WorldWideScience

Sample records for fishing rates risk

  1. American Indians, hunting and fishing rates, risk, and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, J.

    1999-01-01

    Hunting, fishing, and recreational rates of 276 American Indians attending a festival at Fort Hall, near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), were examined. Nearly half of the sample lived on the Fort Hall Reservation, and half were American Indians from elsewhere in the western United States. An additional 44 White people attending the festival were also interviewed. The hypothesis that there are differences in hunting, fishing, and recreational rates as a function of tribal affiliation, educational level, gender, and age was examined. Information on hunting and fishing rates are central for understanding potential exposure scenarios for American Indians if the Department of Energy's INEEL lands are ever opened to public access, and the data are important because of the existence of tribal treaties that govern the legal and cultural rights of the Shoshone-Bannock regarding INEEL lands. Variations in hunting, fishing, and photography rates were explained by tribal affiliation (except fishing), gender, age, and schooling. Hunting rates were significantly higher for Indians (both those living on Fort Hall and others) than Whites. Men engaged in significantly higher rates of outdoor activities than women (except for photography). Potential and current hunting and fishing on and adjacent to INEEL was more similar among the local Whites and Fort Hall Indians than between these two groups and other American Indians

  2. [Fish intake and risk of prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybkowska, Ewa; Świderski, Franciszek; Waszkiewicz-Robak, Bożena

    2014-10-17

    The aim of the study was to present the current state of knowledge concerning the relationship between the consumption of fish as materials rich in long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC PUFA) omega-3, and the risk of prostate cancer. Many scientific reports confirm the health benefits from the consumption of fish and protective properties of LC PUFA omega-3 in relation to prostate cancer. However, there are reports that indicate a relationship of the high consumption of PUFA with the risk of prostate cancer. The way of processing and preservation of the fish, and other factors not included in previous studies, could have some importance in the etiology of this disease. High susceptibility of PUFA to oxidation changes and the technological fish processing (smoking, high-temperature cooking methods) contribute to the formation of many compounds, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic amines - which may influence the formation of cancers - including prostate cancer. It is necessary to ensure an adequate amount of LC PUFA omega-3 in the diet through the consumption of proper quality fish and fish oils. Particular attention should be paid to the high susceptibility of PUFA to the oxidative processes, and the method of processing, preservation and storage of fish. Also pollution from the environment can significantly reduce the impact of health benefits of PUFA and fish, and even be the cause of cancers, including prostate cancer. Further research in this area should be more targeted to assess the impact of nutritional factors for the development of such tumors.

  3. Fish consumption behavior and rates in native and non-native people in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Joanna

    2014-08-01

    Fish are a healthy source of protein and nutrients, but contaminants in fish may provide health risks. Determining the risk from contaminants in fish requires site-specific information on consumption patterns. We examine consumption rates for resident and expatriates in the Jeddah region of Saudi Arabia, by species of fish and fishing location. For Saudis, 3.7% of males and 4.3% of females do not eat fish; for expatriates, the percent not eating fish is 6.6% and 6.1% respectively. Most people eat fish at home (over 90%), and many eat fish at restaurants (65% and 48%, respectively for Saudis and expatriates). Fish eaten at home comes from local fish markets, followed by supermarkets. Saudis included fish in their diets at an average of 1.4±1.2 meals/week at home and 0.8±0.7 meals/week at restaurants, while expats ate 2.0±1.7 meals/week at home and 1.1±1.1 meals/week in restaurants. Overall, Saudis ate 2.2 fish meals/week, while expats ate 3.1 meals/week. Grouper (Epinephelus and Cephalopholis) were eaten by 72% and 60% respectively. Plectropomus pessuliferus was the second favorite for both groups and Hipposcarus harid and Lethrinus lentjan were in 3rd and 4th place in terms of consumption. Average meal size was 68. g for Saudis and 128. g for expatriates. These data can be used by health professionals, risk assessors, and environmental regulators to examine potential risk from contaminants in fish, and to compare consumption rates with other sites. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

  4. Fish intake and risk of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Dybkowska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to present the current state of knowledge concerning the relationship between the consumption of fish as materials rich in long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC PUFA omega-3, and the risk of prostate cancer. Many scientific reports confirm the health benefits from the consumption of fish and protective properties of LC PUFA omega-3 in relation to prostate cancer. However, there are reports that indicate a relationship of the high consumption of PUFA with the risk of prostate cancer. The way of processing and preservation of the fish, and other factors not included in previous studies, could have some importance in the etiology of this disease. High susceptibility of PUFA to oxidation changes and the technological fish processing (smoking, high-temperature cooking methods contribute to the formation of many compounds, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic amines – which may influence the formation of cancers – including prostate cancer. It is necessary to ensure an adequate amount of LC PUFA omega-3 in the diet through the consumption of proper quality fish and fish oils. Particular attention should be paid to the high susceptibility of PUFA to the oxidative processes, and the method of processing, preservation and storage of fish. Also pollution from the environment can significantly reduce the impact of health benefits of PUFA and fish, and even be the cause of cancers, including prostate cancer. Further research in this area should be more targeted to assess the impact of nutritional factors for the development of such tumors.

  5. Extinction rates in North American freshwater fishes, 1900-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhead, Noel M.

    2012-01-01

    Widespread evidence shows that the modern rates of extinction in many plants and animals exceed background rates in the fossil record. In the present article, I investigate this issue with regard to North American freshwater fishes. From 1898 to 2006, 57 taxa became extinct, and three distinct populations were extirpated from the continent. Since 1989, the numbers of extinct North American fishes have increased by 25%. From the end of the nineteenth century to the present, modern extinctions varied by decade but significantly increased after 1950 (post-1950s mean = 7.5 extinct taxa per decade). In the twentieth century, freshwater fishes had the highest extinction rate worldwide among vertebrates. The modern extinction rate for North American freshwater fishes is conservatively estimated to be 877 times greater than the background extinction rate for freshwater fishes (one extinction every 3 million years). Reasonable estimates project that future increases in extinctions will range from 53 to 86 species by 2050.

  6. Benefits and risks of fish consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domingo, Jose L.; Bocio, Ana; Falco, Gemma; Llobet, Juan M.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, and based on the importance of fish as a part of a healthy diet, there has been a notable promotion of fish consumption. However, the balance between health benefits and risks, due to the intake of chemical contaminants, is not well characterized. In the present study, edible samples of 14 marine species were analyzed for the concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids, as well as a number of metals and organic pollutants. Daily intakes were specifically determined for a standard adult of 70 kg, and compared with the tolerable/admissible intakes of the pollutants, if available. Salmon, mackerel, and red mullet were the species showing the highest content of omega-3 fatty acids. The daily intakes of cadmium, lead, and mercury through fish consumption were 1.1, 2.0, and 9.9 μg, respectively. Dioxins and furans plus dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) intake was 38.0 pg WHO-TEQ/day, whereas those of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDEs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were 20.8, 39.4, 1.53, and 1.50 ng/day, respectively. In turn, the total intake of 16 analyzed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was 268 ng/day. The monthly fish consumption limits for human health endpoints based on the intake of these chemical contaminants were calculated for a 70 years exposure. In general terms, most marine species here analyzed should not mean adverse health effects for the consumers. However, the type of fish, the frequency of consumption, and the meal size are essential issues for the balance of the health benefits and risks of regular fish consumption

  7. Do fish growth rates correlate with PCB body burdens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew L. Rypel; David R.. Bayne

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated whether growth rates of six fish species correlated with PCB concentrations in a moderately-to-heavily polluted freshwater ecosystem. Using a large dataset (n ¼ 984 individuals), and after accounting for growth effects related to fish age, habitat, sex, and lipids, growth correlated significantly, but positively with lipid-corrected PCB concentrations for...

  8. Guidelines for risk-based fish inspection

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Fish and fishery products are nutritious and healthy and are an important source of food and livelihood for many millions of people worldwide. Fish inspection is concerned with ensuring that the consumer has access to safe and nutritious fish and fish products, whether the fish is from domestic sources of supply, imported or to be exported to consumers in another country. The present guidelines will assist fish inspectors to carry out these responsibilities--Publisher's description.

  9. Management of interest rate risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šabović Šerif

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest rate risk is one of the biggest and most dangerous risks that a bank is exposed to. When a change of interest rates occurs, the incomes of a bank based on credits and securities endure significant changes. Banks resources also endure some changes. The change of interest rates changes the value of the assets and liabilities of the bank and it's net and investment worth . The change of interest rates also affects bank's balance sheet, income sheet statement and bank's share capital.

  10. No impact of fish oil supplements on bleeding risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Begtrup, Katrine Munk; Krag, Andreas Engel; Hvas, Anne-Mette

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Fish oil supplementation may inhibit platelet aggregation and can potentially increase the risk of bleeding. The aim of the present systematic review was to evaluate the effect of fish oil supplements on haemostasis and bleeding risk, and to provide recommendations on whether...... of the included studies were randomised controlled trials or included a control group. Overall, fish oil supplements reduced platelet aggregation in healthy subjects. Fish oil exposure in surgical patients did not increase bleeding or blood transfusions either during or after surgery. Conclusion: Fish oil...... supplements reduced platelet aggregation in healthy subjects. This biochemical effect was not reflected in increased bleeding risk during or after surgery evaluated in randomised controlled trials. Consequently, this systematic review does not support the need for discontinuation of fish oil supplements prior...

  11. Predation Risk within Fishing Gear and Implications for South Australian Rock Lobster Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceño, Felipe; Linnane, Adrian Joseph; Quiroz, Juan Carlos; Gardner, Caleb; Pecl, Gretta Tatyana

    2015-01-01

    Depredation of southern rock lobster (Jasus edwardsii) within fishing gear by the Maori octopus (Pinnoctopus cordiformis) has economic and ecological impacts on valuable fisheries in South Australia. In addition, depredation rates can be highly variable resulting in uncertainties for the fishery. We examined how in-pot lobster predation was influenced by factors such as lobster size and sex, season, fishing zone, and catch rate. Using mixed modelling techniques, we found that in-pot predation risk increased with lobster size and was higher for male lobsters. In addition, the effect of catch rate of lobsters on predation risk by octopus differed among fishing zones. There was both a seasonal and a spatial component to octopus predation, with an increased risk within discrete fishing grounds in South Australia at certain times of the year. Information about predation within lobster gear can assist fishery management decision-making, potentially leading to significant reduction in economic losses to the fishery. PMID:26489035

  12. Predation Risk within Fishing Gear and Implications for South Australian Rock Lobster Fisheries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Briceño

    Full Text Available Depredation of southern rock lobster (Jasus edwardsii within fishing gear by the Maori octopus (Pinnoctopus cordiformis has economic and ecological impacts on valuable fisheries in South Australia. In addition, depredation rates can be highly variable resulting in uncertainties for the fishery. We examined how in-pot lobster predation was influenced by factors such as lobster size and sex, season, fishing zone, and catch rate. Using mixed modelling techniques, we found that in-pot predation risk increased with lobster size and was higher for male lobsters. In addition, the effect of catch rate of lobsters on predation risk by octopus differed among fishing zones. There was both a seasonal and a spatial component to octopus predation, with an increased risk within discrete fishing grounds in South Australia at certain times of the year. Information about predation within lobster gear can assist fishery management decision-making, potentially leading to significant reduction in economic losses to the fishery.

  13. Risk, ambiguity and sovereign rating

    OpenAIRE

    Di Caro, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Decisions of investing in sovereign assets involve both risk and ambiguity. Ambiguity arises from unknown elements characterizing the value of a generic sovereign. In presence of ambiguity, ambiguity-averse investors are prone to pay for obtaining summary information such as ratings which reduces ambiguity. Ambiguity-neutral and ambiguity-averse investors, then, make decisions on the basis of different informative sources. By presenting a simple model of sovereign rating under ambiguity, thre...

  14. SURROGATE SPECIES IN ASSESSING CONTAMINANT RISK FOR ENDANGERED FISHES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainbow trout, fathead minnows, and sheepshead minnows were tested as surrogate species to assess contaminant risk for 17 endangered fishes and one toad species. Acute toxicity tests were conducted with carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol, and permethrin in accord...

  15. Human Health Risk from Metals in Fish from Saudi Arabia: Consumption Patterns for Some Species Exceed Allowable Limits

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Joanna

    2014-10-06

    ABSTRACT: Fish are a healthful source of protein, but contaminants in some fish pose a risk. While there are multiple risk assessments from Europe and North America, there are far fewer for other parts of the world. We examined the risks from mercury, arsenic, lead, and other metals in fish consumed by people in Jeddah area, Saudi Arabia, using site-specific data on consumption patterns and metal levels in fish. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency\\'s Hazard Quotient (HQ) and cumulative Hazard Index (HI) for non-cancer endpoints and Carcinogenic Index for cancer were used to determine the health risk based on fish consumption rates. Of the 13 fish species examined, HQ was greater than 1 (indicating elevated risk) in two species for arsenic, and seven species for methylmercury. The cumulative HI for all metals was above 1 for all but three species of fish at the mean consumption rates. Generally, fish species with HI above 1 for one sampling location, had HI above 1 for all sampling locations. The implications of these findings are discussed in the light of strategies for reducing risk from fish consumption while encouraging dietary intakes of fish with low mercury and arsenic levels.

  16. Fish intake and risk of heart failure: A meta-analysis of five prospective cohort studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    HOU, LI-NA; LI, FEI; ZHOU, YOU; NIE, SHI-HUAI; SU, LIANG; CHEN, PING-AN; TAN, WAN-LONG; XU, DING-LI

    2012-01-01

    The findings on the association between fish intake and the risk of heart failure (HF) have been inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to clarify this potential association. We searched for relevant studies in the PubMed database through January 2012 and manually reviewed references. Five independent prospective cohort studies involving 5,273 cases and 144,917 participants were included. The summary relative risk estimates (SRRE) based on the highest compared with the lowest category of fish consumption were estimated by variance-based meta-analysis. In addition, we performed sensitivity and dose-response analyses to examine the association. Overall, an absence of an association between fish intake and HF was observed (SRRE=1.00; 95% CI, 0.81–1.24). However, fried fish intake positively associated with HF (SRRE=1.40; 95% CI, 1.22–1.61). In addition, dose-response analysis of fried fish suggested that each increment of six fried fish per month corresponded to a 37% increase of HF rate (RR=1.37; 95% CI, 1.20–1.56). In conclusion, our findings suggest that there is no significant association between fish intake and risk of HF, with the exception of a possible positive correlation with individuals comsuming fried fish, based on a limited number of studies. Future studies are required to confirm these findings. PMID:23181122

  17. A review of fatal accident incidence rate trends in fishing international

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf; Pétursdóttir, G; Abrahamsen, Annbjørg

    2014-01-01

    Background. Injury prevention in fishing is one of the most important occupational health challenges. The aim was to describe and compare internationally the trends of the fatal injury incidence rates and to discuss the impact of the implemented safety programs. Methods. The review is based...... on journal articles and reports from the maritime authorities in Poland, UK, Norway, Iceland, Denmark, US and Alaska and Canada. The original incidence rates were recalculated as per 1000 person-years for international comparison of the trends. Results. The risk of fatal accidents in fishing in the northern...... countries has been reduced by around 50% to an average of about 1 per 1000 person-years. Norway and Canada keep the lowest rates with around 0.5 and 0.25 per 1000 person-years. About half of the fatal injuries are related to vessel disasters and drowning. The safety programs seem to have good effects still...

  18. Diversity, extinction risk and conservation of Malaysian fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, V C; Lee, P K Y; Lau, C M

    2010-06-01

    A total of 1951 species of freshwater and marine fishes belonging to 704 genera and 186 families are recorded in Malaysia. Almost half (48%) are currently threatened to some degree, while nearly one third (27%) mostly from the marine and coral habitats require urgent scientific studies to evaluate their status. Freshwater habitats encompass the highest percentage of threatened fish species (87%) followed by estuarine habitats (66%). Of the 32 species of highly threatened (HT) species, 16 are freshwater and 16 are largely marine-euryhaline species. Fish extinctions in Malaysia are confined to two freshwater species, but both freshwater and marine species are being increasingly threatened by largely habitat loss or modification (76%), overfishing (27%) and by-catch (23%). The most important threat to freshwater fishes is habitat modification and overfishing, while 35 species are threatened due to their endemism. Brackish-water, euryhaline and marine fishes are threatened mainly by overfishing, by-catch and habitat modification. Sedimentation (pollution) additionally threatens coral-reef fishes. The study provides recommendations to governments, fish managers, scientists and stakeholders to address the increasing and unabated extinction risks faced by the Malaysian fish fauna.

  19. Protection of Marine Fish Stocks at Risk of Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.A. Musick; S.A. Berkeley; G.M. Cailliet; M. Camhi; G. Huntsman; M. Nammack; Melvin L. Warren

    2000-01-01

    The American Fisheries Society (AFS) recommends that registory agencies closely scrutinize both marine fish and invertebrate stocks that may be at risk of extinction and take remedial action before populations are threatened or endungered. Initial AFS analyses of marine stocks at risk in North America show at least four primary geographic "hot spots" with...

  20. Effect of fishing effort on catch rate and catchability of largemouth bass in small impoundments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, M. G.; Schramm, Harold; Neal, J. W.; Gerard, P.D.

    2018-01-01

    Largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides (Lacepède) catch rates decline with sustained fishing effort, even without harvest. It is unclear why declines in catch rate occur, and little research has been directed at how to improve catch rate. Learning has been proposed as a reason for declining catch rate, but has never been tested on largemouth bass. If catch rate declines because fish learn to avoid lures, periods of no fishing could be a management tool for increasing catch rate. In this study, six small impoundments with established fish populations were fished for two May to October fishing seasons to evaluate the effect of fishing effort on catch rate. Closed seasons were implemented to test whether a 2‐month period of no fishing improved catch rates and to determine whether conditioning from factors other than being captured reduced catch rate. Mixed‐model analysis indicated catch rate and catchability declined throughout the fishing season. Catch rate and catchability increased after a 2‐month closure but soon declined to the lowest levels of the fishing season. These changes in catch rate and catchability support the conclusion of learned angler avoidance, but sustained catchability of fish not previously caught does not support that associative or social learning affected catchability.

  1. Potential risk to wood storks (Mycteria americana) from mercury in Carolina Bay fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brant, H.A.; Jagoe, C.H.; Snodgrass, J.W.; Bryan, A.L.; Gariboldi, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Fish mercury levels from some Carolina bays pose risk to wood stork. - Carolina bays are freshwater wetlands that serve as important feeding habitats for the endangered wood stork (Mycteria americana). Water levels in these bays fluctuate greatly and tend to be acidic and rich in dissolved organic carbon (DOC), factors that favor mercury (Hg) methylation and bioaccumulation in fish. To assess potential risks to wood storks consuming mercury contaminated fish in bays, we sampled fish from 10 bays on the Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina, an area with documented use by wood storks. Whole body mercury concentrations in 258 fishes of three species (Erimyzon sucetta, Acantharchus pomotis and Esox americanus) commonly consumed by wood storks were determined. Risk factors for nestlings and free-ranging adults were calculated using published no and lowest observable adverse effect concentration (NOAEC and LOAEC) values for birds. Fish from higher trophic levels and those from wetlands with relatively shallow maximum depths and fluctuating water levels were more likely to exceed NOAEC and LOAEC values. Calculation of exposure rates of nestling wood storks indicated they are at highest risk during the first 10 days of the nestling period. These calculations suggest that there is potential concern for wood storks foraging in relatively shallow bays with fluctuating water levels, even though there is no obvious local source of mercury to these wetlands

  2. Schooling increases risk exposure for fish navigating past artificial barriers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand H Lemasson

    Full Text Available Artificial barriers have become ubiquitous features in freshwater ecosystems and they can significantly impact a region's biodiversity. Assessing the risk faced by fish forced to navigate their way around artificial barriers is largely based on assays of individual swimming behavior. However, social interactions can significantly influence fish movement patterns and alter their risk exposure. Using an experimental flume, we assessed the effects of social interactions on the amount of time required for juvenile palmetto bass (Morone chrysops × M. saxatilis to navigate downstream past an artificial barrier. Fish were released either individually or in groups into the flume using flow conditions that approached the limit of their expected swimming stamina. We compared fish swimming behaviors under solitary and schooling conditions and measured risk as the time individuals spent exposed to the barrier. Solitary fish generally turned with the current and moved quickly downstream past the barrier, while fish in groups swam against the current and displayed a 23-fold increase in exposure time. Solitary individuals also showed greater signs of skittish behavior than those released in groups, which was reflected by larger changes in their accelerations and turning profiles. While groups displayed fission-fusion dynamics, inter-individual positions were highly structured and remained steady over time. These spatial patterns align with theoretical positions necessary to reduce swimming exertion through either wake capturing or velocity sheltering, but diverge from any potential gains from channeling effects between adjacent neighbors. We conclude that isolated performance trials and projections based on individual behaviors can lead to erroneous predictions of risk exposure along engineered structures. Our results also suggest that risk perception and behavior may be more important than a fish's swimming stamina in artificially modified systems.

  3. Schooling increases risk exposure for fish navigating past artificial barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemasson, Bertrand H; Haefner, James W; Bowen, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    Artificial barriers have become ubiquitous features in freshwater ecosystems and they can significantly impact a region's biodiversity. Assessing the risk faced by fish forced to navigate their way around artificial barriers is largely based on assays of individual swimming behavior. However, social interactions can significantly influence fish movement patterns and alter their risk exposure. Using an experimental flume, we assessed the effects of social interactions on the amount of time required for juvenile palmetto bass (Morone chrysops × M. saxatilis) to navigate downstream past an artificial barrier. Fish were released either individually or in groups into the flume using flow conditions that approached the limit of their expected swimming stamina. We compared fish swimming behaviors under solitary and schooling conditions and measured risk as the time individuals spent exposed to the barrier. Solitary fish generally turned with the current and moved quickly downstream past the barrier, while fish in groups swam against the current and displayed a 23-fold increase in exposure time. Solitary individuals also showed greater signs of skittish behavior than those released in groups, which was reflected by larger changes in their accelerations and turning profiles. While groups displayed fission-fusion dynamics, inter-individual positions were highly structured and remained steady over time. These spatial patterns align with theoretical positions necessary to reduce swimming exertion through either wake capturing or velocity sheltering, but diverge from any potential gains from channeling effects between adjacent neighbors. We conclude that isolated performance trials and projections based on individual behaviors can lead to erroneous predictions of risk exposure along engineered structures. Our results also suggest that risk perception and behavior may be more important than a fish's swimming stamina in artificially modified systems.

  4. Capturing ecology in modeling approaches applied to environmental risk assessment of endocrine active chemicals in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintram, Kate S; Brown, A Ross; Maynard, Samuel K; Thorbek, Pernille; Tyler, Charles R

    2018-02-01

    Endocrine active chemicals (EACs) are widespread in freshwater environments and both laboratory and field based studies have shown reproductive effects in fish at environmentally relevant exposures. Environmental risk assessment (ERA) seeks to protect wildlife populations and prospective assessments rely on extrapolation from individual-level effects established for laboratory fish species to populations of wild fish using arbitrary safety factors. Population susceptibility to chemical effects, however, depends on exposure risk, physiological susceptibility, and population resilience, each of which can differ widely between fish species. Population models have significant potential to address these shortfalls and to include individual variability relating to life-history traits, demographic and density-dependent vital rates, and behaviors which arise from inter-organism and organism-environment interactions. Confidence in population models has recently resulted in the EU Commission stating that results derived from reliable models may be considered when assessing the relevance of adverse effects of EACs at the population level. This review critically assesses the potential risks posed by EACs for fish populations, considers the ecological factors influencing these risks and explores the benefits and challenges of applying population modeling (including individual-based modeling) in ERA for EACs in fish. We conclude that population modeling offers a way forward for incorporating greater environmental relevance in assessing the risks of EACs for fishes and for identifying key risk factors through sensitivity analysis. Individual-based models (IBMs) allow for the incorporation of physiological and behavioral endpoints relevant to EAC exposure effects, thus capturing both direct and indirect population-level effects.

  5. 76 FR 16570 - Interest Rate Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 741 RIN 3133-AD66 Interest Rate Risk AGENCY... regulations to require Federally insured credit unions to have a written policy addressing interest rate risk... Risk Management for Credit Unions with Large Positions in Fixed Rate Mortgages; 06-CU-16 Inter-Agency...

  6. Fish bioaccumulation and biomarkers in environmental risk assessment : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Oost, Ron; Beyer, Jonny; Vermeulen, Nico P E

    In this review, a wide array of bioaccumulation markers and biomarkers, used to demonstrate exposure to and effects of environmental contaminants, has been discussed in relation to their feasibility in environmental risk assessment (ERA). Fish bioaccumulation markers may be applied in order to

  7. The Drinking Rate of Fish in the Skagerak and the Baltic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, J E

    1970-02-15

    An investigation has been made into the drinking rate of four different fish species in the Baltic and the Skagerak. Different methods for the measurement of drinking rate in fish are discussed, together with available data from the literature. The significance of the drinking rate as a factor in the osmoregulation of fish is compared with other mechanisms such as the permeability for water and the tolerance to osmotic changes in the internal milieu.

  8. The Drinking Rate of Fish in the Skagerak and the Baltic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, J.E.

    1970-02-01

    An investigation has been made into the drinking rate of four different fish species in the Baltic and the Skagerak. Different methods for the measurement of drinking rate in fish are discussed, together with available data from the literature. The significance of the drinking rate as a factor in the osmoregulation of fish is compared with other mechanisms such as the permeability for water and the tolerance to osmotic changes in the internal milieu

  9. Assessing risks to fish populations near a proposed disposal facility for used nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, D.; Miesenheimer, P.; Hull, R.

    1995-01-01

    The concept of used nuclear fuel disposal in the Canadian Shield is currently undergoing a federal environmental assessment review process. As part of this review, potential risks to brook trout populations in the vicinity of such an underground repository were considered. Chemical fate, transport and exposure models have been utilized to estimate the dose rates from released radionuclides and other fuel constituents, and these likely will not be sufficient to harm fish in nearby streams. However, other stressors such as habitat alteration (e.g., loss of upwelling) and/or fishing pressure associated with increased public access could have significant population impacts if the site is located in a pristine northern region. Population models are utilized to explore the risks of local population reduction for different combinations of fishing pressure and habitat degradation

  10. Does coastal lagoon habitat quality affect fish growth rate and their recruitment? Insights from fishing and acoustic surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehmer, P.; Laugier, T.; Kantoussan, J.; Galgani, F.; Mouillot, D.

    2013-07-01

    Ensuring the sustainability of fish resources necessitates understanding their interaction with coastal habitats, which is becoming ever more challenging in the context of ever increasing anthropogenic pressures. The ability of coastal lagoons, exposed to major sources of disturbance, to provide resources and suitable habitats for growth and survival of juvenile fish is especially important. We analysed three lagoons with different ecological statuses and habitat quality on the basis of their eutrophication and ecotoxicity (Trix test) levels. Fish abundances were sampled using fishing and horizontal beaming acoustic surveys with the same protocols in the same year. The relative abundance of Anguilla anguilla, Dicentrarchus labrax or the Mugilidae group was not an indicator of habitat quality, whereas Atherina boyeri and Sparus aurata appeared to be more sensitive to habitat quality. Fish abundance was higher in the two lagoons with high eutrophication and ecotoxicity levels than in the less impacted lagoon, while fish sizes were significantly higher in the two most severely impacted lagoons. This leads us to suggest low habitat quality may increase fish growth rate (by the mean of a cascading effect), but may reduce lagoon juvenile abundance by increasing larval mortality. Such a hypothesis needs to be further validated using greater investigations which take into account more influences on fish growth and recruitment in such variable environments under complex multi-stressor conditions.

  11. Effects of nutritional status on metabolic rate, exercise and recovery in a freshwater fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, Andrew James; Philipp, David P; Suski, Cory D

    2010-03-01

    The influence of feeding on swimming performance and exercise recovery in fish is poorly understood. Examining swimming behavior and physiological status following periods of feeding and fasting is important because wild fish often face periods of starvation. In the current study, researchers force fed and fasted groups of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) of similar sizes for a period of 16 days. Following this feeding and fasting period, fish were exercised for 60 s and monitored for swimming performance and physiological recovery. Resting metabolic rates were also determined. Fasted fish lost an average of 16 g (nearly 12%) of body mass, while force fed fish maintained body mass. Force fed fish swam 28% further and required nearly 14 s longer to tire during exercise. However, only some physiological conditions differed between feeding groups. Resting muscle glycogen concentrations was twofold greater in force fed fish, at rest and throughout recovery, although it decreased in both feeding treatments following exercise. Liver mass was nearly three times greater in force fed fish, and fasted fish had an average of 65% more cortisol throughout recovery. Similar recovery rates of most physiological responses were observed despite force fed fish having a metabolic rate 75% greater than fasted fish. Results are discussed as they relate to largemouth bass starvation in wild systems and how these physiological differences might be important in an evolutionary context.

  12. Effects of nutritional status on metabolic rate, exercise and recovery in a freshwater fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gingerich, Andrew J.; Philipp, D. P.; Suski, C. D.

    2010-11-20

    The influence of feeding on swimming performance and exercise recovery in fish is poorly understood. Examining swimming behavior and physiological status following periods of feeding and fasting is important because wild fish often face periods of starvation. In the current study, researchers force fed and fasted groups of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) of similar sizes for a period of 16 days. Following this feeding and fasting period, fish were exercised for 60 s and monitored for swimming performance and physiological recovery. Resting metabolic rates were also determined. Fasted fish lost an average of 16 g (nearly 12%) of body mass, while force fed fish maintained body mass. Force fed fish swam 28% further and required nearly 14 s longer to tire during exercise. However, only some physiological conditions differed between feeding groups. Resting muscle glycogen concentrations was twofold greater in force fed fish, at rest and throughout recovery, although it decreased in both feeding treatments following exercise. Liver mass was nearly three times greater in force fed fish, and fasted fish had an average of 65% more cortisol throughout recovery. Similar recovery rates of most physiological responses were observed despite force fed fish having a metabolic rate 75% greater than fasted fish. Results are discussed as they relate to largemouth bass starvation in wild systems and how these physiological differences might be important in an evolutionary context.

  13. Metal contents in common edible fish species and evaluation of potential health risks to consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naglaa Farag Soliman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To conduct a health risk assessment of some heavy metals attributed to consumption of common edible fish species available for consumers. Methods: Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn were determined in muscles, gills, livers, bones and skins of six common edible fish species, namely Oreochromis niloticus, Mugil cephalus, Sardinella aurita, Mullus barbatus, Boops boops, Pagrus pagrus. Concentrations of heavy metals were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer and expressed as µg/g of wet tissue. Results: Results showed that iron and zinc were the most abundant among all fish tissues under investigation. The data obtained in the present work were compared well with the counterpart data reported internationally. The estimated values of all metals in muscles of fish in this study were below the permissible limits. Moreover, the potential health risks of metals to human via consumption of seafood were assessed by estimating daily intake and target heath quotient. Generally, risk values for the measured metals do not pose unacceptable risks at mean ingestion rate for muscles. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the investigated metals in edible parts of the examined species have no health problems for consumers.

  14. Copper sulfate acute ecotoxicity and environmental risk for tropical fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Ferreira da Silva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate copper sulfate acute toxicity and to determine death percentage and environmental risk on guppy fish (Phallocerus caudimaculatus, zebrafish (Brachydanio rerio, mato grosso (Hyphessobrycon eques, and pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus. Fish were exposed to 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07, 0.10, and 0.30 mg L-1 (guppy, 0.05, 0.07, 0.10, and 0.30 mg L-1 (zebrafish, 0.07, 0.10, 0.20, and 0.30 mg L-1 (mato grosso and 9.5, 10.0, 10.5, 11.0, 11.5, and 12.0 mg L-1 (pacu of copper sulfate, with triplicate control. The estimated 50% average lethal concentrations (LC50; 96 hours were 0.05 (guppy, 0.13 (zebrafish; 0.16 (mato grosso and 10.36 mg L-1 (pacu. Copper sulfate was extremely toxic for guppy, highly toxic for zebrafish and mato grosso and lightly toxic for pacu and presents environmental risk of high adverse effects on the guppy, zebrafish and mato grosso and moderate adverse effect to the pacu. Therefore, the guppy fish, zebrafish, and mato grosso are important alternatives for copper sulfate toxicity evaluation in waterbodies.

  15. Ciguatera fish poisoning: Incidence, health costs and risk perception on Moorea Island (Society archipelago, French Polynesia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Ewen; Gatti, Clémence; Bambridge, Tamatoa; Chinain, Mireille

    2016-12-01

    Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is a non-bacterial seafood poisoning well characterized in the remote archipelagos of French Polynesia, yet poorly documented in the Society archipelago, most notably on Moorea, the second most populated island in French Polynesia, which counts a high proportion of fishermen fishing on a regular basis. To address this knowledge gap, a holistic study of the ciguatera issue was conducted on Moorea. First, ciguatera risk was analysed in terms of incidence rate, fish species most commonly involved and risk stratification in Moorea lagoon based on 2007-2013 epidemiological data. A mean incidence rate of 8 cases per 10,000 inhabitants for the study period and an average under-reporting rate of 54% were found. Taking into account hospitalization and medication fees, and loss of productive days, the health-related costs due to CFP were estimated to be USD $1613 and $749 for each reported and unreported case, respectively, with an overall cost of USD $241,847 for the study period. Comparison of the present status of CFP on Moorea with a risk map established in the late 1970's showed that the spatial distribution of the risk has stayed relatively stable in time, with the north shore of the island remaining the most prone to ciguatera. Evaluation of the current knowledge on CFP among different populations groups, i.e. fishermen, residents and visitors, was also conducted through direct and indirect interviews. About half of the fishermen interviewed were actually able to identify risky fishing areas. While, overall, the CFP risk perception in the fishing community of Moorea seemed accurate, although not scientifically complete, it was sufficient for the safe practice of their fishing activities. This may be due in part to adaptive responses adopted by 36% of the fishermen interviewed, such as the avoidance of either high-risk fishing sites or toxic species. At the residents and visitors' level, the study points out a striking lack of awareness

  16. The Determinants of Country Risk Ratings

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Claude Cosset; Jean Roy

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to replicate Euromoney's and Institutional Investor's country risk ratings on the basis of economic and political variables. The evidence reveals that country risk ratings respond to some of the variables suggested by the theory. In particular, both the level of per capita income and propensity to invest affect positively the rating of a country. In addition, high-ranking countries are less indebted than low-ranking countries. It also appears that the ability of t...

  17. Hair mercury (signature of fish consumption) and cardiovascular risk in Munduruku and Kayabi Indians of Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dórea, José G; de Souza, Jurandir R; Rodrigues, Patricia; Ferrari, Iris; Barbosa, Antonio C

    2005-02-01

    Fish is an important natural resource in the diet of inhabitants of the Amazon rain forest and a marker of its consumption (hair Hg) was used to compare selected cardiovascular risk parameters between tribes of Eastern Amazonia. Three Munduruku (Terra Preta, Kaburua, Cururu) villages and one Kayabi village at the banks of head rivers (Tapajos, Tropas, Kabitutu, Cururu, Curuzinho, Teles Pires) of the Tapajos Basin were studied in relation to fish Hg concentrations, mercury in hair (fish consumption) and erythrocytes, body mass index (height/weight, kg/cm2), and blood pressure. The mean fish Hg concentrations were higher in predatory (578.6 ng/g) than in nonpredatory species (52.8 ng/g). Overall only 26% of fish Hg concentrations were above 500 ng/g, and only 11% were above 1000 ng/g. There was no systematic trend in fish Hg concentrations from rivers with a history of gold-mining activities. The biomarker of fish consumption (hair Hg) was significantly associated with erythrocyte-Hg (r=0.5181; P=0.0001) and was significantly higher in Kayabi (12.7 microg/g) than in the Munduruku (3.4 microg/g). Biomarker-assessed fish consumption rate was higher in the Kayabi (110 g/day) than in the Munduruku villages (30 g/day). Although no significant differences in body mass index (BMI) were observed between tribes, there was a trend of lower increase in blood pressure with age among the higher fish consumers (Kayabi). Summary clinical evaluation did not detect neurologic complaints compatible with Hg intoxication (paraparesis, numbness, tremor, balancing failure), but endemic tropical diseases such as clinical history of malaria showed a high prevalence (55.4%). Fish is an abundant natural resource, important in the Indian diet, that has been historically consumed without perceived problems and can easily be traced through hair Hg. The exposure to freshwater fish monomethyl mercury is less of an issue than endemic infectious diseases such as malaria and lack of basic medical

  18. Mercury concentration in meconium and risk assessment of fish consumption among pregnant women in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chuen-Bin; Yeh, Ching-Ying; Lee, Hung-Chang; Chen, Ming-Jun; Hung, Fang-Yu; Fang, Sheng-Shiung; Chien, Ling-Chu

    2010-01-01

    Meconium is a matrix that can be obtained easily and noninvasively and is useful for detecting antenatal fetal exposure to environmental toxins. Taiwan is an island with high fish consumption, and many pregnant women would like to enjoy the benefits of fish without jeopardizing their health or that of their child. The aim of this study is to assess the mercury concentration in meconium in relation to the health risk of mercury exposure. A total of 198 mother-infant pairs residing in the city of HsinChu were recruited for the study between January 2007 and June 2007. The average mean concentration of mercury in meconium was 79.2+/-7.3 ng g(-1) dry wt We use the Monte Carlo technique to assess the uncertainty in risk assessment and the impact of these uncertainties on the estimation of expected risk of mercury intake from fish in mothers. Based on the FAO/WHO's tolerable daily intake of methylmercury (0.23 microg kg(-1)d(-1)), we found that 17.3% and 14.0% of the daily mercury exposure estimated exceeded the reference dose for foreign-born and Taiwan-born mothers, respectively. We found that the mercury concentration in meconium was much higher than in other studies, except for one study done in Tagum in the Philippines where mercury is used in gold mining. This may be because Asia is the largest emitter of anthropogenic mercury, accounting for 53% of worldwide emissions. Sensitivity analysis suggests that mercury concentration in fish and the rate of ingesting fish may be the key parameters for governments offering risk management guidance to protect the health of mothers and unborn babies.

  19. Fish bioaccumulation and biomarkers in environmental risk assessment: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Oost, Ron; Beyer, Jonny; Vermeulen, Nico P E

    2003-02-01

    In this review, a wide array of bioaccumulation markers and biomarkers, used to demonstrate exposure to and effects of environmental contaminants, has been discussed in relation to their feasibility in environmental risk assessment (ERA). Fish bioaccumulation markers may be applied in order to elucidate the aquatic behavior of environmental contaminants, as bioconcentrators to identify certain substances with low water levels and to assess exposure of aquatic organisms. Since it is virtually impossible to predict the fate of xenobiotic substances with simple partitioning models, the complexity of bioaccumulation should be considered, including toxicokinetics, metabolism, biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs), organ-specific bioaccumulation and bound residues. Since it remains hard to accurately predict bioaccumulation in fish, even with highly sophisticated models, analyses of tissue levels are required. The most promising fish bioaccumulation markers are body burdens of persistent organic pollutants, like PCBs and DDTs. Since PCDD and PCDF levels in fish tissues are very low as compared with the sediment levels, their value as bioaccumulation markers remains questionable. Easily biodegradable compounds, such as PAHs and chlorinated phenols, do not tend to accumulate in fish tissues in quantities that reflect the exposure. Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) have been successfully used to mimic bioaccumulation of hydrophobic organic substances in aquatic organisms. In order to assess exposure to or effects of environmental pollutants on aquatic ecosystems, the following suite of fish biomarkers may be examined: biotransformation enzymes (phase I and II), oxidative stress parameters, biotransformation products, stress proteins, metallothioneins (MTs), MXR proteins, hematological parameters, immunological parameters, reproductive and endocrine parameters, genotoxic parameters, neuromuscular parameters, physiological, histological and morphological parameters

  20. Significance of Cooking Oil to Bioaccessibility of Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in Raw and Cooked Fish: Implications for Human Health Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Xiu-Bo; Su, Yang; Bao, Lian-Jun; Tao, Shu; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2017-04-26

    The present study examined the bioacessibility of DDTs and PBDEs in cooked fish (yellow grouper; Epinephelus awoara) with and without heating using the colon extended physiologically based extraction test. The bioaccessibility of DDTs and PBDEs increased from 60 and 26% in raw fish to 83 and 63%, respectively, after the addition of oil to raw fish. However, they decreased from 83 to 66% and from 63 to 40%, respectively, when oil-added fish were cooked. Human health risk assessment based on bioaccessible concentrations of DDTs and PBDEs in fish showed that the maximum allowable daily fish consumption rates decreased from 25, 59, and 86 g day -1 to 22, 53, and 77 g day -1 for children, youths, and adults, respectively, after fish were cooked with oil. These findings indicated that the significance of cooking oil to the bioaccessibility of DDTs and PBDEs in food should be considered in assessments of human health risk.

  1. Ranking the contributions of commercial fish and shellfish varieties to mercury exposure in the United States: implications for risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Edward

    2010-04-01

    Fish and shellfish have important nutritional benefits, and US per capita seafood consumption has increased substantially since 2002. Recent research has reinforced concerns about adverse effects of methylmercury exposure, suggesting that methylmercury doses associated with typical US rates of fish consumption may pose measurable risks, with no threshold. These converging trends create a need to improve risk communication about fish consumption and mercury. The analysis performed here identifies the relative importance of different fish and shellfish as sources of mercury in the US seafood supply and proposes improved consumer advice, so that the public can benefit from fish consumption while minimizing mercury exposure. I have quantified contributions to total mercury in the US seafood supply by 51 different varieties of fish and shellfish, then ranked and sorted the 51 varieties in terms of relative impact. Except for swordfish, most fish with the highest mercury levels are relatively minor contributors to total inputs. Tuna (canned light, canned albacore and fresh/frozen varieties) accounts for 37.4 percent of total mercury inputs, while two-thirds of the seafood supply and nine of the 11 most heavily consumed fish and shellfish are low or very low in mercury. Substantial improvement in risk communication about mercury in fish and seafood is needed; in particular, several population subsets need better guidance to base their seafood choices more explicitly on mercury content. I have sorted the 51 seafood varieties into six categories based on mercury levels, as a framework for improving risk communication in this regard. (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Oxygen consumption rate v. rate of energy utilization of fishes: a comparison and brief history of the two measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, J A

    2016-01-01

    Accounting for energy use by fishes has been taking place for over 200 years. The original, and continuing gold standard for measuring energy use in terrestrial animals, is to account for the waste heat produced by all reactions of metabolism, a process referred to as direct calorimetry. Direct calorimetry is not easy or convenient in terrestrial animals and is extremely difficult in aquatic animals. Thus, the original and most subsequent measurements of metabolic activity in fishes have been measured via indirect calorimetry. Indirect calorimetry takes advantage of the fact that oxygen is consumed and carbon dioxide is produced during the catabolic conversion of foodstuffs or energy reserves to useful ATP energy. As measuring [CO2 ] in water is more challenging than measuring [O2 ], most indirect calorimetric studies on fishes have used the rate of O2 consumption. To relate measurements of O2 consumption back to actual energy usage requires knowledge of the substrate being oxidized. Many contemporary studies of O2 consumption by fishes do not attempt to relate this measurement back to actual energy usage. Thus, the rate of oxygen consumption (M˙O2 ) has become a measurement in its own right that is not necessarily synonymous with metabolic rate. Because all extant fishes are obligate aerobes (many fishes engage in substantial net anaerobiosis, but all require oxygen to complete their life cycle), this discrepancy does not appear to be of great concern to the fish biology community, and reports of fish oxygen consumption, without being related to energy, have proliferated. Unfortunately, under some circumstances, these measures can be quite different from one another. A review of the methodological history of the two measurements and a look towards the future are included. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  3. Currency Risk Management under Floating Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicu Duret

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available As for the research into this subject, we find, therefore, that one of the most important indicators that quantify the international competitiveness is the exchange rate, together with other fundamental macroeconomic variables such as the size of the potential GDP, the equilibrium real exchange rate, gives a certain insight into the functioning of the fundamental macroeconomic mechanisms and their regulation. Commercial and financial operations imply relationships between partners from different currency countries or areas that involve conversion operations, of replacement of a currency to another. Exchange rate fluctuations of one currency create currency risk, to the extent that it is used to carry out international transactions. These operations are subjected to currency risk as exchange rates change frequently from one period to another and, on the other hand, speculations in the forex market influence the exchange rate by the interventions of those who perform them.

  4. Ecotoxicity and risk to human fish consumers of polychlorinated biphenyls in fish near the Hanford Site (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delistraty, Damon

    2013-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to quantify three groups of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (i.e., dioxin-like toxic equivalents [TEQ], non-dioxin-like PCBs, total PCBs) in fish in several species, tissues, and locations in the Columbia River near the Hanford Site. For TEQ and total PCBs, fish ecotoxicity and risk to human fish consumers were also evaluated. Non-dioxin-like PCBs were not assessed for toxicity, due to lack of available benchmarks. In sturgeon liver, TEQ was significantly higher (Pfillet than in other species (except carp) and significantly higher (Pfillet, relative to bass. All PCB residues in carcass were significantly elevated (Pfillet. In addition to PCB source, many factors (e.g., dietary composition, tissue lipid content, fish mobility and home range, age, toxicokinetic processes, seasonal adaptations) influence patterns in PCB bioaccumulation across species, tissues, and locations. TEQ and total PCB residues in liver, fillet, and carcass, observed in this study, were below corresponding no effect residues for TEQ and Aroclors in the literature for fish survival, growth, and reproduction. In contrast, TEQ and total PCBs in fillet in this study exceeded USEPA tissue screening levels for cancer (1E-6 risk) and noncancer (hazard quotient [HQ]=1) toxicity for human fish consumers. Key uncertainties in these comparisons to assess toxicity relate to variation in fish species sensitivity to PCBs and use of Aroclor data in the literature to represent total PCBs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Remarks on Interest Rate Risk Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena-Violeta DRAGOI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bank interest and interest rate risk management is a contemporary subject and for socio-economic environment of Romania cause serious consequences in the level of economic development. The purpose of this research is to highlight the main indicator that measures the total cost of a loan, namely the annual percentage rate (APR, because if we refer to an interest rate lower, at first glance that loan seems more advantageous, but at a closer look, taking into account the commissions charged by the bank, we see that the loan is more expensive compared to another, whose interest rate is higher.

  6. Radiological risk from consuming fish and wildlife to Native Americans on the Hanford Site (USA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delistraty, Damon, E-mail: DDEL461@ecy.wa.gov [Washington State Department of Ecology, N. 4601 Monroe, Spokane, WA 99205-1295 (United States); Verst, Scott Van [Washington State Department of Health, Olympia, WA (United States); Rochette, Elizabeth A. [Washington State Department of Ecology, Richland, WA (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Historical operations at the Hanford Site (Washington State, USA) have released a wide array of non-radionuclide and radionuclide contaminants into the environment. As a result of stakeholder concerns, Native American exposure scenarios have been integrated into Hanford risk assessments. Because its contribution to radiological risk to Native Americans is culturally and geographically specific but quantitatively uncertain, a fish and wildlife ingestion pathway was examined in this study. Adult consumption rates were derived from 20 Native American scenarios (based on 12 studies) at Hanford, and tissue concentrations of key radionuclides in fish, game birds, and game mammals were compiled from the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS) database for a recent time interval (1995-2007) during the post-operational period. It was assumed that skeletal muscle comprised 90% of intake, while other tissues accounted for the remainder. Acknowledging data gaps, median concentrations of eight radionuclides (i.e., Co-60, Cs-137, Sr-90, Tc-99, U-234, U-238, Pu-238, and Pu-239/240) in skeletal muscle and other tissues were below 0.01 and 1 pCi/g wet wt, respectively. These radionuclide concentrations were not significantly different (Bonferroni P>0.05) on and off the Hanford Site. Despite no observed difference between onsite and offsite tissue concentrations, radiation dose and risk were calculated for the fish and wildlife ingestion pathway using onsite data. With median consumption rates and radionuclide tissue concentrations, skeletal muscle provided 42% of the dose, while other tissues (primarily bone and carcass) accounted for 58%. In terms of biota, fish ingestion was the largest contributor to dose (64%). Among radionuclides, Sr-90 was dominant, accounting for 47% of the dose. At median intake and radionuclide levels, estimated annual dose (0.36 mrem/yr) was below a dose limit of 15 mrem/yr recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA

  7. Knowledge about fish consumption advisories: a risk communication failure within a university population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2008-02-15

    Considerable attention has focused on whether people are aware of fish consumption advisories, particularly among fishermen and as a function of demographic variables. Yet little attention has been directed at the messages people are receiving from fish consumption advisories. This study examines knowledge about the benefits and risks of fish in relation to ethnicity and the degree of knowledge in a general university population in New Jersey. Subjects were asked open-ended questions about risks and benefits and responses were grouped into categories. A far greater percent of people had heard something about the risks and benefits of eating fish than could report specific information about the risks or benefits. While only 16% of subjects did not know what the benefits of eating fish were, 62% did not have any specific information about why there were warnings. However, for people who had some specific information, a higher proportion (57%) could identify the chemicals (PCBs, mercury) causing the risks, than could identify omega-3 fatty acids as contributing to benefits (40%). Much of the knowledge was very general, such as eating fish is "good for the heart", "good for you", or "brain food". Less than half of the subjects could name species of fish that were either high or low in contaminants. There were ethnic disparities in knowledge about both the benefits and the risks from fish consumption. A higher percentage of whites knew about both the benefits and risks of fish consumption than others; Asians knew the least about the risks, and blacks and hispanics knew the least about the benefits. There were also ethnic differences in ability to name fish that are low in contaminants, or high in contaminants. Minorities, particularly hispanics, were unable to list species that are high in contaminants. We identified three levels of knowledge about fish consumption: 1) whether people are aware of the risks or benefits of fish consumption, 2) whether they have any

  8. Food wastes as fish feeds for polyculture of low-trophic-level fish: bioaccumulation and health risk assessments of heavy metals in the cultured fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhang; Lam, Cheung-Lung; Mo, Wing-Yin; Nie, Xiang-Ping; Choi, Wai-Ming; Man, Yu-Bon; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2016-04-01

    The major purpose of this study was to use different types of food wastes which serve as the major sources of protein to replace the fish meal used in fish feeds to produce quality fish. Two types of food waste-based feed pellets FW A (with cereals) and FW B (with cereals and meat products) and the commercial feed Jinfeng® were used to culture fingerlings of three low-trophic-level fish species: bighead carp, grass carp, and mud carp (in the ratio of 1:3:1) for 1 year period in the Sha Tau Kok Organic Farm in Hong Kong. Heavy metal concentrations in all of the fish species fed with food waste pellets and commercial pellets in Sha Tau Kok fish ponds were all below the local and international maximum permissible levels in food. Health risk assessments indicated that human consumption of the fish fed with food waste feed pellets was safe for the Hong Kong residents. The present results revealed that recycling of food waste for cultivating low-trophic-level fish (mainly herbivores and detritus feeders) is feasible, and at the same time will ease the disposal pressure of food waste, a common problem of densely populated cities like Hong Kong.

  9. Fish consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer: the Ohsaki Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sugawara, Y; Kuriyama, S; Kakizaki, M; Nagai, M; Ohmori-Matsuda, K; Sone, T; Hozawa, A; Nishino, Y; Tsuji, I

    2009-01-01

    Background: Evidence from laboratory and animal studies suggests that high fish consumption may reduce the risk of colorectal cancer, but the results of studies in humans have been inconsistent. The objective of this study was to prospectively examine the association between fish consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer incidence in Japan, where fish is widely consumed. Methods: We analysed data from 39?498 men and women registered in the Ohsaki National Health Insurance Cohort Study who...

  10. Meat, fish and egg intake and risk of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Michelle D; Colditz, Graham A; Hunter, David J; Hankinson, Susan E; Rosner, Bernard; Speizer, Frank E; Willett, Walter C

    2003-03-20

    Intakes of animal protein, meat, and eggs have been associated with breast cancer incidence and mortality in ecological studies, but data from long-term prospective studies are limited. We therefore examined these relationships in the Nurses' Health Study. We followed 88,647 women for 18 years, with 5 assessments of diet by food frequency questionnaire, cumulatively averaged and updated over time. We calculated the relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for risk of developing invasive breast cancer, over categories of nutrient and food intake. During follow-up, 4,107 women developed invasive breast cancer. Compared to the lowest quintile of intake, the RR and 95% CI for the highest quintile of intake were 1.02 (0.92-1.14) for animal protein, 0.93 (0.83-1.05) for red meat and 0.89 (0.79-1.00) for all meat. Results did not differ by menopausal status or family history of breast cancer. We found no evidence that intake of meat or fish during mid-life and later was associated with risk of breast cancer. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Probabilistic framework for assessing the arsenic exposure risk from cooked fish consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Min-Pei; Wu, Chiu-Hua; Chen, Szu-Chieh; Chen, Wei-Yu; Chio, Chia-Pin; Cheng, Yi-Hsien; Liao, Chung-Min

    2014-12-01

    Geogenic arsenic (As) contamination of groundwater is a major ecological and human health problem in southwestern and northeastern coastal areas of Taiwan. Here, we present a probabilistic framework for assessing the human health risks from consuming raw and cooked fish that were cultured in groundwater As-contaminated ponds in Taiwan by linking a physiologically based pharmacokinetics model and a Weibull dose-response model. Results indicate that As levels in baked, fried, and grilled fish were higher than those of raw fish. Frying resulted in the greatest increase in As concentration, followed by grilling, with baking affecting the As concentration the least. Simulation results show that, following consumption of baked As-contaminated fish, the health risk to humans is fish is unlikely to pose a significant risk to human health. However, contaminated fish cooked by frying resulted in significant health risks, showing the highest cumulative incidence ratios of liver cancer. We also show that males have higher cumulative incidence ratio of liver cancer than females. We found that although cooking resulted in an increase for As levels in As-contaminated fish, the risk to human health of consuming baked fish is nevertheless acceptable. We suggest the adoption of baking as a cooking method and warn against frying As-contaminated fish. We conclude that the concentration of contaminants after cooking should be taken into consideration when assessing the risk to human health.

  12. A combined telemetry - tag return approach to estimate fishing and natural mortality rates of an estuarine fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacheler, N.M.; Buckel, J.A.; Hightower, J.E.; Paramore, L.M.; Pollock, K.H.

    2009-01-01

    A joint analysis of tag return and telemetry data should improve estimates of mortality rates for exploited fishes; however, the combined approach has thus far only been tested in terrestrial systems. We tagged subadult red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) with conventional tags and ultrasonic transmitters over 3 years in coastal North Carolina, USA, to test the efficacy of the combined telemetry - tag return approach. There was a strong seasonal pattern to monthly fishing mortality rate (F) estimates from both conventional and telemetry tags; highest F values occurred in fall months and lowest levels occurred during winter. Although monthly F values were similar in pattern and magnitude between conventional tagging and telemetry, information on F in the combined model came primarily from conventional tags. The estimated natural mortality rate (M) in the combined model was low (estimated annual rate ?? standard error: 0.04 ?? 0.04) and was based primarily upon the telemetry approach. Using high-reward tagging, we estimated different tag reporting rates for state agency and university tagging programs. The combined telemetry - tag return approach can be an effective approach for estimating F and M as long as several key assumptions of the model are met.

  13. On the spillover of exchange rate risk into default risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božović Miloš

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the exchange-rate risk, banks in emerging markets are typically denominating their loans in foreign currencies. However, in the event of a substantial depreciation of the local currency, the payment ability of a foreign-currency borrower may be reduced significantly, exposing the lender to additional default risk. This paper analyses how the exchange-rate risk of foreign currency loans spills over into default risk. We show that in an economy where foreign currency loans are a dominant source of financing economic activity, depreciation of the local currency establishes a negative feedback mechanism that leads to higher default probabilities, reduced credit supply, and reduced growth. This finding has some important implications that may be of special interest for regulators and market participants in emerging economies.

  14. Which Molecular Features Affect the Intrinsic Hepatic Clearance Rate of Ionizable Organic Chemicals in Fish?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Yi; Hermens, Joop L M; Jonker, Michiel T O; Arnot, Jon A; Armitage, James M; Brown, Trevor; Nichols, John W; Fay, Kellie A; Droge, Steven T J

    2016-01-01

    Greater knowledge of biotransformation rates for ionizable organic compounds (IOCs) in fish is required to properly assess the bioaccumulation potential of many environmentally relevant contaminants. In this study, we measured in vitro hepatic clearance rates for 50 IOCs using a pooled batch of

  15. Whole-body calcium flux rates in cichlid teleost fish Oreochromis mossambicus adapted to freshwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flik, G.; Fenwick, J.C.; Kolar, Z.; Mayer-Gostan, N.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.

    1985-01-01

    Radiotracer techniques were used to measure influx and efflux rates of Ca 2+ in freshwater-adapted Oreochromis mossambicus. The influx rate of Ca 2+ is related to body weight (W) as Fin = 50W0.805 nmol Ca 2+ /h. For a 20-g fish the calculated influx rate was 558 nmol Ca 2+ /h, and this was attributed largely to extraintestinal uptake since the drinking rate was estimated to be only 28 microliter water/h, which corresponds to an intake of 22.4 nmol Ca 2+ /h. The Ca 2+ efflux rate was calculated using the initial rate of appearance of radiotracer in the ambient water and the specific activity of plasma Ca 2+ . Tracer efflux rates were constant over 6-8 h, which indicated that there was no substantial loss of tracer in either the urine or the feces because this would have resulted in random bursts of tracer loss. Efflux rates then primarily represent integumentary and presumably branchial efflux rates. The efflux rate of Ca 2+ is related to body weight as Fout = 30W0.563 nmol Ca 2+ /h, which means an efflux rate of 162 nmol Ca 2+ /h for a 20-g fish. The net whole-body Ca 2+ influx, calculated as Fnet = Fin - Fout, was 396 nmol/h for a 20-g fish, which proves that the ambient water is an important source of Ca 2+

  16. 13 CFR 120.1015 - Risk Rating System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Risk Rating System. 120.1015 Section 120.1015 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Risk-Based Lender Oversight Supervision § 120.1015 Risk Rating System. (a) Risk Rating. SBA may assign a Risk Rating...

  17. VaR: Exchange Rate Risk and Jump Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen-Ying Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Incorporating the Poisson jumps and exchange rate risk, this paper provides an analytical VaR to manage market risk of international portfolios over the subprime mortgage crisis. There are some properties in the model. First, different from past studies in portfolios valued only in one currency, this model considers portfolios not only with jumps but also with exchange rate risk, that is vital for investors in highly integrated global financial markets. Second, in general, the analytical VaR solution is more accurate than historical simulations in terms of backtesting and Christoffersen's independence test (1998 for small portfolios and large portfolios. In other words, the proposed model is reliable not only for a portfolio on specific stocks but also for a large portfolio. Third, the model can be regarded as the extension of that of Kupiec (1999 and Chen and Liao (2009.

  18. Ecological risk of methylmercury to piscivorous fish of the Great Lakes region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandheinrich, Mark B; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Bodaly, R A; Drevnick, Paul E; Paul, Eric A

    2011-10-01

    Contamination of fish populations with methylmercury is common in the region of the Laurentian Great Lakes as a result of atmospheric deposition and methylation of inorganic mercury. Using fish mercury monitoring data from natural resource agencies and information on tissue concentrations injurious to fish, we conducted a screening-level risk assessment of mercury to sexually mature female walleye (Sander vitreus), northern pike (Esox lucius), smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) in the Great Lakes and in interior lakes, impoundments, and rivers of the Great Lakes region. The assessment included more than 43,000 measurements of mercury in fish from more than 2000 locations. Sexually mature female fish that exceeded threshold-effect tissue concentrations of 0.20 μg g(-1) wet weight in the whole body occurred at 8% (largemouth bass) to 43% (walleye) of sites. Fish at 3% to 18% of sites were at risk of injury and exceeded 0.30 μg g(-1) where an alteration in reproduction or survival is predicted to occur. Most fish at increased risk were from interior lakes and impoundments. In the Great Lakes, no sites had sexually mature fish that exceeded threshold-effect concentrations. Results of this screening-level assessment indicate that fish at a substantive number of locations within the Great Lakes region are potentially at risk from methylmercury contamination and would benefit from reduction in mercury concentrations.

  19. Effect of Time Lenght Fermentation to Katsuobushi Oxidation Rate As Fish Flavor Based

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amalia, U.; Rianingsih, L.; Wijayanti, I.

    2018-02-01

    Katsuobushi or dried smoked skipjack had a distinctive flavor and widely used in traditional Japanese cuisine. This study aimed to evaluate the oxidation rate of Katsuobushi with different lenght fermentation. The processing treatment of the product were the differences of fish boiling time (30 min and 60 min) and the lenght of fermentation: 1 week, 2 weeks and 3 weeks. The glutamic acid content, the oxidation rate (thiobarbituric acid and peroxide value) and Total Plate Count of katsuobushi were analyzed statistically using analysis of varians. Significant differences were found among 3 weeks of fermentation compare to 1 weeks fermentation (P fermentation was potential to be developed become basic ingredients for the fish flavor.

  20. Evaluating mercury bioaccumulation rates in fish using mark-recapture techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, T.; Surendran Nair, S.; McManamay, R.

    2017-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) bioaccumulation can be described by models of varying complexity, from the simplified bioconcentration factor which describes the partitioning of contaminants between water and the organism, to more sophisticated models which take into consideration speciation, complexation, and/or bioavailability. At contaminated sites, especially those that are undergoing remediation, it is helpful to have a dynamic framework to identify critical Hg sources and processes, and to predict time scales to recovery. However, understanding the relationship between changes in exposure concentrations and bioaccumulation rates remains a challenge. East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) is a Hg-contaminated stream located in East Tennessee. Over the past 30 years, various remediation actions have succeeded in significantly reducing Hg inputs to this stream. One of the major goals of remediation is to reduce Hg bioaccumulation in resident sunfish in order to meet human health guidelines. Mercury is measured in sunfish fillets bi-annually at various sites along the stream. Because Hg analysis requires only 100 mg of tissue, fish can be sampled non-lethally and released at the site of capture. Since 2008, passive induced transponder (PIT) tags have been used to identify individual fish that are collected from EFPC for Hg analysis. Approximately 10% of PIT tagged fish were recaptured, allowing for the measurement of growth rates and Hg bioaccumulation rates in individual fish. While traditional biomonitoring studies conducted in EFPC have found that the average Hg concentrations in sacrificed fish have not responded to changes in aqueous Hg concentrations over the past 10 years, data from the mark-recapture study show that individual fish may respond to changes in aqueous inorganic Hg concentrations on shorter time scales. Rapid changes in aqueous Hg concentrations over a four year period resulted in measurable increases and decreases in Hg concentrations in individual fish that could not

  1. Potential human health risk assessment of trace metals via the consumption of marine fish in Persian Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naji, Abolfazl; Khan, Farhan R.; Hashemi, Seyed Hassan

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the concentration of trace metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the muscle of four fish species from the Persian Gulf. Trace metals were analyzed using atomic absorption spectroscopy and consumption rates advisory for minimizing chronic systemic effects in children and adults were estimated. The metals concentrations in analyzed fish samples were lower than legal limits. Cadmium target hazard quotient values suggested that the threshold to avoid the potential risk for children health is an exposure level lower than 3 meals per week. Hazard index values based on four metals (not including Pb) for the child age class were higher than those of the adult age class, suggesting that children may suffer from a higher health risk. This study provides information about the consumption limits of certain metals, in particular Cd, necessary for minimizing potential health risks resulting from human consumption. - Highlights: • Trace metals in wild marine fish from the Persian Gulf were investigated. • Metal concentrations descended in the following order: Zn > Cu > Pb ≈ Ni > Cd > . • The Cd and Pb may be potential risk to human. • No obvious health risk from the intake of trace elements through fish consumption.

  2. Survival Rate and Growth of Fighting Fish Larvae (Betta splendens Regan Fed on Various Live Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Budiardi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Larval of fighting fish (Betta splendens Regan requires precise live foods for its growth and survival. In this experiment, fish larvae were fed on either Paramecium + Artemia, Paramecium + Artemia + Tubifex, Paramecium + Moina, or Paramecium + Moina + Tubifex. The fish were fed Paramecium from day-2 till day-7 after hatching. There after, the live food was changed according to the treatments till day-28.  Results showed that fish fed on Paramecium + Artemia significantly had the highest total length (12.63 mm than other treatments (11.86 mm. On the other hand, survival rate of fish had no significant affected by the treatments. Keywords: fighting fish, Betta splendens, Paramecium, Moina, Artemia, Tubifex, larvae   ABSTRAK Larva ikan betta (Betta splendens Regan membutuhkan jenis pakan alami yang tepat bagi kelangsungan hidup dan pertumbuhannya. Pada penelitian ini, larva ikan diberi pakan berupa Paramecium + Artemia, Paramecium + Artemia + Tubifex, Paramecium + Moina, atau Paramecium + Moina + Tubifex.  Ikan diberi pakan pakan berupa Paramecium dari hari ke-2 hingga hari ke-7. Setelah itu, pemberian pakan alami diubah berdasarkan masing-masing perlakuan hingga hari ke-28.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ikan yang diberi pakan Paramecium + Artemia memiliki tubuh secara signifikan lebih panjang (12,63 mm dibandingkan perlakuan lainnya (11,86 mm.  Sementara itu, kelangsungan hidup tidak dipengatuhi oleh perlakuan. Kata kunci: ikan betta, Betta splendens, Paramecium, Moina, Artemia, Tubifex, larva

  3. Assessment of fishing gear and catch rate in Oguta Lake, south ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out in Oguta Lake, Imo State, Nigeria, from January, 2012 to December, 2013 at five stations (Onu Utu, Okposha, Ogbe Hausa, Osemotor and Ede Ngwugwu) to ascertain the percentage abundance and catch rate of gear and craft. The average weight of fish caught per canoe per day ranged between ...

