WorldWideScience

Sample records for fish secondary production

  1. Effects of fishing disturbance on benthic communities and secondary production within an intensively fished area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reiss, H.; Greenstreet, S.P.R.; Sieben, K.; Ehrich, S.; Piet, G.J.; Quirijns, F.; Wolff, W.J.; Kroncke, I.

    2009-01-01

    Demersal fishing alters seabed habitats and affects the structure and functioning of benthic invertebrate communities. At a critical level of disturbance, such communities may approach an equilibrium disturbed state in which a further increase in disturbance has little additional impact. Such

  2. Microbiological spoilage of fish and fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Lone; Huss, Hans Henrik

    1996-01-01

    Spoilage of fresh and lightly preserved fish products is caused by microbial action. This paper reviews the current knowledge in terms of the microbiology of fish and fish products with particular emphasis on identification of specific spoilage bacteria and the qualitative and quantitative...... biochemical indicators of spoilage. Shewanzella putrefaciens and Pseudomonas spp. are the specific spoilage bacteria of iced fresh fish regardless of the origin of the fish. Modified atmosphere stored marine fish from temperate waters are spoiled by the CO2 resistant Photobacterium phosphoreum whereas Gram......- positive bacteria are likely spoilers of CO2 packed fish from fresh or tropical waters. Fish products with high salt contents may spoil due to growth of halophilic bacteria (salted fish) or growth of anaerobic bacteria and yeasts (barrel salted fish). Whilst the spoilage of fresh and highly salted fish...

  3. Microbiological spoilage of fish and fish products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gram, L; Huss, H H

    1996-11-01

    Spoilage of fresh and lightly preserved fish products is caused by microbial action. This paper reviews the current knowledge in terms of the microbiology of fish and fish products with particular emphasis on identification of specific spoilage bacteria and the qualitative and quantitative biochemical indicators of spoilage. Shewanella putrefaciens and Pseudomonas spp. are the specific spoilage bacteria of iced fresh fish regardless of the origin of the fish. Modified atmosphere stored marine fish from temperate waters are spoiled by the CO2 resistant Photobacterium phosphoreum whereas Gram-positive bacteria are likely spoilers of CO2 packed fish from fresh or tropical waters. Fish products with high salt contents may spoil due to growth of halophilic bacteria (salted fish) or growth of anaerobic bacteria and yeasts (barrel salted fish). Whilst the spoilage of fresh and highly salted fish is well understood, much less is known about spoilage of lightly preserved fish products. It is concluded that the spoilage is probably caused by lactic acid bacteria, certain psychotrophic Enterobacteriaceae and/or Photobacterium phosphoreum. However, more work is needed in this area.

  4. LCA of Danish fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Mikkel

    2006-01-01

    The article presents the main results from a PhD dissertation about environmental impacts from Danish fish products.......The article presents the main results from a PhD dissertation about environmental impacts from Danish fish products....

  5. Radioprotective effect of fish products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khadzhijski, L.; Alyakov, M.; Tsvetkova, E.; Kavrakirova, S.; Chamova, S.; Chaneva, M.

    1993-01-01

    New fish cans were prepared in the Institute of Fish Industry, Burgas (BG), containing pectin and additives. A biological experimental study was conducted to investigate the decontaminating effect of the new products. The results demonstrated no decontaminating effect in relation to radiocesium and radiostrontium. A pronounced prophylactic effect was observed in case of external irradiation, judged by endogenous spleen colonies. (author)

  6. Secondary lead production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollis, R.G.

    1990-10-16

    This invention is concerned with the efficient recovery of soft lead from the paste component of used automobile lead-acid storage batteries. According to the invention, a scrap which contains lead oxide, lead sulfate, and antimony in an oxidized state is processed in the following steps to recover lead. A refractory lined reaction vessel is continuously charged with the scrap, along with a reductant effective for reducing lead oxide. The charged material is melted and agitated by means of a submerged lance at 900-1150{degree}C whereby some of the lead oxide of the scrap is reduced to form molten lead. A slag layer is then formed above the molten lead, and an amount of lead oxide is maintained in the slag layer. The molten lead, now containing under 0.5 wt % of antimony, is removed, and the antimony oxide in the scrap is concentrated as oxide in the slag layer. Preferred embodiments of the invention result in the production, in a single step, of a soft lead substantially free of antimony. The slag may be subsequently treated to reduce the antimony oxide and produce a valuable antimony-lead product. Further advantages of the process are that a wet battery paste may be used as the feed without prior drying, and the process can be conducted at a temperature 100-150{degree}C lower than in previously known methods. In addition, a smaller reactor can be employed which reduces both capital cost and fuel costs. The process of the invention is illustrated by descriptions of pilot plant tests. 1 fig.

  7. Using Smart Packaging in Fish and Fish Based Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Tuğçe AKSUN

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Food packaging have three main roles during protection, preservation and storage are still involved better continuance of food quality. Evolution of civilization and improvement of new kind of food stuffs, packaging industry must created new possibilities for preventation of food quality during shelf-life. The quality and safety of perishable food is related to microbial quality has got a significance role. Fish is a very perishable food product. It is a very low acidic food and thus is very liable to the expansion of food poisoning bacteria. Also decomposition of fish can be by reason of enzymatic spoilage, oxidation and/or bacterial spoilage. Fish is an important resource of polyunsaturated fatty acids stated to have defensive effects in opposition to heartconnected diseases. Some smart packaging mechanisms liable to determine this break down incident thought storage. In this review, smart packaging technologies that could be used to detect breakdown compounds from packed fish and fish products.

  8. The technology of fish-vegetable feed production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukatova M. D.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Perspective direction of the Volga-Caspian basin fisheries is increasing the productivity of aquaculture production which requires the availability of sufficient quantities of feed. The cutting waste of carp and crucian carp, crayfish processing (cephalothorax, wheat bran, soy isolate, freshwater plants – pondweed perfoliate, fish-vegetable ration, produced feeding staffs have been investigated. In researching samples of manufactured pelleted feeds the standard methods adopted in the animal feed industry have been used. The number of nitrogen-free extractives and energy value has been determined by calculation. The composition of fish-vegetable ration has been worked out. Some manufacturing inspection of fish-vegetable feed technology using proofing process has been carried out. The possibility of manufacturing on the basis of crushed fish waste of the company LLC "VES" and dry ingredients of fish-vegetable feed has been determined; the output of feed at water content of not more than 10 % is 43 % of feed mix based on the mass of directed waste equal to 84 %. The pilot batch of dry fish-vegetable feed has been investigated to establish quality indicators. It has been determined that fish-vegetable feed meets the requirements of GOST 10385–2014 "Combined feeding staffs for fishes. General specifications" as for main quality indicators and refers to economic grower for catfish and carp fish weighing more than 50 g. This reveals good palatability of the experimental batch of floating feed by carp fish species and African catfish. Thus, fish-vegetable feed manufacturing technology can be implemented in the production for processing secondary raw materials: waste from butchering fish by grinding, cooking, mixing with selected vegetable fillings which is waste of flour or grain processing industries and freshwater plants mowed annually during the reclamation works on the Volga delta.

  9. New salty waffle products "Fish Krekis" with fish & plant semifinished products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedorova Dina

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the directions of expansion of the range of wafer snack products of high nutritional value by using fish & plant semifinished products. The study scientifically grounds the benefits of using the new fish & plant semifinished products in manufacturing waffle salty snack products. The data provided in the article prove that the use of the fish & plant semifinished products & herbal ingredients enable a range of the new wafer snack products «Fish krekis» with high content of proteins, organic calcium, fiber and vitamins, with improved consumer properties, as well as more efficient use of Ukrainian raw fish materials.

  10. Influence of ionizing radiation on fish products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, H.A.S.

    1998-01-01

    Seafood are important sources of nutrients such as proteins of high biological value as well as other important nutrients for human. Common carp fish have a low commercial value due to the presence of fine spines between muscles in addition to the poor yield of fillets. The aim of this investigation was production of fish burger from the common carp fish and studying the possibility of using gamma irradiation doses of 2,4, and 6 kGy for increasing the shelf-life of cold stored fish burger samples as well as improving the hygienic quality of frozen storage ones in comparison with the addition of potassium sorbate as a preservative

  11. Secondary production in shallow marine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomeroy, L.R.

    1976-01-01

    Recommendations are discussed with regard to population ecology, microbial food webs, marine ecosystems, improved instrumentation, and effects of land and sea on shallow marine systems. The control of secondary production is discussed with regard to present status of knowledge; research needs for studies on dominant secondary producers, food webs that lead to commercial species, and significant features of the trophic structure of shallow water marine communities. Secondary production at the land-water interface is discussed with regard to present status of knowledge; importance of macrophytes to secondary production; export to secondary consumers; utilization of macrophyte primary production; and correlations between secondary production and river discharge. The role of microorganisms in secondary production is also discussed

  12. Secondary liquefaction in ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of producing ethanol by fermentation, said method comprising a secondary liquefaction step in the presence of a themostable acid alpha-amylase or, a themostable maltogenic acid alpha-amylase.......The invention relates to a method of producing ethanol by fermentation, said method comprising a secondary liquefaction step in the presence of a themostable acid alpha-amylase or, a themostable maltogenic acid alpha-amylase....

  13. Environmental impacts from Danish fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Mikkel

    This dissertation presents an assessment of the environmental impacts from Danish fish products in a life cycle perspective (from sea to table). The assessment is carried out in three steps ? and includes a MECO analysis, a quantitative LCA and a qualitative LCA. The results are used to discuss...... current environmental policies addressing the fishery, landing and auction, the fish processing industry, wholesale, transport, retail, and use.It is concluded that considerable improvement potentials exist in the fishing stage, which also represents the largest environmental impact potential compared....... It is suggested that passive and semi-active fishing methods such as Danish seine, purse seine, gillnet and long line represent a significant improvement potential compared to trawl. And it is shown that the energy consumption can be reduced with a factor 15 by substituting beam trawl with Danish seine...

  14. Secondary Products (Markets, Competition, and Technological Improvements)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip A. Araman

    1988-01-01

    Competitiveness, imports, exports, and technological improvements--these are issues facing secondary wood-product manufacturers. The major problems focus on increasing foreign imports and the inability of U.S. industries to repell the imports. How and where should we, as researchers, allocate our efforts to enhance the competitiveness of secondary forest industries in...

  15. The study of biological value of peptone derived from secondary raw fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuranova L. K.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of using secondary fish raw materials in particular musculoskeletal waste from filleting the cod species of fish as raw material base for production of food peptones has been studied. The content of water, fat, protein substances, chloride sodium in the raw material and the product have been determined by standard methods. Amino-acid composition has been determined by high effective liquid chromatography. The biological value of peptone and the balance of essential amino acids have been calculated. It has been established that waste from the cod filleting (the humerus with excess flesh contains 18.95 % protein and a slight (0.15 % amount of fat. The models of peptone – fermentative fish hydrolyzate obtained from cod withdrawals – have been researched. Proteolytic activity used in the hydrolysis of enzyme (protosubtilin G3X has been defined as 560.77 mmol TYR/g. Peptone is an amorphous, fine powder of a light beige color. The product is hygroscopic, readily soluble in water. The chemical and biochemical quality characteristics of enzymatic peptone have been defined. Mass fraction of protein in the derived product is 92.27 %, mass fraction of water – 4.7 %, sodium chloride and 2.6 %, fat – 0.3 %. The total number of amino acids in the product is 94.7 %. Peptone in protein contains all the essential amino acids, the total content of which is 40.8 %. The biological value of the product has been estimated by calculation methods. It has been established that tryptophan is the only limiting amino acid in the protein of peptone, amino-acid score is 66.8 %, the rationality coefficient of the product is 0.42, which characterizes it as a fairly balanced protein product. Peptone obtained from secondary fish raw materials by protein content and its properties corresponds to the category of protein isolates and can be recommended for use in food as complete protein food additives and as protein content in sports nutrition products.

  16. Towards sustainable fish feed production using novel protein sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draganovic, V.

    2013-01-01

    The consumption of fish and fish-related products is increasing. Due to improved welfare and suggested health benefits, consumers are now eating more fish. In 2008, global fisheries supplied the world with about 142 million tons of fish, of which 115 million tons was used as human food, which is

  17. Status of fish broodstock management and seed production in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Amin, M.N.

    2005-01-01

    The study was conducted with the broad objectives to assess the existing situation of broodstock management and fish seed production in private fish seed farms in Bangladesh. The data were collected from 100 private hatcheries and 40 nurseries in seven upazilas under four districts. There was no shed in forty hatcheries and the owners faced many problems. Brood fish ponds were found suitable for rearing brood fish. About 66% of the hatchery owners collected brood fish from their own ponds and...

  18. A Survey of Fish Production and Processing Machinery in Rivers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Survey of fish production and processing machinery in Port Harcourt City Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria was carried out to evaluate the followings: different machines used for fish production and processing, the most acceptable machine, effect of cost of machinery on the fish farmer, whether gender has ...

  19. Bibliographic review of works accomplished about irradiated chicken, fish and fish products , spices and condiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardes, B.; Dias Filho, M.

    1983-07-01

    Table of foods that can be irradiated and its respective nominal doses are shown. Bibliographic reviews of works performed about irradiated chicken, fish and fish products, spices and condiments are shown. The irradiation purpose in chicken were to increase the shelf-life and to eliminate the pathogenic microorganism in chicken stored below 10 0 C; in fish and fish products the purposes were to control the insect infestation in dry-fish during the storage and the sell exposure to reduce the macrobian charge in packed and non packed fish and in fish products. To reduce pathogenic microorganism in packing and unpacking fish; in spices and condiments to control the insect infestation, to reduce the microbial contamination. (L.M.J.)

  20. Preservation of fish and fish products by use of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuaqui-Offermanns, Noemi.

