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Sample records for fish-screening regulations policy

  1. A UK guide to intake fish-screening regulations, policy and best practice with particular reference to hydroelectric power schemes

    Turnpenny, A W.H.; Struthers, G; Hanson, P

    1998-07-01

    A review of fish screening regulations in England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland is presented, and a summary of findings on screening legislation is given. The views of hydroelectric scheme developers, owners and operators are considered, and recommendations including the development of a risk assessment procedure are discussed. Fish screening technology, bypasses and other escape routes, and common fault in screen design and operation are examined, and guidance to Best Practice is given. (UK)

  2. Fish screens at hydroelectric diversions

    Ott, R.F.

    1994-01-01

    Preventing downstream migrating fish from entering the turbines at hydroelectric projects is a standard mitigation goal of state and federal fishery management agencies. The object is to minimize the adverse impacts to the fish associated with the exclusion and passage through the bypass water conveyance facilities. In the western United States, most of the fishery management agencies have fish screen design criteria that focus on the approach and transportational velocities, maximum opening dimensions of the screen material, and the cleaning standards. Recently, more attention has been given to fish behavioral traits such as attraction and sustained and darting swimming speed, which has resulted in more attention to the position of the screens to the flow and the length of time the downstream migrants are exposed to the screens. Criteria for length of time of exposure, size and position of bypass, flow and velocities in the bypass entrances, discharge requirements back into the receiving water, and exposure to predation have created unique challenges to the fish screen designer. This paper discusses some of the more recent types of fixed fish screens that are being installed at hydroelectric plants that meet these challenges

  3. Regulative environmental policy. Regulative Umweltpolitik

    Goerlitz, A; Voigt, R [Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen, Neubiberg (Germany, F.R.). Fakultaet fuer Sozialwissenschaften; eds.

    1991-01-01

    Regulative policy means those governmental attempts to steer the course of things which can fall back on a certain repertoire of instruments for actions in order to warrant the causal and temporal connection between the making available and the employment of means. The fact that environmental protection needs regulative policy is substantiated by the thesis that the market has failed; consequently only government can manage the public goods 'environment' in a suitable way, and it is a matter of fact that environmental protection at present is operated preferably via regulative policy. The problems of regulative enviromental policy are manifold. Its implementation often miscarries because of limited administrative resources on the one hand - making sufficient control impossible for instance -, and because of poor quality regulative instruments on the other hand. One way out would be to increase the efficiency of regulative policy by sophisticating judicial techniques. Other ways out point to the executing level and aim at improving implementation strategies or are concerned with post-regulative law. The latter refers to a new legal quality which demonstrates itself already in corporatistical crisis regulation or in induction programs such as pollution limits. A final way out favours deregulation strategies which includes the introduction of environmental levies or the allocation of environmental licences. An interdisciplinary discourse is to find out what would happen if these ways were taken. Pointers to solutions from varying scientific disciplines resulting from this discourse are to be found in this volume. (orig./HSCH).

  4. Utility regulation and competition policy

    Robinson, Colin

    2002-03-01

    Contents: 1. The New Electricity Trading Arrangements in England and Wales: A Review - David Currie, 2. A Critique of Rail Regulation - Dieter Helm, 3. Moving to a Competitive Market in Water - Colin Robinson, 4. The New Gas Trading Arrangements - George Yarrow, 5. A Review of Privatization and Regulation Experience in Britain - Irwin M. Stelzer, 6. Converging Communications: Implications for Regulation - Mark Armstrong, 7. Opening European Electricity and Gas Markets - Graham Shuttleworth, 8. Concurrency or Convergence? Competition and Regulation Under the Competition Act 1998 - Tom Sharpe QC, 9. Ten Years of European Merger Control - Paul Seabright. (Author)

  5. Public utility regulation and national energy policy

    Navarro, P.

    1980-09-01

    The linkage between Public Utility Commission (PUC) regulation, the deteriorating financial health of the electric utility industry, and implementation of national energy policy, particularly the reduction of foreign petroleum consumption in the utility sector is examined. The role of the Nation's utilities in the pursuit of national energy policy goals and postulates a linkage between PUC regulation, the poor financial health of the utility industry, and the current and prospective failure to displace foreign petroleum in the utility sector is discussed. A brief history of PUC regulation is provided. The concept of regulatory climate and how the financial community has developed a system of ranking regulatory climate in the various State jurisdictions are explained. The existing evidence on the hypothesis that the cost of capital to a utility increases and its availability is reduced as regulatory climate grows more unfavorable from an investor's point of view is analyzed. The implications of this cost of capital effect on the electric utilities and collaterally on national energy policy and electric ratepayers are explained. Finally various State, regional and Federal regulatory responses to problems associated with PUC regulation are examined.

  6. REGULATION AND ENFORCEMENT OF COMPETITION POLICY

    Liviana Andreea Niminet

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Competition policy starts by shaping a legislative framework. This is aimed to establish boundaries for conducting competition and also sets limits of licit and illicit demarcation, for competitive and anticompetitive practices. The Romanian Competition Law has a divalent approach and it aims to provide specific behavioral conditions in order to stimulate and protect free-market competition, with the ultimate goal of developing a balanced, efficient and competitive economy. Our country’s Competition policy is based on punishing the behavior. There are three such types of anti-competitive behavior, namely: agreements between undertakings, abuse of dominant position and mergers and other concentrations between undertakings. Recent Practice proved that this “enforcement-conduct-punishment” structure is not necessary the best way to address competition and it is high time for authorities to switch both regulation and enforcement of competition from the “classical perspective” towards concepts like “competition advocacy” and “soft power” and give competition policy a new, reshaped face.

  7. Regulation of Communication Policy of Modern Banks

    Ketova Natalia, P.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows the need for effective communication commercial banks, revealed the possibility of interaction with customers through advertising, sponsorship, philanthropy, sales promotion, lobbying of interests of banking institutions. The principles for the regulation of communications to ensure consistency of communication complex, which cause a complex effect on the external environment, the creation of adaptive system of marketing communications. It is proved that the possibilities of implementing an active communication policy of modern banks in recent years is constantly increasing. This contributes to the extension of Internet technologies, the creation of remote service channels, the emergence of new tools and technologies to attract and retain customers. On the example of JSC "Sberbank of Russia" presented the technology of using the traditional tools of ATL and BTL communications, the formation of the system CSR – corporate social responsibility, building contact with customers, enhancing their loyalty to the Bank. Reveals the areas of regulation of the savings Bank of its activities on the creation of the daily value of services based on the principles of involvement and co-operation of the system "Client - Bank", "Bank - Company", "Bank – Employees".

  8. 7 CFR 982.40 - Marketing policy and volume regulation.

    2010-01-01

    ... the declared policy of the act, it shall compute and announce an inshell trade demand for that year... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy and volume regulation. 982.40 Section 982.40 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING...

  9. 42 CFR 403.201 - State regulation of insurance policies.

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false State regulation of insurance policies. 403.201 Section 403.201 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS SPECIAL PROGRAMS AND PROJECTS Medicare Supplemental Policies General Provisions...

  10. E-commerce and Regulation Policy

    Dragos Vasile

    2007-01-01

    E-commerce is a relatively new business field with a high potential of growth, thanks primarily to advantages provided to companies and consumers. At the same time, e-commerce raises technical and economic issues and problems to be solved, which are a concern for businesses, states and international organizations. The growth is accompanied by a need of regulation, including the observance of competition rules. The analysis of the practice in states with developed e-commerce markets highlights...

  11. Review of Policy Documents for Nuclear Safety and Regulation

    Kim, Woong Sik; Choi, Kwang Sik; Choi, Young Sung; Kim, Hho Jung; Kim, Ho Ki

    2006-01-01

    The goal of regulation is to protect public health and safety as well as environment from radiological hazards that may occur as a result of the use of atomic energy. In September 1994, the Korean government issued the Nuclear Safety Policy Statement (NSPS) to establish policy goals of maintaining and achieving high-level of nuclear safety and also help the public understand the national policy and a strong will of the government toward nuclear safety. It declares the importance of establishing safety culture in nuclear community and also specifies five nuclear regulatory principles (Independence, Openness, Clarity, Efficiency and Reliability) and provides the eleven regulatory policy directions. In 2001, the Nuclear Safety Charter was declared to make the highest goal of safety in driving nuclear business clearer; to encourage atomic energy- related institutions and workers to keep in mind the mission and responsibility for assuring safety; to guarantee public confidence in related organizations. The Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) also issues Yearly Regulatory Policy Directions at the beginning of every year. Recently, the third Atomic Energy Promotion Plan (2007-2011) has been established. It becomes necessary for the relevant organizations to prepare the detailed plans on such areas as nuclear development, safety management, regulation, etc. This paper introduces a multi-level structure of nuclear safety and regulation policy documents in Korea and presents some improvements necessary for better application of the policies

  12. Review of Policy Documents for Nuclear Safety and Regulation

    Kim, Woong Sik; Choi, Kwang Sik; Choi, Young Sung; Kim, Hho Jung; Kim, Ho Ki [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    The goal of regulation is to protect public health and safety as well as environment from radiological hazards that may occur as a result of the use of atomic energy. In September 1994, the Korean government issued the Nuclear Safety Policy Statement (NSPS) to establish policy goals of maintaining and achieving high-level of nuclear safety and also help the public understand the national policy and a strong will of the government toward nuclear safety. It declares the importance of establishing safety culture in nuclear community and also specifies five nuclear regulatory principles (Independence, Openness, Clarity, Efficiency and Reliability) and provides the eleven regulatory policy directions. In 2001, the Nuclear Safety Charter was declared to make the highest goal of safety in driving nuclear business clearer; to encourage atomic energy- related institutions and workers to keep in mind the mission and responsibility for assuring safety; to guarantee public confidence in related organizations. The Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) also issues Yearly Regulatory Policy Directions at the beginning of every year. Recently, the third Atomic Energy Promotion Plan (2007-2011) has been established. It becomes necessary for the relevant organizations to prepare the detailed plans on such areas as nuclear development, safety management, regulation, etc. This paper introduces a multi-level structure of nuclear safety and regulation policy documents in Korea and presents some improvements necessary for better application of the policies.

  13. Introducing a open-quote modular close-quote approach to fish screen installation

    Taft, E.P.; Winchell, F.C.; Cook, T.C.; Sullivan, C.W.

    1992-01-01

    A new fish screen design-the modular inclined screen-promises to offer a versatile and cost-effective solution for fish protection in many situation. In an effort to provide the hydroelectric industry with more cost-effective alternatives to existing fish screen designs, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) recently has undertaken several research projects. One focus of EPRI's research has been on the development and testing of high-velocity fish screens. This program has led to the development of a new screening concept, which shows promise for providing effective protection for a wide range of fish species at hydro plants, steam generating facilities, and irrigation diversions. The concept, known as the Modular Inclined Screen (MIS), currently is being evaluated in laboratory studies prior to field application. The screen is of open-quotes modularclose quotes design so as to provide the flexibility necessary for application at a broad range of water intakes. The module is suitable for installation in penstocks, canals, and head pond intakes. The MIS module consists of an entrance with a trashrack, dewatering stoplog slots, an inclined wedgewire screen set at a shallow angle of 10 to 20 degrees to the flow, and a bypass for diverting fish to a transport pipe. The screen is mounted on a pivot shaft so that it can be cleaned via rotation and backflushing. The module is completely enclosed, and is designed to operate at water velocities ranging from 2 to 10 feet per second depending on the fish species and life stages to be protected. Laboratory studies are under way to evaluate the design configuration that yields the best hydraulic conditions for safe fish passage, and the biological effectiveness of this design in diverting selected fish species to the bypass

  14. NPL deletion policy for RCRA-regulated TSD facilities finalized

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Under a new policy published by EPA on March 20, 1995, certain sites may be deleted from the National Priorities List (NPL) and deferred to RCRA corrective action. To be deleted from the NPL, a site must (1) be regulated under RCRA as a treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) facility and (2) meet the four criteria specified by EPA. The new NPL deletion policy, which does not pertain to federal TSD facilities, became effective on April 19, 1995. 1 tab

  15. Liquidity regulation and the implementation of monetary policy

    Morten L. Bech; Todd Keister

    2013-01-01

    In addition to revamping existing rules for bank capital, Basel III introduces a new global framework for liquidity regulation. One part of this framework is the liquidity coverage ratio (LCR), which requires banks to hold sufficient high-quality liquid assets to survive a 30-day period of market stress. As monetary policy typically involves targeting the interest rate on loans of one of these assets — central bank reserves — it is important to understand how this regulation may impact the ef...

  16. Expanding Access to Insurance by the Poor : Policy, Regulation and ...

    Expanding Access to Insurance by the Poor : Policy, Regulation and Supervision of Micro Insurance. This project aims to facilitate poor people's access to insurance products and services as a means of addressing their vulnerability to risk. It will do so by carrying out case studies in five countries. Potential candidates ...

  17. Environmental Policies, Product Market Regulation and Innovation in Renewable Energy

    Nesta, Lionel; Vona, Francesco; Nicolli, Francesco

    2012-10-01

    We investigate the effectiveness of policies in favor of innovation in renew- able energy under different levels of competition. Using information regarding renewable energy policies, product market regulation and high-quality green patents for OECD countries since the late 1970's, we develop a pre-sample mean count-data econometric specification that also accounts for the endogeneity of policies. We find that renewable energy policies are significantly more effective in fostering green innovation in countries with deregulated energy markets. We also find that public support for renewable energy is crucial only in the generation of high-quality green patents, whereas competition enhances the generation of green patents irrespective of their quality. (authors)

  18. Automated Vehicle Policy and Regulation: A State Perspective Workshop: Summary

    Young, Stanley E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Levine, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-06-01

    A workshop held on May 18, 2016, at the University of Maryland focused on key principles that should govern state policy decisions intended to ensure the safe operation of autonomous vehicles (AVs). The patchwork approach taken by early state adopters had primarily addressed only testing of these vehicles. As uncertainties in technology and business models play out, and in the absence of more suitable policies and regulations, states are relying on laws created for conventional vehicles to govern AV operations. The workshop addressed these challenges with three panel discussions that examined the underpinnings of policy development, factors affecting policy decisions, and the ultimate impact of AVs in a number of areas, including economic competitiveness; quality of mobility, particularly for disabled community; and energy use and emissions.

  19. Tobacco regulations and policies in the Eurasian Economic Union

    Andrei Konstantinovich Demin

    2017-05-01

    Differences between tobacco regulations and policies in the EAEU, EU and other supranational organizations should be further researched in order to promote exchange of best practices in WHO FCTC comprehensive compliance. Implementation of WHO FCTC Article 5.3. and involvement of civil society are among priorities. The practical prospects for the supranational EAEU to become a party to the WHO FCTC should be considered in detail.

  20. 76 FR 20368 - Llano Seco Riparian Sanctuary Unit Restoration and Pumping Plant/Fish Screen Facility Protection...

    2011-04-12

    ... Leader, Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge Complex, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 752 County Road 99W... old and eroding, it plays a key role in protecting the PCGID-PID pumping plant. As the bank erodes... interdisciplinary team began studies to examine measures to protect the PCGID-PID pumping plant and fish screen...

  1. 78 FR 16705 - Llano Seco Riparian Sanctuary Unit Restoration and Pumping Plant/Fish Screen Facility Protection...

    2013-03-18

    ...-FF08RSRC00] Llano Seco Riparian Sanctuary Unit Restoration and Pumping Plant/ Fish Screen Facility Protection... removal and management of invasive plant species would occur at the Riparian Sanctuary. No active... impact statement and environmental impact report (EIS/EIR) for the Llano Seco Riparian Sanctuary Unit...

  2. 78 FR 76317 - Llano Seco Riparian Sanctuary Unit Restoration and Pumping Plant/Fish Screen Facility Protection...

    2013-12-17

    ...-FF08RSRC00] Llano Seco Riparian Sanctuary Unit Restoration and Pumping Plant/ Fish Screen Facility Protection... and Wildlife (CDFW), announce that the record of decision (ROD) for the Llano Seco Riparian Sanctuary...: www.fws.gov/refuge/sacramento river/ and http://www.riverpartners.org/where-we-work/sanctuary...

  3. 77 FR 26569 - Llano Seco Riparian Sanctuary Unit Restoration and Pumping Plant/Fish Screen Facility Protection...

    2012-05-04

    ...-FF08RSRC00] Llano Seco Riparian Sanctuary Unit Restoration and Pumping Plant/ Fish Screen Facility Protection... would occur at the Riparian Sanctuary. No active restoration of native plants would occur. Maintenance... statement and environmental impact report (EIS/EIR) for the Llano Seco Riparian Sanctuary Unit Restoration...

  4. National policies and regulations for decommissioning nuclear facilities

    1993-07-01

    This report, though produced as a follow-up to Safety Series No. 105, The Regulatory Process for the Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities, is not primarily intended as guidance. Rather, its objective is to provide an overview of national decommissioning policies and regulatory practices as part of the background knowledge which is an essential precondition for good decision making. It discusses the reasons for the similarities and differences in national approach using specific examples but without giving preference to any particular scheme; it aims rather to provide factual, general information on the choices that have been or are being made, and why. As many Member States are in a transient situation between the case-by-case approach to decommissioning and the establishment of national policies, strategies and regulations, this seems the right moment to assess existing national practices worldwide and that is the purpose for which the document is issued at this time. The information gathered in this report is based on submissions by Member States which have developed or are in the process of developing decommissioning oriented policies and regulations. 29 refs

  5. Chemical regulation on fire: rapid policy advances on flame retardants.

    Cordner, Alissa; Mulcahy, Margaret; Brown, Phil

    2013-07-02

    Chemicals that are widely used in consumer products offer challenges to product manufacturers, risk managers, environmental regulators, environmental scientists, and the interested public. However, the factors that cause specific chemicals to rise to the level of regulatory, scientific, and social movement concern and scrutiny are not well documented, and scientists are frequently unclear about exactly how their research impacts policy. Through a case study of advocacy around flame retardant chemicals, this paper traces the pathways through which scientific evidence and concern is marshaled by both advocacy groups and media sources to affect policy change. We focus our analysis around a broad coalition of environmental and public health advocacy organizations and an investigative journalism series published in 2012 in the Chicago Tribune. We demonstrate that the Tribune series both brought the issue to a wider public audience and precipitated government action, including state policy revisions and federal Senate hearings. We also show how a broad and successful flame retardant coalition developed, leveraged a media event, and influenced policy at multiple institutional levels. The analysis draws on over 110 in-depth interviews, literature and Web site reviews, and observations at a flame retardant manufacturing company, government offices, and scientific and advocacy conferences.

  6. Illicit drugs policy through the lens of regulation.

    Ritter, Alison

    2010-07-01

    The application of regulatory theory to the problem of illicit drugs has generally been thought about only in terms of 'command and control'. The international treaties governing global illicit drug control and the use of law enforcement to dissuade and punish offenders have been primary strategies. In this paper I explore the application of other aspects of regulatory theory to illicit drugs-primarily self-regulation and market regulation. There has been an overreliance on strategies from the top of the regulatory pyramid. Two other regulatory strategies--self-regulation and market regulation--can be applied to illicit drugs. Self-regulation, driven by the proactive support of consumer groups may reduce drug-related harms. Market strategies such as pill-testing can change consumer preferences and encourage alternate seller behaviour. Regulatory theory is also concerned with partnerships between the state and third parties: strategies in these areas include partnerships between police and pharmacies regarding sale of potential precursor chemicals. Regulatory theory and practice is a rich and well-developed field in the social sciences. I argue that governments should consider the full array of regulatory strategies. Using regulatory theory provides a rationale and justification to strategies that are currently at the whim of politics, such as funding for user groups. The greater application of regulatory approaches may produce more flexible and structured illicit drug policies. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Oil price volatility, financial regulation and energy policy

    Chevalier, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    In October of 2009, the French Ministry of Economy asked the author to chair a work group on oil price volatility. The report resulting from that work was submitted to the minister on February 9, 2010. Based on the report, this article focuses on three major elements: (i) the operation of the oil market, with interacting physical basics and financial basics (ii) financial market regulation, more specifically commodities-derived product markets and current work in that area and (iii) the lessons one can draw from that exercise in terms of energy policy. Significant projects have been initiated on global, European and national levels. (author)

  8. E-cigarette regulation and policy: UK vapers' perspectives.

    Farrimond, Hannah

    2016-06-01

    The rapid increase in use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) has created an international policy dilemma concerning how to use these products. This study assesses the types of beliefs that e-cigarette users in the United Kingdom may hold concerning regulation. Qualitative thematic analysis of written answers to open-ended questions. United Kingdom, questionnaire conducted by post, 44% recruited from online forums and 56% non-online. Fifty-five UK vapers, 55% male, mean age 46 years, 84% sole users of e-cigarettes, 95% vaping daily. Open-ended questions on regulatory and policy options. 'Protecting youth' was seen as a fundamental regulatory requirement which should be achieved through childproofing, age limits, no advertising aimed at children and health warnings about addictiveness of nicotine, but not the restriction of flavours. There was little support for regulating e-cigarettes as medicines or limiting the strength of nicotine liquids. In terms of public use, participants argued against a blanket ban on public vaping given perceptions of a lack of scientific evidence of harm. However, they supported the principle of autonomy, that individuals and organizations have the right to restrict vaping. Some participants suggested banning vaping in places such as schools, hospitals or around food, in line with current smoking norms. Vapers' regulatory positions were accompanied by political concerns about the use (and misuse) of scientific evidence. With regard to regulation of e-cigarettes, issues that are salient to UK vapers may include the need for youth protection, regulation as medicines, strength of e-liquids, bans on public vaping and concerns about the misuse of scientific evidence. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  9. A Fisheries Evaluation of the Richland and Wapato Canal Fish Screening Facilities, Spring 1987 : Annual Report.

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Abernethy, C.Scott; Lusty, E.William; Wampler, Sally J.

    1988-02-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of new fish screening facilities at the Richland and Wapato canals in south-central Washington State. The screen integrity tests at the Richland Screens indicated that 100% of fall chinook salmon fry (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) released in front of the screens were prevented from entering the canal behind the screens. Our estimate is based on a 61% catch efficiency for control fish planted behind the screens. At the Wapato Canal, we estimated that between 3% and 4% of the test fish were either impinged on the screen surface and passed over the screens or passed through faulty screen seals. Our estimate is based over the screens or passed through faulty screen seals. Our estimate is based on a greater than 90% capture of control fish released in front of the screens. At the Wapato Screens, we estimated that 0.8% of steelhead smolts (Salmo gairdneri) and 1.4% of spring chinook salmon smolts released during low canal flow tests wee descaled. During full canal flow tests, 1.6% of the steelhead and 3.1% of the spring chinook salmon released were descaled. The fish return pipe at the Wapato Canal was tested: the estimate of descaled test fish wa not different from the estimate of descaled control fish. The time required for fish to exit from the Wapato Screen forebay varied with species and with canal flow. During low canal flows, 43.2% of steelhead and 61.6% of spring chinook salmon smolts released at the trash racks were captured in the fish return within 96 hr. 11 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  10. Analysis of Brazilian SHP policy and its regulation scenario

    Tiago Filho, Geraldo Lucio; Rocha Galhardo, Camila; Cassia Barbosa, Adriana de; Mambeli Barros, Regina; Gracas Braga da Silva, Fernando das

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the main regulatory changes that occurred in the Brazilian power sector in 2009, along with the impacts these changes caused on the market, especially related to small hydropower (<30 MW). This study addresses regulatory issues based on inventory studies and records of basic projects, changes related to the compensation of the assured energy of SHPs in the Brazilian energy reallocation market, the socio-economic impact resulting from the construction of SHPs, SHPs in alternative resource auctions and finally the general outlook for the growth scenario for SHPs in Brazil according to the ten-year plan (2010-2019). The overall conclusions of this investigation were that the 2008/2009 biennium was a period of great changes in the regulation of small hydropower plants in Brazil, and the SHP market has shown maturity. Additionally, despite SHP being a type of technology that is completely dominated by domestic industry, in recent years, they have experienced policy disincentives caused by changes to rules that inhibit their growth. - Highlights: → Main regulatory changes in Brazilian Power Sector that have occurred in 2009. → The impact of these changes caused on market, especially about SHPs (<30 MW). → The Brazilian growth scenario for SHPs according to the ten-year plan (2010-2019). → 2008/2009 biennium was a period of changes in the Brazilian regulation of SHPs. → SHP is a type of technology that is completely dominated by domestic industry.

  11. Evolution of the policy of legal regulation on public procurement in Lithuania

    Ambrazevičienė, Rima

    2004-01-01

    This article aims to present in overview of the evolution of the policy of legal regulations on public procurement in Lithuania in 1990-2004. The public procurement policy in this article is understood as the concept, principles and main aims of legal regulation on this sphere. According to some scientific researchers there are two major paradigm shifts of public procurement policy in the world - a shift from internal processes to value adding benefits and a shift to opening up of public purc...

  12. The Interdependence of Competition Policy, Consumer Policy and Regulation in Introducing and Safeguarding Effective Competition in the EU Telecommunications Market

    Bartels, Andreas; Pleșea, Doru Alexandru; Studeny, Michael; Just, Vanessa

    2017-01-01

    Currently, the European Union finds itself in troubled waters. It has to prove that its benefits outweigh the costs of its endeavour. In this respect, an EU competition policy that focuses on consumer welfare is one way to gain support by the citizens of its member states. The Roaming Regulation that has reduced the mobile communications costs while travelling abroad serves as a good example for this approach. The EU Commission views consumer policy as another important factor to protect and ...

  13. Renewable electricity in Sweden: an analysis of policy and regulations

    Wang Yan

    2006-01-01

    This study aims to analyse the developments in renewable energy policy making in Sweden. It assesses the energy policy context, changes in the choice of policy instruments, and provides explanations behind policy successes and failures. Swedish renewable energy policy has been developing in a context of uncertainty around nuclear issues. While there has been made a political decision to replace nuclear power with renewable s, there is a lack of consensus about the pace of phasing out nuclear power due to perceived negative impacts on industrial competitiveness. Such uncertainty had an effect in the formulation of renewable energy policy. Biomass and wind power are the main options for renewable electricity production. Throughout 1990s, the combined effect of different policy instruments has stimulated the growth of these two renewable sources. Yet, both biomass and wind power are still a minor contributor in the total electricity generation. Lack of strong government commitment due to uncertainty around nuclear issues is a crucial factor. Short-term subsidies have been preferred rather than open-ended subsidy mechanisms, causing intervals without subsidies and interruption to development. Other factors are such as lack of incentives from the major electricity companies and administrative obstacles. The taxation system has been successful in fostering an expansion of biomass for heating but hindered a similar development in the electricity sector. The quota system adopted in 2003 is expected to create high demand on biomass but does not favour wind power. The renewable energy aims are unlikely to be changed. Yet, the future development of renewable energy policies especially for high-cost technologies will again depend strongly on nuclear policies, which are still unstable and might affect the pace of renewable energy development

  14. Determinants of Renewable Energy Innovation: Environmental Policies vs. Market Regulation

    Vona, Francesco; Nesta, Lionel; Nicolli, Francesco

    2012-02-01

    This paper carries out a comprehensive analysis of renewable energy innovations considering four mechanisms suggested by innovation models: 1. policy-inducement; 2. market structure; 3. demand and social cohesion- mainly proxied by income inequality; 4. characteristics of country knowledge base. For OECD countries and years 1970-2005, we build a unique dataset containing time-varying information on quality-adjusted patent production in renewable energy, the latter being a function of environmental policies, green R and D, entry barriers, knowledge stock, knowledge diversity and income inequality. We develop count data models using the Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) to account for endogeneity of policy support. Our synthetic policy index positively affects innovations especially in countries with deregulated energy markets and low entry barriers. The effect of entry barriers and inequality is negative and of similar magnitude as that of policy. Product market liberalization positively affects green patent generation, especially so when ambitious policies are adopted, when the initial level of public R and D expenditures and when the initial share of distributed energy generation is high. Our results are robust to alternative specifications, to the inclusion of technology-specific effects and to the use of quality-adjusted patents as dependent variables. In the latter case, the estimated effect of lowering entry barriers and of knowledge diversity almost double on citation count relatively to patent count. (authors)

  15. Regulation of alcohol advertising: Policy options for Australia

    Sandra C. Jones

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A systematic search of academic databases was conducted to identify all refereed papers published between 1990 and 2012 on the regulation of alcohol advertising in Australia and three comparison countries (New Zealand, Canada and the UK. This paper reviews the codes that apply to alcohol advertising in each of the four countries, research into the effectiveness of these codes, and the small body of research into consumer attitudes towards alcohol advertising regulation. This review adduces considerable evidence that alcohol advertising influences drinking behaviours, and that current regulatory systems based on co-regulation and voluntary regulation (as is the case in Australia are ineffective. Recommendations are provided regarding the three pillars of regulation: volume restrictions, content restrictions, and infrastructure to support the regulatory environment.

  16. A New Regulation Policy for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Material

    Kim, K. H.; Kim, M. S.; Ahn, S. H. [Korea Institute of Nuclear nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Nuclear Safety and Security Commission(NSSC) has amended two public notices about the regulation of nuclear material accounting and control(NMAC). Those notices were declared in November 2014 and entry into force since 2015. According to this legislation, a new type of NMAC inspection system was introduced and facility rules for NMAC approved by the government should be revised subsequently. These changes were one of the preemptive actions to cope with the emergence of new international safeguards policy and increasing demand on advanced nuclear technology. Generally, the regulation policy affects the nuclear business including research and development. Therefore, understanding of the new policy and its making process may help stakeholders to minimize unnecessary financial and operational burden. This study describes background, features, and institutionalization of the new regulation policy for NMAC. The new regulation policy for NMAC was established and institutionalized to preemptively cope with the internal and external demand on 'better' national system of accounting and control of nuclear material. This new policy and regulation system may call not only the regulator but also nuclear business operators for new works to make their system more effective and efficient.

  17. A New Regulation Policy for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Material

    Kim, K. H.; Kim, M. S.; Ahn, S. H.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear Safety and Security Commission(NSSC) has amended two public notices about the regulation of nuclear material accounting and control(NMAC). Those notices were declared in November 2014 and entry into force since 2015. According to this legislation, a new type of NMAC inspection system was introduced and facility rules for NMAC approved by the government should be revised subsequently. These changes were one of the preemptive actions to cope with the emergence of new international safeguards policy and increasing demand on advanced nuclear technology. Generally, the regulation policy affects the nuclear business including research and development. Therefore, understanding of the new policy and its making process may help stakeholders to minimize unnecessary financial and operational burden. This study describes background, features, and institutionalization of the new regulation policy for NMAC. The new regulation policy for NMAC was established and institutionalized to preemptively cope with the internal and external demand on 'better' national system of accounting and control of nuclear material. This new policy and regulation system may call not only the regulator but also nuclear business operators for new works to make their system more effective and efficient

  18. South African law and policy regulating learner absenteeism

    Packard Bell

    Department of Psychology of Education, College of Education, University of ... Keywords: ecosystemic theory; learner absenteeism; management approach; South African law and policy ..... learners, but can also be cultural and systemic ..... tesis. Pretoria, Suid-Afrika: Universiteit van Suid-. Afrika. Beskikbaar te .... Phd thesis.

  19. South African law and policy regulating learner absenteeism

    Packard Bell

    Learner absenteeism often occurs involuntarily due to learners' social and economic circumstances. ..... still a child; e.g. under 18 years of age, and ... schools to take the age and maturity of the ... 5). The Policy on Learner Attendance (DBE, RSA,. 2010, para. 13(i)) allows the ..... Emotional literacy and the ecology of.

  20. Towards EU Cybersecurity Law: Regulating a New Policy Field

    Wessel, Ramses A.; Tsagourias, Nicholas; Buchan, Russell

    2015-01-01

    EU cybersecurity forms a prime example of an area in which both internal and external (global as well as bilateral) policies are connected and in which the different legal competences of the Union need to be combined. Over the past decade the European Union started to take its first careful steps in

  1. The cofiring problem of a power plant under policy regulations

    Kangas, Hanna-Liisa; Lintunen, Jussi; Uusivuori, Jussi

    2009-01-01

    Cofiring of fossil and renewable fuels can contribute to reaching tightening climate and renewable energy goals. The increase in biomass share in cofiring decreases the use of fossil fuel and increases renewable energy production. We study how energy and climate policies promote that increase. First, we present and solve an electricity producer's profit-maximization problem with detailed technical description of cofiring. We then study the effectiveness of policy instruments (e.g. feed-in laws and emission trading) on biomass utilization in cofiring. The study offers a novel approach to explore the cofiring problem, because of the endogenous fuel choice combined with the policy analysis. We study two different power plants that are located in two different European electricity market areas. Our analysis shows that both feed-in tariff and feed-in premium can have unexpected weaknesses, when they are introduced together with emission trading. Therefore decision-makers should be well informed and cautious when introducing these policies. (author)

  2. Radiopharmaceutical regulation and Food and Drug Administration policy.

    Rotman, M; Laven, D; Levine, G

    1996-04-01

    The regulatory policy of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on radiopharmaceuticals flows from a rigid, traditional, drug-like interpretation of the FDC Act on the licensing of radiopharmaceuticals. This contributes to significant delays in the drug-approval process for radiopharmaceuticals, which are very costly to the nuclear medicine community and the American public. It seems that radiopharmaceuticals would be better characterized as molecular devices. Good generic rule-making principles include: use of a risk/benefit/cost analysis; intent based on sound science; performance standards prepared by outside experts; a definite need shown by the regulatory agency; to live with the consequences of any erroneous cost estimates; and design individual credential requirements so that additional training results in enhanced professional responsibility. When these common elements are applied to current FDA policy, it seems that the agency is out of sync with the stated goals for revitalizing federal regulatory policies as deemed necessary by the Clinton administration. Recent FDA rulings on positron-emission tomography, Patient Package inserts, and on medical device service accentuate the degree of such asynchronization. Radiopharmaceutical review and licensing flexibility could be dramatically improved by excluding radiopharmaceuticals from the drug category and reviewing them as separate entities. This new category would take into account their excellent record of safety and their lack of pharmacological action. Additionally, their evaluation of efficacy should be based on their ability to provide useful scintiphotos, data, or responses of the physiological system it portends to image, quantitate, or describe. To accomplish the goal of transforming the FDA's rigid, prescriptive policy into a streamlined flexible performance-based policy, the Council on Radionuclides and Radiopharmaceuticals proposal has been presented. In addition, it is suggested that the United

  3. Policy and network regulation for the integration of distribution generation and renewables for electricity supply

    Ten Donkelaar, M.; Van Oostvoorn, F.

    2005-08-01

    This study has analysed the existing policy and regulation aimed at the integration of an increased share of Distributed Generation (DG) in electricity supply systems in the European Union. It illustrates the state of the art and progress in the development of support mechanisms and network regulation for large-scale integration of DG. Through a benchmark study a systematic comparison has been made of different DG support schemes and distribution network regulation in EU Member States to a predefined standard, the level playing field. This level playing field has been defined as the situation where energy markets, policy and regulation provide neutral incentives to central versus distributed generation, which results in an economically more efficient electricity supply to the consumer. In current regulation and policy a certain discrepancy can be noticed between the actual regulation and policy support systems in a number of countries, the medium to long term targets and the ideal situation described according to the level playing field objective. Policies towards DG and RES are now mainly aimed at removing short-term barriers, increasing the production share of DG/RES, but often ignoring the more complex barriers of integrating DG/RES that is created by the economic network regulation in current electricity markets

  4. The effects of regulation, legislation and policy on consumption of edible insects in the global world

    Wilderspin, Dana Elisabeth; Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz

    2018-01-01

    With an expanding edible insect industry, regulators, legislators, and policy-makers face increasingly difficult decisions regarding trade, production, harvesting, and consumption. It is becoming clearer that no panacea or one-size-fits-all solutions exist for regulating the industry, and that so...

  5. How Does Environmental Regulation Affect Industrial Transformation? A Study Based on the Methodology of Policy Simulation

    Wei Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The difference of factor input structure determines different response to environmental regulation. This paper constructs a theoretical model including environmental regulation, factor input structure, and industrial transformation and conducts a policy simulation based on the difference of influencing mechanism of environmental regulation considering industrial heterogeneity. The findings show that the impact of environmental regulation on industrial transformation presents comparison of distortion effect of resource allocation and technology effect. Environmental regulation will promote industrial transformation when technology effect of environmental regulation is stronger than distortion effect of resource allocation. Particularly, command-control environmental regulation has a significant incentive effect and spillover effect of technological innovation on cleaning industries, but these effects do not exist in pollution-intensive industries. Command-control environmental regulation promotes industrial transformation. The result of simulation showed that environmental regulation of market incentives is similar to that of command-control.

  6. Energy policy study. Volume 10. Nuclear power regulation

    Nikodem, Z.D.; Reynolds, A.W.; Clark, R.G.

    1980-05-01

    This report examines the programs for regulating the safety, design, and operation of domestic nuclear power plants. The first part of the study describes the Federal and State regulatory procedures. It describes the legal foundations for the Federal licensing process and the associated State regulatory activities. It then analyzes the aspects of these procedures that affect the cost and supply of nuclear-generated electricity. The second part of this study examines the effects of nuclear safety regulations on the planning and construction lead time for nuclear power stations, the cost of nuclear power, and, ultimately, the decision to invest in nuclear power

  7. MODERN APPROACHES TO THE IMPLEMENTATION OF MONETARY POLICY AND THE REGULATION OF FINANCIAL SYSTEMS

    Radu CUHAL

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study determines the modern approaches to the implementation of monetary policy and regulation of financial systems. Set of measures to prevent and overcome the financial crisis is grounded taking into consideration different areas of research and the IMF. New tasks of monetary policy in central banks are specified and they are intended to ensure the financial stability of the state (within the common fiscal policy. The main directions of elaboration and implementation of new monetary policy mechanism, which is intended to ensure the effective solution of problems in macro prudential supervision and financial stability, are examined.

  8. Modern approaches to the implementation of monetary policy and the regulation of financial systems

    Basistîi Nicolae

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study determines the modern approaches to the implementation of monetary policy and regulation of financial systems. Set of measures to prevent and overcome the financial crisis is grounded taking into consideration different areas of research and the IMF.New tasks of monetary policy in central banks are specified and they are intended to ensure the financial stability of the state (within the common fiscal policy.The main directions of elaboration and implementation of new monetary policy mechanism, which is intended to ensure the effective solution of problems in macro prudential supervision and financial stability, are examined.

  9. Access to Orphan Drugs: A Comprehensive Review of Legislations, Regulations and Policies in 35 Countries

    Gammie, Todd

    2015-01-01

    Objective To review existing regulations and policies utilised by countries to enable patient access to orphan drugs. Methods A review of the literature (1998 to 2014) was performed to identify relevant, peer-reviewed articles. Using content analysis, we synthesised regulations and policies for access to orphan drugs by type and by country. Results Fifty seven articles and 35 countries were included in this review. Six broad categories of regulation and policy instruments were identified: national orphan drug policies, orphan drug designation, marketing authorization, incentives, marketing exclusivity, and pricing and reimbursement. The availability of orphan drugs depends on individual country’s legislation and regulations including national orphan drug policies, orphan drug designation, marketing authorization, marketing exclusivity and incentives such as tax credits to ensure research, development and marketing. The majority of countries (27/35) had in place orphan drug legislation. Access to orphan drugs depends on individual country’s pricing and reimbursement policies, which varied widely between countries. High prices and insufficient evidence often limit orphan drugs from meeting the traditional health technology assessment criteria, especially cost-effectiveness, which may influence access. Conclusions Overall many countries have implemented a combination of legislations, regulations and policies for orphan drugs in the last two decades. While these may enable the availability and access to orphan drugs, there are critical differences between countries in terms of range and types of legislations, regulations and policies implemented. Importantly, China and India, two of the largest countries by population size, both lack national legislation for orphan medicines and rare diseases, which could have substantial negative impacts on their patient populations with rare diseases. PMID:26451948

  10. Access to Orphan Drugs: A Comprehensive Review of Legislations, Regulations and Policies in 35 Countries.

    Gammie, Todd; Lu, Christine Y; Babar, Zaheer Ud-Din

    2015-01-01

    To review existing regulations and policies utilised by countries to enable patient access to orphan drugs. A review of the literature (1998 to 2014) was performed to identify relevant, peer-reviewed articles. Using content analysis, we synthesised regulations and policies for access to orphan drugs by type and by country. Fifty seven articles and 35 countries were included in this review. Six broad categories of regulation and policy instruments were identified: national orphan drug policies, orphan drug designation, marketing authorization, incentives, marketing exclusivity, and pricing and reimbursement. The availability of orphan drugs depends on individual country's legislation and regulations including national orphan drug policies, orphan drug designation, marketing authorization, marketing exclusivity and incentives such as tax credits to ensure research, development and marketing. The majority of countries (27/35) had in place orphan drug legislation. Access to orphan drugs depends on individual country's pricing and reimbursement policies, which varied widely between countries. High prices and insufficient evidence often limit orphan drugs from meeting the traditional health technology assessment criteria, especially cost-effectiveness, which may influence access. Overall many countries have implemented a combination of legislations, regulations and policies for orphan drugs in the last two decades. While these may enable the availability and access to orphan drugs, there are critical differences between countries in terms of range and types of legislations, regulations and policies implemented. Importantly, China and India, two of the largest countries by population size, both lack national legislation for orphan medicines and rare diseases, which could have substantial negative impacts on their patient populations with rare diseases.

  11. Access to Orphan Drugs: A Comprehensive Review of Legislations, Regulations and Policies in 35 Countries.

    Todd Gammie

    Full Text Available To review existing regulations and policies utilised by countries to enable patient access to orphan drugs.A review of the literature (1998 to 2014 was performed to identify relevant, peer-reviewed articles. Using content analysis, we synthesised regulations and policies for access to orphan drugs by type and by country.Fifty seven articles and 35 countries were included in this review. Six broad categories of regulation and policy instruments were identified: national orphan drug policies, orphan drug designation, marketing authorization, incentives, marketing exclusivity, and pricing and reimbursement. The availability of orphan drugs depends on individual country's legislation and regulations including national orphan drug policies, orphan drug designation, marketing authorization, marketing exclusivity and incentives such as tax credits to ensure research, development and marketing. The majority of countries (27/35 had in place orphan drug legislation. Access to orphan drugs depends on individual country's pricing and reimbursement policies, which varied widely between countries. High prices and insufficient evidence often limit orphan drugs from meeting the traditional health technology assessment criteria, especially cost-effectiveness, which may influence access.Overall many countries have implemented a combination of legislations, regulations and policies for orphan drugs in the last two decades. While these may enable the availability and access to orphan drugs, there are critical differences between countries in terms of range and types of legislations, regulations and policies implemented. Importantly, China and India, two of the largest countries by population size, both lack national legislation for orphan medicines and rare diseases, which could have substantial negative impacts on their patient populations with rare diseases.

  12. Limits of self-regulation in international phytosanitary policy

    Rau, M.L.; Bremmers, H.J.; Szajkowska, A.; Bakker, de E.; Bremmer, J.

    2012-01-01

    In accordance with international agreements, phytosanitary regulations from standard setting to conformity assessment and monitoring have been assigned a public task which is carried out by government authorities. The private sector needs to comply with these phytosanitary requirements, and it is

  13. Spatial Regulation, Politics of Access and Informal economic Policy ...

    ... to draw attention to the political contestation over space. The city was 'invaded' and 'conquered' by traders who were formerly excluded (Nesvag, 2000, 2001; Tsoeu, 2003). At the same time, attention is drawn to the current attempts by city managers to control and regulate this contested space in an environment of flux.

  14. CUSTOMS POLICY, CUSTOMS BUSINESS, CUSTOMS REGULATION: TO PROBLEM OF CONCEPTION CORRELATIONS

    A. D. Molokovich; K. N. Shabeka

    2010-01-01

    Theoretical and methodological comprehension of customs regulation place and role in provision of trade and transport activity under conditions of world integration processes is considered in the paper.The essence of such economic categories as «customs policy», «customs regulation», «customs and tariff regulation», «customs business» is ascertained with the help of justified argumentation, clear conception approaches.

  15. Development and utilization of the NRC policy statement on the regulation of advanced nuclear power plants

    Williams, P.M.; King, T.L.

    1988-06-01

    On March 26, 1985, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued for public comment a ''Proposed Policy for Regulation of Advanced Nuclear Power Plants'' (50 FR 11884). This report presents and discusses the Commission's final version of that policy as titled and published on July 8, 1986 ''Regulation of Advanced Nuclear Power Plants, Statement of Policy'' (51 FR 24643). It provides an overview of comments received from the public, of the significant changes from the proposed Policy Statement to the final Policy Statement, and of the Commission's response to six questions contained in the proposed Policy Statement. The report also discusses the definition for advanced reactors, the establishment of an Advanced Reactors Group, the staff review approach and information needs, and the utilization of the Policy Statement in relation to other NRC programs, including the policies for safety goals, severe accidents and standardization. In addition, guidance for advanced reactors with respect to operating experience, technology development, foreign information and data, and prototype testing is provided. Finally, a discussion on the use of less prescriptive and nonprescriptive design criteria for advanced reactors, which the Policy Statement encourages, is presented

  16. 78 FR 22771 - Statement of Policy on the Development and Review of Regulations and Policies

    2013-04-17

    ... the basic principles that guide the FDIC in its promulgation and review of regulations and written... basic principles which guide the FDIC's promulgation and review of regulations and written statements of... Housing Finance Agency) has become more common. Some rulemakings also require consultation with the...

