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Sample records for fitness factor contribute

  1. 14 CFR 31.43 - Fitting factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fitting factor. 31.43 Section 31.43... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.43 Fitting factor. (a) A fitting factor of at least... structure. This factor applies to all parts of the fitting, the means of attachment, and the bearing on the...

  2. Does a Fitness Factor Contribute to the Association between Intelligence and Health Outcomes? Evidence from Medical Abnormality Counts among 3654 US Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arden, Rosalind; Gottfredson, Linda S.; Miller, Geoffrey

    2009-01-01

    We suggest that an over-arching "fitness factor" (an index of general genetic quality that predicts survival and reproductive success) partially explains the observed associations between health outcomes and intelligence. As a proof of concept, we tested this idea in a sample of 3654 US Vietnam veterans aged 31-49 who completed five cognitive…

  3. Factors Influencing Physical Fitness Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarer, Barbara G.

    This annotated bibliography focuses on works that examine areas in which the physical educator can improve the administration of physical fitness tests in the elementary and secondary schools. The first part contains annotations that examine modifications of existing components which measure aspects of muscular and cardiovascular endurance. The…

  4. Contribution of radiobiology to the problem of general fitness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacha, J.

    1976-01-01

    On the basis of the present scarce literary data it can be taken as proved that between the numerous properties of the organism usually considered as biologically valuable (high fertility, longevity, higher body weight, resistance to fasting, radiation, and infection agents, certain favorable parameters of CNS) there exist many single and multiple positive correlations. The existence of these correlations allows for the introduction of the working concept of general fitness, stimulating further interdisciplinary research in this field important both in practice and theory. Most correlated manifestations of fitness demonstrated a masked influence of the organism's genotype even though the manner of this manifestation on the phenotype level remains considerably obscure. The efficiency of the haematopoietic system is doubtless one of the mechanisms of general fitness; it is determined by the very complex coordination of several cytokinetic parameters. Important factors are the efficiency of regulation mechanisms at CNS level, the endocrine system, and the regulators of cell populations. Generally highest fitness is connected with a ''balanced'' regulation type, which is characterized by optimal activation of the homeostatic regulation mechanism. In studying the causes of general fitness a systems approach is inevitable which evaluates the levels of individual factors not ''mechanically'' or linearly but from the point of view of the needs of the whole organism and with the application of concepts established by the systems theory (e.g. by the theory of automatic regulation). The sensitivity of an organism to irradiation with ionizing radiation turns out to be a suitable criterion of its general fitness. (author)

  5. Riboflavin Provisioning Underlies Wolbachia's Fitness Contribution to Its Insect Host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Minoru; Nikoh, Naruo; Hosokawa, Takahiro; Fukatsu, Takema

    2015-11-10

    Endosymbiotic bacteria of the genus Wolbachia represent the most successful symbiotic bacteria in the terrestrial ecosystem. The success of Wolbachia has been ascribed to its remarkable phenotypic effects on host reproduction, such as cytoplasmic incompatibility, whereby maternally inherited bacteria can spread in their host populations at the expense of their host's fitness. Meanwhile, recent theoretical as well as empirical studies have unveiled that weak and/or conditional positive fitness effects may significantly facilitate invasion and spread of Wolbachia infections in host populations. Here, we report a previously unrecognized nutritional aspect, the provision of riboflavin (vitamin B2), that potentially underpins the Wolbachia-mediated fitness benefit to insect hosts. A comparative genomic survey for synthetic capability of B vitamins revealed that only the synthesis pathway for riboflavin is highly conserved among diverse insect-associated Wolbachia strains, while the synthesis pathways for other B vitamins were either incomplete or absent. Molecular phylogenetic and genomic analyses of riboflavin synthesis genes from diverse Wolbachia strains revealed that, in general, their phylogenetic relationships are concordant with Wolbachia's genomic phylogeny, suggesting that the riboflavin synthesis genes have been stably maintained in the course of Wolbachia evolution. In rearing experiments with bedbugs (Cimex lectularius) on blood meals in which B vitamin contents were manipulated, we demonstrated that Wolbachia's riboflavin provisioning significantly contributes to growth, survival, and reproduction of the insect host. These results provide a physiological basis upon which Wolbachia-mediated positive fitness consequences are manifested and shed new light on the ecological and evolutionary relevance of Wolbachia infections. Conventionally, Wolbachia has been regarded as a parasitic bacterial endosymbiont that manipulates the host insect's reproduction in a

  6. Investigation into the Factors that Dtermine Shoe Fitting Using MRI

    OpenAIRE

    吉田, 宏昭

    2014-01-01

    It is essential to purchase suitable shoes that fit the size of users' feet in order to prevent foot injuries in daily life. Although shoe fitting significantly affects the performance of shoes, there are few studies that have either investigated the factors that control shoe fitting or established a method to evaluate shoe fitting. While, the shape of each foot and shoe was measured to estimate shoe fitting in previous studies, the deformation of feet when wearing shoes had not been taken in...

  7. Factors contributing to adolescent obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kloub, Manal I; Froelicher, Erika S

    2009-06-01

    Obesity in children is a significant public health concern. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in Jordanian children, and adolescents has increased in the last decade. The consequences of obesity to health in childhood and adulthood have both medical, and economic cost to individuals and society. This paper reviews the factors that contribute to adolescent obesity and emphasizes behavioral and environmental factors. An individual's behaviors such as increased consumption of high caloric foods, increased sedentary activity while decreasing physical activity has been identified as key issues in the development of obesity. Additionally, the current environment in homes, schools, and neighborhoods tend to discourage a healthy lifestyle. A comprehensive approach that involves the whole community is the best strategy for preventing adolescent obesity. Nurses are in a unique position to provide leadership in developing programs for healthier lifestyle choices for adolescents' and adoption of these goals into their daily lives.

  8. Genes Contributing to Porphyromonas gingivalis Fitness in Abscess and Epithelial Cell Colonization Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Daniel P; Hutcherson, Justin A; Wang, Yan; Nowakowska, Zuzanna M; Potempa, Jan; Yoder-Himes, Deborah R; Scott, David A; Whiteley, Marvin; Lamont, Richard J

    2017-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is an important cause of serious periodontal diseases, and is emerging as a pathogen in several systemic conditions including some forms of cancer. Initial colonization by P. gingivalis involves interaction with gingival epithelial cells, and the organism can also access host tissues and spread haematogenously. To better understand the mechanisms underlying these properties, we utilized a highly saturated transposon insertion library of P. gingivalis , and assessed the fitness of mutants during epithelial cell colonization and survival in a murine abscess model by high-throughput sequencing (Tn-Seq). Transposon insertions in many genes previously suspected as contributing to virulence showed significant fitness defects in both screening assays. In addition, a number of genes not previously associated with P. gingivalis virulence were identified as important for fitness. We further examined fitness defects of four such genes by generating defined mutations. Genes encoding a carbamoyl phosphate synthetase, a replication-associated recombination protein, a nitrosative stress responsive HcpR transcription regulator, and RNase Z, a zinc phosphodiesterase, showed a fitness phenotype in epithelial cell colonization and in a competitive abscess infection. This study verifies the importance of several well-characterized putative virulence factors of P. gingivalis and identifies novel fitness determinants of the organism.

  9. Genes Contributing to Porphyromonas gingivalis Fitness in Abscess and Epithelial Cell Colonization Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Daniel P.; Hutcherson, Justin A.; Wang, Yan; Nowakowska, Zuzanna M.; Potempa, Jan; Yoder-Himes, Deborah R.; Scott, David A.; Whiteley, Marvin; Lamont, Richard J.

    2017-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is an important cause of serious periodontal diseases, and is emerging as a pathogen in several systemic conditions including some forms of cancer. Initial colonization by P. gingivalis involves interaction with gingival epithelial cells, and the organism can also access host tissues and spread haematogenously. To better understand the mechanisms underlying these properties, we utilized a highly saturated transposon insertion library of P. gingivalis, and assessed the fitness of mutants during epithelial cell colonization and survival in a murine abscess model by high-throughput sequencing (Tn-Seq). Transposon insertions in many genes previously suspected as contributing to virulence showed significant fitness defects in both screening assays. In addition, a number of genes not previously associated with P. gingivalis virulence were identified as important for fitness. We further examined fitness defects of four such genes by generating defined mutations. Genes encoding a carbamoyl phosphate synthetase, a replication-associated recombination protein, a nitrosative stress responsive HcpR transcription regulator, and RNase Z, a zinc phosphodiesterase, showed a fitness phenotype in epithelial cell colonization and in a competitive abscess infection. This study verifies the importance of several well-characterized putative virulence factors of P. gingivalis and identifies novel fitness determinants of the organism. PMID:28900609

  10. Genes Contributing to Porphyromonas gingivalis Fitness in Abscess and Epithelial Cell Colonization Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Miller

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Porphyromonas gingivalis is an important cause of serious periodontal diseases, and is emerging as a pathogen in several systemic conditions including some forms of cancer. Initial colonization by P. gingivalis involves interaction with gingival epithelial cells, and the organism can also access host tissues and spread haematogenously. To better understand the mechanisms underlying these properties, we utilized a highly saturated transposon insertion library of P. gingivalis, and assessed the fitness of mutants during epithelial cell colonization and survival in a murine abscess model by high-throughput sequencing (Tn-Seq. Transposon insertions in many genes previously suspected as contributing to virulence showed significant fitness defects in both screening assays. In addition, a number of genes not previously associated with P. gingivalis virulence were identified as important for fitness. We further examined fitness defects of four such genes by generating defined mutations. Genes encoding a carbamoyl phosphate synthetase, a replication-associated recombination protein, a nitrosative stress responsive HcpR transcription regulator, and RNase Z, a zinc phosphodiesterase, showed a fitness phenotype in epithelial cell colonization and in a competitive abscess infection. This study verifies the importance of several well-characterized putative virulence factors of P. gingivalis and identifies novel fitness determinants of the organism.

  11. Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov home http://www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Fitness Fitness Want to look and feel your best? Physical ... are? Check out this info: What is physical fitness? top Physical fitness means you can do everyday ...

  12. The contribution of the mitochondrial genome to sex-specific fitness variance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Shane R T; Connallon, Tim

    2017-05-01

    Maternal inheritance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) facilitates the evolutionary accumulation of mutations with sex-biased fitness effects. Whereas maternal inheritance closely aligns mtDNA evolution with natural selection in females, it makes it indifferent to evolutionary changes that exclusively benefit males. The constrained response of mtDNA to selection in males can lead to asymmetries in the relative contributions of mitochondrial genes to female versus male fitness variation. Here, we examine the impact of genetic drift and the distribution of fitness effects (DFE) among mutations-including the correlation of mutant fitness effects between the sexes-on mitochondrial genetic variation for fitness. We show how drift, genetic correlations, and skewness of the DFE determine the relative contributions of mitochondrial genes to male versus female fitness variance. When mutant fitness effects are weakly correlated between the sexes, and the effective population size is large, mitochondrial genes should contribute much more to male than to female fitness variance. In contrast, high fitness correlations and small population sizes tend to equalize the contributions of mitochondrial genes to female versus male variance. We discuss implications of these results for the evolution of mitochondrial genome diversity and the genetic architecture of female and male fitness. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  13. [Factors associated with low levels of aerobic fitness among adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Eliane Cristina de Andrade; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of low aerobic fitness levels and to analyze the association with sociodemographic factors, lifestyle and excess body fatness among adolescents of southern Brazil. The study included 879 adolescents aged 14 to 19 years the city of São José/SC, Brazil. The aerobic fitness was assessed by Canadian modified test of aerobic fitness. Sociodemographic variables (skin color, age, sex, study turn, economic level), sexual maturation and lifestyle (eating habits, screen time, physical activity, consumption of alcohol and tobacco) were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Excess body fatness was evaluated by sum of skinfolds triceps and subscapular. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Prevalence of low aerobic fitness level was 87.5%. The girls who spent two hours or more in front screen, consumed less than one glass of milk by day, did not smoke and had an excess of body fatness had a higher chance of having lower levels of aerobic fitness. White boys with low physical activity had had a higher chance of having lower levels of aerobic fitness. Eight out of ten adolescents were with low fitness levels aerobic. Modifiable lifestyle factors were associated with low levels of aerobic fitness. Interventions that emphasize behavior change are needed. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Contributing factors in construction accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, R A; Hide, S A; Gibb, A G F; Gyi, D E; Pavitt, T; Atkinson, S; Duff, A R

    2005-07-01

    This overview paper draws together findings from previous focus group research and studies of 100 individual construction accidents. Pursuing issues raised by the focus groups, the accident studies collected qualitative information on the circumstances of each incident and the causal influences involved. Site based data collection entailed interviews with accident-involved personnel and their supervisor or manager, inspection of the accident location, and review of appropriate documentation. Relevant issues from the site investigations were then followed up with off-site stakeholders, including designers, manufacturers and suppliers. Levels of involvement of key factors in the accidents were: problems arising from workers or the work team (70% of accidents), workplace issues (49%), shortcomings with equipment (including PPE) (56%), problems with suitability and condition of materials (27%), and deficiencies with risk management (84%). Employing an ergonomics systems approach, a model is proposed, indicating the manner in which originating managerial, design and cultural factors shape the circumstances found in the work place, giving rise to the acts and conditions which, in turn, lead to accidents. It is argued that attention to the originating influences will be necessary for sustained improvement in construction safety to be achieved.

  15. The Contributions of Physical Activity and Fitness to Optimal Health and Wellness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohuruogu, Ben

    2016-01-01

    The paper examined the role of physical activity and fitness more especially in the area of disease prevention and control by looking at the major ways by which regular physical activity and fitness contributes to optimal health and wellness. The Surgeor General's Report (1996), stressed that physical inactivity is a national problem which…

  16. Person-fit to the Five Factor Model of personality

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Allik, J.; Realo, A.; Mõttus, R.; Borkenau, P.; Kuppens, P.; Hřebíčková, Martina

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 1 (2012), s. 35-45 ISSN 1421-0185 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP407/10/2394 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : Five Factor Model * cross - cultural comparison * person-fit Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.638, year: 2012

  17. Employee contributions: a primer on their use, historical trends and overall fit within benefits strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Hudson A

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on the use of employee contributions as a strategic tool within employee health plans. While most employers require some form of employee contributions for health care, there is no clear "one-size-fits-all" solution. A myriad of strategies are in place, some active and some passive. This article reviews both common and emerging strategies and how they differ based on industry, employer size and region; discusses how employee contribution strategy fits within overall benefits strategy; and provides a strategic framework for approaching employee contributions in the future.

  18. Aerobic fitness related to cardiovascular risk factors in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Thorsson, Ola; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2012-01-01

    Low aerobic fitness (maximum oxygen uptake (VO(2PEAK))) is predictive for poor health in adults. In a cross-sectional study, we assessed if VO(2PEAK) is related to a composite risk factor score for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in 243 children (136 boys and 107 girls) aged 8 to 11 years. VO(2PEAK...

  19. Interference-Fit Life Factors for Ball Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Fred B.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Poplawski, Joseph V.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of hoop stresses on the rolling-element fatigue life of angular-contact and deep-groove ball bearings was determined for common inner-ring interference fits at the ABEC-5 tolerance level. The analysis was applied to over 1150 bearing configurations and load cases. Hoop stresses were superimposed on the Hertzian principal stresses created by the applied bearing load to calculate the inner-race maximum shearing stress. The resulting fatigue life of the bearing was recalculated through a series of equations. The reduction in the fatigue life is presented as life factors that are applied to the unfactored bearing life. The life factors found in this study ranged from 1.00 (no life reduction)--where there was no net interface pressure--to a worst case of 0.38 (a 62-percent life reduction). For a given interference fit, the reduction in life is different for angular-contact and deep-groove ball bearings. Interference fits also affect the maximum Hertz stress-life relation. Experimental data of Czyzewski, showing the effect of interference fit on rolling-element fatigue life, were reanalyzed to determine the shear stress-life exponent. The Czyzewski data shear stress-life exponent c equals 8.77, compared with the assumed value of 9. Results are presented as tables and charts of life factors for angular-contact and deep-groove ball bearings with light, normal, and heavy loads and interference fits ranging from extremely light to extremely heavy.

  20. Factors Contributing to Crashes among Young Drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyndel J. Bates

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Young drivers are the group of drivers most likely to crash. There are a number of factors that contribute to the high crash risk experienced by these drivers. While some of these factors are intrinsic to the young driver, such as their age, gender or driving skill, others relate to social factors and when and how often they drive. This article reviews the factors that affect the risk of young drivers crashing to enable a fuller understanding of why this risk is so high in order to assist in developing effective countermeasures.

  1. CONTRIBUTING FACTORS TO THE STUDENTS’ SPEAKING ABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of English in Indonesia has developed quickly in all of the fields. It is affected by many things in many ways. The need of English has also increased quickly in many parts of Indonesian life. To face it, teaching English at young ages or studentseems like the solution. Speaking is one of the skills that should be tough to the student. To get effective learning, it's useful to know what are factors contributing to the student speaking development. This research showed that there are some contributing factors to the students’ speaking development. Those factors are Teacher, Daily Practice, Listening to English Music, Family Support, Watching English Video and Movie, Motivation to Learn, Classroom Environment, Learning Material. Such as a good teacher would provide good learning. Support of the family would also give an effective outcome for the student's development. So, the factors should be known to get a better outcome for the students

  2. Five-meson VDM fits to the nucleon form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrotra, S.; Roos, M.

    1975-01-01

    Nucleon electromagnetic form factor data in the spacelike and the timelike regions are fitted with a VDM sum of (up to five) isovector and isoscalar pole terms. Finite width effects are included in the rho and the rhosup(,) terms. The effects of including the rhosup(,) and the psi(3105) are studied. Good fits are found only when the rhosup(,) is allowed to have a too low mass (1.2-1.4 GeV) and when in addition some of the couplings or other derived quantities disagree with other estimates. It is concluded that VDM is unable to describe the data unless one introduces a number of yet unknown mesons, such as ωsup(,), phisup(,), rhosup(,)(1.2), etc. (author)

  3. Patients who fall in hospital - Contributing factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Bright

    1983-09-01

    Full Text Available This is a retrospective study of the factors which contributed to accidental injuries sustained by those patients who fell in a White provincial hospital in die period 1 January to 30 June 1982. The research study was undertaken by Diploma in Nursing Administration students during their 3-week hospital practice at a White provincial hospital.

  4. Disconnected-Sea Quarks Contribution to Nucleon Electromagnetic Form Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sufian, Raza Sabbir

    We present comprehensive analysis of the light and strange disconnected-sea quarks contribution to the nucleon electric and magnetic form factors. The lattice QCD estimates of strange quark magnetic moment GsM (0) = -0.064(14)(09) microN and the mean squared charge radius E = -0.0043(16)(14) fm2 are more precise than any existing experimental measurements and other lattice calculations. The lattice QCD calculation includes ensembles across several lattice volumes and lattice spacings with one of the ensembles at the physical pion mass. We have performed a simultaneous chiral, infinite volume, and continuum extrapolation in a global fit to calculate results in the continuum limit. We find that the combined light-sea and strange quarks contribution to the nucleon magnetic moment is -0.022(11)(09) microN and to the nucleon mean square charge radius is -0.019(05)(05) fm 2. The most important outcome of this lattice QCD calculation is that while the combined light-sea and strange quarks contribution to the nucleon magnetic moment is small at about 1%, a negative 2.5(9)% contribution to the proton charge radius and a relatively larger positive 16.3(6.1)% contribution to the neutron charge radius come from the sea quarks in the nucleon. For the first time, by performing global fits, we also give predictions of the light-sea and strange quarks contributions to the nucleon electric and magnetic form factors at the physical point and in the continuum and infinite volume limits in the momentum transfer range of 0 ≤ Q2 ≤ 0.5 GeV2.

  5. Identification of contributing factors to pedestrian overpass selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Wu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the efficiency of overpass and the safety level of pedestrian, this paper aims to investigate the contributing factors for selective preference of overpass. Eight overpasses were investigated in Xi’an, and a questionnaire was conducted by the pedestrians near the overpass. Totally, 1131 valid samples (873 used of overpasses and 258 non-used of overpasses were collected. Based on the data, a binary logit (BL model was developed to identify what and how the factors affect the selective preference of overpass. The BL model was calibrated by the maximum likelihood method. Likelihood ratio test and McFadden-R2 were used to analyze the goodness-of-fit of the model. The results show that the BL model has a reasonable goodness-of-fit, and the prediction accuracy of the BL model can reach 81.9%. The BL model showed that the selective preference of overpass was significantly influenced by eight factors, including gender, age, career, education level, license, detour wishes, detour distance, and crossing time. Besides, the odds ratios of significant factors were also analyzed to explain the impacts of the factors on selective preference of overpass.

  6. [Job burnout and contributing factors for nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Wang, Zhi-ming; Wang, Mian-zhen; Lan, Ya-jia; Wu, Si-ying

    2006-07-01

    To investigate the degree of job burnout and contributing factors for nurses. A total of 495 nurses from three provincial hospitals were randomly selected. The MBI-GS, EPQ-RSC and OSI-R were administered to measure job burnout, personality traits and occupational stress, respectively. The medical and surgical nurses had significant greater scores of job burnout than others (P < 0.05). The poorer educational background was correlated with lower professional efficacy. The younger nurses had stronger feeling of job burnout. The scores of job burnout changed with different personality traits. The main contributing variables to exhaustion were overload, sense of responsibility, role insufficient and self-care (P < 0.05). The main contributing variables to cynicism were role insufficiency, role boundary, sense of responsibility and self-care (P < 0.05). The main contributing variables to professional inefficacy were role insufficiency, social support and rational/cognitive coping (P < 0.05). Job burnout for nurses can be prevented by reducing or keeping moderate professional duties and responsibility, making clearer job descriptions, promoting leisure activities, and enhancing self-care capabilities.

  7. Gut Microbiota: a contributing factor to obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve M Harakeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Obesity, a global epidemic of the modern era, is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD and diabetes. The pervasiveness of obesity and overweight in both developed as well as developing populations is on the rise and placing a huge burden on health and economic resources. Consequently, research to control this emerging epidemic is of utmost importance. Recently, host interactions with their resident gut microbiota (GM have been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of many metabolic diseases, including obesity, diabetes, and CVD. Around 1014 microorganisms reside within the lower human intestine and many of these 1014microorganisms have developed mutualistic or commensal associations with the host and actively involved in many physiological processes of the host. However, dysbiosis (altered gut microbial composition with other predisposing genetic and environmental factors, may contribute to host metabolic disorders resulting in many ailments. Therefore, delineating the role of GM as a contributing factor to obesity is the main objective of this review.Obesity research, as a field is expanding rapidly due to major advances in nutrigenomics, metabolomics, RNA silencing, epigenetics and other disciplines that may result in the emergence of new technologies and methods to better interpret causal relationships between microbiota and obesity.

  8. Gut Microbiota: A Contributing Factor to Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harakeh, Steve M.; Khan, Imran; Kumosani, Taha; Barbour, Elie; Almasaudi, Saad B.; Bahijri, Suhad M.; Alfadul, Sulaiman M.; Ajabnoor, Ghada M. A.; Azhar, Esam I.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity, a global epidemic of the modern era, is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and diabetes. The pervasiveness of obesity and overweight in both developed as well as developing populations is on the rise and placing a huge burden on health and economic resources. Consequently, research to control this emerging epidemic is of utmost importance. Recently, host interactions with their resident gut microbiota (GM) have been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of many metabolic diseases, including obesity, diabetes, and CVD. Around 1014 microorganisms reside within the lower human intestine and many of these 1014 microorganisms have developed mutualistic or commensal associations with the host and actively involved in many physiological processes of the host. However, dysbiosis (altered gut microbial composition) with other predisposing genetic and environmental factors, may contribute to host metabolic disorders resulting in many ailments. Therefore, delineating the role of GM as a contributing factor to obesity is the main objective of this review. Obesity research, as a field is expanding rapidly due to major advances in nutrigenomics, metabolomics, RNA silencing, epigenetics, and other disciplines that may result in the emergence of new technologies and methods to better interpret causal relationships between microbiota and obesity. PMID:27625997

  9. Retrospective Injury Epidemiology and Risk Factors for Injury in CrossFit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvo, Alicia M; Shaefer, Hilary; Rodriguez, Belinda; Li, Tan; Epnere, Katrina; Myer, Gregory D

    2017-03-01

    The objective of the study is to examine injury epidemiology and risk factors for injury in CrossFit athletes. A survey was administered to athletes at four owner-operated facilities in South Florida. Respondents reported number, location of injury, and training exposure from the preceding six months and answered questions regarding potential risk factors for injury. Fifty out of 191 athletes sustained 62 injuries during CrossFit participation in the preceding six months. The most frequently injured locations were the shoulder, knee, and lower back. Injury incidence was 2.3/1000 athlete training hours. Competitors were more likely to be injured (40% v 19%, p = 0.002) and had greater weekly athlete training hours (7.3 ± 7.0 v 4.9 ± 2.9, p CrossFit and location of injuries were similar to those previously reported. Injury incidence was similar to related sports, including gymnastics and powerlifting. While being a competitor was related to injury, increased exposure and length of participation in CrossFit likely underlied this association. Specifically, increased exposure to training in the form of greater weekly athlete training hours and weekly participations may contribute to injury. Increased height and body mass were also related to injury which is likely reflective of increased load utilized during training. Further research is warranted to determine if biomechanical factors associated with greater height and ability to lift greater loads are modifiable factors that can be adapted to reduce the increase risk of injury during CrossFit.

  10. FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO PERINATAL MORTALITY : OPTIMIZING OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the various causes of perinatal deaths and adopt strategies to improve perinatal outcome at a referral teaching hospital in North Kerala. METHODS: A prospective observational study conducted at Institute of Maternal and Child Health, Government Medical College, Kozhikode. All perinatal deaths during the period January 2013 to December 2014 were analysed and from this factors responsible for perinatal deaths were identified. RESULTS: Out of total 30,042 deliveries , there were 966 perinatal deaths during the study period. 566 were still births and 400 early neonatal deaths. The perinatal mortality rate was 31.1 per 1000 live births. Perinatal asphyxia was the major cause of perinatal mortality. The important factors contributing to perinatal asphyxia were prematurity (39%, abruptio placenta (19% and MSAF ( 12%. Among the antenatal factors, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy leading to iatrogenic elective preterm delivery were the most important. CONCLUSION: Perinatal asphyxia due to prematurity and low birth weight emerged as the most important cause of perinatal mortality in this study and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were the most important antenatal complication leading to prematurity

  11. Association among sickle cell trait, fitness, and cardiovascular risk factors in CARDIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, Robert I; Chan, Cheeling; Vu, Thanh-Huyen T; Fornage, Myriam; Thompson, Alexis A; Liu, Kiang; Carnethon, Mercedes R

    2017-02-09

    The contribution of sickle cell trait (SCT) to racial disparities in cardiopulmonary fitness is not known, despite concerns that SCT is associated with exertion-related sudden death. We evaluated the association of SCT status with cross-sectional and longitudinal changes in fitness and risk for hypertension, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome over the course of 25 years among 1995 African Americans (56% women, 18-30 years old) in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. Overall, the prevalence of SCT was 6.8% (136/1995) in CARDIA, and over the course of 25 years, 46% (738/1590), 18% (288/1631), and 40% (645/1,611) of all participants developed hypertension, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome, respectively. Compared with participants without SCT, participants with SCT had similar baseline measures of fitness in cross-section, including exercise duration (535 vs 540 seconds; P = .62), estimated metabolic equivalent of tasks (METs; 11.6 vs 11.7; P = .80), maximum heart rate (174 vs 175 beats/min; P = .41), and heart rate at 2 minutes recovery (44 vs 43 beats/min; P = .28). In our secondary analysis, there was neither an association of SCT status with longitudinal changes in fitness nor an association with development of hypertension, diabetes, or metabolic syndrome after adjustment for sex, baseline age, body mass index, fitness, and physical activity. SCT is not associated with reduced fitness in this longitudinal study of young African American adults, suggesting the increased risk for exertion-related sudden death in SCT carriers is unlikely related to fitness. SCT status also is not an independent risk factor for developing hypertension, diabetes, or metabolic syndrome. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  12. Contribution of physical fitness, cerebrovascular reserve and cognitive stimulation to cognitive function in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail A Eskes

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the effects of physical fitness on cognition suggest that exercise can improve cognitive abilities in healthy older adults, as well as delay the onset of age-related cognitive decline. The mechanisms for the positive benefit of exercise and how these effects interact with other variables known to influence cognitive function (e.g., involvement in cognitive activities are less well understood. The current study examined the associations between the physical fitness, cerebrovascular blood flow regulation and involvement in cognitive activities with neuropsychological function in healthy postmenopausal women. Methods: Forty-two healthy women between the ages of 55 and 90 were recruited. Physical fitness (V˙ o2max, cerebrovascular reserve (cerebral blood flow during rest and response to an increase in end-tidal (i.e., arterial PCO2, and cognitive activity (self-reported number and hours of involvement in cognitive activities were assessed. The association of these variables with neuropsychological performance was examined through linear regression. Results: Physical fitness, cerebrovascular reserve and total number of cognitive activities (but not total hours were independent predictors of cognitive function, particularly measures of overall cognitive performance, attention and executive function. In addition, prediction of neuropsychological performance was better with multiple variables than each alone. Conclusions: Cognitive function in older adults is associated with multiple factors, including physical fitness, cerebrovascular health and cognitive stimulation. Interestingly, cognitive stimulation effects appear related more to the diversity of activities, rather than the duration of activity. Further examination of these relationships is ongoing in a prospective cohort study.

  13. Riboflavin Provisioning Underlies Wolbachia’s Fitness Contribution to Its Insect Host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Minoru; Nikoh, Naruo; Hosokawa, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Endosymbiotic bacteria of the genus Wolbachia represent the most successful symbiotic bacteria in the terrestrial ecosystem. The success of Wolbachia has been ascribed to its remarkable phenotypic effects on host reproduction, such as cytoplasmic incompatibility, whereby maternally inherited bacteria can spread in their host populations at the expense of their host’s fitness. Meanwhile, recent theoretical as well as empirical studies have unveiled that weak and/or conditional positive fitness effects may significantly facilitate invasion and spread of Wolbachia infections in host populations. Here, we report a previously unrecognized nutritional aspect, the provision of riboflavin (vitamin B2), that potentially underpins the Wolbachia-mediated fitness benefit to insect hosts. A comparative genomic survey for synthetic capability of B vitamins revealed that only the synthesis pathway for riboflavin is highly conserved among diverse insect-associated Wolbachia strains, while the synthesis pathways for other B vitamins were either incomplete or absent. Molecular phylogenetic and genomic analyses of riboflavin synthesis genes from diverse Wolbachia strains revealed that, in general, their phylogenetic relationships are concordant with Wolbachia’s genomic phylogeny, suggesting that the riboflavin synthesis genes have been stably maintained in the course of Wolbachia evolution. In rearing experiments with bedbugs (Cimex lectularius) on blood meals in which B vitamin contents were manipulated, we demonstrated that Wolbachia’s riboflavin provisioning significantly contributes to growth, survival, and reproduction of the insect host. These results provide a physiological basis upon which Wolbachia-mediated positive fitness consequences are manifested and shed new light on the ecological and evolutionary relevance of Wolbachia infections. PMID:26556278

  14. Determinant Factors of Physical Fitness in European Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaqout, Mahmoud; Vyncke, Krishna; Moreno, Luis A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study was designed to explore the determinants of physical fitness in European children aged 6–11 years, cross-sectionally and longitudinally.Methods: There were sufficient data on 4903 children (50.6 % girls) on measured physical fitness (cardio-respiratory, muscular strength, f...

  15. The fit factor: the role of fit between ads in understanding cross-media synergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorveld, H.A.M.; Valkenburg, S.M.F.

    2015-01-01

    This research investigates the role of fit between campaign ads in generating cross-media effects. Using an ecologically valid design, this article enhances our understanding of cross-media effects in real life. By combining a content analysis of Dutch cross-media campaigns with a secondary data

  16. Factors Contributing Decreased Performance Of Slow Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. L. Kannan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Back ground Even experienced teaching faculty and administrators can be challenged by learners who have not able to perform up to expected need in their annual performance of their students these students are called as slow learnersStruggle learners. There should be a designed study to foster discussion about diagnosing particular problems that contribute with meeting objectives of slow learners. Methodology The study was performed on the entire current first year of Medical students were all the three internal assessments of 250 students performance is taken in to consideration for the study. This study is of cross section type.After obtaining the list of all students marks in internal examination from medical education unit supporting mentors are contacted to meet the students and confidentiality is maintained throughout the study. After obtaining informed consent a questionnaire was administered to the students by the investigator. The questionnaire contains the following sections. Section I will be on the background characteristics of the student name age sex type of family. Section II will be on the details of their learning capabilities. Section III will focus on the awareness of the slow learners in which the precipitating factors contributing to them. Results The prevalence of slow learners as low achievers were contributed to be 32.4 percentages.The performance of the students is based on combination of all three internal assessment marks including theory and practical performance. In this the students age ranges from 17 to 21 years the mean age of student was contributed to be 17.81 and majority of the students were in the age group of 18 years which contributed to be 16867.2.In the present study majority were males 13252.8 compared to females 11847.2.but when study is compared to percentage of attendance majority of the individual 15177 scored more than 50 percentage of marks have more than 80 percentage of attendance but when

  17. Exploring the Factors Contributing to Stress and Coping Strategies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exploring the Factors Contributing to Stress and Coping Strategies of Nurses at ... explore the factors contributing to nurses' stress and related coping strategies used ... of staff and materials, facing death and dying, dissatisfaction with the work ...

  18. Genome-wide transposon mutagenesis of Proteus mirabilis: Essential genes, fitness factors for catheter-associated urinary tract infection, and the impact of polymicrobial infection on fitness requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sara N.; Zhao, Lili; Wu, Weisheng

    2017-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Proteus mirabilis is a leading cause of catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs), which are often polymicrobial. Numerous prior studies have uncovered virulence factors for P. mirabilis pathogenicity in a murine model of ascending UTI, but little is known concerning pathogenesis during CAUTI or polymicrobial infection. In this study, we utilized five pools of 10,000 transposon mutants each and transposon insertion-site sequencing (Tn-Seq) to identify the full arsenal of P. mirabilis HI4320 fitness factors for single-species versus polymicrobial CAUTI with Providencia stuartii BE2467. 436 genes in the input pools lacked transposon insertions and were therefore concluded to be essential for P. mirabilis growth in rich medium. 629 genes were identified as P. mirabilis fitness factors during single-species CAUTI. Tn-Seq from coinfection with P. stuartii revealed 217/629 (35%) of the same genes as identified by single-species Tn-Seq, and 1353 additional factors that specifically contribute to colonization during coinfection. Mutants were constructed in eight genes of interest to validate the initial screen: 7/8 (88%) mutants exhibited the expected phenotypes for single-species CAUTI, and 3/3 (100%) validated the expected phenotypes for polymicrobial CAUTI. This approach provided validation of numerous previously described P. mirabilis fitness determinants from an ascending model of UTI, the discovery of novel fitness determinants specifically for CAUTI, and a stringent assessment of how polymicrobial infection influences fitness requirements. For instance, we describe a requirement for branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis by P. mirabilis during coinfection due to high-affinity import of leucine by P. stuartii. Further investigation of genes and pathways that provide a competitive advantage during both single-species and polymicrobial CAUTI will likely provide robust targets for therapeutic intervention to reduce P. mirabilis

  19. Genome-wide transposon mutagenesis of Proteus mirabilis: Essential genes, fitness factors for catheter-associated urinary tract infection, and the impact of polymicrobial infection on fitness requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbruster, Chelsie E; Forsyth-DeOrnellas, Valerie; Johnson, Alexandra O; Smith, Sara N; Zhao, Lili; Wu, Weisheng; Mobley, Harry L T

    2017-06-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Proteus mirabilis is a leading cause of catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs), which are often polymicrobial. Numerous prior studies have uncovered virulence factors for P. mirabilis pathogenicity in a murine model of ascending UTI, but little is known concerning pathogenesis during CAUTI or polymicrobial infection. In this study, we utilized five pools of 10,000 transposon mutants each and transposon insertion-site sequencing (Tn-Seq) to identify the full arsenal of P. mirabilis HI4320 fitness factors for single-species versus polymicrobial CAUTI with Providencia stuartii BE2467. 436 genes in the input pools lacked transposon insertions and were therefore concluded to be essential for P. mirabilis growth in rich medium. 629 genes were identified as P. mirabilis fitness factors during single-species CAUTI. Tn-Seq from coinfection with P. stuartii revealed 217/629 (35%) of the same genes as identified by single-species Tn-Seq, and 1353 additional factors that specifically contribute to colonization during coinfection. Mutants were constructed in eight genes of interest to validate the initial screen: 7/8 (88%) mutants exhibited the expected phenotypes for single-species CAUTI, and 3/3 (100%) validated the expected phenotypes for polymicrobial CAUTI. This approach provided validation of numerous previously described P. mirabilis fitness determinants from an ascending model of UTI, the discovery of novel fitness determinants specifically for CAUTI, and a stringent assessment of how polymicrobial infection influences fitness requirements. For instance, we describe a requirement for branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis by P. mirabilis during coinfection due to high-affinity import of leucine by P. stuartii. Further investigation of genes and pathways that provide a competitive advantage during both single-species and polymicrobial CAUTI will likely provide robust targets for therapeutic intervention to reduce P. mirabilis

  20. Retrospective Injury Epidemiology and Risk Factors for Injury in CrossFit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia M. Montalvo, Hilary Shaefer, Belinda Rodriguez, Tan Li, Katrina Epnere, Gregory D. Myer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to examine injury epidemiology and risk factors for injury in CrossFit athletes. A survey was administered to athletes at four owner-operated facilities in South Florida. Respondents reported number, location of injury, and training exposure from the preceding six months and answered questions regarding potential risk factors for injury. Fifty out of 191 athletes sustained 62 injuries during CrossFit participation in the preceding six months. The most frequently injured locations were the shoulder, knee, and lower back. Injury incidence was 2.3/1000 athlete training hours. Competitors were more likely to be injured (40% v 19%, p = 0.002 and had greater weekly athlete training hours (7.3 ± 7.0 v 4.9 ± 2.9, p < 0.001 than non-competitors. Athletes who reported injury also reported significantly higher values for the following risk factors: years of participation (2.7 ± 1.8 v 1.8 ± 1.5, p = 0.001, weekly athlete training hours (7.3 ± 3.8 v 4.9 ± 2.1, p = 0.020, weekly athlete-exposures (6.4 ± 3.8 v 4.7 ± 2.1, p = 0.003, height (1.72 ± 0.09 m v 1.68 ± 0.01 m, p = 0.011, and body mass (78.24 ± 16.86 kg v 72.91 ± 14.77 kg, p = 0.037. Injury rates during CrossFit and location of injuries were similar to those previously reported. Injury incidence was similar to related sports, including gymnastics and powerlifting. While being a competitor was related to injury, increased exposure and length of participation in CrossFit likely underlied this association. Specifically, increased exposure to training in the form of greater weekly athlete training hours and weekly participations may contribute to injury. Increased height and body mass were also related to injury which is likely reflective of increased load utilized during training. Further research is warranted to determine if biomechanical factors associated with greater height and ability to lift greater loads are modifiable factors that can be adapted to reduce

  1. Factors contributing to and strategies to combat emerging arboviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callender, David Michael

    2018-04-17

    Less than half a century ago infectious diseases appeared to be destined to be extinguished via as a culmination of medical triumphs. As focus turned towards combating non-communicable diseases, emerging and re-emerging diseases (EIDs) have bloomed from those ashes. Five epidemic mosquito-borne arboviruses (Yellow Fever virus (YFV), Dengue virus, West Nile virus, Chikungunya virus, and Zika virus) have emerged in the recent past. Arboviruses are of the utmost importance with respect to EIDs due to intensive growth of globalisation, arthropod urban fitness/adaption, and environmental changes. We focus on recent outbreaks of the arthropod borne viruses (arboviruses) Zika virus and YFV. Factors contributing to the blossoming of EIDs (environmental, globalisation, and urbanisation) and combating strategies (surveillance, containment, and prevention) will be discussed. Specifically, Zika virus and YFV will be used in the context of these factors and strategies. YFV is discussed in detail as it pertains to these factors and strategies in the United States (US), 2017 Brazil Outbreak, 2016 Africa Outbreak, and global risk. Vigilance is needed to focus on, prevent, and control the current and next arbovirus EIDs.

  2. Are Fit Indices Biased in Favor of Bi-Factor Models in Cognitive Ability Research?: A Comparison of Fit in Correlated Factors, Higher-Order, and Bi-Factor Models via Monte Carlo Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant B. Morgan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bi-factor confirmatory factor models have been influential in research on cognitive abilities because they often better fit the data than correlated factors and higher-order models. They also instantiate a perspective that differs from that offered by other models. Motivated by previous work that hypothesized an inherent statistical bias of fit indices favoring the bi-factor model, we compared the fit of correlated factors, higher-order, and bi-factor models via Monte Carlo methods. When data were sampled from a true bi-factor structure, each of the approximate fit indices was more likely than not to identify the bi-factor solution as the best fitting. When samples were selected from a true multiple correlated factors structure, approximate fit indices were more likely overall to identify the correlated factors solution as the best fitting. In contrast, when samples were generated from a true higher-order structure, approximate fit indices tended to identify the bi-factor solution as best fitting. There was extensive overlap of fit values across the models regardless of true structure. Although one model may fit a given dataset best relative to the other models, each of the models tended to fit the data well in absolute terms. Given this variability, models must also be judged on substantive and conceptual grounds.

  3. The contribution of Nintendo Wii Fit series in the field of health: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Haruka; Ryan, Katie Rose; Ohta, Yuji; Miyachi, Motohiko

    2017-01-01

    Background Wii Fit was originally designed as a health and fitness interactive training experience for the general public. There are, however, many examples of Wii Fit being utilized in clinical settings. This article aims to identify the contribution of Wii Fit in the field of health promotion and rehabilitation by: (1) identifying the health-related domains for which the Wii Fit series has been tested, (2) clarifying the effect of Wii Fit in those identified health-related domains and (3) quantifying this effect. Method A systematic literature review was undertaken. The MEDLINE database and Games for Health Journal published content were explored using the search term “Wii-Fit.” Occurrences resulting from manual searches on Google and material suggested by experts in the field were also considered. Included articles were required to have measurements from Wii Fit activities for at least one relevant health indicator. The effect of Wii Fit interventions was assessed using meta-analyses for the following outcomes: activity-specific balance confidence score, Berg balance score (BBC) and time-up-and-go test (TUG). Findings A total of 115 articles highlighted that the Wii Fit has been tested in numerous healthy and pathological populations. Out of these, only a few intervention studies have focused on the prevention of chronic diseases. A large proportion of the studies focus on balance training (N = 55). This systematic review highlights several potential benefits of Wii Fit interventions and these positive observations are supported by meta-analyses data (N = 25). For example, the BBC and the TUG respond to a similar extend to Wii Fit interventions compared with traditional training. Conclusion Wii Fit has the potential to be used as a rehabilitation tool in different clinical situations. However, the current literature includes relatively few randomized controlled trials in each population. Further research is therefore required. PMID:28890847

  4. The contribution of Nintendo Wii Fit series in the field of health: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripette, Julien; Murakami, Haruka; Ryan, Katie Rose; Ohta, Yuji; Miyachi, Motohiko

    2017-01-01

    Wii Fit was originally designed as a health and fitness interactive training experience for the general public. There are, however, many examples of Wii Fit being utilized in clinical settings. This article aims to identify the contribution of Wii Fit in the field of health promotion and rehabilitation by: (1) identifying the health-related domains for which the Wii Fit series has been tested, (2) clarifying the effect of Wii Fit in those identified health-related domains and (3) quantifying this effect. A systematic literature review was undertaken. The MEDLINE database and Games for Health Journal published content were explored using the search term "Wii-Fit." Occurrences resulting from manual searches on Google and material suggested by experts in the field were also considered. Included articles were required to have measurements from Wii Fit activities for at least one relevant health indicator. The effect of Wii Fit interventions was assessed using meta-analyses for the following outcomes: activity-specific balance confidence score, Berg balance score (BBC) and time-up-and-go test (TUG). A total of 115 articles highlighted that the Wii Fit has been tested in numerous healthy and pathological populations. Out of these, only a few intervention studies have focused on the prevention of chronic diseases. A large proportion of the studies focus on balance training ( N = 55). This systematic review highlights several potential benefits of Wii Fit interventions and these positive observations are supported by meta-analyses data ( N = 25). For example, the BBC and the TUG respond to a similar extend to Wii Fit interventions compared with traditional training. Wii Fit has the potential to be used as a rehabilitation tool in different clinical situations. However, the current literature includes relatively few randomized controlled trials in each population. Further research is therefore required.

  5. The contribution of Nintendo Wii Fit series in the field of health: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Tripette

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Wii Fit was originally designed as a health and fitness interactive training experience for the general public. There are, however, many examples of Wii Fit being utilized in clinical settings. This article aims to identify the contribution of Wii Fit in the field of health promotion and rehabilitation by: (1 identifying the health-related domains for which the Wii Fit series has been tested, (2 clarifying the effect of Wii Fit in those identified health-related domains and (3 quantifying this effect. Method A systematic literature review was undertaken. The MEDLINE database and Games for Health Journal published content were explored using the search term “Wii-Fit.” Occurrences resulting from manual searches on Google and material suggested by experts in the field were also considered. Included articles were required to have measurements from Wii Fit activities for at least one relevant health indicator. The effect of Wii Fit interventions was assessed using meta-analyses for the following outcomes: activity-specific balance confidence score, Berg balance score (BBC and time-up-and-go test (TUG. Findings A total of 115 articles highlighted that the Wii Fit has been tested in numerous healthy and pathological populations. Out of these, only a few intervention studies have focused on the prevention of chronic diseases. A large proportion of the studies focus on balance training (N = 55. This systematic review highlights several potential benefits of Wii Fit interventions and these positive observations are supported by meta-analyses data (N = 25. For example, the BBC and the TUG respond to a similar extend to Wii Fit interventions compared with traditional training. Conclusion Wii Fit has the potential to be used as a rehabilitation tool in different clinical situations. However, the current literature includes relatively few randomized controlled trials in each population. Further research is therefore required.

  6. Cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiovascular workload and risk factors among cleaners; a cluster randomized worksite intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Krustrup, Peter; Jørgensen, Marie Birk

    2012-01-01

    . The clusters will be balanced on the following criteria: Geographical work location, gender, age and seniority. Cleaners are randomized to either I) a reference group, receiving lectures concerning healthy living, or II) an intervention group, performing worksite aerobic exercise. Data collection......ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is unevenly distributed among occupational groups. The working environment, as well as lifestyle and socioeconomic status contribute to the disparity and variation in prevalence of these risk factors. High physical work demands have...... been shown to increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and mortality, contrary to leisure time physical activity. High physical work demands in combination with a low cardiorespiratory fitness infer a high relative workload and an excessive risk for cardiovascular mortality. Therefore, the aim...

  7. The arginine-ornithine antiporter ArcD contributes to biological fitness of Streptococcus suis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus eFulde

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The arginine-ornithine antiporter (ArcD is part of the Arginine Deiminase System (ADS, a catabolic, energy-providing pathway found in a variety of different bacterial species, including the porcine zoonotic pathogen Streptococcus suis. The ADS has recently been shown to play a role in the pathogenicity of S. suis, in particular in its survival in host cells. The contribution of arginine and arginine transport mediated by ArcD, however, has yet to be clarified. In the present study, we showed by experiments using [U-13C6]arginine as a tracer molecule that S. suis is auxotrophic for arginine and that bacterial growth depends on the uptake of extracellular arginine. To further study the role of ArcD in arginine metabolism, we generated an arcD-specific mutant strain and characterized its growth compared to the wild-type (WT strain, a virulent serotype 2 strain. The mutant strain showed a markedly reduced growth rate in chemically defined media supplemented with arginine when compared to the WT strain, indicating that ArcD promotes arginine uptake. To further evaluate the in vivo relevance of ArcD, we studied the intracellular bacterial survival of the arcD mutant strain in an epithelial cell culture infection model. The mutant strain was substantially attenuated, and its reduced intracellular survival rate correlated with a lower ability to neutralize the acidified environment. Based on these results, we propose that ArcD, by its function as an arginine-ornithine antiporter, is important for supplying arginine as substrate of the ADS and, thereby, contributes to biological fitness and virulence of S. suis in the host.

  8. Factors associated with prevalence and types of 'may be fit' advice on fit notes: a cross-sectional primary care analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiels, Chris; Gabbay, Mark; Hillage, Jim

    2014-03-01

    The 'fit note', with the opportunity for the GP to advise that a patient 'may be fit' to do some work, was introduced in April 2010. To estimate numbers of fit notes with 'may be fit' advice, the types of advice, and factors associated with any inclusion of such advice in the fit note. Cross-sectional analysis of fit note data from 68 general practices in eight regions of England, Wales and Scotland. Collection of practice fit note data via GP use of carbonised pads of fit notes for a period of 12 months. The 'may be fit' box was ticked on 5080 fit notes (6.4% of all fit notes in study). But there was a wide variation in completion rates across the 68 practices (from 1% to 15%). The most prevalent individual item of advice was to 'amend duties' of patient as a prerequisite for return to work (included in 42% of all notes containing any 'may be fit' advice). Advice was often incomplete or irrelevant, with some GPs failing to comply with official guidance. Inclusion of any 'may be fit' advice was independently associated with the patient being female, less socially deprived and having a physical health reason for receiving a fit note. Unlike other studies that have relied upon eliciting opinion, this study investigates how the fit note is being used in practice. Findings provide some evidence that the fit note is not yet being used to the optimum benefit of patients (and their employers).

  9. Improvements in fitness are not obligatory for exercise training-induced improvements in CV risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Yvonne A W; Hopman, Maria T E; Schreuder, Tim H; Verheggen, Rebecca J H M; Scholten, Ralph R; Oudegeest-Sander, Madelijn H; Poelkens, Fleur; Maiorana, Andrew J; Naylor, Louise H; Willems, Peter H; Tack, Cees J; Thijssen, Dick H J; Green, Daniel J

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether changes in physical fitness relate to changes in cardiovascular risk factors following standardized, center-based and supervised exercise training programs in subjects with increased cardiovascular risk. We pooled data from exercise training studies of subjects with increased cardiovascular risk (n = 166) who underwent 8-52 weeks endurance training. We determined fitness (i.e., peak oxygen uptake) and traditional cardiovascular risk factors (body mass index, blood pressure, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), before and after training. We divided subjects into quartiles based on improvement in fitness, and examined whether these groups differed in terms of risk factors. Associations between changes in fitness and in cardiovascular risk factors were further tested using Pearson correlations. Significant heterogeneity was apparent in the improvement of fitness and individual risk factors, with nonresponder rates of 17% for fitness, 44% for body mass index, 33% for mean arterial pressure, 49% for total cholesterol, and 49% for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Neither the number, nor the magnitude, of change in cardiovascular risk factors differed significantly between quartiles of fitness change. Changes in fitness were not correlated with changes in cardiovascular risk factors (all P > 0.05). Our data suggest that significant heterogeneity exists in changes in peak oxygen uptake after training, while improvement in fitness did not relate to improvement in cardiovascular risk factors. In subjects with increased cardiovascular risk, improvements in fitness are not obligatory for training-induced improvements in cardiovascular risk factors. © 2018 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  10. Physical Design Factors Contributing to Patient Falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Debajyoti; Valipoor, Shabboo; Cloutier, Aimee; Yang, James; Freier, Patricia; Harvey, Thomas E; Lee, Jaehoon

    2017-02-03

    The aim of this study was to identify physical design elements that contribute to potential falls in patient rooms. An exploratory, physical simulation-based approach was adopted for the study. Twenty-seven subjects, older than 70 years (11 male and 16 female subjects), conducted scripted tasks in a mockup of a patient bathroom and clinician zone. Activities were captured using motion-capture technology and video recording. After biomechanical data processing, video clips associated with potential fall moments were extracted and then examined and coded by a group of registered nurses and health care designers. Exploratory analyses of the coded data were conducted followed by a series of multivariate analyses using regression models. In multivariate models with all personal, environmental, and postural variables, only the postural variables demonstrated statistical significance-turning, grabbing, pushing, and pulling in the bathroom and pushing and pulling in the clinician zone. The physical elements/attributes associated with the offending postures include bathroom configuration, intravenous pole, door, toilet seat height, flush, grab bars, over-bed table, and patient chair. Postural changes, during interactions with the physical environment, constitute the source of most fall events. Physical design must include simultaneous examination of postural changes in day-to-day activities in patient rooms and bathrooms. Among discussed testable recommendations in the article, the followings design strategies should be considered: (a) designing bathrooms to reduce turning as much as possible and (b) designing to avoid motions that involve 2 or more of the offending postures, such as turning and grabbing or grabbing and pulling, and so on.

  11. Factors Affecting Customer Loyalty of Fitness Centers: An Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Vania Suwono

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Awareness of healthy lifestyle in society is increasing day by day. Therefore, the fitness centers more motivated to focus on these business opportunities. Hence, it is important for companies to understand how to satisfy consumers to obtain consumer loyalty. Main variables were applied to predict customer loyalties areswitching cost, customer value, physical environment, and customer satisfaction. Data was collected through questionnaires distribution to students at private university in Tangerang. Data then was analyzed to by applying multipleregressionswith SPSS software. The results showed that there are three hypotheses are supported. The hypothesis is the relationship between switching cost and customer value, the relationship between customer value and customer satisfaction, and the relationship between customer satisfaction and customer loyalty. There is a hypothesis that is not supported, namely the relationship between the physical environment and customer satisfaction. This study also provides a discussion and offers direction for further research.Kesadaran akan hidup sehat dalam masyarakat semakin meningkat. Oleh karenaitu, perusahaan-perusahaan pusat kebugaran termotivasi untuk focus pada peluang bisnis ini. Dengan demikian, pemahaman akan kepuasan konsumen yang dapat menjadikan konsumen semakin loyal adalah penting bagi perusahaan. Penelitian ini focus pada variable biaya perpindahan, nilai yang diterima konsumen, lingkungan fisik, dan kepuasan konsumen dalam memprediksi loyalitas konsumen. Data dikumpulkan melalui penyebaran kuesioner pada mahasiswa di sebuah universitas swasta. Data kemudian dianalisis dengan menggunakan regresi berganda. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat tiga hipotesis yang didukung. Hipotesis tersebut adalah hubungan antara biaya perpindahan dan nilai yang diterima konsumen, hubungan antara nilai yang diterima konsumen dan kepuasan konsumen, dan hubungan antara kepuasan konsumen dan loyalitas konsumen

  12. Using the Bayes Factors to Evaluate Person Fit in the Item Response Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Tianshu; Yin, Yue

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we propose using the Bayes factors (BF) to evaluate person fit in item response theory models under the framework of Bayesian evaluation of an informative diagnostic hypothesis. We first discuss the theoretical foundation for this application and how to analyze person fit using BF. To demonstrate the feasibility of this approach,…

  13. Contributions of sociodemographic factors to criminal behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mundia L

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lawrence Mundia, Rohani Matzin, Salwa Mahalle, Malai Hayati Hamid, Ratna Suriani Osman Psychological Studies and Human Development Academic Group, Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah Institute of Education, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Abstract: We explored the extent to which prisoner sociodemographic variables (age, education, marital status, employment, and whether their parents were married or not influenced offending in 64 randomly selected Brunei inmates, comprising both sexes. A quantitative field survey design ideal for the type of participants used in a prison context was employed to investigate the problem. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis with backward elimination identified prisoner marital status and age groups as significantly related to offending. Furthermore, hierarchical multinomial logistic regression analysis with backward elimination indicated that prisoners’ age, primary level education, marital status, employment status, and parental marital status as significantly related to stealing offenses with high odds ratios. All 29 nonrecidivists were false negatives and predicted to reoffend upon release. Similarly, all 33 recidivists were projected to reoffend after release. Hierarchical binary logistic regression analysis revealed age groups (24–29 years and 30–35 years, employed prisoner, and primary level education as variables with high likelihood trends for reoffending. The results suggested that prisoner interventions (educational, counseling, and psychotherapy in Brunei should treat not only antisocial personality, psychopathy, and mental health problems but also sociodemographic factors. The study generated offending patterns, trends, and norms that may inform subsequent investigations on Brunei prisoners. Keywords: crimes, prisoner, sociodemographic, recidivism, interventions, Brunei

  14. Leisure-time physical activity and associated factors in fitness zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Cozzensa da Silva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2017v19n2p185   Fitness zones (FZ are a great alternative to physical activity practice. The aim of this study was verify physical activity practice and associated factors among FZ users of Pelotas. Participants answered a questionnaire containing demographic, socioeconomic, behavioral, health and on the use of FZs. A long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to determine the level of physical activity and those who reported at least 150 minutes / week of PA in the leisure time were considered sufficiently active. The study included 323 subjects (65.3% women, mean age 52.5 years, 83.6% white skin color and 61.9% married. Almost half of respondents were overweight (48.0%, 45.8% had high blood pressure, 10.5% had diabetes and 64.4% used medications. About 77.7% of respondents were classified as sufficiently active. Health perception was associated to leisure physical activity, and the better the health perception, the higher the prevalence of sufficient physical activity. Collective programs with participation of Physical Education teacher can contribute to interaction of practitione with the use of fitness zones and increase the level of physical activity of individuals.

  15. An Inverse Function Least Square Fitting Approach of the Buildup Factor for Radiation Shielding Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chang Je [Sejong Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Alkhatee, Sari; Roh, Gyuhong; Lee, Byungchul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Dose absorption and energy absorption buildup factors are widely used in the shielding analysis. The dose rate of the medium is main concern in the dose buildup factor, however energy absorption is an important parameter in the energy buildup factors. ANSI/ANS-6.4.3-1991 standard data is widely used based on interpolation and extrapolation by means of an approximation method. Recently, Yoshida's geometric progression (GP) formulae are also popular and it is already implemented in QAD code. In the QAD code, two buildup factors are notated as DOSE for standard air exposure response and ENG for the response of the energy absorbed in the material itself. In this paper, a new least square fitting method is suggested to obtain a reliable buildup factors proposed since 1991. Total 4 datasets of air exposure buildup factors are used for evaluation including ANSI/ANS-6.4.3-1991, Taylor, Berger, and GP data. The standard deviation of the fitted data are analyzed based on the results. A new reverse least square fitting method is proposed in this study in order to reduce the fitting uncertainties. It adapts an inverse function rather than the original function by the distribution slope of dataset. Some quantitative comparisons are provided for concrete and lead in this paper, too. This study is focused on the least square fitting of existing buildup factors to be utilized in the point-kernel code for radiation shielding analysis. The inverse least square fitting method is suggested to obtain more reliable results of concave shaped dataset such as concrete. In the concrete case, the variance and residue are decreased significantly, too. However, the convex shaped case of lead can be applied to the usual least square fitting method. In the future, more datasets will be tested by using the least square fitting. And the fitted data could be implemented to the existing point-kernel codes.

  16. Model Fit and Item Factor Analysis: Overfactoring, Underfactoring, and a Program to Guide Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D Angus; Bowles, Ryan P

    2018-04-23

    In exploratory item factor analysis (IFA), researchers may use model fit statistics and commonly invoked fit thresholds to help determine the dimensionality of an assessment. However, these indices and thresholds may mislead as they were developed in a confirmatory framework for models with continuous, not categorical, indicators. The present study used Monte Carlo simulation methods to investigate the ability of popular model fit statistics (chi-square, root mean square error of approximation, the comparative fit index, and the Tucker-Lewis index) and their standard cutoff values to detect the optimal number of latent dimensions underlying sets of dichotomous items. Models were fit to data generated from three-factor population structures that varied in factor loading magnitude, factor intercorrelation magnitude, number of indicators, and whether cross loadings or minor factors were included. The effectiveness of the thresholds varied across fit statistics, and was conditional on many features of the underlying model. Together, results suggest that conventional fit thresholds offer questionable utility in the context of IFA.

  17. Contribution of organized and nonorganized activity to children's motor skills and fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Louise L; O'Hara, Blythe J; Rogers, Kris; St George, Alexis; Bauman, Adrian

    2014-11-01

    To examine the associations between children's organized physical activity (OPA), nonorganized physical activity (NOPA), and health-related outcomes (fundamental movement skill [FMS] fitness). Cross-sectional survey of children aged 10-16 years (N = 4273). Organized physical activity and NOPA were assessed by self-report, FMS by process-orientated criteria, and fitness by 20-m shuttle run test. Boys spent 97.5 minutes and girls 86.6 minutes in daily physical activity with the majority spent in OPA (boys, 56.3%; girls 60.5%). Organized physical activity increased with grade, whereas NOPA decreased. Organized physical activity and NOPA were associated with fitness, and OPA was consistently associated with FMS competency. Boys' fitness was associated with OPA and NOPA (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.42, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04, 1.94; AOR 1.26, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.54, respectively), FMS competency (side gallop leap, kick) with OPA and catch, and over-arm throw with both OPA and NOPA. Girls' fitness (AOR 2.62, 95% CI: 1.88, 3.66) and FMS competency were consistently associated with OPA. Both OPA and NOPA are important contributors to children's physical activity; however, for girls, OPA was more strongly associated with fitness and FMS competency. Our findings support the importance of providing children with opportunities to engage in daily OPA. School physical education programs are an ideal delivery vehicle for OPA and need to be central to education policy. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  18. Retrospective Injury Epidemiology and Risk Factors for Injury in CrossFit

    OpenAIRE

    Montalvo, Alicia M.; Shaefer, Hilary; Rodriguez, Belinda; Li, Tan; Epnere, Katrina; Myer, Gregory D.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the study is to examine injury epidemiology and risk factors for injury in CrossFit athletes. A survey was administered to athletes at four owner-operated facilities in South Florida. Respondents reported number, location of injury, and training exposure from the preceding six months and answered questions regarding potential risk factors for injury. Fifty out of 191 athletes sustained 62 injuries during CrossFit participation in the preceding six months. The most frequently ...

  19. Preventive fraction of physical fitness on risk factors in cardiac patients: Retrospective epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caru, Maxime; Kern, Laurence; Bousquet, Marc; Curnier, Daniel

    2018-04-26

    To quantify the preventive fraction of physical fitness on the risk factors in patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). A total of 249 subjects (205 men and 44 women) suffering from CVD were categorized into four groups, according to their percentage of physical fitness. We calculated the odds ratio to obtain the preventive fraction in order to evaluate the impact of the physical fitness level on the risk factors ( i.e ., abdominal obesity, depression, diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, obesity, overweight and smoking). It is observed that a normal physical fitness level is sufficient to induce a preventive action on abdominal obesity (38%), diabetes (12%), hypertension (33%), obesity (12%) and overweight (11%). Also, the preventive fraction increases with the level of physical fitness, in particular for hypertension (36%) and overweight (16%). A high physical fitness level does not necessarily induce a preventive action in most risk factors, excluding depression. This is the first study which demonstrates that reaching a normal physical fitness level is enough to induce a protection for some risk factors, despite having a CVD.

  20. Contribution of Organized and Nonorganized Activity to Children's Motor Skills and Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Louise L.; O'Hara, Blythe J.; Rogers, Kris; St George, Alexis; Bauman, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Background: To examine the associations between children's organized physical activity (OPA), nonorganized physical activity (NOPA), and health-related outcomes (fundamental movement skill [FMS] fitness). Methods: Cross-sectional survey of children aged 10-16?years (N?=?4273). Organized physical activity and NOPA were assessed by self-report,…

  1. Identifying the Best-Fitting Factor Structure of the Experience of Close Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Breinholst, Sonja; Niclasen, Janni

    2015-01-01

    . The present study used a Danish sample with the purpose of addressing limitations in previous studies, such as the lack of diversity in cultural back- ground, restricted sample characteristics, and poorly fitting structure models. Participants consisted of 253 parents of children between the ages of 7 and 12...... years, 53% being moth- ers. The parents completed the paper version of the questionnaire. Confirmatory Factor Analyses were carried out to determine whether theoretically and empirically established models including one and two factors would also provide adequate fits in a Danish sample. A previous...... study using the original ECR suggested that Scandinavian samples may best be described using a five-factor solution. Our results indicated that the one- and two-factor models of the ECR-R did not fit the data well. Exploratory Factor Analysis revealed a five- factor model. Our study provides evidence...

  2. Validity of a four-factor modelunderlying the physical fitness in adults with intellectual disabilities a confirmatory factor analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio; Solera Martinez, M; Rodriguez Moya, Alejandro; Perez, Y; Martinez Vizcaino, V

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To use confirmatory factor analysis to test whether a four factor might explain the clustering of the components of the physical fitness in adults with intellectual disabilities (FID). Relevance: Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) are significantly weaker than individuals without ID at all stages of life. These subjects might be particularly susceptible to loss of basic function because of poor physical fitness. Participants: We studied 267 adults with intellectual...

  3. Low Cardiorespiratory Fitness in African Americans: A Health Disparity Risk Factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Damon L.; Staiano, Amanda E.; Johannsen, Neil M.; Lavie, Carl J.; Earnest, Conrad P.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Blair, Steven N.; Newton, Robert L.; Church, Timothy S.