    1986-09-01

    This report reviews the use of the radurization process in the preservation of fish and fish products. The literature describes several aspects of the process such as the fish species and the doses required, the wholesomeness of the radurized fish, and recommendations by international authorities on the applicability of the process. Areas of further research have been identified. The report concludes that radurization is an effective process for extending the shelf life of fish and fish products. Doses ranging from 0.75 to 2.5 kGy extend the shelf life two to three times compared to unirradiated controls. The loss of nutritional value at these doses is insignificant, and no deleterious short- or long-term toxicological effects have been detected in studies on animals. However, further study is required on consumer acceptance, economic feasibility, and radiation sensitivity of parasites in fish and fish products. 159 refs

  1. Initiation of secondary ice production in clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Sullivan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Disparities between the measured concentrations of ice-nucleating particles (INPs and in-cloud ice crystal number concentrations (ICNCs have led to the hypothesis that mechanisms other than primary nucleation form ice in the atmosphere. Here, we model three of these secondary production mechanisms – rime splintering, frozen droplet shattering, and ice–ice collisional breakup – with a six-hydrometeor-class parcel model. We perform three sets of simulations to understand temporal evolution of ice hydrometeor number (Nice, thermodynamic limitations, and the impact of parametric uncertainty when secondary production is active. Output is assessed in terms of the number of primarily nucleated ice crystals that must exist before secondary production initiates (NINP(lim as well as the ICNC enhancement from secondary production and the timing of a 100-fold enhancement. Nice evolution can be understood in terms of collision-based nonlinearity and the phasedness of the process, i.e., whether it involves ice hydrometeors, liquid ones, or both. Ice–ice collisional breakup is the only process for which a meaningful NINP(lim exists (0.002 up to 0.15 L−1. For droplet shattering and rime splintering, a warm enough cloud base temperature and modest updraft are the more important criteria for initiation. The low values of NINP(lim here suggest that, under appropriate thermodynamic conditions for secondary ice production, perturbations in cloud concentration nuclei concentrations are more influential in mixed-phase partitioning than those in INP concentrations.

  2. Insights for the Development of a Functional Fish Product

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devitiis, De Biagia; Carlucci, Domenico; Nocella, Giuseppe; Viscecchia, Rosaria; Bimbo, Francesco; Nardone, Gianluca

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to explore consumer acceptance of a new functional fish burger using a qualitative approach based on four focus group discussions conducted in selected major Italian cities. Results show that the development of functional fish products may bypass fish consumption barriers, combining

  3. Fish product quality evaluation based on temperature monitoring in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As one kind of perishable food, fish product is at risk of suffering various damages during cold chain and temperature is the most important factor to affect the product quality. This research work on frozen tilapia fillet was aimed at evaluating the fish product quality and predict shelf-life through monitoring temperature change ...

  4. Anisakidae in fishing products sold in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Ferrantelli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the parasite diseases associated with the consumption of raw fish that occurs with some frequency is the anisakiasis, a human disease caused by the accidental ingestion of larval nematodes of the genus Anisakis, family Anisakidae. At the National Reference Centre for Anisakiasis (C.Re.N.A. from October 2012 to February 2013, a number of 231 bony fish (Trichiuridae, Engraulidae, Scombridae and Clupeidae were received from different fishing sites in Sicily. Anisakis pegreffii is the main species detected in fish, as identified by molecular analysis based on polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, while Anisakis simplex sensu stricto was found only in Scomber scombrus caught in the Mediterranean Sea (Fishing Areas 37, in the Spanish coast (Fishing Areas 37 and in the Atlantic Ocean (Fishing Areas 34. Larvae of the genus Pseudoterranova were found only in fish caught in the Norwegian Sea.

  5. Production of Fish Hydrolysates Protein From Waste of Fish Carp (Cyprinus Carpio) by Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Saputra, Dede; Nurhayati, Tati

    2016-01-01

    Fish Protein Hydrolysates (FPH) is the mixed products of polypeptide, dipeptides, and amino acid. It can be produced from materials that contained of protein by acid reaction, base reaction or enzymatic hydrolysis. The objectives of this study were to study the production of FPH from fish carp meat at post rigor phase and viscera by enzymatic hydrolysis, to determine the specific activity of papain enzyme, and to determine the solubility of FPH. Capacity of fish hydrolyzing can be identified ...

  6. Shifts in North Sea forage fish productivity and potential fisheries yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worsøe Clausen, Lotte; Rindorf, Anna; van Deurs, Mikael

    2018-01-01

    productivity. Furthermore, from an ecosystem-based fisheries management perspective, a link between functional complementarity and productivity, indicates that ecosystem resilience may decline with productivity. Based on this, we advise that system productivity, perhaps monitored as forage fish growth, becomes......1. Forage fish populations support large scale fisheries and are key components of marine ecosystems across the world, linking secondary production to higher trophic levels. While climate-induced changes in the North Sea zooplankton community are described and documented in literature......, the associated bottom-up effects and consequences for fisheries remain largely unidentified. 2. We investigated the temporal development in forage fish productivity and the associated influence on fisheries yield of herring, sprat, Norway pout and sandeel in the North Sea. Using principal component analysis, we...

  7. Shifts in North Sea forage fish productivity and potential fisheries yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clausen, Lotte W.; Rindorf, Anna; Deurs, van Mikael; Dickey-Collas, Mark; Hintzen, Niels T.

    2018-01-01

    1. Forage fish populations support large scale fisheries and are key components of marine ecosystems across the world, linking secondary production to higher trophic levels. While climate-induced changes in the North Sea zooplankton community are described and documented in literature, the

  8. Has eutrophication promoted forage fish production in the Baltic Sea?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Margit; Andersson, Helén C; Almroth-Rosell, Elin

    2016-01-01

    Reducing anthropogenic nutrient inputs is a major policy goal for restoring good environmental status of coastal marine ecosystems. However, it is unclear to what extent reducing nutrients would also lower fish production and fisheries yields. Empirical examples of changes in nutrient loads...... and concurrent fish production can provide useful insights to this question. In this paper, we investigate to what extent a multi-fold increase in nutrient loads from the 1950s to 1980s enhanced forage fish production in the Baltic Sea. We use monitoring data on fish stock dynamics covering the period...

  9. The potential of fish production based on periphyton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van A.A.; Beveridge, M.C.M.; Azim, M.E.; Verdegem, M.C.J.

    2002-01-01

    Periphyton is composed of attached plant and animal organisms embedded in a mucopolysaccharide matrix. This review summarizes research on periphyton-based fish production and on periphyton productivity and ingestion by fish, and explores the potential of developing periphyton-based aquaculture.

  10. Structure elucidation of secondary natural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seger, C.

    2001-06-01

    The presented thesis deals with the structure elucidation of secondary natural products. Most of the compounds under investigation were terpenes, especially triterpenes, alkaloids and stilbenoids. Besides characterizing a multitude of already known and also new compounds, it was possible to detect and correct wrongly assigned literature data. The methodological aspect of this thesis lies - beside in the utilization of modern 2D NMR spectroscopy - in the evaluation of computer assisted structure elucidation (CASE) techniques in the course of spectroscopy supported structure elucidation processes. (author)

  11. Flushing and pruritus secondary to prescription fish oil ingestion in a patient with allergy to fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard-Thompson, Amanda; Dutton, Anna; Hoover, Robert; Goodfred, Jennifer

    2014-12-01

    A brand of fish oil capsules contains omega-3 fatty acids obtained from several fish sources. Although the manufacturer calls for caution in patients with fish hypersensitivity, insufficient data is available to make a definitive recommendation regarding its use in this population. A patient with documented seafood allergy presented to the emergency department 4 days after the initiation of prescription brand name fish oil capsules complaining of chest tightness, shortness of breath, tingling of upper extremities, flushing, and pruritus that was minimally relieved by excessive nonprescription diphenhydramine administration. During subsequent follow-up, the patient reported that all symptoms had resolved within 5 days of discontinuing the medication and 3 days of disposing of her pillbox and all medications that had come in contact with the fish oil capsules. Due to the patient's allergic history, timing of onset/offset of the reaction, laboratory evidence, and the use of the Naranjo probability scale, prescription fish oil capsules were deemed the probable cause of this patient's pruritus and flushing of the face and trunk. Practitioners and patients should always ensure they have an updated list of allergies within the patient's medical record that includes medications as well as foods and food additives.

  12. Contamination with heavy metals and bacteria in some local and imported fish and fish products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, S.B.; El-Dashlout, A.A.; El-Schiwee, M.A.; EL-Shourbagy, G.A.; Ibrahim, R.E.

    2004-01-01

    Some local and imported fish and fish products sold in retail markets of three cities at Sharkia Governorate, Egypt, were examined against heavy metals contamination (i.e. Pb, Cd and Hg) and the presence of some specific groups of bacteria. The results showed that concentrations of Pb in fresh and frozen fish, salted and smoked fish and canned fish samples were lower than the permissible limits recommended by the Egyptian Organization 1993 (1.0 mg/kg). On the other hand, all the tested fish and fish products of collected samples showed levels of Cd (0.29-0.41 mg/kg) higher than the permissible limit (0.10 mg/kg) recommended by the Egyptian Organization. Such limits should be re-considered because the limit determined by WHO (1992) was 0.5 mg/kg. Mercury level in fresh mullet was equal or lower (0.46-0.50 mg/kg) than the limit of Egyptian Organization (0.50 mg/kg) while other fresh and frozen fish, salted and smoked fish samples had higher Hg than the allowance. In most cases, imported canned products of sardine, mackerel and tuna had higher Pb, Cd and Hg concentrations than that found in the local ones. Among fresh fish samples, such as mackarona, contained the highest total bacterial count, while mullet was the lowest. Considering salted and smoked fish, heavy salted mullet had the highest total bacterial count, while the lowest number was recorded in salted sardine. Smoked herring showed lowest total bacterial count than salted samples. Generally, no correlation was observed between fish species or consumption place and the contamination with heavy metals and bacteria

  13. Multivariate image analysis for quality inspection in fish feed production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungqvist, Martin Georg

    Aquaculture is today one of the fastest growing food producing sectors in the world. Access to good and effective fish feed is a condition for optimised and sustainable aquaculture activity. In the aquaculture industry it is of utmost importance that the fish get feed of proper size and nutrition....... The colour appearance of fish products is important for customers. Salmonid fish get their red colour from a natural pigment called astaxanthin. To ensure a similar red colour of fish in aquaculture astaxanthin is used as an additive coated on the feed pellets. Astaxanthin can either be of natural origin......, or synthesised chemically. Common for both types is that they are relatively expensive in comparison to the other feed ingredients. This thesis investigates multi-variate data collection for visual inspection and optimisation of industrial production in the fish feed industry. Quality parameters focused on here...

  14. Data on the chemical properties of commercial fish sauce products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Mitsutoshi; Sagane, Yoshimasa; Koizumi, Ryosuke; Nakazawa, Yozo; Yamazaki, Masao; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Takano, Katsumi; Sato, Hiroaki

    2017-12-01

    This data article reports on the chemical properties of commercial fish sauce products associated with the fish sauce taste and flavor. All products were analyzed in triplicate. Dried solid content was analyzed by moisture analyzer. Fish sauce salinity was determined by a salt meter. pH was measured using a pH meter. The acidity was determined using a titration assay. Amino nitrogen and total nitrogen were evaluated using a titration assay and Combustion-type nitrogen analyzer, respectively. The analyzed products originated from Japan, Thailand, Vietnam, China, the Philippines, and Italy. Data on the chemical properties of the products are provided in table format in the current article.

  15. Emerging role of phenolic compounds as natural food additives in fish and fish products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqsood, Sajid; Benjakul, Soottawat; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2013-01-01

    Chemical and microbiological deteriorations are principal causes of quality loss of fish and fish products during handling, processing, and storage. Development of rancid odor and unpleasant flavor, changes of color and texture as well as lowering nutritional value in fish can be prevented by appropriate use of additives. Due to the potential health hazards of synthetic additives, natural products, especially antioxidants and antimicrobial agents, have been intensively examined as safe alternatives to synthetic compounds. Polyphenols (PP) are the natural antioxidants prevalent in fruits, vegetables, beverages (tea, wine, juices), plants, seaweeds, and some herbs and show antioxidative and antimicrobial activities in different fish and fish products. The use of phenolic compounds also appears to be a good alternative for sulphiting agent for retarding melanosis in crustaceans. Phenolic compounds have also been successfully employed as the processing aid for texture modification of fish mince and surimi. Thus, plant polyphenolic compounds can serve as potential additives for preventing quality deterioration or to retain the quality of fish and fish products.

  16. Radiation processing for value addition in fish and fishery products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandekar, J.R.; Karani, M.; Kakatkar, A.S.; Sharma, A.

    2009-01-01

    Fish is highly nutritious as it contains easily digestible proteins and nutritionally important vitamins and polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, due to high ambient temperature in tropical countries, fish is spoiled rapidly. Spoilage of fish during transportation and storage amounting to about 30% of the catch results in heavy economic losses. The microbiological hazard related to the presence of food-borne pathogens is also common in both marine and aqua-cultured fish and shellfish. In dried products (moisture content, < 20%) insects are mainly responsible for the loss of quality during storage. Radiation processing can play a major role in ensuring security and safety of fish and fishery products by reducing post-harvest losses and eliminating pathogenic microorganisms. Being a 'cold process' the technology helps in retaining the quality of fishery products in 'as is' condition. (author)

  17. Fish oil quality of by-product (fish skin from swangi fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Ode Huli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The skin of swangi fish is a potential fish skin to be produced for fish oil. The objectives of this research were aimed to determine the yield and the best quality of fish oil and also to compare fatty acid profile of the fish according to different extraction methods. Fish oil extractions were used by wet rendering method with extraction temperatures of 60, 70, 80, 90, 100°C for 20, 30, and 40 minutes. Fish oil quality was determined by the chemical oil characteristics i.e. PV, FFA, AV, anisidin, and TOTOX. Fatty acid profile was analyzed using gas chromatography (Shimadzu. The results of the study showed that the highest fish oil yield in each treatment was obtained extraction temperature of 60°C for 30 minutes with percentage of 0.33, (70°C for 30 minutes 0.46, (80°C for 30 minutes 1.23, (90°C for 20 minutes 1.14 and (100°C for 20 minutes 0.84. These values were lower compare to Bligh & Dyer and Soxhlet methods. Then, the best fish oil quality was resulted on temperature extraction of 60°C for 30 minutes with PV, FFA, anisidin, AV, and TOTOX were 9.17 meq/kg, 6.92%, 13,77 mg KOH/g, 0.86 meq/kg and 19.19 meq/kg, respectively. FUFA fatty acid compositions of swangi skin fish oil especially EPA and DHA in wet rendering method were gained 0.73% and 2.53%, respectively. These results were lower than Bligh & Dyer method which was consisted of 3.66% (EPA, and 13.29% (DHA and also Soxhlet extraction method with value of EPA was 2.78% and DHA was 9.62%.Keywords: EPA, extraction temperature, DHA, fish oil quality, fish skin

  18. Productivity and fishing pressure drive variability in fish parasite assemblages of the Line Islands, equatorial Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Chelsea L; Baum, Julia K; Reddy, Sheila M W; Trebilco, Rowan; Sandin, Stuart A; Zgliczynski, Brian J; Briggs, Amy A; Micheli, Fiorenza

    2015-05-01

    Variability in primary productivity and fishing pressure can shape the abundance, species composition, and diversity of marine life. Though parasites comprise nearly half of marine species, their responses to these important forces remain little explored. We quantified parasite assemblages at two spatial scales, across a gradient in productivity and fishing pressure that spans six coral islands of the Line Islands archipelago and within the largest Line Island, Kiritimati, which experiences a west-to-east gradient in fishing pressure and upwelling-driven productivity. In the across-islands data set, we found that increasing productivity was correlated with increased parasite abundance overall, but that the effects of productivity differed among parasite groups. Trophically transmitted parasites increased in abundance with increasing productivity, but directly transmitted parasites did not exhibit significant changes. This probably arises because productivity has stronger effects on the abundance of the planktonic crustaceans and herbivorous snails that serve as the intermediate hosts of trophically transmitted parasites than on the higher-trophic level fishes that are the sole hosts of directly transmitted parasites. We also found that specialist parasites increased in response to increasing productivity, while generalists did not, possibly because specialist parasites tend to be more strongly limited by host availability than are generalist parasites. After the effect of productivity was controlled for, fishing was correlated with decreases in the abundance of trophically transmitted parasites, while directly transmitted parasites appeared to track host density; we observed increases in the abundance of parasites using hosts that experienced fishing-driven compensatory increases in abundance. The within-island data set confirmed these patterns for the combined effects of productivity and fishing on parasite abundance, suggesting that our conclusions are robust

  19. WOMEN’S WORK IN THE ARTISANAL FISHING PRODUCTIVE CHAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Morenna A. Figueiredo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The analysis here developed is based on studies focusing on women’s participation in artisanal fishing, conducted in communities of the county of Canavieiras – BA. Women’s achievements regarding their insertion in the labor market have raised new issues and questions as to the production process in fishing communities, where women’s work is still marked by its invisibility and lack of recognition within the fishing category. Quite often, women’s work is regarded merely as an extension of their roles as mothers/wives/housewives which are superimposed upon their fishing activities. In many cases, for instance, the preparation of the fish by the women, for marketing purposes, even when adding value to the product, is regarded by both fishermen and fisherwomen as an extension of domestic tasks, precisely because is undertaken within the realms of their own homes.