  4. Stewardship and risk: An empirically grounded theory of organic fish farming in Scotland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgakopoulos, G.; Ciancanelli, P.; Coulson, A.; Kaldis, P.E.

    2008-01-01

    It has long been assumed ownership gives farmers incentives to act as stewards of the land. On this basis, quasi-property rights are granted to fish farmers to encourage them to manage risks to the aquatic environment. This paper offers an empirically grounded theorisation of fish farmers’

  5. Fish consumption risk perception among anglers in an industrial urban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherie LeBlanc Fisher; Lynne M. Westphal; Mario Longoni

    2010-01-01

    Over two summers, we conducted field interviews with anglers in the industrial Calumet Region of northwest Indiana and southeast Chicago. The data collected provide insight into how anglers assess the risks of eating the fish they catch. Some anglers practiced catch and release because of concerns about water pollution while others just did not eat fish. Those who ate...

  6. Fish consumption and markers of colorectal cancer risk: a multicenter randomized controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pot, G.K.; Majsak-Newman, G.; Geelen, A.; Harvey, L.; Nagengast, F.M.; Witteman, B.J.M.; Meeberg, van de P.C.; Timmer, R.; Tan, A.; Wahab, P.J.; Hart, A.R.; Williams, M.P.; Przybylska-Philips, K.; Dainty, J.R.; Schaafsma, G.; Kampman, E.; Lund, E.K.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Diet is a major factor in the etiology of colorectal cancer, with high fish consumption possibly decreasing colorectal cancer risk, as was shown in several observational studies. To date, no intervention trials have examined the possible beneficial effects of fish intake on colorectal

  7. Risk-benefit evaluation of fish from Chinese markets: Nutrients and contaminants in 24 fish species from five big cities and related assessment for human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Zhen-Yu, E-mail: zdu@nifes.no [National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), N-5817 Bergen (Norway); Zhang, Jian [National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), N-5817 Bergen (Norway); Institute of Nutrition and Food Safety, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, 100050 (China); Department of Biomedicine, University of Bergen (Norway); Wang, Chunrong; Li, Lixiang; Man, Qingqing [Institute of Nutrition and Food Safety, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, 100050 (China); Lundebye, Anne-Katrine; Froyland, Livar [National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), N-5817 Bergen (Norway)

    2012-02-01

    The risks and benefits of fish from markets in Chinese cities have not previously been fully evaluated. In the present study, 24 common fish species with more than 400 individual samples were collected from markets from five big Chinese cities in 2007. The main nutrients and contaminants were measured and the risk-benefit was evaluated based on recommended nutrient intakes and risk level criteria set by relevant authorities. The comprehensive effects of nutrients and contaminants in marine oily fish were also evaluated using the data of two related human dietary intervention trials performed in dyslipidemic Chinese men and women in 2008 and 2010, respectively. The results showed that concentrations of contaminants analyzed including DDT, PCB{sub 7}, arsenic and cadmium were much lower than their corresponding maximum limits with the exception of the mercury concentration in common carp. Concentrations of POPs and n-3 LCPUFA, mainly EPA and DHA, were positively associated with the lipid content of the fish. With a daily intake of 80-100 g marine oily fish, the persistent organic pollutants in fish would not counteract the beneficial effects of n-3 LCPUFA in reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk markers. Marine oily fish provided more effective protection against CVD than lean fish, particularly for the dyslipidemic populations. The risk-benefit assessment based on the present daily aquatic product intake in Chinese urban residents (44.9 and 62.3 g for the average values for all cities and big cities, respectively) indicated that fish, particularly marine oily fish, can be regularly consumed to achieve optimal nutritional benefits from n-3 LCPUFA, without causing significant contaminant-related health risks. However, the potential health threat from contaminants in fish should still be emphasized for the populations consuming large quantities of fish, particularly wild fish. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We collected 24 fish species with more than

  8. Parvalbumin in fish skin-derived gelatin: is there a risk for fish allergic consumers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppelman, S J; Nordlee, J A; Lee, P-W; Happe, R P; Hessing, M; Norland, R; Manning, T; Deschene, R; De Jong, G A H; Taylor, S L

    2012-01-01

    The major allergen parvalbumin was purified from cod muscle tissues, and polyclonal antibodies were raised towards it. The antibodies were tested for specificity and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed using these antibodies. The ELISA was applied to measure parvalbumin in cod skin, the starting material for fish gelatin made from deep sea, wild fish. The ELISA was sufficiently sensitive (LLOQ = 0.8 ng ml(-1) in extracts, corresponding to 0.02 µg of parvalbumin per g of tissue), and did not cross-react with common food constituents. Fish gelatin, wine and beer, matrices for the potential use of this ELISA, did not cause disturbance of the assay performance. The data show that the parvalbumin content in cod muscle tissue is 6.25 mg g(-1), while the skins contained considerably less, 0.4 mg g(-1). Washing of the skins, a common industrial procedure during the manufacturing of fish gelatin, reduced the level of parvalbumin about 1000-fold to 0.5 µg g(-1), or 0.5 ppm. From 95 commercial lots of fish gelatin it is shown that 73 are below 0.02 µg g(-1) parvalbumin. From the other 22 lots, the one with the highest concentration contained 0.15 µg g(-1) of parvalbumin. These levels are generally assumed to be safe for fish-allergic individuals.

  9. Lean fish consumption is associated with lower risk of metabolic syndrome: a Norwegian cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tørris, C; Molin, M; Cvancarova, M Småstuen

    2016-04-19

    Fish consumption may have a role in reducing the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of this study was to identify associations between fish consumption and MetS and its components, especially regarding differences concerning consumption of fatty and lean fish. This cross sectional study uses data from the Tromsø 6 survey (2007-08), where a sample of 12 981 adults, aged 30-87 years (47 % men) from the Norwegian general population was included. Fish consumption was assessed using food frequency questionnaires (FFQ). Blood sample assessments, anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were carried out according to standard protocols. MetS was defined using the Joint Interim Societies (JIS) definition. All tests were two-sided. Analyses were performed using IBM SPSS Statistics 22 (Pearson's correlation, Chi-Square tests, analysis of variance (ANOVA), linear and logistic regression models). Mean age was 57.5, and the prevalence of MetS was 22.6 %. Fish consumption once a week or more was associated with lower risk of having MetS among men (OR 0.85, CI 95 % 0.74 to 0.98, P = 0.03). In the adjusted models, lean fish consumption was associated with a decreased risk of having MetS, whereas fatty fish consumption was not associated with a decreased risk of having MetS. Both an increased fatty and lean fish consumption (0-1 times per month, 2-3 times per month, 1-3 times per week, 4-6 times per week, 1-2 times per day) were associated with decreased serum triglyceride (TG), and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Fish consumption may be associated with a lower risk of having MetS and consumption of lean fish seems to be driving the association. Further investigation is warranted to establish associations between fish consumption and MetS.

  10. Habitat fragmentation and extinction rates within freshwater fish communities : a faunal relaxation approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hugueny, Bernard; Movellan, A.; Belliard, J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim To estimate population extinction rates within freshwater fish communities since the fragmentation of palaeo-rivers due to sea level rise at the end of the Pleistocene; to combine this information with rates estimated by other approaches (population surveys, fossil records); and to build an empirical extinction-area relationship. Location Temperate rivers from the Northern Hemisphere, with a special focus on rivers discharging into the English Channel, in north-western France. Methods (1)...

  11. Trait-based prediction of extinction risk of small-bodied freshwater fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopf, R Keller; Shaw, Casey; Humphries, Paul

    2017-06-01

    Small body size is generally correlated with r-selected life-history traits, including early maturation, short-generation times, and rapid growth rates, that result in high population turnover and a reduced risk of extinction. Unlike other classes of vertebrates, however, small freshwater fishes appear to have an equal or greater risk of extinction than large fishes. We explored whether particular traits explain the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List conservation status of small-bodied freshwater fishes from 4 temperate river basins: Murray-Darling, Australia; Danube, Europe; Mississippi-Missouri, North America; and the Rio Grande, North America. Twenty-three ecological and life-history traits were collated for all 171 freshwater fishes of ≤120 mm total length. We used generalized linear mixed-effects models to assess which combination of the 23 traits best explained whether a species was threatened or not threatened. We used the best models to predict the probability of 29 unclassified species being listed as threatened. With and without controlling for phylogeny at the family level, small body size-among small-bodied species-was the most influential trait correlated with threatened species listings. The k-folds cross-validation demonstrated that body size and a random effect structure that included family predicted the threat status with an accuracy of 78% (SE 0.5). We identified 10 species likely to be threatened that are not listed as such on the IUCN Red List. Small body size is not a trait that provides universal resistance to extinction, particularly for vertebrates inhabiting environments affected by extreme habitat loss and fragmentation. We hypothesize that this is because small-bodied species have smaller home ranges, lower dispersal capabilities, and heightened ecological specialization relative to larger vertebrates. Trait data and further model development are needed to predict the IUCN conservation status of the over 11

  12. Somatic and gastrointestinal in vivo biotransformation rates of hydrophobic chemicals in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Justin C; Campbell, David A; Kennedy, Christopher J; Gobas, Frank A P C

    2015-10-01

    To improve current bioaccumulation assessment methods, a methodology is developed, applied, and investigated for measuring in vivo biotransformation rates of hydrophobic organic substances in the body (soma) and gastrointestinal tract of the fish. The method resembles the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 305 dietary bioaccumulation test but includes reference chemicals to determine both somatic and gastrointestinal biotransformation rates of test chemicals. Somatic biotransformation rate constants for the test chemicals ranged between 0 d(-1) and 0.38 (standard error [SE] 0.03)/d(-1) . Gastrointestinal biotransformation rate constants varied from 0 d(-1) to 46 (SE 7) d(-1) . Gastrointestinal biotransformation contributed more to the overall biotransformation in fish than somatic biotransformation for all test substances but 1. Results suggest that biomagnification tests can reveal the full extent of biotransformation in fish. The common presumption that the liver is the main site of biotransformation may not apply to many substances exposed through the diet. The results suggest that the application of quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) for somatic biotransformation rates and hepatic in vitro models to assess the effect of biotransformation on bioaccumulation can underestimate biotransformation rates and overestimate the biomagnification potential of chemicals that are biotransformed in the gastrointestinal tract. With some modifications, the OECD 305 test can generate somatic and gastrointestinal biotransformation data to develop biotransformation QSARs and test in vitro-in vivo biotransformation extrapolation methods. © 2015 SETAC.

  13. Estimation of sport fish harvest for risk and hazard assessment of environmental contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poston, T.M.; Strenge, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    Consumption of contaminated fish flesh can be a significant route of human exposure to hazardous chemicals. Estimation of exposure resulting from the consumption of fish requires knowledge of fish consumption and contaminant levels in the edible portion of fish. Realistic figures of sport fish harvest are needed to estimate consumption. Estimates of freshwater sport fish harvest were developed from a review of 72 articles and reports. Descriptive statistics based on fishing pressure were derived from harvest data for four distinct groups of freshwater sport fish in three water types: streams, lakes, and reservoirs. Regression equations were developed to relate harvest to surface area fished where data bases were sufficiently large. Other aspects of estimating human exposure to contaminants in fish flesh that are discussed include use of bioaccumulation factors for trace metals and organic compounds. Using the bioaccumulation factor and the concentration of contaminants in water as variables in the exposure equation may also lead to less precise estimates of tissue concentration. For instance, muscle levels of contaminants may not increase proportionately with increases in water concentrations, leading to overestimation of risk. In addition, estimates of water concentration may be variable or expressed in a manner that does not truly represent biological availability of the contaminant. These factors are discussed. 45 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs

  14. Methylmercury Concentration in Fish and Risk-Benefit Assessment of Fish Intake among Pregnant versus Infertile Women in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsing-Cheng Hsi

    Full Text Available This study examined methylmercury (MeHg concentrations in fish, the daily MeHg exposure dose, and the risk-benefit of MeHg, ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω-3 PUFA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA related to fish intake among pregnant and infertile women in Taiwan. The measured MeHg concentrations in fish did not exceed the Codex guideline level of 1 mg/kg. Swordfish (0.28 ± 0.23 mg/kg and tuna (0.14 ± 0.13 mg/kg had the highest MeHg concentrations. The MeHg concentration in the hair of infertile women (1.82 ± 0.14 mg/kg was significantly greater than that of pregnant women (1.24 ± 0.18 mg/kg. In addition, 80% of infertile women and 68% of pregnant women had MeHg concentrations in hair that exceeded the USEPA reference dose (1 mg/kg. The MeHg concentrations in hair were significantly and positively correlated with the estimated daily MeHg exposure dose. Based on the risk-benefit evaluation results, this paper recommends consumption of fish species with a low MeHg concentration and high concentrations of DHA + EPA and ω-3 PUFA (e.g., salmon, mackerel, and greater amberjack.

  15. Evolution of movement rate increases the effectiveness of marine reserves for the conservation of pelagic fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee, Jonathan A; Otto, Sarah P; Pauly, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Current debates about the efficacy of no-take marine reserves (MR) in protecting large pelagic fish such as tuna and sharks have usually not considered the evolutionary dimension of this issue, which emerges because the propensity to swim away from a given place, like any other biological trait, will probably vary in a heritable fashion among individuals. Here, based on spatially explicit simulations, we investigated whether selection to remain in MRs to avoid higher fishing mortality can lead to the evolution of more philopatric fish. Our simulations, which covered a range of life histories among tuna species (skipjack tuna vs. Atlantic bluefin tuna) and shark species (great white sharks vs. spiny dogfish), suggested that MRs were most effective at maintaining viable population sizes when movement distances were lowest. Decreased movement rate evolved following the establishment of marine reserves, and this evolution occurred more rapidly with higher fishing pressure. Evolutionary reductions in movement rate led to increases in within-reserve population sizes over the course of the 50 years following MR establishment, although this varied among life histories, with skipjack responding fastest and great white sharks slowest. Our results suggest the evolution of decreased movement can augment the efficacy of marine reserves, especially for species, such as skipjack tuna, with relatively short generation times. Even when movement rates did not evolve substantially over 50 years (e.g., given long generation times or little heritable variation), marine reserves were an effective tool for the conservation of fish populations when mean movement rates were low or MRs were large.

  16. Potential human health risk assessment of trace metals via the consumption of marine fish in Persian Gulf

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naji, Abolfazl; Khan, Farhan; Hashemi, Seyed Hassan

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the concentration of trace metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the muscle of four fish species from the Persian Gulf. Trace metals were analyzed using atomic absorption spectroscopy and consumption rates advisory for minimizing chronic systemic effects in chil...... health risks resulting from human consumption....... in children and adults were estimated. The metals concentrations in analyzed fish samples were lower than legal limits. Cadmium target hazard quotient values suggested that the threshold to avoid the potential risk for children health is an exposure level lower than 3 meals per week. Hazard index values based...... on four metals (not including Pb) for the child age class were higher than those of the adult age class, suggesting that children may suffer from a higher health risk. This study provides information about the consumption limits of certain metals, in particular Cd, necessary for minimizing potential...

  17. Farm-level risk factors for fish-borne zoonotic trematode infection in integrated small-scale fish farms in northern Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Thi Phan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Northern Vietnam is an endemic region for fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZT, including liver and intestinal flukes. Humans acquire the FZT infection by eating raw or inadequately cooked fish. The production of FZT-free fish in aquaculture is a key component in establishing a sustainable program to prevent and control the FZT transmission to humans. Interventions in aquaculture should be based on knowledge of the main risk factors associated with FZT transmission. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A longitudinal study was carried out from June 2006 to May 2007 in Nam Dinh province, Red River Delta to investigate the development and risk factors of FZT infections in freshwater cultured fish. A total of 3820 fish were sampled six times at two-month intervals from 96 fish farms. Logistic analysis with repeated measurements was used to evaluate potential risk factors based on information collected through questionnaire interviews with 61 fish farm owners. The results showed that the FZT infections significantly increased from first sampling in June to July 2006 (65% to sixth sampling in April to May, 2007 (76%. The liver fluke, Clonorchis sinensis and different zoonotic intestinal flukes including Haplochis pumilio, H. taichui, H. yokogawai, Centrocestus formosanus and Procerovum varium were found in sampled fish. Duration of fish cultured (sampling times, mebendazole drug self-medication of household members, presence of snails in the pond, and feeding fish with green vegetation collected outside fish farms all had a significant effect on the development of FZT prevalence in the fish. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The FZT prevalence in fish increased by 11 percentage points during a one-year culture period and the risk factors for the development of infection were identified. Results also highlight that the young fish are already highly infected when stocked into the grow-out systems. This knowledge should be incorporated into control

  18. Poultry and fish intake and risk of esophageal cancer: A meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Gengxi; Li, Bailing; Liao, Xiaohong; Zhong, Chongjun

    2016-03-01

    Mixed results regarding the association between white meat (including poultry and fish) intake and the risk of esophageal cancer (EC) have been reported. We performed a meta-analysis to provide a quantitative assessment of this association. Relevant studies were identified in MEDLINE until December 31, 2012. Summary relative risks (SRRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled with a random-effects model. A total of 20 articles, including 3990 cases with EC, were included in this meta-analysis. Compared to individuals with the lowest level of fish intake, individuals with the highest fish intake were found to have reduced risk of EC (SRRs = 0.69; 95% CIs: 0.57-0.85), while poultry intake was not associated with EC (SRRs = 0.83; 95% CIs: 0.62-1.12). Total fish consumption is associated with reduced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) risk, while poultry consumption was not associated with ESCC risk. Additionally, neither poultry nor fish consumption was associated with esophageal adenocarcinoma risk. Our results suggest that fish consumption may have a potential role in EC prevention, while poultry intake has no effect. However, because the majority of data was from case-control studies, further well-designed prospective studies are warranted. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Public health guidance on cardiovascular benefits and risks related to fish consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stern Alan H

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Historically, concerns with fish consumption have addressed risks from contaminants (e.g., methylmercury (MeHg, and PCBs. More recently public health concerns have widened in appreciation of the specific benefits of fish consumption such as those arising from polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs in fish oil. Fish contains varying levels of PUFAs and MeHg. Since both address the same health outcomes (in opposite directions and occur together in fish, great care must be exercised in providing public health guidance. Mozaffarian and Rimm in a recent article (JAMA. 2006, 296:1885–99 have made a strong case for the beneficial effects of PUFAs in reducing the risk of coronary heart disease, but at the same time, have also broadly discounted the increased risks of coronary heart disease posed by MeHg in fish, stating that "... among adults... the benefits of fish intake exceed the potential risks." This conclusion appears to be based on an inaccurate and insufficiently critical analysis of the literature. This literature is re-examined in light of their conclusions, and the available and appropriate public health options are considered.

  20. Prevention of fatal arrhythmias in high-risk subjects by fish oil n-3 fatty acid intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, Alexander; Albert, Christine M; Josephson, Mark; Steinhaus, David; Kluger, Jeffrey; Kang, Jing X; Cox, Benjamin; Zhang, Hui; Schoenfeld, David

    2005-11-01

    The long-chain n-3 fatty acids in fish have been demonstrated to have antiarrhythmic properties in experimental models and to prevent sudden cardiac death in a randomized trial of post-myocardial infarction patients. Therefore, we hypothesized that these n-3 fatty acids might prevent potentially fatal ventricular arrhythmias in high-risk patients. Four hundred two patients with implanted cardioverter/defibrillators (ICDs) were randomly assigned to double-blind treatment with either a fish oil or an olive oil daily supplement for 12 months. The primary end point, time to first ICD event for ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation (VT or VF) confirmed by stored electrograms or death from any cause, was analyzed by intention to treat. Secondary analyses were performed for "probable" ventricular arrhythmias, "on-treatment" analyses for all subjects who had taken any of their oil supplements, and "on-treatment" analyses only of those subjects who were on treatment for at least 11 months. Compliance with double-blind treatment was similar in the 2 groups; however, the noncompliance rate was high (35% of all enrollees). In the primary analysis, assignment to treatment with the fish oil supplement showed a trend toward a prolonged time to the first ICD event (VT or VF) or of death from any cause (risk reduction of 28%; P=0.057). When therapies for probable episodes of VT or VF were included, the risk reduction became significant at 31%; P=0.033. For those who stayed on protocol for at least 11 months, the antiarrhythmic benefit of fish oil was improved for those with confirmed events (risk reduction of 38%; P=0.034). Although significance was not achieved for the primary end point, this study provides evidence that for individuals at high risk of fatal ventricular arrhythmias, regular daily ingestion of fish oil fatty acids may significantly reduce potentially fatal ventricular arrhythmias.

  1. Dose rate effects of low-LET ionizing radiation on fish cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vo, Nguyen T.K. [McMaster University, Radiation Sciences Program, School of Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Seymour, Colin B.; Mothersill, Carmel E. [McMaster University, Radiation Sciences Program, School of Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies, Hamilton, ON (Canada); McMaster University, Department of Biology, Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    2017-11-15

    Radiobiological responses of a highly clonogenic fish cell line, eelB, to low-LET ionizing radiation and effects of dose rates were studied. In acute exposure to 0.1-12 Gy of gamma rays, eelB's cell survival curve displayed a linear-quadratic (LQ) relationship. In the LQ model, α, β, and α/β ratio were 0.0024, 0.037, and 0.065, respectively; for the first time that these values were reported for fish cells. In the multi-target model, n, D{sub o}, and D{sub q} values were determined to be 4.42, 2.16, and 3.21 Gy, respectively, and were the smallest among fish cell lines being examined to date. The mitochondrial potential response to gamma radiation in eelB cells was at least biphasic: mitochondria hyperpolarized 2 h and then depolarized 5 h post-irradiation. Upon receiving gamma rays with a total dose of 5 Gy, dose rates (ranging between 83 and 1366 mGy/min) had different effects on the clonogenic survival but not the mitochondrial potential. The clonogenic survival was significantly higher at the lowest dose rate of 83 mGy/min than at the other higher dose rates. Upon continuous irradiation with beta particles from tritium at 0.5, 5, 50, and 500 mGy/day for 7 days, mitochondria significantly depolarized at the three higher dose rates. Clearly, dose rates had differential effects on the clonogenic survival of and mitochondrial membrane potential in fish cells. (orig.)

  2. Environmental effects on energy metabolism and 86Rb elimination rates of fishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, E.L.

    1994-01-01

    Relationships between energy metabolism and the turnover rates of number of important chemical and radiological elements (particularly the Group IA alkali metals: K, Rb, and Cs) have been observed in fishes. Using response surface statistics and fractional factorial ANOVA, the author examined the relative influences of temperature, salinity, food intake rate, mass, and their first order interactions on routine energy metabolism and 86 Rb elimination rates. Routine metabolic rates were increased primarily by increased temperature and salinity, with a strong body mass effect and a significant effect of food intake. 86 Rb elimination rates were increased primarily by increased temperature and salinity. There were no interactive effects between mass and either temperature or salinity for either routine energy metabolism or 86 Rb elimination rates. There was a significant interaction effect between temperature and salinity on routine energy metabolism rates, but not on 86 Rb elimination. The authors also observed a relationship between routine energy metabolism and 86 Rb elimination rates that may possibly be exploited as a means of estimating energy metabolic rates of fishes in the field. The statistical techniques used in this experiment have broad potential applications in assessing the contributions of combinations of environmental variables on contaminant kinetics, as well as in multiple toxicity testing, in that they greatly simplify experimental designs compared with traditional full-factorial methods

  3. A rating for the risk; Ein Rating fuers Risiko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faltermeier, Daniel [Meteocontrol GmbH, Augsburg (Germany). Technische Due Diligence PV

    2013-07-01

    The assessment of the quality and risks of the photovoltaics project plays an important role in the investment decision. Especially for very large projects, an extensive risk assessment of yield losses and technical tests are increasingly demanded by independent experts. A new method enables the evaluation of solar energy systems.

  4. Heavy metal contamination and health risk assessment in three commercial fish species in the Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzi, Behnam; Hassanaghaei, Mina; Moore, Farid; Rastegari Mehr, Meisam; Soltanian, Siyavash; Lahijanzadeh, Ahmad Reza; Sorooshian, Armin

    2018-04-01

    Five heavy metals/metalloids and related potential health risks were investigated in three commercially important fish species (Anodontostoma chacunda, Belangerii, and Cynoglossurs arel) in Musa Estuary and Mahshahr Harbour of the Persian Gulf. A total of 116 fish samples were collected, and their liver and muscle organs were separately analyzed using ICP-MS. Results revealed that studied metals concentrations (with some exceptions) varied among sampling stations, fish species and their organs. Human health risk is evaluated using different indices. The results indicated that arsenic and mercury are the most hazardous elements. Estimated daily intake (EDI) for the metals exceeded the provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI) for all studied fish species. Also, target risk (TR) of arsenic indicated that consumption over a long period of time may result in a carcinogenic effect. The results are expected to create awareness among the public on the safety of consuming food products grown in particular areas. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Residual levels of rare earth elements in freshwater and marine fish and their health risk assessment from Shandong, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Luping; Wang, Xining; Nie, Hongqian; Shao, Lijun; Wang, Guoling; Liu, Yongjun

    2016-01-01

    The total concentrations of rare earth elements (ΣREE) were quantified in 251 samples from 10 common species of freshwater and marine fish in seventeen cities of Shandong, China. ΣREE obtained from the freshwater fish ranged from 34.0 to 37.9 ngg −1 (wet weight) and marine fish from 12.7 to 37.6 ngg −1 . The ratio of LREE to HREE was 13.7:1 and 10:1 for freshwater and marine fish, respectively. This suggests that freshwater fish exhibit greater REE concentrations than marine fish and the biological effects of LREE are higher than HREE. Results revealed a similar REE distribution pattern between those fish and coastal sediments, abiding the “abundance law”. The health risk assessment demonstrated the EDIs of REEs in fish were significantly lower than the ADI, indicating that the consumption of these fish presents little risk to human health. - Highlights: •Concentrations of rare earth elements in freshwater and marine fishes from the coastlines of Shandong, China are reported. •Statistical analysis and comparison indicates that freshwater fishes exhibit greater REE concentrations than marine fishes. •A similar REE distribution pattern was found between those of fish and coastal sediments, abiding the "abundance law". •Health risk assessment demonstrated that consuming fish is presently at little risk to human health.

  6. The Risk of Mercury Exposure to the People Consuming Fish from Lake Phewa, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devna Singh Thapa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The risk of mercury exposure through consumption of fish from Lake Phewa, Nepal was investigated. A total of 170 people were surveyed to know their fish consumption levels. The weekly mercury (Hg intake in the form of methylmercury (MeHg through fish was calculated by using the data on average MeHg concentrations in fish, the average consumption of fish per week, and an average body weight of the people. Hotel owners were consuming significantly high amounts of fish, followed by fishermen, in comparison to the government staff, army/police, locals and others (visitors. Some individuals exceeded the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI of 1.6 µg per kg body weight of MeHg (FAO/WHO. The minimum intake of MeHg (0.05 µg/kg/week was found in the visitors (others category, whereas the hotel owners had the maximum intake (3.71 µg/kg/week. In general, it was found that a person of 60 kg can consume at least 2 kg of fish per week without exceeding PTWI such that it does not pose any health risk associated with Hg poisoning at the present contamination level. Hg based PTWI values for Nepal has not been proposed yet in fishery resources so as to reduce health risk of the people.

  7. A probabilistic model for hydrokinetic turbine collision risks: exploring impacts on fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammar, Linus; Eggertsen, Linda; Andersson, Sandra; Ehnberg, Jimmy; Arvidsson, Rickard; Gullström, Martin; Molander, Sverker

    2015-01-01

    A variety of hydrokinetic turbines are currently under development for power generation in rivers, tidal straits and ocean currents. Because some of these turbines are large, with rapidly moving rotor blades, the risk of collision with aquatic animals has been brought to attention. The behavior and fate of animals that approach such large hydrokinetic turbines have not yet been monitored at any detail. In this paper, we conduct a synthesis of the current knowledge and understanding of hydrokinetic turbine collision risks. The outcome is a generic fault tree based probabilistic model suitable for estimating population-level ecological risks. New video-based data on fish behavior in strong currents are provided and models describing fish avoidance behaviors are presented. The findings indicate low risk for small-sized fish. However, at large turbines (≥5 m), bigger fish seem to have high probability of collision, mostly because rotor detection and avoidance is difficult in low visibility. Risks can therefore be substantial for vulnerable populations of large-sized fish, which thrive in strong currents. The suggested collision risk model can be applied to different turbine designs and at a variety of locations as basis for case-specific risk assessments. The structure of the model facilitates successive model validation, refinement and application to other organism groups such as marine mammals.

  8. A probabilistic model for hydrokinetic turbine collision risks: exploring impacts on fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linus Hammar

    Full Text Available A variety of hydrokinetic turbines are currently under development for power generation in rivers, tidal straits and ocean currents. Because some of these turbines are large, with rapidly moving rotor blades, the risk of collision with aquatic animals has been brought to attention. The behavior and fate of animals that approach such large hydrokinetic turbines have not yet been monitored at any detail. In this paper, we conduct a synthesis of the current knowledge and understanding of hydrokinetic turbine collision risks. The outcome is a generic fault tree based probabilistic model suitable for estimating population-level ecological risks. New video-based data on fish behavior in strong currents are provided and models describing fish avoidance behaviors are presented. The findings indicate low risk for small-sized fish. However, at large turbines (≥5 m, bigger fish seem to have high probability of collision, mostly because rotor detection and avoidance is difficult in low visibility. Risks can therefore be substantial for vulnerable populations of large-sized fish, which thrive in strong currents. The suggested collision risk model can be applied to different turbine designs and at a variety of locations as basis for case-specific risk assessments. The structure of the model facilitates successive model validation, refinement and application to other organism groups such as marine mammals.

  9. The calculation of absorbed dose rate in freshwater fish from high background natural radioactivity areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, W.S.; Moraes, S.R.; Cavalcante, J.J.V.; Pinto, C.E.C.; Kelecom, A.

    2017-01-01

    Areas of increased radiation may expose biota to radiation doses greater than the world averages, and depending on the magnitude of the exposure causing biota damage. The region of the municipality of Caldas, MG, BR is considered a region of increased natural radioactivity. The present work aims to evaluate the exposure of biota to natural radionuclides in the region of Caldas, MG. In order to evaluate the biota exposure in the region, the concentrations of the natural radionuclides U nat , 226 Ra, 210 Pb and 232 Th and 228 Ra were evaluated in two species of fishes: lambari (Astymax spp.) And traíra (Hoplias spp.). The dose rates of the analyzed fish were: for Astymax spp of 0.08 μGy d -1 and for Hoplias spp of 0.12 μGy∙d -1 . With these dose rate values no measurable deleterious effects are expected in the species studied

  10. Turbulence-enhanced prey encounter rates in larval fish : Effects of spatial scale, larval behaviour and size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; MacKenzie, Brian

    1995-01-01

    Turbulent water motion has several effects on the feeding ecology of larval fish and other planktivorous predators. In this paper, we consider the appropriate spatial scales for estimating relative velocities between larval fish predators and their prey, and the effect that different choices of s...... in the range in which turbulent intensity has an overall positive effect on larval fish ingestion rate probability. However, experimental data to test the model predictions are lacking. We suggest that the model inputs require further empirical study....

  11. Trophic position and metabolic rate predict the long-term decay process of radioactive cesium in fish: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideyuki Doi

    Full Text Available Understanding the long-term behavior of radionuclides in organisms is important for estimating possible associated risks to human beings and ecosystems. As radioactive cesium (¹³⁷Cs can be accumulated in organisms and has a long physical half-life, it is very important to understand its long-term decay in organisms; however, the underlying mechanisms determining the decay process are little known. We performed a meta-analysis to collect published data on the long-term ¹³⁷Cs decay process in fish species to estimate biological (metabolic rate and ecological (trophic position, habitat, and diet type influences on this process. From the linear mixed models, we found that 1 trophic position could predict the day of maximum ¹³⁷Cs activity concentration in fish; and 2 the metabolic rate of the fish species and environmental water temperature could predict ecological half-lives and decay rates for fish species. These findings revealed that ecological and biological traits are important to predict the long-term decay process of ¹³⁷Cs activity concentration in fish.

  12. Hedging endowment assurance products under interest rate and mortality risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, A.; Mahayni, A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes how model misspecification associated with both interest rate and mortality risk influences hedging decisions of insurance companies. For this purpose, diverse risk management strategies which are riskminimizing when model risk is ignored come into consideration. The

  13. 12 CFR 615.5135 - Management of interest rate risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Management of interest rate risk. 615.5135... of interest rate risk. The board of directors of each Farm Credit Bank, bank for cooperatives, and agricultural credit bank shall develop and implement an interest rate risk management program as set forth in...

  14. Ciguatera fish poisoning on the West Africa Coast: An emerging risk in the Canary Islands (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boada, Luis D; Zumbado, Manuel; Luzardo, Octavio P; Almeida-González, Maira; Plakas, Steven M; Granade, Hudson R; Abraham, Ann; Jester, Edward L E; Dickey, Robert W

    2010-12-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is endemic in certain tropical and subtropical regions of the world. CFP had not been described on the West Africa Coast until a 2004 outbreak in the Canary Islands. In 2008-2009, two additional outbreaks of ciguatera occurred. Individuals afflicted had consumed lesser amberjack (Seriola rivoliana) captured from nearby waters. Caribbean ciguatoxin-1 (C-CTX-1) was confirmed in fish samples by LC-MS/MS. Ciguatoxic fish in this region may pose a new health risk for the seafood consumer. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Fish consumption behavior and rates in native and non-native people in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Batang, Zenon B.; Mannalamkunnath Alikunhi, Nabeel; Aljahdali, Ramzi; Al-Jebreen, Dalal Hamad; Aziz, Mohammed A M; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz M.

    2014-01-01

    eat fish at home (over 90%), and many eat fish at restaurants (65% and 48%, respectively for Saudis and expatriates). Fish eaten at home comes from local fish markets, followed by supermarkets. Saudis included fish in their diets at an average of 1

  16. Fish consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer: the Ohsaki Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Y; Kuriyama, S; Kakizaki, M; Nagai, M; Ohmori-Matsuda, K; Sone, T; Hozawa, A; Nishino, Y; Tsuji, I

    2009-09-01

    Evidence from laboratory and animal studies suggests that high fish consumption may reduce the risk of colorectal cancer, but the results of studies in humans have been inconsistent. The objective of this study was to prospectively examine the association between fish consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer incidence in Japan, where fish is widely consumed. We analysed data from 39 498 men and women registered in the Ohsaki National Health Insurance Cohort Study who were 40-79 years old and free of cancer at the baseline. Fish consumption was assessed at the baseline using a self-administered food frequency questionnaire. During 9 years of follow-up, we identified 566 incident cases of colorectal cancer (379 men and 187 women). The hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for colorectal cancer incidence in the highest quartile of fish consumption compared with the lowest quartile were 1.07 (95% CIs; 0.78-1.46, P-trend=0.43) for men, and 0.96 (95% CIs; 0.61-1.53, P-trend=0.69) for women. The results of this prospective cohort study revealed no association between fish consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer.

  17. Mercury contamination in human hair and fish from Cambodia: levels, specific accumulation and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agusa, Tetsuro; Kunito, Takashi; Iwata, Hisato; Monirith, In; Tana, Touch Seang; Subramanian, Annamalai; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2005-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) concentrations in human hair and fish samples from Phnom Penh, Kien Svay, Tomnup Rolork and Batrong, Cambodia, collected in November 1999 and December 2000 were determined to understand the status of contamination, and age- and sex-dependent accumulation in humans and to assess the intake of mercury via fish consumption. Mercury concentrations in human hair ranged from 0.54 to 190 μg/g dry wt. About 3% of the samples contained Hg levels exceeding the no observed adverse effects level (NOAEL) of WHO (50 μg/g) and the levels in some hair samples of women also exceeded the NOAEL (10 μg/g) associated with fetus neurotoxicity. A weak but significant positive correlation was observed between age and Hg levels in hair of residents. Mercury concentrations in muscle of marine and freshwater fish from Cambodia ranged from <0.01 to 0.96 μg/g wet wt. Mercury intake rates were estimated on the basis of the Hg content in fish and daily fish consumption. Three samples of marine fish including sharp-tooth snapper and obtuse barracuda, and one sample of sharp-tooth snapper exceeded the guidelines by US EPA and by Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), respectively, which indicates that some fish specimens examined (9% and 3% for US EPA and JECFA guidelines, respectively) were hazardous for consumption at the ingestion rate of Cambodian people (32.6 g/day). It is suggested that fish is probably the main source of Hg for Cambodian people. However, extremely high Hg concentrations were observed in some individuals and could not be explained by Hg intake from fish consumption, indicating some other contamination sources of Hg in Cambodia. - A source other than fish may be responsible for high Hg in some Cambodians

  18. Impacts of invasive fish removal through angling on population characteristics and juvenile growth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Charlotte; Britton, Robert J; Cucherousset, Julien

    2015-06-01

    Exploitation can modify the characteristics of fish populations through the selective harvesting of individuals, with this potentially leading to rapid ecological and evolutionary changes. Despite the well-known effects of invasive fishes on aquatic ecosystems generally, the potential effects of their selective removal through angling, a strategy commonly used to manage invasive fish, are poorly understood. The aim of this field-based study was to use the North American pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus as the model species to investigate the consequences of selective removal on their population characteristics and juvenile growth rates across 10 populations in artificial lakes in southern France. We found that the maximal individual mass in populations decreased as removal pressure through angling increased, whereas we did not observed any changes in the maximal individual length in populations as removal pressure increased. Total population abundance did not decrease as removal pressure increased; instead, here was a U-shaped relationship between removal pressure and the abundance of medium-bodied individuals. In addition, population biomass had a U-shaped curve response to removal pressure, implying that invasive fish populations can modulate their characteristics to compensate for the negative effects of selective removals. In addition, individual lengths at age 2 and juvenile growth rates decreased as removal pressure through angling increased, suggesting a shift toward an earlier size at maturity and an overall slower growing phenotype. Therefore, these outputs challenge the efficiency of selective management methods, suggesting the use of more proactive strategies to control invasive populations, and the need to investigate the potential ecological and evolutionary repercussions of nonrandom removal.

  19. Human Health Risk from Metals in Fish from Saudi Arabia: Consumption Patterns for Some Species Exceed Allowable Limits

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Mannalamkunnath Alikunhi, Nabeel; Al-Jahdali, Haitham; Al-Jebreen, Dalal Hamad; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz M.; Aziz, Mohammed A M; Batang, Zenon B.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Fish are a healthful source of protein, but contaminants in some fish pose a risk. While there are multiple risk assessments from Europe and North America, there are far fewer for other parts of the world. We examined the risks from

  20. Consumer perception versus scientific evidence about health benefits and safety risks from fish consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeke, Wim; Sioen, Isabelle; Pieniak, Zuzanna; Van Camp, John; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2005-06-01

    To investigate the gap between consumer perception and scientific evidence related to health benefits and safety risks from fish consumption. Consumer perceptions from a cross-sectional survey in March 2003 in Belgium were compared with scientific evidence based on a literature review. A quota sampling procedure was used with age as quota control variable. Subjects completed a self-administered questionnaire including health benefit beliefs from fish, fish content and effect beliefs for nutrients and harmful substances. Adults (n=429), who were the main person responsible for food purchasing in the household (284 women; 145 men), aged 18-83 years, from different regional, education, family size and income groups. Fish is predominantly perceived as a healthy food that reduces risk for coronary heart disease, which corroborates scientific evidence. This perception is stronger among women than among men. In contrast with scientific evidence, 46% of the consumers believe that fish contains dietary fibre, whereas less than one-third is aware that fish contains omega-3 fatty acids and that this nutrient has a positive impact on human health. The gap between perception and evidence is larger among consumers with lower education. In general, consumers are better aware of the content and effect of harmful substances than of nutrients in fish. Despite conclusive evidence about the content and positive effect of omega-3 fatty acids in fish, related consumer awareness and beliefs are poor and often wrong. This study exemplifies the need for nutrition education and more effective communication about the health benefits of fish consumption.

  1. Reef fishes in biodiversity hotspots are at greatest risk from loss of coral species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally J Holbrook

    Full Text Available Coral reef ecosystems are under a variety of threats from global change and anthropogenic disturbances that are reducing the number and type of coral species on reefs. Coral reefs support upwards of one third of all marine species of fish, so the loss of coral habitat may have substantial consequences to local fish diversity. We posit that the effects of habitat degradation will be most severe in coral regions with highest biodiversity of fishes due to greater specialization by fishes for particular coral habitats. Our novel approach to this important but untested hypothesis was to conduct the same field experiment at three geographic locations across the Indo-Pacific biodiversity gradient (Papua New Guinea; Great Barrier Reef, Australia; French Polynesia. Specifically, we experimentally explored whether the response of local fish communities to identical changes in diversity of habitat-providing corals was independent of the size of the regional species pool of fishes. We found that the proportional reduction (sensitivity in fish biodiversity to loss of coral diversity was greater for regions with larger background species pools, reflecting variation in the degree of habitat specialization of fishes across the Indo-Pacific diversity gradient. This result implies that habitat-associated fish in diversity hotspots are at greater risk of local extinction to a given loss of habitat diversity compared to regions with lower species richness. This mechanism, related to the positive relationship between habitat specialization and regional biodiversity, and the elevated extinction risk this poses for biodiversity hotspots, may apply to species in other types of ecosystems.

  2. Reef fishes in biodiversity hotspots are at greatest risk from loss of coral species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Sally J; Schmitt, Russell J; Messmer, Vanessa; Brooks, Andrew J; Srinivasan, Maya; Munday, Philip L; Jones, Geoffrey P

    2015-01-01

    Coral reef ecosystems are under a variety of threats from global change and anthropogenic disturbances that are reducing the number and type of coral species on reefs. Coral reefs support upwards of one third of all marine species of fish, so the loss of coral habitat may have substantial consequences to local fish diversity. We posit that the effects of habitat degradation will be most severe in coral regions with highest biodiversity of fishes due to greater specialization by fishes for particular coral habitats. Our novel approach to this important but untested hypothesis was to conduct the same field experiment at three geographic locations across the Indo-Pacific biodiversity gradient (Papua New Guinea; Great Barrier Reef, Australia; French Polynesia). Specifically, we experimentally explored whether the response of local fish communities to identical changes in diversity of habitat-providing corals was independent of the size of the regional species pool of fishes. We found that the proportional reduction (sensitivity) in fish biodiversity to loss of coral diversity was greater for regions with larger background species pools, reflecting variation in the degree of habitat specialization of fishes across the Indo-Pacific diversity gradient. This result implies that habitat-associated fish in diversity hotspots are at greater risk of local extinction to a given loss of habitat diversity compared to regions with lower species richness. This mechanism, related to the positive relationship between habitat specialization and regional biodiversity, and the elevated extinction risk this poses for biodiversity hotspots, may apply to species in other types of ecosystems.

  3. Mercury in fish from the Madeira River and health risk to Amazonian and riverine populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, José Maria; Gomes, José M; Anjos, Marcelo R; Silveira, Josianne N; Custódio, Flavia B; Gloria, M Beatriz A

    2018-07-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify total mercury in highly popular Amazonian fish pacu, curimatã, jaraqui, and sardinha from the Madeira River and to estimate the exposure to methylmercury from fish consumption. The samples were obtained from two locations - Puruzinho Igarapé and Santa Rosa - near Humaitá, Amazonia, Brazil in two seasons of 2015 (high and low waters). The fish were identified, weighed and measured, and lipids were quantified. Total mercury was determined by gold amalgamation-atomic absorption spectrometry. Mean levels were used to calculate exposure of Amazonian and riverine populations. There was significant correlation (p < 0.05) between length × weight for all fish; length × lipid and weight × lipid were significant only for pacu. Total mercury levels varied along muscle tissue for the fish, except for sardinha; therefore muscle from the dorsal area along the fish were sampled, homogenized and used for analysis. The levels of total mercury varied from 0.01 to 0.46 mg/kg, with higher median levels in sardinha (0.24 mg/kg), followed by curimatã (0.16 mg/kg), jaraqui (0.13 mg/kg) and pacu (0.04 mg/kg), corresponding with the respective feeding habits along the trophic chain. Total mercury levels were not affected by the location of fish capture and by high and low waters seasons. Total mercury correlated significantly with length and weight for jaraqui and with length for sardinha (negative correlation). Total mercury levels in fish complied with legislation; however, exposures to methylmercury from fish consumption overpassed the safe intake reference dose for sardinha for Amazonians; however, for the riverine communities, all of the fish would cause potential health risk, mainly for children and women of childbearing age. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Lean fish consumption is associated with lower risk of metabolic syndrome: a Norwegian cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Tørris

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fish consumption may have a role in reducing the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS. The aim of this study was to identify associations between fish consumption and MetS and its components, especially regarding differences concerning consumption of fatty and lean fish. Methods This cross sectional study uses data from the Tromsø 6 survey (2007–08, where a sample of 12 981 adults, aged 30–87 years (47 % men from the Norwegian general population was included. Fish consumption was assessed using food frequency questionnaires (FFQ. Blood sample assessments, anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were carried out according to standard protocols. MetS was defined using the Joint Interim Societies (JIS definition. All tests were two-sided. Analyses were performed using IBM SPSS Statistics 22 (Pearson’s correlation, Chi-Square tests, analysis of variance (ANOVA, linear and logistic regression models. Results Mean age was 57.5, and the prevalence of MetS was 22.6 %. Fish consumption once a week or more was associated with lower risk of having MetS among men (OR 0.85, CI 95 % 0.74 to 0.98, P = 0.03. In the adjusted models, lean fish consumption was associated with a decreased risk of having MetS, whereas fatty fish consumption was not associated with a decreased risk of having MetS. Both an increased fatty and lean fish consumption (0–1 times per month, 2–3 times per month, 1–3 times per week, 4–6 times per week, 1–2 times per day were associated with decreased serum triglyceride (TG, and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C. Conclusions Fish consumption may be associated with a lower risk of having MetS and consumption of lean fish seems to be driving the association. Further investigation is warranted to establish associations between fish consumption and MetS.

  5. Human health risk assessment of organochlorines associated with fish consumption in a coastal city in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Q.T. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Lee, T.K.M. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Chen, K. [Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, 353, Yan-an Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, 310031 (China); Wong, H.L. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Zheng, J.S. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Giesy, J.P. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Department of Zoology, National Food Safety and Toxicology Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Lo, K.K.W. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Yamashita, N. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), EMTECH, 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba (Japan); Lam, P.K.S. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: bhpksl@cityu.edu.hk

    2005-07-15

    Food consumption is an important route of human exposure to organochlorines (OCs). In order to assess the potential health risks associated with these contaminants due to fish consumption, five species of fish were collected from a local market in Zhoushan City, an island in the East China Sea. Dioxin-like compounds, such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/ dibenzofurans, in the fish samples were screened by H4IIE-luc cell bioassay, and the concentrations of specific organochlorines were measured by gas chromatograph-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). The bioassay results indicated that concentrations of dioxin-like compounds in the fish samples were below detection limit (0.64 pg/mL). The concentrations of OC pesticides and PCBs ranged from 0.67 to 13 and 0.24 to 1.4 ng/g wet wt., respectively. Significantly, concentrations of p,p'-DDE in fish meat were comparatively high (average 3.9 ng/g wet wt.) compared with the other OC pesticides. The daily fish consumption, based on a dietary survey conducted among 160 local healthy residents, was determined to be 105 g/person. The relevant cancer benchmark concentrations of HCB, dieldrin, chlordane, DDTs and PCBs were 0.36, 0.04, 1.6, 1.7, and 0.29 ng/kg per day, respectively, based on the local diet. The hazard ratios (HRs), based on non-cancer endpoints were all less than 1.0, while the HRs based on cancer were greater than 1.0 for certain contaminants based on the 95th centile concentration in fish tissue. - Health risk assessment of organochlorines associated with fish consumption reveals potential cancer risks for some contaminants in a coastal population in China.

  6. Human health risk assessment of organochlorines associated with fish consumption in a coastal city in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Q.T.; Lee, T.K.M.; Chen, K.; Wong, H.L.; Zheng, J.S.; Giesy, J.P.; Lo, K.K.W.; Yamashita, N.; Lam, P.K.S.

    2005-01-01

    Food consumption is an important route of human exposure to organochlorines (OCs). In order to assess the potential health risks associated with these contaminants due to fish consumption, five species of fish were collected from a local market in Zhoushan City, an island in the East China Sea. Dioxin-like compounds, such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/ dibenzofurans, in the fish samples were screened by H4IIE-luc cell bioassay, and the concentrations of specific organochlorines were measured by gas chromatograph-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). The bioassay results indicated that concentrations of dioxin-like compounds in the fish samples were below detection limit (0.64 pg/mL). The concentrations of OC pesticides and PCBs ranged from 0.67 to 13 and 0.24 to 1.4 ng/g wet wt., respectively. Significantly, concentrations of p,p'-DDE in fish meat were comparatively high (average 3.9 ng/g wet wt.) compared with the other OC pesticides. The daily fish consumption, based on a dietary survey conducted among 160 local healthy residents, was determined to be 105 g/person. The relevant cancer benchmark concentrations of HCB, dieldrin, chlordane, DDTs and PCBs were 0.36, 0.04, 1.6, 1.7, and 0.29 ng/kg per day, respectively, based on the local diet. The hazard ratios (HRs), based on non-cancer endpoints were all less than 1.0, while the HRs based on cancer were greater than 1.0 for certain contaminants based on the 95th centile concentration in fish tissue. - Health risk assessment of organochlorines associated with fish consumption reveals potential cancer risks for some contaminants in a coastal population in China

  7. Metabolic Rate and Climatic Fluctuations Shape Continental Wide Pattern of Genetic Divergence and Biodiversity in Fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    April, Julien; Hanner, Robert H.; Mayden, Richard L.; Bernatchez, Louis

    2013-01-01

    Taxonomically exhaustive and continent wide patterns of genetic divergence within and between species have rarely been described and the underlying evolutionary causes shaping biodiversity distribution remain contentious. Here, we show that geographic patterns of intraspecific and interspecific genetic divergence among nearly all of the North American freshwater fish species (>750 species) support a dual role involving both the late Pliocene-Pleistocene climatic fluctuations and metabolic rate in determining latitudinal gradients of genetic divergence and very likely influencing speciation rates. Results indicate that the recurrent glacial cycles caused global reduction in intraspecific diversity, interspecific genetic divergence, and species richness at higher latitudes. At the opposite, longer geographic isolation, higher metabolic rate increasing substitution rate and possibly the rapid accumulation of genetic incompatibilities, led to an increasing biodiversity towards lower latitudes. This indicates that both intrinsic and extrinsic factors similarly affect micro and macro evolutionary processes shaping global patterns of biodiversity distribution. These results also indicate that factors favouring allopatric speciation are the main drivers underlying the diversification of North American freshwater fishes. PMID:23922969

  8. Estimating fish swimming metrics and metabolic rates with accelerometers: the influence of sampling frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownscombe, J W; Lennox, R J; Danylchuk, A J; Cooke, S J

    2018-06-21

    Accelerometry is growing in popularity for remotely measuring fish swimming metrics, but appropriate sampling frequencies for accurately measuring these metrics are not well studied. This research examined the influence of sampling frequency (1-25 Hz) with tri-axial accelerometer biologgers on estimates of overall dynamic body acceleration (ODBA), tail-beat frequency, swimming speed and metabolic rate of bonefish Albula vulpes in a swim-tunnel respirometer and free-swimming in a wetland mesocosm. In the swim tunnel, sampling frequencies of ≥ 5 Hz were sufficient to establish strong relationships between ODBA, swimming speed and metabolic rate. However, in free-swimming bonefish, estimates of metabolic rate were more variable below 10 Hz. Sampling frequencies should be at least twice the maximum tail-beat frequency to estimate this metric effectively, which is generally higher than those required to estimate ODBA, swimming speed and metabolic rate. While optimal sampling frequency probably varies among species due to tail-beat frequency and swimming style, this study provides a reference point with a medium body-sized sub-carangiform teleost fish, enabling researchers to measure these metrics effectively and maximize study duration. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Exchange rate policy under sovereign default risk

    OpenAIRE

    Schabert, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    We examine monetary policy options for a small open economy where sovereign default might occur due to intertemporal insolvency. Under interest rate policy and floating exchange rates the equilibrium is indetermined. Under a fixed exchange rate the equilibrium is uniquely determined and independent of sovereign default.

  10. Fish intake, cooking practices, and risk of prostate cancer: results from a multi-ethnic case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Amit D; John, Esther M; Koo, Jocelyn; Ingles, Sue A; Stern, Mariana C

    2012-03-01

    Studies conducted to assess the association between fish consumption and prostate cancer (PCA) risk are inconclusive. However, few studies have distinguished between fatty and lean fish, and no studies have considered the role of different cooking practices, which may lead to differential accumulation of chemical carcinogens. In this study, we investigated the association between fish intake and localized and advanced PCA taking into account fish types (lean vs. fatty) and cooking practices. We analyzed data for 1,096 controls, 717 localized and 1,140 advanced cases from the California Collaborative Prostate Cancer Study, a multiethnic, population-based case-control study. We used multivariate conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios using nutrient density converted variables of fried fish, tuna, dark fish and white fish consumption. We tested for effect modification by cooking methods (high- vs. low-temperature methods) and levels of doneness. We observed that high white fish intake was associated with increased risk of advanced PCA among men who cooked with high-temperature methods (pan-frying, oven-broiling and grilling) until fish was well done (p (trend) = 0.001). No associations were found among men who cooked fish at low temperature and/or just until done (white fish x cooking method p (interaction) = 0.040). Our results indicate that consideration of fish type (oily vs. lean), specific fish cooking practices and levels of doneness of cooked fish helps elucidate the association between fish intake and PCA risk and suggest that avoiding high-temperature cooking methods for white fish may lower PCA risk.

  11. Effectiveness of FISK, an invasiveness screening tool for non-native freshwater fishes, to perform risk identification assessments in the Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, David; Ribeiro, Filipe; Leunda, Pedro M; Vilizzi, Lorenzo; Copp, Gordon H

    2013-08-01

    Risk assessments are crucial for identifying and mitigating impacts from biological invasions. The Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit (FISK) is a risk identification (screening) tool for freshwater fishes consisting of two subject areas: biogeography/history and biology/ecology. According to the outcomes, species can be classified under particular risk categories. The aim of this study was to apply FISK to the Iberian Peninsula, a Mediterranean climate region highly important for freshwater fish conservation due to a high level of endemism. In total, 89 fish species were assessed by three independent assessors. Results from receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that FISK can discriminate reliably between noninvasive and invasive fishes for Iberia, with a threshold of 20.25, similar to those obtained in several regions around the world. Based on mean scores, no species was categorized as "low risk," 50 species as "medium risk," 17 as "moderately high risk," 11 as "high risk," and 11 as "very high risk." The highest scoring species was goldfish Carassius auratus. Mean certainty in response was above the category "mostly certain," ranging from tinfoil barb Barbonymus schwanenfeldii with the lowest certainty to eastern mosquitofish Gambusia holbrooki with the highest level. Pair-wise comparison showed significant differences between one assessor and the other two on mean certainty, with these two assessors showing a high coincidence rate for the species categorization. Overall, the results suggest that FISK is a useful and viable tool for assessing risks posed by non-native fish in the Iberian Peninsula and contributes to a "watch list" in this region. © 2013 Crown copyright This article is published with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen's Printer for Scotland.

  12. Exchange rate risks and their impact upon the energy market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abed Al-Zabidi

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of international business in Slovakia brought not only the opening of markets and expansion of enterprise possibilities but also an increase in the competition and new risks. One of such risks is also the exchange rate risk. The business that realizes a financial transaction exceeding borders of the state or derives his buying or selling prices in Slovak crowns from the foreign currency, is subjected to the exchange rate risks. The exchange rate risks are caused by volatility of exchange courses of Slovak crowns related to foreign currencies. The progress of exchange rates can considerably influence a real result of a transaction negatively; therefore it is important for enterprises to identify possible risks resulting from changes in exchange rates, so they could react accordingly.The proposed article is aimed at the explanation of basic techniques of minimizing exchange rate risks with the use of financial tools available on the financial market.

  13. Higher freshwater fish and sea fish intake is inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk among Chinese population: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Ming; Fang, Yu-Jing; Chen, Yu-Ming; Lu, Min-Shan; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Yan, Bo; Zhong, Xiao; Zhang, Cai-Xia

    2015-01-01

    The association between specific fish intake and colorectal cancer risk remains controversial. This study aimed to examine the association between specific fish intake and colorectal cancer risk in Chinese population in a large case control study. During July 2010 to November 2014, 1189 eligible colorectal cancer cases and 1189 frequency-matched controls (age and sex) completed in-person interviews. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to estimate dietary intake. Multivariate log...

  14. The Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating: Development and Initial Psychometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Michael; Newgent, Rebecca A.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the development and psychometrics of the Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating. The Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating is a brief screening of addiction potential based on 10 risk factors predictive of youth alcohol and drug-related problems that assists examiners in more accurate treatment planning when self-report information is…

  15. Higher freshwater fish and sea fish intake is inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk among Chinese population: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ming; Fang, Yu-Jing; Chen, Yu-Ming; Lu, Min-Shan; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Yan, Bo; Zhong, Xiao; Zhang, Cai-Xia

    2015-08-12

    The association between specific fish intake and colorectal cancer risk remains controversial. This study aimed to examine the association between specific fish intake and colorectal cancer risk in Chinese population in a large case control study. During July 2010 to November 2014, 1189 eligible colorectal cancer cases and 1189 frequency-matched controls (age and sex) completed in-person interviews. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to estimate dietary intake. Multivariate logistical regression models were used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) after adjusting for various confounders. A strong inverse association was found between freshwater fish intake and colorectal cancer risk. Compared with the lowest quartile, the highest quartile intake showed a risk reduction of 53% (OR 0.47, 95% CI = 0.36-0.60, Ptrend colorectal cancer risk. These results indicate that higher consumption of freshwater fish, sea fish and fresh fish is associated with a lower risk of colorectal caner.

  16. Comparative Study of Barotrauma Risk during Fish Passage through Kaplan Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richmond, Marshall C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Hydrology Group; Romero-Gomez, Pedro [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Hydrology Group; Serkowski, John A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Hydrology Group; Rakowski, Cynthia L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Hydrology Group; Graf, Michael J. [Voith Hydro, York, PA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Rapid pressure changes in hydroelectric turbine flows can cause barotrauma that can be hazardous to the passage of fish, in particular migratory juvenile salmonids. Although numerous laboratory tests have evaluated the effect of rapid decompression in fish species of relevance, numerical modeling studies offer the advantage of predicting, for new turbine designs, the potential risks of mortality and injury from rapid pressure change during turbine passage. However, rapid pressure change is only one of several hydraulic risks encountered by fish during turbine passage in addition to blade strike, shear, and turbulence. To better understand the role of rapid pressure changes, the present work focuses on the application of a computational fluid dynamics based method for evaluating the risk of pressure-related mortality to fish passing through an early 1960s era original hydroelectric Kaplan turbine at Wanapum Dam (Columbia River, Washington), and a modern advanced Kaplan turbine installed in 2005. The results show that the modeling approach acceptably reproduced the nadir pressure distributions compared to field data previously collected at the site using an autonomous sensor. Our findings show that the new advanced-design unit performs better, in terms of reduced barotrauma risk to fish from exposure to low pressures, than the original turbine unit. The outcomes allow for comparative analyses of turbine designs and operations prior to installation, an advantage that can potentially be integrated in the process of designing new turbine units to achieve superior environmental performance. Overall, the results show that modern turbine designs can achieve the multiple objectives of increasing power generation, lowering cavitation potential, and reducing barotrauma risks to passing fish.

  17. Impact of consumers' health beliefs, involvement and risk perception of fish consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pieniak, Zuzanna; Verbeke, Wim; Scholderer, Joachim

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - To investigate the impact of consumers' health beliefs, involvement, and risk perception on fish consumption in five European countries. Design/methodology/approach - Cross-sectional data were collected through the SEAFOODplus pan-European consumer survey (n=4,786) with samples represen......Purpose - To investigate the impact of consumers' health beliefs, involvement, and risk perception on fish consumption in five European countries. Design/methodology/approach - Cross-sectional data were collected through the SEAFOODplus pan-European consumer survey (n=4,786) with samples...... representative for age and region in Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark, Spain and Poland. Structural equation modeling (LISREL) was used in order to simultaneously estimate the strength and direction of all relationships in our model.- Our model contributes to a better understanding of factors influencing fish...... consumption. Health involvement is found as an indirect whilst interest in healthy eating emerges as a direct driver of fish consumption behaviour. On the contrary, risk perception has a negative impact on fish consumption. Research limitations/implications - Further research using survey questionnaires could...

  18. Interest rate risk of life insurers: Evidence from accounting data

    OpenAIRE

    Möhlmann, Axel

    2017-01-01

    Life insurers are exposed to interest rate risk, and their liability side is typically more sensitive to interest rate changes than their asset side. This paper develops an accounting-based measure of interest rate sensitivity. My approach uses the coexistence of historical cost and market value accounting, which permits the observation of valuations for different discount rates. Using microdata, I show that German life insurers have a significant exposure to interest rate risk. However, ther...

  19. Simplifying cardiovascular risk estimation using resting heart rate.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Marie Therese

    2010-09-01

    Elevated resting heart rate (RHR) is a known, independent cardiovascular (CV) risk factor, but is not included in risk estimation systems, including Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE). We aimed to derive risk estimation systems including RHR as an extra variable and assess the value of this addition.

  20. Exchange rate risk in Central European countries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kočenda, Evžen; Poghosyan, T.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 1 (2010), s. 22-39 ISSN 0015-1920 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA402/08/1376; GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : foreign exchange risk * time-varying risk premium * stochastic discount factor Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.278, year: 2010 http://journal.fsv.cuni.cz/storage/1178_str_22_39_-_ko%C4%8Denda.pdf

  1. Heavy metal concentrations in wild fishes captured from the South China Sea and associated health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yang-Guang; Lin, Qin; Wang, Xue-Hui; Du, Fei-Yan; Yu, Zi-Ling; Huang, Hong-Hui

    2015-07-15

    Heavy metal concentrations were measured in 29 marine wild fish species from the South China Sea. Concentrations (wet weight) were 0.51-115.81 ng/g (Cd), 0.54-27.31 ng/g (Pb), 0.02-1.26 μg/g (Cr), 8.32-57.48 ng/g (Ni), 0.12-1.13 μg/g (Cu), 2.34-6.88 μg/g (Zn), 2.51-22.99 μg/g (Fe), and 0.04-0.81 μg/g (Mn), respectively. Iron concentrations in all and Mn in some fish species were higher than the acceptable daily upper limit, suggesting human consumption of these wild fish species may pose a health risk. Human health risk assessment, however, indicated no significant adverse health effects with consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fish farming as an innovative strategy for promoting food security in drought risk regions of Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvin Shava

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the implementation of fish farming as an innovative and economic strategy for promoting food security and dietary diversities among vulnerable households in drought risk areas of Zimbabwe. The declining climatic conditions and lack of economic opportunities in Mwenezi district of Zimbabwe attracted the attention of three nongovernmental organisations (NGOs to implement fish farming as an innovative mechanism to stimulate food security and generate employment in the district. The article used a qualitative research approach that includes semi-structured interviews and secondary data. The purposive sampling technique was adopted to interview participants in Mwenezi district who were involved in fish farming to assess and explore the experiences and benefits they derive from such development projects. Results for the article revealed that fish farming was well embraced by local communities as it led to improvements in food security, household income and employment regeneration. The local government including traditional leadership (Chiefs and Headmen’s supported the NGO activities as they benefited local communities. The article concludes that although fish farming was instrumental in regenerating employment, some participants still fail to participate because of laziness and desire to maintain dependency syndrome. The article recommends the NGOs to launch awareness campaigns in rural communities and increase networking with the donor community which is fundamental in attracting sustainable funding. The government can also promote fish farming in vulnerable rural communities by providing funding and capacity building programmes.

  3. Risk assessment of N-nitrosodimethylamine formed endogenously after fish-with-vegetable meals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeilmaker, M.J.; Bakker, M.I.; Schothorst, R.; Slob, W.

    2010-01-01

    The consumption of fish and nitrate-rich vegetables may lead to the formation of the genotoxic carcinogen N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in the stomach. To assess human cancer risk associated with this formation, a dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal model was used to simulate NDMA formation in the

  4. Association between Dietary Patterns of Meat and Fish Consumption with Bone Mineral Density or Fracture Risk: A Systematic Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Perna, Simone; Avanzato, Ilaria; Nichetti, Mara; D’Antona, Giuseppe; Negro, Massimo; Rondanelli, Mariangela

    2017-01-01

    This systematic review aimed to investigate the association of fish and sea fish dietary patterns (FishDiet) and meat or processed meat dietary patterns (MeatDiet) with bone mineral density (BMD) and/or risk of fractures (RF). This review includes 37 studies with a total of 432,924 subjects. The results suggest that MeatDiet and FishDiet did not affect BMD or RF in 48.2% of the subjects with MeatDiet and in 86.5% of the subjects with FishDiet. Positive effects on bone were found in 3% of subj...