  17. Environmental policies and regulations on the electricity market in EC

    Boucher, J.

    1990-01-01

    The use of natural resources like ground and water, the emissions of noxious gases and particles, the thermal rejections, the production of waste and the noise are the main environmental impacts associated with the production of electricity. Emission regulations and standards have been selected so far by the European Community (EC) and the different Member States to deal with the abatement problem. They simply consist in defining some ceilings or regulations for the different types of noxious gases and particles which are emitted by power plants and forcing the power generation companies to comply with these norms within some pre-determined time period. They can also take the form of a general constraint on the sulfur content of the fuel, for example. Tables of emission limits for various gases from existing and new plants are presented. 3 figs., 8 tabs

  18. Nitrates in ground and drinking water: analysis of policies and regulations

    Conrad, J

    1986-05-01

    On the societal level, risks are the result of collective processes of definition. Accepted risks are mainly the output and secondarily the (scientific) input of these processes. As a consequence, in this paper the question of risk management of the nitrate burden to ground and drinking water is analysed within the framework of comparative policy analysis. Various actors pursue their respective interests in different policy arenas within the given rules of the policy game. The impacts of the policy outputs on the policy addressees, namely farmers and water companies, (substantially) determine the level of actual risk. Different national regulatory styles and traditions towards nitrate regulation shape the policy outputs. Consequently, the assumption or normative postulate of a rational (scientific) risk assessment and risk management appears to be utterly heroic and, in the end, misleading.

  19. Morals or markets? Regulating assisted reproductive technologies as morality or economic policies in the states.

    Heidt-Forsythe, Erin

    2017-01-01

    The availability of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) in the medical marketplace complicates our understanding of reproductive public policy in the United States. Political debates over ARTs often are based on fundamental moral principles of life, reproduction, and kinship, similar to other reproductive policies in the United States. However, ARTs are an important moneymaking private enterprise for the U.S. biotechnology industry. This project investigates how the U.S. states regulate these unique and challenging technologies as either moral policies or economic policies. This study employs ordinary least squares (OLS) regression to estimate the significance of morality and economic policy variables on ART policies at the state level, noting associations between state-level political, economic, and gender variables on restrictive and permissive state-level ART policies. Economic variables (reflecting the biotechnology industry) and advocacy for access to ART on behalf of infertility patients increase the chances of states passing policies that enable consumer use of ARTs. Additionally, individual ART policies are distinct from one another in the ways that morality variables increase the chances of ART regulations. Surprisingly, the role of religious adherence among state residents varied in positive and negative relationships with individual policy passage. In general, these results support the hypothesis that ART laws are associated with economic as well as moral concerns of the states-ARTs lie at the intersection of issues of life and reproduction and of scientific innovation and health. What is most striking about these results is that they do not follow patterns seen in the legislation of abortion, contraception, and sexuality in general-those reproductive policies that are considered "morality policy." Similarly, economic variables are not consistently significant in the expected direction.

  20. Impact, regulation and health policy implications of physician migration in OECD countries

    Simoens Steven

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the face of rising demand for medical services due to ageing populations, physician migration flows are increasingly affecting the supply of physicians in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and development (OECD countries. This paper offers an integrated perspective on the impact of physician migration on home and host countries and discusses international regulation and policy approaches governing physician migration. Methods Information about migration flows, international regulation and policies governing physician migration were derived from two questionnaires sent to OECD countries, a secondary analysis of EUROSTAT Labour Force Surveys, a literature review and official policy documents of OECD countries. Results OECD countries increasingly perceive immigration of foreign physicians as a way of sustaining their physician workforce. As a result, countries have entered into international agreements regulating physician migration, although their success has been limited due to the imposition of licensing requirements and the protection of vested interests by domestic physicians. OECD countries have therefore adopted specific policies designed to stimulate the immigration of foreign physicians, whilst minimising its negative impact on the home country. Measures promoting immigration have included international recruitment campaigns, less strict immigration requirements and arrangements that foster shared learning between health care systems. Policies restricting the societal costs of physician emigration from developing countries such as good practice guidelines and taxes on host countries have not yet produced their expected effect or in some cases have not been established at all. Conclusions Although OECD countries generally favour long-term policies of national self-sufficiency to sustain their physician workforce, such policies usually co-exist with short-term or medium-term policies to attract foreign physicians

  1. The Interdependence of Competition Policy, Consumer Policy and Regulation in Introducing and Safeguarding Effective Competition in the EU Telecommunications Market

    Andreas Bartels

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the European Union finds itself in troubled waters. It has to prove that its benefits outweigh the costs of its endeavour. In this respect, an EU competition policy that focuses on consumer welfare is one way to gain support by the citizens of its member states. The Roaming Regulation that has reduced the mobile communications costs while travelling abroad serves as a good example for this approach. The EU Commission views consumer policy as another important factor to protect and benefit customers. In markets with natural monopolies, the two policies require the support of an effective regulatory policy. The research demonstrates that these three policies – if harmonised – are able to lead to an increase in consumer welfare (primarily by reducing prices and that they protect the rights and interests of consumers. In the case of telecommunications, several initiatives of the European Commission and of national regulatory authorities to falls in prices and forced operators to implement customer friendly rules and to protect customer data and privacy. The authors consider that the European Commission has tried to establish and harmonise rules across all member states in order to protect the interests and rights of consumers on the telecommunication market. The enforcement of competition and consumer policy within institutions from the telecom field certainly could promote the focus on consumers and the possibility to use a large “toolbox”. Harmonising and adjusting the policies across different countries and institutions and minimising any possible side effects is nevertheless a challenging task for the EU Commission in the future.

  2. Cognitive radio policy and regulation techno-economic studies to facilitate dynamic spectrum access

    Holland, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    This book offers a timely reflection on how the proliferation of advanced wireless communications technologies, particularly cognitive radio (CR) can be enabled by thoroughly-considered policy and appropriate regulation. It looks at the prospects of CR from the divergent standpoints of technological development and economic market reality. The book provides a broad survey of various techno-economic and policy aspects of CR development, and provides the reader with an understanding of the complexities involved as well as a toolbox of possible solutions to enable the evolutionary leap towards successful implementation of disruptive CR technology or indeed any other novel wireless technologies. Cognitive Radio Policy and Regulation showcases the original ideas and concepts introduced into the field of CR and dynamic spectrum access policy over nearly four years of work within COST Action IC0905 TERRA, a think-tank with participants from more than 20 countries. The book’s subject matter includes: • deploymen...

  3. The European Union, Financial Crises and the Regulation of Hedge Funds: A Policy Cul-de-Sac or Policy Window?

    David John Lutton

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A series of financial crises involving hedge funds has created a general perception that action needs to be taken. A number of key member states and political actors favour tighter regulation. Traditional bureaucratic theory suggests that the European Commission would seek to maximise this ‘policy window’, and yet there remains no single unified European Union (EU regulatory framework specifically targeting hedge funds. The nature of the regulatory regime, which has generally demanded a ‘light touch’ approach, means there are strict limits the EU’s ability to act. From an EU perspective, hedge fund regulation appears to be a policy cul-de-sac. However, the relationship between hedge funds and financial crisis is complex and less straightforward than is often portrayed. Hedge fund regulation cannot, however, be considered in isolation but should be viewed in the context of a wider programme to integrate European financial services markets. Viewed from this perspective, EU regulation is in fact changing the landscape of the hedge fund industry through a process of negative integration.

  4. A Fisheries Evaluation of the Richland and Toppenish/Satus Canal Fish Screening Facilities, Spring 1986 Annual Report.

    Neitzel, D.A.; Abernethy, C. Scott; Lusty, E. William

    1987-05-01

    The fisheries evaluation phase of diversion screen effectiveness summarizes the results of work at the Richland and Toppenish/Satus Fish screening facilities (Richland Screens and Toppenish/Satus Screens) during 1986. More than 10,000 steelhead, Salmo gairdneri, and chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, were released at the screen diversions. At the Richland Screens, 61% of the released steelhead were recovered and 1.1% were descaled; 93% of the spring chinook salmon were recovered and less than 1% were descaled. At the Toppenish/Satus Screens, only steelhead were evaluated for descaling; 88.9% were recovered and 23.9% were descaled. Only steelhead were evaluated because the Yakima River fisheries managers did not expect any other smolts to occur in Toppenish Creek. Because of the acclimation conditions and the amount of time the fish had to be held before testing, some of the test population were descaled during holding and transportation. The 23.9% descaling for the test fish was compared to 26.4% for the controls.

  5. Appetite self-regulation: Environmental and policy influences on eating behaviors.

    Schwartz, Marlene B; Just, David R; Chriqui, Jamie F; Ammerman, Alice S

    2017-03-01

    Appetite regulation is influenced by the environment, and the environment is shaped by food-related policies. This review summarizes the environment and policy research portion of an NIH Workshop (Bethesda, MD, 2015) titled "Self-Regulation of Appetite-It's Complicated." In this paper, we begin by making the case for why policy is an important tool in efforts to improve nutrition, and we introduce an ecological framework that illustrates the multiple layers that influence what people eat. We describe the state of the science on how policies influence behavior in several key areas: the federal food programs, schools, child care, food and beverage pricing, marketing to youth, behavioral economics, and changing defaults. Next, we propose novel approaches for multidisciplinary prevention and intervention strategies to promote breastfeeding, and examine interactions between psychology and the environment. Policy and environmental change are the most distal influences on individual-level appetite regulation, yet these strategies can reach many people at once by changing the environment in which food choices are made. We note the need for more research to understand compensatory behavior, reactance, and how to effectively change social norms. To move forward, we need a more sophisticated understanding of how individual psychological and biological factors interact with the environment and policy influences. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  6. Sustainable Trade Credit and Replenishment Policies under the Cap-And-Trade and Carbon Tax Regulations

    Juanjuan Qin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the sustainable trade credit and inventory policies with demand related to credit period and the environmental sensitivity of consumers under the carbon cap-and-trade and carbon tax regulations. First, the decision models are constructed under three cases: without regulation, carbon cap-and-trade regulation, and carbon tax regulation. The optimal solutions of the retailer in the three cases are then discussed under the exogenous and endogenous credit periods. Finally, numerical analysis is conducted to obtain conclusions. The retailer shortens the trade credit period as the environmental sensitivity of the consumer is enhanced. The cap has no effects on the credit period decisions under the carbon cap-and-trade regulation. Carbon trade price and carbon tax have negative effects on the credit period. The retailer under carbon cap-and-trade regulation is more motivated to obey regulations than that under carbon tax regulation when carbon trade price equals carbon tax. Carbon regulations have better effects on carbon emission reduction than with exogenous credit term when the retailer has the power to decide with regards credit policies.

  7. Broadband ICT policies in Southern Africa: Initiatives and dynamic spectrum regulation

    Olwal, T

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available regulatory agencies. These ICT regulatory agencies had been established with the aim of liberalizing the telecommunications sector to ensure that governments are not the direct providers of telecom services, but the regulators [1]. Moreover, due to out... goals demand liberal and dynamic spectrum regulation policies designed at a country level and more importantly across a majority of countries in the same region. This paper highlights various initiatives aimed at formulating the all...

  8. Stakeholder perspectives on national policy for regulating the school food environment in Mexico.

    Monterrosa, Eva C; Campirano, Fabricio; Tolentino Mayo, Lizbeth; Frongillo, Edward A; Hernández Cordero, Sonia; Kaufer-Horwitz, Martha; Rivera, Juan A

    2015-02-01

    In Mexico, the school environment has been promoting sale of unhealthy foods. There is little empirical evidence on multi-stakeholder perspectives around national school food policy to regulate this. We studied stakeholders' perspectives on the proposed regulation for school sale of unhealthy foods. Comments about the regulation were available from an open consultation process held in June 2010 before the approval and implementation of the regulation. To examine perspectives, we coded 597 comments for beliefs, expectations and demands in NVivo. We created matrices by actors: academics, parents, citizens, health professionals and food industry. For academics, citizens and health professionals, the primary issue regarding the regulation was obesity, while for parents it was health of children. Academics, citizens, health professionals and parents believed that government was responsible for health of citizens, expected that this regulation would improve eating habits and health (i.e. less obesity and chronic diseases), and demanded that unhealthy foods be removed from schools. Parents demanded immediate action for school food policy that would protect their children. Citizens and health professionals demanded nutrition education and healthy food environment. Food industry opposed the regulation because it would not solve obesity or improve diet and physical activity behaviours. Instead, industry would lose income and jobs. Food industry demanded policy aimed at families that included nutrition education and physical activity. There was substantial consensus in narratives and perspectives for most actor types, with the primary narrative being the food environment followed by shared responsibility. Food industry rejected both these narratives, espousing instead the narrative of personal responsibility. Consensus among most actor groups supports the potential success of implementation of the regulation in Mexican schools. With regard to addressing childhood obesity

  9. Emotion regulation as the foundation of political attitudes: does reappraisal decrease support for conservative policies?

    Jooa Julia Lee

    Full Text Available Cognitive scientists, behavior geneticists, and political scientists have identified several ways in which emotions influence political attitudes, and psychologists have shown that emotion regulation can have an important causal effect on physiology, cognition, and subjective experience. However, no work to date explores the possibility that emotion regulation may shape political ideology and attitudes toward policies. Here, we conduct four studies that investigate the role of a particular emotion regulation strategy--reappraisal in particular. Two observational studies show that individual differences in emotion regulation styles predict variation in political orientations and support for conservative policies. In the third study, we experimentally induce disgust as the target emotion to be regulated and show that use of reappraisal reduces the experience of disgust, thereby decreasing moral concerns associated with conservatism. In the final experimental study, we show that use of reappraisal successfully attenuates the relationship between trait-level disgust sensitivity and support for conservative policies. Our findings provide the first evidence of a critical link between emotion regulation and political attitudes.

  10. Emotion Regulation as the Foundation of Political Attitudes: Does Reappraisal Decrease Support for Conservative Policies?

    Lee, Jooa Julia; Sohn, Yunkyu; Fowler, James H.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive scientists, behavior geneticists, and political scientists have identified several ways in which emotions influence political attitudes, and psychologists have shown that emotion regulation can have an important causal effect on physiology, cognition, and subjective experience. However, no work to date explores the possibility that emotion regulation may shape political ideology and attitudes toward policies. Here, we conduct four studies that investigate the role of a particular emotion regulation strategy – reappraisal in particular. Two observational studies show that individual differences in emotion regulation styles predict variation in political orientations and support for conservative policies. In the third study, we experimentally induce disgust as the target emotion to be regulated and show that use of reappraisal reduces the experience of disgust, thereby decreasing moral concerns associated with conservatism. In the final experimental study, we show that use of reappraisal successfully attenuates the relationship between trait-level disgust sensitivity and support for conservative policies. Our findings provide the first evidence of a critical link between emotion regulation and political attitudes. PMID:24367583

  11. Of risks and regulations: how leading U.S. nanoscientists form policy stances about nanotechnology

    Corley, Elizabeth A., E-mail: elizabeth.corley@asu.ed [Arizona State University, School of Public Affairs (United States); Scheufele, Dietram A. [University of Wisconsin, Department of Life Sciences Communication (United States); Hu Qian [Arizona State University, School of Public Affairs (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Even though there is a high degree of scientific uncertainty about the risks of nanotechnology, many scholars have argued that policy-making cannot be placed on hold until risk assessments are complete (Faunce, Med J Aust 186(4):189-191, 2007; Kuzma, J Nanopart Res 9(1):165-182, 2007; O'Brien and Cummins, Hum Ecol Risk Assess 14(3):568-592, 2008; Powell et al., Environ Manag 42(3):426-443, 2008). In the absence of risk assessment data, decision makers often rely on scientists' input about risks and regulation to make policy decisions. The research we present here goes beyond the earlier descriptive studies about nanotechnology regulation to explore the heuristics that the leading U.S. nanoscientists use when they make policy decisions about regulating nanotechnology. In particular, we explore the relationship between nanoscientists' risk and benefit perceptions and their support for nanotech regulation. We conclude that nanoscientists are more supportive of regulating nanotechnology when they perceive higher levels of risks; yet, their perceived benefits about nanotechnology do not significantly impact their support for nanotech regulation. We also find some gender and disciplinary differences among the nanoscientists. Males are less supportive of nanotech regulation than their female peers and materials scientists are more supportive of nanotechnology regulation than scientists in other fields. Lastly, our findings illustrate that the leading U.S. nanoscientists see the areas of surveillance/privacy, human enhancement, medicine, and environment as the nanotech application areas that are most in need of new regulations.

  12. Of risks and regulations: how leading U.S. nanoscientists form policy stances about nanotechnology

    Scheufele, Dietram A.; Hu, Qian

    2009-01-01

    Even though there is a high degree of scientific uncertainty about the risks of nanotechnology, many scholars have argued that policy-making cannot be placed on hold until risk assessments are complete (Faunce, Med J Aust 186(4):189–191, 2007; Kuzma, J Nanopart Res 9(1):165–182, 2007; O’Brien and Cummins, Hum Ecol Risk Assess 14(3):568–592, 2008; Powell et al., Environ Manag 42(3):426–443, 2008). In the absence of risk assessment data, decision makers often rely on scientists’ input about risks and regulation to make policy decisions. The research we present here goes beyond the earlier descriptive studies about nanotechnology regulation to explore the heuristics that the leading U.S. nanoscientists use when they make policy decisions about regulating nanotechnology. In particular, we explore the relationship between nanoscientists’ risk and benefit perceptions and their support for nanotech regulation. We conclude that nanoscientists are more supportive of regulating nanotechnology when they perceive higher levels of risks; yet, their perceived benefits about nanotechnology do not significantly impact their support for nanotech regulation. We also find some gender and disciplinary differences among the nanoscientists. Males are less supportive of nanotech regulation than their female peers and materials scientists are more supportive of nanotechnology regulation than scientists in other fields. Lastly, our findings illustrate that the leading U.S. nanoscientists see the areas of surveillance/privacy, human enhancement, medicine, and environment as the nanotech application areas that are most in need of new regulations. PMID:21170136

  13. Of risks and regulations: how leading U.S. nanoscientists form policy stances about nanotechnology

    Corley, Elizabeth A.; Scheufele, Dietram A.; Hu Qian

    2009-01-01

    Even though there is a high degree of scientific uncertainty about the risks of nanotechnology, many scholars have argued that policy-making cannot be placed on hold until risk assessments are complete (Faunce, Med J Aust 186(4):189-191, 2007; Kuzma, J Nanopart Res 9(1):165-182, 2007; O'Brien and Cummins, Hum Ecol Risk Assess 14(3):568-592, 2008; Powell et al., Environ Manag 42(3):426-443, 2008). In the absence of risk assessment data, decision makers often rely on scientists' input about risks and regulation to make policy decisions. The research we present here goes beyond the earlier descriptive studies about nanotechnology regulation to explore the heuristics that the leading U.S. nanoscientists use when they make policy decisions about regulating nanotechnology. In particular, we explore the relationship between nanoscientists' risk and benefit perceptions and their support for nanotech regulation. We conclude that nanoscientists are more supportive of regulating nanotechnology when they perceive higher levels of risks; yet, their perceived benefits about nanotechnology do not significantly impact their support for nanotech regulation. We also find some gender and disciplinary differences among the nanoscientists. Males are less supportive of nanotech regulation than their female peers and materials scientists are more supportive of nanotechnology regulation than scientists in other fields. Lastly, our findings illustrate that the leading U.S. nanoscientists see the areas of surveillance/privacy, human enhancement, medicine, and environment as the nanotech application areas that are most in need of new regulations.

  14. Approaches to Risk and Consumer Policy in Financial Service Regulation in the UK

    Peter Lunt

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The financial service and communication sectors in the UK have been subject to radical re-organisation, involving the formation of sector-wide regulatory bodies (FSA and Ofcom with wide-ranging powers and statutory obligations. Although both have responsibilities for assessment and management of risk, their remits go beyond traditional approaches to regulation. Hence, although primarily oriented to economic policy, both regulators address questions of corporate responsibility, balance of stakeholder interests, the public good, consumer representation and public participation. Accordingly, they are undertaking a range of activities, including consumer education and research, public consultation and the involvement of stakeholders in policy review. Focusing on the case of financial services, this paper presents an analysis of two early speeches by FSA directors, one focused on the approach to risk adopted by the regulator and the other on consumer policy. The second part of the paper considers the conceptual issues regarding different modes of risk management in the new regulators, requiring an account of the various levels and forms of involvement by stakeholders and publics in the identification and management of risk. It follows on from the analysis of the speeches to examine the relationship between risk and consumer policy in the practices of the FSA. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0601323

  15. Convergences and Hybridization of Educational Policies around "Post-Bureaucratic" Models of Regulation

    Maroy, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Our purpose is to document convergences and divergences in the mode of institutional regulation of the education systems in five European countries (Belgium, England, France, Hungary and Portugal). On the national level, partially convergent policies create, to varying degrees and with different temporal rhythms, variants of a post-bureaucratic…

  16. Regulations, policies and practices concerning work stress in five European countries

    Kompier, M.; Gier, E. de; Smulders, P.; Draaisma, D.

    1994-01-01

    A comparative inventory of regulations, policies and practices in The Netherlands, Sweden, UK, Germany and France with regard to the prevention of work stress was carried out. In each country data were collected by means of interviews with key informants and through exploring relevant documents and

  17. Do as the Swedes do? Internet policy and regulation in Sweden – a snapshot

    Merlin Münch

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available When it comes to information technology Sweden is considered to be at the forefront both in terms of technological innovation, as well as in progressive policy-making, regulation and internet freedom. This article investigates the state-of-affairs in a number of fields of Swedish internet policy, such as copyright, net neutrality and censorship, in order to find out if and why the 'Swedish way' has been particularly efficient. In the course of this article it will become apparent that Swedens approach to internet policy and regulation has often been controversial, as the examples of the contested National Defence Radio Establishment law (known as the 'FRA-law', as well as the rigorous implementation of the Directive on the enforcement of intellectual property rights have shown. Also, when it comes to matters of transparency, the Swedish government has some catching up to do.

  18. Policies of Regulating Cultural and Ethnic Differences: On Concepts and How They are Used

    Jadranka Čačić-Kumpes

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Modern societies are multicultural. This is a simple statement on a complex situation which poses many questions. One of the basic questions – how are relations between different cultures in society regulated – is the theme of this paper. By focusing on two pluralistic approaches to regulating relations between cultures – the multicultural and the intercultural approach – the author attempts to indicate the complexity of problems linked to the regulation of cultural differences in modern society. As it turns out, policies on the acceptance of cultural and ethnic differences have some common points, their concepts intertwine, but there are also significant differences between them. It also appears that one and the same policy can show different faces when it comes to its implementation in reality. By stressing interactions as a key trait of culture and cultural identity, the author wishes to emphasize their importance in cultural policies, since only by introducing interactions would these policies mean the acceptance of the real nature of cultural and social relations. The paper deals with this basic intent. In the first part, it presents the basic traits of culture and cultural identity as laid out in basic theories and their reception. Various processes and phenomena linked to them are mentioned in passing. In the second part, an overview of cultural policies is given – from assimilationist policies to pluralist ones (discussion focuses on assimilation, the “melting pot”, integration and multiculturalism and interculturalism. Concepts are treated defined critically and a partial review and evaluation of cultural policies is given. The reason for concentrating on concepts is the assumption that they imply a worldview and therefore it is not insignificant how social phenomena are defined and what names are attached to them.

  19. The Financial Policy as a Component of the State Regulation of Economy

    Kravets Vladislav I.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at disclosing the economic essence of financial policy as a component of institutional development of economy. At the current stage of improvement of financial-economic relations it is important to deepen the essence of financial policy as a component of socio-economic development, improvement of provisions on the influence of instruments of the State financial regulation on the socio-economic processes in the country taking into account the institutional peculiarities of the financial system. It is necessary to increase investment activity of economic entities with increasing the level of efficiency of capital investments, including through the use of mechanisms of the State support and the stimulating measures of both the fiscal-tax and the monetary-credit policy. The priority directions of financial policy need to be improved based on the main tasks of the socio-economic development, as well as the cyclical dynamics of the economy.

  20. Moral regulation and the presumption of guilt in Health Canada's medical cannabis policy and practice.

    Lucas, Philippe

    2009-07-01

    This paper is a sociological examination of policies and practices in Health Canada's Marihuana Medical Access Division (MMAD) that presume the illicit intentions and inherent "guilt" of medical cannabis users, hampering safe access to a medicine to which many are legally entitled, and raising doubts about this federal programme's overall effectiveness and constitutional legitimacy. Beginning with a brief historical overview of Canada's federal medical cannabis programme, this paper examines the failure of the MMAD to meet the needs of many sick and suffering Canadians through Hunt's [Hunt, A. (1999). Governing morals: A social history of moral regulation. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press] work on moral regulation and Wodak's [Wodak, A. (2007). Ethics and drug policy. Psychiatry, 6(2), 59-62] critique of "deontological" drug policy strategies. I then cite Tupper's [Tupper, K. W. (2007). The globalization of ayahuasca: Harm reduction or benefit maximization? International Journal of Drug Policy, doi:10.1016/j.drugpo.2006.11.001] argument that shifting to a generative metaphor that constructs certain entheogenic substances as potentially useful "tools" rather than regulating them through inherently moralistic prohibitionist policies would better serve public health, and incorporate Young's [Young, I. M. (1990). Justice and the politics of difference. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press] theories of domination and oppression to examine the rise of community-base medical cannabis dispensaries as "new social movements". First-hand accounts by medical cannabis patients, federally funded studies, and internal Health Canada communication and documents suggest that current federal policies and practices are blocking safe access to this herbal medicine. The community-based dispensary model of medical cannabis access is a patient-centered "new social movement" that mitigates the stigmatization and moral regulation of their member-clients by creating

  1. Statutory Regulation of Traditional Medicine Practitioners and Practices: The Need for Distinct Policy Making Guidelines.

    Ijaz, Nadine; Boon, Heather

    2018-04-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has called for the increased statutory regulation of traditional and complementary medicine practitioners and practices, currently implemented in about half of nations surveyed. According to recent WHO data, however, the absence of policy guidelines in this area represents a significant barrier to implementation of such professional regulations. This commentary reviews several key challenges that distinguish the statutory regulation of traditional medicine practitioners and practices from biomedical professional regulation, providing a foundation for the development of policy making parameters in this area. Foremost in this regard are the ongoing impacts of the European colonial encounter, which reinforce biomedicine's disproportionate political dominance across the globe despite traditional medicine's ongoing widespread use (particularly in the global South). In this light, the authors discuss the conceptual and historical underpinnings of contemporary professional regulatory structures, the tensions between institutional and informal traditional medicine training pathways, and the policy challenges presented by the prospect of standardizing internally diverse indigenous healing approaches. Epistemic and evidentiary tensions, as well as the policy complexities surrounding the intersection of cultural and clinical considerations, present additional challenges to regulators. Conceptualizing professional regulation as an intellectual property claim under the law, the authors further consider what it means to protect traditional knowledge and prevent misappropriation in this context. Overall, the authors propose that innovative professional regulatory approaches are needed in this area to address safety, quality of care, and accessibility as key public interest concerns, while prioritizing the redress of historical inequities, protection of diverse indigenous knowledges, and delivery of care to underserved populations.

  2. 77 FR 76864 - Amendment to the International Traffic in Arms Regulations: Afghanistan and Change to Policy on...

    2012-12-31

    ... Belarus, Cuba, Eritrea, Iran, North Korea, Syria, and Venezuela. This policy also applies to countries... International Traffic in Arms Regulations: Afghanistan and Change to Policy on Prohibited Exports AGENCY.... Goforth, Director, Office of Defense Trade Controls Policy, U.S. Department of State, telephone (202) 663...

  3. Network Regulation and Support Schemes - How Policy Interactions Affect the Integration of Distributed Generation

    Ropenus, Stephanie; Jacobsen, Henrik; Schröder, Sascha Thorsten

    2011-01-01

    This article seeks to investigate the interactions between the policy dimensions of support schemes and network regulation and how they affect distributed generation. Firstly, the incentives of distributed generators and distribution system operators are examined. Frequently there exists a trade......-off between the incentives for these two market agents to facilitate the integration of distributed generation. Secondly, the interaction of these policy dimensions is analyzed, including case studies based on five EU Member States. Aspects of operational nature and investments in grid and distributed...

  4. Tensions between Scottish National Policies for onshore wind energy and local dissatisfaction - insights from regulation theory

    Parkhill, Karen [School of Psychology, Tower Building, Cardiff University, Cardiff, (United Kingdom)

    2007-09-15

    Although best described as a meta theory addressing the endurance of capitalism, regulation theory can successfully be used to explore not only the economic dimensions, but also the political, socio-cultural and environmental dimensions of particular developmental strategies. Thus, it offers a framework for embedding abstract debates about social attitudes to new technologies within debates about real regulation - the economic, social and cultural relationships operating through particular places. This paper uses regulation theory and qualitative, interview-based data to analyse Scotland's drive for onshore wind energy. This approach teases out how responses to wind farms are bound up with wider debates about how rural spaces are, and should be, regulated; the tensions within and between national political objectives, local political objectives and local communities' dissatisfaction; and the connections between local actors and more formal dimensions of renewable energy policy. (Author)

  5. Effectiveness of common fish screen materials for protecting lamprey ammocoetes—Influence of sweeping velocities and decreasing flows

    Mesa, Matthew G.; Liedtke, Theresa L.; Weiland, Lisa K.; Christiansen, Helena E.

    2017-12-14

    In previous tests of the effectiveness of four common fish screen materials for excluding lamprey ammocoetes, we determined that woven wire (WW) allowed substantially more entrainment than perforated plate (PP), profile bar (PB), or Intralox (IL) material. These tests were simplistic because they used small vertically-oriented screens positioned perpendicular to the flow without a bypass or a sweeping velocity (SV). In the subsequent test discussed in this report, we exposed ammocoetes to much larger (2.5-m-wide) screen panels with flows up to 10 ft3 /s, a SV component, and a simulated bypass channel. The addition of a SV modestly improved protection of lamprey ammocoetes for all materials tested. A SV of 35 cm/s with an approach velocity (AV) of 12 cm/s, was able to provide protection for fish about 5–15 mm smaller than the protection provided by an AV of 12 cm/s without a SV component. The best-performing screen panels (PP, IL, and PB) provided nearly complete protection from entrainment for fish greater than 50-mm toal length, but the larger openings in the WW material only protected fish greater than 100-mm total length. Decreasing the AV and SV by 50 percent expanded the size range of protected lampreys by about 10–15 mm for those exposed to IL and WW screens, and it decreased the protective ability of PP screens by about 10 mm. Much of the improvement for IL and WW screens under the reduced flow conditions resulted from an increase in the number of lampreys swimming away from the screen. Fish of all sizes became impinged (that is, stuck on the screen surface for more than 1 s) on the screens, with the rate of impingement highest on PP (39– 72 percent) and lowest on WW (7–22 percent). Although impingements were common, injuries were rare, and 24-h post-test survival was greater than 99 percent. Our results refined the level of protection provided by these screen materials when both an AV and SV are present and confirmed our earlier recommendation that

  6. Strict Liability Versus Policy and Regulation for Environmental Protection and Agricultural Waste Management in Malaysia

    Mohd Bakri Ishak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Basically, strict liability is part of the mechanism for expressing judgment or sentence by using direct evidence. This principle is very useful in order to obtain remedies from any damage either directly or indirectly. The principle in Rylands v Fletcher is responsible on imposing strict liability where if something brought onto land or collected there escapes liability under this rule can include not only the owner of land but also those who control or occupation on it. However, as a matter of fact, policy and regulation are also important in taking any action against any party who are responsible for environmental pollution or damage, which may include mismanagement of waste or industrial waste or agricultural waste. There are certain policies and regulations on environmental protection such as the National Environmental Policy, certain Acts and several regulations under the Environmental Quality Act 1974 (Act 127, which are very useful for agricultural waste management inter alia: Waters Act 1920 (Act 418, Environmental Quality (Prescribed Premises (Crude Palm Oil Regulations 1977, Environmental Quality (Prescribed Premises (Raw Natural Rubber Regulations 1978, Environmental Quality (Sewage and Industrial Effluents Regulations 1979, and Environmental Quality (Compounding of Offences Rules 1978. As a matter of fact, we should realize that time is of an essence for any parties which are involved in court cases and especially in avoiding the element of externality, which is commonly suffered by the government. In making this paper, therefore, some element of comparison with certain developed jurisdiction such as in the United Kingdom and Japan could not be avoided in order to obtain better outcome and to be more practical for the purpose of environmental protection and agricultural waste management.

  7. Energy efficiency optimization in distribution transformers considering Spanish distribution regulation policy

    Pezzini, Paola; Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol; Frau-Valenti, Joan; Sudria-Andreu, Antoni

    2010-01-01

    In transmission and distribution systems, the high number of installed transformers, a loss source in networks, suggests a good potential for energy savings. This paper presents how the Spanish Distribution regulation policy, Royal Decree 222/2008, affects the overall energy efficiency in distribution transformers. The objective of a utility is the maximization of the benefit, and in case of failures, to install a chosen transformer in order to maximize the profit. Here, a novel method to optimize energy efficiency, considering the constraints set by the Spanish Distribution regulation policy, is presented; its aim is to achieve the objectives of the utility when installing new transformers. The overall energy efficiency increase is a clear result that can help in meeting the requirements of European environmental plans, such as the '20-20-20' action plan.

  8. Energy efficiency optimization in distribution transformers considering Spanish distribution regulation policy

    Pezzini, Paola [Centre d' Innovacio en Convertidors Estatics i Accionaments (CITCEA-UPC), E.T.S. Enginyeria Industrial Barcelona, Universitat Politecnica Catalunya, Diagonal, 647, Pl. 2, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol; Sudria-Andreu, Antoni [Centre d' Innovacio en Convertidors Estatics i Accionaments (CITCEA-UPC), E.T.S. Enginyeria Industrial Barcelona, Universitat Politecnica Catalunya, Diagonal, 647, Pl. 2, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); IREC Catalonia Institute for Energy Research, Josep Pla, B2, Pl. Baixa, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Frau-Valenti, Joan [ENDESA, Carrer Joan Maragall, 16 07006 Palma (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    In transmission and distribution systems, the high number of installed transformers, a loss source in networks, suggests a good potential for energy savings. This paper presents how the Spanish Distribution regulation policy, Royal Decree 222/2008, affects the overall energy efficiency in distribution transformers. The objective of a utility is the maximization of the benefit, and in case of failures, to install a chosen transformer in order to maximize the profit. Here, a novel method to optimize energy efficiency, considering the constraints set by the Spanish Distribution regulation policy, is presented; its aim is to achieve the objectives of the utility when installing new transformers. The overall energy efficiency increase is a clear result that can help in meeting the requirements of European environmental plans, such as the '20-20-20' action plan. (author)

  9. Advanced policy options to regulate sugar-sweetened beverages to support public health.

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L

    2012-02-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has increased worldwide. As public health studies expose the detrimental impact of SSBs, consumer protection and public health advocates have called for increased government control. A major focus has been on restricting marketing of SSBs to children, but many innovative policy options--legally defensible ways to regulate SSBs and support public health--are largely unexplored. We describe the public health, economic, and retail marketing research related to SSBs (including energy drinks). We review policy options available to governments, including mandatory factual disclosures, earmarked taxation, and regulating sales, including placement within retail and food service establishments, and schools. Our review describes recent international initiatives and classifies options available in the United States by jurisdiction (federal, state, and local) based on legal viability.

  10. Smokers' attitudes and support for e-cigarette policies and regulation in the USA.

    Wackowski, Olivia A; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2015-11-01

    In April 2014, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) proposed a rule to extend its tobacco regulatory authority to e-cigarettes, which have been unregulated and growing in use since their 2006-2007 US introduction. The FDA will issue a final rule based on comments and data received from researchers, tobacco companies and the public. We aimed to present data about current smokers' awareness of and attitudes towards potential e-cigarette regulation and various policies in the USA. We conducted a cross-sectional online e-cigarette focused survey of 519 adult current smokers in April 2014, before the FDA's proposed rule was announced. Participants were recruited from a private research panel (GFK's Knowledge Networks) designed to be representative of the US population. The majority of respondents (62.5%) did not know that e-cigarettes are unregulated by the FDA but agreed that e-cigarettes should be regulated by the FDA for safety and quality (83.5%), carry warning labels about their potential risks (86.6%) and have the same legal age of sale as other tobacco (87.7%). Support was similarly high among current e-cigarette users. Support was substantial though lower overall for policies to restrict e-cigarette indoor use (41.2%), flavouring (44.3%) and advertising (55.5%), and was negatively associated with current e-cigarette use. Support for many e-cigarette regulatory policies is strong among smokers, including for policies that the FDA has recently proposed and potential future regulations. States considering indoor e-cigarette restrictions should know that a substantial number of current smokers support such regulations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. The Policy Maker's Anguish: Regulating Personal Data Behavior Between Paradoxes and Dilemmas

    Compañó, Ramón; Lusoli, Wainer

    Regulators in Europe and elsewhere are paying great attention to identity, privacy and trust in online and converging environments. Appropriate regulation of identity in a ubiquitous information environment is seen as one of the major drivers of the future Internet economy. Regulation of personal identity data has come to the fore including mapping conducted on digital personhood by the OECD; work on human rights and profiling by the Council of Europe andmajor studies by the European Commission with regard to self-regulation in the privacy market, electronic identity technical interoperability and enhanced safety for young people. These domains overlap onto an increasingly complex model of regulation of individuals' identity management, online and offline. This chapter argues that policy makers struggle to deal with issues concerning electronic identity, due to the apparently irrational and unpredictable behavior of users when engaging in online interactions involving identity management. Building on empirical survey evidence from four EU countries, we examine the first aspect in detail - citizens' management of identity in a digital environment. We build on data from a large scale (n = 5,265) online survey of attitudes to electronic identity among young Europeans (France, Germany, Spain, UK) conducted in August 2008. The survey asked questions about perceptions and acceptance of risks, general motivations, attitudes and behaviors concerning electronic identity. Four behavioral paradoxes are identified in the analysis: a privacy paradox (to date well known), but also a control paradox, a responsibility paradox and an awareness paradox. The chapter then examines the paradoxes in relation of three main policy dilemmas framing the debate on digital identity. The paper concludes by arguing for an expanded identity debate spanning policy circles and the engineering community.

  12. On Sharing and Quasi-Sharing : The Tension between Sharing-Economy Practices, Public Policy, and Regulation

    Ranchordás, Sofia; Albinsson, Pia A.; Perera, B. Yasanthi

    2018-01-01

    This paper offers a critical and comparative overview of the main regulatory and policy challenges faced by regulators in the context of the sharing economy. The regulation of the sharing economy has been particularly challenging as regulators are being asked to balance the interests protected by

  13. Adaptive dynamic programming for discrete-time linear quadratic regulation based on multirate generalised policy iteration

    Chun, Tae Yoon; Lee, Jae Young; Park, Jin Bae; Choi, Yoon Ho

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we propose two multirate generalised policy iteration (GPI) algorithms applied to discrete-time linear quadratic regulation problems. The proposed algorithms are extensions of the existing GPI algorithm that consists of the approximate policy evaluation and policy improvement steps. The two proposed schemes, named heuristic dynamic programming (HDP) and dual HDP (DHP), based on multirate GPI, use multi-step estimation (M-step Bellman equation) at the approximate policy evaluation step for estimating the value function and its gradient called costate, respectively. Then, we show that these two methods with the same update horizon can be considered equivalent in the iteration domain. Furthermore, monotonically increasing and decreasing convergences, so called value iteration (VI)-mode and policy iteration (PI)-mode convergences, are proved to hold for the proposed multirate GPIs. Further, general convergence properties in terms of eigenvalues are also studied. The data-driven online implementation methods for the proposed HDP and DHP are demonstrated and finally, we present the results of numerical simulations performed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  14. Environmental policy and industrialization: The politics of regulation in Puerto Rico

    Concepcion, C.M.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of economic development on environmental regulation in Puerto Rico are examined. In particular, the research analyzes how the Puerto Rican industrialization process has affected implementation of the environmental-review process. Puerto Rico exemplifies an acute conflict between an industrialization process based on capital-intensive, highly polluting industries, and a regulatory framework of insular and US environmental laws and regulations. While industrialization has not solved unemployment problems on the island, environmental and health hazards have increased significantly, despite environmental regulations. The study focuses on a change in the environmental review process in response to economic development concerns. In particular, it examines the growth and extensive use of a new environmental review document, the Environmental Assessment. This study explains this policy shift and, more fundamentally, analyzes how and under what circumstances this change came about

  15. A structured policy review of the principles of professional self-regulation.

    Benton, D C; González-Jurado, M A; Beneit-Montesinos, J V

    2013-03-01

    The International Council of Nurses (ICN) has, for many years, based its work on professional self-regulation on a set of 12 principles. These principles are research based and were identified nearly three decades ago. ICN has conducted a number of reviews of the principles; however, changes have been minimal. In the past 5-10 years, a number of authors and governments, often as part of the review of regulatory systems, have started to propose principles to guide the way regulatory frameworks are designed and implemented. These principles vary in number and content. This study examines the current policy literature on principle-based regulation and compares this with the set of principles advocated by the ICN. A systematic search of the literature on principle-based regulation is used as the basis for a qualitative thematic analysis to compare and contrast the 12 principles of self-regulation with more recently published work. A mapping of terms based on a detailed description of the principles used in the various research and policy documents was generated. This mapping forms the basis of a critique of the current ICN principles. A professional self-regulation advocated by the ICN were identified. A revised and extended set of 13 principles is needed if contemporary developments in the field of regulatory frameworks are to be accommodated. These revised principles should be considered for adoption by the ICN to underpin their advocacy work on professional self-regulation. © 2013 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2013 International Council of Nurses.

  16. Claims in vapour device (e-cigarette) regulation: A Narrative Policy Framework analysis.

    O'Leary, Renée; Borland, Ron; Stockwell, Tim; MacDonald, Marjorie

    2017-06-01

    The electronic cigarette or e-cigarette (vapour device) is a consumer product undergoing rapid growth, and governments have been adopting regulations on the sale of the devices and their nicotine liquids. Competing claims about vapour devices have ignited a contentious debate in the public health community. What claims have been taken up in the state arena, and how have they possibly influenced regulatory outcomes? This study utilized Narrative Policy Framework to analyze the claims made about vapour devices in legislation recommendation reports from Queensland Australia, Canada, and the European Union, and the 2016 deeming rule legislation from the United States, and examined the claims and the regulatory outcomes in these jurisdictions. The vast majority of claims in the policy documents represented vapour devices as a threat: an unsafe product harming the health of vapour device users, a gateway product promoting youth tobacco uptake, and a quasi-tobacco product impeding tobacco control. The opportunity for vapour devices to promote cessation or reduce exposure to toxins was very rarely presented, and these positive claims were not discussed at all in two of the four documents studied. The dominant claims of vapour devices as a public health threat have supported regulations that have limited their potential as a harm reduction strategy. Future policy debates should evaluate the opportunities for vapour devices to decrease the health and social burdens of the tobacco epidemic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Adopting local alcohol policies: a case study of community efforts to regulate malt liquor sales.

    McKee, Patricia A; Nelson, Toben F; Toomey, Traci L; Shimotsu, Scott T; Hannan, Peter J; Jones-Webb, Rhonda J

    2012-01-01

    To learn how the local context may affect a city's ability to regulate alcohol products such as high-alcohol-content malt liquor, a beverage associated with heavy drinking and a spectrum of nuisance crimes in urban areas. An exploratory, qualitative case study comparing cities that adopted policies to restrict malt liquor sales with cities that considered, but did not adopt policies. Nine large U.S. cities in seven states. City legislators and staff, alcohol enforcement personnel, police, neighborhood groups, business associations, alcohol retailers, and industry representatives. Qualitative data were obtained from key informant interviews (n = 56) and media articles (n = 360). The data were coded and categorized. Similarities and differences in major themes among and across Adopted and Considered cities were identified. Cities faced multiple barriers in addressing malt liquor-related problems, including a lack of enforcement tools, alcohol industry opposition, and a lack of public and political will for alcohol control. Compared to cities that did not adopt malt liquor sales restrictions, cities that adopted restrictions appeared to have a stronger public mandate for a policy and were less influenced by alcohol industry opposition and lack of legislative authority for alcohol control. Strategies common to successful policymaking efforts are discussed. Understanding the local context may be a critical step in winning support for local alcohol control policies.

  18. Equity, tariffing, regulation: analysis of the cost allocation policies of an electric utility industry

    Bezzina, J.