  20. Utilization of geothermal energy for drying fish products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arason, S.; Arnason, H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper is about industrial uses of geothermal energy for drying of fish products. Drying is an ancient method for preservation of foods, the main purpose of which is to increase the preservation time. For drying, an external source of energy is needed to extract water. In this paper an emphasis is placed on drying fish and associated processes, and how geothermal energy can be used to substitute oil or electricity. The Icelandic Fisheries Laboratories have been experimenting with different methods of drying, and several drying stations have been designed for indoor drying of fish products. Today there are more than a dozen companies in this country which are drying fish indoors using for that purpose electricity and/or geothermal energy. Further possibilities are available when fish processing plants are located in geothermal areas

  1. Anisakid nematodes as possible markers to trace fish products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Ferrantelli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work a total of 949 fish samples were analysed for the identification of nematode larvae belonging to the Anisakidae family. Biomolecular application for the identification of Anisakidae larvae can be an optimal instrument for the traceability of fish products, described on the Reg. EC 178/2002. Results confirm a correlation between geographical distribution of fishes and presence of specific Anisakid larvae. FAO 37 zone (Mediterranean sea showed a prevailing distribution of Anisakis pegreffii and a minimal presence of A. simplex s.s. in hybrid form with Anisakis pegreffii. FAO 27 zone showed a prevailing distribution of A. simplex s.s. in fish like Brosme (Brosme brosme and infestation prevalence of Pseudoterranova krabbei and P. decipiens s.s. in Gadus morhua. Obtained results validate the hypothesis that molecular biology methods for identifying Anisakidae larvae are effective traceability markers of fish products.

  2. Survey of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish and fish products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobel, Claudia; Jahreis, Gerhard; Kuhnt, Katrin

    2012-10-30

    The imbalance of the n-3/n-6 ratio in the Western diet is characterised by a low intake of n-3 long-chain (LC) PUFA and a concurrent high intake of n-6 PUFA. Fish, in particular marine fish, is a unique source of n-3 LC PUFA. However, FA composition of consumed fish changed, due to the increasing usage of n-6 PUFA-rich vegetable oils in aquaculture feed and in fish processing (frying) which both lead to a further shift in n-6 PUFA to the detriment of n-3 LC PUFA.The aim of this study was to determine the ratio of n-3/n-6 including the contents of EPA and DHA in fish fillets and fish products from the German market (n=123). Furthermore, the study focussed on the FA content in farmed salmon compared to wild salmon as well as in processed Alaska pollock fillet, e.g., fish fingers. Total fat and FA content in fish products varied considerably depending on fish species, feed management, and food processing. Mackerel, herring and trout fillets characteristically contained adequate dietary amounts of absolute EPA and DHA, due to their high fat contents. However, despite a lower fat content, tuna, pollock, and Alaska pollock can contribute considerable amounts of EPA and DHA to the human supply.Farmed salmon are an appropriate source of EPA and DHA owing to their higher fat content compared to wild salmon (12.3 vs. 2.1 wt %), however with elevated SFA, n-9 and n-6 FA contents representing the use of vegetable oils and oilseeds in aquaculture feed. The n-3/n-6 ratio was deteriorated (2.9 vs. 12.4) but still acceptable. Compared to pure fish fillets, breaded and pre-fried Alaska pollock fillet contained extraordinarily high fat and n-6 PUFA levels. Since fish species vary with respect to their n-3 LC PUFA contents, eating a variety of fish is advisable. High n-6 PUFA containing pre-fried fish support the imbalance of n-3/n-6 ratio in the Western diet. Thus, consumption of pure fish fillets is to be favoured. The lower n-3 PUFA portion in farmed fish can be offset by the

  3. Survey of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish and fish products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strobel Claudia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The imbalance of the n-3/n-6 ratio in the Western diet is characterised by a low intake of n-3 long-chain (LC PUFA and a concurrent high intake of n-6 PUFA. Fish, in particular marine fish, is a unique source of n-3 LC PUFA. However, FA composition of consumed fish changed, due to the increasing usage of n-6 PUFA-rich vegetable oils in aquaculture feed and in fish processing (frying which both lead to a further shift in n-6 PUFA to the detriment of n-3 LC PUFA. The aim of this study was to determine the ratio of n-3/n-6 including the contents of EPA and DHA in fish fillets and fish products from the German market (n=123. Furthermore, the study focussed on the FA content in farmed salmon compared to wild salmon as well as in processed Alaska pollock fillet, e.g., fish fingers. Results Total fat and FA content in fish products varied considerably depending on fish species, feed management, and food processing. Mackerel, herring and trout fillets characteristically contained adequate dietary amounts of absolute EPA and DHA, due to their high fat contents. However, despite a lower fat content, tuna, pollock, and Alaska pollock can contribute considerable amounts of EPA and DHA to the human supply. Farmed salmon are an appropriate source of EPA and DHA owing to their higher fat content compared to wild salmon (12.3 vs. 2.1 wt %, however with elevated SFA, n-9 and n-6 FA contents representing the use of vegetable oils and oilseeds in aquaculture feed. The n-3/n-6 ratio was deteriorated (2.9 vs. 12.4 but still acceptable. Compared to pure fish fillets, breaded and pre-fried Alaska pollock fillet contained extraordinarily high fat and n-6 PUFA levels. Conclusions Since fish species vary with respect to their n-3 LC PUFA contents, eating a variety of fish is advisable. High n-6 PUFA containing pre-fried fish support the imbalance of n-3/n-6 ratio in the Western diet. Thus, consumption of pure fish fillets is to be favoured. The lower

  4. Production of Fish Hydrolysates Protein From Waste of Fish Carp (Cyprinus Carpio by Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dede Saputra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Fish Protein Hydrolysates (FPH is the mixed products of polypeptide, dipeptides, and amino acid. It can be produced from materials that contained of protein by acid reaction, base reaction or enzymatic hydrolysis. The objectives of this study were to study the production of FPH from fish carp meat at post rigor phase and viscera by enzymatic hydrolysis, to determine the specific activity of papain enzyme, and to determine the solubility of FPH. Capacity of fish hydrolyzing can be identified by analyzing the content of dissolved total nitrogen (NTT compared with nitrogen total ingredient (NTB in order to get the value of total soluble nitrogen/total nitrogen material (NTT/NTB. The hydrolysis processes were carried out in 0,26% (w/v papain, 60 οC for 3 hours. The result showed that the specific activity of papain enzyme was about 3.28 U/mg. Solubility of FPH by comparing NTT/NTB was about 0.29% (fish meat and 0.40% (fish viscera. Proximate test of protein content of fish meat was 18.34 ± 0.04 (g/100 g; while viscera was about 0.95±0.04 (g/100 g. The result indicated that product waste of fish carp had potential as a major of source of FPH.

  5. Biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas aeruginosain kefir and fish meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaskatepe, Banu; Yildiz, Sulhiye; Gumustas, Mehmet; Ozkan, Sibel A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to increase rhamnolipid production by formulating media using kefir and fish meal for Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from different environmental resources. The strains, named as H1, SY1, and ST1, capable of rhamnolipid production were isolated from soil contaminated with wastes originating from olive and fish oil factories. Additionally, P. aeruginosa ATCC 9027 strain, which is known as rhamnolipid producer, was included in the study. Initially, rhamnolipid production by the strains was determined in Mineral Salt Medium (MSM) and then in media prepared by using kefir and fish meal. The obtained rhamnolipids were purified and quantified according to Dubois et al. (1956). The quantity of rhamnolipids of ATCC, H1 and SY1 strains in kefir media were determined as 11.7 g/L, 10.8 g/L and 3.2 g/L, respectively, and in fish meal media as 12.3 g/L, 9.3 g/L and 10.3 g/L, respectively. In addition, effect of UV light exposure on rhamnolipid production was also investigated but contrary a decrease was observed. The results indicate that P. aeruginosa strains isolated from various environmental resources used in this study can be important due to their rhamnolipid yield, and fish meal, which is obtained from waste of fish, can be an alternative source in low cost rhamnolipid production.

  6. Biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas aeruginosain kefir and fish meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Kaskatepe

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to increase rhamnolipid production by formulating media using kefir and fish meal for Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from different environmental resources. The strains, named as H1, SY1, and ST1, capable of rhamnolipid production were isolated from soil contaminated with wastes originating from olive and fish oil factories. Additionally, P. aeruginosa ATCC 9027 strain, which is known as rhamnolipid producer, was included in the study. Initially, rhamnolipid production by the strains was determined in Mineral Salt Medium (MSM and then in media prepared by using kefir and fish meal. The obtained rhamnolipids were purified and quantified according to Dubois et al. (1956. The quantity of rhamnolipids of ATCC, H1 and SY1 strains in kefir media were determined as 11.7 g/L, 10.8 g/L and 3.2 g/L, respectively, and in fish meal media as 12.3 g/L, 9.3 g/L and 10.3 g/L, respectively. In addition, effect of UV light exposure on rhamnolipid production was also investigated but contrary a decrease was observed. The results indicate that P. aeruginosa strains isolated from various environmental resources used in this study can be important due to their rhamnolipid yield, and fish meal, which is obtained from waste of fish, can be an alternative source in low cost rhamnolipid production.

  7. Fish trypsins: potential applications in biomedicine and prospects for production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesús-de la Cruz, Kristal; Álvarez-González, Carlos Alfonso; Peña, Emyr; Morales-Contreras, José Antonio; Ávila-Fernández, Ángela

    2018-04-01

    In fishes, trypsins are adapted to different environmental conditions, and the biochemical and kinetic properties of a broad variety of native isoforms have been studied. Proteolytic enzymes remain in high demand in the detergent, food, and feed industries; however, our analysis of the literature showed that, in the last decade, some fish trypsins have been studied for the synthesis of industrial peptides and for specific biomedical uses as antipathogenic agents against viruses and bacteria, which have been recently patented. In addition, innovative strategies of trypsin administration have been studied to ensure that trypsins retain their properties until they exert their action. Biomedical uses require the production of high-quality enzymes. In this context, the production of recombinant trypsins is an alternative. For this purpose, E. coli -based systems have been tested for the production of fish trypsins; however, P. pastoris -based systems also seem to show great potential in the production of fish trypsins with higher production quality. On the other hand, there is a lack of information regarding the specific structures, biochemical and kinetic properties, and characteristics of trypsins produced using heterologous systems. This review describes the potential uses of fish trypsins in biomedicine and the enzymatic and structural properties of native and recombinant fish trypsins obtained to date, outlining some prospects for their study.

  8. Oxidative Stability and Sensory Attributes of Fermented Milk Product Fortified with Fish Oil and Marine Phospholipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Thomsen, Birgitte Raagaard; Hyldig, Grethe

    2013-01-01

    Marine phospholipids (PL) are potential ingredients for food fortification due to its numerous advantages. The main objective of this study was to investigate whether a fermented milk product fortified with a mixture of marine PL and fish oil had better oxidative stability than a fermented milk...... product fortified with fish oil alone. Fortification of a fermented milk product with marine PL was performed by incorporating 1 % w/w lipids, either in the form of neat oil or in the form of a pre-emulsion. Lipid oxidation was investigated in the neat emulsions and fortified products by the measurements...... of primary, secondary volatile oxidation products and tocopherol content upon 32 days storage at 2 °C and 28 days storage at 5 °C, respectively. Analyses of particle size distribution, viscosity and microbial growth were also performed. In addition, sensory attributes such as sour, fishy and rancid flavor...

  9. Secondary Aluminum Production: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) for new and existing sources at secondary aluminum production facilities. Includes rule history, summary, federal register citations and implementation information.

  10. Decontamination of fish and seafood products by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna C, P.C.

    1992-05-01

    An alternative to prolong the useful shelf life of the fish and of the sea products is the use of the ionizing radiation. The radiation process in combination with other conservation methods like the refrigeration or freezing, assures the hygienic quality of the marine products, eliminating bacteria that cause decomposition as well as of others that produce illnesses and that they are transmitted through these, like is the case of Vibrio Cholera, Salmonella, Shigella Yersinia etc. In this document the technical feasibility of the irradiation applied to the fish and the sea products, in fresh, refrigerated and frozen form will be analyzed. (Author)

  11. Potential Fish Production Impacts from Partial Removal of Decommissioned Oil and Gas Platforms off the Coast of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claisse, J.; Pondella, D.; Love, M.; Zahn, L.; Williams, C.; Bull, A. S.

