WorldWideScience

Sample records for fissile material packages

  1. 49 CFR 173.467 - Tests for demonstrating the ability of Type B and fissile materials packagings to withstand...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Type B and fissile materials packagings to withstand accident conditions in transportation. Each Type B packaging or packaging for fissile material must meet the test requirements prescribed in 10 CFR part 71 for... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tests for demonstrating the ability of Type B...

  2. In-Drift Accumulation of Fissile Material From Waste Packages Containing Plutonium Disposition Waste Form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.W> Stockman; S. LeStrange

    2000-09-28

    The objective of this calculation is to provide estimates of the amount of fissile material flowing out of the waste package (source term) and the accumulation of fissile elements (U and Pu) in a crushed-tuff invert. These calculations provide input for the analysis of repository impacts of the Pu-ceramic waste forms. In particular, the source term results are used as input to the far-field accumulation calculation reported in Ref. 51, and the in-drift accumulation results are used as inputs for the criticality calculations reported in Ref. 2. The results are also summarized and interpreted in Ref. 52. The scope of this calculation is the waste package (WP) Viability Assessment (VA) design, which consists of an outer corrosion-allowance material (CAM) and an inner corrosion-resistant material (CRM). This design is used in this calculation in order to be consistent with earlier Pu-ceramic degradation calculations (Ref. 15). The impact of the new Enhanced Design Alternative-I1 (EDA-11) design on the results will be addressed in a subsequent report. The design of the invert (a leveling foundation, which creates a level surface of the drift floor and supports the WP mounting structure) is consistent with the EDA-I1 design. The invert will be composed of crushed stone and a steel support structure (Ref. 17). The scope of this calculation is also defined by the nominal degradation scenario, which involves the breach of the WP (Section 10.5.1.2, Ref. 48), followed by the influx of water. Water in the WP may, in time, gradually leach the fissile components and neutron absorbers out of the ceramic waste forms. Thus, the water in the WP may become laden with dissolved actinides (e.g., Pu and U), and may eventually overflow or leak from the WP. Once the water leaves the WP, it may encounter the invert, in which the actinides may reprecipitate. Several factors could induce reprecipitation; these factors include: the high surface area of the crushed stone, and the presence of

  3. Far-Field Accumulation of Fissile Material From Waste Packages Containing Plutonium Disposition Waste Form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.P. Nicot

    2000-09-29

    The objective of this calculation is to estimate the quantity of fissile material that could accumulate in fractures in the rock beneath plutonium-ceramic (Pu-ceramic) and Mixed-Oxide (MOX) waste packages (WPs) as they degrade in the potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. This calculation is to feed another calculation (Ref. 31) computing the probability of criticality in the systems described in Section 6 and then ultimately to a more general report on the impact of plutonium on the performance of the proposed repository (Ref. 32), both developed concurrently to this work. This calculation is done in accordance with the development plan TDP-DDC-MD-000001 (Ref. 9), item 5. The original document described in item 5 has been split into two documents: this calculation and Ref. 4. The scope of the calculation is limited to only very low flow rates because they lead to the most conservative cases for Pu accumulation and more generally are consistent with the way the effluent from the WP (called source term in this calculation) was calculated (Ref. 4). Ref. 4 (''In-Drift Accumulation of Fissile Material from WPs Containing Plutonium Disposition Waste Forms'') details the evolution through time (breach time is initial time) of the chemical composition of the solution inside the WP as degradation of the fuel and other materials proceed. It is the chemical solution used as a source term in this calculation. Ref. 4 takes that same source term and reacts it with the invert; this calculation reacts it with the rock. In addition to reactions with the rock minerals (that release Si and Ca), the basic mechanisms for actinide precipitation are dilution and mixing with resident water as explained in Section 2.1.4. No other potential mechanism such as flow through a reducing zone is investigated in this calculation. No attempt was made to use the effluent water from the bottom of the invert instead of using directly the effluent water from the

  4. Assessment and recommendations for fissile-material packaging exemptions and general licenses within 10 CFR Part 71

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parks, C.V.; Hopper, C.M.; Lichtenwalter, J.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1998-07-01

    This report provides a technical and regulatory assessment of the fissile material general licenses and fissile material exemptions within Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 71. The assessment included literature studies and calculational analyses to evaluate the technical criteria; review of current industry practice and concerns; and a detailed evaluation of the regulatory text for clarity, consistency and relevance. Recommendations for potential consideration by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff are provided. The recommendations call for a simplification and consolidation of the general licenses and a change in the technical criteria for the first fissile material exemptions.

  5. Development of an Air Transport Type A Fissile Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanton, P.; Ebert, K.

    2011-07-13

    This paper presents the summary of testing by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to support development of a light weight (<140 lbs) air transport qualified Type A Fissile Packaging. The package design incorporates features and materials specifically designed to minimize packaging weight. The light weight package is being designed to provide confinement to the contents when subjected to the normal and hypothetical conditions required of an air transportable Type A Fissile radioactive material shipping package. The objective of these tests was to provide design input to the final design for the LORX Type A Fissile Air Transport Packaging when subjected to the performance requirements of the drop, crush and puncture probe test of 10CFR71. The post test evaluation of the prototype packages indicates that all of the tested designs would satisfactorily confine the content within the packaging. The differences in the performance of the prototypes varied significantly depending on the core materials and their relative densities. Information gathered from these tests is being used to develop the final design for the Department of Homeland Security.

  6. 10 CFR 71.55 - General requirements for fissile material packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the special design features in paragraph (c) of this section, unless water leakage into or out of void... water were to leak into the containment system, or liquid contents were to leak out of the containment... the material; (2) Moderation by water to the most reactive credible extent; and (3) Close full...

  7. TYPE A FISSILE PACKAGING FOR AIR TRANSPORT PROJECT OVERVIEW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberl, K.; Blanton, P.

    2013-10-11

    This paper presents the project status of the Model 9980, a new Type A fissile packaging for use in air transport. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) developed this new packaging to be a light weight (<150-lb), drum-style package and prepared a Safety Analysis for Packaging (SARP) for submission to the DOE/EM. The package design incorporates unique features and engineered materials specifically designed to minimize packaging weight and to be in compliance with 10CFR71 requirements. Prototypes were fabricated and tested to evaluate the design when subjected to Normal Conditions of Transport (NCT) and Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC). An overview of the design details, results of the regulatory testing, and lessons learned from the prototype fabrication for the 9980 will be presented.

  8. 49 CFR 173.477 - Approval of packagings containing greater than 0.1 kg of non-fissile or fissile-excepted uranium...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... kg of non-fissile or fissile-excepted uranium hexafluoride. 173.477 Section 173.477 Transportation... non-fissile or fissile-excepted uranium hexafluoride. (a) Each offeror of a package containing more than 0.1 kg of uranium hexafluoride must maintain on file for at least one year after the...

  9. Technologies for Fissile Material Detection and Prevention of Fissile Material Introduction into International Shipping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, J

    2003-07-01

    Prevention of the introduction of fissile materials into international shipping, and hence into a given country, is a complex problem. Some pieces of the solution to the puzzle are conceptually well defined, but lack definition of a technical pathway and/or operational implementation. Other elements are a little more fuzzy, and some elements are probably undefined at this point in time. This paper reviews the status of the more well-defined elements, and suggests needed additional measures to enhance the probability that fissile materials are not illicitly introduced into distant countries. International commerce proceeds through a number of steps from point of origin to final destination. Each step offers the possibility of a well-defined choke point to monitor and interdict the illicit shipment of fissile materials. However, because there are so many potential points and venues of entry into a large country such as the United States (e.g., air cargo, shipping containers, truck and rail transport, private vehicles, boats and planes, commercial passenger travel), it behooves the world to ensure that fissile material does not illicitly leave its point of origin.

  10. Fissile material disposition program: Screening of alternate immobilization candidates for disposition of surplus fissile materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, L.W.

    1996-01-08

    With the end of the Cold War, the world faces for the first time the need to dismantle vast numbers of ``excess`` nuclear weapons and dispose of the fissile materials they contain, together with fissile residues in the weapons production complex left over from the production of these weapons. If recently agreed US and Russian reductions are fully implemented, tens of thousands of nuclear weapons, containing a hundred tons or more of plutonium and hundreds of tonnes* of highly enriched uranium (HEU), will no longer be needed worldwide for military purposes. These two materials are the essential ingredients of nuclear weapons, and limits on access to them are the primary technical barrier to prospective proliferants who might desire to acquire a nuclear weapons capability. Theoretically, several kilograms of plutonium, or several times that amount of HEU, is sufficient to make a nuclear explosive device. Therefore, these materials will continue to be a potential threat to humanity for as long as they exist.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF THE HS99 AIR TRANSPORT TYPE A FISSILE PACKAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

    2012-07-10

    An air-transport Type A Fissile radioactive shipping package for the transport of special form uranium sources has been developed by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for the Department of Homeland Security. The Package model number is HS99 for Homeland Security Model 99. This paper presents the major design features of the HS99 and highlights engineered materials necessary for meeting the design requirements for this light-weight Type AF packaging. A discussion is provided demonstrating how the HS99 complies with the regulatory safety requirements of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The paper summarizes the results of structural testing to specified in 10 CFR 71 for Normal Conditions of Transport and Hypothetical Accident Conditions events. Planned and proposed future missions for this packaging are also addressed.

  12. γ-ray self-absorption of cylindrical fissile material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yong-Yi; CHENG Yi-Ying; TIAN Dong-Feng; LU Fu-Quan; YANG Fu-Jia

    2005-01-01

    The self-absorption of γ-ray emitted from cylindrical fissile materials, such as 235U and 239Pu, does not possess spherical symmetry. The analytical formulae of self-absorption for γ-ray throughout the cylinder have been obtained. The intensity of γ-ray is a function of γ-ray outgoing directions and cylindrical configurations, accordingly one can acquire the information about geometrical configuration of cylindrical fissile materials through multi-location measurements. Further more, the method is given in this article. The result can be applied to the fissile material safeguard, such as nuclear monitoring and verifying.

  13. 49 CFR 173.453 - Fissile materials-exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... exceeding 0.002 percent of the mass of uranium, and with a minimum nitrogen to uranium atomic ratio (N/U) of... determining the required mass for solid nonfissile material. (c) Low concentrations of solid fissile material... required mass of solid nonfissile material. (d) Uranium enriched in uranium-235 to a maximum of 1...

  14. Leo Szilard Lectureship Award: Fissile Materials: A Global Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaraman, Ramamurti

    2014-03-01

    The world has built up a huge glut of Fissile Materials, posing a potentially devastating threat. While specialists in the field have been aware of this danger for a long time, it was only after President Obama organized the Nuclear Security Summit in 2010 that the attention of the world's political leadership was drawn to it. We will present here an introductory overview of Fissile materials - their definition, significance and their production facilities and stocks in different parts of the world. We will also mention some of the efforts being made to verifiably cap and reduce their stocks as well as the technical and political complications involved in the process.

  15. Controlling Weapons-Grade Fissile Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotblat, J.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the problems of controlling weapons-grade fissionable material. Projections of the growth of fission nuclear reactors indicates sufficient materials will be available to construct 300,000 atomic bombs each containing 10 kilograms of plutonium by 1990. (SL)

  16. Gamma ray absorption of cylindrical fissile material with dual shields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Chen-Yan; TIAN Dong-Feng; CHENG Yi-Ying; HUANG Yong-Yi; LU Fu-Quan; YANG Fu-Jia

    2005-01-01

    This work analyzed the gamma ray attenuation effect from the self-absorption and shield attenuation perspectively. An exact mathematical equation was given for the geometric factor of the cylindrical fissile material with dual shields. In addition, several approximation approaches suitable for real situation were discussed, especially in the radial and axial directions of the cylinders, since the G-factors have simple forms. Then the space distribution patterns of the G-factor were analyzed based on numerical result and effective ways to solve the geometric information of the cylindrical fissile material, the radii and the heights, were deduced. This method was checked and verified by numerical calculation. Because of the efficiency of the method, it is ideal for application in real situations, such as nuclear safeguards, which demands speed of detection and accuracy of geometric analysis.

  17. Fissile material storage in the Oak Ridge Radiochemical Development Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Primm, R.T. III

    1993-08-01

    As a part of a Department of Energy review of Oak Ridge National Laboratory facilities, nuclear safety documentation for the Radiochemical Development Facility (Building 3019) was found to be inadequate. While calculations existed which established safe limits for the storage of fissile material, these calculations were not performed with verified/validated software nor were the results reported in the manner prescribed by applicable DOE orders and ORNL procedures. To address this deficiency, the operations conducted in Building 3019 were reviewed and conditions were compared to available critical experiment data. Applicable critical experiments were selected and multiplication factors were calculated. Subcritical limits were derived for each of three fissile materials (U-233, U-235, and Pu-239). One application of these limits was to certify the safety of a storage array which could contain any or all of the above nuclides at varying degrees of moderation. The studies presented are believed to fulfill most of the applicable regulatory requirements.

  18. DISSOLUTION OF FISSILE MATERIALS CONTAINING TANTALUM METAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudisill, T; Mark Crowder, M; Michael Bronikowski, M

    2007-05-29

    The dissolution of composite materials containing plutonium (Pu) and tantalum (Ta) metals is currently performed in Phase I of the HB-Line facility. The conditions for the present flowsheet are the dissolution of 500 g of Pu metal in the 15 L dissolver using a 4 M nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) solution containing 0.2 M potassium fluoride (KF) at 95 C for 4-6 h.[1] The Ta metal, which is essentially insoluble in HNO{sub 3}/fluoride solutions, is rinsed with process water to remove residual acid, and then burned to destroy classified information. During the initial dissolution campaign, the total mass of Pu and Ta in the dissolver charge was limited to nominally 300 g. The reduced amount of Pu in the dissolver charge coupled with significant evaporation of solution during processing of several dissolver charges resulted in the precipitation of a fluoride salt contain Pu. Dissolution of the salt required the addition of aluminum nitrate (Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}) and a subsequent undesired 4 h heating cycle. As a result of this issue, HB-Line Engineering requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to optimize the dissolution flowsheet to reduce the cycle time, reduce the risk of precipitating solids, and obtain hydrogen (H{sub 2}) generation data at lower fluoride concentrations.[2] Using samples of the Pu/Ta composite material, we performed three experiments to demonstrate the dissolution of the Pu metal using HNO{sub 3} solutions containing 0.15 and 0.175 M KF. When 0.15 M KF was used in the dissolving solution, 95.5% of the Pu in the sample dissolved in approximately 6 h. The undissolved material included a small amount of Pu metal and plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) solids. Complete dissolution of the metal would have likely occurred if the dissolution time had been extended. This assumption is based on the steady increase in the Pu concentration observed during the last several hours of the experiment. We attribute the formation of PuO{sub 2} to the complexation

  19. Canyon transfer neutron absorber to fissile material ratio analysis. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemmons, J.S.

    1994-03-04

    Waste tank fissile material and non-fissile material estimates are used to evaluate criticality safety for the existing sludge inventory and batches of sludge sent to Extended Sludge Processing (ESP). This report documents the weight ratios of several non-fissile waste constituents to fissile waste constituents from canyon reprocessing waste streams. Weight ratios of Fe, Mn, Al, Mi, and U-238 to fissile material are calculated from monthly loss estimates from the F and H Canyon Low Heat Waste (LHW) and High Heat Waste (HHW) streams. The monthly weight ratios for Fe, Mn and U-238 are then compared to calculated minimum safe weight ratios. Documented minimum safe weight ratios for Al and Ni to fissile material are currently not available. Total mass data for the subject sludge constituents is provided along with scatter plots of the monthly weight ratios for each waste stream.

  20. Feasibility study of fissile mass quantification by photofission delayed gamma rays in radioactive waste packages using MCNPX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Eric; Jallu, Fanny; Pérot, Bertrand; Plumeri, Stéphane

    2016-12-01

    The feasibility of fissile mass quantification in large, long-lived medium activity radioactive waste packages using photofission delayed gamma rays has been assessed with MCNPX. The detection limit achievable is lower than the expected uranium mass in these waste packages, but the important sensibility to the waste matrix density and sample localization imposes to get an accurate measurement of these parameters. An isotope discrimination method based on gamma-ray ratios has been evaluated showing that photofission delayed gamma rays can be used to measure the fissile mass as well as the total uranium mass.

  1. R&D plan for immobilization technologies: fissile materials disposition program. Revision 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, H.F.; Armantrout, G.A.

    1996-09-01

    In the aftermath of the Cold War, the US and Russia have agreed to large reductions in nuclear weapons. To aid in the selection of long- term fissile material management options, the Department of Energy`s Fissile Materials Disposition Program (FMDP) is conducting studies of options for the storage and disposition of surplus plutonium (Pu). One set of alternatives for disposition involve immobilization. The immobilization alternatives provide for fixing surplus fissile materials in a host matrix in order to create a solid disposal form that is nuclear criticality-safe, proliferation-resistant and environmentally acceptable for long-term storage or disposal.

  2. Non-proliferation, safeguards, and security for the fissile materials disposition program immobilization alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, R.A.; Jaeger, C.D.; Tolk, K.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Moore, L.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy is analyzing long-term storage and disposition alternatives for surplus weapons-usable fissile materials. A number of different disposition alternatives are being considered. These include facilities for storage, conversion and stabilization of fissile materials, immobilization in glass or ceramic material, fabrication of fissile material into mixed oxide (MOX) fuel for reactors, use of reactor based technologies to convert material into spent fuel, and disposal of fissile material using geologic alternatives. This paper will focus on how the objectives of reducing security and proliferation risks are being considered, and the possible facility impacts. Some of the areas discussed in this paper include: (1) domestic and international safeguards requirements, (2) non-proliferation criteria and measures, (3) the threats, and (4) potential proliferation, safeguards, and security issues and impacts on the facilities. Issues applicable to all of the possible disposition alternatives will be discussed in this paper. However, particular attention is given to the plutonium immobilization alternatives.

  3. The Future of Nuclear Archaeology: Reducing Legacy Risks of Weapons Fissile Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Thomas W.; Reid, Bruce D.; Toomey, Christopher M.; Krishnaswami, Kannan; Burns, Kimberly A.; Casazza, Larry O.; S. Daly, Don; L. Duckworth, Leesa

    2014-01-01

    This report describes the value proposition for a "nuclear archeological" technical capability and applications program, targeted at resolving uncertainties regarding fissile materials production and use. At its heart, this proposition is that we can never be sure that all fissile material is adequately secure without a clear idea of what "all" means, and that uncertainty in this matter carries risk. We argue that this proposition is as valid today, under emerging state and possible non-state nuclear threats, as it was in an immediate post-Cold-War context, and describe how nuclear archeological methods can be used to verify fissile materials declarations, or estimate and characterize historical fissile materials production independently of declarations.

  4. Fissile and Non-Fissile Material Detection Using Nuclear Acoustic Resonance Signatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernhard R. Tittmann; P.M. Lenahan; David Spears; Rhys Williams

    2008-11-25

    The objective of this project is to develop anovel technique for remote, non-destructive, non-radiation-based detection of materials of interest to Nonproliferation Programs. We propse the development of a detection system based on magnetic resonance principles (NAR), which would work where radiation detection is not possible. The approach would be non-intrusive, penetrating, applicable to many materials of interest for Nonproliferation, and be able to identify the nuclear samples under investigation.

  5. Fissile and Non-Fissile Material Detection using Nuclear Acoustic Resonance Signatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herberg, J; Maxwell, R; Tittmann, B R; Lenahan, P M; Yerkes, S; Jayaraman, S

    2005-10-04

    This report reviews progress made on NA22 project LL251DP to develop a novel technique, Nuclear Acoustic Resonance (NAR), for remote, non-destructive, nonradiation-based detection of materials of interest to Nonproliferation Programs, including {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu. We have met all milestones and deliverables for FY05, as shown in Table 1. In short, we have developed a magnetic shield chamber and magnetic field, develop a digital lock-in amplifier computer to integrate both the ultrasound radiation with the detector, developed strain measurements, and begin to perform initial measurements to obtain a NAR signal from aluminum at room temperature and near the earth's magnetic field. The results obtained in FY05 further support the feasibility of successful demonstration of an NAR experiment for remote, non-destructive, non-radiation-based detection of materials of interest to Nonproliferation Programs.

  6. Fissile and Non-Fissile Material Detection using Nuclear Acoustic Resonance Signatures: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herberg, J; Maxwell, R; Tittmann, B R; Lenahan, P M; Yerkes, S; Jayaraman, S B

    2006-11-02

    This is final report on NA-22 project LL251DP, where the goal was to develop a novel technique, Nuclear Acoustic Resonance (NAR), for remote, non-destructive, nonradiation-based detection of materials of interest to Nonproliferation Programs, including {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu. In short, we have developed a magnetic shield chamber and magnetic field, develop a digital lock-in amplifier computer to integrate both the ultrasound radiation with the detector, developed strain measurements, and begun to perform initial measurements to obtain a NAR signal from aluminum at room temperature and near the earth's magnetic field. Since our funding was cut in FY06, I will discuss where this project can go in the future with this technology.

  7. Materials for advanced packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, CP

    2008-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in advanced packaging in recent years. Several new packaging techniques have been developed and new packaging materials have been introduced. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the recent developments in this industry, particularly in the areas of microelectronics, optoelectronics, digital health, and bio-medical applications. The book discusses established techniques, as well as emerging technologies, in order to provide readers with the most up-to-date developments in advanced packaging.

  8. Edible packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjarasskul, Theeranun; Krochta, John M

    2010-01-01

    Research groups and the food and pharmaceutical industries recognize edible packaging as a useful alternative or addition to conventional packaging to reduce waste and to create novel applications for improving product stability, quality, safety, variety, and convenience for consumers. Recent studies have explored the ability of biopolymer-based food packaging materials to carry and control-release active compounds. As diverse edible packaging materials derived from various by-products or waste from food industry are being developed, the dry thermoplastic process is advancing rapidly as a feasible commercial edible packaging manufacturing process. The employment of nanocomposite concepts to edible packaging materials promises to improve barrier and mechanical properties and facilitate effective incorporation of bioactive ingredients and other designed functions. In addition to the need for a more fundamental understanding to enable design to desired specifications, edible packaging has to overcome challenges such as regulatory requirements, consumer acceptance, and scaling-up research concepts to commercial applications.

  9. Materials for advanced packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, CP

    2017-01-01

    This second edition continues to be the most comprehensive review on the developments in advanced electronic packaging technologies, with a focus on materials and processing. Recognized experts in the field contribute to 22 updated and new chapters that provide comprehensive coverage on various 3D package architectures, novel bonding and joining techniques, wire bonding, wafer thinning techniques, organic substrates, and novel approaches to make electrical interconnects between integrated circuit and substrates. Various chapters also address advances in several key packaging materials, including: Lead-free solders Flip chip underfills Epoxy molding compounds Conductive adhesives Die attach adhesives/films Thermal interface materials (TIMS) Materials for fabricating embedded passives including capacitors, inductors, and resistors Materials and processing aspects on wafer-level chip scale package (CSP) and MicroElectroMechanical system (MEMS) Contributors also review new and emerging technologies such as Light ...

  10. PROSPECTS OF POLYMER PACKAGING MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Sedykh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main types of materials used in the manufacture of packaging. Analyzed trends in further development of packaging materials. Shows how to improve the quality of plastic packaging materials in today's market.

  11. Basic Research on Remote Sensing of Fissile Materials utilizing Gamma rays and Neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    6201 Fort Belvoir, VA 22060-6201 T E C H N IC A L R E P O R T DTRA-TR-15-56 Basic Research on Remote Sensing of Fissile Materials...2017 HDTRA1-09-1-0059 David C. Ingram Prepared by: Ohio University 105 Research and Technology Center Athens, OH...AVAILABILITY STATEMENT 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION

  12. LANL's Role in the U.S. Fissile Material Disposition Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitworth, Julia [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kay, Virginia [NA-233

    2015-02-18

    The process of Fissile Material Disposition is in part a result of the Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES), which is an agreement between the U.S. and Russia to dispose of excess plutonium used to make weapons. LANL is one sight that aides in the process of dismantling, storage and repurposing of the plutonium gathered from dismantled weapons. Some uses for the repurposed plutonium is fuel for commercial nuclear reactors which will provide energy for citizens.

  13. Verification of a Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT): The Potential Role of the IAEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Jin Ho [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The objective of a future verification of a FMCT(Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty) is to deter and detect non-compliance with treaty obligations in a timely and non-discriminatory manner with regard to banning the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons or other nuclear devices. Since the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has already established the IAEA safeguards as a verification system mainly for Non -Nuclear Weapon States (NNWSs), it is expected that the IAEA's experience and expertise in this field will make a significant contribution to setting up a future treaty's verification regime. This paper is designed to explore the potential role of the IAEA in verifying the future treaty by analyzing verification abilities of the Agency in terms of treaty verification and expected challenges. Furthermore, the concept of multilateral verification that could be facilitated by the IAEA will be examined as a measure of providing a credible assurance of compliance with a future treaty. In this circumstance, it is necessary for the IAEA to be prepared for playing a leading role in FMCT verifications as a form of multilateral verification by taking advantage of its existing verification concepts, methods, and tools. Also, several challenges that the Agency faces today need to be overcome, including dealing with sensitive and proliferative information, attribution of fissile materials, lack of verification experience in military fuel cycle facilities, and different attitude and culture towards verification between NWSs and NNWSs.

  14. Fissile material holdup measurement systems: an historical review of hardware and software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Jeffrey Allen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Smith, Steven E [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rowe, Nathan C [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of fissile material holdup is accomplished by passively measuring the energy-dependent photon flux and/or passive neutron flux emitted from the fissile material deposited within an engineered process system. Both measurement modalities--photon and neutron--require the implementation of portable, battery-operated systems that are transported, by hand, from one measurement location to another. Because of this portability requirement, gamma-ray spectrometers are typically limited to inorganic scintillators, coupled to photomultiplier tubes, a small multi-channel analyzer, and a handheld computer for data logging. For neutron detection, polyethylene-moderated, cadmium-back-shielded He-3 thermal neutron detectors are used, coupled to nuclear electronics for supplying high voltage to the detector, and amplifying the signal chain to the scaler for counting. Holdup measurement methods, including the concept of Generalized Geometry Holdup (GGH), are well presented by T. Douglas Reilly in LA-UR-07-5149 and P. Russo in LA-14206, yet both publications leave much of the evolutionary hardware and software to the imagination of the reader. This paper presents an historical review of systems that have been developed and implemented since the mid-1980s for the nondestructive assay of fissile material, in situ. Specifications for the next-generation holdup measurements systems are conjectured.

  15. Processing fissile material mixtures containing zirconium and/or carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michael Ernest; Maloney, Martin David

    2013-07-02

    A method of processing spent TRIZO-coated nuclear fuel may include adding fluoride to complex zirconium present in a dissolved TRIZO-coated fuel. Complexing the zirconium with fluoride may reduce or eliminate the potential for zirconium to interfere with the extraction of uranium and/or transuranics from fission materials in the spent nuclear fuel.

  16. Processing fissile material mixtures containing zirconium and/or carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Michael Ernest; Maloney, Martin David

    2013-07-02

    A method of processing spent TRIZO-coated nuclear fuel may include adding fluoride to complex zirconium present in a dissolved TRIZO-coated fuel. Complexing the zirconium with fluoride may reduce or eliminate the potential for zirconium to interfere with the extraction of uranium and/or transuranics from fission materials in the spent nuclear fuel.

  17. Fissile material smuggling: German politics, hype and reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, H.

    1994-12-01

    The spy novel nightmare scenarios of nuclear smuggling have become reality, and much of the recent news has focused on Germany. But these events must be put in perspective, and a number of apparent {open_quotes}facts{close_quotes} must be examined more carefully. For example, while authorities in Germany have seized weapons-usable material in various incidents that have captured international attention, none of this material is from nuclear weapons or weapons production facilities. Moreover, despite the fact that the number of criminal cases has risen, the quantity of {open_quotes}loose{close_quotes} weapons-usable material is still not significant. Nor are there any indications so far that powerful criminal organizations or buyers from nuclear-ambitious {open_quotes}rogue{close_quotes} states are involved. Rather, the incidents so far involve individuals or small groups of criminals who found that their {open_quotes}buyers{close_quotes} were, more often than not, German security agents working {open_quotes}sting{close_quotes} operations to trap the smugglers and black marketeers or journalists working on a {open_quotes}big story.{close_quotes}

  18. Identification of hidden fissile materials using high-pressure xenon gamma-ray detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulin, Sergey E.; Dmitrenko, Valery V.; Grachev, V. M.; Sokolov, D. V.; Uteshev, Z. M.; Chernysheva, I. V.; Vlasik, K. F.

    2001-12-01

    The description of the High Pressure Xenon Gamma-Ray Detector (HPXeD) and its main characteristics are considered in the context of the search for hidden fissile materials. The results of HPXeD measurements of gamma-radiation from radioactive sources, which are covered by lead, iron and aluminium shields, are analyzed and discussed. The use of special software for processing data is shown to improve the potential of radioactive material detection, including the identification and estimation of the main protective shield parameters.

  19. Fissile materials in solution concentration measured by active neutron interrogation; Mesure de concentration en matiere fissile dans les liquides par interrogation neutronique active

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romeyer Dherbey, J.; Passard, Ch.; Cloue, J.; Bignan, G.

    1993-12-31

    The use of the active neutron interrogation to measure the concentration of plutonium contained in flow solutions is particularly interesting for fuel reprocessing plants. Indeed, this method gives a signal which is in a direct relation with the fissile materials concentration. Moreover, it is less sensitive to the gamma dose rate than the other nondestructive methods. Two measure methods have been evolved in CEA. Their principles are given into details in this work. The first one consists to detect fission delayed neutrons induced by a {sup 252} Cf source. In the second one fission prompt neutrons induced by a neutron generator of 14 MeV are detected. (O.M.). 6 refs.

  20. Comparative analysis of non-destructive methods to control fissile materials in large-size containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batyaev V.F.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of various non-destructive methods to control fissile materials (FM in large-size containers filled with radioactive waste (RAW has been carried out. The difficulty of applying passive gamma-neutron monitoring FM in large containers filled with concreted RAW is shown. Selection of an active non-destructive assay technique depends on the container contents; and in case of a concrete or iron matrix with very low activity and low activity RAW the neutron radiation method appears to be more preferable as compared with the photonuclear one.

  1. The neutron emission method for determination of fissile materials within the spent fuel equipment optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abou-Zaid, A. [Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, 13759- Cairo (Ethiopia); Pytel, K. [Atomic Energy Institute, Research Reactor Center, 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    1998-07-01

    A nondestructive assay method using neutron technique for determination of the fissile isotopes content along the irradiated fuel rods of MARIA reactor is presented. This method is based on detection of the fission neutrons emitted from external neutron source and multiplied by the fissile isotopes U-235, Pu-239, and Pu-241 within the fuel rod. Neutrons emitted from the spent fuel originate mainly from induced fission in the fissile material and source neutrons penetrating the fuel rod without interaction. Additionally, the neutrons from ({alpha}, n) reaction and spontaneous fission of actinide isotopes contribute in the total population of emitted ones. The method gives a chance to perform an experimental calibration of the equipment using two points: fresh fuel rod (maximum signal plus background) and its mock-up (background). The Monte Carlo code has been used for the geometrical simulation and optimization of the measuring equipment: neutron source, moderating container, collimator, and the neutron detector. The results of the calculation show that the moderating container of 30 cm length and 32 cm diameter and a collimator of 26 cm length, 6.8 cm width, and 2 cm height are the optimal configuration. With respect to the fission chamber position, the number of neutrons has been calculated as a function of distance from the fuel rod surface in the case of fresh fuel and its mock-up. The distance, at which the ratio of the signal to background has its maximum, has been found at 4.5 cm far from the outer surface of the fuel. (author)

  2. A single-shot nanosecond neutron pulsed technique for the detection of fissile materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribkov, V.; Miklaszewski, R. A.; Chernyshova, M.; Scholz, M.; Prokopovicz, R.; Tomaszewski, K.; Drozdowicz, K.; Wiacek, U.; Gabanska, B.; Dworak, D.; Pytel, K.; Zawadka, A.

    2012-07-01

    A novel technique with the potential of detecting hidden fissile materials is presented utilizing the interaction of a single powerful and nanosecond wide neutron pulse with matter. The experimental system is based on a Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) device as a neutron source generating pulses of almost mono-energetic 2.45 MeV and/or 14.0 MeV neutrons, a few nanoseconds in width. Fissile materials, consisting of heavy nuclei, are detected utilizing two signatures: firstly by measuring those secondary fission neutrons which are faster than the elastically scattered 2.45 MeV neutrons of the D-D reaction in the DPF; secondly by measuring the pulses of the slower secondary fission neutrons following the pulse of the fast 14 MeV neutrons from the D-T reaction. In both cases it is important to compare the measured spectrum of the fission neutrons induced by the 2.45 MeV or 14 MeV neutron pulse of the DPF with theoretical spectra obtained by mathematical simulation. Therefore, results of numerical modelling of the proposed system, using the MCNP5 and the FLUKA codes are presented and compared with experimental data.

  3. Proceedings from the Fissile Material Cut-off seminar in Stockholm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbman, G. [ed.

    1998-07-01

    The Swedish Defence Research Establishment hosted an international expert seminar on the subject of verifying a prohibition of the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons purpose (cut-off) in Stockholm, June 3-5 1998. The objective of the seminar was to provide an opportunity for informal discussions among scientific and technical experts on various technical matters relating to the verification of a future Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT). A stated aim of the seminar was to keep issues of scope to a minimum. Invited speakers and commentators were given an opportunity to present their views as written contributions. The present seminar proceedings are essentially the result of these views. In addition, short summaries of the discussions following each session are included. Although an attempt was made to be as complete and accurate as possible in reproducing these discussions, the editors apologise if some important points or statements have been omitted. If so, the main reason is that the documentation of the discussions were based on written notes, not taped recordings. Eight longer contributions have been separately indexed.

  4. Packaging - Materials review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Matthias

    2014-06-01

    Nowadays, a large number of different electrochemical energy storage systems are known. In the last two decades the development was strongly driven by a continuously growing market of portable electronic devices (e.g. cellular phones, lap top computers, camcorders, cameras, tools). Current intensive efforts are under way to develop systems for automotive industry within the framework of electrically propelled mobility (e.g. hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, full electric vehicles) and also for the energy storage market (e.g. electrical grid stability, renewable energies). Besides the different systems (cell chemistries), electrochemical cells and batteries were developed and are offered in many shapes, sizes and designs, in order to meet performance and design requirements of the widespread applications. Proper packaging is thereby one important technological step for designing optimum, reliable and safe batteries for operation. In this contribution, current packaging approaches of cells and batteries together with the corresponding materials are discussed. The focus is laid on rechargeable systems for industrial applications (i.e. alkaline systems, lithium-ion, lead-acid). In principle, four different cell types (shapes) can be identified - button, cylindrical, prismatic and pouch. Cell size can be either in accordance with international (e.g. International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC) or other standards or can meet application-specific dimensions. Since cell housing or container, terminals and, if necessary, safety installations as inactive (non-reactive) materials reduce energy density of the battery, the development of low-weight packages is a challenging task. In addition to that, other requirements have to be fulfilled: mechanical stability and durability, sealing (e.g. high permeation barrier against humidity for lithium-ion technology), high packing efficiency, possible installation of safety devices (current interrupt device

  5. Packaging - Materials review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Matthias [Hoppecke Advanced Battery Technology GmbH, 08056 Zwickau (Germany)

    2014-06-16

    Nowadays, a large number of different electrochemical energy storage systems are known. In the last two decades the development was strongly driven by a continuously growing market of portable electronic devices (e.g. cellular phones, lap top computers, camcorders, cameras, tools). Current intensive efforts are under way to develop systems for automotive industry within the framework of electrically propelled mobility (e.g. hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, full electric vehicles) and also for the energy storage market (e.g. electrical grid stability, renewable energies). Besides the different systems (cell chemistries), electrochemical cells and batteries were developed and are offered in many shapes, sizes and designs, in order to meet performance and design requirements of the widespread applications. Proper packaging is thereby one important technological step for designing optimum, reliable and safe batteries for operation. In this contribution, current packaging approaches of cells and batteries together with the corresponding materials are discussed. The focus is laid on rechargeable systems for industrial applications (i.e. alkaline systems, lithium-ion, lead-acid). In principle, four different cell types (shapes) can be identified - button, cylindrical, prismatic and pouch. Cell size can be either in accordance with international (e.g. International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC) or other standards or can meet application-specific dimensions. Since cell housing or container, terminals and, if necessary, safety installations as inactive (non-reactive) materials reduce energy density of the battery, the development of low-weight packages is a challenging task. In addition to that, other requirements have to be fulfilled: mechanical stability and durability, sealing (e.g. high permeation barrier against humidity for lithium-ion technology), high packing efficiency, possible installation of safety devices (current interrupt device

  6. THERMAL UPGRADING OF 9977 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL (RAM) TYPE B PACKAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, N.; Abramczyk, G.

    2012-03-26

    The 9977 package is a radioactive material package that was originally certified to ship Heat Sources and RTG contents up to 19 watts and it is now being reviewed to significantly expand its contents in support of additional DOE missions. Thermal upgrading will be accomplished by employing stacked 3013 containers, a 3013 aluminum spacer and an external aluminum sleeve for enhanced heat transfer. The 7th Addendum to the original 9977 package Safety Basis Report describing these modifications is under review for the DOE certification. The analyses described in this paper show that this well-designed and conservatively analyzed package can be upgraded to carry contents with decay heat up to 38 watts with some simple design modifications. The Model 9977 package has been designed as a replacement for the Department of Transportation (DOT) Fissile Specification 6M package. The 9977 package is a very versatile Type B package which is certified to transport and store a wide spectrum of radioactive materials. The package was analyzed quite conservatively to increase its usefulness and store different payload configurations. Its versatility is evident from several daughter packages such as the 9978 and H1700, and several addendums where the payloads have been modified to suit the Shipper's needs without additional testing.

  7. 19 CFR 191.13 - Packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Packaging materials. 191.13 Section 191.13 Customs... (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK General Provisions § 191.13 Packaging materials. (a) Imported packaging material... packaging material when used to package or repackage merchandise or articles exported or destroyed pursuant...

  8. Analysis of triso packing fraction and fissile material to DB-MHR using LWR reprocessed fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Clarysson A.M. da; Pereira, Claubia; Costa, Antonella L.; Veloso, Maria Auxiliadora F.; Gual, Maritza R., E-mail: clarysson@nuclear.ufmg.br, E-mail: claubia@nuclear.ufmg.br, E-mail: antonella@nuclear.ufmg.br, E-mail: dora@nuclear.ufmg.br, E-mail: maritzargual@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    Gas-cooled and graphite-moderated reactor is being considered the next generation of nuclear power plants because of its characteristic to operate with reprocessed fuel. The typical fuel element consists of a hexagonal block with coolant and fuel channels. The fuel pin is manufactured into compacted ceramic-coated particles (TRISO) which are used to achieve both a high burnup and a high degree of passive safety. This work uses the MCNPX 2.6.0 to simulate the active core of Deep Burn Modular Helium Reactor (DB-MHR) employing PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) reprocessed fuel. However, before a complete study of DB-MHR fuel cycle and recharge, it is necessary to evaluate the neutronic parameters to some values of TRISO Packing Fractions (PF) and Fissile Material (FM). Each PF and FM combination would generate the best behaviour of neutronic parameters. Therefore, this study configures several PF and FM combinations considering the heterogeneity of TRISO layers and lattice. The results present the best combination of PF and FM values according with the more appropriated behaviour of the neutronic parameters during the burnup. In this way, the optimized combination can be used to future works of MHR fuel cycle and recharge. (author)

  9. High-power, photofission-inducing bremsstrahlung source for intense pulsed active detection of fissile material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Zier

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Intense pulsed active detection (IPAD is a promising technique for detecting fissile material to prevent the proliferation of special nuclear materials. With IPAD, fissions are induced in a brief, intense radiation burst and the resulting gamma ray or neutron signals are acquired during a short period of elevated signal-to-noise ratio. The 8 MV, 200 kA Mercury pulsed-power generator at the Naval Research Laboratory coupled to a high-power vacuum diode produces an intense 30 ns bremsstrahlung beam to study this approach. The work presented here reports on Mercury experiments designed to maximize the photofission yield in a depleted-uranium (DU object in the bremsstrahlung far field by varying the anode-cathode (AK diode gap spacing and by adding an inner-diameter-reducing insert in the outer conductor wall. An extensive suite of diagnostics was fielded to measure the bremsstrahlung beam and DU fission yield as functions of diode geometry. Delayed fission neutrons from the DU proved to be a valuable diagnostic for measuring bremsstrahlung photons above 5 MeV. The measurements are in broad agreement with particle-in-cell and Monte Carlo simulations of electron dynamics and radiation transport. These show that with increasing AK gap, electron losses to the insert and outer conductor wall increase and that the electron angles impacting the bremsstrahlung converter approach normal incidence. The diode conditions for maximum fission yield occur when the gap is large enough to produce electron angles close to normal, yet small enough to limit electron losses.

  10. Hazardous Material Packaging and Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hypes, Philip A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-04

    This is a student training course. Some course objectives are to: recognize and use standard international and US customary units to describe activities and exposure rates associated with radioactive material; determine whether a quantity of a single radionuclide meets the definition of a class 7 (radioactive) material; determine, for a given single radionuclide, the shipping quantity activity limits per 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 173.435; determine the appropriate radioactive material hazard class proper shipping name for a given material; determine when a single radionuclide meets the DOT definition of a hazardous substance; determine the appropriate packaging required for a given radioactive material; identify the markings to be placed on a package of radioactive material; determine the label(s) to apply to a given radioactive material package; identify the entry requirements for radioactive material labels; determine the proper placement for radioactive material label(s); identify the shipping paper entry requirements for radioactive material; select the appropriate placards for a given radioactive material shipment or vehicle load; and identify allowable transport limits and unacceptable transport conditions for radioactive material.

  11. Open literature review of threats including sabotage and theft of fissile material transport in Japan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, John Russell; Furaus, James Phillip; Marincel, Michelle K.

    2005-06-01

    This report is a review of open literature concerning threats including sabotage and theft related to fissile material transport in Japan. It is intended to aid Japanese officials in the development of a design basis threat. This threat includes the external threats of the terrorist, criminal, and extremist, and the insider threats of the disgruntled employee, the employee forced into cooperation via coercion, the psychotic employee, and the criminal employee. Examination of the external terrorist threat considers Japanese demographics, known terrorist groups in Japan, and the international relations of Japan. Demographically, Japan has a relatively homogenous population, both ethnically and religiously. Japan is a relatively peaceful nation, but its history illustrates that it is not immune to terrorism. It has a history of domestic terrorism and the open literature points to the Red Army, Aum Shinrikyo, Chukaku-Ha, and Seikijuku. Japan supports the United States in its war on terrorism and in Iraq, which may make Japan a target for both international and domestic terrorists. Crime appears to remain low in Japan; however sources note that the foreign crime rate is increasing as the number of foreign nationals in the country increases. Antinuclear groups' recent foci have been nuclear reprocessing technology, transportation of MOX fuel, and possible related nuclear proliferation issues. The insider threat is first defined by the threat of the disgruntled employee. This threat can be determined by studying the history of Japan's employment system, where Keiretsu have provided company stability and lifetime employment. Recent economic difficulties and an increase of corporate crime, due to sole reliability on the honor code, have begun to erode employee loyalty.

  12. 9 CFR 381.144 - Packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaging materials. 381.144 Section... Packaging materials. (a) Edible products may not be packaged in a container which is composed in whole or in... to health. All packaging materials must be safe for the intended use within the meaning of section...

  13. Semiconductor packaging materials interaction and reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    In semiconductor manufacturing, understanding how various materials behave and interact is critical to making a reliable and robust semiconductor package. Semiconductor Packaging: Materials Interaction and Reliability provides a fundamental understanding of the underlying physical properties of the materials used in a semiconductor package. The book focuses on an important step in semiconductor manufacturing--package assembly and testing. It covers the basics of material properties and explains how to determine which behaviors are important to package performance. The authors also discuss how

  14. Technical evaluation panel summary report. Ceramic and glass immobilization options fissile materials disposition program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, B. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Brummond, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Armantrout, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Shaw, H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jantzen, C. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jostons, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); McKibben, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Strachan, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Vienna, J. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    1997-12-23

    This report documents the results of a technical evaluation of the merits of ceramic and glass immobilization forms for the disposition of surplus weapons-useable plutonium. The evaluation was conducted by a Technical Evaluation Panel (TEP), whose members were selected to cover a relevant range of scientific and technical expertise and represented each of the technical organizations involved in the Plutonium Immobilization Program. The TEP held a formal review at Lawrence Liver-more National Laboratory (LLNL) from July 2%August 1, 1997. Following this review, the TEP documented the review and its evaluation of the two immobilization technologies in this report to provide a technical basis for a recommendation by LLNL to the Department of Energy (DOE) for the preferred immobilization form. The comparison of the glass and ceramic forms and manufacturing processes was a tremendous challenge to the TEP. The two forms and their processes are similar in many ways. The TEP went to great effort to accurately assess what were, in many cases, fine details of the processes, unit operations, and the glass and ceramic forms themselves. The set of criteria used by the Fissile Materials Disposition Program (FMDP) in past screenings and down-selections was used to measure-the two options. One exception is that the TEP did not consider criteria that were largely nontechnical (namely international impact, public acceptance, and effects on other : DOE programs). The TEP' s measures and assessments are documented in detail. Care was taken to ensure that the data used were well documented and traceable to their source. Although no final conclusion regarding the preferred form was reached or explicitly stated in this report (this was not within the TEP' s charter), no "show stoppers" were identified for either form. Both forms appear capable of satisfying all the criteria, as interpreted by the TEP. The TEP identified a number of distinct and quantifiable differences between

  15. 9 CFR 317.24 - Packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaging materials. 317.24 Section... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS General § 317.24 Packaging materials... packaging materials must be safe for their intended use within the meaning of section 409 of the Federal...

  16. Disposability Characteristics of Military Packaging Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-03-06

    packaging material but repre- sents only a minor segment of all packaging materials. In terms of U. S. tonnage, wood packaging materials account for...motftontttctl Anotywu of Solid Hoof COMactwn. David H. Markt and Jon C. Uabman (of Jonnt Hopkint Univartity), for tha U.S. Dapartmant of Hoatth, Education

  17. The Model 9977 Radioactive Material Packaging Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramczyk, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-09

    The Model 9977 Packaging is a single containment drum style radioactive material (RAM) shipping container designed, tested and analyzed to meet the performance requirements of Title 10 the Code of Federal Regulations Part 71. A radioactive material shipping package, in combination with its contents, must perform three functions (please note that the performance criteria specified in the Code of Federal Regulations have alternate limits for normal operations and after accident conditions): Containment, the package must “contain” the radioactive material within it; Shielding, the packaging must limit its users and the public to radiation doses within specified limits; and Subcriticality, the package must maintain its radioactive material as subcritical

  18. Hanford Site radioactive hazardous materials packaging directory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, T.L.

    1995-12-01

    The Hanford Site Radioactive Hazardous Materials Packaging Directory (RHMPD) provides information concerning packagings owned or routinely leased by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for offsite shipments or onsite transfers of hazardous materials. Specific information is provided for selected packagings including the following: general description; approval documents/specifications (Certificates of Compliance and Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging); technical information (drawing numbers and dimensions); approved contents; areas of operation; and general information. Packaging Operations & Development (PO&D) maintains the RHMPD and may be contacted for additional information or assistance in obtaining referenced documentation or assistance concerning packaging selection, availability, and usage.

  19. FATE OF FISSILE MATERIAL BOUND TO MONOSODIUM TITANATE DURING COOPER CATALYZED PEROXIDE OXIDATION OF TANK 48H WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K.

    2012-08-09

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), Tank 48H currently holds approximately 240,000 gallons of slurry which contains potassium and cesium tetraphenylborate (TPB). A copper catalyzed peroxide oxidation (CCPO) reaction is currently being examined as a method for destroying the TPB present in Tank 48H. Part of the development of that process includes an examination of the fate of the Tank 48H fissile material which is adsorbed onto monosodium titanate (MST) particles. This report details results from experiments designed to examine the potential degradation of MST during CCPO processing and the subsequent fate of the adsorbed fissile material. Experiments were conducted to simulate the CCPO process on MST solids loaded with sorbates in a simplified Tank 48H simulant. Loaded MST solids were placed into the Tank 48H simplified simulant without TPB, and the experiments were then carried through acid addition (pH adjustment to 11), peroxide addition, holding at temperature (50 C) for one week, and finally NaOH addition to bring the free hydroxide concentration to a target concentration of 1 M. Testing was conducted without TPB to show the maximum possible impact on MST since the competing oxidation of TPB with peroxide was absent. In addition, the Cu catalyst was also omitted, which will maximize the interaction of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} with the MST; however, the results may be non-conservative assuming the Cu-peroxide active intermediate is more reactive than the peroxide radical itself. The study found that both U and Pu desorb from the MST when the peroxide addition begins, although to different extents. Virtually all of the U goes into solution at the beginning of the peroxide addition, whereas Pu reaches a maximum of {approx}34% leached during the peroxide addition. Ti from the MST was also found to come into solution during the peroxide addition. Therefore, Ti is present with the fissile in solution. After the peroxide addition is complete, the Pu and Ti are found to

  20. Nonproliferation and arms control assessment of weapons-usable fissile material storage and excess plutonium disposition alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    This report has been prepared by the Department of Energy`s Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation (DOE-NN) with support from the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (DOE-MD). Its purpose is to analyze the nonproliferation and arms reduction implications of the alternatives for storage of plutonium and HEU, and disposition of excess plutonium, to aid policymakers and the public in making final decisions. While this assessment describes the benefits and risks associated with each option, it does not attempt to rank order the options or choose which ones are best. It does, however, identify steps which could maximize the benefits and mitigate any vulnerabilities of the various alternatives under consideration.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW TYPE A(F)RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING FOR THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

    2008-09-14

    In a coordinated effort, the Department of Transportation (DOT) and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) proposed the elimination of the Specification Packaging from 49 CFR 173.[1] In accordance with the Federal Register, issued on October 1, 2004, new fabrication of Specification Packages would no longer be authorized. In accordance with the NRC final rulemaking published January 26, 2004, Specification Packagings are mandated by law to be removed from service no later than October 1, 2008. This coordinated effort and resulting rulemaking initiated a planned phase out of Specification Type B and Type A fissile (F) material transportation packages within the Department of Energy (DOE) and its subcontractors. One of the Specification Packages affected by this regulatory change is the UN1A2 Specification Package, per DOT 49 CFR 173.417(a)(6). To maintain continuing shipments of DOE materials currently transported in UN1A2 Specification Package after the existing authorization expires, a replacement Type A(F) material packaging design is under development by the Savannah River National Laboratory. This paper presents a summary of the prototype design effort and testing of the new Type A(F) Package development for the DOE. This paper discusses the progress made in the development of a Type A Fissile Packaging to replace the expiring 49 CFR UN1A2 Specification Fissile Package. The Specification Package was mostly a single-use waste disposal container. The design requirements and authorized radioactive material contents of the UN1A2 Specification Package were defined in 49 CFR. A UN1A2 Specification Package was authorized to ship up to 350 grams of U-235 in any enrichment and in any non-pyrophoric form. The design was specified as a 55-gallon 1A2 drum overpack with a body constructed from 18 gauge steel with a 16 gauge drum lid. Drum closure was specified as a standard 12-gauge ring closure. The inner product container size was not specified but was listed as any

  2. ALTERNATE MATERIALS IN DESIGN OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

    2010-07-09

    This paper presents a summary of design and testing of material and composites for use in radioactive material packages. These materials provide thermal protection and provide structural integrity and energy absorption to the package during normal and hypothetical accident condition events as required by Title 10 Part 71 of the Code of Federal Regulations. Testing of packages comprising these materials is summarized.

  3. Analyse of the potential of the high temperature reactor with respect to the use of fissile materials; Analyse des capacites des reacteurs a haute temperature sous l'aspect de l'utilisation des matieres fissiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damian, F

    2001-07-01

    The high temperature reactors fuel is made of micro-particles dispersed in a graphite matrix. This configuration makes it possible to reach high burnup, higher than 700 GWj/t. Thanks to the decoupling between the thermal and the neutronic behaviors in the core many types of fuels can be used. These characteristics give to HTR reactor very good capacities to burn fissile materials. This work was done in the frame of the evaluation of HTR capacities to enhance the value of the plutonium stocks. These stocks are currently composed of the irradiated fuels discharged from classical PWR or the dismantling of the nuclear weapons and represent a significant energy potential. These studies concluded that high cycles length can be reached whatever the plutonium quality is (from 50 % to 94 % of fissile plutonium). In addition, it was demonstrated that the moderator temperature coefficient becomes locally positive for highly burn fuel while the core global moderator temperature coefficient remained negative in the operation range of the reactor. A significant share of this work was first devoted to the setting of a modeling of the fuel element but also of the reactor's core with the codes of system SAPHYR. The whole of modeling was validated by reference calculations. This work of code assessment is justified by a preliminary work that showed that the classical calculation scheme used for PWR could not be transposed directly to HTR core. (author)

  4. A treaty on the cutoff of fissile material for nuclear weapons - What to cover? How to verify?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaper, A. [Peace Research Inst., Frankfurt (Germany)

    1998-07-01

    Since 1946, a cutoff has been proposed. In 1993, the topic was placed on the agenda of the CD. The establishment of an Ad Hoc Committee in the CD with a mandate to negotiate a fissile material cutoff treaty struggled with difficulties for more than a year. The central dispute was whether the mandate should refer to existing un-safeguarded stockpiles. The underlying conflict of the CTBT negotiations can be summarized as nuclear disarmament versus nuclear nonproliferation The same conflict is now blocking progress with FMCT negotiations in the CD. At the center of technical proliferation concerns is direct use material that can be used for nuclear warheads without any further enrichment or reprocessing. Those materials are plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU). A broader category of materials is defined as all those containing any fissile isotopes, called special fissionable materials. In order ta verify that no direct use materials are abused for military purposes, also special fissionable materials must be controlled. An even broader category is simply called nuclear materials. Pu and HEU can be distinguished into the following categories of utilisation: 1. military direct use material in operational nuclear weapons and their logistics pipeline, 2. military direct use material held in reserve for military purposes, in assembled weapons or in other forms, 3. military direct use material withdrawn from dismantled weapons, 4. military direct use material considered excess and designated for transfer into civilian use, 5. military direct use material considered excess and declared for transfer into civilian use, 6. direct use material currently in reactors or their logistics pipelines and storages, and 7. irradiated Pu and HEU in spent fuel from reactors, or in vitrified form for final disposal. Large quantities of materials are neither inside weapons nor declared excess. So far, there are no legal obligations for NWS for limitations, declarations, or

  5. New Polymer Materials for Microelectronics Packaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Researchers at the CAS Institute of Chemistry (ICCAS) have made breakthrough progress in developing the manufacturing technology of advanced polymer materials for microelectronics packaging applications. The advanced integrated circuit (IC) packaging polymer materials, including photoimageable polyimide resins and liquid epoxy underfills, are a key issue for FC-BGA/CSP(flip chip-ball grill array/chip scale packaging) which is the main stream for the next generation of microelectronics devices. With the down-sizing, thinning and high I/O (input/output) of IC chips, microelectronics packaging is now facing a big technology challenge.