    1998-01-01

    In this work, an analysis in terms of equity of policies of tariffing regulation and cost allocation of a multi-products electric company (organized as a natural monopoly) is proposed. The goal is double. In a standard point of view, the first goal is to show that today's literature in the domains of public economy, industrial organization and regulation (traditionally based on efficiency considerations) is able to supply reading keys for the analysis of moral philosophy problems. In a positive point of view, the second goal is to demonstrate that the equity criterion is operational enough to judge tariffing management practices in a particular industrial environment and can be used as a regulatory instrument by an ethics-concerned authority. The document is organized in two parts. An ethical and economical analysis of the equity concepts between allocation efficiency, production efficiency and tariffing practices of companies is proposed first. A particular equity concept is considered which is ready to be implemented for the regulation of a public utility, and the ins and outs expected with an equity theory of tariffing practices are evoked. In a second part, an analysis of goal conflicts between the authority and the regulated company is made in a point of view of equity regulation and cost allocation. An improved equity criterion is defined first, from which a measure is built and becomes a tool for the regulatory authority. Then, its use by a regulatory authority fully informed or encountering information asymmetry problems are analyzed in order to show its stakes on the cost allocation and tariffing policies of the company. (J.S.)

  19. Governmental Forest Policy for Sustainable Forest Management in Costa Rica, Guatemala, and Nicaragua: Regulation, Implementation, and Impact

    Kathleen A. McGinley; Frederick W. Cubbage

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated how governmental forest regulation in Costa Rica, Guatemala, and Nicaragua has succeeded or failed in fostering changes in forest owner and user behavior that enhance the sustainability of tropical forest management. As expected, sufficient resources and capacity for forest policy implementation are crucial for attaining governmental forest policy...

  20. Decision support tool to evaluate alternative policies regulating wind integration into autonomous energy systems

    Zouros, N.; Contaxis, G.C.; Kabouris, J.

    2005-01-01

    Integration of wind power into autonomous electricity systems strongly depends on the specific technical characteristics of these systems; the regulations applied should take into account physical system constraints. Introduction of market rules makes the issue even more complicated since the interests of the market participants often conflict each other. In this paper, an integrated tool for the comparative assessment of alternative regulatory policies is presented along with a methodology for decision-making, based on alternative scenarios analysis. The social welfare concept is followed instead of the traditional Least Cost Planning

  1. Proceedings of the 8. Brazilian congress on energy: energy policy, regulation and sustainable development. v. 2: energy planning and policy, energy conservation and rational use

    1999-01-01

    The theme energy policy, regulation and sustainable development chosen for the 8. Brazilian congress on energy to be held in Rio de Janeiro from 30 November of 1999 to 02 December of 1999, specifically means the contribution of energy to a satisfactory quality of life for everyone. Within such a context, the congress technical programme theme has been structured around six different divisions: energy, environment and development; energy sector regulation; energy policy and planning; technology innovation; energy conservation; and renewable energy sources and rural areas energy supply

  2. Policy Approaches for Regulating Alcohol Marketing in a Global Context: A Public Health Perspective.

    Esser, Marissa B; Jernigan, David H

    2018-04-01

    Alcohol consumption is responsible for 3.3 million deaths globally or nearly 6% of all deaths. Alcohol use contributes to both communicable and noncommunicable diseases, as well as violence and injuries. The purpose of this review is to discuss, in the context of the expansion of transnational alcohol corporations and harms associated with alcohol use, policy options for regulating exposure to alcohol marketing. We first provide an overview of the public health problem of harmful alcohol consumption and describe the association between exposure to alcohol marketing and alcohol consumption. We then discuss the growth and concentration of global alcohol corporations and their marketing practices in low- and middle-income countries, as well as in higher-income societies. We review the use and effectiveness of various approaches for regulating alcohol marketing in various countries before discussing challenges and opportunities to protect public health.

  3. 25 CFR 900.5 - Effect of these regulations on Federal program guidelines, manual, or policy directives.

    2010-04-01

    ... SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT General Provisions § 900.5 Effect of these regulations... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of these regulations on Federal program guidelines, manual, or policy directives. 900.5 Section 900.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  4. Municipal Risk Atlases in Mexico as policy instruments for territorial regulation

    Naxhelli Ruiz Rivera

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Municipal Risk Atlases are one of the policy instruments that Mexican government has prioritized in the last few years in order to consolidate the territorial regulation of human settlements in the country. This paper reviews the legal, institutional conceptual and methodological developments of these documents and analyzes its current scope and limitations within the Program of Risk Prevention in Human Settlements (PRAH, which had been designed and implemented by the Ministry of Social Development (SEDESOL between 2010 and 2012, and by the Ministry of Urban, Territorial and Agrarian Development (SEDATU from 2013. The objective of the paper is to understand the conditions under which the Municipal Risk Atlases have been produced to regulate human settlements in risk-prone areas, as one of many juridical instruments that operate in the fields of land use planning and natural hazards provisions. In the first place, we review different approaches that have been used by different agents within the federal government to produce cartographic information to identify and reduce disaster risk. That includes the different concepts and methodologies used to identify different risk components (such as ‘vulnerability’, ‘affected systems’, ‘disturbances’ but also under which institutional context each of them emerge, how they relate to each other and how are they integrated with other policy devices.

  5. The Rise of the Crime Victim and Punitive Policies? Changes to the Legal Regulation of Intimate Partner Violence in Finland.

    Kotanen, Riikka

    2017-10-01

    This article examines intimate partnership violence as a question of criminal justice policy in Finland, and contributes to criminological discussions regarding oft-stated connections between the politicization of the victim, the treatment of offenders, and repressive criminal justice policies. In this discussion, legislation aiming to regulate and prevent violence against women has often been utilized as an example of such punitive policies. Although criminal policies in Nordic countries differ significantly from more punitive Anglophone policies, punitive tendencies, it has been argued, have increased in the former, too. This article analyzes the change in legal regulations and the criminal political status of intimate partner violence in Finland between 1990 and 2004, while examining the juxtaposition of victims and offenders alongside repressive demands.

  6. The Monetary Policy in the System of State Regulation of the Indian Economy

    Natalia V. Galistcheva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main task of this research is the analysis of India's monetary policy and its place in the system of state regulation of the economy. The article highlights the main directions of the Indian monetary policy in 1990-2000s aiming to raise competitiveness of the Indian goods on the foreign markets as well as stimulating the inflow of foreign capital in necessary volumes into the national economy. The author focuses on the main instruments of the modern Indian monetary policy, pursued in line with providing the undervalued rupee, which include the manipulating of the bank rate and currency interventions, directed mainly at sterilization of excessive inflow of foreign currency to the country. The article also underlines all the advantages and costs of the monetary policy. One of its main advantages is stimulation of national production's exports and among costs there are difficulties of importing machines and equipment into the country, increase of inflation rate as a result of massive inflow of export revenue, difficulties at external debt's service. The author notes the gradual nature of introduction of current account rupee convertibility and reasons for delay in achieving its full convertibility. Among them there are rather high level of fiscal deficit of the consolidated budget, essential average annual level of inflation, problems of non-performed assets in the economy, high liquidity ratio for commercial banks. The article also presents statistical data on the present state of the Indian foreign exchange reserves as well as dynamics in nominal and real effective exchange rate of rupee in 2005/06 - 2013/14 fiscal year.

  7. Proceedings of the 8. Brazilian congress on energy: energy policy, regulation and sustainable development. v. 1: energy, environment and energy sector regulation

    1999-01-01

    The theme energy policy, regulation and sustainable development chosen for the 8. Brazilian congress on energy to be held in Rio de Janeiro from 30 November of 1999 to 02 December of 1999, specifically means the contribution of energy to a satisfactory quality of life for everyone. Within such a context, the congress technical programme theme has been structured around six different divisions: energy, environment and development; energy sector regulation; energy policy and planning; technology innovation; energy conservation; and renewable energy sources and rural areas energy supply

  8. Policy for introduction of risk-informed regulation for nuclear facilities in Japan

    Akihide Hidaka; Shoichiro Sakaguchi; Toshihiro Bannai; Kunihiro Matsui

    2005-01-01

    The nuclear safety regulations in Japan place a basis on the deterministic approach with the defence-in-depth philosophy and engineering judgments. However, as the development of PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment) technologies in recent years, the Nuclear Safety Commission (NSC) began to consider that the utilization of risk information in addition to the traditional deterministic approach could be very effective for the safety regulations to improve rationality, consistency, transparency and efficiency by appropriate allocation of limited resources for the regulatory activities. In order to show the basic strategy, the NSC published the policy for introduction of Risk-Informed Regulation (RIR) in November 2003. The safety goals that play an important role in RIR were tentatively established in December 2003 while the performance goals are under development as of May, 2005. It is expected that RIR be gradually introduced from the applicable area. The NSC is now examining what the RIR system in Japan should be by making each role and incentive of the competent organizations clear. In the future, when the experiences on application of the safety goals are accumulated, RIR will be consistently applied from design to operational area. This paper describes the recent activities of the NSC for introduction of RIR in Japan and development of the safety goals including the performance goals. (authors)

  9. Situational analysis of antibiotic use and resistance in Ghana: policy and regulation

    Saviour Kwame Yevutsey

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibiotics have played an essential role in decreasing morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases. However, indiscriminate use and unrestricted access is contributing to the emergence of bacterial resistance. This paper reports on a situational analysis of antimicrobial use and resistance in Ghana, with focus on policy and regulation. Methods Relevant policy documents, reports, regulations and enactments were reviewed. PubMed and Google search engines were used to extract relevant published papers. Websites of stakeholders such as Ministry of Health (MOH and its agencies were also reviewed. An interview guide was used to elicit responses from selected officials from these sectors. Results Laws and guidelines to control the use of antimicrobials in humans were available but not for animals. There was no National Antimicrobial Policy (NAP. A health practice regulatory law mandates Physicians, Physician Assistants, Midwives and trained Nurses to prescribe antimicrobials. However, antibiotics are widely prescribed and dispensed by unauthorised persons, suggesting weak enforcement of the laws. Antibiotics were also supplied to and from unapproved medicine outlets. The Standard Treatment Guidelines (STG, Essential Medicines List (EML and the National Health Insurance Scheme Medicines List (NHISML provide restrictions regarding levels of prescribing of antimicrobials. However, existing guidelines on antibiotic use are mostly not adhered to. The use of Automatic Stop Orders to avoid wastage in the hospitals is also not practiced. Data on use of antibiotics for individuals are not readily available in most facilities. Again, there are no standards or guidelines on veterinary use of antibiotics. Surveillance systems for consumption of antibiotics and resistance monitoring were not in place in most health facilities. However, there is an ongoing national action to create awareness on bacteria resistance, strengthening knowledge

  10. Effects of agriculture upon the air quality and climate: research, policy, and regulations.

    Aneja, Viney P; Schlesinger, William H; Erisman, Jan Willem

    2009-06-15

    compounds, volatile organic compounds, greenhouse gases, odor and pathogens, the quantification of landscape processes, and the primary and secondary emissions of PM. Given the serious concerns raised regarding the amount and the impacts of agricultural air emissions, policies must be pursued and regulations must be enacted in orderto make real progress in reducing these emissions and their associated environmental impacts.

  11. Economic regulation of Canada's natural gas delivery industry : policy and regulatory principles

    Gormley, B.

    2006-03-01

    This policy paper demonstrated how restoring balance and clarity to Canada's regulatory environment will ensure the continued strength of the economy, environment, and communities. It was noted that regulatory outcomes that reflect the broad public interest can be achieved if 4 basic principles for economic regulation are pursued. These principles include strength, balance, efficiency, and clarity. In particular, this paper addressed the challenge facing Canada's natural gas delivery industry in terms of increased energy demand, tight supply, ageing infrastructure and increasing cost pressures on the energy system. It emphasized that transparent, efficient energy policy developed through informed debate can provide the foundation for a reliable, environmentally acceptable and sustainable energy future. It was suggested that immediate attention be given to rebalancing the regulatory processes that have placed short term considerations above the longer term strength of the natural gas system; improving the support for new natural gas supply development; reconsidering pricing in some energy markets where information has been distorted; and revisiting the regulatory processes that have become inefficient

  12. An Evaluation of the Cybersecurity Policies for the United States Health & Human Services Department: Criteria, Regulations, and Improvements

    Derek Mohammed; Ronda Mariani

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the criteria necessary for the evaluation of the cybersecurity policies for the United States Health and Human Services Department of the Federal Government. The overall purpose of cybersecurity policies and procedures is supported through compliance with Federal mandated regulation and standards, which serve to protect the organizational services and goals of the United States Health and Human Services Department, and to promote the best possible security practices in the...

  13. The impact of policies regulating alcohol trading hours and days on specific alcohol-related harms: a systematic review.

    Sanchez-Ramirez, Diana C; Voaklander, Donald

    2018-02-01

    Evidence supports the expectation that changes in time of alcohol sales associate with changes in alcohol-related harm in both directions. However, to the best of our knowledge, no comprehensive systematic reviews had examined the effect of policies restricting time of alcohol trading on specific alcohol-related harms. To compile existing evidence related to the impact of policies regulating alcohol trading hours/days of on specific harm outcomes such as: assault/violence, motor vehicle crashes/fatalities, injury, visits to the emergency department/hospital, murder/homicides and crime. Systematic review of literature studying the impact of policies regulation alcohol trading times in alcohol-related harm, published between January 2000 and October 2016 in English language. Results support the premise that policies regulating times of alcohol trading and consumption can contribute to reduce injuries, alcohol-related hospitalisations/emergency department visits, homicides and crime. Although the impact of alcohol trading policies in assault/violence and motor vehicle crashes/fatalities is also positive, these associations seem to be more complex and require further study. Evidence suggests a potential direct effect of policies that regulate alcohol trading times in the prevention of injuries, alcohol-related hospitalisations, homicides and crime. The impact of these alcohol trading policies in assault/violence and motor vehicle crashes/fatalities is less compelling. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Nuclear regulation in the United States : Policy directions and future prospects

    Shirley, Ann Jackson

    1996-01-01

    Just before leaving the United States to come to Korea, I addressed the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) annual regulatory information conference, with which some of you might be familiar. The overall theme this year focused on enhancing and promoting a better understanding of future trends for improving nuclear safety. Specific sessions addressed an array of nuclear safety topics including: dry cask storage of spent fuel; performance-based changes in the inspection program; core performance and reactor fuel issues; the revised decommissioning rule; utility restructuring and NRC licensing activities; steam generators; implementation of the maintenance rule; an update on license renewal; the shutdown rule; and spent fuel pool issues. The number and range of topics addressed tells US that the nuclear field is by no means static. On the contrary. there are numerous areas in which regulatory policy is evolving in response to technological, governmental, and other developments. while not all nations with nuclear programs face the same issues at the same time, there is enough overlap from one nation to another that it may be useful to describe the challenges facing the NRC today. the nuclear regulatory policy is moving. The challenges that we are dealing with at the NRC today may well be those which other nations will be confronting shortly? of they are not doing so already. In addressing the question of my vision for the NRC, I am sometimes asked whether it is possible to have a vision for the agency, given that no new nuclear plants are being built in the U. S. and none are on the immediate horizon. The answer, of course, is that the original licensing of nuclear power plants is only a part of the job of the NRC? an important part, to be sure, be but because safety must be built into nuclear plants from the beginning -- but nevertheless just one part. The task of the nuclear regulator is to ensure not only that plants are designed and constructed safely, but

  15. An Evaluation of the Cybersecurity Policies for the United States Health & Human Services Department: Criteria, Regulations, and Improvements

    Derek Mohammed

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the criteria necessary for the evaluation of the cybersecurity policies for the United States Health and Human Services Department of the Federal Government. The overall purpose of cybersecurity policies and procedures is supported through compliance with Federal mandated regulation and standards, which serve to protect the organizational services and goals of the United States Health and Human Services Department, and to promote the best possible security practices in the protection of information systems from unauthorized actors and cyber-threats. The criteria of the cybersecurity evaluation is identified and analyzed for quality, strengths, weaknesses, and future applicability. Topics within the criteria include organizational operation, regulations and industrial standards compliance, service delivery to national customers, and the prevention and mitigation of IT system and security failure. This analysis determines the strengths and weaknesses, and makes recommendations for revising the cybersecurity policies within the United States Health and Human Services Department.

  16. The Radiation Oncology Job Market: The Economics and Policy of Workforce Regulation

    Falit, Benjamin P., E-mail: bfalit2@allianceoncology.com [Pacific Cancer Institute, Wailuku, Hawaii (United States); Pan, Hubert Y.; Smith, Benjamin D. [MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Alexander, Brian M. [Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Zietman, Anthony L. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Examinations of the US radiation oncology workforce offer inconsistent conclusions, but recent data raise significant concerns about an oversupply of physicians. Despite these concerns, residency slots continue to expand at an unprecedented pace. Employed radiation oncologists and professional corporations with weak contracts or loose ties to hospital administrators would be expected to suffer the greatest harm from an oversupply. The reduced cost of labor, however, would be expected to increase profitability for equipment owners, technology vendors, and entrenched professional groups. Policymakers must recognize that the number of practicing radiation oncologists is a poor surrogate for clinical capacity. There is likely to be significant opportunity to augment capacity without increasing the number of radiation oncologists by improving clinic efficiency and offering targeted incentives for geographic redistribution. Payment policy changes significantly threaten radiation oncologists' income, which may encourage physicians to care for greater patient loads, thereby obviating more personnel. Furthermore, the implementation of alternative payment models such as Medicare's Oncology Care Model threatens to decrease both the utilization and price of radiation therapy by turning referring providers into cost-conscious consumers. Medicare funds the vast majority of graduate medical education, but the extent to which the expansion in radiation oncology residency slots has been externally funded is unclear. Excess physician capacity carries a significant risk of harm to society by suboptimally allocating intellectual resources and creating comparative shortages in other, more needed disciplines. There are practical concerns associated with a market-based solution in which medical students self-regulate according to job availability, but antitrust law would likely forbid collaborative self-regulation that purports to restrict supply. Because Congress is unlikely

  17. The Radiation Oncology Job Market: The Economics and Policy of Workforce Regulation

    Falit, Benjamin P.; Pan, Hubert Y.; Smith, Benjamin D.; Alexander, Brian M.; Zietman, Anthony L.

    2016-01-01

    Examinations of the US radiation oncology workforce offer inconsistent conclusions, but recent data raise significant concerns about an oversupply of physicians. Despite these concerns, residency slots continue to expand at an unprecedented pace. Employed radiation oncologists and professional corporations with weak contracts or loose ties to hospital administrators would be expected to suffer the greatest harm from an oversupply. The reduced cost of labor, however, would be expected to increase profitability for equipment owners, technology vendors, and entrenched professional groups. Policymakers must recognize that the number of practicing radiation oncologists is a poor surrogate for clinical capacity. There is likely to be significant opportunity to augment capacity without increasing the number of radiation oncologists by improving clinic efficiency and offering targeted incentives for geographic redistribution. Payment policy changes significantly threaten radiation oncologists' income, which may encourage physicians to care for greater patient loads, thereby obviating more personnel. Furthermore, the implementation of alternative payment models such as Medicare's Oncology Care Model threatens to decrease both the utilization and price of radiation therapy by turning referring providers into cost-conscious consumers. Medicare funds the vast majority of graduate medical education, but the extent to which the expansion in radiation oncology residency slots has been externally funded is unclear. Excess physician capacity carries a significant risk of harm to society by suboptimally allocating intellectual resources and creating comparative shortages in other, more needed disciplines. There are practical concerns associated with a market-based solution in which medical students self-regulate according to job availability, but antitrust law would likely forbid collaborative self-regulation that purports to restrict supply. Because Congress is unlikely to create

  18. Solution scanning as a key policy tool: identifying management interventions to help maintain and enhance regulating ecosystem services

    William J. Sutherland

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The major task of policy makers and practitioners when confronted with a resource management problem is to decide on the potential solution(s to adopt from a range of available options. However, this process is unlikely to be successful and cost effective without access to an independently verified and comprehensive available list of options. There is currently burgeoning interest in ecosystem services and quantitative assessments of their importance and value. Recognition of the value of ecosystem services to human well-being represents an increasingly important argument for protecting and restoring the natural environment, alongside the moral and ethical justifications for conservation. As well as understanding the benefits of ecosystem services, it is also important to synthesize the practical interventions that are capable of maintaining and/or enhancing these services. Apart from pest regulation, pollination, and global climate regulation, this type of exercise has attracted relatively little attention. Through a systematic consultation exercise, we identify a candidate list of 296 possible interventions across the main regulating services of air quality regulation, climate regulation, water flow regulation, erosion regulation, water purification and waste treatment, disease regulation, pest regulation, pollination and natural hazard regulation. The range of interventions differs greatly between habitats and services depending upon the ease of manipulation and the level of research intensity. Some interventions have the potential to deliver benefits across a range of regulating services, especially those that reduce soil loss and maintain forest cover. Synthesis and applications: Solution scanning is important for questioning existing knowledge and identifying the range of options available to researchers and practitioners, as well as serving as the necessary basis for assessing cost effectiveness and guiding implementation strategies. We

  19. Energy policy conference on the regulation of energy industries; Conference de politique energetique sur la regulation des industries energetiques

    NONE

    2001-11-01

    This document is the report of the conference meeting jointly organized by the French general plan commission and the general direction of energy and raw materials on the regulation of energy industries: 1 - the changes in the regulation of public utilities in competition: harmonization, respect of impartiality and social cohesion, organization of a loyal competition, specialized regulation and regulation of competition, open debates; 2 - towards an homogenous model of regulatory authority?: the US model (collegial and hybrid organizations), the UK model (individual and independent), missions of regulation and institutional 'meccano', theory and practice, draft classification of the institutional approaches of IEA countries (role of ministries and regulatory agencies), independent regulatory authorities or not, significant differences in converging models, dominant types of regulation in the different sectors, situation of the French energy regulatory system (institutional plan, regulation processes, relations of the regulation authority with the government), reasons of the differences between different countries, expected evolution of the regulation systems in the coming years. (J.S.)

  20. Energy policy conference on the regulation of energy industries; Conference de politique energetique sur la regulation des industries energetiques

    NONE

    2001-11-01

    This document is the report of the conference meeting jointly organized by the French general plan commission and the general direction of energy and raw materials on the regulation of energy industries: 1 - the changes in the regulation of public utilities in competition: harmonization, respect of impartiality and social cohesion, organization of a loyal competition, specialized regulation and regulation of competition, open debates; 2 - towards an homogenous model of regulatory authority?: the US model (collegial and hybrid organizations), the UK model (individual and independent), missions of regulation and institutional 'meccano', theory and practice, draft classification of the institutional approaches of IEA countries (role of ministries and regulatory agencies), independent regulatory authorities or not, significant differences in converging models, dominant types of regulation in the different sectors, situation of the French energy regulatory system (institutional plan, regulation processes, relations of the regulation authority with the government), reasons of the differences between different countries, expected evolution of the regulation systems in the coming years. (J.S.)

  1. Economic and institutional dynamics of electricity markets deregulation: the interaction between sectoral regulation and antitrust policy

    Fontanel, B.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to define regulatory intervention as a part of a global monitoring procedure allowing the definition and adaptation of market structures and rules, given the observed behavior of market participants. Nevertheless, the possible inefficiency in its (decisional) coordination with competition authorities implies further analysis. We thus adopt a comparative methodology based on the studying PJM and NETA wholesale markets. This analysis enables us to stress two possible 'models' in the distribution and coordination of monitoring powers. The first one privileges a strong 'informational coordination' between the sectoral regulator and the Transmission System Operator. By contrast, the second model is characterized by a constrained informational coordination, leading to a greater 'decisional convergence' between regulatory intervention and antitrust policy. Lastly, we put these conclusions into perspective with the specific issue of the achievement of an efficient and integrated European market for electricity. In particular, we stress the need for a single regulatory agency, which should be given autonomous decisional powers in the adoption of regional markets reform initiatives (author)

  2. Regulation of Ocean Iron Fertilization (OIF): a Model for Balancing Research, Environmental and Policy Concerns

    Leinen, M.; Lamotte, R.

    2008-12-01

    The potential of enhancing carbon sequestration by the biosphere for climate mitigation often raises questions of offsetting effects. These questions become more important as the scale of the enhancement increases. Ocean iron fertilization is accompanied by additional questions related to use of the ocean commons. The London Convention (LC) and London Protocol (LP), international treaties adopted in 1972 and 1996 respectively, were designed to prevent use of the ocean for disposal of toxic, harmful and radioactive pollutants. Recently the LC/LP has been called upon to decide whether climate mitigation activities, such as subseafloor injection of CO2 and OIF, are legal under the framework and, if so, how they should be regulated. The broad consultation with the science community by the LC/LP in developing their perspective, and the involvement of the NGO community in these deliberations, provides a model for the process that the international policy community can use to develop science-based regulatory guidelines for carbon mitigation projects involving the commons. And the substance of that emerging regulatory framework -- built on a national-level permitting process informed by internationally agreed guidelines and standards -- may also serve as a model for the oversight of other emerging technologies that take place in the global commons.

  3. Opposite Trends in the Regulation of Pornography? Policy Differentiation and Policy Convergence Across 26 Countries Between 1960 and 2010.

    Person, Christian; Hurka, Steffen; Knill, Christoph

    2016-09-01

    In recent decades, the regulation of pornography has been confronted with challenges emerging from cultural change, economic interests, and technological progress. As a result, the respective regulatory frameworks have changed substantially in many countries. These changes have been accompanied by fierce political struggles and societal value conflicts. However, there are few comparative studies on the reactions of national governments to these problems. In this article, we present new empirical data on the regulation of pornography in 26 countries between 1960 and 2010. To assess regulatory change, we rely on a new measurement approach that considers the extent to which governments intervene into individual freedoms and the degree to which noncompliance with these rules is actually sanctioned. Our analysis reveals a trend toward more permissive styles of pornography regulation. However, this trend is accompanied by growing regulatory specialization and a convergence toward more interventionist regimes for special types of pornography.

  4. Transformation and Regulation: A Century of Continuity in Nursery School and Welfare Policy Rhetoric

    Read, Jane

    2015-01-01

    This article explores policy development for under-fives and its implementation in nursery schools in the first two decades of the twentieth century and draws parallels with current policy initiatives such as Sure Start and the "Troubled Families" programme. It interrogates how discourse on British racial health shaped policy and…

  5. Society of Behavioral Medicine's (SBM) position on emerging policy issues regarding electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS): A need for regulation.

    Rojewski, Alana M; Coleman, Nortorious; Toll, Benjamin A

    2016-09-01

    Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), commonly known as electronic cigarettes (or e-cigarettes), are widely available in the USA, yet almost entirely unregulated on a national level. Researchers are currently gathering data to understand the individual and public health effects of ENDS, as well as the role that ENDS may play in tobacco treatment. Given these uncertainties, regulatory efforts should be aimed at understanding and minimizing any potential harms of ENDS. The Society of Behavioral Medicine (SBM) supports stronger regulation of ENDS, incorporation of ENDS into clean air policies, and special consideration of safety standards to protect vulnerable populations. SBM also supports research on ENDS to guide policy decisions.

  6. 76 FR 70037 - Federal Regulations; OMB Circulars, OFPP Policy Letters, and CASB Cost Accounting Standards...

    2011-11-10

    ... Circulars, OFPP Policy Letters, and CASB Cost Accounting Standards Included in the Semiannual Agenda of..., and Cost Accounting Standards Board (CASB) Cost Accounting Standards. DATES: The withdrawal is...

  7. Regulation of distributed generation. A European Policy Paper on the Integration of Distributed Generation in the Internal Electricity Market

    Van Sambeek, E.J.W.; Scheepers, M.J.J.

    2004-06-01

    In the SUSTELNET project criteria and guidelines have been developed that can create a level playing field in electricity markets between distributed generation (DG) and large scale power generation and will improve the network and market access of DG and electricity supply from renewable energy resources (RES). This report focuses on the European dimensions of DG regulation. The key findings of the SUSTELNET project are compared with the EU legislation, i.e. the current Electricity, Renewables and CHP Directives. Additional EU policy, regulation and initiatives are identified that can help Member States in developing future economically efficient and sustainable electricity supply systems

  8. On policies to regulate long-term risks from hazardous waste disposal sites under both intergenerational equity and intragenerational equity

    Shu, Zhongbin

    In recent years, it has been recognized that there is a need for a general philosophic policy to guide the regulation of societal activities that involve long-term and very long-term risks. Theses societal activities not only include the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes and global warming, but also include the disposal of non-radioactive carcinogens that never decay, such as arsenic, nickel, etc. In the past, attention has been focused on nuclear wastes. However, there has been international recognition that large quantities of non-radioactive wastes are being disposed of with little consideration of their long-term risks. The objectives of this dissertation are to present the significant long-term risks posed by non-radioactive carcinogens through case studies; develop the conceptual decision framework for setting the long-term risk policy; and illustrate that certain factors, such as discount rate, can significantly influence the results of long-term risk analysis. Therefore, the proposed decision-making framework can be used to systematically study the important policy questions on long-term risk regulations, and then subsequently help the decision-maker to make informed decisions. Regulatory disparities between high-level radioactive wastes and non-radioactive wastes are summarized. Long-term risk is rarely a consideration in the regulation of disposal of non-radioactive hazardous chemicals; and when it is, the matter has been handled in a somewhat perfunctory manner. Case studies of long-term risks are conducted for five Superfund sites that are contaminated with one or more non-radioactive carcinogens. Under the same assumptions used for the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes, future subsistence farmers would be exposed to significant individual risks, in some cases with lifetime fatality risk equal to unity. The important policy questions on long-term risk regulation are identified, and the conceptual decision-making framework to regulate

  9. Quantitative Analysis of the Impact of Changes in Policies and Regulations for Electricity and Town Gas Supply Industries (Japanese)

    KAINOU Kazunari

    2005-01-01

    In the 1990s, a series of changes were made to policies and regulations governing electricity and town gas supply industries in Japan. To evaluate how such regulatory changes, channeled through the behavior of power/gas companies, have affected the economic welfare of the electricity and town gas markets, it is necessary to first quantitatively analyze how the power/gas companies reacted to the regulatory changes in terms of management behavior. Specifically, it must be examined what decision...

  10. Sports policy systems in regulated Rhineland welfare states : Differences in financial structures of sports clubs?

    Pamela Wicker; Jeroen Scheerder; Steven Vos; Christoph Breuer

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the resource dependencies of voluntary sports club in two Rhineland welfare states with differences in their organizational arrangements of sports (e.g. the centralization of the Sport for All policy). On the basis of the VOCASPORT typology of sports policy systems and the

  11. 76 FR 60357 - Federal Regulations; OMB Circulars, OFPP Policy Letters, and CASB Cost Accounting Standards...

    2011-09-29

    ... derived from 41 U.S.C. 1501. Cost Accounting Standards are rules governing the measurement, assignment... Circulars, OFPP Policy Letters, and CASB Cost Accounting Standards Included in the Semiannual Agenda of..., and Cost Accounting Standards Board (CASB) Cost Accounting Standards. OMB Circulars and OFPP Policy...

  12. THE REGULATION OF MONEY CIRCULATION ON THE BASIS OF USING METHODS AND INSTRUMENTS OF MONETARY POLICY

    S. Mishchenko; S. Naumenkova

    2013-01-01

    In the article it was researched the instruments and mechanism of safeguarding stability of money market on the basis of implementing the optimal monetary policy regime. It was determined the main directions of appliance the monetary policy methods and instruments to guiding money market stability and it was also investigated the influence of transmission mechanism on providing the soundness of money circulations.

  13. A review of building energy regulation and policy for energy conservation in developing countries

    Iwaro, Joseph; Mwasha, Abraham

    2010-01-01

    The rapid growth of energy use, worldwide, hfs raised concerns over problems of energy supply and exhaustion of energy resources. Most of the developed countries are implementing building energy regulations such as energy standards, codes etc., to reduce building energy consumption. The position of developing countries with respect to energy regulations implementation and enforcement is either poorly documented or not documented at all. In addition, there is a lack of consistent data, which makes it difficult to understand the underlying changes that affect energy regulation implementation in developing countries. In that respect, this paper investigates the progress of building energy regulations in developing countries and its implication for energy conservation and efficiency. The present status of building energy regulations in 60 developing countries around the world was analysed through a survey of building energy regulations using online survey. The study revealed the present progress made on building energy regulations in relation to implementation, development and compliance; at the same time the study recommends possible solutions to the barriers facing building energy regulation implementation in the developing world. - Research Highlights: →Progress and implications of energy regulations in developing countries. →Investigation assessed the progress made on energy regulations using online survey. →Energy regulation activities is progressively increasing in developing countries. →The study identified 25 developing countries without energy regulatory standards. →The study shows relationship between energy regulation and energy consumption.

  14. Policy options for alcohol price regulation: the importance of modelling population heterogeneity.

    Meier, Petra Sylvia; Purshouse, Robin; Brennan, Alan

    2010-03-01

    Context and aims Internationally, the repertoire of alcohol pricing policies has expanded to include targeted taxation, inflation-linked taxation, taxation based on alcohol-by-volume (ABV), minimum pricing policies (general or targeted), bans of below-cost selling and restricting price-based promotions. Policy makers clearly need to consider how options compare in reducing harms at the population level, but are also required to demonstrate proportionality of their actions, which necessitates a detailed understanding of policy effects on different population subgroups. This paper presents selected findings from a policy appraisal for the UK government and discusses the importance of accounting for population heterogeneity in such analyses. Method We have built a causal, deterministic, epidemiological model which takes account of differential preferences by population subgroups defined by age, gender and level of drinking (moderate, hazardous, harmful). We consider purchasing preferences in terms of the types and volumes of alcoholic beverages, prices paid and the balance between bars, clubs and restaurants as opposed to supermarkets and off-licenses. Results Age, sex and level of drinking fundamentally affect beverage preferences, drinking location, prices paid, price sensitivity and tendency to substitute for other beverage types. Pricing policies vary in their impact on different product types, price points and venues, thus having distinctly different effects on subgroups. Because population subgroups also have substantially different risk profiles for harms, policies are differentially effective in reducing health, crime, work-place absence and unemployment harms. Conclusion Policy appraisals must account for population heterogeneity and complexity if resulting interventions are to be well considered, proportionate, effective and cost-effective.

  15. THE REGULATION OF MONEY CIRCULATION ON THE BASIS OF USING METHODS AND INSTRUMENTS OF MONETARY POLICY

    S. Mishchenko

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the article it was researched the instruments and mechanism of safeguarding stability of money market on the basis of implementing the optimal monetary policy regime. It was determined the main directions of appliance the monetary policy methods and instruments to guiding money market stability and it was also investigated the influence of transmission mechanism on providing the soundness of money circulations.

  16. SURROGACY POLICY IN INDIA AND NEED OF ACTS TO REGULATE COMMERCIAL SURROGACY

    Chaturvedi; Garg; Abha; Vidya; Praveen

    2014-01-01

    Surrogacy is an arrangement by which a woman, called as surrogate, carries and delivers the offspring of the commissioning parents and it has been recognized in India under the ART treatment. For commercial surrogacy, there is no any uniform law in India or there is no law that binds or regulates this industry. In this paper, we have focused our attention on the present existing laws or guidelines regulating surrogacy with emphasis on need for stringent laws to regulate co...

  17. Corporate coalitions and policy making in the European Union: how and why British American Tobacco promoted "Better Regulation".

    Smith, Katherine Elizabeth; Fooks, Gary; Gilmore, Anna B; Collin, Jeff; Weishaar, Heide

    2015-04-01

    Over the past fifteen years, an interconnected set of regulatory reforms, known as Better Regulation, has been adopted across Europe, marking a significant shift in the way that European Union policies are developed. There has been little exploration of the origins of these reforms, which include mandatory ex ante impact assessment. Drawing on documentary and interview data, this article discusses how and why large corporations, notably British American Tobacco (BAT), worked to influence and promote these reforms. Our analysis highlights (1) how policy entrepreneurs with sufficient resources (such as large corporations) can shape the membership and direction of advocacy coalitions; (2) the extent to which "think tanks" may be prepared to lobby on behalf of commercial clients; and (3) why regulated industries (including tobacco) may favor the use of "evidence tools," such as impact assessments, in policy making. We argue that a key aspect of BAT's ability to shape regulatory reform involved the deliberate construction of a vaguely defined idea that could be strategically adapted to appeal to diverse constituencies. We discuss the theoretical implications of this finding for the Advocacy Coalition Framework, as well as the practical implications of the findings for efforts to promote transparency and public health in the European Union. Copyright © 2015 by Duke University Press.

  18. Toward a more consistent combined approach of reduction targets and climate policy regulations

    Caro, Dario; Frederiksen, Pia; Thomsen, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we discuss how targets, policy instruments and accounting frameworks for greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction need to be complemented and aligned, to achieve a more effective road to reduce the GHG emission. We focus on gaps in the policy framework presently adopted by countries that are ...... level. We argue that to reveal the effect of policy instruments such as a meat tax, on GHG emissions reduced, an alternative consumption-based accounting could favorably complement the traditional GHG accounting.......In this paper we discuss how targets, policy instruments and accounting frameworks for greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction need to be complemented and aligned, to achieve a more effective road to reduce the GHG emission. We focus on gaps in the policy framework presently adopted by countries...... that are parties to the UNFCCC, using as illustrative case study the meat tax recently proposed in Denmark. We argue that when the GHG reduction targets for individual countries are based on a territorial approach alone (such as in the UNFCCC framework), i.e. sum of emissions from production inside the country...

  19. Regulations, guidelines, standards, and policies pertaining to decontamination and decommissioning activities: A literature review

    Cowgill, M.G.

    1993-09-01

    A literature review has been conducted of the existing rules, regulations, and guidelines pertaining to the decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Included in the survey are US Government documents, national (industrial) standards, international standards and guidelines, and the regulations issued by various national governments, such as the United Kingdom, Canada, and Germany

  20. The domestic supply outlook, how the producing industry is reacting, and the challenge to regulators and policy makers

    Jordan, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper addresses three main topics which include an overview of the nation's natural gas reserves; a discussion of the challenges the natural gas industry faces in extracting these reserves in the realm of regulations and cost-effective extraction; and a discussion on how the industry, regulators, and policy makers can work together to extract these reserves in an economic manner while effectively operating within existing regulations. The paper also promotes methods to update and change regulations when necessary as a result of technological change or advancement. The results of the reserve study have shown that there are over 2,000 trillion cubic feet of natural gas still available in the US and Canada, not including undiscovered or additional extraction brought about by new technology. The paper goes on to discuss the historical wellhead pricing of natural gas and what these new reserve figures mean to future natural gas costs. The paper then discusses the adequacy of current distribution systems to meet an increasing demand for natural gas. Finally the paper discusses the need for more deregulation of the gas industry to make it more competitive and keep the development of these resources alive in this country. The author presents information on the decline of exploration and development in this country as a result of increased regulation

  1. Proceedings of the 8. Brazilian congress on energy: energy policy, regulation and sustainable development. v. 3: technological innovation, renewable sources and rural energization

    1999-01-01

    These proceedings cover the papers presented in the 8. Brazilian congress on energy held at Rio de Janeiro from November, 30 to December, 02, 1999, focusing energy policy, regulation and sustainable development, specifically the contribution of energy to a satisfactory quality of life for everyone. Within such a context, the congress technical programme has been structured around six different divisions: energy, environment and development; energy sector regulation; energy policy and planning; technology innovation; energy conservation; renewable energy sources and rural areas energy supply

  2. Assessment of policy issues in nuclear safety regulation according to circumstantial changes

    Chang, Soon Heung; Lee, Byong Ho; Baek, Woon Pil; Lee, Seong Wook; Choi, Seong Soo; Roh, Chang Hyun; Lee, Kwang Gu [Korea Advanced Institute of Scienc and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-03-15

    The objective of the work is to assess various issues in nuclear safety regulation in consideration of circumstantial changes. Emphasis is given to the safety of operating NPPs. The derivation of an effective regulation system considering 'Rhodic Safety Review (PSR)', 'operating License Renewal (LR)', 'backfitting' and 'maintenance rule' is the main objective of the first two years. It is found that those approaches should be introduced in Korea as soon as possible, with cross lingkage to maximize the effectiveness of regulation. In particular, the approaches for PSR are discussed with consultation of IAEA document and foreign practices.

  3. Assessment of policy issues in nuclear safety regulation according to circumstantial changes

    Chang, Soon Heung; Lee, Byong Ho; Baek, Won Pil; Lee, Kwang Gu; Huh, Gyun Young; Hahn, Young Tae [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-03-15

    The objective of the work is to assess various issues in nuclear safety regulation in consideration of circumstantial changes. Emphasis is given to the safety of operating NPPs. It is concluded that the Periodic Safety Review (PSR) should be implemented in Korea as soon as possible, in harmonization with the regulation for life extension of NPPs. The IAEA guidelines, including 10 year intervals and 11 safety factors, should be used as the basic guidelines. The approach to improve regulatory effectiveness is also reviewed and a transition to 'knowledge-based regulation' is suggested.

  4. Assessment of policy issues in nuclear safety regulation according to circumstantial changes

    Chang, Soon Heung; Chang, Soon Heung; Lee, Byong Ho; Baek, Won Pil; Roh, Chang Hyun; Lee, Kwang Gu; Kim, Hong Chae; Lee, Yong Ho [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-15

    The objective of the work is to assess various issues in nuclear safety regulation in consideration of circumstantial changes. Emphasis is given to the safety of operating NPPs. It is concluded that the Periodic Safety Review (PSR) should be implemented in Korea as soon as possible, in harmonization with the regulation for life extension of NPPs. The IAEA guidelines, including 10 year intervals and 11 safety factors, should be used as the basic guidelines. Efforts are also required to cope with other circumstantial changes such as the establishment of International Nuclear Regulators Association (INRA)

  5. 42 CFR 52b.14 - Other federal laws, regulations, executive orders, and policies that apply.

    2010-10-01

    ... exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories. 36 CFR part 1190—Minimum guidelines and requirements for... Department of Health and Human Services—effectuation of title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. 45 CFR part.... (1) Design Policy and Guidelines (1996). Division of Engineering Services, National Institutes of...

  6. 76 FR 47990 - Amendment to the International Traffic in Arms Regulations: Updates to Country Policies, and...

    2011-08-08

    ... ambiguity, minimize litigation, establish clear legal standards, and reduce burden. Paperwork Reduction Act... of Haiti, in coordination with the U.S. Government. * * * * * (l) Vietnam. It is the policy of the... services destined for or originating in Vietnam, except that a license or other approval may be issued, on...

  7. Soft regulations in pharmaceutical policy making : an overview of current approaches and their consequences

    Wettermark, B.; Godman, B.; Jacobsson, B.; Haaijer-Ruskamp, F.M.

    2009-01-01

    It is a challenge to improve public health within limited resources. Pharmaceutical policy making is a greater challenge due to conflicting interests between key stakeholder groups. This paper reviews current and future strategies to help improve the quality and efficiency of care, with special

  8. Environmental policy and technological change: The effects of economic incentives and direct regulation on energy-saving innovation

    Newell, Richard G., Jr.

    Over the long run, the impacts of environmental policies will be greatly affected by the influence these policies have on the rate and direction of technological change. In particular, the roles played by energy prices and product regulation in energy-saving technology innovation are exceptionally important considerations in modeling climate change and evaluating alternative policy options. We analyze the effects of energy prices and energy-efficiency regulations on the menu of air conditioner and water heater models available on the market over a period of more than three decades, measuring their innovation in terms of improvements in the products' underlying characteristics. Through estimation of a series of "characteristics transformation surfaces," we find that during less than four decades, substantial innovation in these products reduced the total capital and operating costs of air conditioning by one-half and water heating by more than one-fifth. Although the overall rate of innovation in these products appears to be independent of energy prices and regulations, the evidence suggests that the direction of innovation may be responsive to energy price changes. This would imply that energy price increases induced innovation in a direction that lowered the capital cost tradeoffs inherent in producing more energy-efficient products. The evidence supporting "regulation-induced" changes in these tradeoffs is much weaker. Our estimates indicate that about one- to two-fifths of the energy-efficiency improvements in these products from 1973 to 1993 were associated with historical changes in energy prices. We also find that this responsiveness to price changes increased substantially after product labeling requirements came into effect, and that minimum efficiency standards had a significant positive effect on average efficiency levels. Nonetheless, a sizeable portion of historical efficiency improvements in these technologies is associated with the products' overall

  9. Re-Engineering Biosafety Regulations In India: Towards a Critique of Policy, Law and Prescriptions

    A. Damodaran

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This article surveys the structure and essence of India’s biosafety regulations from an evolutionary perspective. After detailing the processes associated with the biosafety law and guidelines in the country, this article looks critically at recent efforts to re-engineer the regulations. It is argued that India’s biosafety regulations should move towards a more inclusive approach, which will facilitate transparent and informed decision-making, based on stakeholder-convergence. It is also suggested that the entire spectrum of laws and regulations that have a direct or indirect bearing on biosafety in India, need to be explored so that greater coherence could be secured in the management of biotechnology products that are sensitive to the environment. Drawing from the experience of the Bt cotton case, the article advocates a greater role for civil society and grassroots organizations.