    2016-02-01

    When oil and gas platforms become obsolete they go through a decommissioning process. This may include partial removal (from the surface to 26 m depth) or complete removal of the platform structure. While complete removal would likely eliminate most of the existing fish biomass and associated secondary production, we find that the potential impacts of partial removal would likely be limited on all but one platform off the coast of California. On average 80% of fish biomass and 86% of secondary fish production would be retained after partial removal, with above 90% retention expected for both metrics on many platforms. Partial removal would likely result in the loss of fish biomass and production for species typically found residing in the shallow portions of the platform structure. However, these fishes generally represent a small proportion of the fishes associated with these platforms. More characteristic of platform fauna are the primarily deeper-dwelling rockfishes (genus Sebastes). "Shell mounds" are biogenic reefs that surround some of these platforms resulting from an accumulation of mollusk shells that have fallen from the shallow areas of the platforms mostly above the depth of partial removal. We found that shell mounds are moderately productive fish habitats, similar to or greater than natural rocky reefs in the region at comparable depths. The complexity and areal extent of these biogenic habitats, and the associated fish biomass and production, will likely be reduced after either partial or complete platform removal. Habitat augmentation by placing the partially removed platform superstructure or some other additional habitat enrichment material (e.g., rock boulders) on the seafloor adjacent to the base of partially removed platforms provides additional options to enhance fish production, potentially mitigating reductions in shell mound habitat.

  12. Fish product mislabelling: failings of traceability in the production chain and implications for illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helyar, Sarah J; Lloyd, Hywel Ap D; de Bruyn, Mark; Leake, Jonathan; Bennett, Niall; Carvalho, Gary R

    2014-01-01

    Increasing consumer demand for seafood, combined with concern over the health of our oceans, has led to many initiatives aimed at tackling destructive fishing practices and promoting the sustainability of fisheries. An important global threat to sustainable fisheries is Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated (IUU) fishing, and there is now an increased emphasis on the use of trade measures to prevent IUU-sourced fish and fish products from entering the international market. Initiatives encompass new legislation in the European Union requiring the inclusion of species names on catch labels throughout the distribution chain. Such certification measures do not, however, guarantee accuracy of species designation. Using two DNA-based methods to compare species descriptions with molecular ID, we examined 386 samples of white fish, or products labelled as primarily containing white fish, from major UK supermarket chains. Species specific real-time PCR probes were used for cod (Gadus morhua) and haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) to provide a highly sensitive and species-specific test for the major species of white fish sold in the UK. Additionally, fish-specific primers were used to sequence the forensically validated barcoding gene, mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI). Overall levels of congruence between product label and genetic species identification were high, with 94.34% of samples correctly labelled, though a significant proportion in terms of potential volume, were mislabelled. Substitution was usually for a cheaper alternative and, in one case, extended to a tropical species. To our knowledge, this is the first published study encompassing a large-scale assessment of UK retailers, and if representative, indicates a potentially significant incidence of incorrect product designation.

  13. Fish product mislabelling: failings of traceability in the production chain and implications for illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU fishing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Helyar

    Full Text Available Increasing consumer demand for seafood, combined with concern over the health of our oceans, has led to many initiatives aimed at tackling destructive fishing practices and promoting the sustainability of fisheries. An important global threat to sustainable fisheries is Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated (IUU fishing, and there is now an increased emphasis on the use of trade measures to prevent IUU-sourced fish and fish products from entering the international market. Initiatives encompass new legislation in the European Union requiring the inclusion of species names on catch labels throughout the distribution chain. Such certification measures do not, however, guarantee accuracy of species designation. Using two DNA-based methods to compare species descriptions with molecular ID, we examined 386 samples of white fish, or products labelled as primarily containing white fish, from major UK supermarket chains. Species specific real-time PCR probes were used for cod (Gadus morhua and haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus to provide a highly sensitive and species-specific test for the major species of white fish sold in the UK. Additionally, fish-specific primers were used to sequence the forensically validated barcoding gene, mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI. Overall levels of congruence between product label and genetic species identification were high, with 94.34% of samples correctly labelled, though a significant proportion in terms of potential volume, were mislabelled. Substitution was usually for a cheaper alternative and, in one case, extended to a tropical species. To our knowledge, this is the first published study encompassing a large-scale assessment of UK retailers, and if representative, indicates a potentially significant incidence of incorrect product designation.

  14. Waste composting and proving fish for production the organic fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda San Martins Sanes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The volumes of waste generated in the fishing activity are increasing due to the increase in demand for these products. This implies the need for fast processing and cycling of these materials. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the use of waste generated in the fishing activity as a source of organic fertilizers in agricultural production systems familiar ecological basis. The experiment was conducted at the Experimental Station Cascade / Embrapa Temperate Climate was assessed throughout the composting process and the fermentation of fish waste, identifying the main points that enable the use of these fertilizers in farming systems ecological base. The composting process of rice husk revealed be incomplete during the experiment. The compound prepared with fish waste and exhausted bark of acacia presents itself as a good source of nutrients for crops, which may be suitable as organic fertilizer for production of ecologically-based systems. For liquid organic fertilizer, the conditions under which the experiment was conducted, it is concluded that the compound resulting from aerobic or anaerobic fermentation of fish waste, present themselves as a viable source of nutrients for productive systems of ecological base. However, further studies need to be conducted to better understanding and qualification of both processes.

  15. The Impacts of wetland restoration on Fish Productivity in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayorinde, O. A.; Okunade, K. M.; Agboola, D. M.; Adesokan, Z. A.

    2016-02-01

    Wetland is one of the resources of high value which has been exposed to indiscriminate use. It is an important ecosystem to fish and loss or degradation of wetland will have a direct consequence on sustainable fisheries. This paper reviewed the term "wetland", its functions and values, importance to fish production in Nigeria and threats to its sustainability. The term "wetland" has been defined by various researchers especially based on their profession and their needs but up till today there is no single definition accepted by all users. In Nigeria, the most commonly adopted is that of RAMSAR convention. Wetland has both marketed and non-marketed functions and values. They provide essential link in the life cycle of 75 percent of the fish and shell fish commercially harvested in the world and are vital to fish health. Despite the importance, there have been exceptional losses of wetlands. Lagos state alone has witnessed more than 96 percent loss. Major threats to wetlands are: agriculture, development, pollution and climate change. Therefore proper management of the wetland ecosystem is important in other to ensure continuous fish production.

  16. Combined production of fish and plants in recirculating water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naegel, L.C.A.

    1977-01-01

    A pilot plant of ca 2000 l of recirculating fresh water for intensive fish production was constructed in a controlled-environment greenhouse. The feasibility was examined of using nutrients from fish wastewater, mainly oxidized nitrogenous compounds, for plant production, combined with an activated sludge system for water purification. The reduction of nitrates, formed during the extended aeration process by nitrifying bacteria, was not sufficient by higher plants and unicellular algae alone to reduce the nitrate concentration in our system significantly. An additional microbial denitrification step had to be included to effect maximal decrease in nitrogenous compounds. For fish culture in the pilot plant Tilapia mossambica and Cyprinus carpio were chosen as experimental fishes. Both fish species showed significant weight increases during the course of the experiment. Ice-lettuce and tomatoes were tested both in recirculating water and in batch culture. The unicellular algae Scenedesmus spp. were grown in a non-sterile batch culture. All plants grew well in the wastewater without additional nutrients. Determination of the physical and chemical parameters for optimum water purification, the most suitable ratio of denitrification by plants and by microorganisms, and the most favourable fish and plant species for combined culture in recirculating water are important and of current interest in view of the increasing demand for clean, fresh water, and the pressing need to find new ways of producing protein for human nutrition under prevailing conditions of an exponentially expanding world population.

  17. Dietary exposure of Hong Kong secondary school students to total mercury and methylmercury from fish intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Anna Shiu Ping; Kwong, Ka Ping; Chung, Stephen Wai Cheung; Ho, Yuk Yin; Xiao, Ying

    2009-01-01

    Fish is the main source of dietary exposure to methylmercury (MeHg), which is a public health concern owing to its potential neurotoxicity. To evaluate the public health risk, this study estimated the total mercury (tHg) and MeHg exposure from fish intake in Hong Kong secondary school students. Median tHg and MeHg concentrations of 280 samples purchased from different commercial outlets (covering 89 species of whole fish and three types of canned tuna), together with the local food consumption data of secondary school students obtained by semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire in 2000, were used to estimate dietary exposure from fish intake for the average and high consumer (95th percentile exposure). For tHg, the median concentration was 63 µg kg(-1) (range 3-1370 µg kg(-1)) and estimated exposures ranged 0.5-0.6 µg kg(-1) body weight (bw) week(-1) for an average consumer and 1.6-1.9 µg kg(-1) bw week(-1) for a high consumer. For MeHg, median concentration was 48 µg kg(-1) (range 3-1010 µg kg(-1)) and estimated dietary exposures were 0.4-0.5 µg kg(-1) bw week(-1) for an average consumer and 1.2-1.4 µg kg(-1) bw week(-1) for a high consumer. These values are below the respective provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) established by the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The health risk is greater for high consumers since MeHg exposures may approach or exceed the PTWI when other dietary sources are taken into account.

  18. Improved Processing and Marketing of Healthy Fish Products in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Improved Processing and Marketing of Healthy Fish Products in Inland Fisheries in Malawi (CultiAF). This project aims ... They will test different pre-drying methods: -no pre-drying treatment -parboiling -smoking -brining Solar dryer and business model testing Researchers will assess the solar dryers' economic performance.

  19. Consumer purchasing behavior towards fish and seafood products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlucci, D.; Nocella, G.; Devitiis, De B.; Bimbo, F.; Nardone, G.

    2015-01-01

    The present systematic review was performed to assess consumer purchasing behaviour towards fish and seafood products in the wide context of developed countries. Web of Science, Scopus, ScienceDirect and Google Scholar engines were used to search the existing literature and a total of 49 studies

  20. [Performance evaluation of a fluorescamine-HPLC method for determination of histamine in fish and fish products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Hiroyuki; Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Matsuda, Rieko

    2012-01-01

    A method for the quantification of histamine in fish and fish products using tandem solid-phase extraction and fluorescence derivatization with fluorescamine was previously developed. In this study, we improved this analytical method to develop an official test method for quantification of histamine in fish and fish products, and performed a single laboratory study to validate it. Recovery tests of histamine from fillet (Thunnus obesus), and two fish products (fish sauce and salted and dried whole big-eye sardine) that were spiked at the level of 25 and 50 µg/g for T. obesus, and 50 and 100 µg/g for the two fish products, were carried out. The recoveries of histamine from the three samples tested were 88.8-99.6% with good repeatability (1.3-2.1%) and reproducibility (2.1-4.7%). Therefore, this method is acceptable for the quantification of histamine in fish and fish products. Moreover, surveillance of histamine content in food on the market was conducted using this method, and high levels of histamine were detected in some fish products.

  1. 46 CFR 105.90-1 - Existing commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Existing commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum... AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Existing Commercial Fishing Vessels Dispensing Petroleum Products § 105.90-1 Existing commercial fishing vessels dispensing...

  2. Utilisation of composted night soil in fish production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polprasert, C.

    1984-01-01

    The stabilisation of human night soil mixed with water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and vegetable leaves by a simple composting method was found to be effective. This composting method did not require mechanical aeration or pile turning, but could retain most of the valuable nutrients and inactivate a large portion of micro-organisms present in the compost piles. A considerable yield of Tilapia could be obtained when the composted product was applied as feed to fish ponds. A discussion is included of the technical feasibility and the microbiological aspects of the integrated scheme of compost-fed fish ponds.

  3. Simulated recalls of fish products in five Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randrup, Maria; Storøy, J.; Lievonen, S.

    2008-01-01

    Simulated recalls of fish products sampled in retailer shops were conducted in five Nordic countries to indicate the effectiveness and accuracy of chain traceability systems. The results suggested poor traceability practices at the vessels/auctions and revealed that batch sizes at the last...... traceable step of the raw material vary considerably. However, the existing traceable information seemed to be easily accessible. Altogether, the fish industry in the Nordic countries seems not to be fully prepared for a recall.. Improved traceability awareness and practices in the whole chain can limit...

  4. THE NEED FOR DIVERSIFICATION IN FISH FARMING PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krešimir Pažur

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the characteristics of developed economies in the world is a very rich and diversified offer of goods. There are many products of different assortment, of different quality and price on the market. In keeping with the marketing conception, the production is trying to satisfy all potential consumers. Croatian freshwater fish farming has not yet reached this stage. The assortment is very limited and includes mostly carp (up to 80%, Californian trout (up to 10%, grass carp (around 4%, wels, pike-perch and pike together up to 2.70%, while the rest are commercially insignificant and uninteresting fish species. In the last few years, an increasingly important type of consumers has emerged on the market sporting anglers whose importance is growing and bringing totally new, specific demands that the fish ponds at the moment cannot meet, except maybe in marginal quantities. There is a categorical imperative of a fast adjustment of the production assortment of our fishing farms to the tendencies in the nourishment of the population in developed countries that can also be observed in our country and to the demands and needs of sporting anglers.

  5. Improving production of Zebra Fish Embryos in the lab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jens Peter; Adu, Robert Ohene

    2011-01-01

    in the laboratory. Culture conditions were maintained in the aquaria as stipulated in the OECD draft proposal for a new guideline on fish embryo tests. Furthermore, a sequence of steps were adopted and followed to improve upon previous work done in the lab in 2006. About 200 eggs were produced in one spawn trap......The utilization of fish embryos in toxicity testing of hazardous chemicals has recently been adopted in order to satisfy stricter rules and regulations related to using adult animals in toxicity testing. This paper presents optimising steps towards improving zebra fish embryo production...... within an hour of onset of light, an improvement over the 50-60 eggs produced in the previous work. This result demonstrates that with the right culture conditions and proper optimisation of procedure the required number of embryos needed for toxicity testing can be obtained....

  6. Chemical products toxicological tests performed on lake and river fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teulon, F.; Simeon, C.