  5. Interest Rate Risk Management using Duration Gap Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Armeanu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The world for financial institutions has changed during the last 20 years, and become riskier and more competitive-driven. After the deregulation of the financial market, banks had to take on extensive risk in order to earn sufficient returns. Interest rate volatility has increased dramatically over the past twenty-five years and for that an efficient management of this interest rate risk is strong required. In the last years banks developed a variety of methods for measuring and managing interest rate risk. From these the most frequently used in real banking life and recommended by Basel Committee are based on: Reprising Model or Funding Gap Model, Maturity Gap Model, Duration Gap Model, Static and Dynamic Simulation. The purpose of this article is to give a good understanding of duration gap model used for managing interest rate risk. The article starts with a overview of interest rate risk and explain how this type of risk should be measured and managed within an asset-liability management. Then the articles takes a short look at methods for measuring interest rate risk and after that explains and demonstrates how can be used Duration Gap Model for managing interest rate risk in banks.The world for financial institutions has changed during the last 20 years, and become riskier and more competitive-driven. After the deregulation of the financial market, banks had to take on extensive risk in order to earn sufficient returns. Interest rate volatility has increased dramatically over the past twenty-five years and for that an efficient management of this interest rate risk is strong required. In the last years banks developed a variety of methods for measuring and managing interest rate risk. From these the most frequently used in real banking life and recommended by Basel Committee are based on: Reprising Model or Funding Gap Model, Maturity Gap Model, Duration Gap Model, Static and Dynamic Simulation. The purpose of this article is to give a

  6. Probabilistic risk assessment of exposure to leucomalachite green residues from fish products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yung-Lin; Chimeddulam, Dalaijamts; Sheen, Lee-Yan; Wu, Kuen-Yuh

    2013-12-01

    To assess the potential risk of human exposure to carcinogenic leucomalachite green (LMG) due to fish consumption, the probabilistic risk assessment was conducted for adolescent, adult and senior adult consumers in Taiwan. The residues of LMG with the mean concentration of 13.378±20.56 μg kg(-1) (BFDA, 2009) in fish was converted into dose, considering fish intake reported for three consumer groups by NAHSIT (1993-1996) and body weight of an average individual of the group. The lifetime average and high 95th percentile dietary intakes of LMG from fish consumption for Taiwanese consumers were estimated at up to 0.0135 and 0.0451 μg kg-bw(-1) day(-1), respectively. Human equivalent dose (HED) of 2.875 mg kg-bw(-1) day(-1) obtained from a lower-bound benchmark dose (BMDL10) in mice by interspecies extrapolation was linearly extrapolated to oral cancer slope factor (CSF) of 0.035 (mgkg-bw(-1)day(-1))(-1) for humans. Although, the assumptions and methods are different, the results of lifetime cancer risk varying from 3×10(-7) to 1.6×10(-6) were comparable to those of margin of exposures (MOEs) varying from 410,000 to 4,800,000. In conclusions, Taiwanese fish consumers with the 95th percentile LADD of LMG have greater risk of liver cancer and need to an action of risk management in Taiwan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Self-rated health and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roelsgaard, Ida Kristiane; Olesen, Anne Marie; Simonsen, Mette Kildevæld

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Self-rated health (SRH) has been shown to be a strong predictor of mortality from a number of major chronic diseases, however, the association with cancer remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible association between change in SRH and cancer incidence...... proportional hazards model with adjustment for age, smoking, alcohol, marital status, physical activity, body mass index and estrogen replacement therapy. RESULTS: No significant association was found between SRH and overall cancer incidence in the age-adjusted Cox proportional hazards model (1.04; 95% CI 0...

  8. Real interest rates, leverage, and bank risk-taking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dell’Ariccia, G.; Laeven, L.; Marquez, R.

    2014-01-01

    Do low interest rate environments lead to greater bank risk-taking? We show that, when banks can adjust their capital structures, reductions in real interest rates lead to greater leverage and higher risk for any downward sloping loan demand function. However, if the capital structure is fixed, the

  9. Interest Rate Risk Management using Duration Gap Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Armeanu

    2008-01-01

    should be measured and managed within an asset-liability management. Then the articles takes a short look at methods for measuring interest rate risk and after that explains and demonstrates how can be used Duration Gap Model for managing interest rate risk in banks.

  10. Ecological risk assessment in a large river-reservoir. 2: Fish community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suter, G.W. II; Barnthouse, L.W.; Efroymson, R.A.; Jager, H.

    1999-01-01

    This paper summarizes the assessment of risks to fishes in the Clinch River Operable Unit due to contaminants released by the US Department of Energy's activities on its Oak Ridge Reservation in Tennessee. This paper focuses on the most contaminated area, the Poplar Creek (PC) embayment. The assessment is of interest because of its use of five distinct lines of evidence: fish community surveys, fish body burdens, toxicity tests of ambient waters, suborganismal bioindicators, and single chemical toxicity tests. None of these lines of evidence provided unambiguous evidence of a significant risk, but the surveys indicated that the fish community in PC was depauperate, polychlorinated biphenyl body burdens may have been at toxic levels in catfish, one of the three tests of ambient water showed clear toxicity, some of the indicators were indicative of toxic effects, and concentrations that have been toxic in the laboratory were detected periodically. Interpretation was further complicated by upstream contamination of both the Clinch River and PC. The risk characterization was performed by evaluating each line of evidence separately and then weighing the evidence using an ecoepidemiological approach

  11. In vitro biotransformation rates in fish liver S9: effect of dosing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yung-Shan; Lee, Danny H Y; Delafoulhouze, Maximilien; Otton, S Victoria; Moore, Margo M; Kennedy, Chris J; Gobas, Frank A P C

    2014-08-01

    In vitro biotransformation assays are currently being explored to improve estimates of bioconcentration factors of potentially bioaccumulative organic chemicals in fish. The present study compares thin-film and solvent-delivery dosing techniques as well as single versus multiple chemical dosing for measuring biotransformation rates of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) liver S9. The findings show that biotransformation rates of very hydrophobic substances can be accurately measured in thin-film sorbent-dosing assays from concentration-time profiles in the incubation medium but not from those in the sorbent phase because of low chemical film-to-incubation-medium mass-transfer rates at the incubation temperature of 13.5 °C required for trout liver assays. Biotransformation rates determined by thin-film dosing were greater than those determined by solvent-delivery dosing for chrysene (octanol-water partition coefficient [KOW ] =10(5.60) ) and benzo[a]pyrene (KOW  =10(6.04) ), whereas there were no statistical differences in pyrene (KOW  =10(5.18) ) biotransformation rates between the 2 methods. In sorbent delivery-based assays, simultaneous multiple-chemical dosing produced biotransformation rates that were not statistically different from those measured in single-chemical dosing experiments for pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene but not for chrysene. In solvent-delivery experiments, multiple-chemical dosing produced biotransformation rates that were much smaller than those in single-chemical dosing experiments for all test chemicals. While thin-film sorbent-phase and solvent delivery-based dosing methods are both suitable methods for measuring biotransformation rates of substances of intermediate hydrophobicity, thin-film sorbent-phase dosing may be more suitable for superhydrophobic chemicals. © 2014 SETAC.

  12. Credit ratings and CEO risk-taking incentives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuang, Y.; Qin, B.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the sophistication of rating agencies in incorporating managerial risk-taking incentives into their credit risk evaluation. We measure risk-taking incentives using two proxies: the sensitivity of managerial wealth to stock return volatility (vega) and the sensitivity of

  13. Concentration and health risk evaluation of heavy metals in market-sold vegetables and fishes based on questionnaires in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yanyan; Nie, Zhiqiang; Liu, Feng; Die, Qingqi; He, Jie; Huang, Qifei

    2014-10-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals (As, Cd, Pb, Cu, Ni, Fe, Mn, and Zn) in market vegetables and fishes in Beijing, China, are investigated, and their health risk to local consumers is evaluated by calculating the target hazard quotient (THQ). The heavy metal concentrations in vegetables and fishes ranged from not detectable (ND) to 0.21 mg/kg fresh weight (f.w.) (As), ND to 0.10 mg/kg f.w. (Cd), and n.d to 0.57 mg/kg f.w. (Pb), with average concentrations of 0.17, 0.04, and 0.24 mg/kg f.w., respectively. The measured concentrations of As, Cd, Pb, Cu, Ni, Fe, Mn, and Zn are generally lower than the safety limits given by the Chinese regulation safety and quality standards of agriculture products (GB2762-2012). As, Cd, and Pb contaminations are found in vegetables and fishes. The exceeding standard rates are 19 % for As, 3 % for Cd, and 25 % for Pb. Pb contaminations are found quite focused on the fish samples from traditional agri-product markets. The paper further analyzed the health risk of heavy metals in vegetables and fishes respectively from supermarkets and traditional agri-product markets; the results showed that the fishes of traditional agri-product markets have higher health risk, while the supermarkets have vegetables of higher heavy metal risk, and the supervision should be strengthened in the fish supply channels in traditional agri-product markets.

  14. Organotin contamination in fishes with different living patterns and its implications for human health risk in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.-C.; Wang, T.; Hsieh, C.-Y.; Tien, C.-J.

    2005-01-01

    Contaminated levels of butyl- and phenyltin compounds, tributyltin (TBT), dibutyltin (DBT), monobutyltin (MBT), triphenyltin (TPT), diphenlytin (DPT), and monophenyltin (MPT), were investigated in pelagic, demersal and cultured fish species from different seasons and locations in Taiwan. Seasonal variations were found in fishes from Wuchi and Hsingta fishing harbors for their butyltin levels (winter > summer) with the opposite trend for phenyltins in fishes from Patoutzu fishing harbor and demersal fishes from four fishing harbors (summer > winter). Fish liver contained the lowest percentage of TBT and the highest percentage of TPT among six organotin compounds. Consumption of contaminated pelagic species and fishes from Hsingta fishing harbor had the highest hazard index. However, the hazard quotients and hazard indices were all less than 1, suggesting a daily exposure at these levels of TBT, DBT and TPT may not be likely to cause any deleterious effects during lifetime in human population. - Spatial and seasonal variations in accumulation of organotins were showed by fishes with different living patterns and the potential health risk to ingest such fishes

  15. Organotin contamination in fishes with different living patterns and its implications for human health risk in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.-C. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Medical College, National Cheng Kung University, 138 Sheng Li Road, Tainan 704, Taiwan (China); Research Center of Environmental Trace Toxic Substances, National Cheng Kung University, 138 Sheng Li Road, Tainan 704, Taiwan (China); Wang, T. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Medical College, National Cheng Kung University, 138 Sheng Li Road, Tainan 704, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, C.-Y. [Research Center of Environmental Trace Toxic Substances, National Cheng Kung University, 138 Sheng Li Road, Tainan 704, Taiwan (China); Tien, C.-J. [Department of Industrial Safety and Hygiene, Chung Hwa College of Medical Technology, 89 Wen-Hwa 1st Street, Jen-Te 717, Tainan, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: cjtien@mail.hwai.edu.tw

    2005-09-15

    Contaminated levels of butyl- and phenyltin compounds, tributyltin (TBT), dibutyltin (DBT), monobutyltin (MBT), triphenyltin (TPT), diphenlytin (DPT), and monophenyltin (MPT), were investigated in pelagic, demersal and cultured fish species from different seasons and locations in Taiwan. Seasonal variations were found in fishes from Wuchi and Hsingta fishing harbors for their butyltin levels (winter > summer) with the opposite trend for phenyltins in fishes from Patoutzu fishing harbor and demersal fishes from four fishing harbors (summer > winter). Fish liver contained the lowest percentage of TBT and the highest percentage of TPT among six organotin compounds. Consumption of contaminated pelagic species and fishes from Hsingta fishing harbor had the highest hazard index. However, the hazard quotients and hazard indices were all less than 1, suggesting a daily exposure at these levels of TBT, DBT and TPT may not be likely to cause any deleterious effects during lifetime in human population. - Spatial and seasonal variations in accumulation of organotins were showed by fishes with different living patterns and the potential health risk to ingest such fishes.

  16. The role of sport-fish consumption advisories in mercury risk communication: a 1998-1999 12-state survey of women age 18-45

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, H.A.; Hanrahan, L.P.; Smith, A.; Draheim, L.; Kanarek, M.; Olsen, J.

    2004-01-01

    Background: In 2002, in the United States, 48 states issued advisories for sport-fish consumers that included 39 chemical contaminants. The most commonly identified chemical was methyl mercury, which is linked to reproductive and developmental effects. Advisories to reduce consumption of contaminated fish have been issued by states since the early 1970s. Advisories are being integrated to include both sport and commercial fish. Methods: As part of a comprehensive risk-communication project, from December 1998 through August 1999 the Wisconsin Division of Public Health and the State of Maine Bureau of Health conducted a 12-state random-digit-dial telephone survey of 3015 women of childbearing age (ages 18-45). The goal was to assess the prevalence of fish consumption, understanding of mercury toxicity, and awareness of state sport-fish consumption advisories for mercury. We gathered information concerning respondents' demographic characteristics, understanding of mercury toxicity, fish consumption during the preceding 12 months, and sport-fish consumption advisory awareness. Results: The overall survey completion rate was 57% with a Council of American Survey Research Organizations (CASRO)-calculated response rate of 50%. Completion rates varied from 37% in New Jersey to 73% in Minnesota. Fish consumption during the previous 12 months was reported by 87% of respondents (range by state of 82-90%). Nearly 10% of women reported consuming two or more fish-meals per week over the prior 12 months. Twenty-nine percent reported sport-fish consumption during the same time period, with a greater state-to-state variability (14-43%). Most women (71%) were aware of mercury's toxicity to a developing child (87% among those aware of an advisory and 67% among those unaware of an advisory). However, awareness of state advisories was only 20%, ranging by state from 8% to 32%. Women who were older, had more than a high school education, and had a household member with a fishing

  17. Interest Rate Risk Management and the Use of Derivative Securities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana-Diana PĂUN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to demonstrate the utility of derivative financial instruments for the management of interest rate risk that is faced by banks and financial institutions, and to provide an efficient flow of monitoring and control thereof. Banking institutions can now use a combination of balance sheet and off balance sheet measures, i.e. gap method, of interest rate risk management, in order to control exposure of short-term rates and derivatives to control the residual interest rate exposures. The result of the study shows that banks can achieve better diversification and risk management using derivatives.

  18. TECHNICAL RISK RATING OF DOE ENVIRONMENTAL PROJECTS - 9153

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cercy, M.; Fayfich, Ronald; Schneider, Steven P.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) was established to achieve the safe and compliant disposition of legacy wastes and facilities from defense nuclear applications. The scope of work is diverse, with projects ranging from single acquisitions to collections of projects and operations that span several decades and costs from hundreds of millions to billions US$. The need to be able to manage and understand the technical risks from the project to senior management level has been recognized as an enabler to successfully completing the mission. In 2008, DOE-EM developed the Technical Risk Rating as a new method to assist in managing technical risk based on specific criteria. The Technical Risk Rating, and the criteria used to determine the rating, provides a mechanism to foster open, meaningful communication between the Federal Project Directors and DOE-EM management concerning project technical risks. Four indicators (technical maturity, risk urgency, handling difficulty and resolution path) are used to focus attention on the issues and key aspects related to the risks. Pressing risk issues are brought to the forefront, keeping DOE-EM management informed and engaged such that they fully understand risk impact. Use of the Technical Risk Rating and criteria during reviews provides the Federal Project Directors the opportunity to openly discuss the most significant risks and assists in the management of technical risks across the portfolio of DOE-EM projects. Technical Risk Ratings can be applied to all projects in government and private industry. This paper will present the methodology and criteria for Technical Risk Ratings, and provide specific examples from DOE-EM projects

  19. Optimal harvesting of fish stocks under a time-varying discount rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Stephen; Hepburn, Cameron; Papachristodoulou, Antonis

    2011-01-21

    Optimal control theory has been extensively used to determine the optimal harvesting policy for renewable resources such as fish stocks. In such optimisations, it is common to maximise the discounted utility of harvesting over time, employing a constant time discount rate. However, evidence from human and animal behaviour suggests that we have evolved to employ discount rates which fall over time, often referred to as "hyperbolic discounting". This increases the weight on benefits in the distant future, which may appear to provide greater protection of resources for future generations, but also creates challenges of time-inconsistent plans. This paper examines harvesting plans when the discount rate declines over time. With a declining discount rate, the planner reduces stock levels in the early stages (when the discount rate is high) and intends to compensate by allowing the stock level to recover later (when the discount rate will be lower). Such a plan may be feasible and optimal, provided that the planner remains committed throughout. However, in practice there is a danger that such plans will be re-optimized and adjusted in the future. It is shown that repeatedly restarting the optimization can drive the stock level down to the point where the optimal policy is to harvest the stock to extinction. In short, a key contribution of this paper is to identify the surprising severity of the consequences flowing from incorporating a rather trivial, and widely prevalent, "non-rational" aspect of human behaviour into renewable resource management models. These ideas are related to the collapse of the Peruvian anchovy fishery in the 1970's. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Nutraceuticals and Bioactive Components from Fish for Dyslipidemia and Cardiovascular Risk Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Chiesa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease remains the most common health problem in developed countries, and residual risk after implementing all current therapies is still high. Permanent changes in lifestyle may be hard to achieve and people may not always be motivated enough to make the recommended modifications. Emerging research has explored the application of natural food-based strategies in disease management. In recent years, much focus has been placed on the beneficial effects of fish consumption. Many of the positive effects of fish consumption on dyslipidemia and heart diseases have been attributed to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs, i.e., EPA and DHA; however, fish is also an excellent source of protein and, recently, fish protein hydrolysates containing bioactive peptides have shown promising activities for the prevention/management of cardiovascular disease and associated health complications. The present review will focus on n-3 PUFAs and bioactive peptides effects on cardiovascular disease risk factors. Moreover, since considerable controversy exists regarding the association between n-3 PUFAs and major cardiovascular endpoints, we have also reviewed the main clinical trials supporting or not this association.

  1. Health risk assessment of heavy metals in fish and accumulation patterns in food web in the upper Yangtze River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yujun; Tang, Caihong; Yi, Tieci; Yang, Zhifeng; Zhang, Shanghong

    2017-11-01

    This study aims to concern the distribution of As, Cr, Cd, Hg, Cu, Zn, Pb and Fe in surface sediment, zoobenthos and fishes, and quantify the accumulative ecological risk and human health risk of metals in river ecological system based on the field investigation in the upper Yangtze River. The results revealed high ecological risk of As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Zn and Pb in sediment. As and Cd in fish presented potential human health risk of metals by assessing integrated target hazard quotient results based on average and maximum concentrations, respectively. No detrimental health effects of heavy metals on humans were found by daily fish consumption. While, the total target hazard quotient (1.659) exceeding 1, it meant that the exposed population might experience noncarcinogenic health risks from the accumulative effect of metals. Ecological network analysis model was established to identify the transfer routes and quantify accumulative effects of metals on river ecosystem. Control analysis between compartments showed large predator fish firstly depended on the omnivorous fish. Accumulative ecological risk of metals indicated that zoobenthos had the largest metal propagation risk and compartments located at higher trophic levels were not easier affected by the external environment pollution. A potential accumulative ecological risk of heavy metal in the food web was quantified, and the noncarcinogenic health risk of fish consumption was revealed for the upper reach of the Yangtze River. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluating risk communication about fish consumption advisories: efficacy of a brochure versus a classroom lesson in Spanish and English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; McDermott, Melanie Hughes; Chess, Caron; Bochenek, Eleanor; Perez-Lugo, Marla; Pflugh, Kerry Kirk

    2003-08-01

    Presentation format can influence the way target audiences understand risk-related information. Brochures or fish fact sheets are the methods traditionally used by state agencies to inform the public about fish consumption advisories and the risks from consuming fish. This study examines the efficacy of presenting information about the risks from consuming contaminated fish and shellfish in two different formats: a brochure and classroom presentation. The two instruments were developed and tested in Spanish and English, reflecting the local ethnic composition in the Newark Bay Complex. The instruments were tested on women of child-bearing age at the Women, Infants, and Children Center in Elizabeth, New Jersey. Detailed diagrams were used in both presentations, including contaminated fish species, fish preparation methods, and food chain bioaccumulation and transmission to the fetus. There were few language-related differences in the efficacy of the classroom lesson, and the main ideas were understood by both groups. Where there were significant differences in understanding about the risks from consuming fish or crabs from the contaminated waters of Newark Bay, in all cases the women exposed to the classroom lesson had a better understanding than those who read the brochure. Ninety-six percent of the women who heard the lesson understood that it was unsafe to eat fish from the port, compared to 72% of those reading the brochure. Both formats succeeded in imparting information to most women about the area under advisories, the fish species under advisories, and transmission of toxins to the fetus. Information on fish preparation was recalled less clearly, partly because women were asked to relate methods to reduce the risk from consuming fish from 11 presented, and most recalled only two or three of the list. The advantages and disadvantages of conducting short classes to women of child-bearing age are discussed.

  3. Effects of n-3 fatty acids from fish on premature ventricular complexes and heart rate in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geelen, A.; Brouwer, I.A.; Katan, M.B.; Schouten, E.G.; Maan, A.C.; Zock, P.L.

    2005-01-01

    Background: A large body of evidence suggests that n-3 fatty acids from fish prevent fatal heart disease. They may be an effective and safe alternative to drug treatment for reducing the risk of arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death. Objective: We investigated the effect of n-3 fatty acids on heart

  4. Environmental impacts of genetic improvement of growth rate and feed conversion ratio in fish farming under rearing density and nitrogen output limitations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besson, M.; Aubin, J.; Komen, H.; Poelman, M.; Quillet, E.; Vandeputte, M.; Arendonk, Van J.A.M.; Boer, De I.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Today, fish farming faces an increasing demand in fish products, but also various environmental challenges. Genetic improvement in growth rate and feed conversion ratio is known to be an efficient way to increase production and increase efficiency in fish farming. The environmental consequences

  5. Fish oil supplementation during pregnancy and offspring risk of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm, Marin; Maslova, E.; Hansen, S.

    2013-01-01

    . Objective: To examine the effect of fish oil supplementation in pregnancy on offspring risk of attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depression. Methods: We used data from 397 and 654 singleton offspring of mothers who were randomized to fish oil (providing 1 g/day of DHA) or olive oil during...... pregnancy as participants in: the RCT90, a single center trial enrolling normal pregnancies in 1990, and FOTIP, a multicenter trial enrolling high-risk pregnancies during 1990–1996. We used definitions of ADHD and depression based on ICD-10 codes and drug dispensary data, using information on first...... prescription/hospital contact as a proxy for ADHD and depression, respectively. We performed intention-to-treat analysis and report odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CI comparing the two intervention groups. Results: There were 17 and 35 cases of ADHD among offspring to participants in RCT90 and FOTIP, respectively...

  6. A scenario for impacts of water availability loss due to climate change on riverine fish extinction rates

    OpenAIRE

    Tedesco, Pablo; Oberdorff, Thierry; Cornu, Jean-François; Beauchard, O.; Brosse, S.; Durr, H. H.; Grenouillet, G.; Leprieur, F.; Tisseuil, Clément; Zaiss, Rainer; Hugueny, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    1. Current models estimating impact of habitat loss on biodiversity in the face of global climate change usually project only percentages of species committed to extinction' on an uncertain time-scale. Here, we show that this limitation can be overcome using an empirically derived background extinction rate-area' curve to estimate natural rates and project future rates of freshwater fish extinction following variations in river drainage area resulting from global climate change.2. Based on fu...

  7. Red meat, chicken, and fish consumption and risk of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Dallas R; MacInnis, Robert J; Hodge, Allison M; Hopper, John L; Haydon, Andrew M; Giles, Graham G

    2004-09-01

    Red meat and processed meat consumption have been associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer in some, but not all, relevant cohort studies. Evidence on the relationship between risk of colorectal cancer and poultry and fish consumption is inconsistent. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 37,112 residents of Melbourne, Australia recruited from 1990 to 1994. Diet was measured with a food frequency questionnaire. We categorized the frequency of fresh red meat, processed meat, chicken, and fish consumption into approximate quartiles. Adenocarcinomas of the colon or rectum were ascertained via the Victorian Cancer Registry. We identified 283 colon cancers and 169 rectal cancers in an average of 9 years of follow-up. For rectal cancer, the hazard ratios [95% confidence intervals (95% CI)] in the highest quartile of consumption of fresh red meat and processed meat were 2.3 (1.2-4.2; P for trend = 0.07) and 2.0 (1.1-3.4; P for trend = 0.09), respectively. The corresponding hazard ratios (95% CIs) for colon cancer were 1.1 (0.7-1.6; P for trend = 0.9) and 1.3 (0.9-1.9; P for trend = 0.06). However, for neither type of meat was the heterogeneity between subsites significant. Chicken consumption was weakly negatively associated with colorectal cancer (hazard ratio highest quartile, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.6-1.0; P for trend = 0.03), whereas hazard ratios for fish consumption were close to unity. Consumption of fresh red meat and processed meat seemed to be associated with an increased risk of rectal cancer. Consumption of chicken and fish did not increase risk.

  8. Inappropriate use of payment weights to risk adjust readmission rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Richard L; Goldfield, Norbert I; Averill, Richard F; Hughes, John S

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors demonstrate that the use of relative weights, as incorporated within the National Quality Forum-endorsed PacifiCare readmission measure, is inappropriate for risk adjusting rates of hospital readmission.

  9. Postnatal fish oil supplementation in high-risk infants to prevent allergy: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Vaz, N; Meldrum, S J; Dunstan, J A; Martino, D; McCarthy, S; Metcalfe, J; Tulic, M K; Mori, T A; Prescott, S L

    2012-10-01

    Relative deficiency of dietary omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) has been implicated in the rising allergy prevalence in Westernized countries. Fish oil supplementation may provide an intervention strategy for primary allergy prevention. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of fish oil n-3 PUFA supplementation from birth to 6 months of age on infant allergic disease. In a double-blind randomized controlled trial, 420 infants at high atopic risk received a daily supplement of fish oil containing 280 mg docosahexaenoic acid and 110 mg eicosapentaenoic acid or a control (olive oil), from birth to age 6 months. PUFA levels were measured in 6-month-old infants' erythrocytes and plasma and their mothers' breast milk. Eczema, food allergy, asthma and sensitization were assessed in 323 infants for whom clinical follow-up was completed at 12 months of age. At 6 months of age, infant docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid levels were significantly higher (both P acid levels were lower (P = .003) in the fish oil group. Although n-3 PUFA levels at 6 months were associated with lower risk of eczema (P = .033) and recurrent wheeze (P = .027), the association with eczema was not significant after multiple comparisons and there was no effect of the intervention per se on the primary study outcomes. Specifically, between-group comparisons revealed no differences in the occurrence of allergic outcomes including sensitization, eczema, asthma, or food allergy. Postnatal fish oil supplementation improved infant n-3 status but did not prevent childhood allergic disease.

  10. Intake of predatory fish in Amazonia is a driver of toxicological risk for susceptible exposure groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacon S.S.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available High fish intake has marked the scenario of riparian communities in Amazon basin during the last three decades. Although efforts have been done by some national and international scientific groups to control mercury exposure in Brazilian Amazon, the problem persists. The return of artisan gold mining, the new hydroelectric power plants (with its reservoirs and the expansion of the agribusiness are some of the economic activities that may contribute to the increment of mercury load in the Amazon ecosystem with direct influence in the food chain. These changes in Amazon scenario increase complexity of environmental issue and mercury may become a threat for susceptible exposure groups. This study evaluated mercury exposure scenarios for susceptible groups around the hydroelectric plant to calculate toxicological risk before damming. During the period of 2009 to 2011, about 771 children under 16 years age and 276 female in reproductive age (from 16 to 40 years old were assessed. Besides, regular fish samples (n=1580 were collected for total mercury determination. The mercury concentration in fish ranged from 0.01 to 6.06 mg/kg. For the current scenario the toxicological risk ranged from 3.5 to 24 for mercury for the susceptible groups. Regarding the critical scenario after 3 years flooding, the area is expected to double the risk for the same group, especially for the communities downstream, which may represent a critical situation.

  11. Risks and rewards of variable-rate debt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordahl, Eric A

    2012-05-01

    Hospital and health system finance leaders should position their organizations to participate in the variable-rate market. To this end, one important step is to establish the right baseline variable-rate exposure target for the organization based on its credit and risk profile. Leaders also should be thoroughly familiar with the available products and understand the circumstances (pricing, terms, and embedded risk) under which the organization would be willing to deploy them within the overall capital structure.

  12. Risk of heavy metal ingestion from the consumption of two commercially valuable species of fish from the fresh and coastal waters of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbogbo, Francis; Arthur-Yartel, Anna; Bondzie, Josephine A; Dorleku, Winfred-Peck; Dadzie, Stephen; Kwansa-Bentum, Bethel; Ewool, Julliet; Billah, Maxwell K; Lamptey, Angela M

    2018-01-01

    The need to evaluate the human health safety of fishery resources remain urgent in the mist of the ever-increasing fear of heavy metal toxicity from the consumption of Ghana's fisheries resource, as a consequence of pollution from several anthropogenic activities including artisanal gold mining. Nevertheless, the bigeye grunt (Brachydeuterus auritus) and Bagrid catfish (Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus) remain commercially valuable fish species in West Africa and continue to attract high patronage. Forty-five specimens each of C. nigrodigitatus and B. auritus collected from the Weija Dam and the Tema Fishing Habour in Ghana, between June and September 2016, were analysed for seven heavy metals using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Lead and Cadmium were below detection in all samples while Cu was not detected in B. auritus. Levels of the remaining metals (mg kg-1) were below FAO/WHO maximum permissible limits in fish and occurred in the rank order Se (3.5) > Zn (2.34) > Cu (0.59) > As (0.37) > Hg (0.19) in C. nigrodigitatus and Se (2.97) > Zn (2.28) > Hg (0.31) > As (0.21) in B. auritus. Only As in C. nigrodigitatus recorded Estimated Weekly Intake (EWI) greater than FAO/WHO Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI). Also, As in C. nigrodigitatus and Hg in B. auritus had Targeted Hazard Quotient (THQ) greater than 1 for individuals consuming the fishes on daily basis and therefore, raising concerns. However, for both species of fish, cancer risk of As was 1 in 10,000,000,000 and modified Health Benefits values of Se (HBVSe) were positive indicating the health risks that might accompany Hg exposure would be negated. Since toxicity depends on the concentration and quantity of a pollutant consumed, safe maximum consumption rate of C. nigrodigitatus based on As concentrations was 0.21 mg per day and that of B. auritus was 0.058 mg per day for Hg. With an average of 0.227 kg fish per meal of an adult human, these translated into not more than 24 C. nigrodigitatus and nine (9

  13. 75 FR 13145 - SBA Lender Risk Rating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SBA-2010-0004] SBA Lender Risk Rating System AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice; extension of comment period and correction. SUMMARY: On... of Credit Risk Management, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 Third Street, SW., 8th Floor...

  14. Risk and complication rate of uterine fibroid embolization (UFE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radeleff, B.; Rimbach, S.; Kauffmann, G.W.; Richter, G.M.

    2003-01-01

    Our goal was to evaluate risks and complication rate of uterine fibroid embolization (UFE). The most frequent complications reported in the literature are associated with angiography procedure, serious complications are extremely infrequent. The embolization of fibroids is a safe angiographic intervention. Nevertheless, the interventional radiologist must be aware of the common risks and complication and the strategies to avoid them. (orig.) [de

  15. College Students' Perceived Disease Risk versus Actual Prevalence Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Dickerson, Justin B.; Sosa, Erica T.; McKyer, E. Lisako J.; Ory, Marcia G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare college students' perceived disease risk with disease prevalence rates. Methods: Data were analyzed from 625 college students collected with an Internet-based survey. Paired t-tests were used to separately compare participants' perceived 10-year and lifetime disease risk for 4 diseases: heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and…

  16. Risk and toxicity assessments of heavy metals in sediments and fishes from the Yangtze River and Taihu Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jie; Hu, Xin; Tao, Xiancong; Yu, Hongxia; Zhang, Xiaowei

    2013-11-01

    Heavy metal pollution is one of the most serous environmental issues globally. To evaluate the metal pollution in Jiangsu Province of China, the total concentrations of heavy metals in sediments and fishes from the Yangtze River and Taihu Lake were analyzed. Ecological risk of sediments and human health risk of fish consumption were assessed respectively. Furthermore, toxicity of samples on expression of the stress responsive genes was evaluated using microbial live cell-array method. The results showed that the heavy metals concentrations in sediments from the Yangtze River were much higher than those in sediments from the Taihu Lake. However, the fishes from the Taihu Lake had higher concentrations of heavy metals than fishes from the Yangtze River. Ecological risk evaluation showed that the heavy metal contaminants in sediments from the Yangtze River posed higher risk of adverse ecological effects, while sediments from the study areas of Taihu Lake were relatively safe. Health risk assessment suggested that the heavy metals in fishes of both Yangtze River and Taihu Lake might have risk of adverse health effects to human. The toxicity assessment indicated that the heavy metals in these sediments and fishes showed transcriptional effects on the selected 21 stress responsive genes, which were involved in the pathways of DNA damage response, chemical stress, and perturbations of electron transport. Together, this field investigation combined with chemical analysis, risk assessment and toxicity bioassay would provide useful information on the heavy metal pollution in Jiangsu Province. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of water temperature on the economic value of growth rate in fish farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besson, M.; Vandeputte, M.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Aubin, J.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Quillet, E.; Komen, H.

    2016-01-01

    In sea cage farming, fish are exposed to seasonal variations of water temperature, and these variations can differ from one location to another. A small increase in water temperature does not only stimulate growth of the fish (until an optimal level) but also lowers dissolved oxygen concentration

  18. Effect of bottom type on catch rates of North Sea cod (Gadus morhua) in surveys with commercial fishing vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Kai; Pedersen, Eva Maria; Olesen, Hans Jakob

    2009-01-01

    were substantially higher on gravel or stone bottom and at ship wrecks than on sand bottom. The difference in the catch rates between the two bottom categories at paired stations within a short distance was highly significant for all the three fishing methods. Similarly, average CPUE for most surveys...

  19. KRW/USD Exchange Rate Volatility and Efficient Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Sang-Yong Joo; Chae-Shick Chung; Young-Woo Lee

    1999-01-01

    This thesis analyzes the relationship between the exchange rate of Korean Won and US dollar and the amount of foreign exchange, and studies the direction of the amendment of the risk control of foreign exchange. The GARCH (Generalized Auto Regressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity) model which visually embodies the auto-regress of the wave of exchange rate shows that the amount of trade will enhance the fluidity of the exchange rate, that is, the various expects of the participators of the ma...

  20. The effect of turbidity and prey fish density on consumption rates of piscivorous Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lene; Berg, Søren; Baktoft, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    piscivorous Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis L. This was done in outdoor mesocosm (16 m2) experiments with clear water and two levels of turbidity (25 and 105 NTU) and two prey fish densities [3.1 and 12.5 roach Rutilus rutilus (L.) individuals m–2]. Perch consumption rates were affected by visibility less...... than expected, while they were highly affected by increased prey fish density. Perch responded to high prey density in all visibility conditions, indicating that prey density is more crucial for consumption than visibility in turbid lakes...

  1. Arsenic Speciation in Fish Products and Seafood as a Prerequisite for Proper Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orletti, Roberta; Chessa, Giannina; Carloni, Cristiano; Griffoni, Francesco; Palombo, Paolo; Velieri, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The Boi Cerbus lagoon, facing a mining and industrial site in Sardinia (Italy), is an important fishing area for the local population. Previous studies showed high concentrations of total arsenic (Astot) in fish, molluscs and crustaceans sampled in the lagoon, and a possible exceeding of the provisional tolerable weekly intake set by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives by some local consumer groups. However, the percentage of inorganic As (Asinorg) should be known for a correct assessment of potential risk, as its toxicity is much higher than that of the organic forms. Eighty samples of 14 different species of fish, molluscs and crustaceans, sampled in the Boi Cerbus lagoon in 3 different seasons (winter, spring and summer), were analysed for Astot by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and Asinorg by high performance liquid chromatography-ICP-MS. All the data obtained from the analysis were statistically processed to evaluate significant differences based on season, taxon and habitat, in preparation for a subsequent risk assessment. PMID:27800381

  2. Arsenic speciation in fish products and seafood as a prerequisite for proper risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Piras

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Boi Cerbus lagoon, facing a mining and industrial site in Sardinia (Italy, is an important fishing area for the local population. Previous studies showed high concentrations of total arsenic (Astot in fish, molluscs and crustaceans sampled in the lagoon, and a possible exceeding of the provisional tolerable weekly intake set by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives by some local consumer groups. However, the percentage of inorganic As (Asinorg should be known for a correct assessment of potential risk, as its toxicity is much higher than that of the organic forms. Eighty samples of 14 different species of fish, molluscs and crustaceans, sampled in the Boi Cerbus lagoon in 3 different seasons (winter, spring and summer, were analysed for Astot by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS and Asinorg by high performance liquid chromatography-ICP-MS. All the data obtained from the analysis were statistically processed to evaluate significant differences based on season, taxon and habitat, in preparation for a subsequent risk assessment.

  3. Birth defects risk associated with maternal sport fish consumption: potential effect modification by sex of offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendola, Pauline; Robinson, Luther K; Buck, Germaine M; Druschel, Charlotte M; Fitzgerald, Edward F; Sever, Lowell E; Vena, John E

    2005-02-01

    Contaminated sport fish consumption may result in exposure to various reproductive and developmental toxicants, including pesticides and other suspected endocrine disruptors. We investigated the relation between maternal sport fish meals and risk of major birth defects among infants born to members of the New York State (NYS) Angler Cohort between 1986 and 1991 (n=2237 births). Birth defects (n=125 cases) were ascertained from both newborn medical records and the NYS Congenital Malformations Registry. For sport fish meals eaten during pregnancy, the odds ratio (OR) for all major malformations combined was slightly elevated for or =2 meals/month (OR=1.51, CI=0.74, 3.09), with no meals during pregnancy as the reference category. Higher ORs were consistently observed among male offspring compared with females. For > or =2 meals/month, the risk for males was significantly elevated (males: OR=3.01, CI: 1.2, 7.5; females: OR=0.73, CI: 0.2, 2.4). Exposure during pregnancy and effect modification by infants sex could be important considerations for future studies of birth outcomes associated with endocrine disruptors.

  4. Birth defects risk associated with maternal sport fish consumption: potential effect modification by sex of offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendola, Pauline; Robinson, L.K.; Buck, G.M.; Druschel, C.M.; Fitzgerald, E.F.; Sever, L.E.; Vena, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    Contaminated sport fish consumption may result in exposure to various reproductive and developmental toxicants, including pesticides and other suspected endocrine disruptors. We investigated the relation between maternal sport fish meals and risk of major birth defects among infants born to members of the New York State (NYS) Angler Cohort between 1986 and 1991 (n=2237 births). Birth defects (n=125 cases) were ascertained from both newborn medical records and the NYS Congenital Malformations Registry. For sport fish meals eaten during pregnancy, the odds ratio (OR) for all major malformations combined was slightly elevated for ≤1 meal/month (OR=1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.84, 1.89) and ≥2 meals/month (OR=1.51, CI=0.74, 3.09), with no meals during pregnancy as the reference category. Higher ORs were consistently observed among male offspring compared with females. For ≥2 meals/month, the risk for males was significantly elevated (males: OR=3.01, CI: 1.2, 7.5; females: OR=0.73, CI: 0.2, 2.4). Exposure during pregnancy and effect modification by infants sex could be important considerations for future studies of birth outcomes associated with endocrine disruptors

  5. Elimination of the risk resulting from pathogenic microorganisms in dried and smoked fish by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, O.N.

    1981-01-01

    The usefulness of irradiation in improving the microbiological quality and storage life of agricultural and fishery products was tried in a special study which had the following objectives: to determine the incidence of pathogenic organisms in dried, smoked and steamed fish; to determine the physico-chemical properties of these fish products; to determine the radiation dose necessary to eliminate the said pathogens at various levels of infections under practical conditions prevailing in the Philippines; to determine the organoleptic properties of the irradiated products. Staphylococcus aureus seemed to be the most radiation resistant among the test organisms used. For the purpose of the study the fish products were subjected to a radiation dose of 500 Kr. No significant difference of organoleptic properties at 0.05% level of significance existed between the irradiated and unirradiated counterparts. It was concluded that the use of low dose irradiation could be advantageously applied in combination with salting, drying and smoking and steaming not only to prolong the storage life of the fishery product but to eliminate the risk resulting from Salmonella, E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus pathogens - it appears that radiation could be most promising in smoked and steamed fish products where the low salt and high moisture contents provide less protection relative to dried fish against the growth of these microorganisms. Further the process would destroy much of the spoilage agents like the bacteria, insects, parasites, molds and yeasts which are known to be the main causes of losses in dried and smoked fishery products being experienced in developing countries like the Philippines

  6. The statistical properties of recreational catch rate data for some fish stocks off the northeast U.S. coast

    OpenAIRE

    Terceiro, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Recreational fisheries in the waters off the northeast U.S. target a variety of pelagic and demersal fish species, and catch and effort data sampled from recreational fisheries are a critical component of the information used in resource evaluation and management. Standardized indices of stock abundance developed from recreational fishery catch rates are routinely used in stock assessments. The statistical properties of both simulated and empirical recreational fishery catch-rate data such...

  7. Influence of depth, time and human activity on detection rate of acoustic tags: a case study on two fish farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otterå, H; Skilbrei, O T

    2016-03-01

    The detection rates of stationary acoustic transmitters deployed at three depths on two Atlantic salmon Salmo salar cage farms for c. 2 months were investigated. Deployment depth, time of day, day of the year and specific incidences at the farm substantially affected the rate of signal detection by the receiver. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  8. Influence of inocula with prior hydrocarbon exposure on biodegradation rates of diesel, synthetic diesel, and fish-biodiesel in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horel, Agota; Schiewer, Silke

    2014-08-01

    To achieve effective bioremediation within short warm seasons of cold climates, microbial adaptation periods to the contaminant should be brief. The current study investigated growth phases for soil spiked with diesel, Syntroleum, or fish biodiesel, using microbial inocula adapted to the specific substrates. For modeling hydrocarbon degradation, multi-phase first order kinetics was assumed, comparing linear regression with nonlinear parameter optimization of rate constants and phase durations. Lag phase periods of 5 to >28d were followed by short and intense exponential growth phases with high rate constants (e.g. from kFish=0.0013±0.0002 to kSyntr=0.015±0.001d(-1)). Hydrocarbon mineralization was highest for Syntroleum contamination, where up to three times higher cumulative CO2 production was achieved than for diesel fuel, with fish biodiesel showing initially the slowest degradation. The amount of hydrocarbons recovered from the soil by GC-MS decreased in the order fish biodiesel>diesel>Syntroleum. During initial weeks, biodegradation was higher for microbial inocula adapted to a specific fuel type, whereby the main effect of the inoculum was to shorten the lag phase duration; however, the inoculum's importance diminished after daily respiration peaked. In conclusion, addition of an inoculum to increase biodegradation rates was not necessary. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Consumption of omega-3 fatty acids and fish and risk of age-related hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, Bamini; Flood, Victoria M; Rochtchina, Elena; McMahon, Catherine M; Mitchell, Paul

    2010-08-01

    Identification of modifiable risk factors that could prevent or slow the development of age-related hearing loss (presbycusis) would be valuable. Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake may be related to age-related hearing loss. We aimed to determine the association between dietary intakes of omega-3 (n-3) PUFAs and fish and the risk of presbycusis. The Blue Mountains Hearing Study is a population-based survey of age-related hearing loss (1997-1999 to 2002-2004). We collected dietary data by using a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire and calculated PUFA and fish intakes. In 2956 participants (aged > or =50 y), we measured presbycusis, which we defined as the pure-tone average of frequencies 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 kHz >25 decibels of hearing loss. There was an inverse association between total n-3 PUFA intake and prevalent hearing loss [odds ratio (OR) per SD increase in energy-adjusted n-3 PUFAs: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.81, 0.99]. There was an inverse association between long-chain n-3 PUFAs and incident hearing loss (OR per SD increase in long-chain n-3 PUFAs: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.60, 0.97). Participants who had > or =2 servings of fish/wk compared with participants who had consumption of > or =1 to consumption of fish and hearing loss. Dietary intervention with n-3 PUFAs could prevent or delay the development of age-related hearing loss.

  10. Concentrations of heavy metals in marine wild fishes captured from the southern sea of Korea and associated health risk assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Dong-Woon; Kim, Seong-Soo; Kim, Seong-Gil; Kim, Dong-Sun; Kim, Tae-Hoon

    2017-12-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn) were determined in edible parts (muscle) of 34 marine wild fish caught from the southern sea of Korea in 2007 and 2008 in order to understand the accumulation pattern of heavy metals in wild fish and to assess the potential health risk posed by fish consumption. The highest concentrations in the muscle of 17 pelagic and 17 demersal fishes were Zn and As, respectively, while the lowest concentration in both fishes was Cd. The mean concentrations of all metals except As in wild fish were much lower than the regulatory limits for fish and fishery products applied in a number of countries. Unlike other metals, As concentration in wild fish of this study region was relatively higher than that found in other country. Estimated daily intake (EDI) of the metals was in the range of 0.05% to 22.5% of the provisional maximum tolerable daily intakes (PMTDI). Similarly, the target hazard quotient (THQ) was below 1.0 for each metal. These results imply that the consumption of the investigated wild fish do not cause significant adverse health effects.

  11. Toxic metals in tissues of fishes from the Black Sea and associated human health risk exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavan, Gabriel; Jitar, Oana; Teodosiu, Carmen; Nicoara, Mircea; Micu, Dragos; Strungaru, Stefan-Adrian

    2017-03-01

    The anthropogenic activities in the Black Sea area are responsible for toxic metal contamination of sea food products. In this study, several toxic metals: cadmium, lead, nickel, chromium, and copper were quantified in different tissues (digestive tract, muscle, skeleton, skin) of nine fish species (Neogobius melanostomus, Belone belone, Solea solea, Trachurus mediterraneus ponticus, Sardina pilchardus, Engraulis encrasicolus, Pomatomus saltatrix, Sprattus sprattus, Scorpaena porcus) by using atomic absorption spectrometer with a high-resolution continuum source and graphite furnace technique (HR-CS GF-AAS), and the risk of fish meat consumption by the young human population was evaluated. These metals are used in high amounts in industries located near the coastline such as shipyard construction and industrial plants. Toxic metal accumulation depends on fish feeding behavior, abiotic conditions, metal chemistry, and animal physiology. For instance, cadmium was measured in the muscle of the investigated species and average values of 0.0008-0.0338 mg kg -1 were obtained. The lowest average value of this metal was measured at benthic species N. melanostomus and the highest at the pelagic predator T. mediterraneus ponticus. Generally, the highest metal concentration was measured in the digestive tract that has the role of biofilter for these contaminants. The risk of contamination is significantly reduced by avoiding the consumption of certain fish tissues (digestive tract and skin for copper and skeleton for nickel). An estimation of the dietary metal intake to young consumers was realized for each of the studied species of fish from Romanian, Bulgarian, and Turkish waters, during the period 2001-2014 in order to evaluate the risks of chronic exposure in time due to metal toxicity. This estimation is important for the prevention of chronic exposure due to metal toxicity. Food exposure to studied metals showed a negative trend for Romania, Turkey, and Bulgaria based

  12. Rapid changes in small fish mercury concentrations in estuarine wetlands: Implications for wildlife risk and monitoring programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Ackerman, Joshua T.

    2009-01-01

    Small fish are commonly used to assess mercury (Hg) risk to wildlife and monitor Hg in wetlands. However, limited research has evaluated short-term Hg variability in small fish, which can have important implications for monitoring programs and risk assessment. We conducted a time-series study of Hg concentrations in two small fish species representing benthic (longjaw mudsuckers [Gillichthys mirabilis]) and pelagic (threespine sticklebacks [Gasterosteus aculeatus]) food-webs within three wetland habitats in San Francisco Bay Estuary. We simultaneously monitored prey deliveries, nest initiation, and chick hatching dates of breeding Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri), the most abundant nesting piscivore in the region. Mudsuckers and sticklebacks were the predominant prey fish, comprising 36% and 25% of tern diet, and Hg concentrations averaged (geometric mean ?? SE, ??g/g dw) 0.44 ?? 0.01 and 0.68 ?? 0.03, respectively. Fish Hg concentrations varied substantially over time following a quadratic form in both species, increasing 40% between March and May then decreasing 40% between May and July. Importantly, Forster's terns initiated 68% of nests and 31% of chicks hatched during the period of peak Hg concentrations in prey fish. These results illustrate the importance of short-term temporal variation in small fish Hg concentrations for both Hg monitoring programs and assessing wildlife risk.

  13. Impacts of low dose rate irradiation on the fertility, fecundity and hatchling survival of Japanese rice fish (medaka, Oryzias latipes)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinton, T.G.; Coughlin, D.P.; Marsh, L.C.; Yi, Yi; Winn, R.

    2004-01-01

    A renewed international interest in the effects on biota from low dose rate irradiation has recently occurred. Much of that interest is centered on the relevance of previously accepted dose rate guidelines (e.g. 10 mGy d -1 for aquatic biota) suggested by the ICRP and IAEA. All parties concerned seem to agree that additional data are needed on population level impacts from chronic low-level exposures to radionuclides. Using a Low Dose Rate Irradiation Facility (LoDIF), we conducted an experiment on the fecundity, fertility and hatchling survival of Japanese Rice Fish (medaka, Oryzias latipes). Fish were exposed externally to 137 Cs from juvenile through adulthood at mean dose rates of 3.5, 35 and 350 mGy d -1 . Fish were bred at maturity and the following endpoints were examined: 1) the number of eggs produced; 2) the percent of eggs that hatched; and 3) the survival of hatchlings 20-days post hatch. The influence of gender was examined by breeding irradiated males with control females; control males with irradiated females; irradiated males with irradiated females; and control males with control females. The data contribute to our understanding the impacts of low dose rate irradiation. (author)

  14. Evaluation of radioactivity concentrations from the Fukushima nuclear accident in fish products and associated risk to fish consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive contamination of the Pacific Ocean following the Fukushima nuclear accident has raised public concerns about seafood safety(1, 2). Many people are wondering whether fish products from the Pacific Ocean and Japan are safe to eat 2 y after the accident. There is also some concern about seafood caught locally, outside of Japan. Based on monitoring data reported in July 2013, radioactive caesium concentrations in fish products from Fukushima and adjacent prefectures are evaluated. Resulting radiation doses from annual consumption at average contamination levels and occasional fish meals at much higher levels of caesium are calculated. To put radiation doses from caesium intake in perspective, comparisons are made to doses from naturally occurring radioactive polonium commonly found in fish. Discussion and conclusions are given subsequently. The Tokyo Electric Power Company has conducted routine radioactivity measurements ( 134 Cs and 137 Cs) of various marine fish and shellfish in the ocean area within a 20-km radius of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS). Based on their posted summary on 16 August 2013(3), a total of 100 fish samples were collected from 7 to 23 July, offshore of the FDNPS and outside of its port area. The nuclide analysis report showed that 134 Cs was detected in 64 samples with concentrations varying from 3.5 to 130 Bq kg -1 . 137 Cs was detected in 79 samples and the concentration varied from 3.6 to 260 Bq kg -1 . On average, fish and shellfish caught within 20-km offshore of the FDNPS contain 12 Bq kg -1 of 134 Cs and 26 Bq kg -1 of 137 Cs. The Japanese Fisheries Agency (JFA), in cooperation with the relevant prefectural governments and organisations, has conducted sampling and inspections of fishery products at the major fishing ports in Fukushima and adjacent prefectures on a weekly basis to examine the possible contamination of fishery products by radioactive materials released from the FDNPS. (authors)

  15. Injury risk at the work processes in fishing: a case-referent study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf C

    2006-01-01

    Epidemiological studies on occupational injuries describe the incidence ratios related to the main strata in the industries, while the injury incidence ratios for the specific work processes within the work places have not yet been studied. The aim was to estimate the injury rate......-ratios for the main work processes in commercial fishing. A case-referent design with samples of person-time was used. The reported injuries to the National Maritime Authorities for a 5-year period for four types of commercial fishing defined the cases. The odds for the referents were calculated from samples...... of person-times for the specific working processes. Odds Ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated for the specific working processes. A total of 560 cases were included and the samples of referent working periods were 63110 min in total. The largest part of the injuries (n = 318...

  16. Failure rate data for fusion safety and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1993-01-01

    The Fusion Safety Program (FSP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) conducts safety research in materials, chemical reactions, safety analysis, risk assessment, and in component research and development to support existing magnetic fusion experiments and also to promote safety in the design of future experiments. One of the areas of safety research is applying probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methods to fusion experiments. To apply PRA, we need a fusion-relevant radiological dose code and a component failure rate data base. This paper describes the FSP effort to develop a failure rate data base for fusion-specific components

  17. Projected risk of population declines for native fish species in the Upper Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimmins, S.M.; Boma, P.; Thogmartin, W.E.

    2015-01-01

    Conservationists are in need of objective metrics for prioritizing the management of habitats. For individual species, the threat of extinction is often used to prioritize what species are in need of conservation action. Using long-term monitoring data, we applied a Bayesian diffusion approximation to estimate quasi-extinction risk for 54 native fish species within six commercial navigation reaches along a 1350-km gradient of the upper Mississippi River system. We found a strong negative linear relationship between quasi-extinction risk and distance upstream. For some species, quasi-extinction estimates ranged from nearly zero in some reaches to one in others, suggesting substantial variability in threats facing individual river reaches. We found no evidence that species traits affected quasi-extinction risk across the entire system. Our results indicate that fishes within the upper Mississippi River system face localized threats that vary across river impact gradients. This suggests that conservation actions should be focused on local habitat scales but should also consider the additive effects on downstream conditions. We also emphasize the need for identification of proximate mechanisms behind observed and predicted population declines, as conservation actions will require mitigation of such mechanisms. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  18. Fish consumption, contaminants and sudden unexpected death in epilepsy: many more benefits than risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FA. Scorza

    Full Text Available People with epilepsy have an increased risk of dying prematurely and the most common epilepsy-related category of death is sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP. SUDEP is mainly a problem for patients with chronic uncontrolled epilepsy. The ultimate goal of research in SUDEP is to develop new methods to prevent it and actions other than medical and surgical therapies that could be very useful. Nutritional aspects, i.e., omega-3 fatty acids deficiency, could have an interesting role in this scenario. Some animal and clinical studies have suggested that omega-3 fatty acids could be useful in the prevention and treatment of epilepsy and hence SUDEP. It has been ascertained that the only foods that provide large amounts of omega-3 are seafood (fish and shellfish; however, some fish are contaminated with methylmercury, which may counteract the positive effects of omega-3 fatty acids. Our update review summarises the knowledge of the role of fish consumption on epilepsy research.

  19. Effects of oily fish intake on cardiovascular risk markers, cognitive function, and behavior in school-aged children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla T.; Lauritzen, Lotte; Hauger, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    Background Most children in Western populations do not meet recommendations for fish consumption. Oily fish is an important source of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), which reduce blood pressure and plasma triacylglycerol in adults and may affect cognitive development...... and behavior. However, to our knowledge, the potential effects of oily fish on cardiometabolic health, cognitive function, and behavior in children have not been investigated. The aim of the FiSK Junior study is to investigate the effects of oily fish consumption on cardiovascular risk markers, cognitive...... function, and behavior in healthy children. Methods/design We are conducting a randomized controlled trial with 8- to 9-year-old Danish children, comparing the effect of consuming 300 g/week of oily fish with poultry (control) for 12 weeks between August 2016 and June 2017. The primary outcomes are blood...

  20. Pelagic larval duration predicts extinction risk in a freshwater fish clade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Morgan; Keck, Benjamin P; Ruble, Crystal; Petty, Melissa; Shute, J R; Rakes, Patrick; Hulsey, C Darrin

    2013-01-01

    Pelagic larval duration (PLD) can influence evolutionary processes ranging from dispersal to extinction in aquatic organisms. Using estimates of PLD obtained from species of North American darters (Percidae: Etheostomatinae), we demonstrate that this freshwater fish clade exhibits surprising variation in PLD. Comparative analyses provide some evidence that higher stream gradients favour the evolution of shorter PLD. Additionally, similar to patterns in the marine fossil record in which lower PLD is associated with greater extinction probability, we found a reduced PLD in darter lineages was evolutionarily associated with extinction risk. Understanding the causes and consequences of PLD length could lead to better management and conservation of organisms in our increasingly imperiled aquatic environments.

  1. Exploratory multivariate analysis of the effect of fatty fish consumption and medicinal use on heart rate and heart rate variability data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjorn eGrung

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The overall aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between medicinal use and fatty fish consumption on heart rate variability (HRV and heart rate (HR in a group of forensic inpatients on a variety of medications. A total of 49 forensic inpatients, randomly assigned to a fish group (n=27 or a control group (n=22 were included in the present study. Before and by the end of the food intervention period HR and HRV were measured during an experimental test procedure. An additional aim of this paper is to show how multivariate data analysis can highlight differences and similarities between the groups, thus being a valuable addition to traditional statistical hypothesis testing. The results indicate that fish consumption may have a positive effect on both HR and HRV regardless of medication, but that the influence of medication is strong enough to mask the true effect of fish consumption. Without correcting for medication, the fish group and control group become indistinguishable (p = 0.0794, Cohen’s d = 0.60. The effect of medication is demonstrated by establishing a multivariate regression model that estimates HR and HRV in a recovery phase based on HR and HRV data recorded during psychological tests. The model performance is excellent for HR data, but yields poor results for HRV when employed on participants undergoing the more severe medical treatments. This indicates that the HRV behavior of this group is very different from that of the participants on no or lower level of medication. When focusing on the participants on a constant medication regime, a substantial improvement in HRV and HR for the fish group compared to the control group is indicated by a principal component analysis and t tests (p = 0.00029, Cohen’s d = 2.72. In a group of psychiatric inpatients characterized by severe mental health problems consuming different kinds of medication, the fish diet improved HR and HRV, indices of both emotional regulation and

  2. Assessment of human health risk associated with methylmercury in the imported fish marketed in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Gandara, Fabio; Herrera-Herrera, Claudia; Pinedo-Hernández, José; Marrugo-Negrete, José; Díez, Sergi

    2018-08-01

    The decline in marine and freshwaters catches in recent years in Colombia has led to a change in dietary habits, with an increase in the purchase and consumption of imported fish. This is of particular concern as fish are sometimes caught in mercury-contaminated waters, and are subsequently sold canned or uncanned. In addition, canned tuna has received little attention as it is widely assumed that concentrations are low. In this study, total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations were evaluated in three imported fish species marketed in Colombia, Prochilodus lineatus, Prochilodus reticulatus, and Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, plus four brands of canned tuna and one of sardines. One brand of tuna showed the highest mean concentrations of THg (0.543 ± 0.237 μg/g, wet weight, ww) and MeHg (0.518 ± 0.337 μg/g ww), while concentrations in P. hypophthalmus were approximately 30 times lower (≈0.02 µg/g ww). The estimated weekly intake (EWI) in children was above the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of MeHg established by the Joint FAO/World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) in 2007, 1.6 μg/kg body weight (bw) per week, for all the canned tuna brands. Values for adults were below PTWI, whereas for women of childbearing age, values were above PTWI only for brand D of canned tuna. The estimate of the potential risk indicated that MeHg levels in canned tuna can generate negative effects in vulnerable groups, while the EWI of fresh fish did not pose a threat to the general population. Therefore, establishing strategies to address the high consumption of canned tuna, and continuous monitoring to control commercial food, are recommended to decrease Hg exposure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. 77 FR 57990 - Interest Rate Risk Policy and Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 741 RIN 3133-AD66 Interest Rate Risk Policy and Program Correction In rule document 2012-02091, appearing on pages 55155-5167 in the issue of Thursday, February 2, 2012, make the following corrections: 1. On page 5157, in the second column, in the first line...

  4. Government spending shocks, sovereign risk and the exchange rate regime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonam, D.; Lukkezen, J.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Keynesian theory predicts output responses upon a fiscal expansion in a small open economy to be larger under fixed than floating exchange rates. We analyse the effects of fiscal expansions using a New Keynesian model and find that the reverse holds in the presence of sovereign default risk. By

  5. Courting disaster: How diversification rate affects fitness under risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliff, William C; Hawthorne, Peter; Libby, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Life is full of risk. To deal with this uncertainty, many organisms have evolved bet-hedging strategies that spread risk through phenotypic diversification. These rates of diversification can vary by orders of magnitude in different species. Here we examine how key characteristics of risk and organismal ecology affect the fitness consequences of variation in diversification rate. We find that rapid diversification is strongly favored when the risk faced has a wide spatial extent, with a single disaster affecting a large fraction of the population. This advantage is especially great in small populations subject to frequent disaster. In contrast, when risk is correlated through time, slow diversification is favored because it allows adaptive tracking of disasters that tend to occur in series. Naturally evolved diversification mechanisms in diverse organisms facing a broad array of environmental risks largely support these results. The theory presented in this article provides a testable ecological hypothesis to explain the prevalence of slow stochastic switching among microbes and rapid, within-clutch diversification strategies among plants and animals. PMID:25410817

  6. Courting disaster: How diversification rate affects fitness under risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliff, William C; Hawthorne, Peter; Libby, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Life is full of risk. To deal with this uncertainty, many organisms have evolved bet-hedging strategies that spread risk through phenotypic diversification. These rates of diversification can vary by orders of magnitude in different species. Here we examine how key characteristics of risk and organismal ecology affect the fitness consequences of variation in diversification rate. We find that rapid diversification is strongly favored when the risk faced has a wide spatial extent, with a single disaster affecting a large fraction of the population. This advantage is especially great in small populations subject to frequent disaster. In contrast, when risk is correlated through time, slow diversification is favored because it allows adaptive tracking of disasters that tend to occur in series. Naturally evolved diversification mechanisms in diverse organisms facing a broad array of environmental risks largely support these results. The theory presented in this article provides a testable ecological hypothesis to explain the prevalence of slow stochastic switching among microbes and rapid, within-clutch diversification strategies among plants and animals. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  7. Environmental and human health risk assessment of organic micro-pollutants occurring in a Spanish marine fish farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, Ivan, E-mail: ivanmuno@ual.e [Departamento de Hidrogeologia y Quimica Analitica, Universidad de Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain); Martinez Bueno, Maria J., E-mail: mjbueno@ual.e [Departamento de Hidrogeologia y Quimica Analitica, Universidad de Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain); Agueera, Ana, E-mail: aaguera@ual.e [Departamento de Hidrogeologia y Quimica Analitica, Universidad de Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain); Fernandez-Alba, Amadeo R., E-mail: amadeo@ual.e [Departamento de Hidrogeologia y Quimica Analitica, Universidad de Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    In this work the risk posed to seawater organisms, predators and humans is assessed, as a consequence of exposure to 12 organic micro-pollutants, namely metronidazole, trimethoprim, erythromycin, simazine, flumequine, carbaryl, atrazine, diuron, terbutryn, irgarol, diphenyl sulphone (DPS) and 2-thiocyanomethylthiobenzothiazole (TCMTB). The risk assessment study is based on a 1-year monitoring study at a Spanish marine fish farm, involving passive sampling techniques. The results showed that the risk threshold for irgarol concerning seawater organisms is exceeded. On the other hand, the risk to predators and especially humans through consumption of fish is very low, due to the low bioconcentration potential of the substances assessed. - Exposure and effects of twelve organic micro-pollutants are evaluated at a Spanish fish farm.

  8. Environmental and human health risk assessment of organic micro-pollutants occurring in a Spanish marine fish farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, Ivan; Martinez Bueno, Maria J.; Agueera, Ana; Fernandez-Alba, Amadeo R.

    2010-01-01

    In this work the risk posed to seawater organisms, predators and humans is assessed, as a consequence of exposure to 12 organic micro-pollutants, namely metronidazole, trimethoprim, erythromycin, simazine, flumequine, carbaryl, atrazine, diuron, terbutryn, irgarol, diphenyl sulphone (DPS) and 2-thiocyanomethylthiobenzothiazole (TCMTB). The risk assessment study is based on a 1-year monitoring study at a Spanish marine fish farm, involving passive sampling techniques. The results showed that the risk threshold for irgarol concerning seawater organisms is exceeded. On the other hand, the risk to predators and especially humans through consumption of fish is very low, due to the low bioconcentration potential of the substances assessed. - Exposure and effects of twelve organic micro-pollutants are evaluated at a Spanish fish farm.

  9. KRW/USD Exchange Rate Volatility and Efficient Risk Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Yong Joo

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available This thesis analyzes the relationship between the exchange rate of Korean Won and US dollar and the amount of foreign exchange, and studies the direction of the amendment of the risk control of foreign exchange. The GARCH (Generalized Auto Regressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity model which visually embodies the auto-regress of the wave of exchange rate shows that the amount of trade will enhance the fluidity of the exchange rate, that is, the various expects of the participators of the market affect the amount of trade and the fluidity, so in the process of trading, the trader who is in the dry tree of information bears more trading expenditure. It is predicted that the liberalization of foreign exchange rate and fluctuated exchange rate system will jointly bring the enhancement of the fluidity of the exchange rate and the amount of exchange trade. The change of this system will bring the rise of participators in foreign exchange market; meanwhile, it will also initiate superfluous fluidity of foreign exchange market. In order to overcome this problem, the government needs to implement the development strategy of the understructure of the foreign exchange market and the enterprises need to carry through systemic exchange rate risk control.