  10. Impact of policies regulating foreign physician migration to Switzerland: a modelling case study in anaesthesia.

    Haller, Guy; Combescure, Christophe; Mamie, Chantal; Zoccatelli, Davide; Clergue, François

    2015-05-22

    Several countries have developed policies that restrict or limit duration of stay, clinical privileges or the number of residency permits allocated to migrating physicians. Switzerland is currently preparing a new law limiting overall foreign immigration. The impact of such restrictive policies is currently unknown. In a case study of anaesthesia care in Switzerland we modelled, trends in the size of physicians' workforce until 2024, following the implementation of a strict quota policy for foreign medical trainees. We developed a computer-based Markov model with Monte-Carlo simulations to project, in the context of a strict quota policy for foreign trainees, supply and demand for anaesthesia positions until 2024. We used data from a cross-sectional study performed in the French- and Italian-speaking cantons of Switzerland and the Health dataset from the OECD. With 8 to 12 (95% CI 4-20) anaesthetists retiring per year, the implementation of strict quotas of foreign graduates would result in a 38% decrease in the number of anaesthetists in intermediary (senior registrars) positions by 2024. This decrease would be particularly important in district hospitals where nearly half (49%) of the non-Swiss anaesthetists are practising. Swiss graduates are unlikely to balance the shortage. Despite efforts by Swiss universities to increase the number of medical graduates, their number has dropped from 10.5 to 9.7/100 000 inhabitants between 2000 and 2012, due to the growth of the population. This case study in Latin Switzerland shows that a restrictive policy limiting foreign immigration of trainees would result in a major deficit in the number of anaesthetists available to meet population needs. These aspects should be carefully considered when countries develop restrictions and limitations of foreign immigration.

  11. Regulation of Islamic art in confessional policy of Catherine II (on materials of the Tyumen region

    Yulia A. Bortnikova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Prevention of the religious conflicts and Islamic extremism, education of confessional tolerance, – these and other questions became the most actual political and scientific problem now. Art reflects outlook of people and is an ideological lever on society. In article the policy on use of Islamic art for education of confessional tolerance is analyzed. This policy began by Catherine II in 1773, had the content of reform and extended on religious art and architecture of all gentiles in the Russian Empire. Article is written on the basis of materials of the Central historical archive of the Republic of Bashkortostan and exhibits of the museums. The Tyumen region (the South of the modern Tyumen region was an optimum basis for carrying out this policy because of the mixed option of Islam which arose there. Muslim art included a complex of the subjects intended for execution of a religious cult. It reflected elements of Shamanism and Tengriism, and after carrying out reform – Judaism and Christianity. Thus, at it there were forms and images of all religions of the Tyumen region. Syncretism of Islamic art was shown in a typology of cult objects, their ornament and mission. The most unusual phenomenon was existence of a religious sculpture which was forbidden in Islam and Orthodoxy, but existed in both religions, and also in Catholicism, Tengriism and Shamanism. In article ways of impact on Muslim art which were used by the Orenburg Mohammedan spiritual meeting are considered. It didn't interfere in preservation of religious syncretism, and also executed orders of the government on Christianization of Islamic art. Authors come to a conclusion that reform carried lines of policy of multiculturalism for gentiles.

  12. Policy Instruments for Irigation Water Management: Flat Pricing, Volumetric Pricing and Quota Regulations

    Pinheiro, António C.; Saraiva, João Paulo

    2009-01-01

    In the fifty years since the foundation of the European Community, Europe has evolved in many fields. From being exclusively concerned with economic integration – reflected by policies to increase agricultural productivity and improvement of intra-communitarian trade –, nowadays, the European Union is gradually advancing towards a political integration, in the direction of common environmental values and towards the sustainability of natural resources. While in the Treaties of the European Co...

  13. Nuclear export policy and regulation for non-proliferation: Federal Republic of Germany

    Boulanger, Werner.

    1978-01-01

    The nuclear export policy of the Federal Republic of Germany complies with the principle of non-proliferation of nuclear weapons. Already in 1967 the Federal Government stated in a Peace Note that no export was authorised to countries (outside Euratom) which did not comply with the IAEA Safeguards. In the bilateral agreement the Federal Republic signed with Brasil in 1975, emphasis was put on international safeguards and the control exercised on exported materials to avoid any diversion for military purposes. (NEA) [fr

  14. Market Regulators of Service Spheres Innovative Development as a Tool of Regional Socio-Economic Policy

    Pugacheva, Anna S.; Filippova, Viktoriya P.; Kon, Andrei Y.; Dorzhieva, Lyudmila B.; Silchenok, Igor S.; Pugacheva, Natalya B.; Lunev, Alexander N.; Mustafina, Alfiya A.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the study is conditioned by the innovative development of service spheres as the reduction of territorial social and economic differentiation to the level, due to objective differences of the regions and to balance of their revenue base and expenditure commitments. The service sector is one of the most dynamic and growing segments of regional markets and one of the characteristics of effective socio-economic policy in the region. Innovative development of service spheres as a...

  15. A Deterrence Approach to Regulate Nurses' Compliance with Electronic Medical Records Privacy Policy.

    Kuo, Kuang-Ming; Talley, Paul C; Hung, Ming-Chien; Chen, Yen-Liang

    2017-11-03

    Hospitals have become increasingly aware that electronic medical records (EMR) may bring about tangible/intangible benefits to managing institutions, including reduced medical errors, improved quality-of-care, curtailed costs, and allowed access to patient information by healthcare professionals regardless of limitations. However, increased dependence on EMR has led to a corresponding increase in the influence of EMR breaches. Such incursions, which have been significantly facilitated by the introduction of mobile devices for accessing EMR, may induce tangible/intangible damage to both hospitals and concerned individuals. The purpose of this study was to explore factors which may tend to inhibit nurses' intentions to violate privacy policy concerning EMR based upon the deterrence theory perspective. Utilizing survey methodology, 262 responses were analyzed via structural equation modeling. Results revealed that punishment certainty, detection certainty, and subjective norm would most certainly and significantly reduce nurses' intentions to violate established EMR privacy policy. With these findings, recommendations for health administrators in planning and designing effective strategies which may potentially inhibit nurses from violating EMR privacy policy are discussed.

  16. IVF policy and global/local politics: the making of multiple-embryo transfer regulation in Taiwan.

    Wu, Chia-Ling

    2012-08-01

    This paper analyzes the regulatory trajectory of multiple-embryo transfer in in-vitro fertilization (IVF) in Taiwan. Taking a latecomer to policy-making as the case, it argues the importance of conceptualizing the global/local dynamics in policy-making for assisted reproductive technology (ART). The conceptual framework is built upon recent literature on standardization, science policy, and global assemblage. I propose three interrelated features that reveal the "global in the local": (1) the power relationships among stakeholders, (2) the selected global form that involved actors drew upon, and (3) the re-contextualized assemblage made of local networks. Data included archives, interviews, and participant observation. In different historical periods the specific stakeholders selected different preferred global forms for Taiwan, such as Britain's code of ethics in the 1990s, the American guideline in the early 2000s, and the European trend in the mid-2000s. The global is heterogeneous. The failure to transfer the British regulation, the revision of the American guideline by adding one more embryo than it specified, and the gap between the cited European trend and the "no more than four" in Taiwan's 2007 Human Reproduction Law all show that the local network further transforms the selected global form, confining it to rhetoric only or tailoring it to local needs. Overall, Taiwanese practitioners successfully maintained their medical autonomy to build a 'flexible standardization'. Multiple pregnancy remains the most common health risk of IVF in Taiwan. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Changes in Policy and Market and Network Regulation to Increase Power Generation by Renewables and DG in the EU

    Van Oostvoorn, F.; Van der Welle, A.

    2009-01-01

    Recently the importance of 'Large scale DER integration' has increased as means to meet the ambitious 2020 EU policy objectives and targets for RES, emissions reductions and energy efficiency. Increasing the role of RES and DG (Renewable Energy Sources and Distributed Generation or DER) in supply is also highly beneficial for reducing EU dependency on gas and oil imports. In this EU context, it is important to review the current barriers, support policies and network regulation for integration of more DG, RES and small scale CHP (Combined Heat and Power) in the power systems. Several studies conducted for the EU and led by the ECN (Energy research Centre of the Netherlands) reveal that currently, in some, mainly new, Member States, the contribution of RES and DG is still very low. However, in coming decades the share of variable RES-E sources should become much larger in many EU countries. Note that 20% RES in a country in 2020 implies a share of electricity supply by RES of about 30% or more. Currently, countries like Denmark and Spain, already experience such a large contribution of (mostly intermittent type) renewables and this is already negatively impacting power system costs. Now the question arises whether or not we can increase the contribution of RES to the power supply beyond 20-30% without raising system inefficiency and what changes in system conditions and market and network regulation are necessary to efficiently absorb large volumes of so called intermittent RES supply resources. Based on findings from several large EU projects promoting the role of RES and DG in the power supply, the authors discuss and present the different barriers and solutions that should facilitate meeting the ambitious EU policy targets for RES in 2020

  18. 76 FR 71926 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Applicability of Hexavalent Chromium Policy to...

    2011-11-21

    ... 0750-AH39 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Applicability of Hexavalent Chromium... the use of materials containing hexavalent chromium. DATES: Comment Date: Comments on the proposed... human health and environmental risks related to the use of hexavalent chromium. Hexavalent chromium is a...

  19. The public’s voice about healthcare quality regulation policies: a population-based survey.

    Bouwman, R.; Bomhoff, M.; Jong, J.D. de; Robben, P.; Friele, R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In the wake of various high-profile incidents in a number of countries, regulators of healthcare quality have been criticised for their ‘soft’ approach. In politics, concerns were expressed about public confidence. It was claimed that there are discrepancies between public opinions

  20. Regulating compassion: an overview of Canada's federal medical cannabis policy and practice

    Lucas Philippe G

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In response to a number of court challenges brought forth by Canadian patients who demonstrated that they benefited from the use of medicinal cannabis but remained vulnerable to arrest and persecution as a result of its status as a controlled substance, in 1999 Canada became the second nation in the world to initiate a centralized medicinal cannabis program. Over its six years of existence, this controversial program has been found unconstitutional by a number of courts, and has faced criticism from the medical establishment, law enforcement, as well as the patient/participants themselves. Methods This critical policy analysis is an evidence-based review of court decisions, government records, relevant studies and Access to Information Act data related to the three main facets of Health Canada's medicinal cannabis policy – the Marihuana Medical Access Division (MMAD; the Canadians Institute of Health Research Medical Marijuana Research Program; and the federal cannabis production and distribution program. This analysis also examines Canada's network of unregulated community-based dispensaries. Results There is a growing body of evidence that Health Canada's program is not meeting the needs of the nation's medical cannabis patient community and that the policies of the Marihuana Medical Access Division may be significantly limiting the potential individual and public health benefits achievable though the therapeutic use of cannabis. Canada's community-based dispensaries supply medical cannabis to a far greater number of patients than the MMAD, but their work is currently unregulated by any level of government, leaving these organizations and their clients vulnerable to arrest and prosecution. Conclusion Any future success will depend on the government's ability to better assess and address the needs and legitimate concerns of end-users of this program, to promote and fund an expanded clinical research agenda, and to work in

  1. Regulating compassion: an overview of Canada's federal medical cannabis policy and practice

    Lucas, Philippe G

    2008-01-01

    Background In response to a number of court challenges brought forth by Canadian patients who demonstrated that they benefited from the use of medicinal cannabis but remained vulnerable to arrest and persecution as a result of its status as a controlled substance, in 1999 Canada became the second nation in the world to initiate a centralized medicinal cannabis program. Over its six years of existence, this controversial program has been found unconstitutional by a number of courts, and has faced criticism from the medical establishment, law enforcement, as well as the patient/participants themselves. Methods This critical policy analysis is an evidence-based review of court decisions, government records, relevant studies and Access to Information Act data related to the three main facets of Health Canada's medicinal cannabis policy – the Marihuana Medical Access Division (MMAD); the Canadians Institute of Health Research Medical Marijuana Research Program; and the federal cannabis production and distribution program. This analysis also examines Canada's network of unregulated community-based dispensaries. Results There is a growing body of evidence that Health Canada's program is not meeting the needs of the nation's medical cannabis patient community and that the policies of the Marihuana Medical Access Division may be significantly limiting the potential individual and public health benefits achievable though the therapeutic use of cannabis. Canada's community-based dispensaries supply medical cannabis to a far greater number of patients than the MMAD, but their work is currently unregulated by any level of government, leaving these organizations and their clients vulnerable to arrest and prosecution. Conclusion Any future success will depend on the government's ability to better assess and address the needs and legitimate concerns of end-users of this program, to promote and fund an expanded clinical research agenda, and to work in cooperation with community

  2. Conceptual Principles for Developing and Regulating the Energy Policy of Ukraine at a Competitive Level

    Klymchuk Oleksandr V.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying the current trends of regulatory policy in the global energy market and identifying potent ways for energy efficiency growth in terms of the Ukrainian economy. An analysis of the main trends of energy policy development in the world has been carried out and a priority direction for the development of Ukrainian energy on the basis of the biofuel industry has been determined. The article substantiates actuality of the matter that one of the main directions of overcoming the energy crisis in Ukraine, along with ensuring recovery and sustainable growth of the gross domestic product, is transition to the industrial use of biofuels. The process of production and consumption of biofuels must be seen as a means to raise the level of decentralization, while ensuring energy sources. It is determined that the State must provide information support for producers of biofuels, defining their market range and encouraging beneficial business partners. Increased production of biofuels in Ukraine will serve as a fundamental factor in achieving international competitiveness of the national economy, as well as its growth on innovation basis.

  3. Policies and regulations in Mexico with regard to genetic technology and food security

    Colmenarez Ortiz, Claudia; Ortiz Garcia, Sol

    2016-01-01

    In 1988 the first application for field trials of a GMO was formally received in Mexico. Since then a Biosafety law, few bylaws and national official standards were enacted in order to regulate the safe use of GMOs and to evaluate, control and avoid adverse effects to human health and the environment. The Law on Biosafety of Genetically Modified Organisms was enacted in 2005 in order to comply with international obligations derived from the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety signed by Mexico in ...

  4. The UK health and safety executive's policies on information relating to nuclear safety regulation

    Williams, L.

    1994-01-01

    How a message is transmitted can be as important as what is said. To be effective a message has to be timely, targeted and clear. People do not always remember what was said, by how and when it was said. This paper discusses some of the tools which the Nuclear Safety Division (NSD), the UK's nuclear regulator, has used and emphasizes the need to recognize the importance of a recipient interest in attempting to transmit a message. (author). 4 refs

  5. Who regulates the disposal of low-level radioactive waste under the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act

    Mostaghel, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    The present existence of immense quantities of low-level nuclear waste, a federal law providing for state or regional control of such waste disposal, and a number of state disposal laws challenged on a variety of constitutional grounds underscore what currently may be the most serious problem in nuclear waste disposal: who is to regulate the disposal of low-level nuclear wastes. This problem's origin may be traced to crucial omissions in the Atomic Energy Act of 1946 and its 1954 amendments (AEA) that concern radioactive waste disposal. Although the AEA states that nuclear materials and facilities are affected with the public interest and should be regulated to provide for the public health and safety, the statute fails to prescribe specific guidelines for any nuclear waste disposal. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 (LLRWPA) grants states some control over radioactive waste disposal, an area from which they were previously excluded by the doctrine of federal preemption. This Comment discusses the question of who regulates low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities by examining the following: the constitutional doctrines safeguarding federal government authority; area of state authority; grants of specific authority delegations under the LLRWPA and its amendment; and finally, potential problems that may arise depending on whether ultimate regulatory authority is deemed to rest with single states, regional compacts, or the federal government

  6. Comparison of the Canadian and US Laws, Regulations, Policies, and Systems of Oversight for Animals in Research.

    Griffin, Gilly; Locke, Paul

    2016-05-01

    The Canadian and United States' approaches to oversight of animals in research are both based on the "3Rs" principles outlined in Russell and Burch's classic text, The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique. Each country seeks to protect the welfare of animals, while permitting the legitimate goals of scientific research to be attained according to the legal principles, cultures, and strengths and constraints of their jurisprudential and societal traditions. Canada is one of the most decentralized federations in the world, and regulation of activities is based to a great extent on custom and practice. The United States is more hierarchical and, at least with respect to laws governing animal research, more centralized. Accordingly, the Canadian approach is rooted in the concepts of social contracts, with a greater emphasis on guidance and policy and less reliance on legislation. No federal (national) direct legislation of laboratory animal welfare exists, although the federal government uses its criminal and spending authorities to shape behavior. The central feature of the Canadian system is the Canadian Council on Animal Care, which was formed to support universities and government departments involved in animal-based science. Animal care committees play a central role in implementing the guidelines and policies in facilities that carry out animal research. The United States has enacted two federal (national) laws applicable to animals in research. The Animal Welfare Act is a more traditional, command-and-control law that gives authority to the US Department of Agriculture to promulgate regulations, inspect facilities, and enforce violations. The Health Research Extension Act, which amended the US Public Health Services (PHS) Act, applies to any activity conducted or supported by the PHS, including research efforts supported by the US National Institutes of Health. It is largely nonregulatory and establishes a system of assurances and policies that covered

  7. Liberalisation and Market Opening Versus Energy Policy and Regulation Proposals: the German Experiences

    Wieners, J.

    2001-01-01

    In 1998 the German electricity market became fully liberalised for competition. Prices for all consumer groups recorded a considerable drop. Service centres accepted measures for cost reduction, new strategies resulted in mergers. However, in view of economic efficiency, the German Government set life surroundings as the primary task. With new electricity market regulation numerous grants were introduced into renewable energy sources as well as the combined production of heat and electricity, which had a destabilising effect on all price savings on the part of the competition.(author)

  8. S.Yu. Witte's Customs Policy and Regulation of State Import of Industrial Equipment

    Антон Юрьевич Петров

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers state import of industrial equipment in the context of the customs regulation of Russia’s foreign trade under S.Yu. Witte as the Minister of Finance (1892–1903. The analysis of archival data reveals the motives which drove various ministries of the Russian empire when they gave preference to foreign producers rather than domestic ones. In the 1890s the Ministry of Finance, on the one hand, and other ministries, on the other hand, were debating the necessity of orders for foreign industrial equipment made by the Russian governmental bodies. The article studies the course and results of this interdepartmental struggle.

  9. Marketing alcohol to young people: implications for industry regulation and research policy.

    Jackson, M C; Hastings, G; Wheeler, C; Eadie, D; Mackintosh, A M

    2000-12-01

    This paper focuses on the marketing of alcohol to young people in the United Kingdom, but the lessons that emerge have international significance. Alcohol is a global enterprise and recent consolidation means that it is controlled by a decreasing number of expanding multi-nationals. Alcohol companies are able to allocate significant resources to researching consumer preferences, developing new products and promoting them on an international level. Recent years have seen a growth in the value that youth culture attaches to brand labels and symbols and a move away from the healthy-living ethos. The alcohol industry's response to these trends has been to design alcoholic beverages that appeal to young people, using well-informed and precisely targeted marketing strategies. This has led to growing concerns about the implications for public health and a demand for tighter controls to regulate alcohol marketing practices. In the United Kingdom, controls on alcohol are piecemeal and reactive and the current system of voluntary regulation appears ineffective. This paper argues for more research to establish current industry practice and inform the development of a comprehensive regulatory structure and system of monitoring.

  10. Chronic viral hepatitis: policy, regulation, and strategies for its control and elimination in Ethiopia

    Fassil Shiferaw

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis B and C are silent killers not yet recognized as major public health challenges in many developing countries with huge disease burden. In Ethiopia, Hepatitis B is endemic with an average prevalence of 10.8 %, and the prevalence of Hepatitis C is 2 %. The prevalence of both infections, however, is likely to be underreported due to the lack of diagnostic facilities and appropriate surveillance systems. Ethiopia is also among the many Sub-Sahara African countries lacking a coordinated and systematic national response to chronic viral hepatitis. The objective of this study is to examine the current level of response to viral Hepatitis B & C in Ethiopia with the aim to bring identified gaps to the attention of relevant stakeholders and policy makers. Methods This cross-sectional qualitative study was based on semi-structured in-depth interviews with 21 key informants from health facilities, health offices, pharmaceutical companies, regulatory bodies, professional association and blood bank units. Participants were selected purposively based on their role in the national hepatitis response. The investigators also reviewed available policy and strategy documents, standards of practice and surveys, and paid visits to pharmaceutical premises to check the availability of antiviral drugs. Thematic analysis was employed to make sense of the data. During the data analysis process, all the authors critically read the materials, and data was triangulated by source, interpreter view and thematic perspective to ensure accurate representation and comprehensiveness, and validation of the interviewees’ responses. Once each investigator reviewed the data independently, the team reached a common understanding of the scope and contexts of the information attained. Data were subsequently reduced to key concepts, and case stories were taken with successive revisions. The key concepts were later coded into most basic meaningful

  11. Chronic viral hepatitis: policy, regulation, and strategies for its control and elimination in Ethiopia.

    Shiferaw, Fassil; Letebo, Mekitew; Bane, Abate

    2016-08-11

    Hepatitis B and C are silent killers not yet recognized as major public health challenges in many developing countries with huge disease burden. In Ethiopia, Hepatitis B is endemic with an average prevalence of 10.8 %, and the prevalence of Hepatitis C is 2 %. The prevalence of both infections, however, is likely to be underreported due to the lack of diagnostic facilities and appropriate surveillance systems. Ethiopia is also among the many Sub-Sahara African countries lacking a coordinated and systematic national response to chronic viral hepatitis. The objective of this study is to examine the current level of response to viral Hepatitis B & C in Ethiopia with the aim to bring identified gaps to the attention of relevant stakeholders and policy makers. This cross-sectional qualitative study was based on semi-structured in-depth interviews with 21 key informants from health facilities, health offices, pharmaceutical companies, regulatory bodies, professional association and blood bank units. Participants were selected purposively based on their role in the national hepatitis response. The investigators also reviewed available policy and strategy documents, standards of practice and surveys, and paid visits to pharmaceutical premises to check the availability of antiviral drugs. Thematic analysis was employed to make sense of the data. During the data analysis process, all the authors critically read the materials, and data was triangulated by source, interpreter view and thematic perspective to ensure accurate representation and comprehensiveness, and validation of the interviewees' responses. Once each investigator reviewed the data independently, the team reached a common understanding of the scope and contexts of the information attained. Data were subsequently reduced to key concepts, and case stories were taken with successive revisions. The key concepts were later coded into most basic meaningful categories. The World Health Organization (WHO) global

  12. Essays on the comparison of climate change policies: Land use regulations, taxes, and tradable permits

    Heres Del Valle, David R.

    The California Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 requires year 2020 greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the state to be reduced back to 1990 levels. Several mitigation strategies have been explored and are expected to be implemented over the next few years. Among others, land use policies have been advocated as an important means to curb GHG emissions through the reduction of vehicle miles traveled (VMT), while an economy-wide cap and trade system would ensure that a certain level of GHG reductions is achieved although at unknown costs. The first essay of this dissertation aims to contribute to the ongoing discussion over the impact of land use policies by implementing a modified two-part model (M2PM) with instrumental variables (IV), a procedure that respectively takes into account the large mass of observations with zero car travel, and the possibility of residential self-selection, both of which could otherwise bias the estimates. The analysis takes advantage of a large dataset on travel patterns and socio-economic characteristics of more than 7,000 households across the 58 counties in the state of California. Results show that although VMT elasticities with respect to residential density are larger than others found in the recent econometric literature, the actual impact of residential density on VMT would not be as large unless very large increases in residential density occur. On the other hand, recent estimates of the elasticity of VMT with respect to the price of gasoline imply that moderate increases in the price of gasoline would suffice to reduce travel by similar magnitudes. The second essay reconsiders the debate over quantity (e.g., tradable permits) and price (e.g., taxes) controls by introducing uncertainty in the damage from the externality under a controlled environment. Economic theory predicts that quantity and price instruments for the control of externalities will produce identical outcomes as long as certain conditions obtain - namely

  13. Arianespace Launch Service Operator Policy for Space Safety (Regulations and Standards for Safety)

    Jourdainne, Laurent

    2013-09-01

    Since December 10, 2010, the French Space Act has entered into force. This French Law, referenced as LOS N°2008-518 ("Loi relative aux Opérations Spatiales"), is compliant with international rules. This French Space Act (LOS) is now applicable for any French private company whose business is dealing with rocket launch or in orbit satellites operations. Under CNES leadership, Arianespace contributed to the consolidation of technical regulation applicable to launch service operators.Now for each launch operation, the operator Arianespace has to apply for an authorization to proceed to the French ministry in charge of space activities. In the files issued for this purpose, the operator is able to justify a high level of warranties in the management of risks through robust processes in relation with the qualification maintenance, the configuration management, the treatment of technical facts and relevant conclusions and risks reduction implementation when needed.Thanks to the historic success of Ariane launch systems through its more than 30 years of exploitation experience (54 successes in a row for latest Ariane 5 launches), Arianespace as well as European public and industrial partners developed key experiences and knowledge as well as competences in space security and safety. Soyuz-ST and Vega launch systems are now in operation from Guiana Space Center with identical and proved risks management processes. Already existing processes have been slightly adapted to cope with the new roles and responsibilities of each actor contributing to the launch preparation and additional requirements like potential collision avoidance with inhabited space objects.Up to now, more than 12 Ariane 5 launches and 4 Soyuz-ST launches have been authorized under the French Space Act regulations. Ariane 5 and Soyuz- ST generic demonstration of conformity have been issued, including exhaustive danger and impact studies for each launch system.This article will detail how Arianespace

  14. Late-stage pharmaceutical R&D and pricing policies under two-stage regulation.

    Jobjörnsson, Sebastian; Forster, Martin; Pertile, Paolo; Burman, Carl-Fredrik

    2016-12-01

    We present a model combining the two regulatory stages relevant to the approval of a new health technology: the authorisation of its commercialisation and the insurer's decision about whether to reimburse its cost. We show that the degree of uncertainty concerning the true value of the insurer's maximum willingness to pay for a unit increase in effectiveness has a non-monotonic impact on the optimal price of the innovation, the firm's expected profit and the optimal sample size of the clinical trial. A key result is that there exists a range of values of the uncertainty parameter over which a reduction in uncertainty benefits the firm, the insurer and patients. We consider how different policy parameters may be used as incentive mechanisms, and the incentives to invest in R&D for marginal projects such as those targeting rare diseases. The model is calibrated using data on a new treatment for cystic fibrosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Multi - party Game Analysis of Coal Industry and Industry Regulation Policy Optimization

    Jiang, Tianqi

    2018-01-01

    In the face of the frequent occurrence of coal mine safety accidents, this paper analyses the relationship between central and local governments, coal mining enterprises and miners from the perspective of multi - group game. In the actual production, the decision of one of the three groups can affect the game strategy of the other of the three, so we should assume the corresponding game order. In this order, the game analysis of the income and decision of the three is carried out, and the game decision of the government, the enterprise and the workers is obtained through the establishment of the benefit matrix and so on. And then on the existing system to optimize the coal industry regulation proposed practical recommendations to reduce the frequency of industry safety accidents, optimize the industry production environment.

  16. Policy and Regulation in the Media Landscape: the Greek Paradigm Concentration of Media Ownership Versus the Right to Information

    Anastasia Veneti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available By outlining the long-lasting peculiarities of the Greek media landscape, this paper aims to make us reflect on how the political system affects their development and role. Particularly, through analyzing the policy and regulating frames applied to Greek communication field, we try to shed light on the degree and shapes of media concentration and control as well as on the effects of this widespread phenomenon. Special emphasis is placed on the illicit interweaving of political and media interests, giving rise to a media system which has great difficulties in following constructively the technological developments in the field and challenges the active participation of citizens in the public affairs. In the contemporary society of digital revolution market values continue to be dominant. Those who control the private media outweigh the political figures and as a result any attempts to regulate the communication field are always implemented for the benefit of the private capital. Under these circumstances the question of whether the media can act as amplifiers of the democratic practices is more crucial than ever. This is the central question posed by the paper, arguing that the evolution of the Greek media system is inundated with evidence supporting the view that the particular voice of citizen as well as his right to information is under threat.

  17. Hawaii Integrated Energy Assessment. Volume V. Rules, regulations, permits and policies affecting the development of alternate energy sources in Hawaii

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive presentaton of the major permits, regulations, rules, and controls which are likely to affect the development of alternate energy sources in Hawaii is presented. An overview of the permit process, showing the major categories and types of permits and controls for energy alternatives is presented. This is followed by a brief resume of current and projected changes designed to streamline the permit process. The permits, laws, regulations, and controls that are applicable to the development of energy alternatives in Hawaii are described. The alternate energy technologies affected, a description of the permit or control, and the requirements for conformance are presented for each applicable permit. Federal, state, and county permits and controls are covered. The individual energy technologies being considered as alternatives to the State's present dependence on imported fossil fuels are emphasized. The alternate energy sources covered are bioconversion, geothermal, ocean thermal, wind, solar (direct), and solid waste. For each energy alternative, the significant permits are summarized with a brief explanation of why they may be necessary. The framework of policy development at each of the levels of government with respect to the alternate energy sources is covered.

  18. When renewable portfolio standards meet cap-and-trade regulations in the electricity sector: Market interactions, profits implications, and policy redundancy

    Tsao, C.-C.; Campbell, J.E.; Chen, Yihsu

    2011-01-01

    Emission trading programs (C and T) and renewable portfolio standards (RPS) are two common tools used by policymakers to control GHG emissions in the energy and other energy-intensive sectors. Little is known, however, as to the policy implications resulting from these concurrent regulations, especially given that their underlying policy goals and regulatory schemes are distinct. This paper applies both an analytical model and a computational model to examine the short-run implications of market interactions and policy redundancy. The analytical model is used to generate contestable hypotheses, while the numerical model is applied to consider more realistic market conditions. We have two central findings. First, lowering the CO 2 C and T cap might penalize renewable units, and increasing the RPS level could sometimes benefit coal and oil and make natural gas units worse off. Second, making one policy more stringent would weaken the market incentive, which the other policy relies upon to attain its intended policy target. - Highlights: → Lowering the CO 2 C and T cap might penalize renewable units, and increasing the RPS level could sometimes benefit coal and oil and make natural gas units worse off. → Making one policy more stringent would weaken the market incentive, which the other policy relies upon to attain its intended policy target. → The market-wise average emissions could increase when increasing RPS requirement.

  19. What Can We Learn About the Processes of Regulation of Tuberculosis Medicines From the Experiences of Health Policy and System Actors in India, Tanzania, and Zambia?

    Kabir Sheikh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The unregulated availability and irrational use of tuberculosis (TB medicines is a major issue of public health concern globally. Governments of many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs have committed to regulating the quality and availability of TB medicines, but with variable success. Regulation of TB medicines remains an intractable challenge in many settings, but the reasons for this are poorly understood. The objective of this paper is to elaborate processes of regulation of quality and availability of TB medicines in three LMICs – India, Tanzania, and Zambia – and to understand the factors that constrain and enable these processes. Methods: We adopted the action-centred approach of policy implementation analysis that draws on the experiences of relevant policy and health system actors in order to understand regulatory processes. We drew on data from three case studies commissioned by the World Health Organization (WHO, on the regulation of TB medicines in India, Tanzania, and Zambia. Qualitative research methods were used, including in-depth interviews with 89 policy and health system actors and document review. Data were organized thematically into accounts of regulators’ authority and capacity; extent of policy implementation; and efficiency, transparency, and accountability. Results: In India, findings included the absence of a comprehensive policy framework for regulation of TB medicines, constraints of authority and capacity of regulators, and poor implementation of prescribing and dispensing norms in the majority private sector. Tanzania had a policy that restricted import, prescribing and dispensing of TB medicines to government operators. Zambia procured and dispensed TB medicines mainly through government services, albeit in the absence of a single policy for restriction of medicines. Three cross-cutting factors emerged as crucially influencing regulatory processes - political and stakeholder support for

  20. From Impact Assessment to the Policy Cycle: Drawing Lessons from the EU’S Better-Regulation Agenda

    Andrea Renda

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The European Union launched its first comprehensive better-regulation agenda in 2002 and has since then been constantly modifying and improving its toolkit aimed at guaranteeing the quality of its legislation. The first better-regulation agenda followed the pioneering experience of some of its member states and introduced a formal procedure of ex ante impact assessment (IA as well as minimum criteria for stakeholder consultation.1 Different variables explain the rise of EU-level IA, such as reactions to the overuse of the precautionary principle in risk analysis and health policy (especially in chemicals and tobacco;2 pressure from finance ministers in countries such as the U.K. and the Netherlands to introduce evidence-based procedures in policy formulation, thus increasing accountability;3 and organizational developments within the European Commission, with an expansion to regulatory policy of tools originally crafted for sustainable development policies.4 The EU IA model was introduced together with a communication aimed at simplifying and improving the regulatory environment and promoting “a culture of dialogue and participation” within the EU legislative process.5 As a result, the commission decided to integrate all forms of ex ante evaluation and various tests by building an integrated impact-assessment model, to enter into force on Jan. 1, 2003.6 This model was tasked with the heavy responsibility of ensuring that adequate account was taken, at an early stage of the regulatory process, of both the competitiveness and sustainable-development goals, which ranked among the top priorities on the EU agenda. Over the past 14 years, the better-regulation toolkit of the European Commission has been strengthened from a methodological standpoint, and expanded into a more comprehensive system that involves ex ante IAs, ex post evaluations, “fitness checks” focused on clusters of laws, and cumulative cost assessments that address specific

  1. Designers' enactment of the policy intentions. An ethnographic study of the adoption of energy regulations in England and Wales

    Zapata-Lancaster, Gabriela; Tweed, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The United Kingdom is aspiring to reduce the carbon emissions in the building sector, aiming to achieve nearly zero carbon buildings by 2020. The policy models in England and Wales rely on three strands: regulations; financial incentives and educational schemes. A growing body of literature suggests that the building industry is facing several barriers that hinder the delivery of the expected carbon targets outlined at policy level. This research explores the enactment of the policy aspirations by building designers using a bottom-up approach. An ethnographic study was conducted to analyse the design process of six non-domestic buildings. The work identified the designers' responses to adopt the policy agenda in routine design and overcome the challenges that emerged during the design process. The understanding of the designers' responses could inform the policy model and suggest areas that need attention for the timely delivery of the expected carbon reductions. - Highlights: • Designers' compliance of regulations may not conform to performance-driven processes. • Stakeholders' expectations and poor awareness of performance hinder compliance. • Designers implement flexible responses to adopt the low carbon policy agenda. • The engagement of the stakeholders enables the continuity of energy aspirations. • Policies may benefit from understanding the bottom-up responses in routine design

  2. A proactive public information policy: a key element for regulator independence and credibility

    Kindelan, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    The future of the nuclear industry will depend to a large extent on the perception that the members of the public have of it. However, our mission as regulatory bodies is not to change the pro-or anti- nuclear feelings of the public, but to set in them the confidence that the use currently made of nuclear energy is carried out with the greatest guarantees of safety. We should continue to avoid their feeling of fear without reasons or their perception of uncertainty regarding processes that are duly controlled and supervised. I am convinced that whatever progress we make in increasing transparency will lead to an increase in the public credibility of the organisations that we represent. The reason underlying our need for this credibility, this reputation for autonomy and efficiency, for good performance, is that without it we will not have sufficient authority in the eyes of the regulated sector or other private political and economic interests, and will not, therefore, be in a position to provide a sensation of confidence to the members of the public, whose tranquillity and interests are our obligation. (author)

  3. Policy and technical matters for the application of ICRP 1977 recommendations to Japanese radiation protection regulations

    Hamada, Tatsuji

    1987-01-01

    Tens years has passed since 1977 when the ICRP recommendations were made, and the work of revising the Japanese radiation regulations in response to the recommendations is almost completed. The work has been conducted mainly by an elemental group established under the Radiation Council. The elemental group submitted the first interim report to the Council in 1980, which presented recommendations on the objectives of radiation protection, dose equivalent limits for the general public, facilities inspection and products testing, medical surveillance, etc. After making deliberations in response to studies by the ICRP working group, the elemental group compiled the second interim report in July 1981. Further studies were conducted and the final report was submitted to the Council in March 1983. The final report covered the definitions of such terms as 'dose equivalent', dose equivalent limit for workers, exposure dose in the event of emergency, dose equivalent limit for the general public, various standards for protection, classification of workers by working conditions, classification of work sites monitoring of exposure dose, and implementation of medical surveillance. After making deliberations, the Council submitted a report in 1986 to government agencies concerned, whose contents are almost the same as those of the above final report except for some amendments. (Nogami, K.)

  4. Ethical attitudes on human cloning among professionals in Taiwan and the policy implications for regulation.

    Yang, Che-Ming; Chung, Chun-Chih; Lu, Meei-Shiow; Lin, Chiou-Fen; Chen, Jiun-Shyan

    2005-01-01

    This research focused on understanding the attitudes toward human cloning in Taiwan among professionals in healthcare, law, and religion. The study was conducted utilizing a structured questionnaire. 220 healthcare professionals from two regional hospitals located in Taipei, 351 religious professionals in the northern Taiwan and 711 legal professionals were selected by to receive questionnaires. The valid response rate is 42.1% The questions were generated by an expert panel and represented major arguments in the human cloning debate. There were a total of six Likert scaled questions in the questionnaire. The responses were coded from 1 to 5 with 1 representing strong opposition to human cloning, 3 representing a neutral attitude; and 5 representing a strong favorable attitude toward human cloning. Healthcare professionals had the highest overall average score of 2.14 and the religious professionals had the lowest average at 1.58. All three categories of respondents' attitude toward cloning ranged from mild opposition to strong opposition to human cloning. The religious professionals were more strongly opposed to cloning. Age, education, and religion significantly influenced attitudes toward cloning. Professionals between fifty-one and sixty years old, those with less education, and Roman Catholic professionals were more strongly opposed to cloning. Religious professionals were more strongly opposed to human cloning than professionals in healthcare or law. Younger professionals as an age group demonstrated less opposition to human cloning. Regulation of human cloning will be influenced by professionals in healthcare, law, and religion, and the regulatory environment chosen now will play a pivotal role in influencing the acceptance of human cloning in the future.

  5. The Regulation of Multi-Age Groupings in Canadian Centre-based Child Care Settings: An Analysis of Provincial and Territorial Policies, Legislation and Regulations.

    Bernhard, Judith; Pollard, June; Chud, Gyda; Vukelich, Goranka; Pacini-Ketchabaw, Veronica

    2000-01-01

    Examined the ways Canadian provincial and territorial policies address the inclusion of infants in multi-age early childhood education settings and the ways practitioners and licensing personnel interpret these policies. Noted policy patterns that affect the inclusion of infants and older children. Derived recommendations for policymakers and…

  6. Impact of the changing European Union regulations on Estonian accounting policies. Euroopa finantsaruandluse muudatuste sobivus Eestis

    Maret Güldenkoh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Financial reporting and audit activities are the areas to ensure the legitimacy of the everyday economic activities of the accounting entities. Financial reporting provides information on the past periods of the accounting entities; the audit activity is used to verify the accuracy of the recorded information and an assessment is given to the financial position of the audited entities. Auditing of financial statements prepared on the basis of historical financial information, results in increased reliability of the economic environment and stability of the financial environment of the state. The objective of this research was to assess the suitability of the European Union reporting principles for the auditing activity in Estonia. This objective was achieved with the following research tasks: 1 to provide an overview of the legal framework of the EU financial reporting and auditing activities; 2 to assess the problems related to the transposition of the legal framework in Estonia. The article consists of two parts, the first part provides an overview of the regulation of financial reporting and auditing activities in the European Union. The second part assess the impact of the European Union legislation on financial reporting and audit activities for the activities of the corresponding areas in Estonia. The research method used was a combined method, in the course of which legal acts were collected and analyzed, analysis of the data obtained from the commercial register was carried out and the impact of the Directive 2013/34 / EC to the accounting area of Estonia was assessed. Upon application of the Directive 2013/34/EU to the Estonia's legal framework, one cannot be sure that the desired administrative burden is reduced, rather it could bring along growth of the administrative burden for the accounting entities, which comprises the obligation of submission of additional reporting to various authorities. The reporting process could become more

  7. Potential impact of a US climate policy and air quality regulations on future air quality and climate change

    Lee, Yunha; Shindell, Drew T.; Faluvegi, Greg; Pinder, Rob W.

    2016-04-01

    We have investigated how future air quality and climate change are influenced by the US air quality regulations that existed or were proposed in 2013 and a hypothetical climate mitigation policy that aims to reduce 2050 CO2 emissions to be 50 % below 2005 emissions. Using the NASA GISS ModelE2 general circulation model, we look at the impacts for year 2030 and 2055. The US energy-sector emissions are from the GLIMPSE project (GEOS-Chem LIDORT Integrated with MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation) for the Purpose of Scenario Exploration), and other US emissions data sets and the rest of the world emissions data sets are based on the RCP4.5 scenario. The US air quality regulations are projected to have a strong beneficial impact on US air quality and public health in year 2030 and 2055 but result in positive radiative forcing. Under this scenario, no more emission constraints are added after 2020, and the impacts on air quality and climate change are similar between year 2030 and 2055. Surface particulate matter with a diameter smaller than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) is reduced by ˜ 2 µg m-3 on average over the USA, and surface ozone by ˜ 8 ppbv. The improved air quality prevents about 91 400 premature deaths in the USA, mainly due to the PM2.5 reduction (˜ 74 200 lives saved). The air quality regulations reduce the light-reflecting aerosols (i.e., sulfate and organic matter) more than the light-absorbing species (i.e., black carbon and ozone), leading to a strong positive radiative forcing (RF) over the USA by both aerosols' direct and indirect forcing: the total RF is ˜ 0.04 W m-2 over the globe, and ˜ 0.8 W m-2 over the USA. Under the hypothetical climate policy, a future CO2 emissions cut is achieved in part by relying less on coal, and thus SO2 emissions are noticeably reduced. This provides air quality co-benefits, but it could lead to potential climate disbenefits over the USA. In 2055, the US mean total RF is +0.22 W m-2 due to positive aerosol direct and indirect forcing

  8. Potential impact of a US climate policy and air quality regulations on future air quality and climate change

    Y. Lee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated how future air quality and climate change are influenced by the US air quality regulations that existed or were proposed in 2013 and a hypothetical climate mitigation policy that aims to reduce 2050 CO2 emissions to be 50 % below 2005 emissions. Using the NASA GISS ModelE2 general circulation model, we look at the impacts for year 2030 and 2055. The US energy-sector emissions are from the GLIMPSE project (GEOS-Chem LIDORT Integrated with MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation for the Purpose of Scenario Exploration, and other US emissions data sets and the rest of the world emissions data sets are based on the RCP4.5 scenario. The US air quality regulations are projected to have a strong beneficial impact on US air quality and public health in year 2030 and 2055 but result in positive radiative forcing. Under this scenario, no more emission constraints are added after 2020, and the impacts on air quality and climate change are similar between year 2030 and 2055. Surface particulate matter with a diameter smaller than 2.5 µm (PM2.5 is reduced by ∼ 2 µg m−3 on average over the USA, and surface ozone by ∼ 8 ppbv. The improved air quality prevents about 91 400 premature deaths in the USA, mainly due to the PM2.5 reduction (∼ 74 200 lives saved. The air quality regulations reduce the light-reflecting aerosols (i.e., sulfate and organic matter more than the light-absorbing species (i.e., black carbon and ozone, leading to a strong positive radiative forcing (RF over the USA by both aerosols' direct and indirect forcing: the total RF is  ∼ 0.04 W m−2 over the globe, and ∼ 0.8 W m−2 over the USA. Under the hypothetical climate policy, a future CO2 emissions cut is achieved in part by relying less on coal, and thus SO2 emissions are noticeably reduced. This provides air quality co-benefits, but it could lead to potential climate disbenefits over the USA. In 2055, the US mean total RF is +0.22

  9. Potential Impact of a US Climate Policy and Air Quality Regulations on Future Air Quality and Climate Change

    Lee, Y. H.; Faluvegi, Gregory S.

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated how future air quality and climate change are influenced by the US air quality regulations that existed or were proposed in 2013 and a hypothetical climate mitigation policy that aims to reduce 2050 CO2 emissions to be 50% below 2005 emissions. Using the NASA GISS ModelE2 general circulation model, we look at the impacts for year 2030 and 2055. The US energy-sector emissions are from the GLIMPSE project (GEOS-Chem LIDORT Integrated with MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation) for the Purpose of Scenario Exploration), and other US emissions data sets and the rest of the world emissions data sets are based on the RCP4.5 scenario. The US air quality regulations are projected to have a strong beneficial impact on US air quality and public health in year 2030 and 2055 but result in positive radiative forcing. Under this scenario, no more emission constraints are added after 2020, and the impacts on air quality and climate change are similar between year 2030 and 2055. Surface particulate matter with a diameter smaller than 2.5 micron PM(sub 2:5) is reduced by 2 approximately µg/m(sup -3) on average over the USA, and surface ozone by approximately 8 ppbv. The improved air quality prevents about 91 400 premature deaths in the USA, mainly due to the PM(sub 2:5) reduction approximately (74 200 lives saved). The air quality regulations reduce the light-reflecting aerosols (i.e., sulfate and organic matter) more than the light-absorbing species (i.e., black carbon and ozone), leading to a strong positive radiative forcing (RF) over the USA by both aerosols' direct and indirect forcing: the total RF is approximately 0.04 W m(sup -2) over the globe, and approximately 0.8 W m(sup -2) over the USA. Under the hypothetical climate policy, a future CO2 emissions cut is achieved in part by relying less on coal, and thus SO2 emissions are noticeably reduced. This provides air quality co-benefits, but it could lead to potential climate disbenefits over the USA. In 2055, the US

  10. Regulations, policies and practices concerning work stress prevention and improving well-being at work in Sweden, Great-Britain, Germany, France and the Netherlands

    Gier, E. de; Kompier, M.; Draaisma, D.; Smulders, P.