    1966-01-01

    The volume and toxical values of industrial and urban effluents are growing higher and therefore acute or chronic pollution hazard is proportionally increased. Hence it is necessary to determine the effluent components minimum lethal dose for fish (one hour or six hours according to applicable standards). The following tests are described in this report: toxicity of some chemical products, tested individually (sodium, sulphate, sodium chloride, sodium fluoride, etc...); toxicity of some metal ions (Al 3+ , Fe ++ , Fe 3+ , Pb ++ , etc...); toxicity of certain mixed compounds for various fish species (sun perch, tench, gold fish, roach, gudgeon, bleak). The test results obtained represent local values and may be used for reference and as a general basis for other investigation and calculation of the effluents data when released. (author) [fr

  7. FISH PRODUCTION ESTIMATES FOR GBEDIKERE LAKE, BASSA, KOGI STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Olusegun Adeyemi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Annual estimates of the fish caught by local fishermen in randomly selected fishing villages adjacent to Gbedikere Lake were determined using Catch Assessment (CAS. The studies were carried out within two seasons of low water (February and high water (September periods between 2006 to 2008. Annual fish catch varied from 537.4 mts to 576.9 mts at high water. Mean catch per boat ranged from 7.40 kg to 10.60 kg among the landing sites. A total of 12 fish species were identified belonging to ten families. The catches were dominated by the cichlids with Orechromis niloticus dominating the overall catch compositions. Production estimate was compared with the catches obtained through experimental gill-net sampling and potential fish yield estimates using Ryder’s Morpho - Edaphic Index (MEI as modified by Henderson and Welcomme (1974. Contributions of the gears in use were also done with cast nets ranking above others (29%, followed by the set net (25%, hook and lines (16.6%, traps (16.6%, clap net (8.3%. Management measures were suggested.

  8. Occurrence of bioactive sphingolipids in meat and fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellgren, Lars

    2001-01-01

    /neutral glycolipids varied from 1 to 2.9, while in poultry this ratio varied between 5.2 to 19.2 and in red meat it varied from 1.6 to 8.3. The fatty acid composition of sphingomyelin in fish was dominated by C24:1 (Delta (9)) or C22:1 (Delta (9)), while C16:0 and C18:0 were the dominating sphingomyelin species....... Therefore we investigated the contents of sphingomyelin and neutral glycosphingolipids in commonly consumed meat and fish products. Sphingomyelin and glycosphingolipids were found in all foodstuffs studied. The total amount varied between 118 +/- 17 nmol/g (cod) to 589 +/- 39 nmol/g (chicken leg). Generally......, lower amounts of sphingolipids were determined in fish meat than in red meat and poultry, while poultry was the richest source of this class of lipids. However, fish meat contained a relatively high content of neutral glycolipids compared with other types of meat. Thus, in fish the ratio sphingomyelin...

  9. Engineering of secondary metabolite production in streptomycetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertsen, Helene Lunde; Gram, Lone

    Streptomycetes are known for their ability to produce a range of different secondary metabolites, including antibiotics, immunosuppressive, anti-fungals, and anti-cancer compounds. Of these compounds, antibiotics play an important role in the clinics for treatment of both mild and severe bacterial...... the computational prediction of suitable 20 bp protospacers for the single guide RNAs and a USER-cloning method for construction of the CRISPR plasmids. Additional improvement to the system was achieved through the development of an optimised USER assembly workflow for cheaper and faster plasmid construction....... The workflow was verified by manual knock-down of two biosynthetic gene clusters in model organism Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2), which confirmed the applicability of the system. A second part of the thesis was devoted to engineering of Streptomyces collinus Tü 365, which is a known producer of the narrow...

  10. REQUIREMENTS ON CLINICAL TRIALS FOR VETERINARY PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS FOR FISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Sturzu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Veterinary pharmaceutical products intended for use in fish should comply with all usual requirements regarding approval for marketing, according to the Order of the President of the National Sanitary Veterinary Agency and for Food Safety No.187/2007, with subsequent amendments and additions. According to the legislation the technical file should containe documentation of quality, safety of animals, consumer, user and environment and demonstration of efficacy and tolerance in the target species. This paper provides the important information on requirements for demonstration on efficacy of pharmaceutical products indended for use in fish. The principal aim of the efficacy data is to prove the therapeutic value of pharmaceutical products and to establish an optimal dose and period of dose administration. In efficacity clinical trial is needed, also, to take into account, the various conditions such as climatic aspects, disease situation, water temperature and salinity, because these may influence the outcome and veracity of the studies.

  11. In vitro organic matter digestibility and gas production of fish-meal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-03-28

    Mar 28, 2011 ... In this study, an in vitro rumen gas production technique was utilized to evaluate fish-meal coated with ... Keywords: fish-meal; gas production; hydrogenated tallow; .... industrial city, Saveh, Iran). ..... commercial dairy rations.

  12. Fish burger enriched by olive oil industrial by-product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedola, Annamaria; Cardinali, Angela; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro; Conte, Amalia

    2017-07-01

    Oil industry produces large volume of waste, which represents a disposal and a potential environmental pollution problem. Nevertheless, they are also promising sources of compounds that can be recovered and used as valuable substances. The aim of this work is to exploit solid olive by-products, in particular dry olive paste flour (DOPF) coming from Coratina cultivar, to enrich fish burger and enhance the quality characteristics. In particular, the addition of olive by-products leads to an increase of the phenolic content and the antioxidant activity; however, it also provokes a deterioration of sensory quality. Therefore, to balance quality and sensory characteristics of fish burgers, three subsequent phases have been carried out: first, the quality of DOPF in terms of phenolic compounds content and antioxidant activity has been assessed; afterward, DOPF has been properly added to fish burgers and, finally, the formulation of the enriched fish burgers has been optimized in order to improve the sensory quality. Results suggested that the enriched burgers with 10% DOPF showed considerable amounts of polyphenols and antioxidant activity, even though they are not very acceptable from the sensory point of view. Pre-treating DOPF by hydration/extraction with milk, significantly improved the burger sensory quality by reducing the concentration of bitter components.

  13. Fish production practices and use of aquaculture technologies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated types of improved aquaculture technologies used by the ... fish farmers culture fish in earthen ponds, for commercial and home consumption ... fishes/m2 (98.3%), water quality management (99.1%) and fish ...

  14. 46 CFR 105.05-1 - Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products... MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Application § 105.05-1 Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products. (a) The provisions of this part, with the exception of...

  15. Histamine poisoning and control measures in fish and fishery products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierina eVisciano

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Histamine poisoning is one of the most common form of intoxication caused by the ingestion of fish and fishery products. Cooking, canning or freezing cannot reduce the levels of histamine because this compound is heat stable. All humans are susceptible to histamine and its effects can be described as intolerance or intoxication depending on the severity of the symptoms. The amount of histamine in food, the individual sensitivity and the detoxification activity in human organism represent the main factors affecting the toxicological response in consumers. Histamine is the only biogenic amine with regulatory limits set by European Legislation, up to a maximum of 200 mg/kg in fresh fish and 400 mg/kg in fishery products treated by enzyme maturation in brine.

  16. Fish production and climate: Sprat in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Köster, Fritz

    2004-01-01

    Processes controlling the production of new fish (recruitment) are poorly understood and therefore challenge population ecologists and resource managers. Sprat in the Baltic Sea is no exception: recruitment varies widely between years and is virtually independent of the biomass of mature sprat......-scale climate variability (North Atlantic Oscillation), Baltic Sea ice coverage, and water temperature. These relationships increase our understanding of sprat population dynamics and enable a desirable integration of fisheries ecology and management with climatology and oceanography....

  17. A fish-feeding laboratory bioassay to assess the antipredatory activity of secondary metabolites from the tissues of marine organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Micah J; Pawlik, Joseph R

    2015-01-11

    Marine chemical ecology is a young discipline, having emerged from the collaboration of natural products chemists and marine ecologists in the 1980s with the goal of examining the ecological functions of secondary metabolites from the tissues of marine organisms. The result has been a progression of protocols that have increasingly refined the ecological relevance of the experimental approach. Here we present the most up-to-date version of a fish-feeding laboratory bioassay that enables investigators to assess the antipredatory activity of secondary metabolites from the tissues of marine organisms. Organic metabolites of all polarities are exhaustively extracted from the tissue of the target organism and reconstituted at natural concentrations in a nutritionally appropriate food matrix. Experimental food pellets are presented to a generalist predator in laboratory feeding assays to assess the antipredatory activity of the extract. The procedure described herein uses the bluehead, Thalassoma bifasciatum, to test the palatability of Caribbean marine invertebrates; however, the design may be readily adapted to other systems. Results obtained using this laboratory assay are an important prelude to field experiments that rely on the feeding responses of a full complement of potential predators. Additionally, this bioassay can be used to direct the isolation of feeding-deterrent metabolites through bioassay-guided fractionation. This feeding bioassay has advanced our understanding of the factors that control the distribution and abundance of marine invertebrates on Caribbean coral reefs and may inform investigations in diverse fields of inquiry, including pharmacology, biotechnology, and evolutionary ecology.

  18. The buying behaviour of European retail buyers of fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bove, Karsten

    Empirical studies of retailer buying behaviour show which attributes are important when retail buyers choose between new products and suppliers. Skytte & Blunch (1998) identified which attributes make a difference to retail buyers in Western Europe when buying fish products, and they identified...... the following five segments of retail buyer policy based on the results: 1) 'Relationship builders' are small chains that focus on long term relationships. 2) 'The traditional chains' are small or medium-sized and include many co-operative chains that demand high product quality. They also want suppliers...... that are able to deliver sufficient quantities. 3) Voluntary chains are dominating the 'large chains' segment. They have a high share of private label products and want long term relationships with suppliers and sufficient quantities. 4) 'Green shops' include many small wholesalers sponsored chains and co...

  19. Homestead fish farmers' production profile in Osun state, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Homestead fish farming in the Nigeria is carried out by small scale operators in small fresh water ponds. ... fish farmers in Osun state is also characterized by a high level of use of improved fish farming techniques and improved technologies.

  20. OCCURANCE OF HISTAMINE IN FISH PRODUCTS ON MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mancusi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Histamine fish poisoning is quite common and occur in consequence of microbial decarboxylase whose activity begin early in the post-mortem but are triggered in consequence of abuse in the shelf life of fish products. In this study forty-eight samples of tuna, mackerel, anchovies, sardines, fresh or processed were sampled from fish shops and supermarkets in the City of Bologna in the period from January to July 2010. Concentration of histamine was assessed using ELISA quantitative test and presence of psicrotrophic histamine forming bacteria was searched using a modified Niven agar medium which allow detection of suspect colonies that were confirmed by PCR for detecting the presence of the histidine decarboxylase genes in their DNA. The positive colonies were then identified on the basis of their morphology, Gram reaction and biochemical characteristics with API20E. The differential capability of the Niven agar was found to be low and approximately one fifth of the suspect colonies were confirmed by the PCR test, which however included both strong and weak histamine producing strains. The presence of Morganella morganii was associated with concentration of histamine 460 mg∙kg-1 above the allowed limit in a sample of tuna sampled from a fish shop. The same bacterium was found in samples of Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus. High histamine concentration (between 258 and > 300 mg∙kg-1 were observed in salted European pilchard and European anchovy (228 mg∙kg-1 sold loose in supermarkets. Because temperature abuse could occur when Tuna (fresh/defrozen are hold on chopping board to sell fresh cuts and during shelf life of salted pilchard and pickled anchovies held in opened cans in chilled display cabinets for extended period, which might results in very high histamine concentration, controls on time and temperature at the retail, in addition to those done during the harvest and processing are needed. The studies aiming at

  1. Research Note Testing for a decline in secondary productivity under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We suggest that this counterintuitive result reflects the combing out, and therefore loss, of hair in the densely vegetated site. This study failed to demonstrate a decline in secondary productivity in desertified thicket and highlights the importance of replicating such studies in space and time. African Journal of Range & Forage ...

  2. Potential consequences of climate change for primary production and fish production in large marine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Julia L; Jennings, Simon; Holmes, Robert; Harle, James; Merino, Gorka; Allen, J Icarus; Holt, Jason; Dulvy, Nicholas K; Barange, Manuel

    2012-11-05

    Existing methods to predict the effects of climate change on the biomass and production of marine communities are predicated on modelling the interactions and dynamics of individual species, a very challenging approach when interactions and distributions are changing and little is known about the ecological mechanisms driving the responses of many species. An informative parallel approach is to develop size-based methods. These capture the properties of food webs that describe energy flux and production at a particular size, independent of species' ecology. We couple a physical-biogeochemical model with a dynamic, size-based food web model to predict the future effects of climate change on fish biomass and production in 11 large regional shelf seas, with and without fishing effects. Changes in potential fish production are shown to most strongly mirror changes in phytoplankton production. We project declines of 30-60% in potential fish production across some important areas of tropical shelf and upwelling seas, most notably in the eastern Indo-Pacific, the northern Humboldt and the North Canary Current. Conversely, in some areas of the high latitude shelf seas, the production of pelagic predators was projected to increase by 28-89%.

  3. Radiation preservation of fish and by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vas, K

    1974-07-01

    The desirability of making the irradiation of fish and fishery products the subject of common experiments in the South and South East Asian and Far East region was based on studies carried out in various laboratories in the region, as well as the findings of a Technical Assistance Mission to the area in 1971/72, and an FAO/IAEA Study Group Meeting on Food Irradiation in Bangkok (1971). As a result, fish preservation by irradiation was among the first topics suggested for collaborative studies under the IAEA-sponsored Regional Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (RCA), which became operational in June 1972. Following an FAO/IAEA Panel meeting on Aspects of the Introduction of Food Irradiation in Developing Countries at Bombay, in November 1972, it was suggested that collaborative fish irradiation studies be initiated as the first regional project under the RCA. A meeting of scientists authorized to represent the Governments willing to participate in the venture, was recommended. This plan was accepted by an informal meeting of Government Representatives on the future of the RCA held during the 17th Session of the General Conference of the IAEA in Vienna in 1973. The offer of the Philippine Government to host the initiating meeting was accepted, and the Working Group to launch the Asian Regional Project on Radiation Preservation of Fish and Fishery Products (RPF) met in November 1973 in Manila. This meeting was attended by representatives of Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Korea, Pakistan, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. The Federal Republic of Germany and Japan sent observers who also served as consultants and greatly contributed to the scientific deliberations. The Working Group accepted a Project Agreement draft which foresees regional co-ordination of the scientific programme by common planning, distribution of labour and reporting at annual co-ordination meetings. To achieve these goals, the

  4. Radiation preservation of fish and by-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vas, K.

    1974-01-01

    The desirability of making the irradiation of fish and fishery products the subject of common experiments in the South and South East Asian and Far East region was based on studies carried out in various laboratories in the region, as well as the findings of a Technical Assistance Mission to the area in 1971/72, and an FAO/IAEA Study Group Meeting on Food Irradiation in Bangkok (1971). As a result, fish preservation by irradiation was among the first topics suggested for collaborative studies under the IAEA-sponsored Regional Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (RCA), which became operational in June 1972. Following an FAO/IAEA Panel meeting on Aspects of the Introduction of Food Irradiation in Developing Countries at Bombay, in November 1972, it was suggested that collaborative fish irradiation studies be initiated as the first regional project under the RCA. A meeting of scientists authorized to represent the Governments willing to participate in the venture, was recommended. This plan was accepted by an informal meeting of Government Representatives on the future of the RCA held during the 17th Session of the General Conference of the IAEA in Vienna in 1973. The offer of the Philippine Government to host the initiating meeting was accepted, and the Working Group to launch the Asian Regional Project on Radiation Preservation of Fish and Fishery Products (RPF) met in November 1973 in Manila. This meeting was attended by representatives of Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Korea, Pakistan, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. The Federal Republic of Germany and Japan sent observers who also served as consultants and greatly contributed to the scientific deliberations. The Working Group accepted a Project Agreement draft which foresees regional co-ordination of the scientific programme by common planning, distribution of labour and reporting at annual co-ordination meetings. To achieve these goals, the

  5. Complex and rational use fish raw material at production of the fish products

    OpenAIRE

    Saltanova, N.; Saltanov, D.