  6. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) Bioplastic Packaging Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Center CEFPACK - Center for Flexible Packaging CAEFF - Center for Advanced Engineering Films and Fibers T cr - recrystallization temperature...conditions. The tandem line has 1½” primary extruder with a Barr ET screw and a pineapple mixing tip. The gas inject is about 2/3 of the way down the...stretch and shrink film, the equipment at the Center for Flexible Packaging (CEFPACK) and the Center for Advanced Engineering Films and Fibers (CAEFF) at

  7. Material Design and Technology of Cartonboard Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Marttila, Erno

    2012-01-01

    This thesis explores the different types of cartonboard packages through the whole line of their manufacturing process from choosing the right materials for the board in to final converting processes. Producing efficient, environmentally friendly and most of all right kind of cartonboard package is the core theme in this work. This work is publicly available and can be used as a reference by anyone who needs to learn the basics and some of the more advanced things of cartonboard packaging....

  8. 49 CFR 173.420 - Uranium hexafluoride (fissile, fissile excepted and non-fissile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Uranium hexafluoride (fissile, fissile excepted....420 Uranium hexafluoride (fissile, fissile excepted and non-fissile). (a) In addition to any other... non-fissile uranium hexafluoride must be offered for transportation as follows: (1) Before...

  9. Packaging Materials Outgassing Study Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R. A. [Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant (Y-12), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2006-09-26

    An outgassing study was conducted on two polyurethane packaging foams, two polymer bottles (polytetrafluoroethylene and polyethylene), and two polymer lids. The purpose was to measure the volume of gases that diffuse from these packaging materials at a maximum of 400-degrees F when stored in ambient air within sealed containers.

  10. Dynamic modelling of packaging material flow systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiliyannis, Christos A

    2005-04-01

    A dynamic model has been developed for reused and recycled packaging material flows. It allows a rigorous description of the flows and stocks during the transition to new targets imposed by legislation, product demand variations or even by variations in consumer discard behaviour. Given the annual reuse and recycle frequency and packaging lifetime, the model determines all packaging flows (e.g., consumption and reuse) and variables through which environmental policy is formulated, such as recycling, waste and reuse rates and it identifies the minimum number of variables to be surveyed for complete packaging flow monitoring. Simulation of the transition to the new flow conditions is given for flows of packaging materials in Greece, based on 1995--1998 field inventory and statistical data.

  11. Compostability of bioplastic packaging materials: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Gaurav; Kijchavengkul, Thitisilp; Auras, Rafael; Rubino, Maria; Selke, Susan E; Singh, Sher Paul

    2007-03-08

    Packaging waste accounted for 78.81 million tons or 31.6% of the total municipal solid waste (MSW) in 2003 in the USA, 56.3 million tons or 25% of the MSW in 2005 in Europe, and 3.3 million tons or 10% of the MSW in 2004 in Australia. Currently, in the USA the dominant method of packaging waste disposal is landfill, followed by recycling, incineration, and composting. Since landfill occupies valuable space and results in the generation of greenhouse gases and contaminants, recovery methods such as reuse, recycling and/or composting are encouraged as a way of reducing packaging waste disposal. Most of the common materials used in packaging (i.e., steel, aluminum, glass, paper, paperboard, plastics, and wood) can be efficiently recovered by recycling; however, if packaging materials are soiled with foods or other biological substances, physical recycling of these materials may be impractical. Therefore, composting some of these packaging materials is a promising way to reduce MSW. As biopolymers are developed and increasingly used in applications such as food, pharmaceutical, and consumer goods packaging, composting could become one of the prevailing methods for disposal of packaging waste provided that industry, governments, and consumers encourage and embrace this alternative. The main objective of this article is to provide an overview of the current situation of packaging compostability, to describe the main mechanisms that make a biopolymer compostable, to delineate the main methods to compost these biomaterials, and to explain the main standards for assessing compostability, and the current status of biopolymer labeling. Biopolymers such as polylactide and poly(hydroxybutyrate) are increasingly becoming available for use in food, medical, and consumer goods packaging applications. The main claims of these new biomaterials are that they are obtained from renewable resources and that they can be biodegraded in biological environments such as soil and compost

  12. Packaging and transportation of radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    The presentations made at the Symposium on Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Materials are included. The purpose of the meeting was for the interchange of information on the technology and politics of radioactive material transportation. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual items. (DC)

  13. Aqueous Corrosion Rates for Waste Package Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Arthur

    2004-10-08

    The purpose of this analysis, as directed by ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]), is to compile applicable corrosion data from the literature (journal articles, engineering documents, materials handbooks, or standards, and national laboratory reports), evaluate the quality of these data, and use these to perform statistical analyses and distributions for aqueous corrosion rates of waste package materials. The purpose of this report is not to describe the performance of engineered barriers for the TSPA-LA. Instead, the analysis provides simple statistics on aqueous corrosion rates of steels and alloys. These rates are limited by various aqueous parameters such as temperature (up to 100 C), water type (i.e., fresh versus saline), and pH. Corrosion data of materials at pH extremes (below 4 and above 9) are not included in this analysis, as materials commonly display different corrosion behaviors under these conditions. The exception is highly corrosion-resistant materials (Inconel Alloys) for which rate data from corrosion tests at a pH of approximately 3 were included. The waste package materials investigated are those from the long and short 5-DHLW waste packages, 2-MCO/2-DHLW waste package, and the 21-PWR commercial waste package. This analysis also contains rate data for some of the materials present inside the fuel canisters for the following fuel types: U-Mo (Fermi U-10%Mo), MOX (FFTF), Thorium Carbide and Th/U Carbide (Fort Saint Vrain [FSVR]), Th/U Oxide (Shippingport LWBR), U-metal (N Reactor), Intact U-Oxide (Shippingport PWR, Commercial), aluminum-based, and U-Zr-H (TRIGA). Analysis of corrosion rates for Alloy 22, spent nuclear fuel, defense high level waste (DHLW) glass, and Titanium Grade 7 can be found in other analysis or model reports.

  14. Compounds in food packaging materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenmai, Anna Kjerstine

    Food contact materials (FCMs) are sources of food contamination and human chemical exposure. Some chemicals in these materials are known to cause adverse effects, but many are poorly characterized for their potential toxicological hazards making risk assessment a challenge. The aim of the project......, but subgroups of fluorinated chemicals had similar profiles. Polyfluoroalkyl phosphate ester surfactants (PAPs) generally decreased progestagen and androgen levels, fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) generally increased ER activity, and long-chained perfluorinated alkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) generally increased...

  15. 19 CFR 10.461 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail packaging materials and containers. 10.461... Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.461 Retail packaging materials and containers. Packaging materials and containers in which a good is packaged for retail sale, if classified with the good for...

  16. 19 CFR 10.539 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail packaging materials and containers. 10.539...-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.539 Retail packaging materials and containers. Packaging materials and containers in which a good is packaged for retail sale, if classified with the good for...

  17. Chitosan films and blends for packaging material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Broek, Lambertus A M; Knoop, Rutger J I; Kappen, Frans H J; Boeriu, Carmen G

    2015-02-13

    An increased interest for hygiene in everyday life as well as in food, feed and medical issues lead to a strong interest in films and blends to prevent the growth and accumulation of harmful bacteria. A growing trend is to use synthetic and natural antimicrobial polymers, to provide non-migratory and non-depleting protection agents for application in films, coatings and packaging. In food packaging, antimicrobial effects add up to the barrier properties of the materials, to increase the shelf life and product quality. Chitosan is a natural bioactive polysaccharide with intrinsic antimicrobial activity and, due to its exceptional physicochemical properties imparted by the polysaccharide backbone, has been recognized as a natural alternative to chemically synthesized antimicrobial polymers. This, associated with the increasing preference for biofunctional materials from renewable resources, resulted in a significant interest on the potential for application of chitosan in packaging materials. In this review we describe the latest developments of chitosan films and blends as packaging material. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Polylactide nanocomposites for packaging materials: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiastuti, Indah

    2016-02-01

    This review aims at highlighting on an attempt for improving the properties of polylactide (PLA) as packaging material by application of nanocomposite technology. PLA is attracting considerable interest because of more eco-friendliness from its origin as contrast to the petrochemical-based polymers and its biodegradability. Despite possessing good mechanical and optical properties, deterioration of the material properties in PLA materials during their service time could occur after prolonged exposure to humidity and high temperature condition. Limited gas barrier is another drawback of PLA material that should be overcome to satisfy the requirement for packaging application. To further extend the range of mechanical and thermal properties achievable, several attempts have been made in modifying the material such as blending with other polymers, use of plasticizing material and development of PLA nanocomposites. Nanocomposite is a fairly new type of composite that has emerged in which the reinforcing filler has nanometer scale dimensions (at least one dimension of the filler is less than 100 nm). In this review, the critical properties of PLA as packaging materials and its degradation mechanism are presented. This paper discusses the current effort and key research challenges in the development of nanocomposites based on biodegradable polymer matrices and nano-fillers. The PLA layered silicate nanocomposites where the filler platelets can be dispersed in the polymer at the nanometer scale owing to the specific filler surface modification, frequently exhibits remarkable improvements of mechanical strength, gas barrier and thermal stability.

  19. Fissile Material Disposition Program: Deep borehole disposal Facility PEIS date input report for immobilized disposal. Immobilized disposal of plutonium in coated ceramic pellets in grout with canisters. Version 3.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijesinghe, A.M.; Shaffer, R.J.

    1996-01-15

    Following President Clinton`s Non-Proliferation Initiative, launched in September, 1993, an Interagency Working Group (IWG) was established to conduct a comprehensive review of the options for the disposition of weapons-usable fissile materials from nuclear weapons dismantlement activities in the United States and the former Soviet Union. The IWG review process will consider technical, nonproliferation, environmental budgetary, and economic considerations in the disposal of plutonium. The IWG is co-chaired by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy and the National Security Council. The Department of Energy (DOE) is directly responsible for the management, storage, and disposition of all weapons-usable fissile material. The Department of Energy has been directed to prepare a comprehensive review of long-term options for Surplus Fissile Material (SFM) disposition, taking into account technical, nonproliferation, environmental, budgetary, and economic considerations.

  20. Natural materials in Japan is reflected in the package design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙云云

    2016-01-01

    Japanese packaging design simple and not drab, has a strong national character, "type" style, but also take into account the Europe and the United States"YangShi" style. Japanese packaging of naturalness, pay attention to packaging material, the nature of the material with its unique design style. This article through to the Japanese brand packaging design case analysis, this paper expounds the Japanese brand packaging design and the use of natural materials. On this basis, further discusses the Japanese brand packaging design concept of innovation to improve the practical significance of China's packaging design innovation.

  1. Ammonia gas permeability of meat packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Faris; Hijaz, Faraj; Kastner, Curtis L; Smith, J Scott

    2011-03-01

    Meat products are packaged in polymer films designed to protect the product from exterior contaminants such as light, humidity, and harmful chemicals. Unfortunately, there is almost no data on ammonia permeability of packaging films. We investigated ammonia permeability of common meat packaging films: low-density polyethylene (LDPE; 2.2 mil), multilayer polyolefin (MLP; 3 mil), and vacuum (V-PA/PE; 3 mil, 0.6 mil polyamide/2.4 mil polyethylene). The films were fabricated into 10 × 5 cm pouches and filled with 50 mL deionized water. Pouches were placed in a plexiglass enclosure in a freezer and exposed to 50, 100, 250, or 500 ppm ammonia gas for 6, 12, 24, and 48 h at -17 ± 3 °C and 21 ± 3 °C. At freezing temperatures, no ammonia residues were detected and no differences in pH were found in the water. At room temperature, ammonia levels and pH of the water increased significantly (P packaging materials have low ammonia permeability and protect meat products exposed to ammonia leaks during frozen storage.

  2. Effect of Spices and different Packaging Materials on acceptability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Spices and different Packaging Materials on acceptability and shelf-life of ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... garlic and nutmeg) as preservatives and use of different packaging materials ...

  3. Nutritional response of Okra to various packaging materials and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional response of Okra to various packaging materials and chemical pickling agents. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... and groundnut oil) and packaging materials (glass jar, plastic and stainless ...

  4. Characterization of integrated circuit packaging materials

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Thomas

    1993-01-01

    Chapters in this volume address important characteristics of IC packages. Analytical techniques appropriate for IC package characterization are demonstrated through examples of the measurement of critical performance parameters and the analysis of key technological problems of IC packages. Issues are discussed which affect a variety of package types, including plastic surface-mount packages, hermetic packages, and advanced designs such as flip-chip, chip-on-board and multi-chip models.

  5. Energy implications of recycling packaging materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, L.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Stodolsky, F. [Argonne National Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

    1994-03-01

    In 1992, Congress sought to rewrite the United States comprehensive solid waste legislation -- the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Commodity-specific recycling rates were proposed for consumer-goods packaging materials and newsprint We compare the impacts on energy, materials use, and landfill volume of recycling at those rates to the impacts for alternative methods of material disposition to determine the optimum for each material. After products have served their intended uses, there are several alternative paths for material disposition. These include reuse, recycling to the same product, recycling to a lower-valued product, combustion for energy recovery, incineration without energy recovery, and landfill. Only options considered to be environmentally sound are Included. Both houses of Congress specifically excluded combustion for energy recovery from counting towards the recovery goats, probably because combustion is viewed as a form of disposal and is therefore assumed to waste resources and have n environmental effects. However, co-combustion in coal-fired plants or combustion in appropriately pollution-controlled waste-to-energy plants Is safe, avoids landfill costs, and can displace fossil fuels. In some cases, more fossil fuels can be displaced by combustion than by recycling. We compare the alternative life-cycle energies to the energies for producing the products from virgin materials. Results depend on the material and on the objective to be achieved. There are trade-offs among possible goals. For instance, paper packaging recycling conserves trees but may require greater fossil-fuel input than virgin production. Therefore, the objectives for proposed legislation must be examined to see whether they can most effectively be achieved by mandated recycling rates or by other methods of disposition. The optimal choices for the United States may not necessarily be the same as those for Europe and other parts of the world.

  6. Phthalate migration from packaging materials into food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Bogdanovičová

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The content of dibutylphthalate (DBP and di- (2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP in samples of packages used for packaging meat productsand the phthalate migration from packaging materials to meat products were studied. Five samples of textile packaging intended for cooked meat production were analysed as well asthe final product which was filled into packages. Subsequently an analysis was carried out (after 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of storage of the finished meat products stored over the course of their intended shelf life at ambient temperature of 4 °C. Determination of phthalates was conducted by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method with UV detection at a wavelength of 224 nm on the Zorbax Eclipse C8 column. The content of phthalates in the final product was below the limit of quantification. According to the Regulation of the Commission (EU No. 10/2011, the specific migration limit of products intended for food contact is 1.5 mg.kg-1of food simulant for DEHP and 0.3 mg.kg-1 for DBP. After filling and the first day of storage of the meat product, four package samples release the said phthalates to an extent that it exceeded the limits of the Commission Regulation (EU No. 10/2011. Already after the seventh day of storage, all samples (with the exception of sample 2 for DBP exceeded SMLs. Monitoring of each phthalate migration in individual samples during storage (for 28 days produced a rising tendency.  In sample 1, DBP increased from 0.40 to 3.37 mg.kg-1, while DEHP from 0.58 to 14.66 mg.kg-1. In sample 2, DBP increased from ≤0.2 mg.kg-1 to 4.34 mg.kg-1, whileDEHP from 1.46 to 28.20 mg.kg-1. In sample 3, DBP increased from ≤0.2 mg.kg-1 to  8.27 mg.kg-1, while DEHP from 1.67 to 14.84 mg.kg-1. In sample 4, DBP increased from 0.27 to 6.12 mg.kg-1, while DEHP from 2.37 to 13.22 mg.kg-1. In sample 5, DBP increased from 0.32 to 11.11 mg.kg-1, while DEHP from 1.91 to 15.42 mg.kg-1.

  7. Packaging performance evaluation and performance oriented packaging standards for large packages for poison inhalation hazard materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griego, N.R.; Mills, G.S.; McClure, J.D. [and others

    1997-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Transportation Research & Special Programs Administration (DOT-RSPA) has sponsored a project at Sandia National Laboratories to evaluate the protection provided by current packagings used for truck and rail transport of materials that have been classified as Poison Inhalation Hazards (PIH) and to recommend performance standards for these PIH packagings. Hazardous materials span a wide range of toxicity and there are many parameters used to characterize toxicity; for any given hazardous material, data are not available for all of the possible toxicity parameters. Therefore, it was necessary to select a toxicity criterion to characterize all of the PIH compounds (a value of the criterion was derived from other parameters in many cases) and to calculate their dispersion in the event of a release resulting from a transportation accident. Methodologies which account for material toxicity and dispersal characteristics were developed as a major portion of this project and applied to 72 PIH materials. This report presents details of the PIH material toxicity comparisons, calculation of their dispersion, and their classification into five severity categories. 16 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. FABRICATION AND DEPLOYMENT OF THE 9979 TYPE AF RADIOACTIVE WASTE PACKAGING FOR THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

    2013-10-10

    This paper summarizes the development, testing, and certification of the 9979 Type A Fissile Packaging that replaces the UN1A2 Specification Shipping Package eliminated from Department of Transportation (DOT) 49 CFR 173. The DOT Specification Package was used for many decades by the U.S. nuclear industry as a fissile waste container until its removal as an authorized container by DOT. This paper will discuss stream lining procurement of high volume radioactive material packaging manufacturing, such as the 9979, to minimize packaging production costs without sacrificing Quality Assurance. The authorized content envelope (combustible and non-combustible) as well as planned content envelope expansion will be discussed.

  9. 49 CFR 173.40 - General packaging requirements for toxic materials packaged in cylinders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... concrete or steel, impacting at an orientation most likely to cause damage. “Deformation”means a cylinder... packaged in cylinders. 173.40 Section 173.40 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... Transportation § 173.40 General packaging requirements for toxic materials packaged in cylinders. When this...

  10. Acoustic imaging internal microstructure of a packaging material

    OpenAIRE

    Kao-Walter, Sharon; Levin, M. L.; Petronyuk, J.S.; Walter, Mats

    2008-01-01

    Microstructure of a paper-based packaging material was studied by acoustic microscopy method. The laminate structure of the packaging material contains paperboard, polymer and aluminium, which are widely used for aseptic liquid food package. The method has also been used to detect delaminations inside the material. The results show the possibility to study the micro structural features of paperboard, polymer and aluminium foil layered materials by applying the high-resolution ultrasonic acous...

  11. Plasticizers effect on native biodegradable package materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozar, Onuc; Cioica, Nicolae; Coţa, Constantin; Nagy, Elena Mihaela; Fechete, Radu

    2017-01-01

    Changes in intensity of some IR and Raman bands suggest the plasticizing - antiplasticizing effects of water and glycerol contents and a small increase of amorphous/crystalline ratio, too. The nuclear magnetic relaxation data show that the amorphous/crystalline ratio depends on amylose/amylopectin mobility and also by the place of their polymer chain segments. Thus the distributions of spin-spin (T2) relaxation times and the shift toward higher values of some T2 characteristic peaks show that the increasing of water and glycerol content in the starch package materials lead to the more mobile amylose and amylopectin polymer chain segments and the prevalence of amorphous regions in the prepared native corn starch samples.

  12. Performance-oriented packagings for hazardous materials: Resource guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This document provides recommendations to US Department of Energy (DOE) shippers regarding packaging that meet performance-oriented packaging requirements implemented by US Department of Transportation (DOT) in rulemaking HM-181 (December 21, 1990) and subsequent actions. The packaging described in this document are certified by their vendor to comply with requirements for Packing Group I, II, or III hazardous materials packaging. The intent of this document is to share information between DOE and contractors and at all DOE facilities.

  13. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages. Summary report of NRC approved packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-10-01

    This directory contains a Summary Report of NRC Approved Packages for radioactive material packages effective September 14, 1979. Purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance number is included at the back of each volume of the directory. The Summary Report includes a listing of all users of each package design prior to the publication date of the directory.

  14. Decision support system for material handling and packaging design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsson, Mats I.; Mazouz, Abdel K.; Han, Chingping

    1992-02-01

    The reliability of the materials handling process involving automated stacking of packages on a pallet or automated sorting of packages in a distribution system depends mainly on the design of the package and the material used for the package. Many problems can be eliminated that result in a higher utilization of the system if the package is designed not only for the product and its requirements but also for an automated handling system with different types of grasping devices. A decision support system is being developed to help the package designer select the most appropriate material and design to satisfy the requirements of the automated materials handling process. The decision support system is programmed in C++ which gives the flexibility and portability needed for this type of system. The user interface is using graphics to ease the understanding of different design options during the selection process.

  15. Application of combinatorial approach in packaging material selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarupan, Lerpong; Kamarthi, Sagar V.; Gupta, Surendra M.

    2004-12-01

    Packaging material selection (PMS) problems have always been important to packaging designers and engineers. Not only does the selection of packaging material determine the costs and the environmental impacts of packaging, but also influences packaging physical characteristics and associated manufacturing methods. In order to reduce economic and environmental impacts, one has to take a holistic approach to packaging material selection by considering material effects throughout the packaging life cycle. To evaluate economic costs and environmental impacts both quantitative factors and subjective criteria play an important role in the packaging design. In the present work, fuzzy set theory is used for representing and manipulating the vague and subjective descriptions of packaging performance and design attributes. Further a genetic algorithm based approach is used for addressing the packaging material selection problem through multiple criteria decision-making. The overall approach comprises of two phases. In the first phase, fuzzy set theory is used for the linguistic transformation of performance attributes into numerical values. It results in a decision matrix that contains crisp scores. Also in this phase, a weight is assigned to each sub-criterion to show its importance compared to others. In the second phase, a GA is used to globally search for near-optimal or optimal design solutions. The implementation of the proposed methodology is illustrated through a numerical example.

  16. Quantitative Fissile Assay In Used Fuel Using LSDS System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee YongDeok

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative assay of isotopic fissile materials (U235, Pu239, Pu241 was done at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI, using lead slowing down spectrometer (LSDS. The optimum design of LSDS was performed based on economics, easy maintenance and assay effectiveness. LSDS system consists of spectrometer, neutron source, detection and control. LSDS system induces fissile fission and fast neutrons are collected at fission chamber. The detected signal has a direct relation to the mass of existing fissile isotopes. Many current commercial assay technologies have a limitation in direct application on isotopic fissile assay of spent fuel, except chemical analysis. In the designed system, the fissile assay model was setup and the correction factor for self-shield was obtained. The isotopic fissile content assay was performed by changing the content of Pu239. Based on the fuel rod, the isotopic content was consistent with ~2% uncertainty for Pu239. By applying the covering (neutron absorber, the effective shielding was obtained and the activation was calculated on the target. From the assay evaluation, LSDS technique is very powerful and direct to analyze the isotopic fissile content. LSDS is applicable for nuclear fuel cycle and spent fuel management for safety and economics. Additionally, an accurate fissile content will contribute to the international transparency and credibility on spent fuel.

  17. Quantitative Fissile Assay In Used Fuel Using LSDS System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, YongDeok; Jeon, Ju Young; Park, Chang-Je

    2017-09-01

    A quantitative assay of isotopic fissile materials (U235, Pu239, Pu241) was done at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), using lead slowing down spectrometer (LSDS). The optimum design of LSDS was performed based on economics, easy maintenance and assay effectiveness. LSDS system consists of spectrometer, neutron source, detection and control. LSDS system induces fissile fission and fast neutrons are collected at fission chamber. The detected signal has a direct relation to the mass of existing fissile isotopes. Many current commercial assay technologies have a limitation in direct application on isotopic fissile assay of spent fuel, except chemical analysis. In the designed system, the fissile assay model was setup and the correction factor for self-shield was obtained. The isotopic fissile content assay was performed by changing the content of Pu239. Based on the fuel rod, the isotopic content was consistent with 2% uncertainty for Pu239. By applying the covering (neutron absorber), the effective shielding was obtained and the activation was calculated on the target. From the assay evaluation, LSDS technique is very powerful and direct to analyze the isotopic fissile content. LSDS is applicable for nuclear fuel cycle and spent fuel management for safety and economics. Additionally, an accurate fissile content will contribute to the international transparency and credibility on spent fuel.

  18. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) disposable solid waste cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, B.D., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-20

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) evaluates and documents the ability of the Disposable Solid Waste Cask (DSWC) to meet the packaging requirements of HNF-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping, for the onsite transfer of special form, highway route controlled quantity, Type B fissile radioactive material. This SEP evaluates five shipments of DSWCs used for the transport and storage of Fast Flux Test Facility unirradiated fuel to the Plutonium Finishing Plant Protected Area.

  19. Package Formats for Preserved Digital Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the best suitable package formats for long term digital preservation. The choice of a package format for preservation is crucial for future access, thus a thorough analysis of choice is important. The investigation presented here covers setting up requireme...

  20. Package Formats for Preserved Digital Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the best suitable package formats for long term digital preservation. The choice of a package format for preservation is crucial for future access, thus a thorough analysis of choice is important. The investigation presented here covers setting up requireme......This paper presents an investigation of the best suitable package formats for long term digital preservation. The choice of a package format for preservation is crucial for future access, thus a thorough analysis of choice is important. The investigation presented here covers setting up...... the listed requirements will ensure mitigating a number of risks of information loss. Thus WARC is the best choice for a package format in cases where these same risks are judged most important. Similar analysis will need to be carried out in cases where the requirements differ from the ones described here...

  1. DESIGNING OF POLYMERIC PACKAGING FILM MATERIALS WITH THE BARRIER PROPERTIES

    OpenAIRE

    Колосов, Олександр Євгенович; Сідоров, Дмитро Едуардович; Малецький, Сергій Віталійович

    2016-01-01

    The basic types of interactions for packaged food product and packaging that may occur between the polymer film packaging material and the produc are analyzed. It is noted that the most simple to implement isolation of the internal space of the polymer film packaging from the environment. In this package of the insulated space can be removed by air, in particular, evacuation, or replaced with an inert gas or inert gas mixture. It is noted that the permeability of gases and gas mixtures by non...

  2. Muon Tomography Algorithms for Fissile Nuclear Materials Detection%宇宙射线μ子探测裂变核材料的成像算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王烈铭; 王红艳; 刘志英; 杨宏伟; 庞洪超

    2011-01-01

    宇宙射线μ子探测作为一种清洁源、深穿透、真正识别裂变核材料的新方法正在世界范围内日益受到重视,我国也在反恐领域开展此项研究,论文介绍了研究工作中图像重建算法(PoCA算法、期望最大化算法)以及算法模拟实验结果和分析,模拟结果初步证明了宇宙线μ子进行特殊核材料检测的可行性以及图像重建算法的有效性.%Muon Tomography is a novel technique which exploits the multiple coulomb scattering of these particles for nondestructive inspection without the use of artificial radiation. It describes the concept and theory of cosmic - ray muon tomography, and discuss preliminary and advanced reconstruction algorithms ( PoCA algorithm and MLS - EM algorithm) .which take advantage of the scattering angle. Our algorithms are validated with simulation experimental demonstrations. Based upon the results from simulations, we conclude that muon radiography can be useful for detecting fissile nuclear materials.

  3. 75 FR 5375 - Hazardous Material; Miscellaneous Packaging Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ... plastic bags, plastic film bags, textile bags, and paper bags. The purpose was to eliminate uncertainty in... in This Final Rule A. Definitions B. Plastic Packagings Used To Transport Poison Materials C... provisions to require plastic single and composite non-bulk packagings containing Division 6.1 material to...

  4. 75 FR 75157 - Importation of Wood Packaging Material From Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-02

    .... 319.40-3 of the regulations lists the IPPC requirements, which include either heat treatment or... of Wood Packaging Material From Canada AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA... unmanufactured wood articles to remove the exemption that allows wood packaging material from Canada to enter...

  5. 19 CFR 10.601 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail packaging materials and containers. 10.601...-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.601 Retail packaging materials and... for retail sale, if classified with the good for which preferential tariff treatment under the...

  6. THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGES IN TRANSPORT CONFIGURATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, N.

    2010-03-04

    Drum type packages are routinely used to transport radioactive material (RAM) in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex. These packages are designed to meet the federal regulations described in 10 CFR Part 71. The packages are transported in specially designed vehicles like Safe Secure Transport (SST) for safety and security. In the transport vehicles, the packages are placed close to each other to maximize the number of units in the vehicle. Since the RAM contents in the packagings produce decay heat, it is important that they are spaced sufficiently apart to prevent overheating of the containment vessel (CV) seals and the impact limiter to ensure the structural integrity of the package. This paper presents a simple methodology to assess thermal performance of a typical 9975 packaging in a transport configuration.

  7. Optimizing biomass blends for manufacturing molded packaging materials using mycelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polystyrene is one of the most widely used plastics and is commonly produced in three forms: 1) Extruded polystyrene – disposable utensils, CD/DVD cases, yogurt containers, smoke alarm housing, etc.; 2) Expanded polystyrene foam – molded packaging materials and packaging "peanuts"; 3) Extruded polys...

  8. Standard Guide for Packaging Materials for Foods to Be Irradiated

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This guide provides a format to assist producers and users of food packaging materials in selecting materials that have the desirable characteristics for their intended use and comply with applicable standards or government authorizations. It outlines parameters that should be considered when selecting food-contact packaging materials intended for use during irradiation of prepackaged foods and it examines the criteria for fitness for their use. 1.2 This guide identifies known regulations and regulatory frameworks worldwide pertaining to packaging materials for holding foods during irradiation; but it does not address all regulatory issues associated with the selection and use of packaging materials for foods to be irradiated. It is the responsibility of the user of this guide to determine the pertinent regulatory issues in each country where foods are to be irradiated and where irradiated foods are distributed. 1.3 This guide does not address all of the food safety issues associated with the synergisti...

  9. Los Alamos National Laboratory summary plan to fabricate mixed oxide lead assemblies for the fissile material disposition program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buksa, J.J.; Eaton, S.L.; Trellue, H.R.; Chidester, K.; Bowidowicz, M.; Morley, R.A.; Barr, M.

    1997-12-01

    This report summarizes an approach for using existing Los Alamos National Laboratory (Laboratory) mixed oxide (MOX) fuel-fabrication and plutonium processing capabilities to expedite and assure progress in the MOX/Reactor Plutonium Disposition Program. Lead Assembly MOX fabrication is required to provide prototypic fuel for testing in support of fuel qualification and licensing requirements. It is also required to provide a bridge for the full utilization of the European fabrication experience. In part, this bridge helps establish, for the first time since the early 1980s, a US experience base for meeting the safety, licensing, safeguards, security, and materials control and accountability requirements of the Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission. In addition, a link is needed between the current research and development program and the production of disposition mission fuel. This link would also help provide a knowledge base for US regulators. Early MOX fabrication and irradiation testing in commercial nuclear reactors would provide a positive demonstration to Russia (and to potential vendors, designers, fabricators, and utilities) that the US has serious intent to proceed with plutonium disposition. This report summarizes an approach to fabricating lead assembly MOX fuel using the existing MOX fuel-fabrication infrastructure at the Laboratory.

  10. Packaging and transportation of radioactive materials: summary program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    This document contains summaries or abstracts of reports presented at the Symposium on Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Materials. Separate indexing has been performed on individual items presented at this conference. (DC)

  11. Applying and influence of polymer materials for packaging dairy beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Spasenija D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional food is positioned above the traditional, with the potential to improve human health. Thanks to very good physico-mechanical and barrier properties polymers became very popular in food industry as a packaging materials. Wild range of fermented dairy products could be packed in this packaging materials according to their’s inertness as well. Functional milk beverage was obtained from milk with 0,9% milk fat content by applying 10% v/v of kombucha’s inoculum cultivated on a black tea sweetened with sucrose. The beverage was packed in a different packaging materials: polyamid-polyethylen (PA/PE coextruded foil bags and polyprophylen (PP cups closed with aluminium (Al foil lids under atmospheric conditions (ATM. Beverages were storaged for 15 days at 4°C. The quality of kombucha inoculum, milk and obtained kombucha fermented milk beverage were analysed. Characterization of the packaging materials was done by investigating physico-mechanical, barrier and structural properties. The composition and changes in the headspace atmosphere, after production and during the storage, were analysed. The influence of packaging material properties and packaging conditions on the biochemical transformations of the milk’s components (the content of: lactose, L-lactic acid, D-galactose, ethanol, B1 and B2 vitamins influenced by kombucha starter were analysed as well. On the bases of the obtained results of characterisation of packaging materials, it can be concluded that PA/PE and PP materials are proper to be used for analysed beverage’s packaging. Also, there is no significant difference in content of components which were quantified, between analysed materials in correlation with the packed fermented milk beverage. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III-46009

  12. Experiences in certification of packages for transportation of fresh nuclear fuel in the context of new safety requirements established by IAEA regulations (IAEA-96 regulations, ST-1) for air transportation of nuclear materials (requirements to C-type packages)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudai, V.I.; Kovtun, A.D.; Matveev, V.Z.; Morenko, A.I.; Nilulin, V.M.; Shapovalov, V.I.; Yakushev, V.A.; Bobrovsky, V.S.; Rozhkov, V.V.; Agapov, A.M.; Kolesnikov, A.S. [Russian Federal Nuclear Centre - All-Russian Research Inst. of Experimental Physics, Sarov (Russian Federation)]|[JSC ' ' MSZ' ' , Electrostal (Russian Federation)]|[JSC ' ' NPCC' ' , Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)]|[Minatom of Russia, Moscow (Russian Federation)]|[Gosatomnadzor of Russia, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    Every year in Russia, a large amount of domestic and international transportation of fresh nuclear fuel (FNF) used in Russian and foreign energy and research atomic reactors and referred to fissile materials based on IAEA Regulations is performed. Here, bulk transportation is performed by air, and it concerns international transportation in particular. According to national ''Main Regulations for Safe Transport and physical Protection of Nuclear Materials (OPBZ- 83)'' and ''Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials'' of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA Regulations), nuclear and radiation security under normal (accident free) and accident conditions of transport must be completely provided by the package design. In this context, high requirements to fissile packages exposed to heat and mechanical loads in transport accidents are imposed. A long-standing experience in accident free transportation of FM has shown that such approach to provide nuclear and radiation security pays for itself completely. Nevertheless, once in 10 years the International Atomic Energy Agency on every revision of the ''Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials'' places more stringent requirements upon the FM and transportation thereof, resulting from the objectively increasing risk associated with constant rise in volume and density of transportation, and also strained social and economical situation in a number of regions in the world. In the new edition of the IAEA Regulations (ST-1), published in 1996 and brought into force in 2001 (IAEA-96 Regulations), the requirements to FM packages conveyed by aircraft were radically changed. These requirements are completely presented in new Russian ''Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials'' (PBTRM- 2004) which will be brought into force in the time ahead.

  13. Extending the utility of a radioactive material package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramczyk, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Savannah River Nuclear Solutions; Nathan, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Nuclear Solutions; Loftin, B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Savannah River Nuclear Solutions; Bellamy, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Savannah River Nuclear Solutions

    2015-06-04

    Once a package has been certified for the transportation of DOT Hazard Class 7 – Radioactive Material in compliance with the requirements of 10 CFR 71, it is often most economical to extend its utility through the addition of content-specific configuration control features or the addition of shielding materials. The SRNL Model 9977 Package’s authorization was expanded from its original single to twenty contents in this manner; and most recently, the 9977 was evaluated for a high-gamma source content. This paper discusses the need for and the proposed shielding modifications to the package for extending the utility of the package for this purpose.

  14. Extending the utility of a radioactive material package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramczyk, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Savannah River Nuclear Solutions; Nathan, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Nuclear Solutions; Loftin, B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Savannah River Nuclear Solutions; Bellamy, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Savannah River Nuclear Solutions

    2015-06-04

    Once a package has been certified for the transportation of DOT Hazard Class 7 – Radioactive Material in compliance with the requirements of 10 CFR 71, it is often most economical to extend its utility through the addition of content-specific configuration control features or the addition of shielding materials. The SRNL Model 9977 Package’s authorization was expanded from its original single to twenty contents in this manner; and most recently, the 9977 was evaluated for a high-gamma source content. This paper discusses the need for and the proposed shielding modifications to the package for extending the utility of the package for this purpose.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF LEAD SLOWING DOWN SPECTROMETER FOR ISOTOPIC FISSILE ASSAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANG JOON AHN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A lead slowing down spectrometer (LSDS is under development for analysis of isotopic fissile material contents in pyro-processed material, or spent fuel. Many current commercial fissile assay technologies have a limitation in accurate and direct assay of fissile content. However, LSDS is very sensitive in distinguishing fissile fission signals from each isotope. A neutron spectrum analysis was conducted in the spectrometer and the energy resolution was investigated from 0.1eV to 100keV. The spectrum was well shaped in the slowing down energy. The resolution was enough to obtain each fissile from 0.2eV to 1keV. The detector existence in the lead will disturb the source neutron spectrum. It causes a change in resolution and peak amplitude. The intense source neutron production was designed for ∼E12 n's/sec to overcome spent fuel background. The detection sensitivity of U238 and Th232 fission chamber was investigated. The first and second layer detectors increase detection efficiency. Thorium also has a threshold property to detect the fast fission neutrons from fissile fission. However, the detection of Th232 is about 76% of that of U238. A linear detection model was set up over the slowing down neutron energy to obtain each fissile material content. The isotopic fissile assay using LSDS is applicable for the optimum design of spent fuel storage to maximize burnup credit and quality assurance of the recycled nuclear material for safety and economics. LSDS technology will contribute to the transparency and credibility of pyro-process using spent fuel, as internationally demanded.

  16. Packaging configurations and handling requirements for nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jefferson, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    The basic safety concepts for radioactive material are that the package is the primary protection for the public, that the protection afforded by the package should be proportional to the hazard and that the package must be proved by performance. These principles are contained in Department of Energy (DOE), Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations which classify hazards of various radioactive materials and link packaging requirements to the physical form and quantities being shipped. Packaging requirements are reflected in performance standards to guarantee that shipments of low hazard quantities will survive the rigors of normal transportation and that shipments of high hazard quantities will survive extreme severity transportation accidents. Administrative controls provide for segregation of radioactive material from people and other sensitive or hazardous material. They also provide the necessary information function to control the total amounts in a conveyance and to assure that appropriate emergency response activities be started in case of accidents or other emergencies. Radioactive materials shipped in conjunction with the nuclear reactor programs include, ores, concentrates, gaseous diffusion feedstocks, enriched and depleted uranium, fresh fuel, spent fuel, high level wastes, low level wastes and transuranic wastes. Each material is packaged and shipped in accordance with regulations and all hazard classes, quantity limits and packaging types are called into use. From the minimal requirements needed to ship the low hazard uranium ores or concentrates to the very stringent requirements in packaging and moving high level wastes or spent fuel, the regulatory system provides a means for carrying out transportation of radioactive material which assures low and controlled risk to the public.

  17. CORROSION OF LEAD SHIELDING IN NUCLEAR MATERIALS PACKAGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, K; Kerry Dunn, K; Joseph Murphy, J

    2008-07-18

    Inspection of United States-Department of Energy (US-DOE) model 9975 nuclear materials shipping package revealed corrosion of the lead shielding that was induced by off-gas constituents from organic components in the package. Experiments were performed to determine the corrosion rate of lead when exposed to off-gas or degradation products of these organic materials. The results showed that the room temperature vulcanizing (RTV) sealant was the most corrosive organic species used in the construction of the packaging, followed by polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) glue. Fiberboard material, also used in the construction of the packaging induced corrosion to a much lesser extent than the PVAc glue and RTV sealant, and only in the presence of condensed water. The results indicated faster corrosion at temperatures higher than ambient and with condensed water. In light of these corrosion mechanisms, the lead shielding was sheathed in a stainless steel liner to mitigate against corrosion.

  18. DESIGN OF LSDS FOR ISOTOPIC FISSILE ASSAY IN SPENT FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YONGDEOK LEE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A future nuclear energy system is being developed at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI, the system involves a Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR linked with the pyro-process. The pyro-process produces a source material to fabricate a SFR fuel rod. Therefore, an isotopic fissile content assay is very important for fuel rod safety and SFR economics. A new technology for an analysis of isotopic fissile content has been proposed using a lead slowing down spectrometer (LSDS. The new technology has several features for a fissile analysis from spent fuel: direct isotopic fissile assay, no background interference, and no requirement from burnup history information. Several calculations were done on the designed spectrometer geometry: detection sensitivity, neutron energy spectrum analysis, neutron fission characteristics, self shielding analysis, and neutron production mechanism. The spectrum was well organized even at low neutron energy and the threshold fission chamber was a proper choice to get prompt fast fission neutrons. The characteristic fission signature was obtained in slowing down neutron energy from each fissile isotope. Another application of LSDS is for an optimum design of the spent fuel storage, maximization of the burnup credit and provision of the burnup code correction factor. Additionally, an isotopic fissile content assay will contribute to an increase in transparency and credibility for the utilization of spent fuel nuclear material, as internationally demanded.

  19. DOE NCSP Review of TRUPACT-II/HalfPACT Fissile Limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goluoglu, S.

    2002-03-28

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) Office of Nuclear Material & Spent Fuel, EM-21, tasked the CSSG to perform a scoping study to determine the feasibility of increasing the fissile mass loading limits for specified TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT packages and containers. The results of the scoping study may provide insights and technical guidance for establishing fissile mass loading limits at waste generator sites and at the waste repository. The goal is to reduce costs of transporting fissile material to the WIPP from EM's various closure sites. This report documents the results of the scoping study and demonstrates that it is feasible to significantly increase the fissile mass loading limits in the TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT packages and containers. Depending upon the particular payload containers used, the number of shipments to WIPP could be reduced by at least a factor of 2 and as much as a factor of 16 and the number of total payload containers required ''down-hole'' at WIPP could be reduced by at least a factor of 2 and as much as about 6. These cost savings result simply from applying a more realistic criticality analysis model rather than the very conservative, hypothetical, bounding analysis used to support the existing fissile mass loading limits. However, the applications of existing and developmental computational tools, nuclear data, and experiments from the DOE Nuclear Criticality Safety Program have the potential to further reduce transportation and disposal container costs on the order of 7% to 17%. It is suggested that EM proceed with an effort to do the required formal analyses and pursue SARP supplements to take advantage of these savings. The success of these analyses are dependent upon the availability of the majority of the infrastructure supported by the DOE Nuclear Criticality Safety Program as defined in the Five-Year Plan for the program. Finally, it should be noted that these potential cost

  20. Implications of material selection on the design of packaging machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, J P

    2009-01-01

    Material selection has significant implications on the design and cost of horizontal-form-fill-seal packaging machinery. To avoid excessive costs, machine redesigns and project delays, material selection must be reconciled early in the project and revisited throughout the construction of the machine.

  1. CORROSION OF LEAD SHIELDING IN NUCLEAR MATERIALS PACKAGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, K; Kerry Dunn, K

    2007-11-16

    Inspection of United States-Department of Energy (US-DOE) model 9975 nuclear materials shipping package revealed corrosion of the lead shielding induced by off-gas constituents from organic components in the package. Experiments were performed to determine the corrosion rate of lead when exposed to off-gas or degradation products of these organic materials. The results showed that the room temperature vulcanizing (RTV) sealant was the most corrosive organic species followed by the polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) glue. The fiberboard material induced corrosion to a much lesser extent than the PVAc glue and RTV, and only in the presence of condensed water. The results indicated faster corrosion at temperatures higher than ambient and with condensed water as expected. A corrosion rate of 0.05 mm/year measured for coupons exposed to the most aggressive conditions was recommended as a conservative estimate for use in package performance calculations.

  2. Microbial Effects on Nuclear Waste Packaging Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, J; Martin, S; Carrillo, C; Lian, T

    2005-07-22

    Microorganisms may enhance corrosion of components of planned engineered barriers within the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain (YM). Corrosion could occur either directly, through processes collectively known as Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC), or indirectly, by adversely affecting the composition of water or brines that come into direct contact with engineered barrier surfaces. Microorganisms of potential concern (bacteria, archea, and fungi) include both those indigenous to Yucca Mountain and those that infiltrate during repository construction and after waste emplacement. Specific aims of the experimental program to evaluate the potential of microorganisms to affect damage to engineered barrier materials include the following: Indirect Effects--(1) Determine the limiting factors to microbial growth and activity presently in the YM environment. (2) Assess these limiting factors to aid in determining the conditions and time during repository evolution when MIC might become operant. (3) Evaluate present bacterial densities, the composition of the YM microbial community, and determining bacterial densities if limiting factors are overcome. During a major portion of the regulatory period, environmental conditions that are presently extant become reestablished. Therefore, these studies ascertain whether biomass is sufficient to cause MIC during this period and provide a baseline for determining the types of bacterial activities that may be expected. (4) Assess biogenic environmental effects, including pH, alterations to nitrate concentration in groundwater, the generation of organic acids, and metal dissolution. These factors have been shown to be those most relevant to corrosion of engineered barriers. Direct Effects--(1) Characterize and quantify microbiological effects on candidate containment materials. These studies were carried out in a number of different approaches, using whole YM microbiological communities, a subset of YM

  3. A comparative study between transport and criticality safety indexes for fissile uranium nuclearly pure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes da Silva, T. de; Sordi, G.M.A.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN/CNEN (Brazil)]. e-mail: tmsilva@ipen.br

    2006-07-01

    The international and national standards determine that during the transport of radioactive materials the package to be sent should be identified by labels of risks specifying content, activity and the transport index. The result of the monitoring of the package to 1 meter identifies the transport index, TI, which represents the dose rate to 1 meter of this. The transport index is, by definition, a number that represents a gamma radiation that crosses the superficial layer the radioactive material of the package to 1 meter of distance. For the fissile radioactive material that is the one in which a neutron causes the division of the atom, the international standards specify criticality safety index CSI, which is related with the safe mass of the fissile element. In this work it was determined the respective safe mass for each considered enrichment for the compounds of uranium oxides UO{sub 2}, U{sub 3}O{sub 8} and U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}. In the study of CSI it was observed that the value 50 of the expression 50/N being N the number of packages be transported in subcriticality conditions it represents a fifth part of the safe mass of the element uranium or 9% of the smallest mass critical for a transport not under exclusive use. As conclusion of the accomplished study was observed that the transport index starting from 7% of enrichment doesn't present contribution and that criticality safety index is always greater than the transport index. Therefore what the standards demand to specify, the largest value between both indexes, was clearly identified in this study as being the criticality safety index. (Author)

  4. 49 CFR 173.428 - Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.428 Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging. A packaging which previously contained Class 7...

  5. Characteristics of meat packaging materials and their environmental suitability assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šuput Danijela Z.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available After functional phase, packaging becomes waste that is recycled or disposed of in landfills. Recently, numerus packages have been developed for assessing the packaging risk on the environment. We applied Gabi 4 Education software on polymer product packaging for meat products. The objective of first part of the paper was characterization of materials used for meat and meat products packaging in terms of mechanical and barrier properties. Results show that tested materials are able to keep protective atmosphere and contribute to the quality and sustainability of the product. Air permeability was 3.60 and 26.60 ml/m224h, and water vapor was 6.90 and 9.50 ml/m224h, respectively, for foils 1 and 2, as a result of different film composition. In second part, based on real data, Gabi 4 Education software is applied. The obtained results showed that organic compounds emissions have the highest impact on human health and the most damaging environmental impact observed was the emission of CO2.

  6. DEMONSTRATION OF PACKAGING MATERIALS ALTERNATIVES TO EXPANDED POLYSTYRENE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report represents the second demonstration of cleaner technologies to support the goals of the 33/50 Program under the EPA Cooperative Agreement No. CR-821848. The report presents assessment results of alternative packaging materials which could potentially replace expanded...

  7. The radioactive materials packaging handbook: Design, operations, and maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shappert, L.B.; Bowman, S.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Arnold, E.D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)] [and others

    1998-08-01

    As part of its required activities in 1994, the US Department of Energy (DOE) made over 500,000 shipments. Of these shipments, approximately 4% were hazardous, and of these, slightly over 1% (over 6,400 shipments) were radioactive. Because of DOE`s cleanup activities, the total quantities and percentages of radioactive material (RAM) that must be moved from one site to another is expected to increase in the coming years, and these materials are likely to be different than those shipped in the past. Irradiated fuel will certainly be part of the mix as will RAM samples and waste. However, in many cases these materials will be of different shape and size and require a transport packaging having different shielding, thermal, and criticality avoidance characteristics than are currently available. This Handbook provides guidance on the design, testing, certification, and operation of packages for these materials.

  8. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) sample pig transport system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCCOY, J.C.

    1999-03-16

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) provides a technical evaluation of the Sample Pig Transport System as compared to the requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) Order 5480.1, Change 1, Chapter III. The evaluation concludes that the package is acceptable for the onsite transport of Type B, fissile excepted radioactive materials when used in accordance with this document.

  9. Advanced materials for thermal management of electronic packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Tong, Xingcun Colin

    2011-01-01

    The need for advanced thermal management materials in electronic packaging has been widely recognized as thermal challenges become barriers to the electronic industry's ability to provide continued improvements in device and system performance. With increased performance requirements for smaller, more capable, and more efficient electronic power devices, systems ranging from active electronically scanned radar arrays to web servers all require components that can dissipate heat efficiently. This requires that the materials have high capability of dissipating heat and maintaining compatibility

  10. The innovative application studty on eco-packaging design and materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Yong Min

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper solves the increasingly deteriorate environmental problems by positively exploring how to utilize and develop eco-packaging design reasonably. The paper explores an effective method that combines eco-packaging and environmental protection materials, hoping to define the sustainable development road of packaging design. The paper is centered on the design application of eco-packaging and environmental protection materials, applies and analyzes the method to obtain innovative design requirements and development tendency of eco-packaging design by analyzing status and significance of eco-packaging design, combining with the development and main types of eco-packaging packaging materials, and based on the achievements acquired by eco-packaging and environmental protection materials. Meanwhile, the paper also reveals mutual dependence and mutual promotion of eco-packaging design and eco-packaging materials.

  11. NEW APPROACH TO ADDRESSING GAS GENERATION IN RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, R; Leduc, D; Askew, N

    2009-06-25

    Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging (SARP) document why the transportation of radioactive material is safe in Type A(F) and Type B shipping containers. The content evaluation of certain actinide materials require that the gas generation characteristics be addressed. Most packages used to transport actinides impose extremely restrictive limits on moisture content and oxide stabilization to control or prevent flammable gas generation. These requirements prevent some users from using a shipping container even though the material to be shipped is fully compliant with the remaining content envelope including isotopic distribution. To avoid these restrictions, gas generation issues have to be addressed on a case by case basis rather than a one size fits all approach. In addition, SARP applicants and review groups may not have the knowledge and experience with actinide chemistry and other factors affecting gas generation, which facility experts in actinide material processing have obtained in the last sixty years. This paper will address a proposal to create a Gas Generation Evaluation Committee to evaluate gas generation issues associated with Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging material contents. The committee charter could include reviews of both SARP approved contents and new contents not previously evaluated in a SARP.

  12. Material efficiency improvement for European packaging in the period 2000 - 2020

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekkert, M.; Joosten, L.; Worrell, E.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the current material consumption for packaging making in Europe is described. Per packaging type (food bottles, non-food bottles, boxes for primary packaging, flexible packaging, carrier bags, industrial boxes and pallets) options for improved material efficiency are described. The

  13. Programmatic and technical requirements for the FMDP fresh MOX fuel transport package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, S. B.; Michelhaugh, R. D.; Pope, R. B.; Shappert, L. B.; Singletary, B. H.; Chae, S. M.; Parks, C. V.; Broadhead, B. L.; Schmid, S. P.; Cowart, C. G.

    1997-12-01

    This document is intended to guide the designers of the package to all pertinent regulatory and other design requirements to help ensure the safe and efficient transport of the weapons-grade (WG) fresh MOX fuel under the Fissile Materials Disposition Program. To accomplish the disposition mission using MOX fuel, the unirradiated MOX fuel must be transported from the MOX fabrication facility to one or more commercial reactors. Because the unirradiated fuel contains large quantities of plutonium and is not sufficient radioactive to create a self-protecting barrier to deter the material from theft, DOE intends to use its fleet of safe secure trailers (SSTs) to provide the necessary safeguards and security for the material in transit. In addition to these requirements, transport of radioactive materials must comply with regulations of the Department of Transportation and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). In particular, NRC requires that the packages must meet strict performance requirements. The requirements for shipment of MOX fuel (i.e., radioactive fissile materials) specify that the package design is certified by NRC to ensure the materials contained in the packages are not released and remain subcritical after undergoing a series of hypothetical accident condition tests. Packages that pass these tests are certified by NRC as a Type B fissile (BF) package. This document specifies the programmatic and technical design requirements a package must satisfy to transport the fresh MOX fuel assemblies.

  14. RECERTIFICATION OF THE MODEL 9977 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramczyk, G.; Bellamy, S.; Loftin, B.; Nathan, S.

    2013-06-05

    The Model 9977 Packaging was initially issued a Certificate of Compliance (CoC) by the Department of Energy’s Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) for the transportation of radioactive material (RAM) in the Fall of 2007. This first CoC was for a single radioactive material and two packing configurations. In the five years since that time, seven Addendums have been written to the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) and five Letter Amendments have been written that have authorized either new RAM contents or packing configurations, or both. This paper will discuss the process of updating the 9977 SARP to include all the contents and configurations, including the addition of a new content, and its submittal for recertification.

  15. Nuclear waste package materials testing report: basaltic and tuffaceous environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, D.J.; Coles, D.G.; Hodges, F.N.; McVay, G.L.; Westerman, R.E.

    1983-03-01

    The disposal of high-level nuclear wastes in underground repositories in the continental United States requires the development of a waste package that will contain radionuclides for a time period commensurate with performance criteria, which may be up to 1000 years. This report addresses materials testing in support of a waste package for a basalt (Hanford, Washington) or a tuff (Nevada Test Site) repository. The materials investigated in this testing effort were: sodium and calcium bentonites and mixtures with sand or basalt as a backfill; iron and titanium-based alloys as structural barriers; and borosilicate waste glass PNL 76-68 as a waste form. The testing also incorporated site-specific rock media and ground waters: Reference Umtanum Entablature-1 basalt and reference basalt ground water, Bullfrog tuff and NTS J-13 well water. The results of the testing are discussed in four major categories: Backfill Materials: emphasizing water migration, radionuclide migration, physical property and long-term stability studies. Structural Barriers: emphasizing uniform corrosion, irradiation-corrosion, and environmental-mechanical testing. Waste Form Release Characteristics: emphasizing ground water, sample surface area/solution volume ratio, and gamma radiolysis effects. Component Compatibility: emphasizing solution/rock, glass/rock, glass/structural barrier, and glass/backfill interaction tests. This area also includes sensitivity testing to determine primary parameters to be studied, and the results of systems tests where more than two waste package components were combined during a single test.

  16. Effect of Packaging materials on Quality Parameters of Garlic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaspreet Singh Grewal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out to evaluate the effect of storage period and different packaging material on the quality of garlic flakes dried by convective-cum-microwave (CCM and fluidized-cum-microwave (FCM hybrid drying. Garlic flakes were packaged and stored in high density polyethylene (HDPE, low density polyethylene (LDPE and laminated aluminium foil for 3 months under ambient conditions. Samples were investigated to observe for change in rehydration ratio, colour, physiological loss in weight % and overall acceptability. Among the hybrid drying techniques adopted, the garlic flakes developed under optimized condition of fluidized bedcum-microwave was found better in terms of shelf life and quality attributes. The aluminium packaging was adjudged to be the best in retaining the quality of dried garlic flakes up to 3 months of storage. Overall, it can be concluded that the fluidized bed cum microwave dried garlic flakes packed in Aluminium package were the best, and can be stored safely up to 3 months.