  10. Mercury Bioaccumulation in Tropical Mangrove Wetland Fishes: Evaluating Potential Risk to Coastal Wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Dung Quang; Satyanarayana, Behara; Fui, Siau Yin; Shirai, Kotaro

    2018-03-26

    The present study, aimed at observing the total concentration of mercury (Hg) in edible finfish species with an implication to human health risk, was carried out from the Setiu mangrove wetlands on the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Out of 20 species observed, the highest Hg concentrations were found among carnivores-fish/invertebrate-feeders, followed by omnivores and carnivores-invertebrate-feeders, while the lowest concentrations in herbivores. The Hg concentrations varied widely with fish species and body size, from 0.12 to 2.10 mg/kg dry weight. A positive relationship between body weight and Hg concentration was observed in particular for Toxotes jaculatrix and Tetraodon nigroviridis. Besides the permissible range of Hg concentration up to 0.3 mg/kg (cf. United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)) in majority of species, the carnivore feeders such as Acanthopagrus pacificus, Gerres filamentosus, and Caranx ignobilis have shown excess amounts (> 0.40 mg/kg flesh weight) that raising concerns over the consumption by local people. However, the weekly intake of mercury-estimated through the fish consumption in all three trophic levels-suggests that the present Hg concentrations are still within the range of Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) reported by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). Perhaps, a multi-species design for Hg monitoring at Setiu wetlands would be able to provide further insights into the level of toxicity transfer among other aquatic organisms and thereby a strong health risk assessment for the local communities.

  11. Satellite telemetry reveals higher fishing mortality rates than previously estimated, suggesting overfishing of an apex marine predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Michael E; Cortés, Enric; Vaudo, Jeremy J; Harvey, Guy C McN; Sampson, Mark; Wetherbee, Bradley M; Shivji, Mahmood

    2017-08-16

    Overfishing is a primary cause of population declines for many shark species of conservation concern. However, means of obtaining information on fishery interactions and mortality, necessary for the development of successful conservation strategies, are often fisheries-dependent and of questionable quality for many species of commercially exploited pelagic sharks. We used satellite telemetry as a fisheries-independent tool to document fisheries interactions, and quantify fishing mortality of the highly migratory shortfin mako shark ( Isurus oxyrinchus ) in the western North Atlantic Ocean. Forty satellite-tagged shortfin mako sharks tracked over 3 years entered the Exclusive Economic Zones of 19 countries and were harvested in fisheries of five countries, with 30% of tagged sharks harvested. Our tagging-derived estimates of instantaneous fishing mortality rates ( F = 0.19-0.56) were 10-fold higher than previous estimates from fisheries-dependent data (approx. 0.015-0.024), suggesting data used in stock assessments may considerably underestimate fishing mortality. Additionally, our estimates of F were greater than those associated with maximum sustainable yield, suggesting a state of overfishing. This information has direct application to evaluations of stock status and for effective management of populations, and thus satellite tagging studies have potential to provide more accurate estimates of fishing mortality and survival than traditional fisheries-dependent methodology. © 2017 The Author(s).

  12. Alterations in the Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate of Fresh Water Fish, Channa punctatus on exposure to Temperature Stress from Godavari River, Nanded

    OpenAIRE

    Jagtap, Ashwini Ravichandra; Mali, R. P.

    2013-01-01

    Out of various environmental factors that influence aquatic organisms, temperature is the most all-pervasive. The environmental temperature also affects blood vascular system of aquatic organisms. The present paper deals with the effect of temperature on the Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate of freshwater fish, Channa punctatus. The freshwater fish, Channa punctatus, were collected from Godavari River, Nanded (Maharashtra). They were acclimated to laboratory condition. The fishes were exposed to...

  13. Fish intake and ovarian cancer risk: a meta-analysis of 15 case-control and cohort studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-yue Jiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous epidemiological studies have shown that fish consumption may modify the risk of ovarian cancer. However, these studies yielded controversial results. The present meta-analysis was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between fish intake and ovarian cancer risk. METHODS: A literature search was carried out using Pubmed, Embase, and Cochrane Library Central database for all relevant studies up to August 2013. We pooled the relative risks (RR from individual studies using fixed-effect or random-effect model, and carried out heterogeneity and publication bias analyses. RESULTS: A total of 15 (ten case-control, and five cohort studies were included in the present meta-analysis, representing data for 889,033 female subjects and 6,087 ovarian cancer cases. We found that total fish intake was not significantly associated with the risk of ovarian cancer among cohort studies (RR = 1.04 95% CI [0.89, 1.22] as well as case-control studies (RR = 0.90, 95% CI [0.73,1.12]. There was no evidence of publication bias as suggested by Begg's test (P = 0.55 and Egger's test(P = 0.29. CONCLUSIONS: The present meta-analysis showed that total fish consumption was not significantly associated with the risk of ovarian cancer. Further analysis on different fish species and food preparation methods should be conducted in future studies.

  14. Determination of toxic elements (mercury, cadmium, lead, tin and arsenic) in fish and shellfish samples. Risk assessment for the consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo, P; Pla, A; Hernández, A F; Barbier, F; Ayouni, L; Gil, F

    2013-09-01

    Although fish intake has potential health benefits, the presence of metal contamination in seafood has raised public health concerns. In this study, levels of mercury, cadmium, lead, tin and arsenic have been determined in fresh, canned and frozen fish and shellfish products and compared with the maximum levels currently in force. In a further step, potential human health risks for the consumers were assessed. A total of 485 samples of the 43 most frequently consumed fish and shellfish species in Andalusia (Southern Spain) were analyzed for their toxic elements content. High mercury concentrations were found in some predatory species (blue shark, cat shark, swordfish and tuna), although they were below the regulatory maximum levels. In the case of cadmium, bivalve mollusks such as canned clams and mussels presented higher concentrations than fish, but almost none of the samples analyzed exceeded the maximum levels. Lead concentrations were almost negligible with the exception of frozen common sole, which showed median levels above the legal limit. Tin levels in canned products were far below the maximum regulatory limit, indicating that no significant tin was transferred from the can. Arsenic concentrations were higher in crustaceans such as fresh and frozen shrimps. The risk assessment performed indicated that fish and shellfish products were safe for the average consumer, although a potential risk cannot be dismissed for regular or excessive consumers of particular fish species, such as tuna, swordfish, blue shark and cat shark (for mercury) and common sole (for lead). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Gill net selectivity and catch rates of pelagic fish in tropical coastal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fish species and size selectivity of gillnets design with monofilament nylon polyethylene netting materials were investigated in Lagos Lagoon, Nigeria between September and December 2005. The gillnets floats and sinkers were improvised from rubber slippers and lead metallic objects which were attached at intervals ...

  16. Gill net selectivity and catch rates of pelagic fish in tropical coastal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-05

    Nov 5, 2008 ... fish communities includes a decrease in their abundance, changes in age structure, size composition ... index (phytoplankton primary productivity, total phospho- ... conservation of biodiversity and the maintenance of a ... distribution of the catches and to understand the popu- ... lagoon beach (Figure 1).

  17. The Effect of Inclusion Rate of Cooked and Sun-dried Fish Offal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of feeding cooked and sun-dried fish offal meal (fishmeal) on feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion efficiency of RIR chicks were assessed at Wolayta Soddo, southern Ethiopia. Unsexed day-old RIR chicks (300) were brooded uniformly for 14 days and then vaccinated against Gumboro and Newcastle ...

  18. Abdominoplasty: Risk Factors, Complication Rates, and Safety of Combined Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winocour, Julian; Gupta, Varun; Ramirez, J Roberto; Shack, R Bruce; Grotting, James C; Higdon, K Kye

    2015-11-01

    Among aesthetic surgery procedures, abdominoplasty is associated with a higher complication rate, but previous studies are limited by small sample sizes or single-institution experience. A cohort of patients who underwent abdominoplasty between 2008 and 2013 was identified from the CosmetAssure database. Major complications were recorded. Univariate and multivariate analysis was performed evaluating risk factors, including age, smoking, body mass index, sex, diabetes, type of surgical facility, and combined procedures. The authors identified 25,478 abdominoplasties from 183,914 procedures in the database. Of these, 8,975 patients had abdominoplasty alone and 16,503 underwent additional procedures. The number of complications recorded was 1,012 (4.0 percent overall rate versus 1.4 percent in other aesthetic surgery procedures). Of these, 31.5 percent were hematomas, 27.2 percent were infections and 20.2 percent were suspected or confirmed venous thromboembolism. On multivariate analysis, significant risk factors (p procedures (1.5), and procedure performance in a hospital or surgical center versus office-based surgical suite (1.6). Combined procedures increased the risk of complication (abdominoplasty alone, 3.1 percent; with liposuction, 3.8 percent; breast procedure, 4.3 percent; liposuction and breast procedure, 4.6 percent; body-contouring procedure, 6.8 percent; liposuction and body-contouring procedure, 10.4 percent). Abdominoplasty is associated with a higher complication rate compared with other aesthetic procedures. Combined procedures can significantly increase complication rates and should be considered carefully in higher risk patients. Risk, II.

  19. Aquaponics: integrating fish feeding rates and ion waste production for strawberry hydroponics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villarroel, M; Alvarino, J M. R.; Duran, J M

    2011-07-01

    Aquaponics is the science of integrating intensive fish aquaculture with plant production in recirculating water systems. Although ion waste production by fish cannot satisfy all plant requirements, less is known about the relationship between total feed provided for fish and the production of milliequivalents (mEq) of different macronutrients for plants, especially for nutrient flow hydroponics used for strawberry production in Spain. That knowledge is essential to consider the amount of macronutrients available in aquaculture systems so that farmers can estimate how much nutrient needs to be supplemented in the waste water from fish, to produce viable plant growth. In the present experiment, tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) were grown in a small-scale recirculating system at two different densities while growth and feed consumption were noted every week for five weeks. At the same time points, water samples were taken to measure pH, EC25, HCO3{sup -}, Cl{sup -}, NH{sup +}{sub 4}, NO{sub 2}{sup -}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2}-, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Ca{sup 2}+ and Mg{sup 2}+ build up. The total increase in mEq of each ion per kg of feed provided to the fish was highest for NO{sub 3}{sup -}, followed, in decreasing order, by Ca{sup 2}+, H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup -}, K{sup +}, Mg{sup 2}+ and SO{sub 4}{sup 2}-. The total amount of feed required per mEq ranged from 1.61 - 13.1 kg for the four most abundant ions (NO{sub 3}{sup -}, Ca{sup 2}+, H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup -} and K{sup +}) at a density of 2 kg fish m{sup -3}, suggesting that it would be rather easy to maintain small populations of fish to reduce the cost of hydroponic solution supplementation for strawberries. (Author) 16 refs.

  20. The fish embryo toxicity test as an animal alternative method in hazard and risk assessment and scientific research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embry, Michelle R.; Belanger, Scott E.; Braunbeck, Thomas A.; Galay-Burgos, Malyka; Halder, Marlies; Hinton, David E.; Leonard, Marc A.; Lillicrap, Adam; Norberg-King, Teresa; Whale, Graham

    2010-01-01

    Animal alternatives research has historically focused on human safety assessments and has only recently been extended to environmental testing. This is particularly for those assays that involve the use of fish. A number of alternatives are being pursued by the scientific community including the fish embryo toxicity (FET) test, a proposed replacement alternative to the acute fish test. Discussion of the FET methodology and its application in environmental assessments on a global level was needed. With this emerging issue in mind, the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) and the European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) held an International Workshop on the Application of the Fish Embryo Test as an Animal Alternative Method in Hazard and Risk Assessment and Scientific Research in March, 2008. The workshop included approximately 40 scientists and regulators representing government, industry, academia, and non-governmental organizations from North America, Europe, and Asia. The goal was to review the state of the science regarding the investigation of fish embryonic tests, pain and distress in fish, emerging approaches utilizing fish embryos, and the use of fish embryo toxicity test data in various types of environmental assessments (e.g., hazard, risk, effluent, and classification and labeling of chemicals). Some specific key outcomes included agreement that risk assessors need fish data for decision-making, that extending the FET to include eluethereombryos was desirable, that relevant endpoints are being used, and that additional endpoints could facilitate additional uses beyond acute toxicity testing. The FET was, however, not yet considered validated sensu OECD. An important action step will be to provide guidance on how all fish tests can be used to assess chemical hazard and to harmonize the diverse terminology used in test guidelines adopted over the past decades. Use of the FET in context of effluent assessments

  1. The fish embryo toxicity test as an animal alternative method in hazard and risk assessment and scientific research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Embry, Michelle R., E-mail: membry@ilsi.org [ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute, 1156 15th Street, NW, Suite 200, Washington, DC 20005 (United States); Belanger, Scott E., E-mail: belanger.se@pg.com [Procter and Gamble, Central Product Safety, PO Box 538707, Miami Valley Innovation Center, Cincinnati, OH 45253-8707 (United States); Braunbeck, Thomas A., E-mail: braunbeck@zoo.uni-heidelberg.de [University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 230, Heidelberg D -69120 (Germany); Galay-Burgos, Malyka, E-mail: malyka.galay-burgos@ecetoc.org [European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC), 4 Avenue E. Van Nieuwenhuyse B-1160, Brussels (Belgium); Halder, Marlies, E-mail: marlies.halder@jrc.ec.europa.eu [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, In-Vitro Methods Unit TP-580 Ispra 21027 (Italy); Hinton, David E., E-mail: dhinton@duke.edu [Duke University, Nicholas School of the Environment, PO Box 90328, Durham, NC 27708, Unites States (United States); Leonard, Marc A., E-mail: mleonard@rd.loreal.com [L' Oreal Recherche Avancee, Unite d' Ecotoxicologie, 1 av. E. Schueller, 93601 Aulnay sous bois (France); Lillicrap, Adam, E-mail: Adam.lillicrap@niva.no [AstraZeneca, Freshwater Quarry, Brixham TQ5 8BA (United Kingdom); Norberg-King, Teresa, E-mail: norberg-king.teresa@epa.gov [U.S. EPA, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Boulevard, Duluth, MN 55804-1636 (United States); Whale, Graham, E-mail: graham.whale@shell.com [Shell Global Solutions, Analytical Technology, P.O. Box 1, Chester CH1 3SH (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    Animal alternatives research has historically focused on human safety assessments and has only recently been extended to environmental testing. This is particularly for those assays that involve the use of fish. A number of alternatives are being pursued by the scientific community including the fish embryo toxicity (FET) test, a proposed replacement alternative to the acute fish test. Discussion of the FET methodology and its application in environmental assessments on a global level was needed. With this emerging issue in mind, the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) and the European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) held an International Workshop on the Application of the Fish Embryo Test as an Animal Alternative Method in Hazard and Risk Assessment and Scientific Research in March, 2008. The workshop included approximately 40 scientists and regulators representing government, industry, academia, and non-governmental organizations from North America, Europe, and Asia. The goal was to review the state of the science regarding the investigation of fish embryonic tests, pain and distress in fish, emerging approaches utilizing fish embryos, and the use of fish embryo toxicity test data in various types of environmental assessments (e.g., hazard, risk, effluent, and classification and labeling of chemicals). Some specific key outcomes included agreement that risk assessors need fish data for decision-making, that extending the FET to include eluethereombryos was desirable, that relevant endpoints are being used, and that additional endpoints could facilitate additional uses beyond acute toxicity testing. The FET was, however, not yet considered validated sensu OECD. An important action step will be to provide guidance on how all fish tests can be used to assess chemical hazard and to harmonize the diverse terminology used in test guidelines adopted over the past decades. Use of the FET in context of effluent assessments

  2. Aquaponics: integrating fish feeding rates and ion waste production for strawberry hydroponics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villarroel, M.; Alvarino, J. M. R.; Duran, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Aquaponics is the science of integrating intensive fish aquaculture with plant production in recirculating water systems. Although ion waste production by f ish cannot satisfy all plant requirements, less is known about the relationship between total feed provided for f ish and the production of milliequivalents (mEq) of different macronutrients for plants, especially for nutrient flow hydroponics used for strawberry production in Spain. That knowledge is essential to consider the amount of macronutrients available in aquaculture systems so that farmers can estimate how much nutrient needs to be supplemented in the waste water from fish, to produce viable plant growth. In the present experiment, tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) were grown in a small-scale recirculating system at two different densities while growth and feed consumption were noted every week for five weeks. At the same time points, water samples were taken to measure pH, EC 2 5, HCO3 - , Cl - , NH + 4 , NO 2 - , NO 3 - , H 2 PO 4 - , SO 4 2 -, Na + , K + , Ca 2 + and Mg 2 + build up. The total increase in mEq of each ion per kg of feed provided to the fish was highest for NO 3 - , followed, in decreasing order, by Ca 2 +, H 2 PO 4 - , K + , Mg 2 + and SO 4 2 -. The total amount of feed required per mEq ranged from 1.61- 13.1 kg for the four most abundant ions (NO 3 - , Ca 2 +, H 2 PO 4 - and K + ) at a density of 2 kg fish m3, suggesting that it would be rather easy to maintain small populations of fish to reduce the cost of hydroponic solution supplementation for strawberries. (Author) 16 refs.

  3. Communicating Risks and Benefits from Fish Consumption: Impact on Belgian Consumers' Perception and Intention to Eat Fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeke, W.; Vanhonacker, F.; Frewer, L.J.; Sioen, I.; Henauw, de S.; Camp, van J.

    2008-01-01

    Communicating about the health effects of fish and seafood may potentially result in a conflict situation: increasing intake is desirable because of health and nutritional benefits, but higher consumption may also lead to an increased intake of potentially harmful environmental contaminants. In

  4. Natural radiation dose due to 210Po and associated risk to certain fishes of Kudankulam Waters, Gulf of Mannar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praveen Pole, R.P.; Godwin Wesley, S.; Vijayakumar, B.

    2014-01-01

    With increasing emphasis on environmental protection, concern has switched over from the earlier target human being to non-human species regarding possible radiation risk. Alpha-emitter 210 Po (t 1/2 = 138.4 d) is the most important radionuclide, considering it as a potential natural source of internal radiation dose to marine organisms. Fishes are known to accumulate 210 Po to a large extent through food chains and certain marine fishes are potential bioindicators as they bioaccumulate the target radionuclide from surrounding waters. Hence it is imperative to assess the level of 210 Po and the radiological risk (risk quotient) due to the radiation dose received by different fish species collected from the coastal areas around the nuclear installation at Kudankulam

  5. Fish community reassembly after a coral mass mortality: higher trophic groups are subject to increased rates of extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, David; Pinyol-Gallemí, Aleix; Alcoverro, Teresa; Arthur, Rohan

    2015-05-01

    Since Gleason and Clements, our understanding of community dynamics has been influenced by theories emphasising either dispersal or niche assembly as central to community structuring. Determining the relative importance of these processes in structuring real-world communities remains a challenge. We tracked reef fish community reassembly after a catastrophic coral mortality in a relatively unfished archipelago. We revisited the stochastic model underlying MacArthur and Wilson's Island Biogeography Theory, with a simple extension to account for trophic identity. Colonisation and extinction rates calculated from decadal presence-absence data based on (1) species neutrality, (2) trophic identity and (3) site-specificity were used to model post-disturbance reassembly, and compared with empirical observations. Results indicate that species neutrality holds within trophic guilds, and trophic identity significantly increases overall model performance. Strikingly, extinction rates increased clearly with trophic position, indicating that fish communities may be inherently susceptible to trophic downgrading even without targeted fishing of top predators. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  6. A Comparison of Mathematical Models of Fish Mercury Concentration as a Function of Atmospheric Mercury Deposition Rate and Watershed Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. A.; Moore, R. B.; Shanley, J. B.; Miller, E. K.; Kamman, N. C.; Nacci, D.

    2009-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) concentrations in fish and aquatic wildlife are complex functions of atmospheric Hg deposition rate, terrestrial and aquatic watershed characteristics that influence Hg methylation and export, and food chain characteristics determining Hg bioaccumulation. Because of the complexity and incomplete understanding of these processes, regional-scale models of fish tissue Hg concentration are necessarily empirical in nature, typically constructed through regression analysis of fish tissue Hg concentration data from many sampling locations on a set of potential explanatory variables. Unless the data sets are unusually long and show clear time trends, the empirical basis for model building must be based solely on spatial correlation. Predictive regional scale models are highly useful for improving understanding of the relevant biogeochemical processes, as well as for practical fish and wildlife management and human health protection. Mechanistically, the logical arrangement of explanatory variables is to multiply each of the individual Hg source terms (e.g. dry, wet, and gaseous deposition rates, and residual watershed Hg) for a given fish sampling location by source-specific terms pertaining to methylation, watershed transport, and biological uptake for that location (e.g. SO4 availability, hill slope, lake size). This mathematical form has the desirable property that predicted tissue concentration will approach zero as all individual source terms approach zero. One complication with this form, however, is that it is inconsistent with the standard linear multiple regression equation in which all terms (including those for sources and physical conditions) are additive. An important practical disadvantage of a model in which the Hg source terms are additive (rather than multiplicative) with their modifying factors is that predicted concentration is not zero when all sources are zero, making it unreliable for predicting the effects of large future reductions in

  7. Recovering Risk-Neutral Densities from Brazilian Interest Rate Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Renato Haas Ornelas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Building Risk-Neutral Density (RND from options data is one useful way for extracting market expectations about a financial variable. For a sample of IDI (Brazilian Interbank Deposit Rate Index options from 1998 to 2009, this paper estimates the option-implied Risk-Neutral Densities for the Brazilian short rate using three methods: Shimko, Mixture of Two Log-Normals and Generalized Beta of Second Kind. Our in-sample goodness-of-fit evaluation shows that the Mixture of Log-Normals method provides better fitting to option’s data than the other two methods. The shape of log-normal distributions seems to fit well to the mean-reversal dynamics of Brazilian interest rates. We have also calculated the RND implied Skewness, showing how it could have provided market early-warning signals of the monetary policy outcomes in 2002 and 2003. Overall, Risk-Neutral Densities implied on IDI options showed to be a useful tool for extracting market expectations about future outcomes of the monetary policy.

  8. Importance of growth rate on Hg and PCB bioaccumulation in fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiajia; Haffner, G. Douglas; Patterson, Gordon; Walters, David M.; Burtnyk, Michael D.; Drouillard, Ken G.

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of fish growth on mercury (Hg) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) bioaccumulation, a non‐steady state toxicokinetic model, combined with a Wisconsin bioenergetics model, was developed to simulate Hg and PCB bioaccumulation in Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus). The model was validated by comparing observed versus predicted Hg and PCB 180 concentrations across 5 age classes from five different waterbodies across North America. The non‐steady state model generated accurate predictions for Hg and PCB bioaccumulation in three of five waterbodies: Apsey, Sharbot and Stonelick Lake. The poor performance of the model for the Detroit River and Lake Hartwell, which were two well‐known contaminated sites with possibly high heterogeneity in spatial contamination, was attributed to changes in the feeding behavior and/ or change in prey contamination. Model simulations indicate that growth dilution is a major component of contaminant bioaccumulation patterns in fish especially during early life stages and was predicted to be more important for hydrophobic PCBs compared to Hg. Simulations which considered tissue specific growth provided some improvement in model performance particularly for PCBs in fish populations which exhibited changes in their whole body lipid content with age. Higher variation in lipid growth compared with that of lean dry protein was also observed between different bluegill populations which partially explains the greater variation in PCB bioaccumulation slopes compared with Hg across sampling sites.

  9. Importance of growth rate on mercury and polychlorinated biphenyl bioaccumulation in fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiajia; Haffner, G. Douglas; Patterson, Gordon; Walters, David M.; Burtnyk, Michael D.; Drouillard, Ken G.

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of fish growth on mercury (Hg) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) bioaccumulation, a non–steady‐state toxicokinetic model, combined with a Wisconsin bioenergetics model, was developed to simulate Hg and PCB bioaccumulation in bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus). The model was validated by comparing observed with predicted Hg and PCB 180 concentrations across 5 age classes from 5 different waterbodies across North America. The non–steady‐state model generated accurate predictions for Hg and PCB bioaccumulation in 3 of 5 waterbodies: Apsey Lake (ON, Canada), Sharbot Lake (ON, Canada), and Stonelick Lake (OH, USA). The poor performance of the model for the Detroit River (MI, USA/ON, Canada) and Lake Hartwell (GA/SC, USA), which are 2 well‐known contaminated sites with possibly high heterogeneity in spatial contamination, was attributed to changes in feeding behavior and/or prey contamination. Model simulations indicate that growth dilution is a major component of contaminant bioaccumulation patterns in fish, especially during early life stages, and was predicted to be more important for hydrophobic PCBs than for Hg. Simulations that considered tissue‐specific growth provided some improvement in model performance particularly for PCBs in fish populations that exhibited changes in their whole‐body lipid content with age. Higher variation in lipid growth compared with that of lean dry protein was also observed between different bluegill populations, which partially explains the greater variation in PCB bioaccumulation slopes compared with Hg across sampling sites.

  10. Replacing fish meal by food waste in feed pellets to culture lower trophic level fish containing acceptable levels of organochlorine pesticides: health risk assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhang; Mo, Wing-Yin; Man, Yu-Bon; Nie, Xiang-Ping; Li, Kai-Bing; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2014-12-01

    The present study used food waste (collected from local hotels and restaurants) feed pellets in polyculture of low-trophic level fish [bighead (Aristichtys nobilis), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), and mud carp (Cirrhina molitorella)] aiming at producing safe and quality products for local consumption. The results indicated that grass carp (hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) waste feed pellets were relatively free of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). The experimental ponds (water and sediment) were relatively free of OCPs, lowering the possibility of biomagnification of OCPs in the food chains within the ponds. The raw concentrations of OCPs extracted from the fish were not in the bioavailable form, which would ultimately reach bloodstream and exert adverse effects on human body. Health risk assessments based on digestible concentrations are commonly regarded as a more accurate method. The results of health risk assessments based on raw and digestible concentrations showed that the fish fed with food waste feed pellets were safe for consumption from the OCP perspective. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Risk Analysis using Corrosion Rate Parameter on Gas Transmission Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasikirono, B.; Kim, S. J.; Haryadi, G. D.; Huda, A.

    2017-05-01

    In the oil and gas industry, the pipeline is a major component in the transmission and distribution process of oil and gas. Oil and gas distribution process sometimes performed past the pipeline across the various types of environmental conditions. Therefore, in the transmission and distribution process of oil and gas, a pipeline should operate safely so that it does not harm the surrounding environment. Corrosion is still a major cause of failure in some components of the equipment in a production facility. In pipeline systems, corrosion can cause failures in the wall and damage to the pipeline. Therefore it takes care and periodic inspections or checks on the pipeline system. Every production facility in an industry has a level of risk for damage which is a result of the opportunities and consequences of damage caused. The purpose of this research is to analyze the level of risk of 20-inch Natural Gas Transmission Pipeline using Risk-based inspection semi-quantitative based on API 581 associated with the likelihood of failure and the consequences of the failure of a component of the equipment. Then the result is used to determine the next inspection plans. Nine pipeline components were observed, such as a straight pipes inlet, connection tee, and straight pipes outlet. The risk assessment level of the nine pipeline’s components is presented in a risk matrix. The risk level of components is examined at medium risk levels. The failure mechanism that is used in this research is the mechanism of thinning. Based on the results of corrosion rate calculation, remaining pipeline components age can be obtained, so the remaining lifetime of pipeline components are known. The calculation of remaining lifetime obtained and the results vary for each component. Next step is planning the inspection of pipeline components by NDT external methods.

  12. Mercury accumulation in marine fish most favoured by Malaysian women, the predictors and the potential health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevanaraj, Pravina; Hashim, Zailina; Elias, Saliza Mohd; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin

    2016-12-01

    We identified marine fish species most preferred by women at reproductive age in Selangor, Malaysia, mercury concentrations in the fish muscles, factors predicting mercury accumulation and the potential health risk. Nineteen most preferred marine fish species were purchased (n = 175) from selected fisherman's and wholesale market. Length, weight, habitat, feeding habit and trophic level were recognised. Edible muscles were filleted, dried at 80 °C, ground on an agate mortar and digested in Multiwave 3000 using HNO 3 and H 2 O 2 . Total mercury was quantified using VP90 cold vapour system with N 2 carrier gas. Certified reference material DORM-4 was used to validate the results. Fish species were classified as demersal (7) and pelagic (12) or predators (11), zoo benthos (6) and planktivorous (2). Length, weight and trophic level ranged from 10.5 to 75.0 cm, 0.01 to 2.50 kg and 2.5 to 4.5, respectively. Geometric mean of total mercury ranged from 0.21 to 0.50 mg/kg; maximum in golden snapper (0.90 mg/kg). Only 9 % of the samples exceeded the JECFA recommendation. Multiple linear regression found demersal, high trophic (≥4.0) and heavier fishes to accumulate more mercury in muscles (R 2  = 27.3 %), controlling for all other factors. About 47 % of the fish samples contributed to mercury intake above the provisional tolerable level (45 μg/day). While only a small portion exceeded the JECFA fish Hg guideline, the concentration reported may be alarming for heavy consumers. Attention should be given in risk management to avoid demersal and high trophic fish, predominantly heavier ones.

  13. Risk assessment of aflatoxins B1 (AFB1) in corn arepas in Colombia and chemical risk assessment case study mercury in Fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa Lizarazo, D.

    2013-01-01

    The power point presentation is about: Identify the pair substrate (corn, wheat and rice) - mycotoxin (DON, AFB1) higher risk for the Colombian population, based on the exposure assessment and mercury in freshwater fish from Colombia. This report answer some the following questions: what are the most consumed products in the country, which may create a risk for the Colombian population, what are the prevention and control recommendations to reduce potential contamination of the products selected, what are economic activities and their impact areas that contribute most to the incorporation of of mercury in freshwater fish from Colombia,what are the species that may pose greater accumulation of mercury and methylmercury identified , what is the risk associated with the consumption of the species, what are the preventive measures to minimize exposure from consumption of fish with mercury and methylmercury and possible intervention strategies

  14. [Risk-benefit of some mollusks and processed fishes in the renal patient's diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-González, M I; Miranda-Becerra, D; Pérez-Gil, R F

    2010-03-01

    The renal diet must include limited amounts of high quality protein, phosphorus P and potassium K. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFA EPA and DHA), present in fishes and mollusks, render beneficial properties against progression of renal damage. The aim of this study was to evaluate protein PR, phosphorus P, potassium K, calcium Ca and n-3PUFA in processed fishes and mollusks as an alimentary option for renal patients. Canned tuna (water AA and oil AC), sardine in tomate sauce ST and chipotle SC and smoked salmon SA, fresh jumbo flying squid CA, common octopus PU and oyster OS were evaluated. Significant difference was detected (p <.0.05) for K between different types of fish. SA contained 38g/100g PR, 307 mg/100g of P, 371 mg/ 100g K and 106 mg/100g n-3PUFA. Sardines contained (279-304 mg/100g of P and 283-322 mg/100g K and tunas 142-160 mg/100g P and 141-154 mg/100g K. Tunas and sardines had elevated concentration of n-3PUFA (4114 and 4790 mg/ 100g respectively), P:n-3PUFA and K:n-3PUFA ratio was low in tunas (0.03) and sardines (0.06). AA and AC contained (10.1 and 11.1 mgP/gPR), while ST and SC provided 26.4-19.1 mg/P/gPR. n-3PUFA/gPR were similar for tunas and sardines (302-424mg/gPR). Mollusks: CA presented the highest values of P and PR (2.4 mg/100g and 18.4g/100g). n-3PUFA ranged from 4.3 to 79 mg/100g in PU and OS respectively. Among processed fishes, only canned tunas are recommended for the diet of renal patients, in an individualized basis. The risk-benefit ratio of sardines in the renal diet should be evaluated, due to their high content of P and n-3PUFA. Salmon and mollusks are not recommended for the renal diet.

  15. Balancing the benefits of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and the risks of methylmercury exposure from fish consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahaffey, K. R.; Sunderland, E. M.; Chan, H. M.

    2011-01-01

    Fish and shellfish are widely available foods that provide important nutrients, particularly n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), to many populations globally. These nutrients, especially docosahexaenoic acid, confer benefits to brain and visual system development in infants and reduce...... risks of certain forms of heart disease in adults. However, fish and shellfish can also be a major source of methylmercury (MeHg), a known neurotoxicant that is particularly harmful to fetal brain development. This review documents the latest knowledge on the risks and benefits of seafood consumption...... for perinatal development of infants. It is possible to choose fish species that are both high in n-3 PUFAs and low in MeHg. A framework for providing dietary advice for women of childbearing age on how to maximize the dietary intake of n-3 PUFAs while minimizing MeHg exposures is suggested. (C) 2011...

  16. A fishery-dependent based study of fish species composition and associated catch rates around oil and gas structures off Louisiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, D.R.; Wilson, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    The impact of oil and gas development on fish populations off Louisiana is presumed significant but poorly understood. This study was undertaken to determine the applicability of a logbook program in developing a long-term database of species composition and relative abundance of fish associated with oil and gas structures. A pilot logbook program involving 120 private vessel owners and 25 charterboat operators was conducted between March 1987 and December 1988. Participants recorded date, fishing time, fishing method, number of anglers, and catch composition at each structure fished. Logbooks from a total of 55 private vessel owners and 10 charterboat operators were used in the analysis. Data collected included 15,780 angler hours of fishing effort and 61,227 fish caught over the study period. A total of 1,719 trips were made to 589 different oil and gas structures with at least 46 different species of fish caught. Red snapper and spotted seatrout were the most commonly caught species and had the highest catch rates. Results differed from past logbook programs and creel surveys, possibly indicating a change in the community of fish associated with oil and gas structures

  17. Basal metabolic rate and risk-taking behaviour in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, A P

    2009-12-01

    Basal metabolic rate (BMR) constitutes the minimal metabolic rate in the zone of thermo-neutrality, where heat production is not elevated for temperature regulation. BMR thus constitutes the minimum metabolic rate that is required for maintenance. Interspecific variation in BMR in birds is correlated with food habits, climate, habitat, flight activity, torpor, altitude, and migration, although the selective forces involved in the evolution of these presumed adaptations are not always obvious. I suggest that BMR constitutes the minimum level required for maintenance, and that variation in this minimum level reflects the fitness costs and benefits in terms of ability to respond to selective agents like predators, implying that an elevated level of BMR is a cost of wariness towards predators. This hypothesis predicts a positive relationship between BMR and measures of risk taking such as flight initiation distance (FID) of individuals approached by a potential predator. Consistent with this suggestion, I show in a comparative analysis of 76 bird species that species with higher BMR for their body mass have longer FID when approached by a potential predator. This effect was independent of potentially confounding variables and similarity among species due to common phylogenetic descent. These results imply that BMR is positively related to risk-taking behaviour, and that predation constitutes a neglected factor in the evolution of BMR.

  18. Multifractality and value-at-risk forecasting of exchange rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batten, Jonathan A.; Kinateder, Harald; Wagner, Niklas

    2014-05-01

    This paper addresses market risk prediction for high frequency foreign exchange rates under nonlinear risk scaling behaviour. We use a modified version of the multifractal model of asset returns (MMAR) where trading time is represented by the series of volume ticks. Our dataset consists of 138,418 5-min round-the-clock observations of EUR/USD spot quotes and trading ticks during the period January 5, 2006 to December 31, 2007. Considering fat-tails, long-range dependence as well as scale inconsistency with the MMAR, we derive out-of-sample value-at-risk (VaR) forecasts and compare our approach to historical simulation as well as a benchmark GARCH(1,1) location-scale VaR model. Our findings underline that the multifractal properties in EUR/USD returns in fact have notable risk management implications. The MMAR approach is a parsimonious model which produces admissible VaR forecasts at the 12-h forecast horizon. For the daily horizon, the MMAR outperforms both alternatives based on conditional as well as unconditional coverage statistics.

  19. Acute thermal tolerance of tropical estuarine fish occupying a man-made tidal lake, and increased exposure risk with climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltham, Nathan J.; Sheaves, Marcus

    2017-09-01

    Understanding acute hyperthermic exposure risk to animals, including fish in tropical estuaries, is increasingly necessary under future climate change. To examine this hypothesis, fish (upper water column species - glassfish, Ambassis vachellii; river mullet, Chelon subviridis; diamond scale mullet, Ellochelon vaigiensis; and ponyfish, Leiognathus equulus; and lower water bottom dwelling species - whiting Sillago analis) were caught in an artificial tidal lake in tropical north Queensland (Australia), and transported to a laboratory tank to acclimate (3wks). After acclimation, fish (between 10 and 17 individuals each time) were transferred to a temperature ramping experimental tank, where a thermoline increased (2.5 °C/hr; which is the average summer water temperature increasing rate measured in the urban lakes) tank water temperature to establish threshold points where each fish species lost equilibrium (defined here as Acute Effect Temperature; AET). The coolest AET among all species was 33.1 °C (S. analis), while the highest was 39.9 °C (A. vachellii). High frequency loggers were deployed (November and March representing Austral summer) in the same urban lake where fish were sourced, to measure continuous (20min) surface (0.15 m) and bottom (0.1 m) temperature to derive thermal frequency curves to examine how often lake temperatures exceed AET thresholds. For most fish species examined, water temperature that could be lethal were exceeded at the surface, but rarely, if ever, at the bottom waters suggesting deep, cooler, water provides thermal refugia for fish. An energy-balance model was used to estimate daily mean lake water temperature with good accuracy (±1 °C; R2 = 0.91, modelled vs lake measured temperature). The model was used to predict climate change effects on lake water temperature, and the exceedance of thermal threshold change. A 2.3 °C climate warming (based on 2100 local climate prediction) raised lake water temperature by 1.3 °C. However

  20. Worst-Case Portfolio Optimization under Stochastic Interest Rate Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Engler

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate a portfolio optimization problem under the threat of a market crash, where the interest rate of the bond is modeled as a Vasicek process, which is correlated with the stock price process. We adopt a non-probabilistic worst-case approach for the height and time of the market crash. On a given time horizon [0; T], we then maximize the investor’s expected utility of terminal wealth in the worst-case crash scenario. Our main result is an explicit characterization of the worst-case optimal portfolio strategy for the class of HARA (hyperbolic absolute risk aversion utility functions.

  1. Meat and fish consumption and the risk of renal cell carcinoma in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohrmann, Sabine; Linseisen, Jakob; Overvad, Kim; Wurtz, Anne Mette Lund; Roswall, Nina; Tjonneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Racine, Antoine; Bastide, Nadia; Palli, Domenico; Agnoli, Claudia; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Weikert, Steffen; Steffen, Annika; Kuehn, Tilman; Li, Kuanrong; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Bradbury, Kathryn E.; Peppa, Eleni; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Hjartaker, Anette; Skeie, Guri; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Jakszyn, Paula; Dorronsoro, Miren; Barricarte, Aurelio; Santiuste de Pablos, Carmen; Molina-Montes, Esther; Alonso de la Torre, Ramon; Ericson, Ulrika; Sonestedt, Emily; Johansson, Mattias; Ljungberg, Borje; Freisling, Heinz; Romieu, Isabelle; Cross, Amanda J.; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Riboli, Elio; Boeing, Heiner

    2015-01-01

    Renal cell cancer (RCC) incidence varies worldwide with a higher incidence in developed countries and lifestyle is likely to contribute to the development of this disease. We examined whether meat and fish consumption were related to the risk of RCC in the European Prospective Investigation into

  2. Economic and Environmental Impacts of Improving Growth Rate and Feed Efficiency in Fish Farming Depend on Nitrogen and Density Limitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besson, M.; Komen, H.; Vandeputte, M.; Aubin, J.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of fish breeding is to increase profit by producing faster growing fish with lower feed intake. However, little is known about the economic and environmental impacts of selective breeding programs for fish. We modelled a fish farm producing African catfish in a Recirculating Aquaculture

  3. Risks to health from radiation at low dose rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentner, N.E.; Osborne, R.V.

    1997-01-01

    Our focus is on whether, using a balance-of-evidence approach, it is possible to say that at a low enough dose, or at a sufficiently low dose rate, radiation risk reduces to zero in a population. We conclude that insufficient evidence exists at present to support such a conclusion. In part this reflects statistical limitations at low doses, and in part (although mechanisms unquestionably exist to protect us against much of the damage induced by ionizing radiation) the biological heterogeneity of human populations, which means these mechanisms do not act in all members of the population at all times. If it is going to be possible to demonstrate that low doses are less dangerous than we presently assume, the evidence, paradoxically, will likely come from studies of higher dose and dose rate scenarios than are encountered occupationally. (author)

  4. To fear or to feed: the effects of turbidity on perception of risk by a marine fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Susannah M.; McCormick, Mark I.; Mitchell, Matthew D.; Ferrari, Maud C. O.

    2011-01-01

    Coral reefs are currently experiencing a number of worsening anthropogenic stressors, with nearshore reefs suffering from increasing sedimentation because of growing human populations and development in coastal regions. In habitats where vision and olfaction serve as the primary sources of information, reduced visual input from suspended sediment may lead to significant alterations in prey fish behaviour. Here, we test whether prey compensate for reduced visual information by increasing their antipredator responses to chemically mediated risk cues in turbid conditions. Experiments with the spiny damselfish, Acanthochromis polyacanthus, found that baseline activity levels were reduced by 23 per cent in high turbidity conditions relative to low turbidity conditions. Furthermore, risk cues elicited strong antipredator responses at all turbidity levels; the strongest antipredator responses were observed in high turbidity conditions, with fish reducing their foraging by almost 40 per cent, as compared with 17 per cent for fish in clear conditions. This provides unambiguous evidence of sensory compensation in a predation context for a tropical marine fish, and suggests that prey fish may be able to behaviourally offset some of the fitness reductions resulting from anthropogenic sedimentation of their habitats. PMID:21849308

  5. To fear or to feed: the effects of turbidity on perception of risk by a marine fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Susannah M; McCormick, Mark I; Mitchell, Matthew D; Ferrari, Maud C O

    2011-12-23

    Coral reefs are currently experiencing a number of worsening anthropogenic stressors, with nearshore reefs suffering from increasing sedimentation because of growing human populations and development in coastal regions. In habitats where vision and olfaction serve as the primary sources of information, reduced visual input from suspended sediment may lead to significant alterations in prey fish behaviour. Here, we test whether prey compensate for reduced visual information by increasing their antipredator responses to chemically mediated risk cues in turbid conditions. Experiments with the spiny damselfish, Acanthochromis polyacanthus, found that baseline activity levels were reduced by 23 per cent in high turbidity conditions relative to low turbidity conditions. Furthermore, risk cues elicited strong antipredator responses at all turbidity levels; the strongest antipredator responses were observed in high turbidity conditions, with fish reducing their foraging by almost 40 per cent, as compared with 17 per cent for fish in clear conditions. This provides unambiguous evidence of sensory compensation in a predation context for a tropical marine fish, and suggests that prey fish may be able to behaviourally offset some of the fitness reductions resulting from anthropogenic sedimentation of their habitats.

  6. Recreational sea fishing in Europe in a global context-Participation rates, fishing effort, expenditure, and implications for monitoring and assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hyder, Kieran; Weltersbach, Marc Simon; Armstrong, Mike; Ferter, Keno; Townhill, Bryony; Ahvonen, Anssi; Arlinghaus, Robert; Baikov, Andrei; Bellanger, Manuel; Birzaks, Janis; Borch, Trude; Cambie, Giulia; Graaf, De Martin; Diogo, Hugo M.C.; Dziemian, Łukasz; Gordoa, Ana; Grzebielec, Ryszard; Hartill, Bruce; Kagervall, Anders; Kapiris, Kostas; Karlsson, Martin; Kleiven, Alf Ring; Lejk, Adam M.; Levrel, Harold; Lovell, Sabrina; Lyle, Jeremy; Moilanen, Pentti; Monkman, Graham; Morales-Nin, Beatriz; Mugerza, Estanis; Martinez, Roi; O'Reilly, Paul; Olesen, Hans Jakob; Papadopoulos, Anastasios; Pita, Pablo; Radford, Zachary; Radtke, Krzysztof; Roche, William; Rocklin, Delphine; Ruiz, Jon; Scougal, Callum; Silvestri, Roberto; Skov, Christian; Steinback, Scott; Sundelöf, Andreas; Svagzdys, Arvydas; Turnbull, David; Hammen, Van Der Tessa; Voorhees, Van David; Winsen, Van Frankwin; Verleye, Thomas; Veiga, Pedro; Vølstad, Jon-Helge; Zarauz, Lucia; Zolubas, Tomas; Strehlow, Harry V.

    2018-01-01

    Marine recreational fishing (MRF) is a high-participation activity with large economic value and social benefits globally, and it impacts on some fish stocks. Although reporting MRF catches is a European Union legislative requirement, estimates are only available for some countries. Here, data on

  7. Recreational sea fishing in Europe in a global context—Participation rates, fishing effort, expenditure, and implications for monitoring and assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyder, Kieran; Weltersbach, Marc Simon; Armstrong, Mike

    2018-01-01

    Marine recreational fishing (MRF) is a high‐participation activity with large economic value and social benefits globally, and it impacts on some fish stocks. Although reporting MRF catches is a European Union legislative requirement, estimates are only available for some countries. Here, data on...

  8. Modelling Counterparty Credit Risk in Czech Interest Rate Swaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Křivánková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the Basel Committee’s estimate, three quarters of counterparty credit risk losses during the financial crisis in 2008 originate from credit valuation adjustment’s losses and not from actual defaults. Therefore, from 2015, the Third Basel Accord (EU, 2013a and (EU, 2013b instructed banks to calculate the capital requirement for the risk of credit valuation adjustment (CVA. Banks are trying to model CVA to hold the prescribed standards and also reach the lowest possible impact on their profit. In this paper, we try to model CVA using methods that are in compliance with the prescribed standards and also achieve the smallest possible impact on the bank’s earnings. To do so, a data set of interest rate swaps from 2015 is used. The interest rate term structure is simulated using the Hull-White one-factor model and Monte Carlo methods. Then, the probability of default for each counterparty is constructed. A safe level of CVA is reached in spite of the calculated the CVA achieving a lower level than CVA previously used by the bank. This allows a reduction of capital requirements for banks.

  9. Differences in the metabolic rates of exploited and unexploited fish populations: a signature of recreational fisheries induced evolution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Michael Hessenauer

    Full Text Available Non-random mortality associated with commercial and recreational fisheries have the potential to cause evolutionary changes in fish populations. Inland recreational fisheries offer unique opportunities for the study of fisheries induced evolution due to the ability to replicate study systems, limited gene flow among populations, and the existence of unexploited reference populations. Experimental research has demonstrated that angling vulnerability is heritable in Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides, and is correlated with elevated resting metabolic rates (RMR and higher fitness. However, whether such differences are present in wild populations is unclear. This study sought to quantify differences in RMR among replicated exploited and unexploited populations of Largemouth Bass. We collected age-0 Largemouth Bass from two Connecticut drinking water reservoirs unexploited by anglers for almost a century, and two exploited lakes, then transported and reared them in the same pond. Field RMR of individuals from each population was quantified using intermittent-flow respirometry. Individuals from unexploited reservoirs had a significantly higher mean RMR (6% than individuals from exploited populations. These findings are consistent with expectations derived from artificial selection by angling on Largemouth Bass, suggesting that recreational angling may act as an evolutionary force influencing the metabolic rates of fishes in the wild. Reduced RMR as a result of fisheries induced evolution may have ecosystem level effects on energy demand, and be common in exploited recreational populations globally.

  10. Interest rate risk measurement in Brazilian sovereign markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Ibsen Rodrigues de Almeida

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Fixed income emerging markets are an interesting investment alternative. Measuring market risks is mandatory in order to avoid unexpected huge losses. The most used market risk measure is the Value at Risk, based on the profit-loss probability distribution of the portfolio under consideration. Estimating this probability distribution requires the prior estimation of the probability distribution of term structures of interest rates. An interesting possibility is to estimate term structures using a decomposition of the spread function into a linear combination of Legendre polynomials. Numerical examples from the Brazilian sovereign fixed income international market illustrate the practical use of the methodology.Os mercados emergentes de renda fixa são alternativas interessantes para investimentos. Devido ao elevado nível de incerteza existente em tais mercados, a mensuração dos riscos de mercado de uma carteira de investimentos é fundamental para que se evite um nível elevado de perdas. Uma das medidas de risco de mercado mais utilizadas é o Value at Risk, baseado na distribuição de probabilidades de perdas-ganhos da carteira sob análise. A estimação desta distribuição requer, no entanto, a estimação prévia da distribuição de pro-babilidades das variações da estrutura a termo da taxa de juros. Uma possibilidade interessante para a estimação de tal distribuição é efetuar uma decomposição da função de spread da estrutura a termo em uma combinação linear de Polinômios de Legendre. Exemplos numéricos do mercado internacional de títulos soberanos brasileiros são apresentados para ilustrar o uso prático desta nova metodologia.

  11. Asset backed securities : risks, ratings and quantitative modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jönsson, B.H.B.; Schoutens, W.

    2009-01-01

    Asset backed securities (ABSs) are structured finance products backed by pools of assets and are created through a securitisation process. The risks in asset backed securities, such as, credit risk, prepayment risk, market risks, operational risk, and legal risks, are directly connected with the

  12. An Empirical Model of Gastric Evacuation Rates for Fish and an Analysis of Digestion in Piscivorous Brown Trout

    OpenAIRE

    He, E.; Wurtsbaugh, Wayne A.

    1993-01-01

    The gastric evacuation rates of brown trout Salmo trutta (0.9–1.6 kg) feeding on fingerling rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (3.5–7.6 g) were measured in the laboratory at five temperatures (4.5, 9.0, 14.0, 19.0, and 22.5°C). Instantaneous gut evacuation rates (Re) increased exponentially with temperature (T): Re = 0.053se^0.073T, r^2 = 0.98; they varyied from 7%sh^–1 at 4.5°C to 29%sh^–1 at 22.5°C. Linear regressions described the relationship between time and qualitative measures of fish ...

  13. Laboratory Bioaccumulation, Depuration And Total Dose Rate Of Waterborne Th-232 In Freshwater Fish Of Anabas Testudineus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zal U'yun Wan Mahmood; Norfaizal Mohamed; Nita Salina Abu Bakar

    2014-01-01

    Preliminary results on the study of bioaccumulation, depuration and total dose rate of Th-232 in the whole body of Anabas testudineus are presented. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Th-232 concentration activity on the laboratory bioaccumulation, depuration and total dose rate in Anabas testudineus. Anabas testudineus adults were exposed to different waterborne Th-232 levels: 0 BqL -1 (control), 50 BqL -1 and 100 BqL -1 for 30 day (uptake phase), followed by exposure to radionuclide-free water for 30 days (loss phase). Radionuclide concentration ratios between the whole body levels and water levels, percentage of Th-232 remaining in fish were calculated and total dose rates using ERICA Assessment Tool were also estimated. The results showed the increase of waterborne Th-232 concentration corresponded to a progressive increase of Th accumulation and total dose rate (internal and external) in the whole body of Anabas testudineus. Considering the ERICA dose rate screening value of 10 μGyh -1 , the findings can be concluded the estimated of total dose rate (< 5 μGyh -1 ) in Anabas testudineus is in order of small magnitude. Nevertheless, these preliminary results showed that the Anabas testudineus has a potential to accumulate thorium. (author)

  14. Dietary intake of heavy metals from eight highly consumed species of cultured fish and possible human health risk implications in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K.M. Atique Ullah

    Full Text Available Concentrations of five heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, As and Hg in eight highly consumed cultured fish species (Labeo rohita, Clarias gariepinus, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Cyprinus capio, Puntius sarana, Oreochromis mossambicus, Pangasius pangasius and Anabas testudineus collected from four wholesale markets of Dhaka city, Bangladesh (Karwan Bazar, Mohammadpur Town Hall, Newmarket and Mirpur-1 were measured using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS in order to evaluate the potential human health risks from the consumption of fish. The estimated daily intake (EDI of all the studied heavy metals calculated on the basis of mean fish consumption of 49.5 g person−1 d−1 by Bangladeshi households indicated that no risk to people’s health with respect to the EDI of investigated heavy metals through the consumption of the fish samples. From the human health point of view, the estimation of non-carcinogenic risk indicated that intake of individual heavy metal through the consumption of fish was safe for human health, whereas, consumption of combined heavy metals suggested potential health risk to highly exposed consumers. However, the estimation of carcinogenic risk of arsenic due to the consumption of fish indicated that consumers remain at risk of cancer. Keywords: Heavy metals, Fish, Estimated daily intake, Carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk, Human health risks

  15. Species-specific profiles and risk assessment of perfluoroalkyl substances in coral reef fishes from the South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chang-Gui; Yu, Ke-Fu; Wang, Ying-Hui; Zhang, Rui-Jie; Huang, Xue-Yong; Wei, Chao-Shuai; Wang, Wei-Quan; Zeng, Wei-Bin; Qin, Zhen-Jun

    2018-01-01

    The contamination profiles of sixteen perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) were examined in coral reef fish samples collected from the South China Sea (SCS) where no information about this topic was available in the literature. The results revealed that six PFAS were found in coral reef fish samples from the SCS. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the most predominant PFAS contaminant detected in most of the samples, with the highest concentration value of 27.05 ng/g wet weight (ww) observed in Cephalopholis urodelus. Perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) and Perfluorotridecanoic acid (PFTrDA) were the second and third dominant PFAS, respectively. Mean PFOS concentrations in muscle of seven coral reef fish varied from 0.29 ng/g ww in Lethrinus olivaceus to 10.78 ng/g ww in Cephalopholis urodelus. No significant linear relationship was observed between PFOS levels and coral reef fish traits (length, weight) collected in this region. Average daily intake of PFOS for the seven coral reef fishes ranged from 0.79 ng/kg/d for Lethrinus olivaceus to 29.53 ng/kg/d for Cephalopholis urodelus. The hazard ratio (HR) values for human consumption of PFOS-contaminated coral reef fishes ranged from 0.04 to 1.48, with Cephalopholis urodelus having the highest HR value of 1.18 (higher than 1) among the species, indicating frequent consumption of Cephalopholis urodelus might pose potential health risk to local population. The present work have provided the first hand data of PFAS in coral reef fishes in the SCS and indirectly demonstrated the existence of low level PFAS pollution in the SCS in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Consumption patterns and why people fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Joanna

    2002-01-01

    Recreational and subsistence fishing play major roles in the lives of any people, although their importance in urban areas is often underestimated. There are fish and shellfish consumption advisories in the new York-New Jersey harbor estuary, particularly in the waters of the Newark Bay Complex. This paper examines fishing behavior, consumption patterns, and the reasons that people fish in the Newark Bay Complex. I test the null hypotheses that there are no differences among Asians, Blacks, Hispanics, and whites in consumption patterns for fish and crabs and in the reasons that they fish or crab. Most people either fished or crabbed, but not both. People who fish and crab ate more grams of crab than fish in a given meal; people who crab only consumed more grams of crab at a meal than those who fish only consumed of fish. Although 30% or more of the people who fished and crabbed in the Newark Bay Complex did not eat their self-caught fish or crabs 8-25% of the people ate more than 1500 g/month. Some people angling in the Newark Bay Complex are eating crabs at a rate well over 1500 g/month, and about 70% are eating crabs even though there is a total ban on both harvest and consumption because of the health risks from dioxin. Consumption patterns were negatively correlated with mean income and positively correlated with mean age. Most people rated relaxation and being outdoors the highest reasons or angling, although on an open-ended question they usually listed recreation. There were no ethnic differences in reasons for angling, although other studies have shown ethnic differences in consumption. Obtaining fish or crabs to eat, give away, trade, or sell were rated low, suggesting that consumption advisories fail partly because people are not primarily fishing or food

  17. Intake of meat and fish and risk of head-neck cancer subtypes in the Netherlands Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perloy, Andy; Maasland, Denise H E; van den Brandt, Piet A; Kremer, Bernd; Schouten, Leo J

    2017-06-01

    To date, the role of meat and fish intake in head-neck cancer (HNC) etiology is not well understood and prospective evidence is limited. This prompted us to study the association between meat, fish, and HNC subtypes, i.e., oral cavity cancer (OCC), oro- and hypopharyngeal cancer (OHPC), and laryngeal cancer (LC), within the Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS). In 1986, 120,852 participants (aged 55-69 years) completed a baseline 150-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), from which daily meat and fish intake were calculated. After 20.3 years of follow-up, 430 HNC overall (134 OCC, 90 OHPC and 203 LC) cases and 4,111 subcohort members were found to be eligible for case-cohort analysis. Multivariate hazard ratios were calculated using Cox's proportional hazards model within quartiles of energy-adjusted meat and fish intake. Processed meat intake, but not red meat intake, was positively associated with HNC overall [HR(Q4 vs. Q1) = 1.46, 95% CI 1.06-2.00; ptrend = 0.03]. Among HNC subtypes, processed meat was positively associated with OCC, while no associations were found with OHPC and LC. Fish intake was not associated with HNC risk. Tests for interaction did not reveal statistically significant interaction between meat, fish, and alcohol or smoking on HNC overall risk. In this large cohort study, processed meat intake was positively associated with HNC overall and HNC subtype OCC, but not with OHPC and LC.

  18. Alarming of exchange rate crisis: A risk management approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Zhao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, with increasing volatility of foreign exchange rate, risk management becomes more and more important not only for multinational companies and individuals but also for central governments. This paper attempts to build an econometrics model so as to forecast and manage risks in foreign exchange market, especially during the eve of turbulent periods. By following McNeil and Frey’s (2000 two stage approach called conditional EVT to estimate dynamic VaR commonly used in stock and insurance markets, we extend it by applying a more general asymmetric ARMA-GARCH model to analyze daily foreign exchange dollar-denominated trading data from four countries of different development levels across Asia and Europe for a period of more than 10 years from January 03, 2005 to May 29, 2015, which is certainly representative of global markets. Conventionally, different kinds of backtesting methods are implemented ultimately to evaluate how well the model behaves. Inspiringly, test results show that by taking several specific characteristics (including fat-tails, asymmetry and long-range dependence of the foreign exchange market return data into consideration, the violation ratio of out-of-sample data can be forecasted very well for both fixed and flexible foreign exchange regimes. Moreover, all of the violations are evenly distributed along the whole period which indicates another favorable property of our model. Meanwhile, we find evidence of asymmetry volatility in all of the studied foreign exchange markets even though the magnitudes of the most of them are weak

  19. Sublethal effects of catch-and-release fishing: measuring capture stress, fish impairment, and predation risk using a condition index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Matthew D.; Patino, Reynaldo; Tolan, J.M.; Strauss, R.E.; Diamond, S.

    2009-01-01

    The sublethal effects of simulated capture of red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) were analysed using physiological responses, condition indexing, and performance variables. Simulated catch-and-release fishing included combinations of depth of capture and thermocline exposure reflective of environmental conditions experienced in the Gulf of Mexico. Frequency of occurrence of barotrauma and lack of reflex response exhibited considerable individual variation. When combined into a single condition or impairment index, individual variation was reduced, and impairment showed significant increases as depth increased and with the addition of thermocline exposure. Performance variables, such as burst swimming speed (BSS) and simulated predator approach distance (AD), were also significantly different by depth. BSSs and predator ADs decreased with increasing depth, were lowest immediately after release, and were affected for up to 15 min, with longer recovery times required as depth increased. The impairment score developed was positively correlated with cortisol concentration and negatively correlated with both BSS and simulated predator AD. The impairment index proved to be an efficient method to estimate the overall impairment of red snapper in the laboratory simulations of capture and shows promise for use in field conditions, to estimate release mortality and vulnerability to predation.

  20. Injury rates and risk factors in competitive professional boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazryn, Tsharni R; McCrory, Paul R; Cameron, Peter A

    2009-01-01

    To determine injury rates and risk factors for injury in a cohort of professional boxers. Retrospective cohort design reporting on data collected for a fight statistics database maintained by the Professional Boxing and Combat Sports Board of Victoria, Australia. Data were extracted for the years January 1997 through June 2005. Victoria, Australia. 545 professional boxers (age, 18 to 43 years) who participated in a total of 907 fights over the study period. Independent variables under investigation included age, gender, weight, bout exposure, and location of the bout (within or outside of the State of Victoria). Physician-reported acute boxing injuries occurring during bouts of any region or nature. 214 injuries were sustained over the 8.5 years, corresponding to an injury rate of 23.6 per 100 professional fights. The majority of these injuries were lacerations to the head and face. An increasing age and an increasing number of fights were both significant predictors of injury. Injury reduction strategies for professional boxing might include restrictions of eligibility to fight based on age and boxing bout exposure. Future research using prospective cohort designs and standardized injury definitions are needed to confirm these results. Greater mechanistic detail and more complete data entry are necessary to ensure that optimal injury prevention strategies can be developed and implemented. Upon confirmation of the results of this study, the Professional Boxing and Combat Sports Board of Victoria may consider different criteria upon which to sanction a fight.

  1. Higher Fish Intake Is Associated with a Lower Risk of Hip Fractures in Chinese Men and Women: A Matched Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Fan; Xue, Wen-Qiong; Wu, Bao-Hua; He, Ming-Guang; Xie, Hai-Li; Ouyang, Wei-Fu; Tu, Su-lan; Chen, Yu-Ming

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Fish is rich in nutrients that are favorable to bone health, but limited data are available regarding the relationship between fish intake and hip fractures. Our study examined the association between habitual fish intake and risk of hip fractures. METHODS: A case-control study was performed between June 2009 and June 2012 in Guangdong Province, China. Five hundred and eighty-one hip fracture incident cases, aged 55 to 80 years (mean: 71 years), were enrolled from four hospitals. ...

  2. Fishes of water bodies within the Ukrainian part of the Chernobyl exclusion zone: current levels of radioactive contamination and absorbed dose rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaglyan, Alexander Ye.; Gudkov, Dmitri I. [Institute of Hydrobiology of the NAS of Ukraine, Geroyiv Stalingrada Ave. 12, UA- 04210, Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    The results of studies of radioactive contamination of ichthyofauna of water bodies of the Chernobyl exclusion zone (ChEZ) during 2012-2013 are presented. The fish sampled from water bodies with different hydrological mode was used: (1) stagnant lakes (Vershyna, Glyboke, Azbuchyn, Daleke); (2) reservoir with slow water exchange (cooling pond of the Chernobyl NPP); (3) conditionally stagnant water bodies (separated from the main riverbed of the Pripyat River - Yanovsky and Novoshepelichesky Crawls and part of the Krasnensky former river bed); (4) semi-flowing water body (Krasnensky former river bed located outside of the dammed territory); (5) open crawls of the Pripyat river ('Schepochka' and Chernobylsky) and (6) waterway (riverbed sites of the Pripyat River). The highest levels of radionuclide concentrations were determined in fish of the stagnant water objects - 937-25907 Bq/kg (w.w.) of {sup 137}Cs and 1845-101220 Bq/kg of {sup 90}Sr. In fish of cooling pond the concentration of {sup 137}Cs registered in range 750-4200 and {sup 90}Sr - 41-512 Bq/kg. In ichthyofauna of water bodies which concern to the third group, specific activity of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr fluctuated accordingly within range of 520-3385 and 722-6210, and in a semi-flowing reservoir - 573-2948 and 97-4484 Bq/kg. The concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in fish of the fifth and sixth groups were accordingly 25-159 and 11-224 as well as {sup 90}Sr - 36-174 and 3-14 Bq/kg. The ratio of specific activity of {sup 90}Sr/{sup 137}Cs for pray fish from all studied groups of water bodies, except the second and the sixth ones, was in range 1.5-39.7. Thus intensity of water exchange is one of the defining factors, influencing on level of radionuclide specific activity in fish, especially {sup 90}Sr - the higher the flow age, the lower the level of radioactive contamination of fish inhabiting it. Calculation of the absorbed dose rate has shown that highest radiation dose was in fish inhabiting lake

  3. Ciguatera fish poisoning: a first epidemic in Germany highlights an increasing risk for European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, César; Vetter, Irina; Eisenblätter, Anneka; Krock, Bernd; Ebbecke, Martin; Desel, Herbert; Zimmermann, Katharina

    2014-12-01

    Toxin-producing microalgae are thriving worldwide due to coral reef destruction and global warming with major consequences on ecosystems, international trade and human health. Microalgae belonging to the family of flagellate protists, in particular dinoflagellates, secrete a variety of high-molecular-weight polyether toxins that accumulate through the marine food chain to cause disease in humans by acting as sodium channel activator toxins; ciguatera is the most frequent seafood-borne illness worldwide with 50,000 to 500,000 global incidences per annum and is usually limited to endemic areas located between 35° northern and 35° southern latitude. The rising global incidence frequency renders it a major human health problem, because no curative treatment is available yet and reliable detection assays are lacking. During the last decade ciguatera has increasingly become endemic in previously unaffected areas for two reasons: first global warming has contributed to the emergence of dinoflagellate species in subtropical and even temperate regions that previously had been constrained to tropical areas and second: in Europe globalization of fishing industry and tourism has led to a progressive increase in the number of ciguatera cases and a lack of awareness among medical personnel contributes to under-reporting. We review, through a recent ciguatera outbreak in Germany, the risk for ciguatera poisoning in Europe and highlight characteristic symptoms, current knowledge about disease pathomechanisms and treatment options.

  4. Contents and risk assessment of heavy metals in marine invertebrates from Korean coastal fish markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Jong Soo; Kwon, Ji Young; Son, Kwang Tae; Choi, Woo Seok; Kang, Sung Rim; Ha, Na Young; Jo, Mi Ra; Kim, Ji Hoe

    2014-06-01

    The concentrations of the heavy metals cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), chromium, silver, nickel, copper, and zinc in the edible portions of 105 marine invertebrates representing 16 mollusk and crustacean species were accurately determined to evaluate their hazard for human consumption. The samples were collected in 2011 from major fish markets on the coast of Korea and analyzed for Hg using a direct Hg analyzer and for other metals using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Estimated dietary exposure (EDE) was determined, and a risk assessment was made of the heavy metals to provide information concerning consumer safety. The Cd concentrations, which were the highest for the three hazardous metals (Cd, Hg, and Pb), were significantly higher (P Food Additives or the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The EDE of Cd, Hg, and Pb for each class of marine invertebrate were 0.07 to 2.64, 0.01 to 0.43, and 0.001 to 0.16% of the PTDI, respectively. The total EDE of Cd, Hg, and Pb for marine invertebrates accounted for 4.03, 0.96, and 0.21%, respectively, of the PTDI. The EDE of other metals in each class of marine invertebrate was less than 2% of the PTDI. The hazard index is a reasonable parameter for assessing the risk of heavy metal consumption associated with contaminated food. In the present study, the hazard index for all of the species was less than 1.0, which indicates that the intake of heavy metals from consumption of these marine invertebrates does not represent an appreciable hazard to humans.