    2013-01-01

    Low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is a well-established risk factor for all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality. African Americans have higher rates of cardiovascular disease compared to their Caucasian counterparts. However, the extent to which lower CRF levels contribute to the excess risk in African Americans has not been fully explored. The purpose of this review is to: 1) explore the literature evaluating the relationship between CRF and mortality specifically in African American populations; and 2) critically evaluate the studies which have compared CRF between African American and Caucasians in epidemiological studies and clinical trials. We have further discussed several potential mechanisms that may contribute to the observation of lower CRF levels in African American compared to Caucasian adults including potential racial differences in physical activity levels, muscle fiber type distribution, and hemoglobin levels. If lower CRF is generally present in African Americans compared to Caucasians, and is of a clinically meaningful difference, this may represent an important public health concern. PMID:23982718

  4. Fitting of Hadron Mass Spectra and Contributions to Perturbation Theory of Conformal Quantum Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna Acosta, German Aurelio

    The masses of observed hadrons are fitted according to the kinematic predictions of Conformal Relativity. The hypothesis gives a remarkably good fit. The isospin SU(2) gauge invariant Lagrangian L(,(pi)NN)(x,(lamda)) is used in the calculation of d(sigma)/d(OMEGA) to 2nd-order Feynman graphs for simplified models of (pi)N(--->)(pi)N. The resulting infinite mass sums over the nucleon (Conformal) families are done via the Generalized-Sommerfeld-Watson Transform Theorem. Even though the models are too simple to be realistic, they indicate that if (DELTA)-internal lines were to be included, 2nd-order Feynman graphs may reproduce the experimental data qualitatively. The energy -dependence of the propagator and couplings in Conformal QFT is different from that of ordinary QFT. Suggestions for further work are made in the areas of ultra-violet divergences and OPEC calculations.

  5. Exploring the Fitness Centre Industry in Malaysia; What Factors Influence Joining and Retention and Prevents People from Joining

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Helen B

    2008-01-01

    Malaysia’s fitness centre industry has seen rapid growth over the last 6 years with the opening of more than 25 international chain outlets of which the majority is owned by California Fitness, Celebrity Fitness, Fitness First and True Fitness. An increasing population and year on year GDP growth, together with the support of the Malaysian government, contribute to further the growth of the industry. The purpose of the study is to explore, investigate and reveal information about the growth a...

  6. Influence of physical fitness on cardio-metabolic risk factors in European children. The IDEFICS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaqout, M; Michels, N; Bammann, K; Ahrens, W; Sprengeler, O; Molnar, D; Hadjigeorgiou, C; Eiben, G; Konstabel, K; Russo, P; Jiménez-Pavón, D; Moreno, L A; De Henauw, S

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the associations of individual and combined physical fitness components with single and clustering of cardio-metabolic risk factors in children. This 2-year longitudinal study included a total of 1635 European children aged 6-11 years. The test battery included cardio-respiratory fitness (20-m shuttle run test), upper-limb strength (handgrip test), lower-limb strength (standing long jump test), balance (flamingo test), flexibility (back-saver sit-and-reach) and speed (40-m sprint test). Metabolic risk was assessed through z-score standardization using four components: waist circumference, blood pressure (systolic and diastolic), blood lipids (triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein) and insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment). Mixed model regression analyses were adjusted for sex, age, parental education, sugar and fat intake, and body mass index. Physical fitness was inversely associated with clustered metabolic risk (P<0.001). All coefficients showed a higher clustered metabolic risk with lower physical fitness, except for upper-limb strength (β=0.057; P=0.002) where the opposite association was found. Cardio-respiratory fitness (β=-0.124; P<0.001) and lower-limb strength (β=-0.076; P=0.002) were the most important longitudinal determinants. The effects of cardio-respiratory fitness were even independent of the amount of vigorous-to-moderate activity (β=-0.059; P=0.029). Among all the metabolic risk components, blood pressure seemed not well predicted by physical fitness, while waist circumference, blood lipids and insulin resistance all seemed significantly predicted by physical fitness. Poor physical fitness in children is associated with the development of cardio-metabolic risk factors. Based on our results, this risk might be modified by improving mainly cardio-respiratory fitness and lower-limb muscular strength.

  7. Factors associated with low fitness in adolescents--a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Richard; Gravenor, Michael B; Rees, Anwen; Knox, Gareth; Hill, Rebecca; Rahman, Muhammad A; Jones, Kerina; Christian, Danielle; Baker, Julien S; Stratton, Gareth; Brophy, Sinead

    2014-07-29

    Fitness and physical activity are important for cardiovascular and mental health but activity and fitness levels are declining especially in adolescents and among girls. This study examines clustering of factors associated with low fitness in adolescents in order to best target public health interventions for young people. 1147 children were assessed for fitness, had blood samples, anthropometric measures and all data were linked with routine electronic data to examine educational achievement, deprivation and health service usage. Factors associated with fitness were examined using logistic regression, conditional trees and data mining cluster analysis. Focus groups were conducted with children in a deprived school to examine barriers and facilitators to activity for children in a deprived community. Unfit adolescents are more likely to be deprived, female, have obesity in the family and not achieve in education. There were 3 main clusters for risk of future heart disease/diabetes (high cholesterol/insulin); children at low risk (not obese, fit, achieving in education), children 'visibly at risk' (overweight, unfit, many hospital/GP visits) and 'invisibly at risk' (unfit but not overweight, failing in academic achievement). Qualitative findings show barriers to physical activity include cost, poor access to activity, lack of core physical literacy skills and limited family support. Low fitness in the non-obese child can reveal a hidden group who have high risk factors for heart disease and diabetes but may not be identified as they are normal weight. In deprived communities low fitness is associated with non-achievement in education but in non-deprived communities low fitness is associated with female gender. Interventions need to target deprived families and schools in deprived areas with community wide campaigns.

  8. Development of fitting methods using geometric progression formulae of gamma-ray buildup factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Yoshitaka

    2006-01-01

    The gamma ray buildup factors are represented by an approximation method to speed up calculation using the point attenuation kernel method. The fitting parameters obtained by the GP formula and Taylor's formula are compiled in ANSI/ANS 6.4.3, available without any limitation. The GP formula featured high accuracy but required a high-level fitting technique. Thus the GP formula was divided into a curved line and a part representing the base values and used to develop the a fitting method and X k fitting method. As a result, this methodology showed that (1) when the fitting ranges were identical, there was no change in standard deviation when the unit penetration depth was varied; (2) even with fitting up to 300 mfp, the average standard deviation of 26 materials was 2.9% and acceptable GP parameters were extracted; (3) when the same end points of the fitting were selected and the starting points of fitting were identical with the unit penetration depth, the deviation became smaller with increasing unit penetration depth; and (4) even with the deviation adjusted to the positive side from 0.5 mfp to 300 mfp, the average standard deviation of 26 materials was 5.6%, which was an acceptable value. However, the GP parameters obtained by this methodology cannot be used for direct interpolation using gamma ray energy or materials. (author)

  9. The relative contribution of physical fitness to the technical execution score in youth rhythmic gymnastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donti, Olyvia; Bogdanis, Gregory C; Kritikou, Maria; Donti, Anastasia; Theodorakou, Kalliopi

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the association between physical fitness and a technical execution score in rhythmic gymnasts varying in the performance level. Forty-six young rhythmic gymnasts (age: 9.9 ±1.3 years) were divided into two groups (qualifiers, n=24 and non-qualifiers, n=22) based on the results of the National Championships. Gymnasts underwent a series of physical fitness tests and technical execution was evaluated in a routine without apparatus. There were significant differences between qualifiers and non-qualifiers in the technical execution score (p=0.01, d=1.0), shoulder flexion (p=0.01, d=0.8), straight leg raise (p=0.004, d=0.9), sideways leg extension (p=0.002, d=0.9) and body fat (p=.021, d=0.7), but no differences were found in muscular endurance and jumping performance. The technical execution score for the non-qualifiers was significantly correlated with shoulder extension (r=0.423, panalysis revealed that sideways leg extension, body fat, and push ups accounted for a large part (62.9%) of the variance in the technical execution score for the non-qualifiers, while for the qualifiers, only 37.3% of the variance in the technical execution score was accounted for by sideways leg extension and spine flexibility. In conclusion, flexibility and body composition can effectively discriminate between qualifiers and non-qualifiers in youth rhythmic gymnastics. At the lower level of performance (non-qualifiers), physical fitness seems to have a greater effect on the technical execution score.

  10. The relative contribution of physical fitness to the technical execution score in youth rhythmic gymnastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donti Olyvia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the association between physical fitness and a technical execution score in rhythmic gymnasts varying in the performance level. Forty-six young rhythmic gymnasts (age: 9.9 ±1.3 years were divided into two groups (qualifiers, n=24 and non-qualifiers, n=22 based on the results of the National Championships. Gymnasts underwent a series of physical fitness tests and technical execution was evaluated in a routine without apparatus. There were significant differences between qualifiers and non-qualifiers in the technical execution score (p=0.01, d=1.0, shoulder flexion (p=0.01, d=0.8, straight leg raise (p=0.004, d=0.9, sideways leg extension (p=0.002, d=0.9 and body fat (p=.021, d=0.7, but no differences were found in muscular endurance and jumping performance. The technical execution score for the non-qualifiers was significantly correlated with shoulder extension (r=0.423, p<0.05, sideways leg extension (r=0.687, p<0.01, push ups (r=0.437, p<0.05 and body fat (r=0.642, p<0.01, while there was only one significant correlation with sideways leg extension (r=0.467, p<0.05 for the qualifiers. Multiple regression analysis revealed that sideways leg extension, body fat, and push ups accounted for a large part (62.9% of the variance in the technical execution score for the non-qualifiers, while for the qualifiers, only 37.3% of the variance in the technical execution score was accounted for by sideways leg extension and spine flexibility. In conclusion, flexibility and body composition can effectively discriminate between qualifiers and non-qualifiers in youth rhythmic gymnastics. At the lower level of performance (non-qualifiers, physical fitness seems to have a greater effect on the technical execution score.

  11. The relative contribution of diurnal and nocturnal pollinators to plant female fitness in a specialized nursery pollination system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scopece, Giovanni; Campese, Lucia; Duffy, Karl J; Cozzolino, Salvatore

    2018-02-01

    Plants involved in specialized pollinator interactions, such as nursery pollination, may experience trade-offs in their female fitness, as the larvae of their pollinators may also consume seeds produced by the flowers they pollinate. These interactions could potentially shift between mutualism and parasitism, depending on the presence and abundance of both the nursery pollinator and of other pollinators. We investigated the fitness trade-off in a Mediterranean plant ( Silene latifolia ), which has a specialist nocturnal nursery pollinator moth ( Hadena bicruris ) and is also visited by several diurnal pollinators. We estimated the pollination rates and fecundity of S. latifolia in both natural and experimental populations in the Mediterranean. We estimated natural pollination rates in different flowering times and with presence/absence of the H. bicruis moth. Then by exposing plants to each pollinator group either during the day or at night, we quantified the contribution of other diurnal pollinators and the specialized nocturnal nursery pollinator to plant female fitness. We found no difference in plant fruit set mediated by diurnal versus nocturnal pollinators, indicating that non-specialist pollinators contribute to plant female fitness. However, in both natural and experimental populations, H. bicruris was the most efficient pollinator in terms of seeds produced per fruit. These results suggest that the female fitness costs generated by nursery pollination can be overcome through higher fertilization rates relative to predation rates, even in the presence of co-pollinators. Quantifying such interactions is important for our understanding of the selective pressures that promote highly specialized mutualisms, such as nursery pollination, in the Mediterranean region, a centre of diversification of the carnation family.

  12. Rates and risk factors of injury in CrossFit:A prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, Sebastian; Booker, Harry; Staines, Jacob; Williams, Sean

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUNDː CrossFit is a strength and conditioning programme that has gained widespread popularity since its inception approximately 15 years ago. However, at present little is known about the level of injury risk associated with this form of training. Movement competency, assessed using the Functional Movement Screen (FMS), has been identified as a risk factor for injury in numerous athletic populations, but its role in CrossFit participants is currently unclear. The aim of this study was t...

  13. Biomedical and psychosocial factors influencing transtibial prosthesis fit : a Delphi survey among health care professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baars, Erwin C.; Schrier, Ernst; Geertzen, Jan H.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We aimed to reach consensus among professionals caring for prosthesis users, on definitions of biomedical and psychosocial factors, to assess their influence on fit of transtibial prosthesis and to identify new factors. Method: A three-round, internet-based, Delphi survey was conducted

  14. Association between cardiorespiratory fitness and metabolic risk factors in a population with mild to severe obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Kathy; Brown, Ruth E; Wharton, Sean; Ardern, Chris I; Kuk, Jennifer L

    2018-01-01

    Previous literature suggests the beneficial effects of fitness on abdominal obesity may be attenuated in obesity and abolished in severe obesity. It is unclear whether the beneficial association between fitness and health is similarly present in those with mild and severe obesity. Patients from the Wharton Medical Clinic ( n  = 853) completed a clinical examination and maximal treadmill test. Patients were categorized into fit and unfit based on age- and sex-categories and body mass index (BMI) class (mild: ≤ 34.9 kg/m 2 , moderate: 35-39.9 kg/m 2 or severe obesity: ≥ 40 kg/m 2 ). Within the sample, 41% of participants with mild obesity had high fitness whereas only 25% and 11% of the participants with moderate and severe obesity, respectively, had high fitness. BMI category was independently associated with most of the metabolic risk factors, while fitness was only independently associated with systolic blood pressure and triglycerides ( P  fitness groups were only significantly different in their relative risk for prevalent pre-clinical hypertension within the severe obesity group ( p  = 0.03). High fitness was associated with smaller waist circumferences, with differences between high and low fitness being larger in those with severe obesity than mild obesity (Men: P  = 0.06, Women: P  = 0.0005). Thus, in contrast to previous observations, the favourable associations of having high fitness and health may be similar if not augmented in individuals with severe compared to mild obesity.

  15. Factors contributing to the life satisfaction of secondary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the contribution of three factors to the life satisfaction of secondary school teachers in Jos North. The three factors include monthly income, job satisfaction and meaningful work. Ninety-two secondary school teachers working in public and private schools within Jos North participated in the study.

  16. Melox west fitting building a major contribution towards an enhanced flexibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraize, G.; Belmont, J.M.; Bouzon, P.

    1998-01-01

    As of April 1, 1998, 28 European Light Water Reactors (LWR) have been loaded with MOX fuel. In the near future (by 2010), up to 50 reactors should be 'moxified' in Europe. and about 15 in Japan. The trend towards expanding MOX fuel utilization in LWRs is based on very good records of in-core performances. Indeed, the accumulated experience (more than 1000 MOX fuel assemblies loaded in the European reactors) demonstrates MOX fuel performances as excellent and comparable for reactors operations to UO 2 fuel. To cope with the growing MOX fuel demand, some countries have equipped themselves (or should equip themselves in the near future) with the state-of-art MOX industrial capabilities. This growing demand is obviously linked with a higher diversity in fuel designs requirements. The empowerment of the MELOX plant, the first high-throughput MOX fuel fabrication facility in operation in the world, is in keeping with this situation. Utilities have to face the market moves, and their expectations towards fuel suppliers are changing. The MELOX West Fitting Building (MWFB) resulting from an optimized design know-how, is the demonstration of the COGEMA Group high capability of adaptation. With the MWFB, the completion of a versatile fabrication plant adapted to the international fuel market will be reached. (author)

  17. Fitness, fatness and clustering of cardiovascular risk factors in children from Denmark, Estonia and Portugal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars B; Sardinha, Luis B; Froberg, Karsten

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Levels of overweight have increased and fitness has decreased in children. Potentially, these changes may be a threat to future health. Numerous studies have measured changes in body mass index (BMI), but few have assessed the independent effects of low fitness, overweight and physical...... inactivity on cardiovascular (CVD) risk factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional multi-center study including 1 769 children from Denmark, Estonia and Portugal. The main outcome was clustering of CVD risk factors. Independent variables were waist circumference, skinfolds, physical activity and cardio......-respiratory fitness. RESULTS: Both waist circumference and skinfolds were associated with clustered CVD risk. Odds ratios for clustered CVD risk for the upper quartiles compared with the lowest quartile were 9.13 (95% CI: 5.78-14.43) and 11.62 (95% CI: 7.11-18.99) when systolic blood pressure, triglyceride, insulin...

  18. Rates and risk factors of injury in CrossFitTM: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Sebastian; Booker, Harry; Staines, Jacob; Williams, Sean

    2017-09-01

    CrossFitTM is a strength and conditioning program that has gained widespread popularity since its inception approximately 15 years ago. However, at present little is known about the level of injury risk associated with this form of training. Movement competency, assessed using the Functional Movement ScreenTM (FMS), has been identified as a risk factor for injury in numerous athletic populations, but its role in CrossFit participants is currently unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of injury risk associated with CrossFit training, and examine the influence of a number of potential risk factors (including movement competency). A cohort of 117 CrossFit participants were followed prospectively for 12 weeks. Participants' characteristics, previous injury history and training experience were recorded at baseline, and an FMS assessment was conducted. The overall injury incidence rate was 2.10 per 1000 training hours (90% confidence limits: 1.32-3.33). A multivariate Poisson regression model identified males (rate ratio [RR]: 4.44 ×/÷ 3.30, very likely harmful) and those with previous injuries (RR: 2.35 ×/÷ 2.37, likely harmful) as having a higher injury risk. Inferences relating to FMS variables were unclear in the multivariate model, although number of asymmetries was a clear risk factor in a univariate model (RR per two additional asymmetries: 2.62 ×/÷ 1.53, likely harmful). The injury incidence rate associated with CrossFit training was low, and comparable to other forms of recreational fitness activities. Previous injury and gender were identified as risk factors for injury, whilst the role of movement competency in this setting warrants further investigation.

  19. Improvements in fitness are not obligatory for exercise training-induced improvements in CV risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, Yvonne A.W.; Hopman, Maria T.E.; Schreuder, Tim H.; Verheggen, Rebecca J.H.M.; Scholten, Ralph R.; Oudegeest-Sander, Madelijn H.; Poelkens, Fleur; Maiorana, Andrew J.; Naylor, Louise H.; Willems, Peter H.; Tack, Cees J.; Thijssen, Dick H.J.; Green, Daniel J.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether changes in physical fitness relate to changes in cardiovascular risk factors following standardized, center-based and supervised exercise training programs in subjects with increased cardiovascular risk. We pooled data from exercise training studies of

  20. Conformal symmetry and pion form factor: Soft and hard contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Ho-Meoyng; Ji, Chueng-Ryong

    2006-01-01

    We discuss a constraint of conformal symmetry in the analysis of the pion form factor. The usual power-law behavior of the form factor obtained in the perturbative QCD analysis can also be attained by taking negligible quark masses in the nonperturbative quark model analysis, confirming the recent AdS/CFT correspondence. We analyze the transition from soft to hard contributions in the pion form factor considering a momentum-dependent dynamical quark mass from an appreciable constituent quark mass at low momentum region to a negligible current quark mass at high momentum region. We find a correlation between the shape of nonperturbative quark distribution amplitude and the amount of soft and hard contributions to the pion form factor

  1. Nurses' perceptions on factors contributing to job dissatisfaction in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Job dissatisfaction among nurses is a serious global concern. However, it seems that the numbers of studies on job dissatisfaction among nurses are limited. This study therefore seeks to explore and describe the nurses' perceptions on the factors contributing to job dissatisfaction in order to make recommendations aimed ...

  2. Identifying risk factors that contribute to acute mountain sickness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is a questionnaire-based study conducted in London and at Everest Base Camp, in which 116 lowlanders were invited to participate and fill in a questionnaire to identify potential risk factors in their history that may have contributed to development of or protection against AMS. Results. A total of 89 lowlanders ...

  3. Factors Contributing to Readmission of Seniors into Acute Care Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCoster, Vaughn; Ehlman, Katie; Conners, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    Medicare spending is expected to increase by 79% between the years 2010 and 2020, caused, in-part, by hospital readmissions within 30 days of discharge. This study identified factors contributing to hospital readmissions in a midwest heath service area (HSA), using Coleman's Transition Care Model as the theoretical framework. The researchers…

  4. Contribution of household environment factors to urban Childhood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contribution of household environment factors to urban Childhood mortality in Mozambique. ... Conclusion: Type of toilet facility and source of drinking water play an important role in the risk of childhood mortality in urban areas of Mozambique and the relationship seems to be mediated partly by demographic and ...

  5. Factors contributing to home delivery in Kongwa District, Dodoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine factors contributing to home delivery in Kongwa District. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in September 2009 in which women of child-bearing age were interviewed. The variables mainly included: accessibility of maternal health care, practicing TBA's, existence of ...

  6. Factors That Contribute to the Adjustment of International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesidor, Jean Kesnold; Sly, Kaye F.

    2016-01-01

    Leaving home to attend college is an important milestone for college students. However, the transition from home to college can be challenging, especially for students studying abroad. In this article, the authors explore factors that contribute to the academic, cultural, social, and psychological adjustments of international students. Adjustment…

  7. Assessment of factors contributing to flood disaster in Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Climate change has brought with it some forms of extreme weather events. One of such is heavy rainfall which often leads to flood. In recent times, flood disaster has been a regular occurrence destroying lives and property. This study was carried out to identify and assess contributing factors to flood disaster in Ibadan ...

  8. Factors contributing to morbidity and mortality among preterm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Prematurity is one of the highest global health challenges of the 21st century and has been named the first killer of young children. In Rwanda, it is the leading cause of death in neonates. It is expedient to explore the factors contributing to the observed high morbidity and mortality to plan appropriate interventions.

  9. Relative contributions of individual, institutional and system factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the relative contributions of individual, institutional and system factors to utilisation of Research4Life databases by scientists in the National Agricultural Research Institutes (NARIs) in Nigeria. The study adopted the descriptive survey research design of the correlational type. Simple and stratified ...

  10. Factors Contributing to SMEs Failure in Meeting Supplier Performance Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Scheers Louise

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to determine the factors that contribute to the failure of small and medium enterprises (SMEs in meeting supplier performance standards. Suppliers are faced with the challenge of SMEs failing to meet supplier performance standards because they rely on these providers of products and services, mainly SMEs, for their operations and to ultimately achieve their mandate. The researchers were able to establish the main factors contributing to SME failure in meeting supplier performance standards. These are as follows: unclear specifications and terms of references from suppliers; insufficient information provided to SME suppliers to ensure understanding of requirements; insufficient feedback and support; no support of SME suppliers based on their Black Economic Empowerment (BEE status; limited or no use of business support programs by SME suppliers; and external factors such as access to finance, changes in the economy, and location.

  11. Factors contributing to, and effects of, teenage pregnancy in Juba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwido Vincent

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the factors contributing to, and effecting, pregnancy among teenagers in Juba. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Juba Teaching Hospital among 50 randomly sampled pregnant teenagers in 2015. Results: The factors contributing to teenage pregnancy included: lack of school fees, lack of parental care, communication and supervision, poverty, peer pressure, non-use of contraceptives, desire for a child, forced marriage, low educational level and need for dowries. The effects of pregnancy on the teenagers included: school drop-out, health risk during and after childbirth, divorce, rejection by parents, stigmatism, and, sometimes if the baby is unwanted, abortion. Conclusions and recommendations: The factors driving teenage pregnancy are complex and varied and therefore require multifaceted interventions. We recommend improvements related to education, family planning, school-based health centres, youth-friendly clinics and youth development programmes.

  12. Factors Contributing to EFL Teachers' Professional Development in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Amin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at investigating factors contributing to English as a Foreign Language teachers’ professional development and how these factors have shaped their professionalism. The subjects of the study included six English teachers at senior high schools under the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Religious Affairs in three different regions in Indonesia. Findings of the study reveal that there are both personal and environmental factors identified as having contributed to an EFL teacher’s professionalism, both prior to and after their induction into EFL teaching. Prior to the induction, two of the personal factors were identified: an early interest in English and a high aptitude, although early exposure to English may also be considered an environmental factor. After induction, their professional development is affected by: the level of job satisfaction, commitment to their own learning and student learning, communication skills, and resilience as personal factors, and students, school facilities, teacher colleagues, curriculum change, school leadership, and the supervisory system as environmental factors.

  13. Factors contributing to outcome following traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsford, Jennie

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury results in some distinctive patterns of cognitive, behavioural and physical impairment which impact significantly on independent living skills and participation in work or study, social and leisure activities and interpersonal relationships. There is, however, still considerable variability in outcome across individuals in each of the reported domains. This has led to a significant body of research examining factors associated with outcome. A range of injury-related, personal and social factors have been shown to influence survival, as well as cognitive, functional and employment outcome. This paper reviews the factors associated with each of these aspects of outcome specifically injury-related factors, including neuroimaging findings, GCS and PTA, other injuries, and cognitive and behavioural impairments; demographic factors, including age, gender, genetic status, education, pre-injury IQ and employment status; and social factors including family and other social support, cultural factors, pre-injury psychiatric history and coping style. The paper identifies contributions and complex interrelationships of all of these factors to outcome following TBI. It concludes with a brief discussion of the implications of these factors for the rehabilitation process.

  14. Factors contributing to work related low back pain among personal care workers in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Simon S

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to preliminary explore the work related and individual factors that contributed to the occurrence of low back pain (LBP) that affected work activities of Personal Care Workers (PCWs). A cross-sectional study was conducted to 36 PCWs in an old age home of Hong Kong. The study is divided into three parts: 1) a questionnaire to document the workload exposure factors and the musculoskeletal symptoms survey of the PCWs, 2) work posture evaluation; and 3) an evaluation of the physical fitness and lifting capacity of the PCWs. Univariate analyses were used to explore the risk factors associated with LBP that affected work activities. The results indicated that individual physical profile and lifting capacities did not contribute to occurrence of low back pain at work. For the work demand factors, the perceived physical demands in lifting and lowering heavy objects, awkward sustain neck and back postures, loading on the back, and perceived effort of cleaning task contributed to the occurrence of LBP. For the physical environment factors, thermal stress and improper ventilation were associated with the occurrence of LBP cases. For the individual factor, LBP cases were associated with workers' self perceived muscular effort, and perceived risk of mental illness in response to work requirements.

  15. Arginine promotes Proteus mirabilis motility and fitness by contributing to conservation of the proton gradient and proton motive force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbruster, Chelsie E; Hodges, Steven A; Smith, Sara N; Alteri, Christopher J; Mobley, Harry L T

    2014-10-01

    Swarming contributes to Proteus mirabilis pathogenicity by facilitating access to the catheterized urinary tract. We previously demonstrated that 0.1-20 mmol/L arginine promotes swarming on normally nonpermissive media and that putrescine biosynthesis is required for arginine-induced swarming. We also previously determined that arginine-induced swarming is pH dependent, indicating that the external proton concentration is critical for arginine-dependent effects on swarming. In this study, we utilized survival at pH 5 and motility as surrogates for measuring changes in the proton gradient (ΔpH) and proton motive force (μH(+) ) in response to arginine. We determined that arginine primarily contributes to ΔpH (and therefore μH(+) ) through the action of arginine decarboxylase (speA), independent of the role of this enzyme in putrescine biosynthesis. In addition to being required for motility, speA also contributed to fitness during infection. In conclusion, consumption of intracellular protons via arginine decarboxylase is one mechanism used by P. mirabilis to conserve ΔpH and μH(+) for motility. © 2014 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Factors contributing to the fluctuations in residential construction in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Gholipour Fereidouni

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Residential construction is one of the most important pillars of Iran’s economy. Although this sector had an increasing trend over the past two decades, however, the growth rate of residential construction was very volatile. The purpose of this paper is to empirically investigate those factors contributing to this fluctuation over the 1991:Q2-2008:Q4. By applying cointegration approach, the empirical results show that housing prices, construction costs, GDP and gold prices are important factors to explain swings in residential construction in Iran.

  17. Evaluation of the protection factor of half-masks with respirator fitting test apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, M.; Ikezawa, Y.; Yoshida, Y.; Matsui, H.; Kokubu, M.

    1980-01-01

    A respirator fitting test apparatus has been developed to select half-masks of high performance and to estimate their protective ability. With the apparatus, the facepiece leakage was measured for six different half-masks worn by 40 volunteer subjects, under simulated working conditions of normal breathing, smiling, moving head, and talking. A cloud of submicron sodium chloride particles was fed into a test hood in which the subject wore a mask. The air sampled from inside the mask with a miniature pump was assessed by a flame photometer. It is hown that the protection factor (ratio of the concentration of test cloud outside the mask to that inside) for each mask varies widely with the subject and the working conditions, and that the protection factors roughly fit a lognormal distribution. The values characterizing the distributions of respective masks are given. (H.K.)

  18. Contributing Factors for Protein Calorie Malnutrition in Distsrict Mardan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, D.M.; Khan, S.A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Protein calorie malnutrition (PCM) is a common health problem in developing countries resulting in high mortality in children under five years of age. It is also known as protein energy malnutrition. Objectives: To calculate the incidence and risk factors for Protein Calorie Malnutrition in children attending hospitals of district Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Study design, settings and duration: Retrospective hospital case record analysis of admitted children diagnosed as suffers of PCM and were admitted in hospitals from 2011-15 was done. Subjects and Methods: Children < 5 years fulfilling the inclusion criteria and reporting at four major hospitals of district Mardan from 2011-15 were included in the study. Data of children fulfilling the definition of PCM were further analyzed using SPSS software. Chi-square test and logistic regression model was used to determine the significance of the risk factors with the PCM disease. Results: Out of 448 children, 58.5 percent (n=262) had PCM and 41.5 percent (n=186) did not have PCM. The significant risk factors in the logistic model fitted for male children included economic status, number of living children, environmental sanitation, immunization, skin changes. Risk factors for PCM in female children were economic status, weight, height, number of living children, environmental sanitation, immunization, hair changes, time to time monitoring of the child and clean water availability. In the logistic model for both genders; the risk factors that showed significant association with PCM were economic status, weight, height, number of living children, environmental sanitation, immunization, hair changes, time to time monitoring of the child health, clean water availability and hypothermia. Conclusion: Almost 58 percent children admitted in different hospitals of district Mardan had PCM and the significant risk factors were economic status, weight, height, number of living children, environmental sanitation

  19. Independent associations of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness with metabolic risk factors in children: the European youth heart study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, U; Anderssen, S A; Froberg, K

    2007-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: High levels of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and physical activity (PA) are associated with a favourable metabolic risk profile. However, there has been no thorough exploration of the independent contributions of cardiorespiratory fitness and subcomponents of activity (total PA...... the association between activity and clustered risk is independent of adiposity. Our results suggest that fitness and activity affect metabolic risk through different pathways....

  20. Contribution to identification of factors causing radiographic image unsharpness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branzan, C.; Popescu, A.; Radu, R.

    1995-01-01

    Radiographic image quality is crucial for the ability of the radiographic method to give us a maximum information about the macroscopic structure of materials and pieces, investigated by penetrating radiation. Radiographic image quality depends on several factors. A high quality image is able to show small and typical defects. One of the most important factor affecting radiographic image is unsharpness. The total effective unsharpness of the film must be some function of several factors and their contribution is taken into account by summing up different kinds of unsharpness: geometric unsharpness, internal unsharpness, screen unsharpness, and accidental unsharpness. This work analyses the weight of the radiographic image unsharpness and the possibilities for determining its influence on the quality of the radiographic image. (author)

  1. Effects of a Cooperative Learning Strategy on the Effectiveness of Physical Fitness Teaching and Constraining Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsui-Er Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of cooperative learning and traditional learning on the effectiveness and constraining factors of physical fitness teaching under various teaching conditions were studied. Sixty female students in Grades 7–8 were sampled to evaluate their learning of health and physical education (PE according to the curriculum for Grades 1–9 in Taiwan. The data were quantitatively and qualitatively collected and analyzed. The overall physical fitness of the cooperative learning group exhibited substantial progress between the pretest and posttest, in which the differences in the sit-and-reach and bent-knee sit-up exercises achieved statistical significance. The performance of the cooperative learning group in the bent-knee sit-up and 800 m running exercises far exceeded that of the traditional learning group. Our qualitative data indicated that the number of people grouped before a cooperative learning session, effective administrative support, comprehensive teaching preparation, media reinforcement, constant feedback and introspection regarding cooperative learning strategies, and heterogeneous grouping are constraining factors for teaching PE by using cooperative learning strategies. Cooperative learning is considered an effective route for attaining physical fitness among students. PE teachers should consider providing extrinsic motivation for developing learning effectiveness.

  2. Violence against women in Pakistan: contributing factors and new interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmaliani, Rozina; Pasha, Aneeta; Hirani, Saima; Somani, Rozina; Hirani, Shela; Asad, Nargis; Cassum, Laila; McFarlane, Judith

    2012-12-01

    Pakistan ranks 125th out of 169 countries on the Gender Development Index and has high prevalence rates of Violence against Women (VAW). Contributing factors toward gender based violence at the micro, meso and macro levels include the acceptability of violence amongst both men and women, internalization of deservability, economic disempowerment, lack of formal education, joint family systems, entrenched patriarchal norms and values, and a lack of awareness of legal and other support systems. These factors have a long-lasting impact on the health of women and children. The gender disparities in the experience of women seeking health care in Pakistan are well-recognized and documented. In the past, common government policy responses to these disparities have included developing the role of community health workers (CHWs) and lady health visitors (LHVs). Despite being commendable initiatives, these too have been unsuccessful in addressing these multi-faceted disparities. Within this complex scenario, new interventions to address VAW and its impact on health in Pakistan include Group Counselling, Economic Skills Building, Health-Based Microfinance, and Family-Based models that increase male involvement, especially at the primary health care level. The purpose of this article is to outline key contributing factors to VAW, explore tested and new interventions, and highlight the opportunities that exist in implementing them.

  3. A brief tool to differentiate factors contributing to insomnia complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Donald; Kazaglis, Louis; Savik, Kay; Smerud, Adam; Iber, Conrad

    2017-03-01

    A complaint of insomnia may have many causes. A brief tool examining contributing factors may be useful for nonsleep specialists. This study describes the development of the Insomnia Symptoms Assessment (ISA) for examining insomnia complaints. ISA questions were designed to identify symptoms that may represent 1 of 8 possible factors contributing to insomnia symptoms, including delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS), shift work sleep disorder (SWSD), obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), mental health, chronic pain, restless leg syndrome (RLS), poor sleep hygiene, and psychophysiological insomnia (PI). The ISA was completed by 346 new patients. Patients met with a sleep specialist who determined primary and secondary diagnoses. Mean age was 45 (18-85) years and 51% were male. Exploratory factor analysis (n = 217) and confirmatory factor analysis (n = 129) supported 5 factors with good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha), including RLS (.72), OSA (.60), SWSD (.67), DSPS (.64), and PI (.80). Thirty percent had 1 sleep diagnosis with a mean of 2.2 diagnoses per patient. No diagnosis was entered for 1.2% of patients. The receiver operating characteristics were examined and the area under the curves calculated as an indication of convergent validity for the primary diagnosis (N = 346) were .97 for SWSD, .78 for OSA, .67 for DSPS, .54 for PI, and .80 for RLS. The ISA demonstrated good internal consistency and corresponds well to expert diagnoses. Next steps include setting sensitivity/specificity cutoffs to suggest initial treatment recommendations for use in other settings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. CONTRIBUTING FACTORS TOWARDS DIFFICULTIES IN GENERATING IDEAS AMONG TECHNICAL STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Yee Mei Heong

    2013-01-01

    Idea is a thought or collection of thoughts that are important to decision making and problem solving.  The purpose of this research was to analysis the factors contributing to difficulty in generating ideas among technical students.  A total of 375 technical students from four technical universities in Malaysia were randomly selected as samples.  A set of questionnaires was developed and used as research instrument.  The findings indicated that a total of 319 (85.1%) technical students faced...

  5. Factors that contribute to the willingness to try "street hypnosis".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Orin C; Gao, Xuan

    2014-01-01

    This study takes a context-specific approach to examine people's willingness to try hypnosis under various conditions and the factors that contribute to their willingness. It examined 378 participants, who completed a web-based hypnosis survey. The results showed that people's willingness to try hypnosis varies by context. Specifically, people are more willing to try hypnosis when it is framed as "peak focus" rather than "hypnosis" and when they perceive the environment as being safer. Moreover, factors including participants' demographics, hypnotists' demographics (relative to the subjects'), participants' control bias, and knowledge of hypnosis affect people's degrees of willingness to try hypnosis, depending on the specific context. The results suggest further analysis of hypnosis occurring in public contexts and the effects it may have on attitudes and therapeutic outcomes.

  6. Factors contributing to malnutrition in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung R; Chung, Sun J; Yoo, Sung-Hee

    2016-04-01

    Our objective in this study was to evaluate the nutritional status and to identify clinical, psychosocial, and nutritional factors contributing to malnutrition in Korean patients with Parkinson's disease. We used a descriptive, cross-sectional study design. Of 102 enrolled patients, 26 (25.5%) were malnourished and 27 (26.5%) were at risk of malnutrition based on Mini-Nutritional Assessment scores. Malnutrition was related to activity of daily living score, Hoehn and Yahr stage, duration of levodopa therapy, Beck Depression Inventory and Spielberger's Anxiety Inventory scores, body weight, body weight at onset of Parkinson's disease, and body mass index. On multiple logistic regression analysis, anxiety score, duration of levodopa therapy, body weight at onset of Parkinson's disease, and loss of body weight were significant factors predicting malnutrition in Parkinson's disease patients. Therefore, nutritional assessment, including psychological evaluation, is required for Parkinson's disease patients to facilitate interdisciplinary nutritional intervention for malnourished patients. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. Factors contributing to Korean teachers' attitudes toward students with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Ahm; Yim, Soo Bin; Rho, Young Il; Chu, Minkyung; Park, Hyeon Mi; Lee, Geun-ho; Park, Sung-Pa; Jung, Dae Soo

    2011-02-01

    We investigated factors contributing to teachers' attitudes toward students with epilepsy. Data were collected from 604 teachers in Korea. The questionnaire included the Scale of Attitudes Toward Persons with Epilepsy (ATPE) and a demographic and teaching experience survey. In stepwise linear regression analysis, ATPE Knowledge scores (PAttitude scores. The ATPE Knowledge scores accounted for 50.1% of the variance in the Attitude scores, and experience teaching a student with epilepsy accounted only for 1.0%. Our finding that teachers' knowledge is the most important factor influencing teacher's attitudes toward epilepsy indicates that teachers should be provided with information about epilepsy universally, across geographic settings, educational levels, and experience levels. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Factors contributing to the immunogenicity of meningococcal conjugate vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröker, Michael; Berti, Francesco; Costantino, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Various glycoprotein conjugate vaccines have been developed for the prevention of invasive meningococcal disease, having significant advantages over pure polysaccharide vaccines. One of the most important features of the conjugate vaccines is the induction of a T-cell dependent immune response, which enables both the induction of immune memory and a booster response after repeated immunization. The nature of the carrier protein to which the polysaccharides are chemically linked, is often regarded as the main component of the vaccine in determining its immunogenicity. However, other factors can have a significant impact on the vaccine's profile. In this review, we explore the physico-chemical properties of meningococcal conjugate vaccines, which can significantly contribute to the vaccine's immunogenicity. We demonstrate that the carrier is not the sole determining factor of the vaccine's profile, but, moreover, that the conjugate vaccine's immunogenicity is the result of multiple physico-chemical structures and characteristics. PMID:26934310

  9. Low Cardiorespiratory Fitness is Partially Linked to Ventilatory Factors in Obese Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, Monique; Michallet, Anne-Sophie; Tonini, Julia; Favre-Juvin, Anne; Guinot, Michel; Wuyam, Bernard; Flore, Patrice

    2016-02-01

    To examine the role of ventilatory constraint on cardiorespiratory fitness in obese adolescents. Thirty obese adolescents performed a maximal incremental cycling exercise and were divided into 2 groups based on maximal oxygen uptake (VO2peak): those presenting low (L; n = 15; VO2peak: 72.9 ± 8.6% predicted) or normal (N; n = 15; VO2peak: 113.6 ± 19.2% predicted) cardiorespiratory fitness. Both were compared with a group of healthy controls (C; n = 20; VO2peak: 103.1 ± 11.2% predicted). Ventilatory responses were explored using the flow volume loop method. Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak, in % predicted) was lower in L compared with C and N and was moderately associated with the percent predicted forced vital capacity (FVC) (r = .52; p < .05) in L. At peak exercise, end inspiratory point was lower in L compared with N and C (77.4 ± 8.1, 86.4 ± 7.7, and 89.9 ± 7.6% FVC in L, N, and C, respectively; p < .05), suggesting an increased risk of ventilatory constraint in L, although at peak exercise this difference could be attributed to the lower maximal ventilation in L. Forced vital capacity and ventilatory strategy to incremental exercise slightly differed between N and L. These results suggest a modest participation of ventilatory factors to exercise intolerance.

  10. Soccer improves fitness and attenuates cardiovascular risk factors in hypertensive men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Andersen, Lars Juel

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The present study investigated the fitness and health effects of medium-term soccer training for untrained hypertensive middle-aged men. METHODS: Thirty-three untrained males (31-54 y) with mild-to-moderate hypertension were randomised 2:1 to a soccer training group (STG, two 1-h...... sessions per week, n=22, 68% on medication) and a doctor advice group receiving traditional physician-guided recommendations on cardiovascular risk factor modification (DAG, n=11, 73% on medication). Two-way repeated-measurement ANOVA time-group statistics was applied. RESULTS: During soccer training...

  11. Incremental Contributions of FbaA and Other Impetigo-Associated Surface Proteins to Fitness and Virulence of a Classical Group A Streptococcal Skin Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouchon, Candace N; Ly, Anhphan T; Noto, John P; Luo, Feng; Lizano, Sergio; Bessen, Debra E

    2017-11-01

    Group A streptococci (GAS) are highly prevalent human pathogens whose primary ecological niche is the superficial epithelial layers of the throat and/or skin. Many GAS strains with a strong tendency to cause pharyngitis are distinct from strains that tend to cause impetigo; thus, genetic differences between them may confer host tissue-specific virulence. In this study, the FbaA surface protein gene was found to be present in most skin specialist strains but largely absent from a genetically related subset of pharyngitis isolates. In an Δ fbaA mutant constructed in the impetigo strain Alab49, loss of FbaA resulted in a slight but significant decrease in GAS fitness in a humanized mouse model of impetigo; the Δ fbaA mutant also exhibited decreased survival in whole human blood due to phagocytosis. In assays with highly sensitive outcome measures, Alab49ΔfbaA was compared to other isogenic mutants lacking virulence genes known to be disproportionately associated with classical skin strains. FbaA and PAM (i.e., the M53 protein) had additive effects in promoting GAS survival in whole blood. The pilus adhesin tip protein Cpa promoted Alab49 survival in whole blood and appears to fully account for the antiphagocytic effect attributable to pili. The finding that numerous skin strain-associated virulence factors make slight but significant contributions to virulence underscores the incremental contributions to fitness of individual surface protein genes and the multifactorial nature of GAS-host interactions. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  12. Public health leadership development: factors contributing to growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Linda G

    2013-01-01

    This study compares pre- and posttest Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI-Self) scores for public health leaders who completed the Regional Institute for Health and Environmental Leadership (RIHEL) training program at least 2 years earlier; it seeks to identify factors contributing to changes in practices and overall leadership development for public health and environment leaders. Sixty-seven alumni who completed the yearlong RIHEL program between 1999 and 2002 participated through mailed surveys and phone interviews. The Leadership Practices Inventory, an alumni leadership development survey, and interviews provided evidence for positive change in leadership practices. Alumni experienced significant increases in pre- to post-LPI scores, collaborative leadership practices, and communication skills consistent with those taught in the RIHEL program. Women presented higher Encourage the Heart scores than men. Years of public health service negatively correlated with Total Change scores of LPI. The RIHEL program as a training intervention was credited significantly with changes in leadership practices for alumni studied. Nine influencing factors were identified for leadership development and are embedded in a Leadership Development Influence Model. These include self-awareness, a leadership development framework, and skills important in multiple leadership situations. Confidence was both an encouraging factor and a resulting factor to the increased exemplary leadership practices. Leadership development in public health must include multiple factors to create consistent increases in exemplary leadership practices. While the study focused on the leadership development process itself, RIHEL training was reported as having a positive, significant impact overall in participant leadership development. This study adds research data as a foundation for training content areas of focus. Studies to further test the Leadership Development Influence Model will allow public health

  13. Phlebitis in amiodarone administration: incidence, contributing factors, and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Linda; Ottoboni, Linda K; Varady, Ann; Yang-Lu, Chia-Yu; Becker, Nancy; Cotter, Theresa; Pummer, Eileen; Haynes, Annette; Forsey, Lynn; Matsuda, Kelly; Wang, Paul

    2013-11-01

    Intravenous amiodarone is an important treatment for arrhythmias, but peripheral infusion is associated with direct irritation of vessel walls and phlebitis rates of 8% to 55%. Objectives To determine the incidence and factors contributing to the development of amiodarone-induced phlebitis in the coronary care unit in an academic medical center and to refine the current practice protocol. Medical records from all adult patients during an 18-month period who received intravenous amiodarone while in the critical care unit were reviewed retrospectively. Route of administration, location, concentration, and duration of amiodarone therapy and factors associated with occurrence of phlebitis were examined. Descriptive statistics and regression methods were used to identify incidence and phlebitis factors. In the final sample of 105 patients, incidence of phlebitis was 40%, with a 50% recurrence rate. All cases of phlebitis occurred in patients given a total dose of 3 g via a peripheral catheter, and one-quarter of these cases (n = 10) developed at dosages less than 1 g. Pain, redness, and warmth were the most common indications of phlebitis. Total dosage given via a peripheral catheter, duration of infusion, and number of catheters were significantly associated with phlebitis. Amiodarone-induced phlebitis occurred in 40% of this sample at higher drug dosages. A new practice protocol resulted from this study. An outcome study is in progress.

  14. Factors contributing to migraine headache surgery failure and success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Kelsey; Lee, Michelle; Davis, Janine; Guyuron, Bahman

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors that contribute to migraine headache surgery failure and success. A retrospective chart review was conducted of patients who underwent surgery for migraine headaches performed by the senior author (B.G.) and had at least 11 months of follow-up. The study population included three groups: migraine surgery success, improvement, and failure. Thirty-six unique data points were collected for each patient. A total of 169 patients met inclusion criteria. Of these, 66 patients comprised the migraine surgery success group (S, complete elimination of migraine headaches); 67 comprised the migraine surgery improvement group (I, >50 percent reduction in migraine frequency, intensity, or duration); and 36 comprised the migraine surgery failure group (F, I, p=0.02), migraine frequency (SI, p=0.003; S>F, p=0.04), history of head or neck injury (SI, p=0.02), increased intraoperative bleeding (SF, p=0.0006; I>F, p=0.0004), site II (S>F, p=0.015), single operative site (SI, p=0.05; S>F, p=0.04). Factors associated with migraine surgery failure include increased intraoperative bleeding and surgery on fewer trigger sites. Factors associated with migraine surgery success are older age of migraine onset, higher rate of visual symptoms versus improvement group, surgery at site I or II, and deactivating all four operative sites. Risk, III.

  15. Cardiovascular risk factor clustering and its association with fitness in nine-year-old rural Norwegian children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Resaland, G K; Mamen, A; Boreham, C

    2010-01-01

    of those in the other quartiles. Finally, subjects were cross-tabulated into different fat-fit groups. For both sexes, the unfit and overweight/obese group had a significantly higher CVD risk factor score than the fit and normal weight group. Clustering of CVD risk factors was present in this group......This paper describes cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor levels in a population-representative sample of healthy, rural Norwegian children and examines the association between fitness and clustering of CVD risk factors. Final analyses included 111 boys and 116 girls (mean age 9.3 +/- 0.......3). To determine the degree of clustering, six CVD risk factors were selected: homeostasis model assessment score, waist circumference, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein ratio and fitness (VO(2peak)). Clustering was observed in 9.9% of the boys and 13...

  16. Identifying factors contributing to slow growth in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Y; Deen, J; Shurson, G C; Wang, L; Chen, C; Keisler, D H; Li, Y Z

    2016-05-01

    Pigs that grow slower than their contemporaries can cause complications for animal welfare and profitability. This study was conducted to investigate factors that may contribute to slow growth of pigs. Pigs ( = 440) farrowed by 65 sows were monitored from birth to market. Pigs were categorized as slow, average, and fast growers based on market weight adjusted to 170 d of age (slow growers were 125 kg). Blood samples were collected from 48 focal pigs at 9 and 21 wk of age and analyzed for hormone and free AA concentrations. Data were analyzed using the Mixed and Logistic procedures of SAS. Slow-growing pigs accounted for 10% of pigs marketed, average growers accounted for 49% of pigs marketed, and fast growers accounted for 41% of pigs marketed. Compared with fast growers, slow growers were lighter at birth ( ratio = 2.17, 95% confidence interval = 1.19 to 3.96, = 0.01). Litter size and parity of the pigs' dam were not associated with slow growth. These results suggest that low concentrations of IGF-1, insulin, leptin, and AA may contribute to or be associated with slow growth in pigs.

  17. Factors Contributing to Personal Commitment in Chinese Interethnic Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinmiao Zhong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Interethnic relationships are increasingly common in many societies, yet interethnic couples have a higher divorce rate compared to intraethnic couples. Given these facts and the dearth of research, this study aimed to identify factors that contribute to couples’ commitment in interethnic relationships. This study investigated the personal commitment of Chinese interethnic couples in the United Kingdom and the United States. Specifically, whether love, dyadic adjustment and “couple cultural identity” (i.e. acculturation to the partner and couple’s similarity on individualism/collectivism would predict personal commitment and whether each variable would account for unique variance in personal commitment of the participants. Thirty-seven Chinese/non-Chinese heterosexual couples participated in the study and significant relationships between love and personal commitment, dyadic adjustment and personal commitment were found. Also, couple cultural identity was important for women’s personal commitment. Multiple regression and structural equation modelling showed that partners in interethnic relationships defined personal commitment in different ways with men emphasizing love and dyadic adjustment, and women emphasizing love and acculturation to their partner. The discovery of the importance of couple cultural identity in contributing to personal commitment, besides love and dyadic adjustment, helps researchers to gain a greater understanding of such relationships and to extend the research on interethnic relationships.

  18. Top Five Physical Design Factors Contributing to Fall Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Debajyoti; Lee, Jaehoon; Mihandoust, Sahar; Kazem-Zadeh, Mahshad; Oh, Youngha

    2018-01-01

    To develop a prioritized list of physical design questions/interventions to reduce patient falls by conducting expanded analysis (Phase II) of data generated from a completed study phase. Patient falls continue to be a critical concern for healthcare providers, patients, and families. While substantial literature exist on intrinsic factors, scientific evidence on the role of the physical environment is scarce. Expanded analysis of data from 180 videos of trials conducted in a physical mock-up of a medical-surgical inpatient room in a previously completed study phase. The odds of subject's exhibited postures (predictors) on fall initiation (outcome) were examined in a series of generalized linear mixed effects models. Physical design elements and attributes associated with postures exhibiting statistical significance were examined. Turning, pulling, pushing, and bending forward exhibited the highest odds of contributing to fall initiation in the bathroom. Grabbing, pushing, and sitting exhibited the highest odds of contributing to fall initiation around the patient bed. Physical design elements/attributes associated with the above postures are the (1) bathroom door; (2) bathroom spatial configuration-relative locations of door, toilet bowl, and the sink; (3) door, toilet, and sink hardware; (4) space availability/tightness inside the clinician zone; and (5) spatial configuration around patient bed-relative locations of bed, patient chair, and overbed table, in relation to bathroom door, and resulting obstructions originating from the configuration. Patient falls during unassisted ambulation may be reduced through appropriate examination of these five physical elements/attributes.

  19. Factors contributing to the surgical retreatment of mandibular fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Gualberto de Cerqueira Luz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate contributing factors in patients requiring surgical retreatment of mandibular fractures. Of all the patients with mandibular fractures who were treated using internal fixation at a trauma hospital over a seven-year period, 20 patients (4.7% required a second surgery and thus composed the “reoperated” group. The control group comprised 42 consecutive patients with mandibular fractures who were treated at the same clinic and who healed without complications. Medical charts were reviewed for gender, age, substance abuse history, dental condition, etiology, location of fracture, degree of fragmentation, fracture exposure, teeth in the fracture line, associated facial fractures, polytrauma, time elapsed between trauma and initial treatment, surgical approach and fixation system. Statistical analyses were performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 20.0; descriptive statistics and the chi-squared test were used to determine differences between groups. Significant differences in substance abuse (p = 0.006, dental condition (p < 0.001, location of fracture (p = 0.010, degree of fragmentation (p = 0.003 and fracture exposure (p < 0.001 were found. With regard to age and time elapsed between trauma and initial treatment, older patients (31.4 years, SD = 11.1 and a delay in fracture repair (19.1 days, SD = 18.7 were more likely to be associated with reoperation. It was concluded that substance abuse, age, dental condition, location of fracture, degree of fragmentation, fracture exposure and the time between trauma and initial treatment should be considered contributing factors to the occurrence of complications that require surgical retreatment of mandibular fractures.

  20. Factors Contributing to Learners’ Autonomy in EFL Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Endah Tabiati

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study aims to discover factors that assist learners develop their autonomy in EFL reading. The approach employed is qualitative involving EFL learners in an English Department of the Faculty of Cultural Studies, Brawijaya University Malang. There are two stages in the study: the subject selection stage intended to gain potential subjects and the main study intended to find the answer of the research questions. The findings of the study show that the autonomy of EFL learners in reading is influenced by 14 internal and 14 external factors.These factors appear to happen naturally. It seemed that autonomy in reading is subconscious and has been gained by the subjects gradually since childhood. Moreover, autonomy in EFL reading is presumed to be universal as it is found in a collectivist culture such as the one in Indonesia. Based on the findings, suggestions are proposed and addressed to Reading lecturers, parents and the faculty representing the goverment. Because the factors seem to occur before they study at a university, the suggestions are also addressed to teachers and schools. Key Words: internal factors, external factors, contribution, learners’ autonomy, EFL reading Abstrak: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menemukan faktor yang membantu mahasiswa dalam mengembangkan kemampuannya secara otonom pada kemampuan membaca EFL. Penelitian ini menggunakan desain kualitative dengan melibatkan mahasiswa kategori EFL Fakultas Ilmu Budaya Universitas Brawijaya Malang. Terdapat dua thapa dalam penelitian ini. Tahap pertama merupakan pemilihan subyek yang bertujuan untuk mencari subyek yang berpotensi dan setelah itu penelitian dilakukan untuk menjawab rumusan masalah. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukan bahwa sikap otonom mahasiswa EFL dalam kemampuan membaca dipengaruhi oleh 14 faktor internal dan 14 faktor eksternal. Faktor-faktor tersebut muncul secara natural. Terlihat bahwa sikap otonom dalam kemampuan membaca merupakah hal yang terjadi

  1. Bicycling-related accidents and factors contributing to injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Perez, L.M.; Wideberg, J.; Gonzalez Perez-Somarriba, B.

    2016-07-01

    Objective: This study was conducted to find the epidemiological characteristics of bicycling-related maxillofacial fractures in a defined population, and identify factors contributing to injury. Methodology: A prospective study was carried out involving patients presenting with maxillofacial fractures sustained in bicycling-related accidents. Results: Between 908 of all cycling accidents attending for medical treatment, 122 patients (13% of all cycling accidents) were admitted with facial fractures between 2007 and 2014. Male and female ratio was 2.6:1, and the mean age was 29.4 years (standard deviation: 12.8, range: 12-79 years). Causes of injury included collisions (63%) and accidental falls (37%). The fracture patterns seen were mandibular (49%), zygomatic (32%), orbital (13%), nasal (7%), maxillary (2%), and frontal (2%). Condylar fractures were the most common of the mandibular fractures (63%). The most frequently observed concomitant lesions were orthopedic injuries. Conclusions: Bicycling-related maxillofacial injuries are common and therefore important to identify in order to design a sustainable transport system and for units that provide assistance to traffic accident victims. Missed diagnosis or delayed treatment can lead to facial deformities and functional problems. Wearing protective helmets and the improvement of the helmets design is one aspect that would be of interest for the prevention of injuries. Keywords: Cycling; bicycle-related trauma; maxillofacial fractures; risk factors; helmets. (Author)

  2. Contribution of environmental factors to the risk of male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, A; Spira, A; Multigner, L

    2001-08-01

    An increasing number of reports suggest that chemical and physical agents in the environment, introduced and spread by human activity, may affect male fertility in humans. We investigated the relationships between exposure to environmental agents and seminal characteristics, and the concentrations of reproductive hormones in the serum of men seeking infertility treatment. We studied 225 male partners from consecutively recruited couples, who had their first infertility consultation between 1995 and 1998, in the Litoral Sur region of Argentina, one of the most productive farming regions in the world. A multivariate logistic regression model showed that exposure to pesticides and solvents is significantly associated with sperm threshold values well below the limit for male fertility. We also found that men exposed to pesticides had higher serum oestradiol concentrations, and that men exposed to solvents had lower LH concentrations than non-exposed men. All of these effects were greater in men with primary infertility than in men with secondary infertility. We have shown that environmental factors contribute to the severity of infertility, and that this may worsen the effects of pre-existing genetic or medical risk factors.

  3. The contributions of human factors and ergonomics to a sustainable minerals industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horberry, Tim; Burgess-Limerick, Robin; Fuller, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    This article describes examples of the application of human factors research and development work to a sustainable minerals industry. It begins by outlining human-related aspects of the minerals industry and the key human factors work previously undertaken in this domain. The focus then switches to sustainability in the minerals industry. Sustainability principles are introduced and illustrations provided of how human factors research and development work fits within such a framework. Three case studies of human factors in the minerals industry research are presented and the sustainability implications in each case study are highlighted. Finally, future trends related to human factors work in a sustainable minerals industry are addressed, in particular the opportunities and possible adverse consequences that increasing deployment of mining automation might bring. Minerals industries are a major global activity with significant sustainability implications. Aspects of sustainability in mining are examined using three case studies. These illustrate the contribution of human factors/ergonomics in reducing risks; developing emergency response management systems; and the value of participatory ergonomics in improving the design of mining equipment.

  4. Hearing loss and contributing factors among airport workers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, H M; Rampal, K G

    2012-02-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss is a common and important source of disability among the workers and often caused by occupational noise exposure. Aims of the study were to determine the prevalence and contributing factors of hearing loss among airport workers. A cross-sectional study was carried out at an airport in Malaysia. This study used stratified sampling method that involved 358 workers who were working in 3 different units between November 2008 and March 2009. Data for this study were collected by using questionnaires eliciting sociodemographic, occupational exposure history (previous and present), life-style including smoking habits and health-related data. Otoscopic and pure-tone audiometric tests were conducted for hearing assessment. Noise exposure status was categorize by using a noise logging dosimeter to obtain 8-hour Time-Weighted Average (TWA). Data was analyzed by using SPSS version 12.0.1 and EpiInfo 6.04. The prevalence of hearing loss was 33.5%. Age >40 years old (aOR 4.3, 95%CI 2.2-8.3) is the main risk factors for hearing loss followed by duration of noise exposure >5 years (aOR 2.5, 95%CI 1.4-4.7), smoking (aOR 2.1, 95%CI 1.2-3.4), duration of service >5 years (aOR 2.1, 95%CI 1.1-3.9), exposure to explosion (aOR 6.1, 95%CI 1.3-29.8), exposure to vibration (aOR 2.2, 95%CI 1.1-4.3) and working in engineering unit (aOR 5.9, 95%CI 1.1-30.9). The prevalence rate ratio of hearing loss for nonsmokers aged 40 years old and younger, smokers aged 40 years old and younger, non-smokers older than 40 years old and smokers older than 40 years old was 1.0, 1.7, 2.8 and 4.6 respectively. This result contributes towards better understanding of risk factors for hearing loss, which is relatively common among Malaysian workers.

  5. Factors that contribute to the body image concern of female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Wanderson Roberto; Dias, Juliana Chioda Ribeiro; Maroco, João; Campos, Juliana Alvares Duarte Bonini

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the contribution of sociodemographic and labor variables and body mass index to body image concern. In order to estimate body image concern, the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) and the Weight Concerns Scale (WCS) were applied. A confirmatory factor analysis of scales was carried out. The reason χ2 by degree of freedom ratio (χ2/df ), Comparative Fit Index (CFI), Normed Fit Index (NFI), and root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) were used. Convergent validity was assessed through the average variance extracted and composed reliability and the internal consistency through standardized Cronbach's alpha coefficient (α). A structural model was developed, and the body image concern was the second-order main construct. The model appropriation was evaluated based on the goodness-of-fit indices. The z test was used to estimate the significance of trajectories (β) using a 5% significance level. Totally, 595 female college students participated in the study, with a mean age of 20.42 ± 2.44 years. The entire model, with the inclusion of all independent variables, showed unsatisfactory adjustment and was refined. The final model presented a satisfactory adjustment (χ2/df = 5.75; CFI = 0.87; NFI = 0.85; RMSEA = 0.09) with inclusion of medication use because of studies (β = 0.08; p = 0.04), academic performance (β = 0.09; p = 0.02), economic class (β = 0.08; p = 0.03), and body mass index (β = 0.44; p concern. Medication use due to studies, academic performance, economic class and body mass index significantly contribute to body image concern.

  6. The potential contribution of dietary factors to breast cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, Niva

    2017-09-01

    Breast cancer (BC), the leading cancer in women, is increasing in prevalence worldwide, concurrent with western metabolic epidemics, that is, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes, and shares major risk factors with these diseases. The corresponding potential for nutritional contributions toward BC prevention is reviewed and related to critical stages in the life cycle and their implications for carcinogenic and pathometabolic trajectories. BC initiation potentially involves diet-related pro-oxidative, inflammatory, and procarcinogenic processes, that interact through combined lipid/fatty acid peroxidation, estrogen metabolism, and related DNA-adduct/depurination/mutation formation. The pathometabolic trajectory is affected by high estrogen, insulin, and growth factor cascades and resultant accelerated proliferation/progression. Anthropometric risk factors - high birth weight, adult tallness, adiposity/BMI, and weight gain - are often reflective of these trends. A sex-based nutritional approach targets women's specific risk in western obesogenic environments, associated with increasing fatness, estrogen metabolism, n-6 : n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio, and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid conversion to proinflammatory/carcinogenic eicosanoids, and effects of timing of life events, for example, ages at menarche, full-term pregnancy, and menopause. Recent large-scale studies have confirmed the effectiveness of the evidence-based recommendations against BC risk, emphasizing low-energy density diets, highly nutritious plant-based regimes, physical activity, and body/abdominal adiposity management. Better understanding of dietary inter-relationships with BC, as applied to food intake, selection, combination, and processing/preparation, and recommended patterns, for example, Mediterranean, DASH, plant-based, low energy density, and low glycemic load, with high nutrient/phytonutrient density, would increase public motivation and authoritative support for early

  7. Potentially modifiable factors contributing to sepsis-associated encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonneville, Romain; de Montmollin, Etienne; Poujade, Julien; Garrouste-Orgeas, Maïté; Souweine, Bertrand; Darmon, Michael; Mariotte, Eric; Argaud, Laurent; Barbier, François; Goldgran-Toledano, Dany; Marcotte, Guillaume; Dumenil, Anne-Sylvie; Jamali, Samir; Lacave, Guillaume; Ruckly, Stéphane; Mourvillier, Bruno; Timsit, Jean-François

    2017-08-01

    Identifying modifiable factors for sepsis-associated encephalopathy may help improve patient care and outcomes. We conducted a retrospective analysis of a prospective multicenter database. Sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) was defined by a score on the Glasgow coma scale (GCS) sepsis at ICU admission, of whom 1341 (53%) had sepsis-associated encephalopathy. After adjusting for baseline characteristics, site of infection, and type of admission, the following factors remained independently associated with sepsis-associated encephalopathy: acute renal failure [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19-1.67], hypoglycemia 10 mmol/l (aOR = 1.37, 95% CI 1.09-1.72), hypercapnia >45 mmHg (aOR = 1.91, 95% CI 1.53-2.38), hypernatremia >145 mmol/l (aOR = 2.30, 95% CI 1.48-3.57), and S. aureus (aOR = 1.54, 95% CI 1.05-2.25). Sepsis-associated encephalopathy was associated with higher mortality, higher use of ICU resources, and longer hospital stay. After adjusting for age, comorbidities, year of admission, and non-neurological SOFA score, even mild alteration of mental status (i.e., a score on the GCS of 13-14) remained independently associated with mortality (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.38, 95% CI 1.09-1.76). Acute renal failure and common metabolic disturbances represent potentially modifiable factors contributing to sepsis-associated encephalopathy. However, a true causal relationship has yet to be demonstrated. Our study confirms the prognostic significance of mild alteration of mental status in patients with sepsis.

