotypic factors to vitamin D status (assessed by the serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 25(OH)D) in free-living populations is sparse. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 494 Caucasian adults aged 18-61years, randomly selected from the Australian Electoral Roll according to groups defined by age, sex and region (spanning 27°-43°South). Data collected included personal characteristics, sun exposure behaviour, biomarkers of skin type and past sun exposure, serum 25(OH)D concentration and candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms. Ambient ultraviolet radiation (UVR) levels in the month six weeks before blood sampling best predicted vitamin D status. Serum 25(OH)D concentration increased by 10nmol/L as reported time in the sun doubled. Overall, 54% of the variation in serum 25(OH)D concentration could be accounted for: 36% of the variation was explained by sun exposure-related factors; 14% by genetic factors (including epistasis) and 3.5% by direct measures of skin phenotype. Novel findings from this study are demonstration of gene epistasis, and quantification of the relative contribution of a wide range of environmental, constitutional and genetic factors to vitamin D status. Ambient UVR levels and time in the sun were of prime importance but it is nonetheless important to include the contribution of genetic factors when considering sun exposure effects. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Vitamin D Workshop'.

  16. PLATON SQUEEZE: a tool for the calculation of the disordered solvent contribution to the calculated structure factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spek, Anthony L

    2015-01-01

    The completion of a crystal structure determination is often hampered by the presence of embedded solvent molecules or ions that are seriously disordered. Their contribution to the calculated structure factors in the least-squares refinement of a crystal structure has to be included in some way. Traditionally, an atomistic solvent disorder model is attempted. Such an approach is generally to be preferred, but it does not always lead to a satisfactory result and may even be impossible in cases where channels in the structure are filled with continuous electron density. This paper documents the SQUEEZE method as an alternative means of addressing the solvent disorder issue. It conveniently interfaces with the 2014 version of the least-squares refinement program SHELXL [Sheldrick (2015). Acta Cryst. C71. In the press] and other refinement programs that accept externally provided fixed contributions to the calculated structure factors. The PLATON SQUEEZE tool calculates the solvent contribution to the structure factors by back-Fourier transformation of the electron density found in the solvent-accessible region of a phase-optimized difference electron-density map. The actual least-squares structure refinement is delegated to, for example, SHELXL. The current versions of PLATON SQUEEZE and SHELXL now address several of the unnecessary complications with the earlier implementation of the SQUEEZE procedure that were a necessity because least-squares refinement with the now superseded SHELXL97 program did not allow for the input of fixed externally provided contributions to the structure-factor calculation. It is no longer necessary to subtract the solvent contribution temporarily from the observed intensities to be able to use SHELXL for the least-squares refinement, since that program now accepts the solvent contribution from an external file (.fab file) if the ABIN instruction is used. In addition, many twinned structures containing disordered solvents are now also

  17. Fatores que contribuem para o desmame precoce Factores que contribuyen para el destete precoz Factors that contribute to early weaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirella Teixeira Joca

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A interrupção prematura da amamentação pode acarretar perigos, pois os alimentos a serem utilizados são inadequados do ponto de vista nutricional, além de expor a criança a organismos infecciosos. Torna-se relevante investigar os fatores relacionados ao desmame precoce. Pesquisa exploratória e quantitativa, realizada no Centro de Desenvolvimento da Família (CEDEFAM, no período de maio a junho/2003, com 20 nutrizes, no qual foi aplicado um questionário contendo 12 questões sobre os motivos que as levaram a desmamarem precocemente. Os resultados foram agrupados em três segmentos: fatores de desmame relacionados com o perfil; a assistência pré-natal e o parto; e prática do aleitamento materno, e apresentados em forma de tabelas. Concluímos que os profissionais e a sociedade podem não estar preparados para favorecer a mulher no exercício da amamentação. Enquanto isso, a política de saúde não cria condições para que todos tenham acesso à educação, melhoria de renda e conscientização do planejamento familiar.La interrupción precoz del destete puede resultar en peligros, pues los alimentos utilizados son considerados por los nuticionistas como inadecuados, además de exponer al niño a organismos infecciosos. Es muy importante investigar los factores relacionados al desmame. Investigación exploratoria y cuantitativa, realizada en una Unidad de Desarrollo de la Família (CEDEFAM, en el período de mayo hasta junio/2003, con 20 nutrices, cuando fue aplicado un cuestionardo com 12 cuestiones sobre los motivos que que las llevaron al destete precoz. Los resultados fueron agrupados en tres segmentos: factores de destete relacionados con el perfil; la asistencia prenatal y el parto; y práctica de la amamantación materna, y presentados en forma de tabelas. Concluimos que los profesionales y la sociedad pueden no estar preparados para faborecer la mujer en amamantación. Mientras eso ocurre, la política de salud no crea