  5. Textural and rheological properties of Pacific whiting surimi as affected by nano-scaled fish bone and heating rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Tao; Park, Jae W

    2015-08-01

    Textural and rheological properties of Pacific whiting (PW) surimi were investigated at various heating rates with the use of nano-scaled fish bone (NFB) and calcium chloride. Addition of NFB and slow heating improved gel strength significantly. Activity of endogenous transglutaminase (ETGase) from PW surimi was markedly induced by both NFB calcium and calcium chloride, showing an optimal temperature at 30°C. Initial storage modulus increased as NFB calcium concentration increased and the same trend was maintained throughout the temperature sweep. Rheograms with temperature sweep at slow heating rate (1°C/min) exhibited two peaks at ∼ 35°C and ∼ 70°C. However, no peak was observed during temperature sweep from 20 to 90°C at fast heating rate (20°C/min). Protein patterns of surimi gels were affected by both heating rate and NFB calcium concentration. Under slow heating, myosin heavy chain intensity decreased with NFB calcium concentration, indicating formation of ε-(γ-glutamyl) lysine cross-links by ETGase and NFB calcium ion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mercury, Fatty Acids Content and Lipid Quality Indexes in Muscles of Freshwater and Marine Fish on the Polish Market. Risk Assessment of Fish Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łuczyńska, Joanna; Paszczyk, Beata; Nowosad, Joanna; Łuczyński, Marek Jan

    2017-09-25

    Mercury content and fatty acids in muscles of Perca fluviatilis L. (European perch), Leuciscus idus L. (ide), Cyprinus carpio L. (European or common carp), Oncorhynchus mykiss Walb. (rainbow trout), Platichthys flesus L. (European flounder). and Clupea harengus L. (bream) from the Polish market were investigated. The total mercury was processed with AAS. The fatty acids were analyzed by gas chromatography. The concentration of mercury in muscles varied from 0.006 to 0.138 mg/kg and decreased as follows: perch ≈ ide > flounder > herring ≈ bream ≈ rainbow trout > carp ( p ≤ 0.05). There were only significant positive correlations between body weight and mercury content in muscle tissue of carp (r = 0.878), flounder (r = 0.925) and herring (r = 0.982) ( p ≤ 0.05). The atherogenic index (AI), thrombogenicity index (TI) and flesh-lipid quality index (FLQ) were calculated as follows 0.33-0.70 (IA), 0.16-0.31 (IT) and 13.01-33.22 (FLQ). Hypocholesterolemic (OFA) and hypercholesterolemic fatty acids (DFA) in muscles of fish ranged from 18.26 to 23.01 and from 73.91 to 78.46, respectively. In most cases, there were not significant correlations between size (body weight and total length) and fatty acids in the muscles of the examined fish ( p > 0.05). The Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) values were below 1, which shows that there is no non-carcinogenic health risk to the consumer by consuming the examined fish.

  7. Mercury, Fatty Acids Content and Lipid Quality Indexes in Muscles of Freshwater and Marine Fish on the Polish Market. Risk Assessment of Fish Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Łuczyńska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mercury content and fatty acids in muscles of Perca fluviatilis L. (European perch, Leuciscus idus L. (ide, Cyprinus carpio L. (European or common carp, Oncorhynchus mykiss Walb. (rainbow trout, Platichthys flesus L. (European flounder. and Clupea harengus L. (bream from the Polish market were investigated. The total mercury was processed with AAS. The fatty acids were analyzed by gas chromatography. The concentration of mercury in muscles varied from 0.006 to 0.138 mg/kg and decreased as follows: perch ≈ ide > flounder > herring ≈ bream ≈ rainbow trout > carp (p ≤ 0.05. There were only significant positive correlations between body weight and mercury content in muscle tissue of carp (r = 0.878, flounder (r = 0.925 and herring (r = 0.982 (p ≤ 0.05. The atherogenic index (AI, thrombogenicity index (TI and flesh-lipid quality index (FLQ were calculated as follows 0.33–0.70 (IA, 0.16–0.31 (IT and 13.01–33.22 (FLQ. Hypocholesterolemic (OFA and hypercholesterolemic fatty acids (DFA in muscles of fish ranged from 18.26 to 23.01 and from 73.91 to 78.46, respectively. In most cases, there were not significant correlations between size (body weight and total length and fatty acids in the muscles of the examined fish (p > 0.05. The Target Hazard Quotient (THQ values were below 1, which shows that there is no non-carcinogenic health risk to the consumer by consuming the examined fish.

  8. Risk Denial and Socio-Economic Factors Related to High HIV Transmission in a Fishing Community in Rakai, Uganda: A Qualitative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamadi Lubega

    Full Text Available In Kasensero fishing community, home of the first recorded case of HIV in Uganda, HIV transmission is still very high with an incidence of 4.3 and 3.1 per 100 person-years in women and men, respectively, and an HIV prevalence of 44%, reaching up to 74% among female sex workers. We explored drivers for the high HIV transmission at Kasensero from the perspective of fishermen and other community members to inform future policy and preventive interventions.20 in-depth interviews including both HIV positive and HIV negative respondents, and 12 focus-group discussions involving a total of 92 respondents from the Kasensero fishing community were conducted during April-September 2014. Content analysis was performed to identify recurrent themes.The socio-economic risk factors for high HIV transmission in Kasensero fishing community cited were multiple and cross-cutting and categorized into the following themes: power of money, risk denial, environmental triggers and a predisposing lifestyle and alcoholism and drug abuse. Others were: peer pressure, poor housing and the search for financial support for both the men and women which made them vulnerable to HIV exposure and or risk behavior.There is a need for context specific combination prevention interventions in Kasensero that includes the fisher folk and other influential community leaders. Such groups could be empowered with the knowledge and social mobilization skills to fight the negative and risky behaviors, perceptions, beliefs, misconceptions and submission attitudes to fate that exposes the community to high HIV transmission. There is also need for government/partners to ensure effective policy implementation, life jackets for all fishermen, improve the poor housing at the community so as to reduce overcrowding and other housing related predispositions to high HIV rates at the community. Work place AIDS-competence teams have been successfully used to address high HIV transmission in similar

  9. 75 FR 9257 - SBA Lender Risk Rating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... Liquidation Rate; 3. Gross Delinquency Rate; 4. Gross Past-Due Rate; 5. Six (6) Month Net Flow Indicator; 6.... The statistical analysis performed showed that incorporating the Portfolio Size/Age component improved...) Month Delinquency Rate; 3. Gross Delinquency Rate; 4. Gross Past-Due Rate; 5. Average Small Business...

  10. Invasion risks posed by ornamental freshwater fish trade to southeastern Brazilian rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Lincoln Barroso de Magalhães

    Full Text Available A model was developed to assess the risk of invasion of ornamental non-native fishes to six rivers in the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, with focus on species popularity. Thirty-nine aquarium shops, in six cities, were visited monthly from January to December 2007. In each city, fish species were identified, and their biology and invasion history information was obtained from the literature. We calculated the annual frequency of occurrence and average number of specimens monthly available in stores. Quarterly water temperature and dissolved oxygen data from 1997 to 2007 were obtained for the Velhas, Muriaé, Uberabinha, Sapucaí-Mirim, Doce and Todos os Santos Rivers from public databases. The invasion risk of each species was assessed through a model comprising nine parameters grouped in four variables: (i Invasiveness (thermal and dissolved oxygen ranges, diet, parental care or fecundity, (ii History of invasions (establishment, (iii Propagule pressure (commercial success, comprising annual frequency of occurrence and number of specimens available monthly at stores, and (iv Invasibility (water temperature and dissolved oxygen in the target river compatible with the species ranges. Of the 345 ornamental fish species for sale, 332 are non-native to either Minas Gerais (n = 151 or Brazil (n = 194. Based on the proposed cutting values, in particular the compatibility between species and recipient thermal ranges, five ornamental non-native species (Cyprinus rubrofuscus, Carassius auratus, Xiphophorus hellerii, Poecilia reticulata, and P. latipinna can potentially invade the Velhas and Muriaé Rivers, four species (Cyprinus rubrofuscus, Carassius auratus, X. helleri, and P. reticulata the Uberabinha River, four species (Cyprinus rubrofuscus, Carassius auratus, X. maculatus, and P. reticulata the Sapucaí-Mirim River, three species (Carassius auratus, X. hellerii, and P. reticulata the Doce River, and three species (Cyprinus rubrofuscus

  11. Environmental genotoxicity and risk assessment in the Gulf of Riga (Baltic Sea) using fish, bivalves, and crustaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butrimavičienė, Laura; Baršienė, Janina; Greiciūnaitė, Janina; Stankevičiūtė, Milda; Valskienė, Roberta

    2018-06-21

    Environmental genotoxicity in the Gulf of Riga was assessed using different bioindicators (fish, clams, and isopods) collected from 14 study stations. Comparison of genotoxicity responses (micronuclei (MN) and nuclear buds (NB)) in blood erythrocytes of herring (Clupea harengus), eelpout (Zoarces viviparous), and flounder (Platichthys flesus) revealed the species- and site-specific differences. For the first time, the analysis of genotoxicity was carried out in gill cells of isopods Saduria entomon. The highest inductions of MN and NB in gill cells of investigated S. entomon and clams (Macoma balthica) were evaluated in specimens from station 111A (offshore zone). In fish, the highest incidences of MN were measured in eelpout and in herring collected in the southern part of Gulf of Riga (station GOR3/41S). Moreover, in the southern coastal area, the assessment of genotoxicity risk (according to micronuclei levels) indicated exceptionally high risk for flounder, eelpout, and clams.

  12. Seasonal and among-stream variation in predator encounter rates for fish prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bret C. Harvey; Rodney J. Nakamoto

    2013-01-01

    Recognition that predators have indirect effects on prey populations that may exceed their direct consumptive effects highlights the need for a better understanding of spatiotemporal variation in predator–prey interactions. We used photographic monitoring of tethered Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and Cutthroat Trout O. clarkii to quantify predator encounter rates...

  13. The relationships between anglers' risk perception, sensation-seeking, and fishing site choice along the northeast and Yilan Coast Scenic Area, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng-Ping Wang

    2009-01-01

    The northeastern coast is one of the best fishing areas in Taiwan, but the terrain, weather, and tides can create a dangerous and even deadly environment. This study examines the relationships between anglers' risk perceptions, sensation seeking, and fishing site choices. Results from a survey conducted at Long-Don in 2005 were analyzed for four dimensions of...

  14. An evaluation of the relations between flow regime components, stream characteristics, species traits and meta-demographic rates of warmwater stream fishes: Implications for aquatic resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, James T.; Shea, C.P.

    2015-01-01

    Fishery biologists are increasingly recognizing the importance of considering the dynamic nature of streams when developing streamflow policies. Such approaches require information on how flow regimes influence the physical environment and how those factors, in turn, affect species-specific demographic rates. A more cost-effective alternative could be the use of dynamic occupancy models to predict how species are likely to respond to changes in flow. To appraise the efficacy of this approach, we evaluated relative support for hypothesized effects of seasonal streamflow components, stream channel characteristics, and fish species traits on local extinction, colonization, and recruitment (meta-demographic rates) of stream fishes. We used 4 years of seasonal fish collection data from 23 streams to fit multistate, multiseason occupancy models for 42 fish species in the lower Flint River Basin, Georgia. Modelling results suggested that meta-demographic rates were influenced by streamflows, particularly short-term (10-day) flows. Flow effects on meta-demographic rates also varied with stream size, channel morphology, and fish species traits. Small-bodied species with generalized life-history characteristics were more resilient to flow variability than large-bodied species with specialized life-history characteristics. Using this approach, we simplified the modelling framework, thereby facilitating the development of dynamic, spatially explicit evaluations of the ecological consequences of water resource development activities over broad geographic areas. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  15. Human exposure to trace metals and arsenic via consumption of fish from river Chenab, Pakistan and associated health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamdar, Ambreen; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah; Hanif, Nida; Ali, Syeda Maria; Fasola, Mauro; Bokhari, Habib; Katsoyiannis, Ioannis A; Shen, Heqing

    2017-02-01

    This study provided the first hand data of trace elements into fish muscles (N = 65) collected from river Chenab in Pakistan during 2013, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). We monitored the health risk associated with consumption of contaminated fish of river Chenab, by the local population. The mean concentrations (μg/g, wet weight), in descending order were: Zn (35.5-54.4), Cu (1.38-4.57), Mn (2.43-4.5), As (0.23-1.21), Cr (0.21-0.67), Ni (0.14-0.34), Pb (0.14-0.31), Co (0.09-0.12), Cd (0.07-0.12) with higher concentration to be observed in the herbivore fish species (i.e., Cirrhinus reba and Catla catla). The levels of trace elements in different fish species found in this study were compared with similar data worldwide, and with the international standards for consumption. The concentration (μg/g) of arsenic in many cases (>65%) exceeded the FAO/WHO expert committee on food additives permissible limits. From the human health point of view, this study highlights that the local inhabitants, (i.e., fisher folk communities and population frequently consuming fish at about 100 g/day) along the river Chenab are exposed chronically to arsenic pollution with carcinogenic (10 -4 to 10 -6 ) and non-carcinogenic (THQ>1) risks, especially from the intake of Cirrhinus reba. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Extinction of fish-shaped marine reptiles associated with reduced evolutionary rates and global environmental volatility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Valentin; Bardet, Nathalie; Benson, Roger B J; Arkhangelsky, Maxim S; Friedman, Matt

    2016-03-08

    Despite their profound adaptations to the aquatic realm and their apparent success throughout the Triassic and the Jurassic, ichthyosaurs became extinct roughly 30 million years before the end-Cretaceous mass extinction. Current hypotheses for this early demise involve relatively minor biotic events, but are at odds with recent understanding of the ichthyosaur fossil record. Here, we show that ichthyosaurs maintained high but diminishing richness and disparity throughout the Early Cretaceous. The last ichthyosaurs are characterized by reduced rates of origination and phenotypic evolution and their elevated extinction rates correlate with increased environmental volatility. In addition, we find that ichthyosaurs suffered from a profound Early Cenomanian extinction that reduced their ecological diversity, likely contributing to their final extinction at the end of the Cenomanian. Our results support a growing body of evidence revealing that global environmental change resulted in a major, temporally staggered turnover event that profoundly reorganized marine ecosystems during the Cenomanian.

  17. Assessing predation risks for small fish in a large river ecosystem between contrasting habitats and turbidity conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodrill, Michael J.; Yard, Mike; Pine, William E.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined predation risk for juvenile native fish between two riverine shoreline habitats, backwater and debris fan, across three discrete turbidity levels (low, intermediate, high) to understand environmental risks associated with habitat use in a section of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, AZ. Inferences are particularly important to juvenile native fish, including the federally endangered humpback chub Gila cypha. This species uses a variety of habitats including backwaters which are often considered important rearing areas. Densities of two likely predators, adult rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and adult humpback chub, were estimated between habitats using binomial mixture models to examine whether higher predator density was associated with patterns of predation risk. Tethering experiments were used to quantify relative predation risk between habitats and turbidity conditions. Under low and intermediate turbidity conditions, debris fan habitat showed higher relative predation risk compared to backwaters. In both habitats the highest predation risk was observed during intermediate turbidity conditions. Density of likely predators did not significantly differ between these habitats. This information can help managers in Grand Canyon weigh flow policy options designed to increase backwater availability or extant turbidity conditions.

  18. Effect of warming rate on the critical thermal maxima of crabs, shrimp and fish

    OpenAIRE

    Vinagre, Catarina; Leal, Inês; Mendonça, Vanessa; Flores, Augusto Alberto Valero

    2015-01-01

    he threat of global warming has prompted numerous recent studies on the thermal tolerance of marine species. A widely used method to determine the upper thermal limit has been the Critical Thermal Maximum (CTMax), a dynamic method, meaning that temperature is increased gradually until a critical point is reached. This method presents several advantages over static methods, however, there is one main issue that hinders interpretation and comparison of CTMax results: the rate at which the tempe...

  19. Gambling disorder: estimated prevalence rates and risk factors in Macao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Anise M S; Lai, Mark H C; Tong, Kwok-Kit

    2014-12-01

    An excessive, problematic gambling pattern has been regarded as a mental disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM) for more than 3 decades (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 1980). In this study, its latest prevalence in Macao (one of very few cities with legalized gambling in China and the Far East) was estimated with 2 major changes in the diagnostic criteria, suggested by the 5th edition of DSM (APA, 2013): (a) removing the "Illegal Act" criterion, and (b) lowering the threshold for diagnosis. A random, representative sample of 1,018 Macao residents was surveyed with a phone poll design in January 2013. After the 2 changes were adopted, the present study showed that the estimated prevalence rate of gambling disorder was 2.1% of the Macao adult population. Moreover, the present findings also provided empirical support to the application of these 2 recommended changes when assessing symptoms of gambling disorder among Chinese community adults. Personal risk factors of gambling disorder, namely being male, having low education, a preference for casino gambling, as well as high materialism, were identified.

  20. 12 CFR 652.15 - Interest rate risk management and requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rate risk management and requirements... AGRICULTURAL MORTGAGE CORPORATION FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS Investment Management § 652.15 Interest rate risk... (direction, controls, and supervision) to the interest rate risk management program and must be knowledgeable...

  1. Health risk assessment for the consumption of fresh and preserved fish (Alosa agone) from Lago di Como (Northern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadroni, Silvia; Bettinetti, Roberta

    2017-07-01

    Although banned in many countries for decades, DDTs and PCBs still represent a global threat to food safety. As these contaminants are still present in aquatic ecosystems, fish can be an important contributor to their total dietary intake. Alosa agone specimens were sampled over a period of 10 years (from 2006 to 2015) to provide a representative overview of the DDT and PCB levels of Lago di Como, a deep Italian lake where a DDT input due to secondary sources was observed in recent years. The potential health risk from the consumption of both fresh and preserved fish was evaluated. While DDT levels have generally decreased during the monitored period, reaching quite stable levels, PCB concentrations were variable, with values exceeding, in some cases, the European Union limit for human consumption and enabling potential carcinogenic effects. However, typical local processing of this fish species markedly appeared to decrease these contaminant levels, thus making the fish product (called missoltino) a safer food. The results of this work highlighted the need of continuous biomonitoring of those contaminants considered a past issue along with the emergent ones. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. COASTAL INVERTEBRATES AND FISHES: HOW WILL THEY BE AFFECTED BY CHANGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS- INCORPORATING CLIMATE SCENARIOS INTO THE COASTAL BIODIVERSITY RISK ANALYSIS TOOL (CBRAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Coastal Biodiversity Risk Analysis Tool (CBRAT) is a public website that functions as an ecoinformatics platform to synthesize biogeographical distributions, abundances, life history attributes, and environmental tolerances for near-coastal invertebrates and fishes on a broad...

  3. Protective effect of fish consumption on colorectal cancer risk. Hospital-based case-control study in Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Maugeri, Umberto; Pac, Agnieszka; Sochacka-Tatara, Elzbieta; Galas, Aleksander

    2008-01-01

    Current epidemiologic studies investigating the effect of fish intake on colorectal cancer (CRC) risk are scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between fish consumption and CRC risk. This hospital-based case-control study was performed in 548 CRC patients (Surgery Clinic, University Hospital in Krakow, Poland) between November 2000 and May 2008. Histological findings, information on anatomic location and stage of cancer were available for all the patients enrolled in this study. The control group consisted of 745 patients of the same hospital with no history of cancer admitted for treatment of non-neoplastic conditions. During the 5-year study period, the food frequency questionnaire used focused on the reference period that was defined as 1-5 years prior to CRC diagnosis for the CRC cases and the date of hospital admission for the controls. The crude odds ratio (OR) was inversely related to fish consumption (z for trend in quartiles of intake= -2.31, p=0.021; OR=0.89; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.81-0.98). The risk of CRC increased with intake of stewed or cooked meat (z for trend in quartiles of intake=2.14; p=0.032; OR=1.11; 95% CI: 1.01-1.23). The adjusted OR showed a significant reduction in CRC already at the moderate fish intake of one or two servings per week (OR=0.70; 95% CI: 0.51-0.94), but it was even lower at higher fish intake (OR=0.56; 95% CI: 0.39-0.86). All multivariate statistical models employed in the analysis considered potential confounders, such as demographic characteristics of subjects, body mass index, smoking status, leisure time physical activity, energy consumption and intake of meat products. The study results indicate that increased fish intake may have a preventive effect on CRC and modulate the effect of meat consumption. To our knowledge, this is the first large epidemiologic study on dietary habits and CRC incidence in Eastern Europe. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Higher fish intake is associated with a lower risk of hip fractures in Chinese men and women: a matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Fan; Xue, Wen-Qiong; Wu, Bao-Hua; He, Ming-Guang; Xie, Hai-Li; Ouyang, Wei-Fu; Tu, Su-Lan; Chen, Yu-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Fish is rich in nutrients that are favorable to bone health, but limited data are available regarding the relationship between fish intake and hip fractures. Our study examined the association between habitual fish intake and risk of hip fractures. A case-control study was performed between June 2009 and June 2012 in Guangdong Province, China. Five hundred and eighty-one hip fracture incident cases, aged 55 to 80 years (mean: 71 years), were enrolled from four hospitals. 1∶1 matched controls by gender and age (±3 years) were also recruited from communities and hospitals. Face-to-face interviews were used to obtain habitual dietary intake and information on various covariates. Univariate conditional logistic regression analyses showed significantly dose-dependent inverse correlations between the risk of hip fractures and the intake of fresh-water fish, sea fish, mollusca, shellfish, and total fish in all of the subjects (p-trend: water fish (p = 0.553). The ORs (95%CI) of hip fractures for the highest (vs. lowest) quartile were 0.80 (0.48-1.31) for fresh-water fish, 0.31 (0.18-0.52) for sea fish, 0.55 (0.34-0.88) for mollusca and shellfish, and 0.47 (0.28-0.79) for total fish, respectively. Stratified and interaction analyses showed that the association was more significant in males than in females (p-interaction = 0.052). Higher intake of seafood is independently associated with lower risk of hip fractures in elderly Chinese. Increasing consumption of sea fish may benefit the prevention of hip fractures in this population.

  5. Higher fish intake is associated with a lower risk of hip fractures in Chinese men and women: a matched case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Fan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Fish is rich in nutrients that are favorable to bone health, but limited data are available regarding the relationship between fish intake and hip fractures. Our study examined the association between habitual fish intake and risk of hip fractures. METHODS: A case-control study was performed between June 2009 and June 2012 in Guangdong Province, China. Five hundred and eighty-one hip fracture incident cases, aged 55 to 80 years (mean: 71 years, were enrolled from four hospitals. 1∶1 matched controls by gender and age (±3 years were also recruited from communities and hospitals. Face-to-face interviews were used to obtain habitual dietary intake and information on various covariates. RESULTS: Univariate conditional logistic regression analyses showed significantly dose-dependent inverse correlations between the risk of hip fractures and the intake of fresh-water fish, sea fish, mollusca, shellfish, and total fish in all of the subjects (p-trend: <0.001-0.016. After adjusting for covariates, the associations were slightly attenuated but remained significant for all (p-trend: <0.001-0.017 except for fresh-water fish (p = 0.553. The ORs (95%CI of hip fractures for the highest (vs. lowest quartile were 0.80 (0.48-1.31 for fresh-water fish, 0.31 (0.18-0.52 for sea fish, 0.55 (0.34-0.88 for mollusca and shellfish, and 0.47 (0.28-0.79 for total fish, respectively. Stratified and interaction analyses showed that the association was more significant in males than in females (p-interaction = 0.052. CONCLUSION: Higher intake of seafood is independently associated with lower risk of hip fractures in elderly Chinese. Increasing consumption of sea fish may benefit the prevention of hip fractures in this population.

  6. Prevalence and proposal for cost-effective management of the ciguatera risk in the Noumea fish market, New Caledonia (South Pacific).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clua, Eric; Brena, Pierpaolo F; Lecasble, Côme; Ghnassia, Reine; Chauvet, Claude

    2011-11-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a common intoxication associated with the consumption of reef fish, which constitutes a critical issue for public health in many countries. The complexity of its epidemiology is responsible for the poor management of the risk in tropical fish markets. We used the example of the Noumea fish market in New Caledonia to develop a cost-effective methodology of assessing the CFP risk. We first used published reports and the knowledge of local experts to define a list of potentially poisonous local species, ranked by their ciguatoxic potential. Based on two 1-month surveys in the market, conducted in winters 2008 and 2009, we then calculated the consolidated ratio of biomass of potentially poisonous species vs. total biomass of fish sold on the market. The prevalence of high CFP-risk species in the market was 16.1% and 18.9% in 2008 and 2009, respectively. The most common high CFP risk species were groupers (serranids), king mackerels (scombrids), snappers (lutjanids), barracudas (sphyaraenids), emperors (lethrinids) and wrasses (labrids). The size (age) of the fish also plays a critical role in the potential ciguatoxic risk. According to proposals of average size thresholds provided by experts for high-risk species, we were also able to assess the additional risk induced by the sale of some large fish on the market. The data collected both from experts and from the market allowed us to develop a cost-effective proposal for improving the management of the CFP risk in this market. However, the successful implementation of any regulation aiming to ban some specific species and sizes from the market, with an acceptable economical impact, will require the improvement of the expertise in fish identification by public health officers and, ideally, the commitment of retailers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Immigration Rates during Population Density Reduction in a Coral Reef Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgeon, Katrine; Kramer, Donald L.

    2016-01-01

    Although the importance of density-dependent dispersal has been recognized in theory, few empirical studies have examined how immigration changes over a wide range of densities. In a replicated experiment using a novel approach allowing within-site comparison, we examined changes in immigration rate following the gradual removal of territorial damselfish from a limited area within a much larger patch of continuous habitat. In all sites, immigration occurred at intermediate densities but did not occur before the start of removals and only rarely as density approached zero. In the combined data and in 5 of 7 sites, the number of immigrants was a hump-shaped function of density. This is the first experimental evidence for hump-shaped, density-dependent immigration. This pattern may be more widespread than previously recognized because studies over more limited density ranges have identified positive density dependence at low densities and negative density dependence at high densities. Positive density dependence at low density can arise from limits to the number of potential immigrants and from behavioral preferences for settling near conspecifics. Negative density dependence at high density can arise from competition for resources, especially high quality territories. The potential for non-linear effects of local density on immigration needs to be recognized for robust predictions of conservation reserve function, harvest impacts, pest control, and the dynamics of fragmented populations. PMID:27271081

  8. Mercury and omega-3 fatty acid profiles in freshwater fish of the Dehcho Region, Northwest Territories: Informing risk benefit assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Matthew J; Henao, Juan J Aristizabal; Reyes, Ellen S; Stark, Ken D; Low, George; Swanson, Heidi K; Laird, Brian D

    2018-05-17

    Traditional foods have significant nutritional, sociocultural and economic value in subarctic First Nations communities of the Northwest Territories, and play a crucial role in promoting cultural continuity and sovereignty. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (N-3 PUFAs), including eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), carry significant benefits for neurocognitive development and cardiovascular health. However, the health risks posed by methylmercury may serve to undermine the benefits of fish consumption in Northern Indigenous communities. The objective of this study was to characterize profiles for mercury (Hg) and fatty acids in fish species harvested across lakes of the Dehcho Region, in the Mackenzie Valley of the Northwest Territories, to better understand the risks and benefits associated with traditional foods. Hg levels increased with trophic position, with the highest levels found in Burbot, Lake Trout, Walleye, and Northern Pike. Lake Trout, along with planktivorous species including Lake Whitefish, Cisco, and Sucker, demonstrated higher N-3 PUFAs than other species. Negative associations were observed between Hg and N-3 PUFAs in Lake Trout, Northern Pike, Walleye and Burbot. Further stratifying these relationships revealed significant interactions by lake. Significant differences observed in fatty acid and Hg profiles across lakes underscore the importance of considering both species- and lake-specific findings. This growing dataset of freshwater fish of the Dehcho will inform future efforts to characterize human Hg exposure profiles using probabilistic dose reconstruction models. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. 77 FR 5155 - Interest Rate Risk Policy and Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    ... directors and management; appropriate IRR measurement and monitoring systems; good internal controls; and... Systems B. Risk Measurement Methods C. Components of IRR Measurement Methods V. Internal Controls VI... risk management and a program to effectively implement that policy, as part of their asset liability...

  10. Essays on long-term mortality and interest rate risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kort, J.P.

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation comprises a study of long-term risks which play a major role in actuarial science. In Part I we analyse long-term mortality risk and its impact on consumption and investment decisions of economic agents, while Part II focuses on the mathematical modelling of long-term interest

  11. Carbon recovery rates following different wildfire risk mitigation treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Hurteau; M. North

    2010-01-01

    Sequestered forest carbon can provide a climate change mitigation benefit, but in dry temperate forests, wildfire poses a reversal risk to carbon offset projects. Reducing wildfire risk requires a reduction in and redistribution of carbon stocks, the benefit of which is only realized when wildfire occurs. To estimate the time needed to recover carbon removed and...

  12. Evaluating risk communication: examining target audience perceptions about four presentation formats for fish consumption health advisory information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, N A; Knuth, B A

    1998-10-01

    Information format can influence the extent to which target audiences understand and respond to risk-related information. This study examined four elements of risk information presentation format. Using printed materials, we examined target audience perceptions about: (a) reading level; (b) use of diagrams vs. text; (c) commanding versus cajoling tone; and (d) use of qualitative vs. quantitative information presented in a risk ladder. We used the risk communication topic of human health concerns related to eating noncommercial Great Lakes fish affected by chemical contaminants. Results from the comparisons of specific communication formats indicated that multiple formats are required to meet the needs of a significant percent of anglers for three of the four format types examined. Advisory text should be reviewed to ensure the reading level is geared to abilities of the target audience. For many audiences, a combination of qualitative and quantitative information, and a combination of diagrams and text may be most effective. For most audiences, a cajoling rather than commanding tone better provides them with the information they need to make a decision about fish consumption. Segmenting audiences regarding information needs and communication formats may help clarify which approaches to take with each audience.

  13. The Effectiveness of Experimental Diet with Varying Levels of Papain on The Growth Performance, Survival Rate and Feed Utilization of Keureling Fish (Tor tambra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal Abidin Muchlisin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of present study was to determine the optimum level of papain in the diet of keureling fish (Tor tambra. The complete random design was utilized in this study. Six levels of papain dosage were tested in triplicates, i.e. 0 (control; 17.5 mg kg-1,  20.0 mg kg-1, 22.5 mg kg-1, 25.0 mg kg-1 and 27.5 mg kg-1 of feed. The experimental fish were fed the experimental diet two times a day at 8 AM and 5 PM at feeding level of 5% body weight for 90 days. The Anova test result showed that papain enzyme  gave a significant effect on the weight gain, daily growth rate, specific growth rate, survival rate, feed conversion ratio and feed efficiency (P<0.05. The Duncan multi-rage test result showed that the higher values for all measured parameters were obtained at the dosage of 27.5 mg kg-1. Therefore, it is concluded that the optimum dosage of papain enzyme for keureling fish was 27.5 mg kg-1 of feed.How to CiteMuchlisin, Z. A., Afrido, F., Murda, T., Fadli, N., Muhammadar, A. A., Jalil, Z., & Yulvizar, C. (2016. The Effectiveness of Experimental Diet with Varying Levels of Papain on The Growth Performance, Survival Rate and Feed Utilization of Keureling Fish (Tor tambra. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(2, 172-177.

  14. Extinction risk and overfishing: reconciling conservation and fisheries perspectives on the status of marine fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Trevor D; Baum, Julia K

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic disturbances are ubiquitous in the ocean, but their impacts on marine species are hotly debated. We evaluated marine fish statuses using conservation (Red List threatened or not) and fisheries (above or below reference points) metrics, compared their alignment, and diagnosed why discrepancies arise. Whereas only 13.5% of Red Listed marine fishes (n = 2952) are threatened, 40% and 21% of populations with stock assessments (n = 166) currently are below their more conservative and riskier reference points, respectively. Conservation and fisheries metrics aligned well (70.5% to 80.7%), despite their mathematical disconnect. Red Listings were not biased towards exaggerating threat status, and egregious errors, where populations were categorized at opposite extremes of fisheries and conservation metrics, were rare. Our analyses suggest conservation and fisheries scientists will agree on the statuses of exploited marine fishes in most cases, leaving only the question of appropriate management responses for populations of mutual concern still unresolved.

  15. Extinction vulnerability of coral reef fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Nicholas A J; Chabanet, Pascale; Evans, Richard D; Jennings, Simon; Letourneur, Yves; Aaron Macneil, M; McClanahan, Tim R; Ohman, Marcus C; Polunin, Nicholas V C; Wilson, Shaun K

    2011-04-01

    With rapidly increasing rates of contemporary extinction, predicting extinction vulnerability and identifying how multiple stressors drive non-random species loss have become key challenges in ecology. These assessments are crucial for avoiding the loss of key functional groups that sustain ecosystem processes and services. We developed a novel predictive framework of species extinction vulnerability and applied it to coral reef fishes. Although relatively few coral reef fishes are at risk of global extinction from climate disturbances, a negative convex relationship between fish species locally vulnerable to climate change vs. fisheries exploitation indicates that the entire community is vulnerable on the many reefs where both stressors co-occur. Fishes involved in maintaining key ecosystem functions are more at risk from fishing than climate disturbances. This finding is encouraging as local and regional commitment to fisheries management action can maintain reef ecosystem functions pending progress towards the more complex global problem of stabilizing the climate. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  16. 12 CFR 615.5180 - Interest rate risk management by banks-general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rate risk management by banks-general... FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Risk Assessment and Management § 615.5180 Interest rate risk management by banks—general. The board of directors of each Farm Credit Bank...

  17. 12 CFR 563.176 - Interest-rate-risk-management procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest-rate-risk-management procedures. 563... ASSOCIATIONS-OPERATIONS Financial Management Policies § 563.176 Interest-rate-risk-management procedures... association's management of that risk. (b) The board of directors shall formerly adopt a policy for the...

  18. 12 CFR 615.5181 - Bank interest rate risk management program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank interest rate risk management program. 615... FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Risk Assessment and Management § 615.5181 Bank interest rate risk management program. (a) The board of directors of each Farm Credit Bank...

  19. Risk assessment for fish passage through small, low-head turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turnpenny, A.W.H.; Clough, S.; Hanson, K.P.; Ramsay, R.; McEwan, D.

    2000-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of a study to improve the accuracy of prediction methods for fish fatalities for small-head Francis and Kaplan propeller turbine designs and gives details of computational fluid dynamic modelling to estimate pressure fluxes and shear stresses. Biological data is reviewed, and the STRIKER Excel spreadsheet model is used to predict death caused by pressure flux, shear turbulence, and blade strike. Field validation is discussed, and drawings of the Francis 1 and Kaplan 1 turbines, results of the fish passage trials, and STRIKER instructions and sample runs are presented in the appendices.

  20. Risk assessment for fish passage through small, low-head turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turnpenny, A.W.H.; Clough, S.; Hanson, K.P.; Ramsay, R.; McEwan, D.

    2000-01-01

    This report summarises the findings of a study to improve the accuracy of prediction methods for fish fatalities for small-head Francis and Kaplan propeller turbine designs and gives details of computational fluid dynamic modelling to estimate pressure fluxes and shear stresses. Biological data is reviewed, and the STRIKER Excel spreadsheet model is used to predict death caused by pressure flux, shear turbulence, and blade strike. Field validation is discussed, and drawings of the Francis 1 and Kaplan 1 turbines, results of the fish passage trials, and STRIKER instructions and sample runs are presented in the appendices

  1. The Association between the Consumption of Fish/Shellfish and the Risk of Osteoporosis in Men and Postmenopausal Women Aged 50 Years or Older

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunjin Choi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fish rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been suggested to have a favorable effect on bone health, but previous epidemiologic studies have shown inconsistent results. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the hypothesis that the consumption of fish and shellfish is positively associated with bone mass and negatively associated with the risk of osteoporosis in Koreans and Americans. Men and postmenopausal women ≥50 years old from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2011 (n = 7154 and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2010 (n = 2658 were included. There was a positive correlation between the consumption of fish and shellfish and bone mineral density (BMD of the total femur, femoral neck, and lumbar spine in Koreans. Consistently, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed a significant association between intake of fish and shellfish and the risk of osteoporosis in Koreans but not in Americans. Consumption of fish and shellfish was 4–5 times higher in Koreans than Americans in the present study. In conclusion, intake of fish and shellfish was associated with BMD and the risk of osteoporosis in Koreans but not in Americans, suggesting that a minimum intake level of fish and shellfish might be recommended to protect against bone loss and osteoporosis.

  2. White fish reduces cardiovascular risk factors in patients with metabolic syndrome: the WISH-CARE study, a multicenter randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, C; Botella-Carretero, J I; Corella, D; Fiol, M; Lage, M; Lurbe, E; Richart, C; Fernández-Real, J M; Fuentes, F; Ordóñez, A; de Cos, A I; Salas-Salvadó, J; Burguera, B; Estruch, R; Ros, E; Pastor, O; Casanueva, F F

    2014-03-01

    Reduction of cardiovascular risk with high consumption of fish in diet is still a matter of debate, and concerns about heavy metal contamination have limited consumption of oily fish. We aimed to evaluate the effect of regular ingestion of white fish on cardiovascular risk factors in patients with metabolic syndrome. Multicenter randomized crossover clinical trial including 273 individuals with metabolic syndrome. An 8-week only-one dietary intervention: 100 g/d of white fish (Namibia hake) with advice on a healthy diet, compared with no fish or seafood with advice on a healthy diet. Outcomes were lipid profile, individual components of the metabolic syndrome, serum insulin concentrations, homeostasis model of insulin resistance, serum C-reactive protein and serum fatty acid levels. We found a significant lowering effect of the intervention with white fish on waist circumference (P rise (P syndrome, regular consumption of hake reduces LDL cholesterol concentrations, waist circumference and blood pressure components of the metabolic syndrome. White Fish for Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome Study, Registered under ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01758601. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Lack of effect of fish oil supplementation on coagulation and transcapillary escape rate of albumin in insulin-dependent diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myrup, B.; Rossing, P.; Jensen, T.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: We studied the effect of a diet supplementation with fish oil in insulin-dependent diabetic patients with nephropathy in order to evaluate whether abnormal transcapillary escape rate of albumin and procoagulant activity in these patients could be modified. Methods: A double-blind, rand......Objective: We studied the effect of a diet supplementation with fish oil in insulin-dependent diabetic patients with nephropathy in order to evaluate whether abnormal transcapillary escape rate of albumin and procoagulant activity in these patients could be modified. Methods: A double......-blind, randomized, controlled study was carried out at a tertiary referral centre. The subjects were 29 insulin-dependent diabetic patients with nephropathy. One year of fish oil supplementation (4.6 g n-3 fatty acids/day) was compared with placebo (olive oil). The main outcome measures were N-3 fatty acid...... rate of albumin and activity could not be modified during diet supplementation with fish oil in insulin-dependent diabetic patients with nephropathy....

  4. Agreement in cardiovascular risk rating based on anthropometric parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, Endilly Maria da Silva; Pinto, Cristiane Jordânia; Freitas, Rodrigo Pegado de Abreu; Medeiros, Anna Cecília Queiroz de

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the agreement in evaluation of risk of developing cardiovascular diseases based on anthropometric parameters in young adults. The study included 406 students, measuring weight, height, and waist and neck circumferences. Waist-to-height ratio and the conicity index. The kappa coefficient was used to assess agreement in risk classification for cardiovascular diseases. The positive and negative specific agreement values were calculated as well. The Pearson chi-square (χ"2) test was used to assess associations between categorical variables (p<0.05). The majority of the parameters assessed (44%) showed slight (k=0.21 to 0.40) and/or poor agreement (k<0.20), with low values of negative specific agreement. The best agreement was observed between waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio both for the general population (k=0.88) and between sexes (k=0.93 to 0.86). There was a significant association (p<0.001) between the risk of cardiovascular diseases and females when using waist circumference and conicity index, and with males when using neck circumference. This resulted in a wide variation in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk (5.5%-36.5%), depending on the parameter and the sex that was assessed. The results indicate variability in agreement in assessing risk for cardiovascular diseases, based on anthropometric parameters, and which also seems to be influenced by sex. Further studies in the Brazilian population are required to better understand this issue

  5. Agreement in cardiovascular risk rating based on anthropometric parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, Endilly Maria da Silva; Pinto, Cristiane Jordânia; Freitas, Rodrigo Pegado de Abreu; Medeiros, Anna Cecília Queiroz de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the agreement in evaluation of risk of developing cardiovascular diseases based on anthropometric parameters in young adults. The study included 406 students, measuring weight, height, and waist and neck circumferences. Waist-to-height ratio and the conicity index. The kappa coefficient was used to assess agreement in risk classification for cardiovascular diseases. The positive and negative specific agreement values were calculated as well. The Pearson chi-square (χ{sup 2}) test was used to assess associations between categorical variables (p<0.05). The majority of the parameters assessed (44%) showed slight (k=0.21 to 0.40) and/or poor agreement (k<0.20), with low values of negative specific agreement. The best agreement was observed between waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio both for the general population (k=0.88) and between sexes (k=0.93 to 0.86). There was a significant association (p<0.001) between the risk of cardiovascular diseases and females when using waist circumference and conicity index, and with males when using neck circumference. This resulted in a wide variation in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk (5.5%-36.5%), depending on the parameter and the sex that was assessed. The results indicate variability in agreement in assessing risk for cardiovascular diseases, based on anthropometric parameters, and which also seems to be influenced by sex. Further studies in the Brazilian population are required to better understand this issue.

  6. Environmental Health Risk Communication: Assessing Levels of Fish-Consumption Literacy among Selected Southeast Asians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnapradipa, Dhitinut; Getz, Thomas D.; Zarcadoolas, Christina; Panzara, Anthony D.; Esposito, Valerie; Wodika, Alicia B.; Caron, Colleen; Migliore, Beverly; Quilliam, Daniela N.

    2010-01-01

    Limited resources have led to a lack of comprehensive state outreach strategies that are geared for non-English speaking constituencies. The investigators worked with Southeast Asian communities in Rhode Island to determine perceptions and levels of trust with various health authorities providing health messaging about fish-consumption practices.…

  7. Effects of similar intakes of marine n-3 fatty acids from enriched food products and fish oil on cardiovascular risk markers in healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkhus, Bente; Lamglait, Amandine; Eilertsen, Karl-Erik; Falch, Eva; Haider, Trond; Vik, Hogne; Hoem, Nils; Hagve, Tor-Arne; Basu, Samar; Olsen, Elisabeth; Seljeflot, Ingebjørg; Nyberg, Lena; Elind, Elisabeth; Ulven, Stine M

    2012-05-01

    There is convincing evidence that consumption of fish and fish oil rich in long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFA (n-3 LCPUFA), EPA (20 : 5n-3) and DHA (22 : 6n-3) reduce the risk of CHD. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether n-3 LCPUFA-enriched food products provide similar beneficial effects as fish oil with regard to incorporation into plasma lipids and effects on cardiovascular risk markers. A parallel 7-week intervention trial was performed where 159 healthy men and women were randomised to consume either 34 g fish pâté (n 44), 500 ml fruit juice (n 38) or three capsules of concentrated fish oil (n 40), all contributing to a daily intake of approximately 1 g EPA and DHA. A fourth group did not receive any supplementation or food product and served as controls (n 37). Plasma fatty acid composition, serum lipids, and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress were measured. Compared with the control group, plasma n-3 LCPUFA and EPA:arachidonic acid ratio increased equally in all intervention groups. However, no significant changes in blood lipids and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress were observed. In conclusion, enriched fish pâté and fruit juice represent suitable delivery systems for n-3 LCPUFA. However, although the dose given is known to reduce the risk of CVD, no significant changes were observed on cardiovascular risk markers in this healthy population.

  8. Risk of solid cancer in low dose-rate radiation epidemiological studies and the dose-rate effectiveness factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Roy; Walsh, Linda; Azizova, Tamara; Rühm, Werner

    2017-10-01

    Estimated radiation risks used for radiation protection purposes have been based primarily on the Life Span Study (LSS) of atomic bomb survivors who received brief exposures at high dose rates, many with high doses. Information is needed regarding radiation risks from low dose-rate (LDR) exposures to low linear-energy-transfer (low-LET) radiation. We conducted a meta-analysis of LDR epidemiologic studies that provide dose-response estimates of total solid cancer risk in adulthood in comparison to corresponding LSS risks, in order to estimate a dose rate effectiveness factor (DREF). We identified 22 LDR studies with dose-response risk estimates for solid cancer after minimizing information overlap. For each study, a parallel risk estimate was derived from the LSS risk model using matching values for sex, mean ages at first exposure and attained age, targeted cancer types, and accounting for type of dosimetric assessment. For each LDR study, a ratio of the excess relative risk per Gy (ERR Gy -1 ) to the matching LSS ERR risk estimate (LDR/LSS) was calculated, and a meta-analysis of the risk ratios was conducted. The reciprocal of the resultant risk ratio provided an estimate of the DREF. The meta-analysis showed a LDR/LSS risk ratio of 0.36 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.14, 0.57) for the 19 studies of solid cancer mortality and 0.33 (95% CI 0.13, 0.54) when three cohorts with only incidence data also were added, implying a DREF with values around 3, but statistically compatible with 2. However, the analyses were highly dominated by the Mayak worker study. When the Mayak study was excluded the LDR/LSS risk ratios increased: 1.12 (95% CI 0.40, 1.84) for mortality and 0.54 (95% CI 0.09, 0.99) for mortality + incidence, implying a lower DREF in the range of 1-2. Meta-analyses that included only cohorts in which the mean dose was LDR data provide direct evidence regarding risk from exposures at low dose rates as an important complement to the LSS risk estimates used

  9. Impact of climate change and population growth on a risk assessment for endocrine disruption in fish due to steroid estrogens in England and Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, V.D.J.; Lloyd, P.; Terry, J.A.; Williams, R.J.

    2015-01-01

    In England and Wales, steroid estrogens: estrone, estradiol and ethinylestradiol have previously been identified as the main chemicals causing endocrine disruption in male fish. A national risk assessment is already available for intersex in fish arising from estrogens under current flow conditions. This study presents, to our knowledge, the first set of national catchment-based risk assessments for steroid estrogen under future scenarios. The river flows and temperatures were perturbed using three climate change scenarios (ranging from relatively dry to wet). The effects of demographic changes on estrogen consumption and human population served by sewage treatment works were also included. Compared to the current situation, the results indicated increased future risk:the percentage of high risk category sites, where endocrine disruption is more likely to occur, increased. These increases were mainly caused by changes in human population. This study provides regulators with valuable information to prepare for this potential increased risk. - Highlights: • Risk assessment for the 2050's including climate change and population changes. • Three climate scenarios considered (changes in river flow and river temperature). • Increased risk from fish intersex across all scenarios in England and Wales. • Population is the main factor causing the risk increase for the 2050's. - The predicted increase in risk of endocrine disruption in fish due to steroid estrogens in England and Wales in the 2050's is mainly due to human population increase rather than climate change

  10. Fish population dynamics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gulland, J. A

    1977-01-01

    This book describes how the dynamics of fish populations can be analysed in terms of the factors affecting their rates of growth, mortality and reproduction, with particular emphasis on the effects of fishing...

  11. Bank Credit Risk Management and Rating Migration Analysis on the Business Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris Gavalas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Credit risk measurement remains a critical field of top priority in banking finance, directly implicated in the recent global financial crisis. This paper examines the dynamic linkages between credit risk migration due to rating shifts and prevailing macroeconomic conditions, reflected in alternative business cycle states. An innovative empirical methodology applies to bank internal rating data, under different economic scenarios and investigates the implications of credit risk quality shifts for risk rating transition matrices. The empirical findings are useful and critical for banks to align to Basel guidelines in relation to core capital requirements and risk-weighted assets in the underlying loan portfolio.

  12. Distribution and chemical form of mercury in commercial fish tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Naoko; Tayama, Misato; Inouye, Minoru; Yasutake, Akira

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed total Hg concentrations in various tissue samples obtained from 7 commercially available fish species. MeHg contents were also estimated for muscle and liver samples by a selective analysis of inorganic Hg. Among the tissues, high Hg accumulations were shown in liver, muscle, heart and spleen throughout all fish species. Carnivorous fish, such as scorpion fish, sea bream and Japanese whiting, tended to show higher Hg accumulations in the muscle, with the highest Hg levels being shown by scorpion fish. Although the liver was expected to show the highest Hg accumulations among tissues throughout all fish species, the highest accumulation in the liver was observed only in scorpion fish. In contrast, the muscle level was significantly higher than the liver in Pacific saury and Japanese whiting. MeHg accumulated in fish is considered to show a sustained increase throughout the life of the fish, due to its long biological half-life. In fact, in the present study, muscle Hg levels in Japanese whiting, Japanese flying fish, and halfbeak showed good correlations with body weights. However, such correlations were not clear in scorpion fish, sea bream, Jack mackerel and Pacific saury. Selective analyses of inorganic Hg levels revealed that most of the Hg (> 95%) in fish muscle existed as MeHg, while the rates of MeHg contents in the liver varied from 56% in scorpion fish to 84% in Jack mackerel. As a result, fish muscle showed the highest MeHg accumulations in all fish species examined. These results suggest that reliable information on total Hg contents in fish muscle might be sufficient to avoid the risk of MeHg exposure caused by eating fish, even when one consumes other tissues such as fish liver.

  13. Tissue distribution of HCH and DDT congeners and human health risk associated with consumption of fish collected from Kabul River, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aamir, Muhammad; Khan, Sardar; Nawab, Javed; Qamar, Zahir; Khan, Anwarzeb

    2016-03-01

    Distribution of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) congeners in tissues of four different fish species and their associated potential health risks to local consumers are presented in this paper. The average ∑(HCHs+DDTs) concentration in Glyptothorax punjabensis (214ngg(-1) wet weight (ww)) (carnivores) was found higher than Tor putitora (155ngg(-1) ww) (herbivores). The distribution of ∑(HCHs+DDTs) in all fish tissues was found in order of liver>muscle>stomach>gills. The profile of congeners (β-HCH/∑HCH from 0.29-0.47) indicated that all selected fish species were contaminated with HCH because of its recent usage in the study area. Furthermore, DDT profile ((DDE+DDD)/∑DDT from 0.61-0.78) showed that fish contamination with DDT originated from past usage and long-time degradation mechanism. The average estimated daily dietary intake of ∑HCHs (15.0ngkg(-1) day(-1)) was higher than ∑DDTs (12.5ngkg(-1) day(-1)) by the local consumers via fish consumption. On the basis of both 50th and 95th percentile exposure levels, the carcinogenic hazard ratios for DDT and its congeners were exceeded one (safe limit) for all fish species, indicating a great potential cancer risk for local consumers with life time consumption of contaminated fish collected from Kabul River. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Integrating multiple fish biomarkers and risk assessment as indicators of metal pollution along the Red Sea coast of Hodeida, Yemen Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Wael A; Saleh, Yousef S; Marie, Mohamed-Assem S

    2014-12-01

    The marine environment of the Red Sea coast of Yemen Republic is subjected to increasing anthropogenic activities. The present field study assesses the impacts of metal pollutants on two common marine fish species; Pomadasys hasta and Lutjanus russellii collected from a reference site in comparison to two polluted sites along the Red Sea coast of Hodeida, Yemen Republic. Concentrations of heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) in fish vital organs, metal pollution index (MPI), indicative biochemical parameters of liver functions (alanine aminotransferase [ALT] and aspartate aminotransferase [AST]) and kidney functions (urea and creatinine) as well as histopathological changes in gills, liver and kidney of both fish species are integrated as biomarkers of metal pollution. These biomarkers showed species-specific and/or site-specific response. The hazard index (HI) was used as an indicator of human health risks associated with fish consumption. The detected low HI values in most cases doesn't neglect the fact that the cumulative risk effects for metals together give an alarming sign and that the health of fish consumers is endangered around polluted sites. The levels of ALT, AST and urea in plasma of both fish species collected from the polluted sites showed significant increase in comparison to those of reference site. Histopathological alterations and evident damage were observed in tissues of fish collected from the polluted sites. The investigated set of biomarkers proved to be efficient and reliable in biomonitoring the pollution status along different pollution gradients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessment of metal contamination in water, sediment, and tissues of Arius thalassinus fish from the Red Sea coast of Yemen and the potential human risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Yousef S; Marie, Mohamed-Assem S

    2015-04-01

    Heavy metal pollution is one of the most serious environmental issues globally. To evaluate the metal pollution in the Red Sea coast of Hodeida, Yemen Republic, the concentrations of Fe, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Cd in water, sediment, and some vital organs of sea catfish, Arius thalassinus collected from polluted and unpolluted sites, were determined. The risk of these metals to humans through fish consumption was then assessed. The results showed that the concentration order of metals in water, sediment, and fish tissues were Fe > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cd. The levels of studied metals in water, sediment, and fish tissues were significantly higher in the polluted site than those of the unpolluted site, with few exceptions. Linear correlation incorporating paired variables (water-sediment, water-fish, and fish-fish) exhibited several significant correlations indicating a common metal pollution. The risk assessment performed revealed that fish consumption was safe for consumers. This field investigation provides a baseline data on metal pollution in this region.

  16. On the edge of death: Rates of decline and lower thresholds of biochemical condition in food-deprived fish larvae and juveniles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Stefan; Caldarone, E.M.; Chicharo, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Gaining reliable estimates of how long fish early life stages can survive without feeding and how starvation rate and time until death are influenced by body size, temperature and species is critical to understanding processes controlling mortality in the sea. The present study is an across-speci...... are viable proxies for the physiological processes under food deprivation of individual fish pre-recruits in the laboratory and provide useful metrics for research on the role of starvation in the sea......Gaining reliable estimates of how long fish early life stages can survive without feeding and how starvation rate and time until death are influenced by body size, temperature and species is critical to understanding processes controlling mortality in the sea. The present study is an across......-species analysis of starvation-induced changes in biochemical condition in early life stages of ninemarine and freshwater fishes. Datawere compiled on changes in body size (dry weight, DW) and biochemical condition (standardized RNA–DNA ratio, sRD) throughout the course of starvation of yolk-sac and feeding larvae...

  17. Fish consumption measured during pregnancy and risk of cardiovascular diseases later in life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm, Marin; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Henriksen, Tine B

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated a protective effect of long chain n-3 PUFAs against cardiovascular disease; however, the overall evidence remains uncertain, and there is a general lack of knowledge in the field of cardiovascular epidemiology in women. Therefore, the objective of this study...... was to explore the association between fish intake and cardiovascular disease among 7429 women from a prospective pregnancy cohort in Aarhus, Denmark, who were followed for 12-17 years. Exposure information derived from a questionnaire sent to the women in gestation week 16, and daily fish consumption...... was quantified based on assumptions of standard portion sizes and food tables. Information on admissions to hospital was obtained from the Danish National Patient Registry and diagnoses of hypertensive, cerebrovascular and ischaemic heart disease were used to define the outcome: cardiovascular disease. During...

  18. Medicine and ionizing rays: a help sheet in analysing risks in high rate curietherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauron, C.

    2009-01-01

    This document proposes a synthesis of useful knowledge for radioprotection in the case of high rate curietherapy. Several aspects are considered: the concerned personnel, the course of treatment procedures, the hazards, the identification of the risk associated with ionizing radiation, the risk assessment and the determination of exposure levels, the strategy to control the risks (reduction of risks, technical measures concerning the installation or the personnel, teaching and information, prevention and medical monitoring), and risk control assessment

  19. Medicine and ionizing rays: a help sheet in analysing risks in pulsed rate curietherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauron, C.

    2009-01-01

    This document proposes a synthesis of useful knowledge for radioprotection in the case of pulsed rate curietherapy. Several aspects are considered: the concerned personnel, the course of treatment procedures, the hazards, the identification of the risk associated with ionizing radiation, the risk assessment and the determination of exposure levels, the strategy to control the risks (reduction of risks, technical measures concerning the installation or the personnel, teaching and information, prevention and medical monitoring), and risk control assessment

  20. Pelagic larval duration predicts extinction risk in a freshwater fish clade

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas, Morgan; Keck, Benjamin P.; Ruble, Crystal; Petty, Melissa; Shute, J. R.; Rakes, Patrick; Hulsey, C. Darrin

    2013-01-01

    Pelagic larval duration (PLD) can influence evolutionary processes ranging from dispersal to extinction in aquatic organisms. Using estimates of PLD obtained from species of North American darters (Percidae: Etheostomatinae), we demonstrate that this freshwater fish clade exhibits surprising variation in PLD. Comparative analyses provide some evidence that higher stream gradients favour the evolution of shorter PLD. Additionally, similar to patterns in the marine fossil record in which lower ...

  1. Intake of predatory fish in Amazonia is a driver of toxicological risk for susceptible exposure groups

    OpenAIRE

    Hacon S.S.; Mourão D. S.; Oliveira B.; Silva G..P.; Freitas M. F.; Vega C.; Gonçalves R.; Mariani C.F.; Gomes N.; Souza A.V.; Bastos W.

    2014-01-01

    High fish intake has marked the scenario of riparian communities in Amazon basin during the last three decades. Although efforts have been done by some national and international scientific groups to control mercury exposure in Brazilian Amazon, the problem persists. The return of artisan gold mining, the new hydroelectric power plants (with its reservoirs) and the expansion of the agribusiness are some of the economic activities that may contribute to the increment of mercury load in the Ama...

  2. Selenium and mercury molar ratios in commercial fish from New Jersey and Illinois: variation within species and relevance to risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2013-07-01

    There is an emerging consensus that people consuming large amounts of fish with selenium:mercury ratios below 1 are at higher risk from mercury toxicity. As the relative amount of selenium increases compared to mercury, risk may be lowered, but it is unclear how much excess selenium is required. It would be useful if the selenium:mercury ratio was relatively consistent within a species, but this has not been the case in our studies of wild-caught fish. Since most people in developed countries and urban areas obtain their fish and other seafood commercially, we examined selenium:mercury molar ratios in commercial fish purchased in stores and fish markets in central New Jersey and Chicago. There was substantial interspecific and intraspecific variation in molar ratios. Across species the selenium:mercury molar ratio decreased with increasing mean mercury levels, but selenium variation also contributed to the ratio. Few samples had selenium:mercury molar ratios below 1, but there was a wide range in ratios, complicating the interpretation for use in risk management and communication. Before ratios can be used in risk management, more information is needed on mercury:selenium interactions and mutual bioavailability, and on the relationship between molar ratios and health outcomes. Further, people who are selenium deficient may be more at risk from mercury toxicity than others. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Selenium and mercury molar ratios in commercial fish from New Jersey and Illinois: Variation within species and relevance to risk communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2015-01-01

    There is an emerging consensus that people consuming large amounts of fish with selenium:mercury ratios below 1 may be at higher risk from mercury toxicity. As the relative amount of selenium increases compared to mercury, risk may be lowered, but it is unclear how much excess selenium is required. It would be useful if the selenium:mercury ratio was relatively consistent within a species, but this has not been the case in our studies of wild-caught fish. Since most people in developed countries and urban areas obtain their fish and other seafood commercially, we examined selenium:mercury molar ratios in commercial fish purchased in stores and fish markets in central New Jersey and Chicago. There was substantial interspecific and intraspecific variation in molar ratios. Across species the selenium:mercury molar ratio decreased with increasing mean mercury levels, but selenium variation also contributed to the ratio. Few samples had selenium:mercury molar ratios below 1, but there was a wide range in ratios, complicating the interpretation for use in risk management and communication. Before ratios can be used in risk management, more information is needed on mercury:selenium interactions and mutual bioavailability, and on the relationship between molar ratios and health outcomes. Further, people who are selenium deficient may be more at risk from mercury toxicity than others. PMID:23541437

  4. Ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in sediment and human health risk assessment of heavy metals in fishes in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi Yujun [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Yang Zhifeng, E-mail: zfyang@bnu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Zhang Shanghong [Renewable Energy School, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China)

    2011-10-15

    The concentrations of heavy metals (Cr, Cd, Hg, Cu, Zn, Pb and As) in the water, sediment, and fish were investigated in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, China. Potential ecological risk analysis of sediment heavy metal concentrations indicated that six sites in the middle reach, half of the sites in the lower reach, and two sites in lakes, posed moderate or considerable ecological risk. Health risk analysis of individual heavy metals in fish tissue indicated safe levels for the general population and for fisherman but, in combination, there was a possible risk in terms of total target hazard quotients. Correlation analysis and PCA found that heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu, and Zn) may be mainly derived from metal processing, electroplating industries, industrial wastewater, and domestic sewage. Hg may also originate from coal combustion. Significant positive correlations between TN and As were observed. - Highlights: > Field survey, test and relationship of the concentrations of heavy metals in the water, sediment, and fish. > Potential ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in sediment. > Non-cancer health risk assessment of heavy metals in fish tissue. > Possible pollution source of heavy metals analyzed. - Possible ecological risk of sediment and slight non-cancer health risk of eating fish were found in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River.

  5. Ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in sediment and human health risk assessment of heavy metals in fishes in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Yujun; Yang Zhifeng; Zhang Shanghong

    2011-01-01

    The concentrations of heavy metals (Cr, Cd, Hg, Cu, Zn, Pb and As) in the water, sediment, and fish were investigated in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, China. Potential ecological risk analysis of sediment heavy metal concentrations indicated that six sites in the middle reach, half of the sites in the lower reach, and two sites in lakes, posed moderate or considerable ecological risk. Health risk analysis of individual heavy metals in fish tissue indicated safe levels for the general population and for fisherman but, in combination, there was a possible risk in terms of total target hazard quotients. Correlation analysis and PCA found that heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu, and Zn) may be mainly derived from metal processing, electroplating industries, industrial wastewater, and domestic sewage. Hg may also originate from coal combustion. Significant positive correlations between TN and As were observed. - Highlights: → Field survey, test and relationship of the concentrations of heavy metals in the water, sediment, and fish. → Potential ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in sediment. → Non-cancer health risk assessment of heavy metals in fish tissue. → Possible pollution source of heavy metals analyzed. - Possible ecological risk of sediment and slight non-cancer health risk of eating fish were found in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River.

  6. Hospital ownership: a risk factor for nosocomial infection rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, C; Behnke, M; Geffers, C; Gastmeier, P

    2018-03-26

    In some countries, a relationship between hospital ownership and the occurrence of healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) rates has been described. To investigate the association between hospital ownership and occurrence of HCAI in Germany. Five different components of the German national nosocomial infection surveillance system were analysed with regard to the influence of hospital ownership in the period 2014-2016. Endpoints included ventilator-associated pneumonia, central-venous-catheter-associated bloodstream infections, urinary-catheter-associated urinary tract infections, surgical site infections (SSI) following hip prosthesis and colon surgery, meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) and hand rub consumption per 1000 patient-days. Three hospital ownership types (public, non-profit and private) were analysed using univariate and multi-variate methods. The distribution of hospitals according to the three ownership types was similar in all components. In total, 661 intensive care units (ICUs), 149 departments performing colon procedures, and 349 departments performing hip prosthesis were included. In addition, 568 hospitals provided their MRSA rates and 236 provided their CDI rates, and 1833 ICUs and 12,934 non-ICUs provided their hand rub consumption data. In general, the differences between the hospital types were rather small and not significant for the ICUs. In the multi-variate analysis, public hospitals had a lower SSI rate following hip prosthesis (odds ratio 0.80, 95% confidence interval 0.65-0.99). Hospital ownership was not found to have a major influence on the incidence of HCAI in Germany. Copyright © 2018 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Distribution of Helminth Parasites in Intestines and Their Seasonal Rate of Infestation in Three Freshwater Fishes of Kashmir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asifa Wali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to determine the incidence of helminth parasites in fishes with special reference to water quality parameters in Dal Lake and River Jhelum and correlate the observations. Water, fish, and parasite samples were collected during different seasons from various sites and processed. Three fish species, namely, Schizothorax niger Heckel 1838, Schizothorax esocinus Heckel 1838, and Schizothorax curvifrons Heckel 1838, were recovered from these water bodies. The physicochemical parameters temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and free carbon dioxide showed variation vis-à-vis the season and location of the stations in water bodies. Acanthocephalan parasite Pomphorhynchus kashmirensis Kaw 1941 (27.47% and two intestinal cestodes Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti 1934 (30.63% and Adenoscolex oreini Fotedar 1958 (32.43% were recovered from all the three species of Schizothorax. All the three parasites showed higher prevalence during summer and the least prevalence during winter. Parasitic infections were prevalent more in male fishes compared to females. The presence of the parasites had reduced the condition coefficient of the infected fishes in both water bodies. The study also showed that some of the physicochemical features showed a significant positive correlation with the prevalence.

  8. Fish Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cause Blog Vision Awards Common Allergens Fish Allergy Fish Allergy Learn about fish allergy, how to read ... that you must avoid both. Allergic Reactions to Fish Finned fish can cause severe and potentially life- ...