  8. Connected and disconnected contributions to nucleon axial form factors using Nf = 2 twisted mass fermions at the physical point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrou, Constantia; Constantinou, Martha; Hadjiyiannakou, Kyriakos; Jansen, Karl; Kallidonis, Christos; Koutsou, Giannis; Vaquero Avilés-Casco, Alejandro

    2018-03-01

    We present results on the isovector and isoscalar nucleon axial form factors including disconnected contributions, using an ensemble of Nf = 2 twisted mass cloverimproved Wilson fermions simulated with approximately the physical value of the pion mass. The light disconnected quark loops are computed using exact deflation, while the strange and the charm quark loops are evaluated using the truncated solver method. Techniques such as the summation and the two-state fits have been employed to access ground-state dominance.

  9. Breast cancer as heterogeneous disease: contributing factors and carcinogenesis mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko, Julia; Akushevich, Igor; Seewaldt, Victoria L; Abernethy, Amy P; Lyerly, H Kim

    2011-07-01

    The observed bimodal patterns of breast cancer incidence in the U.S. suggested that breast cancer may be viewed as more than one biological entity. We studied the factors potentially contributing to this phenomenon, specifically focusing on how disease heterogeneity could be linked to breast carcinogenesis mechanisms. Using empirical analyses and population-based biologically motivated modeling, age-specific patterns of incidence of ductal and lobular breast carcinomas from the SEER registry (1990-2003) were analyzed for heterogeneity and characteristics of carcinogenesis, stratified by race, stage, grade, and estrogen (ER)/progesterone (PR) receptor status. The heterogeneity of breast carcinoma age patterns decreased after stratification by grade, especially for grade I and III tumors. Stratification by ER/PR status further reduced the heterogeneity, especially for ER(+)/PR(-) and ER(-)/(-) tumors; however, the residual heterogeneity was still observed. The number of rate-limiting events of carcinogenesis and the latency of ductal and lobular carcinomas differed, decreasing from grade I to III, with poorly differentiated tumors associated with the least number of carcinogenesis stages and the shortest latency. Tumor grades play important role in bimodal incidence of breast carcinoma and have distinct mechanisms of carcinogenesis. Race and cancer subtype could play modifying role. ER/PR status contributes to the observed heterogeneity, but is subdominant to tumor grade. Further studies on sources of "remaining" heterogeneity of population with breast cancer (such as genetic/epigenetic characteristics) are necessary. The results of this study could suggest stratification rather than unification of breast cancer prevention strategies, risk assessment, and treatment.

  10. Elevated plasma factor VIII enhances venous thrombus formation in rabbits: contribution of factor XI, von Willebrand factor and tissue factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Chihiro; Yamashita, Atsushi; Matsuura, Yunosuke; Iwakiri, Takashi; Okuyama, Nozomi; Matsuda, Shuntaro; Matsumoto, Tomoko; Inoue, Osamu; Harada, Aya; Kitazawa, Takehisa; Hattori, Kunihiro; Shima, Midori; Asada, Yujiro

    2013-07-01

    Elevated plasma levels of factor VIII (FVIII) are associated with increased risk of deep venous thrombosis. The aim of this study is to elucidate how elevated FVIII levels affect venous thrombus formation and propagation in vivo. We examined rabbit plasma FVIII activity, plasma thrombin generation, whole blood coagulation, platelet aggregation and venous wall thrombogenicity before and one hour after an intravenous infusion of recombinant human FVIII (rFVIII). Venous thrombus induced by the endothelial denudation of rabbit jugular veins was histologically assessed. Thrombus propagation was evaluated as indocyanine green fluorescence intensity. Argatroban, a thrombin inhibitor, and neutralised antibodies for tissue factor (TF), factor XI (FXI), and von Willebrand factor (VWF) were infused before or after thrombus induction to investigate their effects on venous thrombus formation or propagation. Recombinant FVIII (100 IU/kg) increased rabbit plasma FVIII activity two-fold and significantly enhanced whole blood coagulation and total plasma thrombin generation, but did not affect initial thrombin generation time, platelet aggregation and venous wall thrombogenicity. The rFVIII infusion also increased the size of venous thrombus 1 hour after thrombus induction. Argatroban and the antibodies for TF, FXI or VWF inhibited such enhanced thrombus formation and all except TF suppressed thrombus propagation. In conclusion, elevated plasma FVIII levels enhance venous thrombus formation and propagation. Excess thrombin generation by FXI and VWF-mediated FVIII recruitment appear to contribute to the growth of FVIII-driven venous thrombus.

  11. Overnight shift work: factors contributing to diagnostic discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Tarek N; Loehfelm, Thomas; Khosa, Faisal; Rohatgi, Saurabh; Johnson, Jamlik-Omari

    2016-02-01

    The aims of the study are to identify factors contributing to preliminary interpretive discrepancies on overnight radiology resident shifts and apply this data in the context of known literature to draw parallels to attending overnight shift work schedules. Residents in one university-based training program provided preliminary interpretations of 18,488 overnight (11 pm–8 am) studies at a level 1 trauma center between July 1, 2013 and December 31, 2014. As part of their normal workflow and feedback, attendings scored the reports as major discrepancy, minor discrepancy, agree, and agree--good job. We retrospectively obtained the preliminary interpretation scores for each study. Total relative value units (RVUs) per shift were calculated as an indicator of overnight workload. The dataset was supplemented with information on trainee level, number of consecutive nights on night float, hour, modality, and per-shift RVU. The data were analyzed with proportional logistic regression and Fisher's exact test. There were 233 major discrepancies (1.26 %). Trainee level (senior vs. junior residents; 1.08 vs. 1.38 %; p performance. Increased workload affected more junior residents' performance, with R3 residents performing significantly worse on busier nights. Hour of the night was not significantly associated with performance, but there was a trend toward best performance at 2 am, with subsequent decreased accuracy throughout the remaining shift hours. Improved performance occurred after the first six night float shifts, presumably as residents acclimated to a night schedule. As overnight shift work schedules increase in popularity for residents and attendings, focused attention to factors impacting interpretative accuracy is warranted.

  12. Cognitive and system factors contributing to diagnostic errors in radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cindy S; Nagy, Paul G; Weaver, Sallie J; Newman-Toker, David E

    2013-09-01

    In this article, we describe some of the cognitive and system-based sources of detection and interpretation errors in diagnostic radiology and discuss potential approaches to help reduce misdiagnoses. Every radiologist worries about missing a diagnosis or giving a false-positive reading. The retrospective error rate among radiologic examinations is approximately 30%, with real-time errors in daily radiology practice averaging 3-5%. Nearly 75% of all medical malpractice claims against radiologists are related to diagnostic errors. As medical reimbursement trends downward, radiologists attempt to compensate by undertaking additional responsibilities to increase productivity. The increased workload, rising quality expectations, cognitive biases, and poor system factors all contribute to diagnostic errors in radiology. Diagnostic errors are underrecognized and underappreciated in radiology practice. This is due to the inability to obtain reliable national estimates of the impact, the difficulty in evaluating effectiveness of potential interventions, and the poor response to systemwide solutions. Most of our clinical work is executed through type 1 processes to minimize cost, anxiety, and delay; however, type 1 processes are also vulnerable to errors. Instead of trying to completely eliminate cognitive shortcuts that serve us well most of the time, becoming aware of common biases and using metacognitive strategies to mitigate the effects have the potential to create sustainable improvement in diagnostic errors.

  13. Biological factors contributing to bark and ambrosia beetle species diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohli, Jostein; Kirkendall, Lawrence R; Smith, Sarah M; Cognato, Anthony I; Hulcr, Jiri; Jordal, Bjarte H

    2017-05-01

    The study of species diversification can identify the processes that shape patterns of species richness across the tree of life. Here, we perform comparative analyses of species diversification using a large dataset of bark beetles. Three examined covariates-permanent inbreeding (sibling mating), fungus farming, and major host type-represent a range of factors that may be important for speciation. We studied the association of these covariates with species diversification while controlling for evolutionary lag on adaptation. All three covariates were significantly associated with diversification, but fungus farming showed conflicting patterns between different analyses. Genera that exhibited interspecific variation in host type had higher rates of species diversification, which may suggest that host switching is a driver of species diversification or that certain host types or forest compositions facilitate colonization and thus allopatric speciation. Because permanent inbreeding is thought to facilitate dispersal, the positive association between permanent inbreeding and diversification rates suggests that dispersal ability may contribute to species richness. Bark beetles are ecologically unique; however, our results indicate that their impressive species diversity is largely driven by mechanisms shown to be important for many organism groups. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  14. Physiological Factors Contributing to Postflight Changes in Functional Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Feedback, D. L.; Feiverson, A. H.; Lee, S. M. C.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Platts, S. H.; Reschke, M. F.; Ryder, J.; Spiering, B. A.; hide

    2009-01-01

    Astronauts experience alterations in multiple physiological systems due to exposure to the microgravity conditions of space flight. These physiological changes include sensorimotor disturbances, cardiovascular deconditioning and loss of muscle mass and strength. These changes might affect the ability of crewmembers to perform critical mission tasks immediately after landing on lunar and Martian surfaces. To date, changes in functional performance have not been systematically studied or correlated with physiological changes. To understand how changes in physiological function impact functional performance an interdisciplinary pre/postflight testing regimen (Functional Task Test, FTT) has been developed that systematically evaluates both astronaut postflight functional performance and related physiological changes. The overall objectives of the FTT are to: Develop a set of functional tasks that represent critical mission tasks for Constellation. Determine the ability to perform these tasks after flight. Identify the key physiological factors that contribute to functional decrements. Use this information to develop targeted countermeasures. The functional test battery was designed to address high priority tasks identified by the Constellation program as critical for mission success. The set of functional tests making up the FTT include the: 1) Seat Egress and Walk Test, 2) Ladder Climb Test, 3) Recovery from Fall/Stand Test, 4) Rock Translation Test, 5) Jump Down Test, 6) Torque Generation Test, and 7) Construction Activity Board Test. Corresponding physiological measures include assessments of postural and gait control, dynamic visual acuity, fine motor control, plasma volume, orthostatic intolerance, upper and lower body muscle strength, power, fatigue, control and neuromuscular drive. Crewmembers will perform both functional and physiological tests before and after short (Shuttle) and long-duration (ISS) space flight. Data will be collected on R+0 (Shuttle only), R

  15. Factors contributing to communication skills development in cochlear implanted children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostojić, Sanja; Djoković, Sanja; Radić-šestić, Marina; Nikolić, Mina; Mikić, Branka; Mirić, Danica

    2015-08-01

    Over the last 10 years more than 300 persons received cochlear implant in Serbia and more than 90% of the recipients were children under 10 years of age. The program of cochlear implantation includes postoperative rehabilitation in which cognitive, integrative and developmental methods are used. The study was conducted to reveal factors affecting communication performance (CP) of cochlear implanted (Cl) children. Special attention was focused on the influence of the duration and intensity of rehabilitation and hearing age on further development of communication skills. A group of 30 CI children (13 boys and 17 girls) aged 2 to 5 years was enrolled in the study. All of the children had average intelligence and no other developmental disorder. They lived in families and attended rehabilitative seances 3 to 5 times a week. Their parents/caregivers answered structured questionnaire about functioning after pediatric cochlear implantation (FAPCI) and the results were the subject of detailed statistical analysis. Analysis of variance did not show any difference between the boys and the girls regarding FAPCI achievements (F(1, 28) = 2.909; p = 0.099) and age aberration in CP score (F(1,28) = 0.114, p = 0.738). Correlation analysis showed a statistically significant difference in FAPCI scores related to hearing age and duration of rehabilitation. Regression analysis (enter method) showed that model consisting of indipendent variables significantly contributed to prediction of overall FAPCI scores and Adjusted R2 value could explain 32% difference in communication skills of participants in this study. Communication skills of CI children evaluated by FAPCI are falling behind normatives for normal hearing children 18.6 months on the average. Hearing age, duration and intensity of rehabilitation have positive predictive value for communication skills development. Later identification of hearing loss and later cochlear implantation lead to delayed development of communication

  16. Factors contributing to troponin exchange in myofibrils and in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, M; Trimble, D; Yu, L C; Chalovich, J M

    2000-01-01

    The troponin complex in a muscle fiber can be replaced with exogenous troponin by using a gentle exchange procedure in which the actin-tropomyosin complex is never devoid of a full complement of troponin (Brenner et al. (1999) Biophys J 77: 2677-2691). The mechanism of this exchange process and the factors that influence this exchange are poorly understood. In this study, the exchange process has now been examined in myofibrils and in solution. In myofibrils under rigor conditions, troponin exchange occurred preferentially in the region of overlap between actin and myosin when the free Ca2+ concentration was low. At higher concentrations of Ca2+, the exchange occurred uniformly along the actin. Ca2+ also accelerated troponin exchange in solution but the effect of S1 could not be confirmed in solution experiments. The rate of exchange in solution was insensitive to moderate changes in pH or ionic strength. Increasing the temperature resulted in a two-fold increase in rate with each 10 degrees C increase in temperature. A sequential two step model of troponin binding to actin-tropomyosin could simulate the observed association and dissociation transients. In the absence of Ca2+ or rigor S1, the following rate constants could describe the binding process: k1 = 7.12 microM(-1) s(-1), k(-1) = 0.65 s(-1), k2 = 0.07 s(-1), k(-2) = 0.0014 s(-1). The slow rate of detachment of troponin from actin (k(-2)) limits the rate of exchange in solution and most likely contributes to the slow rate of exchange in fibers.

  17. The effectiveness of a combined exercise intervention on physical fitness factors related to falls in community-dwelling older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuang J

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Jie Zhuang,1,* Liang Huang,1,2,* Yanqiang Wu,3 Yanxin Zhang2 1School of Kinesiology, Shanghai University of Sport, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Sport and Exercise Science, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; 3Shanghai Municipal Center for Students' Physical Fitness and Health Surveillance, Shanghai, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of an innovative exercise program on muscle strength, balance, and gait kinematics in elderly community-dwellers. The exercise program included strength and balance training and the 8-form Tai Chi Chuan. The measurements were carried out at baseline and 12 weeks, and consisted of four physical performance tests, joint isokinetic strength tests, and three-dimensional gait analysis. Fifty-six community-dwelling older adults aged 60–80 years old were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. After 12 weeks, the intervention group showed a 17.6% improvement in the timed up and go test, accompanied by a 54.7% increase in the 30-second chair stand test score. Significant increases in the score of star excursion balance tests, and the strength of the extensor and flexor muscles at knee and ankle joints were also observed. In addition, the intervention group walked at a faster speed with a longer step length, shorter support phase, and a greater sagittal plane range of motion at the hip and ankle joints. No statistical improvements were seen in the control group. This study provided an effective, evidence-based falls prevention program that can be implemented in community settings to improve physical fitness and reduce fall risks among community-dwelling older adults. The star excursion balance test could be a sensitive measure of physical performance for fall risk assessment in older people. Keywords: Tai Chi Chuan, resistance training, balance, fall prevention, fall

  18. [Physical fitness in dependence on cardiovascular risk factors - an assessment of 20- to 30-year-old adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammito, S; Niebel, I

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors are already common in the young adult population. The prevalence of obesity increases. More and more employees are not able to stand the physical demands at the workplace. In the course of increasing the statutory retirement age ("retirement with 67") more knowledge about the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and their influence on the physical fitness is necessary for a wise and goal-oriented primary prevention. A retrospective analysis of survey examinations from young German soldiers in terms of prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and their physical fitness was undertaken. The causes for rejection were analysed. In the group of 646 test persons (in average 23.4 years old) there were large rates of people with overweight (37.9%) and obesity (10.8%). Smoking (55.6%), hypercholesteremia (18.6%) and hypertriglyceridemia (13.3%) were also common. Apparent diseases were rare. With an increasing number of cardiovascular risk factors, the physical fitness was significantly lower. High liver enzymes, obesity and lacking physical fitness were reasons for rejection. Already in this young adult collective cardiovascular risk factors are widely spread. This reduces the physical fitness directly or indirectly. A goal-oriented primary prevention is already necessary in this collective of young employees to avoid later limitations in ability to work. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Contribution of Spaceflight Environmental Factors to Vision Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanello, Susana B.

    2011-01-01

    the combined effects of radiation exposure and iron overload on sensitivity to radiation injury in rat eyes. All main eye structures will be analyzed in this study: retina, lens and cornea. A study in collaboration with the Space Human Factors and Habitability Element (SHFH) investigates the effects of lunar dust exposure on the rat cornea. It is anticipated that common underlying oxidative stress mechanisms of damage may be observed as a result of these three stressors: radiation, nutritional iron and lunar dust. The contribution of fluid shift is addressed by a study using rats subjected to hindlimb suspension. The hypothesis to be tested in this study is that the mechanical stress imparted by the pressure differential across the optic disc and lamina cribosa will impact oxygenation (therefore causing oxidative stress and hypoxia) and cell survival. This study also includes the assessment of two nutritional antioxidant countermeasures: epigallocatechin gallate (green tea) and resveratrol. Finally, as a result of two successful tissue sharing efforts, we are proceeding with the analysis of eye samples of mice aboard two shuttle missions: STS-133 and STS-135. Results from the STS-133 study are presented in an independent abstract. Briefly, the results show that spaceflight represents a source of environmental stress that directly translates into oxidative and cellular stress in the retina. Similar analysis is also planned for the cornea. These samples add large value to our current vision research as they provide data on the direct effects of low-earth orbit spaceflight on eye structures and physiology.

  20. Adaptive Test Selection for Factorization-based Surrogate Fitness in Genetic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krawiec Krzysztof

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetic programming (GP is a variant of evolutionary algorithm where the entities undergoing simulated evolution are computer programs. A fitness function in GP is usually based on a set of tests, each of which defines the desired output a correct program should return for an exemplary input. The outcomes of interactions between programs and tests in GP can be represented as an interaction matrix, with rows corresponding to programs in the current population and columns corresponding to tests. In previous work, we proposed SFIMX, a method that performs only a fraction of interactions and employs non-negative matrix factorization to estimate the outcomes of remaining ones, shortening GP’s runtime. In this paper, we build upon that work and propose three extensions of SFIMX, in which the subset of tests drawn to perform interactions is selected with respect to test difficulty. The conducted experiment indicates that the proposed extensions surpass the original SFIMX on a suite of discrete GP benchmarks.

  1. A comparison of the motivational factors between CrossFit participants and other resistance exercise modalities: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, James; Sales, Adele; Carlson, Luke; Steele, James

    2017-09-01

    Understanding resistance exercise motives and participation is essential in increasing exercise adherence and reducing comorbidities. CrossFit is a fitness movement that has seen an explosive growth in popularity worldwide; however, little research has investigated the motivational factors within this "niche" resistance exercise environment. The aim of this study was to explore the motivational factors of CrossFit participants in comparison to other resistance exercise participants. Using an independent-group design, quantitative data was collected using exercise motivations inventory-2 (EMI-2) questionnaire, for a total of 314 male and female participants (CrossFit: N.=68, group resistance exercise: N.=55, alone: N.=125, personal trainer: N.=66). The present study suggest that CrossFit participants were more likely to report higher levels of intrinsic motives, such as enjoyment, challenge and affiliation, whereas personal training clients reported higher values for health related motives such as positive health, ill-health avoidance and weight management. The findings suggest that the motivations for engaging in CrossFit may be similar to those seen in sport participation, and therefore may have an influence on facilitating long-term adherence in comparison with other resistance exercise modalities. This article also discusses health related motives as being extrinsic in nature but reflecting intrinsic characteristics, potentially also facilitating long term adherence. The present research helps develop further understanding of motivational variables within differing resistance exercise modalities.

  2. Low physical activity work-related and other risk factors increased the risk of poor physical fitness in cement workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ditha Diana

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim Low physical activity causes poor physical fitness, which leads to low productivity. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of low work-related physical activity and other risk factors on physical fitness.Methods This study was done in February 2008. Subjects were workers from 15 departments in PT Semen Padang, West Sumatera (Indonesia. Data on physical activities were collected using the questionnaire from the Student Field Work I Guidebook and Hypertension – Geriatric Integrated Program of the Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia2003. Physical fitness was measured using the Harvard Step Test.Results A number of 937 male workers aged 18 – 56 years participated in this study. Poor physical fitness was found in 15.9% of the subjects. Low work-related physical activity, smoking, lack of exercise, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and asthma were dominant risk factors related to poor physical fi tness. Subjects with low compared to high work-related activity had a ten-fold risk of poor physical fitness [adjusted odds ratio (ORa = 10.71; 95% confidence interval (CI = 4.71–24.33]. In term of physical exercise, subjects who had no compared to those who had physical exercise had a six-fold risk of poor physical fitness (ORa = 6.30; 95%CI = 3.69-10.75.Conclusion Low work-related physical activities, smoking, lack of exercise, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and sthma were correlated to poor physical fi tness. It is, among others, therefore necessary to implement exercises for workers with poor physical fitness. (Med J Indones. 2009;18:201-5Key words: exercise test, occupational healths, physical fitness

  3. Influence of cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity levels on cardiometabolic risk factors during menopause transition: A MONET study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Abdulnour

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine the influence of cardiorespiratory fitness (hereafter “fitness” and physical activity levels on cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal women going through the menopause transition. An ancillary study including 66 premenopausal women who participated to a 5-year observational, longitudinal study (2004 to 2009 in Ottawa on the effects of menopause transition on body composition and cardiometabolic risk factors. Women underwent a graded exercise test on treadmill to measure peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak at year 1 and 5 and physical activity levels were measured using accelerometers. Cardiometabolic risk factors included: waist circumference, fasting plasma lipids, glucose and insulin levels, HOMA-IR score, c-reactive protein, apolipoprotein B (apoB and resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Change in fitness was not associated with changes in cardiometabolic risk factors. The changes in total physical activity levels on the other hand showed a significant negative association with apoB levels. Three-way linear mixed model repeated measures, showed lower values of waist circumference, fasting triglycerides, insulin levels, HOMA-IR score, apoB and diastolic blood pressure in women with a fitness ≥30.0 mlO2 kg−1 min−1 compared to women with a fitness <30.0 mlO2 kg−1 min−1 (P < 0.05. However, only fasting triglycerides was lower in women with physical activity levels ≥770.0 Kcal/day (P < 0.05. Between fitness and physical activity levels, fitness was associated with more favorable values of cardiometabolic risk factors in women followed for 5 years during the menopause transition.

  4. Educators' Perceptions of Factors Contributing to School Violence

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At an individual and familial level age, mental health and child rearing arose as risk factors of school ... community and societal risk factors for school violence. ... drug abuse may also preclude parents from having an interest in school matters thus ..... You see some other things are these movies that they see in [sic] TV.

  5. The School Absenteeism among High School Students: Contributing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkis, Murat; Arslan, Gökmen; Duru, Erdinç

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the direct and indirect relationship between student school absenteeism, personal factors (academic self- perception, attitudes towards teacher and school, goal valuation and motivation/ self-regulation), family factors (parents' educational level and income), and academic achievement in structural equation…

  6. Factors Most Likely to Contribute to Positive Course Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanMaaren, Victoria G.; Jaquett, Caroline M.; Williams, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which students differentially rated ten factors likely to affect their ratings on overall course evaluations. Students (N = 148) in several sections of an undergraduate educational psychology course indicated their preferences among several designated factors. We found remarkable similarity…

  7. Contribution of Physical Fitness Component to Health Status in Elderly Males and Females over 60 years – Short Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Ignacio Cuesta-Vargas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify the physicalfitness (PF level of a cohort of elderly people that are subjected tophysical activity (PA, and to establish a regression model for theevaluation of health status (HS of elderly people based on their PF.This is a Cross-sectional study. Consists of 114 Participants over60 years old, that were recruited from a physical activity program.Were measured variables about anthropometric characteristics,jumping tests with jumping platform, dynamic and static balance, riskof falls, lung capacity, HS and quality of life (QoL. We used Pearson’slinear correlation with 95% Zr. We looked for simple and multiple regression models. We used the bayesianinformation criterion approach and statistical inference to find and calculated a numerical estimate of thebest regression model. We used the dependent variable physical function of SF-12. Physical fitness variablesselected for the models were weight, height, Countermovement Jump test (flight time, Functional Reachtest, lumbosacral flexion mobility, Extended Timed Get Up and Go (ETGUG (10 meters time score andtotal time score. The HS and QoL measurement are important for the prevention of injury during physicalexercise and should be conducted whenever is possible. The regression models proposed in this study can beused as an initial screening of HS or QoL at fitness facilities and fitness clubs that do not provide HS or QoLquestionnaires. However, these models are not an alternative to health care for a detailed determination ofHS and is not intended for use as a final evaluation.

  8. Elite Coaches Views on Factors Contributing to Excellence in Orienteering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeu Ferreira Celestino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En el deporte de orientación, los estudios en el contexto de la excelencia deportiva son aún escasos. Las investigaciones realizadas hasta la fecha se han centrado en el análisis aislado de los factores específicos que contribuyen a la excelencia. El objetivo de este estudio, por tanto, fue identificar los factores que los entrenadores consideran de mayor prevalencia en el desarrollo y mantenimiento de la excelencia en este deporte. Diez entrenadores portugueses e españoles de orientación de nivel elite completaron entrevistas semi-estructuradas y los datos fueran analizados mediante el análisis de contenido. Los resultados mostraron que los entrenadores pusieron gran énfasis en un conjunto de factores personales, designados por factores de influencia primaria, donde se incluyen los atributos psicológicos, la preparación deportiva y los factores genéticos. Los entrenadores también identificaron los factores ambientales que ejercen una influencia secundaria, con especial énfasis en la familia, los aspectos socioculturales y los grupos de pares y de amistad. Por último, los entrenadores de elite reconocieron la necesidad de la interacción e interconexión entre estos factores de influencia primaria y secundaria para el desarrollo y mantenimiento de la excelencia en la orientación.

  9. Habitability and Human Factors Contributions to Human Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumaya, Jennifer Boyer

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the work of the Habitability and Human Factors Branch in support of human space flight in two main areas: Applied support to major space programs, and Space research. The field of Human Factors applies knowledge of human characteristics for the design of safer, more effective, and more efficient systems. This work is in several areas of the human space program: (1) Human-System Integration (HSI), (2) Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, (3) Extravehicular Activity (EVA), (4) Lunar Surface Systems, (5) International Space Station (ISS), and (6) Human Research Program (HRP). After detailing the work done in these areas, the facilities that are available for human factors work are shown.

  10. Factors contributing to physical Gender Based Violence reported at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    46987.2

    violence, and poverty as well as income disparities and gender inequality stand out as important community and. 4 societal factors. Copperbelt ... of all urban married women had to seek hospital treatment. 9 following domestic violence.

  11. The contributing factors of business process strategy on customer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 10, No 5S (2018) > ... The tremendous of customer relationship management performance are frolicking a progressively ... factors that donate to the CRMP subjected to operative, resourceful and advanced execution.

  12. Factors contributing to young moped rider accidents in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Mette; Haustein, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    Young road users still constitute a high-risk group with regard to road traffic accidents. The crash rate of a moped is four times greater than that of a motorcycle, and the likelihood of being injured in a road traffic accident is 10-20 times higher among moped riders compared to car drivers...... was made between accident factors related to (1) the road and its surroundings, (2) the vehicle, and (3) the reported behaviour and condition of the road user. Thirteen accident factors were identified with the majority concerning the reported behaviour and condition of the road user. The average number...... of accident factors assigned per accident was 2.7. Riding speed was assigned in 45% of the accidents which made it the most frequently assigned factor on the part of the moped rider followed by attention errors (42%), a tuned up moped (29%) and position on the road (14%). For the other parties involved...

  13. Metabolic risk factors, physical activity and physical fitness in azorean adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soares-Miranda Luísa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has increased over the last few decades in adolescents and has become an important health challenge worldwide. This study analyzed the relationships between metabolic risk factors (MRF and physical activity (PA and physical fitness (PF in a sample of Azorean adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional school-based study was conducted on 417 adolescents (243 girls aged 15-18 from the Azorean Islands, Portugal. Height, weight, waist circumference, fasting glucose, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and blood pressure were measured. A sum of MRF was computed, and adolescents were classified into three groups: no MRF, one MRF and two or more MRF. PA was assessed by a sealed pedometer. PF was assessed using five tests from the Fitnessgram Test Battery. Dietary intake was obtained using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Results Mean daily steps for girls and boys were 7427 ± 2725 and 7916 ± 3936, respectively. Fifty-nine percent of the adolescents showed at least one MRF and 57.6% were under the healthy zone in the 20 m Shuttle Run Test. Ordinal logistic regression analysis showed that after adjusting for sex, body mass index, socio-economic status and adherence to a Mediterranean diet, adolescents who were in the highest quartile of the pedometer step/counts (≥9423 steps/day and those who achieved the healthy zone in five tests were less likely to have one or more MRF (OR = 0.56;95%CI:0.33-0.95; OR = 0.55;95%CI:0.31-0.98, respectively. Conclusions Daily step counts and PF levels were negatively associated with having one or more MRF among Azorean adolescents. Our findings emphasize the importance of promoting and increasing regular PA and PF to reduce the public health burden of chronic diseases associated with a sedentary lifestyle.

  14. Use of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in identifying cardiovascular risk factors in male brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Messias Sampaio Brito

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2016v18n6p678   The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of physical activity (PA and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF levels on the prevalence of overweight and high blood pressure levels in adolescents. In this observational, cross-sectional study, 614 boys aged 10-14 years were assessed for height, body mass, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC and blood pressure (BP. CRF was assessed using a run test (Léger Test and subjects were then grouped according to their CRF level. PA level was assessed through a questionnaire (The Three Day Physical Activity Recall and classified into two groups, namely > 300 minutes of PA/week and < 300 minutes of PA/week. Maturational stage was evaluated according to the development of pubic hair (self-assessment as proposed by Tanner. We used statistical descriptive analysis, univariate and multivariate analyses in the total participants and subjects were divided by age. Fifty percent of the sample performed < 300 minutes of PA/week and 67.6% had unsatisfactory CRF levels. There was a higher prevalence of unsatisfactory CRF levels among subjects with altered BMI (overweight, WC (abdominal obesity or BP (high blood pressure for all age groups. PA history, however, did not show any significance. A total of 31% of participants were overweight, 24.8% had abdominal obesity and 15.4% had increased BP. Unsatisfactory CRF levels were found to be a better predictor for the diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases (CV risk factors than PA history, regardless of age group.

  15. The effectiveness of a combined exercise intervention on physical fitness factors related to falls in community-dwelling older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuang J; Huang L; Wu Y; Zhang Y

    2014-01-01

    Jie Zhuang,1,* Liang Huang,1,2,* Yanqiang Wu,3 Yanxin Zhang2 1School of Kinesiology, Shanghai University of Sport, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Sport and Exercise Science, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; 3Shanghai Municipal Center for Students' Physical Fitness and Health Surveillance, Shanghai, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness ...

  16. Two Outer Membrane Proteins Contribute to Caulobacter crescentus Cellular Fitness by Preventing Intracellular S-Layer Protein Accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overton, K. Wesley; Park, Dan M.; Yung, Mimi C.; Dohnalkova, Alice; Smit, John; Jiao, Yongqin

    2016-09-23

    ABSTRACT

    Surface layers, or S-layers, are two-dimensional protein arrays that form the outermost layer of many bacteria and archaea. They serve several functions, including physical protection of the cell from environmental threats. The high abundance of S-layer proteins necessitates a highly efficient export mechanism to transport the S-layer protein from the cytoplasm to the cell exterior.Caulobacter crescentusis unique in that it has two homologous, seemingly redundant outer membrane proteins, RsaFaand RsaFb, which together with other components form a type I protein translocation pathway for S-layer export. These proteins have homology toEscherichia coliTolC, the outer membrane channel of multidrug efflux pumps. Here we provide evidence that, unlike TolC, RsaFaand RsaFbare not involved in either the maintenance of membrane stability or the active export of antimicrobial compounds. Rather, RsaFaand RsaFbare required to prevent intracellular accumulation and aggregation of the S-layer protein RsaA; deletion of RsaFaand RsaFbled to a general growth defect and lowered cellular fitness. Using Western blotting, transmission electron microscopy, and transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq), we show that loss of both RsaFaand RsaFbled to accumulation of insoluble RsaA in the cytoplasm, which in turn caused upregulation of a number of genes involved in protein misfolding and degradation pathways. These findings provide new insight into the requirement for RsaFaand RsaFbin cellular fitness and tolerance to antimicrobial agents and further our understanding of the S-layer export mechanism on both the transcriptional and translational levels in

  17. Factors Contributing to Use of Biomass as Domestic Fuel and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biomass energy dominates household cooking energy in developing countries and Nigeria is not exceptional. However, a number of implications such as indoor air pollution, environmental degradation and social burden have been associated with the use of biomass energy. The paper discusses factors that determine the ...

  18. Contribution of Educational Factors in the Capacity to Overcome Adversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomar, Joaquina; Montes de Oca, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify factors that predict resilience and social mobility in persons living in extreme poverty in Mexico by analyzing an extensive set of school-related variables. A total of 913 adults were surveyed, with 65.2% women and an average age of 43.71 years. Significant correlations were found between the seven…

  19. The Battered-Woman Syndrome: Contributing Factors and Remedial Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Roseland McG; Carroll, Marguerite R.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses factors that deter counselors in responding to wife abuse. Characteristics of the abused wife are outlined. Strategies used in helping abused women are discussed, including support groups, feminist-oriented counseling, and exploring the possibility of ending the relationship. (Author/JAC)

  20. Factors Contributing to Child Scrambling: Evidence from Ukrainian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykhaylyk, Roksolana

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the word order phenomenon of optional scrambling in Ukrainian. It aims to test factors such as semantic features and object type that have been shown to affect scrambling in other languages. Forty-one children between 2 ; 7 and 6 ; 0, and twenty adult speakers participated in an elicited production experiment. The picture…

  1. Factors contributing to poor management outcome of sinonasal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The common presentations were epistaxis, nasal obstruction and facial asymmetry and 96.7% patients with squamous cell carcinoma presented in advanced disease stage (Stage 3 & 4). Over 47% patients presented a year after onset of symptoms. Factors which included self-medication, wrong advice from relations/ ...

  2. Analysis of Factors Contributing to Leadership Skills Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These factors account for 63.8% of leadership skills development among the students. Based on the findings, the study concludes that academic institutions provide a good avenue for grooming future leaders. It was also recommended that similar research should be carried out in African countries for comparative purpose.

  3. Contributing factors to poor service delivery by administrative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reports on a study that was conducted among non-managerial administrative employees in the public sector in Gauteng. The researchers attempted to determine the effect of specified job factors on the wellbeing and service delivery of these employees. Poor service delivery in the country triggered the research.

  4. Risk factors contributing to a low darunavir plasma concentration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daskapan, Alper; Stienstra, Ymkje; Kosterink, Jos G.W.; Bierman, Wouter F.W.; van der Werf, Tjip S.; Touw, Daan J.; Alffenaar, Jan Willem C.

    Darunavir is an efficacious drug; however, pharmacokinetic variability has been reported. The objective of this study was to find predisposing factors for low darunavir plasma concentrations in patients starting the once- or twice-daily dosage. Darunavir plasma concentrations from January 2010 till

  5. Factors contributing to young moped rider accidents in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Mette; Haustein, Sonja

    2016-02-01

    Young road users still constitute a high-risk group with regard to road traffic accidents. The crash rate of a moped is four times greater than that of a motorcycle, and the likelihood of being injured in a road traffic accident is 10-20 times higher among moped riders compared to car drivers. Nevertheless, research on the behaviour and accident involvement of young moped riders remains sparse. Based on analysis of 128 accident protocols, the purpose of this study was to increase knowledge about moped accidents. The study was performed in Denmark involving riders aged 16 or 17. A distinction was made between accident factors related to (1) the road and its surroundings, (2) the vehicle, and (3) the reported behaviour and condition of the road user. Thirteen accident factors were identified with the majority concerning the reported behaviour and condition of the road user. The average number of accident factors assigned per accident was 2.7. Riding speed was assigned in 45% of the accidents which made it the most frequently assigned factor on the part of the moped rider followed by attention errors (42%), a tuned up moped (29%) and position on the road (14%). For the other parties involved, attention error (52%) was the most frequently assigned accident factor. The majority (78%) of the accidents involved road rule breaching on the part of the moped rider. The results indicate that preventive measures should aim to eliminate violations and increase anticipatory skills among moped riders and awareness of mopeds among other road users. Due to their young age the effect of such measures could be enhanced by infrastructural measures facilitating safe interaction between mopeds and other road users. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cardiorespiratory fitness and TV viewing in relation to metabolic risk factors in Portuguese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Jorge; Santos, Rute; Moreira, Carla; Martins, Clarice; Gaya, Anelise; Santos, Maria Paula; Ribeiro, José Carlos; Vale, Susana

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether adolescents who have high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) co-existing with low levels of television (TV) viewing present a better metabolic risk profile compared to their low fit and high TV viewing counterparts. A total of 372 students (aged 12-15 years old) comprised the sample of this study. Anthropometric data (body mass index and waist circumference) was collected. CRF was calculated based upon the 20 metres shuttle run test. A questionnaire was used to estimate weekly TV viewing. Information about biological maturity and parental education was collected. Participants were then categorized into one of four category profiles according to the scores they achieved: low TV-Fit; high TV-Fit; low TV-Unfit and high TV-Unfit. Metabolic risk score (MRS) was calculated based on the sum of the Z-scores of all the metabolic variables analysed. Logistic regression analyses indicated that the high TV-Unfit group was almost 3-times more likely to be assigned to the high MRS group (OR = 2.85, 95% CI = 1.08-7.50) compared to their low TV-Fit group counterparts. The data showed that the high TV-Unfit group was associated with an increased metabolic risk in adolescents after adjustment for gender, age, biological maturity and parental education.

  7. A Study of Contributing Factors in Islamic Motor Insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Asri Wan Abdul Aziz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the government servant‟s perception toward Islamic Motor Insurance named as takaful. The product based on syariah rules for general insurance provided by Insurance Company in Malaysia. This study emphasizes on four factors, which product knowledge, awareness, advertising and benefit of the product. The purpose of this study is to measure the level of perception of Islamic Motor insurance and to identify whether there is a relationship between the independent variables (four factors with the dependent variable (perception. The respondents are the government servants who are using Motor insurance. This research is carried out through the finding of multiple regression and Pearson correlation analysis where the relationship between knowledge, awareness, advertising and benefit of the product toward perception of Islamic Motor Insurance among government servants. From the findings, the respondents show very good perception toward Islamic Motor Insurance. The findings showed customers‟ perception levels are very positive towards Islamic Motor insurance

  8. Factors Contributing to Learners’ Autonomy in EFL Reading

    OpenAIRE

    Sri Endah Tabiati

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: This study aims to discover factors that assist learners develop their autonomy in EFL reading. The approach employed is qualitative involving EFL learners in an English Department of the Faculty of Cultural Studies, Brawijaya University Malang. There are two stages in the study: the subject selection stage intended to gain potential subjects and the main study intended to find the answer of the research questions. The findings of the study show that the autonomy of EFL learners in ...

  9. Sociocultural factors contributing to teenage pregnancy in Zomba district, Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaphagawani, Nanzen Caroline; Kalipeni, Ezekiel

    2017-06-01

    This study explores sociocultural and other risk factors associated with unplanned teenage pregnancy in Zomba district of Malawi. Data were obtained from 505 participants under the age of 20 years using a questionnaire administered through face-to-face interviews held at five antenatal clinics. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics, frequency tables and chi-square analysis which allowed comparative understanding of the sociocultural risk factors for planned and unplanned teenage pregnancy in Zomba district. The findings revealed that teenage pregnancy is a major health and social problem. Over 76% of the teenage respondents in the study had experienced unplanned pregnancy. Among the prominent factors that stood out in the analysis for this high rate of teenage pregnancy were early sex and marriage, low contraceptive use, low educational levels, low socio-economic status, lack of knowledge of reproductive and sexual health, gender inequity, and physical/sexual violence. The consequences on teenage mothers of unplanned pregnancy have been tragic and have compromised their physical, psychological and socioeconomic wellbeing, not just on them but also their families and society at large. The findings point to the need for a multi-sectoral approach to tackle the problem on teenage pregnancy in this district, and likely throughout Malawi.

  10. [Factors contributing to endemic cholera in Douala, Cameroon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guévart, E; Noeske, J; Solle, J; Essomba, J M; Edjenguele, Mbonji; Bita, A; Mouangue, A; Manga, B

    2006-06-01

    Cholera has been endemic in Douala, Cameroon since 1971. A number of environmental factors favourize the survival of the Vibrio in Douala including location at the mouth of Wouri delta on the Atlantic Ocean, sandy clay soil, shallow dirty polluted foul-smelling groundwater, presence of vast expanses of swamp, streams/drainage ditches infested with algae, and high temperatures with low rainfall and drought during certain periods of the year. Most outbreaks have started in Bepanda, a slum area built on a garbage dump in a swampy zone fed by drainage ditches carrying the faecal pollution from neighbouring upstream districts. It is a densely overcrowded area of uncontrolled urbanization generated by the influx of poor city new-comers who live without adequate access to clean water or basic sanitary facilities. The most affected areas are those resulting from recent unregulated urban sprawl in polluted swamp zones or garbage dumps. Since access to the public water system is inadequate with only 65000 persons connected for 3 million inhabitants, dwellers in most areas must take water from the 70000 urban wells (estimated in 2004) that are often not more than 1.5 m deep. Sewage facilities are insufficient to provide complete evacuation of solid and liquid waste. The network of rivers, streams and man-made ditches waste are poorly maintained and often overflow during the rainy season. The contents of latrines are often discharged directly into the environment. Social factors such as the reformation of urban tribes and persistence of traditional attitudes toward waste disposal and water use have not only led to high-risk behaviour but also created barriers to sanitation and hygiene education. With an inadequate sanitation inspection system, a large but purely accessible public health system and a highly disorganized private health sector exists, effective preventive measures are difficult to implement. The combination of these factors probably account for the endemicity of

  11. Contributing factors to the use of health-related websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Traci

    2006-03-01

    This study explicates the influence of audience factors on website credibility and the subsequent effect that credibility has on the intention to revisit a site. It does so in an experimental setting in which participants were given two health-related search tasks. Reliance on the web for health-related information positively influenced website credibility in both searches. Knowledge was a significant predictor for the search task that required more cognitive ability. Of the credibility dimensions, trust/expertise and depth were significant predictors of intention to revisit a site in both searches. Fairness and goodwill were nonsignificant predictors in both searches.

  12. Environmental factors contributed to circannual rhythm of semen quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Huan; Feng, Lei; Yang, Wan-Xi

    2017-01-01

    We investigated whether human semen parameters present circannual rhythm or not, and whether environmental factors exert on semen quality. This retrospective study used data of patients mainly from Reproductive Medicine Center and Urology and Andrology Clinic of a general hospital in China. Sperm concentration and motility were measured by computer aided sperm analysis (CASA). Sperm morphology was scored based on the strict criteria (WHO, 2010). The Kruskal-Wallis rank test was used to investigate the relationship between semen parameters and season/month. Partial correlation coefficients were used to analyze the relationship between semen parameters and environmental factors. In this study, we found that sperm concentration and total amount per ejaculate were significantly lower in summer and higher in winter. But, sperm progressive motility and motility were significantly higher in spring and summer (from March to June), lower in autumn and winter (September and October). Unexpectedly, normal sperm morphology and mixed agglutination reaction (MAR) positive rate didn't vary along with season or month. Furthermore, temperature was negatively related to sperm concentration and total amount per ejaculate. Precipitation was positively associated with progressive motility and normal sperm morphology, but negatively related to sperm head defect percentage. The length of sunlight was positively related to progressive motility. The Air Quality Index (AQI) was positively associated with semen volume and sperm total amount per ejaculate. These suggest seasonal and monthly variation underlying some semen parameters.

  13. [Factors contributing to smoking among students in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koueta, F; Dao, L; Yé, D; Koura, M; Sawadogo, A

    2009-03-01

    Smoking is of great concern to the international community because of the sharp increase in tobacco consumption among adolescents. We conducted a transverse descriptive study on 23 to 27 May 2006, on a sample of 500 smoking students randomly selected from secondary schools in the city of Ouagadougou, to identify their motivation with the aim of prevention. The main factors encouraging smoking among students were: *Economic conditions: 64% came from a favourable economic environment with daily pocket money (100%) and a means of travel (74.8%). *Difficulties with their studies: 57.2% of smoking students had repeated at least one class and half had a class average lower than 10/20. *A smoking environment: 72% of smokers lived away from their parents, 46% of students had smoked in imitation of their colleagues. School was the preferred place for the consumption of cigarettes (67.9%). *The influence of the media: 80.8% were drawn into smoking by the influence of advertising. Prevention programmes must take all these factors into account.

  14. Factors contributing to the adaptation aftereffects of facial expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Andrea; Oruc, Ipek; Fox, Christopher J; Barton, Jason J S

    2008-01-29

    Previous studies have demonstrated the existence of adaptation aftereffects for facial expressions. Here we investigated which aspects of facial stimuli contribute to these aftereffects. In Experiment 1, we examined the role of local adaptation to image elements such as curvature, shape and orientation, independent of expression, by using hybrid faces constructed from either the same or opposing expressions. While hybrid faces made with consistent expressions generated aftereffects as large as those with normal faces, there were no aftereffects from hybrid faces made from different expressions, despite the fact that these contained the same local image elements. In Experiment 2, we examined the role of facial features independent of the normal face configuration by contrasting adaptation with whole faces to adaptation with scrambled faces. We found that scrambled faces also generated significant aftereffects, indicating that expressive features without a normal facial configuration could generate expression aftereffects. In Experiment 3, we examined the role of facial configuration by using schematic faces made from line elements that in isolation do not carry expression-related information (e.g. curved segments and straight lines) but that convey an expression when arranged in a normal facial configuration. We obtained a significant aftereffect for facial configurations but not scrambled configurations of these line elements. We conclude that facial expression aftereffects are not due to local adaptation to image elements but due to high-level adaptation of neural representations that involve both facial features and facial configuration.

  15. Factors Contributing to Exacerbating Vulnerabilities in Global Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Ricardo E.; Amato, Angélica A.; Guilhem, Dirce B.; de Carvalho, Marta R.; Lima, Elisangela da C.; Novaes, Maria Rita C. G.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Although policies and guidelines make use of the concept of vulnerability, few define it. The European Union's directive for clinical trials does not include explanations for or the reasoning behind the designation of certain groups as vulnerable. Emerging economies from lower middle-income countries have, in recent years, had the largest average annual growth rate, as well as increase, in number of clinical trials registered in the US government's database. Nevertheless, careful supervision of research activities has to be ensured. Objective: To describe and analyze the features of the clinical trials involving vulnerable populations in various countries classified by development status and geographic region. Methods: Retrospective study that involved analysis of data obtained from the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) database between 01/2014 and 12/2014 from countries with (i) highest trial densities during 2005 to 2012, (ii) highest average growth rate in clinical trials, and (iii) greatest trial capabilities. Results: Statistical analysis of this study showed that patients incapable of giving consent personally are 11.4 times more likely to be vulnerable patients than patients who are capable, and that patients in upper-middle-income countries are 1.7 times more likely to be vulnerable patients than patients from high-income countries when participating in global clinical trials. Malaysia (21%), Egypt (20%), Turkey (19%), Israel (18%), and Brazil (17%) had the highest percentages of vulnerable populations involving children. Conclusions: Although the inability to provide consent personally was a factor associated with vulnerability, arbitrary criteria may have been considered when classifying the populations of clinical trials as vulnerable. The EU Clinical Trials Register should provide guidance regarding exactly what aspects or factors should be taken into account to frame given populations as vulnerable, because

  16. Factors contributing to the nuclear caloric curve aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raduta, Al.H.; Raduta, Ad.R.

    1999-01-01

    After the first experimental evaluation of the nuclear caloric curve a large amount of theoretical work was concentrated to reproduce the transition-like plateau of the caloric curve from 5 MeV temperature. Both dynamical and statistical models have been employed in order to deduce the excitation energy dependence of the temperature of the equilibrated nuclear systems formed in violent heavy ion collisions. For describing such kind of systems a microcanonical model fully obeying the involved physical constrains seems to be the most appropriate option. However, the currently used statistical multifragmentation models (SMM and MMMC ) are not fully satisfying the microcanonical rules. For these reasons the nuclear caloric curve is studied in the present work from the point of view of a sharp microcanonical model. In this respect a detailed analysis concerning the contribution of the various energetic degrees of freedom (binding, Coulomb repulsive and internal excitation) to the curve aspect is performed. The method adopted here consists in suppressing each of the above-mentioned degrees of freedom once at a time keeping the rest of the system parameters unchanged. The Coulomb repulsive (V) and excitation (ε) degrees of freedom are suppressed by fixing the respective energies to zero. The binding degree of freedom (B) is 'suppressed' by fixing it to the constant value of - 8.5 MeV/nucleon for all fragments. The effect of the correlation between the Coulomb repulsive and the excitation degrees of freedom on the caloric curve aspect is also studied. The resulting caloric curves are denoted T -V , T -ε , T -B , T -Vε . One may observe that the suppression of the excitation degree of freedom has the effect of lifting and diminishing the plateau and the suppression of the Coulomb degree of freedom is lowering the plateau and almost washes-out the plateau-like region. The spectacular effect concerns the complementary moves T -Vε and - B: While the Vε couple suppression

  17. Factors contributing to amphibian road mortality in a wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijun GU, Qiang DAI, Qian WANG, Yuezhao WANG

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To understand road characteristics and landscape features associated with high road mortality of amphibians in Zoige Wetland National Nature Reserve, we surveyed road mortality along four major roads after rainfall in May and September 2007. Road mortality of three species, Rana kukunoris, Nanorana pleskei and Bufo minshanicus, was surveyed across 225 transects (115 in May and 110 in September. Transects were 100 m long and repeated every two kilometers along the four major roads. We used model averaging to assess factors that might determine amphibian road mortality. We recorded an average of 24.6 amphibian road mortalities per kilometer in May and 19.2 in September. Among road characteristics, road width was positively associated with road morality for R. kukunori and B. minshanicus. Traffic volume also increased the road mortality of B. minshanicus in September. Of the landscape features measured, area proportions of three types of grassland (wet, mesic and dry within 1 km of the roads, particularly that of wet grassland, significantly increased road mortality for R. kukunori and total mortality across all three species. To most effectively reduce road mortality of amphibians in the Zoige wetlands, we suggest better road design such as avoiding wet grasslands, minimizing road width, underground passes and traffic control measures. The implementation of public transit in the area would reduce traffic volume, and hence mortality [Current Zoology 57 (6: 768–774, 2011].

  18. Leaving from and returning to nursing practice: contributing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Isabel; Taua, Chris

    2009-07-01

    Many nurses leave nursing and never return. Others return after a period of time. Given the global shortage of nurses a better understanding of these movements is needed. The present study focused on nurses who had been out of nursing for more than five years, and explored factors that influenced their leaving and return to practice. All the nurses who had undertaken a Competency Assessment Programme at a given New Zealand tertiary institution during 2005 were invited to participate. Of the 70 questionnaires mailed out 32 (44.5%) were completed and returned. Quantitative data were analysed using Microsoft Excel, and the qualitative data were coded and analysed by means of content analysis. For each, leaving and returning, three key issues emerged. Nurses left for personal reasons, to seek a career change, or because of poor working conditions. They returned when they had the personal freedom to do so, for fiscal reasons, or because they were motivated by some sense of unfinished business. These findings indicate that it is important for educators involved with Competency Assessment Programmes to collaborate with employers in ensuring that there are opportunities for re-entry to positive work environments, with a degree of flexibility that suits the demographic characteristics of those nurses returning to practice.

  19. Child fitness and father's BMI are important factors in childhood obesity: a school based cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinead Brophy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study examines obesity and factors associated with obesity in children aged 11-13 years in the UK. METHODS: 1147 children from ten secondary schools participated in a health survey that included blood samples, fitness test and anthropometric measures. Factors associated with obesity were examined using multilevel logistic regression. FINDINGS: Of the children examined (490 male; 657 female a third were overweight, 1 in 6 had elevated blood pressure, more than 1 in 10 had high cholesterol, 58% consumed more fat than recommended, whilst 37% were classified as unfit. Children in deprived areas had a higher proportion of risk factors; for example, they had higher blood pressure (20% (deprived compared to 11% (non-deprived, difference: 9.0% (95%CI: 4.7%-13.4%. Obesity is associated with risk factors for heart disease and diabetes. Maintaining fitness is associated with a reduction in the risk factors for heart disease (high blood pressure and cholesterol but not on risk factors for diabetes (insulin levels. In order of importance, the main risk factors for childhood obesity are being unfit, having an obese father, and being large at birth. CONCLUSION: The high proportion of children with risk factors suggests future interventions need to focus on community and policy change to shift the population norm rather than targeting the behaviour of high risk individuals. Interventions need to focus on mothers' lifestyle in pregnancy, fathers' health, as well as promoting fitness among children. Obesity was not associated with deprivation. Therefore, strategies should be adopted in both deprived and non deprived areas.

  20. Biomechanical factors contributing to self-organization in seagrass landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, M.S.; Koehl, M.A.R.; Kopp, B.S.

    2007-01-01

    Field observations have revealed that when water flow is consistently from one direction, seagrass shoots align in rows perpendicular to the primary axis of flow direction. In this study, live Zostera marina shoots were arranged either randomly or in rows perpendicular to the flow direction and tested in a seawater flume under unidirectional flow and waves to determine if shoot arrangement: a) influenced flow-induced force on individual shoots, b) differentially altered water flow through the canopy, and c) influenced light interception by the canopy. In addition, blade breaking strength was compared with flow-induced force to determine if changes in shoot arrangement might reduce the potential for damage to shoots. Under unidirectional flow, both current velocity in the canopy and force on shoots were significantly decreased when shoots were arranged in rows as compared to randomly. However, force on shoots was nearly constant with downstream distance, arising from the trade-off of shoot bending and in-canopy flow reduction. The coefficient of drag was higher for randomly-arranged shoots at low velocities (rows tended to intercept slightly more light than those arranged randomly. Effects of shoot arrangement under waves were less clear, potentially because we did not achieve the proper plant size?row spacing ratio. At this point, we may only suggest that water motion, as opposed to light capture, is the dominant physical mechanism responsible for these shoot arrangements. Following a computation of the Environmental Stress Factor, we concluded that even photosynthetically active blades may be damaged or broken under frequently encountered storm conditions, irrespective of shoot arrangement. We hypothesize that when flow is generally from one direction, seagrass bed patterns over multiple scales of consideration may arise as a cumulative effect of individual shoot self-organization driven by reduced force and drag on the shoots and somewhat improved light capture.

  1. Electronic prescription as contributing factor for hospitalized patients' safety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gimenes FRE

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The following study was performed to identify factors related to medication errors in the computerized physician order entry and their advantages and disadvantages according to doctors, nursing team and administrative officers. It is a survey descriptive study carried out at three units of a Brazilian academic hospital in the southeast area. The study was divided in two phases. In the first phase, we analyzed a total of 1,349 prescriptions from general medical unit, surgical and orthopaedic wards during 30 days consecutively. A semi-structured instrument, elaborated by a group of researchers for the study proposals, was used. In the second phase, a semi-structured questionnaire was applied to the health professionals containing closed and open items approaching their opinion about the composition of electronic prescription, the advantages and disadvantages of them, and their suggestions for its improvement. Out of 1,349 prescriptions observed, 17.5% presented deletions, 25.0% medicines written manually and 17.0% of them were incomplete. Some of the advantages pointed by health professionals were its legibility (37.5%, little time spent when elaborating and emitting them (20.5% and the way they are a practical and organized (8%. The disadvantages pointed were repetition of previous prescriptions (34%, typing mistakes (17%, dependence on computers (11% and alterations made manually (7%. We conclude, this way, that the computerized prescription order entry represents a great progress among the strategies used to minimize medication errors caused by prescriptions badly formulated. However, it doesn't eradicate the possibility of medication error occurrences, needing some system modifications.

  2. TECHNIQUES AND FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO DEVELOPING CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Vladimirovna Glukhova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issue of working out and introduction in educational process of higher educational institutions of the innovative technology for developing skills of critical thinking skills of the future specialists. Research is aimed at revealing of the factors promoting formation of students’ critical thinking in high schools; the search of strategy and the receptions actualizing creative abilities of students and helping to formation of an active, independent person. The author gives the reasoned proving that it’s necessary to set up the creative educational environment and adjustment of positive dialogue between the teacher and the trainee for education of such person, development of abilities of an objective reflection, interpretation of the phenomena, formulations of adequate conclusions, well-founded evaluating. Methods. The methods involve the analysis of the philosophical, psychology-pedagogical, methodical literature and the scientific periodical publications; generalisation of the Russian and foreign background, classification and arrangement of the considered issues, supervision. Results. Current approaches to the rendering of critical thinking and a problem of its formation in the scientific literature are considered; the concept «the creative educational environment» is specified; the ways of increasing the educational process efficiency are shown. Scientific novelty. The complex of procedures and the conditions promoting effective development of critical thinking skills is theoretically proved on the basis of the analysis of various information sources. Practical significance. The research outcomes and the recommended methods of critical thinking skills formation can be useful for the professors and lecturers of higher education institutions to optimize subject matter selection, techniques and methods of education under the conditions of dynamically updated educational process. 

  3. Personality Factors in Elementary School Children: Contributions to Academic Performance over and above Executive Functions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenschwander, Regula; Cimeli, Patrizia; Rothlisberger, Marianne; Roebers, Claudia M.

    2013-01-01

    Unique contributions of Big Five personality factors to academic performance in young elementary school children were explored. Extraversion and Openness (labeled "Culture" in our study) uniquely contributed to academic performance, over and above the contribution of executive functions in first and second grade children (N = 446). Well…

  4. Perspectives on the behavior of entomopathogenic nematodes from dispersal to reproduction: traits contributing to nematode fitness and biocontrol efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Christine T

    2012-06-01

    The entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) Heterorhabditis and Steinernema are widely used for the biological control of insect pests and are gaining importance as model organisms for studying parasitism and symbiosis. In this paper recent advances in the understanding of EPN behavior are reviewed. The "foraging strategy" paradigm (distinction between species with ambush and cruise strategies) as applied to EPN is being challenged and alternative paradigms proposed. Infection decisions are based on condition of the potential host, and it is becoming clear that already-infected and even long-dead hosts may be invaded, as well as healthy live hosts. The state of the infective juvenile (IJ) also influences infection, and evidence for a phased increase in infectivity of EPN species is mounting. The possibility of social behavior - adaptive interactions between IJs outside the host - is discussed. EPNs' symbiotic bacteria (Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus) are important for killing the host and rendering it suitable for nematode reproduction, but may reduce survival of IJs, resulting in a trade-off between survival and reproduction. The symbiont also contributes to defence of the cadaver by affecting food-choice decisions of insect and avian scavengers. I review EPN reproductive behavior (including sperm competition, copulation and evidence for attractive and organizational effects of pheromones), and consider the role of endotokia matricida as parental behavior exploited by the symbiont for transmission.

  5. Physical fitness and injury reporting among active duty and National Guard/Reserve women: associations with risk and lifestyle factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazman, Josh B; de la Motte, Sarah; Bramhall, Elizabeth M S; Purvis, Dianna L; Deuster, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    As more women enter the military, it is important to understand how different risks and lifestyle factors influence physical fitness and injury among women in both active duty (AD) and National Guard/Reserve (NG/R). Women in military service are less fit and more likely to suffer musculoskeletal injuries during physical training than men. They also use more medical care during deployment than men. Using data from the Comprehensive Soldier and Family Fitness Global Assessment Tool 2.0 (GAT 2.0), self-reported health and lifestyle and behavioral risk factors were analyzed in nondeployed Army personnel, with the goals of examining (1) service-component differences across traditional risk and lifestyle factors, and (2) correlates of physical performance and physical activity-related injury. Self-report GAT 2.0 data included health risk factors (overall perceived health, sleep, diet, tobacco and alcohol use), self-reported health metrics (height, weight, Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) scores), and history of physical activity-related injury. The GAT 2.0 was completed by 1,322 AD and 1,033 NG/R women, and APFT data were available for a subsample of 605 AD and 582 NG/R women. Initial analyses of GAT 2.0 data indicated that AD had higher rates of fair/poor perceived health, poor sleep, and unhealthy diet compared to NG/R women. However, AD women had a lower APFT fail rate (8%) than NG (27%) and R (28%). Active duty women were more likely to experience a physical injury in the past 6 months (38%) than NG (19%) and R (22%) women, and more likely to seek medical care than NG/R women. Across all service components, predictive factors for APFT failure included high body mass index (BMI), fair/poor health, and unhealthy diet. Predictive factors for physical injury included high BMI, fair/poor health, and binge drinking. Our analyses suggest that AD women Soldiers are more physically fit than NG/R women Soldiers, which is accompanied by a greater prevalence of physical

  6. Evolution of postmating reproductive isolation: measuring the fitness effects of chromosomal regions containing hybrid male sterility factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, N A; Wu, C I

    1993-08-01

    At least six regions of the X chromosome can cause male sterility when introgressed from Drosophila mauritiana into Drosophila simulans. In this article, we present the results of the other fitness effects caused by two X-linked regions that contain hybrid male sterility factors. In both regions, females that are heterozygous for an introgression with such a sterility factor produce substantially-fewer offspring than females heterozygous for an introgression that lacks the sterility factor. Thus, the hybrid male sterility factors, or other genes nearby, have substantial effects on female productivity. In contrast, hybrid male sterility factors have little or no effect on the relative viabilities of either sex. The evolutionary implications of these findings are discussed.

  7. Glutamate decarboxylase-dependent acid resistance in Brucella spp.: distribution and contribution to fitness under extremely acidic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiano, Maria Alessandra; Bastianelli, Daniela; Al Dahouk, Sascha; Köhler, Stephan; Cloeckaert, Axel; De Biase, Daniela; Occhialini, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Brucella is an expanding genus of major zoonotic pathogens, including at least 10 genetically very close species occupying a wide range of niches from soil to wildlife, livestock, and humans. Recently, we have shown that in the new species Brucella microti, the glutamate decarboxylase (Gad)-dependent system (GAD system) contributes to survival at a pH of 2.5 and also to infection in mice by the oral route. In order to study the functionality of the GAD system in the genus Brucella, 47 isolates, representative of all known species and strains of this genus, and 16 strains of the closest neighbor genus, Ochrobactrum, were studied using microbiological, biochemical, and genetic approaches. In agreement with the genome sequences, the GAD system of classical species was not functional, unlike that of most strains of Brucella ceti, Brucella pinnipedialis, and newly described species (B. microti, Brucella inopinata BO1, B. inopinata-like BO2, and Brucella sp. isolated from bullfrogs). In the presence of glutamate, these species were more acid resistant in vitro than classical terrestrial brucellae. Expression in trans of the gad locus from representative Brucella species in the Escherichia coli MG1655 mutant strain lacking the GAD system restored the acid-resistant phenotype. The highly conserved GAD system of the newly described or atypical Brucella species may play an important role in their adaptation to acidic external and host environments. Furthermore, the GAD phenotype was shown to be a useful diagnostic tool to distinguish these latter Brucella strains from Ochrobactrum and from classical terrestrial pathogenic Brucella species, which are GAD negative. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. The Hunt for Green Every April: Factors Affecting Fitness in Switchgrass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarath, Gautam [US Dept. of Agriculture (USDA), Lincoln, NE (United States). Agricultural Research Service (ARS). Wheat, Sorghum and Forage Research

    2014-12-10

    This grant funded work was undertaken to develop fundamental biological knowledge of the factors affecting the complex plant trait “fitness” in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a plant being developed as a biomass crop. Using a diverse range of latitudinally-adapted switchgrass plants, genomic, molecular and physiological studies were performed to track a number of different aspects of plant genetics and physiology over the course of the growing season. Work was performed on both genetically unrelated and genetically related plants. Plants were established in the field from seedlings raised in a greenhouse, or from clones present in other field nurseries. Field grown plants were used as the source of all tissues. The three objectives of this proposal were:(1) Transcript Profiling, Metabolomics, and C and N Partitioning and Recycling in Crowns and Rhizomes of Switchgrass over two growing seasons; (2) Gene Profiling During Regreening and Dormancy of Bulked Segregants; (3) Extent of Linkage Disequilibrium in Populations for Adaptation and Fitness Traits Being Developed for Central and Northern USA, that Show Significant Heterosis. Objective 1 results: Plants were labeled using 13CO2 (a stable isotope) using an acrylic chamber constructed specifically for this purpose. Plants became labeled with 13C and label decayed in aerial tissues over the course of the growing season. Varying amounts of 13C were recovered in the rhizomes. These data are being analyzed. Plants were also labeled with 15N-urea. Plants absorbed significant amounts of label that was remobilized to the growing shoots. N-dynamics would suggest that a portion of the 15N absorbed into the crowns and rhizomes is sequestered below ground. Variable amounts of 15N were translocated from the shoots to the roots over the course of the growing season. Polar metabolites extracted from a diverse array of rhizomes were analyzed using GCMS. Data

  9. Does Sluggish Cognitive Tempo Fit within a Bi-factor Model of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Annie A.; Peugh, James; Becker, Stephen P.; Kingery, Kathleen M.; Tamm, Leanne; Vaughn, Aaron J.; Ciesielski, Heather; Simon, John O.; Loren, Richard E. A.; Epstein, Jeffery N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Studies demonstrate sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptoms to be distinct from inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive dimensions of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). No study has examined SCT within a bi-factor model of ADHD whereby SCT may form a specific factor distinct from inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity while still fitting within a general ADHD factor, which was the purpose of the current study. Method 168 children were recruited from an ADHD clinic. Most (92%) met diagnostic criteria for ADHD. Parents and teachers completed measures of ADHD and SCT. Results Although SCT symptoms were strongly associated with inattention they loaded onto a factor independent of ADHD ‘g’. Results were consistent across parent and teacher ratings. Conclusions SCT is structurally distinct from inattention as well as from the general ADHD latent symptom structure. Findings support a growing body of research suggesting SCT to be distinct and separate from ADHD. PMID:25005039

  10. Association Between Leisure Time Physical Activity, Cardiopulmonary Fitness, Cardiovascular Risk Factors, and Cardiovascular Workload at Work in Firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Clare C W; Au, Chun T; Lee, Frank Y F; So, Raymond C H; Wong, John P S; Mak, Gary Y K; Chien, Eric P; McManus, Alison M

    2015-09-01

    Overweight, obesity, and cardiovascular disease risk factors are prevalent among firefighters in some developed countries. It is unclear whether physical activity and cardiopulmonary fitness reduce cardiovascular disease risk and the cardiovascular workload at work in firefighters. The present study investigated the relationship between leisure-time physical activity, cardiopulmonary fitness, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and cardiovascular workload at work in firefighters in Hong Kong. Male firefighters (n = 387) were randomly selected from serving firefighters in Hong Kong (n = 5,370) for the assessment of cardiovascular disease risk factors (obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, smoking, known cardiovascular diseases). One-third (Target Group) were randomly selected for the assessment of off-duty leisure-time physical activity using the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Maximal oxygen uptake was assessed, as well as cardiovascular workload using heart rate monitoring for each firefighter for four "normal" 24-hour working shifts and during real-situation simulated scenarios. Overall, 33.9% of the firefighters had at least two cardiovascular disease risk factors. In the Target Group, firefighters who had higher leisure-time physical activity had a lower resting heart rate and a lower average working heart rate, and spent a smaller proportion of time working at a moderate-intensity cardiovascular workload. Firefighters who had moderate aerobic fitness and high leisure-time physical activity had a lower peak working heart rate during the mountain rescue scenario compared with firefighters who had low leisure-time physical activities. Leisure-time physical activity conferred significant benefits during job tasks of moderate cardiovascular workload in firefighters in Hong Kong.