  17. Materials for high-density electronic packaging and interconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Electronic packaging and interconnections are the elements that today limit the ultimate performance of advanced electronic systems. Materials in use today and those becoming available are critically examined to ascertain what actions are needed for U.S. industry to compete favorably in the world market for advanced electronics. Materials and processes are discussed in terms of the final properties achievable and systems design compatibility. Weak points in the domestic industrial capability, including technical, industrial philosophy, and political, are identified. Recommendations are presented for actions that could help U.S. industry regain its former leadership position in advanced semiconductor systems production.

  18. 41 CFR 50-204.26 - Exemptions for radioactive materials packaged for shipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... radioactive materials packaged for shipment. 50-204.26 Section 50-204.26 Public Contracts and Property... HEALTH STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SUPPLY CONTRACTS Radiation Standards § 50-204.26 Exemptions for radioactive materials packaged for shipment. Radioactive materials packaged and labeled in accordance with...

  19. 10 CFR 835.405 - Receipt of packages containing radioactive material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Receipt of packages containing radioactive material. 835... Individuals and Areas § 835.405 Receipt of packages containing radioactive material. (a) If packages containing quantities of radioactive material in excess of a Type A quantity (as defined at 10 CFR 71.4)...

  20. Fissile mass estimation by pulsed neutron source interrogation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Israelashvili, I., E-mail: israelashvili@gmail.com [Nuclear Research Center of the Negev, P.O.B 9001, Beer Sheva 84190 (Israel); Dubi, C.; Ettedgui, H.; Ocherashvili, A. [Nuclear Research Center of the Negev, P.O.B 9001, Beer Sheva 84190 (Israel); Pedersen, B. [Nuclear Security Unit, Institute for Transuranium Elements, Joint Research Centre, Via E. Fermi, 2749, 21027 Ispra (Italy); Beck, A. [Nuclear Research Center of the Negev, P.O.B 9001, Beer Sheva 84190 (Israel); Roesgen, E.; Crochmore, J.M. [Nuclear Security Unit, Institute for Transuranium Elements, Joint Research Centre, Via E. Fermi, 2749, 21027 Ispra (Italy); Ridnik, T.; Yaar, I. [Nuclear Research Center of the Negev, P.O.B 9001, Beer Sheva 84190 (Israel)

    2015-06-11

    Passive methods for detecting correlated neutrons from spontaneous fissions (e.g. multiplicity and SVM) are widely used for fissile mass estimations. These methods can be used for fissile materials that emit a significant amount of fission neutrons (like plutonium). Active interrogation, in which fissions are induced in the tested material by an external continuous source or by a pulsed neutron source, has the potential advantages of fast measurement, alongside independence of the spontaneous fissions of the tested fissile material, thus enabling uranium measurement. Until recently, using the multiplicity method, for uranium mass estimation, was possible only for active interrogation made with continues neutron source. Pulsed active neutron interrogation measurements were analyzed with techniques, e.g. differential die away analysis (DDA), which ignore or implicitly include the multiplicity effect (self-induced fission chains). Recently, both, the multiplicity and the SVM techniques, were theoretically extended for analyzing active fissile mass measurements, made by a pulsed neutron source. In this study the SVM technique for pulsed neutron source is experimentally examined, for the first time. The measurements were conducted at the PUNITA facility of the Joint Research Centre in Ispra, Italy. First promising results, of mass estimation by the SVM technique using a pulsed neutron source, are presented.

  1. Mesoporous silica as carrier of antioxidant for food packaging materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonocore, Giovanna Giuliana; Gargiulo, Nicola; Verdolotti, Letizia; Liguori, Barbara; Lavorgna, Marino; Caputo, Domenico

    2014-05-01

    Mesoporous silicas have been long recognized as very promising materials for the preparation of drug delivery systems. In this work SBA-15 mesoporous silica has been functionalized with amino-silane to be used as carrier of antioxidant compound in the preparation of active food packaging materials exhibiting tailored release properties. Active films have been prepared by loading the antioxidant tocopherol, the purely siliceous SBA-15 and the aminofunctionalized SBA-15 loaded with tocopherol into LDPE matrix trough a two-step process (mixing+extrusion). The aim of the present work is the study of the effect of the pore size and of the chemical functionality of the internal walls of the mesophase on the migration of tocopherol from active LDPE polymer films. Moreover, it has been proved that the addition of the active compound do not worsen the properties of the film such as optical characteristic and water vapor permeability, thus leading to the development of a material which could be favorably used mainly, but not exclusively, in the sector of food packaging.

  2. Predicting diffusion coefficients of chemicals in and through packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiaoyi; Vitrac, Olivier

    2017-01-22

    Most of the physicochemical properties in polymers such as activity and partition coefficients, diffusion coefficients, and their activation with temperature are accessible to direct calculations from first principles. Such predictions are particularly relevant for food packaging as they can be used (1) to demonstrate the compliance or safety of numerous polymer materials and of their constitutive substances (e.g. additives, residues…), when they are used: as containers, coatings, sealants, gaskets, printing inks, etc. (2) or to predict the indirect contamination of food by pollutants (e.g. from recycled polymers, storage ambiance…) (3) or to assess the plasticization of materials in contact by food constituents (e.g. fat matter, aroma…). This review article summarizes the classical and last mechanistic descriptions of diffusion in polymers and discusses the reliability of semi-empirical approaches used for compliance testing both in EU and US. It is concluded that simulation of diffusion in or through polymers is not limited to worst-case assumptions but could also be applied to real cases for risk assessment, designing packaging with low leaching risk or to synthesize plastic additives with low diffusion rates.

  3. The innovative application studty on eco-packaging design and materials

    OpenAIRE

    Cui Yong Min; Ren Xin Guang

    2016-01-01

    The paper solves the increasingly deteriorate environmental problems by positively exploring how to utilize and develop eco-packaging design reasonably. The paper explores an effective method that combines eco-packaging and environmental protection materials, hoping to define the sustainable development road of packaging design. The paper is centered on the design application of eco-packaging and environmental protection materials, applies and analyzes the method to obtain innovative design r...

  4. The innovative application studty on eco-packaging design and materials

    OpenAIRE

    Cui Yong Min; Ren Xin Guang

    2016-01-01

    The paper solves the increasingly deteriorate environmental problems by positively exploring how to utilize and develop eco-packaging design reasonably. The paper explores an effective method that combines eco-packaging and environmental protection materials, hoping to define the sustainable development road of packaging design. The paper is centered on the design application of eco-packaging and environmental protection materials, applies and analyzes the method to obtain innovative design r...

  5. 49 CFR 173.422 - Additional requirements for excepted packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.422 Section 173.422 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... (Radioactive) Materials § 173.422 Additional requirements for excepted packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. An excepted package of Class 7 (radioactive) material that is prepared for shipment under...

  6. Electrically conductive and thermally conductive materials for electronic packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zongrong

    The aim of this dissertation is to develop electrically or thermally conductive materials that are needed for electronic packaging and microelectronic cooling. These materials are in the form of coatings and are made from pastes. The research work encompasses paste formulation, studying the process of converting a paste to a conductive material, relating the processing conditions to the structure and performance, and evaluating performance attributes that are relevant to the application of these conductive materials. The research has resulted in new information that is valuable to the microelectronic industry. Work on electrically conductive materials emphasizes the development of electrical interconnection materials in the form of air-firable glass-free silver-based electrically conductive thick films, which use the Ti-Al alloy as the binder and are in contrast to conventional films that use glass as the binder. The air-firability, as enabled by minor additions of tin and zinc to the paste, is in contrast to previous glass-free films that are not firable. The recommended firing condition is 930°C in air. The organic vehicle in the paste comprises ethyl cellulose, which undergoes thermal decomposition during burnout of the paste. The ethyl cellulose is dissolved in ether, which facilitates the burnout. Excessive ethyl cellulose hinders the burnout. A higher heating rate results in more residue after burnout. The presence of silver particles facilitates drying and burnout. Firing in air gives lower resistivity than firing in oxygen. Firing in argon gives poor films. Compared to conventional films that use glass as the binder, these films, when appropriately fired, exhibit lower electrical resistivity (2.5 x 10-6 O.cm) and higher scratch resistance. Work on thermally conductive materials addresses thermal interface materials, which are materials placed at the interface between a heat sink and a heat source for the purpose of improving the thermal contact. Heat

  7. Materials selection for a transport packaging of Mo-99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, Debora H.S.; Lucchesi, Raquel F.; Mancini, Victor A.; Rossi, Jesualdo L., E-mail: debora_hara@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fiore, Marina [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais. Escola Politecnica

    2015-07-01

    The radiopharmaceuticals are radioactive isotopes used in nuclear medicine for more accurate diagnosis and treatment of diseases or dysfunctions. Currently, the most important radionuclide for the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic purposes is technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc), a product of the radioactive decay of molybdenum-99 (Mo-99). The aim of this work was the materials selection that can enable the manufacture of a package for Mo-99 transport with the aid of CES EduPack program and the methodology developed by Ashby. The ESTAR program was used to check the occurrence of Bremsstrahlung and the XCOM program was used to calculate the attenuation coefficient of gamma radiation from some of the selected materials for the shield; after, the thickness required for radiation shielding was calculated. From the results, the materials selected as potential candidates for the manufacture of the shielding were the tungsten alloys. Related to the thermal insulation and the impact protection, woods, plywoods and particle boards stand out. With regard to internal and external coatings, the selected materials focus on groups of steels and nickel alloys. (author)

  8. Biodegradable Long Shelf Life Food Packaging Material Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Long shelf life food packaging is a critical to maintaining the crew's well being in NASA's manned missions to the mars. Not only does the packaging have to offer an...

  9. 49 CFR 173.36 - Hazardous materials in Large Packagings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... an inner packaging is constructed of paper or flexible plastic, the inner packaging must be replaced... the transportation of liquids with a flash point of 60.5 °C (141 °F) (closed cup) or lower, or...

  10. Fissile solution dynamics: Student research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hetrick, D.L.

    1994-09-01

    There are two research projects in criticality safety at the University of Arizona: one in dynamic simulation of hypothetical criticality accidents in fissile solutions, and one in criticality benchmarks using transport theory. We have used the data from nuclear excursions in KEWB, CRAC, and SILENE to help in building models for solution excursions. An equation of state for liquids containing gas bubbles has been developed and coupled to point-reactor dynamics in an attempt to predict fission rate, yield, pressure, and kinetic energy. It appears that radiolytic gas is unimportant until after the first peak, but that it does strongly affect the shape of the subsequent power decrease and also the dynamic pressure.

  11. Polymers and paper as packaging materials of irradiated food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentimalli, M.; Ragni, P.; Righini, G.; Capitani, D.

    2000-03-01

    Effects of γ-irradiation on synthetic polymers and paper used as packaging materials for irradiated food have been studied by NMR. Polystyrene, polybutadiene and some copolymers were studied before and after the γ-irradiation treatment and in the presence or absence of antioxidants and stabilisers. In the absence of additives, the effect of γ-irradiation on polystyrene is negligible even irradiating at high doses. In turn, the role of antioxidants and stabilisers is crucial in polybutadiene and butadiene-containing copolymers. Wood pulp paper was also studied by NMR. Preliminary measurements on γ-irradiated wood pulp sheets show a shortening in the T2 relaxation time component due to the bound water, i.e. some of the bound water is lost.

  12. Life cycle Analysis of Aluminum Foil Packaging Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sebaie, Olfat; Ahmed, Manal; Hussein, Ahmed; El Sharkawy, Fahmay; Samy, Manal

    2006-01-01

    A fundamental tent of life cycle analysis (LCA) is that every material product must become a waste. To choose the greener products, it is necessary to take into account their environmental impacts from cradle to grave. LCA is the tool used to measure environmental improvements. Aluminum (Al) is the third most common element found in the earth's crust, after oxygen and silicon. Al packaging foil was chosen as the material for the study with its life cycle perspective at Alexandria. The Al packaging produced from virgin and recycled Al was investigated through life cycle stages in these two production processes; primary and secondary. The aim of this study is to evaluate the environmental impact of aluminum packaging process by using life cycle analysis of its product from two different starting raw materials (virgin and recycled aluminum). The input and output materials, energy, water, natural gas consumptions, and solid waste uses in the foil industry had been analyzed in order to identify those with significant contribution to the total environmental impacts. From the survey done on the two life cycles, it was found that in environmental terms, the most important emissions from the primary process are the emission of CO(2) and perfluorocarbon (PFC) gases, which produce the greenhouse effect, and SO(2) as well as the emission of fluorides and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH compounds), which are toxic to humans and the environment. On over all material balance, it was found that the ingot shares by 45% of the feed to the casthouse furnaces at Egyptian Copper Work (ECW), net production of the casthouse is 43.76% and the yield of rotary dross furnace (RDF) is 28.8%. The net production of the foil unit represents 35% of the total input to the unit. By comparing the two life cycles, it is obvious that, for water consumption, 93.5% is used in the primary cycle, while 6.5% is used in the secondary cycle. For electricity consumption, 99.3% is used in the primary cycle

  13. Nuclear materials stabilization and packaging. Quarterly status report, January 1--March 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haschke, J.M.; Horrell, D.R.; Hoth, C.W.; Fife, K.W.; Nielsen, J.B.; Pierce, S.W.; Ricketts, T.E.; Rink, N.A.; Robinson, M.A.

    1996-08-01

    This report documents progress on the Los Alamos Nuclear Materials Stabilization and Packaging projects for the second quarter of FY 1996. It covers development and production activities for the Plutonium Packaging Project, the Plutonium Recovery and Processing Project, and the Uranium Recovery and Processing Project. In addition, it reports on quality assurance activities for the Plutonium Packaging Project.

  14. The Use of Films as Suitable Packaging Materials for Minimally Processed Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-01

    Freshly Peeled citrus products combine pectinase solution, vacuum infusion technology, and a mechanized line to produce pre- peeled orange and...PROCESSED FOODS: MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE PACKAGING, SOUS-VIDE, MICHOWAVEABLE FOODS nwvKrrvE POOD PRESERVATION, VENTED FOODS, ANTIBACTERIAL OXYGEN...Vented Foods Antibacterial Packaging Materials Oxygen Absorbers Moisture Absorbers Packaging Design and Environmental Concern/Awareness Edible Barrier

  15. Recent innovations in edible and/or biodegradable packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbert, S; Cuq, B; Gontard, N

    1997-01-01

    Certain newly discovered characteristics of natural biopolymers should make them a choice material to be used for different types of wrappings and films. Edible and/or biodegradable packagings produced from agricultural origin macromolecules provide a supplementary and sometimes essential means to control physiological, microbiological, and physicochemical changes in food products. This is accomplished (i) by controlling mass transfers between food product and ambient atmosphere or between components in heterogeneous food product, and (iii) by modifying and controlling food surface conditions (pH, level of specific functional agents, slow release of flavour compounds), it should be stressed that the material characteristics (polysaccharide, protein, or lipid, plasticized or not, chemically modified or not, used alone or in combination) and the fabrication procedures (casting of a film-forming solution, thermoforming) must be adapted to each specific food product and usage condition (relative humidity, temperature). Some potential uses of these materials (e.g. wrapping of various fabricated foods; protection of fruits and vegetables by control of maturation; protection of meat and fish; control of internal moisture transfer in pizzas), which are hinged on film properties (e.g. organoleptic, mechanical, gas and solute barrier) are described with examples.

  16. 78 FR 29016 - Establishing Quality Assurance Programs for Packaging Used in Transport of Radioactive Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... Transport of Radioactive Material AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft regulatory guide... regulations for the packaging and transportation of radioactive material. The NRC is issuing for public... in Transport of Radioactive Material.'' This draft regulatory guide describes a proposed method...

  17. Renewable fibers and bio-based materials for packaging applications - A review of recent developments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Caisa; Bras, Julien; Mondragon, Inaki

    2012-01-01

    materials in the packaging market. The covered subjects are renewable fibers and bio-based polymers for use in bioplastics or as coatings for paper-based packaging materials. Current market sizes and forecasts are also presented. Competitive mechanical, thermal, and barrier properties along with material...

  18. 77 FR 14445 - Leakage Tests on Packages for Shipment of Radioactive Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... COMMISSION Leakage Tests on Packages for Shipment of Radioactive Material AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... Standard N14.5-1997, ``Radioactive Materials--Leakage Tests on Packages for Shipment'' approved February... receiving radioactive material. II. Further Information Revision 1 of Regulatory Guide 7.4 was issued with...

  19. Safety Analysis Report for Packaging: The unirradiated fuel shipping container USA/9853/AF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-18

    The HFBR Unirradiated Fuel Shipping Container was designed and fabricated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1978 for the transport of fuel for the High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR) for Brookhaven National Laboratory. The package has been evaluated analytically, as well as the comparison to tests on similar packages, to demonstrate compliance with the applicable regulations governing packages in which radioactive and fissile materials are transported. The contents of this Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) are based on Regulatory Guide 7.9 (proposed Revision 2 - May 1986), 10 CFR Part 71, DOE Order 1540.2, DOE Order 5480.3, and 49 CFR Part 173.

  20. Safety Analysis Report for Packaging: The unirradiated fuel shipping container USA/9853/AF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-18

    The HFBR Unirradiated Fuel Shipping Container was designed and fabricated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1978 for the transport of fuel for the High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR) for Brookhaven National Laboratory. The package has been evaluated analytically, as well as the comparison to tests on similar packages, to demonstrate compliance with the applicable regulations governing packages in which radioactive and fissile materials are transported. The contents of this Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) are based on Regulatory Guide 7.9 (proposed Revision 2 - May 1986), 10 CFR Part 71, DOE Order 1540.2, DOE Order 5480.3, and 49 CFR Part 173.

  1. YPHON: A package for calculating phonons of polar materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Chen, Long-Qing; Liu, Zi-Kui

    2014-11-01

    In our recent works, we have developed a mixed-space approach within the framework of direct method for the first-principle calculation of phonon properties. It makes full use of the accuracy of the force constants calculated in the real space and the dipole-dipole interactions in the reciprocal space, making the accurate phonon calculation possible with the direct method for polar materials. In this paper, an efficient C++ implementation of the mixed-space approach, YPHON, is provided as open source, including demos and Linux scripts for extracting input data to YPHON from the output of VASP.5. The functions of the current package include the calculations of: (1) the phonon dispersions; (2) the phonon density of states; (3) the neutron scattering section weighted phonon density of state; (4) the phonons of the high symmetry structure using the force constants from low symmetry structure; (5) the phonon dispersions of random alloys; and (6) the analysis of the vibrational modes using the point group theory. Catalogue identifier: AETS_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AETS_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 567815 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 9763594 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++, Linux scripts. Computer: Linux systems with a g++ or C++ compiler. Operating system: Linux. RAM: Ranges from a few Mbytes to a few Gbytes, dynamically depending on the system size. Classification: 7.8. External routines: GSL-the GNU Scientific Library (GSL) is a numerical library for C and C++ programmers. VASP.5 or later for the calculations of force constants and dielectric constants and Born effective charge for polar materials. Nature of problem: This package has the purpose of computing

  2. ROCK FALL CALCULATIONS FOR SINGLE CORROSION RESISTANT MATERIAL WASTE PACKAGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Z. Ceylan

    1999-03-23

    The purpose of this activity is to determine the structural performance of waste packages (WP) subject to rock fall design basis event (DBE) dynamic loads and document the calculation results that describe the threshold rock sizes for crack-initiation and through cracks in waste package shells. This activity is associated with the waste package design. AP-3.12Q, Revision 0, ICN 0, Calculations, is used to develop the calculation.

  3. ROCK FALL CALCULATIONS FOR SINGLE CORROSION RESISTANT MATERIAL WASTE PACKAGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Bader

    1999-09-20

    The purpose of this activity is to determine the structural performance of waste packages (WP) subject to rock fall design basis event (DBE) dynamic loads and document the calculation results that describe the threshold rock sizes for crack-initiation and through-cracks in waste package shells. This activity is associated with the waste package design. AP-3.12Q, Revision 0, ICN 0, Calculations, is used to develop the calculation.

  4. Influence of protective characteristics of packaging material on packed dried fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gvozdenović Jasna J.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dried fruits are very delicate to biochemical changes during storage, due to low water content, as well as low aw value. The shelf life of these products depends on aw value. Materials for dry fruits packaging are necessary to have appropriate barrier characteristics for water, oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide molecules, as well as for electromagnetic rays, especially those with low wavelengths in UV region. During storage of packed dry fruits, qualitative changes, influenced by different packaging materials, may occur. The results of tested characteristics of different packaging materials, combination and their barrier features, as well as the qualitative changes of packaged dried apples are presented in this paper. The qualitative changes of color and sensory characteristics of packaged dried apples point out to influence of the type, combination as well as the barrier features of used packaging materials. .

  5. Quality and safety aspects of meat products as affected by various physical manipulations of packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keun Taik

    2010-09-01

    This article explores the effects of physically manipulated packaging materials on the quality and safety of meat products. Recently, innovative measures for improving quality and extending the shelf-life of packaged meat products have been developed, utilizing technologies including barrier film, active packaging, nanotechnology, microperforation, irradiation, plasma and far-infrared ray (FIR) treatments. Despite these developments, each technology has peculiar drawbacks which will need to be addressed by meat scientists in the future. To develop successful meat packaging systems, key product characteristics affecting stability, environmental conditions during storage until consumption, and consumers' packaging expectations must all be taken into consideration. Furthermore, the safety issues related to packaging materials must also be taken into account when processing, packaging and storing meat products.

  6. 49 CFR 173.419 - Authorized packages-oxidizing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.419 Authorized packages—oxidizing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. (a) An oxidizing Class 7 (radioactive... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Authorized packages-oxidizing Class 7...

  7. RENEWABLE FIBERS AND BIO-BASED MATERIALS FOR PACKAGING APPLICATIONS – A REVIEW OF RECENT DEVELOPMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caisa Johansson,

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This review describes the state-of-the-art of material derived from the forest sector with respect to its potential for use in the packaging industry. Some innovative approaches are highlighted. The aim is to cover recent developments and key challenges for successful introduction of renewable materials in the packaging market. The covered subjects are renewable fibers and bio-based polymers for use in bioplastics or as coatings for paper-based packaging materials. Current market sizes and forecasts are also presented. Competitive mechanical, thermal, and barrier properties along with material availability and ease of processing are identified as fundamental issues for sustainable utilization of renewable materials.

  8. Packaging material and flexible medical tubing containing thermally exfoliated graphite oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A packaging material or flexible medical tubing containing a modified graphite oxide material, which is a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 m.sup.2/g to 2600 m.sup.2/g.

  9. Information technologies and software packages for education of specialists in materials science [In Russian

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Krzhizhanovskaya; S. Ryaboshuk

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents methodological materials, interactive text-books and software packages developed and extensively used for education of specialists in materials science. These virtual laboratories for education and research are equipped with tutorials and software environment for modeling complex

  10. Legal analysis of information displayed on dental material packages: An exploratory research

    OpenAIRE

    Bhumika Rathore; Pusphpanjali Krishnappa; Suraj U Mehta

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Some of the dental materials possess occupational hazards, preprocedural errors, and patient allergies as suggested by evidence. With due consideration to safety of the patients and dental professionals, it is essential that the trade of these materials is in conformity with the law. Aim: To perform the legal analysis of the information displayed on the packaging of dental materials. Materials and Methods: The Bureau of Indian Standards sets guidelines for packaging and marketin...

  11. Packaging Review Guide for Reviewing Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiSabatino, A; Biswas, D; DeMicco, M; Fisher, L E; Hafner, R; Haslam, J; Mok, G; Patel, C; Russell, E

    2007-04-12

    This Packaging Review Guide (PRG) provides guidance for Department of Energy (DOE) review and approval of packagings to transport fissile and Type B quantities of radioactive material. It fulfills, in part, the requirements of DOE Order 460.1B for the Headquarters Certifying Official to establish standards and to provide guidance for the preparation of Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings (SARPs). This PRG is intended for use by the Headquarters Certifying Official and his or her review staff, DOE Secretarial offices, operations/field offices, and applicants for DOE packaging approval. This PRG is generally organized at the section level in a format similar to that recommended in Regulatory Guide 7.9 (RG 7.9). One notable exception is the addition of Section 9 (Quality Assurance), which is not included as a separate chapter in RG 7.9. Within each section, this PRG addresses the technical and regulatory bases for the review, the manner in which the review is accomplished, and findings that are generally applicable for a package that meets the approval standards. This Packaging Review Guide (PRG) provides guidance for DOE review and approval of packagings to transport fissile and Type B quantities of radioactive material. It fulfills, in part, the requirements of DOE O 460.1B for the Headquarters Certifying Official to establish standards and to provide guidance for the preparation of Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings (SARPs). This PRG is intended for use by the Headquarters Certifying Official and his review staff, DOE Secretarial offices, operations/field offices, and applicants for DOE packaging approval. The primary objectives of this PRG are to: (1) Summarize the regulatory requirements for package approval; (2) Describe the technical review procedures by which DOE determines that these requirements have been satisfied; (3) Establish and maintain the quality and uniformity of reviews; (4) Define the base from which to evaluate proposed changes in scope

  12. Application of polymer nanocomposite materials in food packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Bratovčić, Amra; Odobašić, Amra; Ćatić, S.; Šestan, Indira

    2015-01-01

    The term “nano” refers to nano particle size from 1 to 100 nanometers. The term "nanotechnology" was first introduced by Norio Taniguchi in 1974. Nanotechnology may be used to improve the taste and texture of food and for the production of packaging that maintain fresh product. The primary function of packaging is to maintain the quality and safety of products during transport and storage period, as well as to extend its viability by preventing unwanted effect agents such as microorganisms, c...

  13. Response to 'A comment on 'Signatures of fissile materials:High-energy gamma rays following fission,' by Zeev B. Alfassi'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman, Eric B.; Prussin, Stanley G.; Larimer, Ruth-Mary; Shugart, Howard; Browne, Edgardo; Smith, Alan R.; McDonald, Richard J.; Nitsche, Heino; Gupta, Puja; Frank, Michael I.; Gosnell, Thomas B.

    2004-06-03

    Prof. Alfassi has pointed out that radionuclides that are not fission products, but which emit {gamma} rays with energies E{sub {gamma}} > 3 MeV, can be produced by neutron irradiation. He suggested that the decays of such activation products would interfere with the identification of fissionable materials. However, the combination of the energy spectrum and the temporal variation of the fission product gamma rays can be used to distinguish fissionable material from other nuclides. The activation of nuclides that could produce interferences will depend upon the specifics of the cargo and, possibly, the local surroundings. As discussed in our original publication, in addition to the steel that Prof. Alfassi referred to in his Comment, we studied the activation of wood, polyethylene, aluminum, and sandstone. Activation by thermal neutrons will always occur, and Prof. Alfassi correctly points out that nuclides such as {sup 49}Ca and {sup 37}S can be formed in this way. These nuclides are representative of most potential interferences. Both {sup 48}Ca and {sup 36}S have very low isotopic abundances (0.187% and 0.02%, respectively) and small thermal neutron capture cross sections (0.20 barns and 0.98 barns, respectively). In addition, their half lives are more than an order of magnitude longer than the gross average observed from the fission products, and more than two orders of magnitude longer than the lifetimes of the shorter-lived fission products that contribute significantly to the total intensity in the energy range of interest. These differences make it possible to distinguish between fission products and thermal neutron activation products. Prof. Alfassi also pointed out that interferences, of which {sup 16}N is likely to be the most important, can be produced by fast neutron reactions. (As described in our original publication, we did not use a 14 MeV generator in our work.) Fortunately, a judicious choice of the source neutron energy can limit the extent of

  14. Materials in Manufacturing and Packaging Systems as Sources of Elemental Impurities in Packaged Drug Products: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenke, Dennis R; Stults, Cheryl L M; Paskiet, Diane M; Ball, Douglas J; Nagao, Lee M

    Elemental impurities in drug products can arise from a number of different sources and via a number of different means, including the active pharmaceutical ingredient, excipients, the vehicle, and leaching of elemental entities that are present in the drug product's manufacturing or packaging systems. Thus, knowledge about the presence, level, and likelihood of leaching of elemental entities in manufacturing and packaging systems is relevant to understanding how these systems contribute to a drug product's total elemental impurity burden. To that end, a joint team from the Extractables and Leachables Safety Information Exchange (ELSIE) Consortium and the International Pharmaceutical Aerosol Consortium on Regulation and Science (IPAC-RS) has conducted a review of the available literature on elemental entities in pharmaceutically relevant polymers and the presence of these elemental entities in material extracts and/or drug products. This review article contains the information compiled from the available body of literature and considers two questions: (1) What elemental entities are present in the relevant polymers and materials and at what levels are they present? (2) To what extent are these elemental entities leached from these materials under conditions relevant to the manufacturing and storage/distribution of solution drug products? Conclusions drawn from the compiled data are as follows: (1) Elemental entities are present in the materials used to construct packaging and manufacturing systems as these materials either contain these elemental entities as additives or are exposed to elemental entities during their production. (2) Unless the elemental entities are parts of the materials themselves (for example, SiO2 in glass) or intentionally added to the materials (for example, metal stearates in polymers), their incidental amounts in the materials are generally low. (3) When elemental entities are present in materials and systems, generally only a very small

  15. Elucidating the role of interfacial materials properties in microfluidic packages.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Thayne L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to discover a method to investigate the properties of interfaces as described by a numerical physical model. The model used was adopted from literature and applied to a commercially available multiphysics software package. By doing this the internal properties of simple structures could be elucidated and then readily applied to more complex structures such as valves and pumps in laminate microfluidic structures. A numerical finite element multi-scale model of a cohesive interface comprised of heterogeneous material properties was used to elucidate irreversible damage from applied strain energy. An unknown internal state variable was applied to characterize the damage process. Using a constrained blister test, this unknown internal state variable could be determined for an adherend/adhesive/adherend body. This is particularly interesting for laminate systems with microfluidic and microstructures contained within the body. A laminate structure was designed and fabricated that could accommodate a variety of binary systems joined using nearly any technique such as adhesive, welding (solvent, laser, ultrasonic, RF, etc.), or thermal. The adhesive method was the most successful and easy to implement but also one of the more difficult to understand, especially over long periods of time. Welding methods are meant to achieve a bond that is similar to bulk properties and so are easier to predict. However, methods of welding often produce defects in the bonds.. Examples of the test structures used to elucidate the internal properties of the model were shown and demonstrated. The real life examples used this research to improve upon current designs and aided in creating complex structures for sensor and other applications.

  16. Microwave Absorbent Packaging Material from Composites Chitosan-Polyvinyl Alcohol Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang - Riyanto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Microwave absorbent packaging materials currently tend to biomaterial. Chitosan is a dielectric biomaterial with polycationic properties. The aim of this study was to analyze characteristics of microwave absorbing packaging material made from composite chitosan-polyvinyl alcohol (PVA polymer. The ability of the packaging material to absorb microwave was determined by reflection loss measurement. Formed packaging prototype resembles as a thin transparent yellowish plastic with thickness (0.11-0.22 mm and the tensile strength (106.33±2.82-143.00±2.59 kPa. SEM analysis showed homogenous structure characterized by interaction between chitosan and PVA. Optimum absorption value was obtained from chitosan concentration of 1%, with average value of reflection loss was (-31.9289±4.0094 dB.Keywords: chitosan, material packaging, microwave, reflection loss

  17. Microwave Absorbent Packaging Material from Composites Chitosan-Polyvinyl Alcohol Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang - Riyanto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Microwave absorbent packaging materials currently tend to biomaterial. Chitosan is a dielectric biomaterial with polycationic properties. The aim of this study was to analyze characteristics of microwave absorbing packaging material made from composite chitosan-polyvinyl alcohol (PVA polymer. The ability of the packaging material to absorb microwave was determined by reflection loss measurement. Formed packaging prototype resembles as a thin transparent yellowish plastic with thickness (0.11-0.22 mm and the tensile strength (106.33±2.82-143.00±2.59 kPa. SEM analysis showed homogenous structure characterized by interaction between chitosan and PVA. Optimum absorption value was obtained from chitosan concentration of 1%, with average value of reflection loss was (-31.9289±4.0094 dB.Keywords: chitosan, material packaging, microwave, reflection loss

  18. The Effect of Packaging Materials on the Quality Attributes of Crayfish During Cold Storage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajala, A.S

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the effects of packaging materials on the quality attributes of crayfish preserved in cold storage. This was done in order to ascertain the suitability of the different packaging materials on keeping the quality attributes of crayfish in cold storage. The “red claw” crayfish was harvested fresh, beheaded, washed, cleaned and packaged in different packaging materials of low-density polyethylene (LDPE, high-density polyethylene (HDPE, aluminum foil and plastic. The crayfish were stored for a period of eight weeks, and samples were taken for analysis every two weeks. The analyses carried out were proximate, mineral (calcium, iron and phosphorus and microbial (yeast, mould, coliform and total viable counts. There were significant reduction changes in the proximate, minerals and microbiological analysis in respect to the packaging materials and storage period.

  19. Material flow analysis for an industry - A case study in packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amey, E.B.; Sandgren, K.

    1996-01-01

    The basic materials used in packaging are glass, metals (primarily aluminum and steel), an ever-growing range of plastics, paper and paperboard, wood, textiles for bags, and miscellaneous other materials (such as glues, inks, and other supplies). They are fabricated into rigid, semi-rigid, or flexible containers. The most common forms of these containers include cans, drums, bottles, cartons, boxes, bags, pouches, and wraps. Packaging products are, for the most part, low cost, bulky products that are manufactured close to their customers. There is virtually no import or export of packaging products. A material flow analysis can be developed that looks at all inputs to an industrial sector, inventories the losses in processing, and tracks the fate of the material after its useful life. An example is presented that identifies the material inputs to the packaging industry, and addresses the ultimate fate of the materials used. ?? 1996 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  20. Compilation of current literature on seals, closures, and leakage for radioactive material packagings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warrant, M.M.; Ottinger, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents an overview of the features that affect the sealing capability of radioactive material packagings currently certified by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The report is based on a review of current literature on seals, closures, and leakage for radioactive material packagings. Federal regulations that relate to the sealing capability of radioactive material packagings, as well as basic equations for leakage calculations and some of the available leakage test procedures are presented. The factors which affect the sealing capability of a closure, including the properties of the sealing surfaces, the gasket material, the closure method and the contents are discussed in qualitative terms. Information on the general properties of both elastomer and metal gasket materials and some specific designs are presented. A summary of the seal material, closure method, and leakage tests for currently certified packagings with large diameter seals is provided. 18 figs., 9 tabs.

  1. Measurement of fissile mass in large-size containers with a transportable linear accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeyer Dherbey, Jacques; Lyoussi, A.; Buisson, A.

    1997-02-01

    The quantification of transuranic material (TRU) in waste packages is a common problem of countries working in the field of nuclear nondestructive inspection. The direct measurement of TRU mass inside large size closed containers is difficult due to several effects, mainly the matrix attenuation and uncertainty on the localization of the radioactive mass. The present document describes the method being developed to assay conditioned waste packages using a transportable linear accelerator which is called Mini- Linatron. The system uses a pulsed electron beam from the Mini-Linatron to produce high energy bremsstrahlung photon bursts from thin metallic converter. The transportable linear accelerator operates at 6, 9 and 11 MeV with a repetition rate between 10 to 300 Hz and a 4.5 microsecond(s) pulse duration. The maximum gamma dose rate is about 23 Gy/mn at 1 m. The photons induce fission in fissile and fertile nuclei. We counted delayed neutrons emitted after each pulse by using Sequential Photon Interrogation and Neutron Counting Signatures technique which has ben developed in this framework. Results of measurements on an experimental active gamma interrogation facility for embedded intermediate and low level wastes are presented. Finally, the advantages and performances of the photofission interrogation technique, the use of a transportable electron linear accelerator as a particle source, and the experimental and electronic details will be discussed.

  2. The use of a transportable linear accelerator for fissile mass measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeyer Dherbey, J.; Lyoussi, A.; Buisson, A.

    1997-02-01

    The quantification of transuranic material (TRU) in waste packages is a common care of countries working in the field of nuclear nondestructive prospecting. The direct control of TRU mass inside large size closed containers is difficult due to several effects, mainly the matrix attenuation and uncertainty on the localization of the radioactive mass. The present document describes the method being developed to assay conditioned waste packages using a transportable linear accelerator which is called Mini-Linatron. The system uses a pulsed electron beam from the Mini-Linatron to produce high energy bremsstrahlung photon bursts from thin metallic converter. The transportable linear accelerator operates at 6, 9 and 11 MeV with a repetition rate between 10 to 300 Hz and a 4.5 μs pulse duration. The maximum gamma dose rate is about 23 Gy/mn at 1 m. The photons induce fission in fissile and fertile nuclei. We counted delayed neutrons emitted after each pulse. Results of measurements on an experimental active gamma interrogation facility for embedded intermediate and low level wastes are presented.

  3. Migration and sensory changes of packaging materials caused by ionising radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welle, Frank; Mauer, Alexandra; Franz, Roland

    2002-03-01

    Irradiation of packaging materials—in most cases plastics—generally lead to a formation of free radicals and ions, with secondary effects such as cross-linking as well as oxidative chain scission. These effects result in a formation of volatile radiolysis products which may induce off-odours in the polymers and may change the migration characteristics of packaging materials. Irradiation affect also polymer additives which change the specific migration behaviour of polymer additives and additive related decomposition products. Migration and sensory changes of pre-sterilised packaging materials have consequences on the quality of packaged goods and consumer's safety. Therefore, migration and sensory properties of packaging materials have specific regulations. Within this paper the effects of the formation of radiolysis products on overall migration, specific migration of food additives or radiolysis products as well as on sensory changes are discussed in view of current European food law.

  4. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings approved by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance Number is included at the front of Volumes 1 and 2. An alphabetical listing by user name is included in the back of Volume 3 for approved Quality Assurance programs. The reports include a listing of all users of each package design and approved Quality Assurance programs prior to the publication date of the directory. Comments to make future revisions of this directory more useful are invited and should be directed to the Spent Fuel Project Office, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

  5. COMPACTION OF FIBERBOARD OVERPACK MATERIALS IN A 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefek, T.; Daugherty, W.; Estochen, E.; Murphy, J.

    2010-05-27

    Compaction of lower layers in the 9975 fiberboard overpack has been observed in packages that contain excess moisture. Dynamic loading of the package during transportation may also contribute to compaction of the fiberboard. This condition is being tested and analyzed to better understand these compaction mechanisms and provide a basis from which to evaluate their impact to the safety basis for transportation (Safety Analysis Report for Packaging) and storage (facility Design Safety Analysis) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). A test program has been developed and is being implemented to identify the extent of the compaction as a function of fiberboard moisture and typical transport dynamic loadings. Test conditions will be compared to regulatory requirements for dynamic loading. Characterization of the recovery of short-term compaction following the application of dynamic loading is also being evaluated. Interim results from this test program will be summarized.

  6. The profitability drivers in packaging materials reuse for manufacturers in business to business environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Samuel; Deleuran, Brian; Jacobsen, Peter

    ’s theoretical basis is the RSC literature’s business perspective formulated by Guide and Van Wassenhove. Findings – The drivers of profitability in packaging materials reuse are 1) the amount of avoided costs of purchasing new packaging materials, 2) the firm’s ability to reduce costs of reverse logistics......Purpose –The purpose of this paper is to explore the profitability drivers for a firm’s operation of a reverse supply chain (RSC) that takes back and reuses packaging materials. Results apply specifically to original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) in business to business environments. Design...

  7. Mass Transfer Study of Chlorine Dioxide Gas Through Polymeric Packaging Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    A continuous system for measuring the mass transfer of gaseous chlorine dioxide (ClO2), a strong oxidizing agent and used in food and pharmaceutical packaging, through 10 different types of polymeric packaging material was developed utilizing electrochemical sensor as a detector. Permeability, diff...

  8. Comparison of silicone and spin-on glass packaging materials for light-emitting diode encapsulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Liann-Be; Pan, Ke-Wei; Yen, Chia-Yi [Department of Electronic Engineering and Green Technology Research Center, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Jeng, Ming-Jer, E-mail: mjjeng@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Department of Electronic Engineering and Green Technology Research Center, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Wu, Chun-Te; Hu, Sung-Cheng; Kuo, Yang-Kuao [Chemical Systems Research Division, Chung-Shan Institute of Science and Technology Armaments Bureau, MND, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)

    2014-11-03

    Traditional white light light-emitting diode (LED) encapsulation is performed by mixed phosphors and silicone coating on LED die. However, this encapsulation with silicone coating incurs overheated temperatures and yellowing problem. Therefore, this work attempts to replace silicone paste by using spin-on-glass (SOG) materials. Experimental results indicate that although initial brightness of SOG-based packaging is lower than that of silicone packaging, its light attenuation is significantly lower than that of silicone for a long lighting time. After the LED power is turned on for 12 h, the brightness of LED with silicone and SOG material packaging decreases from 84 to 48 lm and 73 to 59 lm, respectively. Therefore, SOG material provides an alternative packaging solution for high power LED lighting applications. - Highlights: • Spin-on-glass (SOG) material was used to replace silicone coating for LED packaging. • Initial brightness of SOG packaging is lower than that of silicone packaging. • Over time, light attenuation in SOG is much lower than that in silicone. • Color rendering index and brightness of LED packaging was optimized by Taguchi method.

  9. 21 CFR 179.45 - Packaging materials for use during the irradiation of prepackaged foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PRODUCTION, PROCESSING AND HANDLING OF FOOD Packaging Materials for Irradiated Foods § 179.45 Packaging... chapter. (c) Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers complying with § 177.1350 of this chapter. The ethylene... exceed 1 pct by weight of the polymer. Triethylene glycol as described in § 178.3740(b) of this chapter...

  10. Optimization of biomass blends in the manufacture of molded packaging materials produced using fungal mycelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polystyrene is one of the most widely used plastics and is commonly produced in three forms: 1) Extruded polystyrene – disposable utensils, CD/DVD cases, yogurt containers, smoke alarm housing, etc.; 2) Expanded polystyrene foam – molded packaging materials and packaging "peanuts"; 3) Extruded polys...

  11. Alternative buffer material. Status of the ongoing laboratory investigation of reference materials and test package 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Daniel [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Dueck, Ann; Nilsson, Ulf; Olsson, Siv; Sanden, Torbjoern [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden); Lydmark, Sara; Jaegerwall, Sara; Pedersen, Karsten [Microbial Analytics Sweden AB, Moelnlycke (Sweden); Hansen, Staffan [LTH Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden)

    2011-07-15

    Bentonite clay is part of the Swedish KBS-3 design of final repositories for high level radioactive waste. Wyoming bentonite with the commercial name MX-80 (American Colloid Co) has long been the reference for buffer material in the KBS-3 concept. Extending the knowledge base of alternative buffer materials will make it possible to optimize regarding safety, availability and cost. For this reason the field experiment Alternative Buffer Material (ABM) was started at Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory during 2006. The experiment includes three medium-scale test packages, each consisting of a central steel tube with heaters, and a buffer of compacted clay. Eleven different clays were chosen for the buffers to examine effects of smectite content, interlayer cations and overall iron content. Also bentonite pellets with and without additional quartz are being tested. The buffer in package 1 had been subjected to wetting by formation water and heating for more than two years (at 130 deg C for {approx} 1 year) when it was retrieved and analyzed. The main purposes of the project were to characterise the clays with respect to hydro-mechanical properties, mineralogy and chemical composition and to identify any differences in behaviour or long term stability. The diversity of clays and the heater of steel also make the experiment suitable for studies of iron-bentonite interactions. This report concerns the work accomplished up to now and is not to be treated as any final report of the project.

  12. Sensing Fissile Materials at Long Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    production . Cyclotron  technology  has  been developed over many decades, and today it is considered a mature  technology .     The present approach for making...the water or its bydroducts (oxygen ions, atoms and  water clusters) and  ammonia  and its by  products , (nitrogen, ammonium clusters, …)  would not...HDTRA1-09-1-0042 Leslie Bromberg et al. Prepared by: Massachusetts Institute of Technology 77

  13. JUSTIFICATION FOR CHOOSING THE OPTIMAL PACKAGE OF MATERIALS FOR CLOTHING CHILDREN WITH METABOLIC SYNDROME

    OpenAIRE

    Ivashchenko I. N.

    2014-01-01

    Quality regulations of clothes and materials do not include features of children and adolescents with disorders of obesity in the design of clothes and selection of the materials. In the article, we proposed the choice of clothing materials management package with the structural features of the surface of the skin and subcutaneous tissue, the properties of materials and their functions

  14. Effects of flavour absorption on foods and their packaging materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willige, van R.W.G.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: flavour absorption, scalping, packaging, food matrix, lldpe, ldpe, pp, pc, pet, pen,b-lactoglobulin, casein, pectin, cmc, lactose, saccharose, oil, modelling, storage, oxygen permeability, taste perception,

  15. 75 FR 60333 - Hazardous Material; Miscellaneous Packaging Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... parties were given an opportunity to comment in response to the NPRM on the possible effect the removal of... were to go into effect, remanufactured drums not meeting minimum thickness requirements will have to be... the packaging, including the top and bottom, must have a minimum puncture resistance of 15 Joules...

  16. Influence of polystyrene and polyethylene packaging materials on food quality.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linssen, J.P.H.

    1992-01-01

    Polystyrene (PS) and polyethylene (PE) used for packaging of food were studied on their effect on product quality. Different types of PS were tested: General purpose polystyrene (GPPS), high impact polystyrene (HIPS, which contains a dispersed rubber phase) and several blends of these types. PS

  17. Effects of flavour absorption on foods and their packaging materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willige, van R.W.G.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: flavour absorption, scalping, packaging, food matrix, lldpe, ldpe, pp, pc, pet, pen,b-lactoglobulin, casein, pectin, cmc, lactose, saccharose, oil, modelling, storage, oxygen permeability, taste perception, sensory quality.Abso

  18. 49 CFR 173.21 - Forbidden materials and packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... temperature-control procedures, and the written record of temperature measurements specified in paragraph (f... under controlled temperature conditions. The control temperature and emergency temperature for a package... must be initiated. § 173.21 Table: Method of Determining Control and Emergency Temperature. SADT...

  19. Carbon nanotubes for thermal interface materials in microelectronic packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei

    density was beneficial in increasing the collective thermal conductivity of the VACNT film; however, the increased tube-tube interaction in dense VACNT films decreased the thermal conductivity of the individual CNTs. The tip-to-tip contact resistance was shown to be ˜1x10-7 m2 K W -1. The study will shed light on the potential application of VACNTs as thermal interface materials in microelectronic packaging. 5. A combined process of in situ functionalization and microwave curing has been developed to effective enhance the interface between carbon nanotubes and the epoxy matrix. Effective medium theory has been used to analyze the interfacial thermal resistance between carbon nanotubes and polymer matrix, and that between graphite nanoplatlets and polymer matrix.

  20. Short communication: Effect of active food packaging materials on fluid milk quality and shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Dana E; Goddard, Julie M

    2014-01-01

    Active packaging, in which active agents are embedded into or on the surface of food packaging materials, can enhance the nutritive value, economics, and stability of food, as well as enable in-package processing. In one embodiment of active food packaging, lactase was covalently immobilized onto packaging films for in-package lactose hydrolysis. In prior work, lactase was covalently bound to low-density polyethylene using polyethyleneimine and glutaraldehyde cross-linkers to form the packaging film. Because of the potential contaminants of proteases, lipases, and spoilage organisms in typical enzyme preparations, the goal of the current work was to determine the effect of immobilized-lactase active packaging technology on unanticipated side effects, such as shortened shelf-life and reduced product quality. Results suggested no evidence of lipase or protease activity on the active packaging films, indicating that such active packaging films could enable in-package lactose hydrolysis without adversely affecting product quality in terms of dairy protein or lipid stability. Storage stability studies indicated that lactase did not migrate from the film over a 49-d period, and that dry storage resulted in 13.41% retained activity, whereas wet storage conditions enabled retention of 62.52% activity. Results of a standard plate count indicated that the film modification reagents introduced minor microbial contamination; however, the microbial population remained under the 20,000 cfu/mL limit through the manufacturer's suggested 14-d storage period for all film samples. This suggests that commercially produced immobilized lactase active packaging should use purified cross-linkers and enzymes. Characterization of unanticipated effects of active packaging on food quality reported here is important in demonstrating the commercial potential of such technologies.

  1. Packaging strategies for printed circuit board components. Volume I, materials & thermal stresses.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neilsen, Michael K. (Kansas City Plant, Kansas City, MO); Austin, Kevin N.; Adolf, Douglas Brian; Spangler, Scott W.; Neidigk, Matthew Aaron; Chambers, Robert S.

    2011-09-01

    Decisions on material selections for electronics packaging can be quite complicated by the need to balance the criteria to withstand severe impacts yet survive deep thermal cycles intact. Many times, material choices are based on historical precedence perhaps ignorant of whether those initial choices were carefully investigated or whether the requirements on the new component match those of previous units. The goal of this program focuses on developing both increased intuition for generic packaging guidelines and computational methodologies for optimizing packaging in specific components. Initial efforts centered on characterization of classes of materials common to packaging strategies and computational analyses of stresses generated during thermal cycling to identify strengths and weaknesses of various material choices. Future studies will analyze the same example problems incorporating the effects of curing stresses as needed and analyzing dynamic loadings to compare trends with the quasi-static conclusions.

  2. Impact of packaging material and storage time on olive oil quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of packaging material and storage time on olive oil quality. ... appreciated for its characteristic flavor and its biological and nutritional value which are strongly related to the quality. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  3. Development of expert system for biobased polymer material selection: food packaging application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyang, M L; Sapuan, S M

    2015-10-01

    Biobased food packaging materials are gaining more attention owing to their intrinsic biodegradable nature and renewability. Selection of suitable biobased polymers for food packaging applications could be a tedious task with potential mistakes in choosing the best materials. In this paper, an expert system was developed using Exsys Corvid software to select suitable biobased polymer materials for packaging fruits, dry food and dairy products. If - Then rule based system was utilized to accomplish the material selection process whereas a score system was formulated to facilitate the ranking of selected materials. The expert system selected materials that satisfied all constraints and selection results were presented in suitability sequence depending on their scores. The expert system selected polylactic acid (PLA) as the most suitable material.

  4. LEVERAGING AGING MATERIALS DATA TO SUPPORT EXTENSION OF TRANSPORTATION SHIPPING PACKAGES SERVICE LIFE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, K. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Bellamy, S. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Daugherty, W. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Sindelar, R. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Skidmore, E. [Savannah River National Laboratory

    2013-08-18

    Nuclear material inventories are increasingly being transferred to interim storage locations where they may reside for extended periods of time. Use of a shipping package to store nuclear materials after the transfer has become more common for a variety of reasons. Shipping packages are robust and have a qualified pedigree for performance in normal operation and accident conditions but are only certified over an approved transportation window. The continued use of shipping packages to contain nuclear material during interim storage will result in reduced overall costs and reduced exposure to workers. However, the shipping package materials of construction must maintain integrity as specified by the safety basis of the storage facility throughout the storage period, which is typically well beyond the certified transportation window. In many ways, the certification processes required for interim storage of nuclear materials in shipping packages is similar to life extension programs required for dry cask storage systems for commercial nuclear fuels. The storage of spent nuclear fuel in dry cask storage systems is federally-regulated, and over 1500 individual dry casks have been in successful service up to 20 years in the US. The uncertainty in final disposition will likely require extended storage of this fuel well beyond initial license periods and perhaps multiple re-licenses may be needed. Thus, both the shipping packages and the dry cask storage systems require materials integrity assessments and assurance of continued satisfactory materials performance over times not considered in the original evaluation processes. Test programs for the shipping packages have been established to obtain aging data on materials of construction to demonstrate continued system integrity. The collective data may be coupled with similar data for the dry cask storage systems and used to support extending the service life of shipping packages in both transportation and storage.

  5. Application of ISO system to safety test for radioactive material transport package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, K. S.; Lee, J. C.; Bang, K. S. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-01

    Safety tests for radioactive material transportation package are described in MOST notice 2001-23, IAEA Safety Standards Series No. TS-R-1 and US 10 CFR Part 71. Safety test facilities and equipments were provided to be capable of performing various tests prescribed in those regulations. Test methods and procedures appropriate in International Standard ISO were established and this laboratory of radioactive material transportation package is accredited by Korea Laboratory Accreditation Scheme(KOLAS)

  6. Hydrothermal carbonization of food waste and associated packaging materials for energy source generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Diederick, Ryan; Flora, Joseph R V; Berge, Nicole D

    2013-11-01

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a thermal conversion technique that converts food wastes and associated packaging materials to a valuable, energy-rich resource. Food waste collected from local restaurants was carbonized over time at different temperatures (225, 250 and 275°C) and solids concentrations to determine how process conditions influence carbonization product properties and composition. Experiments were also conducted to determine the influence of packaging material on food waste carbonization. Results indicate the majority of initial carbon remains integrated within the solid-phase at the solids concentrations and reaction temperatures evaluated. Initial solids concentration influences carbon distribution because of increased compound solubilization, while changes in reaction temperature imparted little change on carbon distribution. The presence of packaging materials significantly influences the energy content of the recovered solids. As the proportion of packaging materials increase, the energy content of recovered solids decreases because of the low energetic retention associated with the packaging materials. HTC results in net positive energy balances at all conditions, except at a 5% (dry wt.) solids concentration. Carbonization of food waste and associated packaging materials also results in net positive balances, but energy needs for solids post-processing are significant. Advantages associated with carbonization are not fully realized when only evaluating process energetics. A more detailed life cycle assessment is needed for a more complete comparison of processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 49 CFR 173.418 - Authorized packages-pyrophoric Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (radioactive) materials. 173.418 Section 173.418 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.418 Authorized packages—pyrophoric Class 7 (radioactive) materials. Pyrophoric Class 7...

  8. 49 CFR 175.701 - Separation distance requirements for packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in passenger-carrying aircraft. 175.701 Section 175.701... packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in passenger-carrying aircraft. (a) The following table... Class 7 (radioactive) materials labeled RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II or RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III and...

  9. Application of common packaging materials in the probiotic fresh cheese production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Iličić

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the application of common packaging materials polypropylene (PP and polystyrene (PS in the probiotic fresh cheese production packaging. Probiotic and traditional cheeses were produced from milk with standardized milk fat content of 2.3 g/100 g including the application of two cultures (probiotic and traditional. The samples were packed in the PP and PS cups and stored at 4 ºC for 30 days. The observed permeability of gases through the two applied packaging materials was significantly different. Cheese samples were analysed for microbiological properties whereby lactic acid bacteria, Bifidobacterium sp. and aerobic mesophilic bacteria (AMB were determined. Packaging materials showed no significant effect on the content of ascorbic acid which is known to be sensitive to the presence of oxygen.

  10. Packaging tomorrow : modelling the material input for European packaging in the 21st century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekkert, M.P.; Joosten, L.A.J.; Worrell, E.

    2006-01-01

    This report is a result of the MATTER project (MATerials Technology for CO2 Emission Reduction). The project focuses on CO2 emission reductions that are related to the Western European materials system. The total impact of the reduction options for different scenario's will be modeled in MARKAL (MAR

  11. 19 CFR 10.815 - Packaging and packing materials and containers for retail sale and for shipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Packaging and packing materials and containers for... RATE, ETC. United States-Bahrain Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.815 Packaging and packing... good is packaged for retail sale and packing materials and containers for shipment are to...

  12. 19 CFR 10.775 - Packaging and packing materials and containers for retail sale and for shipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Packaging and packing materials and containers for... RATE, ETC. United States-Morocco Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.775 Packaging and packing... good is packaged for retail sale and packing materials and containers for shipment are to...