    1994-01-01

    At the request of the Dutch Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment, the TNO Institute of Preventive Health Care (NIPG) carried out a comparative survey of regulations, policies and practices in the Netherlands, Sweden, the United Kingdom, Germany and France with regard to the prevention of work

  11. Collaborative, cross-national studies on health and safety in seafaring for evidence-based Maritime policy and regulations.

    Jensen, Olaf C

    2009-01-01

    Until recently, maritime health and safety policies and regulations were sparsely based on health and safety research, and only a small number of countries contributed to new research. To strengthen maritime health and safety research activities by presenting a study example and discussing the possibilities and needs for more national and cross-national research. In a cross-national epidemiological study example, the seafarers from eleven countries completed small, anonymous questionnaires concerning the working conditions on their latest tours at sea while waiting for their health examinations. Significant disparities were pointed out among the nationalities, e.g., the length of the tours at sea, the proportional distribution of officers and non-officers, the mean age structure, the injury incidence rates, and the differences of occupational safety standards. The analysis of all data together increased the statistical strength of the multivariate analyses and allowed for valid comparisons among the nationalities. The questionnaire data was used successfully in the collaborative study example, but other data sources and methods are useful for health and safety research in seafaring as well. More national and cross-national research on maritime health and safety is warranted.

  12. Evaluation of Joint Regulation of the Minister of Religion and Minister of Home Affairs No. 9 and 8 of 2006: Study on Maintenance of Religious Harmony Policy

    Herman Ya'arozatulo Harefa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the implementation of the regulation in the province of East Java. The method used in this study is naturalistic or qualitative with a descriptive explanation. The study result shows that in general, the implementation of the regulation in the province of East Java has not been effective. Factors that affect, among others, are the lack of commitment of in implementing the regulation, weak socialization of the regulation, weak law enforcement,and the lack of multicultural education to the community. The policy that needs to be implemented is mainly of the regulation needs to be improved to become a Law. The approval of the existing Draft Law on the Protection of Religious Community needs to be accelerated.

  13. Potential impact of policy regulation and generic competition on sales of cholesterol lowering medication, antidepressants and acid blocking agents in Belgium.

    Fraeyman, J; Van Hal, G; De Loof, H; Remmen, R; De Meyer, G R Y; Beutels, P

    2012-01-01

    Pharmaceutical expenditures are increasing as a proportion of health expenditures in most rich countries. Antidepressants, acid blocking agents and cholesterol lowering medication are major contributors to medicine sales around the globe. We aimed to document the possible impact of policy regulations and generic market penetration on the evolution of sales volume and average cost per unit (Defined Daily Doses and packages) of antidepressants, acid blocking agents and cholesterol lowering medication. We extracted data from the IMS health database regarding the public price and sales volume of the antidepressants (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI's), monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOl's) and tricyclic and remaining antidepressants (TCA's)), acid blocking agents (proton pump inhibitors (PPl's) and H2 receptor antagonists) and cholesterol lowering medication (statins and fibrates) in Belgium between 1995 and 2009. We describe these sales data in relation to various national policy measures which were systematically searched in official records. Our analysis suggests that particular policy regulations have had immediate impact on sales figures and expenditures on pharmaceuticals in Belgium: changes in reimbursement conditions, a public tender and entry of generic competitors in a reference pricing system. However, possible sustainable effects seem to be counteracted by other mechanisms such as marketing strategies, prescribing behaviour, brand loyalty and the entry of pseudogenerics. It is likely that demand-side measures have a more sustainable impact on expenditure. Compared with other European countries, generic penetration in Belgium remains low. Alternative policy regulations aimed at enlarging the generic market and influencing pharmaceutical expenditures deserve consideration. This should include policies aiming to influence physicians' prescribing and a shared responsibility of pharmacists, physicians and patients towards expenditures.

  14. Good things do not always come in threes: On the excess cost of overlapping regulation in EU climate policy

    Böhringer, Christoph; Keller, Andreas; Bortolamedi, Markus; Rahmeier Seyffarth, Anelise

    2016-01-01

    Since the mid-1990's the European Union (EU) aims at pushing global climate policy. The objective is to promote international cooperation by the adoption of substantial EU-wide greenhouse gas emission reduction targets and their least-cost implementation. Our quantitative impact assessment of the EU Climate and Energy Package shows that the myriad of instruments used in the EU to curb greenhouse gas emissions is doomed to generate substantial excess cost. We conclude that EU climate and energy policy should better disentangle its choices of objectives, targets, and policy instruments on rigorous economic grounds in order to improve the coherence and overall cost-effectiveness of policy initiatives. - Highlights: •EU Climate and Energy Package almost quintuples costs for EU-wide emission abatement. •The main source of excess cost of EU climate policy are energy efficiency mandates.

  15. A Descriptive Longitudinal Study of Changes in Vape Shop Characteristics and Store Policies in Anticipation of the 2016 FDA Regulations of Tobacco Products, Including E-Cigarettes

    Sheila Yu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available After proposing the “Deeming Rule” in 2014, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA began regulating the manufacturing, marketing, and sales of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette products as tobacco products in 2016. The current study conducted vape shop store observations and surveyed Los Angeles–area shop employees (assessing their beliefs, awareness, and perceptions of e-cigarettes and related FDA regulations at two time points one year apart to better understand what vape shop retailers would do given FDA’s soon-to-be-enacted Deeming Rule. The study also compared retailer beliefs/awareness/actions and store characteristics immediately after the Deeming Rule proposal versus a year after the Rule had been proposed, right before its enactment. Two data collection waves occurred before the Deeming Rule enactment, with Year 1 surveying 77 shops (2014 and Year 2 surveying 61 shops (2015–2016. Between the data collection points, 16 shops had closed. Among the shops that were open at both time points, the majority (95% in Year 1; 74% in Year 2 were aware of some FDA regulations or other policies applying to vape shops. However, overall awareness of FDA regulations and state/local policies governing e-cigarettes significantly decreased from Year 1 to Year 2. At both time points, all shops offered customers free puffs of nicotine-containing e-liquids (prohibited by the then upcoming Deeming Rule. Perceptions of e-cigarette safety also significantly decreased between the years. Exploring vape shop retailer perceptions and store policies (i.e., free puffs/samples displays, perceptions of e-cigarette safety, etc. over time will help the FDA assess the needs of the vape shop community and develop more effective retailer education campaigns and materials targeted to increase compliance with the newly enacted regulations.

  16. A Descriptive Longitudinal Study of Changes in Vape Shop Characteristics and Store Policies in Anticipation of the 2016 FDA Regulations of Tobacco Products, Including E-Cigarettes.

    Yu, Sheila; Escobedo, Patricia; Garcia, Robert; Cruz, Tess Boley; Unger, Jennifer B; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Meza, Leah; Sussman, Steve

    2018-02-11

    After proposing the "Deeming Rule" in 2014, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) began regulating the manufacturing, marketing, and sales of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) products as tobacco products in 2016. The current study conducted vape shop store observations and surveyed Los Angeles-area shop employees (assessing their beliefs, awareness, and perceptions of e-cigarettes and related FDA regulations) at two time points one year apart to better understand what vape shop retailers would do given FDA's soon-to-be-enacted Deeming Rule. The study also compared retailer beliefs/awareness/actions and store characteristics immediately after the Deeming Rule proposal versus a year after the Rule had been proposed, right before its enactment. Two data collection waves occurred before the Deeming Rule enactment, with Year 1 surveying 77 shops (2014) and Year 2 surveying 61 shops (2015-2016). Between the data collection points, 16 shops had closed. Among the shops that were open at both time points, the majority (95% in Year 1; 74% in Year 2) were aware of some FDA regulations or other policies applying to vape shops. However, overall awareness of FDA regulations and state/local policies governing e-cigarettes significantly decreased from Year 1 to Year 2. At both time points, all shops offered customers free puffs of nicotine-containing e-liquids (prohibited by the then upcoming Deeming Rule). Perceptions of e-cigarette safety also significantly decreased between the years. Exploring vape shop retailer perceptions and store policies (i.e., free puffs/samples displays, perceptions of e-cigarette safety, etc.) over time will help the FDA assess the needs of the vape shop community and develop more effective retailer education campaigns and materials targeted to increase compliance with the newly enacted regulations.

  17. Reflections on the international climate change negotiations: A synthesis of a working group on carbon emission policy and regulation in Brazil

    Lucon, Oswaldo; Romeiro, Viviane; Pacca, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    This short communication presents a synthesis of a Working Group on Carbon Emission Policy and Regulation held at the University of Sao Paulo, in Brazil. The document looked at the problems with the international negotiations, the options for Brazil as it attempts to control emissions, and ways to leverage the mitigation process. Several options are currently being proposed, but these are neither clear in order to support a solid polycentric approach with adequate metrics, nor a robust international coordination and a sound scientific communication. Brazil has a central role in this process, for having successful initiatives on renewable energy and deforestation control. Its leadership can demonstrate how such policies might take shape. However, the country´s future is uncertain in terms of low carbon development. Although the country is still well positioned among BRICS to find practical solutions to the stalemate in international cooperation, several internal challenges need to be harmonized. - Highlights: • The work presents results of a recent climate change mitigation policies workshop. • It assesses Brazil's potential role in shaping future policies and negotiations. • Policies are evaluated based on domestic and international effects. • Suggests how Brazil's national effort could leverage the international processes

  18. Regulation

    Ballereau, P.

    1999-01-01

    The different regulations relative to nuclear energy since the first of January 1999 are given here. Two points deserve to be noticed: the decree of the third august 1999 authorizing the national Agency for the radioactive waste management to install and exploit on the commune of Bures (Meuse) an underground laboratory destined to study the deep geological formations where could be stored the radioactive waste. The second point is about the uranium residues and the waste notion. The judgment of the administrative tribunal of Limoges ( 9. july 1998) forbidding the exploitation of a storage installation of depleted uranium considered as final waste and qualifying it as an industrial waste storage facility has been annulled bu the Court of Appeal. It stipulated that, according to the law number 75663 of the 15. july 1965, no criteria below can be applied to depleted uranium: production residue (possibility of an ulterior enrichment), abandonment of a personal property or simple intention to do it ( future use aimed in the authorization request made in the Prefecture). This judgment has devoted the primacy of the waste notion on this one of final waste. (N.C.)

  19. Early responses to zebra mussels in the Great Lakes: a journey from information vacuum to policy and regulation

    Griffiths, Ronald W.; Schloesser, Don W.; Kovalak, William P.

    2013-01-01

    Invasive species such as zebra mussels pose a threat to the economies and environments of coastal and fresh-water habitats around the world. Consequently, it is important that government policies and programs be adequate to protect these waters from invaders. This chapter documents key events that took place in the early years (1988-1991) of zebra mussel colonization of the Laurentian Great Lakes and evaluates government responses (policies and programs) to this disruptive, invasive, freshwater species.

  20. Regulation of genomic and biobanking research in Africa: a content analysis of ethics guidelines, policies and procedures from 22 African countries.

    de Vries, Jantina; Munung, Syntia Nchangwi; Matimba, Alice; McCurdy, Sheryl; Ouwe Missi Oukem-Boyer, Odile; Staunton, Ciara; Yakubu, Aminu; Tindana, Paulina

    2017-02-02

    The introduction of genomics and biobanking methodologies to the African research context has also introduced novel ways of doing science, based on values of sharing and reuse of data and samples. This shift raises ethical challenges that need to be considered when research is reviewed by ethics committees, relating for instance to broad consent, the feedback of individual genetic findings, and regulation of secondary sample access and use. Yet existing ethics guidelines and regulations in Africa do not successfully regulate research based on sharing, causing confusion about what is allowed, where and when. In order to understand better the ethics regulatory landscape around genomic research and biobanking, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of existing ethics guidelines, policies and other similar sources. We sourced 30 ethics regulatory documents from 22 African countries. We used software that assists with qualitative data analysis to conduct a thematic analysis of these documents. Surprisingly considering how contentious broad consent is in Africa, we found that most countries allow the use of this consent model, with its use banned in only three of the countries we investigated. In a likely response to fears about exploitation, the export of samples outside of the continent is strictly regulated, sometimes in conjunction with regulations around international collaboration. We also found that whilst an essential and critical component of ensuring ethical best practice in genomics research relates to the governance framework that accompanies sample and data sharing, this was most sparingly covered in the guidelines. There is a need for ethics guidelines in African countries to be adapted to the changing science policy landscape, which increasingly supports principles of openness, storage, sharing and secondary use. Current guidelines are not pertinent to the ethical challenges that such a new orientation raises, and therefore fail to provide accurate guidance

  1. Regulating genetically modified food. Policy trajectories, political culture, and risk perceptions in the U.S., Canada, and EU.

    Wohlers, Anton E

    2010-09-01

    This paper examines whether national differences in political culture add an explanatory dimension to the formulation of policy in the area of biotechnology, especially with respect to genetically modified food. The analysis links the formulation of protective regulatory policies governing genetically modified food to both country and region-specific differences in uncertainty tolerance levels and risk perceptions in the United States, Canada, and European Union. Based on polling data and document analysis, the findings illustrate that these differences matter. Following a mostly opportunistic risk perception within an environment of high tolerance for uncertainty, policymakers in the United States and Canada modified existing regulatory frameworks that govern genetically modified food in their respective countries. In contrast, the mostly cautious perception of new food technologies and low tolerance for uncertainty among European Union member states has contributed to the creation of elaborate and stringent regulatory policies governing genetically modified food.

  2. Designing an EU energy and climate policy portfolio for 2030: Implications of overlapping regulation under different levels of electricity demand

    Flues, Florens; Löschel, Andreas; Lutz, Benjamin Johannes; Schenker, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The European Union's current climate and energy policy has to operate under an ex ante unforeseen economic crisis. As a consequence prices for carbon emission allowances in the EU Emissions Trading System collapsed. However, this price collapse may be amplified by the interaction of a carbon emission cap with supplementary policy targets such as minimum shares for renewables in the power sector. The static interaction between climate and renewable policies has been discussed extensively. This paper extends this debate by analysing the efficiency and effectiveness of a policy portfolio containing a cap and trade scheme and a target for a minimum renewable share in different states of aggregate electricity demand. Making use of a simple partial equilibrium model of the power sector we identify an asymmetric interaction of emissions trading and renewable quotas with respect to different states of aggregate electricity demand. The results imply that unintended consequences of the policy interaction may be particularly severe and costly when aggregate electricity demand is low and that carbon prices are more sensitive to changes in economic activity if they are applied in combination with renewable energy targets. Our analysis of the policy interaction focuses on the EU, yet the conclusions may also be of relevance for fast growing emerging economies like China. - Highlights: • A minimum renewable quota that is added to an existing emissions trading system causes excess costs. • Excess costs depend on electricity demand and are highest when electricity demand is low. • Excess costs can reach up to 1.2 Billion Euro annually in the European Union in 2030. • CO 2 prices are more sensitive to changes in electricity demand if combined with minimum renewable quota

  3. Legal and administrative regulation of the petroleum industry in Trinidad and Tobago: a study of law and policy in petroleum development

    Khan, K I.F.

    1984-01-01

    This work has, through an in-depth assessment of the law and institutions employed in the petroleum industry in Trinidad and Tobago, evaluated their viability in achieving declared state objectives and in providing a legal and administrative framework for regulating this industry. After considering the evolution of laws, policies, and institutions, the work focuses mainly on the petroleum contract, the national oil company, taxation of petroleum operations, and the ways of integrating the industry into the national economy and achieving an effective transfer of technology. These central areas are examined from a policy perspective which looks at their role, inter alia, as instruments of development, for securing active state participation, in the creation of an efficient and effective regulatory infrastructure and in allowing an optimum development of the resources, in the interest of the state. Further this examination provides the basis for suggested reforms and improvements to the existing model.

  4. 75 FR 52385 - Bureau of Political-Military Affairs; Lifting of Policy of Denial Regarding ITAR Regulated...

    2010-08-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 7128] Bureau of Political-Military Affairs; Lifting of Policy... Controls Compliance, Bureau of Political-Military Affairs, Department of State, (202) 663-2980..., identify compliance problems, and resolve alleged violations. Xe replaced senior management; established...

  5. Should we use a direct regulation to implement the Healthy Prisons Agenda in England? A qualitative study among prison key policy makers.

    Ismail, N; de Viggiani, N

    2017-08-31

    The Healthy Prisons Agenda seeks to reduce prisoners' health risks, balance prisoners' rights with a security regime, ensure equivalent prison health service provisions to community health services, and facilitate the whole-prison approach. There is an established assumption that legislation will ensure better implementation of health promotion programmes. This study aimed to examine whether a legislative framework, via a direct regulation, could lead to enhanced implementation of the Healthy Prisons Agenda in England. A qualitative study design was conducted using semi-structured interviews with 30 key prison policy makers in England. Our findings contradict the established assumption that legislation improves the implementation of health promotion programmes. A direct regulation was perceived as restrictive, manifesting excessive compliance and encouraging a risk-averse culture, whilst preoccupation with security, order and discipline amongst prison governors and custody staff was deemed an internal institutional barrier to implementing the Healthy Prisons Agenda. External barriers included diminishing resources, lengthier or delayed sentencing, and an unsympathetic public and political stance towards prisoner rehabilitation. A direct regulation should not be used to operationalize the Healthy Prisons Agenda. Rather, self-regulation, along with proactive solutions for the identified barriers to implementing the Agenda, is the most appropriate path forward. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  6. The Influence of the Chicago School on the Commission's Guidelines, Notices and Block Exemption Regulations in EU Competition Policy

    Bartalevich, Dzmitry

    2016-01-01

    Antitrust rules are fundamentally informed and shaped by economic theories. Given the significance of EU competition policy for the European integration process, it is essential to disentangle the economic theories underlying EU competition law. There is abundant theoretical and empirical...... theory. The elements of the Chicago School theory hold strongest in vertical practices; they are somewhat weaker in horizontal practices and in unilateral exclusionary conduct....

  7. Does regulation stimulate productivity? The effect of air quality policies on the efficiency of US power plants

    Fleishman, Rachel; Alexander, Rob; Bretschneider, Stuart; Popp, David

    2009-01-01

    This research examines the effect of air quality regulations on the productivity of US power plants based on both economic and environmental outputs. Using data envelopment analysis (DEA) to estimate an efficiency measure incorporating both economic and environmental outcomes, we look at changes in efficiency in US power plants over an eleven-year time period (1994-2004) during which several different regulations were implemented for the control of nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ). The paper then models how estimated efficiency behaves over time as a function of regulatory changes. Findings suggest mixed effects of regulations on power plant efficiency when pollution abatement and electricity generation are both included as outputs.

  8. Hybrid Security Policies

    Radu CONSTANTINESCU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Policy is defined as the rules and regulations set by the organization. They are laid down by management in compliance with industry regulations, law and internal decisions. Policies are mandatory. Security policies rules how the information is protected against security vulnerabilities and they are the basis for security awareness, training and vital for security audits. Policies are focused on desired results. The means of achieving the goals are defined on controls, standards and procedures.

  9. Policy and strategy of the Cuban Regulatory Organization for the establishment of the legal and regulation frame

    Arnau F, A.; Alonso G, I.; Sarabia M, I.

    2006-01-01

    The National Center of Nuclear Security, Cuban entity authorized to exercise the regulation functions and control of the security of the use of the nuclear energy and the accounting and control of the nuclear materials, has among its functions, to elaborate and to propose for its approval to the corresponding instances, the juridical, technical dispositions and of procedure in its competition sphere, what demands that in this sense clear guidelines exist to carry out this social mission. The fact of assuming this function demands the necessity of a Politics for the establishment of the legal and regulation frame that expresses in a coherent way the general lines on those that it behaves the elaboration of the standards that govern this activity, to reach the end in an efficient and effective way and consequently the adoption of a Strategy that frames the necessary actions that assure the one execution and development of the politics and the pursuit of the precise rules for an optimal result. The Politics for the establishment of the legal and regulation frame of the National Center of Nuclear Security is based on a group of general principles that mark the guidelines so that this activity is chord to the national juridical system, to the good ones international practices and the recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Agency appropriated to the national experience and the daily reality, being this a transparent and reconciled process in such a way that the addressee of these standards can contribute their recommendations to the ends of achieving an effective applicability of the legal and regulation frame that governs this activity in the country. The development and pursuit of these principles is sustained in a group of actions to the help of the strategy for the establishment of the legal and regulation frame, embracing the actions so much during the process of elaboration of the legal frame, its systematic revision, the publication and distribution

  10. The extent to which school district competitive food and beverage policies align with the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans: implications for federal regulations.

    Schneider, Linda M; Schermbeck, Rebecca M; Chriqui, Jamie F; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2012-06-01

    The Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 authorized the Secretary of the US Department of Agriculture to establish science-based nutrition standards for competitive foods and beverages sold in school that are, at a minimum, aligned with the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA), while still providing districts with discretion in regulating the competitive food and beverage environment. The objective of this study was to examine the extent to which district competitive food and beverage policies had specific and required limits aligned with 2010 DGA recommendations, and to inform US Department of Agriculture efforts as they develop competitive food and beverage standards. Competitive food and beverage policies were compiled for the 2009-2010 school year from a nationally representative sample of 622 districts. Each policy was double-coded for compliance with selected 2010 DGA recommendations (ie, restrictions on sugars, fats, trans fats, and sodium in foods and restrictions on regular soda, other sugar-sweetened beverages, and fat content of milk). Descriptive statistics were computed, clustered to account for the sample design, and weighted to account for districts nationwide. District nutrition policies were strongest for elementary schools. Nationwide, content of foods and soda availability were more commonly addressed. Areas that require attention include stronger nutrition standards at the secondary level, limits on trans fats, sodium, sugar-sweetened beverages other than soda, and fat content of milk, and greater availability of produce and whole grains at all sale locations. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Conference on natural gas use state regulation and market dynamics in the Post 636/Energy Policy Act Era: Proceedings

    1993-01-01

    Reports in this Record of Proceedings explore a wide variety of issues related to the regulation of natural gas and its future role as one of the critical fuels that powers the economy of the United States. The focus is mainly on problems, obstacles, barriers, and the incredibly complex system created to bring a fuel from wellhead to burner tip. Individual papers have been cataloged separately

  12. Conference on natural gas use state regulation and market dynamics in the Post 636/Energy Policy Act Era: Proceedings

    1993-08-01

    Reports in this Record of Proceedings explore a wide variety of issues related to the regulation of natural gas and its future role as one of the critical fuels that powers the economy of the United States. The focus is mainly on problems, obstacles, barriers, and the incredibly complex system created to bring a fuel from wellhead to burner tip. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  13. The impact of marketing practices and its regulation policies on childhood obesity. Opinions of stakeholders in Spain

    Davó-Blanes, M. Carmen; Ortiz-Moncada, Rocío; Gil-González, Diana; Álvarez-Dardet, Carlos; Lobstein, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify Spanish stakeholders’ views on the relationship between childhood obesity and the marketing and advertising of food and beverages aimed at children in Spain, as well as on the corresponding of regulations. We performed a qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews with Stakeholders/Key Informants (KI) from 13 organisations: experts (2), consumer advocates (1), public health advocates (2), food manufacturers (2), advertising advocates (1), govern...

  14. Preschool and School Meal Policies: An Overview of What We Know about Regulation, Implementation, and Impact on Diet in the UK, Sweden, and Australia

    Sacks, Gary; Billich, Natassja; Evans, Charlotte Elizabeth Louise

    2017-01-01

    School meals make significant contributions to healthy dietary behaviour, at a time when eating habits and food preferences are being formed. We provide an overview of the approaches to the provision, regulation, and improvement of preschool and primary school meals in the UK, Sweden, and Australia, three countries which vary in their degree of centralisation and regulation of school meals. Sweden has a centralised approach; all children receive free meals, and a pedagogical approach to meals is encouraged. Legislation demands that meals are nutritious. The UK system is varied and decentralised. Meals in most primary schools are regulated by food-based standards, but preschool-specific meal standards only exist in Scotland. The UK uses food groups (starchy foods, fruit and vegetables, proteins and dairy) in a healthy plate approach. Australian States and Territories all employ guidelines for school canteen food, predominantly using a “traffic light” approach outlining recommended and discouraged foods; however, most children bring food from home and are not covered by this guidance. The preschool standards state that food provided should be nutritious. We find that action is often lacking in the preschool years, and suggest that consistent policies, strong incentives for compliance, systematic monitoring, and an acknowledgement of the broader school eating environment (including home provided food) would be beneficial. PMID:28696403

  15. Vulnerability to alcohol-related problems: a policy brief with implications for the regulation of alcohol marketing.

    Babor, Thomas F; Robaina, Katherine; Noel, Jonathan K; Ritson, E Bruce

    2017-01-01

    The concern that alcohol advertising can have detrimental effects on vulnerable viewers has prompted the development of codes of responsible advertising practices. This paper evaluates critically the concept of vulnerability as it applies to (1) susceptibility to alcohol-related harm and (2) susceptibility to the effects of marketing, and describes its implications for the regulation of alcohol marketing. We describe the findings of key published studies, review papers and expert reports to determine whether these two types of vulnerability apply to population groups defined by (1) age and developmental history; (2) personality characteristics; (3) family history of alcoholism; (4) female sex and pregnancy risk; and (5) history of alcohol dependence and recovery status. Developmental theory and research suggest that groups defined by younger age, incomplete neurocognitive development and a history of alcohol dependence may be particularly vulnerable because of the disproportionate harm they experience from alcohol and their increased susceptibility to alcohol marketing. Children may be more susceptible to media imagery because they do not have the ability to compensate for biases in advertising portrayals and glamorized media imagery. Young people and people with a history of alcohol dependence appear to be especially vulnerable to alcohol marketing, warranting the development of new content and exposure guidelines focused on protecting those groups to improve current self-regulation codes promoted by the alcohol industry. If adequate protections cannot be implemented through this mechanism, statutory regulations should be considered. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  16. The impact of marketing practices and its regulation policies on childhood obesity. Opinions of stakeholders in Spain.

    Davó-Blanes, M Carmen; Ortiz-Moncada, Rocío; Gil-González, Diana; Alvarez-Dardet, Carlos; Lobstein, Tim

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to identify Spanish stakeholders' views on the relationship between childhood obesity and the marketing and advertising of food and beverages aimed at children in Spain, as well as on the corresponding of regulations. We performed a qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews with Stakeholders/Key Informants (KI) from 13 organisations: experts (2), consumer advocates (1), public health advocates (2), food manufacturers (2), advertising advocates (1), government representatives (1), child/family/school advocates (2) and media (1). The variables studied were Prevalence of childhood obesity and its relationship to marketing/advertising and Regulation of marketing. In order to identify the most relevant arguments (pearls) in the discourses, a blind independent analysis by four members of the research team was performed. We found that the prevalence of childhood obesity was perceived to be higher than the European average. Self-regulation was identified as the main form of marketing control. Only food manufacturers and advertising agencies considered voluntary action and supervisory procedures to be effective. The other stakeholders advocated state control through legislation and non-state actions such as external assessment and sanctions. Despite the divergence of opinion between stakeholders, there was agreement on the need to improve supervision and to ensure compliance with current self-regulatory codes in Spain. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Regulating technological change - The strategic reactions of utility companies towards subsidy policies in the German, Spanish and UK electricity markets

    Stenzel, Till; Frenzel, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on how incumbent electric utilities strategically react to subsidy schemes supporting renewable energy technologies in the UK, Germany, and Spain. Firms coordinate the development of their technological capabilities and their political activities to shape their regulatory environment. Analysing the diffusion of wind power in these countries, we show that the different ways, in which firms coordinate their technological and political strategies, lead to very different market outcomes, both for the firms' market share and the size of the overall market. Although incumbents are usually seen as being resistant to change in energy systems, we show that Spanish utilities proactively drive the diffusion of wind power. We speculate about the relation between the ownership structure of the energy system and its inertia with respect to the integration of new technologies. We derive novel policy implications that explicitly take into account the strategic actions of incumbent firms shaping the technological and regulatory system

  18. Vulnerable children, stigmatised smokers: The social construction of target audiences in media debates on policies regulating smoking in vehicles

    Bain, Josh; Weishaar, Heide; Semple, Sean; Duffy, Sheila; Hilton, Shona

    2016-01-01

    Following restrictions on smoking in vehicles carrying children in several countries, legislation to safeguard minors from second-hand smoke exposure in vehicles is under-consideration or has been implemented across the United Kingdom. This article presents the first investigation into social constructions of children, smokers and smoking parents in newsprint media and coverage of debates about protecting children from exposure to second-hand smoke in vehicles. Using Scotland as an example, articles on children’s exposure to second-hand smoke published between 1 January 2004 and 16 February 2014 in three Scottish newspapers were identified using Nexis UK. In all, 131 articles were thematically coded and analysed. Children were portrayed as vulnerable and requiring protection, with few articles highlighting children’s ability to voice concerns about the dangers of smoking. Smokers and smoking parents were mainly portrayed in a factual manner, but also frequently as irresponsible and, in some cases, intentionally imposing harm. Individual smokers were blamed for their recklessness, with only a small number of articles mentioning the need to assist smokers in quitting. Supporters of legislation focused on corresponding discourse, whereas critics directed debates towards established arguments against policy, including individual freedom, privacy and problems of enforcement. Focusing on children’s vulnerability to second-hand smoke might have increased support for legislation but risked a side effect of smokers being stigmatised. The media and supporters of public health policy are encouraged to consider appropriate approaches to raise awareness of the health harms of second-hand smoke to children while avoiding unintended stigmatisation of those in which they want to encourage behaviour change. PMID:27457688

  19. Vulnerable children, stigmatised smokers: The social construction of target audiences in media debates on policies regulating smoking in vehicles.

    Bain, Josh; Weishaar, Heide; Semple, Sean; Duffy, Sheila; Hilton, Shona

    2017-11-01

    Following restrictions on smoking in vehicles carrying children in several countries, legislation to safeguard minors from second-hand smoke exposure in vehicles is under-consideration or has been implemented across the United Kingdom. This article presents the first investigation into social constructions of children, smokers and smoking parents in newsprint media and coverage of debates about protecting children from exposure to second-hand smoke in vehicles. Using Scotland as an example, articles on children's exposure to second-hand smoke published between 1 January 2004 and 16 February 2014 in three Scottish newspapers were identified using Nexis UK. In all, 131 articles were thematically coded and analysed. Children were portrayed as vulnerable and requiring protection, with few articles highlighting children's ability to voice concerns about the dangers of smoking. Smokers and smoking parents were mainly portrayed in a factual manner, but also frequently as irresponsible and, in some cases, intentionally imposing harm. Individual smokers were blamed for their recklessness, with only a small number of articles mentioning the need to assist smokers in quitting. Supporters of legislation focused on corresponding discourse, whereas critics directed debates towards established arguments against policy, including individual freedom, privacy and problems of enforcement. Focusing on children's vulnerability to second-hand smoke might have increased support for legislation but risked a side effect of smokers being stigmatised. The media and supporters of public health policy are encouraged to consider appropriate approaches to raise awareness of the health harms of second-hand smoke to children while avoiding unintended stigmatisation of those in which they want to encourage behaviour change.

  20. Regulations, guidelines, standards, and policies pertaining to decontamination and decommissioning activities: A literature review. Informal report, Revision 1

    Cowgill, M.G.

    1994-09-01

    A literature review of the existing rules, regulations, and guidelines pertaining to the decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities has been updated. Included in the survey are US Government documents, national (industrial) standards, international standards and guidelines, and the regulations issued by various national governments, such as the United Kingdom, Canada, and Germany. The Department of Energy (DOE) complex contains within it almost 1,000 nuclear facilities which will require decommissioning in the coming years. This action will entail activities in many different areas, one of which will involve the development of the basic safety principles to be applied to the process as a whole. These principles will be used to guide personnel in the development of safety assessment procedures for decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) activities and in conducting safety assessments of such activities at the facilities themselves. The present report represents an updating of the original report. It retains all the information that appeared in the original report with the new material integrated into the applicable sections. Future revisions will be made as additional information becomes available

  1. Environmental policy in Japan

    Tsuru, Shigeto; Weidner, H. (eds.)

    1989-01-01

    This book deals in English with the most important features of Japanese environmental policy in a number of individual articles by different authors. The various sections report on: 1. History and organization of environmental policy; 2. The role of non-governmental actors in environmental policy (large industries); 3. Special features of environmental policies and problems; 4. Classical pollution control areas: Regulations and effects; 5. Environmental problems in a broader perspective (nature conservation); 6. Policy areas with influence on environmental quality; 7. Environmental monitoring and reporting; 8. Japanese environmental policy in an international perspective (preventive policies, developing countries). (HSCH).

  2. Uganda; Financial System Stability Assessment, including Reports on the Observance of Standards and Codes on the following topics: Monetary and Financial Policy Transparency, Banking Supervision, Securities Regulation, and Payment Systems

    International Monetary Fund

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents findings of Uganda’s Financial System Stability Assessment, including Reports on the Observance of Standards and Codes on Monetary and Financial Policy Transparency, Banking Supervision, Securities Regulation, Insurance Regulation, Corporate Governance, and Payment Systems. The banking system in Uganda, which dominates the financial system, is fundamentally sound, more resilient than in the past, and currently poses no threat to macroeconomic stability. A major disruption ...

  3. 48 CFR 2001.301 - Policy.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Policy. 2001.301 Section 2001.301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION GENERAL NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Agency Acquisition Regulations 2001.301 Policy. Policy...

  4. The policy-practice gap: describing discordances between regulation on paper and real-life practices among specialized drug shops in Kenya.

    Wafula, Francis; Abuya, Timothy; Amin, Abdinasir; Goodman, Catherine

    2014-09-16

    Specialized drug shops (SDSs) are popular in Sub-Saharan Africa because they provide convenient access to medicines. There is increasing interest in how policymakers can work with them, but little knowledge on how their operation relates to regulatory frameworks. This study sought to describe characteristics and predictors of regulatory practices among SDSs in Kenya. The regulatory framework governing the Kenya pharmaceutical sector was mapped, and a list of regulations selected for inclusion in a survey questionnaire. An SDS census was conducted, and survey data collected from 213 SDSs from two districts in Western Kenya. The majority of SDSs did not comply with regulations, with only 12% having a refrigerator and 22% having a separate dispensing area for instance. Additionally, less than half had at least one staff with pharmacy qualification (46%), with less than a third of all interviewed operators knowing the name of the law governing pharmacy.Regulatory infringement was more common among SDSs in rural locations; those that did not have staff with pharmacy qualifications; and those whose operator did not know the name of the pharmacy law. Compliance was not significantly associated with the frequency of inspections, with over 80% of both rural and urban SDSs reporting an inspection in the past year. While compliance was low overall, it was particularly poor among SDSs operating in rural locations, and those that did not have staff with pharmacy qualification. This suggested the need for policy to introduce levels of practice in recognition of the variations in resource availability. Under such a system, rural SDSs operating in low-resource setting, and selling a limited range of medicines, may be exempted from certain regulatory requirements, as long as their scope of practice is limited to certain essential services only. Future research should also explore why regulatory compliance is poor despite regular inspections.

  5. EU Competition Policy Since 1990

    Bartalevich, Dzmitry

    2013-01-01

    in anticartel enforcement policies, antimonopoly regulation, and the regulation of mergers and acquisitions. The purpose of this article is to fill the gap by attempting to link EU competition policy with U.S. antitrust, provide a critical overview of the most important elements of European competition policy......, and merger control....

  6. CEP energy policy : Policy 917

    2002-10-01

    Some of the environmental challenges facing the world in the twenty-first century are energy and global warming. Vital human needs such as warmth, light and transportation require energy, which is also required in the production of goods. Absent from the debate concerning the energy industry and its efforts to stop climate change is the voice of energy workers. Previous policies from the Communications, Energy and Paperworkers Union of Canada (CEP) were replaced by this policy document. After providing a brief introduction, the document tackled global challenge: climate change. The following section dealt with global challenge: corporate rule. Canada's energy industries were examined from the workers' perspective, and the state of Canada's energy reserves was discussed. From national policies to national betrayal was the title of the following section of the document. Energy de-regulation and privatization was discussed, and an argument was made for a Canadian energy policy. The industrial policy was explored, as was the environment. A transition to sustainability was examined. refs

  7. The assessment on impact of essential drugs policy on primary health care system in rural areas of Shandong Province policy and regulation division of the Health Department of Shandong Province.

    Li, Zhuge; Shu, Defeng; Xia, Mei; Gao, Dehai; Lu, Dan; Huang, Ning; Tian, Xiaoqing; An, Limei; Li, Shixue; Li, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    At present, China has achieved an initial establishment and gradual implementation of a framework for national essential drugs policy. With the further implementation of the national essential drugs policy, it is not clear how the policy works, whether it achieves the original intention of essential drugs policy, and what impact essential drugs policy exerts on the primary health care system. In view of it, we conducted a field research on sample areas of Shandong Province to understand the conditions of the implementation of the essential drugs policy in Shandong Province. From three perspectives of medical institutions, patients and medical staff, this thesis analyzes the impact of essential drugs policy on village-level and township-level health service system, summarizes the effectiveness of implementing essential drugs policy, discovers the problems of various aspects and conducts an in-depth analysis of the causes, and puts forward feasible suggestions to provide reference for improving the essential drugs policy. The assessment results show that the implementation of essential drugs policy in Shandong Province has played a positive role in promoting the sound development of the primary health care system, changed the situation of covering hospital expenses with medicine revenue in the past, contributed to the return of medical institutions to public welfare, and reduced the patient's economic burden of disease. But there emerge many problems as follows: impact on the doctor's diagnosis and treatment due to incompleteness of drug types, and distribution not in place, patient loss and operational difficulty of village clinic. Thus, this thesis makes recommendations of drugs catalog formulation, drug procurement, sales and use, and meanwhile points out that the supporting financial compensation policy and performance appraisal policy and other measures in place are a prerequisite for a positive role of essential drugs policy.

  8. A new approach to formulating and appraising drug policy: A multi-criterion decision analysis applied to alcohol and cannabis regulation

    Rogeberg, Ole; Bergsvik, Daniel; Phillips, Lawrence D.; van Amsterdam, Jan; Eastwood, Niamh; Henderson, Graeme; Lynskey, Micheal; Measham, Fiona; Ponton, Rhys; Rolles, Steve; Schlag, Anne Katrin; Taylor, Polly; Nutt, David

    2018-01-01

    Drug policy, whether for legal or illegal substances, is a controversial field that encompasses many complex issues. Policies can have effects on a myriad of outcomes and stakeholders differ in the outcomes they consider and value, while relevant knowledge on policy effects is dispersed across

  9. Regulating Internalities

    Sunstein, Cass Robert; Allcott, Hunt

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a framework for regulating internalities. Using a simple economic model, we provide four principles for designing and evaluating behaviorally-motivated policy. We then outline rules for determining which contexts reliably reflect true preferences and discuss empirical strategies for measuring internalities. As a case study, we focus on energy efficiency policy, including Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards and appliance and lighting energy efficiency standards.

  10. Interactions management in environmental policy

    Krozer, Yoram; Franco Garcia, Maria Maria; Micallef, David

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to address regulator-management interactions in environmental policy with reference to direct regulations, social regulations and market-based regulation. Design/methodology/approach: Revision of literature to identify the European Union regulations for companies producing

  11. Population policy.

    1987-03-01

    Participants in the Seminar on Population Policies for Top-level Policy Makers and Program Managers, meeting in Thailand during January 1987, examined the challenges now facing them regarding the implementation of fertility regulation programs in their respective countries -- Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, and Thailand. This Seminar was organized to coincide with the completion of an Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) study investigating the impact and efficiency of family planning programs in the region. Country studies were reviewed at the Seminar along with policy issues about the status of women, incentive and disincentive programs, and socioeconomic factors affecting fertility. In Bangladesh the government recognizes population growth as its top priority problem related to the socioeconomic development of the country and is working to promote a reorientation strategy from the previous clinic-oriented to a multidimensional family welfare program. China's family planning program seeks to postpone marraige, space the births of children between 3-5 years, and promote the 1-child family. Its goal is to reduce the rate of natural increase from 12/1000 in 1978 to 5/1000 by 1985 and 0 by 2000. India's 7th Five-Year-Plan (1986-90) calls for establishing a 2-child family norm by 2000. In Indonesia the government's population policy includes reducing the rate of population growth, achieving a redistribution of the population, adjusting economic factors, and creating prosperous families. The government of Indonesia reversed its policy to reduce the population growth rate in 1984 and announced its goal of achieving a population of 70 million by 2100 in order to support mass consumption industries. It has created an income tax deduction system favoring large families and maternity benefits for women who have up to 5 children as incentives. Nepal's official policy is to

  12. The Formation of Accounting Policies for Processing Enterprises in the Context of Adaptation of National Regulations to the International Standards of Accounting and Reporting

    Rozheliuk Viktoriia M.; Denchuk Pavlo N.

    2017-01-01

    The article defines principles for preparation of accounting policies using both domestic and foreign experience, generalizes scientific and theoretical approaches, and improves the wordings of the concept of «accounting policy». The feasibility of conducting a preliminary assessment of efficiency of organizational activities through the use of the criteria generalized in the accounting policy has been substantiated, the legal and regulatory levels have been highlighted, taking into considera...

  13. Contribution to the economic impact assessment of policy options to regulate animal cloning for food production with an economic simulation model

    Koen Dillen; Emanuele Ferrari; Pascal Tillie; George Philippidis; Sophie Helaine

    2013-01-01

    The EU is currently evaluating different policy options towards the use of cloning or products derived from cloned animals in the food chain. This study presents a first attempt to quantify the likely effects of different policy scenarios on international trade and EU domestic production. In the context of the Impact Asessment process the JRC was requested to simulate via a modelling study the economic impact of selected policy options. Based on a literature review and the specific constra...

  14. Legitimizing policies

    Jørgensen, Martin Bak

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this article is on representations of irregular migration in a Scandinavian context and how irregular migrants are constructed as a target group. A common feature in many (Western-)European states is the difficult attempt to navigate between an urge for control and respecting......, upholding and promoting humanitarian aspects of migration management. Legitimizing policies therefore become extremely important as governments have to appease national voters to remain in power and have to respect European regulations and international conventions. Doing so raises questions of social...

  15. Competition Policy in Malaysia

    Lee, Cassey

    2004-01-01

    Malaysia does not have a national competition law. Competition is regulated at the sectoral level in the country. Two economic sectors have legal provisions for competition law but these have been relatively ineffectively enforced. The benefits of Malaysia's industrial policy as well as the policy reforms in regulation and trade have been compromised by the lack of a formal institution to address competition related issues. Hence, the future priority and direction of regulatory reform is obvi...

  16. Planned development and coordination of public policies as a starting point in the harmonization of national regulations with the EU aquis

    Jovanić Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important aspects of harmonizing Serbian legislation with the EU law, however still neglected in Serbia, is the mutual relationship between the design and coordination of public policies on the one hand, and the harmonization of legislation in the course of negotiations for EU accession, on the other hand. This aspect has been largely neglected because of the misuse of emergency procedure for adopting legislation in order to assure compatibility with the EU law, but also due to underdeveloped regulatory policies, which has been reduced to the guillotine of legislation, instead of developing a cycle of policy and analytical phase that precedes the drafting of legislation. Although the negotiating structure of European integration has been improved, the Negotiation Team and Coordination Body certainly can not replace the role of policy makers in their creation. Since the new Law on Ministries envisaged the creation of the Secretariat for the coordination of public policies, an institutional prerequisite for the implementation of the function of harmonizing public policy proposals has been put forward, but is not yet clear what powers in the policy cycle this institution would have. In any case, this administrative body will certainly complement Serbian coordination structure in the negotiation process.

  17. 7 CFR 948.20 - Marketing policy.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 948.20 Section 948.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Regulation § 948.20 Marketing policy. (a) General cull regulation. (1) It...

  18. Cannabis Impairment in the Workplace: A Jurisdictional Analysis of Drug Testing Policies and Recommendations in the Context of Canadian Legalization and Regulation

    Van Pelt, Kelsey

    2017-01-01

    Cannabis impairment can affect safety in the workplace. However, the proposed Cannabis Act does not include a framework for cannabis impairment in the workplace, as workplace health and safety in Canada is a provincial jurisdiction for most industries. In British Columbia, workplace health and safety is regulated by the Occupational Health and Safety Regulations (OHSR) under the Workers Compensation Act (WCA). Part 4 – General Conditions of the OHSR contains regulations for impairment in the ...