  11. Relationship between C-reactive protein and physical fitness, physical activity, obesity and selected cardiovascular risk factors in schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghipour, Hamid Reza; Rahnama, Ameneh; Salesi, Mohsen; Rahnama, Nader; Mojtahedi, Hossein

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between C-reactive protein (CRP) with physical fitness, physical activity, obesity, and selected cardiovascular risk factors in school-children. Forty-four boy schoolchildren (mean ± SD: age 10.25 ± 0.75 years, height 144 ± 0.2 cm, body weight 46.1 5± 4.59 kg, body mass index 22.16 ± 2.16 kg/m(2)) voluntarily participated in this study. Physical fitness and physical activity were assessed using the 20-meter fitness test. Adiposity was estimated using body mass index. Blood samples were taken after an overnight fast and measured for CRP, LDL, HDL and cholesterol. Pearson's correlation was calculated to determine the relations between these factors. Mean (SD) CRP concentration was 1.07 (0.82) mg/l. A significant correlation was observed between CRP and VO2max (r=-0.45, P= 0.001), body mass index (r=0.55, P=0.000) and cholesterol (r=-0.35, P=0.04). No significant relation was found between CRP and physical activity, LDL and HDL (P> 0.05). Moreover, significant associations were observed between body mass index and VO2max (r=-0.33, P=0.02) and physical activity (r=-0.43, P=0.04). Body mass index was the most powerful predictor of serum concentrations of CRP in schoolchildren. It may be an important factor to control body weight to prevent an increase in serum CRP in children and to help the primordial prevention of chronic diseases.

  12. Weight Misperception, Self-Reported Physical Fitness, Dieting and Some Psychological Variables as Risk Factors for Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Ruiz-Prieto

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the current study were to explore possible gender differences in weight misperception, self-reported physical fitness, and dieting, and to analyze the relationship between these variables and others, such as self-esteem, body appreciation, general mental health, and eating- and body image-related variables among adolescents. In addition, the specific risk for eating disorders was examined, as well as the possible clusters with respect to the risk status. The sample comprised 655 students, 313 females and 342 males, aged 16.22 ± 4.58. Different scales of perceived overweight, self-reported physical fitness and dieting together with the Body Mass Index (BMI were considered along with instruments such as the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28, Self-Esteem Scale (SES, Body Appreciation Scale (BAS and Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2. Since some gender differences were found with respect to these adolescent groups, it is necessary to design prevention programs that not only focus on traditional factors such as BMI or body image, but also on elements like weight perception, self-reported fitness and nutritional education.

  13. Searching for the Final Answer: Factors Contributing to Medication Administration Errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, Tess M.

    2001-01-01

    Causal factors contributing to errors in medication administration should be thoroughly investigated, focusing on systems rather than individual nurses. Unless systemic causes are addressed, many errors will go unreported for fear of reprisal. (Contains 42 references.) (SK)

  14. The contribution of classical risk factors to cardiovascular disease in familial hypercholesterolaemia: data in 2400 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, A. C. M.; van Aalst-Cohen, E. S.; Tanck, M. W.; Trip, M. D.; Lansberg, P. J.; Liem, A. H.; van Lennep, H. W. O. Roeters; Sijbrands, E. J. G.; Kastelein, J. J. P.

    2004-01-01

    Objective. To determine the contribution of classical risk factors to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH). Design. A retrospective, multi-centre, cohort study. Extensive data were collected by scrutinizing medical records

  15. Functional mobility and its contributing factors for older adults in different cities in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-I. Lin

    2017-02-01

    Conclusion: Taiwanese older adults with mobility problems living in different cities performed differently in TUG and the contributing factors were also different. These findings indicate a need of further studies examining older adults in different environments.

  16. [NUTRITIONAL CONDITION OF SCHOOLCHILDREN AND THEIR ASSOCIATION WITH LEVELS OF FITNESS AND CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado Floody, Pedro; Caamaño Navarrete, Felipe; Cresp Barría, Mauro; Osorio Poblete, Aldo; Cofré Lizama, Alfonso

    2015-09-01

    in Chile, the increase of childhood obesity has become a major public health problem. The aim of the study is to determine and compare the levels of overweight and obesity of schoolchildren and their association with fitness levels and predictors of cardiovascular risk. an association study and comparison of variables by gender and nutritional status was performed, 113 students (58 men and 55 women) between 13 and 16 years old were evaluated. Nutritional condition and physical performance through the set used by the agency of quality of education in Chile was measured. 57.5% of the sample was overweight. The contour waist and fat percentage is higher in women (p < 0.05). BMI was not significantly different. Men had better physical performance in jumping, abdominal strength, and Navette Test (p < 0.05). Regarding the assessment of weight status on physical performance there were significant differences (p < 0.05) in the variables; abs, flexion and extension, Navette Test and jump higher results in subjects with normal weight. Obese school students had a higher percentage of fat mass and waist contour (p < 0.05). Regarding the association of variables according to BMI, body fat percentage and waist contour, these had negative associations with physical performance. 57.5% of the evaluated students were overweight or obese, associating these results negatively with physical performance, and increased levels of fat mass and waist contour, all these health indicators and predictors of cardiovascular risk. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  17. Factors Contribute to Safety Culture in the Manufacturing Industry in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Ong Choon Hee

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explain the role of safety culture in the manufacturing industry in Malaysia and identify factors contribute to safety culture. It is suggested in this study that leadership support, management commitment and safety management system are important factors that contribute to safety culture. This study also provides theoretical implications to guide future research and offers practical implications to the managers in the development of safety culture. Given that ...

  18. Experimental investigation of heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of thermosyphon solar water heater system fitted with spacer at the trailing edge of Left-Right twisted tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaisankar, S.; Radhakrishnan, T.K.; Sheeba, K.N.; Suresh, S.

    2009-01-01

    Experimental investigation of heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of thermosyphon solar water heater with full length Left-Right twist, twist fitted with rod and spacer at the trailing edge for lengths of 100, 200 and 300 mm for twist ratio 3 and 5 has been studied. The experimental data for plain tube collector has been compared with fundamental equation within a discrepancy of ±7.41% and ±14.97% for Nusselt number and friction factor, respectively. Result shows that the Nusselt number decreases by 11% and 19% for twist fitted with rod and twist with spacer, respectively, when compared with full length twist. Friction factor also decreases by 18% and 29% for twist fitted with rod and spacer, respectively, as compared with full length twist. The heat enhancement in twist fitted with rod at the trailing edge is maximum when compared with twist fitted with spacer because the swirl flow is maintained throughout the length of rod.

  19. Project-Method Fit: Exploring Factors That Influence Agile Method Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Diana K.

    2013-01-01

    While the productivity and quality implications of agile software development methods (SDMs) have been demonstrated, research concerning the project contexts where their use is most appropriate has yielded less definitive results. Most experts agree that agile SDMs are not suited for all project contexts. Several project and team factors have been…

  20. The effects of physical activity and fitness in adolescence on cognition in adulthood and the role of insulin-like growth factor I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferro, D.A.; Deijen, J.B.; Koppes, L.L.; Mechelen, W. van; Twisk, J.W.; Drent, M.L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical activity and fitness in adolescence may improve cognition in adulthood by increasing insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). Methods: As part of the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study, following subjects from age 13 to 42 years, physical activity and fitness of 303

  1. The Effects of Physical Activity and Fitness in Adolescence on Cognition in Adulthood and the Role of Insulin-like Growth Factor I.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferro, D.A.; Deijen, J.B.; Koppes, L.L.; van Mechelen, W.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Drent, M.L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical activity and fitness in adolescence may improve cognition in adulthood by increasing insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). Methods: As part of the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study, following subjects from age 13 to 42 years, physical activity and fitness of 303

  2. The effects of physical activity and fitness in Adolescence on cognition in adulthood and the role of insulin-like growth factor I .

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferro, D.A.; Deijen, J.B.; Koppes, L.L.; Mechelen, W. van; Twisk, J.W.; Drent, M.L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical activity and fitness in adolescence may improve cognition in adulthood by increasing insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). Methods: As part of the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study, following subjects from age 13 to 42 years, physical activity and fitness of 303

  3. Influence of muscle fitness test performance on metabolic risk factors among adolescent girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mota Jorge

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to examine the association between muscular fitness (MF, assessed by 2 components of Fitnessgram test battery, the Curl-Up and Push-Ups tests and the metabolic risk score among adolescent girls. Methods A total of 229 girls (aged 12-15 years old comprised the sample of this study. Anthropometric data (height, body mass, waist circumference were collected. Body mass index (BMI was also calculated. Muscular strength was assessed taking into account the tests that comprised the FITNESSGRAM test battery, i.e. the curl-up and the push-up. Participants were then categorized in one of 3 categories according the number of tests in which they accomplished the scores that allow them to be classified in health or above health zone. The blood pressure [BP], fasting total cholesterol [TC], low density lipoprotein-cholesterol [LDL-C], high density lipoprotein-cholesterol [HDL-C], triglycerides [TG], glucose, and a metabolic risk score (MRS were also examined. Physical Activity Index (PAI was obtained by questionnaire. Results Higher compliance with health-zone criteria (good in the 2 tests, adjusted for age and maturation, were positive and significantly (p ≤ 0.05 associated with height (r = 0.19 and PAI (r = 0.21, while a significant but negative association was found for BMI (r = -0.12; WC (r = -0.19; TC (r = -0.16; TG (r = -0.16; LDL (r = -0.16 and MRS (r = -0.16. Logistic regression showed that who were assigned to MF fittest group were less likely (OR = 0.27; p = 0.003 to be classified overweight/obese and less likely (OR = 0.26; p = 0.03 to be classified as having MRS. This last association was also found for those whom only performed 1 test under the health zone (OR = 0.23; p = 0.02. Conclusions Our data showed that low strength test performance was associated with increased risk for obesity and metabolic risk in adolescent girls even after adjustment for age and maturation.

  4. Contributing factors of teenage pregnancy among African-American females living in economically disadvantaged communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Lauren; Lee, Young-Me; Lee, Hyeonkyeong

    2017-10-01

    To identify contributing factors that increased the risk of pregnancy among African-American adolescent females living in economically disadvantaged communities and to evaluate the current pregnancy prevention programs addressing these factors in order to provide suggestions for the development of tailored pregnancy prevention programs for this target population. Pregnancy rates among adolescents in the United States have declined over the past several years. Despite this trend, the pregnancy rate for African-American adolescent females is disproportionately higher than the adolescent pregnancy rates for other ethnicities. Limited attempts have been made to compile and synthesize the factors that increase risk of pregnancy in this population or to evaluate the effectiveness of intervention programs for African-American females that incorporate these risk factors. An integrative literature review was conducted to identify the major contributing factors of pregnancy among African American adolescents living in economically disadvantaged areas. Of the identified contributing risk factors for early pregnancy among African-American adolescent females, the five most supported risk factors were: parental influence, peer influence, social messages, substance use including alcohol, and pregnancy desire. Twelve pregnancy prevention programs were identified that addressed one or more of the five contributing factors to pregnancy. Parental influence and social messages were the most addressed factors among these programs. This review found five contributing factors related to teenage pregnancy; however, current intervention programs are not well addressed substance use as a component of alcohol use. Thus, development of a tailored pregnancy prevention program incorporating those factors will help decrease the high pregnancy rate among this target population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Gag mutations strongly contribute to HIV-1 resistance to protease inhibitors in highly drug-experienced patients besides compensating for fitness loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Dam

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 resistance to protease inhibitors (PI results from mutations in the viral protease (PR that reduce PI binding but also decrease viral replicative capacity (RC. Additional mutations compensating for the RC loss subsequently accumulate within PR and in Gag substrate cleavage sites. We examined the respective contribution of mutations in PR and Gag to PI resistance and RC and their interdependence using a panel of HIV-1 molecular clones carrying different sequences from six patients who had failed multiple lines of treatment. Mutations in Gag strongly and directly contributed to PI resistance besides compensating for fitness loss. This effect was essentially carried by the C-terminal region of Gag (containing NC-SP2-p6 with little or no contribution from MA, CA, and SP1. The effect of Gag on resistance depended on the presence of cleavage site mutations A431V or I437V in NC-SP2-p6 and correlated with processing of the NC/SP2 cleavage site. By contrast, reverting the A431V or I437V mutation in these highly evolved sequences had little effect on RC. Mutations in the NC-SP2-p6 region of Gag can be dually selected as compensatory and as direct PI resistance mutations, with cleavage at the NC-SP2 site behaving as a rate-limiting step in PI resistance. Further compensatory mutations render viral RC independent of the A431V or I437V mutations while their effect on resistance persists.

  6. Smoking Attitudes and Practices among Low-Income African Americans: Qualitative Assessment of Contributing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beech, Bettina M.; Scarinci, Isabel C.

    2003-01-01

    Qualitatively examined sociocultural factors associated with smoking attitudes and practices among low-income, African American young adults smokers and nonsmokers. Focus group data indicated that specific contextual and familial factors contributed to smoking initiation, maintenance, and cessation (e.g., strong parental discipline, limited…

  7. The use of seat belts and contributing factors : an international comparison.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mäkinen, T. Wittink, R.D. & Hagenzieker, M.P.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to define factors that contribute to the use or non-use of seat belts. Legislation prescribing compulsory seat belt usage is one of the most important factors. Promotion of the use of seat belts without this legislation is very difficult and time-consuming. So far, the

  8. Determining factors that contribute to financial literacy for small and medium enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, M. S.; Oktavianti, V.; Gunarta, I. K.

    2018-04-01

    Financial literacy on the SME owner/manager will subsequently improve the profitability of SME. Although, numerous research had existed in financial literacy subject, there are still limited research that examined the factor related to financial literacy. In this paper, we are examining demographic and SME factor that contribute to financial literacy using linear regression. Other objective of this paper is to confirm the benefit of financial literacy on access to credit. The finding shown that for demographic factor, level of education is contributed to financial literacy. The second finding is that level of financial literacy is related with greater degree of access to credit

  9. FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO ELDER ABUSE AND NEGLECT IN THE INFORMAL CAREGIVING SETTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananias, Janetta

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of factors contributing to elder abuse and neglect within the informal caregiving setting from the perspective of ecological theory. This theory offers a deeper understanding of the complexity of elder abuse by considering the interactions that take place across a number of interrelated systems as well as the multiple risk factors that contribute to elder abuse and neglect. Researchers, policy makers and practitioners need to develop awareness of the risk factors regarding elder abuse and neglect, and to develop appropriate interventions in response to elder abuse and neglect.

  10. Injury Rate and Patterns Among CrossFit Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Weisenthal, Benjamin M.; Beck, Christopher A.; Maloney, Michael D.; DeHaven, Kenneth E.; Giordano, Brian D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: CrossFit is a type of competitive exercise program that has gained widespread recognition. To date, there have been no studies that have formally examined injury rates among CrossFit participants or factors that may contribute to injury rates. Purpose: To establish an injury rate among CrossFit participants and to identify trends and associations between injury rates and demographic categories, gym characteristics, and athletic abilities among CrossFit participants. Study Design: ...

  11. Factors contributing to nurse job satisfaction in the acute hospital setting: a review of recent literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Bronwyn; Bonner, Ann; Pryor, Julie

    2010-10-01

    To explore and discuss from recent literature the common factors contributing to nurse job satisfaction in the acute hospital setting. Nursing dissatisfaction is linked to high rates of nurses leaving the profession, poor morale, poor patient outcomes and increased financial expenditure. Understanding factors that contribute to job satisfaction could increase nurse retention. A literature search from January 2004 to March 2009 was conducted using the keywords nursing, (dis)satisfaction, job (dis)satisfaction to identify factors contributing to satisfaction for nurses working in acute hospital settings. This review identified 44 factors in three clusters (intra-, inter- and extra-personal). Job satisfaction for nurses in acute hospitals can be influenced by a combination of any or all of these factors. Important factors included coping strategies, autonomy, co-worker interaction, direct patient care, organizational policies, resource adequacy and educational opportunities. Research suggests that job satisfaction is a complex and multifactorial phenomenon. Collaboration between individual nurses, their managers and others is crucial to increase nursing satisfaction with their job. Recognition and regular reviewing by nurse managers of factors that contribute to job satisfaction for nurses working in acute care areas is pivotal to the retention of valued staff. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. The contribution from psychological, social, and organizational work factors to risk of disability retirement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knardahl, Stein; Johannessen, Håkon A.; Sterud, Tom

    2017-01-01

    Background: Previous studies indicate that psychological, social, and organizational factors at work contribute to health, motivation, absence from work, and functional ability. The objective of the study was to assess the current state of knowledge of the contribution of psychological, social, a...... social support from ones superior. Conclusions: Psychological and organizational factors at work contribute to disability retirement with the most robust evidence for the role of work control. We recommend the measurement of specific exposure factors in future studies.......Background: Previous studies indicate that psychological, social, and organizational factors at work contribute to health, motivation, absence from work, and functional ability. The objective of the study was to assess the current state of knowledge of the contribution of psychological, social......, and organizational factors to disability retirement by a systematic review and meta-analyses. Methods: Data sources: A systematic literature search for studies of retirement due to disability in Medline, Embase, and PsychINFO was performed. Reference lists of relevant articles were hand-searched for additional...

  13. Absence of the predisposing factors and signs and symptoms usually associated with overreaching and overtraining in physical fitness centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Ackel-D'Elia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of the well-known predisposing factors and signs and symptoms usually associated with either overreaching or overtraining syndrome in physical fitness centers in São Paulo City, Brazil. METHOD: A questionnaire consisting of 13 question groups pertaining to either predisposing factors (1-7 or signs and symptoms (8-13 was given to 413 subjects. The general training schedule of the volunteers was characterized by workout sessions of 2.18 ± 0.04 h for a total of 11.0 ± 0.3 h/week for 33 ± 2 months independent of the type of exercise performed (walking, running, spinning, bodybuilding and stretching. A mean score was calculated ranging from 1 (completely absent to 5 (severe for each question group. A low occurrence was considered to be a question group score lower than 4, which was observed in all 13 question groups. RESULTS: The psychological evaluation by POMS Mood State Questionnaire indicated a normal non-inverted iceberg. The hematological parameters, creatine kinase activity, cortisol, total testosterone and free testosterone concentrations were within the normal ranges for the majority of the volunteers selected for this analysis (n = 60. CONCLUSION: According to the questionnaire score analysis, no predisposing factors or signs and symptoms usually associated with either overreaching or overtraining were detected among the members of physical fitness centers in São Paulo City, Brazil. This observation was corroborated by the absence of any significant hematological or stress hormone level alterations in blood analyses of the majority of the selected volunteers (n = 60.

  14. The contributions of human factors on human error in Malaysia aviation maintenance industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padil, H.; Said, M. N.; Azizan, A.

    2018-05-01

    Aviation maintenance is a multitasking activity in which individuals perform varied tasks under constant pressure to meet deadlines as well as challenging work conditions. These situational characteristics combined with human factors can lead to various types of human related errors. The primary objective of this research is to develop a structural relationship model that incorporates human factors, organizational factors, and their impact on human errors in aviation maintenance. Towards that end, a questionnaire was developed which was administered to Malaysian aviation maintenance professionals. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) approach was used in this study utilizing AMOS software. Results showed that there were a significant relationship of human factors on human errors and were tested in the model. Human factors had a partial effect on organizational factors while organizational factors had a direct and positive impact on human errors. It was also revealed that organizational factors contributed to human errors when coupled with human factors construct. This study has contributed to the advancement of knowledge on human factors effecting safety and has provided guidelines for improving human factors performance relating to aviation maintenance activities and could be used as a reference for improving safety performance in the Malaysian aviation maintenance companies.

  15. Patient and carer identified factors which contribute to safety incidents in primary care: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernan, Andrea L; Giles, Sally J; Fuller, Jeffrey; Johnson, Julie K; Walker, Christine; Dunbar, James A

    2015-09-01

    Patients can have an important role in reducing harm in primary-care settings. Learning from patient experience and feedback could improve patient safety. Evidence that captures patients' views of the various contributory factors to creating safe primary care is largely absent. The aim of this study was to address this evidence gap. Four focus groups and eight semistructured interviews were conducted with 34 patients and carers from south-east Australia. Participants were asked to describe their experiences of primary care. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim and specific factors that contribute to safety incidents were identified in the analysis using the Yorkshire Contributory Factors Framework (YCFF). Other factors emerging from the data were also ascertained and added to the analytical framework. Thirteen factors that contribute to safety incidents in primary care were ascertained. Five unique factors for the primary-care setting were discovered in conjunction with eight factors present in the YCFF from hospital settings. The five unique primary care contributing factors to safety incidents represented a range of levels within the primary-care system from local working conditions to the upstream organisational level and the external policy context. The 13 factors included communication, access, patient factors, external policy context, dignity and respect, primary-secondary interface, continuity of care, task performance, task characteristics, time in the consultation, safety culture, team factors and the physical environment. Patient and carer feedback of this type could help primary-care professionals better understand and identify potential safety concerns and make appropriate service improvements. The comprehensive range of factors identified provides the groundwork for developing tools that systematically capture the multiple contributory factors to patient safety. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not

  16. Identification of the human factors contributing to maintenance failures in a petroleum operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonovsky, Ari; Pollock, Clare; Straker, Leon

    2014-03-01

    This research aimed to identify the most frequently occurring human factors contributing to maintenance-related failures within a petroleum industry organization. Commonality between failures will assist in understanding reliability in maintenance processes, thereby preventing accidents in high-hazard domains. Methods exist for understanding the human factors contributing to accidents. Their application in a maintenance context mainly has been advanced in aviation and nuclear power. Maintenance in the petroleum industry provides a different context for investigating the role that human factors play in influencing outcomes. It is therefore worth investigating the contributing human factors to improve our understanding of both human factors in reliability and the factors specific to this domain. Detailed analyses were conducted of maintenance-related failures (N = 38) in a petroleum company using structured interviews with maintenance technicians. The interview structure was based on the Human Factor Investigation Tool (HFIT), which in turn was based on Rasmussen's model of human malfunction. A mean of 9.5 factors per incident was identified across the cases investigated.The three most frequent human factors contributing to the maintenance failures were found to be assumption (79% of cases), design and maintenance (71%), and communication (66%). HFIT proved to be a useful instrument for identifying the pattern of human factors that recurred most frequently in maintenance-related failures. The high frequency of failures attributed to assumptions and communication demonstrated the importance of problem-solving abilities and organizational communication in a domain where maintenance personnel have a high degree of autonomy and a wide geographical distribution.

  17. Contributing factors in self-poisoning leading to hospital admission in adolescents in northern Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liisanantti, Janne Henrik; Ala-Kokko, Tero Ilmari; Dunder, Teija Sinikka; Ebeling, Hanna Elina

    2010-07-01

    To evaluate the frequencies of different agents used in self-poisonings and acute factors contributing to intoxication of patients aged 12-18 years in northern Finland. Retrospective medical record review of all hospitalized patients during the period from January 1, 1991 to December 31, 2006. Cause of the admission, contributing factors, readmissions within one year. There were 309 admissions during the period, 54% were females. The leading cause of admission was alcohol, in 222 cases (71.8%). Hospitalizations related to alcohol consumption were associated with accidental poisoning in recreational use. There were no acute contributing factors in the majority of all patients. Over one-third of all intoxications were intentional self-harm, although previously diagnosed psychiatric diseases were rare. It is crucial to recognize adolescent psychiatric disorders in time and consult child and adolescent psychiatrist in case of poisoning.

  18. Holographic estimate of the meson cloud contribution to nucleon axial form factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, G.

    2018-04-01

    We use light-front holography to estimate the valence quark and the meson cloud contributions to the nucleon axial form factor. The free couplings of the holographic model are determined by the empirical data and by the information extracted from lattice QCD. The holographic model provides a good description of the empirical data when we consider a meson cloud mixture of about 30% in the physical nucleon state. The estimate of the valence quark contribution to the nucleon axial form factor compares well with the lattice QCD data for small pion masses. Our estimate of the meson cloud contribution to the nucleon axial form factor has a slower falloff with the square momentum transfer compared to typical estimates from quark models with meson cloud dressing.

  19. Up- and Down-Quark Contributions to the Nucleon Form Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qattan I. A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent measurements of the neutron s electric to magnetic form factors ratio, Rn = µnGnE/GnM, up to 3.4 (GeV/c2 combined with existing Rp = µpGpE/GpM measurements in the same Q2 range allowed, for the first time, a separation of the up- and downquark contributions to the form factors at high Q2, as presented by Cates, et al.. Our analysis expands on the original work by including additional form factor data, applying two-photon exchange (TPE corrections, and accounting for the uncertainties associated with all of the form factor measurements.

  20. Relationships of physical fitness and obesity with metabolic risk factors in children and adolescents: Chungju city cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo Jin Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available PurposeThe purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships of physical fitness and obesity with metabolic risk factors in children and adolescents.MethodsThis cohort study was conducted in Chungju city, South Korea. Total 843 subjects were enrolled, including 193 elementary school 4th grade male (E4M, 189 elementary school 4th grade female (E4F and 461 male-middle school students (M1M. The subjects were also classified into 2 groups by body mass index; normal weight (NW group and overweight included obesity (OW/OB group. Physical fitness was measured by shuttle run (cardiorespiratory fitness, CRF, sit and reach (flexibility, handgrip strength (muscular strength and stand long jump (agility.ResultsThe prevalence of OW/OB was respectively 33.7% (65 of 193 among E4M, 28.6% (54 of 189 among E4F, and 28.0% (129 of 461 among M1M. Hematocrit, white blood cell, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were higher, while high-density lipoprotein were lower in the OW/OB group than in the NW group. The OW/OB group presented significantly lower CRF (P<0.01 and lower agility, but higher muscular strength compared with NW group. CRF was negatively correlated with obesity indices and metabolic risk factors. After adjustments for potential confounders, odds ratios for 4th–5th grade CRF of OW/OB compared NW in the E4M, E4F, M1M, were 7.38 (95 % CI, 3.24–16.83, 4.10 (95% CI, 1.83–9.18, 16.06 (95% CI, 8.23–31.00 (P<0.01.ConclusionOur study has shown that CRF has negative correlation with OW/OB in children and adolescents of Chungju city. We suggest that improvement of CRF through regular physical activity would be an important method for reducing the metabolic risks of childhood obesity.

  1. Evaluation of the reliability concerning the identification of human factors as contributing factors by a computer supported event analysis (CEA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilpert, B.; Maimer, H.; Loroff, C.

    2000-01-01

    The project's objectives are the evaluation of the reliability concerning the identification of Human Factors as contributing factors by a computer supported event analysis (CEA). CEA is a computer version of SOL (Safety through Organizational Learning). Parts of the first step were interviews with experts from the nuclear power industry and the evaluation of existing computer supported event analysis methods. This information was combined to a requirement profile for the CEA software. The next step contained the implementation of the software in an iterative process of evaluation. The completion of this project was the testing of the CEA software. As a result the testing demonstrated that it is possible to identify contributing factors with CEA validly. In addition, CEA received a very positive feedback from the experts. (orig.) [de

  2. Inhibitors in haemophilia A: a perspective on clotting factor products as a potential contributing factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, P; Dinter, H; Church, N; Humphries, T J; Kulkarni, R

    2016-05-01

    The occurrence of a neutralizing antibody in previously untreated patients (PUPs) with haemophilia A appears to be the result of an intricate interplay of both genetic and environmental factors. Recently, the type of factor VIII (FVIII) product used in the PUPs population has been implicated as a risk factor for inhibitor development. The aim of this review was to explore in a systematic manner potential hypotheses for the product-related findings in these studies (i.e. differences in the expression system of the cell lines used to produce recombinant FVIII [rFVIII], differences in the administered antigen load or changes in clinical practice over time). Review of the available clinical studies illustrates the high degree of variability for the risk of inhibitor development for the same products across different studies. Differences in cell lines or antigen load were not found to provide a reasonable explanation. The possibility of changes in clinical practice over time and patient selection bias (i.e. the preferential use of one product over another in patients at higher risk for inhibitors) offers a potential explanation and should be carefully considered when evaluating the studies. © 2016 The Authors. Haemophilia Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Contribution of meson exchange currents to magnetic form factor of a few complex nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathiot, J.F.

    1981-12-01

    We were interested in the contribution of meson exchange currents (MEC) to the magnetic form factor (MFF) of 49 Ti, 51 V, 87 Sr, 93 Nb at high momentum transfer (1.8 fm -1 to 3.2 fm -1 ). We found that the contribution of tensor correlations to the 1 S 0 - 3 S 1 transition of MEC (adding the 3 D 1 tensor part to the 3 S 1 relative state) multiply the previous calculations by a factor of 2.5 to 4. The sensitivity of MEC to the hadronic form factor is also estimated. It remains of discrepancy of a factor 2 for the MFF at 3 fm -1 for the first three nuclei [fr

  4. Endotoxin levels and contribution factors of endotoxins in resident, school, and office environments - A review

    OpenAIRE

    Salonen, Heidi; Duchaine, Caroline; Letourneau, Valerie; Mazaheri, Mandana; Laitinen, Sirpa; Clifford, Sam; Mikkola, Raimo; Lappalainen, Sanna; Reijula, Kari; Morawska, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    As endotoxin exposure has known effects on human health, it is important to know the generally existing levels of endotoxins as well as their contributing factors. This work reviews current knowledge on the endotoxin loads in settled floor dust, concentrations of endotoxins in indoor air, and different environmental factors potentially affecting endotoxin levels. The literature review consists of peer-reviewed manuscripts located using Google and PubMed, with search terms based on individual ...

  5. Enhancement of crop photosynthesis by diffuse light: quantifying the contributing factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, T.; Heuvelink, E.; Dueck, T.A.; Janse, J.; Gort, G.; Marcelis, L.F.M.

    2014-01-01

    Plants use diffuse light more efficiently than direct light. However, experimental comparisons between diffuse and direct light have been obscured by co-occurring differences in environmental conditions (e.g. light intensity). This study aims to analyse the factors that contribute to an increase in

  6. Factors Contributing to Perceived Stress among Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Kentya C.; Olotu, Busuyi S.; Thach, Andrew V.; Roberts, Rochelle; Davis, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to report on perceived stress levels, identify its contributing factors, and evaluate the association between perceived stress and usage of university resources to cope with stress among a cross-section of Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) students. Methods: Perceived stress was measured via a web-based survey of…

  7. Contributing Factors on Malaysia Preschool Teachers' Belief, Attitude and Competence in Using Play Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantan, Hafsah Binti; Bin Hamdan, Abdul Rahim; Yahya, Fauziah Hj; Saleh, Halimatussadiah Binti; Ong, Mohd Hanafi Bin Azman

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on preschool teachers' belief, attitude, knowledge and competence in using play in Malaysia. Its purpose is to find out indicators significantly contribute to belief, attitude, knowledge and competence in play of preschool teachers in Malaysia. The method used was factor analysis in order to confirm indicators in each variable…

  8. Wait Not, Want Not: Factors Contributing to the Development of Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Trish

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to examine prevalence and incident rates of both anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. In addition, this article will review the psychological and sociological factors that contribute to the development and maintenance of an eating disorder. Finally, different treatment approaches will be discussed in…

  9. Contributing Factors to Older Teen Mothers' Academic Success as Very Young Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Jennifer; Abu Rabia, Hazza M.

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the factors contributed to 13 older teen mothers' academic success as very young mothers. The participants were older teen mothers who were pregnant and gave birth at the age of 16 years old or younger, and who have achieved a college degree from an accredited college or university while they raised their…

  10. Contributing and Damaging Factors Related to the Psychological Capital of Teachers: A Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çimen, Ismail; Özgan, Habib

    2018-01-01

    Over the last two decades, psychological capital has gained prominence in the literature on positive organisational behaviour. However, further investigation is still needed in relation to this issue, particularly in the context of educational organisations. Accordingly, this study aimed to examine the contributing and damaging factors relating to…

  11. Enhancing maya women's development through cooperative associations : what factors support or restrict the contribution of cooperatives?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osorio Vazquez, Maria Cristina

    2017-01-01

    With the aim of contributing to the development of Mayan women living in the Yucatan Peninsula, this research focused on determine the factors that support or inhibit the sustainability of micro-businesses cooperatives, which are organizations with innovative elements that allow Mayan women to work

  12. Factors Contributing to Student Engagement in an Instructional Facebook Group for Undergraduate Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Peter L.; Gregory, Karen M.; Eddy, Erik R.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates factors contributing to student engagement in an educational Facebook group. The study is based on survey results of 138 undergraduate mathematics students at a highly diverse urban public university. Survey measures included engagement in the Facebook group, access to Facebook, comfort using technology, and interest in the…

  13. Red-cockaded woodpecker cavity-tree damage by Hurricane Rita: an evaluation of contributing factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Bainbridge; Kristen A. Baum; Daniel Saenz; Cory K. Adams

    2011-01-01

    Picoides borealis (Red-cockaded Woodpecker) is an endangered species inhabiting pine savannas of the southeastern United States. Because the intensity of hurricanes striking the southeastern United States is likely to increase as global temperatures rise, it is important to identify factors contributing to hurricane damage to Red-cockaded Woodpecker cavity-trees. Our...

  14. Motivational Factors Contributing to Turkish High School Students' Achievement in Gases and Chemical Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadioglu, Cansel; Uzuntiryaki, Esen

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the contribution of motivational factors to 10th grade students' achievement in gases and chemical reactions in chemistry. Three hundred fifty nine 10th grade students participated in the study. The Gases and Chemical Reactions Achievement Test and the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire were…

  15. Risk and Protective Factors Contributing to Depressive Symptoms in Vietnamese American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Meekyung; Lee, Mary

    2011-01-01

    With the demographic shifts the United States faces, understanding the contributing factors to mental well-being among minority college students is crucial. This study examines the roles of parental and peer attachment, intergenerational conflict, and perceived racial discrimination on depressive symptoms while also analyzing the mediational role…

  16. An Investigation into Factors Contributing to Iranian Secondary School English Teachers' Job Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soodmand Afshar, Hassan; Doosti, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    This study explored factors contributing to job satisfaction and dissatisfaction of male and female Iranian secondary school English teachers. A Likert-scale 58-item questionnaire was developed which was completed by 210 participants. The questionnaire also included three open-ended questions which investigated participants' motivation and…

  17. Contributing Factors to Student Success in Anatomy and Physiology: Lower outside Workload and Better Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, David E.; Hannum, Lynn; Gupta, Sat

    2004-01-01

    A study of students of a traditional two-semester Anatomy and Physiology class was made to determine factors that contributed to success in the coursework. The test established a co-relation between the amount of study in mathematics and science done previously in school and final grades in the subject.

  18. Factors contributing to the disturbance of coagulation and fibrinolysis in dengue virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Chun Chuang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemorrhage is one of the hallmarks of dengue hemorrhagic fever. However, the mechanisms that cause hemorrhage are unclear. In this review we focus on the possible factors that may be involved in the disturbance of coagulation and fibrinolysis during dengue virus (DENV infection. Factors such as autoantibodies and cytokines induced by DENV infection as well as hemostatic molecules expressed on DENV-infected cells, and DENV viral proteins may all contribute to the defect of hemostasis during DENV infection. It is the combination of these viral and host factors that may tilt the balance of coagulation and fibrinolysis toward bleeding in dengue patients.

  19. THE LIFE EXPERIENCES OF ADOLESCENT SEXUAL OFFENDERS: FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO OFFENDING BEHAVIOURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naidoo, Linda

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study, based on the case studies of 25 adolescent sex offenders, was designed to understand those factors that contribute to adolescent sexual offending. Although the focus is primarily on the micro level, we acknowledge the impacts of mezzo- and macro-level factors on family and individual functioning. External structural factors such as poverty, inequality, unemployment, societal values regarding sexuality, lack of support systems and violence penetrate the lives of individuals and families to manifest in a range of problems that human service professionals such as psychiatrists, social workers and psychologists deal with on a daily basis

  20. Risk and contributing factors of ecosystem shifts over naturally vegetated land under climate change in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yuanyuan; Tang, Qiuhong; Wang, Lixin; Liu, Xingcai

    2016-02-12

    Identifying the areas at risk of ecosystem transformation and the main contributing factors to the risk is essential to assist ecological adaptation to climate change. We assessed the risk of ecosystem shifts in China using the projections of four global gridded vegetation models (GGVMs) and an aggregate metric. The results show that half of naturally vegetated land surface could be under moderate or severe risk at the end of the 21(st) century under the middle and high emission scenarios. The areas with high risk are the Tibetan Plateau region and an area extended northeastward from the Tibetan Plateau to northeast China. With the three major factors considered, the change in carbon stocks is the main contributing factor to the high risk of ecosystem shifts. The change in carbon fluxes is another important contributing factor under the high emission scenario. The change in water fluxes is a less dominant factor except for the Tibetan Plateau region under the high emission scenario. Although there is considerable uncertainty in the risk assessment, the geographic patterns of the risk are generally consistent across different scenarios. The results could help develop regional strategies for ecosystem conservation to cope with climate change.

  1. Factors Contributing to the Subjective Career Success among Islamic Educators in Primary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesnan Supa`ad

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A very limited research has been done in the field of career development among Islamic education teachers. Most of the previous researches showed an improvement in terms of grades, positions, and responsibilities of their previous routines as an indicator of their career advancement. However, this conceptual (concept paper discusses how personality factors, career planning, and career strategy can provide significant contribution to the success of Islamic education teachers’ career. Based on the Five Factor Model, Gould Planning Model, and the support of previous researches, this paper discusses how these three factors can contribute to the success of Islamic education teachers’ career. This paper also discusses its impact towards Islamic education teachers in Malaysia, schools management, District Education Office, Ministry of Education, and teachers education institutions.

  2. Maternal factors contributing to under-five mortality at birth order 1 to 5 in India: a comprehensive multivariate study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajvir; Tripathi, Vrijesh

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study is to assess maternal factors contributing to under-five mortality at birth order 1 to 5 in India. Data for this study was derived from the children's record of the 2007 India National Family Health Survey, which is a nationally representative cross-sectional household survey. Data is segregated according to birth order 1 to 5 to assess mother's occupation, Mother's education, child's gender, Mother's age, place of residence, wealth index, mother's anaemia level, prenatal care, assistance at delivery , antenatal care, place of delivery and other maternal factors contributing to under-five mortality. Out of total 51555 births, analysis is restricted to 16567 children of first birth order, 14409 of second birth order, 8318 of third birth order, 5021 of fourth birth order and 3034 of fifth birth order covering 92% of the total births taken place 0-59 months prior to survey. Mother's average age in years for birth orders 1 to 5 are 23.7, 25.8, 27.4, 29 and 31 years, respectively. Most mothers whose children died are Hindu, with no formal education, severely anaemic and working in the agricultural sector. In multivariate logistic models, maternal education, wealth index and breastfeeding are protective factors across all birth orders. In birth order model 1 and 2, mother's occupation is a significant risk factor. In birth order models 2 to 5, previous birth interval of lesser than 24 months is a risk factor. Child's gender is a risk factor in birth order 1 and 5. Information regarding complications in pregnancy and prenatal care act as protective factors in birth order 1, place of delivery and immunization in birth order 2, and child size at birth in birth order 4. Prediction models demonstrate high discrimination that indicates that our models fit the data. The study has policy implications such as enhancing the Information, Education and Communication network for mothers, especially at higher birth orders, in order to reduce under

  3. Spatiotemporal variations of ambient PM10 source contributions in Beijing in 2004 using positive matrix factorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Chen

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Source contributions to ambient PM10 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm or less in Beijing, China were determined with positive matrix factorization (PMF based on ambient PM10 composition data including concentrations of organic carbon (OC, elemental carbon (EC, ions and metal elements, which were simultaneously obtained at six sites through January, April, July and October in 2004. Results from PMF indicated that seven major sources of ambient PM10 were urban fugitive dust, crustal soil, coal combustion, secondary sulfate, secondary nitrate, biomass burning with municipal incineration, and vehicle emission, respectively. In paticular, urban fugitive dust and crustal soil as two types of dust sources with similar chemical characteristics were differentiated by PMF. Urban fugitive dust contributed the most, accounting for 34.4% of total PM10 mass on an annual basis, with relatively high contributions in all four months, and even covered 50% in April. It also showed higher contributions in southwestern and southeastern areas than in central urban areas. Coal combustion was found to be the primary contributor in January, showing higher contributions in urban areas than in suburban areas with seasonal variation peaking in winter, which accounted for 15.5% of the annual average PM10 concentration. Secondary sulfate and secondary nitrate combined as the largest contributor to PM10 in July and October, with strong seasonal variation peaking in summer, accounting for 38.8% and 31.5% of the total PM10 mass in July and October, respectively. Biomass burning with municipal incineration contributions were found in all four months and accounted for 9.8% of the annual average PM10 mass concentration, with obviously higher contribution in October than in other months. Incineration sources were probably located in southwestern Beijing. Contribution from vehicle emission accounted for 5.0% and exhibited no significant seasonal variation. In sum

  4. Factors contributing to low participation in mammography screening in Papua New Guinea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pape, R.; Spuur, K.M.; Umo, P.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this paper is to describe the current state of mammography screening services in Papua New Guinea (PNG) and to document factors thought to contribute to low participation in the free mammography screening service at the Pacific International Hospital (PIH), Port Moresby. Method: Women attending for mammography screening at PIH between August 2006 and July 2010 were invited to complete a survey investigating environmental, political, social, financial, cultural and health factors thought to be contributing to low participation in the mammography screening service. Ethics approval and permission to collect data was granted through the University of Papua New Guinea, School of Medicine and Health Sciences Research and Ethics Committee and by the Medical Director and Chief Operating Officer of PIH. Results: The reasons for low participation were found to be multifactorial; difficult environmental factors 42.86%; financial dependency factors 40.54%; cultural factors related to exposing the body 50.03%, social factors (sexual harassment) 77.6%, political factors 4.29% and health factors including poor health 54.54%. Conclusion: The study demonstrated that in this snapshot of PNG women, the low participation rate in the free mammography screening program at PIH was influenced by various interrelated factors inherent in both the PNG environment and culture, in particular lack of transport infrastructure, financial burden and sexual harassment. As low participation directly impacts upon the high breast cancer mortality in PNG women, a more comprehensive study of the women of PNG is required to validate this research. - Highlights: • Snap shot of issues surrounding low participation in the free screening program. • Geography and poor transport infrastructure made participation almost impossible. • Lack of funds for transport by either road or air deterred participation. • Sexual harassment was the main social factor that deterred access.

  5. Occupational, Environmental, and Lifestyle Factors and their Contribution to Preterm Birth - An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Sharma, Surendra; Thaker, Riddhi

    2017-01-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is a significant public health concern and a leading cause of infant mortality and morbidity worldwide and often contributes to various health complications later in life. More than 60% of PTBs occur in Africa and south Asia. This overview discusses the available information on occupational, environmental, and lifestyle factors and their contribution to PTB and proposes new etiological explanations that underlie this devastating pregnancy complication. Several factors such as emotional, stress, social, racial, maternal anxiety, multiple pregnancies, infections during pregnancy, diabetes and high blood pressure, and in-vitro fertilization pregnancy have been shown to be associated with PTB. Data are emerging that occupational, environmental exposure and lifestyle factors might also be associated in part with PTB, however, they are at best limited and inconclusive. Nevertheless, data on heavy metals such as lead, air pollutants and particulate matters, bisphenol A, phthalate compounds, and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) are promising and point to higher incidence of PTB associated with exposure to them. Thus, these observations can be used to advise pregnant women or women of reproductive age to avoid such exposures and adopt positive lifestyle to protect pregnancy and normal fetal development. There is a need to conduct well-planned epidemiological studies that include all the pathology causing factors that may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes, including PTB.

  6. Occupational, Environmental, and Lifestyle Factors and their Contribution to Preterm Birth – An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Sharma, Surendra; Thaker, Riddhi

    2017-01-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is a significant public health concern and a leading cause of infant mortality and morbidity worldwide and often contributes to various health complications later in life. More than 60% of PTBs occur in Africa and south Asia. This overview discusses the available information on occupational, environmental, and lifestyle factors and their contribution to PTB and proposes new etiological explanations that underlie this devastating pregnancy complication. Several factors such as emotional, stress, social, racial, maternal anxiety, multiple pregnancies, infections during pregnancy, diabetes and high blood pressure, and in-vitro fertilization pregnancy have been shown to be associated with PTB. Data are emerging that occupational, environmental exposure and lifestyle factors might also be associated in part with PTB, however, they are at best limited and inconclusive. Nevertheless, data on heavy metals such as lead, air pollutants and particulate matters, bisphenol A, phthalate compounds, and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) are promising and point to higher incidence of PTB associated with exposure to them. Thus, these observations can be used to advise pregnant women or women of reproductive age to avoid such exposures and adopt positive lifestyle to protect pregnancy and normal fetal development. There is a need to conduct well-planned epidemiological studies that include all the pathology causing factors that may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes, including PTB. PMID:29391742

  7. Factors contributing to sleep deprivation in a multidisciplinary intensive care unit in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie J. Ehlers

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Patients in intensive care units require rest and sleep to recuperate, but might suffer from sleep deprivation due to ongoing unit activities. The study aimed to identify and describe the factors contributing to sleep deprivation in one multi-disciplinary intensive care unit (MDICU in a private hospital in South Africa. Quantitative, descriptive research was conducted to identify factors contributing to sleep deprivation in the research setting, and to make recommendations to enhance these patients’ abilities to sleep. Structured interviews were conducted with 34 adult non-ventilated patients who had spent at least one night in the MDICU and who gave informed consent. Out of the 34 interviewed patients 70.6% (n = 24 indicated that they suffered from sleep deprivation in the MDICU. The five major factors contributing to sleep deprivation in a MDICU were, (1 not knowing nurses’ names, noise caused by alarms, (2 stress, (3 inability to understand medical terms, and (3 blood pressure cuffs that restricted patients’ movements and smelled badly. Patients’ abilities to sleep were enhanced by reassuring nurses whose names they knew and with whom they could communicate. By attending to the identified five major factors, patients’ abilities to sleep in a MDICU could be enhanced enabling patients to recuperate faster. The implementation of such measures need not incur financial costs for the MDICU concerned.

  8. Factors contributing to sleep deprivation in a multidisciplinary intensive care unit in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie J. Ehlers

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Patients in intensive care units require rest and sleep to recuperate, but might suffer from sleep deprivation due to ongoing unit activities. The study aimed to identify and describe the factors contributing to sleep deprivation in one multi-disciplinary intensive care unit MDICU in a private hospital in South Africa. Quantitative, descriptive research was conducted to identify factors contributing to sleep deprivation in the research setting, and to make recommendations to enhance these patients’ abilities to sleep. Structured interviewswere conducted with 34 adult non-ventilated patients who had spent at least one night in the MDICU and who gave informed consent. Out of the 34 interviewed patients 70.6% n = 24 indicated that they suffered from sleep deprivation in the MDICU. The five major factors contributing to sleep deprivation in a MDICU were, (1 not knowing nurses’ names, noise caused by alarms, (2 stress, (3 inability to understand medical terms, and (3 blood pressure cuffs that restricted patients’ movements and smelled badly. Patients’ abilities to sleep were enhanced by reassuring nurses whose names they knew and with whom they could communicate. By attending to the identified five major factors, patients’ abilities to sleep in a MDICU could be enhanced enabling patients to recuperate faster. The implementation of such measures need not incur financial costs for the MDICU concerned.

  9. Gully erosion: A comparison of contributing factors in two catchments in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mararakanye, Ndifelani; Sumner, Paul D.

    2017-07-01

    Gully erosion is an environmental, agricultural and social problem requiring extensive research and mitigation actions to control. This study assesses the influence of factors contributing to gully erosion using Geographic Information System (GIS) and Information Value (InfVal) statistics from two catchments coded X12 and W55 in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa. Existing spatial data representing contributing factors; soil, geology, vegetation and land use were analyzed. Topographic variables were extracted from a 10 m Digital Elevation Model (DEM) interpolated from map contours, and gullies were mapped from aerial photos with 0.5 m spatial resolution. A zonal approach was used to extract the proportion of gullies in each of the contributing factor classes using GIS software packages, and InfVal weighting was performed to determine the influence of each class. Comparison of the results shows the variation in the level of influence of factors contributing to gully erosion. The findings in catchment X12 support a commonly held assumption that gully formation is influenced by duplex soils underlain by colluvium and alluvial deposits on a lower slope position where overland flow converges and accumulates, resulting in high soil moisture. Gullies were also influenced by soils developed over weathered granite, gneiss and ultramafic rocks. The influence of a granite rock was further highlighted in catchment W55 where there is a variable thickness of very deep Hutton dominant soil form and shallow Lithosols with sandy texture, on an area of moderate to steep slopes where overland flow converges and accumulates, with high stream power in overgrazed grassland. An understanding of these factors will assist future modelling of the vulnerability to gully erosion over a wider geographical area.

  10. Developing a contributing factor classification scheme for Rasmussen's AcciMap: Reliability and validity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, N; Salmon, P M; Taylor, N Z; Lenné, M G; Finch, C F

    2017-10-01

    One factor potentially limiting the uptake of Rasmussen's (1997) Accimap method by practitioners is the lack of a contributing factor classification scheme to guide accident analyses. This article evaluates the intra- and inter-rater reliability and criterion-referenced validity of a classification scheme developed to support the use of Accimap by led outdoor activity (LOA) practitioners. The classification scheme has two levels: the system level describes the actors, artefacts and activity context in terms of 14 codes; the descriptor level breaks the system level codes down into 107 specific contributing factors. The study involved 11 LOA practitioners using the scheme on two separate occasions to code a pre-determined list of contributing factors identified from four incident reports. Criterion-referenced validity was assessed by comparing the codes selected by LOA practitioners to those selected by the method creators. Mean intra-rater reliability scores at the system (M = 83.6%) and descriptor (M = 74%) levels were acceptable. Mean inter-rater reliability scores were not consistently acceptable for both coding attempts at the system level (M T1  = 68.8%; M T2  = 73.9%), and were poor at the descriptor level (M T1  = 58.5%; M T2  = 64.1%). Mean criterion referenced validity scores at the system level were acceptable (M T1  = 73.9%; M T2  = 75.3%). However, they were not consistently acceptable at the descriptor level (M T1  = 67.6%; M T2  = 70.8%). Overall, the results indicate that the classification scheme does not currently satisfy reliability and validity requirements, and that further work is required. The implications for the design and development of contributing factors classification schemes are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Factors contributing to managerial competence of first-line nurse managers: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawan, Joko; Aungsuroch, Yupin; Fisher, Mary L

    2018-02-01

    To determine the factors contributing to managerial competence of first-line nurse managers. Understanding factors affecting managerial competence of nurse managers remains important to increase the performance of organizations; however, there is sparse research examining factors that influence managerial competence of first-line nurse managers. Systematic review. The search strategy was conducted from April to July 2017 that included 6 electronic databases: Science Direct, PROQUEST Dissertations and Theses, MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, and Google Scholar for the years 2000 to 2017 with full text in English. Quantitative and qualitative research papers that examined relationships among managerial competence and antecedent factors were included. Quality assessment, data extractions, and analysis were completed on all included studies. Content analysis was used to categorize factors into themes. Eighteen influencing factors were examined and categorized into 3 themes-organizational factors, characteristics and personality traits of individual managers, and role factors. Findings suggest that managerial competence of first-line nurse managers is multifactorial. Further research is needed to develop strategies to develop managerial competence of first-line nurse managers. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  12. The contribution of human factors to accidents in the offshore oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, Rachael P.E.

    1998-01-01

    Accidents such as the Piper Alpha disaster illustrate that the performance of a highly complex socio-technical system, is dependent upon the interaction of technical, human, social, organisational, managerial and environmental factors and that these factors can be important co-contributors that could potentially lead to a catastrophic event. The purpose of this article is to give readers an overview of how human factors contribute to accidents in the offshore oil industry. An introduction to human errors and how they relate to human factors in general terms is given. From here the article discusses some of the human factors which were found to influence safety in other industries and describes the human factors codes used in accident reporting forms in the aviation, nuclear and marine industries. Analysis of 25 accident reporting forms from offshore oil companies in the UK sector of the North Sea was undertaken in relation to the human factors. Suggestions on how these accident reporting forms could be improved are given. Finally, this article describes the methods by which accidents can be reduced by focusing on the human factors, such as feedback from accident reporting in the oil industry, auditing of unsafe acts and auditing of latent failures

  13. Analysis of contributing factors associated to related patients safety incidents in Intensive Care Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Delgado, M C; Merino de Cos, P; Sirgo Rodríguez, G; Álvarez Rodríguez, J; Gutiérrez Cía, I; Obón Azuara, B; Alonso Ovies, Á

    2015-01-01

    To explore contributing factors (CF) associated to related critical patients safety incidents. SYREC study pos hoc analysis. A total of 79 Intensive Care Departments were involved. The study sample consisted of 1.017 patients; 591 were affected by one or more incidents. The CF were categorized according to a proposed model by the National Patient Safety Agency from United Kingdom that was modified. Type, class and severity of the incidents was analyzed. A total 2,965 CF were reported (1,729 were associated to near miss and 1,236 to adverse events). The CF group more frequently reported were related patients factors. Individual factors were reported more frequently in near miss and task related CF in adverse events. CF were reported in all classes of incidents. The majority of CF were reported in the incidents classified such as less serious, even thought CF patients factors were associated to serious incidents. Individual factors were considered like avoidable and patients factors as unavoidable. The CF group more frequently reported were patient factors and was associated to more severe and unavoidable incidents. By contrast, individual factors were associated to less severe and avoidable incidents. In general, CF most frequently reported were associated to near miss. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  14. Factors Contributing to Pelvis Instability in Female Adolescent Athletes During Unilateral Repeated Partial Squat Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Scarborough, Donna Moxley; Linderman, Shannon; Berkson, Eric M.; Oh, Luke S.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Unilateral partial squat tasks are often used to assess athletes? lower extremity (LE) neuromuscular control. Single squat biomechanics such as lateral drop of the non-stance limb?s pelvis have been linked to knee injury risk. Yet, there are limited studies on the factors contributing to pelvic instability during the unilateral partial squat such as anatomical alignment of the knee and hip strength. The purpose of this study was 1) to assess the influence of leg dominance on pelvi...

  15. Factors contributing to low institutional deliveries in the Marondera district of Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Mugweni

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to identify factors contributing to low institutional deliveries in the Marondera District, Zimbabwe, among women who attended antenatal clinics, in order to enhance the number of institutional deliveries. A quantitative descriptive survey, gathering data by conducting structured interviews with 80 women, was used in this study. All 80 women attended ante-natal clinics but 40 delivered at home and 40 delivered at an institution.

  16. Factors Contributing to the Subjective Career Success among Islamic Educators in Primary Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Mesnan Supa`ad; Nor Wahiza Abd Wahat; Fathiyah Mohd Fakhruddin; Turiman Suandi

    2013-01-01

    A very limited research has been done in the field of career development among Islamic education teachers. Most of the previous researches showed an improvement in terms of grades, positions, and responsibilities of their previous routines as an indicator of their career advancement. However, this conceptual (concept paper) discusses how personality factors, career planning, and career strategy can provide significant contribution to the success of Islamic education teachers’ career. Based on...

  17. Factors contributing to registered nurse medication administration error: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Angela M; Barriball, K Louise; While, Alison E

    2015-01-01

    To explore the factors contributing to Registered Nurse medication administration error behaviour. A narrative review. Electronic databases (Cochrane, CINAHL, MEDLINE, BNI, EmBase, and PsycINFO) were searched from 1 January 1999 to 31 December 2012 in the English language. 1127 papers were identified and 26 papers were included in the review. Data were extracted by one reviewer and checked by a second reviewer. A thematic analysis and narrative synthesis of the factors contributing to Registered Nurses' medication administration behaviour. Bandura's (1986) theory of reciprocal determinism was used as an organising framework. This theory proposes that there is a reciprocal interplay between the environment, the person and their behaviour. Medication administration error is an outcome of RN behaviour. The 26 papers reported studies conducted in 4 continents across 11 countries predominantly in North America and Europe, with one multi-national study incorporating 27 countries. Within both the environment and person domain of the reciprocal determinism framework, a number of factors emerged as influencing Registered Nurse medication administration error behaviour. Within the environment domain, two key themes of clinical workload and work setting emerged, and within the person domain the Registered Nurses' characteristics and their lived experience of work emerged as themes. Overall, greater attention has been given to the contribution of the environment domain rather than the person domain as contributing to error, with the literature viewing an error as an event rather than the outcome of behaviour. The interplay between factors that influence behaviour were poorly accounted for within the selected studies. It is proposed that a shift away from error as an event to a focus on the relationships between the person, the environment and Registered Nurse medication administration behaviour is needed to better understand medication administration error. Copyright © 2014

  18. Risk Assessment: Factors Contributing to Discomfort for Menopausal Women in Workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Jafari, Mehdi; Seifi, Bahar; Heidari, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to review the Factors contributing to discomfort for menopausal women in workplace and the perceived effects of working conditions on menopausal symptoms, and to produce recommendations for managers and women. This study was a review article. We searched PubMed and Science Direct for articles related to menopause and workplace. Keywords included: menopause AND workplace OR occupational health or menopausal women AND managers. Because we aimed to update the litera...

  19. Factors Contributing to the Catastrophe in Mexico City During the Earthquake of September 19, 1985

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, James L.; Hall, John F.

    1986-01-01

    The extensive damage to high‐rise buildings in Mexico City during the September 19, 1985 earthquake is primarily due to the intensity of the ground shaking exceeding what was previously considered credible for the city by Mexican engineers. There were two major factors contributing to the catastrophe, resonance in the sediments of an ancient lake that once existed in the Valley of Mexico, and the long duration of shaking compared with other coastal earthquakes in the last 50 years. Both of th...

  20. The Frequency, Contributing and Preventive Factors of Harassment towards Health Professionals in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Fallahi Khoshknab, Masoud; Oskouie, Fatemeh; Ghazanfari, Nahid; Najafi, Fereshteh; Tamizi, Zahra; Afshani, Shahla; Azadi, Ghazal

    2015-01-01

    Background There are high levels of sexual harassment in health care systems. Also, workplace violence occurs against ethnic and racial minorities. This study aimed to identify the frequency of and the factors contributing to and preventing sexual and racial harassment in the workplace towards health professionals in Iran. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 6500 out of 57000 health workers who were selected by multistage random sampling from some teaching hospitals in Iran. D...

  1. Rural Women's Perceptions About Cancer Disparities and Contributing Factors: a Call to Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Yamile; Zimmermann, Kristine; Carnahan, Leslie R; Paulsey, Ellen; Bigman, Cabral A; Khare, Manorama M; Zahnd, Whitney; Jenkins, Wiley D

    2017-02-27

    Rural cancer disparities are increasingly documented in the USA. Research has identified and begun to address rural residents' cancer knowledge and behaviors, especially among women. Little, however, is known about rural female residents' awareness of cancer inequities and perceived contributing factors affecting them and their families. The purpose of this study was to address these gaps in the literature via a secondary analysis of qualitative needs assessment in Illinois' rural southernmost seven counties, a geographic region with relatively high rates of cancer incidence, morbidity, and mortality. A convenience sample of 202 rural adult female residents was recruited and participated in 26 focus groups, with 3-13 women per group. Inductive content analysis, guided by the principle of constant comparison, was used to analyze the qualitative data. Most respondents indicated their awareness of disproportionate cancer burden in their communities. Individual-level behaviors and environmental toxins were identified as contributing factors. Interestingly, however, environmental toxins were more often discussed as factors contributing to geographic differences, whereas individual-level behaviors were noted as important for overall cancer prevention and control. This study provides important insight into female rural residents' perspectives and offers novel venues for educational programs and research in the context of communication to eliminate disparities.

  2. An observational study of bullying as a contributing factor in youth suicide in Toronto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinyor, Mark; Schaffer, Ayal; Cheung, Amy H

    2014-12-01

    Bullying has been identified as a potential contributing factor in youth suicide. This issue has been highlighted in recent widely publicized media reports, worldwide, in which deceased youth were bullied. We report on an observational study conducted to determine the frequency of bullying as a contributing factor to youth suicide. Coroner records were reviewed for all suicide deaths in youth aged between 10 and 19 in the city of Toronto from 1998 to 2011. Data abstracted were recent stressors (including bullying), clinical variables, such as the presence of mental illness, demographics, and methods of suicide. Ninety-four youth suicides were included in the study. The mean age was 16.8 years, and 70.2% were male. Bullying was present in 6 deaths (6.4%), and there were no deaths where online or cyberbullying was detected. Bullying was the only identified contributing factor in fewer than 5 deaths. The most common stressors identified were conflict with parents (21.3%), romantic partner problems (17.0%), academic problems (10.6%), and criminal and (or) legal problems (10.6%). Any stressor or mental and (or) physical illness was detected in 78.7% of cases. Depression was detected in 40.4% of cases. Our study highlights the need to view suicide in youth as arising from a complex interplay of various biological, psychological, and social factors of which bullying is only one. It challenges simple cause-and-effect models that may suggest that suicide arises from anyone factor, such as bullying.

  3. Mutation in the factor VII hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α-binding site contributes to factor VII deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xing-Wu; Kudaravalli, Rama; Russell, Theresa T; DiMichele, Donna M; Gibb, Constance; Russell, J Eric; Margaritis, Paris; Pollak, Eleanor S

    2011-10-01

    Severe coagulant factor VII (FVII) deficiency in postpubertal dizygotic twin males results from two point mutations in the FVII gene, a promoter region T→C transition at -60 and a His-to-Arg substitution at amino acid 348; both mutations prevent persistence of plasma functional FVII. This report documents longitudinal laboratory measurements from infancy to adulthood of FVII coagulant activity (FVII:C) in the twin FVII-deficient patients; it also details specific biochemical analyses of the -60 T→C mutation. The results revealed FVII:C levels of less than 1% in infancy that remain severely decreased through puberty and into adulthood. In-vitro analyses utilizing hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α) co-transfection and a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay indicate that the -60 T→C mutation severely diminishes functional interaction between the FVII promoter and transcription factor HNF4α. The importance of interaction between the FVII gene and HNF4α in normal FVII expression provides an in-vivo illustration of the regulated expression of an autosomal gene encoding a coagulation protein. The constancy of FVII:C and peripubertal patient symptomatology reported here illustrates androgen-independent expression in contrast to expression with an analogous mutation in the promoter region of the gene encoding coagulation FIX.