  13. Test report dot 7A type a liquid packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketusky, E. T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Brandjes, C. [Ameriphysics, LLC, Knoxville, TN (United States); Benoit, T. J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-05-01

    This test report documents the performance of Savannah River National Laboratory’s (SRNL’s) U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Specification 7A; General Packaging, Type A shielded liquid shipping packaging and compliance with the regulatory requirements of Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). The primary use of this packaging design is for the transport of radioactive liquids of up to 1.3 liters in an unshielded configuration and up to 113 mL of radioactive liquids in a shielded configuration, with no more than an A2 quantity in either configuration, over public highways and/or commercial aircraft. The contents are liquid radioactive materials sufficiently shielded and within the activity limits specified in173.435 or 173.433 for A2 (normal form) materials, as well as within the analyzed thermal heat limits. Any contents must be compatibly packaged and must be compatible with the packaging. The basic packaging design is based on the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Model 9979 Type A fissile shipping packaging designed and tested by SRNL. The shielded liquid configuration consists of the outer and inner drums of the 9979 package with additional low density polyethylene (LDPE) dunnage nesting a tungsten shielded cask assembly (WSCA) within the 30-gallon inner drum. The packaging model for the DOT Specification 7A, Type A liquids packaging is HVYTAL.

  14. Technological challenges of addressing new and more complex migrating products from novel food packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Ian C; Haighton, Lois A; Lynch, Barry S; Tafazoli, Shahrzad

    2009-12-01

    The risk assessment of migration products resulting from packaging material has and continues to pose a difficult challenge. In most jurisdictions, there are regulatory requirements for the approval or notification of food contact substances that will be used in packaging. These processes generally require risk assessment to ensure safety concerns are addressed. The science of assessing food contact materials was instrumental in the development of the concept of Threshold of Regulation and the Threshold of Toxicological Concern procedures. While the risk assessment process is in place, the technology of food packaging continues to evolve to include new initiatives, such as the inclusion of antimicrobial substances or enzyme systems to prevent spoilage, use of plastic packaging intended to remain on foods as they are being cooked, to the introduction of more rigid, stable and reusable materials, and active packaging to extend the shelf-life of food. Each new technology brings with it the potential for exposure to new and possibly novel substances as a result of migration, interaction with other chemical packaging components, or, in the case of plastics now used in direct cooking of products, degradation products formed during heating. Furthermore, the presence of trace levels of certain chemicals from packaging that were once accepted as being of low risk based on traditional toxicology studies are being challenged on the basis of reports of adverse effects, particularly with respect to endocrine disruption, alleged to occur at very low doses. A recent example is the case of bisphenol A. The way forward to assess new packaging technologies and reports of very low dose effects in non-standard studies of food contact substances is likely to remain controversial. However, the risk assessment paradigm is sufficiently robust and flexible to be adapted to meet these challenges. The use of the Threshold of Regulation and the Threshold of Toxicological Concern concepts may

  15. The occurrence of extractible ink residuals in packaging materials used in the Czech Republic.

    OpenAIRE

    Dupáková, Zdeňka; Dobiáš, Jaroslav; Votavová, Lenka; Klaudisová, Kamila; Voldřich, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The residuals of printing ink components were determined in 94 samples of packaging materials commercially used in the Czech Republic for food packaging. Tested samples included printed polyethylene and polypropylene films, coextruded and laminated films, paperboard beverages boxes, foils for thermo sealing of polystyrene cups and polypropylene cups. Printing ink components were extracted with diethylether, then separated and determined using gas chromatography coupled wit...

  16. Food safety concerns deriving from the use of silver based food packaging materials: a case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra ePezzuto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The formulation of innovative packaging solutions, exerting a functional antimicrobial role in slowing down food spoilage, is expected to have a significant impact on the food industry, allowing both the maintenance of food safety criteria for longer periods and the reduction of food waste. Different materials are considered able to exert the required antimicrobial activity, among which are materials containing silver. However, challenges exist in the application of silver to food contact materials due to knowledge gaps in the production of ingredients, stability of delivery systems in food matrices and health risks caused by the same properties which also offer the benefits. Aims of the present study were to test the effectiveness and suitability of two packaging systems, one of which contained silver, for packaging and storing Stracchino cheese, a typical Italian fresh cheese, and to investigate if there was any potential for consumers to be exposed to silver, via migration from the packaging to the cheese. Results did not show any significant difference in the effectiveness of the packaging systems on packaged Stracchino cheese, excluding that the active packaging systems exerted an inhibitory effect on the growth of spoilage microorganisms. Moreover, silver migrated into the cheese matrix throughout the storage time (24 days. Silver levels in cheese finally exceeded the maximum established level for the migration of a non-authorised substance through a functional barrier (Commission Regulation (EC No. 450/2009. This result poses safety concerns and strongly suggests the need for more research aimed at better characterizing the new packaging materials in terms of their potential impacts on human health and the environment.

  17. Food safety concerns deriving from the use of silver based food packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzuto, Alessandra; Losasso, Carmen; Mancin, Marzia; Gallocchio, Federica; Piovesana, Alessia; Binato, Giovanni; Gallina, Albino; Marangon, Alberto; Mioni, Renzo; Favretti, Michela; Ricci, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    The formulation of innovative packaging solutions, exerting a functional antimicrobial role in slowing down food spoilage, is expected to have a significant impact on the food industry, allowing both the maintenance of food safety criteria for longer periods and the reduction of food waste. Different materials are considered able to exert the required antimicrobial activity, among which are materials containing silver. However, challenges exist in the application of silver to food contact materials due to knowledge gaps in the production of ingredients, stability of delivery systems in food matrices and health risks caused by the same properties which also offer the benefits. Aims of the present study were to test the effectiveness and suitability of two packaging systems, one of which contained silver, for packaging and storing Stracchino cheese, a typical Italian fresh cheese, and to investigate if there was any potential for consumers to be exposed to silver, via migration from the packaging to the cheese. Results did not show any significant difference in the effectiveness of the packaging systems on packaged Stracchino cheese, excluding that the active packaging systems exerted an inhibitory effect on the growth of spoilage microorganisms. Moreover, silver migrated into the cheese matrix throughout the storage time (24 days). Silver levels in cheese finally exceeded the maximum established level for the migration of a non-authorised substance through a functional barrier (Commission of the European Communities, 2009). This result poses safety concerns and strongly suggests the need for more research aimed at better characterizing the new packaging materials in terms of their potential impacts on human health and the environment.

  18. Assessing microbiologically induced corrosion of waste package materials in the Yucca Mountain repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, J. M., LLNL

    1998-01-01

    The contribution of bacterial activities to corrosion of nuclear waste package materials must be determined to predict the adequacy of containment for a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain (YM), NV. The program to evaluate potential microbially induced corrosion (MIC) of candidate waste container materials includes characterization of bacteria in the post-construction YM environment, determination of their required growth conditions and growth rates, quantitative assessment of the biochemical contribution to metal corrosion, and evaluation of overall MIC rates on candidate waste package materials.

  19. 21 CFR 181.22 - Certain substances employed in the manufacture of food-packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of food-packaging materials. Prior to the enactment of the food additives amendment to the Federal... materials. So used, these substances are not considered “food additives” within the meaning of section 201(s... intended to accomplish any physical or technical effect in the food itself, shall be reduced to the...

  20. Final versions of the initial package of classroom materials and guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorman, Michiel; Jonker, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of the mascil Work Package 3 ‘classroom materials’ is to present guidelines and an online collection of teaching materials that encourage and support teachers to design their own classroom materials that connect IBL and the WoW in mathematics and science education.The collection present

  1. Ingredient of Biomass Packaging Material and Compare Study on Cushion Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangyi Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the white pollution caused by nondegradable waste plastic packaging materials, the biomass cushion packaging material with straw fiber and starch as the main raw materials had been synthesized. The orthogonal experiment was used to study the impact of mass ratio of fiber to starch, content of plasticizer, active agent, and foaming agent on the compressive strength of cushion material. Infrared spectrometer and theory of water’s bridge-connection were used to study the hydroxyl groups among the fiber and starch. The results were demonstrated as follows: the mass ratio of fiber to starch had the most significant impact on compressive strength. When the contents of the plasticizer, the foaming agent, and the active agent were, respectively, 12%, 0.1%, and 0.3% and the mass ratio of fiber to starch was 2 : 5, the compressive strength was the best up to 0.94 MPa. Meanwhile, with the plasticizer content and the mass ratio of fiber to starch increasing, the cushioning coefficient of the material decreased first and then increased. Comparing the cushion and rebound performance of this material with others, the biomass cushion packaging material could be an ideal substitute of plastic packaging materials such as EPS and EPE.

  2. Impact of Chlorine dioxide Gas on the Barrier Properties of Polymeric Packaging Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    One important criterion of polymeric material selection and packaging design for fresh produce is choosing the material with suitable ratio of carbon dioxide and oxygen permabilities (PCO2/P O2), to the respiratory proportion of the targeted produce. The ratio of [O2] and [CO2] in the head space var...

  3. Certified reference materials for food packaging specific migration tests: development, validation and modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoffers, N.H.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords:certified reference materials; diffusion; food contact materials; food packaging; laurolactam; migration modelling; nylon; specific migration This thesis compiles several research topics

  4. 49 CFR 173.421 - Excepted packages for limited quantities of Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... exceed 0.005 mSv/hour (0.5 mrem/ hour); (3) The nonfixed (removable) radioactive surface contamination on... 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.421 Section 173.421 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive...

  5. 78 FR 16044 - Hazardous Materials Packaging-Composite Cylinder Standards; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... reinforced plastic (DOT-FRP) or fully wrapped carbon-fiber reinforced aluminum lined cylinders (DOT- CFFC... TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Hazardous Materials Packaging--Composite... the manufacture, marking, sale and use of non-DOT specification composite cylinders. The...

  6. Performance of Nonmigratory Iron Chelating Active Packaging Materials in Viscous Model Food Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Maxine J; Decker, Eric A; Goddard, Julie M

    2015-09-01

    Many packaged food products undergo quality deterioration due to iron promoted oxidative reactions. Recently, we have developed a nonmigratory iron chelating active packaging material that represents a novel approach to inhibit oxidation of foods while addressing consumer demands for "cleanˮ labels. A challenge to the field of nonmigratory active packaging is ensuring that surface-immobilized active agents retain activity in a true food system despite diffusional limitations. Yet, the relationship between food viscosity and nonmigratory active packaging activity retention has never been characterized. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of food viscosity on iron chelation by a nonmigratory iron chelating active packaging material. Methyl cellulose was added to aqueous buffered iron solutions to yield model systems with viscosities ranging from ∼1 to ∼10(5)  mPa·s, representing viscosities ranging from beverage to mayonnaise. Iron chelation was quantified by material-bound iron content using colorimetry and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES).  Maximum iron chelation was reached in solutions up to viscosity ∼10(2)  mPa·s. In more viscous solutions (up to ∼10(4)  mPa·s), there was a significant decrease in iron chelating capacity (P influence of different food hydrocolloids on the performance of nonmigratory iron chelating active packaging was characterized. Methyl cellulose and carrageenan did not compete with the material for specific iron chelation (P > 0.05). Materials retained 32% to 45% chelating capacity when in contact with competitively chelating hydrocolloids guar gum, locust bean gum, and xanthan gum. This work demonstrates the potential application of nonmigratory iron chelating active packaging in liquid and semi-liquid foods to allow for the removal of synthetic chelators, while maintaining food quality.

  7. Perceptions of Sustainability and Functional Aspects on Liquid Carton Board Packaging Materials versus Competing Materials for Juice Applications in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Olsmats

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This research explores the downstream perceptions of liquid carton board versus competing materials in packaging applications for juice. The methodology used is focus groups. The context is sustainability and functional performance, and related potential implications for the beverage industry value chain. The purpose is to get a deeper insight and understanding of functionality in relation to juice beverage packaging. The results confirm that there is no optimal packaging for every juice product, but a multitude, depending on the distribution channel, retail outlet, customer preferences, and context of consumption. There are some general packaging preferences, but the main deciding criteria for purchase seem to be the product characteristics in terms of quality, taste, brand, price and shelf life. For marketing reasons, packaging has to be adopted to the product and its positioning, liquid carton board packaging seem to have some functional advantages in distribution and is considered as sustainable and functional among many consumers. Major drawbacks seem to be shape limitations, lack of transparency, and lack of a “premium look”. To improve packaging performance and avoid sub-optimization, actors in the beverage industry value chain need to be integrated in development processes.

  8. Request for One-Time Shipment of 32 Watt PU-328 Source in 9968 Packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massey, W.M.

    1998-11-25

    The 9968 package is designed for surface shipment of fissile and other radioactive materials where a high degree of double containment is required. The use of the 9968 radioactive material package for a one time shipment of a 32 watt heat source versus the SARP approved maximum 30 watt heat source is addressed in this report. The analyses show that the small increase in heat load from 30 watts to 32 watts does not substantially increase internal temperatures or pressures that would approach limits for the package. Also, the weight of the content is within the current 9968 package limits. It is concluded that the 32-watt heat source can be safely shipped in the 9968 package and therefore a waiver to ship the source is justified.

  9. Aluminum-Scandium: A Material for Semiconductor Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, Ute; Thomas, Sven; Schneider-Ramelow, Martin; Mukhopadhyay, Biswajit; Lang, Klaus-Dieter

    2016-10-01

    A well-known aluminum-scandium (Al-Sc) alloy, already used in lightweight sports equipment, is about to be established for use in electronic packaging. One application for Al-Sc alloy is manufacture of bonding wires. The special feature of the alloy is its ability to harden by precipitation. The new bonding wires with electrical conductivity similar to pure Al wires can be processed on common wire bonders for aluminum wedge/wedge (w/w) bonding. The wires exhibit very fine-grained microstructure. Small Al3Sc particles are the main reason for its high strength and prevent recrystallization and grain growth at higher temperatures (>150°C). After the wire-bonding process, the interface is well closed. Reliability investigations by active power cycling demonstrated considerably improved lifetime compared with pure Al heavy wires. Furthermore, the Al-Sc alloy was sputter-deposited onto silicon wafer to test it as chip metallization in copper (Cu) ball/wedge bonding technology. After deposition, the layers exhibited fine-grained columnar structure and small coherent Al3Sc particles with dimensions of a few nanometers. These particles inhibit softening processes such as Al splashing in fine wire bonding processes and increase the thickness of remnant Al under the copper balls to 85% of the initial thickness.

  10. Flexible Foam Protection Materials for Constellation Space Suit Element Portable Life Support Subsystem Packaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Henry H.; Orndoff, Evelyne S.; Thomas, Gretchen A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the effort in evaluating and selecting a light weight impact protection material for the Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) conceptual packaging study. A light weight material capable of holding and protecting the components inside the PLSS is required to demonstrate the viability of the flexible PLSS packaging concept. The material needs to distribute, dissipate, and absorb the impact energy of the PLSS falling on the lunar surface. It must also be very robust and function in the extreme lunar thermal vacuum environment for up to one hundred Extravehicular Activity (EVA) missions. This paper documents the performance requirements for selecting a foam protection material, and the methodologies for evaluating commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) foam protection materials. It also presents the materials properties test results and impact drop test results of the various foam materials evaluated in the study. The findings from this study suggest that a foam based flexible protection system is a viable solution for PLSS packaging. However, additional works are needed to optimize COTS foam properties or to develop a composite foam system that will meet all the performance requirements for the CSSE PLSS flexible packaging.

  11. Recent advances in biopolymers and biopolymer-based nanocomposites for food packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, X Z; Kumar, P; Alavi, S; Sandeep, K P

    2012-01-01

    Plastic packaging for food and non-food applications is non-biodegradable, and also uses up valuable and scarce non-renewable resources like petroleum. With the current focus on exploring alternatives to petroleum and emphasis on reduced environmental impact, research is increasingly being directed at development of biodegradable food packaging from biopolymer-based materials. The proposed paper will present a review of recent developments in biopolymer-based food packaging materials including natural biopolymers (such as starches and proteins), synthetic biopolymers (such as poly lactic acid), biopolymer blends, and nanocomposites based on natural and synthetic biopolymers. The paper will discuss the various techniques that have been used for developing cost-effective biodegradable packaging materials with optimum mechanical strength and oxygen and moisture barrier properties. This is a timely review as there has been a recent renewed interest in research studies, both in the industry and academia, towards development of a new generation of biopolymer-based food packaging materials with possible applications in other areas.

  12. MATEO: a software package for the molecular design of energetic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Didier

    2010-04-15

    To satisfy the need of energetic materials chemists for reliable and efficient predictive tools in order to select the most promising candidates for synthesis, a custom software package is developed. Making extensive use of publicly available software, it integrates a wide range of models and can be used for a variety of tasks, from the calculation of molecular properties to the prediction of the performance of heterogeneous materials, such as propellant compositions based on ammonium perchlorate/aluminium mixtures. The package is very easy to use through a graphical desktop environment. According to the material provided as input, suitable models and parameters are automatically selected. Therefore, chemists can apply advanced predictive models without having to learn how to use complex computer codes. To make the package more versatile, a command-line interface is also provided. It facilitates the assessment of various procedures by model developers.

  13. An Investigation Into The Viability Of Nanocrystalline Cellulose As A Packaging Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, John

    The focus of this proposal is to identify unexplored areas of research in the field of packaging science, specifically related to the incorporation of Nanocrystalline Cellulose (NCC) as a functional material in fiber based packaging, as well as to highlight some of potential risks and unknowns in the product lifecycle. This research hypothesizes that incorporating NCC into wood fiber-based c-flute corrugated packaging medium will show a sufficient performance improvement to justify additional research. Nanomaterials, as a whole, are still being understood, including those using naturally occurring bases such as NCC. Further incremental testing with NCC will help provide a performance and safety baseline for the necessary future research prior to mass production. NCC holds great promise for the future: a commonly available, naturally occurring material that's easily recyclable and biodegradable, yet has the strength of steel. Due diligence is required for this material to come to market in a safe and sustainable manner.

  14. 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE PERFORMANCE OF ALTERNATE MATERIALS FOR LONG-TERM STORAGE APPLICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skidmore, E.; Hoffman, E.; Daugherty, W.

    2010-02-24

    The Model 9975 shipping package specifies the materials of construction for its various components. With the loss of availability of material for two components (cane fiberboard overpack and Viton{reg_sign} GLT O-rings), alternate materials of construction were identified and approved for use for transport (softwood fiberboard and Viton{reg_sign} GLT-S O-rings). As these shipping packages are part of a long-term storage configuration at the Savannah River Site, additional testing is in progress to verify satisfactory long-term performance of the alternate materials under storage conditions. The test results to date can be compared to comparable results on the original materials of construction to draw preliminary conclusions on the performance of the replacement materials.

  15. Flexible Foam Protection Materials for Portable Life Support System Packaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang,Henry H.; Dillon, Paul A.; Thomas, Gretchen A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the phase I effort in evaluating and selecting a light weight impact protection material for the Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE) Portable Life Support System (PLSS) conceptual packaging study. A light weight material capable of holding and protecting the components inside the PLSS is required to demonstrate the viability of the flexible PLSS packaging concept. The material needs to distribute, dissipate, and absorb the impact energy of the PLSS falling on the lunar surface. It must also be robust to consistently perform over several Extravehicular Activity (EVA) missions in the extreme lunar thermal vacuum environment. This paper documents the performance requirements for selecting a foam protection material, and the methodologies for evaluating some commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) foam material candidates. It also presents the mechanical properties and impact drop tests results of the foam material candidates. The results of this study suggest that a foam based flexible protection system is a viable solution for PLSS packaging. However, additional works are needed to optimize COTS foam or to develop a composite foam system that will meet all the performance requirements for the CSSE PLSS flexible packaging.

  16. THE TYPE OF PACKAGING MATERIAL AND STORAGE CONDITIONS AS FACTORS FOR WHEAT SEED QUALITY

    OpenAIRE

    Josip Šimenić

    2000-01-01

    Seed of cereal is normally grown on 5-8% of the overall plots under cereals in the Republic of Croatia. The produced seed meets the needs for high quality seed of wheat, barley, oat and other cereals. Certain quantities of seed remain unsold every year and are kept at various storage conditions and in various packaging material. The objective of this paper was to find out which storage conditions and what sort of packaging material would provide for the best viability of wheat see...

  17. 49 CFR 175.702 - Separation distance requirements for packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in cargo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in cargo aircraft. 175.702 Section 175.702 Transportation Other... (radioactive) materials in cargo aircraft. (a) No person may carry in a cargo aircraft any package required by... separation distance between the surfaces of the radioactive materials packages, overpacks or...

  18. 49 CFR 175.706 - Separation distances for undeveloped film from packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 175.706 Section 175.706 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... (radioactive) materials. No person may carry in an aircraft any package of Class 7 (radioactive)...

  19. Application of Digital Image Correlation to Measurement of Packaging Material Mechanical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Wei Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Among various packaging materials, papers and polymer plastics are the most common due to their light weights, low costs, and other advantages. However, their mechanical properties are difficult to measure precisely because of their softness. To overcome the difficulty, a new measure instrument prototype is proposed based on an optical method known as the digital image correlation (DIC. Experiments are designed to apply the DIC to measure mechanical properties of flexible packaging materials, including the stress-strain relationship, the Poisson ratio, the coefficient of heat expansion, the creep deformation, and the top-pressure deformation of corrugated box. In addition, the low frequency vibration of package is simulated, and the vibration frequencies are measured by DIC. Results obtained in the experiments illustrate the advantages of the DIC over traditional methods: noncontact, no reinforced effect, high precision over entire area, wide measurement range, and good measurement stability.

  20. MIXPAC: a subroutine package for calculating equations of state for equilibrium mixtures of materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cranfill, C.W.

    1983-08-01

    This manual describes MIXPAC, a subroutine package for calculating equations of state (i.e., thermodynamic and transport properties) for plasmas composed of equilibrium mixtures of materials. The package is vectorized for the Los Alamos Cray-1 computers and uses EOSPAC, another vectorized subroutine package, to access the Los Alamos Sesame EOS data library. Each mixture is forced to be in equilibrium through the constraints that all its constituents have the same values for two state functions (e.g., temperature and pressure). The desired equations of state (including first partial derivatives) are then calculated for the mixture consistent with these constraints. All equations of state available for pure materials through EOSPAC are available for equilibrium mixtures through MIXPAC.

  1. The challenge of identifying non-intentionally added substances from food packaging materials: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerin, C; Alfaro, P; Aznar, M; Domeño, C

    2013-05-01

    Packaged food can contain non-intentionally added substances (NIAS) as a result of reaction and degradation processes or the presence of impurities in the raw materials used for the packaging production. This manuscript reviews the evidence of NIAS and their possible origin. One of the most challenging and difficult tasks when a sample of packaging materials arrives at the laboratory is knowing the procedure to apply for identifying the unknown compounds. This work proposes an analytical procedure for sample treatment, applicable to polymers as well as to migration samples, and for NIAS identification. The identification protocol comprises the determination of both volatile and non-volatile compounds. A review is presented of the most novel analytical techniques used for identification purposes, particularly high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS).

  2. Phase Change Materials for Thermal Management of IC Packages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Fiala

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the application of phase change materials (PCM for thermal management of integrated circuits as a viable alternative to active forced convection cooling systems. The paper presents an analytical description and solution of heat transfer, melting and freezing process in 1D which is applied to inorganic crystalline salts. There are also results of numerical simulation of a real 3D model. These results were obtained by means of the finite element method (FEM. Results of 3D numerical solutions were verified experimentally.

  3. Electrospun antimicrobial hybrid mats: Innovative packaging material for meat and meat-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amna, Touseef; Yang, Jieun; Ryu, Kyeong-Seon; Hwang, I H

    2015-07-01

    To prevent the development and spread of spoilage/pathogenic microorganisms via meat foodstuffs, antimicrobial nanocomposite packaging can serve as a potential alternative. The objective of this study was to develop a new class of antimicrobial hybrid packaging mat composed of biodegradable polyurethane supplemented with virgin olive oil and zinc oxide via electrospinning. Instead of mixing antimicrobial compounds directly with food, incorporation in packaging materials allows the functional effect at food surfaces where microbial activity is localized. The nanofibers were characterized by SEM, EDX, XRD and TEM. The antibacterial activity was tested against two common foodborne pathogens viz., Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhimurium. The present results indicated that incorporation of olive oil in the polymer affected morphology of PU nanofibers and nanocomposite packaging were able to inhibit growth of pathogens. Thus; as-spun mat can be used as prospective antimicrobial packaging, which potentially reduces contamination of meat/meat-products. Moreover, introduced biodegradable packaging for meat products could serve to replace PVC films and simultaneously help to protect natural environment.

  4. An analysis of the qualification criteria for small radioactive material shipping packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClure, J.D.

    1983-05-01

    The RAM package design certification process has two important elements, testing and acceptance. These terms sound very similar but they have specific meanings. Qualification testing in the context of this study is the imposition of simulated accident test conditions upon the candidate package design. (Normal transportation environments may also be included.) Following qualification testing, the acceptance criteria provide the performance levels which, if demonstrated, indicate the ability of the RAM package to sustain the severity of the qualification testing sequence and yet maintain specified levels of package integrity. This study has used Severities of Transportation Accidents as a data base to examine the regulatory test criteria which are required to be met by small packages containing Type B quantities of radioactive material (RAM). The basic findings indicate that the present regulatory test standards provide significantly higher levels of protection for the surface transportation modes (truck, rail) than for RAM packages shipped by aircraft. It should also be noted that various risk assessment studies have shown that the risk to the public due to severe transport accidents by surface and air transport modes is very low. A key element in this study was the quantification of the severity of the transportation accident environment and the severity of the present qualification test standards (called qualification test standards in this document) so that a direct comparison could be made between them to assess the effectiveness of the existing qualification test standards. The manner in which this was accomplished is described.

  5. Atomic layer deposition on polymer based flexible packaging materials: Growth characteristics and diffusion barrier properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaeaeriaeinen, Tommi O., E-mail: tommi.kaariainen@lut.f [ASTRaL, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Prikaatinkatu 3 E, 50100 Mikkeli (Finland); Maydannik, Philipp, E-mail: philipp.maydannik@lut.f [ASTRaL, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Prikaatinkatu 3 E, 50100 Mikkeli (Finland); Cameron, David C., E-mail: david.cameron@lut.f [ASTRaL, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Prikaatinkatu 3 E, 50100 Mikkeli (Finland); Lahtinen, Kimmo, E-mail: kimmo.lahtinen@tut.f [Tampere University of Technology, Paper Converting and Packaging Technology, P.O. Box 541, 33101 Tampere (Finland); Johansson, Petri, E-mail: petri.johansson@tut.f [Tampere University of Technology, Paper Converting and Packaging Technology, P.O. Box 541, 33101 Tampere (Finland); Kuusipalo, Jurkka, E-mail: jurkka.kuusipalo@tut.f [Tampere University of Technology, Paper Converting and Packaging Technology, P.O. Box 541, 33101 Tampere (Finland)

    2011-03-01

    One of the most promising areas for the industrial application of atomic layer deposition (ALD) is for gas barrier layers on polymers. In this work, a packaging material system with improved diffusion barrier properties has been developed and studied by applying ALD on flexible polymer based packaging materials. Nanometer scale metal oxide films have been applied to polymer-coated papers and their diffusion barrier properties have been studied by means of water vapor and oxygen transmission rates. The materials for the study were constructed in two stages: the paper was firstly extrusion coated with polymer film, which was then followed by the ALD deposition of oxide layer. The polymers used as extrusion coatings were polypropylene, low and high density polyethylene, polylactide and polyethylene terephthalate. Water vapor transmission rates (WVTRs) were measured according to method SCAN-P 22:68 and oxygen transmission rates (O{sub 2}TRs) according to a standard ASTM D 3985. According to the results a 10 nm oxide layer already decreased the oxygen transmission by a factor of 10 compared to uncoated material. WVTR with 40 nm ALD layer was better than the level currently required for most common dry flexible packaging applications. When the oxide layer thickness was increased to 100 nm and above, the measured WVTRs were limited by the measurement set up. Using an ALD layer allowed the polymer thickness on flexible packaging materials to be reduced. Once the ALD layer was 40 nm thick, WVTRs and O{sub 2}TRs were no longer dependent on polymer layer thickness. Thus, nanometer scale ALD oxide layers have shown their feasibility as high quality diffusion barriers on flexible packaging materials.

  6. Simulation of the dynamic response of radioactive material shipping package-railcar systems during coupling operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, S.R.

    1983-10-01

    The basic equations of the computer model CARDS (Cask-Railcar Dynamic Simulator), developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to simulate the dynamic behavior of radioactive material shipping package - railcar systems, are presented. A companion model, CARRS (Cask Railcar Response Spectrum Generator), that generates system response as frequency response spectra is also presented in terms of its basic equations. 1 reference, 18 figures.

  7. Simulation of the dynamic response of radioactive material shipping package - railcar systems during coupling operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, S.R.

    1981-12-01

    The basic equations of the computer model CARDS (Cask-Railcar Dynamic Simulator), developed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to simulate the dynamic behavior of radioactive material shipping package - railcar systems, are presented. A companion model, CARRS (Casks Railcar Response Spectrum Generator), that generates system response as frequency response spectra is also presented in terms of its basic equations.

  8. Surface modification of food contact materials for processing and packaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barish, Jeffrey A.

    This body of work investigates various techniques for the surface modification of food contact materials for use in food packaging and processing applications. Nanoscale changes to the surface of polymeric food packaging materials enables changes in adhesion, wettability, printability, chemical functionality, and bioactivity, while maintaining desirable bulk properties. Polymer surface modification is used in applications such as antimicrobial or non-fouling materials, biosensors, and active packaging. Non-migratory active packagings, in which bioactive components are tethered to the package, offer the potential to reduce the need for additives in food products while maintaining safety and quality. A challenge in developing non-migratory active packaging materials is the loss of biomolecular activity that can occur when biomolecules are immobilized. Polyethylene glycol (PEG), a biocompatible polymer, is grafted from the surface of ozone treated low-density polyethylene (LDPE) resulting in a surface functionalized polyethylene to which a range of amine-terminated bioactive molecules can be immobilized. The grafting of PEG onto the surface of polymer packaging films is accomplished by free radical graft polymerization, and to covalently link an amine-terminated molecule to the PEG tether, demonstrating that amine-terminated bioactive compounds (such as peptides, enzymes, and some antimicrobials) can be immobilized onto PEG-grafted LDPE in the development of non-migratory active packaging. Fouling on food contact surfaces during food processing has a significant impact on operating efficiency and can promote biofilm development. Processing raw milk on plate heat exchangers results in significant fouling of proteins as well as minerals, and is exacerbated by the wall heating effect. An electroless nickel coating is co-deposited with polytetrafluoroethylene onto stainless steel to test its ability to resist fouling on a pilot plant scale plate heat exchanger. Further

  9. CELLULOSIC PULPS OF CEREAL STRAWS AS RAW MATERIAL FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF ECOLOGICAL PACKAGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Vargas,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the potential application of four types of cereal straws: oats, maize, rapeseed, and barley, in order to obtain cellulose pulp through the Specel® process for use in the manufacture of 100% biodegradable and ecological packaging. Raw materials were chemically characterized to determine alcohol-extractives, ash, lignin, holocellulose, and α-cellulose. Cellulosic pulps obtained from raw materials were characterized to determine yield, Kappa number, and viscosity. Paper sheets made from cellulosic pulps were characterized to determine beating degree, tensile index, stretch, burst index, tear index, and brightness. Finally, the results were compared to the raw material used in the industrial manufacturing of packaging (wheat. The four studied raw materials (oats, maize, rapeseed, and barley were judged to be suitable for use in the Specel® process to obtain cellulosic pulp suitable for production of ecological containers.

  10. Potential Biogenic Corrosion of Alloy 22, A Candidate Nuclear Waste Packaging Materials, Under Simulated Repository Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, J.M.; Martin, S.I.; Rivera, A.J.; Bedrossian, P.J.; Lian, T.

    2000-01-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy has been charged with assessing the suitability of a geologic nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain (YM), NV. Microorganisms, both those endogenous to the repository site and those introduced as a result of construction and operational activities, may contribute to the corrosion of metal nuclear waste packaging and thereby decrease their useful lifetime as barrier materials. Evaluation of potential Microbiological Influenced Corrosion (MIC) on candidate waste package materials was undertaken reactor systems incorporating the primary elements of the repository: YM rock (either non-sterile or presterilized), material coupons, and a continual feed of simulated YM groundwater. Periodically, both aqueous reactor efflux and material coupons were analyzed for chemical and surfacial characterization. Alloy 22 coupons exposed for a year at room temperature in reactors containing non-sterile YM rock demonstrated accretion of chromium oxide and silaceous scales, with what appear to be underlying areas of corrosion.

  11. Fusion-Fission Hybrid for Fissile Fuel Production without Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fratoni, M; Moir, R W; Kramer, K J; Latkowski, J F; Meier, W R; Powers, J J

    2012-01-02

    Two scenarios are typically envisioned for thorium fuel cycles: 'open' cycles based on irradiation of {sup 232}Th and fission of {sup 233}U in situ without reprocessing or 'closed' cycles based on irradiation of {sup 232}Th followed by reprocessing, and recycling of {sup 233}U either in situ or in critical fission reactors. This study evaluates a third option based on the possibility of breeding fissile material in a fusion-fission hybrid reactor and burning the same fuel in a critical reactor without any reprocessing or reconditioning. This fuel cycle requires the hybrid and the critical reactor to use the same fuel form. TRISO particles embedded in carbon pebbles were selected as the preferred form of fuel and an inertial laser fusion system featuring a subcritical blanket was combined with critical pebble bed reactors, either gas-cooled or liquid-salt-cooled. The hybrid reactor was modeled based on the earlier, hybrid version of the LLNL Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE1) system, whereas the critical reactors were modeled according to the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) and the Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR) design. An extensive neutronic analysis was carried out for both the hybrid and the fission reactors in order to track the fuel composition at each stage of the fuel cycle and ultimately determine the plant support ratio, which has been defined as the ratio between the thermal power generated in fission reactors and the fusion power required to breed the fissile fuel burnt in these fission reactors. It was found that the maximum attainable plant support ratio for a thorium fuel cycle that employs neither enrichment nor reprocessing is about 2. This requires tuning the neutron energy towards high energy for breeding and towards thermal energy for burning. A high fuel loading in the pebbles allows a faster spectrum in the hybrid blanket; mixing dummy carbon pebbles with fuel pebbles enables a softer spectrum in

  12. Effect of packaging materials on the chemical composition and microbiological quality of edible mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) grown on cassava peels

    OpenAIRE

    Ajayi, Oluwakemi; Obadina, Adewale; Idowu, Micheal; Adegunwa, Mojisola; Kajihausa, Olatundun; Sanni, Lateef; Asagbra, Yemisi; Ashiru, Bolanle; Tomlins, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Edible fungi such as mushrooms are highly perishable and deteriorate few days after harvest due to its high moisture content and inability to maintain their physiological status. In this study, the effect of packaging materials on the nutritional composition of mushroom cultivated from cassava peels was investigated. Mushroom samples were dried at 50°C in a cabinet dryer for 8 h. The dried mushroom samples packaged in four different packaging materials; high density polyethylene (HDPE), polyp...

  13. Applications of nanotechnology in food packaging and food safety: barrier materials, antimicrobials and sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Timothy V

    2011-11-01

    In this article, several applications of nanomaterials in food packaging and food safety are reviewed, including: polymer/clay nanocomposites as high barrier packaging materials, silver nanoparticles as potent antimicrobial agents, and nanosensors and nanomaterial-based assays for the detection of food-relevant analytes (gasses, small organic molecules and food-borne pathogens). In addition to covering the technical aspects of these topics, the current commercial status and understanding of health implications of these technologies are also discussed. These applications were chosen because they do not involve direct addition of nanoparticles to consumed foods, and thus are more likely to be marketed to the public in the short term.

  14. 21 CFR 509.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 509.15 Section 509.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. (a) Polychlorinated...

  15. 21 CFR 109.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 109.15 Section 109.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. (a) Polychlorinated...

  16. Wafer-level vacuum packaging for an optical readout bi-material cantilever infrared FPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuyu; Zhou, Xiaoxiong; Yu, Xiaomei

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we report the design and fabrication of an uncooled infrared (IR) focal plane array (FPA) on quartz substrate and the wafer-level vacuum packaging for the IR FPA in view of an optical readout method. This FPA is composed of bi-material cantilever array which fabricated by the Micro-Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) technology, and the wafer-level packaging of the IR FPA is realized based on AuSn solder bonding technique. The interface of soldering is observed by scan electron microscope (SEM), which indicates that bonding interface is smooth and with no bubbles. The air leakage rate of packaged FPA is measured to be 1.3×10-9 atm·cc/s.

  17. Design of radioactive material shipping packaging for low-velocity puncture resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickell, R.E. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (USA)); May, R.A. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1983-02-01

    Both the standards developed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and those contained in the U.S. federal regulations stipulate that transport packagings containing large quantities of radioactive material, such as spent fuel from a nuclear power reactor or waste by-products from nuclear weapons programs, should be designed to resist a sequence of impact, puncture, fire, and water immersion conditions without harmful release of contents. A recent paper has offered a perspective on the design of such packagings relative to the impact event - a 30 ft (9m) drop onto an essentially unyielding target. In this paper the second event in the accident design sequence is addressed - the 40 in (1 m) drop of the packaging, after primary impact, onto a mild steel cylindrical punch.

  18. INVESTIGATION OF THE PRESENCE OF DRUGSTORE BEETLES WITHIN CELOTEX ASSEMBLIES IN RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loftin, B; Glenn Abramczyk, G

    2008-06-04

    During normal operations at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Hanford, WA, drugstore beetles, (Stegobium paniceum (L.) Coleoptera: Anobiidae), were found within the fiberboard subassemblies of two 9975 Shipping Packages. Initial indications were that the beetles were feeding on the Celotex{trademark} assemblies within the package. Celotex{trademark} fiberboard is used in numerous radioactive material packages serving as both a thermal insulator and an impact absorber for both normal conditions of transport and hypothetical accident conditions. The Department of Energy's Packaging Certification Program (EM-63) directed a thorough investigation to determine if the drugstore beetles were causing damage that would be detrimental to the safety performance of the Celotex{trademark}. The Savannah River National Laboratory is conducting the investigation with entomological expertise provided by Clemson University. The two empty 9975 shipping packages were transferred to the Savannah River National Laboratory in the fall of 2007. This paper will provide details and results of the ongoing investigation.

  19. Practical Thermal Evaluation Methods For HAC Fire Analysis In Type B Radiaoactive Material (RAM) Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramczyk, Glenn; Hensel, Stephen J; Gupta, Narendra K.

    2013-03-28

    Title 10 of the United States Code of Federal Regulations Part 71 for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (10 CFR Part 71.73) requires that Type B radioactive material (RAM) packages satisfy certain Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC) thermal design requirements to ensure package safety during accidental fire conditions. Compliance with thermal design requirements can be met by prototype tests, analyses only or a combination of tests and analyses. Normally, it is impractical to meet all the HAC using tests only and the analytical methods are too complex due to the multi-physics non-linear nature of the fire event. Therefore, a combination of tests and thermal analyses methods using commercial heat transfer software are used to meet the necessary design requirements. The authors, along with his other colleagues at Savannah River National Laboratory in Aiken, SC, USA, have successfully used this 'tests and analyses' approach in the design and certification of several United States' DOE/NNSA certified packages, e.g. 9975, 9977, 9978, 9979, H1700, and Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP). This paper will describe these methods and it is hoped that the RAM Type B package designers and analysts can use them for their applications.

  20. Investigation of migrant-polymer interaction in pharmaceutical packaging material using the linear interaction energy algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feenstra, Peter; Brunsteiner, Michael; Khinast, Johannes

    2014-10-01

    The interaction between drug products and polymeric packaging materials is an important topic in the pharmaceutical industry and often associated with high costs because of the required elaborative interaction studies. Therefore, a theoretical prediction of such interactions would be beneficial. Often, material parameters such as the octanol water partition coefficient are used to predict the partitioning of migrant molecules between a solvent and a polymeric packaging material. Here, we present the investigation of the partitioning of various migrant molecules between polymers and solvents using molecular dynamics simulations for the calculation of interaction energies. Our results show that the use of a model for the interaction between the migrant and the polymer at atomistic detail can yield significantly better results when predicting the polymer solvent partitioning than a model based on the octanol water partition coefficient.

  1. Implementation of Control Measures for Radioactive Waste Packages with Respect to the Materials Composition - 12365

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steyer, S.; Kugel, K. [Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS), Salzgitter (Germany); Brennecke, P. [Braunschweig (Germany); Boetsch, W.; Gruendler, D.; Haider, C. [ISTec, Cologne (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    In addition to the radiological characterization and control measures the materials composition has to be described and respective control measures need to be implemented. The approach to verify the materials composition depends on the status of the waste: - During conditioning of raw waste the control of the materials composition has to be taken into account. - For already conditioned waste a retrospective qualification of the process might be possible. - If retrospective process qualification is not possible, legacy waste can be qualified by spot checking according to the materials composition requirements The integration of the control of the material composition in the quality control system for radioactive waste is discussed and examples of control measures are given. With the materials-list and the packaging-list the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) provides an appropriate tool to describe the materials composition of radioactive waste packages. The control measures with respect to the materials composition integrate well in the established quality control framework for radioactive waste. The system is flexible enough to deal with waste products of different qualities: raw waste, qualified conditioned waste or legacy waste. Control measures to verify the materials composition can be accomplished with minimal radiation exposure and without undue burden on the waste producers and conditioners. (authors)

  2. Development of bioactive food packaging materials using immobilised bacteriocins lacticin 3147 and nisaplin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scannell, A G; Hill, C; Ross, R P; Marx, S; Hartmeier, W; Elke; Arendt, K

    2000-09-25

    Immobilisation of the bacteriocins nisin and lacticin 3147 to packaging materials was investigated. Stability of both cellulose-based bioactive inserts and anti-microbial polyethylene/polyamide pouches was examined over time. Anti-microbial activity against the indicator strain Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis HP, in addition to Listeria innocua DPC 1770 and Staphylococcus aureus MMPR3 was observed for all bacteriocin-adsorbed materials. Activity retention of the inserts showed an initial decrease in the first week of storage but remained stable for the remaining 3 months of the trial. However, adsorption of lacticin 3147 to plastic film was unsuccessful, nisin bound well and the resulting film maintained its activity for 3-month period, both at room temperature and under refrigeration. When applied to food systems, the anti-microbial packaging reduced the population of lactic acid bacteria in sliced cheese and ham stored in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) at refrigeration temperatures, thus extending the shelf life. Nisin-adsorbed bioactive inserts reduced levels of Listeria innocua by > or = 2 log units in both products, and Staphylococcus aureus by approximately 1.5 log units in cheese, and approximately 2.8 log units in ham. Similar reductions were observed in cheese vacuum-packaged in nisin-adsorbed pouches.

  3. Legal analysis of information displayed on dental material packages: An exploratory research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhumika Rathore

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Some of the dental materials possess occupational hazards, preprocedural errors, and patient allergies as suggested by evidence. With due consideration to safety of the patients and dental professionals, it is essential that the trade of these materials is in conformity with the law. Aim: To perform the legal analysis of the information displayed on the packaging of dental materials. Materials and Methods: The Bureau of Indian Standards sets guidelines for packaging and marketing of dental products in India. An exploratory cross-sectional study was performed using various search engines and websites to access the laws and regulations existing pertaining to dental materials packaging. Based on the data obtained, a unique packaging standardization checklist was developed. Dental laboratory and impression plasters, alginates, and endodontic instruments were surveyed for all the available brands. This study considered 16 brands of plasters and alginates and 42 brands of endodontic instruments for legal analysis. Legal analysis was performed using the direct observation checklist. Descriptive statistics were obtained using SPSS version 19. Results: The guidelines set by the Bureau of Indian Standards do exist but are not updated and stand as oblivious guards for marketing standards. Overall compliance to the guidelines was reported to be 18.5% by brands of alginates, 4.1% by plaster of Paris, and 11.11% by endodontic instruments. Wave One™ File reported maximum adherence with the guidelines as 66.7%. Conclusion: This study found lower rate of adherence to the guidelines, thus indicating insufficient information being disclosed to the consumers.

  4. Fissile and non-fissile element separation in concrete radioactive waste drums using the SIMPHONIE method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jallu, F. E-mail: fanny.jallu@cea.fr; Lyoussi, A.; Passard, C.; Payan, E.; Recroix, H.; Nurdin, G.; Buisson, A.; Allano, J

    2001-07-01

    The simultaneous photon and neutron interrogation experiment (SIMPHONIE) method, applied to radioactive waste drum characterization, has already been treated in [F. Jallu, A. Lyoussi, C. Passard, E. Payan, H. Recroix, G. Nurdin, A. Buisson, J. Allano, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 170 (2000) 489]. First experimental results carried out with U and Pu bare samples were presented, that showed the feasibility of quantifying fissile ({sup 235}U, {sup 239,241}Pu, ...) and non-fissile ({sup 234,236,238}U, {sup 238,240}Pu, ...) elements separately in only one measurement, using both active neutron interrogation and induced photofission interrogation techniques simultaneously. This paper presents new experimental results carried out with U samples embedded in a concrete matrix. These results have been obtained using the DGA/ETCA MiniLinatron pulsed linear electron accelerator located at Arcueil, France. Mass detection limits of less than 2 g of matter have been obtained with the preliminary setup used in these experiments.

  5. Fission dynamics with systems of intermediate fissility

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E Vardaci; A Di Nitto; P N Nadtochy; A Brondi; G La Rana; R Moro; M Cinausero; G Prete; N Gelli; E M Kozulin; G N Knyazheva; I M Itkis

    2015-08-01

    A 4 light charged particle spectrometer, called 8 LP, is in operation at the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Italy, for studying reaction mechanisms in low-energy heavy-ion reactions. Besides about 300 telescopes to detect light charged particles, the spectrometer is also equipped with an anular PPAC system to detect evaporation residues and a two-arm time-of-flight spectrometer to detect fission fragments. The spectrometer has been used in several fission dynamics studies using as a probe light charged particles in the fission and evaporation residues (ER) channels. This paper proposes a journey within some open questions about the fission dynamics and a review of the main results concerning nuclear dissipation and fission time-scale obtained from several of these studies. In particular, the advantages of using systems of intermediate fissility will be discussed.

  6. Attachment of Asaia bogorensis Originating in Fruit-Flavored Water to Packaging Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kregiel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the adhesion of isolated spoilage bacteria to packaging materials used in the food industry. Microorganisms were isolated from commercial fruit-flavored mineral water in plastic bottles with flocks as a visual defect. The Gram-negative rods were identified using the molecular method through the amplification of a partial region of the 16S rRNA gene. Based on the sequence identity (99.6% between the spoilage organism and a reference strain deposited in GenBank, the spoilage isolate was identified as Asaia bgorensis. Experiments on bacterial adhesion were conducted using plates made of glass and polystyrene (packaging materials commonly used in the beverage industry. Cell adhesion ability was determined using luminometry, plate count, and the microscopic method. The strain of A. bogorensis was characterized by strong adhesion properties which were dependent on the surface type, with the highest cell adhesion detected on polystyrene.

  7. Study on Migration of Melamine from Food Packaging Materials on Markets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIE LU; JING XIAO; DA-JIN YANG; ZHU-TIAN WANG; DING-GUO JIANG; CONG-RONG FANG; JIE YANG

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To study the migration of melamine into foods from plastic food packaging materials and dairy product containers commonly used in China. Methods 37 samples were collected from the market. The EU migration testing conditions were adopted with distilled water, 3% acetic acid, n-hexane and 15% ethanol being chosen as the simulating solutions. The HPLC method was used to detect melamine. Results No melamine was detected in 15 dairy product containers. Among the 22 plastic samples, 16 of polypropylene, and polycarbonate types had no delectable amount melamine while a low level of melamine was found in 3 of the 6 melamine resin containers. Conclusion Migration of melamine from food packaging materials in China market is in line with the requirements of EU.

  8. MATERIALS COMPATIBILITY OF SNAP FUEL COMPONENTS DURING SHIPMENT IN 9975 PACKAGING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vormelker, P

    2006-11-14

    Materials Science and Technology has evaluated materials compatibility for the SNAP (Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power) fuel for containment within a 9975 packaging assembly for a shipping period of one year. The evaluation included consideration for potential for water within the convenience can, corrosion from water, galvanic corrosion, tape degradation, and thermal expansion risk. Based on a review of existing literature and assumed conditions, corrosion and/or degradation of the 304 stainless steel (SS) Primary Containment Vessel (PCV) and the 304 stainless steel convenience cans containing the SNAP fuel is not significant to cause failure during the 1 year time shipping period in the 9975 packaging assembly. However, storage beyond the 1 year shipping period has not been validated.

  9. Analysis of Counterfeit Coated Tablets and Multi-Layer Packaging Materials Using Infrared Microspectroscopic Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winner, Taryn L; Lanzarotta, Adam; Sommer, André J

    2016-06-01

    An effective method for detecting and characterizing counterfeit finished dosage forms and packaging materials is described in this study. Using attenuated total internal reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging, suspect tablet coating and core formulations as well as multi-layered foil safety seals, bottle labels, and cigarette tear tapes were analyzed and compared directly with those of a stored authentic product. The approach was effective for obtaining molecular information from structures as small as 6 μm.

  10. THE TYPE OF PACKAGING MATERIAL AND STORAGE CONDITIONS AS FACTORS FOR WHEAT SEED QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Šimenić

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Seed of cereal is normally grown on 5-8% of the overall plots under cereals in the Republic of Croatia. The produced seed meets the needs for high quality seed of wheat, barley, oat and other cereals. Certain quantities of seed remain unsold every year and are kept at various storage conditions and in various packaging material. The objective of this paper was to find out which storage conditions and what sort of packaging material would provide for the best viability of wheat seed. The investigation was carried out at storage simulation and by using various packaging material. In addition to well-known packaging material, such as paper 2 and 4-layer bags, jute bags, and PPR bags, the seed was also packed in the PVC transparent and PVC black bags, as well as in bags made of Aluminium foil. The investigation lasted for two years and was carried out in three various storage conditions, such as in the "New Warehouse" - a warehouse of a new type with thermal isolation in the roof and with uncontrolled conditions, ii the "Old Warehouse" made of filled-in brick and with a roof made of asbestos board, and iii under the "Eaves". The results have shown that the best seed was obtained when packed in 2 and 4-layer paper bags, PVC transparent bags and those made of Aluminium foil. Poorer results were obtained with bags of jute, polypropeline bags and PVC black bags. The storage of seed at "Eaves" has attained the best results in both years of the investigation, as compared to all three types of storage and it can in our circumstances meet the needs for wheat seed storage during one year

  11. Directory of Certificates of Compliance for radioactive materials packages: Report of NRC approved packages. Volume 1, Revision 18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance Number is included at the front of Volumes 1 and 2. An alphabetical listing by user name is included in the back of Volume 3 of approved QA programs. The reports include a listing of all users of each package design and approved QA programs prior to the publication date.

  12. Increased Performance of Thermoplastic Packaging Materials by Using a Mild Oxidizing Biobased Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinand Männle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Green additives such as prodegradants based on natural fatty acids and iron can improve the environmental profile of thermoplastic packaging materials. We present two studies in which this is demonstrated. In the first study, the addition of a green prodegradant to a 5-layer gas barrier laminate during processing provided a laminate with significantly reduced oxygen transmission due to the resulting oxygen-consuming degradation process. The result shows that material reduction and cost efficiency of packaging laminates can be combined, since 5-layer laminates with reduced oxygen barrier layer thickness and retained gas barrier properties are feasible. The products are interesting from an ecological and economic aspect. In the second study, the addition of a green prodegradant to several qualities of polypropylene that are used in packaging applications leads to materials that are readily degraded in accelerated weathering. The molecular weight of the modified polypropylenes after 830 hours of accelerated weathering is reduced from typically 80.000 g/mole to 1.500–2.500 g/mole. At such molecular weight levels, digestion by microorganisms is feasible. The mild prodegradant used in the study does not lead to degradation during processing. Thermoplastics containing such additives are therefore fully recyclable provided that they have not been exposed to a long period of weathering.

  13. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section 570.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.13 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging...

  14. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed...

  15. Influence of storage Time and Temperature on Absorption of Flavour Compounds from Solutions by Plastic Packaging Materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willige, R.; Schoolmeester, D.; Ooij, van A.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2002-01-01

    Food packaging, although an integral part of the food chain, has a major drawback in that, often, the packaging material interacts with the flavor constituents of the food, causing either a selective or an extensive loss of desirable food flavors or absorption of undesirable off-flavors from the

  16. Use and safety of pet, package material in contact with beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela CILINCĂ

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene terephthalate (PET is a long-chain polymer belonging to the generic family of polyesters. PET has found increasing applications within the food packaging field. The aim of the study was to survey the behavior of materials intended to come in contact with non-alcoholic or alcoholic beverages of an alcoholic concentration greater than 5% vol., like fruit juices, sparkling water, beer and others. The conclusion was that PET is a stable material, the value of global migration of components in selectedsimulants being in compliance with the legislation’s requirements (10 mg/dm2 or 60 mg/kg of food.

  17. Use and application of gelatin as potential biodegradable packaging materials for food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur Hanani, Z A; Roos, Y H; Kerry, J P

    2014-11-01

    The manufacture and potential application of biodegradable films for food application has gained increased interest as alternatives to conventional food packaging polymers due to the sustainable nature associated with their availability, broad and abundant source range, compostability, environmentally-friendly image, compatibility with foodstuffs and food application, etc. Gelatin is one such material and is a unique and popularly used hydrocolloid by the food industry today due to its inherent characteristics, thereby potentially offering a wide range of further and unique industrial applications. Gelatin from different sources have different physical and chemical properties as they contain different amino acid contents which are responsible for the varying characteristics observed upon utilization in food systems and when being utilized more specifically, in the manufacture of films. Packaging films can be successfully produced from all gelatin sources and the behaviour and characteristics of gelatin-based films can be altered through the incorporation of other food ingredients to produce composite films possessing enhanced physical and mechanical properties. This review will present the current situation with respect to gelatin usage as a packaging source material and the challenges that remain in order to move the manufacture of gelatin-based films nearer to commercial reality.

  18. Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program. Bid packages for materials (Deliverable No. 28)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    Fixed-price supply type bid packages for materials and/or service essentially are comprised of two parts, namely: (1) a technical requisition of the material, equipment, or service to be supplied; and (2) commercial and legal requirements, normally referred to as terms and conditions. Requisitions, providing technical requirements, for all equipment items identified for the Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant may be found in the 12 volumes of the Demonstration Plant Mechanical Design. The requisitions have been included within separate sections of the design report, sorted by appropriate plant unit. Combined with any General Notes Requisition and the necessary FWEC Job Standards, these various item requisitions provide all technical information for the prospective vendor to furnish his bid. The terms and conditions (boiler plate) to be included in the bid package identify all the contractual requirements which will be imposed upon the bidder. These requirements cover the conditions he must meet to bid on the particular item as well as the clauses to be included within the eventual purchase order/subcontract. A typical package of such terms and conditions is included.

  19. Development of more friendly food packaging materials base on polypropylene through blending with polylacticacid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, Achmad Hanafi; Aulia, Fauzan

    2017-01-01

    The commonly food packaging materials today is used a thin layer plastic or film, which is made of a synthetic polymer, such as polypropylene (PP). However, the use of these polymers has a negative impact on the environment, because the synthetic polymer is difficult to degrade naturally by the biotic components such as micro-organisms decomposers and abiotic components such as the sunshine. The use of the biodegradable polymeric material will reduce the use of synthetic polymer products, thereby reducing plastic waste pollution at relatively low cost, it is expected to produce positive effects both for the environment and in terms of economy. PLA is a biodegradable polymer that can be substituted totally or partially to synthetic polymers as far as could fulfill the main function of packaging in the protection and preservation of food. Increasing PLA content in polypropylene blend will affect to the increasing in its water absorption and also its biodegradable. 20% PLA may the optimum composition of poly-blend for food packaging.