  9. Heavy metals in wild marine fish from South China Sea: levels, tissue- and species-specific accumulation and potential risk to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin-Ling; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Ding, Zhen-Hua; Peng, Jia-Xi; Jin, Ming-Hua; Wang, You-Shao; Hong, Yi-Guo; Yue, Wei-Zhong

    2015-10-01

    Heavy metal pollution in marine fish has become an important worldwide concern, not only because of the threat to fish in general, but also due to human health risks associated with fish consumption. To investigate the occurrence of heavy metals in marine fish species from the South China Sea, 14 fish species were collected along the coastline of Hainan China during the spring of 2012 and examined for species- and tissue-specific accumulation. The median concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb and As in muscle tissue of the examined fish species were not detectable (ND), 2.02, 0.24, 2.64, 0.025, and 1.13 mg kg(-1) wet weight, respectively. Levels of Cu, Zn, Cd and Cr were found to be higher in the liver and gills than in muscle, while Pb was preferentially accumulated in the gills. Differing from other heavy metals, As did not exhibit tissue-specific accumulation. Inter-species differences of heavy metal accumulation were attributed to the different habitat and diet characteristics of marine fish. Human dietary exposure assessment suggested that the amounts of both Cr and As in marine wild fish collected from the sites around Hainan, China were not compliant with the safety standard of less than 79.2 g d(-1) for wild marine fish set by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. Further research to identify the explicit sources of Cr and As in marine fish from South China Sea should be established.

  10. Vaccination rates among the general adult population and high-risk groups in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy Annunziata

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In order to adequately assess the effectiveness of vaccination in helping to control vaccine-preventable infectious disease, it is important to identify the adherence and uptake of risk-based recommendations. METHODS: The current project includes data from five consecutive datasets of the National Health and Wellness Survey (NHWS: 2007 through 2011. The NHWS is an annual, Internet-based health questionnaire, administered to a nationwide sample of adults (aged 18 or older which included items on vaccination history as well as high-risk group status. Vaccination rates and characteristics of vaccinees were reported descriptively. Logistic regressions were conducted to predict vaccination behavior from sociodemographics and risk-related variables. RESULTS: The influenza vaccination rate for all adults 18 years and older has increased significantly from 28.0% to 36.2% from 2007 to 2011 (ps<.05. Compared with those not at high risk (25.1%, all high-risk groups were vaccinated at a higher rate, from 36.8% (pregnant women to 69.7% (those with renal/kidney disease; however, considerable variability among high-risk groups was observed. Vaccination rates among high-risk groups for other vaccines varied considerably though all were below 50%, with the exception of immunocompromised respondents (57.5% for the hepatitis B vaccine and 52.5% for the pneumococcal vaccine and the elderly (50.4% for the pneumococcal. Multiple risk factors were associated with increased rate of vaccination for most vaccines. Significant racial/ethnic differences with influenza, hepatitis, and herpes zoster vaccination rates were also observed (ps<.05. CONCLUSIONS: Rates of influenza vaccination have increased over time. Rates varied by high-risk status, demographics, and vaccine. There was a pattern of modest vaccination rate increases for individuals with multiple risk factors. However, there were relatively low rates of vaccination for most risk-based recommendations

  11. Stochastic Discount Factor Approach to International Risk-Sharing: Evidence from Fixed Exchange Rate Episodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadzi-Vaskov, M.; Kool, C.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents evidence of the stochastic discount factor approach to international risk-sharing applied to fixed exchange rate regimes. We calculate risk-sharing indices for two episodes of fixed or very rigid exchange rates: the Eurozone before and after the introduction of the Euro, and

  12. Study the rate of fertility and risk factors of schizophrenia in Najaf, Iraq

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is designed to investigate the main risk factors, which increased the incidence of schizophrenia and the rate of fertility in patients measuring sex hormones (testosterone and estrogen) and prolactin hormone. The aim of study was to evaluate the fertility rate and risk factors of schizophrenia. Blood samples were ...

  13. Effect of production quotas on economic and environmental values of growth rate and feed efficiency in sea cage fish farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, M; de Boer, I J M; Vandeputte, M; van Arendonk, J A M; Quillet, E; Komen, H; Aubin, J

    2017-01-01

    In sea cage fish farming, production quotas aim to constrain the impact of fish farming on the surrounding ecosystem. It is unknown how these quotas affect economic profitability and environmental impact of genetic improvement. We combined bioeconomic modelling with life cycle assessment (LCA) to calculate the economic (EV) and environmental (ENV) values of thermal growth coefficient (TGC) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of sea bass reared in sea cages, given four types of quota commonly used in Europe: annual production (Qprod), annual feed distributed (Qannual_feed), standing stock (Qstock), and daily feed distributed (Qdaily_feed). ENV were calculated for LCA impact categories climate change, eutrophication and acidification. ENV were expressed per ton of fish produced per year (ENV(fish)) and per farm per year (ENV(farm)). Results show that irrespective of quota used, EV of FCR as well as ENV(fish) and ENV(farm) were always positive, meaning that improving FCR increased profit and decreased environmental impacts. However, the EV and the ENV(fish) of TGC were positive only when quota was Qstock or Qdaily_feed. Moreover, the ENV(farm) of TGC was negative in Qstock and Qdaily_feed quotas, meaning that improving TGC increased the environmental impact of the farm. We conclude that Qstock quota and Qdaily_feed quota are economically favorable to a genetic improvement of TGC, a major trait for farmers. However, improving TGC increases the environmental impact of the farm. Improving FCR represents a good opportunity to balance out this increase but more information on its genetic background is needed to develop breeding programs improving FCR.

  14. Effect of production quotas on economic and environmental values of growth rate and feed efficiency in sea cage fish farming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Besson

    Full Text Available In sea cage fish farming, production quotas aim to constrain the impact of fish farming on the surrounding ecosystem. It is unknown how these quotas affect economic profitability and environmental impact of genetic improvement. We combined bioeconomic modelling with life cycle assessment (LCA to calculate the economic (EV and environmental (ENV values of thermal growth coefficient (TGC and feed conversion ratio (FCR of sea bass reared in sea cages, given four types of quota commonly used in Europe: annual production (Qprod, annual feed distributed (Qannual_feed, standing stock (Qstock, and daily feed distributed (Qdaily_feed. ENV were calculated for LCA impact categories climate change, eutrophication and acidification. ENV were expressed per ton of fish produced per year (ENV(fish and per farm per year (ENV(farm. Results show that irrespective of quota used, EV of FCR as well as ENV(fish and ENV(farm were always positive, meaning that improving FCR increased profit and decreased environmental impacts. However, the EV and the ENV(fish of TGC were positive only when quota was Qstock or Qdaily_feed. Moreover, the ENV(farm of TGC was negative in Qstock and Qdaily_feed quotas, meaning that improving TGC increased the environmental impact of the farm. We conclude that Qstock quota and Qdaily_feed quota are economically favorable to a genetic improvement of TGC, a major trait for farmers. However, improving TGC increases the environmental impact of the farm. Improving FCR represents a good opportunity to balance out this increase but more information on its genetic background is needed to develop breeding programs improving FCR.

  15. Risk of Interest Rates at the Level of Commercial Banks in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sbârcea Ioana Raluca

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The banking system in Romania is a banking system under development, subject to fluctuations that exist on the market more than on more developed banking systems, fluctuations that can generate losses for banks if they are not properly managed. The losses that may be generated by these fluctuations, known as market risk, refer to the significant fluctuations in three indicators, namely the interest rate, the exchange rate and the asset price. In this article, I will analyse the interest rate risk from a conceptual point of view and the indicators that mitigate this risk. The analysis also contains a study of this risk among commercial banks in the system to highlight the level of risk and possible effects of its manifestation. I calculated and analysed the interest rate risk indicators, individually for the first three banks in the system, but also to comparatively, in order to highlight the existing differences.

  16. The consumption of fish cooked by different methods was related to the risk of hyperuricemia in Japanese adults: A 3-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Z; Huang, C; Momma, H; Cui, Y; Sugiyama, S; Niu, K; Nagatomi, R

    2016-09-01

    Fish consumption is a recognized risk factor for elevated serum uric acid (UA) levels, hyperuricemia, and gout. However, the relationship between the consumption of fish cooked by different methods and the risk of hyperuricemia is unclear. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the relationship between the consumption of fish cooked by different methods and the risk of hyperuricemia in Japanese adults. A 3-year follow-up study was conducted with 424 Japanese adults aged 29-74 years. Fish consumption was assessed using a validated self-administered dietary history questionnaire, and hyperuricemia was defined as serum UA ≥7 mg/dL in men and ≥6 mg/dL in women or the use of any anti-gout treatment. During the 3-year follow-up period, we documented 30 newly diagnosed cases of hyperuricemia. After adjusting for potential confounders, multivariate logistic regressions analysis revealed a significant positive relationship between the risk of hyperuricemia and raw (sashimi and sushi) or roasted fish consumption, but not boiled or fried fish consumption. The odds ratios (95% CI) for hyperuricemia with increasing raw fish consumption were 1.00 (reference), 2.51 (0.85, 7.39), and 3.46 (1.07, 11.14) (P for trend: 0.036). Similarly, the odds ratios (95% CI) with increasing roasted fish consumption were 1.00 (reference), 3.00 (0.75, 11.89), and 5.17 (1.30, 20.62) (P for trend: 0.018). This 3-year follow-up study showed that the consumption of raw or roasted fish, but not boiled or fried fish, was related with a higher risk of hyperuricemia in Japanese adults. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Mercury in western North America: A synthesis of environmental contamination, fluxes, bioaccumulation, and risk to fish and wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Wiener, James G.; Eckley, Chris S.; Willacker, James J.; Evers, David C.; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.; Obrist, Daniel; Fleck, Jacob; Aiken, George R.; Lepak, Jesse M.; Jackson, Allyson K.; Webster, Jackson; Stewart, Robin; Davis, Jay; Alpers, Charles N.; Ackerman, Joshua T.

    2016-01-01

    Western North America is a region defined by extreme gradients in geomorphology and climate, which support a diverse array of ecological communities and natural resources. The region also has extreme gradients in mercury (Hg) contamination due to a broad distribution of inorganic Hg sources. These diverse Hg sources and a varied landscape create a unique and complex mosaic of ecological risk from Hg impairment associated with differential methylmercury (MeHg) production and bioaccumulation. Understanding the landscape-scale variation in the magnitude and relative importance of processes associated with Hg transport, methylation, and MeHg bioaccumulation requires a multidisciplinary synthesis that transcends small-scale variability. The Western North America Mercury Synthesis compiled, analyzed, and interpreted spatial and temporal patterns and drivers of Hg and MeHg in air, soil, vegetation, sediments, fish, and wildlife across western North America. This collaboration evaluated the potential risk from Hg to fish, and wildlife health, human exposure, and examined resource management activities that influenced the risk of Hg contamination. This paper integrates the key information presented across the individual papers that comprise the synthesis. The compiled information indicates that Hg contamination is widespread, but heterogeneous, across western North America. The storage and transport of inorganic Hg across landscape gradients are largely regulated by climate and land-cover factors such as plant productivity and precipitation. Importantly, there was a striking lack of concordance between pools and sources of inorganic Hg, and MeHg in aquatic food webs. Additionally, water management had a widespread influence on MeHg bioaccumulation in aquatic ecosystems, whereas mining impacts where relatively localized. These results highlight the decoupling of inorganic Hg sources with MeHg production and bioaccumulation. Together the findings indicate that developing

  18. Effects of supplemental fish oil on resting metabolic rate, body composition, and salivary cortisol in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pabon Vanessa A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the effects of supplemental fish oil (FO on resting metabolic rate (RMR, body composition, and cortisol production in healthy adults. Methods A total of 44 men and women (34 ± 13y, mean+SD participated in the study. All testing was performed first thing in the morning following an overnight fast. Baseline measurements of RMR were measured using indirect calorimetry using a facemask, and body composition was measured using air displacement plethysmography. Saliva was collected via passive drool and analyzed for cortisol concentration using ELISA. Following baseline testing, subjects were randomly assigned in a double blind manner to one of two groups: 4 g/d of Safflower Oil (SO; or 4 g/d of FO supplying 1,600 mg/d eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and 800 mg/d docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. All tests were repeated following 6 wk of treatment. Pre to post differences were analyzed using a treatment X time repeated measures ANOVA, and correlations were analyzed using Pearson's r. Results Compared to the SO group, there was a significant increase in fat free mass following treatment with FO (FO = +0.5 ± 0.5 kg, SO = -0.1 ± 1.2 kg, p = 0.03, a significant reduction in fat mass (FO = -0.5 ± 1.3 kg, SO = +0.2 ± 1.2 kg, p = 0.04, and a tendency for a decrease in body fat percentage (FO = -0.4 ± 1.3% body fat, SO = +0. 3 ± 1.5% body fat, p = 0.08. No significant differences were observed for body mass (FO = 0.0 ± 0.9 kg, SO = +0.2 ± 0.8 kg, RMR (FO = +17 ± 260 kcal, SO = -62 ± 184 kcal or respiratory exchange ratio (FO = -0.02 ± 0.09, SO = +0.02 ± 0.05. There was a tendency for salivary cortisol to decrease in the FO group (FO = -0.064 ± 0.142 μg/dL, SO = +0.016 ± 0.272 μg/dL, p = 0.11. There was a significant correlation in the FO group between change in cortisol and change in fat free mass (r = -0.504, p = 0.02 and fat mass (r = 0.661, p = 0.001. Conclusion 6 wk of supplementation with FO significantly increased

  19. Transitional rates, risk and the Ontario wholesale power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothman, M.

    2001-01-01

    Navigant Consulting is a large investor-owned management consulting firm specializing in energy-based and other networked and regulated industries across Canada. The company works with clients to create delivery and protect shareholder value in the face of uncertainty and change. This presentation discussed the issue of price volatility in competitive electricity markets. The points to keep in mind for pricing in competitive power markets is that: (1) electricity should be generated simultaneously with use, (2) rates in administered markets are average over some time period, (3) competitive pool markets do not average costs, (4) in competitive pool markets, prices are set in very short (hourly or less) intervals, (5) prices in competitive markets are more volatile than in administered markets for both economic and market structure reasons, and (6) the degree of volatility and price levels can change quickly. The Ontario power market was also discussed with reference to price volatility in Ontario and what this means for electricity customers. tabs., figs

  20. Risk management under a two-factor model of the term structure of interest rates

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Moreno

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents several applications to interest rate risk management based on a two-factor continuous-time model of the term structure of interest rates previously presented in Moreno (1996). This model assumes that default free discount bond prices are determined by the time to maturity and two factors, the long-term interest rate and the spread (difference between the long-term rate and the short-term (instantaneous) riskless rate). Several new measures of ``generalized duration" are p...

  1. Fish intake during pregnancy and the risk of child asthma and allergic rhinitis - longitudinal evidence from the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslova, Ekaterina; Strøm, Marin; Oken, Emily; Campos, Hannia; Lange, Christoph; Gold, Diane; Olsen, Sjurdur F

    2013-10-01

    Maternal fish intake during pregnancy may influence the risk of child asthma and allergic rhinitis, yet evidence is conflicting on its association with these outcomes. We examined the associations of maternal fish intake during pregnancy with child asthma and allergic rhinitis. Mothers in the Danish National Birth Cohort (n 28 936) reported their fish intake at 12 and 30 weeks of gestation. Using multivariate logistic regression, we examined the associations of fish intake with child wheeze, asthma and rhinitis assessed at several time points: ever wheeze, recurrent wheeze (>3 episodes), ever asthma and allergic rhinitis, and current asthma, assessed at 18 months (n approximately 22,000) and 7 years (n approximately 17,000) using self-report and registry data on hospitalisations and prescribed medications. Compared with consistently high fish intake during pregnancy (fish as a sandwich or hot meal > or equal to 2-3 times/week), never eating fish was associated with a higher risk of child asthma diagnosis at 18 months (OR 1·30, 95% CI 1·05, 1·63, P=0·02), and ever asthma by hospitalisation (OR 1·46, 95% CI 0·99, 2·13, P=0·05) and medication prescription (OR 1·37, 95% CI 1·10, 1·71, P=0·01). A dose-response was present for asthma at 18 months only (P for trend=0·001). We found no associations with wheeze or recurrent wheeze at 18 months or with allergic rhinitis. The results suggest that high (v. no) maternal fish intake during pregnancy is protective against both early and ever asthma in 7-year-old children.

  2. The Exposure of Mortgage Borrowers to Interest Rate Risk, Income Risk and House Price Risk – Evidence from Swiss Loan Application Data

    OpenAIRE

    Guin, Benjamin; Brown, Martin

    2015-01-01

    We study the exposure of mortgage borrowers in Switzerland to interest rate, income and house price risks and examine how the households’ choice of risky mortgages is related to individual interest rate expectations and risk-aversion. Our analysis is based on a unique data set of household mortgage applications from September 2012 until January 2014. Our assessment of risk exposure among mortgage borrowers in Switzerland is highly sensitive to the underlying assumptions on mortgage costs, hou...

  3. Previous Exposure to the Fish Parasite Anisakis as a Potential Risk Factor for Gastric or Colon Adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Perez, Juan Carlos; Rodríguez-Perez, Rosa; Ballestero, Araceli; Zuloaga, Jaime; Fernandez-Puntero, Belen; Arias-Díaz, Javier; Caballero, María Luisa

    2015-10-01

    Anisakiasis is a global disease caused by consumption of raw or lightly cooked fish contaminated with L3 Anisakis spp. larvae. High rates of parasitization of fish worldwide make Anisakis a serious health hazard. In fact, anisakiasis is a growing disease in countries such as Spain, Italy, and Japan, where consumption of raw/marinated fish is high. Some parasitic infections have been recognized as a causative factor for human cancer. Suggested mechanisms include chronic inflammation elicited by the parasite, and a possible tumorigenic effect from certain parasitic secretions. Anisakis can produce persistent local inflammation and granuloma, and larvae have been incidentally found in gastrointestinal (GI) tumors. Our aim was to discover possible differences in the prevalence of unnoticed or asymptomatic previous Anisakis infection in GI cancer patients compared with healthy individuals. Serum levels of specific antibodies against Anisakis antigens were used as a reliable marker of previous contact with their larvae. Ninety-four participants without a previous history of Anisakis infection were prospectively allocated into 1 of 2 groups: 47 patients with GI cancer and 47 controls. Specific IgE, IgA1, and IgG1 against the Anisakis recombinant antigens Ani s 1, Ani s 5, Ani s 9, and Ani s 10 were determined by an ELISA assay. The ratio of positivity to sIgA1, rAni s 1, or rAni s 5 was significantly higher in the cancer patients than in the controls (38.30% vs 6.38%, P cancer showed a higher proportion of positive results for sIgA1 to rAni s 1 (P cancer patients were shown to be positive for sIgA1 to both rAni s 1 (P cancer.

  4. Discount rates in risk versus money and money versus money tradeoffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberini, Anna; Chiabai, Aline

    2007-04-01

    We use data from a survey of residents of five Italian cities conducted in late spring 2004 to estimate the discount rates implicit in (1) money versus future risk reductions and (2) money versus money tradeoffs. We find that the mean personal discount rate is 0.3-1.7% in (1) and 8.7% in (2). The latter is lower than the discount rates estimated in comparable situations in many recent studies, greater than market interest rates in Italy at the time, and exhibits modest variation with age and gender. The discount rate implicit in money versus risk tradeoffs is within the range of estimates from studies in the United States and Europe, and does not depend on observable individual characteristics. We use split samples to investigate whether a completely abstract risk reduction - one where the risk reduction delivery has been stripped of all specifics, so that respondents should focus on the risks without being distracted by details - results in WTP and discount figures comparable to those from an identified delivery mechanism (a medical test). We find that while WTP for an immediate risk reduction is 42-73% higher with the abstract risk reduction, the discount rate in the money versus risk tradeoffs and the variance of the error term in the WTP equation are the same across the two variants of the questionnaire.

  5. Cash Flow and Discount Rate Risk in Up and Down Markets: What is actually priced?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botshekan, M.; Kraeussl, R.G.W.; Lucas, A.

    2012-01-01

    We test whether asymmetric preferences for losses versus gains affect the prices of cash flow versus discount rate risk. We construct a return decomposition distinguishing cash flow and discount rate betas in up and down markets. Using U.S. data, we find that downside cash flow and discount rate

  6. Lack of effect of fish oil supplementation on coagulation and transcapillary escape rate of albumin in insulin-dependent diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myrup, B; Rossing, P; Jensen, T

    2001-01-01

    -blind, randomized, controlled study was carried out at a tertiary referral centre. The subjects were 29 insulin-dependent diabetic patients with nephropathy. One year of fish oil supplementation (4.6 g n-3 fatty acids/day) was compared with placebo (olive oil). The main outcome measures were N-3 fatty acid......OBJECTIVE: We studied the effect of a diet supplementation with fish oil in insulin-dependent diabetic patients with nephropathy in order to evaluate whether abnormal transcapillary escape rate of albumin and procoagulant activity in these patients could be modified. METHODS: A double...... 6 months. RESULTS: Neither transcapillary escape rate of albumin (7.4 (median) (5.0-9.8) (range) % vs. 7.0 (4.6-10.6) %) nor prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 (0.97 (0.72-2.40) nmol/L vs. 1.01 (0.59-3.11) nmol/L) changed after 12 months of fish oil supplementation. CONCLUSION: Increased transcapillary...

  7. [C-section rate in low-risk women: a useful indicator to compare hospitals attending deliveries with different risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Librero, Julián; Peiró, Salvador; Belda, Ana; Calabuig, Julia

    2014-01-01

    the C-section rate has been criticized as a performance indicator for not considering that different hospitals manage deliveries with diverse risks. In this work we explore the characteristics of a new indicator restricted to low C-section risk deliveries. retrospective cohort of all births (n=214,611) in all public hospitals during 2005-2010 in the Valencia Region, Spain (source: minimum basic dataset). A low-risk subpopulation consisting of women under-35, no history of c-section, between 37 and 41 gestational weeks, and with a single fetus, with cephalic presentation and normal weight (2500-3999 g) was constructed. We analyzed variability in the new indicator, its correlation with the crude indicator and, using multilevel logistic regression models, the presence of residual risks. a total of 117 589 births (58.4% of the whole deliveries) were identified as low C-section risk. The c-section rate in these women was 11.9% (24.4% for all deliveries) ranging between hospitals from 7.0% to 28.9%. The c-section rate in low-risk and total deliveries correlated strongly (r=0.88). The remaining risks in the population of low risk did not alter the hospital effect on the c-section rate. the percentage of C-section in low risk women include a high volume of deliveries, correlated with the crude indicator and residual risks are not differentially influenced by hospitals, being a useful indicator for monitoring the quality of obstetric care in the National Health System.

  8. Information Acquisition and Excessive Risk: Impact of Policy Rate and Market Volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volha Audzei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Excessive risk-taking of financial agents drew a lot of attention in the aftermath of the financial crisis. Low interest rates and subdued market volatility during the Great Moderation are sometimes blamed for stimulating risk-taking and leading to the recent financial crisis. In recent years, with many central banks around the world conducting the policy of low interest rates and mitigating market risks, it has been debatable whether this policy contributes to the building up of another credit boom. This paper addresses this issue by focusing on information acquisition by the financial agents. We build a theoretical model which captures excessive risk taking in response to changes in policy rate and market volatility. This excessive risk takes the form of an increased risk appetite of the agents, but also of decreased incentives to acquire information about risky assets. As a result, with market risk being reduced, agents tend to acquire more risk in their portfolios then they would with the higher market risk. The same forces increase portfolio risk when the safe interest rate is falling. The robustness of the results is considered with different learning rules.

  9. DietaryFish and Long-Chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Intake and Risk of Atrial Fibrillation: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Rong Li

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Findings on the association between long-term intake of fish or long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs and risk of atrial fibrillation (AF are inconsistent in observational studies. We conducted a meta-analysis of prospective studies to separately examine the associations between fish consumption and dietary intake of n-3 PUFAs with the risk of AF. A systematic search was conducted in PubMed and Embase to identify relevant studies. Risk estimates were combined using a random-effect model. Seven prospective cohort studies covering 206,811 participants and 12,913 AF cases were eligible. The summary relative risk of AF for the highest vs. lowest category of fish consumption and dietary intake of n-3 PUFAs was 1.01(95% confidence interval: 0.94–1.09 and 1.03 (95% confidence interval: 0.97–1.09, respectively. These null associations persisted in subgroup and dose-response analyses. There was little evidence of publication bias. This meta-analysis suggests that neither long-term intake of fish, nor of n-3 PUFAs were significantly associated with lower risk of AF.

  10. Hypoxia increases the risk of egg predation in a nest-guarding fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Karin; Kvarnemo, Charlotta; Andrén, Maria Norevik

    2016-01-01

    For fish with parental care, a nest should meet both the oxygenation needs of the eggs and help protect them against predators. While a small nest opening facilitates the latter, it impedes the former and vice versa. We investigated how the presence of potential egg predators in the form of shore...... in high oxygen reduced fanning, males in low oxygen did not. Filial cannibalism was unaffected by treatment. Sand gobies thus prioritize egg ventilation over the protection afforded by small nest openings under hypoxia and adopt defensive behaviour to avert predator attention, even though this does...... crabs Carcinus maenas affects nest building, egg fanning, defensive displays and filial cannibalism of egg-guarding male sand gobies Pomatoschistus minutus under two levels of dissolved oxygen. In the high oxygen treatment, males retained their nest opening size in the presence of crabs, while males...

  11. Ecological risk assessment of substances with suspected estrogenic activity using standard laboratory fish tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gimeno, S.; Bowmer, C.T.

    1999-01-01

    The assessment of risks to the aquatic environment in the European Union is generally based on a comparison of Predicted Environmental Concentrations (PEC) with Predicted No Effect Concentrations (PNEC) for surrogate, or `representative', organisms of the receiving waters. Such risk assessments are

  12. The impact of item order on ratings of cancer risk perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kathryn L; Shelby, Rebecca A; Schwartz, Marc D; Ackerman, Josh; LaSalle, V Holland; Gelmann, Edward P; McGuire, Colleen

    2002-07-01

    Although perceived risk is central to most theories of health behavior, there is little consensus on its measurement with regard to item wording, response set, or the number of items to include. In a methodological assessment of perceived risk, we assessed the impact of changing the order of three commonly used perceived risk items: quantitative personal risk, quantitative population risk, and comparative risk. Participants were 432 men and women enrolled in an ancillary study of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Three groups of consecutively enrolled participants responded to the three items in one of three question orders. Results indicated that item order was related to the perceived risk ratings of both ovarian (P Perceptions of risk were significantly lower when the comparative rating was made first. The findings suggest that compelling participants to consider their own risk relative to the risk of others results in lower ratings of perceived risk. Although the use of multiple items may provide more information than when only a single method is used, different conclusions may be reached depending on the context in which an item is assessed.

  13. Estimating movement and survival rates of a small saltwater fish using autonomous antenna receiver arrays and passive integrated transponder tags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudershausen, Paul J.; Buckel, Jeffery A.; Dubreuil, Todd; O'Donnell, Matthew J.; Hightower, Joseph E.; Poland, Steven J.; Letcher, Benjamin H.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of small (12.5 mm long) passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags and custom detection antennas for obtaining fine-scale movement and demographic data of mummichog Fundulus heteroclitus in a salt marsh creek. Apparent survival and detection probability were estimated using a Cormack Jolly Seber (CJS) model fitted to detection data collected by an array of 3 vertical antennas from November 2010 to March 2011 and by a single horizontal antenna from April to August 2011. Movement of mummichogs was monitored during the period when the array of vertical antennas was used. Antenna performance was examined in situ using tags placed in wooden dowels (drones) and in live mummichogs. Of the 44 tagged fish, 42 were resighted over the 9 mo monitoring period. The in situ detection probabilities of the drone and live mummichogs were high (~80-100%) when the ambient water depth was less than ~0.8 m. Upstream and downstream movement of mummichogs was related to hourly water depth and direction of tidal current in a way that maximized time periods over which mummichogs utilized the intertidal vegetated marsh. Apparent survival was lower during periods of colder water temperatures in December 2010 and early January 2011 (median estimate of daily apparent survival = 0.979) than during other periods of the study (median estimate of daily apparent survival = 0.992). During late fall and winter, temperature had a positive effect on the CJS detection probability of a tagged mummichog, likely due to greater fish activity over warmer periods. During the spring and summer, this pattern reversed possibly due to mummichogs having reduced activity during the hottest periods. This study demonstrates the utility of PIT tags and continuously operating autonomous detection systems for tracking fish at fine temporal scales, and improving estimates of demographic parameters in salt marsh creeks that are difficult or impractical to sample with active fishing gear.

  14. The Rate of Success of the Accelerated Solvent Extraction (Ase of Fat and Organochlorine Pesticides from Dried Fish Meat Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Andreea CIOCA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The replacement of conventional sample preparation techniques with newer techniques which are automated, faster and more eco-friendly, is nowadays desired in every analytical laboratory. One of the techniques with the attributes mentioned above is the Accelerated Solvent Extraction. In order to evaluate how successful this method is for the extraction of fat and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs from dried fish meat samples, we have tested two series of diverse fish using Dionex™ 350 ASE provided by Thermo Scientific™ (Germany. For a more interesting approach, we added to our investigation 7 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs, 3 thricholorobenzenes, 2 tetrachlorobenzenes, 1 pentachlorobenzenes and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD. The study focused on comparing the recoveries of these analytes from different fish samples, after replacing the conventional reference method of the laboratory with ASE. The ASE parameters tested were previously used for the extraction of fat and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE from fish samples: temperature: 120 ° C; static time: 5 min; number of cycles: 3; flushing volume: 25%; rinse with nitrogen: 90 s; solvent: cyclohexane/ethyl acetate (ratio 1:1. The ASE method provided similar and in some cases better results when compared to the standard reference method, more rapidly, eco-friendly and safer. Any high or low recoveries of the analytes taken into study are attributed to random or systematic errors during the Clean-up step of the extracts and the quantification with Gas Chromatography coupled with Tandem Mass-Spectrometry (GC MS/MS.

  15. High intake rates of microplastics in a Western Atlantic predatory fish, and insights of a direct fishery effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Guilherme V B; Barletta, Mário; Lima, André R A; Morley, Simon A; Justino, Anne K S; Costa, Monica F

    2018-05-01

    Microplastic contamination was investigated in the gut contents of an economically important estuarine top predator, Cynoscion acoupa, according to spatiotemporal and ontogenetic use of a tropical estuary. Microplastic contamination was found in more than half of the analysed fish. Ingested microplastics were classified by type, colour and length with most of the particles consisting of filaments (shift their feeding mode to piscivory. Moreover, the highest ingestion of filaments in adults occurred in the lower estuary, during the late rainy season, likely associated with the intense fishing activities in this habitat, which results in a greater input of filaments from fishing gear, which are mainly blue in colour. Overall, 44% of the ingested filaments were blue, 20% purple, 13% black, 10% red and 12% white. The next most common colour, the purple filaments, are most likely blue filaments whose colour has weathered to purple. Red filaments were proportionally more ingested in the lower estuary, indicating a coastal/oceanic source. White and black filaments were more commonly ingested in the inner estuary, suggesting that they have a riverine origin and/or were actively ingested by juveniles and sub-adults, which inhabit the inner estuary and have zooplankton as an important food resource. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Corporate interest rate risk management with derivatives in Australia: empirical results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto Ferreira Carneiro

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Financial and insurance theories explain that large widely-held corporations manage corporate risks if doing so is costective to reduce frictional costs such as taxes, agency costs and financial distress costs. A large number of previous empirical studies, most in the U.S., have tested the hypotheses underlying corporate risk management with financial derivative instruments. In order to quantify corporate hedge demand, most previous studies have used the ratio of principal notional amount of derivatives to company size, although they recognize that company size is not an appropriate proxy for financial risk. This paper analyzes the interest-rate-risk hedge demand by Australian companies, measured through the ratio of principal notional amount of interest rate derivatives to interest-rate-riskbearing liabilities. Modern panel data methods are used, with two panel data sets from 1998 to 2003 (1102 and 465 observations, respectively. Detailed information about interest-rate-risk exposures was available after manual data collection from financial annual reports, which was only possible due to specific reporting requirements in Australian accounting standards. Regarding the analysis of the extent of hedge, our measurement of interest-rate-risk exposures generates some significant results di erent from those found in previous studies. For example, this study shows that total leverage (total debt ratio is not significantly important to interest-rate-risk hedge demand and that, instead, this demand is related to the specific risk exposure in the interest bearing part of the firms liabilities. This study finds significant relations of interest-rate-risk hedge to company size, floating-interest-rate debt ratio, annual log returns, and company industry type (utilities and non-banking financial institutions.

  17. Impact of fish consumption by subjects with prediabetes on the metabolic risk factors: using data in the 2015 (6th) Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Yun; Park, Jeong Seop

    2018-06-01

    The effects of fish consumption by subjects with prediabetes on the metabolic risk factors were examined based on the data from the 6 th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys in 2015. A total of 1,520 subjects who agreed to participate in a blood test and dietary intake survey were divided into a prediabetes group and normal blood glucose group, and the level of the subjects' fish consumption was divided into ≤ 17.0 g/day, 18.0-93.0 g/day, and ≥ 94 g/day. The correlation between the level of fish intake and the metabolic risk factors was evaluated by multinomial logistic regression analysis. A significant difference in the gender distribution was observed in the prediabetes group, which is a group with a high risk of non-communicable diseases, according to the fish intake, and there were significant differences in the total energy intake, protein intake, n-3 fatty acids intake, and the intakes of sodium and micro-nutrients according to the intake group ( P < 0.05). In addition, the blood total cholesterol (TC) decreased 0.422 fold in model 1 (unadjusted) [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.211-0.845] and 0.422 fold in model 2 (adjusted for sex) (95% CI: 0.210-0.846) in those with a fish intake of 18.0-93.0 g/day ( P < 0.05) compared to those with a fish intake of ≤ 17.0 g/day. The blood TC decreased 0.555 fold (95% CI: 0.311-0.989) in model 1 and 0.549 fold (95% CI: 0.302-0.997) in model 2 in those with a fish intake of ≥ 94 g/day compared to those with a fish intake of ≤ 17.0 g/day ( P < 0.05). Subjects with prediabetes or the metabolic risk factors can maintain their blood low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and blood TC concentrations at the optimal level by consuming fish (18.0-93.0 g/day).

  18. Rates of consumption of juvenile salmonids and alternative prey fish by northern squawfish, walleyes, smallmouth bass, and channel catfish in John Day Reservoir, Columbia River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigg, S.; Poe, T.P.; Prendergast, L.A.; Hansel, H.C.

    1991-01-01

    Adult northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonesis, walleyes Stizostedion vitreum, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus were sampled from four regions of John Day Reservoir from April to August 1983-1986 to quantify their consumption of 13 species of prey fish, particularly seaward-migrating juvenile Pacific salmon and steelhead (Oncorhynchus spp.). Consumption rates were estimated from field data on stomach contents and digestion rate relations determined in previous investigations. For each predator, consumption rates varied by reservoir area, month, time of day, and predator size or age. The greatest daily consumption of salmonids by northern squawfish and channel catfish occurred in the upper end of the reservoir below McNary Dam. Greatest daily predation by walleyes and smallmouth bass occurred in the middle and lower reservoir. Consumption rates of all predators were highest in July, concurrent with maximum temperature and abundance of juvenile salmonids. Feeding by the predators tended to peak after dawn and near midnight. Northern squawfish below McNary Dam exhibited this pattern, but fed mainly in the morning hours down-reservoir. The daily ration of total prey fish was highest for northern squawfish over 451 mm fork length, for walleyes 201-250 mm, for smallmouth bass 176-200 mm, and for channel catfish 401-450 mm. Averaged over all predator sizes and sampling months (April-August), the total daily ration (fish plus other prey) of smallmouth bass was about twice that of channel catfish, northern squawfish, and walleyes. However, northern squawfish was clearly the major predator on juvenile salmonids

  19. 12 CFR 615.5182 - Interest rate risk management by associations and other Farm Credit System institutions other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rate risk management by associations... OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Risk Assessment and Management § 615.5182 Interest rate risk management by... shall comply with the requirements of §§ 615.5180 and 615.5181. The interest rate risk management...

  20. Association between fish consumption, long chain omega 3 fatty acids, and risk of cerebrovascular disease: Systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Chowdhury (Rajiv); S. Stevens (Sarah); D. Gorman (Donal); A. Pan (An); S. Warnakula (Samantha); S. Chowdhury (Susmita); H. Ward (Heather); L.A. Johnson (Laura); F. Crowe (Francesca); F.B. Hu (Frank); O.H. Franco (Oscar)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To clarify associations of fish consumption and long chain omega 3 fatty acids with risk of cerebrovascular disease for primary and secondary prevention. Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources: Studies published before September 2012 identified through

  1. The role of ecological context and predation risk-stimuli in revealing the true picture about the genetic basis of boldness evolution in fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klefoth, Thomas; Skov, Christian; Krause, Jens

    2011-01-01

    To showcase the importance of genotype × environment interactions and the presence of predation risk in the experimental assessment of boldness in fish, we investigated boldness in terms of feeding behavior and refuge use in two genetically different populations of juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio)...

  2. The association between social networks and self-rated risk of HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elizabeth J. Lyimo

    2014-03-18

    Mar 18, 2014 ... Bonding networks were defined as social groupings of students participating in activities ... bridging social networks and self-rated HIV risk behavior. ...... book for Theory and Research for the Sociology of Education, 241–258.

  3. Fish Oil and Microalga Omega-3 as Dietary Supplements: A Comparative Study on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in High-Fat Fed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haimeur, Adil; Mimouni, Virginie; Ulmann, Lionel; Martineau, Anne-Sophie; Messaouri, Hafida; Pineau-Vincent, Fabienne; Tremblin, Gérard; Meskini, Nadia

    2016-09-01

    Dietary supplementation with marine omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) can have beneficial effects on a number of risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We compared the effects of two n-3 PUFA rich food supplements (freeze-dried Odontella aurita and fish oil) on risk factors for CVD. Male rats were randomly divided into four groups of six animals each and fed with the following diets: control group (C) received a standard diet containing 7 % lipids; second group (HF high fat) was fed with a high-fat diet containing 40 % lipids; third group (HFFO high fat+fish oil) was fed with the high-fat diet supplemented with 0.5 % fish oil; and fourth group (HFOA high fat+O. aurita) received the high-fat diet supplemented with 12 % of freeze-dried O. aurita. After 8 weeks rats fed with the high-fat diet supplemented with O. aurita displayed a significantly lower bodyweight than those in the other groups. Both the microalga and the fish oil significantly reduced insulinemia and serum lipid levels. O. aurita was more effective than the fish oil in reducing hepatic triacyglycerol levels and in preventing high-fat diet-induced steatosis. O. aurita and fish oil also reduced platelet aggregation and oxidative status induced by high fat intake. After an OA supplementation, the adipocytes in the HFOA group were smaller than those in the HF group. Freeze-dried O. aurita showed similar or even greater biological effects than the fish oil. This could be explained by a potential effect of the n-3 PUFA but also other bioactive compounds of the microalgae.

  4. Explore the Application of Financial Engineering in the Management of Exchange Rate Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the background where the domestic enterprises commonly have a weak protection consciousness against the exchange rate risk, this article makes a deep analysis based on the definition of exchange rate risk and its cause. By comparison of the traditional management method of exchange rate risk with another one based on financial engineering tools, it also deeply analyzes the method to use the financial engineering technology in the management of exchange rate risk, and concludes the primary purpose of exchange rate risk management is for hedging. This article proposes an optimal analysis method in two aspects, namely the minimum risk and maximum efficiency, for the forward-based optimal hedging, and proposes an optimal analysis method of dynamic hedging for the optimal hedging of option-based tools. Based on the description of the application of financial tools in foreign exchange futures, forward contract, currency exchange and foreign exchange option, it makes an empirical analysis on the management of foreign exchange risk by taking an assumed T company as the carrier and based on the trading tools of forward foreign exchange and currency option, which describes the operation procedure of financial tools in a more direct way and proves the efficiency of the optimal analysis method of this article.

  5. Concordance of Motion Sensor and Clinician-Rated Fall Risk Scores in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elledge, Julie

    2017-12-01

    As the older adult population in the United States continues to grow, developing reliable, valid, and practical methods for identifying fall risk is a high priority. Falls are prevalent in older adults and contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality rates and rising health costs. Identifying at-risk older adults and intervening in a timely manner can reduce falls. Conventional fall risk assessment tools require a health professional trained in the use of each tool for administration and interpretation. Motion sensor technology, which uses three-dimensional cameras to measure patient movements, is promising for assessing older adults' fall risk because it could eliminate or reduce the need for provider oversight. The purpose of this study was to assess the concordance of fall risk scores as measured by a motion sensor device, the OmniVR Virtual Rehabilitation System, with clinician-rated fall risk scores in older adult outpatients undergoing physical rehabilitation. Three standardized fall risk assessments were administered by the OmniVR and by a clinician. Validity of the OmniVR was assessed by measuring the concordance between the two assessment methods. Stability of the OmniVR fall risk ratings was assessed by measuring test-retest reliability. The OmniVR scores showed high concordance with the clinician-rated scores and high stability over time, demonstrating comparability with provider measurements.

  6. Fish advisories in the USA and Japan: risk communication and public awareness of a common idea with different backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ser, Ping Han; Watanabe, Chiho

    2012-01-01

    Some countries have established fish advisories to manage fish consumption to minimize methylmercury exposure. Our objective was to compare the fish advisories and the resultant consumer behavior in the United States of America (USA) and Japan. Both countries have national consumption guidelines, but American states enjoy greater independence in issuing guidelines for local water bodies and vary in the information that is provided for the public. The proportion of the American public that has heard of state fish advisories is thought to be close to 30%. There is a concern that this low level of awareness extends to pregnant women. In Japan, the current problem is the lack of comprehensive studies on the public awareness of fish advisories. Nonetheless, there is evidence that fish consumption has decreased in both countries. In USA, there is a possibility that the strong emphasis on mercury toxicity drives the general population towards a trend of lower fish consumption. In Japan, the fish advisory encourages seafood consumption for nutritional benefits. Consequently, the decrease may be due to the shift towards a "Western diet". Also, the Japanese fish advisory seems to be less active in advocating the issue of fish consumption and mercury exposure, which may be partly responsible for the possible lesser attention of the consumers. Cultural factors may explain for the baseline difference in consumption and account partly for the change in Japanese consumer behavior. However, the dissimilarities in fish advisories may also be responsible for the variations in consumer behavior.

  7. Risk assessment of residual DDTs in freshwater and marine fish cultivated around the Pearl River Delta, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, S Y; Kwok, C K; Nie, X P; Cheung, K C; Wong, M H

    2010-02-01

    Six species of freshwater fish collected from 10 fishponds in Shunde and Zhongshan, China, four species of marine fishes collected from different mariculture farms [four in Hong Kong (Tung Lung Chau, Ma Wan, Cheung Chau and Kat O) and two in mainland China (Daya Bay and Shenzhen)] together with feed (both trash fish and commercial pellets) and sediment were analyzed for DDTs. Total DDTs in freshwater fish flesh decreased in the order of: carnivores [1742 microg/kg lipid weight (l.w.)] > herbivores (165 microg/kg, l.w.) > omnivores (42.5 microg/kg, l.w.), with the highest concentration detected in mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi) (2641 microg/kg, l.w.). For marine fish, snubnose pompano (Trachinotus blochii) and orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) collected in Ma Wan contained elevated levels of total DDTs (2590 and 2034 microg/kg l.w., respectively). Trash fish used in both freshwater and marine fish farms contained significantly higher levels (86.5-641 microg/kg l.w.) (p trash fish should not be used for fish culture in order to lower the level of residual DDTs in fish muscle.

  8. [Relationship between performance rating and risk of low back pain in manufacturing line workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Yoshiyuki; Funahashi, Atsushi; Izumi, Hiroyuki; Kumashinro, Masaharu

    2012-03-01

    It is possible that the performance rating of line workers is affected by the risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders that are included in their work more so than by the actual takt time. To investigate whether performance rating relates to the risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders, we analyzed a dataset obtained from a self-administered questionnaire answered by assembly line workers (n=1579). As a result, performance rating had a significant association with unsuitable work environments, poor working postures and handling of heavy loads. The workers who reported the fastest rating had a higher exposure than others to the risk factors for occupational low back pain. The results of our study support the effectiveness of performance rating as an index of work burden.

  9. Sediment distribution coefficients (KD) and concentration factors (CF) in fish for natural radionuclides in a pond of a tropical region and their contributions to estimations of internal absorbed dose rate in fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Pereira, Wagner de; Kelecom, Alphonse

    2008-01-01

    Attention has been paid only recently to the protection of biota against radiation effects. Protection is being considered through modeling of the calculation of absorbed dose rate. In these models, the inputs are the fluxes of radionuclides of environmental concern and their resulting distribution between environmental compartments. Such distribution is estimated for dispersion models. In freshwater systems and when fish is used as biomaker, relevant environmental transfer parameters are transfer between sediment and water (sediment distribution coefficients KD, in l kg -1 ), and between water and fish (concentration factor CF, in l kg -1 ). These coefficients are under the influence of a number o physical, chemical and biological factors, and display following the literature a great variability. The present work establishes the KD's and CF's for uranium, thorium, radium and lead for two ponds: one that receives treated effluents from an ore treatment unit (UTM) situated at Pocos de Caldas, Minas Gerais, Brazil and the other pond from the uranium concentration unit (URA) situated at Caetite, Bahia, Brazil, and for fish used as biomarker. It intends also to compare these parameters with the values recommended by IAEA. Depending on considered radionuclide and on the site, CF's (l kg -1 ) observed values were of the same magnitude as, or one order of magnitude lower than recommended by IAEA. KD's (l kg -1 ) observed values were found of the same magnitude as those recommended by IAEA, approximately 10 times lower or up to 100 times higher than recommended by IAEA, again depending on the radionuclides and on the site. It can be concluded that local parameters should be established in order to obtain a more accurate estimative of biota exposition from man activities. (author)

  10. A preliminary risk assessment of organochlorines accumulated in fish to the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) in the Northwestern waters of Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, C.L.H.; Xu, Y.; Lam, J.C.W.; Connell, D.W.; Lam, M.H.W.; Nicholson, S.; Richardson, B.J.; Lam, P.K.S.

    2006-01-01

    The Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin is considered threatened due to several factors including pollution in Hong Kong and the risks due to consumption of fish tainted with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides were assessed. Six species of fish Collichthys lucida, Pseudosciaena crocea, Johnius sp., Thryssa sp., Mugil sp. and Trichiurus sp., which comprise the main prey species of humpback dolphins were collected for analyses. Risks due to total PCBs, total TEQs, PCB 118 and the pesticides were assessed with the use of toxicity reference values as the threshold reference benchmarks. The calculated risk quotients (RQs) showed that the risks associated with organochlorines were generally low. The highest RQ was associated with total TEQs suggesting that dioxin-like PCBs may pose the highest risk to the dolphins. The HCHs, total PCBs and heptachlor had comparatively high RQs and thus they should also be the priority organochlorines that would require further investigation. - Fish tainted with dioxin-like PCBs might pose a risk to Hong Kong dolphins

  11. A preliminary risk assessment of organochlorines accumulated in fish to the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) in the Northwestern waters of Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, C.L.H. [Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Xu, Y. [Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Lam, J.C.W. [Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Connell, D.W. [Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); School of Public Health, Griffith University, Logan Campus, University Drive, Meadowbrook, QLD 4131 (Australia); Lam, M.H.W. [Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Nicholson, S. [Meinhardt Mouchel Limited, 12/F, MLC Tower, 248 Queen' s Road East, Wanchai, Hong Kong (China); Richardson, B.J. [Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Lam, P.K.S. [Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: bhpksl@cityu.edu.hk

    2006-11-15

    The Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin is considered threatened due to several factors including pollution in Hong Kong and the risks due to consumption of fish tainted with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides were assessed. Six species of fish Collichthys lucida, Pseudosciaena crocea, Johnius sp., Thryssa sp., Mugil sp. and Trichiurus sp., which comprise the main prey species of humpback dolphins were collected for analyses. Risks due to total PCBs, total TEQs, PCB 118 and the pesticides were assessed with the use of toxicity reference values as the threshold reference benchmarks. The calculated risk quotients (RQs) showed that the risks associated with organochlorines were generally low. The highest RQ was associated with total TEQs suggesting that dioxin-like PCBs may pose the highest risk to the dolphins. The HCHs, total PCBs and heptachlor had comparatively high RQs and thus they should also be the priority organochlorines that would require further investigation. - Fish tainted with dioxin-like PCBs might pose a risk to Hong Kong dolphins.

  12. Mercury in fishes from 21 national parks in the Western United States: inter- and intra-park variation in concentrations and ecological risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Willacker, James J.; Flanagan Pritz, Colleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global contaminant and human activities have increased atmospheric Hg concentrations 3- to 5-fold during the past 150 years. This increased release into the atmosphere has resulted in elevated loadings to aquatic habitats where biogeochemical processes promote the microbial conversion of inorganic Hg to methylmercury, the bioavailable form of Hg. The physicochemical properties of Hg and its complex environmental cycle have resulted in some of the most remote and protected areas of the world becoming contaminated with Hg concentrations that threaten ecosystem and human health. The national park network in the United States is comprised of some of the most pristine and sensitive wilderness in North America. There is concern that via global distribution, Hg contamination could threaten the ecological integrity of aquatic communities in the parks and the wildlife that depends on them. In this study, we examined Hg concentrations in non-migratory freshwater fish in 86 sites across 21 national parks in the Western United States. We report Hg concentrations of more than 1,400 fish collected in waters extending over a 4,000 kilometer distance, from Alaska to the arid Southwest. Across all parks, sites, and species, fish total Hg (THg) concentrations ranged from 9.9 to 1,109 nanograms per gram wet weight (ng/g ww) with a mean of 77.7 ng/g ww. We found substantial variation in fish THg concentrations among and within parks, suggesting that patterns of Hg risk are driven by processes occurring at a combination of scales. Additionally, variation (up to 20-fold) in site-specific fish THg concentrations within individual parks suggests that more intensive sampling in some parks will be required to effectively characterize Hg contamination in western national parks. Across all fish sampled, only 5 percent had THg concentrations exceeding a benchmark (200 ng/g ww) associated with toxic responses within the fish themselves. However, Hg concentrations in 35 percent

  13. Long-term Trends in Coral Reef Fish Yields and Exploitation Rates of Commercial Species from Coastal Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Kaunda-Arara, B.; Rose, G.A.; Muchiri, M.S.; Kaka, R.

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of long-term (1978–2001) marine fisheries data showed that Kenyan coralreefs produced an estimated 2–4 metric t/km2/year of demersal fish. A rapid overall decline in landings occurred during the 1990s. Yields (t/km2/year) showed bimodal peaks in 1982 (2.98) and 1991 (2.90). The average total landings dropped by 55% during the last decade following peak landings in 1982. Landings of the commercially important families (e.g., Siganidae, Lethrinidae, Lutjanidae and Serran...

  14. Food intake rates of inactive fish are positively linked to boldness in three-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolles, J W; Manica, A; Boogert, N J

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the link between personality and maximum food intake of inactive individuals, food-deprived three-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus at rest in their home compartments were provided with ad libitum prey items. Bolder individuals ate considerably more than shyer individuals, even after accounting for body size, while sociability did not have an effect. These findings support pace-of-life theory predicting that life-history strategies are linked to boldness. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  15. Injury-mediated decrease in locomotor performance increases predation risk in schooling fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause, J.; Herbert-Read, J. E.; Seebacher, F.

    2017-01-01

    The costs and benefits of group living often depend on the spatial position of individuals within groups and the ability of individuals to occupy preferred positions. For example, models of predation events for moving prey groups predict higher mortality risk for individuals at the periphery and .......This article is part of the themed issue 'Physiological determinants of social behaviour in animals'....

  16. Heart rate variability based on risk stratification for type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-E-Oliveira, Julia; Amélio, Pâmela Marina; Abranches, Isabela Lopes Laguardia; Damasceno, Dênis Derly; Furtado, Fabianne

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate heart rate variability among adults with different risk levels for type 2 diabetes mellitus. The risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus was assessed in 130 participants (89 females) based on the questionnaire Finnish Diabetes Risk Score and was classified as low risk (n=26), slightly elevated risk (n=41), moderate risk (n=27) and high risk (n=32). To measure heart rate variability, a heart-rate monitor Polar S810i® was employed to obtain RR series for each individual, at rest, for 5 minutes, followed by analysis of linear and nonlinear indexes. The groups at higher risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus had significantly lower linear and nonlinear heart rate variability indexes. The individuals at high risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus have lower heart rate variability. Avaliar a variabilidade da frequência cardíaca em adultos com diferentes níveis de risco para diabetes mellitus tipo 2. O grau de risco para diabetes mellitus tipo 2 de 130 participantes (41 homens) foi avaliado pelo questionário Finnish Diabetes Risk Score. Os participantes foram classificados em baixo risco (n=26), risco levemente elevado (n=41), risco moderado (n=27) e alto risco (n=32). Para medir a variabilidade da frequência cardíaca, utilizou-se o frequencímetro Polar S810i® para obter séries de intervalo RR para cada indivíduo, em repouso, durante 5 minutos; posteriormente, realizou-se análise por meio de índices lineares e não-lineares. O grupo com maior risco para diabetes mellitus tipo 2 teve uma diminuição significante nos índices lineares e não-lineares da variabilidade da frequência cardíaca. Os resultados apontam que indivíduos com risco alto para diabetes mellitus tipo 2 tem menor variabilidade da frequência cardíaca. To evaluate heart rate variability among adults with different risk levels for type 2 diabetes mellitus. The risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus was assessed in 130 participants (89 females) based on the questionnaire Finnish Diabetes Risk Score

  17. The impact of risk management on internal and sustainable growth rate: Evidence from Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Vakili Fard

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Measuring the relative risk of firms has been an open discussion among researchers. There are many studies on learning how leverage may influence on growth of the firms. This article reviews the relationship between risk management, internal and sustainable growth of accepted companies in Tehran stock exchange. The survey considers three types of risks including operating, financial and compound and investigates their relationships with internal growth rate as well as sustainable growth rate. Using some regression techniques, the study has determined negative and meaningful relationships between different types of leverage on side and internal as well as sustainable growth on the other side.

  18. Risk of inflammatory bowel disease according to self-rated health, pregnancy course, and pregnancy complications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harpsøe, Maria C; Jørgensen, Kristian Tore; Frisch, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Poor self-rated health (SRH) has been connected to immunological changes, and pregnancy complications have been suggested in the etiology of autoimmune diseases including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We evaluated the impact of self-rated pre-pregnancy health and pregnancy course, hyperemesis......, gestational hypertension, and preeclampsia on risk of IBD....

  19. Community rating in the absence of risk equalisation: lessons from the Irish private health insurance market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Brian; Shinnick, Edward

    2013-04-01

    Ireland's private health insurance market operates on the basis of community rating, alongside open enrolment and lifetime cover. A risk equalisation scheme was introduced in 2003 to bolster community rating. However, in July 2008 the Irish Supreme Court set aside this scheme, on the basis of the interpretation of community rating in Irish legislation. This decision has significant implications for the Irish private health insurance market. This paper reviews the development of the market, focusing in particular on community rating. The breakdown of community rating in a market with multiple insurers with differing risk profiles is discussed. Applying this to the Irish market, it can be seen that the Irish Supreme Court judgment has significant implications for the application of community rating. Specifically, while community rating operates within plans, it no longer operates across the market, leading to high-risk lives paying more, on average, than low-risk lives. It has also led to greater opportunities for insurers to engage in market segmentation. This may have relevance for the design and operation of other community rated markets.

  20. The Epiphytic Genus Gambierdiscus (Dinophyceae) in the Kermadec Islands and Zealandia Regions of the Southwestern Pacific and the Associated Risk of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Lesley L; Smith, Kirsty F; Murray, Sam; Harwood, D Tim; Trnski, Tom; Munday, Rex

    2017-07-11

    Species in the genus Gambierdiscus produce ciguatoxins (CTXs) and/or maitotoxins (MTXs), which may cause ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) in humans if contaminated fish are consumed. Species of Gambierdiscus have previously been isolated from macroalgae at Rangitahua (Raoul Island and North Meyer Islands, northern Kermadec Islands), and the opportunity was taken to sample for Gambierdiscus at the more southerly Macauley Island during an expedition in 2016. Gambierdiscus cells were isolated, cultured, and DNA extracted and sequenced to determine the species present. Bulk cultures were tested for CTXs and MTXs by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The species isolated were G. australes , which produced MTX-1 (ranging from 3 to 36 pg/cell), and G. polynesiensis , which produced neither MTX-1 nor, unusually, any known CTXs. Isolates of both species produced putative MTX-3. The risk of fish, particularly herbivorous fish, causing CFP in the Zealandia and Kermadec Islands region is real, although in mainland New Zealand the risk is currently low. Both Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa have been recorded in the sub-tropical northern region of New Zealand, and so the risk may increase with warming seas and shift in the distribution of Gambierdiscus species.

  1. The Epiphytic Genus Gambierdiscus (Dinophyceae in the Kermadec Islands and Zealandia Regions of the Southwestern Pacific and the Associated Risk of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley L. Rhodes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Species in the genus Gambierdiscus produce ciguatoxins (CTXs and/or maitotoxins (MTXs, which may cause ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP in humans if contaminated fish are consumed. Species of Gambierdiscus have previously been isolated from macroalgae at Rangitahua (Raoul Island and North Meyer Islands, northern Kermadec Islands, and the opportunity was taken to sample for Gambierdiscus at the more southerly Macauley Island during an expedition in 2016. Gambierdiscus cells were isolated, cultured, and DNA extracted and sequenced to determine the species present. Bulk cultures were tested for CTXs and MTXs by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. The species isolated were G. australes, which produced MTX-1 (ranging from 3 to 36 pg/cell, and G. polynesiensis, which produced neither MTX-1 nor, unusually, any known CTXs. Isolates of both species produced putative MTX-3. The risk of fish, particularly herbivorous fish, causing CFP in the Zealandia and Kermadec Islands region is real, although in mainland New Zealand the risk is currently low. Both Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa have been recorded in the sub-tropical northern region of New Zealand, and so the risk may increase with warming seas and shift in the distribution of Gambierdiscus species.

  2. FISHING GROUND, CACTH COMPOSITION, HOOK RATE AND LENGTH DISTRIBUTION OF BILLFISHES CAUGHT BY TUNA LONG LINE IN INDIAN OCEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathur Rochman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Billfishes area by cacth of tuna long line vessels in Indian Ocean. Billfish are consist of swordfish Xiphias gladius, black marlin Makaira indica, indo facific blue marlin Makaira mazara, stripe marlin Tetrapturus audax, indo facific sailfish Istiophorus platypterus and shortbill spearfish Tetrapturus angustirostris. Besides that, billfishes also have important economic value compared with tuna as an exsported species such as swordfish and marlin. To optimize the catch of billfishes in Indian Ocean, data and information of potential fishing ground, size and catch composition of this species are needed. The billfishes cacth composition collected in 2011 were dominated by 45% swordfish, 20% black marlin, 19% blue marlin,9% short bill spearfish, 6% sailfish and 1%stripe marlin. The billfishes size range which were caught between 60 - 280 cm LJFL (Lower Jaw Fork Length. The sword fish average length was 150 cm, blue marlin 197 cm, black Marlin 189 cm, sailfish 150cm ,short bill spearfish 144 cm and stripe marlin159 cm. From this observation, it was found that most of billfishes caught were in mature.

  3. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION AND RISK AVERSION RATE FOR SEVERAL STOCK INDICES IN INDONESIA STOCK EXCHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robiyanto Robiyanto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous stock indices in Indonesia Stock Exchange. Several of them are LQ-45, MBX, DBX, JII, SRI-KEHATI, PEFINDO-25, BISNIS-27, IDX-30 and KOMPAS-100. Unfortunately there are limi­ted researches which have been done to measure those indices performance specifically. The same condition also occurs on risk aversion level usage in Indonesia Stock Exchange, only few numbers of researches use this me­a­surement in the portfolio valuation. Based on that, this research measured the performance and risk aversion rate of those indices in Indonesia Stock Exchange. The results of this study were SRI-KEHATI becomes the best performer with the highest risk aversion rate, while Jakarta Islamic Index (JII produces the lowest positive per­formance with the lowest risk aversion rate. This finding shows that sharia stocks’ characters (i.e. usury free could give relieveness and convenience regardless its per­formance.

  4. Hg concentrations and related risk assessment in coral reef crustaceans, molluscs and fish from New Caledonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouvelon, Tiphaine; Warnau, Michel; Churlaud, Carine; Bustamante, Paco

    2009-01-01

    There is a dramatic lack of data on Hg levels in marine organisms from tropical areas, and in particular from New Caledonia. For the first time, this study reports the total Hg concentrations in the tissues of several marine taxa from the New Caledonian lagoon. Seafood from both wild and farmed populations was considered. Hg concentrations varied over three orders of magnitudes according to factors including species, age (size/weight), trophic level, lifestyle and geographical origin. Taking into account the edible tissues, estimations of the amount of flesh that should be consumed by a 60-kg person to reach the Hg Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) reveal acceptable risk for Human health in general. However, a risk was clearly identified in one site of the lagoon (i.e. Grande Rade) where high Hg concentrations were measured. These concentrations were higher than values reported in the current literature.

  5. 76 FR 79379 - Risk-Based Capital Guidelines: Market Risk; Alternatives to Credit Ratings for Debt and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ..., China, France, Germany, Hong Kong SAR, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Korea, Luxembourg, Mexico, the..., the legislative history of section 939A focuses on the conflicts of interest of credit rating agencies... illustrates how CDS spreads and CRCs could be used together to assign specific risk-weighting factors. In...

  6. Intertemporal Risk-Return Trade-off in Foreign Exchange Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the intertemporal risk-return trade-off of foreign ex-change (FX) rates for ten currencies quoted against the USD. For each currency,we use three risk measures simultaneously that pertain to that currency; its re-alized volatility, its realized skewness, and its value-at-risk. We apply monthlyFX excess returns and monthly FX risk measures calculated from daily ob-servations. We find that there is a positive and signi…cant contemporaneousrisk-return trade-off for most currencies...

  7. Hg concentrations and related risk assessment in coral reef crustaceans, molluscs and fish from New Caledonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chouvelon, Tiphaine; Warnau, Michel; Churlaud, Carine; Bustamante, Paco

    2009-01-01

    There is a dramatic lack of data on Hg levels in marine organisms from tropical areas, and in particular from New Caledonia. For the first time, this study reports the total Hg concentrations in the tissues of several marine taxa from the New Caledonian lagoon. Seafood from both wild and farmed populations was considered. Hg concentrations varied over three orders of magnitudes according to factors including species, age (size/weight), trophic level, lifestyle and geographical origin. Taking into account the edible tissues, estimations of the amount of flesh that should be consumed by a 60-kg person to reach the Hg Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) reveal acceptable risk for Human health in general. However, a risk was clearly identified in one site of the lagoon (i.e. Grande Rade) where high Hg concentrations were measured. These concentrations were higher than values reported in the current literature. - This work reports the first assessment of Hg levels in edible organisms from the New Caledonian lagoon and the associated risk linked to their consumption by Human

  8. Hg concentrations and related risk assessment in coral reef crustaceans, molluscs and fish from New Caledonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chouvelon, Tiphaine [Littoral Environnement et Societes (LIENSs), UMR 6250, CNRS-Universite La Rochelle, 2 Rue Olympe de Gouges, F-17042 La Rochelle Cedex 01 (France); Warnau, Michel [International Atomic Energy Agency-Marine Environment Laboratories (IAEA-MEL), 4 Quai Antoine Ier, MC-98000 (Monaco); Churlaud, Carine [Federation de Recherche en Environnement pour le Developpement Durable (FR-EDD), FR CNRS 3097, Centre Commun d' Analyses, 5 Perspectives de l' Ocean, F-17071 La Rochelle Cedex 9 (France); Bustamante, Paco [Littoral Environnement et Societes (LIENSs), UMR 6250, CNRS-Universite La Rochelle, 2 Rue Olympe de Gouges, F-17042 La Rochelle Cedex 01 (France)], E-mail: pbustama@univ-lr.fr

    2009-01-15

    There is a dramatic lack of data on Hg levels in marine organisms from tropical areas, and in particular from New Caledonia. For the first time, this study reports the total Hg concentrations in the tissues of several marine taxa from the New Caledonian lagoon. Seafood from both wild and farmed populations was considered. Hg concentrations varied over three orders of magnitudes according to factors including species, age (size/weight), trophic level, lifestyle and geographical origin. Taking into account the edible tissues, estimations of the amount of flesh that should be consumed by a 60-kg person to reach the Hg Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) reveal acceptable risk for Human health in general. However, a risk was clearly identified in one site of the lagoon (i.e. Grande Rade) where high Hg concentrations were measured. These concentrations were higher than values reported in the current literature. - This work reports the first assessment of Hg levels in edible organisms from the New Caledonian lagoon and the associated risk linked to their consumption by Human.

  9. The fish sexual development test: an OECD test guideline proposal with possible relevance for environmental risk assessment. Results from the validation programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbech, Henrik; Brande-Lavridsen, Nanna; Kinnberg, Karin Lund

    2010-01-01

    The Fish Sexual Development Test (FSDT) has gone through two validations as an OECD test guideline for the detection of endocrine active chemicals with different modes of action. The validation has been finalized on four species: Zebrafish (Danio rerio), Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes), three s...... as a population relevant endpoint and the results of the two validation rounds will be discussed in relation to environmental risk assessment and species selection....... for histology. For all three methods, the fish parts were numbered and histology could therefore be linked to the vitellogenin concentration in individual fish. The two core endocrine relevant endpoints were vitellogenin concentrations and phenotypic sex ratio. Change in the sex ratio is presented...