  19. Manual on service business for policy research

    1999-01-01

    The contents of this book are summary of service business for policy research : conception classification and ways of service business for policy research, propel procedure of service business for policy research on system of committee, management, choice, contract, evaluation and post management, related regulation on service business for policy research : management regulation on service business for policy research, guide of evaluation for service business for policy research, estimation standard of policy research cost, law arrangement of national contract, required document on service business for policy research, and application manual for PRISM.

  20. POPULATION POLICY OR SOCIAL POLICY?

    ANDREI STANOIU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available After 1989, the demographic situation of Romania population experienced a dramatic, very concerning and dangerous evolution trend. One of the first measures of the new political power was to abolish the very restrictive, anti-human and abusive legal regulation adopted in 1966 by the communist regime concerning abortion and the whole old demographic policy. As a result of this measure and of the worsening economic and social situation of the great majority of Romanian population, the birth rate declined sharply and, from 1992, the natural demographic growth rate became a negative one. The absolute number of Romanian population decreased more and more and, if nothing changes, in the next few decades it will be no bigger than 15 million people. At the same time, the process of demographic ageing of population will accentuate, generating serious problems from demographic and social-economic point of view, Taking into account the present demographic situation and, especially, the foreseen trend of evolution, it is more than clear that there should be taken some urgent, coherent and consistent measures in order to stop this dangerous demographic evolution, until it is not too late, and to avoid, as much as possible, a potential demographic disaster. The problem is: what kind of measures should be taken and what kind of policy should be adopted? Some social scientists believe that a new population policy should be adopted; some others believe that rather a social policy should be adopted. The purpose of my paper is to analyze this different opinions and to show that, behind the dispute on the terminology, should be taken consistent measures, at governmental level, in order to assure a substantial improvement of demographic situation, not only from a quantitative, but from a qualitative point of view as well, and to identify some of these kind of measures.

  1. A new approach to formulating and appraising drug policy: A multi-criterion decision analysis applied to alcohol and cannabis regulation.

    Rogeberg, Ole; Bergsvik, Daniel; Phillips, Lawrence D; van Amsterdam, Jan; Eastwood, Niamh; Henderson, Graeme; Lynskey, Micheal; Measham, Fiona; Ponton, Rhys; Rolles, Steve; Schlag, Anne Katrin; Taylor, Polly; Nutt, David

    2018-02-16

    Drug policy, whether for legal or illegal substances, is a controversial field that encompasses many complex issues. Policies can have effects on a myriad of outcomes and stakeholders differ in the outcomes they consider and value, while relevant knowledge on policy effects is dispersed across multiple research disciplines making integrated judgements difficult. Experts on drug harms, addiction, criminology and drug policy were invited to a decision conference to develop a multi-criterion decision analysis (MCDA) model for appraising alternative regulatory regimes. Participants collectively defined regulatory regimes and identified outcome criteria reflecting ethical and normative concerns. For cannabis and alcohol separately, participants evaluated each regulatory regime on each criterion and weighted the criteria to provide summary scores for comparing different regimes. Four generic regulatory regimes were defined: absolute prohibition, decriminalisation, state control and free market. Participants also identified 27 relevant criteria which were organised into seven thematically related clusters. State control was the preferred regime for both alcohol and cannabis. The ranking of the regimes was robust to variations in the criterion-specific weights. The MCDA process allowed the participants to deconstruct complex drug policy issues into a set of simpler judgements that led to consensus about the results. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Competition between bank regulators

    Schindler, Dirk; Eggert, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines competition between bank regulators in open economies. We use a model where credit demand of firms is endogenous and show any tendency for downward competition in regulation policy is limited by the effect of regulation on profits of nonfinancial firms. Moreover, perfect mobility on loans and deposit markets fully eliminates the incentives of regulators to set bank regulation at ine±cient low levels.

  3. The role of national policies intended to regulate adolescent smoking in explaining the prevalence of daily smoking: a study of adolescents from 27 European countries

    Schnohr, Christina W; Kreiner, Svend; Rasmussen, Mette

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: This study seeks to examine whether contextual factors influence adolescents' daily smoking. A focus was placed on three modifiable policies operating at a national level, non-smoking policy at educational facilities, price and minimum age for buying tobacco. DESIGN: This study is based...... on a merged data set consisting of the 2001/02 Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) study and national-level data collected from the 2003 WHO European Tobacco Control Database and the World Development Indicators Database. HBSC is an international study including adolescents from 32 countries...

  4. Proceedings of the 8. Brazilian congress on energy: energy policy, regulation and sustainable development. v. 3: technological innovation, renewable sources and rural energization; Anais do 8. Congresso brasileiro de energia: politica energetica, regulamentacao e desenvolvimento sustentavel. v. 3: inovacao tecnologica, fontes renovaveis e energizacao rural

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    These proceedings cover the papers presented in the 8. Brazilian congress on energy held at Rio de Janeiro from November, 30 to December, 02, 1999, focusing energy policy, regulation and sustainable development, specifically the contribution of energy to a satisfactory quality of life for everyone. Within such a context, the congress technical programme has been structured around six different divisions: energy, environment and development; energy sector regulation; energy policy and planning; technology innovation; energy conservation; renewable energy sources and rural areas energy supply.

  5. Compliance. Regulatory policy P-211

    2001-05-01

    This regulatory policy describes the basic principles and directives for establishing and conducting the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) Compliance Program. The program is aimed at securing compliance by regulated persons with regulatory requirements made under the Nuclear Safety and Control Act ('the Act'). The policy applies to persons who are regulated by the CNSC through the Act, regulations and licences, as well as by decisions and orders made under the Act. The policy applies to officers and employees of the CNSC, and its authorized representatives or agents, who are involved in developing and carrying out compliance activities. Compliance, in the context of this policy, means conformity by regulated persons with the legally binding requirements of the Act, and the CNSC regulations, licences, decisions, and orders made under the Act. Compliance activities are CNSC measures of promotion, verification and enforcement aimed at securing compliance by regulated person with the applicable legally binding requirements. (author)

  6. 7 CFR 989.54 - Marketing policy.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 989.54 Section 989.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Marketing Policy § 989.54 Marketing policy. (a) Trade demand. On or...

  7. 7 CFR 993.41 - Marketing policy.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 993.41 Section 993.41 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Marketing Policy § 993.41 Marketing policy. (a) On or before the first Tuesday...

  8. Alinhamento entre a regulação sanitária e as políticas públicas de medicamentos no Brasil | Alignment between sanitary regulation and drug policies in Brazil

    Rodrigo Abrão Veloso Taveira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Avaliar a produção normativa da ANVISA referente a medicamentos e verificar o seu alinhamento à Política Nacional de Medicamentos e à Política Nacional de Assistência Farmacêutica. Métodos: Trata-se de estudo descritivo, do tipo levantamento de dados, baseado no método de pesquisa quantitativa e utilizando-se elementos da pesquisa documental. As resoluções da ANVISA publicadas entre 1999 e 2012 foram classificadas em “normativas” e “não normativas” e agrupadas em 12 temas. Aquelas relacionadas a medicamentos foram organizadas em 24 categorias. Ao final, analisou-se a correlação entre essas normas e as diretrizes definidas pelas Políticas Nacionais de Medicamentos e Assistência Farmacêutica. Resultados: Das 2367 resoluções identificadas, 43% possuem caráter “normativo”. As demais (57% não foram consideradas na análise. O principal objeto regulamentado pela ANVISA foi medicamentos (37%, seguido por alimentos (22%. Todas as resoluções sobre medicamentos estão alinhadas à Política Nacional de Medicamentos e à Política Nacional de Assistência Farmacêutica. Conclusões: A atuação regulatória da ANVISA na área de medicamentos está alinhada aos principais instrumentos políticos do governo federal brasileiro nesse setor. Pode-se afirmar que a Agência contribui para a execução das políticas estudadas, fornecendo subsídios para a garantia da segurança, eficácia e qualidade dos medicamentos e serviços farmacêuticos disponibilizados à população. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Objectives: Assess the production of Anvisa´s regulations regarding medications and check your alignment to the National Drug Policy and the National Policy of Pharmaceutical Assistance. Methods: This is a descriptive study, the type of data collection, based on quantitative research method and also using elements of documentary research. We used the

  9. Application of laws, policies, and guidance from the United States and Canada to the regulation of food and feed derived from genetically modified crops: interpretation of composition data.

    Price, William D; Underhill, Lynne

    2013-09-04

    With the development of recombinant DNA techniques for genetically modifying plants to exhibit beneficial traits, laws and regulations were adopted to ensure the safety of food and feed derived from such plants. This paper focuses on the regulation of genetically modified (GM) plants in Canada and the United States, with emphasis on the results of the compositional analysis routinely utilized as an indicator of possible unintended effects resulting from genetic modification. This work discusses the mandate of Health Canada and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency as well as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's approach to regulating food and feed derived from GM plants. This work also addresses how publications by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and Codex Alimentarius fit, particularly with defining the importance and purpose of compositional analysis. The importance of study design, selection of comparators, use of literature, and commercial variety reference values is also discussed.

  10. 7 CFR 923.50 - Marketing policy.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 923.50 Section 923.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 923.50 Marketing policy. (a) Each season...

  11. 7 CFR 905.50 - Marketing policy.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 905.50 Section 905.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 905.50 Marketing policy. (a) Before...

  12. 7 CFR 946.50 - Marketing policy.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 946.50 Section 946.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Regulation § 946.50 Marketing policy. (a) Prior to each marketing season, the...

  13. 7 CFR 927.50 - Marketing policy.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 927.50 Section 927.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Regulation of Shipments § 927.50 Marketing policy. (a) It shall be the duty of...

  14. 7 CFR 953.40 - Marketing policy.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 953.40 Section 953.40 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... STATES Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 953.40 Marketing policy. Prior to or at the same time...

  15. 7 CFR 966.50 - Marketing policy.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 966.50 Section 966.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Regulation § 966.50 Marketing policy. Prior to or at the same time as initial...

  16. 7 CFR 922.50 - Marketing policy.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 922.50 Section 922.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 922.50 Marketing policy. (a) Each season prior...

  17. 7 CFR 906.38 - Marketing policy.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 906.38 Section 906.38 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Regulation § 906.38 Marketing policy. Prior to or...

  18. 7 CFR 929.46 - Marketing policy.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 929.46 Section 929.46 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 929.46 Marketing policy...

  19. 7 CFR 916.50 - Marketing policy.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 916.50 Section 916.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Regulations § 916.50 Marketing policy. (a) Each season prior to making any...

  20. 7 CFR 959.50 - Marketing policy.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 959.50 Section 959.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Regulations § 959.50 Marketing policy. (a) At the beginning of each season, and as the...

  1. 48 CFR 4.302 - Policy.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policy. 4.302 Section 4.302 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Paper Documents 4.302 Policy. When electronic commerce methods (see 4.502) are not being used, a...

  2. 48 CFR 232.702 - Policy.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policy. 232.702 Section 232.702 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Contract Funding 232.702 Policy. Fixed-price...

  3. 48 CFR 22.1401 - Policy.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policy. 22.1401 Section 22.1401 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Employment of Workers with Disabilities 22.1401 Policy...

  4. Governmental regulation and nongovernmental certification of forests in the tropics: policy, execution, uptake, and overlap in Costa Rica, Guatemala, and Nicaragua

    Kathleen McGinley; F.W. Cubbage

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed how and why governmental forest regulation and nongovernmental forest certification in Costa Rica, Guatemala, and Nicaragua and their execution lead to, or fail to produce desired changes in forest owner and user behavior toward the enhanced sustainability of tropical forests. The findings confirmed not only that sufficient resources and capacity for...

  5. Sustainability Policy and Environmental Policy

    John C. V. Pezzey

    2001-01-01

    A theoretical, representative agent economy with a depletable resource stock, polluting emissions and productive capital is used to contrast environmental policy, which internalises externalised environmental values, with sustainability policy, which achieves some form of intergenerational equity. The obvious environmental policy comprises an emissions tax and a resource stock subsidy, each equal to the respective external cost or benefit. Sustainability policy comprises an incentive affectin...

  6. 從科技匯流到管制匯流 ― 論NCC成立後的通訊傳播監理政策 From the Convergence of Technologies to the Convergence of Regulations: Reviews of NCC Policies

    簡維克 Wei-Ke Chien

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available 原先電信產業與廣電產業分立的管制模式在因應數位匯流後也必須配合產業為一定之調整,以避免管制機關間之決策不一致。隨著國家通訊傳播委員會(NCC)於2006 年2 月22 日的成立,我國通訊傳播法制正嘗試性地走出傳統電信法、廣電法二元管制的窠臼,在市場匯流、服務匯流的指引下,進而希望達成管制匯流的終極目標。本文將簡述NCC 成立一年半以來,重大的通訊傳播政策以及對於其近日公布的「通訊傳播管理法」草案提出一些摘要性的評析。 In the past, DGT (the Directorate General of Telecommunications and GIO (Government Information Office, the two regulatory agencies, had governed telecommunications and mass electronic media policies in Taiwan respectively. However, with the development of IP technology and the convergence of communications services from time to time, there is a strong need from relevant industries to establish a new regulatory agency to cope with all the disputing issues in telecommunications and mass electronic media fields, in order to reduce the inconsistencies of regulation philosophy between DGT and GIO. In this case, the new national regulatory agency, National Communications Commission (NCC had been established in February 22, 2007. Not surprisingly, the Commission has to deal with many complicated and disputing issues of communications field from the very beginning, likes announcing the copper pair lines of last mile being bottleneck facility, or transforming the MOD service provided by CHT originally defined as a cable TV service to one kind of telecommunications service. In these policy-making processes, NCC not only utilizes the relevant laws and regulations at present, it also integrates the idea of future digital convergence trends in to these policies. Nevertheless, due to lack of professional financial knowledge in NCC, it seems that some policies on the price

  7. Microgrid Policy Review of Selected Major Countries, Regions, and Organizations

    Qu, Min [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Marnay, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-11-30

    This report collects and reviews policies and regulations related to microgrid development, and is intended as a reference. The material is divided into three parts under five dimensions: interconnection, RD&D, tariff policy, other policies, and recommendations.

  8. The Impact of Regulating Social Science Research with Biomedical Regulations

    Durosinmi, Brenda Braxton

    2011-01-01

    The Impact of Regulating Social Science Research with Biomedical Regulations Since 1974 Federal regulations have governed the use of human subjects in biomedical and social science research. The regulations are known as the Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects, and often referred to as the "Common Rule" because 18 Federal…

  9. Safety management and control policy. A study of the safety regulation of offshore oil activity by the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate. Sikkerhetsstyring og reguleringsteknikk. Oljedirektoratets regulering av sikkerheten ved produksjon av petroleum

    Graver, H P

    1983-01-01

    The Norwegian Petroleum Directorate (NPD) is the main administrative body with responsibility to regulate and control the safety aspects of drilling for and production of petroleum on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. Its responsibility does not, however, include the aspects of maritime safety, which are regulated by the Norwegian Maritime Directorate. This study is limited to the regulation of safety on fixed installations for production of petroleum. The object has been to describe the methods applied by the NPD to achieve better safety, and to give answers to why these specific methods of approach have developed as they have. A conclusion that may be drawn from this study is that there exists a relationship of close cooperation between the NPD and the oil industry represented by the operating companies. Only this can explain the differences we find in the NPD approach as compared to the approach of other parts of public administration. Such a relationship probably leads to better safety within the scope of technical rationality than would have a more hostile relationship between the Directorate and the industry. This has its price, however. Aspects of the safety question not included within the limits of a purely technical approach are not as easily taken into account. Partly due to this fact, other parties with interests in safety are not represented.

  10. Privacy Policy

    ... Home → NLM Privacy Policy URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/privacy.html NLM Privacy Policy To ... out of cookies in the most popular browsers, http://www.usa.gov/optout_instructions.shtml. Please note ...

  11. The policies

    Laruelle, Ph.; Snegaroff, Th.; Moreau, S.; Tellenne, C.; Brunel, S.

    2005-01-01

    Fourth chapter of the book on the geo-policy of the sustainable development, this chapter deal with the different and international policies concerned by the problem. The authors analyze the american energy attitude and policy, the economical equilibrium facing the environmental equilibrium for the european policy, the sanctified and sacrificed nature and the japanese attitude, India and China, the great fear of the 21 century and the sustainable development in Africa. (A.L.B.)

  12. Trade Policy

    Murray Gibbs

    2007-01-01

    In an otherwise insightful and thoughtful article, Sebastian Pfotenhauer (Trade Policy Is Science Policy,” Issues, Fall 2013) might better have entitled his contribution “Trade Policy Needs to Be Reconciled with Science Policy.” The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the agreements administered by the World Trade Organization, particularly the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), were adopted to promote international trade and i...

  13. 48 CFR 43.102 - Policy.

    2010-10-01

    ... contracts without requiring consideration to incorporate changes authorized by FASA or Clinger-Cohen Act... without requiring consideration to incorporate these new policies. The contract modification should be....102 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT...

  14. Translating Scientific Judgment, Technological Insight and Economic Theory Into Practical Policy Lessons: The Case of Climate Regulation in the United States

    Mignone, B. K.

    2008-12-01

    Effective solutions to the climate change problem will require unprecedented cooperation across space, continuity across time and coordination between disciplines. One well-known methodology for synthesizing the lessons of physical science, energy engineering and economics is integrated assessment. Typically, integrated assessment models use scientific and technological relationships as physical constraints in a larger macroeconomic optimization that is designed to either balance the costs and benefits of climate change mitigation or find the least-cost path to an exogenously prescribed endpoint (e.g. atmospheric CO2 stabilization). The usefulness of these models depends to a large extent on the quality of the assumptions and the relevance of the outcome metrics chosen by the user. In this study, I show how a scientifically-based emissions reduction scenario can be combined with engineering-based assumptions about the energy system (e.g. estimates of the marginal cost premium of carbon-free technology) to yield insights about the price path of CO2 under a future regulatory regime. I then show how this outcome metric (carbon price) relates to key decisions about the design of a future cap-and-trade system and the way in which future carbon markets may be regulated.

  15. Challenges for decommissioning policies

    Riotte, H.

    2007-01-01

    In the coming years, OECD member countries will be increasingly faced with the need to make appropriate provisions, in terms of policy, finance and management, for all aspects of decommissioning. Decommissioning requires regulatory approval and oversight, the directions of which are guided by national policy. In several instances, governments have only recently begun to address their approaches to decommissioning policy and regulation in national legislation, and international overviews of such approaches, which may eventually lead to international harmonization, are only now beginning to emerge. In parallel, policy and regulation have been evolving and a broadened competence has developed in relevant regulatory authorities. The challenge lying ahead is to establish a framework that will allow for the growth of nuclear industrial activities in competitive, globalized markets, while maintaining and assuring the safety of decommissioning for the public and for workers. Within this context, institutional arrangements, stakeholder issues, costs and funding, waste management and policies for release from regulatory control, as well as the availability of technologies and skills, need to be reviewed. (author)

  16. Macroprudential Policy: A Review

    Mahdi Ebrahimi Kahou

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The severity and longevity of the recession caused by the 2007 financial crisis has highlighted the lack of a reliable macro-based financial regulation framework. As a consequence, addressing the link between the stability of the financial system as a whole and the performance of the overall economy has become a mandate for policymakers and scholars. Many countries have adopted macroprudential tools as policy responses for safeguarding the financial system. This paper provides a literature review of macroprudential policies, its objectives and the challenges that a macro-based framework needs to overcome, such as financial stability, procyclicality, and systemic risk.

  17. 7 CFR 920.50 - Marketing policy.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 920.50 Section 920.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulations § 920.50 Marketing policy. (a) Each season prior to making any recommendations pursuant to § 920...

  18. 7 CFR 915.49 - Marketing policy.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 915.49 Section 915.49 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Research and Development § 915.49 Marketing policy. Each season prior to making any...

  19. 7 CFR 930.50 - Marketing policy.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 930.50 Section 930.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulations § 930.50 Marketing policy. (a) Optimum supply. On or about July 1 of each crop year, the Board...

  20. 7 CFR 956.60 - Marketing policy.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 956.60 Section 956.60 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... VALLEY OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Regulation § 956.60 Marketing policy. (a) Preparation...

  1. 7 CFR 947.50 - Marketing policy.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 947.50 Section 947.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulation § 947.50 Marketing policy. (a) Preparation. Prior to each marketing season the committee shall...

  2. 7 CFR 925.50 - Marketing policy.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 925.50 Section 925.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Regulations § 925.50 Marketing policy. Each season prior to making any recommendation...

  3. 48 CFR 310.001 - Policy.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policy. 310.001 Section 310.001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING MARKET RESEARCH § 310.001 Policy. (a) OPDIVs are encouraged to conduct market research, to the...

  4. 48 CFR 3019.201 - General policy.

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 3019.201 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 3019.201 General policy. (d) DHS is committed to a unified team approach involving senior management, small business...

  5. 7 CFR 983.47 - Marketing policy.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 983.47 Section 983.47 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Marketing Policy § 983.47 Marketing policy. Prior to August 1st each year, the...

  6. 48 CFR 207.171-3 - Policy.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policy. 207.171-3 Section... DEFENSE ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION PLANNING Acquisition Plans 207.171-3 Policy. DoD policy is to... it is anticipated that a prime contract will be awarded without adequate price competition, and the...

  7. 7 CFR 29.2 - Policy statement.

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Policy Statement and Regulations Governing the Extension of Tobacco Inspection and Price Support Services to New Markets and to Additional Sales on Designated Markets § 29.2 Policy statement. Inspection... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Policy statement. 29.2 Section 29.2 Agriculture...

  8. 7 CFR 29.9402 - Policy statement.

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Policy Statement and Regulations Governing Availability of Tobacco Inspection and Price Support Services to Flue-Cured Tobacco on Designated Markets § 29.9402 Policy statement. The sets of inspectors... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Policy statement. 29.9402 Section 29.9402 Agriculture...

  9. 7 CFR 1709.2 Policy. - [Reserved

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1709.2 Policy. Section 1709.2 Policy. Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES General Requirements § 1709.2 Policy. [Reserved] ...

  10. 48 CFR 750.7102 - General policy.

    2010-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT EXTRAORDINARY CONTRACTUAL ACTIONS Extraordinary Contractual Actions To Protect Foreign Policy Interests of the United States 750.7102 General policy. Extra-contractual claims arising from foreign... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General policy. 750.7102...

  11. 45 CFR 708.2 - Policy.

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policy. 708.2 Section 708.2 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS COLLECTION BY SALARY OFFSET FROM INDEBTED CURRENT AND FORMER EMPLOYEES § 708.2 Policy. It is the policy of the Commission to apply the...

  12. 美国的土地政策在宏观调控中的角色与功能%Roles and Functions of Land Use Policies on Macro Economic Regulation in the U.S.

    丰雷; 施昱年

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to induce literatures on the land policies in the U.S. and discuss its impacts on the macro economy. Method used is literature review. The results indicate that: 1 ) Farm land conservation policy is useful for stabilizing farm product price in the short run while it is unsuitable to be an instrument of macro-regulation in the long run; 2) Suspending or keeping on urban expansion and urban renewal through zoning can decrease or increase investment. Decreasing floor area ratio (FAR) will stimulate developer to build quickly and suspend opportunistic behavior in the short run and raise the quality of housing and environmental in the long run. Property tax can guide the opportunistic investing of real estate in the short run and decrease the benefits of opportunistic investing in the long run; 3 ) Interest rate influences REITs and stocks of real estate companies quickly in the short run. High interest rate will attack the growth of economy. It is also important to monitor the risk of bad debt of mortgage market.In the long run, interest rate policy must coordinate with business cycle and it is also crucial to ameliorate financial market. It is concluded that land policies have significant impacts on the economic growth and cycles although they are not directly as the macro-regulation tools in U.S. The experiences are useful to the situation in China.%研究目的:归纳美国土地政策的文献,探讨美国的土地政策对宏观经济的影响,为中国土地宏观调控实践提供借鉴。研究方法:文献综述法。研究结果:(1)农地保护政策短期有助于农产品价格稳定,长期则不宜作为宏观调控的工具。(2)土地使用分区管制对投资影响的短期效果明显;调降容积率短期会刺激开发商抢建及暂缓投机,长期则能提高居住环境质量;不动产税收政策短期能够引导房地产投机需求的流向,长期则可降

  13. ENERGY POLICY

    Avrupa Topluluğu Enstitüsü, Marmara Üniversitesi

    2015-01-01

    John Mitchell considers EU policies on energy supply security; Tera Allas on energy security of supply in the UK: the way forward; Peter Odell assesses public/private partnerships on the UKCS; Olivier Appert provides an overview of French energy policy.

  14. Energy policy

    Forrester, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    The author places the energy problem in the context of world economy. The various obstacles encountered in the United States to spell out a viable national energy policy are cited. A certain number of practical proposals is given to lead to an 'effective policy' which would allow energy economy at the same time as energy development, that is, including nuclear energy [fr

  15. Post-exceptionalism in public policy

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Feindt, Peter H.

    2017-01-01

    Framing the special issue on the transformation of Food and Agricultural Policy, this article introduces the concept of post-exceptionalism in public policies. The analysis of change in agri-food policy serves as a generative example to conceptualize current transformations in sectoral policy...... arrangements in democratic welfare states. Often these arrangements have been characterized by an exceptionalist ideational framework that legitimizes a sector’s special treatment through compartmentalized, exclusive and producer-centered policies and politics. In times of internationalization of policy......-making, increasing interlinkage of policy areas and trends towards self-regulation, liberalization and performance-based policies, policy exceptionalism is under pressure to either transform or give way to (neo-)liberal policy arrangements. Post-exceptionalism denotes a partial transformation of exceptionalist ideas...

  16. Monetary Policy Analysis in Serbia

    Martin Vesna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on analysing monetary policy in Serbia. The National Bank of Serbia chose inflation targeting, which sets price stability as the main objective of monetary policy. To achieve this goal, the central bank uses different monetary policy instruments which analysis can provide us with the understanding of the main directions of their actions but also of the limitations of its application. Only through improvement of both instruments and monetary policy the central bank will create a better foundation for achieving monetary stability. In addition, the implementation of exchange rate policy is entrusted to the National Bank of Serbia, as the main regulator of the financial system. A mere use of managed floating exchange rate, as the chosen exchange rate regime, is an appropriate solution in the current economic circumstances and in accordance with the desired objective of monetary policy.

  17. Europe's New Energy Policy

    Piebalgs, A.; Conn, I.; Dobbeni, D.; Josefsson, L.G.; Mogg, L.; Rifkin, J.; Scaroni, P.; Tanaka, N.

    2009-01-01

    Europe's energy policy has been completely transformed over the last few years, tackling the dual challenges of climate change and energy security. This has lead to major new laws on issues such as energy liberalisation, renewable energy and energy efficiency. In this volume the detailed reasons for these changes are outlined and the way in which the European Union has risen to these challenges is discussed. Views are given on where Europe's energy policy will go next, the challenges of 2050 and the development of a 'third industrial revolution'. This insight is complemented by the observations and comments of some of the leading figures concerning European and global energy issues, explaining how industry, energy regulators and global thinkers see Europe's energy policy and the challenges that it now faces

  18. Regulação sistêmica e política de financiamento da educação básica Systemic regulation and basic education funding policies

    Marisa Ribeiro Teixeira Duarte

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute a atual organização federativa da política de financiamento na regulação dos sistemas públicos responsáveis pela oferta de serviços que efetivem o direito comum à educação básica. Considera-se que a engenharia política de financiamento, estabelecida após 1996, foi capaz de induzir maior autonomia e descentralização de gestão, a adoção local de programas definidos centralmente, porém apresentou baixa capacidade de redução das desigualdades de recursos intersistemas de ensino e interescolares. O estudo procurou analisar os possíveis efeitos das alterações advindas da aprovação do Fundo de Manutenção e Desenvolvimento da Educação Básica (FUNDEB na regulação dos sistemas de ensino.The present paper discusses the current federative organization of the funding policy in the regulation of the public systems responsible for providing services that enforce the common right to basic education. Although the political engineering of funding established after 1996 allowed for more autonomy and decentralization of management and the local adoption of centrally defined programs, it did not reduce much the inequalities of intersystem and interschool teaching resources. This study analyzes the possible effects of the changes introduced by the approval of the Fund for the Development of Basic Education (FUNDEB in the regulation of the public school systems.

  19. Data Policy

    Mark A Parsons

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The first purpose of data policy should be to serve the objectives of the organization or project sponsoring the collection of the data. With research data, data policy should also serve the broader goals of advancing scientific and scholarly inquiry and society at large. This is especially true with government-funded data, which likely comprise the vast majority of research data. Data policy should address multiple issues, depending on the nature and objectives of the data. These issues include data access requirements, data preservation and stewardship requirements, standards and compliance mechanisms, data security issues, privacy and ethical concerns, and potentially even specific collection protocols and defined data flows. The specifics of different policies can vary dramatically, but all data policies need to address data access and preservation. Research data gain value with use and must therefore be accessible and preserved for future access. This article focuses on data access. While policy might address multiple issues, at a first level it must address where the data stand on what Lyon (2009 calls the continuum of openness. Making data as openly accessible as possible provides the greatest societal benefit, and a central purpose of data policy is to work toward ethically open data access. An open data regime not only maximizes the benefit of the data, it also simplifies most of the other issues around effective research data stewardship and infrastructure development.

  20. Policy on the decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    1988-08-01

    This Regulatory Policy Statement describes the policy of the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) on the decommissioning of those facilities defined as nuclear facilities in the Atomic Energy Control (AEC) Regulations. It is intended as a formal statement, primarily for the information of licensees, or potential licensees, of the regulatory process and requirements generally applicable to the decommissioning of nuclear facilities licensed and regulated by the AECB pursuant to the authority of the AEC Act and Regulations

  1. The argument for pharmaceutical policy.

    Traulsen, Janine Morgall; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna

    2005-02-01

    Pharmaceutical policy is a global concern. It has become a hot political topic in most countries--developed as well as developing--and can be found on the agenda of international organizations such as WHO, OECD, EU, WTO and even the World Bank. Pharmaceutical policy affects everyone in the world of pharmacy and it is therefore imperative that it be understood, discussed and debated within the pharmacy profession and included in the curriculum of schools of pharmacy. This, the first article in a series, argues for the importance of the academic discipline of pharmaceutical policy analysis and the involvement of pharmacists in this endeavour. The aim of the authors is to stimulate an informed and critical appreciation of this field. The authors begin with an introduction to the field of pharmaceutical policy, introducing several important concepts and current trends including: medicines regulation; how pharmaceutical policy is made; pharmaceutical policy as a dynamic process; and the new public health as a global issue. The article ends with a short description of the remaining five articles in the series which will deal with important aspects of pharmaceutical policy. The topics include: economic pressures on health care systems; drug utilization from the clinical viewpoint (rational use of medicines); the impact of pharmaceutical policy on patients and the patient impact on pharmaceutical policy; the professional perspective; and finally the last article which deals with studying and evaluating pharmaceutical policy.

  2. Regulating household financial advice

    Benjamin F. Cummings

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews economic theory related to investment advice. This theory explains 1 why financial advisors need to be carefully regulated for the benefit of both the investment advice industry and for consumers, 2 why principles-based regulation (e.g., a fiduciary standard is more efficient than rules-based regulation, 3 why dual regulation of financial professionals providing investment or insurance advice is inefficient and inequitable policy, and 4 why the application of a universal and uniform fiduciary standard will be difficult to implement.

  3. Global approaches to regulating electronic cigarettes

    Kennedy, Ryan David; Awopegba, Ayodeji; De Le?n, Elaine; Cohen, Joanna E

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Classify and describe the policy approaches used by countries to regulate e-cigarettes. Methods National policies regulating e-cigarettes were identified by (1) conducting web searches on Ministry of Health websites, and (2) broad web searches. The mechanisms used to regulate e-cigarettes were classified as new/amended laws, or existing laws. The policy domains identified include restrictions or prohibitions on product: sale, manufacturing, importation, distribution, use, product d...

  4. How Europe Formulates Internet Policy

    Savin, Andrej

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the interplay of carrier and content regulatory layers in European internet law, how the 'Single Market' agenda informs and influences these layers and whether the proposed EU Connected Continent Regulation may solve some of the difficulties. The article starts with a brief...... overview of EU policy making in the area of telecommunications, moves on to explain the 'Single Market' background of EU internet regulation and looks at present telecommunications policy in its potential for the future. The main claim is that the origins of EU telecommunications policy can help understand...... and explain more general limitations of internet regulation and its more recent transformations. One of the main conclusions is that the 'Single Market' paradigm as understood in the 1990s or 2000s may not be best suited for the dynamic digital world of today....

  5. Policies for a renewable future

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter identifies changes needed in policies regarding the utilization of renewable energy sources. The topics of the chapter include financial and legal incentives, information needs, long range energy and economic policy, environmental issues as an impetus to commercialization of renewable energy sources, taxing use of fossil fuels, encouraging renewable energy use by electric utilities through least-cost planning, educating the public and providing technical assistance, research and development, and environmental regulation and monitoring

  6. Systemic regulation and basic education funding policies

    Duarte, Marisa Ribeiro Teixeira

    2005-01-01

    Este artigo discute a atual organização federativa da política de financiamento na regulação dos sistemas públicos responsáveis pela oferta de serviços que efetivem o direito comum à educação básica. Considera-se que a engenharia política de financiamento, estabelecida após 1996, foi capaz de induzir maior autonomia e descentralização de gestão, a adoção local de programas definidos centralmente, porém apresentou baixa capacidade de redução das desigualdades de recursos intersistemas de ensin...

  7. Policy Review on Adult Learning: The Adult Non-Formal Education Policy of Mali, West Africa

    Gadio, Moussa

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the issue of policy development for adult learning in Mali, West Africa. On January 2007, the Malian government adopted the "Adult Non-formal Education Policy Document," which was intended to regulate the adult learning sector and federate the actions of policy makers, adult education providers, and adult…

  8. 7 CFR 958.50 - Marketing policy.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 958.50 Section 958.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Regulation § 958.50 Marketing...

  9. 48 CFR 22.1802 - Policy.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policy. 22.1802 Section 22.1802 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS...-Verify program provides an Internet-based means of verifying employment eligibility of workers employed...

  10. Policy Innovation in Innovation Policy

    Borras, Susana

    During the past two decades Europe has experienced important changes and transformations in the way in which governments approach the issue of science, technology and innovation, and their relation to economic growth and competitiveness. This has to do with the European Union level as well...... as with national and sub-national governments in Europe, all of them introducing interesting novelties in their innovation policy. These changes refer to different aspects of policy, mainly the content of policy initiatives towards science, technology and innovation; the instruments governments are using...... at the EU level, and mentions similar trends taking place at national and sub-national levels. The questions that guide the contents here are essentially three, namely, what are the main traits of innovation policies in Europe since the 1990s and how have the EU and different national governments approached...

  11. 7 CFR 1806.2 - Companies and policies.

    2010-01-01

    ... lending institutions. (b) Insurance policies—(1) Standard policies. If a standard fire insurance policy... REGULATIONS INSURANCE Real Property Insurance § 1806.2 Companies and policies. Property insurance policies or other evidence of insurance will be accepted from borrowers when the requirements outlined herein are...

  12. Corruption, Institutions and Regulation

    Michael Breen; Robert Gillanders

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the effects of corruption and institutional quality on the quality of business regulation. Our key findings indicate that corruption negatively aspects the quality of regulation and that general institutional quality is insignificant once corruption is controlled for. These findings hold over a number of specifications which include additional exogenous historical and geographic controls. The findings imply that policy-makers should focus on curbing corruption to improve regulat...

  13. Interconnection policy: a theoretical survey

    César Mattos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This article surveys the theoretical foundations of interconnection policy. The requirement of an interconnection policy should not be taken for granted in all circumstances, even considering the issue of network externalities. On the other hand, when it is required, an encompassing interconnection policy is usually justified. We provide an overview of the theory on interconnection pricing that results in several different prescriptions depending on which problem the regulator aims to address. We also present a survey on the literature on two-way interconnection.

  14. 7 CFR 932.50 - Report of marketing policy.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Report of marketing policy. 932.50 Section 932.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Regulating Handling Regulations § 932.50 Report of marketing policy. At least 14 days prior to the start of...

  15. Policy stories

    Ren, Carina Bregnholm; Rasmussen, Rasmus Kjærgaard

    This article uses Arctic Winter 2016 as an exploration site of values and futures in Greenland. By taking a valuation approach where the creation and interpretation of event values are seen as an ongoing and taxing accomplishment, we firstly expand the understanding of events beyond their actual...... present three central policy stories from the field. The stories tell of how the event was first interested, then activated and finally evaluated. Besides adding a new understanding to policy-driven events as a locus of value creation, we also argue that the AWG 2016 offer speculative bets for new...... planning and execution and of event outcomes beyond the narrow confines of bed nights and legacies. Second, we introduce policies as an entry point to unlock discussions and manifestations of value and futures which connect to AWG. In order to exemplify the workings of the AWG event in these domains, we...

  16. Policy Reader

    1985-09-01

    This policy reader comprises: Correspondence; Memorandum of Understanding between the US Department of Transportation and the US Department of Energy for the Transportation of Radioactive Materials under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act; Internal Guidelines for Interactions with Communities and Local Governments; Statement by Ben C. Rusche before the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, Subcommittee on Energy and the Environment, US House of Representatives, September 13, 1985; Speech presented by Ben C. Rusche before the ANS/CNS/AESJ/ENS Topical Meeting, Pasco, Washington, September 24, 1985 - ''Status of the United States' High-Level Nuclear Waste Disposal Program''; and ''DOE Seeks Comments on Nuclear Transportation Planning,'' DOE News, September 30, 1985

  17. Language Policy

    Lauridsen, Karen M.

    2008-01-01

    Like any other text, instructive texts function within a given cultural and situational setting and may only be available in one language. However, the end users may not be familiar with that language and therefore unable to read and understand the instructions. This article therefore argues...... that instructive texts should always be available in a language that is understood by the end users, and that a corporate communication policy which includes a language policy should ensure that this is in fact the case for all instructive texts....

  18. “What Cultural Policies?” Explicit and Implicit Cultural Policies in Lebanon

    Nadia von Maltzahn

    2017-01-01

    Cultural policies define a vision for culture, and provide frameworks for institutional practice to translate this vision on the ground. A 1981 study on Lebanese cultural policy reached the conclusion that one cannot speak of cultural policies in Lebanon if one refers to state laws, regulations and plans. However, if cultural policy was understood as the method of a state to give its citizens the space to develop themselves in a way that they could create culture, one could certainly speak of...

  19. Informed policies

    INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH CENTRE. Informed ... more evidence-based policy on social ... Community involvement is key to the success of CBMS in reducing poverty. IDRC ... nationwide network of “telecentres” that ... and holidays for young people to use for ... National Conference on Youth led to the.

  20. Vaccination Policies

    Verweij, M.F.

    2013-01-01

    Vaccination involves priming the immune system with an antigenic agent that mimics a virus or bacterium, which results in immunity against the “real” microorganism. Collective vaccination policies have played an important role in the control of infectious disease worldwide. They can serve the

  1. Designing Next Generation Telecom Regulation

    Henten, Anders; Samarajiva, Rohan

    – ICT convergence regulation and multisector utility regulation. Whatever structure of next generation telecom regulation is adopted, all countries will need to pay much greater attention to the need for increased coordination of policy directions and regulatory activities both across the industries......Continuously expanding applications of information and communication technologies (ICT) are transforming local, national, regional and international economies into network economies, the foundation for information societies. They are being built upon expanded and upgraded national telecom networks...... to creating an environment to foster a massive expansion in the coverage and capabilities of the information infrastructure networks, with national telecom regulators as the key implementers of the policies of reform. The first phase of reform has focused on industry specific telecom policy and regulation...

  2. Regulations and Procedures Manual

    Young, Lydia J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-07-25

    The purpose of the Regulations and Procedures Manual (RPM) is to provide LBNL personnel with a reference to University and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL or Laboratory) policies and regulations by outlining normal practices and answering most policy questions that arise in the day-to-day operations of Laboratory organizations. Much of the information in this manual has been condensed from detail provided in LBNL procedure manuals, Department of Energy (DOE) directives, and Contract DE-AC02-05CH11231. This manual is not intended, however, to replace any of those documents. RPM sections on personnel apply only to employees who are not represented by unions. Personnel policies pertaining to employees represented by unions may be found in their labor agreements. Questions concerning policy interpretation should be directed to the LBNL organization responsible for the particular policy. A link to the Managers Responsible for RPM Sections is available on the RPM home page. If it is not clear which organization is responsible for a policy, please contact Requirements Manager Lydia Young or the RPM Editor.

  3. 7 CFR 3.87 - Agency regulations.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agency regulations. 3.87 Section 3.87 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DEBT MANAGEMENT Federal Salary Offset § 3.87 Agency regulations. USDA agencies may issue regulations or policies not inconsistent with OPM regulations (5 CFR part 550...

  4. Heating & cooling: Policy frameworks in six European cities, their regions and countries

    Büchele, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Report on current regulations, support policies, and other related framework conditions on EU level, national, regional and local level for the target countries, and assessment of specific characteristics of successful regulations and policies from a local perspective....

  5. Pharmaceutical policy and the pharmacy profession

    Traulsen, Janine Marie; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors look at the relationship between pharmaceutical policy and the pharmacy profession with focus on pharmacy practice and pharmacists in the health care sector. Pharmaceutical policy encompasses three major policy inputs: public health policy, health care policy and indu......In this article, the authors look at the relationship between pharmaceutical policy and the pharmacy profession with focus on pharmacy practice and pharmacists in the health care sector. Pharmaceutical policy encompasses three major policy inputs: public health policy, health care policy...... and industrial policy. In order to analyse and understand pharmaceutical policy, it is important to know how policymakers view pharmacy and pharmacists. The authors look at the issues that arise when policy regulates pharmacy as a business, and what this means for the profession. The perspective of pharmacy...... in managerialism, and how the division of labour with other health professionals such as physicians and pharmacy assistants is affecting the pharmacy profession's position in the labour market. Next the authors look at ways in which the pharmacy profession has affected policy. Pharmacists have been instrumental...

  6. Circulation policies in health science libraries.

    Watkins, C; Coker, N C

    1970-10-01

    There is general agreement that library policies have considerable influence on the use of libraries. Medical school (health science) libraries of this country were surveyed as to their policies in respect to whether faculty and student use were regulated by a single policy, circulation regulations, hours library was accessible to users, accessibility of reserve material, interlibrary loan, policy on overdue material, and exit control. THE LIBRARIES WERE THEN DIVIDED INTO THREE GROUPS, HIGH, MIDDLE, AND LOW ACCORDING TO THE FOLLOWING CHARACTERISTICS: size of student body, size of faculty, size of holdings, size of library staff, annual budget, and annual circulation. Our findings would indicate that schools falling in a high category based upon these criteria tend to be more restrictive in their policies and to have different regulations for faculty and students than do schools in the low category.These findings warrant further study.

  7. Agriculture and greenhouse effect: economic regulation of cross impacts and combination of agricultural and environmental policies - analysis for the France and extension to the european union. Economic analysis of the interactions agriculture- greenhouse effect

    Jayet, P.A.

    2002-09-01

    The objectives of the research program are: the impacts evaluation of a double relation climate - agriculture on the agricultural production and the greenhouse gases emission; the compatibility of agricultural policies and environmental policies of the sector. Simulations are realized at a regional scale with a coupling of economical and biophysical models (manure spreading, cultivation yield). (A.L.B.)

  8. Linking Emerging Infectious Diseases Research and Policy ...

    In China and Southeast Asia, the lack of policy or regulation enforcements means that the use of antibiotics ... Building on past research on avian influenza and ongoing ... Chinese Academy of Sciences. Pays d' institution. China. Site internet.

  9. Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Policy

    This policy establishes EPA requirements for complying with the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) as amended, EPA FOIA regulations, and guidance issued by the U. S. Department of Justice and the National Archives and Records Administration.

  10. 48 CFR 504.502 - Policy.

    2010-10-01

    ... MATTERS Electronic Commerce in Contracting 504.502 Policy. (a) The EPS is GSA's primary vehicle for... your authority to obtain oral quotations or proposals as authorized by regulation (e.g., FAR 13.106-1...

  11. Multinationals and international environmental policy

    Dam, L.; Scholtens, B.

    2009-01-01

    Multinationals with relatively poor environmental policy establish themselves in countries with weak environmental regulation. These activities are not undertaken in the poorest or most corrupt countries though. The question arises if multinationals with relatively developed environmental behavior settle less or more often in countries with environmental legislation. [mk] [nl

  12. Policy Implementation: Implications for Evaluation

    DeGroff, Amy; Cargo, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Policy implementation reflects a complex change process where government decisions are transformed into programs, procedures, regulations, or practices aimed at social betterment. Three factors affecting contemporary implementation processes are explored: networked governance, sociopolitical context and the democratic turn, and new public…

  13. The argument for pharmaceutical policy

    Traulsen, Janine Morgall; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna

    2005-01-01

    and the involvement of pharmacists in this endeavour. The aim of the authors is to stimulate an informed and critical appreciation of this field. The authors begin with an introduction to the field of pharmaceutical policy, introducing several important concepts and current trends including: medicines regulation; how...