  20. Life Cycle Assessment of Common Plastic Packaging for Reducing Environmental Impact and Material Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visvaldas Varžinskas

    2009-12-01

    the Faculty of Design and Technologies, Kaunas University of Technology, together with packaging and environmental protection specialists of the University, and in cooperation with the Department of Printed Publications and Packaging of the Ukrainian Print Academy. The present paper analyses certain basic findings of the study on the possibilities of improving the ecological level of packaging within the framework of the project. It is stated that appropriate investigation of packaging, its production and application has to be performed in order to prove that the packaging was produced in compliance with preventive and other principles; this investigation is related to a wide variety of package testing, some of which has not yet got methodology acknowledged at a sufficient level (the EU or groups of countries. Therefore, one of the research directions in the above mentioned project, discussed in the present paper, is related to developing a single system, recognized throughout the EU, which would enable researchers to perform the required tests confirming the packaging quality compliance with the environmental requirements. The paper analyzes the EU prevention regulations for reducing the amount of raw material and the system of checking the realization of the requirements based on identification of critical areas, aimed at reaching the lowest possible package weight and/or volume, consequently, the minimum waste amount, without increasing the amount of faulty products and product waste. The paper presents the findings of the research obtained in assessing the life cycle, when applying the Ecoindicator'99 qualitative analysis, concerning the impact of common plastic packages and processes on the environment during manufacturing, usage and disposal. Compression test results of common type plastic packaging construction are presented, which allow us to assess the impact of the package shape and construction upon the packaging reliability and minimization of its mass.

  1. Packaging Technologies for 500 C SiC Electronics and Sensors: Challenges in Material Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang-Yu; Neudeck, Philip G.; Behelm, Glenn M.; Spry, David J.; Meredith, Roger D.; Hunter, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents ceramic substrates and thick-film metallization based packaging technologies in development for 500C silicon carbide (SiC) electronics and sensors. Prototype high temperature ceramic chip-level packages and printed circuit boards (PCBs) based on ceramic substrates of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and aluminum nitride (AlN) have been designed and fabricated. These ceramic substrate-based chip-level packages with gold (Au) thick-film metallization have been electrically characterized at temperatures up to 550C. The 96 alumina packaging system composed of chip-level packages and PCBs has been successfully tested with high temperature SiC discrete transistor devices at 500C for over 10,000 hours. In addition to tests in a laboratory environment, a SiC junction field-effect-transistor (JFET) with a packaging system composed of a 96 alumina chip-level package and an alumina printed circuit board was tested on low earth orbit for eighteen months via a NASA International Space Station experiment. In addition to packaging systems for electronics, a spark-plug type sensor package based on this high temperature interconnection system for high temperature SiC capacitive pressure sensors was also developed and tested. In order to further significantly improve the performance of packaging system for higher packaging density, higher operation frequency, power rating, and even higher temperatures, some fundamental material challenges must be addressed. This presentation will discuss previous development and some of the challenges in material science (technology) to improve high temperature dielectrics for packaging applications.

  2. Neutron multiplication method for measuring the amount of fissile isotopes in the spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chwaszczewski, S.; Pytel, K. [Institute of Atomic Energy, 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Abou-Zaid, A.A. [Atomic Energy Authority, 13759 Cairo (Egypt)

    2001-07-01

    A nondestructive assay method for determination the amount of fissile materials content along the vertical axis of irradiated fuel is presented. The method, called neutron multiplication method, can be realized as passive measurement technique and the active one. The Monte Carlo code has been used for the neutron transport simulation and optimization of the measuring equipment geometry. On the basis of these results, a preliminary experimental stand for MARIA reactor fuel investigation has been designed and the measurements have been performed for the fresh fuel and the fuel mock-up. Based upon both numerical and experimental simulations, an ultimate measuring stand has been designed and the measurements for MARIA spent fuel assemblies as well as for the fresh fuel and mock-up of the fuel have been carried out. The results showed that the active neutron technique does not provide sufficient resolution of the distribution of the amount of fissile materials. But rather can be applied for measurement of the absolute value. The passive one can be used to restore the distribution of the bum-up and the amount of fissile materials along the axial length of the spent fuel assembly. (author)

  3. Determination Of Thermal And Mechanical Properties Of Packaging Materials For The Use In FEM-Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roellig, Mike; Boehme, Bjoern; Meier, Karsten; Metasch, René

    2011-09-01

    Conventional and future electronic packages merge several different materials. Polymers, metals, solders, dielectrics, glasses, silicon, composites come together and show strong mechanical and material interaction. These interfacial effects increase if the miniaturization and diversification keep on rising as it is proposed. Many efforts have to be done to assure the system reliability of new electronic packages. The Finite Element Simulation has the ability to support the development process of new packages. The application of the FEM-analysis requires the knowledge about the precise mechanical and thermal behaviour of the materials. The paper presents different measurement methods to determine accurate mechanical material properties of moulding compound polymers, underfillers, solder mask, and wafer photo resist and solder joints. The temperature dependency is essential to be respected. The polymer materials moulding compound as well as solder mask were characterized by Dynamic Mechanical Analysis under humidity influences to determine mechanical properties as function of moisture and temperature. Further experiments on polymer were conducted to extract the cure kinetics by Differential Scanning Calorimetry and to determine Bulk Modulus by Pressure-Volume-Temperature experiments (PVT). Altogether, these material properties need to be modeled in a comprehensive way fitting to each other. The common practice of just compiling data from different sources has been found to fail yielding in reliable and accurate results. The conditions under which the data were determined may cause mismatches between them and cause inconsistencies within the model. If a convergent solution was obtained at all, much simulation time would be needed as many iterations with small time steps were needed. In order to avoid this, the paper reports an approach of characterizing the temperature and time dependent mechanical material properties in one comprehensive scheme. The solder

  4. Performance-oriented packaging: A guide to identifying and designing. Identifying and designing hazardous materials packaging for compliance with post HM-181 DOT Regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    With the initial publication of Docket HM-181 (hereafter referred to as HM-181), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Headquarters, Transportation Management Division decided to produce guidance to help the DOE community transition to performance-oriented packagings (POP). As only a few individuals were familiar with the new requirements, elementary guidance was desirable. The decision was to prepare the guidance at a level easily understood by a novice to regulatory requirements. This document identifies design development strategies for use in obtaining performance-oriented packagings that are not readily available commercially. These design development strategies will be part of the methodologies for compliance with post HM-181 U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) packaging regulations. This information was prepared for use by the DOE and its contractors. The document provides guidance for making decisions associated with designing performance-oriented packaging, and not for identifying specific material or fabrication design details. It does provide some specific design considerations. Having a copy of the regulations handy when reading this document is recommended to permit a fuller understanding of the requirements impacting the design effort. While this document is not written for the packaging specialist, it does contain guidance important to those not familiar with the new POP requirements.

  5. Safety analysis report: packages. 232-H Byproduct Trailer (packaging of radioactive material). Final report. [Helium containing some tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalfant, G.G. (comp.)

    1975-12-01

    Helium containing some tritium is shipped at low pressure in banks of cylinders mounted on a truck trailer in compliance with 49 CFR 178.350, Specification 7A. The shipping package is not a radiological hazard under normal or accident conditions.

  6. Influence of some packaging materials and of natural tocopherols on the sensory properties of breakfast cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradiso, Vito M; Caponio, Francesco; Summo, Carmine; Gomes, Tommaso

    2014-04-01

    The combined effect of natural antioxidants and packaging materials on the quality decay of breakfast cereals during storage was evaluated. Corn flakes were produced on industrial scale, using different packages and adding natural tocopherols to the ingredients, and stored for 1 year. The samples were then submitted to sensory analysis and HS-solid phase microextraction/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME/GC/MS) analysis. The packaging had a significant influence on the sensory profile of the aged product: metallized polypropylene gave the highest levels of oxidation compounds and sensory defects. The sensory profile was improved using polypropylene and especially high-density polyethylene. Natural tocopherols reduced the sensory decay of the flakes and the oxidative evolution of the volatile profile. They gave the most remarkable improvement in polypropylene (either metallized or not) packs. Polypropylene showed a barrier effect on the scalping of volatiles outside of the pack. This led to higher levels of oxidation volatiles and faster rates of the further oxidative processes involving the volatiles.

  7. Evaluation of bionanocomposites as packaging material on properties of soft white cheese during storage period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Ahmed M; El-Sayed, Samah M; Salama, Heba H; El-Sayed, Hoda S; Dufresne, A

    2015-11-05

    Novel bionanocomposites based on chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol)/titanium nanoparticles (CS/PVA/TiO2 nanocomposite) were prepared and used as packaging materials for soft white cheese. The prepared bionanocomposites were characterized using XRD, SEM, TEM and FT-IR. The CS/PVA/TiO2 bionanocomposites exhibited good mechanical properties. Furthermore, the obtained bionanocomposites exhibited superior antibacterial activity against gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus), gram negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli) bacteria and fungi (Candidia albicans). The soft white cheese was manufactured and packaged within the CS/PVA/TiO2 nanocomposite films and stored at 7 °C for 30 days. The color, rheological and chemical properties of cheese were evaluated, also the influence of CS/PVA/TiO2 bionanocomposites on microbiological analysis of soft white cheese was assessed, the results indicated that the total bacterial counts, mold & yeast and coliform decreased with the increasing storage period and disappeared at the end of storage period compared with control. Consequently, CS/PVA/TiO2 bionanocomposite can be used in food packaging applications.

  8. [Characterization of silver nanoparticles migration from package materials destined for contact with foods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, V V; Krasnoiarova, O V; Pridvorova, S M; Zherdev, A V; Gmoshinskiĭ, I V; Kazydub, G V; Popov, K I; Khotimchenko, S A

    2012-01-01

    There was studied migration of artificial silver nanoparticles from polyethylene films destined for package of such foods as bread and poultry into model media reproducing physico-chemical properties and composition of said products. Modification of films was performed by 5- or 10-fold spraying of silver nanoparticles on the surface of package material. Model media were composed from water, alcohol and plant oil according to US FDA and Russian Federal Service for Surveillance of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Well-Being official recommendation. Nanoparticles were detected in model media by means of transmission electron and atomic force microscopy. Quantification of silver in nanoparticles migrating from films was performed by mass-spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma. The results obtained showed that silver migrated from films into test media in form of nanoparticles with mean diameter close to 10-20 nm. Migrated particles were partially aggregated to complexes with dimension about 50 nm with degree of aggregation depending on media composition. Quantification showed that amounts of silver nanoparticles migrating in foods did not exceed save level of this nanomaterial consumption even in aggravated conditions when almost all volume of product was consumed in form packaged in films modified with nanosilver.

  9. Biodegradable packaging materials conception based on starch and polylactic acid (PLA) reinforced with cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masmoudi, Fatma; Bessadok, Atef; Dammak, Mohamed; Jaziri, Mohamed; Ammar, Emna

    2016-10-01

    The plastic materials used for packaging are increasing leading to a considerable amount of undegradable solid wastes. This work deals with the reduction of conventional plastics waste and the natural resources preservation by using cellulosic polymers from renewable resources (alfa and luffa). Plasticized starch films syntheses were achieved at a laboratory scale. These natural films showed some very attractive mechanical properties at relatively low plasticizers levels (12 to 17 % by weight). Furthermore, mixtures including polylactic acid polymer (PLA) and cellulose fibers extracted from alfa and luffa were investigated by melt extrusion technique. When used at a rate of 10 %, these fibers improved the mixture mechanical properties. Both developed materials were biodegradable, but the plasticized starch exhibited a faster biodegradation kinetic compared to the PLA/cellulose fibers. These new materials would contribute to a sustainable development and a waste reduction.

  10. Effects of packaging materials on some ripening characteristics of Tulum cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zekai Tarakçı

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study the effects of different packaging materials on Tulum cheese made with cloth, stomach, animal skin, pot and plastic materials were investigated. Dry matter, ash, titratable acidity, salt, salt in dry matter, fat, total protein, water soluble nitrogen (WSN, trichloroacetic acid soluble nitrogen (TCA-SN, phosphotungstic acid soluble nitrogen (PTA-SN, electrophoretic casein fraction analyses, L*, a* and b* values in colour analyses and sensory characteristics were analysed. Dry matter 54.74-66.37 %, ash 3.93-4.79 %, titratable acidity 1.22-1.80 % as lactic acid, salt 2.48-3.93 %, salt in the dry matter 3.78-6.20 %, fat 21-43 %, total protein 17.20-23.16 %, WSN ratio 5.58-16.81 %, TCA-SN ratio 4.33-13.59 %, PTA-SN ratio 2.06-5.12 %, β-CN ratio 31.01-52.16 %, αs1-CN ratio 33.52-47.84 %, and in colour measurements L*, a* and b* values ranged from 82.18-84.39, 0.93-1.72 and 8.41-16.51, respectively. Accordingly it was clarified that the use of different packaging materials affected the composition of Tulum cheese and was related to from the cheese origin as well.

  11. Chitosan coatings onto polyethylene terephthalate for the development of potential active packaging material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemljic, Lidija Fras, E-mail: lidija.fras@uni-mb.si [Laboratory for Characterization and Processing of Polymers, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maribor, Smetanova 17, 2000 Maribor (Slovenia); Tkavc, Tina [Laboratory for Characterization and Processing of Polymers, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maribor, Smetanova 17, 2000 Maribor (Slovenia); Vesel, Alenka [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Sauperl, Olivera [Laboratory for Characterization and Processing of Polymers, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maribor, Smetanova 17, 2000 Maribor (Slovenia)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The adsorption/desorption of chitosan onto PET plastic film was studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chitosan was reversible attached onto PET plastic films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Antimicrobial functionalized PET may provide potential active packaging material. - Abstract: In this paper advanced surface treatment of PET plastic film is presented for introduction of antimicrobial properties as a potential application for food (as for example meat) packaging material. Adsorption/desorption of chitosan onto PET plastic film surface was studied using several analytical techniques such as: X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and titrations. Kinetic desorption of chitosan from PET surface was analysed by polyelectrolyte titration and spectrophotometric Ninhydrine reaction. Standard antimicrobial test ASTM E2149-01 was performed for functionalised PET materials in order to determine their antimicrobial properties; i. e. to measure the reductions of some of the meat pathogens; such as bacteria Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and fungi Candida albicans.

  12. Migration of nanoparticles from plastic packaging materials containing carbon black into foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bott, Johannes; Störmer, Angela; Franz, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Carbon black was investigated to assess and quantify the possibility that nanoparticles might migrate out of plastic materials used in the food packaging industry. Two types of carbon black were incorporated in low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and polystyrene (PS) at 2.5% and 5.0% loading (w/w), and then subjected to migration studies. The samples were exposed to different food simulants according to European Union Plastics Regulation 10/2011, simulating long-term storage with aqueous and fatty foodstuffs. Asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled to a multi-angle laser light-scattering (MALLS) detector was used to separate, characterise and quantify the potential release of nanoparticles. The AF4 method was successful in differentiating carbon black from other matrix components, such as extracted polymer chains, in the migration solution. At a detection limit of 12 µg kg⁻¹, carbon black did not migrate from the packaging material into food simulants. The experimental findings are in agreement with theoretical considerations based on migration modelling. From both the experimental findings and theoretical considerations, it can be concluded that carbon black does not migrate into food once it is incorporated into a plastics food contact material.

  13. Study of silicone-based materials for the packaging of optoelectronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yeong-Her

    The first part of this work is to evaluate the main materials used for the packaging of high power light-emitting diodes (LEDs), i.e., the die attach materials, the encapsulant materials, and high color rendering index(CRI) sol-gel composite materials. All of these materials had been discussed the performance, reliability, and issues in high power LED packages. High power white LEDs are created either from blue or near-ultraviolet chips encapsulated with a yellow phosphor, or from red-green-blue LED light mixing systems. The phosphor excited by blue LED chip was mostly used in experiment of this dissertation. The die attach materials contains filler particles possessing a maximum particle size less than 1.5 mum in diameter blended with epoxy polymer matrix. Such compositions enable thin bond line thickness, which decreases thermal resistance that exists between thermal interface materials and the corresponding mating surfaces. The thermal conductivity of nano silver die attach materials is relatively low, the thermal resistance from the junction to board is just 1.6 KW-1 in the bond line thickness of 5.3 mum, which is much lower than the thermal resistance using conventional die attach materials. The silicone die attach adhesive made in the lab cures through the free radical reaction of epoxy-functional organopolysiloxane and through the hydrosilylation reaction between alkenyl-functional organopolysiloxane and silicone-boned hydrogen-functional organopolysiloxane. By the combination of the free radical reaction and the hydrosilylation reaction, the low-molecular-weight silicone oil will not be out-migrated and not contaminate wire bondability to the LED chip and lead frame. Hence, the silicone die attach adhesive made in the lab can pass all reliability tests, such as operating life test JEDEC 85°C/85RH and room temperature operating life test. For LED encapsulating materials, most of commercial silicone encapsulants still suffer thermal/radiation induced

  14. Operational Characteristics of an Accelerator Driven Fissile Solution System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimpland, Robert Herbert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-28

    Operational characteristics represent the set of responses that a nuclear system exhibits during normal operation. Operators rely on this behavior to assess the status of the system and to predict the consequences of off-normal events. These characteristics largely refer to the relationship between power and system operating conditions. The static and dynamic behavior of a chain-reacting system, operating at sufficient power, is primarily governed by reactivity effects. The science of reactor physics has identified and evaluated a number of such effects, including Doppler broadening and shifts in the thermal neutron spectrum. Often these reactivity effects are quantified in the form of feedback coefficients that serve as coupling coefficients relating the neutron population and the physical mechanisms that drive reactivity effects, such as fissile material temperature and density changes. The operational characteristics of such nuclear systems usually manifest themselves when perturbations between system power (neutron population) and system operating conditions arise. Successful operation of such systems require the establishment of steady equilibrium conditions. However, prior to obtaining the desired equilibrium (steady-state) conditions, an approach from zero-power (startup) must occur. This operational regime may possess certain limiting system conditions that must be maintained to achieve effective startup. Once steady-state is achieved, a key characteristic of this operational regime is the level of stability that the system possesses. Finally, a third operational regime, shutdown, may also possess limiting conditions of operation that must be maintained. This report documents the operational characteristics of a “generic” Accelerator Driven Fissile Solution (ADFS) system during the various operational regimes of startup, steady-state operation, and shutdown. Typical time-dependent behavior for each operational regime will be illustrated, and key system

  15. Fracture mechanics based design for radioactive material transport packagings -- Historical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.A.; Salzbrenner, D.; Sorenson, K.; McConnell, P.

    1998-04-01

    The use of a fracture mechanics based design for the radioactive material transport (RAM) packagings has been the subject of extensive research for more than a decade. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has played an important role in the research and development of the application of this technology. Ductile iron has been internationally accepted as an exemplary material for the demonstration of a fracture mechanics based method of RAM packaging design and therefore is the subject of a large portion of the research discussed in this report. SNL`s extensive research and development program, funded primarily by the U. S. Department of Energy`s Office of Transportation, Energy Management and Analytical Services (EM-76) and in an auxiliary capacity, the office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, is summarized in this document along with a summary of the research conducted at other institutions throughout the world. In addition to the research and development work, code and standards development and regulatory positions are also discussed.

  16. Implementation of the Fissile Mass Flow Monitor Source Verification and Confirmation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uckan, Taner [ORNL; March-Leuba, Jose A [ORNL; Powell, Danny H [ORNL; Nelson, Dennis [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Radev, Radoslav [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)

    2007-12-01

    This report presents the verification procedure for neutron sources installed in U.S. Department of Energy equipment used to measure fissile material flow. The Fissile Mass Flow Monitor (FMFM) equipment determines the {sup 235}U fissile mass flow of UF{sub 6} gas streams by using {sup 252}Cf neutron sources for fission activation of the UF{sub 6} gas and by measuring the fission products in the flow. The {sup 252}Cf sources in each FMFM are typically replaced every 2 to 3 years due to their relatively short half-life ({approx} 2.65 years). During installation of the new FMFM sources, the source identity and neutronic characteristics provided by the manufacturer are verified with the following equipment: (1) a remote-control video television (RCTV) camera monitoring system is used to confirm the source identity, and (2) a neutron detection system (NDS) is used for source-strength confirmation. Use of the RCTV and NDS permits remote monitoring of the source replacement process and eliminates unnecessary radiation exposure. The RCTV, NDS, and the confirmation process are described in detail in this report.

  17. Waste Materials from Tetra Pak Packages as Reinforcement of Polymer Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Martínez-López

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Different concentrations (from 1 to 6 wt% and sizes (0.85, 1.40, and 2.36 mm of waste Tetra Pak particles replaced partially silica sand in polymer concrete. As is well known, Tetra Pak packages are made up of three raw materials: cellulose (75%, low density polyethylene (20%, and aluminum (5%. The polymer concrete specimens were elaborated with unsaturated polyester resin (20% and silica sand (80% and irradiated by using gamma rays at 100 and 200 kGy. The obtained results have shown that compressive and flexural strength and modulus of elasticity decrease gradually, when either Tetra Pak particle concentration or particle size is increased, as regularly occurs in composite materials. Nevertheless, improvements of 14% on both compressive strength and flexural strength as well as 5% for modulus of elasticity were obtained when polymer concrete is irradiated.

  18. Chitosan coatings onto polyethylene terephthalate for the development of potential active packaging material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemljič, Lidija Fras; Tkavc, Tina; Vesel, Alenka; Šauperl, Olivera

    2013-01-01

    In this paper advanced surface treatment of PET plastic film is presented for introduction of antimicrobial properties as a potential application for food (as for example meat) packaging material. Adsorption/desorption of chitosan onto PET plastic film surface was studied using several analytical techniques such as: X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and titrations. Kinetic desorption of chitosan from PET surface was analysed by polyelectrolyte titration and spectrophotometric Ninhydrine reaction. Standard antimicrobial test ASTM E2149-01 was performed for functionalised PET materials in order to determine their antimicrobial properties; i. e. to measure the reductions of some of the meat pathogens; such as bacteria Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and fungi Candida albicans.

  19. Directory of Certificates of Compliance for radioactive materials packages: Report of NRC approved quality assurance programs for radioactive materials packages. Volume 3, Revision 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance Number is included at the front of Volumes 1 and 2. An alphabetical listing by user name is included in the back of Volume 3 of approved QA programs. The reports include a listing of all users of each package design and approved QA programs prior to the publication date.

  20. Rapid discrimination of plastic packaging materials using MIR spectroscopy coupled with independent components analysis (ICA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassouf, Amine, E-mail: amine.kassouf@agroparistech.fr [ER004 “Lebanese Food Packaging”, Faculty of Sciences II, Lebanese University, 90656 Jdeideth El Matn, Fanar (Lebanon); INRA, UMR1145 Ingénierie Procédés Aliments, 1 Avenue des Olympiades, 91300 Massy (France); AgroParisTech, UMR1145 Ingénierie Procédés Aliments, 16 rue Claude Bernard, 75005 Paris (France); Maalouly, Jacqueline, E-mail: j_maalouly@hotmail.com [ER004 “Lebanese Food Packaging”, Faculty of Sciences II, Lebanese University, 90656 Jdeideth El Matn, Fanar (Lebanon); Rutledge, Douglas N., E-mail: douglas.rutledge@agroparistech.fr [INRA, UMR1145 Ingénierie Procédés Aliments, 1 Avenue des Olympiades, 91300 Massy (France); AgroParisTech, UMR1145 Ingénierie Procédés Aliments, 16 rue Claude Bernard, 75005 Paris (France); Chebib, Hanna, E-mail: hchebib@hotmail.com [ER004 “Lebanese Food Packaging”, Faculty of Sciences II, Lebanese University, 90656 Jdeideth El Matn, Fanar (Lebanon); Ducruet, Violette, E-mail: violette.ducruet@agroparistech.fr [INRA, UMR1145 Ingénierie Procédés Aliments, 1 Avenue des Olympiades, 91300 Massy (France); AgroParisTech, UMR1145 Ingénierie Procédés Aliments, 16 rue Claude Bernard, 75005 Paris (France)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • An innovative technique, MIR-ICA, was applied to plastic packaging separation. • This study was carried out on PE, PP, PS, PET and PLA plastic packaging materials. • ICA was applied to discriminate plastics and 100% separation rates were obtained. • Analyses performed on two spectrometers proved the reproducibility of the method. • MIR-ICA is a simple and fast technique allowing plastic identification/classification. - Abstract: Plastic packaging wastes increased considerably in recent decades, raising a major and serious public concern on political, economical and environmental levels. Dealing with this kind of problems is generally done by landfilling and energy recovery. However, these two methods are becoming more and more expensive, hazardous to the public health and the environment. Therefore, recycling is gaining worldwide consideration as a solution to decrease the growing volume of plastic packaging wastes and simultaneously reduce the consumption of oil required to produce virgin resin. Nevertheless, a major shortage is encountered in recycling which is related to the sorting of plastic wastes. In this paper, a feasibility study was performed in order to test the potential of an innovative approach combining mid infrared (MIR) spectroscopy with independent components analysis (ICA), as a simple and fast approach which could achieve high separation rates. This approach (MIR-ICA) gave 100% discrimination rates in the separation of all studied plastics: polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS) and polylactide (PLA). In addition, some more specific discriminations were obtained separating plastic materials belonging to the same polymer family e.g. high density polyethylene (HDPE) from low density polyethylene (LDPE). High discrimination rates were obtained despite the heterogeneity among samples especially differences in colors, thicknesses and surface textures. The reproducibility of

  1. Use of ceramic materials in waste-package systems for geologic disposal of nuclear wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fullam, H.T.

    1980-12-01

    A study to investigate the potential use of ceramic materials as components in the waste package systems was conducted. The initial objective of the study was to screen and compare a large number of ceramic materials and identify the best materials for the proposed application. The principal method used to screen the candidates was to subject samples of each material to a series of leaching tests and to determine their relative resistance to attack by the leach solutions. A total of 14 ceramic materials, plus graphite and basalt were evaluated using three different leach solutions: demineralized water, a synthetic Hanford ground water, and a synthetic WIPP brine solution. The ceramic materials screened were Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ (99%), Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ (99.8%), mullite (2Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/.SiO/sub 2/), vitreous silica (SiO/sub 2/), BaTiO/sub 3/, CaTiO/sub 3/, CaTiSiO/sub 5/, TiO/sub 2/, ZrO/sub 2/, ZrSiO/sub 4/, Pyroceram 9617, and Marcor Code 9658 machinable glass-ceramic. Average leach rates for the materials tested were determined from analyses of the leach solutions and/or sample weight loss measurements. Because of the limited scope of the present study, evaluation of the specimens was limited to ceramographic examination. Based on an overall evaluation of the leach rate data, five of the materials tested, namely graphite, TiO/sub 2/, ZrO/sub 2/, and the two grades of alumina, exhibited much greater resistance to leaching than did the other materials tested. Based on all the experimental data obtained, and considering other factors such as cost, availability, fabrication technology, and mechanical and physical properties, graphite and alumina are the preferred candidates for the barrier application. The secondary choices are TiO/sub 2/ and ZrO/sub 2/.

  2. Biodegradable packaging for storage of fruit and other horticultural products: materials, properties and its effect on fruit quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Tokić

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of packaging material is to preserve the nutritional and sensory properties of product, inform consumers about the nutritional values, facilitate storage and handling. Today, the development and commercial production of biodegradable packaging materials, other than paper, is focused on materials from other renewable sources of plant origin. Further development of biodegradable polymer market is dependent on securing a permanent, reliable and cheap sources of raw materials. In the battle for their share of the market, biopolymers enjoy strong support from policy and legislation, particularly in Europe. Attractive and efficient packaging contribute to the development of new products, provides an interesting presentation to consumers, lowers production costs, improves the food product and defines the specific ‘’brand’’.

  3. Antimicrobial Performance of Two Different Packaging Materials on the Microbiological Quality of Fresh Salmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Rollini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present research the antimicrobial activity of two active packaging materials on the spoilage microbiota of fresh salmon fillets was tested. A PET-coated film (PET: Polyethylene Terephthalate containing lysozyme and lactoferrin was tested in parallel with a carvacrol-coextruded multilayer film. Salmon fillet samples were stored up to four days at 0 and 5 °C, comparatively. The carvacrol multilayer film was found effective in preventing mesophiles and psychrotrophs at shorter storage time and at lower temperature (4.0 compared to 5.0 log CFU/g in the control sample—CFU: Colony Forming Units. Lysozyme/lactoferrin-coated PET was instead efficient in decreasing H2S-producing bacteria at longer storage time and higher temperature (2.7 instead of 4.7 log CFU/g in the control sample. Even if is not intended as a way to “clean” a contaminated food product, an active package solution can indeed contribute to reducing the microbial population in food items, thus lowering the risk of food-related diseases.

  4. Analysis of phthalates in food products and packaging materials sold on the Belgian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierens, T; Servaes, K; Van Holderbeke, M; Geerts, L; De Henauw, S; Sioen, I; Vanermen, G

    2012-07-01

    Phthalates are organic lipophilic compounds that are principally used as plasticiser to increase the flexibility of plastic polymers. Other applications are a.o. the use of phthalates in printing inks and lacquers. Human exposure to phthalates mainly occurs via food ingestion and can induce adverse health effects. In this study, the presence of eight phthalate compounds--dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP)--was investigated in 400 food products, divided over eleven groups, and packages sold on the Belgian market. For this purpose, suitable extraction techniques were developed and validated for four different matrices, namely high-fat foods, low-fat food products, aqueous-based beverages and packaging materials. The instrumental analysis was performed by means of gas chromatography-low resolution-mass spectrometry with electron impact ionisation (GC-EI-MS). A wide variety of phthalate concentrations was observed in the different groups. DEHP was found in the highest concentration in almost every group. Moreover, DEHP was the most abundant phthalate compound, followed by DiBP, DnBP and BBP. This survey is part of the PHTAL project, which is the first project that discusses phthalate contamination on the Belgian food market.

  5. Development of complementary HPLC-DAD/APCI MS methods for chemical characterization of pharmaceutical packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruševski, V; Jolevska, S T; Ribarska, J T; Chachorovska, M; Petkovska, A; Ugarković, S

    2016-05-30

    The chemical characterization of plastics for pharmaceutical packaging has been subject to ever increasing regulatory scrutiny, the reasons for which being: a) plastic additives and degradation products can be extremely hazardous to the patients' health (especially patients on chronic therapy) and b) they offer no therapeutic or formulatory benefit whatsoever. The last decade has seen the issuing of several books, monographs and guidelines dealing with extractables and leachables, however the amount of scientific work done so far is still fairly small (the majority of it performed by only a few research groups), with only a small number of methods published in the literature. This work focuses on developing a set of two complementary HPLC-DAD/APCI MS methods for simultaneous separation, detection, identification and quantification of a wide variety of packaging additives and degradants, the second method specifically targeting a group of compounds known as polymeric hindered amine light stabilizers (HALS), which are known to be notoriously difficult to separate and analyze with standard analytical techniques. The methods are capable of detecting plastic additives present in low ppb concentrations, from samples extracted in solvents with various polarities and pH values. Both methods were developed and optimized using system suitability mixtures comprised of 9 additives commonly encountered in plastic materials, and their practical applicability tested on a variety of extracts from low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and polypropylene (PP), where several additives were successfully separated, detected and identified.

  6. Investigation of metallic, ceramic, and polymeric materials for engineered barrier applications in nuclear-waste packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westerman, R.E.

    1980-10-01

    An effort to develop licensable engineered barrier systems for the long-term (about 1000 yr) containment of nuclear wastes under conditions of deep continental geologic disposal has been underway at Pacific Northwest Laboratory since January 1979, under the auspices of the High-Level Waste Immobilization Program. In the present work, the barrier system comprises the hard or structural elements of the package: the canister, the overpack(s), and the hole sleeve. A number of candidate metallic, ceramic, and polymeric materials were put through mechanical, corrosion, and leaching screening tests to determine their potential usefulness in barrier-system applications. Materials demonstrating adequate properties in the screening tests will be subjected to more detailed property tests, and, eventually, cost/benefit analyses, to determine their ultimate applicability to barrier-system design concepts. The following materials were investigated: two titanium alloys of Grade 2 and Grade 12; 300 and 400 series stainless steels, Inconels, Hastelloy C-276, titanium, Zircoloy, copper-nickel alloys and cast irons; total of 14 ceramic materials, including two grades of alumina, plus graphite and basalt; and polymers such as polyamide-imide, polyarylene, polyimide, polyolefin, polyphenylene sulfide, polysulfone, fluoropolymer, epoxy, furan, silicone, and ethylene-propylene terpolymer (EPDM) rubber. The most promising candidates for further study and potential use in engineered barrier systems were found to be rubber, filled polyphenylene sulfide, fluoropolymer, and furan derivatives.

  7. Properties of Whey-Protein-Coated Films and Laminates as Novel Recyclable Food Packaging Materials with Excellent Barrier Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Schmid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In case of food packaging applications, high oxygen and water vapour barriers are the prerequisite conditions for preserving the quality of the products throughout their whole lifecycle. Currently available polymers and/or biopolymer films are mostly used in combination with barrier materials derived from oil based plastics or aluminium to enhance their low barrier properties. In order to replace these non-renewable materials, current research efforts are focused on the development of sustainable coatings, while maintaining the functional properties of the resulting packaging materials. This article provides an introduction to food packaging requirements, highlights prior art on the use of whey-based coatings for their barriers properties, and describes the key properties of an innovative packaging multilayer material that includes a whey-based layer. The developed whey protein formulations had excellent barrier properties almost comparable to the ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymers (EVOH barrier layer conventionally used in food packaging composites, with an oxygen barrier (OTR of <2 [cm³(STP/(m²d bar] when normalized to a thickness of 100 μm. Further requirements of the barrier layer are good adhesion to the substrate and sufficient flexibility to withstand mechanical load while preventing delamination and/or brittle fracture. Whey-protein-based coatings have successfully met these functional and mechanical requirements.

  8. Guidelines for conducting impact tests on shipping packages for radioactive material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mok, G.C.; Carlson, R.W.; Lu, S.C.; Fischer, L.E.

    1995-09-01

    Federal regulation (10 CFR Part 71) specifies a number of impact conditions (free-drop, penetration, and puncture), under which a package for the transport of radioactive materials must be tested or evaluated to demonstrate compliance with the regulation. This report is a comprehensive guide to the planning and execution of these impact tests. The report identifies the required considerations for both the design, pre-, and post-test inspections of the test model and the measurement, recording, analysis, and reporting of the test data. The report also presents reasons for the requirements, identifies the major difficulties in meeting these requirements, and suggests possible methods to overcome the difficulties. Discussed in substantial detail is the use of scale models and instrumented measurements.

  9. Eggshell and Bacterial Cellulose Composite Membrane as Absorbent Material in Active Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ummartyotin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial cellulose and eggshell composite was successfully developed. Eggshell was mixed with bacterial cellulose suspension and it was casted as a composite film. CaCO3 derived from eggshell was compared with its commercial availability. It can be noted that good dispersion of eggshell particle was prepared. Eggshell particle was irregular in shape with a variation in size. It existed in bacterial cellulose network. Characterization on composite was focused on thermal and mechanical properties. It showed that flexibility and thermal stability of composite were enhanced. No significant effect of mechanical properties was therefore observed. The thermal stability of composite was stable up to 300°C. The adsorption experiment on water and vegetable oil capacity was performed. The enhancement on adsorption was due to the existence of eggshell in bacterial cellulose composite. It exhibited the potential to be a good candidate for absorbent material in active packaging.

  10. Hydrophobic and breathable nanomembrane for food package material by mimicking cocoon’s structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol nanofibrous mats treated by flourinated alkane in supercritical carbon dioxide medium. The surface morphology and chemical structure of electrospun mats were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared. The results showed that the treated mats could maintain their integrity and fibrous morphology as well as their porous structure after being treated. However, the wettability was changed greatly, the average contact angle of treated nanofibrous mats increased from its original value of 28° to 134°, revealing that the treated mats had good water repellent properties. The paper concluded that the hydrophobic and breathable mats with porous structure might be an excellent candidate for food package materials.

  11. Electronic packaging materials prepared by powder injecting molding and pressure infiltration process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AlSiCp (65 vol.% SiC) electronic packaging materials were manufactured by powder injection molding (PIM) and pressure infiltration process in order to obtain near net-shaped parts. SiCp preformed compacts obtained by pre-sintering process at 1150 K have high strength and good appearance, and the ratio of open porosity to total porosiry is nearly 98%. The relative density of composites is bigger than 99%. The thermal conductivity of AlSiCp composites fabricated by this method is 198 W·m-1·K-1, and the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) is 8.0 × 10-6/K (298 K).

  12. Utilization of biobased polymers in food packaging: Assessment of materials, production and commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food packaging contains and protects food, keeps it safe and secure, retains food quality and freshness, and increases shelf-life of food. Packaging should be affordable and biodegradable. Packaging is the core of the businesses of fast-foods, ready meals, on-the-go beverages, snacks and manufacture...

  13. FIFTH STATUS REPORT: TESTING OF AGED SOFTWOOD FIBERBOARD MATERIAL FOR THE 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W.; Skidmore, E.; Dunn, K.

    2014-04-15

    Samples have been prepared from a 9975 lower fiberboard subassembly fabricated from softwood fiberboard. Physical, mechanical and thermal properties have been measured following varying periods of conditioning in each of several environments. These tests have been conducted in the same manner as previous testing on cane fiberboard samples. Overall, similar aging trends are observed for softwood and cane fiberboard samples, with a few differences. Some softwood fiberboard properties tend to degrade faster in elevated humidity environments, while some cane fiberboard properties degrade faster in the hotter dry environments. As a result, it is premature to assume both materials will age at the same rates, and the preliminary aging models developed for cane fiberboard might not apply to softwood fiberboard. However, it is expected that both cane and softwood fiberboard assemblies will perform satisfactorily in conforming packages stored in a typical KAC storage environment for up to 15 years. Aging and testing of softwood fiberboard will continue and additional data will be collected. Additional samples will be added to each aging environment, to support development of an aging model specific to softwood fiberboard. Post-conditioning data have been measured on samples from a single softwood fiberboard assembly, and baseline data are also available from a limited number of vendor-provided samples. This provides minimal information on the possible sample-to-sample variation exhibited by softwood fiberboard. Data to date are generally consistent with the range seen in cane fiberboard, but some portions of the data trends are skewed toward the lower end of that range. Two additional softwood fiberboard source packages have been obtained and will begin to provide data on the range of variability of this material.

  14. Evaluation of performance indicators applied to a material recovery facility fed by mixed packaging waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastellone, Maria Laura; Cremiato, Raffaele; Zaccariello, Lucio; Lotito, Roberta

    2017-06-01

    Most of the integrated systems for municipal solid waste management aim to increase the recycling of secondary materials by means of physical processes including sorting, shredding and reprocessing. Several restrictions prevent from reaching a very high material recycling efficiency: the variability of the composition of new-marketed materials used for packaging production and its shape and complexity are critical issues. The packaging goods are in fact made of different materials (aluminium, polymers, paper, etc.), possibly assembled, having different shape (flat, cylindrical, one-dimensional, etc.), density, colours, optical properties and so on. These aspects limit the effectiveness and efficiency of the sorting and reprocessing plants. The scope of this study was to evaluate the performance of a large scale Material Recovery Facility (MRF) by utilizing data collected during a long period of monitoring. The database resulted from the measured data has been organized in four sections: (1) data related to the amount and type of inlet waste; (2) amount and composition of output products and waste; (3) operating data (such as worked hours for shift, planned and unscheduled maintenance time, setting parameters of the equipment, and energy consumption for shift); (4) economic data (value of each product, disposal price for the produced waste, penalty for non-compliance of products and waste, etc.). A part of this database has been utilized to build an executive dashboard composed by a set of performance indicators suitable to measure the effectiveness and the efficiency of the MRF operations. The dashboard revealed itself as a powerful tool to support managers and engineers in their decisions in respect to the market demand or compliance regulation variation as well as in the designing of the lay-out improvements. The results indicated that the 40% of the input waste was recovered as valuable products and that a large part of these (88%) complied with the standards of

  15. MODEL 9977 B(M)F-96 SAFETY ANALYSIS REPORT FOR PACKAGING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramczyk, G; Paul Blanton, P; Kurt Eberl, K

    2006-05-18

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) documents the analysis and testing performed on and for the 9977 Shipping Package, referred to as the General Purpose Fissile Package (GPFP). The performance evaluation presented in this SARP documents the compliance of the 9977 package with the regulatory safety requirements for Type B packages. Per 10 CFR 71.59, for the 9977 packages evaluated in this SARP, the value of ''N'' is 50, and the Transport Index based on nuclear criticality control is 1.0. The 9977 package is designed with a high degree of single containment. The 9977 complies with 10 CFR 71 (2002), Department of Energy (DOE) Order 460.1B, DOE Order 460.2, and 10 CFR 20 (2003) for As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) principles. The 9977 also satisfies the requirements of the Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material--1996 Edition (Revised)--Requirements. IAEA Safety Standards, Safety Series No. TS-R-1 (ST-1, Rev.), International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria (2000). The 9977 package is designed, analyzed and fabricated in accordance with Section III of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel (B&PV) Code, 1992 edition.

  16. Pyrolysis behavior of different type of materials contained in the rejects of packaging waste sorting plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrados, A; De Marco, I; Lopez-Urionabarrenechea, A; Caballero, B M; Laresgoiti, M F

    2013-01-01

    In this paper rejected streams coming from a waste packaging material recovery facility have been characterized and separated into families of products of similar nature in order to determine the influence of different types of ingredients in the products obtained in the pyrolysis process. The pyrolysis experiments have been carried out in a non-stirred batch 3.5 dm(3) reactor, swept with 1 L min(-1) N(2), at 500°C for 30 min. Pyrolysis liquids are composed of an organic phase and an aqueous phase. The aqueous phase is greater as higher is the cellulosic material content in the sample. The organic phase contains valuable chemicals as styrene, ethylbenzene and toluene, and has high heating value (HHV) (33-40 MJ kg(-1)). Therefore they could be used as alternative fuels for heat and power generation and as a source of valuable chemicals. Pyrolysis gases are mainly composed of hydrocarbons but contain high amounts of CO and CO(2); their HHV is in the range of 18-46 MJ kg(-1). The amount of COCO(2) increases, and consequently HHV decreases as higher is the cellulosic content of the waste. Pyrolysis solids are mainly composed of inorganics and char formed in the process. The cellulosic materials lower the quality of the pyrolysis liquids and gases, and increase the production of char.

  17. Effects of Micronized Fibers on the Cushion Properties of Foam Buffer Package Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongxing Huang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Foam buffer package materials composed of plant fibers have been a focus of research in recent years because of their environmentally beneficial ability to become fully disintegrated. In this study, bleached bagasse pulp was micronized using a PFI mill, and foam buffer materials were prepared using the micronized fiber. The effects of the beating degree of micronized fibers on the dimensional stability, moisture absorption, static compression, and dynamic compression characteristics were discussed. Results showed that, in both the static and the dynamic compression experiments, the buffer properties improved with an increasing beating degree. The buffer materials made of highly micronized fiber were stronger under pressure and impact. Specifically, the highly micronized fiber’s ability to absorb energy curing impact was improved, demonstrating that it can support a higher compression and impacting load in a certain deformation scope. However, during the drying process, the dimensional stability of the samples also declined with an increasing beating degree. The moisture absorption of the samples improved when the beating degree was increased.

  18. Quantitative assessment of microbiological contributions to corrosion of candidate nuclear waste-package materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, J.; Jones, D.; Lian, T.; Martin, S.

    1998-10-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy is contributing to the design of a potential nuclear-waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. A system to predict the contribution of Yucca Mountain (YM) bacteria to overall corrosion rates of candidate waste-package (WP) materials was designed and implemented. DC linear polarization resistance techniques were applied to candidate material coupons that had been inoculated with a mixture of YM-derived bacteria with potentially corrosive activities or left sterile. Inoculated bacteria caused a 5- to 6-fold increase in corrosion rate of carbon steel C1020 (to approximately 7Ð8mm/yr) and an almost 100-fold increase in corrosion rate of Alloy 400 (to approximately 1mm/yr). Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) rates on more resistant materials (CRMs: Alloy 625, Type 304 Stainless Steel, and Alloy C22) were on the order of hundredths of micrometers per year (mm/yr). Bulk chemical and surfacial end-point analyses of spent media and coupon surfaces showed preferential dissolution of nickel from Alloy 400 coupons and depletion of chromium from CRMs after incubation with YM bacteria. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) also showed greater damage to the Alloy 400 surface than that indicated by electrochemical detection methods.

  19. Greenhouse gas emissions from the treatment of household plastic containers and packaging: replacement with biomass-based materials.

    OpenAIRE

    Yano, Junya; Hirai, Yasuhiro; Sakai, Shin-ichi; Tsubota, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction that could be achieved by replacement of fossil-derived materials with biodegradable, biomass-based materials for household plastic containers and packaging, considering a variety of their treatment options. The biomass-based materials were 100% polylactide or a combination of polybutylene succinate adipate and polylactide. A scenario analysis was conducted considering alternative recycling metho...

  20. Mineralogical, chemical and physical study of potential buffer and backfill materials from ABM. Test Package 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumpulainen, S.; Kiviranta, L. (B and Tech Oy, Helsinki (Finland))

    2011-07-15

    In the ABM experiment, three test packages with centre steel heaters surrounded by stacks of compacted bentonite rings of various clay materials were placed in boreholes in Aespoe tunnel. The first parcel was saturated with Aespoe groundwater and the heater was turned on simultaneously with the start of saturation. This parcel was excavated 30 months after its installation. Chemical, mineralogical and physical properties of the MX-80, Dep-CaN, Asha and Friedland clay samples from the ABM parcel 1 were analysed and compared to reference samples. Chemical analyses (ICP-AES, C, CO{sub 3}, S, water soluble SO{sub 4}, Fe2+/Fe3+), exchangeable cation analyses, mineralogical analyses (XRD, FTIR) and selective extractions were used to determine changes in the chemistry and mineralogy of ABM materials. Swelling pressure and hydraulic conductivity measurements were performed both for extracted samples and for ground and recompacted samples. Major changes in exchangeable cation composition were observed in all samples originating from equilibration with Aespoe groundwater and interactions with equilibrated waters from neighbouring block materials. Some minor changes in chemical composition were observed as well. Increases in soluble sulphate content in the vicinity of the heater were thought to result from precipitation of sulphate salts. Decreases in sodium content and increases in calcium content were ascribed to changes in exchangeable cations. Interaction with iron was observed to occur only in the close vicinity (first few mm) of the heater. No significantly measureable change in mineralogical composition was seen in any of the studied materials. Extracted Dep-CaN samples showed a slight decrease in swelling pressure. However, when the material was ground, compacted and measured again the swelling pressure was fully recovered. No related change in hydraulic conductivities was observed. (orig.)

  1. Simulation Study for Cosmic Ray Muons to Detecte Fissile Nuclear Materials%宇宙射线μ子探测裂变核材料的模拟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞洪超; 刘森林; 王红艳; 杨宏伟

    2011-01-01

    平均能量为3~4 GeV的宇宙射线μ子在海平面的通量约为l/(cm2·min),这些μ子有很强的穿透力,能够穿透目前常用的防护层.μ子与物质作用主要发生小角度库伦散射,散射角与物质的原子序数有关.利用μ子穿过不同物质时所产生的散射角不同来辐射成像,研究v子的累计通量条件下,辨别低、中、高Z三类物质的可行性.%Cosmic ray muons with the mean energy 3-4 GeV shower the Earth at the rate of 1 cm-2·min-1 at sea level. They are highly penetrating, which can penetrate the protective layer of the common use. A muon passing through a material is deflected by many small angle scatters off of the nuclei of the material. The size of the scattering angle is related to the atomic number of the material. Based upon the difference of the scattering angle of muon passing through object, the radiation imaging could be obtained. In this paper, we conclude that it is feasible to use the technique of Muon Tomography to identify the low, medium and high Z three types of material of the muon cumulate flux for a minute.

  2. Rapid discrimination of plastic packaging materials using MIR spectroscopy coupled with independent components analysis (ICA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassouf, Amine; Maalouly, Jacqueline; Rutledge, Douglas N; Chebib, Hanna; Ducruet, Violette

    2014-11-01

    Plastic packaging wastes increased considerably in recent decades, raising a major and serious public concern on political, economical and environmental levels. Dealing with this kind of problems is generally done by landfilling and energy recovery. However, these two methods are becoming more and more expensive, hazardous to the public health and the environment. Therefore, recycling is gaining worldwide consideration as a solution to decrease the growing volume of plastic packaging wastes and simultaneously reduce the consumption of oil required to produce virgin resin. Nevertheless, a major shortage is encountered in recycling which is related to the sorting of plastic wastes. In this paper, a feasibility study was performed in order to test the potential of an innovative approach combining mid infrared (MIR) spectroscopy with independent components analysis (ICA), as a simple and fast approach which could achieve high separation rates. This approach (MIR-ICA) gave 100% discrimination rates in the separation of all studied plastics: polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS) and polylactide (PLA). In addition, some more specific discriminations were obtained separating plastic materials belonging to the same polymer family e.g. high density polyethylene (HDPE) from low density polyethylene (LDPE). High discrimination rates were obtained despite the heterogeneity among samples especially differences in colors, thicknesses and surface textures. The reproducibility of the proposed approach was also tested using two spectrometers with considerable differences in their sensitivities. Discrimination rates were not affected proving that the developed approach could be extrapolated to different spectrometers. MIR combined with ICA is a promising tool for plastic waste separation that can help improve performance in this field; however further technological improvements and developments are required before it can be applied

  3. Mechanical and optical characterization of bio-nanocomposite from pineapple leaf fiber material for food packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikmatin, Siti; Rudwiyanti, Jerry R.; Prasetyo, Kurnia W.; Yedi, Dwi A.

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of Bio-nanocomposite material that was derived from pineapple leaf fiber as filler and tapioca starch with plasticizer glycerol as a matrix for food packaging can reduce the use of plastic that usually was made from petroleum materials. It is important to develop and producethis environmental friendly plastic because of limited availability of petroleum nowadays. The process of synthesize and characterization tapioca starch with the plasticizer glycerol bionanocomposites using print method had been conducted. There were 3 samples with different filler concentration variation; 3%, 4% and 5%.The results of mechanical test from each sample showed that bio-nanocomposite with 5% filler concentration was the optimum sample with 4.6320 MPa for tensile strength test and 24.87% for the elongation test. Based on the result of optical test for each sample was gained that along with the increasing of concentration filler would make the absorbance value of the sample became decreased, bio-nanocomposite with 5% filler concentration had several peaks with low absorbance values. The first peak was in 253 nm of wavelength regionwith absorbance of 0.131%, and the second peak was in 343 nmwavelength region and absorbance was 0.087%.

  4. FOURTH STATUS REPORT: TESTING OF AGED SOFTWOOD FIBERBOARD MATERIAL FOR THE 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W.

    2013-03-05

    Samples have been prepared from a 9975 lower fiberboard subassembly fabricated from softwood fiberboard. Physical, mechanical and thermal properties have been measured following varying periods of conditioning in each of several environments. These tests have been conducted in the same manner as previous testing on cane fiberboard samples. Overall, similar aging trends are observed for softwood and cane fiberboard samples, with a few differences. Some softwood fiberboard properties tend to degrade faster in elevated humidity environments, while some cane fiberboard properties degrade faster in the hotter dry environments. As a result, it is premature to assume both materials will age at the same rates, and the preliminary aging models developed for cane fiberboard might not apply to softwood fiberboard. However, it is expected that both cane and softwood fiberboard assemblies will perform satisfactorily in conforming packages stored in a typical KAMS environment for up to 15 years. Aging and testing of softwood fiberboard will continue and additional data will be collected. Post-conditioning data have been measured on samples from a single softwood fiberboard assembly, and baseline data are also available from a limited number of vendor-provided samples. This provides minimal information on the possible sample-to-sample variation exhibited by softwood fiberboard. Data to date are generally consistent with the range seen in cane fiberboard, but some portions of the data trends are skewed toward the lower end of that range. Further understanding of the variability of softwood fiberboard properties will require testing of additional material.

  5. Plastic packaging materials and environmental problems. Plastic hosozai to kankyo mondai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uemura, T. (Sekisui Plastics Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan))

    1992-05-01

    This paper describes the recent trends in the environmental problems created from used plastic packaging materials. The 23 wards of the city of Tokyo produce refuses daily of 12,000 tons (1990), with plastics accounting for 15% by volume. Discussions to deal with plastic refuses that are bulky and standing out began as early as in 1971 when the disposal study meeting was inaugurated. As a result, wastes from polyvinyl chloride sheet for agricultural green houses had 40% recovered and recycled out of 100,000 tons generated annually, and styrofoam wastes at 10% of 150,000 tons. The wastes disposal law and the recycling law were established in 1991 aiming at reducing volume of wastes, promoting re-utilization, and assuring appropriate disposal methods and facilities. The Wastes Re-utilization Association was organized to handle styrofoam wastes that are attracting strong attention recently, the association having begun its activities with a good start. It is expected that styrofoam wastes will be molten thermally and regenerated into the same styrofoam products. Styrofoam could be more energy saving and resource saving material than paper cups. 6 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Radiation modified sago-blends and its potential for biodegradable packaging materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghazali, Z.; Idris, S.; Dahlan, K.Z. [Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research, Bangi, Kajang (Malaysia); Wongsuban, B.; Adzahan, N.M.; Ithnin, L. [Universiti Putra Malaysia, Faculty of Food Science and Biotechnology, Serdang (Malaysia)

    2002-03-01

    This paper describes work at MINT on the characterisation and development of sago blends as alternative biodegradable packaging materials. A study was undertaken to investigate the effect of formulation, mixing temperature and irradiation dosage on expansion of sago starch-polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and sago-polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) blends based foam. The foams were produced by microwaving irradiated hydrogels prepared by mixing sago starch with aqueous PVA or PVP. In the development of starch-based plastic, the effect of different composition and different irradiation dosage were studied to evaluate films with good tensile properties, elongation, gas permeability and water vapor transmission rate and also the biodegradability of the film using soil burial test. In another development, irradiation i.e. microwave, electron beam and gamma, has been investigated as a means of degrading the starch granules, which leads to an increase in the amount soluble materials leached. Results showed that irradiation caused an increase in leaching, and a concomitant drastic reduction in swelling volumes of starch granules. It is also showed that the strength of starch gels and viscosity decreased as the levels of irradiation was increased. The degraded starches will be incorporated as an ingredient in the fish cracker and characterized its properties. (author)

  7. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) plutonium recycle test reactor graphite cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, T.

    1997-09-29

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) provides the evaluation necessary to demonstrate that the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) Graphite Cask meets the requirements of WHC-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping, for transfer of Type B, fissile, non-highway route controlled quantities of radioactive material within the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. The scope of this SEP includes risk, shieldling, criticality, and.tiedown analyses to demonstrate that onsite transportation safety requirements are satisfied. This SEP also establishes operational and maintenance guidelines to ensure that transport of the PRTR Graphite Cask is performed safely in accordance with WHC-CM-2-14. This SEP is valid until October 1, 1999. After this date, an update or upgrade to this document is required.