  10. Global financial crisis, banking crisis and first country risk in the viewpoint of domestic risk rating agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Ingrid Shuli

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In a period of dire financial crisis, with which all countries seem to cope, it seemed interesting to analyse the assessment of the risk for our country, viewed from the vantage point of our domestic rating agencies, but also compared to assessments made to our country by international rating agencies, such as Moody’s rating agency, Standard & Poor rating agency, Fitch ratings agency etc. The objective of this study is to recognize indicators and factors affecting the risk assessment and rating of a country, and evaluate whether there has been an impact of the financial crisis faced by other countries in the rating given to Albanian by domestic and foreign agencies. We stopped at the history of earlier financial crisis development to understand bewtter what is happening in this financial crisis. We shall develop upon a wide existing literature, and a range of credible resources such as the IMF, the World Bank, the International Institute of Finance, Economic Intelligence Unit, and local official data sources, eg. The Bank of Albania and INSTAT.

  11. Fish consumption, mercury exposure, and the risk of cholesterol profiles: findings from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Min Cho

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the associations between mercury (Hg exposure and cholesterol profiles were analyzed, and increased Hg levels and cholesterol profiles according to the amount of fish consumption were evaluated. Data on levels of blood Hg, the frequency of fish consumption, total blood cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and triglyceride (TG in 3951 adults were obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2011 database. To compare the distribution for each log-transformed indicator, Student’s t-test and analysis of variance were carried out, and the groups were classified according to the frequency of fish consumption through linear regression analysis; the association between Hg level and cholesterol profiles in each group was analyzed. The blood Hg levels (arithmetic mean, median, and geometric mean for all target participants were 4.59, 3.66, and 3.74 µg/L, respectively. The high cholesterol group, low HDL-C group, and high TG group showed a statistically and significantly higher blood Hg level than the low-risk group. In both sexes, as the frequency of fish consumption increased, blood Hg level also increased, but TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, and TG did not show a similar trend. Increased blood Hg level showed a significant association with increased TC and LDL-C. This statistical significance was maintained in the group with less frequent fish consumption (8 times per month did not show a similar trend. The results of this study suggest that fish consumption increases the level of Hg exposure, and that as the level of Hg exposure increases, the levels of cholesterol profiles increase. However, this study also suggests that the levels of cholesterol profiles in those with frequent fish consumption can be diminished.

  12. Heavy metal and trace element contents in edible muscle of three commercial fish species, and assessment of possible risks associated with their human consumption in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabry Mohamed El-Bahr

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Three different highly consumed fish species from Al-Ahsa market, Saudi Arabia namely Spangled emporer (Lethriuns nebulosus, Red striped seabream (Pagrus major and Black seabream (Spondyliosoma cantharus were evaluated for their muscle contents of heavy metals (e.g., Cd and Pb and trace elements (e.g., Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn. The possible risks associated with their human consumption were also studied. A total of 60 fresh fish samples comprising of 20 samples from each above mentioned fish were collected, and were subjected for determination of heavy metal and trace element contents by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry after Microwave Wet Digestion. The results showed that, accumulation patterns of the heavy metals and trace elements followed the order: Fe > Zn > Cu > Mn > Pb > Cd. There were variations among metal contents in the muscles of the three fish species; S. cantharus accumulated the highest levels of Cu, Zn and Mn, while the highest level of Fe could be detected in the muscles of P. major. The concentration of Cd and Pb remained comparable in the muscles of all three fish species. The calculated maximum daily intake (MDI values were found as 0.0003, 0.0009, 0.0035, 0.0001, 0.0000, 0.0000 mg/day/person for Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cd and Pb, respectively. Conclusively, the present study indicated that, fish muscles contain relatively less burden of heavy metals and trace elements, and no health problem can be raised from human consumption of the examined commercial fishes at Al-Ahsa market, Saudi Arabia. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2015; 2(3.000: 271-278

  13. Evaluating the Impact of Prescription Fill Rates on Risk Stratification Model Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsien-Yen; Richards, Thomas M; Shermock, Kenneth M; Elder Dalpoas, Stacy; J Kan, Hong; Alexander, G Caleb; Weiner, Jonathan P; Kharrazi, Hadi

    2017-12-01

    Risk adjustment models are traditionally derived from administrative claims. Prescription fill rates-extracted by comparing electronic health record prescriptions and pharmacy claims fills-represent a novel measure of medication adherence and may improve the performance of risk adjustment models. We evaluated the impact of prescription fill rates on claims-based risk adjustment models in predicting both concurrent and prospective costs and utilization. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 43,097 primary care patients from HealthPartners network between 2011 and 2012. Diagnosis and/or pharmacy claims of 2011 were used to build 3 base models using the Johns Hopkins ACG system, in addition to demographics. Model performances were compared before and after adding 3 types of prescription fill rates: primary 0-7 days, primary 0-30 days, and overall. Overall fill rates utilized all ordered prescriptions from electronic health record while primary fill rates excluded refill orders. The overall, primary 0-7, and 0-30 days fill rates were 72.30%, 59.82%, and 67.33%. The fill rates were similar between sexes but varied across different medication classifications, whereas the youngest had the highest rate. Adding fill rates modestly improved the performance of all models in explaining medical costs (improving concurrent R by 1.15% to 2.07%), followed by total costs (0.58% to 1.43%), and pharmacy costs (0.07% to 0.65%). The impact was greater for concurrent costs compared with prospective costs. Base models without diagnosis information showed the highest improvement using prescription fill rates. Prescription fill rates can modestly enhance claims-based risk prediction models; however, population-level improvements in predicting utilization are limited.

  14. Portuguese preschool children: Benefit (EPA+DHA and Se) and risk (MeHg) assessment through the consumption of selected fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, C; Bernardo, I; Bandarra, N M; Louro Martins, L; Afonso, C

    2018-05-01

    This study aimed to assess the risk-benefit balance associated to fish consumption by Portuguese preschool children. For this purpose, databases (from IPMA and literature) were mined and mathematically processed by a model based on the Extreme Value Theory assuming consumption scenarios. Eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and selenium (Se) and methylmercury (MeHg) were selected as critical components of fish, given their health impact and significant contents in some fish species. Assessment also took into account that Se may protect against MeHg toxicity. With exception of blue shark, Se Health Benefit Value (Se-HBV), was always positive (ranging between 3.3 and 14.9) and Se:MeHg ratio was always higher than one (3.8 to 32.3). It was also estimated that the deleterious effects of MeHg on children IQ were offset by the beneficial impact of EPA+DHA in fish except for grilled black scabbardfish consumed every day. Blue shark, regardless of the culinary treatment, yielded very high probabilities of exceeding MeHg TWI (higher than 84 % with a single weekly meal), thus raising serious concerns. EPA+DHA benefits were high in salmon regardless of culinary treatment (> 84 %). Fish consumption by children is advisable with exception of blue shark and boiled and grilled tuna. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Community-based stillbirth rates and risk factors in rural Sarlahi, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Anne C; Mullany, Luke C; Tielsch, James M; Katz, Joanne; Khatry, Subarna K; Leclerq, Steven C; Adhikari, Ramesh K; Darmstadt, Gary L

    2011-06-01

    To assess stillbirth rates and antepartum risk factors in rural Nepal. Data were collected prospectively during a cluster-randomized, community-based trial in Sarlahi, Nepal, from 2002 to 2006. Multivariate regression modeling was performed to calculate adjusted relative risk estimates. Among 24531 births, the stillbirth rate was 35.4 per 1000 births (term stillbirth rate 21.2 per 1000 births). Most births occurred at home without a skilled birth attendant. The majority (69%) of intrapartum maternal deaths resulted in stillbirth. The adjusted RR (aRR) of stillbirth was 2.74 among nulliparas and 1.47 among mothers with history of a child death. Mothers above the age of 30 years carried a 1.59-fold higher risk for stillbirth than mothers who were 20-24 years old. The stillbirth risk was lower among households where the father had any formal education (aRR 0.70). Land ownership (aRR 0.85) and Pahadi ethnicity (aRR 0.67; reference: Madhesi ethnicity) were associated with significantly lower risks of stillbirth. Stillbirth rates were high in rural Nepal, with the majority of stillbirths occurring at full-term gestation. Nulliparity, history of prior child loss, maternal age above 30 years, Madhesi ethnicity, and socioeconomic disadvantage were significant risk factors for stillbirth. Clinicaltrials.govNCT00 109616. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. THE COMPETITION BETWEEN METHYLMERCURY RISKS AND OMEGA-3 POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACID BENEFITS: A REVIEW OF CONFLICTING EVIDENCE ON FISH CONSUMPTION AND CARDIOVASCULAR HEALTH.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LIPFERT, F.W.; SULLIVAN, T.M.

    2006-10-31

    The health concerns of methylmercury (MeHg) contamination of seafood have recently been extended to include cardiovascular effects, especially premature mortality. Although the fatty acids (fish oils) found in most species are thought to confer a wide range of health benefits, especially to the cardiovascular system, some epidemiological studies have suggested that such benefits may be offset by adverse effects of MeHg. This comprehensive review is based on searches of the NIH MEDLINE database and compares and contrasts 145 published studies involving cardiovascular effects and exposures to mercury and other fish contaminants, intake of fatty acids including dietary supplements of fish oils, and rates of seafood consumption. Since few of these studies include adequate simultaneous measurements of all of these potential predictor variables, we summarized their effects separately, across the available studies of each, and then drew conclusions based on the aggregated findings. It is important to realize that studies of seafood consumption encompass the net effects of all of these predictor variables, but that seafood intake studies are rarely supported by human biomarker measurements that reflect the actual uptake of harmful as well as beneficial fish ingredients. As a result, exposure measurement error is an issue when comparing studies and predictor variables. It is also possible that the observed benefits of eating fish may relate more to the characteristics of the consumers than to those of the fish. We found the evidence for adverse cardiovascular effects of MeHg to be sparse and unconvincing. Studies of cardiovascular mortality show net benefits, and the findings of adverse effects are mainly limited to studies Finland at high mercury exposure levels. By contrast, a very consistent picture of beneficial effects is seen for fatty acids, after recognizing the effects of exposure uncertainties and the presence of threshold effects. Studies based on measured

  17. No evidence of decreased risk of colorectal adenomas with white meat, poultry, and fish intake: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Sun, Jing; Sun, Yunwei; Huang, Liya; Tang, Yuming; Yuan, Yaozong

    2013-04-01

    Observational studies on the association between white meat (including fish and poultry) intake and the risk of colorectal adenoma (CRA), the precursor of colorectal cancer, have reported mixed results. To provide a quantitative assessment of this association, we summarized the evidence from observational studies. Relevant studies published on or before April 30, 2012 were identified from MEDLINE and EMBASE. Summary effect size estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated with a random-effects model. Between-study heterogeneity was assessed using the Cochran Q and I(2) statistics. A total of 23 publications from 21 independent studies (16 case-control and 5 cohort studies) were included in this meta-analysis. Based on high versus low analysis, the summary effect size estimate of CRA was 0.96 (95% CI, 0.84-1.09) for white meat intake, 0.98 (95% CI, 0.80-1.19) for fish intake, and 0.98 (95% CI, 0.80-1.18) for poultry intake. Subgroup analyses revealed that the null associations of CRA with intake of white meat (fish/poultry) were independent of geographic locations, study design, type of food frequency questionnaire, number of cases, and adjustments for confounders, such as body mass index, use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, dietary energy intake, smoking, and physical activity. Intake of white meat (fish/poultry) is not associated with the risk of CRA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Estimation of Seasonal Risk Caused by the Intake of Lead, Mercury and Cadmium through Freshwater Fish Consumption from Urban Water Reservoirs in Arid Areas of Northern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna Nevárez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bioavailability and hence bioaccumulation of heavy metals in fish species depends on seasonal conditions causing different risks levels to human health during the lifetime. Mercury, cadmium and lead contents in fish from Chihuahua (Mexico water reservoirs have been investigated to assess contamination levels and safety for consumers. Muscle samples of fish were collected across the seasons. Lead and cadmium were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry, and mercury by cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. The highest concentrations of cadmium (0.235 mg/kg, mercury (0.744 mg/kg and lead (4.298 mg/kg exceeded the maximum levels set by European regulations and Codex Alimentarius. Lead concentrations found in fish from three water reservoirs also surpassed the limit of 1 mg/kg established by Mexican regulations. The provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI suggested by the World Health Organization for methyl mercury (1.6 µg/kg bw per week was exceeded in the spring season (1.94 µg/kg bw per week. This might put consumers at risk of mercury poisoning.

  19. A statistical modeling approach to build expert credit risk rating systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waagepetersen, Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an efficient method for extracting expert knowledge when building a credit risk rating system. Experts are asked to rate a sample of counterparty cases according to creditworthiness. Next, a statistical model is used to capture the relation between the characteristics...... of a counterparty and the expert rating. For any counterparty the model can identify the rating, which would be agreed upon by the majority of experts. Furthermore, the model can quantify the concurrence among experts. The approach is illustrated by a case study regarding the construction of an application score...

  20. Recycle food wastes into high quality fish feeds for safe and quality fish production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ming-Hung; Mo, Wing-Yin; Choi, Wai-Ming; Cheng, Zhang; Man, Yu-Bon

    2016-12-01

    The amount of food waste generated from modern societies is increasing, which has imposed a tremendous pressure on its treatment and disposal. Food waste should be treated as a valuable resource rather than waste, and turning it into fish feeds would be a viable alternative. This paper attempts to review the feasibility of using food waste to formulate feed pellets to culture a few freshwater fish species, such as grass carp, grey mullet, and tilapia, under polyculture mode (growing different species in the same pond). These species occupy different ecological niches, with different feeding modes (i.e., herbivorous, filter feeding, etc.), and therefore all the nutrients derived from the food waste could be efficiently recycled within the ecosystem. The problems facing environmental pollution and fish contamination; the past and present situation of inland fish culture (focusing on South China); upgrade of food waste based feed pellets by adding enzymes, vitamin-mineral premix, probiotics (yeast), prebiotics, and Chinese medicinal herbs into feeds; and potential health risks of fish cultivated by food waste based pellets are discussed, citing some local examples. It can be concluded that appropriate portions of different types of food waste could satisfy basic nutritional requirements of lower trophic level fish species such as grass carp and tilapia. Upgrading the fish pellets by adding different supplements mentioned above could further elevated the quality of feeds, leading to higher growth rates, and enhanced immunity of fish. Health risk assessments based on the major environmental contaminants (mercury, PAHs and DDTs) in fish flesh showed that fish fed food waste based pellets are safer for consumption, when compared with those fed commercial feed pellets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Risk Management of Interest Rate Derivative Portfolios: A Stochastic Control Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Kiriakopoulos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we formulate the Risk Management Control problem in the interest rate area as a constrained stochastic portfolio optimization problem. The utility that we use can be any continuous function and based on the viscosity theory, the unique solution of the problem is guaranteed. The numerical approximation scheme is presented and applied using a single factor interest rate model. It is shown how the whole methodology works in practice, with the implementation of the algorithm for a specific interest rate portfolio. The recent financial crisis showed that risk management of derivatives portfolios especially in the interest rate market is crucial for the stability of the financial system. Modern Value at Risk (VAR and Conditional Value at Risk (CVAR techniques, although very useful and easy to understand, fail to grasp the need for on-line controlling and monitoring of derivatives portfolio. The portfolios should be designed in a way that risk and return be quantified and controlled in every possible state of the world. We hope that this methodology contributes towards this direction.

  2. Need for Improved Risk Communication of Fish Consumption Advisories to Protect Maternal and Child Health: Influence of Primary Informants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Gregory Cope

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Fish consumption has established benefits, including the promotion of cardiovascular health and pre- and neonatal brain and eye development, but local freshwater fish may be a source of contaminants that are especially harmful to fetuses and young children, such as the neurotoxic and developmentally toxic methylmercury and polychlorinated biphenyls. Fish consumption advisories may be issued by state health departments to limit human exposure to these and other toxicants. This study examined the efficacy of a sign designed by the North Carolina Division of Public Health that was posted along a reservoir (Badin Lake in central North Carolina, USA, for increasing anglers’ awareness of a fish consumption advisory, with a special focus on anglers who share their catch with women and children. In this study, 109 anglers were interviewed about their awareness of fish consumption advisories in general and their knowledge of the Badin Lake fish advisory in particular. Shore anglers were significantly less likely to be aware of the term “fish consumption advisory” and of the specific advisory for Badin Lake than boat anglers. Although a significant increase in knowledge of the specific fish consumption advisory was found for the entire sample of study participants after the sign intervention, a commensurate increase in knowledge was not found for a subsample of anglers who reported sharing their catch with women and children. Study findings underscore differences in fish consumption advisory awareness among subpopulations. Specifically, the study revealed the importance of characterizing the communication needs of shore anglers and anglers who share their catch with sensitive subpopulations (e.g., women and children for the creation of more targeted communications of fish consumption advisories.

  3. Flood Risk, Flood Mitigation, and Location Choice: Evaluating the National Flood Insurance Program's Community Rating System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qin; Davlasheridze, Meri

    2016-06-01

    Climate change is expected to worsen the negative effects of natural disasters like floods. The negative impacts, however, can be mitigated by individuals' adjustments through migration and relocation behaviors. Previous literature has identified flood risk as one significant driver in relocation decisions, but no prior study examines the effect of the National Flood Insurance Program's voluntary program-the Community Rating System (CRS)-on residential location choice. This article fills this gap and tests the hypothesis that flood risk and the CRS-creditable flood control activities affect residential location choices. We employ a two-stage sorting model to empirically estimate the effects. In the first stage, individuals' risk perception and preference heterogeneity for the CRS activities are considered, while mean effects of flood risk and the CRS activities are estimated in the second stage. We then estimate heterogeneous marginal willingness to pay (WTP) for the CRS activities by category. Results show that age, ethnicity and race, educational attainment, and prior exposure to risk explain risk perception. We find significant values for the CRS-creditable mitigation activities, which provides empirical evidence for the benefits associated with the program. The marginal WTP for an additional credit point earned for public information activities, including hazard disclosure, is found to be the highest. Results also suggest that water amenities dominate flood risk. Thus, high amenity values may increase exposure to flood risk, and flood mitigation projects should be strategized in coastal regions accordingly. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  4. Fish allergy: in review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Michael F; Lopata, Andreas L

    2014-06-01

    Globally, the rising consumption of fish and its derivatives, due to its nutritional value and divergence of international cuisines, has led to an increase in reports of adverse reactions to fish. Reactions to fish are not only mediated by the immune system causing allergies, but are often caused by various toxins and parasites including ciguatera and Anisakis. Allergic reactions to fish can be serious and life threatening and children usually do not outgrow this type of food allergy. The route of exposure is not only restricted to ingestion but include manual handling and inhalation of cooking vapors in the domestic and occupational environment. Prevalence rates of self-reported fish allergy range from 0.2 to 2.29 % in the general population, but can reach up to 8 % among fish processing workers. Fish allergy seems to vary with geographical eating habits, type of fish processing, and fish species exposure. The major fish allergen characterized is parvalbumin in addition to several less well-known allergens. This contemporary review discusses interesting and new findings in the area of fish allergy including demographics, novel allergens identified, immunological mechanisms of sensitization, and innovative approaches in diagnosing and managing this life-long disease.

  5. Fracture risk assessed by Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) compared with fracture risk derived from population fracture rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, Katrine Hass; Abrahamsen, Bo; Hermann, Anne Pernille

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the performance of the Swedish version of Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX)) without bone mass density (BMD) in a Danish population to examine the possibility of applying this version to Danish women. METHODS: From the Danish National Register of social security numbers, we...

  6. Encounter rates and swimming behavior of pause-travel and cruise larval fish predators in calm and turbulent laboratory environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Kiørboe, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    measure of prey encounter rate in unsatiated larvae) were significantly higher in turbulent than in calm water at low food abundances for two size groups of cod. The difference in cod attack position rate between calm and turbulent water was much less when prey was more abundant. Attack position rates...... of herring larvae were higher in turbulent water than in calm water, but the difference was not significant. Interspecific differences in swimming and pausing behavior were related to differences in prey search strategy used by the two species (cod: pause-travel; herring: cruise). We used a newly developed...... search model for pause-travel predators in calm and turbulent environments to compare encounter rates for predators using cruise and pause-travel search strategies. Encounter rates for cod and herring larvae, estimated with respective search models, were similar in calm and low turbulence water; at high...

  7. Binary Tree Pricing to Convertible Bonds with Credit Risk under Stochastic Interest Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbo Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The convertible bonds usually have multiple additional provisions that make their pricing problem more difficult than straight bonds and options. This paper uses the binary tree method to model the finance market. As the underlying stock prices and the interest rates are important to the convertible bonds, we describe their dynamic processes by different binary tree. Moreover, we consider the influence of the credit risks on the convertible bonds that is described by the default rate and the recovery rate; then the two-factor binary tree model involving the credit risk is established. On the basis of the theoretical analysis, we make numerical simulation and get the pricing results when the stock prices are CRR model and the interest rates follow the constant volatility and the time-varying volatility, respectively. This model can be extended to other financial derivative instruments.

  8. Benchmarking Discount Rate in Natural Resource Damage Assessment with Risk Aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Desheng; Chen, Shuzhen

    2017-08-01

    Benchmarking a credible discount rate is of crucial importance in natural resource damage assessment (NRDA) and restoration evaluation. This article integrates a holistic framework of NRDA with prevailing low discount rate theory, and proposes a discount rate benchmarking decision support system based on service-specific risk aversion. The proposed approach has the flexibility of choosing appropriate discount rates for gauging long-term services, as opposed to decisions based simply on duration. It improves injury identification in NRDA since potential damages and side-effects to ecosystem services are revealed within the service-specific framework. A real embankment case study demonstrates valid implementation of the method. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  9. A protocol for adult somatic cell nuclear transfer in medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) with a high rate of viable clone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenshchikova, Ekaterina; Kaftanovskaya, Elena; Adachi, Tomoko; Hashimoto, Hisashi; Kinoshita, Masato; Wakamatsu, Yuko

    2013-12-01

    Previously, we successfully generated fully grown, cloned medaka (the Japanese rice fish, Oryzias latipes) using donor nuclei from primary culture cells of adult caudal fin tissue and nonenucleated recipient eggs that were heat shock-treated to induce diploidization of the nuclei. However, the mechanism of clone formation using this method is unknown, and the rate of adult clone formation is not high enough for studies in basic and applied sciences. To gain insight into the mechanism and increase the success rate of this method of clone formation, we tested two distinct nuclear transfer protocols. In one protocol, the timing of transfer of donor nuclei was changed, and in the other, the size of the donor cells was changed; each protocol was based on our original methodology. Ultimately, we obtained an unexpectedly high rate of adult clone formation using the protocol that differed with respect to the timing of donor nuclei transfer. Specifically, 17% of the transplants that developed to the blastula stage ultimately developed into adult clones. The success rate with this method was 13 times higher than that obtained using the original method. Analyses focusing on the reasons for this high success rate of clone formation will help to elucidate the mechanism of clone formation that occurs with this method.

  10. Radiation dose and risk to recreational fishermen from ingestion of fish caught near eight oil platforms in the Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinhold, A.F.; Holtzman, S.

    1998-06-01

    Offshore production of oil and gas is accompanied by a saline wastewater, called produced water. Produced water discharges to the Gulf of Mexico often contain elevated concentrations of radionuclides that occur naturally in the geologic reservoir along with the oil and gas. These radionuclides may accumulate in organisms that live near offshore oil and gas structures. Because recreational fishing in the Gulf of Mexico is concentrated near oil and gas platforms, there is the potential for increased risks to recreational fishermen from the ingestion of radionuclides in fish caught near produced water discharges. This analysis investigated the potential risk to recreational fishermen from radium and lead-210 in offshore produced water discharged to the Gulf of Mexico.

  11. Radiation dose and risk to recreational fishermen from ingestion of fish caught near eight oil platforms in the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinhold, A.F.; Holtzman, S.

    1998-06-01

    Offshore production of oil and gas is accompanied by a saline wastewater, called produced water. Produced water discharges to the Gulf of Mexico often contain elevated concentrations of radionuclides that occur naturally in the geologic reservoir along with the oil and gas. These radionuclides may accumulate in organisms that live near offshore oil and gas structures. Because recreational fishing in the Gulf of Mexico is concentrated near oil and gas platforms, there is the potential for increased risks to recreational fishermen from the ingestion of radionuclides in fish caught near produced water discharges. This analysis investigated the potential risk to recreational fishermen from radium and lead-210 in offshore produced water discharged to the Gulf of Mexico

  12. Risk Factors Influencing Conception Rate in Holstein Heifers before Artificial Insemination or Embryo Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    M. Yusuf; T. Nakao; S. T. Long; S. Fujita

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to show the risk factors affecting the conception rate in Holstein heifers after synchronization of estrus. A total of 275 Holstein heifers housed in a free barn were used for the experiment. The herd was visited regularly at four week intervals for synchronization of estrus using Heatsynch and CIDR-Heatsynch protocols. A group of four to 14 animals, depending on the availability, were referred to the experiment at each visit. Estrus induction rates in the two ...

  13. Risk analysis of radioactive waste repository based on the time dependent hazard rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, S.H.; Cho, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    For the probabilistic risk analysis of the radioactive high level waste repository, the simplified method based on the time dependent hazard rate is proposed. The obtained results are compared with those from the time independent hazard rate. The estimation of the failure probability of the waste repository through this method gives more conservative results, especially when the half-life of nuclide is larger and retardation factors of nuclide is smaller. (Auth.)

  14. A NEW LOOK AT THE TRADE VOLUME EFFECTS OF REAL EXCHANGE RATE RISK

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Kai-Li; Barrett, Christopher B.

    2002-01-01

    This paper takes a new empirical look at the longstanding question of the effect of exchange rate volatility on international trade flows by studying the case of Taiwan's exports to the United States from 1989-1998. In particular, we employ sectoral level, monthly data and a multivariate GARCH-M estimator with corrections for leptokurtic errors that is consistent with the core hypothesis that traders' forward contracting behavior might be affected by exchange rate risk. We find that real exch...

  15. Direct risk standardisation: a new method for comparing casemix adjusted event rates using complex models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholl, Jon; Jacques, Richard M; Campbell, Michael J

    2013-10-29

    Comparison of outcomes between populations or centres may be confounded by any casemix differences and standardisation is carried out to avoid this. However, when the casemix adjustment models are large and complex, direct standardisation has been described as "practically impossible", and indirect standardisation may lead to unfair comparisons. We propose a new method of directly standardising for risk rather than standardising for casemix which overcomes these problems. Using a casemix model which is the same model as would be used in indirect standardisation, the risk in individuals is estimated. Risk categories are defined, and event rates in each category for each centre to be compared are calculated. A weighted sum of the risk category specific event rates is then calculated. We have illustrated this method using data on 6 million admissions to 146 hospitals in England in 2007/8 and an existing model with over 5000 casemix combinations, and a second dataset of 18,668 adult emergency admissions to 9 centres in the UK and overseas and a published model with over 20,000 casemix combinations and a continuous covariate. Substantial differences between conventional directly casemix standardised rates and rates from direct risk standardisation (DRS) were found. Results based on DRS were very similar to Standardised Mortality Ratios (SMRs) obtained from indirect standardisation, with similar standard errors. Direct risk standardisation using our proposed method is as straightforward as using conventional direct or indirect standardisation, always enables fair comparisons of performance to be made, can use continuous casemix covariates, and was found in our examples to have similar standard errors to the SMR. It should be preferred when there is a risk that conventional direct or indirect standardisation will lead to unfair comparisons.

  16. Assessing the viability of the Species at Risk Act in managing commercial exploitation and recovery of threatened and endangered marine fish in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Druce, Courtney Danielle

    2012-01-01

    Commercially exploited threatened or endangered marine fish are consistently declined for listing under Canada’s Species at Risk Act (SARA), largely due to predicted socio-economic impacts associated with SARA’s prohibitions. However, commercial exploitation can be exempted from SARA’s general prohibitions. If exemptions were utilized, commercially exploited species could benefit from other aspects of SARA listing, and support continued economic opportunities for fishers. I conducted a litera...

  17. Rate and Risk Factors for Periprosthetic Joint Infection Among 36,494 Primary Total Hip Arthroplasties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafyllopoulos, Georgios K; Soranoglou, Vasileios G; Memtsoudis, Stavros G; Sculco, Thomas P; Poultsides, Lazaros A

    2018-04-01

    As periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs) can have tremendous health and socioeconomic implications, recognizing patients at risk before surgery is of great importance. Therefore, we sought to determine the rate of and risk factors for deep PJI in patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty (THA). Clinical characteristics of patients treated with primary THA between January 1999 and December 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. These included patient demographics, comorbidities (including the Charlson/Deyo comorbidity index), length of stay, primary diagnosis, total/allogeneic transfusion rate, and in-hospital complications, which were grouped into local and systemic (minor and major). We determined the overall deep PJI rate, as well as the rates for early-onset (occurring within 2 years after index surgery) and late-onset PJI (occurring more than 2 years after surgery). A Cox proportional hazards regression model was constructed to identify risk factors for developing deep PJI. Significance level was set at 0.05. A deep PJI developed in 154 of 36,494 primary THAs (0.4%) during the study period. Early onset PJI was found in 122 patients (0.3%), whereas late PJI occurred in 32 patients (0.1%). Obesity, coronary artery disease, and pulmonary hypertension were identified as independent risk factors for deep PJI after primary THA. The rate of deep PJIs of the hip is relatively low, with the majority occurring within 2 years after THA. If the optimization of modifiable risk factors before THA can reduce the rate of this complication remains unknown, but should be attempted as part of good practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of a plant sterol, fish oil and B vitamin combination on cardiovascular risk factors in hypercholesterolemic children and adolescents: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garaiova Iveta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Assessment of cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors can predict clinical manifestations of atherosclerosis in adulthood. In this pilot study with hypercholesterolemic children and adolescents, we investigated the effects of a combination of plant sterols, fish oil and B vitamins on the levels of four independent risk factors for CVD; LDL-cholesterol, triacylglycerols, C-reactive protein and homocysteine. Methods Twenty five participants (mean age 16 y, BMI 23 kg/m2 received daily for a period of 16 weeks an emulsified preparation comprising plant sterols esters (1300 mg, fish oil (providing 1000 mg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and vitamins B12 (50 μg, B6 (2.5 mg, folic acid (800 μg and coenzyme Q10 (3 mg. Atherogenic and inflammatory risk factors, plasma lipophilic vitamins, provitamins and fatty acids were measured at baseline, week 8 and 16. Results The serum total cholesterol, LDL- cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol, subfractions LDL-2, IDL-1, IDL-2 and plasma homocysteine levels were significantly reduced at the end of the intervention period (pp Conclusions Daily intake of a combination of plant sterols, fish oil and B vitamins may modulate the lipid profile of hypercholesterolemic children and adolescents. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN89549017

  19. How costly is it to ignore interest rate risk management in your 401(k) plan?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bilsen, Servaas; Boelaars, I.; Bovenberg, Lans; Mehlkopf, Roel

    This paper explicitly derives and explores optimal interest rate risk management for lifecycle investors in DC pension plans, and compares our results to the portfolio mix chosen in practice by Target-Date Fund (TDF) managers. We show that investments in long-term bonds play an important role in the

  20. Mapping at-risk-of-poverty rates, household employment, and social spending

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenbroucke, F.; Diris, R.; Cantillon, B.; Vandenbroucke, F.

    2014-01-01

    As a first step stylized facts are presented concerning at-risk-of-poverty rates for the non-elderly population, household employment (a concept introduced in this chapter) and social spending in European welfare states. The chapter provides a first exploration of a central theme of the book, which

  1. The ruin probability of a discrete time risk model under constant interest rate with heavy tails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Q.

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the ultimate ruin probability of a discrete time risk model with a positive constant interest rate. Under the assumption that the gross loss of the company within one year is subexponentially distributed, a simple asymptotic relation for the ruin probability is derived and

  2. Hostility Ratings by Parents at Risk for Child Abuse: Impact of Chronic and Temporary Schema Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farc, Maria-Magdalena; Crouch, Julie L.; Skowronski, John J.; Milner, Joel S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Two studies examined whether accessibility of hostility-related schema influenced ratings of ambiguous child pictures. Based on the social information processing model of child physical abuse (CPA), it was expected that CPA risk status would serve as a proxy for chronic accessibility of hostile schema, while priming procedures were used…

  3. The association between social networks and self-rated risk of HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study describes the social networks of secondary school students in Moshi Municipality, and their association with self-rated risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted among 300 students aged 15–24 years in 5 secondary schools in Moshi, Tanzania.

  4. Genetic loci associated with heart rate variability and their effects on cardiac disease risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolte, Ilja M; Munoz, M Loretto; Tragante, Vinicius; Amare, Azmeraw T; Jansen, Rick; Vaez, Ahmad; von der Heyde, Benedikt; Avery, Christy L; Bis, Joshua C; Dierckx, Bram; van Dongen, Jenny; Gogarten, Stephanie M; Goyette, Philippe; Hernesniemi, Jussi; Huikari, Ville; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Jaju, Deepali; Kerr, Kathleen F; Kluttig, Alexander; Krijthe, Bouwe P; Kumar, Jitender; van der Laan, Sander W; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Maihofer, Adam X; Minassian, Arpi; van der Most, Peter J; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nivard, Michel; Salvi, Erika; Stewart, James D; Thayer, Julian F; Verweij, Niek; Wong, Andrew; Zabaneh, Delilah; Zafarmand, Mohammad H; Abdellaoui, Abdel; Albarwani, Sulayma; Albert, Christine; Alonso, Alvaro; Ashar, Foram; Auvinen, Juha; Axelsson, Tomas; Baker, Dewleen G; de Bakker, Paul I W; Barcella, Matteo; Bayoumi, Riad; Bieringa, Rob J; Boomsma, Dorret; Boucher, Gabrielle; Britton, Annie R; Christophersen, Ingrid; Dietrich, Andrea; Ehret, George B; Ellinor, Patrick T; Eskola, Markku; Felix, Janine F; Floras, John S; Franco, Oscar H; Friberg, Peter; Gademan, Maaike G J; Geyer, Mark A; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Hartman, Catharina A; Hemerich, Daiane; Hofman, Albert; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Huikuri, Heikki; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Jouven, Xavier; Junttila, Juhani; Juonala, Markus; Kiviniemi, Antti M; Kors, Jan A.; Kumari, Meena; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Laurie, Cathy C; Lefrandt, Joop D.; Li, Yong; Li, Yun; Liao, Duanping; Limacher, Marian C; Lin, Henry J; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Lubitz, Steven A; Mahajan, Anubha; McKnight, Barbara; Zu Schwabedissen, Henriette Meyer; Milaneschi, Yuri; Mononen, Nina; Morris, Andrew P; Nalls, Mike A; Navis, Gerjan; Neijts, Melanie; Nikus, Kjell; North, Kari E; O'Connor, Daniel T; Ormel, Johan; Perz, Siegfried; Peters, Annette; Psaty, Bruce M; Raitakari, Olli T; Risbrough, Victoria B; Sinner, Moritz F; Siscovick, David; Smit, Johannes H; Smith, Nicholas L; Soliman, Elsayed Z; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Staessen, Jan A; Stein, Phyllis K; Stilp, Adrienne M; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Strauch, Konstantin; Sundström, Johan; Swenne, Cees A.; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Taylor, Kent D; Teumer, Alexander; Thornton, Timothy A; Tinker, Lesley E; Uitterlinden, André G; van Setten, Jessica; Voss, Andreas; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wilhelmsen, Kirk C; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wong, Quenna; Zhang, Zhu-Ming; Zonderman, Alan B; Cusi, Daniele; Evans, Michele K; Greiser, Halina K; van der Harst, Pim; Hassan, Mohammad; Ingelsson, Erik; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kääb, Stefan; Kähönen, Mika; Kivimaki, Mika; Kooperberg, Charles; Kuh, Diana; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lind, Lars; Nievergelt, Caroline M; O'Donnell, Chris J; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Penninx, Brenda; Reiner, Alexander P; Riese, Harriëtte; Van Roon, Arie M.; Rioux, John D; Rotter, Jerome I; Sofer, Tamar; Stricker, Bruno H; Tiemeier, Henning; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Brundel, Bianca J J M; Heckbert, Susan R; Whitsel, Eric A; den Hoed, Marcel; Snieder, Harold; de Geus, Eco J C

    2017-01-01

    Reduced cardiac vagal control reflected in low heart rate variability (HRV) is associated with greater risks for cardiac morbidity and mortality. In two-stage meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies for three HRV traits in up to 53,174 individuals of European ancestry, we detect 17

  5. estimated glomerular filtration rate and risk of survival in acute stroke

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-03

    Mar 3, 2014 ... ESTIMATED GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE AND RISK OF SURVIVAL IN ACUTE STROKE. E. I. Okaka, MBBS, FWACP, F. A. Imarhiagbe, MBChB, FMCP, F. E. Odiase, MBBS, FMCP, O. C. A. Okoye, MBBS, FWACP,. Department of Medicine, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria.

  6. 1988 failure rate screening data for fusion reliability and risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, L.C.; Piet, S.J.

    1988-01-01

    This document contains failure rate screening data for application to fusion components. The screening values are generally fission or aerospace industry failure rate estimates that can be extrapolated for use by fusion system designers, reliability engineers and risk analysts. Failure rate estimates for tritium-bearing systems, liquid metal-cooled systems, gas-cooled systems, water-cooled systems and containment systems are given. Preliminary system availability estimates and selected initiating event frequency estimates are presented. This first edition document is valuable to design and safety analysis for the Compact Ignition Tokamak and the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. 20 refs., 28 tabs

  7. Trends in state-level freight accident rates: An enhancement of risk factor development for RADTRAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saricks, C.; Kvitek, T.

    1991-01-01

    Under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, the Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is concerned with understanding and managing risk as it applies to the shipment of spent commercial nuclear reactor fuel. Understanding risk in relation to mode and geography may provide opportunities to minimize radiological and non-radiological risks of transportation. To enhance such an understanding, a set of state-or waterway-specific accident, fatality, and injury rates (expressed as rates per shipment kilometer) by transportation mode and highway administrative class was developed, using publicly-available data bases. Adjustments made to accommodate miscoded or incomplete information in accident data are described, as well as the procedures for estimating state-level flow data. Results indicate that the shipping conditions under which spent fuel is likely to be transported should be less subject to accidents than the ''average'' shipment within mode. 10 refs., 3 tabs

  8. Risk-free assets: Are they truly risk-free? A comparative study of South African rates and instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oosthuizen, A.V.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Determining the price of a financial instrument is something that happens every day in the financial markets. Every price starts off with a spot price adjusted for interest until maturity of the particular instrument. The interest is usually described as risk-free interest. The price so determined is the most basic price that an investor is willing to pay if not risk is involved. Risk-free assets, then, are securities of which the future rates of return are known with certainty. An exceptional degree of confidence in the issuer of the security brings about this certainty. Risk-free assets are normally in the fixed income securities (capital markets investment category or in the liquid money market instruments such as treasury bills, category. This study attempts to determine whether the risk-free rates used by treasury managers and traders in South Africa to formulate their bond yield curves and which are used in valuation models, may be deemed risk-free. The study specifies certain criteria that an asset must satisfy in order to be used as a risk-free asset. Short term and long term South African instruments are compared to the US counterpart instruments, to gain an understanding of the South African instruments relative to the US ones. The behaviour of the risk-free instruments used in South Africa is also compared to the FTSE/JSE All Share Index and gold spot prices, which are perceived to be a risky asset classes. To gain some understanding of the behaviour of these instruments, analyses were done from different angles. The standard deviations of the daily percentage changes of the R157 were significantly lower than that of the ALSI and the gold spot price change. Compared to the ALSI and gold spot price, therefore, the R157 may be deemed a “low risk” instrument. The JIBAR was even less volatile that the R157. Interestingly, the US instruments were substantially more risky than the SA instruments over the analysis period. Also the JIBAR

  9. Suicide rates and risk factors among Korean cancer patients, 1993-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Eunmi; Shin, Dong Wook; Cho, Sung-Il; Park, Sohee; Won, Young-Joo; Yun, Young Ho

    2010-08-01

    As the number of cancer survivors increases, suicide risk approaches that of the general population. We therefore investigated suicide rates and risk factors among Korean cancer patients. We observed 816,295 cancer patients for 3,007,294 person-years from 1993 to 2005 through a nationwide cancer registry. We calculated their sex- and age-standardized mortality ratios (SMR) and studied suicide risk factors using rate ratios (RR) based on a log-linear Poisson regression model. Compared with the Korean general population, the suicide rate among cancer patients was high [SMR, 2.00; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.91-2.08]. The rates were highest in the year following the cancer diagnosis (SMR, 3.45; 95% CI, 3.19-3.73) and were still elevated 5 years later (SMR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.12-1.36). The clinical groups at highest risk were male pancreas cancer patients (SMR, 6.01; 95% CI, 4.33-8.33) and female lung cancer patients (SMR, 3.55; 95% CI, 2.55-4.94). The sociodemographic groups at highest risk were those who had no spouse versus those who were married (RR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.35-1.68), those who were not employed versus those who were (RR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.26-1.54), and those who did not have high school education versus those who had (RR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.30-1.79). Korean cancer patients are at increased risk of suicide. Both clinical and sociodemographic factors play a role. There is a need for social support and suicide prevention strategies for cancer survivors in Korea. (c)2010 AACR.

  10. Risk Factors Influencing Conception Rate in Holstein Heifers before Artificial Insemination or Embryo Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yusuf

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to show the risk factors affecting the conception rate in Holstein heifers after synchronization of estrus. A total of 275 Holstein heifers housed in a free barn were used for the experiment. The herd was visited regularly at four week intervals for synchronization of estrus using Heatsynch and CIDR-Heatsynch protocols. A group of four to 14 animals, depending on the availability, were referred to the experiment at each visit. Estrus induction rates in the two protocols were 93.9% and 94.9%, respectively. There was no difference in the conception rate between the two protocols. Conception rate after artificial insemination (AI or embryo transfer (ET were 46.3% and 51.4%, respectively. The risk factors affecting conception rate in heifers were daily weight gain (odds ratio [OR]= 4.673; P= 0.036 and body condition score (BCS (OR= 3.642; P= 0.018. Furthermore, estrus synchronization protocol (OR= 1.774; P= 0.083 and the absence of corpus luteum (CL at the initiation of treatment (OR= 0.512; P= 0.061 had a tendency to affect the conception rate, while age (OR= 0.715; P= 0.008 was a protective factor to conception rate.  In conclusion, positive daily weight gain before AI or ET, higher BCS, younger age, and the presence of CL at the initiation of estrus synchronization in dairy heifers increased the likelihood to conceive.

  11. Rates and risk factors of injury in CrossFitTM: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Sebastian; Booker, Harry; Staines, Jacob; Williams, Sean

    2017-09-01

    CrossFitTM is a strength and conditioning program that has gained widespread popularity since its inception approximately 15 years ago. However, at present little is known about the level of injury risk associated with this form of training. Movement competency, assessed using the Functional Movement ScreenTM (FMS), has been identified as a risk factor for injury in numerous athletic populations, but its role in CrossFit participants is currently unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of injury risk associated with CrossFit training, and examine the influence of a number of potential risk factors (including movement competency). A cohort of 117 CrossFit participants were followed prospectively for 12 weeks. Participants' characteristics, previous injury history and training experience were recorded at baseline, and an FMS assessment was conducted. The overall injury incidence rate was 2.10 per 1000 training hours (90% confidence limits: 1.32-3.33). A multivariate Poisson regression model identified males (rate ratio [RR]: 4.44 ×/÷ 3.30, very likely harmful) and those with previous injuries (RR: 2.35 ×/÷ 2.37, likely harmful) as having a higher injury risk. Inferences relating to FMS variables were unclear in the multivariate model, although number of asymmetries was a clear risk factor in a univariate model (RR per two additional asymmetries: 2.62 ×/÷ 1.53, likely harmful). The injury incidence rate associated with CrossFit training was low, and comparable to other forms of recreational fitness activities. Previous injury and gender were identified as risk factors for injury, whilst the role of movement competency in this setting warrants further investigation.

  12. Persistence of organochlorine chemical residues in fish from the Tombigbee River (Alabama, USA): Continuing risk to wildlife from a former DDT manufacturing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Norstrom, Ross J.; Orazio, Carl E.; Schmitt, Christopher J.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2009-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticide and total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were measured in largemouth bass from the Tombigbee River near a former DDT manufacturing facility at McIntosh, Alabama. Evaluation of mean p,p'- and o,p'-DDT isomer concentrations and o,p'- versus p,p'-isomer proportions in McIntosh bass indicated that DDT is moving off site from the facility and into the Tombigbee River. Concentrations of p,p'-DDT isomers in McIntosh bass remained unchanged from 1974 to 2004 and were four times greater than contemporary concentrations from a national program. Total DDT in McIntosh bass exceeded dietary effect concentrations developed for bald eagle and osprey. Hexachlorobenzene, PCBs, and toxaphene concentrations in bass from McIntosh also exceeded thresholds to protect fish and piscivorous wildlife. Whereas concentrations of DDT and most other organochlorine chemicals in fish have generally declined in the U.S. since their ban, concentrations of DDT in fish from McIntosh remain elevated and represent a threat to wildlife. - DDT persists in the environment near a former manufacturing facility that ceased production over 40 years ago, and concentrations represent a risk to fish and piscivorous birds in the area

  13. Assessing the distribution, origins, and ecological risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the habitat of Medaka fish at Keramat Kebo River and Estuary, Tangerang, Banten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falahudin, D.; Yogaswara, D.; Khozanah; Edward

    2018-02-01

    Indonesia has a variety of coastal systems such as coral reef, mangrove, seagrass, mudflat, and dune, each of which has high biodiversity of species. The primary concern in Indonesia is that rapid economic growth would endanger some essential natural ecosystems and resources, and cause deterioration of environmental condition. As a part of bioindicator development to recognize pollutants with small fish of the genus Oryzias, this study was conducted to assess baseline status of PAHs distribution and sources in seawater, sediments and Oryzias fish. The ecological risk of PAHs in sediments was also evaluated. Concentrations of fifteen USEPA PAH based on GCMS analysis in seawater, sediments, and Oryzias fish vary from 0.00 to 30,600 ng/l, 6.7 to 138.6 ng/g dry weight (dw) and 25.2 to 30.5 ng/g dw, respectively. Based on the diagnostic ratio of PAH compounds, the potential sources of PAHs originated mainly from pyrogenic sources. The status of sediment from this Oryzias fish habitat was considered to be low polluted with PAHs.

  14. Analysis of potential risks from the bacterial communities associated with air-contact surfaces from tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fish farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande Burgos, Maria Jose; Romero, Jose Luis; Pérez Pulido, Rubén; Cobo Molinos, Antonio; Gálvez, Antonio; Lucas, Rosario

    2018-01-01

    Tilapia farming is a promising growing sector in aquaculture. Yet, there are limited studies on microbiological risks associated to tilapia farms. The aim of the present study was to analyse the bacterial communities from solid surfaces in contact with air in a tilapia farm in order to evaluate the presence of bacteria potentially toxinogenic or pathogenic to humans or animals. Samples from a local tilapia farm (tank wall, aerator, water outlets, sink and floor) were analyzed by high throughput sequencing technology. Sequences were assigned to operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Proteobacteria was the main phylum represented in most samples (except for one). Cyanobacteria were a relevant phylum in the inner wall from the fattening tank and the wet floor by the pre-fattening tank. Bacteroidetes were the second phylum in relative abundance for samples from the larval rearing tank and the pre-fattening tank and one sample from the fattening tank. Fusobacteria showed highest relative abundances in samples from the larval rearing tank and pre-fattening tank. Other phyla (Verrucomicrobia, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Planktomycetes, Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Chlorobi, Gemmatiomonadetes or Fibrobacters) had lower relative abundances. A large fraction of the reads (ranging from 43.67% to 72.25%) were assigned to uncultured bacteria. Genus Acinetobacter (mainly A. calcoaceticus/baumanni) was the predominant OTU in the aerator of the fattening tank and also in the nearby sink on the floor. The genera Cetobacterium and Bacteroides showed highest relative abundances in the samples from the larval rearing tank and the pre-fattening tank. Genera including fish pathogens (Fusobacterium, Aeromonas) were only detected at low relative abundances. Potential human pathogens other than Acinetobacter were either not detected or had very low relative abundances (Acinetobacter and potential cyanotoxin-producing cyanobacteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Injury rate and incidence of accidents with biological risk among infirmary students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Martín, A; Novalbos Ruiz, J P; Costa Alonso, M J; Zafra Mezcua, J A

    2000-09-09

    A study of the incidence and characteristics of biological accidents among infirmary students during their practicals at the hospital. A retrospective study carried out at five centres by means of two questionnaires, one on the duration of the training and the rate of accidents and the other on the characteristics, precautions and ports exposure behaviour. Out of 397 students, 70,5% had accidents at a rate of 64% (CI 95%, 59-68). Of these, 15% were accidents with biological risk, the majority being jabs (39%) and splashes (32,5%). It is worth note that 49,2% occurred while putting away the material and 58% in the absence of any individual protective measures. One out of 8 accidents implied a biological risk. A very high rate of accidents was observed with important deficiencies in security.

  16. Assessment of heavy metals and estimation of human health risk in Tilapia fish from Naik lake of Nagpur, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Giripunje, M.D.; Fulke, A.B.; Meshram, P.U.

    /g dw respectively. These levels were above the maximum permissible limits of Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)/World Health Organisation (WHO). The results confirmed that tilapia fish from Naik lake are not safe for human consumption. Further...

  17. Probabilistic risk assessment of the exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers via fish and seafood consumption in the Region of Valencia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Olga; Beser, Maria Isabel; Yusà, Vicent

    2014-06-01

    The study was carried out to estimate the dietary intake of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the Region of Valencia (Spain) in order to evaluate the resultant risk. The PBDE levels in fish and seafood (a total of 206 samples) were determined. Dietary intake was estimated using results of PBDE analyses in fish and seafood marketed in the Region of Valencia over the period 2007-2012 and data of the first Valencian Food Consumption Survey, conducted in 2010. Two scenarios were assumed for left-censored results: the lower-bound (LB) scenario, in which unquantified results (below the limit of quantification (LOQ)) were set to zero and the upper-bound (UB) scenario, in which unquantified results were set to the LOQ and two approaches (deterministic and probabilistic) were compared. The mean PBDE concentration in fish and seafood from Valencian markets was between 0.97 and 3.87 ngg(-1) w.w. and was similar to that reported recently by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Among the analysed congeners, BDE-47 showed the highest levels and salmon, mackerel and swordfish were the most contaminated species. The average estimated daily intake of the sum of PBDEs (upper bound scenario; probabilistic approach) for adults and children were 0.137 ngkg(-1) body weight (b.w.) day and 0.180 ngkgb.w.(-1)d(-1), respectively. In relation to risk analysis, calculated margins of exposure (MOEs) for the BDE-47, -99 and -153 congeners for children and do not indicate a health concern with respect to current dietary exposure in the Valencian Region and only 0.05% of the adult population and a 0.1% of children could be in risk derived by BDE-99 intake through fish. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Rates of adult acute inpatients documented as at risk of refeeding syndrome by dietitians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owers, Emma L; Reeves, Anneli I; Ko, Susan Y; Ellis, Aleshia K; Huxtable, Shannon L; Noble, Sally A; Porteous, Helen E; Newman, Eli J; Josephson, Christine A; Roth, Rachel A; Byrne, Clare E; Palmer, Michelle A

    2015-02-01

    Identification of Refeeding Syndrome (RFS) is vital for prevention and treatment of metabolic disturbances, yet no information exists that describes identification rates by dietitians in acute care. We aimed to describe rates and demographics of inpatients identified by dietitians as at-risk of RFS and factors associated with electrolyte levels post-dietetic assessment. Eligible participants were adult (≥ 18 yrs) acute care inpatients reviewed by dietitians between March 2012-February 2013 and not admitted to intensive care prior to first dietetic assessment. Patient information was sourced from medical charts. Chi-squared, t-tests and linear regression analyses were conducted. Of 1661 eligible inpatients (55%F, 65 ± 18 yrs), 9% (n = 151) were documented as at-risk of RFS in the first dietetic medical chart entry. On average, patients identified with RFS-risk had four days greater hospital stay, were 13 kg lighter, more likely classified SGA C (36% vs. 7%), and on a modified diet (52% vs. 35%) than non-RFS patients (p < 0.05). Very low and low electrolyte values occurred within seven days post-dietetic assessment in 7% and 52%, respectively, of inpatients with RFS-risk. Regression analysis showed that electrolyte supplementation was positively associated (β = 0.145-0.594), and number of RFS-related risk factors negatively associated (β = -0.044-0.122), with potassium, magnesium and phosphate levels within seven days post-dietetic assessment (p < 0.05). Nine percent of adult inpatients were documented as at-risk of RFS by dietitians. Identification of at-risk patients was in accordance with RFS guidelines. Electrolyte supplementation was positively associated with electrolyte levels post-assessment. Consistency of RFS-risk identification between dietitians requires determination. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Withdrawal rates as a consequence of disclosure of risk associated with manipulation of the cervical spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forrest Lianne

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The risk associated with cervical manipulation is controversial. Research in this area is widely variable but as yet the risk is not easily quantifiable. This presents a problem when informing the patient of risks when seeking consent and information may be withheld due to the fear of patient withdrawal from care. As yet, there is a lack of research into the frequency of risk disclosure and consequent withdrawal from manipulative treatment as a result. This study seeks to investigate the reality of this and to obtain insight into the attitudes of chiropractors towards informed consent and disclosure. Methods Questionnaires were posted to 200 UK chiropractors randomly selected from the register of the General Chiropractic Council. Results A response rate of 46% (n = 92 was achieved. Thirty-three per cent (n = 30 respondents were female and the mean number of years in practice was 10. Eighty-eight per cent considered explanation of the risks associated with any recommended treatment important when obtaining informed consent. However, only 45% indicated they always discuss this with patients in need of cervical manipulation. When asked whether they believed discussing the possibility of a serious adverse reaction to cervical manipulation could increase patient anxiety to the extent there was a strong possibility the patient would refuse treatment, 46% said they believed this could happen. Nonetheless, 80% said they believed they had a moral/ethical obligation to disclose risk associated with cervical manipulation despite these concerns. The estimated number of withdrawals throughout respondents' time in practice was estimated at 1 patient withdrawal for every 2 years in practice. Conclusion The withdrawal rate from cervical manipulation as a direct consequence of the disclosure of associated serious risks appears unfounded. However, notwithstanding legal obligations, reluctance to disclose risk due to fear of increasing patient

  20. Clearance rates of jellyfish and their potential predation impact on zooplankton and fish larvae in a neritic ecosystem (Limfjorden, Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, L. J.; Moeslund, O.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    clearance potential were given assumed clearance rate values, but the collective predation potential by these species was evaluated to be small. Hydromedusae dominated numerically and had their highest potential clearance impact in spring, but overall jellyfish clearance potential on copepods was low during...

  1. A Comparative Risk Assessment of Extended Integrated Leak Rate Testing Intervals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Ji Yong; Hwang, Seok Won; Lee, Byung Sik [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    This paper presents the risk impacts of extending the Integrated Leak Rate Testing (ILRT) intervals (from five years to ten years) of Yonggwang (YGN) Unit 1 and 2. These risk impacts depended on the annual variances of meteorological data and resident population. Main comparisons were performed between the initial risk assessment (2005) for the purpose of extending ILRT interval and risk reassessment (2009) where the changed plant internal configurations (core inventory and radioisotope release fraction) and plant external alterations (wind directions, rainfall and population distributions) were monitored. The reassessment showed that there was imperceptible risk increase when the ILRT interval was extended compared to the initial risk assessment. In addition, the increased value of the Large Early Release Frequency (LERF) also satisfied the acceptance guideline proposed on Reg. Guide 1.174. The MACCS II code was used for evaluating the offsite consequence analysis. The primary risk index were used as the Probabilistic Population Dose (PPD) by considering the early effects within 80 km. The Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) of YGN 1 and 2 was applied to evaluate the accident frequency of each source term category and the used PSA scope was limited to internal event.

  2. Organotin intake through fish consumption in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airaksinen, Riikka, E-mail: Riikka.Airaksinen@thl.fi [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); Rantakokko, Panu; Turunen, Anu W.; Vartiainen, Terttu [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); Vuorinen, Pekka J.; Lappalainen, Antti; Vihervuori, Aune [Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Mannio, Jaakko [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Hallikainen, Anja [Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira, Helsinki (Finland)

    2010-08-15

    Background: Organotin compounds (OTCs) are a large class of synthetic chemicals with widely varying properties. Due to their potential adverse health effects, their use has been restricted in many countries. Humans are exposed to OTCs mostly through fish consumption. Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe OTC exposure through fish consumption and to assess the associated potential health risks in a Finnish population. Methods: An extensive sampling of Finnish domestic fish was carried out in the Baltic Sea and freshwater areas in 2005-2007. In addition, samples of imported seafood were collected in 2008. The chemical analysis was performed in an accredited testing laboratory during 2005-2008. Average daily intake of the sum of dibutyltin (DBT), tributyltin (TBT), triphenyltin (TPhT) and dioctyltin (DOT) ({Sigma}OTCs) for the Finnish population was calculated on the basis of the measured concentrations and fish consumption rates. Results: The average daily intake of {Sigma}OTCs through fish consumption was 3.2 ng/kg bw day{sup -1}, which is 1.3% from the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) of 250 ng/kg bw day{sup -1} set by the European Food Safety Authority. In total, domestic wild fish accounted for 61% of the {Sigma}OTC intake, while the intake through domestic farmed fish was 4.0% and the intake through imported fish was 35%. The most important species were domestic perch and imported salmon and rainbow trout. Conclusions: The Finnish consumers are not likely to exceed the threshold level for adverse health effects due to OTC intake through fish consumption.

  3. Organotin intake through fish consumption in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airaksinen, Riikka; Rantakokko, Panu; Turunen, Anu W.; Vartiainen, Terttu; Vuorinen, Pekka J.; Lappalainen, Antti; Vihervuori, Aune; Mannio, Jaakko; Hallikainen, Anja

    2010-01-01

    Background: Organotin compounds (OTCs) are a large class of synthetic chemicals with widely varying properties. Due to their potential adverse health effects, their use has been restricted in many countries. Humans are exposed to OTCs mostly through fish consumption. Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe OTC exposure through fish consumption and to assess the associated potential health risks in a Finnish population. Methods: An extensive sampling of Finnish domestic fish was carried out in the Baltic Sea and freshwater areas in 2005-2007. In addition, samples of imported seafood were collected in 2008. The chemical analysis was performed in an accredited testing laboratory during 2005-2008. Average daily intake of the sum of dibutyltin (DBT), tributyltin (TBT), triphenyltin (TPhT) and dioctyltin (DOT) (ΣOTCs) for the Finnish population was calculated on the basis of the measured concentrations and fish consumption rates. Results: The average daily intake of ΣOTCs through fish consumption was 3.2 ng/kg bw day -1 , which is 1.3% from the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) of 250 ng/kg bw day -1 set by the European Food Safety Authority. In total, domestic wild fish accounted for 61% of the ΣOTC intake, while the intake through domestic farmed fish was 4.0% and the intake through imported fish was 35%. The most important species were domestic perch and imported salmon and rainbow trout. Conclusions: The Finnish consumers are not likely to exceed the threshold level for adverse health effects due to OTC intake through fish consumption.

  4. Sovereign ratings in the post-crisis world : an analysis of actual, shadow and relative risk ratings

    OpenAIRE

    Basu, Kaushik; De, Supriyo; Ratha, Dilip; Timmer, Hans

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the evolution of sovereign credit ratings in the wake of the global financial crisis by studying changes in actual, shadow, and relative ratings between 2008 and 2012. For countries that do not have a rating from the major rating agencies, shadow ratings are estimated as a function of macroeconomic, structural, and governance variables. The shadow rating exercise confir...

  5. Association Between NCAP Ratings and Real-World Rear Seat Occupant Risk of Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Kristina B; Gruschow, Siobhan; Durbin, Dennis R; Curry, Allison E

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have evaluated the correlation between U.S. or Euro New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) ratings and injury risk to front seat occupants, in particular driver injuries. Conversely, little is known about whether NCAP 5-star ratings predict real-world risk of injury to restrained rear seat occupants. The NHTSA has identified rear seat occupant protection as a specific area under consideration for improvements to its NCAP. In order to inform NHTSA's efforts, we examined how NCAP's current 5-star rating system predicts risk of moderate or greater injury among restrained rear seat occupants in real-world crashes. We identified crash-involved vehicles, model year 2004-2013, in NASS-CDS (2003-2012) with known make and model and nonmissing occupant information. We manually matched these vehicles to their NCAP star ratings using data on make, model, model year, body type, and other identifying information. The resultant linked NASS-CDS and NCAP database was analyzed to examine associations between vehicle ratings and rear seat occupant injury risk; risk to front seat occupants was also estimated for comparison. Data were limited to restrained occupants and occupant injuries were defined as any injury with a maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score of 2 or greater. We linked 95% of vehicles in NASS-CDS to a specific vehicle in NCAP. The 18,218 vehicles represented an estimated 6 million vehicles with over 9 million occupants. Rear seat passengers accounted for 12.4% of restrained occupants. The risk of injury in all crashes for restrained rear seat occupants was lower in vehicles with a 5-star driver rating in frontal impact tests (1.4%) than with 4 or fewer stars (2.6%, P =.015); results were similar for the frontal impact passenger rating (1.3% vs. 2.4%, P =.024). Conversely, side impact driver and passenger crash tests were not associated with rear seat occupant injury risk (driver test: 1.7% for 5-star vs. 1.8% for 1-4 stars; passenger test: 1.6% for 5

  6. Freight-train derailment rates for railroad safety and risk analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang; Rapik Saat, M; Barkan, Christopher P L

    2017-01-01

    Derailments are the most common type of train accident in the United States. They cause damage to infrastructure, rolling stock and lading, disrupt service, and have the potential to cause casualties, and harm the environment. Train safety and risk analysis relies on accurate assessment of derailment likelihood. Derailment rate - the number of derailments normalized by traffic exposure - is a useful statistic to estimate the likelihood of a derailment. Despite its importance, derailment rate analysis using multiple factors has not been previously developed. In this paper, we present an analysis of derailment rates on Class I railroad mainlines based on data from the U.S. Federal Railroad Administration and the major freight railroads. The point estimator and confidence interval of train and car derailment rates are developed by FRA track class, method of operation and annual traffic density. The analysis shows that signaled track with higher FRA track class and higher traffic density is associated with a lower derailment rate. The new accident rates have important implications for safety and risk management decisions, such as the routing of hazardous materials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Asymmetry and Risk Premia in the Brazilian Term Structure of Interest Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Ganem

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The risk premium in the Brazilian term structure of interest rates is partially driven by some specific defensive behavior following past monetary decisions. Until 2008, the Brazilian Central Bank has primarily dealt with domestic and external crises by raising the short term rate to restrain capital outflows, generating a well-known asymmetry in the market’s response functions to risk aversion. Therefore, the traditional parameterization of risk based on mean and variance estimators fails to capture the market price of risk eventually assigned to higher order moments of bond returns across several maturities. In this paper we propose an arbitrage-free, discrete-time model that provides the form for a lagged endogenous regression which tests the significance and magnitude of the market price of asymmetry in the Brazilian fixed income market. The results are analyzed from a historical perspective, comparing the evolution of the price of asymmetry, the improvement of Brazil’s sovereign risk and the monetary policy conduction from 2003 to 2009.

  8. Fish Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Fish Allergy KidsHealth / For Parents / Fish Allergy What's in this ... Print en español Alergia al pescado About Fish Allergy A fish allergy is not exactly the same ...

  9. Exposure assessment for trace elements from consumption of marine fish in Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agusa, Tetsuro; Kunito, Takashi; Sudaryanto, Agus; Monirith, In; Kan-Atireklap, Supawat; Iwata, Hisato; Ismail, Ahmad; Sanguansin, Joompol; Muchtar, Muswerry; Tana, Touch Seang; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2007-01-01

    Concentrations of 20 trace elements were determined in muscle and liver of 34 species of marine fish collected from coastal areas of Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. Large regional difference was observed in the levels of trace elements in liver of one fish family (Carangidae): the highest mean concentration was observed in fish from the Malaysian coastal waters for V, Cr, Zn, Pb and Bi and those from the Java Sea side of Indonesia for Sn and Hg. To assess the health risk to the Southeast Asian populations from consumption of fish, intake rates of trace elements were estimated. Some marine fish showed Hg levels higher than the guideline values by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). This suggests that consumption of these fish may be hazardous to the people. -- Intake of mercury through consumption of some marine fish species might be hazardous to the people in Southeast Asia

  10. Exposure assessment for trace elements from consumption of marine fish in Southeast Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agusa, Tetsuro [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kunito, Takashi [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Shinshu University, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto 390-8621 (Japan); Sudaryanto, Agus [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Monirith, In [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kan-Atireklap, Supawat [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Iwata, Hisato [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Ismail, Ahmad [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Environmental Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Sanguansin, Joompol [Eastern Marine Fisheries Development Center, Ban Phe, Muang, Rayong 21160 (Thailand); Muchtar, Muswerry [Research and Development Center for Oceanology Indonesia Institute of Sciences, Jl. Pasir Putih 1, Ancol Timur, Jakarta 11048 (Indonesia); Tana, Touch Seang [Social and Cultural Observation Unit (OBSES), Office of the Council of Ministers, Phnom Penh (Cambodia); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)]. E-mail: shinsuke@agr.ehime-u.ac.jp

    2007-02-15

    Concentrations of 20 trace elements were determined in muscle and liver of 34 species of marine fish collected from coastal areas of Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. Large regional difference was observed in the levels of trace elements in liver of one fish family (Carangidae): the highest mean concentration was observed in fish from the Malaysian coastal waters for V, Cr, Zn, Pb and Bi and those from the Java Sea side of Indonesia for Sn and Hg. To assess the health risk to the Southeast Asian populations from consumption of fish, intake rates of trace elements were estimated. Some marine fish showed Hg levels higher than the guideline values by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). This suggests that consumption of these fish may be hazardous to the people. -- Intake of mercury through consumption of some marine fish species might be hazardous to the people in Southeast Asia.