  14. State policies for geothermal development

    Sacarto, D.M.

    1976-01-01

    The most prominent geothermal resources in the USA occur in fifteen Gulf and Western states including Alaska and Hawaii. In each state, authority and guidelines have been established for administration of geothermal leasing and for regulation of development. Important matters addressed by these policies include resource definition, leasing provisions, development regulations, water appropriation, and environmental standards. Some other policies that need attention include taxation, securities regulations, and utility regulations. It is concluded that conditions needed for the geothermal industry to pursue large-scale development are consumer (utility) confidence in the resource; equitable tax treatment; prompt exploration of extensive land areas; long and secure tenure for productive properties; prompt facility siting and development; and competitive access to various consumers. With these conditions, the industry should be competitive with other energy sectors and win its share of investment capital. This publication reviews for the states various technical, economic, and institutional aspects of geothermal development. The report summarizes research results from numerous specialists and outlines present state and Federal policies. The report concludes generally that if public policies are made favorable to their development, geothermal resources offer an important energy resource that could supply all new electric capacity for the fifteen states for the next two decades. This energy--100,000 MW--could be generated at prices competitive with electricity from fossil and nuclear power plants. An extensive bibliography is included. (MCW)

  15. Discussion: European Commission policy

    Coldwell, R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper documents the debate which arose following two papers presented to a seminar run by the Centre for the Study of Regulated Industries, on 11th November 1992, on European Commission (EC) energy policies. The issues raised cover how an internal market for electricity and natural gas will be implemented under a proposed EC directive, bearing in mind the level of opposition from a number of Member States. How this Directive will apply to vertically integrated structures, such as Scottish Electricity Industry, is also considered. (UK)

  16. Public Policy and Health Informatics.

    Bell, Katherine

    2018-04-05

    To provide an overview of the history of electronic health policy and identify significant laws that influence health informatics. US Department of Health and Human Services. The development of health information technology has influenced the process for delivering health care. Public policy and regulations are an important part of health informatics and establish the structure of electronic health systems. Regulatory bodies of the government initiate policies to ease the execution of electronic health record implementation. These same bureaucratic entities regulate the system to protect the rights of the patients and providers. Nurses should have an overall understanding of the system behind health informatics and be able to advocate for change. Nurses can utilize this information to optimize the use of health informatics and campaign for safe, effective, and efficient health information technology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Energy policy

    1992-09-01

    Gasoline consumption by passenger cars and light trucks is a major source of air pollution. It also adds to the economy's dependence on petroleum and vulnerability to oil price shocks. Despite these environmental and other costs, called external cost, the price of gasoline, adjusted for inflation, has generally been declining since 1985, encouraging increased consumption. This paper reports that with these concerns in mind, the Chairman, Subcommittee on Environment, House Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, requested that GAO assess policy options for addressing the external costs of gasoline consumption. To do this, GAO identified six major policy options and evaluated whether they addressed several relevant objectives, including economic growth, environmental quality, equity, petroleum conservation, visibility of costs, energy security, traffic congestion, competitiveness, and administrative feasibility

  18. Regulating the Regulator

    1992-08-26

    The article reports on a challenge to the UK electricity regulator to defend his record by the Coalition for Fair Electricity Regulation (COFFER). The challenge centres on whether the obligation for the regional electric companies (REC) to purchase power from the cheapest source is being enforced. This is related to the wider issue of whether the REC's support of combined-cycle gas turbine (CCGT) is economic. COFFER considers that uneconomic gas-fired power plants are being allowed to displace economic coal-fired stations. Aspects discussed include the background to the dispute and the costs of CCGT and coal fired power generation. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  19. Internet Policy

    Lehr, William H.; Pupillo, Lorenzo Maria

    The Internet is now widely regarded as essential infrastructure for our global economy and society. It is in our homes and businesses. We use it to communicate and socialize, for research, and as a platform for E-commerce. In the late 1990s, much was predicted about what the Internet has become at present; but now, we have actual experience living with the Internet as a critical component of our everyday lives. Although the Internet has already had profound effects, there is much we have yet to realize. The present volume represents a third installment in a collaborative effort to highlight the all-encompassing, multidisciplinary implications of the Internet for public policy. The first installment was conceived in 1998, when we initiated plans to organize an international conference among academic, industry, and government officials to discuss the growing policy agenda posed by the Internet. The conference was hosted by the European Commission in Brussels in 1999 and brought together a diverse mix of perspectives on what the pressing policy issues would be confronting the Internet. All of the concerns identified remain with us today, including how to address the Digital Divide, how to modify intellectual property laws to accommodate the new realities of the Internet, what to do about Internet governance and name-space management, and how to evolve broadcast and telecommunications regulatory frameworks for a converged world.

  20. Korea's Post-Crisis Monetary Policy Reforms

    Donghyun Park; Junggun Oh

    2005-01-01

    Korea's financial crisis of 1997–1998 was brought about by the unsustainable combination of large capital inflows and an inefficient financial system. The Bank of Korea contributed to the crisis primarily through its failures as the regulator of the financial system rather than as the conductor of monetary policy. Our paper explores the role of the two major monetary policy reforms Korea has implemented in response to the crisis — the establishment of a new financial regulator and the adoptio...

  1. CERN's new safety policy

    2014-01-01

    The documents below, published on 29 September 2014 on the HSE website, together replace the document SAPOCO 42 as well as Safety Codes A1, A5, A9, A10, which are no longer in force. As from the publication date of these documents any reference made to the document SAPOCO 42 or to Safety Codes A1, A5, A9 and A10 in contractual documents or CERN rules and regulations shall be deemed to constitute a reference to the corresponding provisions of the documents listed below.   "The CERN Safety Policy" "Safety Regulation SR-SO - Responsibilities and organisational structure in matters of Safety at CERN" "General Safety Instruction GSI-SO-1 - Departmental Safety Officer (DSO)" "General Safety Instruction GSI-SO-2 - Territorial Safety Officer (TSO)" "General Safety Instruction GSI-SO-3 - Safety Linkperson (SLP)" "General Safety Instruction GSI-SO-4 - Large Experiment Group Leader In Matters of Safety (LEXGLI...

  2. Development of National Technology Audit Policy

    Subiyanto Subiyanto

    2017-01-01

    The Laws have mandated implementation of technology audit, nevertheless such implementation needs an additional policy that is more technical. The concept of national audit technology policy shall make technology audit as a tool to ensure the benefit of technology application for society and technology advance for nation independency. This article discusses on technology audit policy concept especially infrastructure requirement, with emphasis on regulation, implementation tools, and related ...

  3. Information security policies and procedures a practitioner's reference

    Peltier, Thomas R

    2004-01-01

    INFORMATION SECURITY POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Introduction Corporate Policies Organizationwide (Tier 1) Policies Organizationwide Policy Document Legal Requirements Duty of Loyalty Duty of Care Other Laws and Regulations Business Requirements Where to Begin? Summary Why Manage This Process as a Project? Introduction First Things First: Identify the Sponsor Defining the Scope of Work Time Management Cost Management Planning for Quality Managing Human Resources Creating a Communications Plan Summary Planning and Preparation Introduction Objectives of Policies, Stand

  4. 7 CFR 945.50 - Marketing policy.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 945.50 Section 945.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Marketing policy. (a) Preparation. Prior to or at the same time as recommendations are made pursuant to...

  5. 7 CFR 924.50 - Marketing policy.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 924.50 Section 924.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Marketing policy. (a) Each season prior to making any recommendations pursuant to § 924.51, the committee...

  6. 24 CFR 200.610 - Policy.

    2010-04-01

    ... GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing Regulations § 200.610 Policy. It... condition in which individuals of similar income levels in the same housing market area have a like range of... programs shall pursue affirmative fair housing marketing policies in soliciting buyers and tenants, in...

  7. 48 CFR 811.501 - Policy.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policy. 811.501 Section... ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Liquidated Damages 811.501 Policy. The contracting officer must... increase in contract price is justified. The contracting officer must not use a liquidated damages...

  8. 48 CFR 42.703-1 - Policy.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policy. 42.703-1 Section... CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Indirect Cost Rates 42.703-1 Policy. (a) A single agency (see 42... indirect costs under cost-reimbursement contracts and in determining progress payments under fixed-price...

  9. 48 CFR 2832.903 - Policy.

    2010-10-01

    ... 2832.903 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE General Contracting Requirements CONTRACT FINANCING Prompt Payment 2832.903 Policy. The HCA is responsible for promulgating policies and procedures to implement FAR 32.9 and to ensure that, when specifying due dates, full consideration will be...

  10. 48 CFR 225.901 - Policy.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policy. 225.901 Section... DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Customs and Duties 225.901 Policy. Unless the supplies are entitled to duty-free treatment under a special category in the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the...

  11. Conviviality-driven access control policy

    El Kateb, Donia; Zannone, N.; Moawad, Assaad; Caire, Patrice; Nain, Grégory; Mouelhi, Tejeddine; Le Traon, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays many organizations experience security incidents due to unauthorized access to information. To reduce the risk of such incidents, security policies are often employed to regulate access to information. Such policies, however, are often too restrictive, and users do not have the rights

  12. 48 CFR 25.901 - Policy.

    2010-10-01

    ... FOREIGN ACQUISITION Customs and Duties 25.901 Policy. United States laws impose duties on foreign supplies imported into the customs territory of the United States. Certain exemptions from these duties are... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policy. 25.901 Section 25...

  13. Legislative policy in Brazil : limits and possibilities

    De, Paula F.

    2018-01-01

    This doctoral thesis discusses the limits and possibilities for developing a new legislative-regulatory policy in Brazil, understood as a public policy whose purpose is to improve the process of drafting legislation and regulation and to increase the quality of rules. It considers the

  14. 48 CFR 15.402 - Pricing policy.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pricing policy. 15.402... AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 15.402 Pricing policy. Contracting... certified cost or pricing data when required by 15.403-4, along with data other than certified cost or...

  15. 48 CFR 215.402 - Pricing policy.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pricing policy. 215.402... OF DEFENSE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 215.402 Pricing policy. Follow the procedures at PGI 215.402 when conducting cost or price analysis, particularly...

  16. Standardizing the European Education Policy Space

    Lawn, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Countries in Europe, through the European Union, are creating, as part of the market and its governance, a new policy space in education. It is being formed through law, regulation, networking and harmonization. The development of standards across the different fields of policy, statistical calculation and commerce underpins and extends the…

  17. 78 FR 11164 - Policy on Contractor Profits

    2013-02-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System Policy on Contractor Profits AGENCY... Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013. Section 804, Department of Defense Policy on Contractor Profits... modifications to such guidelines that are necessary to ensure an appropriate link between contractor profit and...

  18. 48 CFR 335.070-1 - Policy.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policy. 335.070-1 Section... CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 335.070-1 Policy. (a) Contracting activities shall encourage... resources available for the conduct of R & D projects and by promoting sound planning and prudent fiscal...

  19. 48 CFR 726.7101 - Policy.

    2010-10-01

    ... 726.7101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS OTHER SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS Relocation of U.S. Businesses, Assistance to Export Processing Zones, Internationally Recognized Workers' Rights 726.7101 Policy. USAID Policy Determination (PD) 20, “Guidelines to...

  20. Road safety policy of the European Union.

    2013-01-01

    The European Union (EU) is important for national road safety policies. The EU has several policymaking instruments, such as binding regulations and directives, and non-binding recommendations. An important element in the EU policy plans on road safety are the non-binding European road safety

  1. Telecommunication Policy

    Khajeheian, Datis

    2016-01-01

    This article is a response to the call of the Energy and Commerce Committee for Communications Act Update, and implies that setting a regulation which may prevent the free movement of market players for proposition of new value. As It is almost impossible to understand the future requirements of ...... open for innovation and entrepreneurship in technology....

  2. Global approaches to regulating electronic cigarettes

    Kennedy, Ryan David; Awopegba, Ayodeji; De León, Elaine; Cohen, Joanna E

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Classify and describe the policy approaches used by countries to regulate e-cigarettes. Methods National policies regulating e-cigarettes were identified by (1) conducting web searches on Ministry of Health websites, and (2) broad web searches. The mechanisms used to regulate e-cigarettes were classified as new/amended laws, or existing laws. The policy domains identified include restrictions or prohibitions on product: sale, manufacturing, importation, distribution, use, product design including e-liquid ingredients, advertising/promotion/sponsorship, trademarks, and regulation requiring: taxation, health warning labels and child-safety standards. The classification of the policy was reviewed by a country expert. Results The search identified 68 countries that regulate e-cigarettes: 22 countries regulate e-cigarettes using existing regulations; 25 countries enacted new policies to regulate e-cigarettes; 7 countries made amendments to existing legislation; 14 countries use a combination of new/amended and existing regulation. Common policies include a minimum-age-of-purchase, indoor-use (vape-free public places) bans and marketing restrictions. Few countries are applying a tax to e-cigarettes. Conclusions A range of regulatory approaches are being applied to e-cigarettes globally; many countries regulate e-cigarettes using legislation not written for e-cigarettes. PMID:27903958

  3. Regulations and Procedures Manual

    Young, Lydia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2010-09-30

    The purpose of the Regulations and Procedures Manual (RPM) is to provide Laboratory personnel with a reference to University and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory policies and regulations by outlining the normal practices and answering most policy questions that arise in the day-to-day operations of Laboratory departments. Much of the information in this manual has been condensed from detail provided in Laboratory procedure manuals, Department of Energy (DOE) directives, and Contract DE-AC02-05CH11231. This manual is not intended, however, to replace any of those documents. The sections on personnel apply only to employees who are not represented by unions. Personnel policies pertaining to employees represented by unions may be found in their labor agreements. Questions concerning policy interpretation should be directed to the department responsible for the particular policy. A link to the Managers Responsible for RPM Sections is available on the RPM home page. If it is not clear which department should be called, please contact the Associate Laboratory Director of Operations.

  4. Electricity regulation and economic growth

    Costa, M. Teresa (Maria Teresa), 1951-; Garcia-Quevedo, Jose; Trujillo-Baute, Elisa

    2018-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to analyse the effect of electricity regulation on economic growth. Although the relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth has been extensively analysed in the empirical literature, this framework has not been used to estimate the effect of electricity regulation on economic growth. Understanding this effect is essential for the assessment of regulatory policy. Specifically, we assess the effects of two major areas of regulation, rene...

  5. Children's media policy.

    Jordan, Amy B

    2008-01-01

    Amy Jordan addresses the need to balance the media industry's potentially important contributions to the healthy development of America's children against the consequences of excessive and age-inappropriate media exposure. Much of the philosophical tension regarding how much say the government should have about media content and delivery stems from the U.S. Constitution's First Amendment protection against government interference in free speech, including commercial speech. Courts, Jordan says, have repeatedly had to weigh the rights of commercial entities to say what they please against the need to protect vulnerable citizens such as children. This balancing act is complicated even further, she says, because many government regulations apply only to broadcast television and not to non-broadcast media such as the Internet or cable television, though Congress has addressed the need to protect children's privacy online. The need to protect both free speech and children has given rise to a fluid media policy mix of federal mandates and industry self-regulation. Jordan describes the role of the three branches of the federal government in formulating and implementing media policy. She also notes the jockeying for influence in policymaking by industry lobbies, child advocacy groups, and academic researchers. The media industry itself, says Jordan, is spurred to self-regulation when public disapproval grows severe enough to raise the possibility of new government action. Jordan surveys a range of government and industry actions, from legislatively required parental monitoring tools, such as the V-Chip blocking device on television sets, to the voluntary industry ratings systems governing television, movies, and video games, to voluntary social website disclosures to outright government bans, such as indecency and child privacy information collection. She considers the success of these efforts in limiting children's exposure to damaging content and in improving parents

  6. Market, Regulation, Market, Regulation

    Frankel, Christian; Galland, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    barriers to trade in Europe, realized the free movement of products by organizing progressively several orders of markets and regulation. Based on historical and institutional documents, on technical publications, and on interviews, this article relates how the European Commission and the Member States had......This paper focuses on the European Regulatory system which was settled both for opening the Single Market for products and ensuring the consumers' safety. It claims that the New Approach and Standardization, and the Global Approach to conformity assessment, which suppressed the last technical...... alternatively recourse to markets and to regulations, at the three main levels of the New Approach Directives implementation. The article focuses also more specifically on the Medical Devices sector, not only because this New Approach sector has long been controversial in Europe, and has recently been concerned...

  7. OWNERSHIP POLICY

    V. Branovitskiy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the ownership policy in Ukraine. It makes a survey of the following: the current situation at state-run enterprises and their efficiency; the key criteria of the classification of state-run enterprises for the privatization for the period of 2017-2020. The article evaluates the institutional changes coming from a new law on the privatization of state-owned property in Ukraine. It reveals the stages of making the ownership policy as a state strategy. It describes the measures meant to raise efficiency in the area of the public property management. The article assesses the state of play of the stock market in Ukraine as a mechanism to attract money to the real economy. It recommends attracting foreign investment to the public sector of economy following the restructuring process via IPO or sale to a strategic investor (Private equity. It considers the positive aspects in the completion of active privatization and the scope of the main privatization risks.

  8. Pharmaceutical policies in European countries.

    Barros, Pedro Pita

    2010-01-01

    Pharmaceutical expenditures have an important role in Europe. The attempts to control expenditure have used a wide range of policy measures. We reviewed the main measures adopted by the European Union countries, especially in countries where governments are the largest third-party payers. To complement a literature review on the topic, data was gathered from national reviews of health systems and direct inquiries to several government bodies. Almost all countries regulate prices of pharmaceutical products. Popular policy measures include international referencing to set prices (using as benchmark countries that have set lower prices), internal reference pricing systems to promote price competition in domestic markets, and positive lists for reimbursement to promote consumption of generics (including in some cases substitution by pharmacists of drugs prescribed by physicians). Despite the wide range of policy measures, it is not possible to identify a "silver bullet" to control pharmaceutical expenditures. We also identified two main policy challenges: policy coordination among countries within the European Union to maintain incentives for R&D at the global level, and the development of new relationships with the pharmaceutical industry; namely, the so-called risk-sharing agreements between the pharmaceutical industry and governments/regulators (or large third-party payers).

  9. 7 CFR 985.50 - Marketing policy.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 985.50 Section 985.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE...

  10. 7 CFR 1955.52 - Policy.

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Management of Property § 1955.52 Policy. Inventory and custodial... Multiple Family Housing (MFH) projects which are acquired or taken into custody. Servicing of repossessed...

  11. 48 CFR 11.302 - Policy.

    2010-10-01

    ... virgin material is vital for safety or meeting performance requirements of the contract. (b)(1) When....302 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Acceptable Material 11.302 Policy. (a) Agencies must not require virgin material or...

  12. 48 CFR 653.101-70 - Policy.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policy. 653.101-70 Section 653.101-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS General... exclusion of any form in accordance with FAR subpart 1.4 and 601.470. [53 FR 26180, July 11, 1988, as...

  13. 15 CFR 2008.4 - Basic policy.

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basic policy. 2008.4 Section 2008.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12065; OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE...

  14. Policy Actors: Doing Policy Work in Schools

    Ball, Stephen J.; Maguire, Meg; Braun, Annette; Hoskins, Kate

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the "policy work" of teacher actors in schools. It focuses on the "problem of meaning" and offers a typology of roles and positions through which teachers engage with policy and with which policies get "enacted". It argues that "policy work" is made up of a set of complex and…

  15. Debatable Premises in Telecom Policy

    Hurwitz, Justin (Gus); Layton, Roslyn

    2015-01-01

    ‟t stand up well to critical analysis. This paper collects and responds to a number of these premises that, collectively, underlie much popular, political, and academic support for increased telecommunications regulation in the United States and Europe – as well as much of the rest of the world....... in the world. The Internet is opening up new platforms for business, education, government, and civic engagement. It has literally been a driving force in toppling governments. Telecommunications policy is important to every government in the world, and debates over what policies should be implemented...

  16. Nuclear policy

    Ford, G.R.

    1976-01-01

    Then-President Gerald Ford outlines the potential benefits of nuclear power as opposed to the danger of proliferation. He points out that not all nations have the same interest or views toward nuclear energy; but also he says that if a choice must be made, nonproliferation objectives must take precedence over economic and energy benefits. It is pointed out that the management of nuclear energy can be only partial and temporary by technical measures, and that full management can result only if nations realistically face the task prepared to forego preconceived short-term advantages in favor of long-term gains. Coordination of the policies of all nations toward the common goal of nonproliferation is predicted to lead to success

  17. To Regulate or Not to Regulate? Views on Electronic Cigarette Regulations and Beliefs about the Reasons for and against Regulation.

    Ashley Sanders-Jackson

    Full Text Available Policies designed to restrict marketing, access to, and public use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes are increasingly under debate in various jurisdictions in the US. Little is known about public perceptions of these policies and factors that predict their support or opposition.Using a sample of US adults from Amazon Mechanical Turk in May 2015, this paper identifies beliefs about the benefits and costs of regulating e-cigarettes and identifies which of these beliefs predict support for e-cigarette restricting policies.A higher proportion of respondents agreed with 8 different reasons to regulate e-cigarettes (48.5% to 83.3% agreement versus 7 reasons not to regulate e-cigarettes (11.5% to 18.9%. The majority of participants agreed with 7 out of 8 reasons for regulation. When all reasons to regulate or not were included in a final multivariable model, beliefs about protecting people from secondhand vapor and protecting youth from trying e-cigarettes significantly predicted stronger support for e-cigarette restricting policies, whereas concern about government intrusion into individual choices was associated with reduced support.This research identifies key beliefs that may underlie public support or opposition to policies designed to regulate the marketing and use of e-cigarettes. Advocates on both sides of the issue may find this research valuable in developing strategic campaigns related to the issue.Specific beliefs of potential benefits and costs of e-cigarette regulation (protecting youth, preventing exposure to secondhand vapor, and government intrusion into individual choices may be effectively deployed by policy makers or health advocates in communicating with the public.

  18. To Regulate or Not to Regulate? Views on Electronic Cigarette Regulations and Beliefs about the Reasons for and against Regulation.

    Sanders-Jackson, Ashley; Tan, Andy S L; Bigman, Cabral A; Mello, Susan; Niederdeppe, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Policies designed to restrict marketing, access to, and public use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are increasingly under debate in various jurisdictions in the US. Little is known about public perceptions of these policies and factors that predict their support or opposition. Using a sample of US adults from Amazon Mechanical Turk in May 2015, this paper identifies beliefs about the benefits and costs of regulating e-cigarettes and identifies which of these beliefs predict support for e-cigarette restricting policies. A higher proportion of respondents agreed with 8 different reasons to regulate e-cigarettes (48.5% to 83.3% agreement) versus 7 reasons not to regulate e-cigarettes (11.5% to 18.9%). The majority of participants agreed with 7 out of 8 reasons for regulation. When all reasons to regulate or not were included in a final multivariable model, beliefs about protecting people from secondhand vapor and protecting youth from trying e-cigarettes significantly predicted stronger support for e-cigarette restricting policies, whereas concern about government intrusion into individual choices was associated with reduced support. This research identifies key beliefs that may underlie public support or opposition to policies designed to regulate the marketing and use of e-cigarettes. Advocates on both sides of the issue may find this research valuable in developing strategic campaigns related to the issue. Specific beliefs of potential benefits and costs of e-cigarette regulation (protecting youth, preventing exposure to secondhand vapor, and government intrusion into individual choices) may be effectively deployed by policy makers or health advocates in communicating with the public.

  19. 76 FR 7508 - National Flood Insurance Program, Policy Wording Correction

    2011-02-10

    ... the insurance industry's homeowners policy. FEMA also proposed changes in the coverage. On October 12...: FEMA-2010-0021] RIN 1660-AA70 National Flood Insurance Program, Policy Wording Correction AGENCY... Insurance and Mitigation Administration, Standard Flood Insurance Policy regulations. In order to increase...

  20. 48 CFR 632.702-70 - DOS policy.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false DOS policy. 632.702-70... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Contract Funding 632.702-70 DOS policy. The Department's policy is to provide... incremental funding of cost-reimbursement contracts. Fixed-price, labor-hour, and time-and-materials contracts...

  1. 48 CFR 211.274-3 - Policy for valuation.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policy for valuation. 211... Documents 211.274-3 Policy for valuation. (a) It is DoD policy that contractors shall be required to...'s unit acquisition cost is— (1) For fixed-price type line, subline, or exhibit line items, the unit...

  2. 48 CFR 719.270 - Small business policies.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Small business policies... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 719.270 Small business policies. (a) In keeping with... United States small business to participate equitably in the furnishing of supplies and services for...

  3. Modeling the impacts of environmental policies on agricultural imports

    Larson, B.A.; Scatasta, S.

    2005-01-01

    For current policy debates in agricultural and food industries, policy analysts need to evaluate the impacts of how proposed changes in domestic environmental regulations may alter agricultural trade in the future. Given the industry-specific nature of many policies issues, analysts need sector and

  4. 41 CFR 105-53.141 - Office of Policy Analysis.

    2010-07-01

    ... Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION 53-STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS Central Offices § 105-53.141 Office of Policy Analysis. The Office of Policy Analysis, headed by..., independent, objective information concerning management policies and programs, and technical and analytical...

  5. Nuclear regulation and safety

    Hendrie, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear regulation and safety are discussed from the standpoint of a hypothetical country that is in the process of introducing a nuclear power industry and setting up a regulatory system. The national policy is assumed to be in favor of nuclear power. The regulators will have responsibility for economic, reliable electric production as well as for safety. Reactor safety is divided into three parts: shut it down, keep it covered, take out the afterheat. Emergency plans also have to be provided. Ways of keeping the core covered with water are discussed

  6. No. 3468 information report deposed in application of the article 145 of the regulation by the Commission of foreign Affairs in conclusion of the works concerning an information mission constituted the 8 February 2006 on 'energy and geo-policy'

    2006-11-01

    The energy history is a history of violence, punctuated with wars between countries or territories conflicts in a same country. To understand this history and propose an adapted energy policy, this report presents in a first part the necessity of taking care of the energy crisis. In a second part it shows the international dimension of the crisis with the part of the middle east, Asia, Russia and Africa in the energy supply and the economic, political and environmental consequences. It analyzes also the political power of the United States and the difficult equation of the european energy policy. The third part proposes a global policy answer against the energy fatality, by a reinforcement of the european union credibility, a better answer to the climatic change, the definition of new international rules and the reduction of the North-South energy failure. (A.L.B.)

  7. Economic aspects of addiction policy.

    Maynard, A

    1986-05-01

    One definition of policy or government action in the Oxford English Dictionary is "craftiness" i.e. cunning or deceit. Such qualities have to be employed by governments because of the potential vote-losing effects of radical addiction policies. Health promotion, in relation to addictive substances such as alcohol and tobacco in particular, involves a trade-off between the costs of such policies, especially to industry (which seeks regulation to protect itself from competitors), and the benefits--improvements in the quality and length of life. Measures of such benefits (quality-adjusted life-years or QALYs) are available now to use in the evaluation of competing health promotion policies to determine their efficiency at the margin. Analysis of the market for tobacco indicates that consumption has been falling generally in the UK except among teenagers who appear to be the target of the industry's advertising and sponsorship efforts. This fall in consumption appears to be explained by health promotion rather than the active use of fiscal instruments of control. The recognition of the health effects of passive smoking and the impact of advertising and sponsorship, especially on the young, are policy areas requiring careful review and the evaluation of the costs and benefits of competing policies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Nuclear safety policy statement in korea

    Kim, W.S.; Kim, H.J.; Choi, K.S.; Choi, Y.S.; Park, D.K.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Wide varieties of programs to enhance nuclear safety have been established and implemented by the Korean government in accordance with the Nuclear Safety Policy Statement announced in September 1994. The policy statement was intended to set the long-term policy goals for maintaining and achieving high-level of nuclear safety and also help the public understand the national policy and a strong will of the government toward nuclear safety. It has been recognized as very effective in developing safety culture in nuclear-related organizations and also enhancing nuclear safety in Korea. However, ageing of operating nuclear power plants and increasing of new nuclear facilities have demanded a new comprehensive national safety policy to cover the coming decade, taking the implementation results of the policy statement of 1994 and the changing environment of nuclear industries into consideration. Therefore, the results of safety policy implementation have been reviewed and, considering changing environment and future prospects, a new nuclear safety policy statement as a highest level national policy has been developed. The implementation results of 11 regulatory policy directions such as the use of Probabilistic Safety Assessment, introduction of Periodic Safety Review, strengthening of safety research, introduction of Risk Based Regulation stipulated in the safety policy statement of 1994 were reviewed and measures taken after various symposia on nuclear safety held in Nuclear Safety Days since 1995 were evaluated. The changing international and domestic environment of nuclear industry were analysed and future prospects were explored. Based on the analysis and review results, a draft of new nuclear safety policy statement was developed. The draft was finalized after the review of many prominent experts in Korea. Considering changing environment and future prospects, new policy statement that will show government's persistent will for nuclear safety has been

  9. Advancing Evidence Based Policymaking and Regulation to Ensure ...

    Advancing Evidence Based Policymaking and Regulation to Ensure Greater ... which is Communications Policy Research South (CPRsouth), a yearly conference that ... policy intellectuals through tutorials for young scholars and internships.

  10. Blurred edges to population policies.

    David, H P

    1992-05-01

    politics. Often written in ambiguous language and intended to affect society as a whole, they still depend for their outcome on microlevel changes in a couple's perceptions of the costs and benefits of having children. In theory, they can be carried out in many ways but in practice such policies are severely limited by administrative, political, technological, economic, and ethical constraints. One difficulty is that governments is rarely enunciate precise goals. Their approach may range from noninterference in private reproductive behavior to total coercion using controls ranging from traditional cultural influences to imposition of fertility regulations. In some countries, fertility rates have increased briefly (in terms of period rates) following introduction of pronatalist policies. However, it is not clear how the rates were influenced, particularly in the case of parities 1, 2, and 3. A forthcoming report will describe experiences in Bulgaria, France, Germany, Sweden, and Norway. full text

  11. Policy options

    Miller, A.

    1990-01-01

    The obstacles to bringing about consumer response to environmental dangers are particularly challenging for global problems like ozone depletion and the greenhouse effect. In this situation, there is the danger of what is commonly termed the tragedy of the commons, the ecological destruction that can occur from uncontrolled use of shared resources like the atmosphere. There is probably no country for which reductions in global warming provide an adequate economic incentive to reduce greenhouse gas emissions unilaterally, even though such action could yield substantial global benefits. From any one country's viewpoint, the costs of controlling emissions may exceed the benefits since, without international agreement, reductions achieved by one nation may be offset by another. Therefore, even though the entire world may be better off as a result of efforts to lower emissions, new economic incentives are necessary to lead the market to a socially efficient outcome. This paper describes the range of domestic and international policies that could be adopted to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases, and also discusses the results of modeling analyses of government actions that could reduce or increase such emissions

  12. Biomedical engineering and society: policy and ethics.

    Flexman, J A; Lazareck, L

    2007-01-01

    Biomedical engineering impacts health care and contributes to fundamental knowledge in medicine and biology. Policy, such as through regulation and research funding, has the potential to dramatically affect biomedical engineering research and commercialization. New developments, in turn, may affect society in new ways. The intersection of biomedical engineering and society and related policy issues must be discussed between scientists and engineers, policy-makers and the public. As a student, there are many ways to become engaged in the issues surrounding science and technology policy. At the University of Washington in Seattle, the Forum on Science Ethics and Policy (FOSEP, www.fosep.org) was started by graduate students and post-doctoral fellows interested in improving the dialogue between scientists, policymakers and the public and has received support from upper-level administration. This is just one example of how students can start thinking about science policy and ethics early in their careers.

  13. Macroprudential Policy: A Summary

    Mahdi Ebrahimi Kahou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The 2007 global financial crisis brought sharply into focus the need for macroprudential policy as a means of controlling systemic financial stability. This has become a focal point for policy-makers and numerous central banks, including the Bank of Canada, but it has its drawbacks, particularly here in Canada. As a counterbalance to microprudential policy, the idea of a macroprudential outlook reaches beyond the notion that as long as every banking institution is healthy, financial stability is assured. Macroprudential policy recognizes that all those financial institutions are linked, and that stability at the individual level may translate to fragility and uncertainty at the macro level. There are two approaches to macroprudential policy, and both come with downsides. One approach examines the network factor, in which banks are linked through their inter-connected financial transactions. A domino effect can thus be created; when one bank defaults, it causes a chain reaction down the line, creating instability in other banks in the network. The extent of this contagion of instability can be clearly observed through this model; unfortunately, it requires the use of detailed information typically available only to a limited circle of bank supervisors. The second approach gleans information from bank stock prices in a poorly performing market. This information is easily available and accessed, but the downside is the lack of clear understanding on how exactly these shocks travel through the complex links of the global banking system. Canada’s banking system is small and has only six major banks. However, it is important to understand how they are interconnected and how each individual bank can contribute to overall risk. Not only do banks need to be sufficiently capitalized in the normal business cycle, but it may be worthwhile for the sake of overall financial stability to create mechanisms, as regulators in some countries are doing

  14. Management Matters. Selection Policies

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2003-01-01

    One of the most important policy documents for a school library media center is the selection policy or the collection development policy. A well-developed selection policy provides a rationale for the selection decisions made by the school library media specialist. A selection policy represents the criteria against which a challenged book is…

  15. Research for health policy

    Bell, Erica

    2010-01-01

    ... Explicit, implicit, and pragmatic dimensions of policy-maker's needs and context 31 Constraints on policy-makers 32 Deciphering trade-offs 33 The policy-problem: deciphering uncertainty and the problem of innovation 34 A tool for deciphering policy problems 35 The different components of the policy problem 37 Recommended reading 38 Case studies in...

  16. Financial Plumbing and Monetary Policy

    Manmohan Singh

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on how changes in financial plumbing of the markets may impact the monetary policy options as central banks contemplate lift off from zero lower bound (ZLB). Under the proposed regulations, banks will face leverage ratio constraints. As a result of quantitative easing (QE), banks want balance sheet “space” for financial intermediation/ non-depository activities. At the same time, regulatory changes are boosting demand for high quality liquid assets. The paper also discusses...

  17. Energy efficiency policies and measures

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This document makes a review of the energy efficiency and demand side management (DSM) policies and measures in European Union countries and Norway in 1999: institutional changes, measures and programmes, budget, taxation, existence of a national DSM programme, national budgets for DSM programmes, electricity pricing: energy/environment tax, national efficiency standards and regulation for new electrical appliances, implementation of Commission directives, efficiency requirements, labelling, fiscal and economic incentives. (J.S.)

  18. National policy on radioactive waste management

    Jova, Luis; Metcalfa, Phil; Rowata, John; Louvata, Didier; Linsley, Gordon

    2008-01-01

    Every country should have some form of policy and strategy for managing its spent fuel and radioactive waste. Such policies and strategies are important; they set out the nationally agreed position and plans for managing spent fuel and radioactive waste and are visible evidence of the concern and intent of the government and the relevant national organisations to ensure that spent fuel and radioactive waste are properly taken care of in the country. There is a large diversity in the types and amounts of radioactive waste in the countries of the world and, as a result of this diversity, the strategies for implementing the policies may be different, although the main elements of policy are likely to be similar from country to country. In some countries, the national policy and strategy is well established and documented, while in others there is no explicit policy and strategy statement and, instead, it has to be inferred from the contents of the laws, regulations and guidelines. The present paper describes the work undertaken by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) related to identifying the main elements of national policies for spent fuel and radioactive waste management, recognising that policies and strategies vary considerably depending on, among other things, the nature and scale of applications of radioactive material in a country. An indication is provided of what might be contained in national policies recognizing that national policy and strategy has to be decided at the national level taking into account national priorities and circumstances. The paper is concerned with the contents of policies and strategies and does not address the development of national laws, regulations and guidelines - although these are clearly related to the contents of the national policy and strategy. (author)

  19. Socio-economic impact analysis of new AECB regulations

    Rochman, E.H.

    1985-06-01

    The federal government's Socio-Economic Impact Analysis (SEIA) policy has been in effect since 1978. Under this policy, all new or amended regulations concerning health, safety, or fairness are subjected to a screening exercise which determines whether the regulations are 'major' or 'minor'. The costs and benefits of major regulations are analyzed in depth. This paper describes the SEIA policy and explains some of the basic concepts. Then the steps the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) follows in the analysis of new regulations are summarized. Finally, the AECB's past and forthcoming experience with the SEIA policy is discussed

  20. “What Cultural Policies?” Explicit and Implicit Cultural Policies in Lebanon

    Nadia von Maltzahn

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultural policies define a vision for culture, and provide frameworks for institutional practice to translate this vision on the ground. A 1981 study on Lebanese cultural policy reached the conclusion that one cannot speak of cultural policies in Lebanon if one refers to state laws, regulations and plans. However, if cultural policy was understood as the method of a state to give its citizens the space to develop themselves in a way that they could create culture, one could certainly speak of cultural policies in Lebanon (Abou Rizk. In cultural policy research, there is a distinction between explicit and implicit cultural policy (Ahearne. In this article, the concept of explicit and implicit cultural policy is applied to the case of Lebanon. The two terms are extended so that the former does not only include cultural policies designatedas such by the state, but also those created by civil society actors, and that the latter does not only include political strategies, but also practices that in the end determine cultural policies. Drawing on empirical research conducted in the context of a larger study on the role of cultural institutions in the public sphere, the power struggles between different actors involved in cultural policy making cultural policy defined in the Lebanese context, which in turn will be positioned within the regional context.

  1. Network Regulation and Support Schemes

    Ropenus, Stephanie; Schröder, Sascha Thorsten; Jacobsen, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    -in tariffs to market-based quota systems, and network regulation approaches, comprising rate-of-return and incentive regulation. National regulation and the vertical structure of the electricity sector shape the incentives of market agents, notably of distributed generators and network operators......At present, there exists no explicit European policy framework on distributed generation. Various Directives encompass distributed generation; inherently, their implementation is to the discretion of the Member States. The latter have adopted different kinds of support schemes, ranging from feed....... This article seeks to investigate the interactions between the policy dimensions of support schemes and network regulation and how they affect the deployment of distributed generation. Firstly, a conceptual analysis examines how the incentives of the different market agents are affected. In particular...

  2. My Summer with Science Policy

    Murray, Marissa

    This past summer I interned at the American Institute of Physics and helped research and write articles for the FYI Science Policy Bulletin. FYI is an objective digest of science policy developments in Washington, D.C. that impact the greater physical sciences community. Over the course of the summer, I independently attended, analyzed, and reported on a variety of science, technology, and funding related events including congressional hearings, government agency advisory committee meetings, and scientific society events. I wrote and co-wrote three articles on basic energy research legislation, the National Institute of Standards and Technology improvement act, and the National Science Foundation's big ideas for future investment. I had the opportunity to examine some challenging questions such as what is the role of government in funding applied research? How should science priorities be set? What is the right balance of funding across different agencies and programs? I learned about how science policy is a two-way street: science is used to inform policy decisions and policy is made to fund and regulate the conduct of science. I will conclude with how my summer working with FYI showed me the importance of science advocacy, being informed, and voting. Society of Physics Students.

  3. 75 FR 32657 - Delegations to Office of Energy Policy and Innovation

    2010-06-09

    ...; Order No. 736] Delegations to Office of Energy Policy and Innovation May 28, 2010. AGENCY: Federal... regulations to delegate authority to the newly established Office of Energy Policy and Innovation to allow... Innovation (OEPI) to provide leadership in the development and formulation of policies and regulations to...

  4. Beyond Foucault: Toward a User-Centered Approach to Sexual Harassment Policy.

    Ranney, Frances J.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how United States national policy regarding sexual harassment exemplifies the Foucauldian paradigm in its attempt to regulate sexuality through seemingly authorless texts. Proposes a user-centered approach to policy drafting that values the knowledge of workers as users and makers of workplace policy. Argues that regulation through such…

  5. Policy Feedback System (PFS)

    Social Security Administration — The Policy Feedback System (PFS) is a web application developed by the Office of Disability Policy Management Information (ODPMI) team that gathers empirical data...

  6. Orchestration in work environment policy programs

    Hasle, Peter; Limborg, Hans Jørgen; Grøn, Sisse

    2017-01-01

    In spite of many years’ efforts, it is difficult to prove substantial improvements of the work environment and policymakers are continuously searching for new efficient strategies. This paper examines the concept of orchestration of work environment programs, based on an empirical analysis...... of recent Danish policy. Orchestration is a strategy where different stakeholders and activities are integrated into a unified program aimed at a specific target group. The analysis includes three policy cases, supplemented with two company case studies. The research shows a move toward a more governance...... type of regulation, which is not only emerging in network but also includes more explicitly orchestrated policy programs. The stakeholders participate in the network with different interests and the orchestration of work environment policies is therefore built on a platform of regulation...

  7. 78 FR 71558 - Insurance Cost Information Regulation

    2013-11-29

    .... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Deborah Mazyck, Office of International Policy, Fuel Economy and... Transportation prescribe regulations requiring passenger motor vehicle dealers to distribute to prospective... vehicle dealers to distribute this information to prospective buyers. The House of Representatives...

  8. The need for regulation in energy markets

    De Sampaio Nunes, P.

    2002-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: The need for effective regulation; Energy issues requiring regulatory policy; Models adopted in different Member States of the European Union; Results achieved by Member States; Infrastructure. (R.P.)

  9. Modeling and Recognizing Policy Conflicts with Resource Access Requests on Protected Health Information

    Raik Kuhlisch

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses potential clashes between different types of security policies that regulate resource access requests on clinical patient data in hospitals by employees. Attribute-based Access Control (ABAC is proposed as a proper means for such regulation. A proper representation of ABAC policies must include a handling of policy attributes among different policy types. In this article, we propose a semantic policy model with predefined policy conflict categories. A conformance verification function detects erroneous, clashing or mutually susceptible rules early during the policy planning phase. The model and conflicts are used in a conceptual application environment and evaluated in a technical experiment during an interoperability test event.

  10. Economy and policy of climatic changes

    Faucheux, S.; Joumni, H.

    2005-01-01

    In an economical framework, this book discusses the following topics: policies against the climatic changes, the scientific prospectives facing this policies priority, their costs, the new international market of carbon, the future technological innovations. This book exposes also socio-economic, geopolitical and technological questions bound to theses climatic changes and their regulation. It analyzes more especially the North-South strategies and the flexibility tools challenges of the Kyoto protocol. (A.L.B.)

  11. 48 CFR 1615.402 - Pricing policy.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Pricing policy. 1615.402... Contract Pricing 1615.402 Pricing policy. Pricing of FEHB contracts is governed by 5 U.S.C. 8902(i), 5 U.S....403-4(a)(1), OPM will not require the carrier to provide cost or pricing data in the rate proposal for...

  12. Drug policy in United States of America

    Stahl, Edmundo G.; Médico internista, President and Chief Executive Officer, LatAmScience. Florida, USA.

    2009-01-01

    The USA federal prescription drug policies are inconsistent. The federal government regulates the development, production, marketing and safety of prescription drugs in the country through various legal mechanisms as well as private and governmental institutions. Patent laws also play an important role in this process protecting the pharmaceutical industry. The government has no direct mechanism to control prices of prescription drugs nor does it have a policy to cover the whole US popula...

  13. Policy and strategy of the Cuban Regulatory Organization for the establishment of the legal and regulation frame; Politica y estrategia del Organo Regulador Cubano para el establecimiento del marco legal y reglamentario

    Arnau F, A.; Alonso G, I.; Sarabia M, I. [Centro Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear (Cuba)

    2006-07-01

    The National Center of Nuclear Security, Cuban entity authorized to exercise the regulation functions and control of the security of the use of the nuclear energy and the accounting and control of the nuclear materials, has among its functions, to elaborate and to propose for its approval to the corresponding instances, the juridical, technical dispositions and of procedure in its competition sphere, what demands that in this sense clear guidelines exist to carry out this social mission. The fact of assuming this function demands the necessity of a Politics for the establishment of the legal and regulation frame that expresses in a coherent way the general lines on those that it behaves the elaboration of the standards that govern this activity, to reach the end in an efficient and effective way and consequently the adoption of a Strategy that frames the necessary actions that assure the one execution and development of the politics and the pursuit of the precise rules for an optimal result. The Politics for the establishment of the legal and regulation frame of the National Center of Nuclear Security is based on a group of general principles that mark the guidelines so that this activity is chord to the national juridical system, to the good ones international practices and the recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Agency appropriated to the national experience and the daily reality, being this a transparent and reconciled process in such a way that the addressee of these standards can contribute their recommendations to the ends of achieving an effective applicability of the legal and regulation frame that governs this activity in the country. The development and pursuit of these principles is sustained in a group of actions to the help of the strategy for the establishment of the legal and regulation frame, embracing the actions so much during the process of elaboration of the legal frame, its systematic revision, the publication and distribution

  14. Affective Policy Performance Evaluation Model: A Case of an International Trade Policy Implementation

    Inwon Kang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Firms often superficially adopt policies because of governmental rules and regulations, so as to avoid penalties or to gain benefits. However, the evaluation and characterization of those kinds of adoptions as policy performance distorts the true level of policy performance: social sustainability. This study proposes an affective policy performance evaluation model. The attitudes of employees toward adopting a policy are characterized into genuine and superficial compliance. Their behaviors are explained through voluntary and opportunistic adoptions. In order to validate the proposed model, a survey was conducted on an international trade policy target group (n = 216 for the Strategic Trade Control System (STCS, in order to understand their attitudes toward adopting the policy. The survey data was analyzed by a structural equation modeling method. The measures of the factors in the proposed model are adopted and modified from existing studies. The most effective resources of policy implementation on the firms’ genuine and superficial compliance and ultimately on the firms’ voluntary policy adoption are revealed through the analysis. Based on the results, this study presents a strategy for allocating and managing policy implementation resources to exclusively encourage firms’ trade policy adoptions.