    2011-01-01

    There was developed resource saving technology of herring preserves, which allows to rationally use raw, to cut lasting of the technological process, to lower the production costs and rise the economical effectiveness of production. There were defined the optimal conditions of getting broths of herring wastes. There were developed the recipes of fills at the base of broth from collagen-containing wastes of herring with the addition of vegetable raw.

  6. Biodiesel production using oil from fish canning industry wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, J.F.; Almeida, M.F.; Alvim-Ferraz, M.C.M.; Dias, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A process was established to produce biodiesel from fish canning industry wastes. • Biodiesel production was enabled by an acid esterification pre-treatment. • Optimization studies showed that the best catalyst concentration was 1 wt.% H 2 SO 4 . • There was no advantage when a two-step alkali transesterification was employed. • Waste oil from olive oil bagasse could be used to improve fuel quality. - Abstract: The present study evaluated biodiesel production using oil extracted from fish canning industry wastes, focusing on pre-treatment and reaction conditions. Experimental planning was conducted to evaluate the influence of acid catalyst concentration (1–3 wt.% H 2 SO 4 ) in the esterification pre-treatment and the amount of methanolic solution (60–90 vol.%) used at the beginning of the further two-step alkali transesterification reaction. The use of a raw-material mixture, including waste oil obtained from olive oil bagasse, was also studied. The results from experimental planning showed that catalyst concentration mostly influenced product yield and quality, the best conditions being 1 wt.% catalyst and 60 vol.% of methanolic solution, to obtain a product yield of 73.9 wt.% and a product purity of 75.5 wt.%. Results from a one-step reaction under the selected conditions showed no advantage of performing a two-step alkali process. Although under the best conditions several of the biodiesel quality parameters were in agreement with standard specifications, a great variation was found in the biodiesel acid value, and oxidation stability and methyl ester content did not comply with biodiesel quality standards. Aiming to improve fuel quality, a mixture containing 80% waste olive oil and 20% of waste fish oil was evaluated. Using such mixture, biodiesel purity increased around 15%, being close to the standard requirements (96.5 wt.%), and the oxidation stability was in agreement with the biodiesel quality standard values (⩾6 h), which

  7. Micro -algae biomass as an alternative resource for fishmeal and fish oil in the production of fish feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safafar, Hamed

    evident that the continued exploitation of industrial fish as a resource fish feed will ultimately become both environmentally and economically unsustainable. Microalgae are at the base of the entire aquatic food chain and play a major role in the diet of aquatic animals such as fish. Microalgae’s main...... application for aquaculture are related to nutrition, being used as a sole fresh feed or an additive, e.g. source of pigment. Algae produce almost all nutritious compounds which are required for fish. The diverse biochemical composition of microalgae represents them as a promising candidate...... for the formulation of fish feed. The nutritional composition of microalgae depends on the species, environmental conditions and growth medium composition. Microalgae for use in aquaculture should be non-toxic and possess the essential nutritive constituents, in a reasonable price. Photosynthetic production of algae...

  8. Impacts from Partial Removal of Decommissioned Oil and Gas Platforms on Fish Biomass and Production on the Remaining Platform Structure and Surrounding Shell Mounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claisse, Jeremy T; Pondella, Daniel J; Love, Milton; Zahn, Laurel A; Williams, Chelsea M; Bull, Ann S

    2015-01-01

    When oil and gas platforms become obsolete they go through a decommissioning process. This may include partial removal (from the surface to 26 m depth) or complete removal of the platform structure. While complete removal would likely eliminate most of the existing fish biomass and associated secondary production, we find that the potential impacts of partial removal would likely be limited on all but one platform off the coast of California. On average 80% of fish biomass and 86% of secondary fish production would be retained after partial removal, with above 90% retention expected for both metrics on many platforms. Partial removal would likely result in the loss of fish biomass and production for species typically found residing in the shallow portions of the platform structure. However, these fishes generally represent a small proportion of the fishes associated with these platforms. More characteristic of platform fauna are the primarily deeper-dwelling rockfishes (genus Sebastes). "Shell mounds" are biogenic reefs that surround some of these platforms resulting from an accumulation of mollusk shells that have fallen from the shallow areas of the platforms mostly above the depth of partial removal. We found that shell mounds are moderately productive fish habitats, similar to or greater than natural rocky reefs in the region at comparable depths. The complexity and areal extent of these biogenic habitats, and the associated fish biomass and production, will likely be reduced after either partial or complete platform removal. Habitat augmentation by placing the partially removed platform superstructure or some other additional habitat enrichment material (e.g., rock boulders) on the seafloor adjacent to the base of partially removed platforms provides additional options to enhance fish production, potentially mitigating reductions in shell mound habitat.

  9. Impacts from Partial Removal of Decommissioned Oil and Gas Platforms on Fish Biomass and Production on the Remaining Platform Structure and Surrounding Shell Mounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy T Claisse

    Full Text Available When oil and gas platforms become obsolete they go through a decommissioning process. This may include partial removal (from the surface to 26 m depth or complete removal of the platform structure. While complete removal would likely eliminate most of the existing fish biomass and associated secondary production, we find that the potential impacts of partial removal would likely be limited on all but one platform off the coast of California. On average 80% of fish biomass and 86% of secondary fish production would be retained after partial removal, with above 90% retention expected for both metrics on many platforms. Partial removal would likely result in the loss of fish biomass and production for species typically found residing in the shallow portions of the platform structure. However, these fishes generally represent a small proportion of the fishes associated with these platforms. More characteristic of platform fauna are the primarily deeper-dwelling rockfishes (genus Sebastes. "Shell mounds" are biogenic reefs that surround some of these platforms resulting from an accumulation of mollusk shells that have fallen from the shallow areas of the platforms mostly above the depth of partial removal. We found that shell mounds are moderately productive fish habitats, similar to or greater than natural rocky reefs in the region at comparable depths. The complexity and areal extent of these biogenic habitats, and the associated fish biomass and production, will likely be reduced after either partial or complete platform removal. Habitat augmentation by placing the partially removed platform superstructure or some other additional habitat enrichment material (e.g., rock boulders on the seafloor adjacent to the base of partially removed platforms provides additional options to enhance fish production, potentially mitigating reductions in shell mound habitat.

  10. Biasing secondary particle interaction physics and production in MCNP6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fensin, M.L.; James, M.R.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Biasing secondary production and interactions of charged particles in the tabular energy regime. • Examining lower weight window bounds for rare events when using Russian roulette. • The new biasing strategy can speedup calculations by a factor of 1 million or more. - Abstract: Though MCNP6 will transport elementary charged particles and light ions to low energies (i.e. less than 20 MeV), MCNP6 has historically relied on model physics with suggested minimum energies of ∼20 to 200 MeV. Use of library data for the low energy regime was developed for MCNP6 1.1.Beta to read and use light ion libraries. Thick target yields of neutron production for alphas on fluoride result in 1 production event per roughly million sampled alphas depending on the energy of the alpha (for other isotopes the yield can be even rarer). Calculation times to achieve statistically significant and converged thick target yields are quite laborious, needing over one hundred processor hours. The MUCEND code possess a biasing technique for improving the sampling of secondary particle production by forcing a nuclear interaction to occur per each alpha transported. We present here a different biasing strategy for secondary particle production from charged particles. During each substep, as the charged particle slows down, we bias both a nuclear collision event to occur at each substep and the production of secondary particles at the collision event, while still continuing to progress the charged particle until reaching a region of zero importance or an energy/time cutoff. This biasing strategy is capable of speeding up calculations by a factor of a million or more as compared to the unbiased calculation. Further presented here are both proof that the biasing strategy is capable of producing the same results as the unbiased calculation and the limitations to consider in order to achieve accurate results of secondary particle production. Though this strategy was developed for MCNP

  11. Chemical properties and colors of fermenting materials in salmon fish sauce production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsutoshi Nakano

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This data article reports the chemical properties (moisture, pH, salinity, and soluble solid content and colors of fermenting materials in salmon fish sauce products. The fish sauce was produced by mixing salt with differing proportions of raw salmon materials and fermenting for three months; the salmon materials comprised flesh, viscera, an inedible portion, and soft roe. Chemical properties and colors of the unrefined fish sauce (moromi, and the refined fish sauce, were analyzed at one, two, and three months following the start of fermentation. Data determined for all products are provided in table format. Keywords: Fish sauce, Chum salmon, Fermentation, Chemical properties, Color

  12. Seasonality of primary and secondary production in an Arctic river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, M.; Huryn, A.; Deegan, L.

    2011-12-01

    Rivers and streams that freeze solid for 8-9 months each year provide excellent examples of the extreme seasonality of arctic habitats. The communities of organisms inhabiting these rivers must complete growth and development during summer, resulting in a rapid ramp-up and down of production over the short ice-free period. The effects of recent shifts in the timing of the spring thaw and autumn freeze-up on the duration and pattern of the period of active production are poorly understood. We are currently investigating: 1) the response of the biotic community of the Kuparuk River (Arctic Alaska) to shifts in the seasonality of the ice-free period, and 2) the community response to increases in phosphorous (P) supply anticipated as the volume of the permafrost active-layer increases in response to climate warming. Here algal production supports a 2-tier web of consumers. We tracked primary and secondary production from the spring thaw through mid-August in a reference reach and one receiving low-level P fertilization. Gross primary production/community respiration (GPP/R) ratios for both reaches were increasing through mid-July, with higher GPP/R in response to the P addition. Understanding the degree of synchrony between primary and secondary production in this Arctic river system will enhance further understanding of how shifts in seasonality affect trophic dynamics.

  13. Evaluation of radioactivity concentrations from the Fukushima nuclear accident in fish products and associated risk to fish consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive contamination of the Pacific Ocean following the Fukushima nuclear accident has raised public concerns about seafood safety(1, 2). Many people are wondering whether fish products from the Pacific Ocean and Japan are safe to eat 2 y after the accident. There is also some concern about seafood caught locally, outside of Japan. Based on monitoring data reported in July 2013, radioactive caesium concentrations in fish products from Fukushima and adjacent prefectures are evaluated. Resulting radiation doses from annual consumption at average contamination levels and occasional fish meals at much higher levels of caesium are calculated. To put radiation doses from caesium intake in perspective, comparisons are made to doses from naturally occurring radioactive polonium commonly found in fish. Discussion and conclusions are given subsequently. The Tokyo Electric Power Company has conducted routine radioactivity measurements ( 134 Cs and 137 Cs) of various marine fish and shellfish in the ocean area within a 20-km radius of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS). Based on their posted summary on 16 August 2013(3), a total of 100 fish samples were collected from 7 to 23 July, offshore of the FDNPS and outside of its port area. The nuclide analysis report showed that 134 Cs was detected in 64 samples with concentrations varying from 3.5 to 130 Bq kg -1 . 137 Cs was detected in 79 samples and the concentration varied from 3.6 to 260 Bq kg -1 . On average, fish and shellfish caught within 20-km offshore of the FDNPS contain 12 Bq kg -1 of 134 Cs and 26 Bq kg -1 of 137 Cs. The Japanese Fisheries Agency (JFA), in cooperation with the relevant prefectural governments and organisations, has conducted sampling and inspections of fishery products at the major fishing ports in Fukushima and adjacent prefectures on a weekly basis to examine the possible contamination of fishery products by radioactive materials released from the FDNPS. (authors)

  14. Nuclear-Renewable Energy Systems Secondary Product Market Analysis Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deason, Wesley Ray [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    In order to properly create a program surrounding the development of any technological concept it is necessary to fully understand the market in which it is being developed. In the case of Integrated Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid Energy Systems (HES), there are two economic markets in which it must be able to participate in: the electricity market and the secondary product market associated with the specific system. The purpose of the present report is to characterize the secondary product market in the U.S. and to provide recommendations for further developing the HES program. While HESs have been discussed in depth in many other reports, it is helpful to discuss them briefly in the present work [REF]. The concept of the HES can be deduced to a system, featuring a combination of a nuclear power plant, a renewable energy source, and an industrial manufacturing plant . The system is designed in a fashion that allows it either to produce electricity or to manufacture a secondary product as needed. The primary benefit of this concept lies in its ability to maximize economic performance of the integrated system and to manufacture products in a carbon-free manner. A secondary benefit is the enhanced supply-side flexibility gained by allowing the HES to economically provide grid services. A key tenant to nuclear power plant economics in today’s electricity market is their ability to operate at a very high capacity factor. Unfortunately, in regions with a high penetration of renewable energy, the carbon free energy produced by nuclear power may not be needed at all times. This forces the nuclear power plant to find a user for its excess capacity. This may include paying the electric grid to find a user, releasing energy to the environment by ‘dumping steam’, or reducing power. If the plant is unable to economically or safely do any of these actions, the plant is at risk of being shutdown. In order to allow for nuclear power plants to continue to contribute carbon free

  15. Nuclear-Renewable Energy Systems Secondary Product Market Analysis Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deason, Wesley Ray

    2015-01-01

    In order to properly create a program surrounding the development of any technological concept it is necessary to fully understand the market in which it is being developed. In the case of Integrated Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid Energy Systems (HES), there are two economic markets in which it must be able to participate in: the electricity market and the secondary product market associated with the specific system. The purpose of the present report is to characterize the secondary product market in the U.S. and to provide recommendations for further developing the HES program. While HESs have been discussed in depth in many other reports, it is helpful to discuss them briefly in the present work [REF]. The concept of the HES can be deduced to a system, featuring a combination of a nuclear power plant, a renewable energy source, and an industrial manufacturing plant . The system is designed in a fashion that allows it either to produce electricity or to manufacture a secondary product as needed. The primary benefit of this concept lies in its ability to maximize economic performance of the integrated system and to manufacture products in a carbon-free manner. A secondary benefit is the enhanced supply-side flexibility gained by allowing the HES to economically provide grid services. A key tenant to nuclear power plant economics in today's electricity market is their ability to operate at a very high capacity factor. Unfortunately, in regions with a high penetration of renewable energy, the carbon free energy produced by nuclear power may not be needed at all times. This forces the nuclear power plant to find a user for its excess capacity. This may include paying the electric grid to find a user, releasing energy to the environment by -dumping steam', or reducing power. If the plant is unable to economically or safely do any of these actions, the plant is at risk of being shutdown. In order to allow for nuclear power plants to continue to contribute carbon free