  11. Absorbed Dose Rate Due to Intake of Natural Radionuclides by Tilapia Fish (Tilapia nilotica,Linnaeus, 1758) Estimated Near Uranium Mining at Caetité, Bahia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Wagner de S.; Kelecom, Alphonse; Py Júnior, Delcy de Azevedo

    2008-08-01

    The uranium mining at Caetité (Uranium Concentrate Unit—URA) is in its operational phase. Aiming to estimate the radiological environmental impact of the URA, a monitoring program is underway. In order to preserve the biota of the deleterious effects from radiation and to act in a pro-active way as expected from a licensing body, the present work aims to use an environmental protection methodology based on the calculation of absorbed dose rate in biota. Thus, selected target organism was the Tilapia fish (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) and the radionuclides were: uranium (U-238), thorium (Th-232), radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) and lead (Pb-210). As, in Brazil there are no radiation exposure limits adopted for biota the value proposed by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of 3.5×103 μGy y-1 has been used. The derived absorbed dose rate calculated for Tilapia was 2.51×100 μGy y-1, that is less than 0.1% of the dose limit established by DOE. The critical radionuclide was Ra-226, with 56% of the absorbed dose rate, followed by U-238 with 34% and Th-232 with 9%. This value of 0.1% of the limit allows to state that, in the operational conditions analyzed, natural radionuclides do not represent a radiological problem to biota.

  12. Absorbed dose rate due to intake of natural radionuclides by Tilapia fish (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) estimated near uranium anomaly at Santa Quiteria, Ceara, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Wagner de; Kelecom, Alphonse; Py Junior, Delcy de Azevedo

    2007-01-01

    The uranium mining at Santa Quiteria (Santa Quiteria Unit - USQ) is in its environmental licensing phase. Aiming to estimate the radiological environmental impact of the USQ, a monitoring program is underway. However, radioprotection of biota is not explicitly mentioned in Brazilian norms. In order to preserve the biota of the deleterious effects from radiation and to behave in a pro-active way as expected by licensing organs, the present work aims to use an environmental protection methodology, based on the calculation of absorbed dose rate in biota. Thus, selected biomarker was the fish tilapia (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) and the radionuclides were: uranium (U-238), thorium (Th-232), radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) and lead (Pb-210). Since there are no exposition limits for biota, in Brazil, the value proposed by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of 3.5 x 10 3 μGy/y has been used. The derived absorbed dose rate calculated for tilapia was 2.76 x 10 0 μGy/y, that is less than 0.1 % of the limit established by DOE. The critical radionuclide was U-238, with 99% of the absorbed dose rate. This value of 0.1% of the limit allows to state that in pre-operational conditions analyzed natural radionuclides do not represent a radiological problem to the biota. (author)

  13. Absorbed dose rate due to intake of natural radionuclides by Tilapia fish (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) estimated near uranium anomaly at Santa Quiteria, Ceara, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Wagner de [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil S.A. (INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Coordenacao de Protecao Radiologica. Unidade de Tratamento de Minerios], E-mail: wspereira@inb.gov.br; Kelecom, Alphonse [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencia Ambiental; Py Junior, Delcy de Azevedo [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil S.A. (INB), Caetite, BA (Brazil). Coordenacao de Protecao Radiologica. Unidade de Concentrado de Uranio], E-mail: Delcy@inb.gov.br

    2007-07-01

    The uranium mining at Santa Quiteria (Santa Quiteria Unit - USQ) is in its environmental licensing phase. Aiming to estimate the radiological environmental impact of the USQ, a monitoring program is underway. However, radioprotection of biota is not explicitly mentioned in Brazilian norms. In order to preserve the biota of the deleterious effects from radiation and to behave in a pro-active way as expected by licensing organs, the present work aims to use an environmental protection methodology, based on the calculation of absorbed dose rate in biota. Thus, selected biomarker was the fish tilapia (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) and the radionuclides were: uranium (U-238), thorium (Th-232), radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) and lead (Pb-210). Since there are no exposition limits for biota, in Brazil, the value proposed by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of 3.5 x 10{sup 3} {mu}Gy/y has been used. The derived absorbed dose rate calculated for tilapia was 2.76 x 10{sup 0} {mu}Gy/y, that is less than 0.1 % of the limit established by DOE. The critical radionuclide was U-238, with 99% of the absorbed dose rate. This value of 0.1% of the limit allows to state that in pre-operational conditions analyzed natural radionuclides do not represent a radiological problem to the biota. (author)

  14. Absorbed Dose Rate Due to Intake of Natural Radionuclides by Tilapia Fish (Tilapia nilotica,Linnaeus, 1758) Estimated Near Uranium Mining at Caetite, Bahia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Wagner de S; Kelecom, Alphonse; Azevedo Py Junior, Delcy de

    2008-01-01

    The uranium mining at Caetite (Uranium Concentrate Unit--URA) is in its operational phase. Aiming to estimate the radiological environmental impact of the URA, a monitoring program is underway. In order to preserve the biota of the deleterious effects from radiation and to act in a pro-active way as expected from a licensing body, the present work aims to use an environmental protection methodology based on the calculation of absorbed dose rate in biota. Thus, selected target organism was the Tilapia fish (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) and the radionuclides were: uranium (U-238), thorium (Th-232), radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) and lead (Pb-210). As, in Brazil there are no radiation exposure limits adopted for biota the value proposed by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of 3.5x10 3 μGy y -1 has been used. The derived absorbed dose rate calculated for Tilapia was 2.51x10 0 μGy y -1 , that is less than 0.1% of the dose limit established by DOE. The critical radionuclide was Ra-226, with 56% of the absorbed dose rate, followed by U-238 with 34% and Th-232 with 9%. This value of 0.1% of the limit allows to state that, in the operational conditions analyzed, natural radionuclides do not represent a radiological problem to biota

  15. [Morbidity rate of obesity in children in ukraine. Overweight as noncontagious disease risk factor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Заболотна, Ірина Е

    The upsurge of prevalence rate of obesity and overweight that in the majority of cases traces back to childhood is a risk factor of the most common noncontagious diseases in adults. The aim was to analyze prevalence of obesity in children in Ukraine and to conduct the pilot study of medical condition of overweight children. Official state statistics of prevalence rate of obesity in kids and screening data of anthropometric characteristics, arterial tension levels, physical performance decrement and medical condition of children (boys - 50, girls - 90, average age - 15,1±0,1 years) was used in research. Data calculation performed by Statistica v. 6.0 software. Over the past few decades, the morbidity rate of obesity in children in Ukraine has greatly increased, especially in year class 15-17. Insufficient diagnosis of obesity in children is the consequence of the inadequacy of the existing system of preventive care and monitoring survey of decease risk factors. Children with body mass index (BMI) above normal have a risk of work decrement in 5,2 times (odds ratio, OR=5,2, CI95%: 1,7-10,6). Such children have higher risk of development of the diseases of the respiratory system (OR=8,1; CI95%: 3,9-13,6) and allergic dermatitis (OR=7,7; CI95%: 3,7-12,9). The odds ratio of arterial hypertension in such children is equal to 3,46±0,3 (95%CI: 2,0-5,9). According to prediction calculations, the situation with the increase of prevalence rate of obesity in children in Ukraine is unfavorable. The introduction of measures aimed at finding children with obesity, their registration and monitoring of patients' health with due regard to decease risk factors at the primary care level would conduce to improving prevention of obesity and prevention of alimentary diseases progression.

  16. Injury rates and injury risk factors among federal bureau of investigation new agent trainees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background A one-year prospective examination of injury rates and injury risk factors was conducted in Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) new agent training. Methods Injury incidents were obtained from medical records and injury compensation forms. Potential injury risk factors were acquired from a lifestyle questionnaire and existing data at the FBI Academy. Results A total of 426 men and 105 women participated in the project. Thirty-five percent of men and 42% of women experienced one or more injuries during training. The injury incidence rate was 2.5 and 3.2 injuries/1,000 person-days for men and women, respectively (risk ratio (women/men) = 1.3, 95% confidence interval = 0.9-1.7). The activities most commonly associated with injuries (% of total) were defensive tactics training (58%), physical fitness training (20%), physical fitness testing (5%), and firearms training (3%). Among the men, higher injury risk was associated with older age, slower 300-meter sprint time, slower 1.5-mile run time, lower total points on the physical fitness test (PFT), lower self-rated physical activity, lower frequency of aerobic exercise, a prior upper or lower limb injury, and prior foot or knee pain that limited activity. Among the women higher injury risk was associated with slower 300-meter sprint time, slower 1.5-mile run time, lower total points on the PFT, and prior back pain that limited activity. Conclusion The results of this investigation supported those of a previous retrospective investigation emphasizing that lower fitness and self-reported pain limiting activity were associated with higher injury risk among FBI new agents. PMID:22166096

  17. Association of suicide rates, gun ownership, conservatism and individual suicide risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kposowa, Augustine J

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the association of suicide rates, firearm ownership, political conservatism, religious integration at the state level, and individual suicide risk. Social structural and social learning and social integration theories were theoretical frameworks employed. It was hypothesized that higher suicide rates, higher state firearm availability, and state conservatism elevate individual suicide risk. Data were pooled from the Multiple Cause of Death Files. Multilevel logistic regression models were fitted to all deaths occurring in 2000 through 2004 by suicide. The state suicide rate significantly elevated individual suicide risk (AOR = 1.042, CI = 1.037, 1.046). Firearm availability at the state level was associated with significantly higher odds of individual suicide (AOR = 1.004, CI = 1.003, 1.006). State political conservatism elevated the odds of individual suicides (AOR = 1.005, CI = 1.003, 1.007), while church membership at the state level reduced individual odds of suicide (AOR = 0.995, CI = 0.993, 0.996). The results held even after controlling for socioeconomic and demographic variables at the individual level. It was concluded that the observed association between individual suicide odds and national suicide rates, and firearm ownership cannot be discounted. Future research ought to focus on integrating individual level data and contextual variables when testing for the impact of firearm ownership. Support was found for social learning and social integration theories.

  18. Fish oil in combination with high or low intakes of linoleic acid lowers plasma triacylglycerols but does not affect other cardiovascular risk markers in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla T.; Frøkiær, Hanne; Andersen, Anders D.

    2008-01-01

    with a high- or low-LA intake affects overall CVD risk profile. Healthy men (n = 64) were randomized to 5 mL/d fish oil capsules (FO) [mean intake 3.1 g/d (n-3) LCPUFA] or olive oil capsules (control) and to oils and spreads with either a high (S/B) or a low (R/K) LA content, resulting in a 7.3 g/d higher LA......Both (n-3) long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) and linoleic acid [LA, 18:2(n-6)] improve cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, but a high-LA intake may weaken the effect of (n-3) LCPUFA. In a controlled, double-blind, 2 x 2-factorial 8-wk intervention, we investigated whether fish oil combined......, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, P-selectin, oxidized LDL, cluster of differentiation antigen 40 ligand (CD40L), adiponectin, or fasting or postprandial BP or HR after adjustment for body weight changes. In conclusion, neither fish oil supplementation nor the LA...

  19. Can the integration of multiple biomarkers and sediment geochemistry aid solving the complexity of sediment risk assessment? A case study with a benthic fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Pedro M.; Caeiro, Sandra; Vale, Carlos; DelValls, T. Àngel; Costa, Maria H.

    2012-01-01

    Surveying toxicity of complex geochemical media as aquatic sediments often yields results that are either difficult to interpret or even contradictory to acknowledged theory. Multi-level biomarkers were investigated in a benthic fish exposed to estuarine sediments through laboratory and in situ bioassays, to evaluate their employment either in ecological risk assessment or in more mechanistic approaches to assess sediment-bound toxicity. Biomarkers reflecting lesions (such as genotoxicity or histopathology), regardless of their low or absent specificity to contaminants, are efficient in segregating exposure to contaminated from uncontaminated sediments even when classical biomarkers like CYP1A and metallothionein induction are inconclusive. Conversely, proteomics and gene transcription analyses provided information on the mechanics of toxicity and aided explaining response variation as a function of metabolic imbalance and impairment of defences against insult. In situ bioassays, although less expedite and more affected by confounding factors, produced data better correlated to overall sediment contamination. Highlights: ► Sediment-bound contaminant mixtures can yield unexpected biomarker responses in fish. ► Biomarkers reflecting lesions are sturdier predictors of pollution by mixed xenobiotics. ► Proteomics and gene transcription analyses disclosed the existence of complex patterns of response to toxicity. ► Laboratory bioassays are less impacted by noise variables but tend to lose ecological relevance. - Evaluation of multi-level biomarker responses in fish for ecological risk assessment

  20. Low-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Versus Cryotherapy in Low- and Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gestaut, Matthew M.; Cai, Wendi; Vyas, Shilpa; Patel, Belur J.; Hasan, Salman A.; MunozMaldonado, Yolanda; Deb, Niloyjyoti; Swanson, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Cryotherapy and brachytherapy are definitive local treatment options for low- to intermediate-risk prostate cancer. There are both prospective and retrospective data for brachytherapy, but the use of cryotherapy has been limited primarily to single-institution retrospective studies. Currently, no published evidence has compared low-dose-rate brachytherapy versus cryotherapy. Methods and Materials: Institutional review board approval was obtained to conduct a retrospective chart review of consecutive patients treated at our institution from 1990 to 2012. For inclusion, patients must have received a prostate cancer diagnosis and have been considered to have low- to intermediate-risk disease according to the National Comprehensive Cancer Network criteria. All patients received brachytherapy or cryotherapy treatment. Disease specifics and failure details were collected for all patients. Failure was defined as prostate-specific antigen nadir +2 ng/mL. Results: A total of 359 patients were analyzed. The groups comprised 50 low-risk cryotherapy (LRC), 92 intermediate-risk cryotherapy (IRC), 133 low-risk brachytherapy (LRB), and 84 intermediate-risk brachytherapy (IRB) patients. The median prostate-specific antigen follow-up periods were 85.6 months (LRC), 59.2 months (IRC), 74.9 months (LRB), and 59.8 months (IRB). The 5-year biochemical progression–free survival (bPFS) rate was 57.9% in the cryotherapy group versus 89.6% in the brachytherapy group (P<.0001). The 5-year bPFS rate was 70.0% (LRC), 51.4% (IRC), 89.4% (LRB), and 89.7% (IRB). The bPFS rate was significantly different between brachytherapy and cryotherapy for low- and intermediate-risk groups (P<.05). The mean nadir temperature reached for cryotherapy patients was −35°C (range, −96°C to −6°C). Cryotherapy used a median of 2 freeze-thaw cycles (range, 2-4 freeze-thaw cycles). Conclusions: Results from this study suggest that cryotherapy is inferior to brachytherapy for patients with

  1. The Credit-Risk Decision Mechanism on Fixed Loan Interest Rate with Imperfect Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, decision mechanism of credit-risk for banks is studied when the loan interest rate is fixed with asymmetry information in credit market. We give out the designs of rationing and non-rationing on credit risky decision mechanism when collateral value provided by an entrepreneur is not less than the minimum demands of the bank. It shows that under the action of the mechanism, banks could efficiently identify the risk size of the project. Finally, the condition of the project investigation of bank is given over again.

  2. Low-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Versus Cryotherapy in Low- and Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gestaut, Matthew M., E-mail: Matthew.Gestaut@BSWHealth.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Baylor Scott and White Memorial Hospital, Texas A& M University School of Medicine, Temple, Texas (United States); Cai, Wendi [Department of Biostatistics, Baylor Scott and White Health, Temple, Texas (United States); Vyas, Shilpa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Swedish Cancer Institute, Seattle, Washington (United States); Patel, Belur J. [Department of Urology, Baylor Scott and White Memorial Hospital, Texas A& M University School of Medicine, Temple, Texas (United States); Hasan, Salman A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Baylor Scott and White Memorial Hospital, Texas A& M University School of Medicine, Temple, Texas (United States); MunozMaldonado, Yolanda [Department of Biostatistics, Baylor Scott and White Health, Temple, Texas (United States); Deb, Niloyjyoti; Swanson, Gregory [Department of Radiation Oncology, Baylor Scott and White Memorial Hospital, Texas A& M University School of Medicine, Temple, Texas (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Purpose: Cryotherapy and brachytherapy are definitive local treatment options for low- to intermediate-risk prostate cancer. There are both prospective and retrospective data for brachytherapy, but the use of cryotherapy has been limited primarily to single-institution retrospective studies. Currently, no published evidence has compared low-dose-rate brachytherapy versus cryotherapy. Methods and Materials: Institutional review board approval was obtained to conduct a retrospective chart review of consecutive patients treated at our institution from 1990 to 2012. For inclusion, patients must have received a prostate cancer diagnosis and have been considered to have low- to intermediate-risk disease according to the National Comprehensive Cancer Network criteria. All patients received brachytherapy or cryotherapy treatment. Disease specifics and failure details were collected for all patients. Failure was defined as prostate-specific antigen nadir +2 ng/mL. Results: A total of 359 patients were analyzed. The groups comprised 50 low-risk cryotherapy (LRC), 92 intermediate-risk cryotherapy (IRC), 133 low-risk brachytherapy (LRB), and 84 intermediate-risk brachytherapy (IRB) patients. The median prostate-specific antigen follow-up periods were 85.6 months (LRC), 59.2 months (IRC), 74.9 months (LRB), and 59.8 months (IRB). The 5-year biochemical progression–free survival (bPFS) rate was 57.9% in the cryotherapy group versus 89.6% in the brachytherapy group (P<.0001). The 5-year bPFS rate was 70.0% (LRC), 51.4% (IRC), 89.4% (LRB), and 89.7% (IRB). The bPFS rate was significantly different between brachytherapy and cryotherapy for low- and intermediate-risk groups (P<.05). The mean nadir temperature reached for cryotherapy patients was −35°C (range, −96°C to −6°C). Cryotherapy used a median of 2 freeze-thaw cycles (range, 2-4 freeze-thaw cycles). Conclusions: Results from this study suggest that cryotherapy is inferior to brachytherapy for patients with

  3. Ischemic risk stratification by means of multivariate analysis of the heart rate variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valencia, José F; Vallverdú, Montserrat; Caminal, Pere; Porta, Alberto; Voss, Andreas; Schroeder, Rico; Vázquez, Rafael; Bayés de Luna, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    In this work, a univariate and multivariate statistical analysis of indexes derived from heart rate variability (HRV) was conducted to stratify patients with ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC) in cardiac risk groups. Indexes conditional entropy, refined multiscale entropy (RMSE), detrended fluctuation analysis, time and frequency analysis, were applied to the RR interval series (beat-to-beat series), for single and multiscale complexity analysis of the HRV in IDC patients. Also, clinical parameters were considered. Two different end-points after a follow-up of three years were considered: (i) analysis A, with 151 survivor patients as a low risk group and 13 patients that suffered sudden cardiac death as a high risk group; (ii) analysis B, with 192 survivor patients as a low risk group and 30 patients that suffered cardiac mortality as a high risk group. A univariate and multivariate linear discriminant analysis was used as a statistical technique for classifying patients in risk groups. Sensitivity (Sen) and specificity (Spe) were calculated as diagnostic criteria in order to evaluate the performance of the indexes and their linear combinations. Sen and Spe values of 80.0% and 72.9%, respectively, were obtained during daytime by combining one clinical parameter and one index from RMSE, and during nighttime Sen = 80% and Spe = 73.4% were attained by combining one clinical factor and two indexes from RMSE. In particular, relatively long time scales were more relevant for classifying patients into risk groups during nighttime, while during daytime shorter scales performed better. The results suggest that the left atrial size, indexed to body surface and RMSE indexes are those that allow enhanced classification of ischemic patients in their respective risk groups, confirming that a single measurement is not enough to fully characterize ischemic risk patients and the clinical relevance of HRV complexity measures. (paper)

  4. Contribution to the risk characterization of ciguatoxins: LOAEL estimated from eight ciguatera fish poisoning events in Guadeloupe (French West Indies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossen, Virginie; Soliño, Lucia; Leroy, Patricia; David, Eric; Velge, Pierre; Dragacci, Sylviane; Krys, Sophie; Flores Quintana, Harold; Diogène, Jorge

    2015-11-01

    From 2010 to 2012, 35 ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) events involving 87 individuals who consumed locally-caught fish were reported in Guadeloupe (French West Indies). For 12 of these events, the presence of ciguatoxins (CTXs) was indicated in meal remnants and in uncooked fish by the mouse bioassay (MBA). Caribbean ciguatoxins (C-CTXs) were confirmed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Using a cell-based assay (CBA), and the only available standard Pacific ciguatoxin-1 (P-CTX-1), the lowest toxins level detected in fish samples causing CFP was 0.022 µg P-CTX-1 equivalent (eq.)·kg(-1) fish. Epidemiological and consumption data were compiled for most of the individuals afflicted, and complete data for establishing the lowest observable adverse effects level (LOAEL) were obtained from 8 CFP events involving 21 individuals. Based on toxin intakes, the LOAEL was estimated at 4.2 ng P-CTX-1 eq./individual corresponding to 48. 4 pg P-CTX-1 eq.kg(-1) body weight (bw). Although based on limited data, these results are consistent with the conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) opinion which indicates that a level of 0.01 µg P-CTX-1 eq.kg(-1) fish, regardless of source, should not exert effects in sensitive individuals when consuming a single meal. The calculated LOAEL is also consistent with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration guidance levels for CTXs (0.1 µg C-CTX-1 eq.kg(-1) and 0.01 µg P-CTX-1 eq.kg(-1) fish). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Fish collagen is an important panallergen in the Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Y; Akiyama, H; Huge, J; Kubota, H; Chikazawa, S; Satoh, T; Miyake, T; Uhara, H; Okuyama, R; Nakagawara, R; Aihara, M; Hamada-Sato, N

    2016-05-01

    Collagen was identified as a fish allergen in early 2000s. Although its allergenic potential has been suggested to be low, risks associated with collagen as a fish allergen have not been evaluated to a greater extent. In this study, we aimed to clarify the importance of collagen as a fish allergen. Our results showed that 50% of Japanese patients with fish allergy had immunoglobulin E (IgE) against mackerel collagen, whereas 44% had IgE against mackerel parvalbumin. IgE inhibition assay revealed high cross-reactivity of mackerel collagen to 22 fish species (inhibition rates: 87-98%). Furthermore, a recently developed allergy test demonstrated that collagen triggered IgE cross-linking on mast cells. These data indicate that fish collagen is an important and very common panallergen in fish consumed in Japan. The high rate of individuals' collagen allergy may be attributable to the traditional Japanese custom of raw fish consumption. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Prior rates of visual field loss and lifetime risk of blindness in glaucomatous patients undergoing trabeculectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulsham, W S; Fu, L; Tatham, A J

    2015-10-01

    Trend-based analyses examining rates of visual field (VF) loss in glaucoma are useful for predicting risk of vision-related morbidity. Although patients with faster losses are likely to require treatment escalation, little is known about rates that might trigger a decision to intervene surgically. The aims of this study were to investigate prior rates of VF loss in patients attending for trabeculectomy and to estimate, in the absence of surgical intervention, lifetime risk of visual impairment, and blindness. A retrospective analysis of 117 eyes of 86 consecutive patients with glaucoma attending for trabeculectomy, including 53 patients referred from general ophthalmology clinics and 33 patients from specialist glaucoma clinics. Rates of change in standard automated perimetry mean deviation were examined using linear regression and random coefficient models. Risk of lifetime visual impairment and blindness was calculated using life expectancy data. Mean age at surgery was 71.0±9.7 years. Patients were followed for 10.7±7.5 years prior to surgery with an average of seven useable fields per eye. On average patients referred from general clinics lost 1.04 dB/year compared with 0.77 dB/year in those referred from glaucoma clinics (P=0.070). Patients referred from general clinics had more medication changes prior to surgery (3.4 and 2.6 changes, respectively; P=0.004). Given Scottish life expectancy data, untreated, 61 eyes (52%) would have passed the threshold for visual impairment, whereas 40 (34%) would have passed the threshold demarcating blindness. Patients attending for trabeculectomy had faster average rates of field loss prior to surgery than published values for the general glaucoma population with over one-third of eyes studied predicted to have become blind without intervention. Those managed by glaucoma specialists had fewer changes in medication and tended to slower rates of VF loss, although the latter did not reach statistical significance.

  7. Risk factors and outcomes of high peritonitis rate in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yuanshi; Xie, Xishao; Xiang, Shilong; Yang, Xin; Zhang, Xiaohui; Shou, Zhangfei; Chen, Jianghua

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Peritonitis remains a major complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD). A high peritonitis rate (HPR) affects continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients’ technique survival and mortality. Predictors and outcomes of HPR, rather than the first peritonitis episode, were rarely studied in the Chinese population. In this study, we examined the risk factors associated with HPR and its effects on clinical outcomes in CAPD patients. This is a single center, retrospective, observational cohort study. A total of 294 patients who developing at least 1 episode of peritonitis were followed up from March 1st, 2002, to July 31, 2014, in our PD center. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the factors associated with HPR, and the Cox proportional hazard model was conducted to assess the effects of HPR on clinical outcomes. During the study period of 2917.5 patient-years, 489 episodes of peritonitis were recorded, and the total peritonitis rate was 0.168 episodes per patient-year. The multivariate analysis showed that factors associated with HPR include a quick occurrence of peritonitis after CAPD initiation (shorter than 12 months), and a low serum albumin level at the start of CAPD. In the Cox proportional hazard model, HPR was a significant predictor of technique failure. There were no differences between HPR and low peritonitis rate (LPR) group for all-cause mortality. However, when the peritonitis rate was considered as a continuous variable, a positive correlation was observed between the peritonitis rate and mortality. We found the quick peritonitis occurrence after CAPD and the low serum albumin level before CAPD were strongly associated with an HPR. Also, our results verified that HPR was positively correlated with technique failure. More importantly, the increase in the peritonitis rate suggested a higher risk of all-cause mortality. These results may help to identify and target patients who are at higher risk of HPR at the start

  8. FISH CONSUMPTION, METHYLMERCURY, AND HUMAN HEART DISEASE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LIPFERT, F.W.; SULLIVAN, T.M.

    2005-09-21

    Environmental mercury continues to be of concern to public health advocates, both in the U.S. and abroad, and new research continues to be published. A recent analysis of potential health benefits of reduced mercury emissions has opened a new area of public health concern: adverse effects on the cardiovascular system, which could account for the bulk of the potential economic benefits. The authors were careful to include caveats about the uncertainties of such impacts, but they cited only a fraction of the applicable health effects literature. That literature includes studies of the potentially harmful ingredient (methylmercury, MeHg) in fish, as well as of a beneficial ingredient, omega-3 fatty acids or ''fish oils''. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently certified that some of these fat compounds that are primarily found in fish ''may be beneficial in reducing coronary heart disease''. This paper briefly summarizes and categorizes the extensive literature on both adverse and beneficial links between fish consumption and cardiovascular health, which are typically based on studies of selected groups of individuals (cohorts). Such studies tend to comprise the ''gold standard'' of epidemiology, but cohorts tend to exhibit a great deal of variability, in part because of the limited numbers of individuals involved and in part because of interactions with other dietary and lifestyle considerations. Note that eating fish will involve exposure to both the beneficial effects of fatty acids and the potentially harmful effects of contaminants like Hg or PCBs, all of which depend on the type of fish but tend to be correlated within a population. As a group, the cohort studies show that eating fish tends to reduce mortality, especially due to heart disease, for consumption rates up to about twice weekly, above which the benefits tend to level off. A Finnish cohort study showed increased mortality risks

  9. Radiation dose and risk to recreational fishermen from ingestion of fish caught near eight oil platforms in the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinhold, A.F.; Holtzman, S.

    1998-01-01

    Offshore production of oil and gas is accompanied by a saline wastewater, called produced water. Produced water discharges to the Gulf of Mexico often contain elevated concentrations of radionuclides that occur naturally in the geologic reservoir along with the oil and gas. These radionuclides may accumulate in organisms that live near offshore oil and gas structures. Because recreational fishing in the Gulf of Mexico is concentrated near oil and gas platforms, there is the potential for increased risks to recreational fishermen from the ingestion of radionuclides in fish caught near produced water discharges. This analysis investigated the potential risk to recreational fishermen from radium and lead-210 in offshore produced water discharges to the Gulf of Mexico. The assessment used data collected at eight discharging offshore platforms and two reference locations. These data were collected in a USDOE funded project titled ''Environmental and Economic Assessment of Discharges from Gulf of Mexico Region Oil and Gas Operations'', here called the USDOE Field Study. The risk assessments were done to support risk managers in developing regulations and permits for offshore discharges of produced water

  10. RADIATION DOSE AND RISK TO RECREATIONAL FISHERMEN FROM INGESTION OF FISH CAUGHT NEAR EIGHT OIL PLATFORMS IN THE GULF OF MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MEINHOLD,A.F.; HOLTZMAN,S.

    1998-06-01

    Offshore production of oil and gas is accompanied by a saline wastewater, called produced water. Produced water discharges to the Gulf of Mexico often contain elevated concentrations of radionuclides that occur naturally in the geologic reservoir along with the oil and gas. These radionuclides may accumulate in organisms that live near offshore oil and gas structures. Because recreational fishing in the Gulf of Mexico is concentrated near oil and gas platforms, there is the potential for increased risks to recreational fishermen from the ingestion of radionuclides in fish caught near produced water discharges. This analysis investigated the potential risk to recreational fishermen from radium and lead-210 in offshore produced water discharges to the Gulf of Mexico. The assessment used data collected at eight discharging offshore platforms and two reference locations. These data were collected in a USDOE funded project titled ``Environmental and Economic Assessment of Discharges from Gulf of Mexico Region Oil and Gas Operations'', here called the USDOE Field Study. The risk assessments were done to support risk managers in developing regulations and permits for offshore discharges of produced water.

  11. Lowered risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma and intake of plant vitamin, fresh fish, green tea and coffee: a case-control study in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Lun Hsu

    Full Text Available A case-control study was conducted to evaluate the role of adult diet on nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC in Taiwan.A total of 375 incident NPC cases and 327 controls matched to the cases on sex, age, and residence were recruited between July 1991 and December 1994. A structured questionnaire inquiring complete dietary history, socio-demographic characteristics, and other potential confounding factors was used in the personal interview. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to estimate multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR(adj with 95% confidence interval (CI after accounting for known risk factors.Fresh fish (OR(adj, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.38-0.83 for the highest vs. lowest tertile of intake, green tea (OR(adj, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.40-0.91 for drinking ≥1 times/week vs. never and coffee (OR(adj, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.37-0.85 for drinking ≥0.5 times/week vs. never were inversely associated with the NPC risk. No association with NPC risk was observed for the intake of meats, salted fish, fresh vegetables, fruits and milk. Intake of vitamin A from plant sources was associated with a decreased NPC risk (OR(adj, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.41-0.94 for the highest vs. lowest tertile.The study findings suggest that certain adult dietary patterns might protect against the development of NPC.

  12. Value at risk using financial copulas: Application to the Mexican exchange rate (2002-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Nadiezhda Plascencia Cuevas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the volatility of exchange rate is a crucial and a transcendental issue for all transactions, negotiations and operations taking place in foreign currency, being an objective and an accurate prediction the cornerstone. Therefore, the main objective of this research is to analyze whether the Mexican exchange rate market, risk assessment using traditional VaR and VaR with copulas methodologies are more accurate when the estimates are made for a wide historical time-series or two periods for certain, helping it to predict the maximum losses that may be, with the main motivation to have a efficient hedging strategy. The principal conclusion is that assessing risk with these methodologies, the series does not necessarily have to include more than five years, considering that the use of copulas as a dependent measure make that the prediction fits better to the movements of the real returns.

  13. Mechanisms of Protection from Interest Rate Risk with Reference to the Life Insurance Market in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burić Milijana Novović

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Insurance companies are facing major challenges that point to the need for control process and risk management. Risk management in insurance has a direct impact on solvency, economic security, and overall financial stability of insurance companies. It is very important for insurance companies to adequately calculate risks to which they are exposed. Asset liability management (ALM, as an integrated approach to financial management, requires simultaneous decision-making about categories and values of assets and liabilities in order to establish the optimum volume and the ratio of assets and liabilities, with the understanding of complexity of the financial market in which financial institutions operate. ALM focuses on a significant number of risks, whereby the emphasis in this paper will be on interest rate risk which indicates potential losses that may reflect in a lower interest margin, a lower value of assets or both, in terms of changes in interest rates. In the above context, the aim of this paper is to show how to protect from interest rate changes and how these changes influence the insurance market in Montenegro, both from the theoretical and the practical point of view. The authors consider this to be an interesting and very important topic, especially because the life insurance market in Montenegro is underdeveloped and subject to fluctuations. Also, taking into account the fact that Montenegro is a country that has been making serious efforts to join the EU, it is expected that insurance companies in Montenegro will strengthen their financial position in the market even using the ALM traditional techniques, which is shown in this paper.

  14. Determination of muscle protein synthesis rates in fish using (2)H2O and (2)H NMR analysis of alanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Cátia; Viegas, Filipa; Rito, João; Jones, John; Viegas, Ivan

    2016-09-15

    Following administration of deuterated water ((2)H2O), the fractional synthetic rate (FSR) of a given endogenous protein can be estimated by (2)H-enrichment quantification of its alanine residues. Currently, this is measured by mass spectrometry following a derivatization procedure. Muscle FSR was measured by (1)H/(2)H NMR analysis of alanine from seabass kept for 6 days in 5% (2)H-enriched saltwater, following acid hydrolysis and amino acid isolation by cation-exchange chromatography of muscle tissue. The analysis is simple and robust, and provides precise measurements of excess alanine (2)H-enrichment in the 0.1-0.4% range from 50 mmol of alanine recovered from muscle protein. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Quantification of Gains and Risks of Static Thermal Rating Based on Typical Meteorological Year

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heckenbergerová, Jana; Musílek, P.; Filimonenkov, K.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 1 (2013), s. 227-235 ISSN 0142-0615 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD12009 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) M100300904 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : Overhead power transmission lines * Conductor ampacity * Probabilistic static thermal rating * Typical meteorological year * Risk tolerance * Energy throughput Subject RIV: JE - Non-nuclear Energetics, Energy Consumption ; Use Impact factor: 3.432, year: 2012

  16. Political Risk and Foreign Exchange Rates: an Efficient-Market Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Claude Cosset; Bruno Doutriaux de la Rianderie

    1985-01-01

    This paper examines the reaction of the foreign exchange market to the announcement of changes in the business environment of a country. Our results suggest that sampled political risk news conveys important information about a country's investment climate and causes its currency's exchange rate to vary. It appears, however, that the reaction of the foreign exchange market is more dramatic for unfavorable events than for favorable events. The evidence presented is also consisted with the hypo...

  17. Fish allergy and fish allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuehn, A; Hilger, Christiane; Ollert, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Fish is one of the main elicitors for food allergies. For a long time, the clinical picture of fish allergy was reduced to the following features. First, fish-allergic patients suffer from a high IgE cross-reactivity among fishes so that they have to avoid all species. Second, clinically relevant...... symptoms are linked to the presence of IgE-antibodies recognizing parvalbumin, the fish panallergen. This view was challenged by results from recent studies as follows. 1. Allergic reactions which are limited to single or several fish species (mono-or oligosensitisations) apply not only to single cases...... but patients with this phenotype constitute an important sub-group among fish-allergic individuals. 2. Newly identified fish allergens, enolases, aldolases, and fish gelatin, are of high relevance as the majority of the fish-allergic individuals seem to develop specific IgE against these proteins. The present...

  18. Tobacco, alcohol, and other risk behaviors in film: how well do MPAA ratings distinguish content?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tickle, Jennifer J; Beach, Michael L; Dalton, Madeline A

    2009-12-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) ratings for parental selection of appropriate films for children, the 100 top grossing movies each year from 1996 through 2004 (N = 900) were content analyzed to measure risk behaviors in each film. More restrictive MPAA ratings (R and PG-13) were associated with increased mean seconds of portrayals of tobacco use, alcohol use, and sexual content; increased frequency of violent content; and increased salience of drug use. MPAA ratings, however, did not clearly distinguish films based on tobacco or alcohol use. Fifty percent of R-rated movies contained 124 seconds or more of tobacco use, comparable with 26% of PG-13 and 17% of PG movies. Fifty percent of R-rated movies contained 162 seconds or more of alcohol use, comparable with 49% of PG-13 and 25% of PG movies. Because of the high degree of overlap in alcohol and tobacco content between rating categories, the MPAA rating system, as currently defined, is not adequate for parents who wish to limit their children's exposure to tobacco or alcohol content in movies.

  19. Low mortality rates after endovascular aortic repair expand use to high-risk patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkar, Shaunak S; Turner, Megan C; Leraas, Harold J; Gilmore, Brian F; Nag, Uttara; Turley, Ryan S; Shortell, Cynthia K; Mureebe, Leila

    2018-02-01

    The 2010 endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) trial 2 (EVAR 2) reported that patients with comorbidity profiles rendering them unfit for open aneurysm repair who underwent EVAR did not experience a survival advantage compared with those who did not undergo intervention. These patients experienced a 30-day mortality of 7.3%, whereas reports from similar cohorts reported far lower mortality rates. The primary objective of our study was to compare the incidence of 30-day mortality in low- and high-risk patients undergoing EVAR in a contemporary data set, using patient risk stratification criteria from EVAR 2. Secondarily, we sought to identify risk factors associated with a disproportionate contribution to 30-day mortality risk. Data were obtained from the 2005 to 2013 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) Participant Use Data Files (N = 24,813). Patients were included in the high-risk cohort with the presence of renal, respiratory, or cardiac preoperative criteria alone or in combination. Renal impairment criteria were defined as dialysis and creatinine concentration >2.26 mg/dL. Respiratory impairment criteria included history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and preoperative ventilator support. Cardiac impairment criteria included history of myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, angina, and prior coronary intervention. Patient and procedural characteristics and 30-day postoperative outcomes were compared using Pearson χ 2 tests for categorical variables and Wilcoxon rank sum tests for continuous variables. Among 24,813 patients undergoing EVAR, 12,043 (48%) patients were characterized as high risk (at least one impairment criterion); 12,770 (52%) patients were stratified as low risk. The 30-day mortality rate was 1.9% in the high-risk cohort compared with the 7.3% reported by EVAR 2, and it was higher in the high-risk cohort compared with the low-risk cohort (1.9% vs 0.9%; P < .001). Whereas the

  20. Prevalence Rate and Risk Factors of Depression in Outpatients with Premature Ejaculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiansheng Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence rate and risk factors of depression in outpatients who were diagnosed with PE. Therefore, between September 2009 and September 2011, 1801 outpatients at andrology clinics were enrolled and consented to participate in our survey by completed a verbal questionnaire. It included the following: (1 demographic data (e.g., age, body mass index, (2 PE duration, medical history, and sexual history, (3 self-estimated intravaginal ejaculatory latency times, (4 the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS, and (5 the National Institute of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI and (6 the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5. The results showed that a total of 1,206 patients were diagnosed with PE. The prevalence rate of depression in these PE patients was 26.78%. Depression was associated with PE duration, NIH-CPSI score, and IIEF-5 score. Risk factors for depression specifically included PE durations for 13–24, 25–60, or ≥61 months, CPSI scores of 15–30 or ≥31, and IIEF-5 scores <22. These findings suggested that several associated factors (PE duration, CPSI scores, and IIEF-5 scores were the risk factors of depression in men with PE.

  1. Study of risk of pollution by the heavy metals of the water and fishes of the Congo river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuakashikila, M.; Mbuyi, K.M.; Kabwe, C.; Malumba, M.; Kapembo, L.; Lusamba, N.; Lundemba, S.; Barutti, Y.

    2010-01-01

    In order to conduct property this study, we have chosen to evaluate cadmium and lead concentration in Congo River water and un three species of fishes (Oreochromis niloticus nilotucus, Schilbe mystus and Campylomormyrus). These fishes have been collected from three sites in Congo River during the time from August to November 2009. Sample analysis (water and fishes) revealed that cadmium and concentration were lower then world heath organization (Who) acceptable standards. The campulomormyrus species present the highest lead concentration of all studied species and further mose this concentration has been found in Kinsuka. This could be justified by the position Kinsuka site which is the down stream section compared to Kinkole and Maluku position in Congo River. Therefor harmful effects are not expected in short time, however they are dangerous in long time because these metals are both toxic and cumulative, may damage concerned organs

  2. Consistent high clinical pregnancy rates and low ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome rates in high-risk patients after GnRH agonist triggering and modified luteal support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iliodromiti, Stamatina; Blockeel, Christophe; Tremellen, Kelton P

    2013-01-01

    Are clinical pregnancy rates satisfactory and the incidence of OHSS low after GnRH agonist trigger and modified intensive luteal support in patients with a high risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS)?......Are clinical pregnancy rates satisfactory and the incidence of OHSS low after GnRH agonist trigger and modified intensive luteal support in patients with a high risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS)?...

  3. Asexual Reproduction Does Not Apparently Increase the Rate of Chromosomal Evolution: Karyotype Stability in Diploid and Triploid Clonal Hybrid Fish (Cobitis, Cypriniformes, Teleostei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majtánová, Zuzana; Choleva, Lukáš; Symonová, Radka; Ráb, Petr; Kotusz, Jan; Pekárik, Ladislav; Janko, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization, polyploidization and transitions from sexuality to asexuality considerably affect organismal genomes. Especially the last mentioned process has been assumed to play a significant role in the initiation of chromosomal rearrangements, causing increased rates of karyotype evolution. We used cytogenetic analysis and molecular dating of cladogenetic events to compare the rate of changes of chromosome morphology and karyotype in asexually and sexually reproducing counterparts in European spined loach fish (Cobitis). We studied metaphases of three sexually reproducing species and their diploid and polyploid hybrid clones of different age of origin. The material includes artificial F1 hybrid strains, representatives of lineage originated in Holocene epoch, and also individuals of an oldest known age to date (roughly 0.37 MYA). Thereafter we applied GISH technique as a marker to differentiate parental chromosomal sets in hybrids. Although the sexual species accumulated remarkable chromosomal rearrangements after their speciation, we observed no differences in chromosome numbers and/or morphology among karyotypes of asexual hybrids. These hybrids possess chromosome sets originating from respective parental species with no cytogenetically detectable recombinations, suggesting their integrity even in a long term. The switch to asexual reproduction thus did not provoke any significant acceleration of the rate of chromosomal evolution in Cobitis. Asexual animals described in other case studies reproduce ameiotically, while Cobitis hybrids described here produce eggs likely through modified meiosis. Therefore, our findings indicate that the effect of asexuality on the rate of chromosomal change may be context-dependent rather than universal and related to particular type of asexual reproduction.

  4. Asexual Reproduction Does Not Apparently Increase the Rate of Chromosomal Evolution: Karyotype Stability in Diploid and Triploid Clonal Hybrid Fish (Cobitis, Cypriniformes, Teleostei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Majtánová

    Full Text Available Interspecific hybridization, polyploidization and transitions from sexuality to asexuality considerably affect organismal genomes. Especially the last mentioned process has been assumed to play a significant role in the initiation of chromosomal rearrangements, causing increased rates of karyotype evolution. We used cytogenetic analysis and molecular dating of cladogenetic events to compare the rate of changes of chromosome morphology and karyotype in asexually and sexually reproducing counterparts in European spined loach fish (Cobitis. We studied metaphases of three sexually reproducing species and their diploid and polyploid hybrid clones of different age of origin. The material includes artificial F1 hybrid strains, representatives of lineage originated in Holocene epoch, and also individuals of an oldest known age to date (roughly 0.37 MYA. Thereafter we applied GISH technique as a marker to differentiate parental chromosomal sets in hybrids. Although the sexual species accumulated remarkable chromosomal rearrangements after their speciation, we observed no differences in chromosome numbers and/or morphology among karyotypes of asexual hybrids. These hybrids possess chromosome sets originating from respective parental species with no cytogenetically detectable recombinations, suggesting their integrity even in a long term. The switch to asexual reproduction thus did not provoke any significant acceleration of the rate of chromosomal evolution in Cobitis. Asexual animals described in other case studies reproduce ameiotically, while Cobitis hybrids described here produce eggs likely through modified meiosis. Therefore, our findings indicate that the effect of asexuality on the rate of chromosomal change may be context-dependent rather than universal and related to particular type of asexual reproduction.

  5. Contribution to the risk characterization of ciguatoxins: LOAEL estimated from eight ciguatera fish poisoning events in Guadeloupe (French West Indies)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossen, Virginie; Soliño, Lucia; Leroy, Patricia; David, Eric; Velge, Pierre; Dragacci, Sylviane; Krys, Sophie; Flores Quintana, Harold; Diogène, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    From 2010 to 2012, 35 ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) events involving 87 individuals who consumed locally-caught fish were reported in Guadeloupe (French West Indies). For 12 of these events, the presence of ciguatoxins (CTXs) was indicated in meal remnants and in uncooked fish by the mouse bioassay (MBA). Caribbean ciguatoxins (C-CTXs) were confirmed by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) analysis. Using a cell-based assay (CBA), and the only available standard Pacific ciguatoxin-1 (P-CTX-1), the lowest toxins level detected in fish samples causing CFP was 0.022 µg P-CTX-1 equivalent (eq.)·kg −1 fish. Epidemiological and consumption data were compiled for most of the individuals afflicted, and complete data for establishing the lowest observable adverse effects level (LOAEL) were obtained from 8 CFP events involving 21 individuals. Based on toxin intakes, the LOAEL was estimated at 4.2 ng P-CTX-1 eq./individual corresponding to 48.4 pg P-CTX-1 eq. kg −1 body weight (bw). Although based on limited data, these results are consistent with the conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) opinion which indicates that a level of 0.01 µg P-CTX-1 eq. kg −1 fish, regardless of source, should not exert effects in sensitive individuals when consuming a single meal. The calculated LOAEL is also consistent with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration guidance levels for CTXs (0.1 µg C-CTX-1 eq. kg −1 and 0.01 µg P-CTX-1 eq. kg −1 fish). - Highlights: • We report on an epidemiological study on Ciguatera events in the French West Indies. • The collection of consumption data allows for the first time the LOAEL determination. • The LOAEL for ciguatoxins was established at 48.4 pg P-CTX-1 eq. kg −1 bw. • LC–MS/MS provided structural confirmation of C-CTX1 in two suspected samples • Neuro-2A CBA is suitable for assessing composite toxicity levels in fish samples.

  6. Contribution to the risk characterization of ciguatoxins: LOAEL estimated from eight ciguatera fish poisoning events in Guadeloupe (French West Indies)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossen, Virginie [Université Paris-Est, ANSES-Laboratory for Food Safety, National Reference Laboratory for the Control of Marine biotoxins, 14 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 94701 Maisons-Alfort (France); Soliño, Lucia [Institut de Recerca i Tecnologia Agroalimentàries (IRTA), Ctra. Poble Nou km 5.5, Sant Carles de la Rapita (Spain); Leroy, Patricia [Université Paris-Est, ANSES-Laboratory for Food Safety, National Reference Laboratory for the Control of Marine biotoxins, 14 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 94701 Maisons-Alfort (France); David, Eric [Ministry of Agriculture, Direction de l’Alimentation de l’Agriculture et de la Forêt de Guadeloupe, Abymes (France); Velge, Pierre [Ministry of Agriculture, General Directorate for Food, Paris (France); Dragacci, Sylviane, E-mail: Sylviane.dragacci@anses.fr [Université Paris-Est, ANSES-Laboratory for Food Safety, National Reference Laboratory for the Control of Marine biotoxins, 14 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 94701 Maisons-Alfort (France); Krys, Sophie [Université Paris-Est, ANSES-Laboratory for Food Safety, National Reference Laboratory for the Control of Marine biotoxins, 14 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 94701 Maisons-Alfort (France); Flores Quintana, Harold [U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Division of Seafood Science and Technology, Gulf Coast Seafood Laboratory, 1 Iberville Drive, Dauphin Island, AL 36528 (United States); Diogène, Jorge [Institut de Recerca i Tecnologia Agroalimentàries (IRTA), Ctra. Poble Nou km 5.5, Sant Carles de la Rapita (Spain)

    2015-11-15

    From 2010 to 2012, 35 ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) events involving 87 individuals who consumed locally-caught fish were reported in Guadeloupe (French West Indies). For 12 of these events, the presence of ciguatoxins (CTXs) was indicated in meal remnants and in uncooked fish by the mouse bioassay (MBA). Caribbean ciguatoxins (C-CTXs) were confirmed by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) analysis. Using a cell-based assay (CBA), and the only available standard Pacific ciguatoxin-1 (P-CTX-1), the lowest toxins level detected in fish samples causing CFP was 0.022 µg P-CTX-1 equivalent (eq.)·kg{sup −1} fish. Epidemiological and consumption data were compiled for most of the individuals afflicted, and complete data for establishing the lowest observable adverse effects level (LOAEL) were obtained from 8 CFP events involving 21 individuals. Based on toxin intakes, the LOAEL was estimated at 4.2 ng P-CTX-1 eq./individual corresponding to 48.4 pg P-CTX-1 eq. kg{sup −1} body weight (bw). Although based on limited data, these results are consistent with the conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) opinion which indicates that a level of 0.01 µg P-CTX-1 eq. kg{sup −1} fish, regardless of source, should not exert effects in sensitive individuals when consuming a single meal. The calculated LOAEL is also consistent with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration guidance levels for CTXs (0.1 µg C-CTX-1 eq. kg{sup −1} and 0.01 µg P-CTX-1 eq. kg{sup −1} fish). - Highlights: • We report on an epidemiological study on Ciguatera events in the French West Indies. • The collection of consumption data allows for the first time the LOAEL determination. • The LOAEL for ciguatoxins was established at 48.4 pg P-CTX-1 eq. kg{sup −1} bw. • LC–MS/MS provided structural confirmation of C-CTX1 in two suspected samples • Neuro-2A CBA is suitable for assessing composite toxicity levels in fish samples.

  7. EFFECT AND COMPARISON OF RECYCLING AND STAGNANT FRESHWATER ON PERFORMANCES (GROWTH AND SURVIVAL RATES; FISH QUALITY AND PROFITABILITY OF THE ORNAMENTAL FISH Barbus schwanefeldi (KAPIAT REARED AT 4 DIFFERENT DENSITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarto Sudarto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Comparing two different rearing systems in fish production through stagnant and recirculation water systems showed that recirculation system has several benefits such as reducing manpower, and minimize or eliminate in using antibiotics and also eliminate the grow out of diseases, increasing the profits due to increase in density of fish cultured in the system, and water quality remain stable in optimal condition.

  8. Short-term versus long-term heart rate variability in ischemic cardiomyopathy risk stratification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas eVoss

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In industrialized countries with aging populations, heart failure affects 0.3%-2% of the general population. The investigation of 24h-ECG recordings revealed the potential of nonlinear indices of heart rate variability (HRV for enhanced risk stratification in patients with ischemic heart failure (IHF. However, long-term analyses are time-consuming, expensive and delay the initial diagnosis. The objective of this study was to investigate whether 30min short-term HRV analysis is sufficient for comparable risk stratification in IHF in comparison to 24h-HRV analysis. From 256 IHF patients (221 at low risk (IHFLR and 35 at high risk (IHFHR a 24h beat-to-beat time series b the first 30min segment c the 30min most stationary day segment and d the 30min most stationary night segment were investigated. We calculated linear (time and frequency domain and nonlinear HRV analysis indices. Optimal parameter sets for risk stratification in IHF were determined for 24 hours and for each 30min segment by applying discriminant analysis on significant clinical and non-clinical indices. Long- and short-term HRV indices from frequency domain and particularly from nonlinear dynamics revealed high univariate significances (p

  9. Analyse of the prevalence rate and risk factors of pulmonary embolism in the patients with dyspnea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Yanxia; Su Jian; Wang Bingsheng; Wu Songhong; Dai Ruiting; Cao Caixia

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the prevalence rate and risk factors of pulmonary embolism (PE) in patients with dyspnea and to explore the predisposing causes and its early clinical manifestations. Methods: Retrospective analysis was done in 461 patients with dyspnea performed 99 Tc m -macroaggregated albumin (MAA) lung perfusion imaging and 99 Tc m -DTPA ventilation imaging or 99 Tc m -MAA perfusion imaging and chest X-ray examination. Among them, 48 cases without apparent disease were considered as control group, whereas the remaining patients with other underlying illnesses as patients group. PEMS statistics software package was used for estimation of prevalence rate, χ 2 test and PE risk factor analysis. Results: There were 251 PE patients among 461 patients, the prevalence rate [ (π)=95% confidence interval (CI) ] was: lower extremity thrombosis and varicosity (80.79-95.47 ), post cesarean section (55.64-87.12), lower extremity bone surgery or fracture (52.76-87.27 ), cancer operation (52.19-78.19), atrial fibrillation or heart failure (53.30-74.88), obesity (23.14-50.20), post abdominal surgery (20.23-59.43), diabetes (19.12-63.95), chronic bronchitis (1.80-23.06), normal control group (3.47-22.66). Except chronic bronchitis, PE prevalence rate between patients group and control group had significant difference (P 99 Tc m -MAA and DTPA lung imaging should be done as early as possible. (authors)

  10. Modified Exponential (MOE) Models: statistical Models for Risk Estimation of Low dose Rate Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, H.; Furukawa, C.; Kawakami, Y.; Magae, J.

    2004-01-01

    Simultaneous inclusion of dose and dose-rate is required to evaluate the risk of long term irradiation at low dose-rates, since biological responses to radiation are complex processes that depend both on irradiation time and total dose. Consequently, it is necessary to consider a model including cumulative dose,dose-rate and irradiation time to estimate quantitative dose-response relationship on the biological response to radiation. In this study, we measured micronucleus formation and (3H) thymidine uptake in U2OS, human osteosarcoma cell line, as indicators of biological response to gamma radiation. Cells were exposed to gamma ray in irradiation room bearing 50,000 Ci 60Co. After irradiation, they were cultured for 24h in the presence of cytochalasin B to block cytokinesis, and cytoplasm and nucleus were stained with DAPI and propidium iodide. The number of binuclear cells bearing a micronucleus was counted under a florescence microscope. For proliferation inhibition, cells were cultured for 48 h after the irradiation and (3h) thymidine was pulsed for 4h before harvesting. We statistically analyzed the data for quantitative evaluation of radiation risk at low dose/dose-rate. (Author)

  11. Increased fracture rate in women with breast cancer: a review of the hidden risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Body Jean-Jacques

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women with breast cancer, particularly individuals diagnosed at a relatively early age, have an increased incidence of fractures. Fractures can have serious clinical consequences including the need for major surgery, increased morbidity and mortality, increased cost of disease management, and reduced quality of life for patients. The primary cause of the increased fracture risk appears to be an accelerated decrease in bone mineral density (BMD resulting from the loss of estrogenic signaling that occurs with most treatments for breast cancer, including aromatase inhibitors. However, factors other than BMD levels alone may influence treatment decisions to reduce fracture risk in this setting. Our purpose is to review current evidence for BMD loss and fracture risk during treatment for breast cancer and discuss pharmacologic means to reduce this risk. Results Fracture risk during treatment for breast cancer may be influenced by the rate of BMD loss and the consequent rapid alterations in bone microarchitecture, in addition to the established fracture risk factors in postmenopausal osteoporosis. The rapid decrease in BMD during adjuvant chemoendocrine therapy for breast cancer may necessitate more aggressive pharmacotherapy than is indicated for healthy postmenopausal women who develop osteoporosis. Over the last few years, clinical trials have established the effectiveness of bisphosphonates and other antiresorptive agents to preserve BMD during adjuvant therapy for early breast cancer. In addition, some bisphosphonates (eg, zoledronic acid may also delay disease recurrence in women with hormone-responsive tumors, thereby providing an adjuvant benefit in addition to preserving BMD and potentially preventing fractures. Conclusions It is likely that a combined fracture risk assessment (eg, as in the WHO FRAX algorithm will more accurately identify both women with postmenopausal osteoporosis and women with breast cancer who require

  12. State infant mortality: an ecologic study to determine modifiable risks and adjusted infant mortality rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, David A; Mackley, Amy; Locke, Robert G; Stefano, John L; Kroelinger, Charlan

    2009-05-01

    To determine factors contributing to state infant mortality rates (IMR) and develop an adjusted IMR in the United States for 2001 and 2002. Ecologic study of factors contributing to state IMR. State IMR for 2001 and 2002 were obtained from the United States linked death and birth certificate data from the National Center for Health Statistics. Factors investigated using multivariable linear regression included state racial demographics, ethnicity, state population, median income, education, teen birth rate, proportion of obesity, smoking during pregnancy, diabetes, hypertension, cesarean delivery, prenatal care, health insurance, self-report of mental illness, and number of in-vitro fertilization procedures. Final risk adjusted IMR's were standardized and states were compared with the United States adjusted rates. Models for IMR in individual states in 2001 (r2 = 0.66, P < 0.01) and 2002 (r2 = 0.81, P < 0.01) were tested. African-American race, teen birth rate, and smoking during pregnancy remained independently associated with state infant mortality rates for 2001 and 2002. Ninety five percent confidence intervals (CI) were calculated around the regression lines to model the expected IMR. After adjustment, some states maintained a consistent IMR; for instance, Vermont and New Hampshire remained low, while Delaware and Louisiana remained high. However, other states such as Mississippi, which have traditionally high infant mortality rates, remained within the expected 95% CI for IMR after adjustment indicating confounding affected the initial unadjusted rates. Non-modifiable demographic variables, including the percentage of non-Hispanic African-American and Hispanic populations of the state are major factors contributing to individual variation in state IMR. Race and ethnicity may confound or modify the IMR in states that shifted inside or outside the 95% CI following adjustment. Other factors including smoking during pregnancy and teen birth rate, which are

  13. Low-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Versus Cryotherapy in Low- and Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gestaut, Matthew M; Cai, Wendi; Vyas, Shilpa; Patel, Belur J; Hasan, Salman A; MunozMaldonado, Yolanda; Deb, Niloyjyoti; Swanson, Gregory

    2017-05-01

    Cryotherapy and brachytherapy are definitive local treatment options for low- to intermediate-risk prostate cancer. There are both prospective and retrospective data for brachytherapy, but the use of cryotherapy has been limited primarily to single-institution retrospective studies. Currently, no published evidence has compared low-dose-rate brachytherapy versus cryotherapy. Institutional review board approval was obtained to conduct a retrospective chart review of consecutive patients treated at our institution from 1990 to 2012. For inclusion, patients must have received a prostate cancer diagnosis and have been considered to have low- to intermediate-risk disease according to the National Comprehensive Cancer Network criteria. All patients received brachytherapy or cryotherapy treatment. Disease specifics and failure details were collected for all patients. Failure was defined as prostate-specific antigen nadir +2 ng/mL. A total of 359 patients were analyzed. The groups comprised 50 low-risk cryotherapy (LRC), 92 intermediate-risk cryotherapy (IRC), 133 low-risk brachytherapy (LRB), and 84 intermediate-risk brachytherapy (IRB) patients. The median prostate-specific antigen follow-up periods were 85.6 months (LRC), 59.2 months (IRC), 74.9 months (LRB), and 59.8 months (IRB). The 5-year biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS) rate was 57.9% in the cryotherapy group versus 89.6% in the brachytherapy group (Pcryotherapy for low- and intermediate-risk groups (Pcryotherapy patients was -35°C (range, -96°C to -6°C). Cryotherapy used a median of 2 freeze-thaw cycles (range, 2-4 freeze-thaw cycles). Results from this study suggest that cryotherapy is inferior to brachytherapy for patients with low- to intermediate-risk prostate cancer. Patient selection criteria for consideration of cryotherapy and brachytherapy are similar in terms of anesthesia candidacy. Therefore, cryotherapy would not be recommended as a first-line local therapy for this particular

  14. Evaluating the predictive performance of empirical estimators of natural mortality rate using information on over 200 fish species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Then, Amy Y.; Hoenig, John M; Hall, Norman G.; Hewitt, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Many methods have been developed in the last 70 years to predict the natural mortality rate, M, of a stock based on empirical evidence from comparative life history studies. These indirect or empirical methods are used in most stock assessments to (i) obtain estimates of M in the absence of direct information, (ii) check on the reasonableness of a direct estimate of M, (iii) examine the range of plausible M estimates for the stock under consideration, and (iv) define prior distributions for Bayesian analyses. The two most cited empirical methods have appeared in the literature over 2500 times to date. Despite the importance of these methods, there is no consensus in the literature on how well these methods work in terms of prediction error or how their performance may be ranked. We evaluate estimators based on various combinations of maximum age (tmax), growth parameters, and water temperature by seeing how well they reproduce >200 independent, direct estimates of M. We use tenfold cross-validation to estimate the prediction error of the estimators and to rank their performance. With updated and carefully reviewed data, we conclude that a tmax-based estimator performs the best among all estimators evaluated. The tmax-based estimators in turn perform better than the Alverson–Carney method based on tmax and the von Bertalanffy K coefficient, Pauly’s method based on growth parameters and water temperature and methods based just on K. It is possible to combine two independent methods by computing a weighted mean but the improvement over the tmax-based methods is slight. Based on cross-validation prediction error, model residual patterns, model parsimony, and biological considerations, we recommend the use of a tmax-based estimator (M=4.899tmax−0.916">M=4.899t−0.916maxM=4.899tmax−0.916, prediction error = 0.32) when possible and a growth-based method (M=4.118K0.73L∞−0.33">M=4.118K0.73L−0.33∞M=4.118K0.73L∞−0.33 , prediction error

  15. The emerging farmed fish species meagre (Argyrosomus regius): how culinary treatment affects nutrients and contaminants concentration and associated benefit-risk balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Sara; Afonso, Cláudia; Bandarra, Narcisa Maria; Gueifão, Sandra; Castanheira, Isabel; Carvalho, Maria Luísa; Cardoso, Carlos; Nunes, Maria Leonor

    2013-10-01

    The effect of cooking methods (boiling, grilling, and roasting) on the proximate and mineral composition, contaminants concentration and fatty acids profile was evaluated aiming to understand the benefits and risks associated to the consumption of the emerging farmed fish meagre (Argyrosomus regius). All the treatments led to lower moisture content. After grilling and roasting, the SFA, MUFA and PUFA contents increased. There was no degradation of EPA and DHA during the culinary processes. Significant retention of minerals in grilled and roasted meagre samples was registered. For Pb and Cd there were no concentration differences between culinary treatments and regarding raw fish. Whereas As level was higher in grilled meagre, total Hg and Me-Hg values were augmented in grilled and roasted meagre. The consumption of meagre is advisable due to the low and healthy fat, high selenium and protein content. Grilling would be the best culinary treatment due to the retention of protein, EPA, DHA and minerals. But as the risk of ingestion of Me-Hg content also increases, based on the risk assessment, intake should not exceed two weekly meals, provided that no other important Me-Hg food source is present in the diet. Otherwise, even this maximum threshold should be lower. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Tissue levels of fish fatty acids and risk of colorectal adenomas: a case-control study (Netherlands).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busstra, M.C.; Siezen, C.L.; Grubben, M.J.A.L.; Kranen, H.J. van; Nagengast, F.M.; Veer, P. van 't

    2003-01-01

    Epidemiological and animal studies have suggested that a high ratio of n-3 fish fatty acids to arachidonic acid (AA), might protect against colorectal carcinogenesis. Competition of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids, especially AA, for the enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 may be responsible for this effect. To examine

  17. Tissue levels of fish fatty acids and risk of colorectal adenomas: a case-control study (Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busstra, M.C.; Siezen, C.L.E.; Grubben, M.J.A.L.; Kranen, H.J.; Nagengast, F.M.; Veer, van 't P.

    2003-01-01

    Epidemiological and animal studies have suggested that a high ratio of n-3 fish fatty acids to arachidonic acid (AA), might protect against colorectal carcinogenesis. Competition of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids, especially AA, for the enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 may be responsible for this effect. To examine

  18. Potential risk assessment of metals in edible fish species for human consumption from the Eastern Aegean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazi, Idil; Gonul, L Tolga; Kucuksezgin, Filiz; Avaz, Gulsen; Tolun, Leyla; Unluoglu, Aydın; Karaaslan, Yakup; Gucver, S Mine; Koc Orhon, Aybala; Siltu, Esra; Olmez, Gulnur

    2017-07-15

    The levels of Hg, Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu and Zn were measured in the tissues of four edible fish species namely: Diplodus annularis, Pagellus erythrinus, Merluccius merluccius and Mullus barbatus, collected from the Turkish Coast of the Aegean Sea. Except for D. annularis, the levels of Cd and Pb in all fish tissues sampled in Aliaga Bay in 2009 were above the tolerable limits according to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). Hg in P. erythrinus and M. barbatus were higher than the maximum permitted limits (FAO), while D. annularis and M. merluccius were lower than the limit for biota in the district of Aliaga. Although the Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) values for Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr, Zn in all fish samples were lower than 1.0, the THQ for Hg levels were higher than 1.0 for most of the samples. According to the THQ values, M. merluccius may be consumed in moderation from Aliaga Bay, while the consumption of M. barbatus and P. erythrinus collected from Aliaga Bay are potentially hazardous to human health due to the Hg concentrations. Fish collected from Izmir Bay can be consumed safely. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Natural radionuclide dose and lifetime cancer risk due to ingestion of fish and water from fresh water reservoirs near the proposed uranium mining site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annamalai, Sathesh Kumar; Arunachalam, Kantha Deivi; Selvaraj, Rajaram

    2017-06-01

    Ten sampling locations in Nagarjuna Sagar Dam have been selected to assess the suitability of the reservoir wa