  15. 20 CFR 703.111 - Submission of new forms of policies for approval; other endorsements.

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Submission of new forms of policies for... INSURANCE REGULATIONS Authorization of Insurance Carriers § 703.111 Submission of new forms of policies for approval; other endorsements. No new forms of policies or modification of existing forms of policies shall...

  16. EU Industrial Policy

    Pellegrin, Julie; Giorgetti, Maria Letizia; Jensen, Camilla

    Following disregard in the 1980s, industrial policy has recently attracted policy attention at EU level. The objective of this study provided by Policy Department A at the request of the ITRE Committee, is to establish the state of the art of a coordinated and integrated EU industrial policy...

  17. Food policy an ethics

    Coff, Christian Eyde; Kemp, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This entry gives an overview of food policy and major ethical principles that in the last decades have been proposed and advocated for in debates on food policy. Food policies touch upon a vast area of interrelated policies (like health, transport, environment, poverty, animal welfare etc.) which...

  18. Education Policy Outlook: Austria

    Figueroa, Diana Toledo; Golden, Gillian; Giovinazzo, Manon; Peterka, Judith; Ullmann, Marie

    2017-01-01

    This policy profile on education in Austria is part of the "Education Policy Outlook" series, which presents comparative analysis of education policies and reforms across OECD countries. Building on the OECD's substantial comparative and sectoral knowledge base, the series offers a comparative outlook on education policy by providing…

  19. Working for Policy

    Colebatch, H.K.; Hoppe, Robertus; Noordegraaf, Mirko

    2010-01-01

    Though democratic government calls for well-designed and implemented policy, there is surprisingly little expert guidance available for policy makers and politicians. Working for Policy fills that gap, addressing the nature of policy work and offering necessary guidance. The contributors bring

  20. A globally integrated climate policy for Canada

    Bernstein, S.; Brunnee, J.; Duff, D.G.; Green, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    This book explored policy ideas and options from various perspectives, including science, law, political science, economics and sociology. The costs, opportunities and imperatives to participate in international diplomatic initiatives were considered along with the opportunities of regional global carbon markets. Canada's current policy on climate change negotiations have been focused on domestic regulation and incentives for technological responses and the setting of a domestic carbon price. The sense of urgency about global warming was discussed and the need for action to respond to the threat of global climate change was emphasized. The book also reviewed Canada's role in international climate policies and presented parameters and imperatives for global regime building in Canada. Domestic policy tools were also reviewed along with policy obstacles and opportunities. refs., tabs., figs.

  1. Assessing restrictiveness of national alcohol marketing policies.

    Esser, Marissa B; Jernigan, David H

    2014-01-01

    To develop an approach for monitoring national alcohol marketing policies globally, an area of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Global Alcohol Strategy. Data on restrictiveness of alcohol marketing policies came from the 2002 and 2008 WHO Global Surveys on Alcohol and Health. We included four scales in a sensitivity analysis to determine optimal weights to score countries on their marketing policies and applied the selected scale to assess national marketing policy restrictiveness. Nearly, 36% of countries had no marketing restrictions. The overall restrictiveness levels were not significantly different between 2002 and 2008. The number of countries with strict marketing regulations did not differ across years. This method of monitoring alcohol marketing restrictiveness helps track progress towards implementing WHO'S Global Alcohol Strategy. Findings indicate a consistent lack of restrictive policies over time, making this a priority area for national and global action. © The Author 2014. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of National Technology Audit Policy

    Subiyanto Subiyanto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Laws have mandated implementation of technology audit, nevertheless such implementation needs an additional policy that is more technical. The concept of national audit technology policy shall make technology audit as a tool to ensure the benefit of technology application for society and technology advance for nation independency. This article discusses on technology audit policy concept especially infrastructure requirement, with emphasis on regulation, implementation tools, and related institution. The development of technology audit policy for national interest requires provision of mandatory audit implementation, accompanied by tools for developing technology auditor’s competence and technology audit institutional’s mechanism. To guide technology auditor’s competence, concept of national audit technology policy shall classify object of technology audit into product technology, production technology, and management of technology, accompanied by related parameters of technology performance evaluation.

  3. Maritime Policy and the Seafaring Labor Market

    Lobrigo, Enrico; Pawlik, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The reports highlighting the foreseen lack of merchant marine officers for the expanding world’s fleet calls for a review in evaluating the impact of maritime policy in the seafaring labor market. This paper aims to clarify the particular characteristics of the seafaring labor market and how it can...... be shaped by specific maritime labor policies. The seafaring labor market in the Philippines, Poland, Germany, and Brazil as well as the general maritime labor policies in these countries is discussed. The focus on these countries leads to a comparative observation of maritime labor as a factor...... of production in an exporting market, in an importing market, and in a closed market, respectively, as shaped by various relevant maritime policies. Since a global policy that can regulate the maritime labor market does not exist, the trend on maritime labor supply is dynamic on a per country basis wherein crew...

  4. Tax policy at the outskirts of EU

    Vesterø Jensen, Carsten; Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2003-01-01

    of Greenland's tax system, the paper's special focus will be on the corporate tax systemand its interplay with personal taxation, as well on as the system of import duties. In particular, wecarry out computations of effective marginal and average corporate tax rates, as well as average effectivetax burdens...... on consumption, labour income and capital income, and compare these to similarmeasures for EU countries. In addition, we outline how Greenland's economic policy in other areasinterferes with tax policy. Especially fishery regulation, management of government-owned companies,and housing policy have major...

  5. Some THINKing on European energy policy

    GLACHANT, Jean-Michel; MEEUS, Leonardo; RUESTER, Sophia

    2013-01-01

    QM-02-13-166-EN-C QM-02-13-166-EN-N Energy regulation and policy currently belong to the most important and developing areas in the European Union. THINK, the Florence School of Regulation’s think tank was running from June 2010 to May 2013. THINK advised the European Commission (DG Energy) on Energy Policy and presented policy options each semester. This booklet gives an overview of the THINK output published in the second half of the project and focuses on 6 topics: How to Refurbish A...

  6. A review of EIAs on trade policy in China: Exploring the way for economic policy EIAs

    Mao, Xianqiang, E-mail: maoxq@bnu.edu.cn [Center for Global Environmental Policy, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Song, Peng, E-mail: songpeng_ee@163.com [Center for Global Environmental Policy, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Kørnøv, Lone, E-mail: lonek@plan.aau.dk [The Danish Centre for Environmental Assessment, Department of Planning, Aalborg University, Skibbrogade 5, B1-04, 9000 Aalborg (Denmark); Corsetti, Gabriel, E-mail: gabriel.corsetti@gmail.com [Center for Global Environmental Policy, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2015-01-15

    During the discussion on the “Environmental Protection Law Amendment (draft)” in 2011, it was decided to drop the proposed clauses related to environmental impact assessments (EIAs) on policy, which means that there remained no provisions for policy EIAs, and China's strategic environmental assessment system stayed limited to the planning level. However, considering that economic policy making is causing significant direct and indirect environmental problems and that almost every aspect of governmental policy has an economic aspect, EIAs on economic policies are of the utmost urgency. The purpose of this study is to review the EIA work that has been carried out on trade policy in China through four case studies, and illustrate how trade policy EIAs can be helpful in achieving better environmental outcomes in the area of trade. Through the trade policy EIA case studies we try to argue for the feasibility of conducting EIAs on economic policies in China. We also discuss the implications of the case studies from the point of view of how to proceed with EIAs on economic policy and how to promote their practice. - Highlights: • SEA system is incomplete and stays limited to the plan EIA level in China. • EIA on economic policy is of utmost importance for all the developing countries. • Four case studies of trade policy EIA in China are reviewed for policy implications. • Departmental competition for political power impedes economic policy EIAs in China. • Legislative regulation on policy EIA is the first thing needed to overcome barrier.

  7. A review of EIAs on trade policy in China: Exploring the way for economic policy EIAs

    Mao, Xianqiang; Song, Peng; Kørnøv, Lone; Corsetti, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    During the discussion on the “Environmental Protection Law Amendment (draft)” in 2011, it was decided to drop the proposed clauses related to environmental impact assessments (EIAs) on policy, which means that there remained no provisions for policy EIAs, and China's strategic environmental assessment system stayed limited to the planning level. However, considering that economic policy making is causing significant direct and indirect environmental problems and that almost every aspect of governmental policy has an economic aspect, EIAs on economic policies are of the utmost urgency. The purpose of this study is to review the EIA work that has been carried out on trade policy in China through four case studies, and illustrate how trade policy EIAs can be helpful in achieving better environmental outcomes in the area of trade. Through the trade policy EIA case studies we try to argue for the feasibility of conducting EIAs on economic policies in China. We also discuss the implications of the case studies from the point of view of how to proceed with EIAs on economic policy and how to promote their practice. - Highlights: • SEA system is incomplete and stays limited to the plan EIA level in China. • EIA on economic policy is of utmost importance for all the developing countries. • Four case studies of trade policy EIA in China are reviewed for policy implications. • Departmental competition for political power impedes economic policy EIAs in China. • Legislative regulation on policy EIA is the first thing needed to overcome barrier

  8. Food Service Guideline Policies on State Government-Controlled Properties.

    Zaganjor, Hatidza; Bishop Kendrick, Katherine; Warnock, Amy Lowry; Onufrak, Stephen; Whitsel, Laurie P; Ralston Aoki, Julie; Kimmons, Joel

    2016-09-13

    Food service guideline (FSG) policies can impact millions of daily meals sold or provided to government employees, patrons, and institutionalized persons. This study describes a classification tool to assess FSG policy attributes and uses it to rate FSG policies. Quantitative content analysis. State government facilities in the United States. Participants were from 50 states and District of Columbia in the United States. Frequency of FSG policies and percentage alignment to tool. State-level policies were identified using legal research databases to assess bills, statutes, regulations, and executive orders proposed or adopted by December 31, 2014. Full-text reviews were conducted to determine inclusion. Included policies were analyzed to assess attributes related to nutrition, behavioral supports, and implementation guidance. A total of 31 policies met the inclusion criteria; 15 were adopted. Overall alignment ranged from 0% to 86%, and only 10 policies aligned with a majority of the FSG policy attributes. Western states had the most FSG policies proposed or adopted (11 policies). The greatest number of FSG policies were proposed or adopted (8 policies) in 2011, followed by the years 2013 and 2014. The FSG policies proposed or adopted through 2014 that intended to improve the food and beverage environment on state government property vary considerably in their content. This analysis offers baseline data on the FSG landscape and information for future FSG policy assessments. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Food Service Guideline Policies on State Government Controlled Properties

    Zaganjor, Hatidza; Bishop Kendrick, Katherine; Warnock, Amy Lowry; Onufrak, Stephen; Whitsel, Laurie P.; Ralston Aoki, Julie; Kimmons, Joel

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Food service guidelines (FSG) policies can impact millions of daily meals sold or provided to government employees, patrons, and institutionalized persons. This study describes a classification tool to assess FSG policy attributes and uses it to rate FSG policies. Design Quantitative content analysis. Setting State government facilities in the U.S. Subjects 50 states and District of Columbia. Measures Frequency of FSG policies and percent alignment to tool. Analysis State-level policies were identified using legal research databases to assess bills, statutes, regulations, and executive orders proposed or adopted by December 31, 2014. Full-text reviews were conducted to determine inclusion. Included policies were analyzed to assess attributes related to nutrition, behavioral supports, and implementation guidance. Results A total of 31 policies met inclusion criteria; 15 were adopted. Overall alignment ranged from 0% to 86%, and only 10 policies aligned with a majority of FSG policy attributes. Western States had the most FSG policy proposed or adopted (11 policies). The greatest number of FSG policies were proposed or adopted (8 policies) in 2011, followed by the years 2013 and 2014. Conclusion FSG policies proposed or adopted through 2014 that intended to improve the food and beverage environment on state government property vary considerably in their content. This analysis offers baseline data on the FSG landscape and information for future FSG policy assessments. PMID:27630113

  10. Regulating and Combating Underground Banking

    Borgers, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    In combating and regulating underground banking, a choice can be made of roughly two models, the risk model and the assimilation model. The risk model comes down to a complete prohibition of underground banking combined with an active investigation and prosecution policy. In the assimilation model,

  11. New course of American energy policy

    Siebert, H.

    1981-09-01

    Energy policy can be considered as a paragon of Reagan's plan of a supply-oriented economic policy . Chapter 1 outlines the philosophy of the supply-oriented economic policy which stands in a striking contrast to the previous practice of American energy policy (chapter 2). Chapter 3 deals with the main idea of the new plan, i.e. the de-regulation of the price controls especially for natural gas. Measures of tax policy are mentioned in chapter 4. Chapter 5 is concerned with the non-price-determined de-regulation and the respective fields of coal, electricity, and nuclear power. Chapter 6 discusses the governmental quantity policy (distribution of licences). In chapter 7 the research promotion policy for synthetic gas is explained. In conclusion, an assessment is made. At the time when this manuscript was written a number of measures had not definitely been fixed yet, either because the new administration had not yet commented on actual objectives or because the alteration of intended measures during the legislative process could not be anticipated.

  12. Environmental policy performance revisited

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2012-01-01

    . On the basis of the typology, a hypothesis on their ability to expand green markets is generated and tested in a comparative analysis of the performance of organic food policies in Denmark, Sweden, the UK and the US, focusing on their impact on organic consumption. Our analysis demonstrates that cross......Studies of environmental policy performance tend to concentrate on the impact of particular policy institutions or of single policy instruments. However, environmental policies most often consist of a package of policy instruments. Further, these studies pay no or very little attention to policy...... instruments directed at the demand side of the market. Therefore this article develops a policy typology for government intervention aimed at creating green markets. The typology distinguishes between four types of policy based on the balance between the supply-side and demand-side policy instruments...

  13. Radiation regulation

    Braithwaite, J.; Grabosky, P.

    1985-01-01

    The five main areas of radiation regulation considered are radiation exposure in the mining of uranium and other minerals, exposure in the use of uranium in nuclear reactors, risks in the transport of radioactive materials and hazards associated with the disposal of used materials. In Australia these problems are regulated by mines departments, the Australian Atomic Energy Commission and radiation control branches in state health departments. Each of these instutional areas of regulation is examined

  14. Deconstructing domestic violence policy

    Branney, PE

    2006-01-01

    The primary objectives of this thesis are to, circularly, deconstruct contemporary domestic violence policy while developing and evaluating methods for deconstructing policy. Policy is theorised as a discursive practice, which allows a variety of policies to be compared and critiqued by how they position the people they affect. These are known as subject positions, or subjectivities, and throughout this thesis I attempt to critique policy by examining the (re)construction of subjectivity. In ...

  15. Designing Next Generation Telecom Regulation

    Henten, Anders; Samarajiva, Rohan; Melody, William H.

    2003-01-01

    This article critically examines the multiple rationales for telecom, IT, media convergence regulation, on the one hand, and multisector utility regulation, on the other, and the practical questions of implementation they pose, with a view to contributing to informed policy and regulatory decisions...... to the regulatory process such as scarcity of regulatory resources and safeguards for regulatory independence, are examined. It is concluded that ICT and media convergence issues are primarily about improving the efficiency of market economies, and how changes in regulation can facilitate this process. Multi...

  16. Approaches and uncertainties in nutrient budgets; Implications for nutrient management and environmental policies

    Oenema, O.; Kros, J.; Vries, de W.

    2003-01-01

    Nutrient budgets of agroecosystems are constructed either (i) to increase the understanding of nutrient cycling, (ii) as performance indicator and awareness raiser in nutrient management and environmental policy, or (iii) as regulating policy instrument to enforce a certain nutrient management

  17. Information report published in compliance with the article 146-3, subparagraph 6, of the Regulation by the Committee for assessment and control of public policies on the assessment of 'energy-climate' package of 2008 in France - Nr 1951

    Guillet, Jean-Jacques; De Rugy, Francois

    2014-01-01

    The first part of this huge report proposes a synthesis of the assessment of the implementation of the 'energy-climate package'. The authors identify, formulate and briefly discuss ten key points: to move from the notion of national emissions to the notion of carbon print, to promote the emergence of a European energy policy, to let agriculture and transports be the new priority targets, to diversify approaches in order to favour changes in behaviour, to improve citizen information, to support poor households, to stabilize and to simplify measures, to maximize the leverage effect of public investments, to support companies, and to keep up research efforts in order to overcome technical barriers. Then, the first part of the report aims at defining the conditions for a successful energy transition: definition of a new strategy, stronger commitment of citizens in energy transition, promotion of investments needed by energy transition. The second part discusses the challenges for key sectors of energy transition (transports, building, renewable energies), the new challenges for the European Union Emission Trading Scheme, and the evolution towards low carbon behaviours. The appendix (in fact the main part of this document) contains a report by the French Court of Auditors (Cour des Comptes) on the implementation of the 'energy-climate' package. This report addresses the following topics: a European and national policy, present situation, tools and means of the energy-climate package, the energy-climate package and the objectives for 2020, uncertainties and challenges. This report published by the Court of Auditors also proposes several appendices on the following topics: the new international context and Europe (data on Japan, USA and China, Germany, Spain, Italy, UK, Sweden), the implication of the energy-climate package on carbonation (carbon print and carbon tax), implementation of the energy-climate package per sector (transports, housing and office building

  18. Corporate Language Policies

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    This paper offers a review of literature dealing with language policies in general and corporate language policies in particular. Based on a discussion of various definitions of these concepts within two research traditions, i.e. sociolinguistics and international management, a three......-level definition of corporate language policies is presented, emphasising that a corporate language policy is a context-specific policy about language use. The three-level definition is based on the argument that in order to acquire a complete understanding of what corporate language policies involve, one needs...... to consider three progressive questions; 1) what is a policy? 2) what is a language policy?, and ultimately, 3) what is a corporate language policy?...

  19. Corporate Language Policies

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a review of literature dealing with language policies in general and corporate language policies in particular. Based on a discussion of various definitions of these concepts within two research traditions, i.e. sociolinguistics and international management, a three......-level definition of corporate language policies is presented, emphasising that a corporate language policy is a context-specific policy about language use. The three-level definition is based on the argument that in order to acquire a complete understanding of what corporate language policies involve, one needs...... to consider three progressive questions; 1) what is a policy? 2) what is a language policy?, and ultimately, 3) what is a corporate language policy?...

  20. Single Policy Study

    Kronsell, Annica; Manners, Ian James

    2015-01-01

    Single policy studies are the most common form of European Union (EU) research. Single policy studies are widely used to understand the role of the EU in a wide variety of sectors, together with their development over time, and often offer public policy prescriptions. This chapter discusses...... the relevance of single policy studies in EU research and give examples of how such research can be designed and carried out. The chapter reviews three examples of single policy studies using different methods based on EU environmental policy, the EU biofuels directive, and the EU Common Security and Defence...... Policy (CSDP). The examples are illustrative of how single policy studies can be designed to use different approaches in the analysis: multiple streams approach to policy-making; a comparative hypothesis testing; and feminist institutional theory....

  1. A novel method for feasibility testing urban sustainable development policies

    O’Doherty Travis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Policy making to promote more sustainable development is a complex task due in part to the large number of both stakeholders and potential policies. Policy feasibility testing provides a guide to the viability and practicality of policy implementation and forms an important part of an evidence based policy making process. An extensive literature review has identified no standardized approach to feasibility testing. This paper addresses this knowledge gap by describing a novel method using Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA for feasibility testing of policies aimed at increasing the sustainability of towns and villages in Ireland. Feasibility results are provided for 40 frequently cited policy interventions tested for 18 settlements in Ireland. Policies were selected in the arenas of transport, food, housing and urban form, energy, waste and water. Policies are feasibility tested through analysis of operational evidence from both quantitative and qualitative data sources. Following testing, policies are ranked in terms of feasibility. This research examines the effectiveness of local and national level policies and the importance of both local community involvement and central government regulation in policy success. The inter-settlement variation in feasibility testing scores prioritises policy selection and aims to reduce cherry-picking of policies to support the viewpoints of the decision maker. Although developed for an Irish urban context the methods described here may have applicability elsewhere.

  2. Integrated environmental policy: A review of economic analysis.

    Wiesmeth, Hans; Häckl, Dennis

    2017-04-01

    Holistic environmental policies, which emerged from a mere combination of technical activities in waste management some 40 years ago, constitute the most advanced level of environmental policies. These approaches to environmental policy, among them the policies in integrated waste management, attempt to guide economic agents to an environment-friendly behaviour. Nevertheless, current holistic policies in waste management, including policies on one-way drinks containers and waste electrical and electronic equipment, and implementations of extended producer responsibility with further applications to waste electrical and electronic equipment, reveal more or less severe deficiencies - despite some positive examples. This article relates these policy failures, which are not necessarily the result of an insufficient compliance with the regulations, to missing constitutive elements of what is going to be called an 'integrated environmental policy'. This article therefore investigates - mostly from a practical point of view - constitutive elements, which are necessary for a holistic policy to serve as a well-functioning allocation mechanism. As these constitutive elements result from a careful 'integration' of the environmental commodities into the economic allocation problems, we refer to these policies as 'integrated environmental policies'. The article also discusses and illustrates the main steps of designing such a policy - for waste electrical and electronic equipment and a (possible) ban of Glyphosat in agriculture. As these policies are dependent on economic and political stability with environmental awareness sufficiently developed, the article addresses mostly waste management policies in highly industrialised countries.

  3. Housing Welfare Policies in Scandinavia

    Jensen, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    It is commonplace to refer to the Nordic countries of Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Finland and Iceland as a distinctive and homogenous welfare regime. As far as social housing is concerned, however, the institutional heritage of the respective countries significantly frames the ways in which social...... housing is understood, regulated and subsidized, and, in turn, how housing regimes respond to the general challenges to the national welfare states. The paper presents a historical institutionalist approach to understanding the diversity of regime responses in the modern era characterized by increasing...... marketization, welfare criticism and internationalization. The aim is to provide outside readers a theoretically guided empirical insight into Scandinavian social housing policy. The paper first lines up the core of the inbuilt argument of historical institutionalism in housing policy. Secondly, it briefly...

  4. Regulation of gas infrastructure expansion

    De Joode, J.

    2012-01-01

    The topic of this dissertation is the regulation of gas infrastructure expansion in the European Union (EU). While the gas market has been liberalised, the gas infrastructure has largely remained in the regulated domain. However, not necessarily all gas infrastructure facilities - such as gas storage facilities, LNG import terminals and certain gas transmission pipelines - need to be regulated, as there may be scope for competition. In practice, the choice of regulation of gas infrastructure expansion varies among different types of gas infrastructure facilities and across EU Member States. Based on a review of economic literature and on a series of in-depth case studies, this study explains these differences in choices of regulation from differences in policy objectives, differences in local circumstances and differences in the intrinsic characteristics of the infrastructure projects. An important conclusion is that there is potential for a larger role for competition in gas infrastructure expansion.

  5. Streamlining Policy Creation in Policy Frameworks

    M.A. Hills (Mark); N. Martí-Oliet; M. Palomino

    2012-01-01

    textabstract{\\it Policy frameworks} provide a technique for improving reuse in program analysis: the same language frontend, and a core analysis semantics, can be shared among multiple analysis policies for the same language, while analysis domains (such as units of measurement) can be shared among

  6. Essays on financial fragility and regulation

    Ma, K.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis investigates various issues in regulation, with three chapters on financial fragility and banking regulation, and one chapter on competition policy. Chapter 2 studies banks’ herding driven by their need for market liquidity, highlighting a trade-off between systemic risk and liquidity

  7. Review of economic theories of regulation

    den Hertog, J.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/21319161X

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the economic theories of regulation. It discusses the public and private interest theories of regulation, as the criticisms that have been leveled at them. The extent to which these theories are also able to account for privatization and deregulation is evaluated and policies

  8. Innovation policies for tourism

    Hjalager, Anne-Mette

    2012-01-01

    The nature, extent, and implications of innovation in tourism are increasingly investigated in academic research, but the policies that affect these transformations in the industry and at tourism destinations are not equally well conceptualised theoretically or analysed empirically. The purpose...... of this article is, in an analysis of the literature, to interpret the rationale behind innovation policy, and to explain the persisting challenges related to acquisition of an informed foundation for policies based upon quantitative and qualitative inquiries. Observed in a historical perspective, innovation...... framework of policy instruments for innovation in tourism. New generations of policies instigate a mainstreaming of the innovation agenda in ways that proceed beyond the traditional policy concepts....

  9. Information report presented in application of article 86, paragraph 8 of the regulation by the commission of economic affairs, of environment and of territory, about the enforcement of the program law no 2005-781 from July 13 2005 establishing the energy policy trends

    2008-01-01

    This report makes a status of the regulatory texts and circulars published in the framework of the implementation of the law no 2005-781 from July 13, 2005, establishing the French energy policy trends, and of the dispositions which have not been the object of any enforcement text yet. A first part presents the enforcement of the law by the government 30 months after its publication. A second part presents the enforcement of the law on the field and stresses on the delicate legibility of the regulatory mechanisms (obscure and fluctuating financial and fiscal regulations, energy saving conditioned by the visibility and identification of incentive systems). The third part makes a synthesis and proposes some actions to reduce the administrative delays, to improve the legibility and to reduce the lack of efficiency in the domain of renewable energy sources. (J.S.)

  10. The Europeanization of German energy and climate policies. New forms of policy-making and EU multi-level-governance

    Fischer, Severin

    2015-01-01

    The Energy Transition (''Energiewende'') is one of the hot topics of the political debate in Germany for some years. As a consequence of ongoing European integration, EU level politics have gained growing importance. The focus of this study is on the interaction of German and EU energy and climate policies. How have German actors influenced EU policy-making processes and in how far are EU policies relevant for national policy-making in Germany? Three case studies look at processes in the fields of electricity market regulation, renewable energy policy and climate protection between 2007 and 2013.

  11. Resolution proposition aiming to create an inquiry commission on the capacities and the financial results of the Total Group, on the resources use, the industrial policy and on the employment, wages and country planing policy, as on the social and environmental liabilities. (refer to the economical, environmental and country affairs commission, for lack of special commission in due time by the articles 30 and 31 of the regulation)

    2005-03-01

    This document denounces the Total Group policy oriented to the profit and reveals the resulting environmental and social negative effects. It proposes the creation of an inquiry commission on the Group policy activities. (A.L.B.)

  12. Agricultural policy, food policy, and communicable disease policy.

    Grant, Wyn

    2012-12-01

    Food and agricultural policy is an essential element of a communicable disease policy. The European Union has developed a more systematic and broadly based interest in questions of food safety and animal health and welfare linked to modernization of the Common Agricultural Policy, reflected in a new treaty obligation on animal welfare. Following the bovine spongiform encephalopathy crisis, moves were made to create a European competency, but implementation and enforcement resources reside with the member states. The European Animal Health Strategy is meant to lead to an EU animal health law, but this has already been constrained by fiscal austerity. The development of such a law may lead to a lowest common denominator formula that does little to enhance consumer protection or improve animal welfare. This is an inherent risk with top-down forms of Europeanization; more attention should be paid to lessons to be learned from bottom-up initiatives of the type used to counteract the bovine diarrhea virus. There will always be a tension among what is good policy for reducing the incidence of communicable disease, policy that is popular with EU citizens, and policy that is acceptable to member states.

  13. Policy, Procedures and Standards for Enterprise Information Management

    This policy establishes a standard approach for managing information produced by, funded by, or received per regulated reporting and/or federal-wide requirements and subsequently held or cataloged in information management systems by EPA.

  14. Review of automated vehicle technology : policy and implementation implications.

    2016-03-14

    The goals of this project were to undergo a systematic review of automated vehicle technologies with a focus on policy : implications, methods of implementation, regulation by states, and developments occurring on legal fronts, ultimately creating a ...

  15. 48 CFR 323.7001 - Policy.

    2010-10-01

    ... WORKPLACE Safety and Health 323.7001 Policy. Various statutes and regulations (e.g., the Walsh-Healy Act and Service Contract Act), require adherence to minimum safety and health standards by contractors engaged in... sufficient or does not meet the safety and health situation for an acquisition. ...

  16. 32 CFR 855.1 - Policy.

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy. 855.1 Section 855.1 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES... of Air Force airfields in foreign countries will be subject to US Federal laws and regulations that...

  17. 48 CFR 3004.470-2 - Policy.

    2010-10-01

    ... unclassified information. MD 4300.1, entitled Information Technology Systems Security, and the DHS Sensitive Systems Handbook, prescribe the policies and procedures on security for Information Technology resources... 3004.470-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY...

  18. Reflection on penal policy in nuclear matters

    Cisse, A.

    1996-01-01

    This document expresses ethical reflexions as far as nuclear energy development is concerned. The potential diversion of the peaceful use of nuclear energy results in the necessity of a criminal policy which would control the nuclear regulations. For each potential nuclear infringement, systems of laws are established either to prevent damages or to penalize them. (TEC)

  19. 41 CFR 101-30.202 - Policies.

    2010-07-01

    ... associated with, but never included as a part of the national stock number. These management codes or symbols... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Policies. 101-30.202 Section 101-30.202 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System...

  20. 77 FR 65098 - Board Policy Statements

    2012-10-25

    ... best efforts in contributing to the mission of the FCA. Workplace Harassment It is the policy of the... discrimination based on sexual orientation and status as a parent; Executive Order 13166 (Improving Access to... accordance with laws and regulations, [[Page 65099

  1. 7 CFR 1962.2 - Policy.

    2010-01-01

    ... of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) PERSONAL PROPERTY Servicing and Liquidation of Chattel Security § 1962.2 Policy. Chattel security, EO property and note only loans will be serviced to accomplish the loan objectives and...

  2. 5 CFR 2601.103 - Policy.

    2010-01-01

    ... GOVERNMENT ETHICS STATUTORY GIFT ACCEPTANCE AUTHORITY General Provisions § 2601.103 Policy. (a) Scope. The... solicitation or acceptance of a gift does not compromise the integrity of OGE, its programs or employees. (b... barred by law or regulation. Gifts may also be used for official travel by employees to events or...

  3. 48 CFR 652.100-70 - Policy.

    2010-10-01

    ... included. (b) The contracting officer shall justify the exclusion of any provisions or clauses in... 652.100-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Instructions for Using Provisions and Clauses 652.100-70 Policy. (a) The...

  4. 7 CFR 959.120 - Policy.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Policy. 959.120 Section 959.120 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... of any such onions in trade channels other than those for which intended. Such information and...

  5. Gender Equality Policies and Higher Education Careers

    Berggren, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    Gender equality policies regulate the Swedish labour market, including higher education. This study analyses and discusses the career development of postgraduate students in the light of labour market influences. The principle of gender separation is used to understand these effects. Swedish register data encompassing information on 585…

  6. 16 CFR 1602.1 - Enforcement policy.

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Enforcement policy. 1602.1 Section 1602.1 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STATEMENTS OF..., set aside, or repealed by the Consumer Product Safety Commission, by any court of competent...

  7. 7 CFR 1207.506 - Policy.

    2010-01-01

    ... effective and continuous coordinated program of marketing research, development, advertising, and promotion... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Policy. 1207.506 Section 1207.506 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS...

  8. 48 CFR 1603.7001 - Policy.

    2010-10-01

    ... HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Misleading, Deceptive, or Unfair Advertising 1603.7001 Policy. (a) OPM prepares and distributes or... advertisements. However, while OPM believes that advertising is unnecessary, it recognizes that the decision to...

  9. Water Management Policy in California

    Oh, Christina; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2015-01-01

    Using Olson’s 1965 logic of collective action and group theory, we argue that the “small group” of the “iron triangle” is able to collectively act to push for command-and-control regulations in Californian water policy. There are individual rent-seeking incentives in the small group because...... the politicians do not want to impose tax, and they would like to have short-term development and economic growth during their term in order to gain a positive reputation from the public or to get re-elected. The developers would like more work and prestige and the water bureaucrats have little incentive to limit...

  10. Sectoral Costs of Environmental Policy. Final Report

    Vercaemst, P.; Vanassche, S.; Campling, P.; Vranken, L.; Agnolucci, P.; Salmons, R.; Shaw, B.; Jantzen, J.; Van der Woerd, H.; Gruenig, M.; Best, A.

    2007-12-01

    The Directorate General for Environment of the European Commission has launched a study on the 'Sectoral costs of environmental policy'. The overall aim of the study is to obtain a clearer picture of the impact of environmental policy in some of the industrial sectors most affected by environmental policy, taking into account the differences between sectors and Member States. Previous studies mainly focussed on the individual impact of one Directive, but in this study we will assess the cumulative costs attributable to the environmental policy in its entirety and attempt to identify synergies between individual policies. The project has the following main objectives: paint a clearer picture of the environmental costs for the selected industries; indicate the differences in costs between individual companies; indicate the differences in costs between Member States; demonstrate the drivers for environmental expenditures of the companies and differences between sectors and Member States; describe different types of environmental regulation (policy instruments) and their impact on environmental expenditures; evaluate the environmental performance of the industries and differences between companies/Member States; collect evidence for the impacts of environmental regulation (and associated costs) on the competitiveness of companies; and carry out an international comparison. The sectors selected are:oil supply chain; electricity production; steel industry; and textile and leather industry

  11. Monetary policy and insolvency of economic sector

    Tepavac Rajko

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The main task of monetary policy of our central bank is to achieve and preserve stability of prices and currency. Targeted inflation rate has been chosen as operating instrument for gradual realization of low and stable inflation, along with elimination of inflation expectations. Also, a specific inflation corridor is chosen to ensure operations, transparency and ex ante effects of monetary policy. The paper presents analysis on whether there really is a restrictive monetary policy, deflections of real inflation from the programmed one, level of 'restrictiveness' of monetary policy and behavior of bank loans, money supply, nominal and real economic growth. Analysis is carried out and criticism of concepts of monetary regulation of mandatory bank reserves, blocking of financial bank potential through monetary regulation instruments, but also relations between central and business banks through open market policy. Criticism of repo operations and complete disappearance of selective credit policy is provided as well. The problem of almost embedded insolvency of economic sector is highlighted.

  12. Gambling participation and policies in Malaysia

    Jasmine M. Y. Loo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Regulatory policies for responsible gambling practices in Asia are constantly evolving as the gambling industry and technological landscape change over time. Malaysia makes an interesting case study for a commentary on gambling participation and policies, as this country has a unique dual justice system with religious and ethnic diversity that may impact on the way in which gambling activities are regulated. This regulatory ecosystem has important consequences on behaviour change, treatment approaches and recovery processes involved in gambling disorder. This commentary will discuss evidence for Malaysian gambling antecedents, public policy and socioeconomic impacts of gambling, possible costs and benefits of gambling legalization, and issues pertinent to regulating gambling activities in Malaysia.

  13. Regulating nuclear fuel waste

    1995-01-01

    When Parliament passed the Atomic Energy Control Act in 1946, it erected the framework for nuclear safety in Canada. Under the Act, the government created the Atomic Energy Control Board and gave it the authority to make and enforce regulations governing every aspect of nuclear power production and use in this country. The Act gives the Control Board the flexibility to amend its regulations to adapt to changes in technology, health and safety standards, co-operative agreements with provincial agencies and policy regarding trade in nuclear materials. This flexibility has allowed the Control Board to successfully regulate the nuclear industry for more than 40 years. Its mission statement 'to ensure that the use of nuclear energy in Canada does not pose undue risk to health, safety, security and the environment' concisely states the Control Board's primary objective. The Atomic Energy Control Board regulates all aspects of nuclear energy in Canada to ensure there is no undue risk to health, safety, security or the environment. It does this through a multi-stage licensing process

  14. Regulação de vento em polpa, política pública a ver navios / Regulation at full steam ahead, public policy waiting in vain

    Marcio Iorio Aranha

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available [PORTUGUESE] O presente artigo figura como introdução à Revista de Direito, Estado e Telecomunicações do Grupo de Estudos em Direito das Telecomunicações da Universidade de Brasília, abordando sinteticamente os principais acontecimentos do setor no Brasil, bem como normas e julgados relativos ao ano de 2015, para registro das principais discussões político-jurídicas do setor de telecomunicações brasileiro referentes ao ano anterior ao da publicação. [ENGLISH] The article introduces this issue of the Law, State, and Telecommunications Review by way of presenting its contents. Statutes and the administrative regulation of 2015 pertaining to telecommunications are referred to in detail. It also addresses the main political and juridical discussions on the Brazilian telecommunications sector that took place the year before the publication of the journal’s current volume.

  15. IT Policy Archive

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CIO defines IT processes and policies. The CIO defines the development processes, milestones, review gates, and the overall policies for all capital planning,...

  16. National Environmental Policy Act

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was the first major environmental law in the United States and established national environmental policies for the...

  17. Nordic cultural policies

    Duelund, Peter

    2008-01-01

    A critical view on Nordic Cultural Policy 1961-2008 - Aims, measures, forms of organisation, state og national identity......A critical view on Nordic Cultural Policy 1961-2008 - Aims, measures, forms of organisation, state og national identity...

  18. Economics and obesity policy.

    Lusk, J L

    2017-06-01

    This paper elucidates the challenges surrounding the economics of some popular obesity-related policy proposals. Solid economic justifications for anti-obesity policies are often lacking, and evidence suggests policies like fat and soda taxes or restrictions on food stamp spending are unlikely to substantively affect obesity prevalence. In short, many of the same factors that make obesity such a complicated and multifaceted issue extend to the economic analysis of public health policies.

  19. Innovation policies for tourism

    Hjalager, Anne-Mette

    2012-01-01

    The nature, extent, and implications of innovation in tourism are increasingly investigated in academic research, but the policies that affect these transformations in the industry and at tourism destinations are not equally well conceptualised theoretically or analysed empirically. The purpose...... framework of policy instruments for innovation in tourism. New generations of policies instigate a mainstreaming of the innovation agenda in ways that proceed beyond the traditional policy concepts....

  20. Social Media for Public Health: An Exploratory Policy Analysis

    Fast, Ingrid; Sørensen, Kristine; Brand, Helmut; Suggs, L. Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    Background: To accomplish the aims of public health practice and policy today, new forms of communication and education are being applied. Social media are increasingly relevant for public health and used by various actors. Apart from benefits, there can also be risks in using social media, but policies regulating engagement in social media is not well researched. This study examined European public health-related organizations' social media policies and describes the main components of exist...

  1. MACROPRUDENTIAL POLICY: CONCEPTUAL POSITIONS

    Radu CUHAL; Ludmila STARIŢÎNA; Nicolae BASISTÎI

    2013-01-01

    The article explains the conceptual principles of macroprudential policy, its main objectives and instruments. The classification of macroprudential policy tools of the Committee on the Global Financial System is defined. The comparative characteristics of macro-prudential policy in the Western developed countries are also examined.

  2. Macroprudential policy: conceptual positions

    Stariţîna Ludmila; Cuhal Radu

    2013-01-01

    The article explains the conceptual principles of macroprudential policy, its main objectives and instruments. The classification of macroprudential policy tools of the Committee on the Global Financial System is defined. The comparative characteristics of macro-prudential policy in the Western developed countries are also examined.

  3. Italian energy policy

    1988-01-01

    This document discusses problems associated with Italian energy policy; economic and industrial development as it relates to that policy is covered. Specific areas covered are: (1) the basis of Italy's new energy policy; (2) energy demand; (3) five objectives; (4) the electrical power system; (5) proposed action; and (6) energy resources

  4. Energy. Policy and Implementation

    Stroop, A.

    2006-01-01

    Why does the government have an energy policy? What form does it take? Who is involved in implementing that policy? These and similar questions are answered in the latest Energy Report. The Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs (EZ) argues that the objectives are feasible as long as the energy policies are matched by suitable implementation measures [nl

  5. Quarterly fiscal policy

    Kendrick, D.A.; Amman, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Monetary policy is altered once a month. Fiscal policy is altered once a year. As a potential improvement this article examines the use of feedback control rules for fiscal policy that is altered quarterly. Following the work of Blinder and Orszag, modifications are discussed in Congressional

  6. 45 CFR 1643.5 - Recipient policies and recordkeeping.

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recipient policies and recordkeeping. 1643.5 Section 1643.5 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION RESTRICTION ON ASSISTED SUICIDE, EUTHANASIA, AND MERCY KILLING § 1643.5 Recipient policies and...

  7. 48 CFR 719.272 - Small disadvantaged business policies.

    2010-10-01

    ... business policies. 719.272 Section 719.272 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 719.272 Small disadvantaged business... subcontracting with small disadvantaged businesses and other disadvantaged enterprises based on provisions of the...

  8. Underlying Paradox in the European Union's Multilingualism Policies

    Johnson, Fern L.

    2013-01-01

    The European Union (EU) has developed comprehensive policies in recent years to promote multilingualism. In this article, major EU policy statements on multilingualism are analyzed to demonstrate how their underlying language ideology produces paradox by both encouraging multilingualism and regulating its definition within the EU. The first…

  9. 29 CFR 1612.3 - Open meeting policy.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Open meeting policy. 1612.3 Section 1612.3 Labor... ACT REGULATIONS § 1612.3 Open meeting policy. (a) All meetings of the Commission shall be conducted in... adequate acoustics for persons in attendance at the meeting. (d) Observers may take still photographs and...

  10. 45 CFR 1305.9 - Policy on fees.

    2010-10-01

    ... PROGRAM ELIGIBILITY, RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, ENROLLMENT AND ATTENDANCE IN HEAD START § 1305.9 Policy on... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policy on fees. 1305.9 Section 1305.9 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES...

  11. 48 CFR 928.101-1 - Policy on use.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policy on use. 928.101-1... REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Bonds and Other Financial Protections 928.101-1 Policy on use. In addition to... for fixed price or unit price contracts entered into as a result of sealed bidding. They may not be...

  12. 14 CFR 250.2a - Policy regarding denied boarding.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Policy regarding denied boarding. 250.2a... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS OVERSALES § 250.2a Policy regarding denied boarding. In the event of an... confirmed reserved space on that flight are denied boarding involuntarily. ...

  13. Innovations in Arizona's Accountability Policies and Frameworks for Alternative Schools

    Schlessman, Amy

    2014-01-01

    This study presents Arizona's innovations in academic accountability policy and academic accountability frameworks for alternative schools. A timeline of statutes and regulations including the State Board of Education approved alternative school definition provides Arizona's context for alternative school accountability policy and frameworks.…

  14. 41 CFR 109-27.102-51 - Policy.

    2010-07-01

    ...-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.1-Stock Replenishment § 109-27.102-51 Policy. Systems contracting for supply... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy. 109-27.102-51 Section 109-27.102-51 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations...

  15. 43 CFR 422.3 - Reclamation law enforcement policy.

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reclamation law enforcement policy. 422.3 Section 422.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW ENFORCEMENT AUTHORITY AT BUREAU OF RECLAMATION PROJECTS § 422.3 Reclamation law enforcement policy. The law enforcement...

  16. National Environmental Policy Act compliance guide. Volume II (reference book)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    This document (Volume II of the National Environmental Policy Act Compliance Guide) contains current copies of regulations and guidance from the Council on Environmental Quality, the Department of Energy, the Department of State, and the Environmental Protection Agency, related to compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA).

  17. 48 CFR 810.001 - Market research policy.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Market research policy... COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING MARKET RESEARCH 810.001 Market research policy. When conducting market research, VA contracting teams shall use the VIP database, at http://www.VetBiz.gov, in addition to other...

  18. 48 CFR 2527.7002 - NSF patent policy.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true NSF patent policy. 2527... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Disposition of Rights in Inventions 2527.7002 NSF patent policy. As authorized by the National Science Board at its 230th meeting, October 15-16, 1981, the...

  19. 29 CFR 1990.111 - General statement of regulatory policy.

    2010-07-01

    ... CARCINOGENS The Osha Cancer Policy § 1990.111 General statement of regulatory policy. (a) This part establishes the criteria and procedures under which substances will be regulated by OSHA as potential... case-by-case basis in the rulemaking proceedings on individual substances. Any permissible exposure...

  20. Public policy perspective on groundwater quality

    Libby, L.W.

    1990-01-01

    Groundwater pollution problems are fundamentally institutional problems. The means for reducing contamination are institutional: the mix of incentives, rights and obligations confronting resource users. Only changes in the rights and obligations of users or the economic and social cost of water use options will reduce groundwater pollution. Policy is the process by which those changes are made. The essential purpose of groundwater quality policy is to change water use behavior. For the most part, people do respond to evidence that a failure to change could be painful. New information can produce the support necessary for regulation or other policy change. It is essential to maintain healthy respect for the rights and intentions of individuals. Improved understanding of human behavior is essential to success in groundwater policy