  16. Fish Protein Concentrate Fortification Siam Patin on Amplang Snack Products and Mi Sago Instant Product as a Leading Regional Riau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewita Buchari

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To enhance fish consumption in the community especially children, fortification on processed fish product is conducted. The processed fish products are developed to fill the requirements as the fish based food products that own characterizations such as ready to eat, easy to carry, and less time to cook. Amplang snacks and instant sagoo noodles are defined as the products that fills the requirements. The research was aimed to process catfish into fish protein concentrate to become amplang snack and instant sagoo noodles. These products were designed as the effort to develop the local priority products in Riau by using diversification and fortification methods. Experimental method with fortification treatments on Fish Protein Concentrate (FPC extract from Catfish that generate products of amplang snacks and instant sagoo noodles and fish tofu were carried out. The fortified products were examined by organoleptics test that involved panelists. The results showed that the proximate analysis on fortified Catfish Protein Concentrate products were presented as following :1. water contents of 3,13 %, ash of 2,85 %, protein content of 16,13 % and fat content of 18, 66 % for ampang snacks; and 2. water contents of 11,77 %, ash of 1,30 %, protein content of 12,35 % and fat content of 1,86 % for instant sagoo nodles. All fortified FPC products filled the Indonesian Nasional Standard (SNI.Keywords: Fortification, Catfish, and Fish Protein Concentrate

  17. Application of biotechnology in fish breeding. II: production of highly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study aims to produce a highly immune, genetically modified redbelly tilapia, Tilapia zillii with accelerated growth as a result of direct injection of shark (Squalus acanthias L.) DNA into skeletal muscles of fish fingerlings at concentrations of 10, 20, 40 and 80 μg/fish. The results showed that the fish injected with ...

  18. Better processing and marketing of healthy fish products in Malawi

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    : small fish, in particular, are a vital source of calcium, vi- tamin A, iron, and zinc. Once caught, most fish are sun-dried, smoked, parboiled, or pan roasted. However, peak fish catches in Malawi coincide with seasonal rains and high humidity,.

  19. Corrosion-product inventory: the Bruce-B secondary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawicki, J.A.; Price, J.; Brett, M.E.

    1995-01-01

    Corrosion inspection and corrosion-product characterization in water and steam systems are important for component and systems maintenance in nuclear power stations. Corrosion products are produced, released and redeposited at various sites in the secondary system. Depending on the alloys used in the condenser and feedwater heaters, particulate iron oxides and hydroxides can account for about 95-99% of the total corrosion-product transport. Where brass or cupro-nickel alloys are present, copper and zinc contribute significantly to the total transport and deposition. Particulates are transported by the feedwater to the steam generators, where they accumulate and can cause a variety of problems, such as loss of heat transfer capability through deposition on boiler tubes, blockage of flow through boiler-tube support plates and accelerated corrosion in crevices, either in deep sludge piles or at blocked tube supports. The influx of oxidized corrosion products may have a particularly adverse effect on the redox environment of steam generator tubing, thereby increasing the probability of localized corrosion and other degradation mechanisms. In this paper, there is a description of a survey of general corrosion deposits in Bruce-B, Units 5-8, which helps to identify the origin, evolution and inventory of corrosion products along the secondary system of Candu reactors

  20. Coastal women empowerment in improving enterprise of fish product processing in Sanga-Sanga Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haqiqiansyah, G.; Sugiharto, E.

    2018-04-01

    This research was conducted to identify and scrutinize women empowerment of fish product processing group in the District of Sanga-Sanga on 2017. The method used was survey method, which is direct observation and interview to respondent. Data were collected in the form of primary and secondary data. Collected data then processed, tabulated, and displayed in the table and graph. The measurement of women empowerment degree was measured by Likert Scale on 3 level, that are score 1 = low, score 2 = less, and score 3 = high. The result of research demonstrated that the rate of empowerment women group of fish product processor was high (score 42,75). Partially, awareness level or willingness to change of processing enterprise group which indicate empowerment indicator categorized as high (91,67%). The level of capability to increase the chance of acquiring access was high (66,67%), the level of capability to overcome an obstacle tend to categorized as less (50%) and the level of capability to collaborate was high (66,67%). It means that the level of coastal women empowerment could be reliable to do a reformation.

  1. Secondary resources processing in production of nuclear grade yellow cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivasubramanian, S.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Recovering uranium in a cost competitive manner from sources other than the uranium ore is considered necessary from the point of view of meeting the strategic as well as the nuclear power programme need of the country. Globally, uranium is produced from ores which have more than 10 times uranium content compared to those available in India. Secondary sources of uranium are mostly defined by recycled uranium, from spent fuel of nuclear reactors, re-enriched depleted uranium tails, ex-military weapons grade uranium and stock piles for civilian use. Uranium production from secondary sources in India is largely dependent on processing of monazite, and to a smaller extent it is recovered from waste metallurgical slags generated by BARC and other private industries engaged in extracting niobium tantalum from the ores. The paper gives over view of the commercially successful processes of producing uranium from monazite and other secondary sources along with the details of setting up demonstration units for recovering uranium from wet phosphoric acid. The research and development work carried out to improve the cost economics of uranium production from monazite is also discussed as the total reported quantity of uranium associated with the monazite resources of the country is estimated at 30,000 tons of uranium metal (at the end of X Plan) compared to 75,000 ton of uranium in its primary ores

  2. Importance of Photobacterium phosphoreum in relation to spoilage of modified atmosphere-packed fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Paw; Mejlholm, Ole; Christiansen, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    Occurrence and growth of Photobacterium phosphoreum were studied in 20 experiments with fresh fish from Denmark, Iceland and Greece. The organism was detected in all marine fish species but not in fish from fresh water. Growth of P. phosphoreum to high levels (>10(7) cfu g(-1)) was observed in most...... products and the organism is likely to be of importance for spoilage of several modified atmosphere-packed (MAP) marine fish species when stored at chill temperatures. Some microbiological methods recommended for control of fish products by national and international authorities are inappropriate...... for detection of psychrotolerant and heat-labile micro-organisms like P. phosphoreum. These methods have been used in many previous studies of MAP fish and this could explain why, contrary to the findings in the present study, P. phosphoreum in general was not detected previously in spoiled MAP fish....

  3. Productivity and recovery of forage fish under climate change and fishing: North Sea sandeel as a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegren, Martin; van Deurs, Mikael; MacKenzie, Brian

    2018-01-01

    -east Atlantic, acting as a key prey for predatory fish and sea birds, as well as supporting a large commercial fishery. In this case study, we investigate the underlying factors affecting recruitment and how these in turn affect productivity of the North Sea sandeel using long-term data and modelling. Our...... results demonstrate how sandeel productivity in the central North Sea (Dogger Bank) depends on a combination of external and internal regulatory factors, including fishing and climate effects, as well as density dependence and food availability of the preferred zooplankton prey (Calanus finmarchicus...... and Temora longicornis). Furthermore, our model scenarios suggest that while fishing largely contributed to the abrupt stock decline during the late 1990s and the following period of low biomass, a complete recovery of the stock to the highly productive levels of the early 1980s would only be possible...

  4. Benzo[a]pyrene and Benzo[k]fluoranthene in Some Processed Fish and Fish Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olatunde S. Olatunji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the concentration levels of the probable carcinogenic PAH fractions, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP and benzo[k]fluoranthrene (BkF in fillets of some processed fish species were investigated. Fish species comprising Merluccius poli (hake, Tyrsites atun (snoek, Seriola lalandi (yellow-tail and Brama brama (angel fish were bought in fish shops at Gordon’s Bay, Western Cape, South Africa. The fish were gutted, filleted and prepared for edibility by frying, grilling and boiling. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were extracted from each homogenized fish sample, cleaned-up using solid phase extraction (SPE, and analysed for the PAH fractions, BaP and BkF using a Gas Chromatograph coupled with a Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID. The sum of the two PAHs (∑2PAH i.e., BaP and BkF ranged between 0.56 and 1.46 µg/kg, in all boiled, grilled and fried fish species. The fried fish extracts showed significantly higher (p < 0.05 abundance of ∑2PAH, than grilled and boiled fish. Dietary safety and PAHs toxicity was also discussed.

  5. EU REPRO: The Production of fish feed enriched with poly-unsaturated fatty acid

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Erasmus, C

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available .2 The Production of Fish Feed enriched with poly-unsaturated fatty acids Corinda Erasmus Annali Jacobs Gerda Lombard Petrus van Zyl Judy Reddy Ntombikayise Nkomo Elizabeth Timme Partner 11 Slide 2 © CSIR 2006 www... www.csir.co.za FLOW DIAGRAM OF THE PRODUCTION OF EPA- ENRICHED FISH FEED BSG (SPENT GRAIN) Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) Protein-rich BSG FISH FEED PELLETS MODIFICATION OF BSG (ENZYME/CHEMICAL/MECHANICAL) FERMENTATION (RECOVERY OF EPA...

  6. Peptides from Fish By-product Protein Hydrolysates and Its Functional Properties: an Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora-Sillero, Juan; Gharsallaoui, Adem; Prentice, Carlos

    2018-04-01

    The inadequate management of fish processing waste or by-products is one of the major problems that fish industry has to face nowadays. The mismanagement of this raw material leads to economic loss and environmental problems. The demand for the use of these by-products has led to the development of several processes in order to recover biomolecules from fish by-products. An efficient way to add value to fish waste protein is protein hydrolysis. Protein hydrolysates improve the functional properties and allow the release of peptides of different sizes with several bioactivities such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, or antihyperglycemic among others. This paper reviews different methods for the production of protein hydrolysates as well as current research about several fish by-products protein hydrolysates bioactive properties, aiming the dual objective: adding value to these underutilized by-products and minimizing their negative impact on the environment.

  7. Impact of genetically improved fish species and technology on selected hatchery and fish production in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MS Islam

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in IAPP commanding areas from July to September 2015. A total of 8 hatchery and 240 farmers were selected for this study from Rangpur and Barisal region. About 153% Tilapia production increased which was from 34 to 86 lakh, which was 148% in Rangpur district. Thai koi production was increased about 320% in Rangpur and it was 152% in Barisal. It was observed that, per hatchery Tilapia profit was Tk. 17.35 lakh and Tk. 17.18 lakh in Rangpur and Barisal, respectively. While, total profit was 3.9 times more for Thai koi in Rangpur and it was about 1.7 times more in Barisal after IAPP-BFRI project implementation. Impact of improved germplasm on grow out system was estimated. Finding shows that before IAPP-BFRI project the average harvesting weight of tilapia fish was 122g but after using IAPP-BFRI germplasm, it increased to 194g in Rangpur district. In case of Thai Koi, the harvesting weight gain was 26% in Rangpur district and it was statistically significant at 1% level. Survey results also show that per acre profit was only Tk.86671 for Tilapia farming before IAPP whereas it was increased to Tk. 234853 after IAPP-BFRI intervention. At the same time, profit from Thai Koi was increased about 189% after IAPPBFRI activities. Similarly, profit was increased about 86% in case of Pangus farming and this positive impact was statistically significant at 1% level. Therefore, it may conclude that, farmers can significantly increase Tilapia, Thai Koi and Pangus production as well as can maximize profit using IAPP technology.

  8. Arthropod pests of dried fish and fish by product in a tropical urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A four months research survey of arthropod pests infesting dried fish sold in a tropical urban community market (Ogige), Nsukka, Ngeria showed that 10 genera o dried freshwater fish (Synodontis, Hemisynodontis, Oreochromis, Hepsetus, Gymnarchus, Labeo, Protopterus, Heterobranchus, Alestes, Heterotis) and two ...

  9. Recycle food wastes into high quality fish feeds for safe and quality fish production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ming-Hung; Mo, Wing-Yin; Choi, Wai-Ming; Cheng, Zhang; Man, Yu-Bon

    2016-12-01

    The amount of food waste generated from modern societies is increasing, which has imposed a tremendous pressure on its treatment and disposal. Food waste should be treated as a valuable resource rather than waste, and turning it into fish feeds would be a viable alternative. This paper attempts to review the feasibility of using food waste to formulate feed pellets to culture a few freshwater fish species, such as grass carp, grey mullet, and tilapia, under polyculture mode (growing different species in the same pond). These species occupy different ecological niches, with different feeding modes (i.e., herbivorous, filter feeding, etc.), and therefore all the nutrients derived from the food waste could be efficiently recycled within the ecosystem. The problems facing environmental pollution and fish contamination; the past and present situation of inland fish culture (focusing on South China); upgrade of food waste based feed pellets by adding enzymes, vitamin-mineral premix, probiotics (yeast), prebiotics, and Chinese medicinal herbs into feeds; and potential health risks of fish cultivated by food waste based pellets are discussed, citing some local examples. It can be concluded that appropriate portions of different types of food waste could satisfy basic nutritional requirements of lower trophic level fish species such as grass carp and tilapia. Upgrading the fish pellets by adding different supplements mentioned above could further elevated the quality of feeds, leading to higher growth rates, and enhanced immunity of fish. Health risk assessments based on the major environmental contaminants (mercury, PAHs and DDTs) in fish flesh showed that fish fed food waste based pellets are safer for consumption, when compared with those fed commercial feed pellets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Torulaspora delbrueckii for secondary fermentation in sparkling wine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canonico, Laura; Comitini, Francesca; Ciani, Maurizio

    2018-09-01

    In the search for the desired oenological features and flavour complexity of wines, there is growing interest in the potential use of non-Saccharomyces yeast that are naturally present in the winemaking environment. Torulaspora delbrueckii is one such yeast that has seen profitable use in mixed fermentations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and with different grape varieties. T. delbrueckii can have positive and distinctive impacts on the overall aroma of wines, and has also been used at an industrial level. Here, T. delbrueckii was successfully used in pure and mixed secondary fermentations for sparkling wine. The two selected T. delbrueckii strains used completed the secondary fermentation 'prise de mousse' in these pure and mixed fermentations. The sparkling wines obtained with T. delbrueckii showed different aromatic compositions and sensory profiles to those of S. cerevisiae. T. delbrueckii strain DiSVA 130 showed high esters production and significantly high scores for some of the aromatic descriptors that positively influence the sensory profile of sparkling wine. Thus, the use of T. delbrueckii in pure and mixed fermentations is a suitable strategy to further develop the flavour complexity during secondary fermentation of sparkling wines. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Secondary Metabolites Production by Solid-State Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrios-González, J.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial secondary metabolites are useful high value products with an enormous range of biological activities. Moreover, the past two decades have been a phase of rapid discovery of new activities and development of major compounds for use in different industrial fields, mainly pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, food, agriculture and farming. Many of these metabolites could be produced advantageously in industry by solid–state fermentation (SSF. Two types of SSF can be distinguished, depending on the nature of the solid phase used: 1 Solid cultures of one support-substrate phase in which solid phase is constituted by a material that assumes, simultaneously, the functions of support and of nutrients source; and 2 Solid cultures of two substrate-support phases: solid phase is constituted by an inert support impregnated with a liquid medium. Besides good production performance, two phases systems have provided a convenient model for basic studies. Studies in our laboratory, as well as in others, have shown that physiology of idiophase (production phase in SSF share several similarities with the physiology in liquid medium, so similar strategies must be adapted for efficient production processes. However, our studies indicate the need to develop special strains for SSF since overproducing strains, generated for liquid fermentation, cannot be relied upon to perform well in SSF. On the other hand, there are important parameters, specific for SSF, that have to be optimized (pretreatment, initial moisture content, medium concentration and aeration. Respiration studies of secondary metabolites SSF, performed in our laboratory, have shown more subtle aspects of efficient production in SSF. This indicates that there are certain particularities of physiology in SSF that represent the point that needs a better understanding, and that promise to generate knowledge that will be the basis for efficient processes development and control strategies, as well as for

  12. Utilization of fish meal and fish oil for production of Cryptococcus sp. MTCC 5455 lipase and hydrolysis of polyurethane thereof

    OpenAIRE

    Thirunavukarasu, K.; Purushothaman, S.; Gowthaman, M. K.; Nakajima-Kambe, T.; Rose, C.; Kamini, N. R.