  8. Integrated Approach To An Efficiency Assessment Of Self-Organizing Textile Materials Packages In The Subnormal Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodicheva, M.; Abramov, A.; Kanatnikova, P.; Kanatnikov, N.; Kharlamov, G.

    2017-01-01

    Design of heat-shielding clothes for subnormal climate still remains one of the unsolved problems of complex security. The solution is connected with the use of the self-organizing textile materials. Reasoning of textile package optimal selection requires the development of a comprehensive approach combining theoretical and experimental researches.

  9. Effect of chlorine dioxide gas on physical, thermal, mechanical, and barrier properties of p[olymeric packaging materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the first part of our study we determined permeability, diffusion, and solubility coefficients of gaseous chlorine dioxide (ClO2) through the following packaging material: biaxial-oriented polypropylene (BOPP); polyethylene terephthalate (PET); poly lactic acid (PLA); multilayer structure of ethy...

  10. 49 CFR 175.703 - Other special requirements for the acceptance and carriage of packages containing Class 7 materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other special requirements for the acceptance and... Classification of Material § 175.703 Other special requirements for the acceptance and carriage of packages... §§ 173.457 and 173.459 of this subchapter. (c) No person shall offer or accept for transportation,...

  11. An Analysis of U.S. Business Schools' Catalogs, Application Packages, and Program Materials from an International Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Marion S.; Mayer, Kenneth R.; Pioche, Virginie

    1999-01-01

    Catalogs, application packages, and program materials from 106 business schools were analyzed to determine the degree of international coverage in business schools' curricula. Findings indicated a trend to require international functional courses, such as international finance, in the traditional Master in business administration programs and to…

  12. Experience of air transport of nuclear fuel material in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, T.; Toguri, D. [Transnuclear, LTD. (AREVA group), Tokyo (Japan); Kawasaki, M. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Muramatsu, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    Certified Reference Materials (hereafter called as to CRMs), which are indispensable for Quality Assurance and Material Accountability in nuclear fuel plants, are being provided by overseas suppliers to Japanese nuclear entities as Type A package (non-fissile) through air transport. However, after the criticality accident at JCO in Japan, special law defining nuclear disaster countermeasures (hereafter called as to the LAW) has been newly enforced in June 2000. Thereafter, nuclear fuel materials must meet not only to the existing transport regulations but also to the LAW for its transport.

  13. Fissile Material Disposition Program: Deep Borehole Disposal Facility PEIS data input report for direct disposal. Direct disposal of plutonium metal/plutonium dioxide in compound metal canisters. Version 3.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijesinghe, A.M.; Shaffer, R.J.

    1996-01-15

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is examining options for disposing of excess weapons-usable nuclear materials [principally plutonium (Pu) and highly enriched uranium (HEU)] in a form or condition that is substantially and inherently more difficult to recover and reuse in weapons production. This report is the data input report for the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). The PEIS examines the environmental, safety, and health impacts of implementing each disposition alternative on land use, facility operations, and site infrastructure; air quality and noise; water, geology, and soils; biotic, cultural, and paleontological resources; socioeconomics; human health; normal operations and facility accidents; waste management; and transportation. This data report is prepared to assist in estimating the environmental effects associated with the construction and operation of a Deep Borehole Disposal Facility, an alternative currently included in the PEIS. The facility projects under consideration are, not site specific. This report therefore concentrates on environmental, safety, and health impacts at a generic site appropriate for siting a Deep Borehole Disposal Facility.

  14. Fissile Material Disposition Program: Deep Borehole Disposal Facility PEIS data input report for direct disposal. Direct disposal of plutonium metal/plutonium dioxide in compound metal canisters. Version 3.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijesinghe, A.M.; Shaffer, R.J.

    1996-01-15

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is examining options for disposing of excess weapons-usable nuclear materials [principally plutonium (Pu) and highly enriched uranium (HEU)] in a form or condition that is substantially and inherently more difficult to recover and reuse in weapons production. This report is the data input report for the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). The PEIS examines the environmental, safety, and health impacts of implementing each disposition alternative on land use, facility operations, and site infrastructure; air quality and noise; water, geology, and soils; biotic, cultural, and paleontological resources; socioeconomics; human health; normal operations and facility accidents; waste management; and transportation. This data report is prepared to assist in estimating the environmental effects associated with the construction and operation of a Deep Borehole Disposal Facility, an alternative currently included in the PEIS. The facility projects under consideration are, not site specific. This report therefore concentrates on environmental, safety, and health impacts at a generic site appropriate for siting a Deep Borehole Disposal Facility.

  15. The effects of gamma radiation on the corrosion of candidate materials for the fabrication of nuclear waste packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoesmith, D.W. [Univ. of Western Ontario, Dept. of Chemistry, London, Ontario (Canada); King, F

    1999-07-01

    The influence of gamma radiation on the corrosion of candidate materials for the fabrication of nuclear waste packages has been comprehensively reviewed. The comparison of corrosion of the various materials was compared in three distinct environments: Environment A; Mg{sup 2+}-enriched brines in which hydrolysis of the cation produces acidic environments and the Mg{sup 2+} interferes with the formation of protective films; Environment B; saline environments with a low Mg{sup 2+} content which remain neutral; Environment C; moist aerated conditions.The reference design of nuclear waste package for emplacement in the proposed waste repository in Yucca Mountain, Nevada, employs a dual wall arrangement, in which a 2 cm thick nickel alloy inner barrier is encapsulated within a 10 cm thick mild steel outer barrier. It is felt that this arrangement will give considerable containment lifetimes, since no common mode failure exists for the two barriers. The corrosion performance of this waste package will be determined by the exposure environment established within the emplacement drifts. Key features of the Yucca Mountain repository in controlling waste package degradation are expected to be the permanent availability of oxygen and the limited presence of water. When water contacts the surface of the waste package, its gamma radiolysis could produce an additional supply of corrosive agents. the gamma field will be produced by the radioactive decay of radionuclides within the waste form, and its magnitude will depend on the nature and age of the waste form as well as the material and wall thickness of the waste package.

  16. Potential of polymeric materials for packaging; L'impiego dei materiali polimerici nell'imballaggio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanchi, M. [ENEA, Divisione Nuovi Materiali, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    Packaging preserves different kind of materials, from raw materials, and it plays an important role in the presentation of the products to the market, too. That's why packaging should be in charge of responding to marketing requirements by means of a proper design, effective colour choice and material, etc. Nowadays packaging is becoming more and more important in different fields. In Italy, it is a rapid growth of the packaging market and the companies involved are very competitive and efficient, in particular in some market segments. Concerning the application fields it can be asserted that packaging is mostly exploited in the food market which represents the 65% of the whole packaging market. Nearly all types of packaging use plastics as a part of their construction: lightness, chemical inertness, corrosion resistance, molding attitude, the good transparency to light, sound and mechanical insulation, etc. Focusing the attention to the horticultural market, growth in South of Italy in particular, examples of promising research fields to date are: developing of good barrier performance films; developing of suitable modified atmosphere packaging; developing of active plastic films, such as antimicrobic films or antioxidant films. The large amount of plastic films used for packaging create a large waste problem. This can be reduced by: optimising packaging design, avoiding the excessive use of plastics; improvising strength, moisture and heat stability per unit weight in order to reduce plastic waste volume; developing blend of plastics and bio-based polymer in order to increase the biodegradability of packaging after use. [Italian] L'imballaggio e' un prodotto adibito a contenere e a proteggere determinate merci, dalle materie prime ai prodotti finiti, a consentire la loro manipolazione e ad assicurare la loro presentazione. E' una realta' importante del mondo della produzione, delle strutture distributive e della vita quotidiana. Nell

  17. Quality and safety aspects of reusable plastic food packaging materials : influence of reuse on intrinsic properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jetten, J.; Kruijf, N. de

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the project was to develop a comprehensive package of quality assurance criteria for use by the industry and by regulatory authorities to ensure the quality and safety-in-use (sensory, microbiological and chemical safety) of reused plastics for food packaging. The paper describes the

  18. The 9th international symposium on the packaging and transportation of radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1989-06-01

    This three-volume document contains the papers and poster sessions presented at the symposium. Volume 3 contains 87 papers on topics such as structural codes and benchmarking, shipment of plutonium by air, spent fuel shipping, planning, package design and risk assessment, package testing, OCRWN operations experience and regulations. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base. (TEM)

  19. Toward 6 log10 pulsed electric field inactivation with conductive plastic packaging material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roodenburg, B.; Haan, S.W.H. de; Ferreira, J.A.; Coronel, P.; Wouters, P.C.; Hatt, V.

    2013-01-01

    Generally, high grade products such as pulsed electric field (PEF) treated fruit juices are packaged after their preservative treatment. However, PEF treatment after packaging could avoid recontamination of the product and becomes feasible when electric field pulses of sufficient magnitude can be ge

  20. Toward 6 log10 pulsed electric field inactivation with conductive plastic packaging material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roodenburg, B.; Haan, S.W.H. de; Ferreira, J.A.; Coronel, P.; Wouters, P.C.; Hatt, V.

    2013-01-01

    Generally, high grade products such as pulsed electric field (PEF) treated fruit juices are packaged after their preservative treatment. However, PEF treatment after packaging could avoid recontamination of the product and becomes feasible when electric field pulses of sufficient magnitude can be

  1. Quality and safety aspects of reusable plastic food packaging materials : influence of reuse on intrinsic properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jetten, J.; Kruijf, N. de

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the project was to develop a comprehensive package of quality assurance criteria for use by the industry and by regulatory authorities to ensure the quality and safety-in-use (sensory, microbiological and chemical safety) of reused plastics for food packaging. The paper describes the inve

  2. Barrier Properties of Polymeric Packaging Materials to Major Aroma Volatiles in Herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leelaphiwat Pattarin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the main transport coefficients (diffusion, solubility and permeability of key aroma compounds present in tropical herbs (eucalyptol and estragol through low‒density polyethylene (LDPE, polypropylene (PP, nylon (Nylon, polyethylene terephthalate (PET, metalized‒polyethylene terephthalate (MPET and poly(lactic acid (PLA films at 15 and 25 °C. The concentration of aroma compounds permeating through the films were evaluated at various time intervals using a gas chromatograph flame ionization detector (GC–FID. Results showed that the diffusion coefficients of aroma compounds were highest in LDPE whereas the solubility coefficients were highest in PLA at both temperatures. PLA had the highest permeability coefficients for estragol at both temperatures. PP and LDPE had the highest permeability coefficients for eucalyptol at 15 and 25 °C, respectively. MPET had the lowest permeability for both aroma compounds studied. Aroma barrier properties can be used when selecting polymeric packaging materials to prevent aroma loss in various food and consumer products.

  3. Online Condition Monitoring of Bearings to Support Total Productive Maintenance in the Packaging Materials Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovan Gligorijevic

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The packaging materials industry has already recognized the importance of Total Productive Maintenance as a system of proactive techniques for improving equipment reliability. Bearing faults, which often occur gradually, represent one of the foremost causes of failures in the industry. Therefore, detection of their faults in an early stage is quite important to assure reliable and efficient operation. We present a new automated technique for early fault detection and diagnosis in rolling-element bearings based on vibration signal analysis. Following the wavelet decomposition of vibration signals into a few sub-bands of interest, the standard deviation of obtained wavelet coefficients is extracted as a representative feature. Then, the feature space dimension is optimally reduced to two using scatter matrices. In the reduced two-dimensional feature space the fault detection and diagnosis is carried out by quadratic classifiers. Accuracy of the technique has been tested on four classes of the recorded vibrations signals, i.e., normal, with the fault of inner race, outer race, and ball operation. The overall accuracy of 98.9% has been achieved. The new technique can be used to support maintenance decision-making processes and, thus, to increase reliability and efficiency in the industry by preventing unexpected faulty operation of bearings.

  4. Sixth Status Report: Testing of Aged Softwood Fiberboard Material for the 9975 Shipping Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-03-31

    Samples have been prepared from several 9975 lower fiberboard subassemblies fabricated from softwood fiberboard. Physical, mechanical and thermal properties have been measured following varying periods of conditioning in each of several environments. These tests have been conducted in the same manner as previous testing on cane fiberboard samples. Overall, similar aging trends are observed for softwood and cane fiberboard samples, with a few differences. Some softwood fiberboard properties tend to degrade faster in some environments, while some cane fiberboard properties degrade faster in the two most aggressive environments. As a result, it is premature to assume both materials will age at the same rates, and the preliminary aging models developed for cane fiberboard might not apply to softwood fiberboard. However, it is expected that both cane and softwood fiberboard assemblies will perform satisfactorily in conforming packages stored in a typical KAC storage environment for up to 15 years. Samples from an additional 3 softwood fiberboard assemblies have begun aging during the past year to provide information on the variability of softwood fiberboard behavior. Aging and testing of softwood fiberboard will continue and additional data will be collected to support development of an aging model specific to softwood fiberboard.

  5. Online Condition Monitoring of Bearings to Support Total Productive Maintenance in the Packaging Materials Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gligorijevic, Jovan; Gajic, Dragoljub; Brkovic, Aleksandar; Savic-Gajic, Ivana; Georgieva, Olga; Di Gennaro, Stefano

    2016-03-01

    The packaging materials industry has already recognized the importance of Total Productive Maintenance as a system of proactive techniques for improving equipment reliability. Bearing faults, which often occur gradually, represent one of the foremost causes of failures in the industry. Therefore, detection of their faults in an early stage is quite important to assure reliable and efficient operation. We present a new automated technique for early fault detection and diagnosis in rolling-element bearings based on vibration signal analysis. Following the wavelet decomposition of vibration signals into a few sub-bands of interest, the standard deviation of obtained wavelet coefficients is extracted as a representative feature. Then, the feature space dimension is optimally reduced to two using scatter matrices. In the reduced two-dimensional feature space the fault detection and diagnosis is carried out by quadratic classifiers. Accuracy of the technique has been tested on four classes of the recorded vibrations signals, i.e., normal, with the fault of inner race, outer race, and ball operation. The overall accuracy of 98.9% has been achieved. The new technique can be used to support maintenance decision-making processes and, thus, to increase reliability and efficiency in the industry by preventing unexpected faulty operation of bearings.

  6. Chemical characteristics and fatty acid composition on oils and fats stored in different packaging materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Shattory, Y.

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Bleached cottonseed oil, partially hydrogenated palm oil and margarine were stored in metal (tin cans and white plastic (polyethylene bottles with air in head space and served at room temperature during the whole period of investigation. The analytical techniques used to analyse these materials has been done at zero time storing (control, after four and seven months of storage. This study showed that storing oils in metal cans have better results than plastic packages specially for bleached cottonseed and hydrogenated oils.

    Aceite de semilla de algodón decolorado, aceite de palma parcialmente hidrogenado y margarina fueron almacenados en latas metálicas (estaño y en botellas de plástico blanco (polietileno con aire en el espacio de cabeza y a temperatura ambiente durante todo el período de investigación. Las técnicas analíticas usadas para analizar estos materiales fueron ensayados a tiempo cero de almacenamiento (control, y después de cuatro y siete meses de almacenamiento. Este estudio mostró que los aceites almacenados en latas metálicas tienen mejores resultados que los envases de plástico, especialmente para los aceites hidrogenados y de semilla de algodón decolorado.

  7. Development of New Low-Cost, High-Performance, PV Module Encapsulant/Packaging Materials: Final Technical Progress Report, 22 October 2002 - 15 November 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, R.

    2008-04-01

    Report on objectives to work with U.S.-based PV module manufacturers (c-Si, a-Si, CIS, other thin films) to develop/qualify new low-cost, high-performance PV module encapsulant/packaging materials, and processes using the packaging materials.

  8. Feasibility of fissile mass assay of spent nuclear fuel using {sup 252}Cf-source-driven frequency-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattingly, J.K.; Valentine, T.E.; Mihalczo, J.T.

    1996-10-01

    The feasibility was evaluated using MCNP-DSP, an analog Monte Carlo transport cod to simulate source-driven measurements. Models of an isolated Westinghouse 17x17 PWR fuel assembly in a 1500-ppM borated water storage pool were used. In the models, the fuel burnup profile was represented using seven axial burnup zones, each with isotopics estimated by the PDQ code. Four different fuel assemblies with average burnups from fresh to 32 GWd/MTU were modeled and analyzed. Analysis of the fuel assemblies was simulated by inducing fission in the fuel using a {sup 252}Cf source adjacent to the assembly and correlating source fissions with the response of a bank of {sup 3}He detectors adjacent to the assembly opposite the source. This analysis was performed at 7 different axial positions on each of the 4 assemblies, and the source-detector cross-spectrum signature was calculated for each of these 28 simulated measurements. The magnitude of the cross-spectrum signature follows a smooth upward trend with increasing fissile material ({sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu) content, and the signature is independent of the concentration of spontaneously fissioning isotopes (e.g., {sup 244}Cm) and ({alpha},n) sources. Furthermore, the cross-spectrum signature is highly sensitive to changes in fissile material content. This feasibility study indicated that the signature would increase {similar_to}100% in response to an increase of only 0.1 g/cm{sup 3} of fissile material.

  9. Directory of Certificates of Compliance for radioactive materials packages: Certificates of Compliance. Volume 2, Revision 18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance Number is included at the front of Volumes 1 and 2. An alphabetical listing by user name is included in the back of Volume 3 of approved QA programs. The reports include a listing of all users of each package design and approved QA programs prior to the publication date.

  10. Fissile materials disposition program plutonium immobilization project baseline formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebbinghaus, B B; Armantrout, G A; Gray, L; Herman, C C; Shaw, H F; Van Konynenburg, R A

    2000-09-01

    Since 1994 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), with the help of several other laboratories and university groups, has been the lead laboratory for the Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP). This involves, among other tasks, the development of a formulation and a fabrication process for a ceramic to be used in the immobilization of excess weapons-usable plutonium. This report reviews the history of the project as it relates to the development of the ceramic form. It describes the sample test plan for the pyrochlore-rich ceramic formulation that was selected, and it specifies the baseline formulation that has been adopted. It also presents compositional specifications (e.g. precursor compositions and mixing recipes) and other form and process specifications that are linked or potentially linked to the baseline formulation.

  11. Stress Corrosion Cracking of the Drip Shield, the Waste Package Outer Barrier, and the Stainless Steel Structural Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Gordon

    2004-10-13

    Stress corrosion cracking is one of the most common corrosion-related causes for premature breach of metal structural components. Stress corrosion cracking is the initiation and propagation of cracks in structural components due to three factors that must be present simultaneously: metallurgical susceptibility, critical environment, and static (or sustained) tensile stresses. This report was prepared according to ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). The purpose of this report is to provide an evaluation of the potential for stress corrosion cracking of the engineered barrier system components (i.e., the drip shield, waste package outer barrier, and waste package stainless steel inner structural cylinder) under exposure conditions consistent with the repository during the regulatory period of 10,000 years after permanent closure. For the drip shield and waste package outer barrier, the critical environment is conservatively taken as any aqueous environment contacting the metal surfaces. Appendix B of this report describes the development of the SCC-relevant seismic crack density model (SCDM). The consequence of a stress corrosion cracking breach of the drip shield, the waste package outer barrier, or the stainless steel inner structural cylinder material is the initiation and propagation of tight, sometimes branching, cracks that might be induced by the combination of an aggressive environment and various tensile stresses that can develop in the drip shields or the waste packages. The Stainless Steel Type 316 inner structural cylinder of the waste package is excluded from the stress corrosion cracking evaluation because the Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA) does not take credit for the inner cylinder. This document provides a detailed description of the process-level models that can be applied to assess the

  12. Technical Review Report for the Model 9978-96 Package Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (S-SARP-G-00002, Revision 1, March 2009)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, M

    2009-03-06

    This Technical Review Report (TRR) documents the review, performed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Staff, at the request of the Department of Energy (DOE), on the 'Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), Model 9978 B(M)F-96', Revision 1, March 2009 (S-SARP-G-00002). The Model 9978 Package complies with 10 CFR 71, and with 'Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material-1996 Edition (As Amended, 2000)-Safety Requirements', International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safety Standards Series No. TS-R-1. The Model 9978 Packaging is designed, analyzed, fabricated, and tested in accordance with Section III of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (ASME B&PVC). The review presented in this TRR was performed using the methods outlined in Revision 3 of the DOE's 'Packaging Review Guide (PRG) for Reviewing Safety Analysis Reports for Packages'. The format of the SARP follows that specified in Revision 2 of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Regulatory Guide 7.9, i.e., 'Standard Format and Content of Part 71 Applications for Approval of Packages for Radioactive Material'. Although the two documents are similar in their content, they are not identical. Formatting differences have been noted in this TRR, where appropriate. The Model 9978 Packaging is a single containment package, using a 5-inch containment vessel (5CV). It uses a nominal 35-gallon drum package design. In comparison, the Model 9977 Packaging uses a 6-inch containment vessel (6CV). The Model 9977 and Model 9978 Packagings were developed concurrently, and they were referred to as the General Purpose Fissile Material Package, Version 1 (GPFP). Both packagings use General Plastics FR-3716 polyurethane foam as insulation and as impact limiters. The 5CV is used as the Primary Containment Vessel (PCV) in the Model 9975-96 Packaging. The Model 9975-96 Packaging also has the 6CV as its Secondary

  13. Non-Foil High Barrier Food Packaging Materials for Human Centered Spacecrafts Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project aims to develop food packaging technologies for extending shelf-live toward maintaining healthy diet and psychological well being of the space crew. The...

  14. Minimizing the fissile inventory of the molten salt fast reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Merle-Lucotte, E.; Heuer, D.; Allibert, M.; Doligez, X.; Ghetta, V.

    2009-01-01

    International audience; Molten salt reactors in the configurations presented here, called Molten Salt Fast Reactors (MSFR), have been selected for further studies by the Generation IV International Forum. These reactors may be operated in simplified and safe conditions in the Th/233U fuel cycle with fluoride salts. We present here the concept, before focusing on a possible optimization in term of minimization of the initial fissile inventory. Our studies demonstrate that an inventory of 233U ...

  15. Greenhouse gas emissions from the treatment of household plastic containers and packaging: replacement with biomass-based materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Junya; Hirai, Yasuhiro; Sakai, Shin-ichi; Tsubota, Jun

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction that could be achieved by replacement of fossil-derived materials with biodegradable, biomass-based materials for household plastic containers and packaging, considering a variety of their treatment options. The biomass-based materials were 100% polylactide or a combination of polybutylene succinate adipate and polylactide. A scenario analysis was conducted considering alternative recycling methods. Five scenarios were considered: two for existing fossil-derived materials (the current approach in Japan) and the three for biomass-based materials. Production and waste disposal of 1 m(3) of plastic containers and packaging from households was defined as the functional unit. The results showed that replacement of fossil-derived materials with biomass-based materials could reduce life-cycle GHG emissions by 14-20%. Source separation and recycling should be promoted. When the separate collection ratio reached 100%, replacement with biomass-based materials could potentially reduce GHG emissions by 31.9%. Food containers are a priority for replacement, because they alone could reduce GHG emissions by 10%. A recycling system for biomass-based plastics must be carefully designed, considering aspects such as the transition period from fossil-derived plastics to biomass-based plastics.

  16. Effect of packaging materials on the chemical composition and microbiological quality of edible mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) grown on cassava peels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Oluwakemi; Obadina, Adewale; Idowu, Micheal; Adegunwa, Mojisola; Kajihausa, Olatundun; Sanni, Lateef; Asagbra, Yemisi; Ashiru, Bolanle; Tomlins, Keith

    2015-07-01

    Edible fungi such as mushrooms are highly perishable and deteriorate few days after harvest due to its high moisture content and inability to maintain their physiological status. In this study, the effect of packaging materials on the nutritional composition of mushroom cultivated from cassava peels was investigated. Mushroom samples were dried at 50°C in a cabinet dryer for 8 h. The dried mushroom samples packaged in four different packaging materials; high density polyethylene (HDPE), polypropylene (PP), laminated aluminum foil (LAF), high density polyethylene under vacuum (HDPEV) were stored at freezing (0°C) temperatures for 12 weeks. Samples were collected at 2-week intervals and analyzed for proximate composition (carbohydrate, protein, fat, fiber, ash, moisture), mineral content (calcium, potassium), vitamin C content, and microbiological qualities (total aerobic count, Pseudomonal count, Coliform count, Staphylococcal count, Salmonella count) using the standard laboratory procedures. Carbohydrate, protein, fat content of dried mushrooms packaged in HDPE at freezing temperature ranged from 45.2% to 53.5%, 18.0% to 20.3%, and 3.2% to 4.3%, while mushrooms in polypropylene ranged from 45.2% to 53.5%, 18.5% to 20.3%, 2.6% to 4.3%. Carbohydrate, protein, fat of mushroom in LAF ranged from 47.8% to 53.5%, 17.3% to 20.3%, and 3.3% to 4.3%, respectively, while carbohydrate, protein, fat of mushroom in HDPEV ranged from 51.1% to 53.5%, 19.5% to 20.3%, and 3.5% to 4.3%. Microbiological analysis showed that total aerobic count, Pseudomonal count, and Staphyloccocal count of dried mushroom ranged from 2.3 to 3.8 log cfu/g, 0.6 to 1.1 log cfu/g, and 0.4 to 0.5 log cfu/g, respectively. In conclusion, dried mushroom in HDPE packaged under vacuum at freezing temperature retained the nutritional constituents than those packaged with other packaging materials.

  17. The simultaneous neutron and photon interrogation method for fissile and non-fissile element separation in radioactive waste drums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jallu, F. E-mail: fanny.jallu@cea.fr; Lyoussi, A.; Passard, C.; Payan, E.; Recroix, H.; Nurdin, G.; Buisson, A.; Allano, J

    2000-10-01

    Measuring {alpha}-emitters such as ({sup 234,235,236,238}U, {sup 238,239,240,242,244}Pu, {sup 237}Np, {sup 241,243}Am, ...), in solid radioactive waste allows us to quantify the {alpha}-activity in a drum and then to classify it. The simultaneous photon and neutron interrogation experiment (SIMPHONIE) method dealt with in this paper, combines both active neutron interrogation and induced photofission interrogation techniques simultaneously. Its purpose is to quantify fissile ({sup 235}U, {sup 239,241}Pu, ...) and non-fissile ({sup 236,238}U, {sup 238,240}Pu, ...) elements separately in only one measurement. This paper presents the principle of the method, the experimental setup, and the first experimental results obtained using the DGA/ETCA Linac and MiniLinatron pulsed linear electron accelerators located at Arcueil, France. First studies were carried out with U and Pu bare samples.

  18. Portobello Packaging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thomas Grose

    2010-01-01

    ...-based foams. Bayer earned dual degrees in mechanical engineering and product design in 2007 and, with classmate Gavin Mclntyre, started the company Ecovative Design to market his creation. EcoCradle, the company's organic packaging material, was named one of the top inventions of 2009 by Popular Science. Its insulation material, Greensulate, got a ...

  19. Monte Carlo Modeling of Minor Actinide Burning in Fissile Spallation Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyshkin, Yury; Pshenichnov, Igor; Mishustin, Igor; Greiner, Walter

    2014-06-01

    Minor actinides (MA) present a harmful part of spent nuclear fuel due to their long half-lives and high radio-toxicity. Neutrons produced in spallation targets of Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) can be used to transmute and burn MA. Non-fissile targets are commonly considered in ADS design. However, additional neutrons from fission reactions can be used in targets made of fissile materials. We developed a Geant4-based code MCADS (Monte Carlo model for Accelerator Driven Systems) for simulating neutron production and transport in different spallation targets. MCADS is suitable for calculating spatial distributions of neutron flux and energy deposition, neutron multiplication factors and other characteristics of produced neutrons and residual nuclei. Several modifications of the Geant4 source code described in this work were made in order to simulate targets containing MA. Results of MCADS simulations are reported for several cylindrical targets made of U+Am, Am or Am2O3 including more complicated design options with a neutron booster and a reflector. Estimations of Am burning rates are given for the considered cases.

  20. Determination of perfluorinated compounds in packaging materials and textiles using pressurized liquid extraction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Gang; Wang, Libing; Liu, Shaocong; Li, Shufen

    2009-03-01

    A simultaneous determination method of trace amounts of perfluorinated compounds, such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in packaging materials and textiles, has been developed, using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The perfluorinated compounds were primarily extracted from the samples by a PLE procedure, in which the parameters were optimized by response surface methodology. The solvent was then removed by blowing nitrogen and a silylation step was carried out with N,N-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide. The silylated compounds were identified and quantified by GC/MS. The proposed method was applied to determine the PFOA and PFOS in polytetrafluoroethylene packaging materials and textiles, where the detection limits of the two compounds were 1.6 and 13.9 ng mL(-1), respectively. The results showed that the concentrations of PFOA and PFOS in the packaging materials and textiles ranged from 17.5 to 45.9 and 33.7 to 81.3 ng g(-1), respectively.

  1. Determination of phthalates released from paper packaging materials by solid-phase extraction-high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xin; Yang, Bofeng; Tang, Zhixu; Luo, Xin; Wang, Fengmei; Xu, Hui; Cai, Xue

    2014-01-01

    A solid phase extraction (SPE) high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 10 phthalic acid esters (dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, dipropyl phthalate, benzylbutyl phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate, dicyclohexyl phthalate, diamyl phthalate, di-n-hexyl phthalate, di-n-octyl phthalate and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate) released from food paper packaging materials. The use of distilled water, 3% acetic acid (w/v), 10% ethanol (v/v) and 95% ethanol (v/v) instead of the different types of food simulated the migration of 10 phthalic acid esters from food paper packaging materials; the phthalic acid esters in four food simulants were enriched and purified by a C18 SPE column and nitrogen blowing, and quantified by HPLC with a diode array detector. The chromatographic conditions and extraction conditions were optimized and all 10 of the phthalate acid esters had a maximum absorbance at 224 nm. The method showed limitations of detection in the range of 6.0-23.8 ng/mL the correlation coefficients were greater than 0.9999 in all cases, recovery values ranged between 71.27 and 106.97% at spiking levels of 30, 60 and 90 ng/mL and relative standard deviation values ranged from 0.86 to 8.00%. The method was considered to be simple, fast and reliable for a study on the migration of these 10 phthalic acid esters from food paper packaging materials into food.

  2. Release Mathematical Model of Active Agent from Packaging Material into Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuling Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Active packaging is an innovative packaging technology by which active compounds are released from the package to enhance the quality and microbial safety for a wide range of foods. The problem of active ingredient release through the bilayer packaging food system is studied from a theoretical viewpoint. A release model is built to provide predictions of concentration and amount of active ingredient. The equations are built based on Fickian diffusion, and numerical solutions are obtained through finite difference. Different diffusion coefficients DP and DC of active ingredient in different packaging layers, partition coefficient kCP at the interface of outer layer and inner layer, partition coefficient kFC at the interface of inner layer and food, and mass transfer coefficient hm at the interface of inner layer and food are considered in the model. The effects of kCP, thicknesses of outer layer and inner layer, CP0, DP, DC, kFC, and hm on the release are discussed. Corresponding conclusions and analysis are given.

  3. Development of a impact limiter for radioactive material transport packages - characterization of the polymeric material used; Desenvolvimento de amortecedor de impacto para embalagens para transporte de material radioativo - caracterizacao do material polimerico utilizado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourao, Rogerio Pimenta [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: mouraor@urano.cdtn.br; Mattar Neto, Miguel [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: mmattar@net.ipen.br

    2000-07-01

    Impact limiters are sacrificial components widely used to protect radioactive waste packages against damages arising from falls, fires and collisions with protruding objects. Several materials have been used as impact limiter filling: wood, aluminum honeycomb, and metallic or polymeric foams. Besides, hollow structures are also used as shock absorbers, either as a single shell or as a tube array. One of the most popular materials among package designers is rigid polyurethane foam, owing to its toughness, workability, low specific weight, low costs and commercial availability. In Brazil, a foam developed using the polymer extracted from the castor oil plant (Ricinus communis) is being studied as a potential impact limiter filling. For a better performance of this material, it is necessary to minimize the impact limiter dimensions without compromising the package safety. For this, a detailed knowledge of the foam physical and mechanical properties is essential. A relatively vast amount of data about regular polymeric foams can be found in the literature and in foreign manufacturers brochures, but no data has been published about the properties of the castor oil foam. This paper presents data gathered in an ongoing research program aiming at the development of a Type-B packaging. Foam samples were submitted to uniaxial static compression tests and to hydrostatic tests. The results obtained reveal that the castor oil foam has a mechanical behavior similar to that of regular foams, with good property reproducibility and homogeneity. (author)

  4. Microcrystalline-cellulose and polypropylene based composite: A simple, selective and effective material for microwavable packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ummartyotin, S; Pechyen, C

    2016-05-20

    Cellulose based composite was successfully designed as active packaging with additional feature of microwavable properties. Small amount of cellulose with 10 μm in diameter was integrated into polypropylene matrix. The use of maleic anhydride was employed as coupling agent. Thermal and mechanical properties of cellulose based composite were superior depending on polypropylene matrix. Crystallization temperature and compressive strength were estimated to be 130 °C and 5.5 MPa. The crystal formation and its percentage were therefore estimated to be 50% and it can be predicted on the feasibility of microwavable packaging. Morphological properties of cellulose based composite presented the good distribution and excellent uniformity. It was remarkable to note that cellulose derived from cotton can be prepared as composite with polypropylene matrix. It can be used as packaging for microwave application.

  5. A review of poly(lactic acid)-based materials for antimicrobial packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawakkal, Intan S M A; Cran, Marlene J; Miltz, Joseph; Bigger, Stephen W

    2014-08-01

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) can be synthesized from renewable bio-derived monomers and, as such, it is an alternative to conventional petroleum-based polymers. Since PLA is a relatively new polymer, much effort has been directed toward its development in order to make it an acceptable and effective option to the more traditional petroleum-based polymers. Commercially, PLA has received considerable attention in food packaging applications with a focus on films and coatings that are suitable for short shelf life and ready-to-eat food products. The potential for PLA to be used in active packaging has also been recognized by a number of researchers. This review focuses on the use of PLA in antimicrobial systems for food packaging applications and explores the engineering characteristics and antimicrobial activity of PLA films incorporated and/or coated with antimicrobial agents.

  6. THERMAL ANALYSIS OF A 9975 PACKAGE IN A FACILITY FIRE ACCIDENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, N.

    2011-02-14

    Surplus plutonium bearing materials in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex are stored in the 3013 containers that are designed to meet the requirements of the DOE standard DOE-STD-3013. The 3013 containers are in turn packaged inside 9975 packages that are designed to meet the NRC 10 CFR Part 71 regulatory requirements for transporting the Type B fissile materials across the DOE complex. The design requirements for the hypothetical accident conditions (HAC) involving a fire are given in 10 CFR 71.73. The 9975 packages are stored at the DOE Savannah River Site in the K-Area Material Storage (KAMS) facility for long term of up to 50 years. The design requirements for safe storage in KAMS facility containing multiple sources of combustible materials are far more challenging than the HAC requirements in 10 CFR 71.73. While the 10 CFR 71.73 postulates an HAC fire of 1475 F and 30 minutes duration, the facility fire calls for a fire of 1500 F and 86 duration. This paper describes a methodology and the analysis results that meet the design limits of the 9975 component and demonstrate the robustness of the 9975 package.

  7. FY 1985 status report on feasibility assessment of copper-base waste package container materials in a tuff repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCright, R.D.

    1985-09-30

    This report discusses progress made during the first year of a two-year study on the feasibility of using copper or a copper-base alloy as a container material for a waste package in a potential repository in tuff rock at the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada. The expected corrosion and oxidation performances of oxygen-free copper, aluminum bronze, and 70% copper-30% nickel are presented; a test plan for determining whether copper or one of the alloys can meet the containment requirements is outlined. Some preliminary corrosion test data are presented and discussed. Fabrication and joining techniques for forming waste package containers are descibed. Preliminary test data and analyses indicate that copper and copper-base alloys have several attractive features as waste package container materials, but additional work is needed before definitive conclusions can be made on the feasibility of using copper or a copper-base alloy for containers. Plans for work to be undertaken in the second year are indicated.

  8. 77 FR 22504 - Hazardous Materials; Packages Intended for Transport by Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... comprehensive review of air packaging standards as appropriate. In this review, data will be collected on the... 8. Lonnie Jaycox 9. European Chemistry Industry Council (CEFIC) A. Secondary Means of Closure Three... Coordination with Indian Tribal Governments''). Because this final rule does not have tribal implications...

  9. Effect of Coating and Packaging Materials on Photocatalytic and Antimicrobial Activities of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food safety or foodborne pathogen contamination is a major concern in food industry. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a photocatalyst and can inactivate a wide spectrum of microorganisms under UV illumination. There is significant interest in the development of TiO2-coated or –incorporated food packaging ...

  10. 49 CFR 173.247 - Bulk packaging for certain elevated temperature materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... specification tank car tanks equivalent in structural design and accident damage resistance to specification... accident damage resistance to specification packagings. A non-DOT specification cargo tank motor vehicle...; metal IBCs and non-specification portable tanks equivalent in structural design and accident...

  11. Predictive modeling of migration from packaging materials into food products for regulatory purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmroth, I.E.; Rijk, R.; Dekker, M.; Jongen, W.M.F.

    2002-01-01

    Migration of low-molecular weight compounds is one of the most important problems of packaging plastics and other plastics intended to come into contact with food products. Since migration experiments are time consuming and expensive, predictive modelling has been introduced as a promising alternati

  12. 49 CFR 173.224 - Packaging and control and emergency temperatures for self-reactive materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Self-reactive liquid, sample 3223 OP2 3 Self-reactive liquid, sample, temperature control 3233 OP2 3 Self-reactive solid, sample 3224 OP2 3 Self-reactive solid, sample, temperature control 3234 OP2 3... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Packaging and control and emergency temperatures...

  13. Comparative Packaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchonok, Michele; Antonini, David

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes a comparative packaging study for use on long duration space missions. The topics include: 1) Purpose; 2) Deliverables; 3) Food Sample Selection; 4) Experimental Design Matrix; 5) Permeation Rate Comparison; and 6) Packaging Material Information.

  14. Quality and safety aspects of reusable plastic food packaging materials: influence of reuse on intrinsic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetten, J; de, Kruijf N

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the project was to develop a comprehensive package of quality assurance criteria for use by the industry and by regulatory authorities to ensure the quality and safety-in-use (sensory, microbiological and chemical safety) of reused plastics for food packaging. The paper describes the investigations into potential adulteration effects by reuse on the intrinsic properties of plastics in more detail. The plastic articles investigated were bottles of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) or polycarbonate (PC) and vending cups of polypropylene (PP). The influence of repeated use on the migration of plastic constituents, degradation products of plastic additives, barrier properties and surface characteristics were investigated. The overall conclusion was that the investigated intrinsic properties of the refillable articles were not significantly influenced by repeated use. Only the hydrophobicity of the refillable PC and PP articles seemed to be influenced by repeated washing. PC bottles washed 15 times were significantly less hydrophobic than unwashed bottles.

  15. Physics of Failure Analysis of Xilinx Flip Chip CCGA Packages: Effects of Mission Environments on Properties of LP2 Underfill and ATI Lid Adhesive Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Jong-ook

    2013-01-01

    The Xilinx Virtex 4QV and 5QV (V4 and V5) are next-generation field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) for space applications. However, there have been concerns within the space community regarding the non-hermeticity of V4/V5 packages; polymeric materials such as the underfill and lid adhesive will be directly exposed to the space environment. In this study, reliability concerns associated with the non-hermeticity of V4/V5 packages were investigated by studying properties and behavior of the underfill and the lid adhesvie materials used in V4/V5 packages.

  16. Techno-economic assessment of central sorting at material recovery facilities - the case of lightweight packaging waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cimpan, Ciprian; Maul, Anja; Wenzel, Henrik;

    2016-01-01

    by documenting typical steps taken in a techno-economic assessment of MRFs, using the specific example of lightweight packaging waste (LWP) sorting in Germany. Thus, the study followed the steps of dimensioning of buildings and equipment, calculation of processing costs and projections of revenues from material...... 7 to 21 million EUR and the yearly operational expenditure grew by a factor of 2.4 from 2 to 4.7 million EUR. As a result, specific unit processing cost decreased from 110 to 70 EUR/tonne. Material sales and disposal costs summed to between a net cost of 25 EUR/tonne and net revenue of 50 EUR....../tonne. Measured as total materials recovery, the difference between optimal and typical operation was approximately 15% points. The complex nature of LWP waste combined with challenging processing conditions were identified as important factors explaining the relatively low overall recovery efficiencies achieved...

  17. Materials Assessment of Insulating Foam in the 9977 Shipping Package for Long-Term Storage - Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McWilliams, A. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-01

    The 9977 shipping package is being evaluated for long-term storage applications in the K-Area Complex (KAC) with specific focus on the packaging foam material. A rigid closed cell polyurethane foam, LAST-A-FOAM® FR-3716, produced by General Plastics Manufacturing Company is sprayed and expands to fill the void between the inner container and the outer shell of the package. The foam is sealed in this annular space and is not accessible. During shipping and storage, the foam experiences higher than ambient temperatures from the heat generated by nuclear material within the package creating the potential for degradation of the foam. A series of experiments is underway to determine the extent of foam degradation. Foam samples of three densities have been aging at elevated temperatures 160 °F, 160 °F + 50% relative humidity (RH), 185 °F, 215 °F, and 250 °F since 2014. Samples were periodically removed and tested. After approximately 80 weeks, samples conditioned at 160 °F, 160 °F + 50% RH, and 185 °F have retained initial property values while samples conditioned at 215 °F have reduced intumescence. Samples conditioned at 250 °F have shown the most degradation, loss of volume, mass, absorbed energy under compression, intumescence, and increased flammability. Based on the initial data, temperatures up to 185 °F have not yet shown an adverse effect on the foam properties and it is recommended that exposure of FR-3716 foam to temperatures in excess of 250 °F be avoided or minimized. Testing will continue beyond the 96 week mark. This will provide additional data to help define the long-term behavior for the lower temperature conditions. Additional testing will be pursued in an attempt to identify transition points (threshold times and temperatures) at the higher temperatures of interest, as well as possible benefits of aging within the relatively oxygen-free environment the foam experiences inside the 9977 shipping package.

  18. 纳米复合包装材料的研究与应用进展%Study and Application Progress of Nano-composite Packaging Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙新; 黄俊彦; 吴双岭; 孙成伦

    2012-01-01

    综述了纳米复合包装材料的特点及其在食品包装领域的应用,介绍了纳米复合包装材料特有的保鲜性、抗菌性、高阻隔性等性能的研究和应用现状,并对纳米复合包装材料的安全性进行了分析评价.%The characteristics of nano-composite packaging materials and its application in food packaging fields were reviewed; the research progress of performances of nano-composite packaging materials, such as preservation performance, antibiotic property and high barrier property, and its application situation were introduced. The security of nano-composite packaging materials were analyzed and evaluated.

  19. An implementation of the HACCP system in the production of food-packaging material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöberg, A-M; Sillanpää, J; Sipiläinen-Malm, T; Weber, A; Raaska, L

    2002-04-01

    The Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system according to the Codex Alimentarius model was applied to the processes of five paper and paperboard mills and four plants further converting paper or board intended for contact with foodstuffs. The generalised flow diagrams of the processes are presented. Each of the overall processes contained 40-150 process steps. Normally three to five sessions with HACCP teams and additional private negotiations were needed for each mill or plant. Hazards leading to critical control points (CCPs) were microbiological (handling/storage, circulation water, starch, process environment) and physical (process environment) in mills, and microbiological (storage, lacquers or glues, packaging and process environment), chemical (printing) and physical (storage of products, packaging and process environment) in plants. Specifications, critical limits (e.g., based on different kinds of reports and instructions), monitoring methods (microbiological and visual) and frequency, responsibilities and corrective actions of the processes are presented. Most of the improvements focused on improving the process environment. In five cases, hygiene training was included in the implementation of the HACCP system.

  20. Forensic engineering of advanced polymeric materials. Part III - Biodegradation of thermoformed rigid PLA packaging under industrial composting conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musioł, Marta; Sikorska, Wanda; Adamus, Grazyna; Janeczek, Henryk; Richert, Jozef; Malinowski, Rafal; Jiang, Guozhan; Kowalczuk, Marek

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a forensic engineering study on the biodegradation behaviour of prototype packaging thermoformed from PLA-extruded film and plain PLA film under industrial composting conditions. Hydrolytic degradation in water was conducted for reference. The effects of composting duration on changes in molar mass, glass transition temperature and degree of crystallinity of the polymeric material were monitored using gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The chemical structure of water soluble degradation products of the polymeric material was determined using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The results show that the biodegradation process is less dependent on the thermoforming process of PLA and more dependent on the composting/degradation conditions that are applied. The increase in the dispersity index, leading to the bimodal molar mass distribution profile, suggests an autocatalytic hydrolysis effect at the early stage of the composting process, during which the bulk hydrolysis mechanism dominantly operates. Both the prototype PLA-packaging and PLA rigid film samples were shown to have a gradual increase in opacity due to an increase in the degree of crystallinity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Stress Corrosion Cracking of the Drip Shield, The Waste Package Outer Barrier and the Stainless Steel Structural Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Stephen

    2000-04-17

    One of the potential failure modes of the drip shield (DS), the waste package (WP) outer barrier, and the stainless structural material is the initiation and propagation of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) induced by the WP environment and various types of stresses that can develop in the DSs or the WPs. For the current design of the DS and WP, however, the DS will be excluded from the SCC evaluation because stresses that are relevant to SCC are insignificant in the DS. The major sources of stresses in the DS are loadings due to backfill and earthquakes. These stresses will not induce SCC because the stress caused by backfill is generally compressive stress and the stress caused by earthquakes is temporary in nature. The 316NG stainless steel inner barrier of the WP will also be excluded from the SCC evaluation because the SCC performance assessment will not take credit from the inner barrier. Therefore, the purpose of this document is to provide a detailed description of the process-level models that can be applied to assess the performance of the material (i.e., Alloy 22) used for the WP outer barrier subjected to the effects of SCC. As already mentioned in the development plan for the WP PMR (CRWMS M and O 1999e), this Analyses and Models Report (AMR) is to serve as a feed to the Waste Package Degradation (WPD) Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) and Process Model Report (PMR).

  2. Antimicrobial effectiveness of bioactive packaging materials from edible chitosan and casein polymers: assessment on carrot, cheese, and salami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Maria del Rosario; Pereda, Mariana; Marcovich, Norma E; Roura, Sara I

    2011-01-01

    Antimicrobial packaging is one of the most promising active packaging systems for controlling spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. In this work, the intrinsic antimicrobial properties of chitosan (CH) were combined with the excellent thermoplastic and film-forming properties of sodium caseinate (SC) to prepare SC/CH film-forming solutions and films. The antimicrobial effectiveness of SC, CH, and SC/CH coatings on the native microfloras of cheese, salami, and carrots was evaluated. In vitro assays through the test tube assay indicated that the most significant antimicrobial effect was achieved by CH and SC/CH solutions on carrot and cheese native microfloras. SC film-forming solutions did not exert antimicrobial activity on any of the native microflora studied. SC, CH, and SC/CH films stored in controlled environments showed that the retention of the antimicrobial action was observed until 5-d storage, at 65% relative humidity in both temperatures (10 °C and 20 °C). In vivo assays were also performed with SC, CH, and SC/CH applied as coatings or wrappers on the 3 food substrates. CH and SC/CH applied at both immersion and wrapper exerted a significant bactericidal action on mesophilic, psychrotrophic, and yeasts and molds counts, showing the 3 microbial populations analyzed a significant reduction (2.0 to 4.5 log CFU/g). An improvement of the bactericidal properties of the CH/SC blend respect to those of the neat CH film is reported. The ionic interaction between both macromolecules enhances its antimicrobial properties. Practical Application: The continuous consumer interest in high quality and food safety, combined with environmental concerns has stimulated the development and study of biodegradable coatings that avoid the use of synthetic materials. Among them, edible coatings, obtained from generally recognized as safe (GRAS) materials, have the potential to reduce weight loss, respiration rate, and improve food appearance and integrity. They can be used in

  3. Atmospheric-Pressure Cold Plasmas Used to Embed Bioactive Compounds in Matrix Material for Active Packaging of Fruits and Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Sulmer; Pedrow, Patrick; Powers, Joseph; Pitts, Marvin

    2009-10-01

    Active thin film packaging is a technology with the potential to provide consumers with new fruit and vegetable products-if the film can be applied without deactivating bioactive compounds.Atmospheric pressure cold plasma (APCP) processing can be used to activate monomer with concomitant deposition of an organic plasma polymerized matrix material and to immobilize a bioactive compound all at or below room temperature.Aims of this work include: 1) immobilize an antimicrobial in the matrix; 2) determine if the antimicrobial retains its functionality and 3) optimize the reactor design.The plasma zone will be obtained by increasing the voltage on an electrode structure until the electric field in the feed material (argon + monomer) yields electron avalanches. Results will be described using Red Delicious apples.Prospective matrix precursors are vanillin and cinnamic acid.A prospective bioactive compound is benzoic acid.

  4. Determing Degradation Of Fiberboard In The 9975 Shipping Package By Measuring Axial Gap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackney, E. R.; Dougherty, W. L.; Dunn, K. A.; Stefek, T. M

    2013-08-01

    Currently, thousands of model 9975 transportation packages are in use by the US Department of Energy (DOE); the design of which has been certified by DOE for shipment of Type B radioactive and fissile materials in accordance with Part 71, Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), or 10 CFR 71, Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material. These transportation packages are also approved for the storage of DOE-STD-3013 containers at the Savannah River Site (SRS). As such, the 9975 has been continuously exposed to the service environment for a period of time greater than the approved transportation service life. In order to ensure the material integrity as specified in the safety basis, an extensive surveillance program is in place in K-Area Complex (KAC) to monitor the structural and thermal properties of the fiberboard of the 9975 shipping packages. The surveillance approach uses a combination of Non-Destructive Examination (NDE) field surveillance and Destructive Examination (DE) lab testing to validate the 9975 performance assumptions. The fiberboard in the 9975 is credited with thermal insulation, criticality control and resistance to crushing. During surveillance monitoring in KAC, an increased axial gap of the fiberboard was discovered on selected items packaged at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). Many of these packages were later found to contain excess moisture. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) testing has resulted in a better understanding of the relationship between the fiberboard moisture level and compaction of the fiberboard under storage conditions and during transport. In laboratory testing, the higher moisture content has been shown to correspond to higher total compaction of fiberboard material and compaction rate. The fiberboard height is reduced by compression of the layers. This change is observed directly in the axial gap between the flange and the air shield. The axial gap measurement is made during the pre

  5. Examining the stability of thermally fissile Th and U isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Bharat; Biswal, S. K.; Singh, S. K.; Patra, S. K.

    2015-11-01

    The properties of recently predicted thermally fissile Th and U isotopes are studied within the framework of the relativistic mean-field approach using the axially deformed basis. We calculate the ground, first intrinsic excited state for highly neutron-rich thorium and uranium isotopes. The possible modes of decay such as α decay and β decay are analyzed. We found that neutron-rich isotopes are stable against α decay, however, they are very unstable against β decay. The lifetime of these nuclei is predicted to be tens of seconds against β decay. If these nuclei are utilized before their decay time, a lot of energy can be produced with the help of multifragmentation fission. Also, these nuclei have great implications from the astrophysical point of view. In some cases, we found that the isomeric states with energy range from 2 to 3 MeV and three maxima in the potential energy surface of Th-230228 and U-234228 isotopes.

  6. Effects of self-carbon dioxide-generation material for active packaging on pH, water-holding capacity, meat color, lipid oxidation and microbial growth in beef during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Jae; Lee, Seung Yun; Kim, Gap-Don; Kim, Geun-Bae; Jin, Sang Keun; Hur, Sun Jin

    2017-08-01

    Active packaging refers to the mixing of additive agents into packaging materials with the purpose of maintaining or extending food product quality and shelf life. The aim of this study was to develop an easy and cheap active packaging for beef. Beef loin samples were divided into three packaging groups (C, ziplock bag packaging; T1, vacuum packaging; T2, active packaging) and stored at 4 °C for 21 days. The water-holding capacity was significantly (P self-CO2 -generation materials can extend the shelf life similarly to that observed with vacuum packaging, and that the active packaging method can improve the quality characteristics of beef during cold storage. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Active Packaging Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis J. Bastarrachea

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Active food packaging involves the packaging of foods with materials that provide an enhanced functionality, such as antimicrobial, antioxidant or biocatalytic functions. This can be achieved through the incorporation of active compounds into the matrix of the commonly used packaging materials, or by the application of coatings with the corresponding functionality through surface modification. The latter option offers the advantage of preserving the packaging materials’ bulk properties nearly intact. Herein, different coating technologies like embedding for controlled release, immobilization, layer-by-layer deposition, and photografting are explained and their potential application for active food packaging is explored and discussed.

  8. 无菌真空热包装生产线中包装材料的探讨%Discussion on packaging material in sterile thermal vacuum packaging production line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马永杰; 刘卫利; 张青阳; 包洪亮

    2011-01-01

    Fresh frozen chicken was taken as raw materials in this experiment;sterile thermal vacuum packaging production technology was adopted;Al compound packing film and PT/PVDC/PE compound film were chose as packaging materials;the roast chicken was packaged under vacuum while the chicken was hot under aseptic condition.Through comparison experiment,it concluded that there were certain advantages for choosing PT/PVDC/PE compound film as packaging material.%以新鲜冻光鸡为试验原料,采用无菌真空热包装生产工艺,选择铝塑复合膜与PT/PVDC/PE复合膜两种包装材料,在无菌的生产条件下对烧鸡进行趁热抽真空包装,进行对比试验,得出结论,选择PT/PVDC/PE复合膜作为包装材料有一定的优势。

  9. Laser Welding Characterization of Kovar and Stainless Steel Alloys as Suitable Materials for Components of Photonic Devices Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadhali, M. M. A.; Zainal, Saktioto J.; Munajat, Y.; Jalil, A.; Rahman, R.

    2010-03-01

    The weldability of Kovar and stainless steel alloys by Nd:YAG laser beam is studied through changing of some laser beam parameters. It has been found that there is a suitable interaction of the pulsed laser beam of low power laser pulse with both the two alloys. The change of thermophysical properties with absorbed energy from the laser pulse is discussed in this paper which reports the suitability of both Kovar and stainless steel 304 as the base materials for photonic devices packaging. We used laser weld system (LW4000S from Newport) which employs Nd:YAG laser system with two simultaneous beams output for packaging 980 nm high power laser module. Results of changing both laser spot weld width and penetration depth with changing both the pulse peak power density, pulse energy and pulse duration show that there are good linear relationships between laser pulse energy or peak power density and pulse duration with laser spot weld dimensions( both laser spot weld width and penetration depth). Therefore we concluded that there should be an optimization for both the pulse peak power and pulse duration to give a suitable aspect ratio (laser spot width to penetration depth) for achieving the desired welds with suitable penetration depth and small spot width. This is to reduce the heat affected zone (HAZ) which affects the sensitive optical components. An optimum value of the power density in the order of 105 w/cm2 found to be suitable to induce melting in the welded joints without vaporization. The desired ratio can also be optimized by changing the focus position on the target material as illustrated from our measurements. A theoretical model is developed to simulate the temperature distribution during the laser pulse heating and predict the penetration depth inside the material. Samples have been investigated using SEM with EDS. The metallographic measurements on the weld spot show a suitable weld yield with reasonable weld width to depth ratio.

  10. Mobile Geochemistry Instrument Package Facility (MGIPF) for In Situ Mineralogical and Chemical Analysis of Planetary Surface Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingelhöfer, G.; Romstedt, J.; Henkel, H.; Michaelis, H.; Brückner, J.; D'Uston, C.