  4. The current contribution of molecular factors to risk estimation in neuroblastoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthold, F; Sahin, K; Hero, B; Christiansen, H; Gehring, M; Harms, D; Horz, S; Lampert, F; Schwab, M; Terpe, J

    1997-10-01

    The association of molecular characteristics with prognosis has been reported, but not their relationship with each other and their impact in the context of known clinical risk factors. In this study, data of 1249 consecutive intent-to-treat-neuroblastoma patients with more than 1 year follow-up were examined by multivariate analysis using loglinear and Cox proportional hazard regression models on a stage-related basis (stages 1-3: 600, 4S: 116, 4: 533). In a first step, risk factors were identified from 18 selected clinical variables, and risk groups defined. The second step investigated whether molecular characteristics (MYCN, LOH 1p, del 1p, CD44, N-ras, NGF-R, bcl-2, APO-1 (CD95)) contributed additional prognostic information to the model. The loglinear model demonstrated several interactions between clinical factors. By the Cox regression model, seven independent clinical risk factors were found for stages 1-3, seven for stage 4 and two for stage 4S. By subsequent introduction of all molecular variables, MYCN amplification only added significant prognostic information to the clinical factors in localised and stage 4 neuroblastoma. The models allowed the definition of risk groups for stages 1-3 patients by age (e beta = 5.09) and MYCN (e beta = 4.26), for stage 4 by MYCN (e beta = 2.78) and number of symptoms (e beta = 2.44) and for stage 4S by platelet count (e beta = 3.91) and general condition (e beta = 2.99). Molecular factors and in particular MYCN contribute significantly to risk estimation. In conjunction with clinical factors, they are powerful tools to define risk groups in neuroblastoma.

  5. Factors contributing to the waste generation in building projects of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, N.A.; Memon, F.A.

    2016-01-01

    Generation of construction waste is a worldwide issue that concerns not only governments but also the building actors involved in construction industry. For developing countries like Pakistan, rising levels of waste generation, due to the rapid growth of towns and cities have become critical issue. Therefore this study is aimed to detect the factors, which are the main causes of construction waste generation. Questionnaire survey has been conducted to achieve this task and RIW (Relative Importance Weight) method has been used to analyze the results of this study. The important factors contributing to the generation of construction as identified in this study are: frequent changes/ revision in design during construction process; poor scheduling; unavailability of storage; poor workmanship; poor layout; inefficient planning and scheduling of resources and lack of coordination among supervision staff deployed at site. Based on the identified factors, the study also has presented some suggestions for the reduction of construction waste in building construction projects of Pakistan. (author)

  6. Environmental impact and risk assessments and key factors contributing to the overall uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salbu, Brit

    2016-01-01

    There is a significant number of nuclear and radiological sources that have contributed, are still contributing, or have the potential to contribute to radioactive contamination of the environment in the future. To protect the environment from radioactive contamination, impact and risk assessments are performed prior to or during a release event, short or long term after deposition or prior and after implementation of countermeasures. When environmental impact and risks are assessed, however, a series of factors will contribute to the overall uncertainties. To provide environmental impact and risk assessments, information on processes, kinetics and a series of input variables is needed. Adding problems such as variability, questionable assumptions, gaps in knowledge, extrapolations and poor conceptual model structures, a series of factors are contributing to large and often unacceptable uncertainties in impact and risk assessments. Information on the source term and the release scenario is an essential starting point in impact and risk models; the source determines activity concentrations and atom ratios of radionuclides released, while the release scenario determine the physico-chemical forms of released radionuclides such as particle size distribution, structure and density. Releases will most often contain other contaminants such as metals, and due to interactions, contaminated sites should be assessed as a multiple stressor scenario. Following deposition, a series of stressors, interactions and processes will influence the ecosystem transfer of radionuclide species and thereby influence biological uptake (toxicokinetics) and responses (toxicodynamics) in exposed organisms. Due to the variety of biological species, extrapolation is frequently needed to fill gaps in knowledge e.g., from effects to no effects, from effects in one organism to others, from one stressor to mixtures. Most toxtests are, however, performed as short term exposure of adult organisms

  7. Determinant factors of cardiorespiratory fitness in Portuguese adolescents of different ethnicities. DOI: 10.5007/1980-0037.2011v13n4p243

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Aguiar Santos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Cardiorespiratory fitness is an important health indicator in young people. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of age, gender, body adiposity, and ethnicity on cardiorespiratory fitness in a sample of Portuguese adolescents. The sample consisted of 266 adolescents aged 12-18 years [112 boys (80 Caucasians and 32 African-Portuguese, AP and 154 girls (109 Caucasians and 45 AP]. Percent body fat was estimated with a hand-to-hand bioelectrical impedance device (BF300, OMROM. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by a shuttle run test (Fitnessgram battery. Multiple regression models were used for statistical analysis. The results showed that girls presented lower maximal oxygen consumption and higher percent body fat than boys. Cardiorespiratory fitness was lower in Caucasian than in AP girls. Multiple regression analysis showed that percent body fat, age and the interaction of age with being Caucasian and age with female gender were significant determinants that were negatively associated with cardiorespiratory fitness. The results suggest that maximal oxygen consumption is lower in adolescents with higher adiposity and in older adolescents. The findings highlight the importance of promoting physical fitness in schools across ages, especially in older adolescents, adjusting for determinant factors such as gender and ethnicity

  8. FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO SUBSTANCE (DRUG ABUSE AMONGMALE ADOLESCENTS IN SOUTH AFRICAN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Mohasoa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This small-scale study sought to determine the factors that contribute to use ofdrugs by male adolescents in South African public secondary schools. The studywas conducted in four secondary schools in Zeerust, North West, a province ofSouth Africa. Purposive sampling was employed to select from the secondaryschools 12 male adolescents who were prone to substance abuse problems. Aqualitative research approach was followed underpinned by the interpretiveresearch paradigm. More specifically, a multiple case research design was used.The study was successful in identifying the most commonly used drugs such asalcohol, nicotine, cannabis, and heroin. These drugs are readily available in thesurrounding communities and are affordable to the learners. Socialand economicfactors are the main factors contributing to the use of drugs among maleadolescents. The way in which children are brought up, who they associate withand whether they have access to money to buy the drugs largely contribute to druguse. Thisstudy concludes by proposing mitigation strategies that can be employedto deal with substance abuse scourge before it escalates further. Furthermore, thestudy identifies a need for involvement of various stakeholders to find a solutionto the substanceabuse problem.

  9. Considering the human factors contribution to the risk in the design choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papin, B.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: With the increasing reliability of the modern technological systems, the human contribution to the global risk in the operation of industrial systems is becoming more and more significant: in the nuclear reactor operation for example, a recent PSA estimation of this contribution is about 25% of the risk of core melting, all situations considered. This urges the designers of future plants to consider the minimization of this Human Factor (HF) contribution, at the very early stage of their design: the experience feedback shows that this is indeed at this stage that the fundamental design options, impacting the most the human reliability in operation, are fixed. The problem is that at these early design stages, it is also quite impossible to apply formal human reliability methods to support this HF optimisation, while the precise operating conditions of the plant are not yet known in enough details. In this paper, another approach of the HF evaluation during the design, based on the functional and operational complexity assessment, is proposed. As an illustration, this approach is used to compare various concepts of nuclear reactors from the point of view of the Human Factor relevance. (authors)

  10. Retaining the nursing workforce: factors contributing to the reduction of nurses' turnover intention in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takase, Miyuki; Teraoka, Sachiko; Yabase, Kousuke

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of psychological contract fulfilment, perceived advancement opportunities and age on reducing the turnover intention of nurses in Japan. The factors that contribute to and mitigate the intentions of nurses to leave their organisations need to be investigated to understand the determinants of nurse turnover better. However, there is a paucity of studies identifying these mitigating factors. Potential participants were 1337 registered nurses and midwives, of whom 766 participated in the study (a return rate of 57%). The data were analysed using a moderated regression analysis. Fulfilment of the psychological contract and perceived advancement opportunities independently and jointly contributed to a reduction in nurses' turnover intentions. The results also showed that nurses' ages were negatively correlated with their turnover intentions. Fulfilment of the psychological contract and advancement opportunities are important for reducing nurses' turnover intentions, especially among younger nurses. Clear guidelines/evaluations of contributions made by nurses and their organisations are needed to enhance the experience of nurses in terms of psychological contract fulfilment. Moreover, a structured advancement support system needs to be implemented to reduce nurses' turnover intentions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Investigation on factors that contribute to the abandonment of building in construction industry in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhayu Ariffin, Nur; Jaafar, Mohd Faizal Md; Idris Ali, Mohamad; Irwan Ramli, Noram; Muthusamy, Khairunisa; Shukor Lim, Nor Hasanah Abdul

    2018-03-01

    In Malaysia, the construction sector is one of the important sectors that contribute to economic growth and employments. However, a major concern facing the construction industry is the growing rate of delays in project delivery. In the worse cases, the projects were abandoned due to some reasons when the contract period ended. Abandoned building defines as construction work that has been continuously stalled for 6 months or more, during the project completion period or beyond the scheduled date of completion. When the projects become abandoned, it gives an adverse effect on many parties such as the developer, contractor, consultant and also client. According to previous researchers, the abandonment of building causes a serious problem and need some mitigation plan to avoid this problem from occurring. This study will investigate the fundamental factors that contribute to the abandonment of building and projects in Malaysia based on the current data of the abandoned building in most states in Malaysia. The data was collected from the respondents who is in the construction industry and had experience working with abandoned housing project. Form the respondents perspective, it shows that the main factor contribute to the building abandonment is due to the financial problem facing by the developer company.

  12. Fitness club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness club

    2011-01-01

    General fitness Classes Enrolments are open for general fitness classes at CERN taking place on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday lunchtimes in the Pump Hall (building 216). There are shower facilities for both men and women. It is possible to pay for 1, 2 or 3 classes per week for a minimum of 1 month and up to 6 months. Check out our rates and enrol at: http://cern.ch/club-fitness Hope to see you among us! CERN Fitness Club fitness.club@cern.ch  

  13. Hip instability: a review of hip dysplasia and other contributing factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraeutler, Matthew J.; Garabekyan, Tigran; Pascual-Garrido, Cecilia; Mei-Dan, Omer

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Hip instability has classically been associated with developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) in newborns and children. However, numerous factors may contribute to hip instability in children, adolescents, and adults. Purpose This review aims to concisely present the literature on hip instability in patients of all ages in order to guide health care professionals in the appropriate diagnosis and treatment of the various disorders which may contribute to an unstable hip. Methods We reviewed the literature on the diagnosis and surgical management of hip dysplasia and other causes of hip instability. Conclusions Multiple intra- and extra-articular variables may contribute to hip instability, including acetabular bony coverage, femoral torsion, femoroacetabular impingement, and soft tissue laxity. Physical examination and advanced imaging studies are essential to accurately diagnose the pathology contributing to a patient’s unstable hip. Conservative management, including activity modification and physical therapy, may be used as a first-line treatment in patients with intra-articular hip pathology. Patients who continue to experience symptoms of pain or instability should proceed with arthroscopic or open surgical treatment aimed at correcting the underlying pathology. Level of evidence V. PMID:28066739

  14. Intelligence Tests with Higher G-Loadings Show Higher Correlations with Body Symmetry: Evidence for a General Fitness Factor Mediated by Developmental Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokosch, M.D.; Yeo, R.A.; Miller, G.F.

    2005-01-01

    Just as body symmetry reveals developmental stability at the morphological level, general intelligence may reveal developmental stability at the level of brain development and cognitive functioning. These two forms of developmental stability may overlap by tapping into a ''general fitness factor.'' If so, then intellectual tests with higher…

  15. Associations between aerobic and muscular fitness and cardiovascular disease risk : the northern Ireland young hearts study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, T.; Boreham, Colin A; Murray, Liam J; Twisk, Jos W R

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is not clear what the relative contribution is of specific components of physical fitness (aerobic and muscular) to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. We investigated associations between aerobic fitness (endurance) and muscular fitness (power) and CVD risk factors. METHODS: Data were

  16. Motivation and engagement in computer-based learning tasks: investigating key contributing factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Ott, Mauro Tavella

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper, drawing on a research project concerning the educational use of digital mind games with primary school students, aims at giving a contribution to the understanding of which are the main factors influencing student motivation during computer-based learning activities. It puts forward some ideas and experience based reflections, starting by considering digital games that are widely recognized as the most promising ICT tools to enhance student motivation. The project results suggest that student genuine engagement in learning activities is mainly related to the actual possession of the skills and of the cognitive capacities needed to perform the task. In this perspective, cognitive overload should be regarded as one of the main reasons contributing to hinder student motivation and, consequently, should be avoided. Other elements such as game attractiveness and experimental setting constraints resulted to have a lower effect on student motivation.

  17. Factors contributing to chronic ankle instability: a protocol for a systematic review of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Cassandra; Schabrun, Siobhan; Romero, Rick; Bialocerkowski, Andrea; Marshall, Paul

    2016-06-07

    Ankle sprains are a significant clinical problem. Researchers have identified a multitude of factors contributing to the presence of recurrent ankle sprains including deficits in balance, postural control, kinematics, muscle activity, strength, range of motion, ligament laxity and bone/joint characteristics. Unfortunately, the literature examining the presence of these factors in chronic ankle instability (CAI) is conflicting. As a result, researchers have attempted to integrate this evidence using systematic reviews to reach conclusions; however, readers are now faced with an increasing number of systematic review findings that are also conflicting. The overall aim of this review is to critically appraise the methodological quality of previous systematic reviews and pool this evidence to identify contributing factors to CAI. A systematic review will be conducted on systematic reviews that investigate the presence of various deficits identified in CAI. Databases will be searched using pre-determined search terms. Reviews will then be assessed for inclusion based on the set eligibility criteria. Two independent reviewers will assess the articles for inclusion before evaluating the methodological quality and presence of bias of the included studies; any disagreements will be resolved by discussion between reviewers to reach consensus or by a third reviewer. Data concerning the specific research question, search strategy, inclusion/exclusion criteria, population, method and outcomes will be extracted. Findings will be analysed with respect to the methodological quality of the included reviews. It is expected that this review will clarify the cause of contradicting findings in the literature and facilitate future research directions. PROSPERO CRD42016032592 .

  18. Study of factors contributing to the development of osteoradionecrosis of the jaws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluth, E.V.; Jain, P.R.; Stuchell, R.N.; Frich, J.C. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The histories of 14 patients in whom osteoradionecrosis developed were compared with those of 28 patients who had similar tumors and/or treatment and were not afflicted with osteoradionecrosis. 1. Fourteen of 15 episodes of bone complications occurred in the mandible, and 70% occurred within 1 year after the completion of radiation therapy. 2. A high dose of radiation, with conventional fractionation, did not specifically predispose patients to osteoradionecrosis. Fifty percent of the ORN patients actually received a total dose of 6000 rad or less. Combined radiation therapy and surgery did not seem to significantly increase the risk inasmuch as both groups of patients had similar combinations. In two of four patients who received methotrexate, however, osteoradionecrosis developed during the time of administration. 3. One of the most prevalent negative factors associated with the ORN patients was the continued heavy use of alcohol and tobacco by 86% of them. These strong tissue irritants could have significantly contributed to the breakdown of mucosa and exposure of bone. Alcohol and tobacco could also have potentiated the combined effects of the other negative factors, such as contributing to poor oral hygiene. 4. The ORN patients had poorer oral hygiene than the control group. Seventy-five percent of the patients with teeth who had osteoradionecrosis continued to have poor oral hygiene. In contrast, none of the control patients had poor oral hygiene. 5. A combination of factors relating to stage of tumor and treatment was found in the ORN patients

  19. The Frequency, Contributing and Preventive Factors of Harassment towards Health Professionals in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi Khoshknab, Masoud; Oskouie, Fatemeh; Ghazanfari, Nahid; Najafi, Fereshteh; Tamizi, Zahra; Afshani, Shahla; Azadi, Ghazal

    2015-07-01

    There are high levels of sexual harassment in health care systems. Also, workplace violence occurs against ethnic and racial minorities. This study aimed to identify the frequency of and the factors contributing to and preventing sexual and racial harassment in the workplace towards health professionals in Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 6500 out of 57000 health workers who were selected by multistage random sampling from some teaching hospitals in Iran. Data were collected using the questionnaire of "workplace violence in the health sector" developed by the International Labor Organization, International Council of Nurses, World Health Organization, and Public Services International. According to the findings, the frequencies of sexual harassment and racial harassment were, respectively, 4.7% and 12% for the 12 months prior to the study (2011). Among healthcare workers, nurses reported the highest rate of violence. The most important contributing factors in sexual and racial harassment were lack of security facilities (45.8%) and people's ignorance of employees' tasks (55.7%). The presence of security force, safety measures in the wards, and guards were noted as the most important preventive factor to harassment. Based on the results, the frequency of sexual and racial harassment is low, which can be attributed to underreporting due to cultural sensitivity or fear. So, identifying the reasons for refusal to report harassment, developing a clear mechanism for reporting and providing the necessary trainings to health workers are essential in order to deal with harassment.

  20. [Psychosocial factors as predictors of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events: contribution from animal models].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alboni, Paolo; Alboni, Marco

    2006-11-01

    Conventional risk factors (abnormal lipids, hypertension, etc.) are independent predictors of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events; however, these factors are not specific since about half patients with acute myocardial infarction paradoxically result at low cardiovascular risk. Recent prospective studies provide convincing evidence that some psychosocial factors are independent predictors of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events, as well. Psychosocial factors that promote atherosclerosis can be divided into two general categories: chronic stressors, including social isolation/low social support and work stress (subordination without job control) and emotional factors, including affective disorders such as depression, severe anxiety and hostility/anger. The emotional factors, such as the chronic stressors, activate the biological mechanisms of chronic stress: increased activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, sympathetic system and inflammation processes, which have atherogenic effects, and an increase in blood coagulation. In spite of the amount of published data, psychosocial factors receive little attention in the medical setting. About 30 years ago, Kuller defined the criteria for a causal relation between a risk factor and atherosclerosis and cardiac events. The first of these criteria states that experimental research should demonstrate that any new factor would increase the extent of atherosclerosis or its complications in suitable animal models. We carried out a bibliographic research in order to investigate whether the results of the studies dealing with animal examination and experimentation support the psychosocial factors as predictors of atherosclerosis. Contributions related to some of the psychosocial factors such as social isolation, subordination and hostility/anger have been found. In these studies atherosclerotic extension has been evaluated at necroscopy; however, the incidence of cardiovascular events has not been

  1. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in precision medicine: Unraveling the factors that contribute to individual variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, John D; Cherrington, Nathan J

    2015-07-01

    There are numerous factors in individual variability that make the development and implementation of precision medicine a challenge in the clinic. One of the main goals of precision medicine is to identify the correct dose for each individual in order to maximize therapeutic effect and minimize the occurrence of adverse drug reactions. Many promising advances have been made in identifying and understanding how factors such as genetic polymorphisms can influence drug pharmacokinetics (PK) and contribute to variable drug response (VDR), but it is clear that there remain many unidentified variables. Underlying liver diseases such as nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) alter absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) processes and must be considered in the implementation of precision medicine. There is still a profound need for clinical investigation into how NASH-associated changes in ADME mediators, such as metabolism enzymes and transporters, affect the pharmacokinetics of individual drugs known to rely on these pathways for elimination. This review summarizes the key PK factors in individual variability and VDR and highlights NASH as an essential underlying factor that must be considered as the development of precision medicine advances. A multifactorial approach to precision medicine that considers the combination of two or more risk factors (e.g. genetics and NASH) will be required in our effort to provide a new era of benefit for patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Differential splicing of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in African and Caucasian American populations: contributing factor in prostate cancer disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    populations: contributing factor in prostate cancer disparities? PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Norman H Lee, PhD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: George Washington...splicing of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in African and Caucasian American populations: contributing factor in prostate cancer disparities? 5b...American (AA) versus Caucasian American (CA) prostate cancer (PCa). We focused our efforts on two oncogenes, phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3

  3. Even One Is Too Much: Sole Presence of One of the Risk Factors Overweight, Lack of Exercise, and Smoking Reduces Physical Fitness of Young Soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyk, Dieter; Witzki, Alexander; Willi, Gorges; Rohde, Ulrich; Rüther, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Health and physical fitness are key factors for soldiers. Increased sedentary military work, significant sitting periods during commuting and leisure time, and unhealthy dietary habits have caused a considerable increase in the number of physically unfit soldiers. Even worse, the adoption of harmful lifestyle habits occurs increasingly earlier in life. The aim of this cross-sectional study was (a) to determine the physical fitness of young male soldiers and (b) to investigate the association between physical fitness and both the presence and frequency of the health risk factors overweight, smoking, and lack of exercise. A total of 4,553 volunteers aged 18-25 years performed the Basis Fitness Test consisting of the 3 disciplines agility (11 × 10 m shuttle sprint), strength (flexed-arm hang), and endurance (1,000-m run). The presence and frequency of risk factors were determined by means of anthropometric measures (body mass index, waist circumference) and questionnaire data. The portion of soldiers without risk factors decreased from 49.4% (18-year-olds) to 16.4% for 25-year-olds. Persons without risk factors completed the agility test in 41.1 ± 3.7 seconds, flexed-arm hang in 60.1 ± 19.7 seconds, and 1,000-m run in 235 ± 32 seconds. Physical performance in all dimensions tested (agility, strength, endurance) notably deteriorated with the sole presence of one of the risk factors overweight, smoking, and lack of exercise. Any further risk factor led to further fitness decreases (p < 0.001). Mean performances of soldiers with 3 risk factors were 46.7 ± 4.1 seconds (11 × 10 m shuttle sprint), 27.6 ± 6.4 seconds (flexed-arm hang), and 298 ± 45 seconds (1,000-m run). Impacts of unhealthy lifestyles and significant losses in physical fitness are already visible in young male soldiers. Armed Forces must intensify their efforts to maintain health and performance of their soldiers.

  4. Personal factors that contribute to or impair women's ability to achieve orgasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lucena, B B; Abdo, C H N

    2014-01-01

    This work aims to identify factors that contribute and those that impair the ability to experience orgasm during sexual activity. It compared women (n=96) aged 18-61 (M=38.5 years) in a stable relationship that, after a normal arousal phase, do not have an orgasm (OD) with those that do (OA) regarding sociodemographic data, sexual frequency, talking about sex with their physician, talking about sex with their partner, sexual education, masturbation, sexual desire, sexual satisfaction, depression and anxiety. We found differences between the OD and OA groups with regard to level of education (P=0.022), sex education during childhood and/or adolescence (Porgasm problems included the variables 'masturbation', 'high school', 'sexual desire' and 'anxiety'. Orgasm difficulties are influenced by personal factors, such as anxiety and low sexual desire. Increased levels of anxiety also increase orgasmic difficulties. Women who masturbate and/or have completed high school are considerably more likely to reach orgasm during sexual activity.

  5. Enterprise Factors Contributing to The Success of Malaysian Biotechnology SMEs: A Grounded Theory Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saridan Abu Bakar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available While numerous empirical studies have been conducted in Western countries on biotechnology enterprises, little empirical research has been done in Malaysia especially in respect to the factors that contribute to the success of biotechnology small and medium enterprises (SMEs. In view of this, a study was undertaken recently in Malaysia to address this gap in the existing body of biotechnology knowledge. Using a grounded theory approach, this qualitative study managed to develop a conceptual framework that sheds useful information on the enterprise factors that significantly impact the success of Malaysian biotechnology SMEs. Specifically, this study found that organizational structure, innovation activities, linkages with academic research institutions, linkages with other private enterprises, personal linkages with academic researchers, access to financial capital, the procuring of government assistances, vertical integration, enterprise image, GMP compliance and halal certification, strongly influence enterprise success.Keywords: biotechnology, SMEs, Malaysia, success, qualitative study, grounded theory

  6. Bacterial and fungal communities and contribution of physicochemical factors during cattle farm waste composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhe; Jiang, Chao; Wu, Yanpei; Cheng, Yunxiang

    2017-12-01

    During composting, the composition of microbial communities is subject to constant change owing to interactions with fluctuating physicochemical parameters. This study explored the changes in bacterial and fungal communities during cattle farm waste composting and aimed to identify and prioritize the contributing physicochemical factors. Microbial community compositions were determined by high-throughput sequencing. While the predominant phyla in the bacterial and fungal communities were largely consistent during the composting, differences in relative abundances were observed. Bacterial and fungal community diversity and relative abundance varied significantly, and inversely, over time. Relationships between physicochemical factors and microbial community compositions were evaluated by redundancy analysis. The variation in bacterial community composition was significantly related to water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), and pile temperature and moisture (p composts. © 2017 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Enterprise Factors Contributing to The Success of Malaysian Biotechnology SMEs: A Grounded Theory Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saridan Abu Bakar

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available While numerous empirical studies have been conducted in Western countries on biotechnology enterprises, little empirical research has been done in Malaysia especially in respect to the factors that contribute to the success of biotechnology small and medium enterprises (SMEs. In view of this, a study was undertaken recently in Malaysia to address this gap in the existing body of biotechnology knowledge. Using a grounded theory approach, this qualitative study managed to develop a conceptual framework that sheds useful information on the enterprise factors that significantly impact the success of Malaysian biotechnology SMEs. Specifically, this study found that organizational structure, innovation activities, linkages with academic research institutions, linkages with other private enterprises, personal linkages with academic researchers, access to financial capital, the procuring of government assistances, vertical integration, enterprise image, GMP compliance and halal certification, strongly influence enterprise success.

  8. Stereotactic core needle breast biopsy marker migration: An analysis of factors contributing to immediate marker migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ashali; Khalid, Maria; Qureshi, Muhammad M; Georgian-Smith, Dianne; Kaplan, Jonah A; Buch, Karen; Grinstaff, Mark W; Hirsch, Ariel E; Hines, Neely L; Anderson, Stephan W; Gallagher, Katherine M; Bates, David D B; Bloch, B Nicolas

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate breast biopsy marker migration in stereotactic core needle biopsy procedures and identify contributing factors. This retrospective study analyzed 268 stereotactic biopsy markers placed in 263 consecutive patients undergoing stereotactic biopsies using 9G vacuum-assisted devices from August 2010-July 2013. Mammograms were reviewed and factors contributing to marker migration were evaluated. Basic descriptive statistics were calculated and comparisons were performed based on radiographically-confirmed marker migration. Of the 268 placed stereotactic biopsy markers, 35 (13.1%) migrated ≥1 cm from their biopsy cavity. Range: 1-6 cm; mean (± SD): 2.35 ± 1.22 cm. Of the 35 migrated biopsy markers, 9 (25.7%) migrated ≥3.5 cm. Patient age, biopsy pathology, number of cores, and left versus right breast were not associated with migration status (P> 0.10). Global fatty breast density (P= 0.025) and biopsy in the inner region of breast (P = 0.031) were associated with marker migration. Superior biopsy approach (P= 0.025), locally heterogeneous breast density, and t-shaped biopsy markers (P= 0.035) were significant for no marker migration. Multiple factors were found to influence marker migration. An overall migration rate of 13% supports endeavors of research groups actively developing new biopsy marker designs for improved resistance to migration. • Breast biopsy marker migration is documented in 13% of 268 procedures. • Marker migration is affected by physical, biological, and pathological factors. • Breast density, marker shape, needle approach etc. affect migration. • Study demonstrates marker migration prevalence; marker design improvements are needed.

  9. Assessing Factors Contributing to Cyanobacteria Harmful Algal Blooms in U.S. Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salls, W. B.; Iiames, J. S., Jr.; Lunetta, R. S.; Mehaffey, M.; Schaeffer, B. A.

    2017-12-01

    Cyanobacteria Harmful Algal Blooms (CHABs) in inland lakes have emerged as a major threat to water quality from both ecological and public health standpoints. Understanding the factors and processes driving CHAB occurrence is important in order to properly manage ensuring more favorable water quality outcomes. High water temperatures and nutrient loadings are known drivers of CHABs; however, the contribution of landscape variables and their interactions with these drivers remains relatively unstudied at a regional or national scale. This study assesses upstream landscape variables that may contribute to or obstruct/delay nutrient loadings to freshwater systems in several hundred inland lakes in the Upper Mid-western and Northeastern United States. We employ multiple linear regression and random forest modeling to determine which variables contribute most strongly to CHAB occurrence. This lakeshed-based approach will rank the impact of each landscape variable on cyanobacteria levels derived from satellite remotely sensed data from the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) sensor for the 2011 bloom season (July - October).

  10. Enhancement of crop photosynthesis by diffuse light: quantifying the contributing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, T; Heuvelink, E; Dueck, T A; Janse, J; Gort, G; Marcelis, L F M

    2014-07-01

    Plants use diffuse light more efficiently than direct light. However, experimental comparisons between diffuse and direct light have been obscured by co-occurring differences in environmental conditions (e.g. light intensity). This study aims to analyse the factors that contribute to an increase in crop photosynthesis in diffuse light and to quantify their relative contribution under different levels of diffuseness at similar light intensities. The hypothesis is that the enhancement of crop photosynthesis in diffuse light results not only from the direct effects of more uniform vertical and horizontal light distribution in the crop canopy, but also from crop physiological and morphological acclimation. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) crops were grown in three greenhouse compartments that were covered by glass with different degrees of light diffuseness (0, 45 and 71 % of the direct light being converted into diffuse light) while maintaining similar light transmission. Measurements of horizontal and vertical photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) distribution in the crop, leaf photosynthesis light response curves and leaf area index (LAI) were used to quantify each factor's contribution to an increase in crop photosynthesis in diffuse light. In addition, leaf temperature, photoinhibition, and leaf biochemical and anatomical properties were studied. The highest degree of light diffuseness (71 %) increased the calculated crop photosynthesis by 7·2 %. This effect was mainly attributed to a more uniform horizontal (33 % of the total effect) and vertical PPFD distribution (21 %) in the crop. In addition, plants acclimated to the high level of diffuseness by gaining a higher photosynthetic capacity of leaves in the middle of the crop and a higher LAI, which contributed 23 and 13 %, respectively, to the total increase in crop photosynthesis in diffuse light. Moreover, diffuse light resulted in lower leaf temperatures and less photoinhibition at the top of the canopy when

  11. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2011-01-01

    The CERN Fitness Club is organising Zumba Classes on the first Wednesday of each month, starting 7 September (19.00 – 20.00). What is Zumba®? It’s an exhilarating, effective, easy-to-follow, Latin-inspired, calorie-burning dance fitness-party™ that’s moving millions of people toward joy and health. Above all it’s great fun and an excellent work out. Price: 22 CHF/person Sign-up via the following form: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Zumba%20Subscription/NewForm.aspx For more info: fitness.club@cern.ch

  12. Nurses'experiences of perceived support and their contributing factors: A qualitative content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodeify, Roghieh; Vanaki, Zohreh; Mohammadi, Eesa

    2013-05-01

    Following professional standards is the main concern of all managers in organizations. The functions of nurses are essential for both productivity and improving health organizations. In human resources management, supporting nursing profession is of ultimate importance. However, nurses' experiences of perceived support, which are affected by various factors in workplace, have not been clearly explained yet. Thus, this study aimed to explain nurses' experiences of perceived support and their contributing factors. This study is a qualitative research in which 12 nurses were selected through purposive sampling among nurses in university hospitals affiliated to University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran, during 2011-2012. Data collection was conducted through deep interviews with semi-structural questions. All interviews were first recorded and then transcribed. Finally, data were analyzed through conventional content analysis. The four main themes indicated that nurses experienced their workplace as non-supportive. Themes such as poor organizational climate, low social dignity, poor work conditions, and managers' ignorance to individual and professional values were considered as inhibitory factors to support. Nursing managers can promote nurses' positive support perceptions through recognizing inhibitory factors and applying fair solutions and take benefits of their positive consequences including high efficacy, self-esteem, and organizational commitment to promote the quality of care.

  13. No Major Host Genetic Risk Factor Contributed to A(H1N12009 Influenza Severity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koldo Garcia-Etxebarria

    Full Text Available While most patients affected by the influenza A(H1N1 pandemic experienced mild symptoms, a small fraction required hospitalization, often without concomitant factors that could explain such a severe course. We hypothesize that host genetic factors could contribute to aggravate the disease. To test this hypothesis, we compared the allele frequencies of 547,296 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs between 49 severe and 107 mild confirmed influenza A cases, as well as against a general population sample of 549 individuals. When comparing severe vs. mild influenza A cases, only one SNP was close to the conventional p = 5×10-8. This SNP, rs28454025, sits in an intron of the GSK233 gene, which is involved in a neural development, but seems not to have any connections with immunological or inflammatory functions. Indirectly, a previous association reported with CD55 was replicated. Although sample sizes are low, we show that the statistical power in our design was sufficient to detect highly-penetrant, quasi-Mendelian genetic factors. Hence, and assuming that rs28454025 is likely to be a false positive, no major genetic factor was detected that could explain poor influenza A course.

  14. Contribution of occupational risk factors to the global burden of disease - a summary of findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingerhut, M.; Driscoll, T.; Nelson, D.I.; Concha-Barrientos, M.; Punnett, L.; Pruss-Ustin, A.; Steenland, K.; Leigh, J.; Corvalan, C. [NIOSH, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2005-07-01

    The World Health Organization conducted a comparative risk assessment to ascertain the contributions of 26 risk factors to the global burden of disease. Five occupational risk factors accounted for an estimated 37% of back pain, 16% of hearing loss, 13% of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 11% of asthma, 9% of lung cancer, 8% of injuries, and 2% of leukemia worldwide. Virtually all cases of silicosis, asbestosis, and coal workers' pneumoconiosis were work-related. Contaminated sharps injuries accounted for 40% of hepatitis B, 40% of hepatitis C, and 4% of HIV/AlDS infections among health care workers. Data limitations, primarily in developing countries, prevented the inclusion of other major occupational risk factors. These selected occupational risks accounted for about 850,000 deaths and 24 million years of healthy life lost each year. The deaths due to these selected occupational risk factors constitute only 43% of the International Labour Organization's estimate of 2 million deaths worldwide due to work-related risks.

  15. Factors Contributing to the Hydrologic Effectiveness of a Rain Garden Network (Cincinnati OH USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D. Shuster

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Infiltrative rain gardens can add retention capacity to sewersheds, yet factors contributing to their capacity for detention and redistribution of stormwater runoff are dynamic and often unverified. Over a four-year period, we tracked whole-system water fluxes in a two-tier rain garden network and assessed near-surface hydrology and soil development across construction and operational phases. The monitoring data provided a quantitative basis for determining effectiveness of this stormwater control measure. Based on 233 monitored warm-season rainfall events, nearly half of total inflow volume was detained, with 90 percent of all events producing no flow to the combined sewer. For the events that did result in flow to the combined sewer system, the rain garden delayed flows for an average of 5.5 h. Multivariate analysis of hydrologic fluxes indicated that total event rainfall depth was a predominant hydrologic driver for network outflow during both phases, with average event intensity and daily evapotranspiration as additional, independent factors in regulating retention in the operational phase. Despite sediment loads that can clog the rooting zone, and overall lower-than-design infiltration rates, tradeoffs among soil profile development and hydrology apparently maintained relatively high overall retention effectiveness. Overall, our study identified factors relevant to regulation of retention capacity of a rain garden network. These factors may be generalizable, and guide improvement of new or existing rain garden designs.

  16. Prevalence of and contributing factors to overweight and obesity among the schoolchildren of Podgorica, Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakšić Marina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Objective. Childhood obesity is an emerging public health problem. The national prevalence of child overweight/obesity in Montenegro has increased by one third in the last decade. As the overwhelming majority of Montenegrin population is urban, investigation of obesity and correlates among urban children is of special public health interest. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of and contributing factors to obesity among schoolchildren of Podgorica. Method. The sample included 1,134 schoolchildren (49.8% boys aged 7–12 years, from 10 elementary schools in Podgorica. We measured children’s body mass, body height, and waist circumference to calculate body mass index (BMI and waist-to-height ratio. The research instrument was a closed type of the original questionnaire. Nutritional status was assessed according to the criteria recommended by the American Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, World Health Organization and International Obesity Task Force. Results. Among the investigated children there were 21.2% and 6% overweight and obese children, respectively. Obesity was more frequent among boys (7.6% compared to girls (4.4%. In a multiple regression, childhood obesity was positively related to the following: male gender, younger age, lower number of siblings, parental obesity, and low physical activity. Conclusion. One out of five urban Montenegrin schoolchildren is overweight/obese, with obesity being twice as frequent among boys compared to girls. A program against obesity among urban Montenegrin children should focus on the revealed contributing factors.

  17. Characteristics and contributing factors related to sports injuries in young volleyball players

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The participation of young in volleyball is becoming increasingly common, and this increased involvement raises concerns about the risk of installation of sports injuries. Therefore, the objectives the study were identify the characteristics of sports injuries in young volleyball players and associate anthropometric and training variables with contributing factors for injuries. Methods A total of 522 volleyball players participating in the High School Olympic Games of the State of São Paulo (Brazil) were interviewed. A reported condition inquiry was used to gather information on injuries, such as anatomic site affected, mechanism and moment of injury, as well as personal and training data. The level of significance was set at 5%. Results A 19% frequency of injuries was found. Higher age, weight, height, body mass index and training duration values were associated with the occurrence of injuries. The most affected anatomic site was the ankle/foot complex (45 injuries, 36.3%). Direct contact and contactless mechanisms were the main causes of injuries (61 injuries; 49.2% and 48 injuries; 38.7%, respectively). Training was the moment in which most injuries occurred (93 injuries; 75%), independently of personal and training characteristics. Conclusion Injuries affected the ankle/foot complex with a greater frequency. Direct contact and contactless mechanisms were the most frequently reported and injuries occurred mainly during training sessions. Personal and training characteristics were contributing factors for the occurrence of injuries. PMID:24124803

  18. Self-Medication and Contributing Factors: A Questionnaire Survey Among Iranian Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Abdarzadeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-medication is a serious danger in every health sector which potentially brings harmful side effects for the society. The aim of this research was to investigate self-medication and its contributing factors among residents of Yazd province in Iran in 2014. Methods: A descriptive, cross sectional study was conducted in 2014 using a self-constructed questionnaire. A total of 580 families living in Yazd in the time period of study were contributed to fill out the questions organized in two sections of demographic and self-medication factors. Data were analyzed by SPSS software version 16 through appropriate descriptive and analytical statistical tests. Results: Self-medication was reported in 53.4% of the cases. The most frequent self-prescribed medications were related to pain killer drugs (26.6%. There was a significant statistical relation between self-medication and households’ age, occupation and income, level of parents’ education, number of children and place of residence. Among different reasons for self-medication the most important one was reported to be accessibility (3.44+1.3. Conclusion: Due to the considerable prevalence of self-medication and its harmful effects on every society, such an issue should be appropriately controlled through legal regulations particularly in the area of selling dangerous drugs. Furthermore, provision of proper information and warning the population about harmful side effects can be helpful in this regard. 

  19. Risk Assessment: Factors Contributing to Discomfort for Menopausal Women in Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Mehdi; Seifi, Bahar; Heidari, Mohammad

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to review the Factors contributing to discomfort for menopausal women in workplace and the perceived effects of working conditions on menopausal symptoms, and to produce recommendations for managers and women. This study was a review article. We searched PubMed and Science Direct for articles related to menopause and workplace. Keywords included: menopause AND workplace OR occupational health or menopausal women AND managers. Because we aimed to update the literature following the 2011 review of menopause and workplace, only English-language articles published between 2011 and 2017 were included. This review showed that how managers could be help and awareness and what should be done for menopausal women in workplace by risk assessment. Many risk factors are contributing to discomfort for menopausal women in workplace and managers should be assessed them. Managers should be aware that menopausal transition causes difficulty for some women at work, then occupational health and safety and health promotion policies will be increasingly important. It may help inform the development of tailored occupational health policies and programs that cater for the needs of women as they transition through menopause in the workplace.

  20. Characteristics and contributing factors related to sports injuries in young volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlei, Franciele Marques; Bastos, Fabio Nascimento; Tsutsumi, Gustavo Yuki Cantalejo; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques; Netto Júnior, Jayme; Pastre, Carlos Marcelo

    2013-10-14

    The participation of young in volleyball is becoming increasingly common, and this increased involvement raises concerns about the risk of installation of sports injuries. Therefore, the objectives the study were identify the characteristics of sports injuries in young volleyball players and associate anthropometric and training variables with contributing factors for injuries. A total of 522 volleyball players participating in the High School Olympic Games of the State of São Paulo (Brazil) were interviewed. A reported condition inquiry was used to gather information on injuries, such as anatomic site affected, mechanism and moment of injury, as well as personal and training data. The level of significance was set at 5%. A 19% frequency of injuries was found. Higher age, weight, height, body mass index and training duration values were associated with the occurrence of injuries. The most affected anatomic site was the ankle/foot complex (45 injuries, 36.3%). Direct contact and contactless mechanisms were the main causes of injuries (61 injuries; 49.2% and 48 injuries; 38.7%, respectively). Training was the moment in which most injuries occurred (93 injuries; 75%), independently of personal and training characteristics. Injuries affected the ankle/foot complex with a greater frequency. Direct contact and contactless mechanisms were the most frequently reported and injuries occurred mainly during training sessions. Personal and training characteristics were contributing factors for the occurrence of injuries.

  1. A review of genetic factors contributing to the etiopathogenesis of anorectal malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Kashish; Sharma, Shilpa; Pabalan, Noel; Singh, Neetu; Gupta, D K

    2018-01-01

    Anorectal malformation (ARM) is a common congenital anomaly with a wide clinical spectrum. Recently, many genetic and molecular studies have been conducted worldwide highlighting the contribution of genetic factors in its etiology. We summarize the current literature on such genetic factors. Literature search was done using different combinations of terms related to genetics in anorectal malformations. From 2012 to June 2017, articles published in the English literature and studies conducted on human population were included. A paradigm shift was observed from the earlier studies concentrating on genetic aberrations in specific pathways to genome wide arrays exploring single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and copy number variations (CNVs) in ARM patients. Rare CNVs (including 79 genes) and SNPs have been found to genetically contribute to ARM. Out of disrupted 79 genes one such putative gene is DKK4. Down regulation of CDX-1 gene has also been implicated in isolated ARM patients. In syndromic ARM de novo microdeletion at 17q12 and a few others have been identified. Major genetic aberrations proposed in the pathogenesis of ARM affect members of the Wnt, Hox (homebox) genes, Sonic hedgehog (Shh) and Gli2, Bmp4, Fgf and CDX1 signalling pathways; probable targets of future molecular gene therapy.

  2. The cardiovascular risk factors and health-related physical fitness of employees at General Directorate of Youth and Sport of Mazandaran Province in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Arazi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The evidence shows that the sedentary life increases the risk of coronary heart disease and decreases physical fitness. However, this study aimed to evaluate the cardiovascular risk factors and health-related physical fitness of employees at General Directorate of Youth and Sport of Mazandaran Province in Iran. For this purpose, using random sampling method, 40 employees (age mean= 35.54 ± 7.63 years old, body mass index= 22.61 ± 9.70 kg/m2 at General Directorate of Youth and Sport of Mazandaran were selected as sample. Then, after collecting necessary data by questionnaire, the health-related physical fitness was measured in terms of cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular endurance, body fat percentage, strength, and flexibility. Also, the sphygmomanometer was used to measure heart rate (HR and blood pressure (BP. Finally, 5 ml blood was taken from subjects to evaluate cardiovascular risk factors including total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, fasting blood sugar (FBS, low density lipoprotein (LDL, and high density lipoprotein (HDL. The findings showed that there was no significant difference between TC, TG, LDL, HDL, systolic blood pressure (SBP, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP of employees at General Directorate of Youth and Sport of Mazandaran and desirable situation. However, there was significant difference between health-related physical fitness of employees and desirable situation (P < 0.05. It was concluded that due to undesirable situation of physical fitness of employees, it is necessary to take measures to emphasize regular exercise programs and promote their fitness and health.

  3. Source contributions to PM10 and arsenic concentrations in Central Chile using positive matrix factorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedberg, Emma; Gidhagen, Lars; Johansson, Christer

    Sampling of particles (PM10) was conducted during a one-year period at two rural sites in Central Chile, Quillota and Linares. The samples were analyzed for elemental composition. The data sets have undergone source-receptor analyses in order to estimate the sources and their abundance's in the PM10 size fraction, by using the factor analytical method positive matrix factorization (PMF). The analysis showed that PM10 was dominated by soil resuspension at both sites during the summer months, while during winter traffic dominated the particle mass at Quillota and local wood burning dominated the particle mass at Linares. Two copper smelters impacted the Quillota station, and contributed to 10% and 16% of PM10 as an average during summer and winter, respectively. One smelter impacted Linares by 8% and 19% of PM10 in the summer and winter, respectively. For arsenic the two smelters accounted for 87% of the monitored arsenic levels at Quillota and at Linares one smelter contributed with 72% of the measured mass. In comparison with PMF, the use of a dispersion model tended to overestimate the smelter contribution to arsenic levels at both sites. The robustness of the PMF model was tested by using randomly reduced data sets, where 85%, 70%, 50% and 33% of the samples were included. In this way the ability of the model to reconstruct the sources initially found by the original data set could be tested. On average for all sources the relative standard deviation increased from 7% to 25% for the variables identifying the sources, when decreasing the data set from 85% to 33% of the samples, indicating that the solution initially found was very stable to begin with. But it was also noted that sources due to industrial or combustion processes were more sensitive for the size of the data set, compared to the natural sources as local soil and sea spray sources.

  4. Families, nurses and organisations contributing factors to medication administration error in paediatrics: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albara Alomari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medication error is the most common adverse event for hospitalised children and can lead to significant harm. Despite decades of research and implementation of a number of initiatives, the error rates continue to rise, particularly those associated with administration. Objectives: The objective of this literature review is to explore the factors involving nurses, families and healthcare systems that impact on medication administration errors in paediatric patients. Design: A review was undertaken of studies that reported on factors that contribute to a rise or fall in medication administration errors, from family, nurse and organisational perspectives. The following databases were searched: Medline, Embase, CINAHL and the Cochrane library. The title, abstract and full article were reviewed for relevance. Articles were excluded if they were not research studies, they related to medications and not medication administration errors or they referred to medical errors rather than medication errors. Results: A total of 15 studies met the inclusion criteria. The factors contributing to medication administration errors are communication failure between the parents and healthcare professionals, nurse workload, failure to adhere to policy and guidelines, interruptions, inexperience and insufficient nurse education from organisations. Strategies that were reported to reduce errors were doublechecking by two nurses, implementing educational sessions, use of computerised prescribing and barcoding administration systems. Yet despite such interventions, errors persist. The review highlighted families that have a central role in caring for the child and therefore are key to the administration process, but have largely been ignored in research studies relating to medication administration. Conclusions: While there is a consensus about the factors that contribute to errors, sustainable and effective solutions remain elusive. To date, families have not

  5. Factors that contribute to public sector nurses’ turnover in Limpopo province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takalani G. Tshitangano

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ongoing worldwide phenomenon of a shortage of about 4.3 million nurses and midwives poses a threat to health service delivery. Limpopo province had the worst nurse shortage of over 60% in 2010. Authors attribute this shortage to turnover of nurses. The quest to describe factors contributing to nurses’ turnover led to this study in Limpopo province,South Africa. Objectives: To explore and describe factors that contribute to nurses’ turnover in Limpopo province of South Africa by assessing public sector nurses’ job satisfaction in relation to common determinants of job satisfaction. Method: A descriptive cross-sectional approach used primary quantitative data collected from 141 of 380 respondents (31.1% response rate contacted incidentally. Self-administered hand delivered questionnaires were used to gather ordinal data, which were analysed in terms off requency and percentage tables using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 6. The sum of positive and negative effects was used to determine satisfaction; if positive effects were greater than negative effects respondents were judged to be satisfied and vice versa. Results: Frequency and percentage tables revealed that nurses in Limpopo province were more dissatisfied (53.9% than satisfied (37.8% with their jobs. Factors which respondents were found to be dissatisfied with included staffing (85.2%, availability of workplace resources(83.7%, salaries (78.8%, workplace safety (73.7%, career development opportunities (64.5% and hours of work (47.6%. Conclusion: Nurses’ turnover is attributed to nurses’ dissatisfaction with staffing, resources, salaries and workplace safety. Attention needs to be given to these specific issues if retentionof nurses is to be achieved.

  6. The Frequency of Prediabetes and Contributing Factors in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razeghi, Effat; Heydarian, Peimaneh; Heydari, Mahshid

    2011-01-01

    AIMS: Uremia is a prediabetic state, but abnormal glucose metabolism and relative risk factors in non-diabetic chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are not studied extensively. This study aimed to evaluate prediabetes and contributing factors in patients with CKD. METHODS: We studied the frequency of prediabetes (defined as fasting plasma glucose 100-125 mg/dl and 2-h plasma glucose 140-199 mg/dl) and contributing risk factors in 91 (34 women and 57 men) non-diabetic CKD (GFR prediabetic state. RESULTS: Thirty-eight patients (41.8%), 28 male and 10 female, with mean age of 57.4 ± 17.1 yr, had prediabetes. Among these, 18.7% had impaired fasting glucose, 7.7% impaired glucose tolerance, and 15.4% combined impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance. CKD patients with impaired glucose tolerance had more frequently hypertriglyceridemia (85.7% vs. 42.0%, p = 0.001), hypertension (66.6% vs. 31.4%, p = 0.004), and metabolic syndrome according to National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (52.3% vs. 25.7%, p = 0.02). Also, mean systolic blood pressure (134.2 ± 13.9 vs. 124.5 ± 20.0, p = 0.004) was higher in CKD patients with impaired glucose tolerance compared to CKD patients with normal glucose. CONCLUSIONS: Prediabetes is a frequent condition in CKD patients. Also, hypertriglyceridemia and hypertension are more prevalent in prediabetic CKD patients than in non-diabetic CKD patients. PMID:22189551

  7. Environmental impact and risk assessments and key factors contributing to the overall uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salbu, Brit

    2016-01-01

    There is a significant number of nuclear and radiological sources that have contributed, are still contributing, or have the potential to contribute to radioactive contamination of the environment in the future. To protect the environment from radioactive contamination, impact and risk assessments are performed prior to or during a release event, short or long term after deposition or prior and after implementation of countermeasures. When environmental impact and risks are assessed, however, a series of factors will contribute to the overall uncertainties. To provide environmental impact and risk assessments, information on processes, kinetics and a series of input variables is needed. Adding problems such as variability, questionable assumptions, gaps in knowledge, extrapolations and poor conceptual model structures, a series of factors are contributing to large and often unacceptable uncertainties in impact and risk assessments. Information on the source term and the release scenario is an essential starting point in impact and risk models; the source determines activity concentrations and atom ratios of radionuclides released, while the release scenario determine the physico-chemical forms of released radionuclides such as particle size distribution, structure and density. Releases will most often contain other contaminants such as metals, and due to interactions, contaminated sites should be assessed as a multiple stressor scenario. Following deposition, a series of stressors, interactions and processes will influence the ecosystem transfer of radionuclide species and thereby influence biological uptake (toxicokinetics) and responses (toxicodynamics) in exposed organisms. Due to the variety of biological species, extrapolation is frequently needed to fill gaps in knowledge e.g., from effects to no effects, from effects in one organism to others, from one stressor to mixtures. Most toxtests are, however, performed as short term exposure of adult organisms

  8. Fodbold Fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Søren

    Samfundet forandrer sig og ligeså gør danskernes idrætsmønstre. Fodbold Fitness, der er afhandlingens omdrejningspunkt, kan iagttages som en reaktion på disse forandringer. Afhandlingen ser nærmere på Fodbold Fitness og implementeringen af dette, der ingenlunde er nogen let opgave. Bennike bidrager...

  9. Contribution of individual and environmental factors to physical activity level among Spanish adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Serrano-Sanchez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lack of physical activity (PA is a major risk for chronic disease and obesity. The main aims of the present study were to identify individual and environmental factors independently associated with PA and examine the relative contribution of these factors to PA level in Spanish adults. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A population-based cross-sectional sample of 3,000 adults (18-75 years old from Gran Canaria (Spain was selected using a multistage stratified random sampling method. The participants were interviewed at home using a validated questionnaire to assess PA as well as individual and environmental factors. The data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. One demographic variable (education, two cognitive (self-efficacy and perceived barriers, and one social environmental (organized format were independently associated with PA in both genders. Odds ratios ranged between 1.76-2.07 in men and 1.35-2.50 in women (both p<0.05. Individual and environmental factors explained about one-third of the variance in PA level. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Self-efficacy and perceived barriers were the most significant factors to meet an adequate level of PA. The risk of insufficient PA was twofold greater in men with primary or lesser studies and who are employed. In women, living in rural environments increased the risk of insufficient PA. The promotion of organized PA may be an efficient way to increase the level of PA in the general population. Improvement in the access to sport facilities and places for PA is a prerequisite that may be insufficient and should be combined with strategies to improve self-efficacy and overcome perceived barriers in adulthood.

  10. Construct of Dialysis Employee Satisfaction: Acquiring Satisfaction Factors and Their Contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiuzhu; Itoh, Kenji

    2015-10-01

    We developed a construct of dialysis employees' satisfaction as an assessment framework and identified the crucial factors that contribute to overall job satisfaction. We also seek to capture some important characteristics of dialysis professionals' job satisfaction/dissatisfaction in Japan. A questionnaire was developed, including 35 facet-specific job-related satisfaction and 10 general satisfaction items in closed-ended questions. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted between August and October 2013. A total of 799 valid responses (87% of response rate) were collected from 46 physicians, 470 nurses and 251 technologists in the dialysis department of 43 facilities in Japan. Five satisfaction factors were derived by applying principal component analysis with 61% of cumulative variance accounted for. Physicians, nurses and technologists in the dialysis department shared a similar trend of job satisfaction that they were more satisfied with leadership, and communication and teamwork among the five factors, whereas their satisfaction level was relatively low with salary and welfare conditions. Physicians expressed the strongest satisfaction with any factor while nurses were the least satisfied. Nurses' and technologists' overall job satisfaction was mostly determined by satisfaction with self-actualization, and work demands and workload. A five-factor construct of dialysis employee satisfaction was identified. Overall job satisfaction of dialysis nurses and technologists were not overly high in Japan, and this seems to be caused by their relatively low satisfaction with self-actualization and with work demands and workload. Therefore, it is suggested that their work conditions and environment must be improved to support their self-actualization and to reduce their workload. © 2015 The Authors. Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis © 2015 International Society for Apheresis.

  11. Fitness cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karen L.; Pedersen, Thomas M.; Udekwu, Klas I.

    2012-01-01

    phage types, predominantly only penicillin resistant. We investigated whether isolates of this epidemic were associated with a fitness cost, and we employed a mathematical model to ask whether these fitness costs could have led to the observed reduction in frequency. Bacteraemia isolates of S. aureus...... from Denmark have been stored since 1957. We chose 40 S. aureus isolates belonging to phage complex 83A, clonal complex 8 based on spa type, ranging in time of isolation from 1957 to 1980 and with varyous antibiograms, including both methicillin-resistant and -susceptible isolates. The relative fitness...... of each isolate was determined in a growth competition assay with a reference isolate. Significant fitness costs of 215 were determined for the MRSA isolates studied. There was a significant negative correlation between number of antibiotic resistances and relative fitness. Multiple regression analysis...

  12. Quantitative investigation of physical factors contributing to gold nanoparticle-mediated proton dose enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Jongmin; Manohar, Nivedh; Kerr, Matthew; Cho, Sang Hyun; Gonzalez-Lepera, Carlos; Krishnan, Sunil

    2016-01-01

    Some investigators have shown tumor cell killing enhancement in vitro and tumor regression in mice associated with the loading of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) before proton treatments. Several Monte Carlo (MC) investigations have also demonstrated GNP-mediated proton dose enhancement. However, further studies need to be done to quantify the individual physical factors that contribute to the dose enhancement or cell-kill enhancement (or radiosensitization). Thus, the current study investigated the contributions of particle-induced x-ray emission (PIXE), particle-induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE), Auger and secondary electrons, and activation products towards the total dose enhancement. Specifically, GNP-mediated dose enhancement was measured using strips of radiochromic film that were inserted into vials of cylindrical GNPs, i.e. gold nanorods (GNRs), dispersed in a saline solution (0.3 mg of GNRs/g or 0.03% of GNRs by weight), as well as vials containing water only, before proton irradiation. MC simulations were also performed with the tool for particle simulation code using the film measurement setup. Additionally, a high-purity germanium detector system was used to measure the photon spectrum originating from activation products created from the interaction of protons and spherical GNPs present in a saline solution (20 mg of GNPs/g or 2% of GNPs by weight). The dose enhancement due to PIXE/PIGE recorded on the films in the GNR-loaded saline solution was less than the experimental uncertainty of the film dosimetry (<2%). MC simulations showed highly localized dose enhancement (up to a factor 17) in the immediate vicinity (<100 nm) of GNRs, compared with hypothetical water nanorods (WNRs), mostly due to GNR-originated Auger/secondary electrons; however, the average dose enhancement over the entire GNR-loaded vial was found to be minimal (0.1%). The dose enhancement due to the activation products from GNPs was minimal (<0.1%) as well. In conclusion, under the

  13. The contribution of endogenous and exogenous factors to male alopecia: a study of identical twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatherwright, James; Liu, Mengyuan T; Amirlak, Bardia; Gliniak, Christy; Totonchi, Ali; Guyuron, Bahman

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential contribution of environmental factors and testosterone on male alopecia. Ninety-two identical male twins were recruited from 2009 to 2011. A comprehensive questionnaire was completed followed by the acquisition of sputum samples for testosterone analysis and standardized digital photography. Frontal, temporal, and vertex hair loss was assessed from these photographs. Hair loss was then correlated with survey responses and testosterone levels between twin pairs. Two independent, blinded observers also rated the photographs for hair thinning. Increased smoking duration (p money spent on hair loss products (p = 0.050) were all associated with increased temporal hair loss. Daily hat use (p = 0.050), higher body mass index (p = 0.012), and higher testosterone levels (p = 0.040) were associated with decreased temporal hair loss. Factors that were significantly associated with increased vertex hair loss included abstinence from alcohol consumption (p = 0.030), consumption of more than four alcoholic drinks per week (p = 0.004), increased smoking duration (p = 0.047), increased exercise duration (p = 0.050), and increased stress duration (p = 0.010). Lower body mass index, more children, increased caffeine consumption, history of skin disease, and abstinence from alcohol were significantly associated with increased hair thinning scores (p exogenous factors may have a clinically significant impact on hair loss. Risk, III.

  14. Contributing risk factors for orthopedic device related infections in sina hospital, tehran, iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadadi, A; Zehtab, M J; Babagolzadeh, H; Ashraf, H

    2011-02-01

    In spite of decreasing incidence of orthopedic device-related infections to 1%, nowadays, device-related infection still remains a diagnostic, therapeutic and cost-related problem. The objective of this study is to evaluate the contributing risk factors for orthopedic device-related infections in Sina Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Three hundred and thirty patients who underwent orthopedic device implantation from 2002-2006 were enrolled; among them, 110 patients were complicated with infection. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the risk factors for device related infections. Patients with infection were older compared to those without infection. The Staphylococcus aureus was the commonest organism. A correlation was observed between wound infection and external fixation, an underlying health condition, and addiction which were independent risk factors for a device related infection. Orthopedic device-related infection puts a great financial burden on patients and hospital resources and could lead to morbidity and mortality in patients. So, appropriate pre and postoperative wound care for dirty wounds, especially when external fixators are used, and in patients with poor conditions or addiction should be done with more caution.

  15. Endotoxin levels and contribution factors of endotoxins in resident, school, and office environments - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, Heidi; Duchaine, Caroline; Létourneau, Valérie; Mazaheri, Mandana; Laitinen, Sirpa; Clifford, Sam; Mikkola, Raimo; Lappalainen, Sanna; Reijula, Kari; Morawska, Lidia

    2016-10-01

    As endotoxin exposure has known effects on human health, it is important to know the generally existing levels of endotoxins as well as their contributing factors. This work reviews current knowledge on the endotoxin loads in settled floor dust, concentrations of endotoxins in indoor air, and different environmental factors potentially affecting endotoxin levels. The literature review consists of peer-reviewed manuscripts located using Google and PubMed, with search terms based on individual words and combinations. References from relevant articles have also been searched. Analysis of the data showed that in residential, school, and office environments, the mean endotoxin loads in settled floor dust varied between 660 and 107,000 EU/m2, 2180 and 48,000 EU/m2, and 2700 and 12,890 EU/m2, respectively. Correspondingly, the mean endotoxin concentrations in indoor air varied between 0.04 and 1610 EU/m3 in residences, and 0.07 and 9.30 EU/m3 in schools and offices. There is strong scientific evidence indicating that age of houses (or housing unit year category), cleaning, farm or rural living, flooring materials (the presence of carpets), number of occupants, the presence of dogs or cats indoors, and relative humidity affect endotoxin loads in settled floor dust. The presence of pets (especially dogs) was extremely strongly associated with endotoxin concentrations in indoor air. However, as reviewed articles show inconsistency, additional studies on these and other possible predicting factors are needed.

  16. Factors contributing to delay in diagnosis and start of treatment of leprosy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicholls, P.G.; Chhina, N; Aaen, Karen Bro

    2005-01-01

    The objective of our research was to identify factors contributing to delay in diagnosis and start of treatment in leprosy, focussing on patients' narratives of help-seeking behaviour. Our research took place in Purulia, West Bengal, India and in Nilphamari, northern Bangladesh. Between January...... and August 2000, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 104 patients that explored each individual's narrative of help-seeking behaviour and the context of beliefs and attitudes towards leprosy. Subsequently we surveyed 356 patients currently receiving treatment for leprosy and recorded specific...... aspects of each help-seeking action and their reports of local beliefs and attitudes towards leprosy. Delay was estimated from time of first symptoms through to start of effective treatment (mean 18 months, median 9 months in Purulia and mean 20 months, median 12 months in Nilphamari). The number of help...

  17. Frequency and contributing factors for acute pancreatitis after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in patients with obstructive jaundice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubair, M.; Zaidi, A.R.; Hyder, A.

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the frequency and contributing factors for acute pancreatitis after endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography in patients with obstructive jaundice. Study Design: Descriptive case series. Place and Duration of Study: A descriptive case series conducted at department of Gastroenterology, Shaikh Zayed Hospital, Lahore in the period of six months. Material and Methods: Two hundred and thirty patients diagnosed as having obstructive jaundice and undergoing ERCP who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were included in the study from the outpatient and indoor department of Gastroenterology-Hepatology Shaikh Zayed Hospital Lahore. Informed consent was taken. After the selection of the cases, patients were evaluated for the presence or absence of contributing factors like age, gender, cannulation attempts, cannulation time, percutaneous papillotomy, pancreatic duct contrast injection and previous history of post ERCP pancreatitis. Data was analysed by using the statistical software for social sciences (SPSS) version 15. Results: In our study, mean age was 44 +- 14.12 years. Out of 230 patients 42.17% (n=97) were male and 57.83% (n=133) were females. Frequency of acute pancreatitis after ERCP in patients with obstructive jaundice was 4.78% (n=11) while 95.22% (n=219) had no findings of acute pancreatitis after ERCP. Frequency of factors for acute pancreatitis after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in patients with obstructive jaundice was recorded which shows that out of 11 cases, 45.45% (n=5) were females, 36.36% (n=4) had previous history of Post ERCP Pancreatitis, 27.27% (n=3) had >5 attempts of cannulation, 36.36% (n=4) had >5 minute time for cannulation, 54.55% (n=6) had pre-cut papillotomy while 63.64% (n=7) had pancreatic duct contrast injection. Conclusion: We concluded that frequency of acute pancreatitis after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in patients with obstructive jaundice was found not very high in our practice

  18. Ecosystem Service Value Assessment and Contribution Factor Analysis of Land Use Change in Miyun County, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Unreasonable land use planning can reduce ecosystem service value and result in unsustainable land use. In this paper, the changes of ecosystem service value were investigated by using the GIS and dynamic simulation model of land use in Miyun of Beijing, China, based on the land use at four time points including 1991, 2006, 2021 and one improved scenario, respectively. The results showed the total ecosystem service value of Miyun was about 2968.34 million Yuan in 1991, 3304.72 million Yuan in 2006, 3106.48 million Yuan in 2021, and 3759.77 million Yuan in the improved scenario. In terms of ecosystem service function, the functions of water supply and soil formation and retention accounted for the largest proportion, which were 19.99% and 14.58% respectively; whereas the functions of food supply and recreation and culture were only 1.83% and 5.99%, respectively. Coefficients of sensitivity for forest cover, water bodies and arable land were relatively large, which were 0.73, 0.28 and 0.14, respectively. The contribution factors of total ecosystem service value with the land use change during different periods were mainly the unused land to forest cover and arable land, which respectively accounted for more than 63% and 21% of the contribution rate. These results suggested that sustainable land use planning should be undertaken with emphasis on vegetation restoration and protection of water bodies.