  18. Determinants of vegetation distribution at continental scale. The contribution of natural and anthropogenic factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Michelle; Svenning, J.-C.; Lykke, Anne Mette

    2011-01-01

    It has long been debated what determines distribution of vegetation types, though this has rarely been tested at continental scale. We thus aimed to determine which vegetation types are most accurately predicted by natural environmental factors, and which of these factors best predict current...... vegetation distribution across Africa. Vegetation types were extracted from the Global Land Cover Map for the year 2000, and the distribution of vegetation types modelled in terms of climate, soil and topography. Annual precipitation was the best predictor of the distribution of all vegetation types...... was also assessed, and found to be of some importance for most vegetation types. We conclude that, in addition to including environmental variables in predicting vegetation distribution, it is essential that human impact be considered, also in future climate change scenarios....

  19. Trajectories of antidepressant medication before and after retirement: the contribution of socio-demographic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinonen, Taina; Lahelma, Eero; Martikainen, Pekka

    2013-05-01

    The association between retirement and mental health is assumed to depend on socio-demographic factors, but there is a lack of empirical evidence. We examined antidepressant medication before and after retirement by age, gender, living arrangements, and social class. The material comprised nationally representative register data from Finland. Linear regression analysis was used to calculate changes in antidepressant medication 7.5 years before and after disability (N = 42,937) and old-age (N = 19,877) retirement in 1997-2007 by socio-demographic factors. No changes in antidepressant medication (mean DDD/3-month period) were observed around old-age retirement regardless of the socio-demographic factors. After a slight initial increase in antidepressant medication there was a substantial rise 1.5-0 years before disability retirement, after which there was a marked decrease, particularly during the first 3 years. These effects were less pronounced in retirement due to somatic causes. Age was the strongest modifying factor in retirement due to both depression and somatic causes, with a stronger increase and limited decrease in antidepressant medication among the younger age groups. The post-retirement decrease was also somewhat stronger among men, and among those in higher social classes and those living with a spouse in depression-related retirement. In somatic causes, the pre-retirement increase was stronger among those in higher social classes. Prevention and rehabilitation of mental-health problems in association with work disability should focus particularly on young adults, among whom the strong increase in antidepressant medication before disability retirement, and the continued high levels of medication after the transition signify long periods of morbidity and premature retirement.

  20. P01.02FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 4 CONTRIBUTES TO 3-DIMENSIONAL GROWTH OF HUMAN GLIOBLASTOMA

    OpenAIRE

    Lötsch, D.; Englinger, B.; Pichler, J; Hainfellner, J; Marosi, C; Czech, T.; Knosp, E.; Buchroithner, J; Spiegl-Kreinecker, S.; Berger, W

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma growth is driven by receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)-mediated signals. One of the RTK systems recently coming into focus are the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) high-affinity receptors (FGFR1-FGFR4) due to mutation, overexpression or translocation in several cancer types. FGF/FGFR represents a complex signal network with essential functions in embryonic development, tissue homeostasis and wound healing but also for malignant transformation and growth as well as tumor neoangiogenesis...