    A first order requirement for any spacecraft mission to land on a solid planetary or moon surface is instrumentation for in-situ mineralogical and chemical analysis 2 Such analysis provide data needed for primary classification and characterization of surface materials present We will discuss a mobile instrument package we have developed for in-situ investigations under harsh environmental conditions like on Mercury or Mars This Geochemistry Instrument Package Facility is a compact box also called payload cab containing three small advanced geochemistry mineralogy instruments the chemical spectrometer APXS the mineralogical M o ssbauer spectrometer MIMOS II 3 and a textural imager close-up camera The payload cab is equipped with two actuating arms with two degrees of freedom permitting precision placement of all instruments at a chosen sample This payload cab is the central part of the small rover Nanokhod which has the size of a shoebox 1 The Nanokhod rover is a tethered system with a typical operational range of sim 100 m Of course the payload cab itself can be attached by means of its arms to any deployment device of any other rover or deployment device 1 Andre Schiele Jens Romstedt Chris Lee Sabine Klinkner Rudi Rieder Ralf Gellert G o star Klingelh o fer Bodo Bernhardt Harald Michaelis The new NANOKHOD Engineeering model for extreme cold environments 8th International symposium on Artificial Intelligence Robotics and Automation in Space 5 - 9 September 2005

  11. Development of materials design tool and its application in Pb-free micro-solders in electronic package

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OHNUMA; Ikuo; KAINUMA; Ryosuke; ISHIDA; Kiyohito; CHANG; Austin; Y.

    2010-01-01

    A materials design tool for developing Pb-free soldering alloys in electronic package was developed based on comprehensive experimental data of phase equilibria and thermodynamic properties data accumulated with the CALPHAD (calculation of phase diagrams) method and contains 10 elements,namely,Ag,Au,Bi,Cu,In,Ni,Sb,Sn,Zn and Pb.It can handle the calculation of phase diagrams in all combinations of these elements and all composition ranges.In addition,based on this tool,the liquidus,solidus,phase fractions and constitutions,equilibrium and non-equilibrium solidification behavior,surface tension and viscosity of liquid,diffusion reactions and microstructural evolution,etc.can be predicted.Typical examples of the calculation and application of this tool are presented.The design tool is expected to be a powerful tool for the development of Pb-free solders,as well as for promoting the understanding of the interfacial phenomena between Cu substrate and Pb-free solders in electronic packaging technology.

  12. Technical Review Report for the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging Model 9977 S-SARP-G-00001 Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiSabatino, A; Hafner, R; West, M

    2007-10-04

    This Technical Review Report (TRR) summarizes the review findings for the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) for the Model 9977 B(M)F-96 shipping container. The content analyzed for this submittal is Content Envelope C.1, Heat Sources, in assemblies of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators or food-pack cans. The SARP under review, i.e., S-SARP-G-00001, Revision 2 (August 2007), was originally referred to as the General Purpose Fissile Material Package. The review presented in this TRR was performed using the methods outlined in Revision 3 of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Packaging Review Guide (PRG) for Reviewing Safety Analysis Reports for Packages. The format of the SARP follows that specified in Revision 2 of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's, Regulatory Guide 7.9, i.e., Standard Format and Content of Part 71 Applications for Approval of Packages for Radioactive Material. Although the two documents are similar in their content, they are not identical. Formatting differences have been noted in this TRR, where appropriate. The Model 9977 Package is a 35-gallon drum package design that has evolved from a family of packages designed by DOE contractors at the Savannah River Site. The Model 9977 Package design includes a single, 6-inch diameter, stainless steel pressure vessel containment system (i.e., the 6CV) that was designed and fabricated in accordance with Section III, Subsection NB, of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code. The earlier package designs, i.e., the Model 9965, 9966, 9967 and 9968 Packages, were originally designed and certified in the 1980s. In the 1990s, updated package designs that incorporated design features consistent with new safety requirements, based on International Atomic Energy Agency guidelines, were proposed. The updated package designs were the Model 9972, 9973, 9974 and 9975 Packages, respectively. The Model 9975 Package was certified by the Packaging Certification

  13. Aluminum-thin-film packaged fiber Bragg grating probes for monitoring the maximum tensile strain of composite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Jooeun; Kim, Mihyun; Choi, Ki-Sun; Hwang, Tae-Kyung; Kwon, Il-Bum

    2014-06-10

    In this paper, new fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor probes are designed to intermittently detect the maximum tensile strain of composite materials, so as to evaluate the structural health status. This probe is fabricated by two thin Al films bonded to an FBG optical fiber and two supporting brackets, which are fixed on the surface of composite materials. The residual strain of the Al packaged FBG sensor probe is induced by the strain of composite materials. This residual strain can indicate the maximum strain of composite materials. Two types of sensor probes are prepared-one is an FBG with 18 μm thick Al films, and the other is an FBG with 36 μm thick Al films-to compare the thickness effect on the detection sensitivity. These sensor probes are bonded on the surfaces of carbon fiber reinforced plastics composite specimens. In order to determine the strain sensitivity between the residual strain of the FBG sensor probe and the maximum strain of the composite specimen, tensile tests are performed by universal testing machine, under the loading-unloading test condition. The strain sensitivities of the probes, which have the Al thicknesses of 18 and 36 μm, are determined as 0.13 and 0.23, respectively.

  14. Seafood Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    NASA's Technology Transfer Office at Stennis Space Center worked with a New Orleans seafood packaging company to develop a container to improve the shipping longevity of seafood, primarily frozen and fresh fish, while preserving the taste. A NASA engineer developed metalized heat resistant polybags with thermal foam liners using an enhanced version of the metalized mylar commonly known as 'space blanket material,' which was produced during the Apollo era.

  15. Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) Web Academy Webinar: Reducing Wasted Food: How Packaging Can Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a webinar page for the Sustainable Management of Materials (SMM) Web Academy webinar titled Let’s WRAP (Wrap Recycling Action Program): Best Practices to Boost Plastic Film Recycling in Your Community

  16. On the Original Ecological Packaging Materials of Yunnan Minority Nationalities%云南少数民族原生态包装材料探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何蕊; 李兴蓉; 徐俊华

    2016-01-01

    在现代包装重新走向生态化的背景下,原生态包装越来越受到青睐。云南少数民族的原生态包装离不开对传统生态材料的探索,不同种类的生态包装材料有着各自的特点。分析少数民族原生态包装材料特征将为现代包装设计提供重要的借鉴。%With the ecological development of modern packaging materials,increasing importance and attention have been attached to Yunnan minority indigenous packaging style which has a very profound relationship with all kinds of traditional ecological materials. Base on different characteristics of diversified original ecological packaging materials, analysis on features of these minority indigenous packaging materials will play an important and crucial role in modern packaging design.

  17. PATRAM '83: 7th international symposium on packaging and transportation of radioactive materials. Proceedings. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1983-12-01

    Volume 1 contains the papers from the following sessions: Plenary session; international regulations; fracture toughness of ferritic steels; monolithic cast iron casks; risk analysis techniques; storage in packagings; packaging design considerations; risk analysis; facility/transportation system interface; research and development programs; UF/sub 6/ packagings; national regulations; transportation operations and traffic; containment, seals, and leakage; and radiation risk experiences.

  18. Self-Enhanced Ultrasensitive Photoelectrochemical Biosensor Based on Nanocapsule Packaging Both Donor-Acceptor-Type Photoactive Material and Its Sensitizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ying-Ning; Liang, Wen-Bin; Xiong, Cheng-Yi; Yuan, Ya-Li; Chai, Ya-Qin; Yuan, Ruo

    2016-09-01

    In this work, a self-enhanced ultrasensitive photoelectrochemical (PEC) biosensor was established based on a functionalized nanocapsule packaging both donor-acceptor-type photoactive material and its sensitizer. The functionalized nanocapsule with self-enhanced PEC responses was achieved first by packaging both the donor-acceptor-type photoactive material (poly{4,8-bis[5-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophen-2-yl]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl-alt-3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophene-4,6-diyl}, PTB7-Th) and its sensitizer (nano-C60, fullerene) in poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) to form a nanocapsule, which significantly enhanced PEC signal and stability of the PEC biosensor. Moreover, a quadratic enzymes-assisted target recycling amplification strategy was introduced to the system for ultrasensitive determination. Compared with other established PEC biosensors, our proposed self-enhanced approach showed higher effectivity, accuracy, sensitivity, and convenience without any addition of coreactant or sensitizers into the testing electrolyte for photocurrent amplification and performed excellent analytical properties for microRNA estimation down to femtomole level with microRNA-141 as a model. Additionally, the proposed PEC biosensor was employed for estimation of microRNA in different cancer cells and pharmacodynamic evaluation in cancer cells. This self-enhanced PEC strategy has laid the foundation for fabrication of simple, effective, and ultrasensitive PEC diagnostic devices, leading to the possibility for early diagnosis, timely stage estimation, and accurate prognosis judgment of disease.

  19. Criticality benchmark guide for light-water-reactor fuel in transportation and storage packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichtenwalter, J.J.; Bowman, S.M.; DeHart, M.D.; Hopper, C.M.

    1997-03-01

    This report is designed as a guide for performing criticality benchmark calculations for light-water-reactor (LWR) fuel applications. The guide provides documentation of 180 criticality experiments with geometries, materials, and neutron interaction characteristics representative of transportation packages containing LWR fuel or uranium oxide pellets or powder. These experiments should benefit the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and licensees in validation of computational methods used in LWR fuel storage and transportation concerns. The experiments are classified by key parameters such as enrichment, water/fuel volume, hydrogen-to-fissile ratio (H/X), and lattice pitch. Groups of experiments with common features such as separator plates, shielding walls, and soluble boron are also identified. In addition, a sample validation using these experiments and a statistical analysis of the results are provided. Recommendations for selecting suitable experiments and determination of calculational bias and uncertainty are presented as part of this benchmark guide.

  20. Radcalc for Windows 2.0 transportation packaging software to determine hydrogen generation and transportation classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, J.R.

    1996-10-21

    Radclac for Windows is a user friendly menu-driven Windows compatible software program with applications in the transportation of radioactive materials. It calculates the radiolytic generation of hydrogen gas in the matrix of low-level and high-level radioactive wastes. It also calculates pressure buildup due to hydrogen and the decay heat generated in a package at seal time. It computes the quantity of a radionuclide and its associated products for a given period of time. In addition, the code categorizes shipment quantities as reportable quantity (RQ), radioactive Type A or Type B, limited quality (LQ), low specific activity (LSA), highway road controlled quality (HRCQ), and fissile excepted using US Department of Transportation (DOT) definitions and methodologies.

  1. PATRAM 2004 - The 14th international symposium on the packaging and transportation of radioactive materials. Conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The 14th International Symposium on the Packaging and Transport of Radioactive Materials, PATRAM 2004, was held at the Estrel Convention Center in Berlin, Germany, from 20-24 September 2004. PATRAM '04 was held under the auspices of the German Federal Ministry for Transport, Building and Housing (BMNBW), and was hosted by the German Bundesanstalt fur Materialforschung und -Prufung (BAM). Further, the conference was held in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the US Institute for Nuclear Materials Management. As with past PATRAM conferences, this one covered a wide range of topics that are of concern to the nuclear materials transport industry; regulations, operations, technical analyses and testing, design, institutional issues, security, risk assessment and emergency response. Presentation of these topics was provided through a number of fora, plenary presentations, panel presentations, oral presentations, posters and technical tours. Coupled with the opening reception on Monday evening and the coffee breaks, a forum was provided at this PATRAM that allowed all participants ample opportunities to increase their technical knowledge, to learn about compelling issues around the world and to network with colleagues. (orig.)

  2. Development of prototypes of bioactive packaging materials based on immobilized bacteriophages for control of growth of bacterial pathogens in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lone, Ayesha; Anany, Hany; Hakeem, Mohammed; Aguis, Louise; Avdjian, Anne-Claire; Bouget, Marina; Atashi, Arash; Brovko, Luba; Rochefort, Dominic; Griffiths, Mansel W

    2016-01-18

    Due to lack of adequate control methods to prevent contamination in fresh produce and growing consumer demand for natural products, the use of bacteriophages has emerged as a promising approach to enhance safety of these foods. This study sought to control Listeria monocytogenes in cantaloupes and RTE meat and Escherichia coli O104:H4 in alfalfa seeds and sprouts under different storage conditions by using specific lytic bacteriophage cocktails applied either free or immobilized. Bacteriophage cocktails were introduced into prototypes of packaging materials using different techniques: i) immobilizing on positively charged modified cellulose membranes, ii) impregnating paper with bacteriophage suspension, and iii) encapsulating in alginate beads followed by application of beads onto the paper. Phage-treated and non-treated samples were stored for various times and at temperatures of 4°C, 12°C or 25°C. In cantaloupe, when free phage cocktail was added, L. monocytogenes counts dropped below the detection limit of the plating technique (<1 log CFU/g) after 5 days of storage at both 4°C and 12°C. However, at 25°C, counts below the detection limit were observed after 3 and 6h and a 2-log CFU/g reduction in cell numbers was seen after 24h. For the immobilized Listeria phage cocktail, around 1-log CFU/g reduction in the Listeria count was observed by the end of the storage period for all tested storage temperatures. For the alfalfa seeds and sprouts, regardless of the type of phage application technique (spraying of free phage suspension, bringing in contact with bacteriophage-based materials (paper coated with encapsulated bacteriophage or impregnated with bacteriophage suspension)), the count of E. coli O104:H4 was below the detection limit (<1 log CFU/g) after 1h in seeds and about a 1-log cycle reduction in E. coli count was observed on the germinated sprouts by day 5. In ready-to-eat (RTE) meat, LISTEX™ P100, a commercial phage product, was able to

  3. Grooming. Learning Activity Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Pamela

    This learning activity package on grooming for health workers is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics are…

  4. STATUS REPORT FOR AGING STUDIES OF EPDM O-RING MATERIAL FOR THE H1616 SHIPPING PACKAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefek, T.; Daugherty, W.; Skidmore, E.

    2012-08-31

    This is an interim status report for tasks carried out per Task Technical Plan SRNL-STI-2011-00506. A series of tasks/experiments are being performed at the Savannah River National Laboratory to monitor the aging performance of ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) Orings used in the H1616 shipping package. The data will support the technical basis to extend the annual maintenance of the EPDM O-rings in the H1616 shipping package and to predict the life of the seals at bounding service conditions. Current expectations are that the O-rings will maintain a seal at bounding normal temperatures in service (152 F) for at least 12 months. The baseline aging data review suggests that the EPDM O-rings are likely to retain significant mechanical properties and sealing force at bounding service temperatures to provide a service life of at least 2 years. At lower, more realistic temperatures, longer service life is likely. Parallel compression stress relaxation and vessel leak test efforts are in progress to further validate this assessment and quantify a more realistic service life prediction. The H1616 shipping package O-rings were evaluated for baseline property data as part of this test program. This was done to provide a basis for comparison of changes in material properties and performance parameters as a function of aging. This initial characterization was limited to physical and mechanical properties, namely hardness, thickness and tensile strength. These properties appear to be consistent with O-ring specifications. Three H1616-1 Containment Vessels were placed in test conditions and are aging at temperatures ranging from 160 to 300 F. The vessels were Helium leak-tested initially and have been tested at periodic intervals after cooling to room temperature to determine if they meet the criterion of leaktightness defined in ANSI standard N14.5-97 (< 1E-07 std cc air/sec at room temperature). To date, no leak test failures have occurred. The cumulative time at

  5. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) multicanister overpack cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, W.S.

    1997-07-14

    This safety analysis report for packaging (SARP) documents the safety of shipments of irradiated fuel elements in the MUlticanister Overpack (MCO) and MCO Cask for a highway route controlled quantity, Type B fissile package. This SARP evaluates the package during transfers of (1) water-filled MCOs from the K Basins to the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) and (2) sealed and cold vacuum dried MCOs from the CVDF in the 100 K Area to the Canister Storage Building in the 200 East Area.

  6. Migration studies from paper and board food packaging materials. 1. Compositional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, L; Offen, C P; Baxter, M J; Gilbert, J

    1997-01-01

    A survey of 32 paper and board materials intended for food contact has been undertaken. Sample composition was analysed to identify chemicals with a potential to migrate to foods. Representative materials covering a range of uses such as aqueous and fatty foods, and use at ambient and elevated temperatures, were obtained from industry. The samples were examined in their unfinished state, even where the final form would have included lamination to plastics, printing, or other treatments. A comprehensive and systematic analytical approach was applied which included determination of volatiles by headspace GC-MS, extraction using water, ethanol and chloroform with subsequent analysis by GC-MS and HPLC, and multi-element screening by ICP-MS. The solvent extracts were also weighed to determine the total amount of material available for migration. A large number of volatile substances were identified with alkyl and aryl aldehydes predominating in the majority of samples. Substances identified in solvent extracts included 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene (BHT), di-tert-butylphenol, benzophenone, 4,4'-bis(dimethyl amino) benzophenone (Michler's ketone), triphenyl methane, bicyclohexylphenylphenanthrene carboxylic acid (and its methyl ester) and abietic acid. Levels of these substances were however generally below 1 mg/kg paper. Of the inorganic elements, arsenic and mercury were not detected above the limits of determination of 1.8 and 0.4 mg/kg respectively in any of the 10 samples examined. Cadmium was detected in teabag tissue and in unbleached Kraft paper at 0.3 mg/kg. Chromium was present in seven samples at 1.1-7.8 mg/kg, whilst lead was present in nine of the 10 samples at levels ranging from 0.3 to 5.9 mg/kg.

  7. Extensions to Dynamic System Simulation of Fissile Solution Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Steven Karl [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bernardin, John David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kimpland, Robert Herbert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Spernjak, Dusan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-24

    Previous reports have documented the results of applying dynamic system simulation (DSS) techniques to model a variety of fissile solution systems. The SUPO (Super Power) aqueous homogeneous reactor (AHR) was chosen as the benchmark for comparison of model results to experimental data for steadystate operation.1 Subsequently, DSS was applied to additional AHR to verify results obtained for SUPO and extend modeling to prompt critical excursions, ramp reactivity insertions of various magnitudes and rate, and boiling operations in SILENE and KEWB (Kinetic Experiment Water Boiler).2 Additional models for pressurized cores (HRE: Homogeneous Reactor Experiment), annular core geometries, and accelerator-driven subcritical systems (ADAHR) were developed and results reported.3 The focus of each of these models is core dynamics; neutron kinetics, thermal hydraulics, radiolytic gas generation and transport are coupled to examine the time-based evolution of these systems from start-up through transition to steady-state. A common characteristic of these models is the assumption that (a) core cooling system inlet temperature and flow and (b) plenum gas inlet pressure and flow are held constant; no external (to core) component operations that may result in dynamic change to these parameters are considered. This report discusses extension of models to include explicit reference to cooling structures and radiolytic gas handling. The accelerator-driven subcritical generic system model described in References 3 and 4 is used as a basis for this extension.

  8. Simulator for an Accelerator-Driven Subcritical Fissile Solution System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Steven Karl [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Day, Christy M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Determan, John C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-09-14

    LANL has developed a process to generate a progressive family of system models for a fissile solution system. This family includes a dynamic system simulation comprised of coupled nonlinear differential equations describing the time evolution of the system. Neutron kinetics, radiolytic gas generation and transport, and core thermal hydraulics are included in the DSS. Extensions to explicit operation of cooling loops and radiolytic gas handling are embedded in these systems as is a stability model. The DSS may then be converted to an implementation in Visual Studio to provide a design team the ability to rapidly estimate system performance impacts from a variety of design decisions. This provides a method to assist in optimization of the system design. Once design has been generated in some detail the C++ version of the system model may then be implemented in a LabVIEW user interface to evaluate operator controls and instrumentation and operator recognition and response to off-normal events. Taken as a set of system models the DSS, Visual Studio, and LabVIEW progression provides a comprehensive set of design support tools.

  9. Examining the stability of thermally fissile Th and U isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Bharat; Singh, S K; Patra, S K

    2015-01-01

    The properties of recently predicted thermally fissile Th and U isotopes are studied within the framework of relativistic mean field (RMF) approach using axially deformed basis. We calculated the ground, first intrinsic excited state and matter density for highly neutron-rich thorium and uranium isotopes. The possible modes of decay like $\\alpha$-decay and $\\beta$-decay are analyzed. We found that the neutron-rich isotopes are stable against $\\alpha$-decay, however they are very much unstable against $\\beta$-decay. The life time of these nuclei predicted to be tens of second against $\\beta$-decay. If these nuclei utilize before their decay time, a lots of energy can be produced within the help of multi-fragmentation fission. Also, these nuclei have a great implication in astrophysical point of view. The total nucleonic densities distribution are calculated, from which the clusters inside the parent nuclei are determined. %Most of the thorium isotopes are $\\alpha$ emitters, where as some %of them have short ha...

  10. Simulator for an Accelerator-Driven Subcritical Fissile Solution System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Steven Karl [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Day, Christy M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Determan, John C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-09-14

    LANL has developed a process to generate a progressive family of system models for a fissile solution system. This family includes a dynamic system simulation comprised of coupled nonlinear differential equations describing the time evolution of the system. Neutron kinetics, radiolytic gas generation and transport, and core thermal hydraulics are included in the DSS. Extensions to explicit operation of cooling loops and radiolytic gas handling are embedded in these systems as is a stability model. The DSS may then be converted to an implementation in Visual Studio to provide a design team the ability to rapidly estimate system performance impacts from a variety of design decisions. This provides a method to assist in optimization of the system design. Once design has been generated in some detail the C++ version of the system model may then be implemented in a LabVIEW user interface to evaluate operator controls and instrumentation and operator recognition and response to off-normal events. Taken as a set of system models the DSS, Visual Studio, and LabVIEW progression provides a comprehensive set of design support tools.

  11. Statistics vs. dynamics: hints from systems of intermediate fissility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vardaci, E; Di Nitto, A; Brondi, A; Rana, G La; Moro, R [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , 80126 Napoli (Italy); Nadtochy, P; Ordine, A; Boiano, A [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Cinausero, M; Prete, G; Rizzi, V [Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); Gelli, N; Lucarelli, F [Dipartimento di Fisica and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Firenze (Italy); Knyazheva, G N; Kozulin, E M; Loktev, T A; Smirnov, S, E-mail: Emanuele.Vardaci@na.infn.it [Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, JINR, 141980, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2011-02-01

    Systems of intermediate fissility are characterized by an evaporation residues cross section comparable or larger than the fission cross section, and by a relatively higher probability for charged particle emission in the pre-scission channel. In a theoretical framework in which time scale estimates of the fission process rely on statistical model calculations, the analysis of particle emission in the evaporation residues channel is the source of additional constraints on statistical and dynamical models. This contribution will focus on our statistical and dynamical analysis of a more complete set of data from the system {sup 32}S + {sup 100}Mo at E{sub Lab} = 200 MeV. Statistical model fails in reproducing the whole set of data and no convincing estimate is possible of the fission time scale. In particular, while pre-scission multiplicities can be reproduced without delay, the model strongly overestimates proton and alpha particle multiplicities in the evaporation residues channel irrespective of the statistical model input parameters and prescriptions used for the level density and the transmission coefficients. The analysis of the same set of data with a dynamical model produces a very good agreement with the full set of data and indicates that one-body dissipation plays a dominant role in the fission process, implying a fission delay of 23-25x10{sup -21}s.

  12. The high throughput investigation of polyphenolic couplers in biodegradable packaging materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochhead, Robert Y.; Haynes, Camille T.; Jones, Stephen R.; Smith, Virginia

    2006-01-01

    Our goal is to select and develop stimuli-responsive interfacial coupling materials for nanocomposites that will enhance substrate mechanical properties during use but cause triggered disintegration when exposed to the appropriate aqueous environment. The study could potentially provide the scientific underpinning for the development of an interfacially interacting nanocomposite alloy capable of enhanced biodegradation in the aqueous environment. In the first stage of this study it was shown that quaternary ammonium polymers adsorbed on the faces of the montmorillonite platelets, non-ionic polyacrylamides adsorbed on the faces and edges by hydrogen bonding, and anionic polyelectrolytes, carboxylates and sulfonates, did not adsorb at all on the montmorillonite [R.Y. Lochhead, C.L. McConnell-Boykin, An investigative study of polymer adsorption to smectite clay: polyelectrolytes and sodium montmorillonite, in: R. Krishnamoorti, R. Vaia (Eds.), Polymer Nanocomposites, American Chemical Society, 2002; R.Y. Lochhead, C.L. McConnell-Boykin, C. Haynes, Interaction of hydrophilic polymers with smectite clays, Polymer Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 85, American Chemical Society, 2001, p. 419]. The objective of the second part of the study was to examine model polymers in order to guide research aimed at designing coupling polymers that would cause exfoliation of the clay. Based upon the earlier study, polyvinylamine was chosen as the model on the basis that it is a simple polymer with primary amine groups and the polymer charge density could be modified by simply changing the system pH. The aim of this research was to determine the conditions under which polyvinylamine, and selected derivatives of this polymer, would penetrate the galleries of the stacked montmorillonite platelets. The knowledge gained could be applied to predict systems that would facilitate intercalation or exfoliation of sodium montmorillonite. The investigative approach of the third stage was to

  13. Experimental determination of the shipboard fire environment for simulated radioactive material packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koski, J.A.; Bobbe, J.G.; Arviso, M. [and others

    1997-03-01

    A series of eight fire tests with simulated radioactive material shipping containers aboard the test ship Mayo Lykes, a break-bulk freighter, is described. The tests simulate three basic types of fires: engine room fires, cargo fires and open pool fires. Detailed results from the tests include temperatures, heat fluxes and air flows measured during the fires. The first examination of the results indicates that shipboard fires are not significantly different from fires encountered in land transport. 13 refs., 15 figs., 11 tabs.

  14. Development of Equivalent Material Properties of Microbump for Simulating Chip Stacking Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Chun Lee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available three-dimensional integrated circuit (3D-IC structure with a significant scale mismatch causes difficulty in analytic model construction. This paper proposes a simulation technique to introduce an equivalent material composed of microbumps and their surrounding wafer level underfill (WLUF. The mechanical properties of this equivalent material, including Young’s modulus (E, Poisson’s ratio, shear modulus, and coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE, are directly obtained by applying either a tensile load or a constant displacement, and by increasing the temperature during simulations, respectively. Analytic results indicate that at least eight microbumps at the outermost region of the chip stacking structure need to be considered as an accurate stress/strain contour in the concerned region. In addition, a factorial experimental design with analysis of variance is proposed to optimize chip stacking structure reliability with four factors: chip thickness, substrate thickness, CTE, and E-value. Analytic results show that the most significant factor is CTE of WLUF. This factor affects microbump reliability and structural warpage under a temperature cycling load and high-temperature bonding process. WLUF with low CTE and high E-value are recommended to enhance the assembly reliability of the 3D-IC architecture.

  15. Effect of cold storage and packaging material on the major aroma components of sweet cream butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Patricio R; Miracle, Evan R; Krause, Andrea J; Drake, Maryanne; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2007-09-19

    The major aroma compounds of commercial sweet cream AA butter quarters were analyzed by GC-olfactometry and GC-MS combined with dynamic headspace analysis (DHA) and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE). In addition, the effect of long-term storage (0, 6, and 12 months) and type of wrapping material (wax parchment paper vs foil) on the aroma components and sensory properties of these butters kept under refrigerated (4 degrees C) and frozen (-20 degrees C) storage was evaluated. The most intense compounds in the aroma of pasteurized AA butter were butanoic acid, delta-octalactone, delta-decalactone, 1-octen-3-one, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, dimethyl trisulfide, and diacetyl. The intensities of lipid oxidation volatiles and methyl ketones increased as a function of storage time. Refrigerated storage caused greater flavor deterioration compared with frozen storage. The intensity and relative abundance of styrene increased as a function of time of storage at refrigeration temperature. Butter kept frozen for 12 months exhibited lower styrene levels and a flavor profile more similar to that of fresh butter compared to butter refrigerated for 12 months. Foil wrapping material performed better than wax parchment paper in preventing styrene migration into butter and in minimizing the formation of lipid oxidation and hydroxyl acid products that contribute to the loss of fresh butter flavor.

  16. Potential of the polymer poly-[2-(tert-butylamino) methylstyrene] as antimicrobial packaging material for meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohlen, S; Braun, C; Brodkorb, F; Fischer, B; Ilg, Y; Kalbfleisch, K; Lorenz, R; Robers, O; Kreyenschmidt, M; Kreyenschmidt, J

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the antimicrobial potential of a new SAM(®) polymer poly(TBAMS) as packaging material for meat products. The influence of temperature, time and product factors on the antimicrobial activity of poly(TBAMS) against different bacteria was determined using a modified test method based on the Japanese Industrial Standard 2801:2000. Results showed a significant reduction in bacterial counts on poly(TBAMS) compared with the reference material of several meat-specific micro-organisms after 24 h at 7°C. Bacterial counts of Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Lactobacillus spp., Brochothrix thermosphacta and Escherichia coli were reduced by >4·0 log10  units. Pseudomonas fluorescens was less sensitive to poly(TBAMS) within 24 h between 2 and 7°C. Prolonging the storage time to 48 h, however, resulted in an increased reduction rate. Furthermore, antimicrobial activity was also observed if meat components in the form of meat extract, meat juice or bovine serum albumin protein were present. Antimicrobial activity was also achieved if inoculated with mixed cultures. Poly(TBAMS) showed antimicrobial properties under conditions typical for meat supply chains. Poly(TBAMS) bears a high potential to increase safety and shelf life of meat products. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Degradation mode survey candidate titanium-base alloys for Yucca Mountain project waste package materials. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gdowski, G.E.

    1997-12-01

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) is evaluating materials from which to fabricate high-level nuclear waste containers (hereafter called waste packages) for the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Because of their very good corrosion resistance in aqueous environments titanium alloys are considered for container materials. Consideration of titanium alloys is understandable since about one-third (in 1978) of all titanium produced is used in applications where corrosion resistance is of primary importance. Consequently, there is a considerable amount of data which demonstrates that titanium alloys, in general, but particularly the commercial purity and dilute {alpha} grades, are highly corrosion resistant. This report will discuss the corrosion characteristics of Ti Gr 2, 7, 12, and 16. The more highly alloyed titanium alloys which were developed by adding a small Pd content to higher strength Ti alloys in order to give them better corrosion resistance will not be considered in this report. These alloys are all two phase ({alpha} and {beta}) alloys. The palladium addition while making these alloys more corrosion resistant does not give them the corrosion resistance of the single phase {alpha} and near-{alpha} (Ti Gr 12) alloys.

  18. Pyrolysis of plastic packaging waste: A comparison of plastic residuals from material recovery facilities with simulated plastic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrados, A; de Marco, I; Caballero, B M; López, A; Laresgoiti, M F; Torres, A

    2012-05-01

    Pyrolysis may be an alternative for the reclamation of rejected streams of waste from sorting plants where packing and packaging plastic waste is separated and classified. These rejected streams consist of many different materials (e.g., polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), aluminum, tetra-brik, and film) for which an attempt at complete separation is not technically possible or economically viable, and they are typically sent to landfills or incinerators. For this study, a simulated plastic mixture and a real waste sample from a sorting plant were pyrolyzed using a non-stirred semi-batch reactor. Red mud, a byproduct of the aluminum industry, was used as a catalyst. Despite the fact that the samples had a similar volume of material, there were noteworthy differences in the pyrolysis yields. The real waste sample resulted, after pyrolysis, in higher gas and solid yields and consequently produced less liquid. There were also significant differences noted in the compositions of the compared pyrolysis products.

  19. The potential role of polymethyl methacrylate as a new packaging material for the implantable medical device in the bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Jin; Choi, Bumkyoo; Kim, Kang Sup; Bae, Woong Jin; Hong, Sung Hoo; Lee, Ji Youl; Hwang, Tae-Kon; Kim, Sae Woong

    2015-01-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is used in implantable medical devices; however, PDMS is not a completely biocompatible material for electronic medical devices in the bladder. To identify novel biocompatible materials for intravesical implanted medical devices, we evaluated the biocompatibility of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) by analyzing changes in the levels of macrophages, macrophage migratory inhibitory factor (MIF), and inflammatory cytokines in the bladder. A ball-shaped metal coated with PMMA or PDMS was implanted into the bladders of rats, and after intravesical implantation, the inflammatory changes induced by the foreign body reaction were evaluated. In the early period after implantation, increased macrophage activity and MIF in the urothelium of the bladder were observed. However, significantly decreased macrophage activity and MIF in the bladder were observed after implantation with PMMA- or PDMS-coated metal in the later period. In addition, significantly decreased inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α were observed with time. Based on these results, we suggest that MIF plays a role in the foreign body reaction and in the biocompatible packaging with PMMA for the implanted medical devices in the bladder.

  20. MIGRESIVES: a research project on migration from adhesives in food-packaging materials in support of European legislation and standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Störmer, A; Franz, R

    2009-12-01

    Most food packages and food-contact materials are manufactured using adhesives. The European Union regulates all food-contact materials, as their constituents may not contaminate food and endanger consumers' health. In contrast to plastics which are regulated by positive lists of authorized ingredients, adhesives have not yet a specific regulation. The MIGRESIVES project aimed to elaborate a scientific global risk-assessment approach to meet current general European Union regulatory requirements and as a basis for future specific European Union legislation as well as to provide the industry, especially small and medium-sized enterprises, a tool to ensure that migration from adhesives is in compliance with the regulatory requirements. The idea was to demonstrate that consumers' exposure to chemicals released by adhesives is in many cases below levels of concern. Technical/scientific knowledge from industry and research institutes will be merged into a collective research endeavour gathering all stakeholders. The major milestones are (1) the classification of adhesives according to chemistry and uses, (2) the test strategies based on physico-chemical behaviour of adhesives, (3) modelling migration/exposure from adhesives, (4) providing guidelines to integrate the risk-assessment approach into the daily life of companies, (5) the feasibility of applying the toxicological approach from the European Union BIOSAFEPAPER project, and (6) extensive training/education to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and large dissemination for general adoption of the concept in Europe.

  1. PATRAM '92: 10th international symposium on the packaging and transportation of radioactive materials [Papers presented by Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-01-01

    This document provides the papers presented by Sandia Laboratories at PATRAM '92, the tenth International symposium on the Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Materials held September 13--18, 1992 in Yokohama City, Japan. Individual papers have been cataloged separately. (FL)

  2. Effectiveness of the International Phytosanitary Standard ISPM No. 15 on reducing wood borer infestation rates in wood packaging material entering the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Haack; Kerry O. Britton; Eckelhard G. Brockerhoff; Joseph F. Cavey; Lynn J. Garrett; Mark Kimberley; Frank Lowenstein; Amelia Nuding; Lars J. Olson; James Tumer; Kathryn N. Vasilaky

    2014-01-01

    Numerous bark- and wood-infesting insects have been introduced to new countries by international trade where some have caused severe environmental and economic damage. Wood packaging material (WPM), such as pallets, is one of the high risk pathways for the introduction of wood pests. International recognition of this risk resulted in adoption of International Standards...

  3. Repackaging of High Fissile TRU Waste at the Transuranic Waste Processing Center - 13240

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oakley, Brian; Heacker, Fred [WAI, TRU Waste Processing Center, 100 WIPP Road Lenoir City, TN 37771 (United States); McMillan, Bill [DOE, Oak Ridge Operations, Bldg. 2714, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Twenty-six drums of high fissile transuranic (TRU) waste from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) operations were declared waste in the mid-1980's and placed in storage with the legacy TRU waste inventory for future treatment and disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Repackaging and treatment of the waste at the TRU Waste Packaging Center (TWPC) will require the installation of additional equipment and capabilities to address the hazards for handling and repackaging the waste compared to typical Contact Handled (CH) TRU waste that is processed at the TWPC, including potential hydrogen accumulation in legacy 6M/2R packaging configurations, potential presence of reactive plutonium hydrides, and significant low energy gamma radiation dose rates. All of the waste is anticipated to be repackaged at the TWPC and certified for disposal at WIPP. The waste is currently packaged in multiple layers of containers which presents additional challenges for repackaging activities due to the potential for the accumulation of hydrogen gas in the container headspace in quantities than could exceed the Lower Flammability Limit (LFL). The outer container for each waste package is a stainless steel 0.21 m{sup 3} (55-gal) drum which contains either a 0.04 m{sup 3} or 0.06 m{sup 3} (10-gal or 15-gal) 6M drum. The inner 2R container in each 6M drum is ∼12 cm (5 in) outside diameter x 30-36 cm (12-14 in) long and is considered to be a > 4 liter sealed container relative to TRU waste packaging criteria. Inside the 2R containers are multiple configurations of food pack cans, pipe nipples, and welded capsules. The waste contains significant quantities of high burn-up plutonium oxides and metals with a heavy weight percentage of higher atomic mass isotopes and the subsequent in-growth of significant quantities of americium. Significant low energy gamma radiation is expected to be present due to the americium in-growth. Radiation dose rates on inner containers are estimated

  4. Packaging fluency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocanu, Ana; Chrysochou, Polymeros; Bogomolova, Svetlana

    2011-01-01

    Research on packaging stresses the need for packaging design to read easily, presuming fast and accurate processing of product-related information. In this paper we define this property of packaging as “packaging fluency”. Based on the existing marketing and cognitive psychology literature...... on packaging design and processing fluency, our aim is to define and conceptualise packaging fluency. We stress the important role of packaging fluency since it is anticipated that a fluent package would influence the evaluative judgments for a product. We conclude this paper by setting the research agenda...

  5. Control of radioactive wastes and coupling of neutron/gamma measurements: use of radiative capture for the correction of matrix effects that penalize the fissile mass measurement by active neutron interrogation; Controle des dechets radioactifs et couplage de mesures neutron/gamma: exploitation de la capture radiative pour corriger les effets de matrice penalisant la mesure de la masse fissile par interrogation neutronique active

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loche, F

    2006-10-15

    In the framework of radioactive waste drums control, difficulties arise in the nondestructive measurement of fissile mass ({sup 235}U, {sup 239}Pu..) by Active Neutron Interrogation (ANI), when dealing with matrices containing materials (Cl, H...) influencing the neutron flux. The idea is to use the neutron capture reaction (n,{gamma}) to determine the matrix composition to adjust the ANI calibration coefficient value. This study, dealing with 118 litres, homogeneous drums of density less than 0,4 and composed of chlorinated and/or hydrogenated materials, leads to build abacus linking the {gamma} ray peak areas to the ANI calibration coefficient. Validation assays of these abacus show a very good agreement between the corrected and true fissile masses for hydrogenated matrices (max. relative standard deviation: 23 %) and quite good for chlorinated and hydrogenated matrices (58 %). The developed correction method improves the measured values. It may be extended to 0,45 density, heterogeneous drums. (author)

  6. Microelectronics packaging research directions for aerospace applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, L.

    2003-01-01

    The Roadmap begins with an assessment of needs from the microelectronics for aerospace applications viewpoint. Needs Assessment is divided into materials, packaging components, and radiation characterization of packaging.

  7. Theory Packaging Material of Food Safety Barrier Property of Importance%论包材阻隔性对食品安全的重要性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄玉琦; 沈君璐

    2012-01-01

      通过分析影响食品保质期的主要原因,介绍了食品包装阻隔性与食品保质期的关系,并介绍了现在市场上常用的一些高阻隔性包装材料。%  Through the analysis on the main reason for the shelf life of food, and introduces the food packaging barrier property and food shelf life relations, and introduced the commonly used in the market now some of the high barrier property packaging materials.

  8. Quality and safety aspects of reusable plastic food packaging materials : a European study to underpin future legislation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jetten, J.; Kruijf, N. de; Castle, L.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a comprehensive package of quality assurance criteria for use by industry and regulatory authorities for ensuring the quality and safety-in-use (sensory, microbiological and chemical) of reused plastics for food packaging. The study included thermal

  9. Quality and safety aspects of reusable plastic food packaging materials : a European study to underpin future legislation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jetten, J.; Kruijf, N. de; Castle, L.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a comprehensive package of quality assurance criteria for use by industry and regulatory authorities for ensuring the quality and safety-in-use (sensory, microbiological and chemical) of reused plastics for food packaging. The study included thermal degrada

  10. Extruded expanded polystyrene sheets coated by TiO{sub 2} as new photocatalytic materials for foodstuffs packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loddo, V.; Marci, G. [Schiavello-Grillone Photocatalysis Group - Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica, Elettronica e delle Telecomunicazioni, di tecnologie Chimiche, Automatica e modelli Matematici - Universita degli Studi di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze (Ed. 6) - 90128 Palermo (Italy); Palmisano, G., E-mail: giovanni_palmisano@yahoo.it [Schiavello-Grillone Photocatalysis Group - Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica, Elettronica e delle Telecomunicazioni, di tecnologie Chimiche, Automatica e modelli Matematici - Universita degli Studi di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze (Ed. 6) - 90128 Palermo (Italy); Yurdakal, S. [Kimya Boeluemue, Fen-Edebiyat Fakueltesi, Afyon Kocatepe Ueniversitesi - Ahmet Necdet Sezer Kampuesue - 03200 Afyon (Turkey); Brazzoli, M.; Garavaglia, L. [Sirap-Gema S.p.A. - Via Industriale, 1/3 - 25028 Verolanuova (Brescia) (Italy); Palmisano, L., E-mail: leonardo.palmisano@unipa.it [Schiavello-Grillone Photocatalysis Group - Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica, Elettronica e delle Telecomunicazioni, di tecnologie Chimiche, Automatica e modelli Matematici - Universita degli Studi di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze (Ed. 6) - 90128 Palermo (Italy)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An extruded polystyrene has been functionalised by TiO{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A photocatalytic polymer has been developed via a sol-gel method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermoformed packagings for foodstuffs application have been prepared. - Abstract: Nanostructured, photoactive anatase TiO{sub 2} sol prepared under very mild conditions using titanium tetraisopropoxide as the precursor is used to functionalise extruded expanded polystyrene (XPS) sheets by spray-coating resulting in stable and active materials functionalised by TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. Photocatalytic tests of these sheets performed in a batch reactor in gas-solid system under UV irradiation show their successful activity in degrading probe molecules (2-propanol, trimethylamine and ethene). Raman spectra ensure the deposition of TiO{sub 2} as crystalline anatase phase on the polymer surface. The presence of TiO{sub 2} with respect to polymer surface can be observed in SEM images coupled to EDAX mapping allowing to monitor the surface morphology and the distribution of TiO{sub 2} particles. Finally thermoforming of these sheets in industrial standard equipment leads to useful containers for foodstuffs.

  11. Criteria definition and approaches in green supplier selection – a case study for raw material and packaging of food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Banaeian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper formulates an integrated framework for deciding about the green supplier selection criteria in food supply chain and also proposes different methods that account for single and multiple sourcing of supplier selection. Green supplier selection relies on green criteria, so determination of suitable set of criteria will affect decision-maker results directly. In this research, an operational model including combination of general and environmental criteria is introduced for green supplier selection criteria in raw material and packaging of food industry. This model reviewed a literature on general and environmental criteria that help us to know and make a set of common green criteria. Afterward, weighting criteria and collecting of sub-criteria are done by an expert team using the Analytic Hierarchy Process and Delphi method. The expert team tried to propose important and practical sub-criteria which are well fitted to food industry. Finally, in the section of supplier selection, two kinds of qualitative and quantitative data are discussed when single and multiple sourcing are required, respectively. Fuzzy Grey Relational Analysis is proposed to ranking suppliers in presence of qualitative and imprecise data. Also linear programming is used to present a model which can select the best suppliers and allocate the orders among them optimally.

  12. Chemical Constituents and Antibacterial Properties of Indocalamus latifolius McClure Leaves, the Packaging Material for “Zongzi”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Sun

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The glutinous rice dumpling named “Zongzi” in Chinese is a type of traditional food that is popular in East Asian countries. “Zongzi” is made of glutinous rice and wrapped in the leaves of Indocalamus latifolius McClure as the packaging material. Four new compounds, latifoliusine A (2, (7S,8R syringylglycerol-8-O-4′-sinapyl ether 4-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (7, (7S,8S syringylglycerol-8-O-4′-sinapyl ether 7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (8, and (7R,8S syringylglycerol-8-O-4′-sinapyl ether 7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (10, along with six known compounds (1, 3–6 and 9 were isolated from I. latifolius McClure leaves. The structures and relative configurations of the compounds were determined by detailed spectroscopic analysis, high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy (HRESIMS, heteronuclear single quantum correlation (HSQC, heteronuclear multiple bond correlation (HMBC, nuclear overhauser enhancement (NOE and circular dichroism (CD. All of the isolated compounds were screened for their antibacterial activities in vitro. The results indicated that apigenin 6-C-α-l-arabinopyranosyl-8-C-β-d-glucopyranoside (5 and apigenin 7-O,8-C-di-glucopyranoside (6 have antibacterial activities against four bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus thuringiensis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas solanacearum.

  13. Preparation of ecofriendly UV-protective food packaging material by starch/TiO2 bio-nanocomposite: Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudarzi, Vahid; Shahabi-Ghahfarrokhi, Iman; Babaei-Ghazvini, Amin

    2017-02-01

    In this study, ecofriendly starch/TiO2 bio-nanocomposites were produced using with different nano-TiO2 (TiO2) content (1, 3, and 5 (wt%)). Physical, mechanical, thermal, water-vapor permeability (WVP) properties and UV transmittance were investigated. Our results showed that the increasing TiO2 content increased the hydrophobicity of starch/TiO2 films. WVP of the bio-nanocomposites was reduced, simultaneously. With increasing TiO2 content, tensile strength and Young's modulus of the film specimens were reduced while elongation at break and tensile energy to break were increased. The thermal properties of specimens showed that glass transition temperature of the films increased but melting point of the specimen films was decreased by increasing TiO2 content. Scanning electron microscopy observations demonstrated, the most of films' physical properties were in relation to their microstructures. The starch/TiO2 nanocomposites effectively protect goods against UV light, and could potentially be applied as UV-shielding packaging materials.

  14. Chitosan nanocomposite films based on Ag-NP and Au-NP biosynthesis by Bacillus Subtilis as packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Ahmed M; Abdel-Aziz, Mohamed S; El-Sayed, Samah M

    2014-08-01

    Chitosan-silver (CS-Ag) and Chitosan-gold (CS-Au) nanocomposites films were synthesized by a simple chemical method. A local bacterial isolate identified as Bacillus subtilis ss subtilis was found to be capable to synthesize both silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) and gold nanoparticles (Au-NP) from silver nitrate (AgNO3) and chloroauric acid (AuCl(4-)) solutions, respectively. The biosynthesis of both Ag-NP and Au-NP characterize using UV/vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), and then added to chitosan by different ratios (0.5, 1 and 2%). The prepared chitosan nanocomposites films were characterize using UV, XRD, SEM and TEM. Moreover, the antibacterial activity of the prepared films was evaluated against gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aerugenosa), fungi (Aspergillus niger) and yeast (Candida albicans). Therefore, these materials can be potential used as antimicrobial agents in packaging applications.

  15. EQ6 Calculations for Chemical Degradation Of N Reactor (U-Metal) Spent Nuclear Fuel Waste Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Bernot

    2001-02-27

    The Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) Waste Package Department of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management & Operating Contractor (CRWMS M&O) performed calculations to provide input for disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from the N Reactor, a graphite moderated reactor at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site (ref. 1). The N Reactor core was fueled with slightly enriched (0.947 wt% and 0.947 to 1.25 wt% {sup 235}U in Mark IV and Mark IA fuels, respectively) U-metal clad in Zircaloy-2 (Ref. 1, Sec. 3). Both types of N Reactor SNF have been considered for disposal at the proposed Yucca Mountain site. For some WPs, the outer shell and inner shell may breach (Ref. 3) allowing the influx of water. Water in the WP will moderate neutrons, increasing the likelihood of a criticality event within the WP; and the water may, in time, gradually leach the fissile components from the WP, further affecting the neutronics of the system. This study presents calculations of the long-term geochemical behavior of WPs containing two multi-canister overpacks (MCO) with either six baskets of Mark IA or five baskets of Mark IV intact N Reactor SNF rods (Ref. 1, Sec. 4) and two high-level waste (HLW) glass pour canisters (GPCs) arranged according to the codisposal concept (Ref. 4). The specific study objectives were to determine: (1) The extent to which fissile uranium will remain in the WP after corrosion/dissolution of the initial WP configuration (2) The extent to which fissile uranium will be carried out of the degraded WP by infiltrating water (such that internal criticality is no longer possible, but the possibility of external criticality may be enhanced); and (3) The nominal chemical composition for the criticality evaluations of the WP design, and to suggest the range of parametric variations for additional evaluations. The scope of this calculation, the chemical compositions (and subsequent criticality evaluations) of the simulations, is limited

  16. Extension of the sorting instructions for household plastic packaging and changes in exposure to bioaerosols at materials recovery facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, O; Déportes, I Z; Facon, B; Fromont, E

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess how extending the sorting instructions for plastic packaging would affect the exposure of workers working at materials recovery facility (MRF) to dust, endotoxins, fungi and bacteria, taking into consideration other factors that could have an influence on this exposure. Personal sampling was carried out at four MRFs during six sampling campaigns at each facility, both in sorting rooms and when the workers were involved in "mobile tasks" away from the rooms. The data was analysed by describing the extension of sorting instructions both using a qualitative variable (after vs before) and using data for the pots and trays recycling stream, including or excluding plastic film. Overall, before the extension of the sorting guidelines, the geometric mean of personal exposure levels in sorting rooms was 0.3mg/m(3) for dust, 27.7 EU/m(3) for endotoxins, 13,000 CFU/m(3) for fungi and 1800 CFU/m(3) for bacteria. When workers were involved in mobile tasks away from the rooms, these averages were 0.5mg/m(3), 25.7 EU/m(3), 28,000 CFU/m(3) and 5100 CFU/m(3) respectively.The application by households of instructions to include pots, trays and film with other recyclable plastic packaging led to an increase in exposure to endotoxins, fungi and bacteria at MRFs. For an increase of 0.5 kg per inhabitant per year in the pots, trays and film recycling stream, exposure in sorting rooms rose by a factor of 1.4-2.2, depending on the biological agent. Exposure during mobile tasks increased by a factor of 3.0-3.6. The age of the waste amplified the effect of the extension of sorting instructions on exposure to fungi, bacteria and endotoxins. Factors that had a significant influence on the exposure of workers to dust and/or bioaerosols included the presence of paper, newspapers and magazines in the sorted waste, the order in which incoming waste was treated and the quality of the ventilation system in the sorting rooms. The levels of exposure observed in

  17. Design of lightweight insulation packages for sports cars, component design, material selection and adoption of surrounding properties during the development of the new porsche Carrera Coupe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, C. [Porsche (F.) AG, Weissach (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Creating a proper insulation package for sports cars means to take into account not only an effective reduction of noise, but also weight optimisation, most possible reduction of package volume and to apply a suitable filter function to create sound. The Carrera's predecessor is a class leading vehicle concerning the weight of the damping and insulation package. Is it possible to improve its performance and shift targets positively? Is it time to exchange existing isolation components by absorption systems? The task for the new development was to style a lightweight trim package which offers a weight and a cost reduction at the same time. The layout considers the special requirements of a high performance sports car and combines the demand for long term rides with a very sporty response behaviour when driving at physical limits. The decision process of material selection is also strongly influenced by realised and expected changes in the design of the power train, chassis, body structure and interior trim components. The question arises if it is possible to regard all the changing noise components in the interior noise sound layout and wait for a final validation of the insulation and trim package until the very end of the development period. (orig.)

  18. INFLUENCE OF PACKAGING MATERIAL AND STORAGE TIME ON PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF SET YOGURT: A COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN MODIFIED BIODEGRADABLE POLY(LACTIC ACID AND POLYPROPYLENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAWADON PETCHWATTANA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The current paper investigates the influence of storage time and type of polymeric packaging material on the chemical, physical and microbiological properties of set yogurt. Firstly, poly(lactic acid (PLA was modified by using a core-shell rubber (CSR and an acrylic processing aid (PA to produce PLA with high toughness and good processability. Secondly, an appropriate PLA/PA/CSR composition was selected and fabricated to yogurt cup. The yogurt was stored in both modified PLA and polypropylene (PP packages to observe some physical, chemical and biological changes. Finally, the biodegradation test was made on both packages and compared with that cellulose. Experimental results revealed that adding 5wt% CSR gave PLA/PA as tough as PP. Types of packaging material and storage time did not change the color of yogurt. The number of lactic acid bacteria grew significantly after they had been incubated for 6 days. The bacterial viability decreased dramatically due to the increased acidity and the decreased pH. A positive impact on the viability of bacterial growth was found when yogurt was stored in modified PLA package. This made yogurt had more health benefits than stored in PP package. The biodegradation test results indicated that the modified PLA degraded at a rapid rate. It achieved approximately 50% biodegradation within 40 days which was comparable to the time required to degrade the cellulose, whereas PP was non-biodegradable over the period studied. In summary, substitution conventional PP by a novel modified PLA seems to be a better way for both the health and the environment benefits.

  19. Packaging fluency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocanu, Ana; Chrysochou, Polymeros; Bogomolova, Svetlana

    2011-01-01

    Research on packaging stresses the need for packaging design to read easily, presuming fast and accurate processing of product-related information. In this paper we define this property of packaging as “packaging fluency”. Based on the existing marketing and cognitive psychology literature on pac...

  20. Development in the Active Packaging of Foods

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Active packaging is one of the innovative food packaging concepts that has been introduced as a response to the ... mildly preserved convenience foods that ... antimicrobial packaging concepts, .... material needs to have an 02-barrier of.

  1. Polydopamine-Gelatin as Universal Cell-Interactive Coating for Methacrylate-Based Medical Device Packaging Materials: When Surface Chemistry Overrules Substrate Bulk Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van De Walle, Elke; Van Nieuwenhove, Ine; Vanderleyden, Els; Declercq, Heidi; Gellynck, Karolien; Schaubroeck, David; Ottevaere, Heidi; Thienpont, Hugo; De Vos, Winnok H; Cornelissen, Maria; Van Vlierberghe, Sandra; Dubruel, Peter

    2016-01-11

    Despite its widespread application in the fields of ophthalmology, orthopedics, and dentistry and the stringent need for polymer packagings that induce in vivo tissue integration, the full potential of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and its derivatives as medical device packaging material has not been explored yet. We therefore elaborated on the development of a universal coating for methacrylate-based materials that ideally should reveal cell-interactivity irrespective of the polymer substrate bulk properties. Within this perspective, the present work reports on the UV-induced synthesis of PMMA and its more flexible poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based derivative (PMMAPEG) and its subsequent surface decoration using polydopamine (PDA) as well as PDA combined with gelatin B (Gel B). Successful application of both layers was confirmed by multiple surface characterization techniques. The cell interactivity of the materials was studied by performing live-dead assays and immunostainings of the cytoskeletal components of fibroblasts. It can be concluded that only the combination of PDA and Gel B yields materials possessing similar cell interactivities, irrespective of the physicochemical properties of the underlying substrate. The proposed coating outperforms both the PDA functionalized and the pristine polymer surfaces. A universal cell-interactive coating for methacrylate-based medical device packaging materials has thus been realized.