  19. Factors contribution to the reduction of occupational exposures at Dukovany NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrova, K.; Urbancik, L.; Fuchsova, D.; Kulich, V.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the causes of achieving such low collective doses and the ways used for a further optimization process reducing occupational exposure at the Dukovany NPP from the beginning of operation up to now. The objective of this contribution is to explain the approaches leading to reduced occupational radiation exposure, measures which have been implemented and what is needed for the maintenance of excellent results in the future. It is possible to identify three main areas and eight main sources affecting collective dose values. There are one objective and two specific causes for low exposures: 1. Objective cause: - General arrangement; - Structural materials; - Fuel integrity. 2. Specific cause influenced by the state regulation: - Legislative support; - Operational safety culture; - Well-though tout system of radiological monitoring; - Effective radiological event feedback; - Effective education and training. 3. Specific cause uninfluenced by the state regulation: - Modified water chemistry of the primary circuit adopted by the licensee; - Licensee's system of radiation work debriefing. All the items specified above contribute to a unique concurrence of circumstances leading to the constantly low occupational exposures at the Czech nuclear power plants. The paper discusses all factors involved in these good results. (authors)

  20. Deconstructing contributing factors to bullying and lateral violence in nursing using a postcolonial feminist lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Rhonda Kathleen; Cash, Penelope Anne

    2012-10-01

    Bullying and lateral violence is a reality in the workplace for many nurses and has been explored in nursing literature for at least three decades. Using a postcolonial feminist approach this paper examines what contributes to bullying and lateral violence in the nursing workplace by deconstructing the findings from a British Columbia Nurses Union and Union of Psychiatric Nurses study. Theories of oppression and organizational context which have appeared in the literature serve to inform the discussion. A postcolonial lens provides an opportunity to come to grips with the insidiousness of bullying and lateral violence. An adaption of Phillips, Lawrence, and Hardy's (2004) framework is used to unpack discourses, actions, texts, and organizational practices to challenge taken-for-granted hegemonies in the workplace. Taking this different view has enabled new prisms of understanding to emerge from the contributing factors identified in the study. Based on this analysis it is clear that bullying and lateral violence is deeply institutionalized. Nurses, managers, and organizations need to interrupt and interrogate the embeddedness of bullying and lateral violence in order to create a civil workplace.

  1. Contribution of non-negative matrix factorization to the classification of remote sensing images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karoui, M. S.; Deville, Y.; Hosseini, S.; Ouamri, A.; Ducrot, D.

    2008-10-01

    Remote sensing has become an unavoidable tool for better managing our environment, generally by realizing maps of land cover using classification techniques. The classification process requires some pre-processing, especially for data size reduction. The most usual technique is Principal Component Analysis. Another approach consists in regarding each pixel of the multispectral image as a mixture of pure elements contained in the observed area. Using Blind Source Separation (BSS) methods, one can hope to unmix each pixel and to perform the recognition of the classes constituting the observed scene. Our contribution consists in using Non-negative Matrix Factorization (NMF) combined with sparse coding as a solution to BSS, in order to generate new images (which are at least partly separated images) using HRV SPOT images from Oran area, Algeria). These images are then used as inputs of a supervised classifier integrating textural information. The results of classifications of these "separated" images show a clear improvement (correct pixel classification rate improved by more than 20%) compared to classification of initial (i.e. non separated) images. These results show the contribution of NMF as an attractive pre-processing for classification of multispectral remote sensing imagery.

  2. The nutritional status and factors contributing to malnutrition in children with chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziejczyk, E; Wejnarska, K; Dadalski, M; Kierkus, J; Ryzko, J; Oracz, G

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of malnutrition among children with chronic pancreatitis (CP). Furthermore, we aimed to evaluate the relationship between etiological factors of CP, its clinical characteristics, and the severity of malnutrition. The study included 208 children with CP (113 girls and 95 boys; mean age: 10.8 years, range: 1.6-18 years), hospitalized at our center between 1988 and 2012. The severity of malnutrition was graded on the basis of Cole's ratios, and its prevalence was analyzed according to the etiological factors of pancreatitis. Moreover, the analysis of discrimination was performed to identify the factors contributing to malnutrition among the following variables: age at CP onset, duration of CP, number of CP exacerbations, the number of ERCPs performed, the grade of pancreatic damage documented on imaging, co-occurrence of diabetes, and the results of 72-h fecal fat quantification. We documented features of malnutrition in 52 (25%) children with CP, including 36 (17.3%) patients with moderate malnutrition, and 2 (0.96%) with severe malnutrition. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of malnutrition between groups of patients with various etiological factors of chronic pancreatitis. The age at CP onset showed the best discrimination ability of malnourished patients: the mean age at disease onset in a subgroup of malnourished children was significantly higher than in children with Cole's index >85%. A considerable percentage of children with CP can suffer from clinically significant malnutrition. Later age at CP onset predisposes to development of malnutrition. Copyright © 2014 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Factors contributing to delayed diagnosis of cancer among Aboriginal people in Australia: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Shaouli; Teng, Tiew-Hwa Katherine; Bessarab, Dawn; Aoun, Samar; Baxi, Siddhartha; Thompson, Sandra C

    2016-01-01

    Background/objectives Delayed presentation of symptomatic cancer is associated with poorer survival. Aboriginal patients with cancer have higher rates of distant metastases at diagnosis compared with non-Aboriginal Australians. This paper examined factors contributing to delayed diagnosis of cancer among Aboriginal Australians from patient and service providers' perspectives. Methods In-depth, open-ended interviews were conducted in two stages (2006–2007 and 2011). Inductive thematic analysis was assisted by use of NVivo looking around delays in presentation, diagnosis and referral for cancer. Participants Aboriginal patients with cancer/family members (n=30) and health service providers (n=62) were recruited from metropolitan Perth and six rural/remote regions of Western Australia. Results Three broad themes of factors were identified: (1) Contextual factors such as intergenerational impact of colonisation and racism and socioeconomic deprivation have negatively impacted on Aboriginal Australians' trust of the healthcare professionals; (2) health service-related factors included low accessibility to health services, long waiting periods, inadequate numbers of Aboriginal professionals and high staff turnover; (3) patient appraisal of symptoms and decision-making, fear of cancer and denial of symptoms were key reasons patients procrastinated in seeking help. Elements of shame, embarrassment, shyness of seeing the doctor, psychological ‘fear of the whole health system’, attachment to the land and ‘fear of leaving home’ for cancer treatment in metropolitan cities were other deterrents for Aboriginal people. Manifestation of masculinity and the belief that ‘health is women's domain’ emerged as a reason why Aboriginal men were reluctant to receive health checks. Conclusions Solutions to improved Aboriginal cancer outcomes include focusing on the primary care sector encouraging general practitioners to be proactive to suspicion of symptoms with appropriate

  4. Risks and factors contributing towards rural entrepreneurial orientation growth of business in an emerging economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Mpele Lekhanya

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines risks and critical factors contributing to the rural entrepreneurial orientation growth of businesses. The concept of entrepreneurial orientation and various factors influencing the rural entrepreneurial orientation growth are still not well known. The study aimed to assess risks and critical factors affecting rural entrepreneurial orientation growth of businesses. Questionnaire was developed and used to collect primary data from 127 rural entrepreneurs. The sample was made with small and medium entrepreneurs operating in rural places. They were selected using quota sampling, with respondents completing a questionnaire with the assistance of an interviewer. The study used quantitative technique for data collection. SPSS (23.0 version was used for data analysis and scientific statistical significance level found to be (.000* at the Cronbach’s alpha (.791* reliability. Results of the survey reveal that majority indicates competition as a big challenge for them. Findings further indicate that competitor is due to the small market and lack of products differentiation. This study introduces an additional literature in the field of entrepreneurship with specific reference to rural entrepreneurship. The paper will benefit rural entrepreneurs, entrepreneurial marketing managers, potential young entrepreneurs, business consultants, policymakers, financial institutions, government agencies and all affiliated stakeholders by introducing a new understanding of risks and various critical factors causative into rural entrepreneurial orientation growth of business in an emerging economy. Most work on the entrepreneurship development has concentrated in the urban areas with little emphasis on the rural places. The findings of this study limited by study’s exploratory, small sample and quantitative nature. Therefore, generalisation of results should be done with care and further research is encouraged and should aim at the development of

  5. Factors contributing to the low uptake of medical male circumcision in Mutare Rural District, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene O. Chiringa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medical male circumcision (MMC has become a significant dimension of HIV prevention interventions, after the results of three randomised controlled trials in Uganda, South Africa and Kenya demonstrated that circumcision has a protective effect against contracting HIV of up to 60%. Following recommendations by the World Health Organization, Zimbabwe in 2009 adopted voluntary MMC as an additional HIV prevention strategy to the existing ABC behaviour change model. Purpose: The purpose of this study is thus to investigate the factors contributing to the low uptake of MMC. Methods: The study was a quantitative cross-sectional survey conducted in Mutare rural district, Zimbabwe. Questionnaires with open- and closed-ended questions were administered to the eligible respondents. The target population were male participants aged 15–29 who met the inclusion criteria. The households were systematically selected with a sample size of 234. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences was used to analyse the data. Results: Socioculturally, circumcised men are viewed as worthless (37%, shameful (30% and are tainted as promiscuous (20%, psychological factors reported were infection and delayed healing (39%, being ashamed and dehumanised (58%, stigmatised and discriminated (40.2% and fear of having an erection during treatment period (89.7% whilst socio-economic factors were not having time, as it will take their time from work (58% and complications may arise leading to spending money on treatment (84%. Conclusion: Knowledge deficits regarding male medical circumcision lead to low uptake, education on male medical circumcision and its benefits. Comprehensive sexual health education should target men and dispel negative attitudes related to the use of health services. Keywords: Factors, Low uptake, Medical Male Circumcision (MMC

  6. The contributions of risk factor trends and medical care to cardiovascular mortality trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzati, Majid; Obermeyer, Ziad; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Mayosi, Bongani M; Elliott, Paul; Leon, David A

    2016-01-01

    Ischaemic heart disease, stroke, and other cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are responsible for an estimated 17.5 million annual deaths in the world. If account is taken of population aging, death rates from CVDs are estimated to be steadily decreasing in the world as a whole, and in regions with reliable trend data. The declines in high-income countries and some countries in Latin America have been ongoing for decades with no indication of slowing. In high-income countries, these positive trends have broadly coincided with, and benefited from, declines in smoking and physiological risk factors like blood pressure and serum cholesterol. Improvements in medical care, including effective primary prevention through management of physiological risk factors, better diagnosis and treatment of acute CVDs, and post-hospital care of those with prior CVDs, are also likely to have contributed to declining CVD event and death rates, especially in the past 40 years. However, the measured risk factor and treatment variables neither explain why the decline began when it did, nor much of the similarities and differences in the start time and rate of the decline across countries or between men and women. There have been sharp changes and fluctuations in CVDs in the former communist countries of Europe and the Soviet Union since the fall of communism in the early 1990s, with changes in volume and patterns of alcohol drinking, as a major cause of the rise in Russia and some other former Soviet countries. The challenge of reaching more definitive conclusions concerning the drivers of what constitutes one of the most remarkable international trends in adult mortality in the past half-century in part reflects the paucity of time trend data not only on disease incidence, risk factors, and clinical care, but also on other potential drivers, including infection and associated inflammatory processes throughout the lifecourse. PMID:26076950

  7. A comparison of contributing factors between alcohol related single vehicle motorcycle and car crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maistros, Alexander; Schneider, William H; Savolainen, Peter T

    2014-06-01

    Alcohol related crashes have accounted for approximately 35% of fatal crashes per year since 1994 nationwide, with approximately 30% involving impairment over the legal blood alcohol content limit of 0.08%. Educational campaigns and law enforcement efforts are two components of multi-faceted programs aimed toward reducing impaired driving. It is crucial that further research be conducted to guide the implementation of enforcement and educational programs. This research attempts to provide such guidance by examining differences in alcohol-involved crashes involving motorcycles and passenger cars. Prior safety research has shown that motorcyclists follow a significantly different culture than the average passenger car operator. These cultural differences may be reflected by differences in the contributing factors affecting crashes and the severity of the resulting injuries sustained by the driver or motorcyclist. This research is focused on single-vehicle crashes only, in order to isolate modal effects from the contribution of additional vehicles. The crash data provided for this study are from the Ohio Department of Public Safety from 2009 through 2012. The injury severity data are analysed through the development of two mixed logit models, one for motorcyclists and one for passenger car drivers. The models quantify the effects of various factors, including horizontal curves, speeds, seatbelt use, and helmet use, which indicate that the required motor skills and balance needed for proper motorcycle operation compounded with a lack of mechanical protection make motorcyclists more prone to severe injuries, particularly on curves and in collisions with roadside objects. The findings of this study have been incorporated into combined motorcycle and sober driving educational safety campaigns. The results have shown to be favorable in supporting national campaign messages with local justification and backing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Identification of factors contributing to successful self-directed weight loss: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiei, N; Gill, T

    2017-11-21

    Despite the number of weight management programmes and their wide promotion, most overweight and obese individuals tend to lose weight on their own. The present study aimed to understand the characteristics and strategies of those who successfully engage in self-directed weight loss, which could empower other overweight and obese individuals with information and strategies to manage their weight on their own. Men and women who had lost at least 5% of their body weight without direct interaction with professionals or weight management programmes were recruited. Demographic data were collected by questionnaire and participants' weight-loss experiences were explored using semi- structured interviews to elicit in-depth individual experiences and perspectives. Iterative thematic method data analysis was used to generate themes describing contributing factors to the success of self-directed weight loss identified by participants. Most characteristics of those who successfully self-managed their weight loss were in line with those reported by successful weight losers participating in professional-led projects. However, strategies such as early embedding of new lifestyle behaviours into daily routine, the ability to learn from previous weight-loss experiences, and not requiring social support were identified as distinctive factors that contributed to the success of self-directed weight loss by participants of the present study. Overweight or obese individuals with strong internal motivation, problem-solving skills and self-reliance are more likely to be successful at achieving self-directed weight loss. The patients identified with these characteristics could be encouraged to self-manage their weight-loss process, leaving the places available in more resource-intensive professional-led programmes to those individuals unlikely to succeed on their own. © 2017 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  9. Contributing factors for therapeutic diet adherence in patients receiving haemodialysis treatment: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oquendo, Lissete González; Asencio, José Miguel Morales; de Las Nieves, Candela Bonill

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this integrative review is to identify the factors that contribute to diet adherence in people suffering from kidney disease who are receiving haemodialysis treatment. Adherence to the therapeutic regimen determines therapeutic success, quality of life and survival in patients on haemodialysis. Lack of diet adherence ranges from 25%-86% in patients receiving haemodialysis treatment and affects patient morbidity and mortality. An integrative literature review was conducted based on the criteria of Whittemore & Knafl. A literature review was performed by two members of the team using twelve databases including PubMed, CUIDEN, CINAHL, The Cochrane Library and ScienceDirect. The main issues identified after analysing the results were as follows: the intrinsic barriers (age, dialysis time, motivation, perceived benefit, distorted perception of adherence) and facilitators (self-efficacy, perception of disease, perception of control), extrinsic barriers (family dysfunction, lack of social support, cultural patterns of consumption of food) and facilitators (social support, relationship with healthcare providers), and interventions to encourage diet adherence, such as the use of motivational interviewing in educational interventions, and the training and education of relevant professionals in communication skills. Diet nonadherence remains a serious health problem and suffers from a lack of solid criteria to identify this condition. The onset of depression signs and the level of social support available to the patient should be assessed, because these are important factors that determine adherence to treatment. Professionals should be trained in health education and communication techniques to contribute to the patient's self-management and motivation for diet adherence. Controlled and randomised clinical studies involving predialysis stages should be performed to investigate the impact of the assessment and control of barriers to diet adherence. © 2017

  10. E-Prescribing Errors in Community Pharmacies: Exploring Consequences and Contributing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Jamie A.; Chui, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore types of e-prescribing errors in community pharmacies and their potential consequences, as well as the factors that contribute to e-prescribing errors. Methods Data collection involved performing 45 total hours of direct observations in five pharmacies. Follow-up interviews were conducted with 20 study participants. Transcripts from observations and interviews were subjected to content analysis using NVivo 10. Results Pharmacy staff detected 75 e-prescription errors during the 45 hour observation in pharmacies. The most common e-prescribing errors were wrong drug quantity, wrong dosing directions, wrong duration of therapy, and wrong dosage formulation. Participants estimated that 5 in 100 e-prescriptions have errors. Drug classes that were implicated in e-prescribing errors were antiinfectives, inhalers, ophthalmic, and topical agents. The potential consequences of e-prescribing errors included increased likelihood of the patient receiving incorrect drug therapy, poor disease management for patients, additional work for pharmacy personnel, increased cost for pharmacies and patients, and frustrations for patients and pharmacy staff. Factors that contribute to errors included: technology incompatibility between pharmacy and clinic systems, technology design issues such as use of auto-populate features and dropdown menus, and inadvertently entering incorrect information. Conclusion Study findings suggest that a wide range of e-prescribing errors are encountered in community pharmacies. Pharmacists and technicians perceive that causes of e-prescribing errors are multidisciplinary and multifactorial, that is to say e-prescribing errors can originate from technology used in prescriber offices and pharmacies. PMID:24657055

  11. Legionnaires' Disease in Hotels and Passenger Ships: A Systematic Review of Evidence, Sources, and Contributing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouchtouri, Varvara A; Rudge, James W

    2015-01-01

    Travel-associated Legionnaires' disease (LD) is a serious problem, and hundreds of cases are reported every year among travelers who stayed at hotels, despite the efforts of international and governmental authorities and hotel operators to prevent additional cases. A systematic review of travel-associated LD events (cases, clusters, outbreaks) and of environmental studies of Legionella contamination in accommodation sites was conducted. Two databases were searched (PubMed and EMBASE). Data were extracted from 50 peer-reviewed articles that provided microbiological and epidemiological evidence for linking the accommodation sites with LD. The strength of evidence was classified as strong, possible, and probable. Three of the 21 hotel-associated events identified and four of nine ship-associated events occurred repeatedly on the same site. Of 197 hotel-associated cases, 158 (80.2%) were linked to hotel cooling towers and/or potable water systems. Ship-associated cases were most commonly linked to hot tubs (59/83, 71.1%). Common contributing factors included inadequate disinfection, maintenance, and monitoring; water stagnation; poor temperature control; and poor ventilation. Across all 30 events, Legionella concentrations in suspected water sources were >10,000 cfu/L, hotels (587/1,200), while all 12 cruise ships examined were negative. This review highlights the need for LD awareness strategies targeting operators of accommodation sites. Increased standardization of LD investigation and reporting, and more rigorous follow-up of LD events, would help generate stronger, more comparable evidence on LD sources, contributing factors, and control measure effectiveness. © 2015 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  12. Kidney fibroblast growth factor 23 does not contribute to elevation of its circulating levels in uremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Maria L; Gravesen, Eva; Nordholm, Anders; Hofman-Bang, Jacob; Secher, Thomas; Olgaard, Klaus; Lewin, Ewa

    2017-07-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) secreted by osteocytes is a circulating factor essential for phosphate homeostasis. High plasma FGF23 levels are associated with cardiovascular complications and mortality. Increases of plasma FGF23 in uremia antedate high levels of phosphate, suggesting a disrupted feedback regulatory loop or an extra-skeletal source of this phosphatonin. Since induction of FGF23 expression in injured organs has been reported we decided to examine the regulation of FGF23 gene and protein expressions in the kidney and whether kidney-derived FGF23 contributes to the high plasma levels of FGF23 in uremia. FGF23 mRNA was not detected in normal kidneys, but was clearly demonstrated in injured kidneys, already after four hours in obstructive nephropathy and at 8 weeks in the remnant kidney of 5/6 nephrectomized rats. No renal extraction was found in uremic rats in contrast to normal rats. Removal of the remnant kidney had no effect on plasma FGF23 levels. Well-known regulators of FGF23 expression in bone, such as parathyroid hormone, calcitriol, and inhibition of the FGF receptor by PD173074, had no impact on kidney expression of FGF23. Thus, the only direct contribution of the injured kidney to circulating FGF23 levels in uremia appears to be reduced renal extraction of bone-derived FGF23. Kidney-derived FGF23 does not generate high plasma FGF23 levels in uremia and is regulated differently than the corresponding regulation of FGF23 gene expression in bone. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Digital Inequalities in the Use of Self-Tracking Diet and Fitness Apps: Interview Study on the Influence of Social, Economic, and Cultural Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvel, Louis

    2018-01-01

    Background Digital devices are driving economic and social transformations, but assessing the uses, perceptions, and impact of these new technologies on diet and physical activity remains a major societal challenge. Objective We aimed to determine under which social, economic, and cultural conditions individuals in France were more likely to be actively invested in the use of self-tracking diet and fitness apps for better health behaviors. Methods Existing users of 3 diet and fitness self-tracking apps (Weight Watchers, MyFitnessPal, and sport apps) were recruited from 3 regions of France. We interviewed 79 individuals (Weight Watchers, n=37; MyFitnessPal, n=20; sport apps, n=22). In-depth semistructured interviews were conducted with each participant, using open-ended questions about their use of diet and fitness apps. A triangulation of methods (content, textual, and quantitative analyses) was performed. Results We found 3 clusters of interviewees who differed by social background and curative goal linked to use under constraint versus preventive goal linked to chosen use, and intensity of their self-quantification efforts and participation in social networks. Interviewees used the apps for a diversity of uses, including measurement, tracking, quantification, and participation in digital communities. A digital divide was highlighted, comprising a major social gap. Social conditions for appropriation of self-tracking devices included sociodemographic factors, life course stages, and cross-cutting factors of heterogeneity. Conclusions Individuals from affluent or intermediate social milieus were most likely to use the apps and to participate in the associated online social networks. These interviewees also demonstrated a preventive approach to a healthy lifestyle. Individuals from lower milieus were more reluctant to use digital devices relating to diet and physical activity or to participate in self-quantification. The results of the study have major implications

  14. The HIV/AIDS Epidemic in the Dominican Republic: Key Contributing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Patria; Malow, Robert; Ruffin, Beverly; Rothe, Eugenio M; Rosenberg, Rhonda

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews HIV/AIDS epidemiological data and recent research conducted in the Dominican Republic, with a focus on explaining the variability in estimated seroincidence and prevalence within the country. HIV seroprevalence estimates range from 1.0% (in the general population) to 11.0% among men who have sex with men (MSM). Some have indicated that the highest HIV seroprevalence occurs in Haitian enclaves called bateyes (US Agency for International Development [USAID], 2008), which are migrant worker shantytowns primarily serving the sugar industry in the Dominican Republic. Others report higher or comparable rates to the bateyes in areas related to the tourism and sex industries. As in other Caribbean and Latin American countries, reported HIV transmission in the Dominican Republic is predominantly due to unprotected heterosexual sex and the infection rate has been increasing disproportionally among women. The Dominican Republic represents two thirds of the Hispaniola island; the western one third is occupied by Haiti, the nation with the highest HIV prevalence in the western hemisphere. Although data is limited, it shows important differences in seroprevalence and incidence between these two countries, but commonalities such as poverty, gender inequalities, and stigma appear to be pivotal factors driving the epidemic. This article will discuss these and other factors that may contribute to the HIV epidemic in the Dominican Republic, as well as highlight the gaps in the literature and provide recommendations to guide further work in this area, particularly in the role of governance in sustainable HIV prevention.

  15. Scrub typhus re-emergence in India: Contributing factors and way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Jai; Prakash, John Antony Jude

    2018-06-01

    Scrub typhus is a mite borne infectious disease which has re-emerged in India in the 3rd millennium after years of quiescence. In this review, the authors hypothesize the various factors responsible for resurgence of this disease. The main drivers that could have contributed to the upsurge in scrub typhus cases in past two decades are changes in land use land cover (LULC) and urbanisation which are; as a result of the population explosion, causing a strain on sanitation and also increased diversion of forest land for agricultural use. In addition, the availability of better tests, changes in antimicrobial use, climate change also could have impacted the epidemiology, which is showing an upward trend as is evidenced by increasing reports and concomitant publications from India on scrub typhus. Scrub typhus cases are supposed to increase in the coming years as factors like global warming, urbanisation, changes in LULC and rise in AMR (anti-microbial resistance) will be difficult or impossible to control. Therefore, increasing awareness of public and health care professionals regarding scrub typhus coupled with availability of rapid diagnostic assays and implementation of appropriate treatment protocols for control of AFI (acute febrile illness) especially at the community level will help mitigate the scenario in the long run. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Factors contributing to utilization of health care services in Malaysia: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaswamy, Saroja; Subramaniam, Kavitha; Low, Wah Yun; Aziz, Jemain Abdul; Indran, Tishya; Ramachandran, Padma; Hamid, Abdul Rahman Abdul; Patel, Vikram

    2009-10-01

    This paper examines the factors contributing to the under utilisation of health care services in the Malaysian population. Using data derived from Malaysian Mental Health Survey (MMHS) information on utilisation of four basic health services in the previous three months, namely contact with health care professionals, ward admissions, having diagnostic or laboratory tests done and being on any medications were obtained. A total of 2202 out of 3666 or 60% of the MMHS participants were included in this study. Thirty percent of the subjects (n = 664) had contacts with health care professionals. Those with health complications, disabilities and those aged 50 years and above utilised health services more significantly as compared to those who lacked health facilities near their homes, had little family support during illnesses and were from the Chinese ethnic group. Factors leading to the under utilisation of health care services need to be further studied and needs in certain groups in the population should be addressed. Healthcare providers must be prepared to fulfil these needs.

  17. Anaerobes and Bacterial Vaginosis in Pregnancy: Virulence Factors Contributing to Vaginal Colonisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlene W. J. Africa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aetiology and pathogenesis of bacterial vaginosis (BV is unclear but it appears to be associated with factors that disrupt the normal acidity of the vagina thus altering the equilibrium between the normal vaginal microbiota. BV has serious implications for female morbidity, including reports of pelvic inflammatory disease, adverse pregnancy outcomes, increased susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections and infertility. This paper reviewed new available information regarding possible factors contributing to the establishment of the BV vaginal biofilm, examined the proposed role of anaerobic microbial species recently detected by new culture-independent methods and discusses developments related to the effects of BV on human pregnancy. The literature search included Pubmed (NLM, LISTA (EBSCO, and Web of Science. Because of the complexity and diversity of population groups, diagnosis and methodology used, no meta-analysis was performed. Several anaerobic microbial species previously missed in the laboratory diagnosis of BV have been revealed while taking cognisance of newly proposed theories of infection, thereby improving our understanding and knowledge of the complex aetiology and pathogenesis of BV and its perceived role in adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  18. A Model of Factors Contributing to STEM Learning and Career Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Gwen; Barker, Bradley; Welch, Greg; Grandgenett, Neal; Wu, ChaoRong; Nelson, Carl

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop and test a model of factors contributing to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) learning and career orientation, examining the complex paths and relationships among social, motivational, and instructional factors underlying these outcomes for middle school youth. Social cognitive career theory provided the foundation for the research because of its emphasis on explaining mechanisms which influence both career orientations and academic performance. Key constructs investigated were youth STEM interest, self-efficacy, and career outcome expectancy (consequences of particular actions). The study also investigated the effects of prior knowledge, use of problem-solving learning strategies, and the support and influence of informal educators, family members, and peers. A structural equation model was developed, and structural equation modeling procedures were used to test proposed relationships between these constructs. Results showed that educators, peers, and family-influenced youth STEM interest, which in turn predicted their STEM self-efficacy and career outcome expectancy. STEM career orientation was fostered by youth-expected outcomes for such careers. Results suggest that students' pathways to STEM careers and learning can be largely explained by these constructs, and underscore the importance of youth STEM interest.

  19. Factors contributing to radiocaesium variability in upland sheep flocks in west Cumbria (United Kingdom)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beresford, N.A.; Barnett, C.L.; Wright, S.M.; Howard, B.J.; Crout, N.M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Following the Chernobyl accident in 1986, restrictions were placed on the movement and slaughter of sheep within upland areas of the UK because radiocaesium activity concentrations in their meat exceeded 1000 Bq kg -1 fresh weight. Some farms remain under restriction in 2007. From 1991 to 1993 detailed studies were conducted on three sheep farms within the restricted area of west Cumbria to systematically assess the various parameters which may contribute to the observed variability in radiocaesium activity concentrations within sheep flocks. This paper reports the spatial variation in soil and vegetation activity concentrations across the grazed areas at these farms and determines the influence of grazing behaviour on variability in 137 Cs activity concentrations between individual sheep within the flocks. Together with previously reported results, these new data are used to draw conclusions on the factors determining variability within the three flocks. However, the factors are too site specific to be able to generalise the findings to other farms within the restricted areas of the UK

  20. The Incidence and the Contributing factors of premenstrual syndrome in health working women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bülent Demir

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To report the incidence of premenstrual syndrome in working women and the association of premenstrual syndrome with social and demographical factors, menstrual cycle, and nutritional status. The second aim of this study is to investigate the influence\tof premenstrual syndrome on working performance. Finally, to contribute to decrease the waste of labor time and unnecessary drugs usage caused by premenstrual syndrome.\tMATERIAL-METHODS: Totally 254 women aged between 19-49 years old who work in Dicle University Faculty of Medicine Hospital were enrolled for this prospective study. Data were obtained by face to face interview questionnaires.\tRESULTS: The incidence of premenstrual syndrome was 20.1%. The 91.7% of women had experienced mild or moderate symptoms in premenstrual period. The most common complains were pelvic pain, tension or restlessness, irritability or agitation, abdominal bloating and breast tenderness. Furthermore, in the presence of following factors; women with young ages ( CONCLUSION: The incidence of premenstrual syndrome is higher in working women and this condition may affect the whole population. In order to decrease the incidence of premenstrual syndrome and to increase the life quality of women; more attention\tshould be paid to this condition and proper precautions should be taken.

  1. Urban Household Carbon Emission and Contributing Factors in the Yangtze River Delta, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xibao; Tan, Yan; Chen, Shuang; Yang, Guishan; Su, Weizhong

    2015-01-01

    Carbon reduction at the household level is an integral part of carbon mitigation. This study analyses the characteristics, effects, contributing factors and policies for urban household carbon emissions in the Yangtze River Delta of China. Primary data was collected through structured questionnaire surveys in three cities in the region – Nanjing, Ningbo, and Changzhou in 2011. The survey data was first used to estimate the magnitude of household carbon emissions in different urban contexts. It then examined how, and to what extent, each set of demographic, economic, behavioral/cognitive and spatial factors influence carbon emissions at the household level. The average of urban household carbon emissions in the region was estimated to be 5.96 tonnes CO2 in 2010. Energy consumption, daily commuting, garbage disposal and long-distance travel accounted for 51.2%, 21.3%, 16.0% and 11.5% of the total emission, respectively. Regulating rapidly growing car-holdings of urban households, stabilizing population growth, and transiting residents’ low-carbon awareness to household behavior in energy saving and other spheres of consumption in the context of rapid population aging and the growing middle income class are suggested as critical measures for carbon mitigation among urban households in the Yangtze River Delta. PMID:25884853

  2. Factors contributing to tooth loss among the elderly: A cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natto, Zuhair S; Aladmawy, Majdi; Alasqah, Mohammed; Papas, Athena

    2014-12-01

    The present study evaluates the influence of several demographic, health, personal, and clinical factors on the number of missing teeth in old age sample. The number of patients included was 259; they received a full mouth examination and answered a questionnaire provided by one examiner. All the variables related to teeth loss based on the literature were included. These variables focused on age, gender, race, marital status, clinical attachment level, pocket depth, year of smoking, number of cigarettes smoked per day, number of medications, root decay, coronal decay, health status, and year of education. Statistical analysis involved stepwise multivariate linear regression. Teeth loss was statistically associated with clinical attachment level (CAL)(p value 0.0001), pocket depth (PD) (0.0007) and education level (0.0048). When smoking was included in the model, age was significantly associated with teeth loss (0.0037). At least one of these four factors was also related to teeth loss in several specific groups such as diabetes mellitus, male, and White. The multiple linear regressions for all the proposed variables showed that they contributed to teeth loss by about 23%. It can be concluded that less education or increased clinical attachment level loss may increase number of missing teeth. Additionally, age may cause teeth loss in the presence of smoking. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. What paramedics think about when they think about fatigue: contributing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Jessica L; Sofianopoulos, Sarah; Williams, Brett

    2014-04-01

    Paramedic fatigue is associated with burnout, attrition, sick leave, work disability, physical and mental health complaints and impaired performance. However, no studies have addressed how fatigue is understood by paramedics. The present study addresses this shortcoming by exploring factors paramedics recognise as contributors to fatigue. Forty-nine (12F; 38 years ± 9.7 years) Australian paramedics completed a survey on perceived causes of performance impairing fatigue. A total of 107 responses were systematically coded following principles common to qualitative data analysis: data immersion, coding, categorisation and theme generation. Six themes emerged: working time, sleep, workload, health and well-being, work-life balance and environment. Consistent with a scientific understanding of fatigue, prior sleep and wake, time of day and task-related factors were often identified as contributing to fatigue. In other cases, paramedics' attributions deviated from a scientific understanding of direct causes of fatigue. These findings demonstrate that paramedics have a broad understanding of fatigue. It is critical to take this into account when discussing fatigue with paramedics, particularly in the case of fatigue education or wellness programmes. These data highlight areas for intervention and education to minimise the experience of paramedic fatigue and the negative health and safety outcomes for paramedics and patients as a result. © 2014 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  4. The metal-responsive transcription factor-1 contributes to HIF-1 activation during hypoxic stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, Brian J.; Sato, Barbara G.; Dalton, Timothy P.; Laderoute, Keith R.

    2005-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), the major transcriptional regulator of the mammalian cellular response to low oxygen (hypoxia), is embedded within a complex network of signaling pathways. We have been investigating the importance of another stress-responsive transcription factor, MTF-1, for the adaptation of cells to hypoxia. This article reports that MTF-1 plays a central role in hypoxic cells by contributing to HIF-1 activity. Loss of MTF-1 in transformed Mtf1 null mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) results in an attenuation of nuclear HIF-1α protein accumulation, HIF-1 transcriptional activity, and expression of an established HIF-1 target gene, glucose transporter-1 (Glut1). Mtf1 null (Mtf1 KO) MEFs also have constitutively higher levels of both glutathione (GSH) and the rate-limiting enzyme involved in GSH synthesis-glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic subunit-than wild type cells. The altered cellular redox state arising from increased GSH may perturb oxygen-sensing mechanisms in hypoxic Mtf1 KO cells and decrease the accumulation of HIF-1α protein. Together, these novel findings define a role for MTF-1 in the regulation of HIF-1 activity

  5. Aetiological factors contributing to road traffic accidents in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofal, F H; Saeed, A A; Anokute, C C

    1996-10-01

    The study analysed 13,390 police records of road traffic accidents (RTAs) covering a three and a half year period according to different suspected aetiological factors. The majority of the accidents were recorded for vehicles in good condition on well-paved straight roads with well-operating traffic light systems. Adverse weather conditions such as precipitation, fog and dust were of minimal importance, with most of the accidents being reported during sunny days during the rush period of 12 noon to 3 pm. Driver's error was identified as the main contributing factor in about two thirds of all RTAs mainly as reckless driving and excess speeding. About 27% of the drivers were professional drivers and 41% were in the age group 25-35 years in good health with no alcohol or drug intake. Hence, human errors may be attributed to carelessness, experience, lack of knowledge or attention, over-exhaustion or fatigue. The effects of physical stressors on performance of drivers need to be further explored and clarified but this need not underestimate the importance of vehicle and environment since most accidents are multifactoral and a slight change in them may effectively enhance perception and minimise personal error. Recommendations for remedial measures adopting an interdisciplinary approach are presented.

  6. Interpersonal factors contributing to the stigma of schizophrenia: social skills, perceived attractiveness, and symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, D L; Kohlmaier, J R; Corrigan, P W

    2000-09-29

    This study investigated the interpersonal factors (i.e., social skills, symptoms, perceived physical attractiveness) which are related to the stigma of schizophrenia. Social skills performance was assessed for 39 individuals with schizophrenia who participated in two role-plays with a confederate. Social skills ratings comprised 'overall social skill', 'meshing', 'clarity', and 'fluency' of speech, 'gaze', 'pleasantness' of conversation, 'involvement' in conversation, 'number of questions asked' during conversation, and 'perceived strangeness'. Symptomatology was assessed with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. Ratings of perceived physical attractiveness were obtained by pausing the videotaped role-plays after the first 2s of the interaction. Ratings of 'social distance', based on an independent sample who observed the role-plays, were used as a proxy measure of stigma. The results showed that social distance was best statistically predicted by perceived strangeness, which in turn, was best statistically predicted by ratings of overall social skill. Negative symptoms appeared to have a more robust association with desired social distance than positive symptoms. Interpersonal factors, such as overall social skill, negative symptoms, and perceived strangeness, may contribute to stigma.

  7. Factors contributing to anterior cruciate ligament injury and pattern of presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, F.; Riaz, M.U.; Hassan, D.; Abbas, Z.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the factors contributing to Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and their pattern of presentation. Methodology: This descriptive study included 45 patients diagnosed with ACL injury that were selected using non probability convenience sampling technique from department of orthopaedic and physical therapy of Mayo Hospital and Gurki Trust Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan. The study was completed in 6 months of duration. Subjects that were diagnosed with ACL injury using MRI with positive Lachman and Anterior Drawer test. Data regarding demographics, onset of injury, mechanism, occupational, recreational, daily routines and clinical presentations were recorded. Data were analysed by SPSS. Results: Out of 45 patients, 38(84.4%) cases were male and 7(16.5%) were female. 76% belonged to 20 to 30 age range. Regarding source of injury to anterior cruciate ligament, 32% got it during cricket, 21% during mild to severe road side accident, 20% during running and other 27% during daily life activities twisting, jumping and other high impact activities. The individual involved very often in high impact activities were 8%, often 13% and less often 79%. Conclusion: Major risk factors found were engaging in high impact activities such as sports, running and jumping nature. Clinical presentations were edema, decreased mobility, mild to moderate pain and limited range of knee range of motion. (author)

  8. Probabilistic measure of factors contributing to social media practices among Facebook users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandryle U. Trondillo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Social media is the most popular tool to communicate and interact with people nowadays and offers easy access to connect with people anywhere in the globe. This study was conducted to develop a construct about social media practice and explore the probabilistic measure of the factors contributing to social media practices among selected Facebook users. Data was gathered utilizing a structured online survey form from selected 162 online Facebook users who consented to participate in this study. Most of the respondents are male, from 21 to 30 age group, employed and with average social media use of 1 to 4 hours in a day. Out of 30 items in the structured questionnaire, 19 items where retained with eight new factors that served as construct for social media practice (KMO= Bartlett's test of Sphericity= 2109.530, p=0.000,<0.01. Proposed model was significant 99% (p=0.002,<0.01, chi-square of 19.25 which can explain 6.4% to 13.3% of the variation in social media practice. Eight new components were found to simulate respondent’s social media practices. Social media practice varies between males and females while characteristics of age, occupational status and average number of hours spent in social media in a day have no variation.

  9. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2012-01-01

    Open to All: http://cern.ch/club-fitness  fitness.club@cern.ch Boxing Your supervisor makes your life too tough ! You really need to release the pressure you've been building up ! Come and join the fit-boxers. We train three times a week in Bd 216, classes for beginners and advanced available. Visit our website cern.ch/Boxing General Fitness Escape from your desk with our general fitness classes, to strengthen your heart, muscles and bones, improve you stamina, balance and flexibility, achieve new goals, be more productive and experience a sense of well-being, every Monday, Wednesday and Friday lunchtime, Tuesday mornings before work and Thursday evenings after work – join us for one of our monthly fitness workshops. Nordic Walking Enjoy the great outdoors; Nordic Walking is a great way to get your whole body moving and to significantly improve the condition of your muscles, heart and lungs. It will boost your energy levels no end. Pilates A body-conditioning technique de...

  10. MicroRNA-210 contributes to preeclampsia by downregulating potassium channel modulatory factor 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Rongcan; Shao, Xuan; Xu, Peng; Liu, Yanlei; Wang, Yongqing; Zhao, Yangyu; Liu, Ming; Ji, Lei; Li, Yu-Xia; Chang, Cheng; Qiao, Jie; Peng, Chun; Wang, Yan-Ling

    2014-10-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific syndrome manifested by the onset of hypertension and proteinuria after the 20th week of gestation. Abnormal placenta development has been generally accepted as the initial cause of the disorder. Recently, microRNA-210 (miR-210) has been found to be upregulated in preeclamptic placentas compared with normal placentas, indicating a possible association of this small molecule with the placental pathology of preeclampsia. However, the function of miR-210 in the development of the placenta remains elusive. The aim of this study was to characterize the molecular mechanism of preeclampsia development by examining the role of miR-210. In this study, miR-210 and potassium channel modulatory factor 1 (KCMF1) expressions were compared in placentas from healthy pregnant individuals and patients with preeclampsia, and the role of miR-210 in trophoblast cell invasion via the downregulation of KCMF1 was investigated in the immortal trophoblast cell line HTR8/SVneo. The levels of KCMF1 were significantly lower in preeclamptic placenta tissues than in gestational week-matched normal placentas, which was inversely correlated with the level of miR-210. KCMF1 was validated as the direct target of miR-210 using real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and dual luciferase assay in HTR8/SVneo cells. miR-210 inhibited the invasion of trophoblast cells, and this inhibition was abrogated by the overexpression of KCMF1. The inflammatory factor tumor necrosis factor-α could upregulate miR-210 while suppressing KCMF1 expression in HTR8/SVneo cells. This is the first report on the function of KCMF1 in human placental trophoblast cells, and the data indicate that aberrant miR-210 expression may contribute to the occurrence of preeclampsia by interfering with KCMF1-mediated signaling in the human placenta. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Factors contributing to delay in parasite clearance in uncomplicated falciparum malaria in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijuade Abayomi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum is common in many endemic and other settings but there is no clear recommendation on when to change therapy when there is delay in parasite clearance after initiation of therapy in African children. Methods The factors contributing to delay in parasite clearance, defined as a clearance time > 2 d, in falciparum malaria were characterized in 2,752 prospectively studied children treated with anti-malarial drugs between 1996 and 2008. Results 1,237 of 2,752 children (45% had delay in parasite clearance. Overall 211 children (17% with delay in clearance subsequently failed therapy and they constituted 72% of those who had drug failure, i.e., 211 of 291 children. The following were independent risk factors for delay in parasite clearance at enrolment: age less than or equal to 2 years (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.13, 95% confidence interval [CI]1.44-3.15, P 50,000/ul (AOR = 2.21, 95% CI = 1.77-2.75, P 20000/μl a day after treatment began, were independent risk factors for delay in clearance. Non-artemisinin monotherapies were associated with delay in clearance and treatment failures, and in those treated with chloroquine or amodiaquine, with pfmdr 1/pfcrt mutants. Delay in clearance significantly increased gametocyte carriage (P Conclusion Delay in parasite clearance is multifactorial, is related to drug resistance and treatment failure in uncomplicated malaria and has implications for malaria control efforts in sub-Saharan Africa.

  12. Social contextual factors contributing to child and adolescent labor: an ecological analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Sousa Santana

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between social contextual factors and child and adolescent labor. METHODS: Population-based cohort study carried out with 2,512 families living in 23 subareas of a large urban city in Brazil from 2000 to 2002. A random one-stage cluster sampling was used to select families. Data were obtained through individual household interviews using questionnaires. The annual cumulative incidence of child and adolescent labor was estimated for each district. New child and adolescent labor cases were those who had their first job over the two-year follow-up. The annual cumulative incidence of child and adolescent labor was the response variable and predictors were contextual factors such as lack of social support, social deprivation, unstructured family, perceived violence, poor school quality, poor environment conditions, and poor public services. Pearson's correlation and multiple linear regression were used to assess the associations. RESULTS: There were selected 943 families corresponding to 1,326 non-working children and adolescents aged 8 to 17 years. Lack of social support, social deprivation, perceived violence were all positively and individually associated with the annual cumulative incidence of child and adolescent labor. In the multiple linear regression model, however, only lack of social support and perceived violence in the neighborhood were positively associated to child and adolescent labor. No effect was found for poor school quality, poor environment conditions, poor public services or unstructured family. CONCLUSIONS: Poverty reduction programs can reduce the contextual factors associated with child and adolescent labor. Violence reduction programs and strengthening social support at the community level may contribute to reduce CAL.

  13. Biological, Psychological, and Sociocultural Factors Contributing to the Drive for Muscularity in Weight-Training Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Catharina; Rollitz, Laura; Voracek, Martin; Hennig-Fast, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    The drive for muscularity and associated behaviors (e.g., exercising and dieting) are of growing importance for men in Western societies. In its extreme form, it can lead to body image concerns and harmful behaviors like over-exercising and the misuse of performance-enhancing substances. Therefore, investigating factors associated with the drive for muscularity, especially in vulnerable populations like bodybuilders and weight trainers can help identify potential risk and protective factors for body image problems. Using a biopsychosocial framework, the aim of the current study was to explore different factors associated with drive for muscularity in weight-training men. To this purpose, German-speaking male weight trainers (N = 248) completed an online survey to determine the extent to which biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors contribute to drive for muscularity and its related attitudes and behaviors. Using multiple regression models, findings showed that media ideal body internalization was the strongest positive predictor for drive for muscularity, while age (M = 25.9, SD = 7.4) held the strongest negative association with drive for muscularity. Dissatisfaction with muscularity, but not with body fat, was related to drive for muscularity. The fat-free mass index, a quantification of the actual degree of muscularity of a person, significantly predicted drive for muscularity-related behavior but not attitudes. Body-related aspects of self-esteem, but not global self-esteem, were significant negative predictors of drive for muscularity. Since internalization of media body ideals presented the highest predictive value for drive for muscularity, these findings suggest that media body ideal internalizations may be a risk factor for body image concerns in men, leading, in its most extreme form to disordered eating or muscle dysmorphia. Future research should investigate the relations between drive for muscularity, age, body composition

  14. Does the Eye of the Beholder Construct Beauty? Contributions of Self-Efficacy Factors to Divergent Thinking Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharkhurin, Anatoliy V.

    2017-01-01

    The study initiated a project exploring a contribution of creative perception to creative behavior. This study investigated the factors in creative self-perception contributing to creative potential. Creative potential was operationalized as divergent thinking and measured by the Abbreviated Torrance Test for Adults. Creative self-perception was…

  15. Factors contributing to the effectiveness of internal audit : case study of internal audit in the public sector in Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Rudhani, Leonora Haliti; Vokshi, Nexhmie Berisha; Hashani, Shqipdona

    2017-01-01

    Since audit has a great importance in preventing, consulting and finding cases of funds misuse, it was thought of analyzing the factors that contribute to increasing the efficiency of internal audit in the public sector which would help to set proper and more transparent governance of public financial resources. This study investigated the relationship between effectiveness and contributing factors. The data for the study were collected through an online questionnaire and direct hand-outs of ...

  16. Defining the Physiological Factors that Contribute to Postflight Changes in Functional Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Arzeno, N.; Buxton, R.; Feiveson, A. H.; Kofman, I.; Lawrence, E.; Lee, S. M. C.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Platts, S. H.; hide

    2009-01-01

    Astronauts experience alterations in multiple physiological systems due to exposure to the microgravity conditions of space flight. These physiological changes include sensorimotor disturbances, cardiovascular deconditioning and loss of muscle mass and strength. These changes might affect the ability of crewmembers to perform critical mission tasks immediately after landing on lunar and Martian surfaces. To date, changes in functional performance have not been systematically studied or correlated with physiological changes. To understand how changes in physiological function impact functional performance an interdisciplinary pre/postflight testing regimen (Functional Task Test, FTT) has been developed that systematically evaluates both astronaut postflight functional performance and related physiological changes. The overall objective of the FTT is to identify the key underlying physiological factors that contribute to performance of functional tests that are representative of critical mission tasks. This study will identify which physiological systems contribute the most to impaired performance on each functional test. This will allow us to identify the physiological systems that play the largest role in decrement in functional performance. Using this information we can then design and implement countermeasures that specifically target the physiological systems most responsible for the altered functional performance associated with space flight. The functional test battery was designed to address high priority tasks identified by the Constellation program as critical for mission success. The set of functional tests making up the FTT include the: 1) Seat Egress and Walk Test, 2) Ladder Climb Test, 3) Recovery from Fall/Stand Test, 4) Rock Translation Test, 5) Jump Down Test, 6) Torque Generation Test, and 7) Construction Activity Board Test. Corresponding physiological measures include assessments of postural and gait control, dynamic visual acuity, fine motor

  17. Abnormal cardiovascular response to exercise in hypertension: contribution of neural factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jere H

    2017-06-01

    During both dynamic (e.g., endurance) and static (e.g., strength) exercise there are exaggerated cardiovascular responses in hypertension. This includes greater increases in blood pressure, heart rate, and efferent sympathetic nerve activity than in normal controls. Two of the known neural factors that contribute to this abnormal cardiovascular response are the exercise pressor reflex (EPR) and functional sympatholysis. The EPR originates in contracting skeletal muscle and reflexly increases sympathetic efferent nerve activity to the heart and blood vessels as well as decreases parasympathetic efferent nerve activity to the heart. These changes in autonomic nerve activity cause an increase in blood pressure, heart rate, left ventricular contractility, and vasoconstriction in the arterial tree. However, arterial vessels in the contracting skeletal muscle have a markedly diminished vasoconstrictor response. The markedly diminished vasoconstriction in contracting skeletal muscle has been termed functional sympatholysis. It has been shown in hypertension that there is an enhanced EPR, including both its mechanoreflex and metaboreflex components, and an impaired functional sympatholysis. These conditions set up a positive feedback or vicious cycle situation that causes a progressively greater decrease in the blood flow to the exercising muscle. Thus these two neural mechanisms contribute significantly to the abnormal cardiovascular response to exercise in hypertension. In addition, exercise training in hypertension decreases the enhanced EPR, including both mechanoreflex and metaboreflex function, and improves the impaired functional sympatholysis. These two changes, caused by exercise training, improve the muscle blood flow to exercising muscle and cause a more normal cardiovascular response to exercise in hypertension. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Prevalence of tobacco use and its contributing factors among adolescents in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco use is one of the major avoidable and recognized causes of noncommunicable diseases globally. Tobacco use among adolescents is considered as priority health risk behaviors that contribute to leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youth and adults and are often established at young age, extend into adulthood and are preventable. Aims: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of tobacco use and its contributing factors among adolescents in Bangladesh. Settings and Design: We used data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey Bangladesh 2007, which were a school-based survey of 2135 students aged 13-15 years in grades 7-10. Materials and Methods: A two-stage cluster sample design was used to produce representative data for Bangladesh. At the first stage, schools were selected with probability proportional to enrollment size. At the second stage, classes were randomly selected and all students in selected classes were eligible to participate. Statistical Analysis Used: We used SUDAAN for statistical analysis of correlated data, it computes standard errors of the estimates and produces 95% confidence intervals. We used t-tests to determine the differences between subpopulations. All analyses conducted in this study were gender stratified. Results: The overall prevalence of ever cigarette smokers in Bangladeshi students was about 9%, which was more than 3 times higher in boys compared to girls (15.8% vs. 4.8%. Almost four in ten students start smoking before the age of 10. In addition, another 6% students reported to use other tobacco products. About 70.7% students reported that they desired to stop smoking, and 85.0% tried to stop smoking during the past year but failed. About 42.2% students were exposed to smoke from other people in public places. Among current smokers, 97.8% reported that they were not refused cigarette purchase because of their age. Conclusions: Implementation and enforcement of tobacco control act are

  19. Evaluation of the Factors which Contribute to the Ocular Complaints in Computer Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Smita; Goel, Dishanter; Sharma, Anshu

    2013-02-01

    Use of information technology hardware given new heights to professional success rate and saves time but on the other hand its harmful effect has introduced an array of health related complaints causing hazards for our human health. Increased use of computers has led to an increase in the number of patients with ocular complaints which are being grouped together as computer vision syndrome (CVS). In view of that, this study was undertaken to find out the ocular complaints and the factors contributing to occurrence of such problems in computer users. To evaluate the factors contributing to Ocular complaints in computer users in Teerthanker Mahaveer University, Moradabad, U.P. India. Community-based cross-sectional study of 150 subjects who work on computer for varying period of time in Teerthanker Mahaveer University, Moradabad, Uttar Pradesh. Two hundred computer operators working in different institutes offices and bank of were selected randomly in Teerthanker Mahaveer University, Moradabad, and Uttar Pradesh. 16 were non responders 18 did not come for assessment and 16 were excluded due to complaints prior to computer use making no response rate Twenty-one did not participate in the study, making the no response rate 25%. Rest of the subjects (n = 150) were asked to fill a pre-tested questionnaire, after obtaining their verbal consent Depending on the average hours of usage in a day, they were categorized into three categories viz. 6 hrs of usage. All the responders were asked to come to the Ophthalmic OPD for further interview and assessment. Simple proportions and Chi-square test. Among the 150 subjects studied major ocular complaint reported in descending order were eyestrain. (53%). Occurrence of eye strain, ( 53.8%), itching ( 47.6%) and burning (66.7%) in subjects using computer for more than 6 hours. distance from computer screen with respect to eyes, use of antiglare screen, taking frequent breaks, use of LCD monitor and adjustment of brightness of

  20. Forum 'North Rhine-Westphalia fit for the future'.- Energy sources seminar - the local governments' contribution to establishing a future-oriented energy policy 'from below'. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naegel, W.

    1997-01-01

    On October 9, 1997, a seminar on energy sources was held in Duesseldorf within the framework of the programme of the academy for nature conservation and environmental protection (NUA) of North Rhine-Westphalia. The topic of the meeting, 'local governments' contributions to establishing a future-oriented energy policy from below' gathered representatives and lecturers from local authorities, electric utilities, planning and consultancy firms, political bodies and environmental associations. Papers presented to the seminar have been indexed and analysed for separate retrieval from the database. (orig./CB) [de

  1. Prevalence of and contributing factors for overweight and obesity among Montenegrin schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinovic, Milica; Belojevic, Goran; Evans, Gary W; Lausevic, Dragan; Asanin, Bogdan; Samardzic, Mira; Terzic, Natasa; Pantovic, Snezana; Jaksic, Marina; Boljevic, Jelena

    2015-10-01

    Newly emerging Western style economic systems provide new opportunities to study the prevalence and predictors of childhood obesity. We also provide for the first time a national study of childhood obesity using all three international anthropometric criteria. The sample included 4097 Montenegrin children, 2076 boys (50.7%) and 2021 girls. Anthropometric measurements were performed in school. The questionnaire for parents included questions on 24 potential contributing factors for childhood obesity. Nutritional status was assessed according to World Health Organization, US Center for Disease Prevention and Control and International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) criteria. Overall percentage of Montenegrin children who are overweight or obese (IOTF) is 22.9% of which 5.3% are obese (7.0% boys vs. 3.5% girls). We found 10 factors to be independently associated with child obesity. Positive relations [odds ratio (95% confidence interval)] were found with maternal obesity [2.05 (1.68-2.51)], paternal obesity [1.67 (1.32-2.10)], paternal employment [1.40 (1.12-1.74)], maternal smoking [1.32 (1.08-1.61)], obesity at birth [1.33 (1.04-1.70)] and computer game playing [per hour--1.11 (1.00-1.24)]. Negative relations were found with female gender [0.64 (0.53-0.78)], the number of siblings [0.88 (0.78-0.98)], birth order [0.73 (0.64-0.83)] and age [0.92 (0.88-0.98)]. One out of four Montenegrin children is overweight, with two times more frequent obesity among boys compared with girls. Some previously salient predictors did not appear salient in this sample. To enable worldwide comparability, we propose the use of all three childhood obesity criteria in national studies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  2. [Description of contributing factors in adverse events related to patient safety and their preventability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-García, María Mercedes; Campos-Rivas, Beatriz; Sanmarful-Schwarz, Alexandra; Vírseda-Sacristán, Alicia; Dorrego-López, M Aránzazu; Charle-Crespo, Ángeles

    2017-11-25

    To assess the extent of healthcare related adverse events (AEs), their effect on patients, and their seriousness. To analyse the factors leading to the development of AEs, their relationship with the damage caused, and their degree of preventability. Retrospective descriptive study. Porriño, Pontevedra, Spain, Primary Care Service, from January-2014 to April-2016. Reported AEs were entered into the Patient Safety Reporting and Learning System (SiNASP). The variables measured were: Near Incident (NI) an occurrence with no effect or harm on the patient; Adverse Event (AE) an occurrence that affects or harms a patient. The level of harm is classified as minimal, minor, moderate, critical, and catastrophic. Preventability was classified as little evidence of being preventable, 50% preventable, and sound evidence of being preventable. percentages and Chi-squared test for qualitative variables; P<.05 with SPSS.15. SiNASP. Ethical considerations: approved by the Research Ethics Committee (2016/344). There were 166 recorded AEs (50.6% in males, and 46.4% in women. The mean age was 60.80years). Almost two-thirds 62.7% of AEs affected the patient, with 45.8% causing minimal damage, while 2.4% caused critical damages. Healthcare professionals were a contributing factor in 71.7% of the AEs, with the trend showing that poor communication and lack of protocols were related to the damage caused. Degree of preventability: 96.4%. Most AEs affected the patient, and were related to medication, diagnostic tests, and laboratory errors. The level of harm was related to communication problems, lack of, or deficient, protocols and a poor safety culture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. The effect of selected lifestyle factors and diet on mortality of men with documented physical fitness in the city of Łódź

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Śmigielski

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is still uncertain if having at least moderate physical fitness is a necessary and sufficient condition for lowering the risk of death. The aforementioned statement constituted the basis for undertaking the study concerning the effect of particular health-related behaviours on the likelihood of survival in subjects with a moderate and high physical fitness. Materials and Methods: The study sample, i.e. 204 men aged 30-59 years living in Łódź, Poland, was selected within the CINDI WHO Programme and examined over the years 1980-1990 and 2003-2004. In each subject approximate values of one week energy expenditures associated with performing physical exercise of at least moderate intensity (> 1000 kcal/week were estimated. Physical efficiency in the study group was evaluated basing on the results of the submaximal effort test. Information about selected socio-demographic characteristics, consumption of alcohol, cigarette smoking and diet was gathered. The vital status of the examined sample was checked in 2009. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to identify factors which influence the survival of examined population. Results: The probability of death was more than fourfold higher in the case of individuals who eat "beef or pork meat", as compared to those who consumed these products rarely or never. On the other hand, the subjects who declared regular consumption of yellow cheese had nearly fourfold lower death probability. Current smoking was found to be a significant negative risk factor while moderate consumption of beer a protective one. The level of physical fitness (VO2max did not significantly influence mortality. Conclusions: The results of the performed analyses indicate negative effect associated with consumption of beef/pork meat and smoking. Furthermore, the data pertaining to the consumption of yellow cheese as a potent protective factor for men's health requires further verification. The

  4. Using qualitative methods to understand factors contributing to patient satisfaction among dermatology patients: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Caitlin; Singh, Sanminder; Gibbons, Brittany; Clark, Caitlin; Torres, Josefina; Cheng, Michelle Y; Wang, Elizabeth A; Armstrong, April W

    2018-05-01

    In this systematic review, we aimed to synthesize data that identify factors contributing to patient satisfaction in dermatology care using qualitative methods. We performed a comprehensive search of the literature using the PubMed database for articles published between January 1, 2000 and February 9, 2015. The initial search yielded 186 articles, of which 13 were included after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. The systematic review of 13 articles included a total of 330 patients. Using in-field observations and semistructured interviews, studies found that qualitative methods and analysis increased the provider's sensitivity to patient needs and enhanced patient care. Analyses using qualitative methods found increased patient satisfaction in their healthcare provider is associated with (1) confidence in the provider's diagnosis, (2) perception of patient-centered, individualized recommendations and (3) quality of patient education and provider explanation during a visit. Patient satisfaction is measured using either quantitative or qualitative methods. Quantitative methods result in standardized data that often does not capture the nuances of patient experience. In contrast, qualitative methodology is integral to gathering patient perspectives on patient care and satisfaction and should be included in future research models.

  5. Contribution of individual, workplace, psychosocial and physiological factors to neck pain in female office workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Venerina; Jimmieson, Nerina L; Jull, Gwendolen; Souvlis, Tina

    2009-10-01

    This study investigated the relative contribution of individual, workplace, psychosocial and physiological features associated with neck pain in female office workers towards developing appropriate intervention programs. Workers without disability (Neck Disability Index (NDI) score workers with neck pain and disability (NDI > or = 9/100, n=52) and 22 controls (women who did not work and without neck pain) participated in this study. Two logistic regression models were constructed to test the association between various measures in (1) workers with and without disability, and (2) workers without disability and controls. Measures included those found to be significantly associated with higher NDI in our previous studies: psychosocial domains; individual factors; task demands; quantitative sensory measures and measures of motor function. In the final model, higher score on negative affectivity scale (OR=4.47), greater activity in the neck flexors during cranio-cervical flexion (OR=1.44), cold hyperalgesia (OR=1.27) and longer duration of symptoms (OR=1.19) remained significantly associated with neck pain in workers. Workers without disability and controls could only be differentiated by greater muscle activity in the cervical flexors and extensors during a typing task. No psychosocial domains remained in either regression model. These results suggest that impairments in the sensory and motor system should be considered in any assessment of the office worker with neck pain and may have stronger influences on the presenting symptoms than workplace and psychosocial features.

  6. Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor-Induced Autophagy Contributes to Thrombin-Triggered Endothelial Hyperpermeability in Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Chiao-Hsuan; Chen, Hong-Ru; Chuang, Yung-Chun; Yeh, Trai-Ming

    2018-07-01

    Vascular leakage contributes to the high morbidity and mortality associated with sepsis. Exposure of the endothelium to inflammatory mediators, such as thrombin and cytokines, during sepsis leads to hyperpermeability. We recently observed that autophagy, a cellular process for protein turnover, is involved in macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF)-induced endothelial hyperpermeability. Even though it is known that thrombin induces endothelial cells to secrete MIF and to increase vascular permeability, the possible role of autophagy in this process is unknown. In this study, we proposed and tested the hypothesis that MIF-induced autophagy plays an important role in thrombin-induced endothelial hyperpermeability. We evaluated the effects of thrombin on endothelial permeability, autophagy induction, and MIF secretion in vitro using the human microvascular endothelial cell line-1 and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Several mechanisms/read outs of endothelial permeability and autophagy formation were examined. We observed that blocking autophagy attenuated thrombin-induced endothelial hyperpermeability. Furthermore, thrombin-induced MIF secretion was involved in this process because MIF inhibition reduced thrombin-induced autophagy and hyperpermeability. Finally, we showed that blocking MIF or autophagy effectively alleviated vascular leakage and mortality in endotoxemic mice. Thus, MIF-induced autophagy may represent a common mechanism causing vascular leakage in sepsis.

  7. Clinical impact of and contributing factors to urinary incontinence in women 5 years after first delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ching-Chung; Wu, Ming-Ping; Lin, Shu-Jen; Lin, Yu-Jr; Chang, Shuenn-Dhy; Wang, Hui-Hsuan

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of and contributing factors to urinary incontinence (UI) in women 5 years after their first birth and to evaluate the associations of UI with delivery mode and quality of life. Between 2005 July and 2006 March, primiparous women who delivered at term in a tertiary hospital were recruited into this cohort study. Immediately postpartum, the women completed a structured urogynecological questionnaire regarding lower urinary tract symptoms. Then the same urogynecological questionnaire, the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ-7), and the Urinary Distress Inventory (UDI-6) were mailed to them 5 years later to follow up on UI. Three hundred and twelve women responding to the mailed questionnaires were included in the analyses. The prevalence 5 years after first delivery of stress (SUI) and urge (UUI) UI were 43.6 % and 19.2 %, respectively. Women with UI during their first pregnancy were more likely to develop UI 5 years postpartum than those without it; women who delivered their first child vaginally had a greater incidence of UI than those having cesarean birth; UUI in women following cesarean delivery more negatively impacted emotional health than it did following vaginal birth, whereas the impact of SUI did not significantly differ between delivery groups. UI during the first pregnancy and vaginal delivery in primiparous women may predict an increased risk of having UI 5 years after delivery. UUI adversely affected women's emotional health, especially in those undergoing cesarean section.

  8. Factors Contributing to Psycho-Social Ill-Health in Male Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurpreet Singh Chhabra

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the prevalence of psychosocial problems in male adolescents and find out various factors contributing to psycho-social ill health. Methods: 500 adolescents were interviewed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire to elicit the information about the psychosocial problems including depression, suicidal thoughts and suicidal attempts. Association of academic performance, family problems, psychological problems and substance abuse was also included. Results: More than one third (39.6% adolescents were having psychological problems. These problems were significantly higher in middle adolescence (14-16 years, large extended families (> 8 members and lower socioeconomic status. Residence had no significant relation to psychological problems in the adolescents. On correlation, these adolescents with psychological problems were having significantly more academic problems, family disputes, domestic violence, lesser number of close friends and greater substance abuse. Conclusion: Considering that male adolescents from large families with lesser education and lower income had higher prevalence of psychosocial problems, it is essential for health care planners to design comprehensive family and health education programs for the adolescents. The family support, teacher student rapport and peer group communication should be strengthened to counteract unsafe behaviours in the adolescents.

  9. Unsustainable charcoal production as a contributing factor to woodland fragmentation in southeast Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruuska, Eeva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Drawing from a holistic research approach, this paper contributes to the studies of land cover change and sustainable development in Kenya, and to the planning of sustainable future in Dakatcha Woodland, SE Kenya. As an un-protected global hotspot for biodiversity, Dakatcha Woodland has suffered from unsustainable forest resource use. The relation of charcoal production to land cover change and its socio-economic impact are studied in detail. A supervised land cover classification formed using four SPOT satellite images from 2005/06 and 2011 revealed that the woodland is fragmenting and the Important Bird Area (IBA demarcation should be reconsidered. Through in-situ observation, household questionnaires and semi-structured expert interviews it was found that more than half of the 90 households assessed are involved in charcoal production which is higher figure than peer studies have suggested, and that the charcoal network offers income to many, but bears an negative impact on the environment. It was discovered that, like in Kenya, in Dakatcha Woodland, too, the demand for woodfuels (charcoal and fuelwood is one of the key drivers of deforestation and land degradation. As such, woodfuel energy is a cross cutting issue, tying together forest resources, livelihoods and sustainable development, and thus demands further research. Forest management of Dakatcha Woodland must be planned in accordance with all stakeholders in a sustainable manner, drawing from agroforestry and participatory forest management systems, and keeping environmental factors in mind for the maintenance of ecosystem services.

  10. Factors contributing to the development of overt encephalopathy in liver cirrhosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasa, Motoh; Sugimoto, Ryosuke; Mifuji-Moroka, Rumi; Hara, Nagisa; Yoshikawa, Kyoko; Tanaka, Hideaki; Eguchi, Akiko; Yamamoto, Norihiko; Sugimoto, Kazushi; Kobayashi, Yoshinao; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Takei, Yoshiyuki

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the relationships among psychometric testing results, blood ammonia (NH3) levels, electrolyte abnormalities, and degree of inflammation, and their associations with the development of overt hepatic encephalopathy (HE) in liver cirrhosis (LC) patients. The relationships between covert HE and blood NH3, sodium (Na), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were examined in 40 LC patients. The effects of elevated NH3, hyponatremia, and elevated CRP on the development of overt HE were also investigated. The covert HE group had significantly lower serum Na levels and significantly higher serum CRP levels. During the median observation period of 11 months, 10 patients developed overt HE, and the results of multivariate analysis showed that covert HE and elevated blood NH3 were factors contributing to the development of overt HE. Electrolyte abnormalities and mild inflammation are involved in the pathogenesis of HE. Abnormal psychometric testing results and hyperammonemia are linked to subsequent development of overt HE.

  11. Erectile Dysfunction Under Age 40: Etiology and Role of Contributing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahir Karadeniz

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the etiology of erectile dysfunction (ED in patients under the age of 40 years. Eighty one patients were included in this study. All patients underwent a multidisciplinary diagnostic approach by color Doppler ultrasonography, dynamic pharmacocavernosometry (optional, selective pudendal pharmaco-arteriography (optional and nocturnal penile tumescence monitoring by a Rigi-Scan (optional. Mean age of the population was 32 years. Psychogenic impotence was diagnosed in 50% of the patients and organic impotence was diagnosed in 45%. After the 3rd decade of life, a vasculogenic etiology was the most common cause of impotence. Smoking and hypertension played a major role as chronic contributing factors in the overall study population. Primary impotence was diagnosed in 11 patients who were unmarried. The rate of organic causes was 45% in this group (all vasculogenic in nature. Erectile dysfunction in younger patients and in patients with primary impotence is due mainly to organic causes, usually vascular in origin.

  12. Multiple factors contribute to reproductive isolation between two co-existing Habenaria species (Orchidaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenliu Zhang

    Full Text Available Reproductive isolation is a key feature that forms barriers to gene flow between distinct plants. In orchids, prezygotic reproductive isolation has been considered to be strong, because their associations with highly specific pollinators. In this study, the reproductive ecology and reproductive isolation of two sympatric Habenaria species, H. davidii and H. fordii, was investigated by floral phenology and morphology, hand-pollination experiments and visitor observation in southwest China. The two species were dependent on insects for pollination and completely self-compatible. A number of factors have been identified to limit gene flow between the two species and achieved full reproductive isolation. Ecogeographic isolation was a weak barrier. H. fordii and H. davidii had completely overlapped flowering periods, and floral morphology plays an important role in floral isolation. The two species shared the same hawkmoth pollinator, Cechenena lineosa, but the pollinaria of the two orchids were attached on different body parts of pollinators. Prezygotic isolation was not complete, but the interspecific pollination treatments of each species resulted in no seed sets, indicating that unlike many other orchid species, in which the postzygotic reproductive isolation is very weak or complete absence, the post-zygotic isolation strongly acted in the stage of seed production between two species. The results illustrate the reproductive isolation between two species involves multiple plant life-history stages and a variety of reproductive barriers can contribute to overall isolation.

  13. The Contribution of Auditory and Cognitive Factors to Intelligibility of Words and Sentences in Noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Antje; Knight, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the causes for speech-in-noise (SiN) perception difficulties is complex, and is made even more difficult by the fact that listening situations can vary widely in target and background sounds. While there is general agreement that both auditory and cognitive factors are important, their exact relationship to SiN perception across various listening situations remains unclear. This study manipulated the characteristics of the listening situation in two ways: first, target stimuli were either isolated words, or words heard in the context of low- (LP) and high-predictability (HP) sentences; second, the background sound, speech-modulated noise, was presented at two signal-to-noise ratios. Speech intelligibility was measured for 30 older listeners (aged 62-84) with age-normal hearing and related to individual differences in cognition (working memory, inhibition and linguistic skills) and hearing (PTA(0.25-8 kHz) and temporal processing). The results showed that while the effect of hearing thresholds on intelligibility was rather uniform, the influence of cognitive abilities was more specific to a certain listening situation. By revealing a complex picture of relationships between intelligibility and cognition, these results may help us understand some of the inconsistencies in the literature as regards cognitive contributions to speech perception.

  14. Protein content in gallstone patients can be a contributing factor in cholelithiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Channa, N.A.; Memon, A.H.; Awan, A.Y.; Noorani, L.

    2017-01-01

    To find out the protein contents as contributing factor in the cholelithiasis patients. Methodology: The study was conducted during January 2016 to December 2016 at Institute of Biochemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan. A total number of 109 cholelithiasis patients admitted at Liaquat University Hospital, Jamshoro, Wali Bhai Rajputana Hospital, Hyderabad and Memon Charitable Hospital, Hyderabad, Pakistan and 294 age and gender matched control subjects were selected for the study. The serum samples of gallstone patients and control subjects were analyzed for the total protein contents by biuret kit method, gallstones recovered from the patients were also analyzed for the protein contents by Bradford method. Results: Cholelithiasis patients showed that gallstone protein contents increased with increasing age. We found increased amount of protein contents in mixed composition of gallstones as compared to pure cholesterol gallstones. Serum protein contents were increased in patients with age group 31-45 years, followed by age group 16-30 years. Female cholelithiasis patients were found with increased serum protein contents (but within normal limits) as compared to male cholelithiasis patients. Increased protein contents were also observed in serum as well as in gallstone samples recovered from multiparous female patients in comparison to triparous female patients. Conclusion: Protein may play a role in the pathogenesis of cholelithiasis. (author)

  15. Aerobic fitness is associated with low cardiovascular disease risk: the impact of lifestyle on early risk factors for atherosclerosis in young healthy Swedish individuals – the Lifestyle, Biomarker, and Atherosclerosis study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernström M

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Maria Fernström,1,* Ulrika Fernberg,2,* Gabriella Eliason,1 Anita Hurtig-Wennlöf1 1Department of Medical Diagnostics, Medical Faculty, School of Health Sciences, 2Medical Faculty, School of Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: The progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD and atherosclerosis is slow and develops over decades. In the cross-sectional Swedish Lifestyle, Biomarker, and Atherosclerosis study, 834 young, self-reported healthy adults aged 18.0–25.9 years have been studied to identify early risk factors for atherosclerosis.Purpose: The aims of this study were to 1 assess selected cardiometabolic biomarkers, carotid intima–media thickness (cIMT as a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, and lifestyle-related indicators (food habits, handgrip strength, and oxygen uptake, VO2 max; 2 analyze the assofciations between cIMT and lifestyle factors; and 3 identify subjects at risk of CVD using a risk score and to compare the characteristics of subjects with and without risk of CVD.Method: Blood samples were taken in a fasting state, and food habits were reported through a questionnaire. cIMT was measured by ultrasound, and VO2 max was measured by ergometer bike test. The risk score was calculated according to Wildman.Result: cIMT (mean ± standard deviation was 0.50±0.06 mm, and VO2 max values were 37.8±8.5 and 42.9±9.9 mL/kg/min, in women and men, respectively. No correlation was found between aerobic fitness expressed as VO2 max (mL/kg/min and cIMT. Using Wildman’s definition, 12% of the subjects were classified as being at risk of CVD, and 15% had homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. A total of 35% of women and 25% of men had lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol than recommended. Food habits did not differ between those at risk and those not at risk. However, aerobic fitness measured as VO2 max (mL/kg/min differed; 47% of the

  16. Contribution of genetic background, traditional risk factors, and HIV-related factors to coronary artery disease events in HIV-positive persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rotger, Margalida; Glass, Tracy R; Junier, Thomas; Lundgren, Jens; Neaton, James D; Poloni, Estella S; van 't Wout, Angélique B; Lubomirov, Rubin; Colombo, Sara; Martinez, Raquel; Rauch, Andri; Günthard, Huldrych F; Neuhaus, Jacqueline; Wentworth, Deborah; van Manen, Danielle; Gras, Luuk A; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Albini, Laura; Torti, Carlo; Jacobson, Lisa P; Li, Xiuhong; Kingsley, Lawrence A; Carli, Federica; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Ford, Emily S; Sereti, Irini; Hadigan, Colleen; Martinez, Esteban; Arnedo, Mireia; Egaña-Gorroño, Lander; Gatell, Jose M; Law, Matthew; Bendall, Courtney; Petoumenos, Kathy; Rockstroh, Jürgen; Wasmuth, Jan-Christian; Kabamba, Kabeya; Delforge, Marc; De Wit, Stephane; Berger, Florian; Mauss, Stefan; de Paz Sierra, Mariana; Losso, Marcelo; Belloso, Waldo H; Leyes, Maria; Campins, Antoni; Mondi, Annalisa; De Luca, Andrea; Bernardino, Ignacio; Barriuso-Iglesias, Mónica; Torrecilla-Rodriguez, Ana; Gonzalez-Garcia, Juan; Arribas, José R; Fanti, Iuri; Gel, Silvia; Puig, Jordi; Negredo, Eugenia; Gutierrez, Mar; Domingo, Pere; Fischer, Julia; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Alonso-Villaverde, Carlos; Macken, Alan; Woo, James; McGinty, Tara; Mallon, Patrick; Mangili, Alexandra; Skinner, Sally; Wanke, Christine A; Reiss, Peter; Weber, Rainer; Bucher, Heiner C; Fellay, Jacques; Telenti, Amalio; Tarr, Philip E; Schölvinck, Elisabeth H.

    BACKGROUND: Persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have increased rates of coronary artery disease (CAD). The relative contribution of genetic background, HIV-related factors, antiretroviral medications, and traditional risk factors to CAD has not been fully evaluated in the

  17. Contribution of genetic background, traditional risk factors, and HIV-related factors to coronary artery disease events in HIV-positive persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rotger, Margalida; Glass, Tracy R.; Junier, Thomas; Lundgren, Jens; Neaton, James D.; Poloni, Estella S.; van 't Wout, Angélique B.; Lubomirov, Rubin; Colombo, Sara; Martinez, Raquel; Rauch, Andri; Günthard, Huldrych F.; Neuhaus, Jacqueline; Wentworth, Deborah; van Manen, Danielle; Gras, Luuk A.; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Albini, Laura; Torti, Carlo; Jacobson, Lisa P.; Li, Xiuhong; Kingsley, Lawrence A.; Carli, Federica; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Ford, Emily S.; Sereti, Irini; Hadigan, Colleen; Martinez, Esteban; Arnedo, Mireia; Egaña-Gorroño, Lander; Gatell, Jose M.; Law, Matthew; Bendall, Courtney; Petoumenos, Kathy; Rockstroh, Jürgen; Wasmuth, Jan-Christian; Kabamba, Kabeya; Delforge, Marc; de Wit, Stephane; Berger, Florian; Mauss, Stefan; de Paz Sierra, Mariana; Losso, Marcelo; Belloso, Waldo H.; Leyes, Maria; Campins, Antoni; Mondi, Annalisa; de Luca, Andrea; Bernardino, Ignacio; Barriuso-Iglesias, Mónica; Torrecilla-Rodriguez, Ana; Gonzalez-Garcia, Juan; Arribas, José R.; Fanti, Iuri; Gel, Silvia; Puig, Jordi; Negredo, Eugenia; Gutierrez, Mar; Domingo, Pere; Fischer, Julia; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Alonso-Villaverde, Carlos; Macken, Alan; Woo, James; McGinty, Tara; Mallon, Patrick; Mangili, Alexandra; Skinner, Sally; Wanke, Christine A.; Reiss, Peter; Weber, Rainer; Bucher, Heiner C.; Fellay, Jacques; Telenti, Amalio; Tarr, Philip E.; Gras, A. Luuk; van Wout, Angelique B.; Arnedo-Valero, Mireia; Sierra, Mariana de Paz; Rodriguez, Ana Torrecilla; Garcia, Juan Gonzalez; Arribas, Jose R.; Aubert, V.; Barth, J.; Battegay, M.; Bernasconi, E.; Böni, J.; Bucher, H. C.; Burton-Jeangros, C.; Calmy, A.; Cavassini, M.; Egger, M.; Elzi, L.; Fehr, J.; Fellay, J.; Francioli, P.; Furrer, H.; Fux, C. A.; Gorgievski, M.; Günthard, H.; Haerry, D.; Hasse, B.; Hirsch, H. H.; Hirschel, B.; Hösli, I.; Kahlert, C.; Kaiser, L.; Keiser, O.; Kind, C.; Klimkait, T.; Kovari, H.; Ledergerber, B.; Martinetti, G.; Martinez de Tejada, B.; Metzner, K.; Müller, N.; Nadal, D.; Pantaleo, G.; Rauch, A.; Regenass, S.; Rickenbach, M.; Rudin, C.; Schmid, P.; Schultze, D.; Schöni-Affolter, F.; Schüpbach, J.; Speck, R.; Taffé, P.; Tarr, P.; Telenti, A.; Trkola, A.; Vernazza, P.; Weber, R.; Prins, Yerly S. J. M.; Kuijpers, T. W.; Scherpbier, H. J.; Boer, K.; van der Meer, J. T. M.; Wit, F. W. M. N.; Godfried, M. H.; van der Poll, T.; Nellen, F. J. B.; Lange, J. M. A.; Geerlings, S. E.; van Vugt, M.; Vrouenraets, S. M. E.; Pajkrt, D.; Bos, J. C.; van der Valk, M.; Schreij, G.; Lowe, S.; Oude Lashof, A.; Pronk, M. J. H.; Bravenboer, B.; van der Ende, M. E.; de Vries-Sluijs, T. E. M. S.; Schurink, C. A. M.; van der Feltz, M.; Nouwen, J. L.; Gelinck, L. B. S.; Verbon, A.; Rijnders, B. J. A.; van de Ven-de Ruiter, E. D.; Slobbe, L.; Haag, Den; Kauffmann, R. H.; Schippers, E. F.; Groeneveld, P. H. P.; Alleman, M. A.; Bouwhuis, J. W.; ten Kate, R. W.; Soetekouw, R.; Kroon, F. P.; van den Broek, P. J.; van Dissel, J. T.; Arend, S. M.; van Nieuwkoop, C.; de Boer, M. J. G.; Jolink, H.; den Hollander, J. G.; Pogany, K.; Bronsveld, W.; Kortmann, W.; van Twillert, G.; van Houte, D. P. F.; Polée, M. B.; van Vonderen, M. G. A.; ten Napel, C. H. H.; Kootstra, G. J.; Brinkman, K.; Blok, W. L.; Frissen, P. H. J.; Schouten, W. E. M.; van den Berk, G. E. L.; Juttmann, J. R.; van Kasteren, M. E. E.; Brouwer, A. E.; Mulder, J. W.; van Gorp, E. C. M.; Smit, P. M.; Weijer, S.; van Eeden, A.; Verhagen, D. W. M.; Sprenger, H. G.; Doedens, R.; Scholvinck, E. H.; van Assen, S.; Stek, C. J.; Hoepelman, I. M.; Mudrikova, T.; Schneider, M. M. E.; Jaspers, C. A. J. J.; Ellerbroek, P. M.; Peters, E. J. G.; Maarschalk-Ellerbroek, L. J.; Oosterheert, J. J.; Arends, J. E.; Wassenberg, M. W. M.; van der Hilst, J. C. H.; Richter, C.; van der Berg, J. P.; Gisolf, E. H.; Margolick, Joseph B.; Plankey, Michael; Crain, Barbara; Dobs, Adrian; Farzadegan, Homayoon; Gallant, Joel; Johnson-Hill, Lisette; Sacktor, Ned; Selnes, Ola; Shepard, James; Thio, Chloe; Phair, John P.; Wolinsky, Steven M.; Badri, Sheila; Conover, Craig; O'Gorman, Maurice; Ostrow, David; Palella, Frank; Ragin, Ann; Detels, Roger; Martínez-Maza, Otoniel; Aronow, Aaron; Bolan, Robert; Breen, Elizabeth; Butch, Anthony; Fahey, John; Jamieson, Beth; Miller, Eric N.; Oishi, John; Vinters, Harry; Visscher, Barbara R.; Wiley, Dorothy; Witt, Mallory; Yang, Otto; Young, Stephen; Zhang, Zuo Feng; Rinaldo, Charles R.; Becker, James T.; Cranston, Ross D.; Martinson, Jeremy J.; Mellors, John W.; Silvestre, Anthony J.; Stall, Ronald D.; Muñoz, Alvaro; Abraham, Alison; Althoff, Keri; Cox, Christopher; D'Souza, Gypsyamber; Gange, Stephen J.; Golub, Elizabeth; Schollenberger, Janet; Seaberg, Eric C.; Su, Sol; Huebner, Robin E.; Dominguez, Geraldina; Moroni, M.; Angarano, G.; Antinori, A.; Carosi, G.; Cauda, R.; Monforte, A. d'Arminio; Di Perri, G.; Galli, M.; Iardino, R.; Ippolito, G.; Lazzarin, A.; Perno, C. F.; Sagnelli, E.; Viale, P. L.; Von Schlosser, F.; d'Arminio Monforte, A.; Ammassari, A.; Andreoni, M.; Balotta, C.; Bonfanti, P.; Bonora, S.; Borderi, M.; Capobianchi, M. R.; Castagna, A.; Ceccherini-Silberstein, F.; Cozzi-Lepri, A.; de Luca, A.; Gargiulo, M.; Gervasoni, C.; Girardi, E.; Lichtner, M.; Lo Caputo, S.; Madeddu, G.; Maggiolo, F.; Marcotullio, S.; Monno, L.; Murri, R.; Mussini, C.; Puoti, M.; Torti, C.; Fanti, I.; Formenti, T.; Galli, Laura; Lorenzini, Patrizia; Montroni, M.; Giacometti, A.; Costantini, A.; Riva, A.; Tirelli, U.; Martellotta, F.; Ladisa, N.; Lazzari, G.; Verucchi, G.; Castelli, F.; Scalzini, A.; Minardi, C.; Bertelli, D.; Quirino, T.; Abeli, C.; Manconi, P. E.; Piano, P.; Vecchiet, J.; Falasca, K.; Carnevale, G.; Lorenzotti, S.; Sighinolfi, L.; Segala, D.; Leoncini, F.; Mazzotta, F.; Pozzi, M.; Cassola, G.; Viscoli, G.; Viscoli, A.; Piscopo, R.; Mazzarello, G.; Mastroianni, C.; Belvisi, V.; Caramma, I.; Chiodera, A.; Castelli, P.; Rizzardini, G.; Ridolfo, A. L.; Foschi, A.; Salpietro, S.; Galli, A.; Bigoloni, A.; Spagnuolo, V.; Merli, S.; Carenzi, L.; Moioli, M. C.; Cicconi, P.; Bisio, L.; Gori, A.; Lapadula, G.; Abrescia, N.; Chirianni, A.; de Marco, M.; Ferrari, C.; Borghi, R.; Baldelli, F.; Belfiori, B.; Parruti, G.; Ursini, T.; Magnani, G.; Ursitti, M. A.; Narciso, P.; Tozzi, V.; Vullo, V.; d'Avino, A.; Zaccarelli, M.; Gallo, L.; Acinapura, R.; Capozzi, M.; Libertone, R.; Trotta, M. P.; Tebano, G.; Cattelan, A. M.; Mura, M. S.; Caramello, P.; Orofino, G. C.; Sciandra, M.; Raise, N. N.; Ebo, F.; Pellizzer, G.; Manfrin, V.; Law, M.; Petoumenos, K.; McManus, H.; Wright, S.; Bendall, C.; Moore, R.; Edwards, S.

    2013-01-01

    Persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have increased rates of coronary artery disease (CAD). The relative contribution of genetic background, HIV-related factors, antiretroviral medications, and traditional risk factors to CAD has not been fully evaluated in the setting of HIV

  18. Fitness club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness club

    2013-01-01

      Nordic Walking Classes Come join the Nordic walking classes and outings offered by the CERN Fitness Club starting September 2013. Our licensed instructor Christine offers classes for people who’ve never tried Nordic Walking and who would like to learn the technique, and outings for people who have completed the classes and enjoy going out as a group. Course 1: Tuesdays 12:30 - 13:30 24 September, 1 October, 8 October, 15 October Course 2: Tuesdays 12:30 - 13:30 5 November, 12 November, 19 November, 26 November Outings will take place on Thursdays (12:30 to 13:30) from 12 September 2013. We meet at the CERN Club Barracks car park (close to Entrance A) 10 minutes before departure. Prices: 50 CHF for 4 classes, including the 10 CHF Club membership. Payments made directly to instructor. Renting Poles: Poles can be rented from Christine at 5 CHF / hour. Subscription: Please subscribe at: http://cern.ch/club-fitness Looking forward to seeing you among us! Fitness Club FitnessClub@c...

  19. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2012-01-01

    Get in Shape for Summer with the CERN Fitness Club Saturday 23 June 2012 from 14:30 to 16.30 (doors open at 14.00) Germana’s Fitness Workshop. Build strength and stamina, sculpt and tone your body and get your heart pumping with Germana’s workout mixture of Cardio Attack, Power Pump, Power Step, Cardio Combat and Cross-Training. Where: 216 (Pump room – equipped with changing rooms and showers). What to wear: comfortable clothes and indoor sports shoes + bring a drink! How much: 15 chf Sign up here: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Test_Subscription/NewForm.aspx? Join the Party and dance yourself into shape at Marco + Marials Zumba Masterclass. Saturday 30 June 2012 from 15:00 to 16:30 Marco + Mariel’s Zumba Masterclass Where: 216 (Pump room – equipped with changing rooms and showers). What to wear: comfortable clothes and indoor sports shoes + bring a drink! How much: 25 chf Sign up here: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Zumba%20...

  20. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2010-01-01

    Nordic Walking Please note that the subscriptions for the general fitness classes from July to December are open: Subscriptions general fitness classes Jul-Dec 2010 Sign-up to the Fitness Club mailing list here Nordic Walking: Sign-up to the Nordic Walking mailing list here Beginners Nordic walking lessons Monday Lunchtimes (rdv 12:20 for 12:30 departure) 13.09/20.09/27.09/04.10 11.10/18.10/08.11/15.11 22.11/29.11/06.12/20.12 Nordic walking lessons Tuesday evenings (rdv 17:50 for 18:00 departure) 07.09/14.09/21.09/28.09 05.10/12.10/19.10/26.10 Intermediate/Advanced Nordic walking outings (follow the nordic walking lessons before signing up for the outings) every Thursday from 16.09 - 16.12, excluding 28.10 and 09.12 Subscriptions and info: fitness.club@cern.ch  

  1. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2012-01-01

      The CERN Fitness Club is pleased to announce its new early morning class which will be taking place on: Tuesdays from 24th April 07:30 to 08:15 216 (Pump Hall, close to entrance C) – Facilities include changing rooms and showers. The Classes: The early morning classes will focus on workouts which will help you build not only strength and stamina, but will also improve your balance, and coordination. Our qualified instructor Germana will accompany you throughout the workout  to ensure you stay motivated so you achieve the best results. Sign up and discover the best way to start your working day full of energy! How to subscribe? We invite you along to a FREE trial session, if you enjoy the activity, please sign up via our website: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Activities/SUBSCRIBE.aspx. * * * * * * * * Saturday 28th April Get in shape for the summer at our fitness workshop and zumba dance party: Fitness workshop with Germana 13:00 to 14:30 - 216 (Pump Hall) Price...

  2. Estimating the relative contributions of maternal genetic, paternal genetic and intrauterine factors to offspring birth weight and head circumference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Frances; Thapar, Anita

    2010-07-01

    Genetic factors and the prenatal environment contribute to birth weight. However, very few types of study design can disentangle their relative contribution. To examine maternal genetic and intrauterine contributions to offspring birth weight and head circumference. To compare the contribution of maternal and paternal genetic effects. Mothers and fathers were either genetically related or unrelated to their offspring who had been conceived by in vitro fertilization. 423 singleton full term offspring, of whom 262 were conceived via homologous IVF (both parents related), 66 via sperm donation (mother only related) and 95 via egg donation (father only related). Maternal weight at antenatal booking, current weight and maternal height. Paternal current weight and height were all predictors. Infant birth weight and head circumference were outcomes. Genetic relatedness was the main contributing factor between measures of parental weight and offspring birth weight as correlations were only significant when the parent was related to the child. However, there was a contribution of the intrauterine environment to the association between maternal height and both infant birth weight and infant head circumference as these were significant even when mothers were unrelated to their child. Both maternal and paternal genes made contributions to infant birth weight. Maternal height appeared to index a contribution of the intrauterine environment to infant growth and gestational age. Results suggested a possible biological interaction between the intrauterine environment and maternal inherited characteristics which suppresses the influence of paternal genes. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Personal and environmental factors contributing to participation in romantic relationships and sexual activity of young adults with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegerink, Diana J H G; Stam, Henk J; Ketelaar, Marjolijn; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Roebroeck, Marij E

    2012-01-01

    To study determinants of romantic relationships and sexual activity of young adults with cerebral palsy (CP), focusing on personal and environmental factors. A cohort study was performed with 74 young adults (46 men; 28 women) aged 20-25 years (SD 1.4) with CP (49% unilateral CP, 76% GMFCS level I, 85% MACS level I). All participants were of normal intelligence. Romantic relationships, sexual activity (outcome measures), personal and environmental factors (associated factors) were assessed. Associations were analyzed using logistic regression analyses. More females than males with CP were in a current romantic relationship. Self-esteem, sexual esteem and feelings of competence regarding self-efficacy contributed positively to having current romantic relationships. A negative parenting style contributed negatively. Age and gross motor functioning explained 20% of the variance in experience with intercourse. In addition, sexual esteem and taking initiative contributed significantly to intercourse experience. For young adults with CP personal factors (20-35% explained variances) seem to contribute more than environmental factors (9-12% explained variances) to current romantic relationships and sexual experiences. We advice parents and professionals to focus on self-efficacy, self-esteem and sexual self-esteem in development of young adults with CP. [ • The severity of gross motor functioning contributed somewhat to sexual activities, but not to romantic relationships.• High self-efficacy, self-esteem and sexual self-esteem can facilitate involvement in romantic and sexual relationships for young adults with CP.

  4. Factors contributing to the recalcitrance of herbaceous dicotyledons (forbs) to enzymatic deconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbour, Dina; Angelos, Evan R; Mukhopadhyay, Achira; Womboldt, Alec; Borrusch, Melissa S; Walton, Jonathan D

    2014-04-05

    Many different feedstocks are under consideration for the practical production of biofuels from lignocellulosic materials. The best choice under any particular combination of economic, agronomic, and environmental conditions depends on multiple factors. The use of old fields, restored prairie, or marginal lands to grow biofuel feedstocks offers several potential benefits including minimal agronomic inputs, reduced competition with food production, and high biodiversity. However, a major component of such landscapes is often herbaceous dicotyledonous plants, also known as forbs. The potential and obstacles of using forbs as biofuel feedstocks compared to the more frequently considered grasses and woody plants are poorly understood. The factors that contribute to the yield of fermentable sugars from four representative forbs were studied in comparison with corn stover. The forbs chosen for the study were lamb's quarters (Chenopodium album), goldenrod (Solidago canadensis), milkweed (Asclepias syriaca), and Queen Anne's lace (Daucus carota). These plants are taxonomically diverse, widely distributed in northern temperate regions including the continental United States, and are weedy but not invasive. All of the forbs had lower total glucose (Glc) content from all sources (cell walls, sucrose, starch, glucosides, and free Glc) compared to corn stover (range 16.2 to 23.0% on a dry weight basis compared to 39.2% for corn stover). When digested with commercial enzyme mixtures after alkaline pretreatment, yields of Glc as a percentage of total Glc were lower for the forbs compared to corn stover. Enzyme inhibition by water-extractable compounds was not a significant contributor to the lower yields. Based on experiments with optimized cocktails of pure glycosyl hydrolases, enzyme imbalance probably accounted for much of the lower yields. Addition of xyloglucanase and α-xylosidase, two enzymes targeting Glc-containing polysaccharides that are more abundant in dicotyledonous

  5. Factors contributing to the decision to perform a cesarean section in Labrador retrievers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolf, Gaudenz; Gaillard, Claude; Russenberger, Jane; Moseley, Lou; Schelling, Claude

    2018-02-27

    In the past 10 years, the frequency of unplanned cesarean sections in the Labrador Retriever breeding colony at Guiding Eyes for the Blind stayed around 10% (range 5% to 28%). To reduce the number of cesarean sections, factors influencing the occurrence of a cesarean section need to be known. The goal of this study was to identify factors that contribute to the decision to perform a cesarean section. Of the 688 Labrador Retriever litters whelped between 2003 and 2016, 667 litters had sufficient data and remained in the analysis. The target trait was ordinal with the three levels "normal whelping", "assisted whelping" and "cesarean section". A general ordinal logistic regression approach was used to analyze the data. Model selection with possible predictors resulted in a final model including weight of the dam, the weight of the heaviest puppy of a litter, the number of fetuses malpositioned and the quality of uterine contractions. Weight and size of a litter, parity, maternal inbreeding coefficient, whelping season, dam and sire were dropped from the model because they were not significant. The risk of a cesarean section was influenced by the combination of the weight of the dam and the weight of the heaviest puppy in the litter, as well as by the number of malpositioned fetuses and the quality of the contractions. Larger puppies increased the risk of cesarean section especially when the dam had a lighter weight. For dams weighing 23.6 kg and 32.8 kg the predicted probability of a cesarean section was low, with 0.06 and 0.02, respectively, when the heaviest puppy in a litter was light (0.42 kg), contractions were normal and no fetus was malpositioned. However, the probability of a cesarean section was much higher, ranging from 0.24 to 0.08, when the heaviest puppy in a litter was heavy (0.66 kg). Means to reduce the cesarean section frequency in this Labrador Retriever breeding colony should include genetic selection for ideal puppy weight. In addition, dams

  6. Factors contributing to teenage pregnancy in the Capricorn district of the Limpopo Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tebogo M. Mothiba

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Teenage pregnancy refers to pregnancy of a woman of less than 19 years. It is found commonly amongst young people who have been disadvantaged and have poor expectations with regard to either their education or job market. Adolescents may lack knowledge of access to conventional methods of preventing pregnancy, as they may be afraid to seek such information. The study purpose was to identify factors contributing to teenage pregnancy in one village in the Capricorn District of the Limpopo Province.A quantitative descriptive research approach was chosen. Population consisted of all pregnant teenagers attending antenatal care during June to August 2007 at one clinic in the Capricorn District of the Limpopo Province. Simple random probability sampling was used to include 100 pregnant teenagers who satisfied the inclusion criteria. Data were collected through structured self-administered questionnaires. Descriptive statistical data analysis was used. Ethical considerations were ensured.Findings were classified as demographic data where 24% of the respondents were aged between 15–16 years and 76% were aged between 17–19 years. Findings further revealed that 60% of the respondents started to engage in sex at 13–15 years; 48% of the teenagers’ partners were 21 years and above, 44% depended on a single parents’ income; 20% father’s income, 16% received a social grant and 8% lived on the pension fund of the grandparents.Pregnancy prevention strategies were recommended based on the results. The strategies focused on reproductive health services, male involvement and adult-teenager communication programmes.

  7. Mechanism of hyperphagia contributing to obesity in brain-derived neurotrophic factor knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, E A; Biddinger, J E; Jones, K R; McAdams, J; Worman, A

    2013-01-15

    Global-heterozygous and brain-specific homozygous knockouts (KOs) of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) cause late- and early-onset obesity, respectively, both involving hyperphagia. Little is known about the mechanism underlying this hyperphagia or whether BDNF loss from peripheral tissues could contribute to overeating. Since global-homozygous BDNF-KO is perinatal lethal, a BDNF-KO that spared sufficient brainstem BDNF to support normal health was utilized to begin to address these issues. Meal pattern and microstructure analyses suggested overeating of BDNF-KO mice was mediated by deficits in both satiation and satiety that resulted in increased meal size and frequency and implicated a reduction of vagal signaling from the gut to the brain. Meal-induced c-Fos activation in the nucleus of the solitary tract, a more direct measure of vagal afferent signaling, however, was not decreased in BDNF-KO mice, and thus was not consistent with a vagal afferent role. Interestingly though, meal-induced c-Fos activation was increased in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve (DMV) of BDNF-KO mice. This could imply that augmentation of vago-vagal digestive reflexes occurred (e.g., accommodation), which would support increased meal size and possibly increased meal number by reducing the increase in intragastric pressure produced by a given amount of ingesta. Additionally, vagal sensory neuron number in BDNF-KO mice was altered in a manner consistent with the increased meal-induced activation of the DMV. These results suggest reduced BDNF causes satiety and satiation deficits that support hyperphagia, possibly involving augmentation of vago-vagal reflexes mediated by central pathways or vagal afferents regulated by BDNF levels. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Personal, professional and workplace factors that contribute to burnout in Australian midwives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, Jennifer; Lubomski, Anna; Creedy, Debra K; Sidebotham, Mary

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to identify personal, professional and workplace factors that contribute to burnout in midwives. Burnout is prevalent in the midwifery workforce. Burnout adversely affects the well-being of midwives, diminishes the quality of care they provide and can shorten career duration. Self-administered online survey. The survey included the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory and personal and professional variables related to age, children, years of experience, role, model of care and satisfaction with work life. Midwives were invited to participate via an email sent from the Australian College of Midwives and through professional networks between June and July 2014. Variables associated with burnout were entered in a multinomial logistic regression. A total of 1,037 responses were received and 990 analysed. The prevalence of moderate to severe personal (N = 643; 64.9%) and work-related burnout (N = 428; 43.8%) were high. Having children, providing caseload midwifery care and working in a regional area were associated with low burnout. However, midwives registered for 5-10 years were more likely to report work and client-related burnout. Similarly, midwives reporting a lack of satisfaction with work-life balance were also more likely to report personal and work-related burnout. Family-friendly work environments that facilitate work-life balance can help to reduce the personal and organizational costs of burnout. Similarly, providing continuity of midwifery care in a caseload model can facilitate work-life balance and provide significant mental health benefits to participating midwives. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Evaluation of contributing factors of post transplant erythrocytosis in renal transplant patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S.; Ahmed, E.; Naqvi, R.; Qureshi, S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the prevalence and contributing factors causing post transplant erythrocytosis in renal transplant patients. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted on live related renal transplant patients at SIUT. The records of all transplant recipients transplanted between April 2008 and December 2008 and who had at least 24 months follow up were studied. Patients in whom haematocrit exceeded 51% and those who received treatment for it were classified into post transplant erythrocytosis group. Results: Out of 200 renal transplant patients who had functioning graft at the time of analysis, 40 (20%) developed post transplant erythrocytosis (HCT >51%) after a mean interval of 9.5+- 2.5 months. Patients with erythrocytosis were mostly males (95% in PTE group vs 73.75% in non PTE group) ,had a shorter period on dialysis before undergoing renal transplantation (9.28 months in PTE group vs 14.56 months in non PTE group) and had relatively better graft function at the onset of erythrocytosis as judged by serum creatinine (S. Creatinine of 1.06+-0.29 mg/dl in PTE group vs 1.37 +- 0.51 mg/dl in non PTE group). No thrombotic complications were observed. All patients with erythrocytosis were treated with enalapril (ACE inhibitors) and 28 out of 40 required phlebotomy in addition to ACE inhibitors. The mean HCT at the time of last follow up in treated patients was 48.61+-1.85%. Conclusion: Post transplant erythrocytosis generally occurs in male patients with good graft function, thrombotic complications are of rare occurrence and response to ACE inhibitors is good. (author)

  10. Contribution of immunological and virological factors to extremely severe primary HIV-1 infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmau, Judith; Puertas, Maria Carmen; Azuara, Marta; Mariño, Ana; Frahm, Nicole; Mothe, Beatriz; Izquierdo-Useros, Nuria; Buzón, Maria José; Paredes, Roger; Matas, Lourdes; Allen, Todd M.; Brander, Christian; Rodrigo, Carlos; Clotet, Bonaventura; Martinez-Picado, Javier

    2009-01-01

    Background During acute HIV infection, high viral loads and the induction of host immune responses typically coincide with the onset of clinical symptoms. However, clinically severe presentations during acute HIV-1 infection, including AIDS-defining symptoms, are unusual. Methods Virus isolates were tested for clade, drug susceptibility, coreceptor usage, and growth rate for two cases of clinically severe sexual transmission. HLA genotype was determined, and HIV-1-specific CTL responses to an overlapping peptide set spanning the entire HIV clade A and clade B proteome were assayed. Results The virus isolated from the two unrelated cases of severe primary HIV-1 infection showed R5/X4 dual/mixed tropism, belonged to clade B and CRF02-AG, and were highly replicative in peripheral blood mononuclear cell culture. Impaired humoral responses were paralleled by a profound absence of HIV-1-specific CTL responses to the entire viral proteome in the two study cases. One case for which the virus source was available, showed a remarkable HLA similarity between the transmission pair as all 4 HLA-A and -B alleles were HLA supertype-matched between the subjects involved in the transmission case. Conclusions The data suggest that concurrence of viral and host factors contribute to the clinical severity of primary HIV-1 infection and that subjects infected with highly replicative dual tropic viruses are more prone to develop AIDS-defining symptoms during acute infection if they are unable to mount humoral and cellular HIV-1-specific immune responses. Concordant HLA supertypes might facilitate the preferential transmission of HLA-adapted viral variants, further accelerating disease progression. PMID:19093810

  11. Variations of Histone Modification Patterns: Contributions of Inter-plant Variability and Technical Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylva Brabencová

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Inter-individual variability of conspecific plants is governed by differences in their genetically determined growth and development traits, environmental conditions, and adaptive responses under epigenetic control involving histone post-translational modifications. The apparent variability in histone modifications among plants might be increased by technical variation introduced in sample processing during epigenetic analyses. Thus, to detect true variations in epigenetic histone patterns associated with given factors, the basal variability among samples that is not associated with them must be estimated. To improve knowledge of relative contribution of biological and technical variation, mass spectrometry was used to examine histone modification patterns (acetylation and methylation among Arabidopsis thaliana plants of ecotypes Columbia 0 (Col-0 and Wassilewskija (Ws homogenized by two techniques (grinding in a cryomill or with a mortar and pestle. We found little difference in histone modification profiles between the ecotypes. However, in comparison of the biological and technical components of variability, we found consistently higher inter-individual variability in histone mark levels among Ws plants than among Col-0 plants (grown from seeds collected either from single plants or sets of plants. Thus, more replicates of Ws would be needed for rigorous analysis of epigenetic marks. Regarding technical variability, the cryomill introduced detectably more heterogeneity in the data than the mortar and pestle treatment, but mass spectrometric analyses had minor apparent effects. Our study shows that it is essential to consider inter-sample variance and estimate suitable numbers of biological replicates for statistical analysis for each studied organism when investigating changes in epigenetic histone profiles.

  12. Variations of Histone Modification Patterns: Contributions of Inter-plant Variability and Technical Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabencová, Sylva; Ihnatová, Ivana; Potěšil, David; Fojtová, Miloslava; Fajkus, Jiří; Zdráhal, Zbyněk; Lochmanová, Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    Inter-individual variability of conspecific plants is governed by differences in their genetically determined growth and development traits, environmental conditions, and adaptive responses under epigenetic control involving histone post-translational modifications. The apparent variability in histone modifications among plants might be increased by technical variation introduced in sample processing during epigenetic analyses. Thus, to detect true variations in epigenetic histone patterns associated with given factors, the basal variability among samples that is not associated with them must be estimated. To improve knowledge of relative contribution of biological and technical variation, mass spectrometry was used to examine histone modification patterns (acetylation and methylation) among Arabidopsis thaliana plants of ecotypes Columbia 0 (Col-0) and Wassilewskija (Ws) homogenized by two techniques (grinding in a cryomill or with a mortar and pestle). We found little difference in histone modification profiles between the ecotypes. However, in comparison of the biological and technical components of variability, we found consistently higher inter-individual variability in histone mark levels among Ws plants than among Col-0 plants (grown from seeds collected either from single plants or sets of plants). Thus, more replicates of Ws would be needed for rigorous analysis of epigenetic marks. Regarding technical variability, the cryomill introduced detectably more heterogeneity in the data than the mortar and pestle treatment, but mass spectrometric analyses had minor apparent effects. Our study shows that it is essential to consider inter-sample variance and estimate suitable numbers of biological replicates for statistical analysis for each studied organism when investigating changes in epigenetic histone profiles.

  13. Factors contributing to nursing task incompletion as perceived by nurses working in Kuwait general hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kandari, Fatimah; Thomas, Deepa

    2009-12-01

    Unfinished care has a strong relationship with quality of nursing care. Most issues related to tasks incompletion arise from staffing and workload. This study was conducted to assess the workload of nurses, the nursing activities (tasks) nurses commonly performed on medical and surgical wards, elements of nursing care activities left incomplete by nurses during a shift, factors contributing to task incompletion and the relationship between staffing, demographic variables and task incompletion. Exploratory survey using a self-administered questionnaire developed from IHOC survey, USA. All full time registered nurses working on the general medical and surgical wards of five government general hospitals in Kuwait. Research assistants distributed and collected back the questionnaires. Four working days were given to participants to complete and return the questionnaires. A total of 820 questionnaires were distributed and 95% were returned. Descriptive and inferential analysis using SPSS-11. The five most frequently performed nursing activities were: administration of medications, assessing patient condition, preparing/updating nursing care plans, close patient monitoring and client health teaching. The most common nursing activities nurses were unable to complete were: comfort talk with patient and family, adequate documentation of nursing care, oral hygiene, routine catheter care and starting or changing IV fluid on time. Tasks were more complete when the nurse-patient load was less than 5. Nurses' age and educational background influenced task completion while nurses' gender had no influence on it. Increased patient loads, resulting in increased frequency of nursing tasks and non-nursing tasks, were positively correlated to incompletion of nursing activities during the shift. Emphasis should be given to maintaining the optimum nurse-patient load and decreasing the non-nursing workload of nurses to enhance the quality of nursing care.

  14. Digital Inequalities in the Use of Self-Tracking Diet and Fitness Apps: Interview Study on the Influence of Social, Economic, and Cultural Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Régnier, Faustine; Chauvel, Louis

    2018-04-20

    Digital devices are driving economic and social transformations, but assessing the uses, perceptions, and impact of these new technologies on diet and physical activity remains a major societal challenge. We aimed to determine under which social, economic, and cultural conditions individuals in France were more likely to be actively invested in the use of self-tracking diet and fitness apps for better health behaviors. Existing users of 3 diet and fitness self-tracking apps (Weight Watchers, MyFitnessPal, and sport apps) were recruited from 3 regions of France. We interviewed 79 individuals (Weight Watchers, n=37; MyFitnessPal, n=20; sport apps, n=22). In-depth semistructured interviews were conducted with each participant, using open-ended questions about their use of diet and fitness apps. A triangulation of methods (content, textual, and quantitative analyses) was performed. We found 3 clusters of interviewees who differed by social background and curative goal linked to use under constraint versus preventive goal linked to chosen use, and intensity of their self-quantification efforts and participation in social networks. Interviewees used the apps for a diversity of uses, including measurement, tracking, quantification, and participation in digital communities. A digital divide was highlighted, comprising a major social gap. Social conditions for appropriation of self-tracking devices included sociodemographic factors, life course stages, and cross-cutting factors of heterogeneity. Individuals from affluent or intermediate social milieus were most likely to use the apps and to participate in the associated online social networks. These interviewees also demonstrated a preventive approach to a healthy lifestyle. Individuals from lower milieus were more reluctant to use digital devices relating to diet and physical activity or to participate in self-quantification. The results of the study have major implications for public health: the digital self

  15. A quantitative investigation of the effect of a close-fitting superconducting shield on the coil factor of a solenoid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarøe, Morten; Monaco, R.; Koshelet, V.

    2009-01-01

    Superconducting shields are commonly used to suppress external magnetic interference. We show, that an error of almost an order of magnitude can occur in the coil factor in realistic configurations of the solenoid and the shield. The reason is that the coil factor is determined by not only...... the geometry of the solenoid, but also the nearby magnetic environment. This has important consequences for many cryogenic experiments involving magnetic fields such as the determination of the parameters of Josephson junctions, as well as other superconducting devices. It is proposed to solve the problem...

  16. Relationship between C-reactive protein and physical fitness, physical activity, obesity and selected cardiovascular risk factors in schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Sadeghipour

    2010-01-01

    Conclusions: Body mass index was the most powerful predictor of serum concentrations of CRP in schoolchildren. It may be an important factor to control body weight to prevent an increase in serum CRP in children and to help the primordial prevention of chronic diseases.

  17. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2012-01-01

    Nordic Walking Classes Sessions of four classes of one hour each are held on Tuesdays. RDV barracks parking at Entrance A, 10 minutes before class time. Session 1 =  11.09 / 18.09 / 25.09 / 02.10, 18:15 - 19:15 Session 2 = 25.09 / 02.10 / 09.10 / 16.10, 12:30 - 13:30 Session 3 = 23.10 / 30.10 / 06.11 / 13.11, 12:30 - 13:30 Session 4 = 20.11 / 27.11 / 04.12 / 11.12, 12:30 - 13:30 Prices 40 CHF per session + 10 CHF club membership 5 CHF/hour pole rental Check out our schedule and enroll at http://cern.ch/club-fitness   Hope to see you among us!  fitness.club@cern.ch In spring 2012 there was a long-awaited progress in CERN Fitness club. We have officially opened a Powerlifting @ CERN, and the number of members of the new section has been increasing since then reaching 70+ people in less than 4 months. Powerlifting is a strength sport, which is simple as 1-2-3 and efficient. The "1-2-3" are the three basic lifts (bench press...

  18. Effects of 6-month soccer and traditional physical activity programmes on body composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, inflammatory, oxidative stress markers and cardiorespiratory fitness in obese boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabra, André; Katzmarzyk, Peter; Carvalho, Maria José; Seabra, Ana; Coelho-E-Silva, Manuel; Abreu, Sandra; Vale, Susana; Póvoas, Susana; Nascimento, Henrique; Belo, Luís; Torres, Sandra; Oliveira, José; Mota, Jorge; Santos-Silva, Alice; Rêgo, Carla; Malina, Robert M

    2016-10-01

    Physical activity is important in obesity prevention, but the effectiveness of different physical activity modalities remains to be determined among children. The main purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a 6-month soccer programme and a traditional physical activity programme on changes in body composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, inflammatory and oxidative markers, cardiorespiratory fitness and perceived psychological status in obese boys. Eighty-eight boys (8-12 years; BMI > +2 standard deviations of WHO reference values) participated in one of three groups: soccer, traditional activity and control. Soccer and traditional activity programmes involved 3 sessions per week for 60-90 min at an average intensity of 70-80% of maximal heart rate. Control group participated in activities of normal daily living. All boys participated in school physical education, two sessions per week of 45-90-min. Measurements were taken at baseline and after 6 months, and included body size and composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, inflammatory and oxidative markers, cardiorespiratory fitness and perceived psychological status. Physical activity and dietary intake were assessed before and immediately following the intervention. The three groups had similar characteristics at baseline. After 6 months, both intervention groups had significantly lower relative fatness (% fat), waist circumference and total cholesterol, and higher cardiorespiratory fitness, self-esteem, perceived physical competence and attraction to physical activity compared with control group. In conclusion, physical activity interventions over 6 months positively influenced several indicators of health status among obese boys. The results also suggested that soccer has the potential as an effective tool for the prevention and reduction of childhood obesity and associated consequences.

  19. Factors Contributing to Pelvis Instability in Female Adolescent Athletes During Unilateral Repeated Partial Squat Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarborough, Donna Moxley; Linderman, Shannon; Berkson, Eric M.; Oh, Luke S.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Unilateral partial squat tasks are often used to assess athletes’ lower extremity (LE) neuromuscular control. Single squat biomechanics such as lateral drop of the non-stance limb’s pelvis have been linked to knee injury risk. Yet, there are limited studies on the factors contributing to pelvic instability during the unilateral partial squat such as anatomical alignment of the knee and hip strength. The purpose of this study was 1) to assess the influence of leg dominance on pelvic drop among female athletes during the repeated unilateral partial squat activity and 2) to investigate the contributions that lower limb kinematics and hip strength have on pelvis drop. Methods: 42 female athletes (27= softball pitchers, 15=gymnasts, avg age=16.48 ± 2.54 years) underwent lower limb assessment. The quadriceps angle (Q angle) and the average of 3 trials for hip abduction and extension strength (handheld dynamometer measurements) were used for analyses. 3D biomechanical analysis of the repeated unilateral partial squat activity followed using a 20 motion capture camera system which created a 15 segment model of each subject. The subject stood on one leg at the lateral edge of a 17.78 cm box with hands placed on the hips and squatted so that the free hanging contralateral limb came as close to the ground without contact for 5 continuous repetitions. One trial for each limb was performed. Peak pelvic drop and ankle, knee and hip angles and torques (normalized by weight) at this time point were calculated using Visual 3D (C-Motion) biomechanical software. Paired T-test, Spearman correlations and multiple regression model statistical analyses were performed. Results: Peak pelvic drop during the unilateral partial squat did not differ significantly on the basis of limb dominance (p=0.831, Dom: -3.40 ± 5.10° , ND: -3.46 ± 4.44°). Peak pelvic drop displayed a Spearman correlation with the functional measure of hip abduction/adduction (ABD/ADD) angle (rs= 0

  20. Effects of a Whatsapp-delivered physical activity intervention to enhance health-related physical fitness components and cardiovascular disease risk factors in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner-Mas, Adrià; Vidal-Conti, Josep; Borràs, Pere A; Ortega, Francisco B; Palou, Pere

    2017-01-01

    This pilot study evaluated the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of a 10-week WhatsApp-based intervention aimed at enhancing health-related physical fitness components and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors compared with a face-to-face condition. Participants (N.=32) were assigned to one of three groups: training group (N.=16), mobile group (N.=7) and control group (N.=9). Training group and mobile group performed the same training program, based on strength training with elastics bands and aerobic exercise, during 10 weeks; only the delivery mode differed. The mobile group increased handgrip strength, aerobic capacity and decreased systolic blood pressure and heart rate after exercise though there were no significant differences respect to control group. The training group decreased significantly systolic blood pressure (P=0.038), diastolic blood pressure (P=0.005), mean arterial pressure (P=0.006) and heart rate after exercise (P=0.002), respect to control group. Comparison between training and mobile group showed that WhatsApp-based physical activity intervention was less effective than face-to-face condition. The results indicate that the use of an online social network produced slight changes in some health-related physical fitness components and CVD risk factors.

  1. An Evaluation of the Significance of Work-Related Influence Factors on Fitness and the Development of Medical and Orthopaedic Conditions in Military Executives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Schulze

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational health promotion is an effective tool to improve the state of health of employees. As part of occupational health promotion in the German Bundeswehr, top-ranking military executives are offered a medical examination and training programme. Health-related data is collected as a basis for training and lifestyle counselling. This data was subjected to a retrospective evaluation in order to identify occupational risk factors and their correlation with cardiovascular resilience, trunk strength, and the development of orthopaedic and internal disorders. A total of 122 military executives (all male, age 54.6±4.2 years answered a questionnaire aimed at evaluating private and occupational stress factors. The medical history was followed by a medical and orthopaedic examination involving a lactate performance test (treadmill or bicycle ergometry and an isometric trunk strength measurement. The data obtained was then statistically evaluated. For military executives, work-related travelling and commuting involve a high risk of medical and orthopaedic conditions. Regular exercise leads to improved fitness levels. In order to prevent medical problems, military executives working long hours should regularly take part in fitness and weight training under professional instructions.

  2. Implementation lessons: the importance of assessing organizational "fit" and external factors when implementing evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demby, Hilary; Gregory, Alethia; Broussard, Marsha; Dickherber, Jennifer; Atkins, Shantice; Jenner, Lynne W

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, the demand for evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention programs has increased, but practitioners often struggle to replicate and implement them as designed in real-world community settings. The purpose of this article is to describe the barriers and facilitators encountered during pilot year attempts to implement an evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention program within three types of organizations: (1) small community-based organizations; (2) a school-based organization; and (3) a large decentralized city-sponsored summer youth program. We frame our discussion of these experiences within the context of a systemic, multilevel framework for implementation consisting of (1) core implementation components; (2) organizational components; and (3) external factors. This article explores the organizational and external implementation factors we experienced during the implementation process, describes our lessons learned throughout this process, and offers strategies for other practitioners to proactively address these factors from the start of program planning. These findings may provide useful insight for other organizations looking to implement multi-session, group-level interventions with fidelity. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  3. Common Genetic and Nonshared Environmental Factors Contribute to the Association between Socioemotional Dispositions and the Externalizing Factor in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jeanette; Allan, Nicholas; Mikolajewski, Amy J.; Hart, Sara A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Childhood behavioral disorders including conduct disorder (CD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often co-occur. Prior twin research shows that common sets of genetic and environmental factors are associated with these various disorders and they form a latent factor called…

  4. Examination of factors which may contribute to the underrepresentation of African American teachers certified in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Rita C. F.

    Throughout this country the student population is becoming increasingly diverse, yet the teacher population does not reflect this diversity. This lack of diversity in the teacher population deprives students of color from having role models of the same race/ethnicity who look like them and who might have experiences which are similar to theirs (Epstein, 2005; Nettles & Perna, 1997). Having role models from their own race in the classroom could have a positive impact on students' attitudes about science (Perine, 2003), and facilitate their learning of the subject matter, and give students an incentive to do well in school (Vegas, Murnane, & Willett, 2001). In 2000, a national survey study of math and science teachers was conducted (Horizon Research, 2001). The majority of biology (90%), chemistry (93%), and physics (94%) teachers who participated in the study were White. Findings of the study revealed that only 55% to 60% of these teachers considered themselves well prepared to effectively teach a culturally diverse student population (Banilower, 2002; Smith, 2002; Wood, 2002). The majority of the teacher pool, which is White, prefer not to teach in urban communities as they have a preference for teaching jobs in the nonurban communities that are similar to those in which they were raised (Boyd, Lankford, Loeb, & Wyckoff, 2005; Epstein, 2005). The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine factors that may contribute to the underrepresentation of African American teachers certified in science. More specifically, it was decided to examine the high school experiences of in-service teachers. Study participants were teachers and other certificated faculty in two school districts located in the southern portion of the United States. Findings of the study revealed a statistically significant relationship between a teacher's decision to become certified in science and the following high school experiences: teachers and guidance counselors encouraging students to

  5. Contribution of coagulation factor VII R353Q polymorphism to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hanan Azzam

    2016-12-05

    Dec 5, 2016 ... Conclusion: FVII R353Q polymorphism did not contribute to an increased risk of thrombosis (arterial and venous); also .... smoking and obesity were assessed in the AMI and DVT groups as well as the control ..... perspectives.

  6. Passion: Does one scale fit all? Construct validity of two-factor passion scale and psychometric invariance over different activities and languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Herbert W; Vallerand, Robert J; Lafrenière, Marc-André K; Parker, Philip; Morin, Alexandre J S; Carbonneau, Noémie; Jowett, Sophia; Bureau, Julien S; Fernet, Claude; Guay, Frédéric; Salah Abduljabbar, Adel; Paquet, Yvan

    2013-09-01

    The passion scale, based on the dualistic model of passion, measures 2 distinct types of passion: Harmonious and obsessive passions are predictive of adaptive and less adaptive outcomes, respectively. In a substantive-methodological synergy, we evaluate the construct validity (factor structure, reliability, convergent and discriminant validity) of Passion Scale responses (N = 3,571). The exploratory structural equation model fit to the data was substantially better than the confirmatory factor analysis solution, and resulted in better differentiated (less correlated) factors. Results from a 13-model taxonomy of measurement invariance supported complete invariance (factor loadings, factor correlations, item uniquenesses, item intercepts, and latent means) over language (French vs. English; the instrument was originally devised in French, then translated into English) and gender. Strong measurement partial invariance over 5 passion activity groups (leisure, sport, social, work, education) indicates that the same set of items is appropriate for assessing passion across a wide variety of activities--a previously untested, implicit assumption that greatly enhances practical utility. Support was found for the convergent and discriminant validity of the harmonious and obsessive passion scales, based on a set of validity correlates: life satisfaction, rumination, conflict, time investment, activity liking and valuation, and perceiving the activity as a passion.

  7. Fitness club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness club

    2013-01-01

    Nordic Walking Classes New session of 4 classes of 1 hour each will be held on Tuesdays in May 2013. Meet at the CERN barracks parking at Entrance A, 10 minutes before class time. Dates and time: 07.05, 14.05, 21.05 and 28.05, fom  12 h 30 to 13 h 30 Prices: 40 CHF per session + 10 CHF club membership – 5 CHF / hour pole rental Check out our schedule and enroll at http://cern.ch/club-fitness Hope to see you among us! 

  8. Contribution of genetic background, traditional risk factors, and HIV-related factors to coronary artery disease events in HIV-positive persons

    OpenAIRE

    Rotger, Margalida; Glass, Tracy R; Junier, Thomas; Lundgren, Jens; Neaton, James D; Poloni, Estella S; van 't Wout, Angélique B; Lubomirov, Rubin; Colombo, Sara; Martinez, Raquel; Rauch, Andri; Günthard, Huldrych F; Neuhaus, Jacqueline; Wentworth, Deborah; van Manen, Danielle

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have increased rates of coronary artery disease (CAD). The relative contribution of genetic background, HIV-related factors, antiretroviral medications, and traditional risk factors to CAD has not been fully evaluated in the setting of HIV infection. METHODS: In the general population, 23 common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were shown to be associated with CAD through genome-wide association analysis. Using the ...

  9. Factors Contributing to Sexual Violence at Selected Schools for Learners with Mild Intellectual Disability in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyokangi, Doris; Phasha, Nareadi

    2016-01-01

    Background: This paper reports part of the findings of a study which exposed sexual violence in schools for learners with mild intellectual disability in South Africa. Special attention was paid on factors contributing to such a problem. Methods: Data were collected using focus groups and individual interviews with 16 learners with mild…

  10. 20 CFR 416.936 - Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. 416.936 Section 416.936 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining...

  11. 20 CFR 404.1535 - How we will determine whether your drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How we will determine whether your drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. 404.1535 Section 404.1535 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability...

  12. 20 CFR 416.214 - You are disabled and drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false You are disabled and drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. 416.214 Section 416.214 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Eligibility Reasons Why You May Not...

  13. 20 CFR 416.935 - How we will determine whether your drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How we will determine whether your drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. 416.935 Section 416.935 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability...

  14. 20 CFR 404.1536 - Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. 404.1536 Section 404.1536 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining...

  15. Background for Community-Level Work on Emotional Well-Being in Adolescence: Reviewing the Literature on Contributing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Lisa J.; Margie, Nancy Geyelin; Zaff, Jonathan F.

    This paper reviews the research literature on factors contributing to adolescent emotional well-being, focusing on generalized mood/affective states, emotion regulation and coping, and feelings about self, including self-esteem, self-efficacy, and locus of control. Each construct is defined and evidence from research is presented to indicate the…

  16. Motivation to Participate in Workplace Training within the Intelligence Community and Beyond: A Study of Contributing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanard, Stephanie Vernice Overton

    2013-01-01

    Organizations can incur extensive costs to fund training typically available to employees free of charge. However, some employees do not participate. The body of research reviewed in adult education focused on relevant studies and models of contributing factors for participation in academia, the workplace, and the community. No studies were found…

  17. The Psychosocial Factors Contributing to the Underrepresentation of African American Males in Advanced High School Mathematics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlett, Joel Everett

    2013-01-01

    This case study examined the beliefs of African American males on the psychosocial and pedagogical factors contributing to the underrepresentation of African American males in advanced high school math courses. Six 11th grade African American male juniors from a large, comprehensive, Southeastern high school served as individual cases. Within- and…

  18. The Impact of Postsecondary Fitness and Wellness Courses on Physical Activity Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Joshua Charles

    2013-01-01

    Regular physical activity contributes to decreasing health risk factors. With the intent of establishing long-term behavioral changes that attribute to overall physical wellbeing, many U.S. universities offer fitness and wellness courses. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of a postsecondary fitness and wellness course on physical…

  19. A literature review of organisational, individual and teamwork factors contributing to the ICU discharge process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Frances; Chaboyer, Wendy; Wallis, Marianne

    2009-02-01

    It is everyday news that we need more intensive care unit (ICU) beds, thus effective use of existing resources is imperative. The aim of this literature review was to critically analyse current literature on how organizational factors, individual factors and teamwork factors influence the ICU discharge process. A better understanding of discharge practices has the potential to ultimately influence ICU resource availability. Databases including CINAHL, MEDLINE, PROQUEST, SCIENCE DIRECT were searched using key terms such as ICU discharge, discharge process, ICU guidelines and policies, discharge decision-making, ICU organisational factors, ICU and human factors, and ICU patient transfer. Articles' reference lists were also used to locate relevant literature. A total of 21 articles were included in the review. Only a small number of ICUs used written patient discharge guidelines. Consensus, rather than empirical evidence, dictates the importance of guidelines and policies. Premature discharge, discharge after hours and discharge by triage still exist due to resources constraints, even though the literature suggests these are associated with increased mortality. Teamwork and team training appear to be effective in improving efficiency and communication between professions or between clinical areas. However, this aspect has rarely been researched in relation to ICU patient discharge. Intensive care patient discharge is influenced by organisational factors, individual factors and teamwork factors. Organisational interventions are effective in reducing ICU discharge delay and shortening patient hospital stay. More rigorous research is needed to discover how these factors influence the ICU discharge process.

  20. Diffusible signal factor family signals provide a fitness advantage to Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris in interspecies competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yinyue; Wu, Jien; Yin, Wenfang; Li, Peng; Zhou, Jianuan; Chen, Shaohua; He, Fei; Cai, Jun; Zhang, Lian-Hui

    2016-05-01

    Diffusible signal factor (DSF) represents a new class of widely conserved quorum sensing signals, which regulates various biological functions through intra- or interspecies signaling. The previous studies identified that there is an antagonistic interaction between Xanthomonas and Bacillus species bacteria in natural ecosystem, but the detailed molecular mechanism of interspecies competition is not clear. This study showed that Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) interfered with morphological transition and sporulation of Bacillus thuringiensis in mixed cultures, whereas abrogation of the DSF synthase RpfF reduced the interference. DSF inhibited B. thuringiensis cell division and sporulation through modulation of ftsZ, which encodes an important cell division protein in bacterial cells. In addition, RpfF is essential for production of six DSF-family signals in Xcc, which employ the same signaling pathways to regulate biological functions in Xcc and play similar effects on reduction of cell division, sporulation and antibiotic resistance of B. thuringiensis. Furthermore, abrogation of RpfF decreased the competitive capability of Xcc against B. thuringiensis on the surface of Chinese cabbage leaves. Our findings provide new insights into the role of DSF-family signals in interspecies competition and depict molecular mechanisms with which Xcc competes with B. thuringiensis. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Contractors' Perception of factors Contributing to Project Delay: Case Studies of Commercial Projects in Klang Valley, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azlan Shah Ali

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Delay in construction projects is a situation where the project cannot be completed under the planned time. It is a common issue faced in the construction industry all over the world especially in developing countries. In the Malaysian construction industry, 17.3% of construction projects experience more than 3 months delay and some of them are abandoned. Hence, the study of factors contributing to delay is very important in order to reduce the number of projects that experience delay in project delivery. Three objectives of the research have been formulated, namely (1 to identify factors that contribute to delay in construction projects; (2 to analyse and rank the causes of delay rated by contractors; and (3 to study the effects of delay in construction projects. One hundred questionnaires were distributed during data collection stage and only 36 responses received. The respondents only consist of contractors and sub-contractors because the scope of the research focuses on contractors' perception. The data collected was analysed using SPSS software. Seven factors that contribute to delay were identified through literature review, namely contractors' financial difficulties, construction mistakes and defective work, labour shortage, coordination problems, shortage of tools and equipment, material shortage and poor site management. Of those factors, the three most important factors were found to be labour shortage, contractors' financial difficulties and construction mistakes and defective works. Besides project delay, the research shows that cost overrun and extension of time (EOT are the most common effects of delay in construction projects.