  2. Impact limiters for radioactive materials transport packagings: a methodology for assessment; Amortecedores de impacto em embalagens para transporte de materiais radioativos: uma metodologia para sua avaliacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourao, Rogerio Pimenta

    2002-07-01

    This work aims at establishing a methodology for design assessment of a cellular material-filled impact limiter to be used as part of a radioactive material transport packaging. This methodology comprises the selection of the cellular material, its structural characterization by mechanical tests, the development of a case study in the nuclear field, preliminary determination of the best cellular material density for the case study, performance of the case and its numerical simulation using the finite element method. Among the several materials used as shock absorbers in packagings, the polyurethane foam was chosen, particularly the foam obtained from the castor oil plant (Ricinus communis), a non-polluting and renewable source. The case study carried out was the 9 m drop test of a package prototype containing radioactive wastes incorporated in a cement matrix, considered one of the most severe tests prescribed by the Brazilian and international transport standards. Prototypes with foam density pre-determined as ideal as well as prototypes using lighter and heavier foams were tested for comparison. The results obtained validate the methodology in that expectations regarding the ideal foam density were confirmed by the drop tests and the numerical simulation. (author)

  3. Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP): ATMX-500 Railcar nuclear packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, J.F. Peterson, J.B.; Edling, D.A.; Blauvelt, R.K.

    1977-07-08

    A Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) is described that makes available to all potential users the technical specifications and limits pertinent to the modification and use of the ATMX Railcars for which the Department of Transportation has issued Special Permit No. 5948. The SARP includes discussions of structural integrity, thermal resistance, radiation shielding and radiological safety, nuclear criticality safety, and quality control. Much of the information was previously published in a similar report. A complte physical and technical description of the package is presented. The packaging cnsists of a specially modified ATMX Series 500 Railcar loaded with DOT Specification steel drums or fiberglass coated plywood boxes. The results of the nuclear criticality safety analysis provide the maximum quantities of each fissile isotope which may be shipped as Fissile Class I in 30- and 55-gal drums. A limit of 5 g/ft/sup 3/ was established for wooden boxes. Design and development considerations regarding the packaging concept and modification of the ATMX-500 Railcar are presented. Tables, dimensional sketches, sequential photographs of the structural modifications, technical references, loading and shipping guidelines, and results of Mound Laboratory's experience in using this container are included. An internal review of this SARP was performed in compliance with the requirements of ERDA Manual Chapter 5201-Part V.

  4. Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP): ATMX-500 Railcar nuclear packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, J.F. Peterson, J.B.; Edling, D.A.; Blauvelt, R.K.

    1977-07-08

    A Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) is described that makes available to all potential users the technical specifications and limits pertinent to the modification and use of the ATMX Railcars for which the Department of Transportation has issued Special Permit No. 5948. The SARP includes discussions of structural integrity, thermal resistance, radiation shielding and radiological safety, nuclear criticality safety, and quality control. Much of the information was previously published in a similar report. A complte physical and technical description of the package is presented. The packaging cnsists of a specially modified ATMX Series 500 Railcar loaded with DOT Specification steel drums or fiberglass coated plywood boxes. The results of the nuclear criticality safety analysis provide the maximum quantities of each fissile isotope which may be shipped as Fissile Class I in 30- and 55-gal drums. A limit of 5 g/ft/sup 3/ was established for wooden boxes. Design and development considerations regarding the packaging concept and modification of the ATMX-500 Railcar are presented. Tables, dimensional sketches, sequential photographs of the structural modifications, technical references, loading and shipping guidelines, and results of Mound Laboratory's experience in using this container are included. An internal review of this SARP was performed in compliance with the requirements of ERDA Manual Chapter 5201-Part V.

  5. A Compilation of Metals and Trace Elements Extracted from Materials Relevant to Pharmaceutical Applications such as Packaging Systems and Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenke, Dennis; Rivera, Christine; Mortensen, Tammy; Amin, Parul; Chacko, Molly; Tran, Thang; Chum, James

    2013-01-01

    Nearly 100 individual test articles, representative of materials used in pharmaceutical applications such as packaging and devices, were extracted under exaggerated conditions and the levels of 32 metals and trace elements (Ag, Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ge, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, Sb, Se, Si, Sn, Sr, Ti, V, Zn, and Zr) were measured in the extracts. The extracting solvents included aqueous mixtures at low and high pH and an organic solvent mixture (40/60 ethanol water). The sealed vessel extractions were performed by placing an appropriate portion of the test articles and an appropriate volume of extracting solution in inert extraction vessels and exposing the extraction units (and associated extraction blanks) to defined conditions of temperature and duration. The levels of extracted target elements were measured by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. The overall reporting threshold for most of the targeted elements was 0.05 μg/mL, which corresponds to 0.5 μg/g for the most commonly utilized extraction stoichiometry (1 g of material per 10 mL of extracting solvent). The targeted elements could be classified into four major groups depending on the frequency with which they were present in the over 250 extractions reported in this study. Thirteen elements (Ag, As, Be, Cd, Co, Ge, Li, Mo, Ni, Sn, Ti, V, and Zr) were not extracted in reportable quantities from any of the test articles under any of the extraction conditions. Eight additional elements (Bi, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, Sb, Se, and Sr) were rarely extracted from the test articles at reportable levels, and three other elements (Ba, Fe, and P) were infrequently extracted from the test articles at reportable levels. The remaining eight elements (Al, B, Ca, Mg, Na, S, Si, and Zn) were more frequently present in the extracts in reportable quantities. These general trends in accumulation behavior were compared to compiled lists of elements of concern as impurities in

  6. Research Progress of High-Barrier Packaging Materials%高阻隔包装材料的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丹

    2014-01-01

    The preparation technology, barrier properties and research progress of high-barrier packaging materials have been concluded covering inorganic strengthened high barrier materials such as vapor deposited barrier materials and inorganic filler blend materials, biodegradable materials such as MFC composite materials, multilayer composite materials and smart barrier materials. The development of high-barrier packaging material researches should be conducted towards the direction of optimal properties, non-toxic, non-pollution, green for environment, market orientation and intelligence.%综述了蒸镀阻隔材料及无机物充填共混阻隔材料等无机物增强高阻隔材料、MFC 涂布材料及MFC 复合材料等可生物降解阻隔材料、多层复合材料以及智能阻隔材料的制备工艺、阻隔性能及其在国内外的研究进展,并指出今后高阻隔材料的研究应朝着性能最优化、无毒无污染、绿色环保、适应市场需求、智能化等方向发展。

  7. Microelectronic packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Datta, M; Schultze, J Walter

    2004-01-01

    Microelectronic Packaging analyzes the massive impact of electrochemical technologies on various levels of microelectronic packaging. Traditionally, interconnections within a chip were considered outside the realm of packaging technologies, but this book emphasizes the importance of chip wiring as a key aspect of microelectronic packaging, and focuses on electrochemical processing as an enabler of advanced chip metallization.Divided into five parts, the book begins by outlining the basics of electrochemical processing, defining the microelectronic packaging hierarchy, and emphasizing the impac

  8. 放射性物质运输货包安全试验%Test for Radioactive Material Transport Package Safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国强; 赵兵; 张建岗; 王学新; 马安平

    2012-01-01

    Regulations on radioactive material transport in China were introduced. Test facilities and data acquiring instruments for radioactive material package in China Institute for Radiation Protection were also introduced in this paper, which were used in drop test and thermal test. Test facilities were constructed according to the requirements of IAEA's "Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material"(TS-R-l) and Chinese "Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material"(GB 11806— 2004). Drop test facilities were used in free drop test, penetration test, mechanical test (free drop test I, free drop test FJ and free drop test IH) of type A and type B packages weighing less than thirteen tons. Thermal test of type B packages can be carried out in the thermal test facilities. Certification tests of type FCo70-YQ package, type 30A-HB-01 package, type SY-I package and type XAYT-I package according to regulations were done using these facilities.%介绍了中国放射性物质运输遵守的法规和中国辐射防护研究院用于放射性物质运输货包试验的下落试验设施、耐热试验设施和数据获取能力.试验设施根据IAEA的《放射性物质安全运输条例》(TS-R-1)和中国的《放射性物质安全运输规程》(GB 11806-2004)的要求建设.下落试验设施能用于13t级以下的A型和B型货包的自由下落试验、贯穿试验、力学试验(自由下落试验Ⅰ、自由下落试验Ⅱ和自由下落试验Ⅲ).耐热试验设施能完成B型货包的耐热试验.利用这些设施已进行了FC070-YQ型货包、30A-HB-01型货包、SY-Ⅰ型货包和XAYT-Ⅰ型货包的遵章取证试验.

  9. 49 CFR 173.411 - Industrial packagings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Industrial packagings. 173.411 Section 173.411... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.411 Industrial packagings. (a) General. Each industrial packaging must comply with the requirements of this section which specifies packaging tests,...

  10. Determination of free and total phthalates in commercial whole milk products in different packaging materials by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jialu; Chen, Wanxin; Zhu, Hangcui; Wang, Chengjun

    2015-12-01

    We developed a method for extraction and determination of free and total phthalate esters in commercial whole milk products. The free phthalates in milk samples were extracted with ethyl acetate after general pretreatment procedures including protein precipitation, centrifugation, and filtration. The bound phthalates in samples were first desorbed with the aid of ultrasound irradiation before extraction of total phthalates. The separation and determination of phthalates in extracts was performed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometric detection. The detection limits were in the range of 0.09 to 0.36ng/g and the average recovery between 79.1 and 110.3%. The developed methods were applied to extract and determine phthalates in commercial whole milk products with different packaging materials, including plastic, glass, and metal. All samples contained several phthalates, including diethyl, diisobutyl, and bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalates at concentrations between 2.60 and 156.4ng/g. The identified phthalates occurred in both free and bound forms. The amounts of phthalates in milk samples packaged in glass and metal containers were much lower than those in plastic containers. Plastic packaging materials are a possible source of phthalate contamination in commercial whole milk products, and a considerable portion of bleached phthalates from packaging can be adsorbed on proteins and other solid components of milk.

  11. ONGOING INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECT THAT DRUGSTORE BEETLES HAVE ON CELOTEX ASSEMBLIES FOUND WITHIN RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loftin, B.

    2009-06-08

    During normal operations at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Hanford, WA, drugstore beetles were found within the fiberboard subassemblies of two 9975 Shipping Packages. The Department of Energy's Packaging Certification Program (EM-60) directed a thorough investigation to determine if the drugstore beetles were causing damage that would be detrimental to the safety performance of the Celotex. The Savannah River National Laboratory is continuing to conduct the investigation with entomological expertise being provided by Clemson University. The outcome from the investigation conducted over the previous year was that no discernible damage had been caused by the drugstore beetles. One of the two packages has been essentially untouched over the past year and has only been opened to visually inspect for additional damage. This paper will provide details and results of the ongoing investigation of that package.

  12. Effect of different packaging materials containing poly-[2-(tert-butylamino) methylstyrene] on the growth of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria on fresh meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohlen, S; Braun, C; Brodkorb, F; Fischer, B; Ilg, Y; Kalbfleisch, K; Lorenz, R; Kreyenschmidt, M; Kreyenschmidt, J

    2017-09-18

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of novel antimicrobial packaging materials containing poly-[2-(tertbutylamino) methylstyrene] (poly(TBAMS)) on the growth of typical spoilage and pathogenic bacteria present on meat. The antimicrobial activity of materials containing different poly(TBAMS) concentrations was determined by comparing the bacterial counts on reference and sample materials at different temperatures and times and in the presence of meat components. Storage tests with poultry fillets and veal cutlets were conducted with samples vacuum packaged in the reference foil and foil containing 10% poly(TBAMS). After specific time intervals, typical spoilage microorganisms, total viable count (TVC), sensory changes and pH value were analysed. The results of the different poly(TBAMS) containing packaging materials showed an increase of the antimicrobial activity with an increasing amount of poly(TBAMS) in the base polymer. A high antimicrobial activity against inoculum of spoilage and pathogenic organisms typical for meat products was detected of a multilayer foil containing 10% poly(TBAMS) in the inner layer after 24h at 7°C. Gram positive-bacteria were more sensitive to poly(TBAMS) foil than gram-negative bacteria. In storage tests however, over the entire storage, a significant effect of this poly(TBAMS) foil on microbial growth on chicken breast fillets and veal cutlets could not be identified. Poly(TBAMS) packaging materials showed very good antimicrobial properties against a wide range of bacteria. However, for a significant inhibition of microbial growth on fresh meat, a higher amount of poly(TBAMS) was necessary to prolong the shelf life of meat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Background studies in support of a feasibility assessment on the use of copper-base materials for nuclear waste packages in a repository in tuff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Konynenburg, R.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA); Kundig, K.J.A.; Lyman, W.S.; Prager, M.; Meyers, J.R.; Servi, I.S. [CDA/INCRA Joint Advisory Group, Greenwich, CT (USA)

    1990-06-01

    This report combines six work units performed in FY`85--86 by the Copper Development Association and the International Copper Research Association under contract with the University of California. The work includes literature surveys and state-of-the-art summaries on several considerations influencing the feasibility of the use of copper-base materials for fabricating high-level nuclear waste packages for the proposed repository in tuff rock at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The general conclusion from this work was that copper-base materials are viable candidates for inclusion in the materials selection process for this application. 55 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs.

  14. Temperature Profile of the Solution Vessel of an Accelerator-Driven Subcritical Fissile Solution System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Steven Karl [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Determan, John C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-09-14

    Dynamic System Simulation (DSS) models of fissile solution systems have been developed and verified against a variety of historical configurations. DSS techniques have been applied specifically to subcritical accelerator-driven systems using fissile solution fuels of uranium. Initial DSS models were developed in DESIRE, a specialized simulation scripting language. In order to tailor the DSS models to specifically meet needs of system designers they were converted to a Visual Studio implementation, and one of these subsequently to National Instrument’s LabVIEW for human factors engineering and operator training. Specific operational characteristics of subcritical accelerator-driven systems have been examined using a DSS model tailored to this particular class using fissile fuel.

  15. Influence of asymmetry and fissility on even-odd effect in fission-fragment yields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejmund F.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on a wide systematics of fragment distributions measured in thermal-neutron induced fission, the even-odd staggering in the fission-fragment element yields is investigated. The asymmetry evolution of the element yield distribution with the fissility of the fissioning nucleus is shown to be for an important part responsible for the decrease of the even-odd staggering with the fissility. The even-odd staggering close to symmetry is shown to be a small contribution to the global even-odd effect, and seems to vary little with the fissility of the nucleus. These experimental observations show that the established interpretation in which the intrinsic excitation energy at scission is accountable for the even-odd staggering amplitude has to be reconsidered.

  16. Temperature Profile of the Solution Vessel of an Accelerator-Driven Subcritical Fissile Solution System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Steven Karl [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Determan, John C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-09-14

    Dynamic System Simulation (DSS) models of fissile solution systems have been developed and verified against a variety of historical configurations. DSS techniques have been applied specifically to subcritical accelerator-driven systems using fissile solution fuels of uranium. Initial DSS models were developed in DESIRE, a specialized simulation scripting language. In order to tailor the DSS models to specifically meet needs of system designers they were converted to a Visual Studio implementation, and one of these subsequently to National Instrument’s LabVIEW for human factors engineering and operator training. Specific operational characteristics of subcritical accelerator-driven systems have been examined using a DSS model tailored to this particular class using fissile fuel.

  17. IMS Content Packaging v1.2 public draft specification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgos, Daniel; Tattersall, Colin; Vogten, Hubert

    2006-01-01

    The IMS Content Packaging Specification provides the functionality to describe and package learning materials, such as an individual course or a collection of courses, into interoperable, distributable packages. Content Packaging addresses the description, structure, and location of online learning

  18. The extended Beer-Lambert theory for ray tracing modeling of LED chip-scaled packaging application with multiple luminescence materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Cadmus C. A.

    2015-12-01

    Optical ray tracing modeling applied Beer-Lambert method in the single luminescence material system to model the white light pattern from blue LED light source. This paper extends such algorithm to a mixed multiple luminescence material system by introducing the equivalent excitation and emission spectrum of individual luminescence materials. The quantum efficiency numbers of individual material and self-absorption of the multiple luminescence material system are considered as well. By this combination, researchers are able to model the luminescence characteristics of LED chip-scaled packaging (CSP), which provides simple process steps and the freedom of the luminescence material geometrical dimension. The method will be first validated by the experimental results. Afterward, a further parametric investigation has been then conducted.

  19. London 2012 packaging guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    These guidelines are intended to provide supplemental advice to suppliers and licensees regarding the provisions of the LOCOG Sustainable Sourcing Code that relate to packaging design and materials selection.

  20. LC-MS/MS analytical procedure to quantify tris(nonylphenyl)phosphite, as a source of the endocrine disruptors 4-nonylphenols, in food packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottier, Pascal; Frank, Nancy; Dubois, Mathieu; Tarres, Adrienne; Bessaire, Thomas; Romero, Roman; Delatour, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Tris(nonylphenyl)phosphite, an antioxidant used in polyethylene resins for food applications, is problematic since it is a source of the endocrine-disrupting chemicals 4-nonylphenols (4NP) upon migration into packaged foods. As a response to concerns surrounding the presence of 4NP-based compounds in packaging materials, some resin producers and additive suppliers have decided to eliminate TNPP from formulations. This paper describes an analytical procedure to verify the "TNPP-free" statement in multilayer laminates used for bag-in-box packaging. The method involves extraction of TNPP from laminates with organic solvents followed by detection/quantification by LC-MS/MS using the atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI) mode. A further acidic treatment of the latter extract allows the release of 4NP from potentially extracted TNPP. 4NP is then analysed by LC-MS/MS using electrospray ionisation (ESI) mode. This two-step analytical procedure ensures not only TNPP quantification in laminates, but also allows the flagging of other possible sources of 4NP in such packaging materials, typically as non-intentionally added substances (NIAS). The limits of quantification were 0.50 and 0.48 µg dm⁻² for TNPP and 4NP in laminates, respectively, with recoveries ranging between 87% and 114%. Usage of such analytical methodologies in quality control operations has pointed to a lack of traceability at the packaging supplier level and cross-contamination of extrusion equipment at the converter level, when TNPP-containing laminates are processed on the same machine beforehand.

  1. Quality of osmotically pre-treated and vacuum dried pineapple cubes on storage as influenced by type of solutes and packaging materials

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Prodyut Kumar; Ghosh, Swapan Kumar; Singh, Dhananjay Kumar; Bhowmick, Nilesh

    2012-01-01

    The quality and stability of osmotically pre-treated and subsequently vacuum dried pineapple cubes using three different solutes and packed in three different types of packaging materials on storage was evaluated. The experiment was laid out in completely randomized block design with two factors and three replications for each treatment. Treatment combinations were considered as one factor and storage interval as another factor. Pineapple cubes stored in glass bottle showed very little percen...

  2. Effects of packaging materials on the aroma stability of Thai 'tom yam' seasoning powder as determined by descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leelaphiwat, Pattarin; Harte, Janice B; Auras, Rafael A; Ong, Peter Kc; Chonhenchob, Vanee

    2017-04-01

    Changes in the aroma characteristics of Thai 'tom yam' seasoning powder, containing lemongrass, galangal and kaffir lime leaf, as affected by different packaging materials were assessed using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The descriptive aroma attributes for lemongrass, galangal and kaffir lime leaf powders were developed by the QDA panel. The mixed herb and spice seasoning powder was kept in glass jars closed with different packaging materials (Nylon 6, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polylactic acid (PLA)) stored at 38 °C (accelerated storage condition), and evaluated by the trained QDA panel during storage for 49 days. The descriptive words for Thai 'tom yam' seasoning powder developed by the trained panelists were lemongrass, vinegary and leafy for lemongrass, galangal and kaffir lime leaf dried powder, respectively. The aroma intensities significantly (P ≤ 0.05) decreased with increased storage time. However, the intensity scores for aroma attributes were not significantly (P > 0.05) different among the packaging materials studied. The major components in Thai 'tom yam' seasoning powder, quantified by GC-MS, were estragole, bicyclo[3.1.1]heptane, β-bisabolene, benzoic acid and 2-ethylhexyl salicylate. The concentrations of major aroma compounds significantly (P ≤ 0.05) decreased with storage time. Aroma stability of Thai 'tom yam' powder can be determined by descriptive sensory evaluation and GC-MS analysis. Nylon, PET and PLA exhibited similar aroma barrier properties against key aroma compounds in Thai 'tom yam'. This information can be used for prediction of aroma loss through packaging materials during storage of Thai 'tom yam'. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Effect of high-pressure/temperature (HP/T) treatments of in-package food on additive migration from conventional and bio-sourced materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauricio-Iglesias, M; Jansana, S; Peyron, S; Gontard, N; Guillard, V

    2010-01-01

    Migration was assessed during and after two high-pressure/temperature (HP/T) treatments intended for a pasteurization (800 MPa for 5 min, from 20 to 40 degrees C) and a sterilization treatment (800 MPa for 5 min, from 90 to 115 degrees C) and were compared with conventional pasteurization and sterilization, respectively. The specific migration of actual packaging additives used as antioxidants and ultraviolet light absorbers (Irganox 1076, Uvitex OB) was investigated in a number of food-packaging systems combining one synthetic common packaging (LLDPE) and a bio-sourced one (PLA) in contact with the four food-simulating liquids defined by European Commission regulations. After standard HP/T processing, migration kinetics was followed during the service life of the packaging material using Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) spectroscopy. LLDPE withstood the high-pressure sterilization, whereas it melted during the conventional sterilization. No difference was observed on migration from LLDPE for both treatments. In the case of PLA, migration of Uvitex OB was very low or not detectable for all the cases studied.

  4. MEMS packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Hsu , Tai-Ran

    2004-01-01

    MEMS Packaging discusses the prevalent practices and enabling techniques in assembly, packaging and testing of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). The entire spectrum of assembly, packaging and testing of MEMS and microsystems, from essential enabling technologies to applications in key industries of life sciences, telecommunications and aerospace engineering is covered. Other topics included are bonding and sealing of microcomponents, process flow of MEMS and microsystems packaging, automated microassembly, and testing and design for testing.The Institution of Engineering and Technology is

  5. Green Packaging Management of Logistics Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guirong; Zhao, Zongjian

    From the connotation of green logistics management, we discuss the principles of green packaging, and from the two levels of government and enterprises, we put forward a specific management strategy. The management of green packaging can be directly and indirectly promoted by laws, regulations, taxation, institutional and other measures. The government can also promote new investment to the development of green packaging materials, and establish specialized institutions to identify new packaging materials, standardization of packaging must also be accomplished through the power of the government. Business units of large scale through the packaging and container-based to reduce the use of packaging materials, develop and use green packaging materials and easy recycling packaging materials for proper packaging.

  6. Aging Study Of EPDM O-Ring Material For The H1616 Shipping Package - Three Year Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefek, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Daugherty, W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Skidmore, E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-11-05

    This is a 3-year status report for tasks carried out per Task Technical Plan SRNL-STI-2011-00506. A series of tasks/experiments were performed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to monitor the aging performance of ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) O-rings used in the H1616 shipping package. The test data provide a technical basis to extend the annual maintenance of the H1616 shipping package to three years and to predict the life of the EPDM O-rings at the bounding service conditions.

  7. Selection of candidate container materials for the conceptual waste package design for a potential high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Halsey, W.G.; McCright, R.D.; Clarke, W.L. Jr. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Gdowski, G.E. [KMI, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-02-01

    Preliminary selection criteria have been developed, peer-reviewed, and applied to a field of 41 candidate materials to choose three alloys for further consideration during the advanced conceptual design phase of waste package development for a potential high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These three alloys are titanium grade 12, Alloy C-4, and Alloy 825. These selections are specific to the particular conceptual design outlined in the Site Characterization Plan. Other design concepts that may be considered in the advanced conceptual design phase may favor other materials choices.

  8. Plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This document describes the functional design of the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (Pu SPS). The objective of this system is to stabilize and package plutonium metals and oxides of greater than 50% wt, as well as other selected isotopes, in accordance with the requirements of the DOE standard for safe storage of these materials for 50 years. This system will support completion of stabilization and packaging campaigns of the inventory at a number of affected sites before the year 2002. The package will be standard for all sites and will provide a minimum of two uncontaminated, organics free confinement barriers for the packaged material.

  9. Safety analysis report for packaging: the ORNL loop transport cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.H.; Chipley, K.K.; Nelms, H.A.; Crowley, W.K.; Just, R.A.

    1977-11-01

    An evaluation of the ORNL loop transport cask demonstrating its compliance with the regulations governing the transportation of radioactive and fissile materials is presented. A previous review of the cask is updated to demonstrate compliance with current regulations, to present current procedures, and to reflect the more recent technology.

  10. Processing and Validation of Whey-Protein-Coated Films and Laminates at Semi-Industrial Scale as Novel Recyclable Food Packaging Materials with Excellent Barrier Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bugnicourt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A biopolymer coating for plastic films was formulated based on whey protein, and its potential to replace current synthetic oxygen barrier layers used in food packaging such as ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymers (EVOH was tested. The whey-coating application was performed at semi-industrial scale. High barrier to oxygen with transmission rate down to ranges of 1 cm3 (STP m−2 d−1 bar−1 at and 50% relative humidity (r.h. but interesting humidity barrier down to ranges of 3 g m−2 d−1 (both normalized to 100 μm thickness were reached, outperforming most existing biopolymers. Coated films were validated for storing various food products showing that the shelf life and sensory attributes were maintained similar to reference packaging films while complying with food safety regulations. The developed whey coating could be enzymatically removed within 2 hours and is therefore compatible with plastic recycling operations to allow multilayer films to become recyclable by separating the other combined layers. A life cycle assessment was performed showing a significant reduction in the environmental impact of the packaging thanks in particular to the possibility of recycling materials as opposed to incinerating those containing EVOH or polyamide (PA, but due to the use of biosourced raw materials.

  11. New UPLC coupled to mass spectrometry approaches for screening of non-volatile compounds as potential migrants from adhesives used in food packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canellas, E; Nerín, C; Moore, R; Silcock, P

    2010-05-07

    The objective of this study was to identify the non-volatile compounds as potential migrants from adhesives used in food packaging. A number of the current acrylic adhesive formulations were extracted and prepared for analysis. The extracts were screened using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a time-of-flight mass spectrometer detector (UPLC-TOF-MS). This approach allowed the identification of several components by a combination of exact mass and in-source collision induced dissociation (CID). Due to the lack of freely available information on adhesive formulations further analyses were undertaken using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high definition mass spectrometry (UPLC-HDMS). Using the Mass Fragment tool to interrogate fragmentation data, a wide series of compounds were identified, demonstrating the usefulness and importance of these tools for difficult problems. Moreover, using several packaging materials containing adhesives, qualitative migration tests were performed with Tenax as a food simulant. Several non-volatile compounds were identified as well in the Tenax which emphasizes the importance of this work and demonstrates that even the non-volatile compounds have the potential to migrate into food which is in contact with packaging materials. The main characteristics of the screening study and the results obtained are shown and discussed.

  12. Microcomputer Materials from MEP. An Annotated Directory of Packages of Interest to Further Education. An Occasional Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Leslie

    Designed to disseminate information to the post-school sector of United Kingdom education, this directory provides information on 50 microcomputer software packages developed by the Microelectronics Education Program (MEP) and available through educational publishers. Subject areas represented include accountancy, biology, business education,…

  13. Microcomputer Materials from MEP. An Annotated Directory of Packages of Interest to Further Education. An Occasional Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Leslie

    Designed to disseminate information to the post-school sector of United Kingdom education, this directory provides information on 50 microcomputer software packages developed by the Microelectronics Education Program (MEP) and available through educational publishers. Subject areas represented include accountancy, biology, business education,…

  14. 生物质缓冲包装材料制备及性能实验研究%Preparation and properties of biomass cushion packaging material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李刚; 李方义; 管凯凯; 刘鹏; 吕禹; 贾秀杰; 李剑峰

    2013-01-01

    To solve the environmental pollution caused by the non-degradable waste of plastic packaging materials,the biomass cushion packaging materials with different ingredients have been synthesized,which are made up of straw fiber and starch as the main raw materials.The orthogonal experiment method is used to study the impact of the mass ratio of fiber and starch,the content of plasticizer,active agent and blowing agent on the compressive strength of biomass cushion packaging material.The results were as follows:the influence order of various factors on compressive strength was:plasticizer >the mass ratio of fiber and starch> foaming agent>active agent.When the contents of the plasticizer,foaming agent,active agent are respectively 12%,0.1%,0.3% with the mass ratio of fiber and starch being 2:5,the compressive strength can reach 0.94MPa.Through research on the impacts of plasticizer content and mass ratio of fiber and starch on the cushion performance,the cushion coefficient of the material decreases firstly and increases subsequently with the two factors rising.When the plasticizer content was 12% and the mass ratio of fiber and starch was 2:5,the smallest cushion coefficient and the best cushion performance of the material are obtained.Compared the cushion and rebound performance with EPS (expanded polystyrene),EPE (expanded polyethylene) and other packaging materials,it indicates that the biomass cushion packaging material can replace the cushion packaging materials such as EPS and EPE.%为解决不可降解的废弃塑料类包装材料对环境造成的污染,以稻草纤维、淀粉为主要原料制备了生物质缓冲包装材料,采用正交实验方法研究了生物质缓冲包装材料纤维与淀粉质量比、塑化剂、活性剂和发泡剂含量等对材料抗压强度的影响,结果表明,各因素对材料抗压强度影响的主次顺序为塑化剂>纤维与淀粉质量比>发泡剂>活性剂.塑化剂含量为12%、

  15. Advanced flip chip packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, Yi-Shao; Wong, CP

    2013-01-01

    Advanced Flip Chip Packaging presents past, present and future advances and trends in areas such as substrate technology, material development, and assembly processes. Flip chip packaging is now in widespread use in computing, communications, consumer and automotive electronics, and the demand for flip chip technology is continuing to grow in order to meet the need for products that offer better performance, are smaller, and are environmentally sustainable. This book also: Offers broad-ranging chapters with a focus on IC-package-system integration Provides viewpoints from leading industry executives and experts Details state-of-the-art achievements in process technologies and scientific research Presents a clear development history and touches on trends in the industry while also discussing up-to-date technology information Advanced Flip Chip Packaging is an ideal book for engineers, researchers, and graduate students interested in the field of flip chip packaging.

  16. PCP METHODOLOGY FOR DETERMINING DOSE RATES FOR SMALL GRAM QUANTITIES IN SHIPPING PACKAGINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nathan, S.

    2011-08-23

    The Small Gram Quantity (SGQ) concept is based on the understanding that small amounts of hazardous materials, in this case radioactive materials, are significantly less hazardous than large amounts of the same materials. This study describes a methodology designed to estimate an SGQ for several neutron and gamma emitting isotopes that can be shipped in a package compliant with 10 CFR Part 71 external radiation level limits regulations. These regulations require packaging for the shipment of radioactive materials perform, under both normal and accident conditions, the essential functions of material containment, subcriticality, and maintain external radiation levels within regulatory limits. 10 CFR 71.33(b)(1)(2)&(3) state radioactive and fissile materials must be identified and their maximum quantity, chemical and physical forms be included in an application. Furthermore, the U.S. Federal Regulations require application contain an evaluation demonstrating the package (i.e., the packaging and its contents) satisfies the external radiation standards for all packages (10 CFR 71.31(2), 71.35(a), & 71.47). By placing the contents in a He leak-tight containment vessel, and limiting the mass to ensure subcriticality, the first two essential functions are readily met. Some isotopes emit sufficiently strong photon radiation that small amounts of material can yield a large external dose rate. Quantifying of the dose rate for a proposed content is a challenging issue for the SGQ approach. It is essential to quantify external radiation levels from several common gamma and neutron sources that can be safely placed in a specific packaging, to ensure compliance with federal regulations. The Packaging Certification Program (PCP) Methodology for Determining Dose Rate for Small Gram Quantities in Shipping Packagings described in this report provides bounding mass limits for a set of proposed SGQ isotopes. Methodology calculations were performed to estimate external radiation levels

  17. 包装材料对鲜切菠萝保鲜效果的影响%Fresh-keeping effects of packaging materials on fresh-cut pineapple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃海元; 潘嫣丽; 黄雪明; 黎朝惠

    2011-01-01

    The fresh-keeping effect of different kinds of packaging materials on fresh-cut pineapple was studied. Pineapple were chosen,peeled and cut to wedges(1. 5~2. 0cm chick). Dipped in 0. 5% citric acid solution for 3min,the pineapple wedges were packaged in plastic trays and covered with polyethylene(PE)film,high-density polyethylene(HDPE)bags and polyethylene-polypropylene(PE/PP)composite bags respectively,or packaged in polyester(PET)cup and covered with a PET top having a 3mm diameter hole,and then stored at 5℃ for 10 days. The fresh-cut pineapples were measured at 0,2,4,6,8,10 day respectively. The results showed that PE/PP and PET packaging materials with low gas-permeability could reduce weight loss,browning,juice leakage,electrolyte leakage and dehydroascorbic acid loss more than PE and HDPE films did,but all the packaging materials did almost the same effects on the acid and TSS contents.%研究不同包装材料对鲜切菠萝的保鲜效果。菠萝经挑选、去皮后切成1.5~2.0cm厚的切片,用0.5%柠檬酸溶液浸泡护色3min后,放入塑料托盘中,分别用PE保鲜膜、HDPE保鲜袋和PE/PP复合袋包裹,或放入PET保鲜盒中并用带有1个直径3mm的盖封口,放入5℃的冰柜里冷藏10d;当天和每2d检测1次样品。结果表明,透气性差的PE/PP袋和PET盒较PE膜和HDPE袋更有利于减少鲜切菠萝的失重、褐变、渗汁、相对电导率增加和还原型抗坏血酸损失,但不同包装材料对总酸和可溶性固形物含量的影响不大。

  18. 49 CFR 178.915 - General Large Packaging standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General Large Packaging standards. 178.915 Section... PACKAGINGS Large Packagings Standards § 178.915 General Large Packaging standards. (a) Each Large Packaging.... Large Packagings intended for solid hazardous materials must be sift-proof and water-resistant. (b)...

  19. Inactivation of several strains of Listeria monocytogenes attached to the surface of packaging material by Na-Chlorophyllin-based photosensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luksiene, Zivile; Buchovec, Irina; Paskeviciute, Egle

    2010-12-02

    This study was focused on the possibility to inactivate thermosensitive Listeria monocytogenes ATC(L3)C 7644 and thermoresistant 56 Ly strain by Na-Chlorophyllin (Na-Chl)-based photosensitization in vitro and on the surface of packaging. Comparative analysis of antimicrobial efficiency of photosensitization with conventional surface cleaning was performed. Data indicate that both Listeria strains, after incubation with Na-Chl and following illumination (λ=400nm, 20mWcm(-2)), were inactivated by 7 log in vitro. This treatment cleaned both Listeria strains from packaging surfaces. Comparative analysis indicates that washing with water diminishes pathogens by less than 1 log, 200ppm Na-hypochlorite by 1.7 log, Na-Chl-based photosensitization by 4.5 log. Listeria biofilms were totally removed from the surface by photosensitization at higher photosensitizer concentrations and longer incubation times. In conclusion, both strains of L. monocytogenes can be effectively inactivated by photosensitization in vitro and on the surface of packaging. Listeria biofilms are susceptible to this treatment as well. Comparison of different surface decontamination treatments reveals that photosensitization is much more effective against both Listeria strains than washing with water or 200ppm Na-hypochlorite. Our data support the idea that Na-Chl-based photosensitization is an effective antimicrobial tool which may serve in the future for the development of human and environmentally friendly surface decontamination techniques.

  20. Global nuclear material control model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreicer, J.S.; Rutherford, D.A.

    1996-05-01

    The nuclear danger can be reduced by a system for global management, protection, control, and accounting as part of a disposition program for special nuclear materials. The development of an international fissile material management and control regime requires conceptual research supported by an analytical and modeling tool that treats the nuclear fuel cycle as a complete system. Such a tool must represent the fundamental data, information, and capabilities of the fuel cycle including an assessment of the global distribution of military and civilian fissile material inventories, a representation of the proliferation pertinent physical processes, and a framework supportive of national or international perspective. They have developed a prototype global nuclear material management and control systems analysis capability, the Global Nuclear Material Control (GNMC) model. The GNMC model establishes the framework for evaluating the global production, disposition, and safeguards and security requirements for fissile nuclear material.

  1. A new headspace gas chromatographic method for the determination of methanol content in paper materials used for food and drink packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hui-Chao; Tian, Ying-Xin; Jin, Hui-Jun; Chai, Xin-Sheng; Barnes, Donald G

    2013-10-02

    This study reports on a method for determination of methanol in paper products by headspace gas chromatography (HS-GC). The method is based on the hydrolysis of the pulp or paper matrix, using a phosphoric acid solution (42.5%) as the medium at 120 °C in 5 h (excluding air contact) in order to release matrix-entrapped methanol, which is then determined by HS-GC. Data show that, under the given conditions of hydrolysis, no methanol was formed from the methoxyl groups in the material. Reproducibility tests of the method generated a relative standard deviation of paper-related materials. The method can play an important role in addressing food safety concerns that may be raised regarding the use of paper materials in food and beverage packaging.

  2. Preparation of a Fully Degraded Packaging Material by Using the Mushroom Cultivation Technology%食用菌制全降解包装材料的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚舒; 牛宏震; 林理量; 苏鑫; 陈万通; 林毅; 曾德芳

    2015-01-01

    In order to diminish the contamination of non -degradable plastic packaging waste on the environment,the straw and wood chips was used as the main raw materials,aided by mushroom cultivation technology,a new type of packaging material which can be completely degraded and is pollution free and cost-effective,was produced.The manufacturing method is simple and suitable for industrialized production. In this experiment,comparison methods are used to study the effect of different ratio of raw materials on my-celial's growth.The result shows that in the ratio of 57% straw,30%wood chips,10% wheat bran,1%gypsum and 2% lime,the mycelium cultivated by pure culture of pleurotus ostreatus is most abundant and has best firmness.By waterproof test and comparing the cushioning property of the materials,we find that the biomass material can totally replace EPS (expanded polystyrene),EPE (expanded polyethylene)and other packaging materials.Meanwhile,the biomass material can be fully degraded in the soil and provide organic fertilizer for soil.%为了解决不可降解的废弃塑料类包装材料对环境的污染,以秸秆和木屑为主要原料,利用食用菌栽培技术制备了一种新型的、可完全降解的包装材料。采用对比实验的方法,研究了不同原料配比对菌丝生长情况的影响,结果表明,在秸秆57%、木屑30%、麸皮10%、石膏1%、石灰2%的配比下,选用平菇菌种栽培的培养基菌丝体含量最多,紧实度最好。通过材料的防水性能测试和缓冲性能比较,表明该生物质材料完全可以替代 EPS(发泡聚苯乙烯)和 EPE (发泡聚乙烯)等包装材料。同时,该生物质材料在土壤中可实现完全降解,为土壤提供有机肥料。

  3. Oral Hygiene. Learning Activity Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hime, Kirsten

    This learning activity package on oral hygiene is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics…

  4. 国内外塑料包装材料回收法律体系概况%The Overview of Legal System about Recycling Plastic Packaging Material at Home and Abroad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉霞; 张岩; 李东萱; 俞婧; 王洪涛

    2011-01-01

    介绍了中国和欧、美、日等发达国家塑料包装材料同收立法现状,其中包括同收塑料用于食品包装的概况.塑料包装T业要实现可持续发展,当务之急是加快包装材料回收立法,尤其是食品塑料包装回收立法工作.%This article described the legislative status of recycling of plastic packaging materials in China, Europe, America and Japan, including recycled plastics for food packaging profiles. To achieve sustainable development of plastic packaging industry, it is imperative to speed up packaging recycling legislation, in particular for food plastic packaging recycling legislation.

  5. How material, visual and verbal cues on packaging influence consumer expectations and willingness to buy: The case of crisps (potato chips) in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebollar, Rubén; Gil, Ignacio; Lidón, Iván; Martín, Javier; Fernández, María J; Rivera, Sandra

    2017-09-01

    This paper analyses the influence that certain aspects of packaging design have on the consumer expectations of a series of sensory and non-sensory attributes and on willingness to buy for a bag of crisps in Spain. A two-part experiment was conducted in which 174 people evaluated the attributes for different stimuli using an online survey. In the first part, four stimuli were created in which two factors were varied: the packaging material and the image displayed. Interaction was identified between both factors for the attributes Crunchy, High quality and Artisan. For the attributes Salty, Crunchy and Willingness to buy, the image was the only significant factor, with the image displaying crisps ready for consumption being the only one that obtained higher scores. For the attribute Intense flavour, no statistically significant differences were identified among the stimuli. In general terms, the image displayed on the bag had a greater influence than the material from which the bag was made. In the second part, an analysis was made of the most effective way (visual cues versus verbal cues) to transmit the information that the crisps were fried in olive oil. To this end, two stimuli were designed: one displaying an image of an oil cruet and another with an allusive text. For all the attributes (Intense flavour, Crunchy, Artisan, High quality, Healthy and Willingness to buy), higher scores were obtained with the image than with the text. These results have important implications for crisps producers, marketers and packaging designers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of packaging materials on storage property of peanut under normal temperature%包装材料对常温花生耐贮性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈红; 熊利荣; 王晶; 万鹏; 胡筱波

    2012-01-01

    为了探讨包装材料对常温贮藏条件下花生耐贮性的影响,该文研究了常用的3种包装材料下花生色泽、含水率、电导率、发芽率、黄曲霉感染指数、防虫效果的变化规律.结果表明:包装对花生贮藏质量指标的影响非常显著.薄膜袋包装花生的红衣种皮颜色变化速度比编织袋和麻袋包装的缓慢;薄膜袋较强的保水能力能够有效地防止花生水分散失;但在贮藏初期,密闭的薄膜袋包装环境易造成无氧呼吸,引起花生种皮细胞膜结构和种胚损伤,导致电导率急剧增大;种皮是花生抵抗黄曲霉菌侵染的重要屏障,因此,薄膜袋包装的抗黄曲霉菌侵染能力低于编织袋和麻袋包装;编织袋和麻袋包装花生的发芽率略高于薄膜袋包装;3种包装方式抑制虫害繁殖作用差异显著,高通透性的编织袋和麻袋包装的花生害虫侵蚀严重,而薄膜袋包装可以有效地抑制虫害的发生.总之,花生品质的变化是一个动态的复杂过程,在选择适宜包装材料时应结合花生生理特性、贮藏环境等因素综合考虑,这为常温花生的贮藏提供了参考.%In order to study the influence of packaging materials on storaged peanut at normal temperature, the paper investigated the effects of commonly-used 3 types of packaging materials on peanut's color, moisture content, conductivity, germination percentage, Aspergillus flavus infection index and insecticidal effect. The results showed that the packaging materials had notable influences on peanut's storage quality index. The seed coat color change rate of peanut packaged in plastic film bag was slower than that in woven bag and sack. Meanwhile, the strong water-preservation ability of plastic film bag enabled itself to effectively prevent against water evaporation of peanuts. However, at the initial stage of storage, the closed package environment of plastic film bag can cause anaerobic respiration which will

  7. Influence of LBGA336P Packaging Materials on Its Thermal Property%LBGA336P封装材料对其热性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐冬梅; 谌世广

    2013-01-01

    With the development of science and technology, the electronic device is becoming more efficient, stable and integrated, and the reliability of electronic packaging devices is significantly affected by the thermal property. According to the analysis of statistic figures, about 55percent of the electronic devices failure is caused by high temperature, and once the working temperature of the device increases 10℃ , its failure possibility will be double of before. By finite-element analysis of MPU in (low profile ball grid array) LBGA packaging form products (LBGA336P) , the mutual effects of the changes on die attach glue thermal conductivity and its thickness, epoxy molding compound ( EMC ) hermal conductivity and the top copper content on printed circuit board (PCB) to packaging thermal resistance were got. By analyzing the effect of the materials different parameters variation of LBGA336P on the packaging thermal property, to provide a reference for simulation analysis of packaging thermal resistance and thermal dissipation improvement of electronic device.%随着科技的不断发展,电子设备变得更加高效、稳定、集成度更高,热性能对封装电子产品的可靠性影响越来越大.据统计,约55%的电子设备的失效是由高温引起的,器件的工作温度平均每提高10℃,设备失效的可能性将提高1倍.通过对一款采用低截面球栅阵列封装形式(LBGA)的微处理器封装产品(LBGA336P)进行有限元分析,得出粘片胶热导率、粘片胶厚度、环氧树脂塑封料热导率及印刷线路板(PCB)顶层铜含量的变化与封装热阻之间的影响关系.通过分析LBGA336P各部分材料参数变化对封装热性能的影响,为封装热阻的仿真分析及电子元器件散热优化提供参考思路.

  8. Fissile Nuclei Rotation Effect in 235U(n,γf) Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilyan, Gevorg; Granz, Peter; Klenke, Jens; Krakhotin, Vyacheslav; Kuznetsov, Valery; Mezei, Ferenz; Novitsky, Vadim; Pavlov, Valery; Russina, Margarita; Shatalov, Pavel; Wilpert, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    A small shift of an angular distribution of prompt γ-rays relative to the fission axis of 236U* 235U(n,γf) process is presented. This effect has been observed in the experiment at BER-II reactor of BENSC/HMI (Berlin). The sign of the shift depends on the direction of the incident neutron beam polarization. This phenomena can be explained by the rotation of fissile nucleus 236U*, like the effect that has been observed recently at ILL in ternary fission of 235U by cold polarized neutrons. The main surprise of this result is the detection of scission gamma-rays radiated by a fissile nucleus during the time interval of the order of 10-21 s before or after the moment of the neck rupture. Detailed measurements of trigger γ-rays energy dependence are in progress at the neutron beam "MEPHISTO" of FRM-II reactor (Garching).

  9. [Determination of 46 plasticizers in food contact polyvinyl chloride packaging materials and their migration into food simulants by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chunhai; Bo, Haibo; Duan, Wenzhong; Jia, Haitao; Chen, Ruichun; Ma, Yusong; Ai, Lianfeng

    2011-01-01

    A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was developed for the determination of 46 plasticizers in food contact polyvinyl chloride (PVC) packaging materials and their migration into food simulants, i. e. water, 3% acetic acid, 10% ethanol and olive oil. Plasticizers in the PVC packaging materials, aqueous food simulants and olive oil food simulants were extracted by the dissolution-precipitation, liquid-liquid extraction and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) approaches, respectively. The extracts were analyzed by GC-MS in selective ion monitoring (SIM) mode and quantified using the external standard method. The cal-ibration curves were linear in the ranges of 0.1-2.0 mg/L with the correlation coefficients of 0.9910-0. 999 9. The limits of detection were from 0. 005 mg/kg to 0. 05 mg/kg ( S/N = 5 ). The recoveries at 3 spiked levels were 69.51%-107. 21% and the relative standard deviations (RSDs n = 6) ranged from 3.53% to 18.95%. These results show that this method is fast, sensitive and accurate for the qualitative and quantitative determination of plasticizers in food contact plastic products and 4 types of food simulants.

  10. 基于连锁超市的包装废弃物回收模型%Recycling Model of Waste Packaging Materials for Chain Supermarkets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄勇; 邱丽艳

    2013-01-01

    阐述了包装废弃物回收的意义,基于资源整合与共享的理论思想,提出连锁超市的回收模式,即基于连锁超市的配送体系,在连锁超市合理选址的基础上,依超市建立回收站点,集中回收可再利用的包装;充分利用配送中心的网络资源,建立以达到降低物流成本,实现资源再利用为目的的模型.最后用模糊综合评价法对其进行了评价.%In this paper, we introduced the significance of the recycling of waste packaging materials and on the basis of the ideas of resource integration and sharing, proposed the recycling model of the chain supermarkets, which, on the basis of the reasonable location of the supermarkets, recycled reusable packaging materials in a centralized way and made full use of the network resource of the distribution centers to reduce logistics cost and realize resource reclamation. At the end, we evaluated the model using fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method.

  11. Measuring of fissile isotopes partial antineutrino spectra in direct experiment at nuclear reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Sinev, V V

    2009-01-01

    The direct measuring method is considered to get nuclear reactor antineutrino spectrum. We suppose to isolate partial spectra of the fissile isotopes by using the method of antineutrino spectrum extraction from the inverse beta decay positron spectrum applied at Rovno experiment. This admits to increase the accuracy of partial antineutrino spectra forming the total nuclear reactor spectrum. It is important for the analysis of the reactor core fuel composition and could be applied for non-proliferation purposes.

  12. Graft copolymerization onto cellulose-based filter paper and its further development as silver nanoparticles loaded antibacterial food-packaging material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankhiwale, Rasika; Bajpai, S K

    2009-03-01

    The present work describes ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) initiated graft copolymerization of acrylamide onto cellulose-based filter paper followed by entrapment of silver nanoparticles. The copolymerization was carried out in aqueous solution, containing 2M acrylamide monomer and 16mM N,N'-methylene bisacrylamide (MB) crosslinker. The optimum initiation time and grafting reaction temperature were found to be 15min and 30 degrees C, respectively. The silver nanoparticles were loaded into grafted filter paper by equilibration in silver nitrate solution followed by citrate reduction. The formation of silver nanoparticles has been confirmed by TEM and SAED analysis. The novel nano silver loaded filter paper has been investigated for its antimicrobial properties against E.coli. This newly developed material shows strong antibacterial property and thus offers its candidature for possible use as antibacterial food-packaging material.

  13. Shelf-life of Roasted Cashew Nuts as Affected by Relative Humidity, Thickness of Polythene Packaging Material and Duration of Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Irtwange

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of relative humidity, thickness of polythene packaging material and duration of storageon the shelf life of roasted cashew was determined to provide inform ation for packaged roasted cashew nutsmarketers. For this study, split plot in Randomized Complete Block Design was used with a total number of180 observations (3 relative humidity x 4 polythene thicknesses x 5 duration levels of storage x 3 replicationseach for moisture content, microbial count and quality index, which w ere measured using standard procedures.The initial mean moisture content, total fungal counts and percentage quality index of the nuts were found tobe 1.17%db, 30CFU/g and 100% respectively, which were all deemed appropriate in comparison with the setacceptable storage moisture content of 5.8%db, tolerable fungal levels of 103 and 104/g and acceptablepercentage quality index of 45% for roasted cashew nuts which did not exceed its shelf-life and still deemedfit for human consumption. The results of the study indicates that relative humidity, polythene thickness andduration of storage have a highly significant effect (P≤0.01 on moisture content and quality index while forthe microbial count, polythene thickness and duration of storage has significant effect (P≤0.05 with relativehumidity showing non-significance. For all levels of relative humidity and polythene thickness, moisturecontent and microbial count increased with increase in duration of storage w hile quality index decreased withincrease in duration of storage. As the polythene thickness increased at constant storage duration, the moisturecontent decreased. The moisture content of all the samples increased with increase in duration of storage atconstant polythene thickness level. As the thickness of the polythene packaging material increased, the amountof moisture absorbed over time (in days decreases; the total fugal growth decreases, and the percentage qualityindex increases. It is recommended that

  14. Safety Analysis Report for packaging (onsite) steel waste package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOEHNKE, W.M.

    2000-07-13

    The steel waste package is used primarily for the shipment of remote-handled radioactive waste from the 324 Building to the 200 Area for interim storage. The steel waste package is authorized for shipment of transuranic isotopes. The maximum allowable radioactive material that is authorized is 500,000 Ci. This exceeds the highway route controlled quantity (3,000 A{sub 2}s) and is a type B packaging.

  15. 辐照处理对食品真空包装材料主要性能的影响%Effect of Irradiation on the Main Properties of Food Vacuum Packaging Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘璐

    2014-01-01

    Through the experiments on the effects of different irradiation dose for different types of vacuum packaging materials stability, this paper determines the relationship between irradiation dose and material properties. It is of important significance to determine the radiation appropriate packaging material.%本文通过实验,研究不同辐照加工剂量对不同类型真空包装材料稳定性的影响,确定辐照剂量与材料性能的关系,对确定合适的辐照包装材料具有重要的意义。

  16. Bioderadable Polymers in Food Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    P.A.Pawar

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a marked increase in the interest in use of biodegradable materials in packaging. The principal function of packaging is protection and preservation of food from external contamination. This function involves retardation of deterioration, extension of shelf life, and maintenance of quality and safety of packaged food. Biodegradable polymers are the one which fulfill all these functions without causing any threat to the environment. The belief is that biodegrada...

  17. Evaluation of Glass Density to Support the Estimation of Fissile Mass Loadings from Iron Concentrations in SB6 Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, T.; Peeler, D.

    2010-12-15

    The Department of Energy - Savannah River (DOE-SR) previously provided direction to Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to maintain fissile concentration in glass below 897 g/m{sup 3}. In support of the guidance, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provided a technical basis and a supporting Microsoft{reg_sign} Excel{reg_sign} spreadsheet for the evaluation of fissile loading in Sludge Batch 5 glass based on the Fe concentration in glass as determined by the measurements from the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) acceptability analysis. SRR has since requested that SRNL provide the necessary information to allow SRR to update the Excel spreadsheet so that it may be used to maintain fissile concentration in glass below 897 g/m{sup 3} during the processing of Sludge Batch 6 (SB6). One of the primary inputs into the fissile loading spreadsheet includes a bounding density for SB6-based glasses. Based on the measured density data of select SB6 variability study glasses, SRNL recommends that SRR utilize the 99/99 Upper Tolerance Limit (UTL) density value at 38% WL (2.823 g/cm{sup 3}) as a bounding density for SB6 glasses to assess the fissile concentration in this glass system. That is, the 2.823 g/cm{sup 3} is recommended as a key (and fixed) input into the fissile concentration spreadsheet for SB6 processing. It should be noted that no changes are needed to the underlying structure of the Excel based spreadsheet to support fissile assessments for SB6. However, SRR should update the other key inputs to the spreadsheet that are based on fissile and Fe concentrations reported from the SB6 Waste Acceptance Product Specification (WAPS) sample. The purpose of this technical report is to present the density measurements that were determined for the SB6 variability study glasses and to conduct a statistical evaluation of these measurements to provide a bounding density value that may be used as input to the Excel{reg_sign} spreadsheet to be employed by SRR to maintain the

  18. Environmentally friendly method for the determination of acrylamide and trimethylolpropane in paper packaging materials by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fei; Li, Zhonghao; Bian, Zhaoyang; Tang, Gangling; Fan, Ziyan; Wang, Ying; Liu, ShanShan; Zhang, Hongfei

    2014-12-01

    A simple, rapid, and environmentally friendly method was developed for the determination of acrylamide and trimethylolpropane in paper packaging materials. No organic solvent was used and the matrix effect was investigated. The extract was directly analyzed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass chromatography for quantification and confirmation. The chromatographic separations were performed on a ZORBAX HILIC Plus (2.1 mm × 150 mm, 3μm; Agilent, USA) column with only one mobile phase (100% water). Calibration curves for acrylamide and trimethylopropane were achieved with concentrations ranging from 0.4 to 20 mg/kg and the corresponding r(2) values were 0.998 and 0.999, respectively. The recoveries were >85% with relative standard deviations paper packages. The concentrations of acrylamide and trimethylolpropane ranged from 0.41 to 7.5 and 0.50 to 8.8 mg/kg, respectively. The results of this study revealed that this method could be used accurately and precisely.

  19. Waste disposal package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M.J.

    1985-06-19

    This is a claim for a waste disposal package including an inner or primary canister for containing hazardous and/or radioactive wastes. The primary canister is encapsulated by an outer or secondary barrier formed of a porous ceramic material to control ingress of water to the canister and the release rate of wastes upon breach on the canister. 4 figs.

  20. Geothermal Greenhouse Information Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, K. [P.E.; Boyd, T. [ed.

    1997-01-01

    This package of information is intended to provide a foundation of background information for developers of geothermal greenhouses. The material is divided into seven sections covering such issues as crop culture and prices, operating costs for greenhouses, heating system design, vendors and a list of other sources of information.