  2. Personal, Familial, and Social Factors Contributing to Addiction Relapse, Ahvaz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayazi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Drug addiction is deemed one of the gravest threats to society. Objectives The objective of this study was to determine what factors (personal, familial, or social are correlated with addiction relapse. Patients and Methods In this descriptive study, 146 addicts referring to addiction treatment centers in the Iranian city of Ahvaz were selected via purposive and non-randomized sampling. The study tool was a researcher-made questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and SPSS software were used for data analysis. Results The results showed that 46.1% of the participants aged between 20 and 30 years. All the subjects had at least one attempt at quitting drug abuse. Single individuals comprised 52.9% of the study population. The most significant physical factors were lack of appetite (23.9%, numbness and pins and needles (23.3%, and bone pain (22.4%, while the most significant mental factor was loneliness (44%. Concerning the social factors, association with addicted and misleading friends (35.2% had the utmost importance. Furthermore, lack of a permanent job (43% and absence of appropriate family relationships (32%, respectively, constituted the most important factors among the career and familial factors. Conclusions Our results showed that many personal, familial, and social factors play a role in addiction relapse. The high prevalence of return to addiction necessitates further strategies for the more optimal control of these factors.

  3. Suicidal and Nonsuicidal Adolescents: Different Factors Contribute to Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groholt, Berit; Ekeberg, Oivind; Wichstrom, Lars; Haldorsen, Tor

    2005-01-01

    Some risk and protective factors differ in their importance to suicidal and nonsuicidal people. In this research we explore the cross-sectional differences between risk factors among suicidal adolescents and nonsuicidal adolescents by focusing on self-esteem. Sixty-five suicidal and 390 nonsuicidal adolescents were compared on Harter's…

  4. Kidney fibroblast growth factor 23 does not contribute to elevation of its circulating levels in uremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mace, Maria L.; Gravesen, Eva; Nordholm, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) secreted by osteocytes is a circulating factor essential for phosphate homeostasis. High plasma FGF23 levels are associated with cardiovascular complications and mortality. Increases of plasma FGF23 in uremia antedate high levels of phosphate, suggesting a disr...

  5. Cognitive Factors Contributing to Chinese EFL Learners' L2 Writing Performance in Timed Essay Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanbin

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated cognitive factors that might influence Chinese EFL learners' argumentative essay writing in English. The factors that were explored included English (L2) language proficiency, Chinese (L1) writing ability, genre knowledge, use of writing strategies, and working memory capacity in L1 and L2. Data were collected from 136…

  6. Not So Fast: Inflation in Impact Factors Contributes to Apparent Improvements in Journal Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Bryan D.; Olden, Julian D.

    2010-01-01

    The Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) impact factor has become an important standard for assessing journal quality. Here we propose that impact factors may be subject to inflation analogous to changes in monetary prices in economics. The possibility of inflation came to light as a result of the observation that papers published today tend…

  7. Tomato juices and tomato juice concentrates : a study of factors contributing to their gross viscosity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heutink, R.

    1986-01-01

    The gross viscosity of tomato juice and tomato juice concentrates was found to be determined primarily by the water insoluble solids (WIS) content. The serum viscosity did not contribute to gross viscosity. The WIS consisted of whole tomato cells, vascular bundles and skin fragments. In general the

  8. Spatiotemporal Patterns of the Use of Urban Green Spaces and External Factors Contributing to Their Use in Central Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangzheng Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Urban green spaces encourage outdoor activity and social communication that contribute to the health of local residents. Examining the relationship between the use of urban green spaces and factors influencing their utilization can provide essential references for green space site selection in urban planning. In contrast to previous studies that focused on internal factors, this study highlights the external factors (traffic convenience, population density and commercial facilities contributing to the use of urban green spaces. We conducted a spatiotemporal analysis of the distribution of visitors in 208 selected green spaces in central Beijing. We examined the relationship between the spatial pattern of visitor distribution within urban green spaces and external factors, using the Gini coefficient, kernel density estimation, and geographical detectors. The results of the study were as follows. The spatial distribution of visitors within central Beijing’s green spaces was concentrated, forming different agglomerations. The three examined external factors are all associated with the use of green spaces. Among them, commercial facilities are the important external factor associated with the use of green spaces. For the selection of sites for urban green spaces, we recommend consideration of external factors in order to balance urban green space utilization.

  9. The Analysis of the Contribution of Human Factors to the In-Flight Loss of Control Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancel, Ersin; Shih, Ann T.

    2012-01-01

    In-flight loss of control (LOC) is currently the leading cause of fatal accidents based on various commercial aircraft accident statistics. As the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) emerges, new contributing factors leading to LOC are anticipated. The NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP), along with other aviation agencies and communities are actively developing safety products to mitigate the LOC risk. This paper discusses the approach used to construct a generic integrated LOC accident framework (LOCAF) model based on a detailed review of LOC accidents over the past two decades. The LOCAF model is comprised of causal factors from the domain of human factors, aircraft system component failures, and atmospheric environment. The multiple interdependent causal factors are expressed in an Object-Oriented Bayesian belief network. In addition to predicting the likelihood of LOC accident occurrence, the system-level integrated LOCAF model is able to evaluate the impact of new safety technology products developed in AvSP. This provides valuable information to decision makers in strategizing NASA's aviation safety technology portfolio. The focus of this paper is on the analysis of human causal factors in the model, including the contributions from flight crew and maintenance workers. The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) taxonomy was used to develop human related causal factors. The preliminary results from the baseline LOCAF model are also presented.

  10. Description of Various Factors Contributing to Traffic Accidents in Youth and Measures Proposed to Alleviate Recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic Gicquel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Traffic accidents are the leading cause of hospitalization in adolescence, with the 18–24-year-old age group accounting for 23% of deaths by traffic accidents. Recurrence rate is also high. One in four teenagers will have a relapse within the year following the first accident. Cognitive impairments known in adolescence could cause risky behaviors, defined as repetitive engagement in dangerous situations such as road accidents. Two categories of factors seem to be associated with traffic accidents: (1 factors specific to the traffic environment and (2 “human” factors, which seem to be the most influential. Moreover, the establishment of a stronger relation to high speed driving increases traffic accident risks and can also be intensified by sensation seeking. Other factors such as substance use (alcohol, drugs, and “binge drinking” are also identified as risk factors. Furthermore, cell phone use while driving and attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity also seem to be important risk factors for car accidents. The family environment strongly influences a young person’s driving behavior. Some interventional driving strategies and preventive measures have reduced the risk of traffic accidents among young people, such as the graduated driver licensing program and advertising campaigns. So far, few therapeutic approaches have been implemented. Reason why, we decided to set up an innovative strategy consisting of a therapeutic postaccident group intervention, entitled the ECARR2 protocol, to prevent recurrence among adolescents and young adults identified at risk, taking into account the multiple risk factors.

  11. Description of Various Factors Contributing to Traffic Accidents in Youth and Measures Proposed to Alleviate Recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gicquel, Ludovic; Ordonneau, Pauline; Blot, Emilie; Toillon, Charlotte; Ingrand, Pierre; Romo, Lucia

    2017-01-01

    Traffic accidents are the leading cause of hospitalization in adolescence, with the 18-24-year-old age group accounting for 23% of deaths by traffic accidents. Recurrence rate is also high. One in four teenagers will have a relapse within the year following the first accident. Cognitive impairments known in adolescence could cause risky behaviors, defined as repetitive engagement in dangerous situations such as road accidents. Two categories of factors seem to be associated with traffic accidents: (1) factors specific to the traffic environment and (2) "human" factors, which seem to be the most influential. Moreover, the establishment of a stronger relation to high speed driving increases traffic accident risks and can also be intensified by sensation seeking. Other factors such as substance use (alcohol, drugs, and "binge drinking") are also identified as risk factors. Furthermore, cell phone use while driving and attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity also seem to be important risk factors for car accidents. The family environment strongly influences a young person's driving behavior. Some interventional driving strategies and preventive measures have reduced the risk of traffic accidents among young people, such as the graduated driver licensing program and advertising campaigns. So far, few therapeutic approaches have been implemented. Reason why, we decided to set up an innovative strategy consisting of a therapeutic postaccident group intervention, entitled the ECARR2 protocol, to prevent recurrence among adolescents and young adults identified at risk, taking into account the multiple risk factors.

  12. Factors contributing to the differences in work related injury rates between Danish and Swedish construction workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spangenberg, S.; Baarts, C.; Dyreborg, J.

    2002-01-01

    of injury risk factors at group and individual level for Danish and Swedish workers. LTI-rates and injury risk factors were compared for Danish and Swedish workers during the construction of the combined rail and road link across the 16-km wide sound, Oresund, between Denmark and Sweden. The comparison...... showed that the LTI-rate of the Danish construction workers was approximately fourfold the LTI-rate of the Swedish construction workers. Factors at the micro-level (group and individual level) e.g. differences in education and experience, training and learning, and attitude were important...

  13. Fitting in or opting out: A review of key social-psychological factors influencing a sense of belonging for women in physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Karyn L.; Stout, Jane G.; Pollock, Steven J.; Finkelstein, Noah D.; Ito, Tiffany A.

    2016-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] A number of cultural, social, environmental, and biological factors have been suggested to explain women's relatively lower representation in physics and other science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields. Given its persistence, the causes of gender disparities are likely to be complex and multiply determined. In this review paper, we discuss how a sense of belonging relates to women's interest, persistence, and achievement in physics. We explore what it means to "fit in" and belong in academic contexts, the situational and interpersonal antecedents to belonging, and the consequences of a lack of belonging. We review the empirical evidence for the efficacy of interventions designed to bolster a sense of belonging. Based on these interventions we conclude the paper with a number of practical recommendations to affirm women's sense of belonging and create more welcoming and inclusive physics environments for all students.

  14. Nursing Staff Factors Contributing to Seclusion in Acute Mental Health Care : An Explorative Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    prof Berno van Meijel; Paul Doedens

    2017-01-01

    been demonstrated, and seclusion is only justified for preventing safety hazards. Previous studies indicate that nursing staff factors may be predictors for seclusion, although methodological issues may have led to equivocal results. Objective: To perform a prospective cohort study to

  15. Nursing Staff Factors Contributing to Seclusion in Acute Mental Health Care - An Explorative Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doedens, Paul; Maaskant, Jolanda M.; Latour, Corine H. M.; van Meijel, Berno K. G.; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; Storosum, Jitschak G.; Barkhof, Emile; de Haan, Lieuwe

    2017-01-01

    Background: Seclusion is a controversial intervention. Efficacy with regard to aggressive behaviour has not been demonstrated, and seclusion is only justified for preventing safety hazards. Previous studies indicate that nursing staff factors may be predictors for seclusion, although methodological

  16. The Contribution of Home, Neighbourhood and School Environmental Factors in Explaining Physical Activity among Adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haerens, L.; Deforche, B.; Cardon, G.; Bourdeaudhuij, I.D.; Craeynest, M.; Maes, L.

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the influence of home, neighbourhood and school environmental factors on adolescents' engagement in self-reported extracurricular physical activity and leisure time sports and on MVPA objectively measured by accelerometers. Environmental factors were assessed using questionnaires. Gender specific hierarchical regression analyses were conducted, with demographic variables entered in the first block, and environmental, psychosocial factors and interactions terms entered in the second block. Participation in extracurricular activities at school was positively related to the number of organized activities and the provision of supervision. Perceived accessibility of neighborhood facilities was not related to engagement in leisure time sports, whereas the availability of sedentary and physical activity equipment was. Findings were generally supportive of ecological theories stating that behaviors are influenced by personal and environmental factors that are constantly interacting.

  17. Mediating effects of motor performance, cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity, and sedentary behaviour on the associations of adiposity and other cardiometabolic risk factors with academic achievement in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapala, Eero A; Lintu, Niina; Eloranta, Aino-Maija; Venäläinen, Taisa; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Ahonen, Timo; Lindi, Virpi; Lakka, Timo A

    2018-03-09

    We investigated the associations of cardiometabolic risk factors with academic achievement and whether motor performance, cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity, or sedentary behaviour mediated these associations. Altogether 175 children 6-8 years-of-age participated in the study. We assessed body fat percentage (BF%), waist circumference, insulin, glucose, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure, leptin, alanine aminotransferase, and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT). Reading fluency, reading comprehension, and arithmetic skills were assessed using standardized tests. Speed/agility, balance, and manual dexterity test results were used to calculate motor performance score and physical activity was assessed by combined heart rate and movement sensor and cardiorespiratory fitness by maximal cycle ergometer test. In boys, BF% was inversely associated with reading fluency (β = -0.262, P = 0.007) and reading comprehension (β = -0.216, P = 0.025). Motor performance mediated these associations. Leptin was inversely related to reading fluency (β = -0.272, P = 0.006) and reading comprehension (β = -0.287, P = 0.003). The inverse association of leptin with reading fluency was mediated by motor performance. In girls, GGT was inversely associated with reading fluency independent of confounders (β = -0.325, P = 0.007). The inverse association of BF% with academic achievement among boys was largely explained by motor performance. Leptin in boys and GGT in girls were inversely associated with academic achievement independent of confounding factors.

  18. Intellectual Functioning in In-Patients with Substance Use Disorders: Preliminary Results from a Clinical Mediation Study of Factors Contributing to IQ Variance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braatveit, Kirsten J; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Hove, Oddbjørn

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the direct effect of different childhood difficulties on adult intelligence coefficient (IQ) and their possible indirect effect through the mediating pathways of education and severity substance use. Ninety in-patients aged 19-64. The participants had abstained from substance use for at least 6 weeks and had different substance use profiles. Substance use disorder (SUD) and psychiatric illnesses were diagnosed according to the International Classification of Diseases 10th edition criteria. IQ was measured with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, 4th edition. Childhood difficulties, severity of substance use and level of education were assessed through a self-report questionnaire. Mean full scale IQ for the studied population was 87.3. Learning and attention deficit/hyperactivity difficulties in childhood were directly related to adult IQ. Education had a mediating effect between childhood learning difficulties/conduct problems and the verbal comprehension index. There was no significant difference in IQ due to the specific substance used or severity of substance use. IQ variance in in-treatment individuals with SUD was related to childhood functioning alone or through the mediator of education. Substance-related factors did not contribute to IQ variance. The results fit a normal theory of IQ development with commonly known risk factors and no disturbing effect of substance use. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of U.S. Merit Systems Protection Board's Survey of Sexual Harassment: The Fit of a Three-Factor Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockdale, Margaret S.; Hope, Kathryn G.

    1997-01-01

    Factor analysis of data from 1,070 federal employees, 575 undergraduates and 575 graduate students, faculty, and staff uncovered some weaknesses in the Merit Systems Protection Board's sexual harassment survey instrument. This type of survey does not adequately measure sexual coercion or quid pro quo forms of harassment. (SK)

  20. Cognitive factors contributing to spelling performance in children with prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Leila; Graham, Diana M; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Mattson, Sarah N

    2015-11-01

    Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with impaired school functioning. Spelling performance has not been comprehensively evaluated. We examined whether children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure demonstrate deficits in spelling and related abilities, including reading, and tested whether there are unique underlying mechanisms for observed deficits in this population. Ninety-six school-age children made up 2 groups: children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (AE, n = 49) and control children (CON, n = 47). Children completed select subtests from the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Second Edition and the NEPSY-II. Group differences and relations between spelling and theoretically related cognitive variables were evaluated using multivariate analysis of variance and Pearson correlations. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to assess contributions of group membership and cognitive variables to spelling performance. The specificity of these deficits and underlying mechanisms was tested by examining the relations between reading ability, group membership, and cognitive variables. Groups differed significantly on all variables. Group membership and phonological processing significantly contributed to spelling performance, whereas for reading, group membership and all cognitive variables contributed significantly. For both reading and spelling, group × working memory interactions revealed that working memory contributed independently only for alcohol-exposed children. Alcohol-exposed children demonstrated a unique pattern of spelling deficits. The relation of working memory to spelling and reading was specific to the AE group, suggesting that if prenatal alcohol exposure is known or suspected, working memory ability should be considered in the development and implementation of explicit instruction. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Is the quality of cement a contributing factor for building collapse in Ghana?

    OpenAIRE

    Danso, Humphrey; Boateng, Isaac

    2013-01-01

    Sub-standard (poor quality) materials have been mentioned as one of the major causes of building collapse worldwide. The main materials mostly identified as sub-standard are cement, reinforcement bars, timber and aggregate. This Paper assesses whether the quality of Type I Portland cement use in Ghana - contribute to the recent building collapse in Accra and Kumasi. This was achieved through experimental study by comparing the properties of Ghana cement with that of UK cement. The study found...

  2. Factors Contributing To The Sustainability Of 5S Programmes In Government Hospitals In Regional Director Of Health Services Area Kurunegala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. K.W.C.U.K Kendangamuwa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction 5S is the stepping stone for many quality improvement concepts and its roots date back to 16th century. When successfully implemented 5S gives many benefits to the organization as well as its stakeholders. Though 5S itself has a tool to sustain most of the organizations find it difficult to sustain the 5S practice over the time. Therefore the objective of this study was to find out the factors contributing to sustainability of 5S programmes in Government Hospitals in RDHS area Kurunegala. Methodology This study was a descriptive cross sectional study with two components. First component was to identify the 5S sustaining hospitals from not sustaining hospitals by validated evaluation sheet. Second component was to determine the factors contributing to sustainability of 5S programmes in selected study setting. Self-administrated questionnaire was used for this purpose. Total study population was 543 employees of all the categories of hospital staff. Calculated sample size was 422 and 375 were responded to the questionnaire giving response rate of 88.9. Results The study revealed that the implemented 5S programmes were sustaining in eight hospitals out of ten i.e. sustaining rate was 80. When it considered the degree of sustainability 50 of the selected hospitals reported more than 70 sustainability. This was considered as favourable trend in government health sector in healthcare quality point of view. Ten factors were studied as contributing factors for the 5S sustainability. Socio- demographic factors were also considered. Those ten factors were top management commitment leadership of the organization commitment of middle amp frontline managers commitment amp satisfaction of employees training amp changing attitude of employees motivation of employees organizational culture group cohesiveness community participation and customer satisfaction. Study revealed that organizational leadership customer satisfaction community

  3. The contribution of human factors to risks from radioactive material transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blenkin, J.J.; Ridsdale, E.; Wilkinson, H.L.

    1998-01-01

    The use of probabilistic risk assessment to assess the safety of radioactive material transport operations is well accepted. However, quantitative risk assessment of radioactive material transport operations have generally not explicitly considered human factors in estimating risks. Given the high profile of human factors as the root cause of many serious transport incidents omission of an explicit consideration of human factors in a risk assessment could lead to assessments losing credibility. In addition, scrutiny of radioactive material transport incident databases reveals a large number of operational incidents and minor accidents that would have been avoided if more attention had been paid to human factors aspects, and provides examples of instances where improvements have been achieved. This paper examines the areas of radioactive material transport risk assessments (both qualitative and quantitative) which could be strengthened by further examination of the impact of human errors. It is concluded that a more complete and detailed understanding of the effects of human factors on the risks from radioactive material transport operations has been obtained. Quality assurance has a key part to play in ensuring that packages are correctly manufactured and prepared for transport. Risk assessments of radioactive material transport operations can be strengthened by concentrating on the key human factors effects. (authors)

  4. Sebum output as a factor contributing to the size of facial pores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, M; Han, M; Kim, D; Chung, K

    2006-11-01

    Many endogenous and exogenous factors are known to cause enlarged pilosebaceous pores. Such factors include sex, genetic predisposition, ageing, chronic ultraviolet light exposure, comedogenic xenobiotics, acne and seborrhoea. This study was an attempt to determine the factors related to enlarged pores. To assess the relationship of sebum output, age, sex, hormonal factors and severity of acne with pore size. A prospective, randomized, controlled study was designed. A total of 60 volunteers, 30 males and 30 females, were recruited for this study. Magnified images of pores were taken using a dermoscopic video camera and measured using an image analysis program. The sebum output level was measured with a Sebumeter. Using multiple linear regression analysis, increased pore size was significantly associated with increased sebum output level, sex and age. Among the variables, sebum output level correlated most with the pore size followed by male sex. In comparing male and female participants, males had higher correlation between the sebum output level and the pore size (male: r = 0.47, female: r = 0.38). Thus, additional factors seem to influence pore size in females. Pore size was significantly increased during the ovulation phase (P = 0.008), but severity of acne was not significantly associated with the pore size. Enlarged pore sizes are associated with increased sebum output level, age and male sex. In female patients, additional hormonal factors, such as those of the menstrual cycle, affect the pore size.

  5. An assessment of predominant causal factors of pilot deviations that contribute to runway incursions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Denado M.

    The aim of this study was to identify predominant causal factors of pilot deviations in runway incursions over a two-year period. Runway incursion reports were obtained from NASA's Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS), and a qualitative method was used by classifying and coding each report to a specific causal factor(s). The causal factors that were used were substantiated by research from the Aircraft Owner's and Pilot's Association that found that these causal factors were the most common in runway incursion incidents and accidents. An additional causal factor was also utilized to determine the significance of pilot training in relation to runway incursions. From the reports examined, it was found that miscommunication and situational awareness have the greatest impact on pilots and are most often the major causes of runway incursions. This data can be used to assist airports, airlines, and the FAA to understand trends in pilot deviations, and to find solutions for specific problem areas in runway incursion incidents.

  6. [Psychosocial factors at work and cardiovascular diseases: contribution of the Effort-Reward Imbalance model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedhammer, I; Siegrist, J

    1998-11-01

    The effect of psychosocial factors at work on health, especially cardiovascular health, has given rise to growing concern in occupational epidemiology over the last few years. Two theoretical models, Karasek's model and the Effort-Reward Imbalance model, have been developed to evaluate psychosocial factors at work within specific conceptual frameworks in an attempt to take into account the serious methodological difficulties inherent in the evaluation of such factors. Karasek's model, the most widely used model, measures three factors: psychological demands, decision latitude and social support at work. Many studies have shown the predictive effects of these factors on cardiovascular diseases independently of well-known cardiovascular risk factors. More recently, the Effort-Reward Imbalance model takes into account the role of individual coping characteristics which was neglected in the Karasek model. The effort-reward imbalance model focuses on the reciprocity of exchange in occupational life where high-cost/low-gain conditions are considered particularly stressful. Three dimensions of rewards are distinguished: money, esteem and gratifications in terms of promotion prospects and job security. Some studies already support that high-effort/low reward-conditions are predictive of cardiovascular diseases.

  7. Combat Fitness a Concept Vital to National Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    sedentary lifestyle or less physical activity, but the research does a poor job of isolating the most influential of those factors. However, it does show a... sedentary lifestyle , the lack of physical fitness classes in school and the rise of technology all contribute to this issue; however, each of these

  8. Dietary fat, body weight, and cancer: contributions of studies in rodents to understanding these cancer risk factors in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, A E; Sullivan, L M; Hafer, L J

    1999-12-01

    Understanding diet and energy balance as risk factors for breast, colon, and other cancers requires information on the contribution of each factor and of interactions among factors to cancer risk. Rodent models for breast cancer provide extensive data on effects of dietary fat and calories, energy balance, body weight gain, and physical activity on tumor development. Analyses of the combined data from many studies have shown clearly that quality and quantity of dietary fat and energy balance contribute independently to increased mammary gland tumorigenesis. These findings were seen in female rats fed diets high in fat (35-40% of calories) compared to rats fed control diets, with approximately 10% of calories as fat (Fay and Freedman, 1997, Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 46, 215-223). The methods used permit comparison of experimental and epidemiological data, and they may be useful in extrapolating between species and developing public health recommendations. In addition to the contributions of lifetime-diet composition, intake, energy balance, and physical activity to cancer risk, there are questions about the timing and duration of alterations in these factors and about the "dose-response" characteristics of cancer risk to the factors. Endocrine mechanisms may be significant in mammary gland tumor risk, but experimental and epidemiological data indicate that cancers at other sites, such as colon and liver, also are influenced by the factors listed. Other diet and lifestyle factors that influence energy, or specifically fat, metabolism may also affect risk for cancers that are promoted by increased intake of fat and calories. Studies of separate and interactive effects of dietary fat, black tea, weight gain, and mammary gland tumorigenesis (Rogers, et al, 1998, Carcinogenesis 19, 1269-1273) have been analyzed. Using adjustment of carcinogenesis endpoints for body weight, tumor burden, and latency, they were found to be related to weight gain within treatment groups in

  9. Factor contribution to fire occurrence, size, and burn probability in a subtropical coniferous forest in East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Tao; Wang, Yao; Guo, Zhixing; Li, Yijia

    2017-01-01

    The contribution of factors including fuel type, fire-weather conditions, topography and human activity to fire regime attributes (e.g. fire occurrence, size distribution and severity) has been intensively discussed. The relative importance of those factors in explaining the burn probability (BP), which is critical in terms of fire risk management, has been insufficiently addressed. Focusing on a subtropical coniferous forest with strong human disturbance in East China, our main objective was to evaluate and compare the relative importance of fuel composition, topography, and human activity for fire occurrence, size and BP. Local BP distribution was derived with stochastic fire simulation approach using detailed historical fire data (1990-2010) and forest-resource survey results, based on which our factor contribution analysis was carried out. Our results indicated that fuel composition had the greatest relative importance in explaining fire occurrence and size, but human activity explained most of the variance in BP. This implies that the influence of human activity is amplified through the process of overlapping repeated ignition and spreading events. This result emphasizes the status of strong human disturbance in local fire processes. It further confirms the need for a holistic perspective on factor contribution to fire likelihood, rather than focusing on individual fire regime attributes, for the purpose of fire risk management.

  10. The principal factors contributing to the flux of salt in a narrow, partially stratified estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, R. E.; Lewis, J. O.

    1983-06-01

    Observations of the velocity and salinity structure of the Tees estuary were made at eight stations along the estuary axis between Victoria Bridge and the sea during the summer of 1975. The measurements were made on ten separate tidal periods covering neap and spring tides. The data were collected over a period of relatively low freshwater flows and the residual current was found to have a strong dependence on the Stokes drift. At the upstream stations, the residuals were more than an order of magnitude greater than the currents anticipated from the freshwater discharge. Although the mean stratification decreased as the tidal range increased, the vertical circulation was stronger on spring tides than on neaps. Vertical variations in the amplitude and phase of the tidal current results in a current which strengthens the vertical circulation. However, this effect only made a relatively small contribution to the observed vertical circulation. The relative contribution of the individual salt flux terms to the net upstream transport of salt varies along the estuary. As the estuary narrows, the contribution by the oscillatory terms dominates that from the shear in the steady state flow. Of these oscillatory terms, the correlation of velocity and salinity fluctuations plays a key rôle in the salt transport. The depth mean values make a greater contribution than deviations from the depth mean and the flux due to phase variations over depth is smaller than either of these. Since the Stokes drift is compensated by a down-stream steady state flow, it does not contribute to the tidal mean transport of salt. At the seaward end of the estuary, the salt fluxes due to the steady state vertical shear and the convariance of the tidal fluctuations act in a complementary way to counter the seaward transport of salt by the freshwater flow. With the possible exceptions of the wide or narrow reaches of the Tees, the longitudinal fluxes of salt due to transverse variations in velocity

  11. Major factors contributing to the construction waste generation in building projects of Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaleel Tareq

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the economic growth and improvement of the construction industry witnessed by most countries, there has become a crucial need for employing modern possibilities in the construction sector to build taller, longer and deeper structures. However, one aspect that heads forward with the same intensity is the generation of 100 million tons of construction waste every year. This generation has occurred due to several factors with different levels of importance. Hence, this study reveals 15 factors influencing construction waste generation and categorizes them into 3 groups, (materials management on site, (materials handling, transportation and storage and (site management and practices. A questionnaire survey of 100 respondents was distributed among different engineers to assess the construction waste factors. Results showed that damage of materials on site, double handling of materials and incompetent contractor’s technical staff were the most significant factors of each category with Relative Importance Indexes (RII of 0.866, 0.844 and 0.83, respectively. These findings will help the practitioners to reduce construction waste quantities in sites and improve waste management performance factors to control the construction waste problems.

  12. Contributing Factors to Colorectal Cancer Screening among Chinese People: A Review of Quantitative Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Y. P. Leung

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is a major health problem in Asia. It has been reported that the Chinese are more susceptible to CRC than many other ethnic groups. Screening for CRC is a cost-effective prevention and control strategy; however, the screening rates among the Chinese are sub-optimal. We conducted a review to identify the factors associated with CRC screening participation among Chinese people. Twenty-two studies that examined the factors related to CRC screening behaviors among the Chinese were identified through five databases. Seven factors were consistently reported to influence CRC screening behaviors in at least one of the studies: socio-demographic characteristics (educational level, health insurance, and knowledge about CRC and its screening; psychological factors (perceived severity of CRC, susceptibility of having CRC, and barriers to screening; and contact with medical provider (physician recommendation. The evidence base for many of these relationships is quite limited. Furthermore, the associations of many factors, including age, gender, income, cancer worry/fear, and self-efficacy with CRC screening behaviors, were mixed or inconsistent across these studies, thereby indicating that more studies are needed in this area.

  13. Factors contributing to nursing team work in an acute care tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polis, Suzanne; Higgs, Megan; Manning, Vicki; Netto, Gayle; Fernandez, Ritin

    Effective nursing teamwork is an essential component of quality health care and patient safety. Understanding which factors foster team work ensures teamwork qualities are cultivated and sustained. This study aims to investigate which factors are associated with team work in an Australian acute care tertiary hospital across all inpatient and outpatient settings. All nurses and midwives rostered to inpatient and outpatient wards in an acute care 600 bed hospital in Sydney Australia were invited to participate in a cross sectional survey between September to October 2013. Data were collected, collated, checked and analysed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 21. Factors reporting a significant correlation with where p team leadership were 3.6 (S.D. 0.57) and 3.8 (SD 0.6) respectively. Leadership and communication between nurses were significant predictors of team work p team work.

  14. Some factors contributing to protein-energy malnutrition in the middle belt of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ighogboja, S I

    1992-10-01

    A number of risk factors leading to malnutrition were investigated among 400 mothers of malnourished children in the middle belt of Nigeria. Poverty, family instability, poor environmental sanitation, faulty weaning practices, illiteracy, ignorance, large family size and preventable infections are the main factors responsible for malnutrition. The strategies for intervention are in the area of health education emphasizing the importance of breastfeeding, family stability, responsible parenthood and small family sizes through culturally acceptable family planning methods. There is need to improve weaning methods through nutrition education, growth monitoring and food demonstration with community participation. Political will is needed to improve literacy status, farming methods and general living conditions.

  15. Factors contributing to the resilience of middle-adolescents in a South African township: insights from a resilience questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motlalepule Ruth Mampane

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Factors that contribute to resilience are key to the positive development of youths, and knowledge of such factors is essential for promoting resilience in schools through both policy and practice. This study reports on the results of an item and factor analysis of the Resilience Questionnaire for Middle-adolescents in Township Schools (R-MATS that was used to survey 291 Grade 9 middle-adolescent learners from two black-only township secondary schools. The majority of respondents indicated an overall sense of contending with various stressors, especially the exposure to violence, and academic challenges. Respondents attributed their buoyancy to individual and environmental factors, such as self-confidence, an internal locus of control, a tough personality, commitment, being achievement-oriented, as well as positive identification of and access to social support.

  16. Poor School Performance: Contributing Factors and Consequences, with Emphasis on the Nonwhite Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwinn, Diane G.

    Research on poor school performance--with emphasis on the nonwhite child--is discussed in terms of differences children bring to school, the school process, and consequences of poor school performance. Individual factors related to poor achievement are noted to include membership in a disadvantaged minority group, broken homes and absent fathers,…

  17. Ethnic Variations in Factors Contributing to the Life Satisfaction of Migrant Wives in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Miai; Chin, Meejung; Lee, Jaerim; Lee, Soyoung

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the 2009 National Survey on Multicultural Families, we examined the factors associated with the level of life satisfaction among migrant wives in South Korea. Separate analyses were conducted for the four major ethnic and national groups of migrant wives in Korea: Chosun-jok (Korean Chinese), Han Chinese, Vietnamese, and Filipinas.…

  18. Distinctive Information and False Recognition: The Contribution of Encoding and Retrieval Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Jason

    2006-01-01

    Four experiments evaluated the role of encoding-based and retrieval-based factors in the production of false recognition. The association of unusual fonts with study items, the match between study and test font, and the duration of retrieval time allotted to subjects to make recognition memory decisions were varied in order to examine the role…

  19. Factors contributing to the health-related quality of life of people ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study identified factors that influence the health-related quality of life of people living with HIV (PLWH). A qualitative research approach was used for this study and focus group discussions (FGDs) were used for data collection, while grounded theory informed the data analysis. The key finding of this study is that ...

  20. Secondary Traumatic Stress in Public School Teachers: Contributing and Mitigating Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caringi, James C.; Stanick, Cameo; Trautman, Ashley; Crosby, Lindsay; Devlin, Mary; Adams, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Although research has examined secondary traumatic stress (STS) among mental health workers, child welfare workers, and other human service professionals, such examination among public school teachers has only recently begun. This study represents the first investigation to examine the factors that influence STS levels in public School teachers.…

  1. Students' Perceptions of Factors That Contribute to Risk and Success in Accelerated High School Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaunessy-Dedrick, Elizabeth; Suldo, Shannon M.; Roth, Rachel A.; Fefer, Sarah A.

    2015-01-01

    In this qualitative study, we investigated 15 successful and 15 struggling high school students, perceived stressors, coping strategies, and intrapersonal and environmental factors that students perceive to influence their success in college-level courses. We found that students' primary sources of stress involved meeting numerous academic demands…

  2. Factors Contributing to the Failure to Use Condoms among Students in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbulo, Lazarous; Newman, Ian M.; Shell, Duane F.

    2007-01-01

    This study explored factors that may predict condom use among college and high school students in Zambia. Using the Social Cognitive Theory, this study examined the relationship of drinking behaviors, alcohol-sexual expectations, education level, and religion to condom use among 961 students. The results of the study show that condom use was low…

  3. Factors contributing to the longitudinal development of social participation in individuals with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Siok Swan; van der Slot, Wilma M A; Ketelaar, Marjolijn; Becher, Jules G.; Dallmeijer, Annet J.; Smits, Dirk Wouter; Roebroeck, Marij E.

    2016-01-01

    Aims We aimed to determine factors associated with the longitudinal development of social participation in a Dutch population of individuals with Cerebral Palsy (CP) aged 1–24 years. Methods and procedures For this multicentre prospective longitudinal study, 424 individuals with CP aged 1–24 years

  4. Factors Contributing to Research Team Effectiveness: Testing a Model of Team Effectiveness in an Academic Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Zoharah; Ahmad, Aminah

    2014-01-01

    Following the classic systems model of inputs, processes, and outputs, this study examined the influence of three input factors, team climate, work overload, and team leadership, on research project team effectiveness as measured by publication productivity, team member satisfaction, and job frustration. This study also examined the mediating…

  5. FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO FACULTY AND STUDENT ACCEPTANCE OF INSTRUCTIONAL TELEVISION, TEMP II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SANFORD, FILLMORE H.

    PERTINENT FACTORS WERE DELINEATED IN THE ACCEPTANCE OR REJECTION OF TELEVISED INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAMS USED WITH THE TEXAS EDUCATIONAL MICROWAVE PROJECT (TEMP)--AN EFFORT LINKING 11 COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES BY MICROWAVE TRANSMITTERS TO PROVIDE AN INTEGRATED CLOSED-CIRCUIT TELEVISION SYSTEM. DATA-GATHERING INSTRUMENTS WERE INTERVIEWS,…

  6. Factors Contributing to Changes in a Deep Approach to Learning in Different Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postareff, Liisa; Parpala, Anna; Lindblom-Ylänne, Sari

    2015-01-01

    The study explored factors explaining changes in a deep approach to learning. The data consisted of interviews with 12 students from four Bachelor-level courses representing different disciplines. We analysed and compared descriptions of students whose deep approach either increased, decreased or remained relatively unchanged during their courses.…

  7. An explorative study of factors contributing to the job satisfaction of primary care midwives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warmelink, J.C.; Hoijtink, K.; Noppers, M.; Wiegers, T.A.; de Cock, T.P.; Klomp, T.; Hutton, E.K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: the main objectives of our study was to gain an understanding of how primary care midwives in the Netherlands feel about their work and to identify factors associated with primary care midwives' job satisfaction and areas for improvement. Design: a qualitative analysis was used, based on

  8. An explorative study of factors contributing to the job satisfaction of primary care midwives.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warmelink, J.C.; Hoijtink, K.; Noppers, M.; Wiegers, T.A.; Cock, T.P. de; Klomp, T.; Hutton, E.K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: the main objectives of our study was to gain an understanding of how primary care midwives in the Netherlands feel about their work and to identify factors associated with primary care midwives׳ job satisfaction and areas for improvement. Design: a qualitative analysis was used, based on

  9. Aluminum resistance transcription factor 1 (ART1) contributes to natural variation in rice aluminum resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transcription factors (TFs) mediate stress resistance indirectly via physiological mechanisms driven by the array of genes they regulate. Therefore, when studying TF-mediated stress resistance, it is important to understand how TFs interact with different genetic backgrounds. Here, we fine-mapped th...

  10. Exploring the risk factors contributing to suicide attempt among adolescents: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Rafi Bazrafshan

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: This study identified three major themes related to suicide attempt among adolescents in the context. As a result, suicide prevention and care provision should formulate a comprehensive method, considering the interaction of medical besides individual, familiar, and social factors in their assessment and care provision.

  11. Targeting School Factors that Contribute to Youth Alienation: Focused School Counseling Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Lisa L.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores students at risk of academic non-completion. Schools and school counselors need to target the factors which put students at risk of academic non-completion to reduce the number of adolescents feeling a sense of alienation from school, from educators, and from learning. The construct of student alienation is examined based on…

  12. Understanding Alcohol Abuse among College Students: Contributing Factors and Strategies for Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iconis, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol abuse among college students has become a major public health concern. Individual, environmental, and demographic factors have each been associated with alcohol abuse in that population. In response to the enormous physical, emotional, and legal consequences that occur as a result of the abuse, colleges and universities are developing…

  13. Factors Contributing to Sexual Violence at Selected Schools for Learners with Mild Intellectual Disability in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyokangi, Doris; Phasha, Nareadi

    2016-05-01

    This paper reports part of the findings of a study which exposed sexual violence in schools for learners with mild intellectual disability in South Africa. Special attention was paid on factors contributing to such a problem. Data were collected using focus groups and individual interviews with 16 learners with mild intellectual disability at two special schools in South Africa. This was followed by individual interviews with the school nurse and social worker, and an analysis of schools' books of incidents. Factors contributing to sexual violence at schools for learners with mild intellectual disability included: (i) peer pressure, (ii) concealment of reported incidents of sexual violence, (iii) unsupervised areas linked to schools and (iv) arranged relationships. The following suggestions are put forth: (i) awareness programmes, (ii) sensitization of teachers about the consequences and prevention of sexual violence, (iii) boundaries within which the arranged relationship occurs, (iv) intensification of sexuality education and (v) supervision around the school premises. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Labor inclusion of individuals with disabilities: Managers' conceptions as a contributing factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brite, Roberta; Nunes, Francisco; Souza, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the managers' conceptions involved in the process of labor inclusion in 18 supermarkets with 5,000 employees, 300 of whom with disabilities. A group of 90 managers working with people with disability completed a Conceptions of Disability Inventory (CDI) about their conceptions of people with disabilities. Their responses were categorized as follows: (a) disability as a spiritual manifestation; b) disability as a deviation from normality; (c) disability based on assumptions of inclusion; (d) disability assessed from performance criteria; (e) disability assessed from the connection established with the work organization; (f) disability conceived by contracting benefits, and (g) disability based on the perception of the need for training. Based on the outcomes of the Pearson Correlation Matrix, significant linear correlations were found in seven managers' conceptions of disability. The results also indicate that the managers' conceptions contributed to differentiated inclusionist actions based on their perceptions related to people with disabilities. This study data contributes to identifying the best practices in labor inclusion. The outcomes of the present study could lead to development of a public policy aimed towards humanizing job alternatives for people with disability.

  15. Understanding Sociocultural Factors Contributing to HIV Risk Among Ayoreo Bolivian Sex Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Entrambasaguas, Olga María; Granero-Molina, José; Hernández-Padilla, Jose; Fernández-Sola, Cayetano

    2015-01-01

    The Bolivian indigenous Ayoreo ethnic people are vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections and HIV. Ayoreo women who also work in sex trades belong to an extremely high-risk group, and prevention programs are not delivering effective outcomes for them. The aim of our study was to explore, describe, and understand behavioral and cultural patterns related to sexual and reproductive health in Ayoreo sex workers. A qualitative-ethnographic study was designed; data were collected through participant observation and in-depth interviews with sex workers and key informants. Two fundamental themes contributing to HIV risk for female Ayoreo sex workers in Bolivia emerged: reproductive/sexual freedom and sociocultural risk determinants. We concluded that the in-depth examination of the sexual-reproductive culture amongst the Ayoreo has provided useful information, which might contribute to the cultural adaptation and design of future policies and prevention programs for sexually transmitted infections and HIV in this group. Copyright © 2015 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Physical Fitness in the Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-03-17

    in fitness as the absence of disease or injury . The coach defines fitness as §l’Jse factors responsible for success in a sport. The leader is...lower back and legs to gradually increase your body’s level of activity. This will reduce the risk of injury and prevent unnecessary soreness. Also, a...flexibility. Let’s discuss the importance of muscular fitness and how we can achieve this kind of fitneas through weightlifting or calisthenics. Remember

  17. Factors contributing to low uptake and renewal of health insurance: a qualitative study in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenny, Ama Pokuaa; Kusi, Anthony; Arhinful, Daniel K; Asante, Felix Ankoma

    2016-01-01

    The effort to expand access to healthcare and reduce health inequalities in many low income countries have meant that many have adopted different levels of social health protection mechanisms. Ghana introduced a National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in 2005 with the aim of removing previous barriers created by the user fees financing system. Although the NHIS has made health accessible to some category of people, the majority of Ghanaians (60 %) are not enroled on the scheme. Earlier studies have looked at various factors that account for this low uptake. However, we recognise that this qualitative study will nuance the depth of these barriers to enrolment. Minimally structured, qualitative interviews were conducted with key stakeholders at the district, regional and national levels. Focus group discussions were also undertaken at the community level. Using an inductive and content analytic approach, the transcripts were analyzed to identify and define categories that explain low uptake of health insurance. The results are presented under two broad themes: sociocultural and systemic factors. Sociocultural factors identified were 1) vulnerability within certain groups such as the aged and the disabled groups which impeded access to the NHIS 2) cultural and religious norms which discouraged enrolment into the scheme. System-wide factors were 1) inadequate distribution of social infrastructure such as healthcare facilities, 2) weak administrative processes within the NHIS, and 3) poor quality of care. Mapping the interplay of these dynamic relations between the NHIS, its clients and service providers, the study identifies critical factors at the policy-making level, service provider level, and client level (reflective in household and community level institutional arrangements) that affect enrolment in the scheme. Our findings inform a number of potential reforms in the area of distribution of health resources and cost containment to expand coverage, increase

  18. Understanding Career Success and Its Contributing Factors for Clinical and Translational Investigators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Georgeanna F.W.B.; Schwartz, Lisa S.; DiMeglio, Linda A.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; Gabrilove, Janice L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To understand the factors that facilitate career success for career development awardees in clinical and translational science and to reconceptualize understanding of career success for this population. Method In 2013–2014, the authors conducted semi-structured interviews with former NIH KL2 or K12 scholars from nine Clinical and Translational Science Award-funded institutions. Participants either had or had not secured independent funding at least two years after the end of their last K award. Questions covered the factors that facilitate or hinder junior investigators’ transition to independent funding. Interviews were recorded and transcribed and the transcripts analyzed thematically. Results Forty individuals participated, with equal representation by men and women and by independently and not independently funded investigators. Personal factors that facilitated success included: networks, persistence and resilience, initiative, autonomy, and personal and professional balance. Organizational factors included: appropriate mentorship, protected research time, and institutional resources and support. Even independently funded participants described challenges regarding career direction. Five participants without independent funding modeled a broad spectrum of successful career paths, having assumed leadership positions not reliant on grant funding. Alternative definitions of career success included: improving public health, enjoying work, seeing mentees succeed, and receiving external acknowledgement of successes. Conclusions Awareness of the factors that facilitate or hinder career success can help junior faculty, mentors, and institutional leaders support career development in clinical and translational science. New definitions of career success are needed, as are career paths for faculty who want to engage in research in roles other than principal investigator. PMID:26509600

  19. What Factors Contribute to Headache-Related Disability in Teens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Kathi J; Heyer, Geoffrey; Pakalnis, Ann; Binkley, Philip F

    2016-03-01

    Our aim was to describe the relationship between risk factors, such as stress, depression, and anxiety, and potentially protective factors against pediatric headache-related disability, such as mindfulness, resilience, and self-compassion, and to determine teens' interest in mind-body skills training to help reduce headache-related disability. This was a cross-sectional survey among adolescents seen in an academic neurology clinic reporting four or more headaches monthly using standardized instruments to determine the relationship between putative risk and protective factors as well as physiologic markers of inflammation and vagal tone and headache-related disability. Among the 29 participants, 31% were male, the average age was 14.8 years, average headache frequency was 11.6 per month, and the most commonly reported trigger was stress (86%). The only risk or protective factor significantly associated with headache-related disability was depression (r = 0.52, P = 0.004). Depression was negatively correlated with mindfulness, resilience, and self-compassion (P stress, sleep disturbance, and anxiety (P headache-related disability or depression. There was strong interest in learning skills like slow, deep breathing practices supported by a smart phone application to reduce stress and the negative impact of headaches on daily life. Among teens with frequent migraine headaches, depression is the strongest risk factor for headache-related disability. Stress is viewed as a headache trigger, and teens reported wanting to learn simple stress management strategies supported by a smart phone application to help reduce headache-related disability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. All for one: Contributions of age, socioeconomic factors, executive functioning and social cognition to moral reasoning in childhood.

    OpenAIRE

    Evelyn eVera-Estay; Evelyn eVera-Estay; Anne G Seni; Caroline eChampagne; Miriam H Beauchamp; Miriam H Beauchamp

    2016-01-01

    Moral reasoning (MR) is a sociocognitive skill essential to appropriate social functioning in childhood, and evolves in quality and complexity during ontogenetic development. Whereas past research suggests that MR is related to age, socioeconomic factors, as well as some social and cognitive skills, such as executive functioning, theory of mind, empathy, and affect recognition, their contributions have been studied in silos rather than comprehensively, with little integration of the relative ...

  1. All for One: Contributions of Age, Socioeconomic Factors, Executive Functioning, and Social Cognition to Moral Reasoning in Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Vera-Estay, Evelyn; Seni, Anne G.; Champagne, Caroline; Beauchamp, Miriam H.

    2016-01-01

    Moral reasoning (MR) is a socio-cognitive skill essential to appropriate social functioning in childhood, and evolves in quality and complexity during ontogenetic development. Past research suggests that MR is related to age, socioeconomic factors, as well as some social and cognitive skills, such as executive functioning (EF), theory of mind (ToM), empathy, and affect recognition. However, their contributions have been studied in silos rather than comprehensively, with little integration of ...

  2. Determinants of health care expenditures and the contribution of associated factors: 16 cities and provinces in Korea, 2003-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kimyoung; Cho, Minho; Chun, Kihong

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to classify determinants of cost increases into two categories, negotiable factors and non-negotiable factors, in order to identify the determinants of health care expenditure increases and to clarify the contribution of associated factors selected based on a literature review. The data in this analysis was from the statistical yearbooks of National Health Insurance Service, the Economic Index from Statistics Korea and regional statistical yearbooks. The unit of analysis was the annual growth rate of variables of 16 cities and provinces from 2003 to 2010. First, multiple regression was used to identify the determinants of health care expenditures. We then used hierarchical multiple regression to calculate the contribution of associated factors. The changes of coefficients (R(2)) of predictors, which were entered into this analysis step by step based on the empirical evidence of the investigator could explain the contribution of predictors to increased medical cost. Health spending was mainly associated with the proportion of the elderly population, but the Medicare Economic Index (MEI) showed an inverse association. The contribution of predictors was as follows: the proportion of elderly in the population (22.4%), gross domestic product (GDP) per capita (4.5%), MEI (-12%), and other predictors (less than 1%). As Baby Boomers enter retirement, an increasing proportion of the population aged 65 and over and the GDP will continue to increase, thus accelerating the inflation of health care expenditures and precipitating a crisis in the health insurance system. Policy makers should consider providing comprehensive health services by an accountable care organization to achieve cost savings while ensuring high-quality care.

  3. Motivation to Participate in Workplace Training Within the Intelligence Community and Beyond:  A Study of Contributing Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Overton Stanard, Stephanie V

    2013-01-01

    Organizations can incur extensive costs to fund training typically available to employees free of charge. However, some employees do not participate. The body of research reviewed in adult education focused on relevant studies and models of contributing factors for participation in academia, the workplace, and the community. No studies were found that investigated the motivation of adults who participate and do not participate in the Intelligence Community (IC). This study empirically examine...

  4. Investigating the factors that contribute to the academic underachievement of grade 9 learners / Uys R.M.

    OpenAIRE

    Uys, Riza Mari

    2011-01-01

    Academic underachievement potentially redirects the future of adolescents. The specific sample for this research was Grade nine learners. Grade nine is when subject choices are made and the last year of compulsory education. Academic underachievement during Grade nine becomes a barrier to career enhancing subject choices. Subject choice is a first step to greater specialisation of skills and a future career path. This study focused on the investigation of factors that could possibly contribut...

  5. Fatores que contribuem para o desmame precoce Factores que contribuyen para el destete precoz Factors that contribute to early weaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirella Teixeira Joca

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A interrupção prematura da amamentação pode acarretar perigos, pois os alimentos a serem utilizados são inadequados do ponto de vista nutricional, além de expor a criança a organismos infecciosos. Torna-se relevante investigar os fatores relacionados ao desmame precoce. Pesquisa exploratória e quantitativa, realizada no Centro de Desenvolvimento da Família (CEDEFAM, no período de maio a junho/2003, com 20 nutrizes, no qual foi aplicado um questionário contendo 12 questões sobre os motivos que as levaram a desmamarem precocemente. Os resultados foram agrupados em três segmentos: fatores de desmame relacionados com o perfil; a assistência pré-natal e o parto; e prática do aleitamento materno, e apresentados em forma de tabelas. Concluímos que os profissionais e a sociedade podem não estar preparados para favorecer a mulher no exercício da amamentação. Enquanto isso, a política de saúde não cria condições para que todos tenham acesso à educação, melhoria de renda e conscientização do planejamento familiar.La interrupción precoz del destete puede resultar en peligros, pues los alimentos utilizados son considerados por los nuticionistas como inadecuados, además de exponer al niño a organismos infecciosos. Es muy importante investigar los factores relacionados al desmame. Investigación exploratoria y cuantitativa, realizada en una Unidad de Desarrollo de la Família (CEDEFAM, en el período de mayo hasta junio/2003, con 20 nutrices, cuando fue aplicado un cuestionardo com 12 cuestiones sobre los motivos que que las llevaron al destete precoz. Los resultados fueron agrupados en tres segmentos: factores de destete relacionados con el perfil; la asistencia prenatal y el parto; y práctica de la amamantación materna, y presentados en forma de tabelas. Concluimos que los profesionales y la sociedad pueden no estar preparados para faborecer la mujer en amamantación. Mientras eso ocurre, la política de salud no crea

  6. Adipocyte-derived factors in age-related dementia and their contribution to vascular and Alzheimer pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Makoto; Iadecola, Costantino

    2016-05-01

    Age-related dementia is increasingly recognized as having a mixed pathology, with contributions from both cerebrovascular factors and pathogenic factors associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Furthermore, there is accumulating evidence that vascular risk factors in midlife, e.g., obesity, diabetes, and hypertension, increase the risk of developing late-life dementia. Since obesity and changes in body weight/adiposity often drive diabetes and hypertension, understanding the relationship between adiposity and age-related dementia may reveal common underlying mechanisms. Here we offer a brief appraisal of how changes in body weight and adiposity are related to both AD and dementia on vascular basis, and examine the involvement of two key adipocyte-derived hormones: leptin and adiponectin. The evidence suggests that in midlife increased body weight/adiposity and subsequent changes in adipocyte-derived hormones may increase the long-term susceptibility to dementia. On the other hand, later in life, decreases in body weight/adiposity and related hormonal changes are early manifestations of disease that precede the onset of dementia and may promote AD and vascular pathology. Understanding the contribution of adiposity to age-related dementia may help identify the underlying pathological mechanisms common to both vascular dementia and AD, and provide new putative targets for early diagnosis and therapy. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Vascular Contributions to Cognitive Impairment and Dementia, edited by M. Paul Murphy, Roderick A. Corriveau and Donna M. Wilcock. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Suicidal and nonsuicidal adolescents: different factors contribute to self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grøholt, Berit; Ekeberg, Oivind; Wichstrøm, Lars; Haldorsen, Tor

    2005-10-01

    Some risk and protective factors differ in their importance to suicidal and nonsuicidal people. In this research we explore the cross-sectional differences between risk factors among suicidal adolescents and nonsuicidal adolescents by focusing on self-esteem. Sixty-five suicidal and 390 nonsuicidal adolescents were compared on Harter's Self-Perceived Profile for Adolescents, self-concept stability, seeking support, loneliness, and depression. Self-concept stability, loneliness, and peer support correlated differently with self-esteem. In multivariate regression analyses, variance in self-esteem was explained by depression and loneliness, and among nonsuicidal adolescents also by self-concept stability, support, and competencies. Loneliness and self-concept stability related differently to self-esteem in suicidal and nonsuicidal adolescents. When the aim is to enhance self-esteem, this difference may delineate suicidal subgroups that need special interventions.

  8. Key factors contributing to accident severity rate in construction industry in Iran: a regression modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanzadeh, Ahmad; Mohammadfam, Iraj; Moghimbeigi, Abbas; Ghiasvand, Reza

    2016-03-01

    Construction industry involves the highest risk of occupational accidents and bodily injuries, which range from mild to very severe. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify the factors associated with accident severity rate (ASR) in the largest Iranian construction companies based on data about 500 occupational accidents recorded from 2009 to 2013. We also gathered data on safety and health risk management and training systems. Data were analysed using Pearson's chi-squared coefficient and multiple regression analysis. Median ASR (and the interquartile range) was 107.50 (57.24- 381.25). Fourteen of the 24 studied factors stood out as most affecting construction accident severity (p<0.05). These findings can be applied in the design and implementation of a comprehensive safety and health risk management system to reduce ASR.

  9. Factors contributing to the effectiveness of four school-based sexual violence interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton-Sherrod, A Monique; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A; Gibbs, Deborah; Hawkins, Stephanie R; Hart, Laurie; Ball, Barbara; Irvin, Neil; Littler, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    This study extends past research by examining factors associated with changes in attitudes, knowledge, and intended behaviors related to sexual assault. This study included 1,182 participants from four unique multiple-session school-based sexual violence interventions. Implementation and participant factors examined include single- versus mixed-gender groups, group setting versus classroom lecture setting, and participant gender. Participants completed self-administered, paper-and-pencil pre- and postsurveys. A significant desired overall effect was found on participants' reports of positive attitudes, beliefs, and behavior regarding sexual harassment and personal boundaries and positive dating relationship norms (from pretest to posttest). There were steeper increases over time in both measures, with larger mixed-gender/single-gender differences among boys than among girls. Differences in the impact of participating in mixed- versus single-gender groups depended on classroom versus small group settings. The implications of these findings are discussed for sexual assault prevention programs.

  10. Determinants of vegetation distribution at continental scale. The contribution of natural and anthropogenic factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Michelle; Svenning, J.-C.; Lykke, Anne Mette

    2011-01-01

    It has long been debated what determines distribution of vegetation types, though this has rarely been tested at continental scale. We thus aimed to determine which vegetation types are most accurately predicted by natural environmental factors, and which of these factors best predict current veg...... was also assessed, and found to be of some importance for most vegetation types. We conclude that, in addition to including environmental variables in predicting vegetation distribution, it is essential that human impact be considered, also in future climate change scenarios....... vegetation distribution across Africa. Vegetation types were extracted from the Global Land Cover Map for the year 2000, and the distribution of vegetation types modelled in terms of climate, soil and topography. Annual precipitation was the best predictor of the distribution of all vegetation types...

  11. Platelet-rich plasma derived growth factors contribute to stem cell differentiation in musculoskeletal regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yun; Han, Qixin; Chen, Wei; Song, Jialin; Zhao, Xiaotian; Ouyang, Yuanming; Yuan, Weien; Fan, Cunyi

    2017-10-01

    Stem cell treatment and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapy are two significant issues in regenerative medicine. Stem cells such as bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, adipose-derived stem cells and periodontal ligament stem cells can be successfully applied in the field of tissue regeneration. PRP, a natural product isolated from whole blood, can secrete multiple growth factors (GFs) for regulating physiological activities. These GFs can stimulate proliferation and differentiation of different stem cells in injury models. Therefore, combination of both agents receives wide expectations in regenerative medicine, especially in bone, cartilage and tendon repair. In this review, we thoroughly discussed the interaction and underlying mechanisms of platelet-rich plasma derived growth factors with stem cells, and assessed their functions in cell differentiation for musculoskeletal regeneration.

  12. Hypokalemia, its contributing factors and renal outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Han Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the chronic kidney disease (CKD population, the impact of serum potassium (sK on renal outcomes has been controversial. Moreover, the reasons for the potential prognostic value of hypokalemia have not been elucidated. DESIGN PARTICIPANTS & MEASUREMENTS: 2500 participants with CKD stage 1-4 in the Integrated CKD care program Kaohsiung for delaying Dialysis (ICKD prospective observational study were analyzed and followed up for 2.7 years. Generalized additive model was fitted to determine the cutpoints and the U-shape association between sK and end-stage renal disease (ESRD. sK was classified into five groups with the cutpoints of 3.5, 4, 4.5 and 5 mEq/L. Cox proportional hazard regression models predicting the outcomes were used. RESULTS: The mean age was 62.4 years, mean sK level was 4.2±0.5 mEq/L and average eGFR was 40.6 ml/min per 1.73 m(2. Female vs male, diuretic use vs. non-use, hypertension, higher eGFR, bicarbonate, CRP and hemoglobin levels significantly correlated with hypokalemia. In patients with lower sK, nephrotic range proteinuria, and hypoalbuminemia were more prevalent but the use of RAS (renin-angiotensin system inhibitors was less frequent. Hypokalemia was significantly associated with ESRD with hazard ratios (HRs of 1.82 (95% CI, 1.03-3.22 in sK 5 mEq/L conferred 1.6-fold (95% CI,1.09-2.34 increased risk of ESRD compared with sK = 4.5-5 mEq/L. Hypokalemia was also associated with rapid decline of renal function defined as eGFR slope below 20% of the distribution range. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, both hypokalemia and hyperkalemia are associated with increased risk of ESRD in CKD population. Hypokalemia is related to increased use of diuretics, decreased use of RAS blockade and malnutrition, all of which may impose additive deleterious effects on renal outcomes.

  13. Nurses?experiences of perceived support and their contributing factors: A qualitative content analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sodeify, Roghieh; Vanaki, Zohreh; Mohammadi, Eesa

    2013-01-01

    Background: Following professional standards is the main concern of all managers in organizations. The functions of nurses are essential for both productivity and improving health organizations. In human resources management, supporting nursing profession is of ultimate importance. However, nurses? experiences of perceived support, which are affected by various factors in workplace, have not been clearly explained yet. Thus, this study aimed to explain nurses? experiences of perceived support...

  14. Platelet-Rich Plasma Derived Growth Factors Contribute to Stem Cell Differentiation in Musculoskeletal Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Yun Qian; Yun Qian; Qixin Han; Wei Chen; Wei Chen; Jialin Song; Jialin Song; Xiaotian Zhao; Yuanming Ouyang; Yuanming Ouyang; Weien Yuan; Cunyi Fan

    2017-01-01

    Stem cell treatment and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapy are two significant issues in regenerative medicine. Stem cells such as bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, adipose-derived stem cells and periodontal ligament stem cells can be successfully applied in the field of tissue regeneration. PRP, a natural product isolated from whole blood, can secrete multiple growth factors (GFs) for regulating physiological activities. These GFs can stimulate proliferation and differentiation of differen...

  15. Biased Estimation of Violent Video Game Effects on Aggression: Contributing Factors and Boundary Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Bender, Jens; Rothmund, Tobias; Gollwitzer, Mario

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve the understanding of media violence effects, it is crucial to extend knowledge about factors that threaten the validity of such effects in empirical research. Research artifacts can be expected when participants are (a) aware of a scientist’s hypothesis, (b) motivated to confirm or disconfirm the hypothesis, and (c) capable of manipulating their responses in line with their motivation. Based on social identity theory (SIT) and self-categorization theory (SCT), we assumed t...

  16. The Characteristics of Thai Movies and Factors Contributing to Becoming Widely Known in International Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Tanyatorn Panyasopon

    2012-01-01

    Many Thai movies have been very popular domestically and internationally. Some movies were box office hits and receiving awards. However, there has not yet been research about how Thai movies can sell in international markets The objectives of the research were 1) To analyze the characteristics of Thai movies that can sell to world audiences; 2) To investigate the factors making Thai movies into foreign markets. Thai film professionals were interviewed. Their ideas were a...

  17. Sexual Victimization and the Military Environment: Contributing Factors, Vocational, Psychological, and Medical Sequelae

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-01

    social attitudes are an important causative factor in sexual victimization. A multicultural study found that acceptance of rape myths ("all women want...included attempted or completed sexual penetration of the victim’s vagina , mouth or rectum. Physical assault was defined as any act not occurring during...before the 95th Congress, 2nd Session), Jan. 10-12. Washington, DC, Government Printing Office. Burt, M. R. (1980). "Cultural myths and supports for

  18. Multilingual children with hearing loss: Factors contributing to language use at home and in early education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Kathryn; McKinnon, David H; McLeod, Sharynne; Ching, Teresa YC

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between children’s cultural and linguistic diversity and child, caregiver, and environmental characteristics is important to ensure appropriate educational expectations and provisions. As part of the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment (LOCHI) study, children’s caregivers and educators completed questionnaires on demographic characteristics, including the communication mode (oral, manual, or mixed) and languages used in home and early educational environments. This article reports an exploratory analysis to examine factors associated with language use and communication mode of children at 3 years of age. A Chi Square Automatic Interaction Detector (CHAID) analysis was performed on data from 406 children to examine factors influencing communication mode and oral language use. The factor that most influenced children’s communication mode at home was the communication mode used by their female caregiver. Children’s communication mode in their early education environment was most related to the communication mode they used at home, and then related to the presence of additional needs in the children, female caregivers’ level of education and the male caregivers’ use of languages other than English (LOTEs). A second exploratory CHAID analysis of data for children from multilingual families (n = 106) indicated that female caregivers’ use of English at home significantly influenced whether children used a LOTE at home. Finally, the use of a LOTE at home was associated with the use of a LOTE in the early education environment. These findings serve as an initial description of the factors that were associated with the communication mode and language use of children with hearing loss. PMID:23519446

  19. ORGANIZATIONAL VALUES: CRITICAL FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO THE INTERNATIONALIZATION OF ENTERPRISES THAT SEEK A COST LEADERSHIP STRATEGY

    OpenAIRE

    Thais Ettinger Oliveira; George Berdinelli Rossi; Edson Keyso Kubo; Jose Turibio Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    This research aimed at identifying which organizational values of the Survey of Organizational Profiles’ Values (IPVO) are most closely related to the strategy of cost leadership for Brazilian companies seeking to internationalize. The literature suggests that organizational values are factors that influence the behavior of companies and therefore the strategy adopted by them to compete. For this reason, this article is based on exploratory research through personal interviews with executives...

  20. Factors contributing to disability in rheumatoid arthritis patients: An Egyptian multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, Marwa; Eissa, Mervat; Dawa, Ghada A

    2018-04-30

    Minimizing disability and enhancing physical function to its optimal levels is still a challenge in management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim is to identify factors leading to disability in RA. This is a cross-sectional Egyptian multicenter study carried out on 215 RA patients attending to our inpatient and outpatient rheumatology clinics during 4 months starting from April to July 2017 who agreed to participate in the study; 170 patients were from Cairo University hospitals and 45 from Zagazig University hospitals. We recorded a number of possible risk factors including demographic, clinical, serological and therapeutic factors. The assessment of patients' disability was done using Modified HAQ (MHAQ). A significant positive correlation was found between MHAQ and different markers of activity in addition to age and depression score (P<0.001). Illiteracy accounted for higher MHAQ scores (P=0.001). A higher MHAQ was found in patients with ischemic heart disease (P<0.05). Patients with erosions on X-rays had significantly higher MHAQ scores. Subluxations also accounted for higher MHAQ scores (P=0.000). Aging, illiteracy, disease activity, erosions, subluxations, depression and ischemic heart disease were all related to higher disability. Good control of disease activity which in turn reduces erosions and subluxations is mandatory. Screening for depression and proper use of anti-depressants is of great value. Proper screening and prophylaxis is recommended against ischemic heart disease by controlling modifiable risk factors like obesity, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, smoking and sedentary lifestyle. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.