    2015-01-01

    Fish meal has been used as an additional nitrogen source and fish oil as inducer for the growth and production of lipase from Cryptococcus sp. MTCC 5455. A response surface design illustrated that the optimum factors influencing lipase production were fish meal, 1.5 %, w/v, Na2HPO4, 0.2 %, w/v, yeast extract, 0.25 %, w/v and sardine oil, 2.0 %, w/v with an activity of 71.23 U/mL at 96 h and 25 °C, which was 48.39 % higher than the conventional one-factor-at-a-time method. The crude concentrat...

  13. Chemical properties and colors of fermenting materials in salmon fish sauce production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Mitsutoshi; Sagane, Yoshimasa; Koizumi, Ryosuke; Nakazawa, Yozo; Yamazaki, Masao; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Takano, Katsumi; Sato, Hiroaki

    2018-02-01

    This data article reports the chemical properties (moisture, pH, salinity, and soluble solid content) and colors of fermenting materials in salmon fish sauce products. The fish sauce was produced by mixing salt with differing proportions of raw salmon materials and fermenting for three months; the salmon materials comprised flesh, viscera, an inedible portion, and soft roe. Chemical properties and colors of the unrefined fish sauce ( moromi ), and the refined fish sauce, were analyzed at one, two, and three months following the start of fermentation. Data determined for all products are provided in table format.

  14. Fish crackers development from minced fish and starch: an innovative approach to a traditional product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Rodrigues Pinheiro Neiva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop sensory acceptable, high nutritional value fish crackers that could be kept at room temperature for 180 days. Minced fish of different low-value species was the raw material employed to produce two types of fish crackers: a the traditional keropok cracker, which was expanded by deep frying; and b a low-fat fish cracker, expanded by microwave cooking. The protein content of the fried fish crackers (FFCs and that of the microwaved fish crackers (MFCs were high (10.86 and 14.70%, respectively. The essential amino acid contents of the two types of fish cracker were above the FAO requirements for adults, and the lysine content was above the requirements for children. Sensory analysis, performed by adult panelists, resulted in a general level of acceptability of 90% for the MFCs and of 97% for the FFCs. Vacuum packaging maintained microbiological and physicochemical properties for a storage period of 180 days at room temperature.

  15. POTENTIAL PRODUCTION OF DEMERSAL FISH STOCK IN THE MALACCA STRAIT OF INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purwanto Purwanto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Malacca Strait is one of the main fishing areas for demersal fishery in Indonesia. To support the management of that fishery, an assessment of the demersal fish stock was conducted. This study estimated that the maximum sustainable yield and the optimal catch per unit effortof demersal fishery in the Malacca Strait were about 106.8 thousand tons/year and 28.5 tons per unit of Danish seine, respectively, resulting from the operation of 3,752 Danish seines. Unfortunately, fishing effort was higher than its optimum level and the fish stock was over-exploited since 2003. To recover the demersal fish stock to its optimum level and to ensure the optimal fish production from demersal fishery in the Malacca Strait, it was necessary to reduce fishing effort at about 67% from its level in 2011.

  16. The secondary metabolite bioinformatics portal: Computational tools to facilitate synthetic biology of secondary metabolite production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilmann Weber

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural products are among the most important sources of lead molecules for drug discovery. With the development of affordable whole-genome sequencing technologies and other ‘omics tools, the field of natural products research is currently undergoing a shift in paradigms. While, for decades, mainly analytical and chemical methods gave access to this group of compounds, nowadays genomics-based methods offer complementary approaches to find, identify and characterize such molecules. This paradigm shift also resulted in a high demand for computational tools to assist researchers in their daily work. In this context, this review gives a summary of tools and databases that currently are available to mine, identify and characterize natural product biosynthesis pathways and their producers based on ‘omics data. A web portal called Secondary Metabolite Bioinformatics Portal (SMBP at http://www.secondarymetabolites.org is introduced to provide a one-stop catalog and links to these bioinformatics resources. In addition, an outlook is presented how the existing tools and those to be developed will influence synthetic biology approaches in the natural products field.

  17. Extraction by Dry Rendering Methode and Characterization Fish Oil of Catfish Viscera Fat by Product of Smooked Fish Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamini Kamini

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe catfish viscera fat, is cathfish processing by-products, has potential to be used as a source of rawmaterial for production of fish oil. This study aimed to analyze the value of proximate, heavy metal contentand fatty acid profile of catfish viscera fat (Pangasius hypopthalmus and characterized fish oil extracted bydry rendering in various temperature and time than compared it to fish oil extracted by stove heating toobtain the best treatment. Proximate, heavy metal residue, and the fatty acid profile analysis were conductedfor characterizing catfish viscera fat. Fish oil extraction was conducted by dry rendering in varioustemperatures of 50, 60, 70, 80 °C for 1, 2, and 3 hours. Fish oil quality was determined by the chemicalcharacteristics i.e. PV, FFA, anisidin and TOTOX. The results of the study showed that fat content of catfishfat viscera was 88.19 %, the heavy metals content was below SNI standart to be consumed, and fatty acidprofile composition was SFA>MUFA>PUFA. The highest fatty acid content was oleic acid. The best fish oilquality was resulted on temperature extraction of 50°C for 2 hours with yield value, PV, FFA, anisidin, andTOTOX were 45.17 %, 2.77 meq/kg, 0.83 %, 2.86 meq/kg, 8.39 meq/kg respectively. This result was notsignificantly different with fish oil extracted by the stove heating expect for yield and PV were 80.11% and6.52 meq/kg, respectively.

  18. Enhancement in secondary particulate matter production due to mountain trapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Teng; Fung, J. C. H.; Ma, H.; Lau, A. K. H.; Chan, P. W.; Yu, J. Z.; Xue, J.

    2014-10-01

    As China's largest economic development zone, the Pearl River Delta (PRD) is subject to particulate matter (PM) and visibility deterioration problems. Due to high PM concentration, haze days impacting ambient visibility have occurred frequently in this region. Besides visibility impairment, PM pollution also causes a negative impact on public health. These negative impacts have heightened the need to improve our understanding of the PM pollution of the PRD region. One major cause of the PRD pollution problem is cold front passages in the winter; however, the mechanism of pollution formation stays unclear. In this study, the Comprehensive Air Quality Model (CAMx) is utilized to investigate the detailed PM production and transport mechanisms in the PRD. Simulated concentrations of PM2.5 species, which have a good correlation with observation, show that sulfate and nitrate are the dominant pollutants among different PM2.5 species. Before the cold front passage a large amount of gas-phase and particle-phase pollutants are transported to the mountainous regions in the north of the PRD, and become trapped by the terrain. Over the mountain regions, cloud driven by upwelling flow promotes aqueous-phase reactions including oxidations of PM precursors such as SO2 and NO2. By this process, production of secondary PM is enhanced. When the cold front continues to advance further south, PM is transported to the PRD cities, and suppressed into a thin layer near the ground by a low planetary boundary layer (PBL). Thus high PM concentration episodes take place in the PRD cities. After examining production and transportation pathways, this study presents that the complex terrain configuration would block pollutant dispersion, provide cloudy environment, and advance secondary PM production. Previous studies have pointed out that pollution emitted from outside this region largely influences the air quality in the PRD; however, this study shows that pollutants from the outside could be

  19. A review of lipid extraction from fish processing by-product for use as a biofuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeoti, Ibraheem A.; Hawboldt, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    Fish processing facilities generate a significant amount of fish by-products that could be an important source of energy, food, or industrial feedstock. While fish oil is a natural source of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (mostly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) used in nutritional supplements, the ability to extract, refine, and get to market of these oils may be challenging at processing facilities where there is limited infrastructure and plants are remotely located. Under these conditions, extraction of oil from fish by-product for use as an in-house or regional fuel may be both economically and environmentally be a more sustainable approach. Processes to extract and refine fish oil for fuel are less energy intensive than the processes for nutritional quality oils and do not require the stringent product specifications and approval process as in the food and pharmaceutical industry. Unlike food crops, extraction of oil from fish residue does not negatively impact food production. This paper presents an overview of developments made in fish oil extraction methodologies including physical, chemical and biological processes. - Highlights: • We have reviewed various lipid extraction methods from fish residue. • Low grade fish oils for fuel applications can be beneficial to facility and region. • The environmental impacts and safety issues can be reduced using SFE method

  20. Secondary organic aerosol production from modern diesel engine emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Samy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Secondary organic aerosol (SOA production was observed at significant levels in a series of modern diesel exhaust (DE aging experiments conducted at the European Outdoor Photoreactor/Simulation Chamber (EUPHORE. The greatest production occurred in DE with toluene addition experiments (>40%, followed by DE with HCHO (for OH radical generation experiments. A small amount of SOA (3% was observed for DE in dark with N2O5 (for NO3 radical production experiments. The analysis for a limited number (54 of polar organic compounds (POC was conducted to assess the composition of modern DE and the formation of photochemical transformation products. Distinct POC formation in light versus dark experiments suggests the role of OH initiated reactions in these chamber atmospheres. A trend of increasing concentrations of dicarboxylic acids in light versus dark experiments was observed when evaluated on a compound group basis. The four toluene addition experiments in this study were performed at different [tol]o/[NOx]o ratios and displayed an average SOA %yield (in relation to toluene of 5.3±1.6%, which is compared to past chamber studies that evaluated the impact of [tol]o/[NOx]o on SOA production in more simplified mixtures.

  1. Production of fish finger from sand smelt (Atherina boyeri, RISSO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-05-23

    May 23, 2011 ... Departmant of Fishing and Fish Processing Technology, Faculty of Fisheries, University of Süleyman Demirel, 32500. Eğirdir, Isparta, Turkey. ... the consumption of food as “heat and eat” has become important. Food sector .... In many of the developed countries, the habits of nourish- ment are changing and ...

  2. Strategy for increasing marine fish production in Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parulekar, A

    stream_size 5 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Proc_Workshop_Evol_Strat_Dev_Agric_Anim_Husb_Fish_Goa_1991_73.pdf.txt stream_source_info Proc_Workshop_Evol_Strat_Dev_Agric_Anim_Husb_Fish_Goa_1991_73.pdf.txt Content...

  3. Better processing and marketing of healthy fish products in Malawi

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In Malawi, fish provide 70% of the animal protein in people's diets: small fish, in particular, are a vital source of calcium, vi- tamin A, iron, and zinc. ... es in Malawi coincide with seasonal rains and high humidity, which interfere with drying and ...

  4. Production of live prey for marine fish larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Kraul, S

    1989-01-01

    Tropical marine fish larvae vary in their requirements for live planktonic food. Selection of live prey species for culture depends on larval size and larval tolerance of water quality. This report describes some of the cultured prey species, and their uses and limits as effective food for fish larvae. Methods are presented for the culture of phytoplankton, rotifers, copepods, and other live feeds.

  5. Production of oxidatively stable fish oil enriched food emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni Let, Mette

    Purpose: The objective of the project is to determine how a number of selected fish oil enriched foods can be protected against oxidation by the right choice of antioxidants, emulsifiers and optimal process conditions. Furthermore the influence of antioxidant addition to the fish oil it...... have many other health benefiting properties such as preventing heart diseases. Addition of fish oils to foods is therefore of interest. The many double bonds in the fatty acids are however susceptible to oxidation. Collaboration partners: The project is a collaborative project between DFU-FF, Bio......-self on the effect of antioxidants added to the foods will also be investigated. Background: Fish oils are rich sources of the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids EPA and DHA of which DHA is a vital component of the phospholipids of human cellular membranes, especially those in the brain and retina. Fish oils...

  6. LIMNOLOGICAL CONDITION AND ESTIMATION OF POTENTIAL FISH PRODUCTION OF KERINCI LAKE JAMBI, SUMATRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Samuel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Kerinci Lake is a type of tectonic lakes located in a protected forest area of National Park of Kerinci Sebelat and a source of various fish species important for local people for their dayly food comsumption and income. However, few information is available on limnological condition and fish resources. Field research observing the limnological condition and estimating the potential fish production was conducted four times in April, June, August and October 2013. The research is aimed to describe the condition of limnology and estimate the potential fish production of the lake. Limnological aspect included the physico-chemical and biological parameters, namely: temperature, water transparency, depth, substrate, conductivity, pH, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, ammonia, nitrate, phosphate, total phosphorus, chlorophyll-a and trophic state. Potential fish production was calculated by using the biological parameter levels of chlorophyll-a. The results show that the euphotic layer of the lake waters was still feasible for fish life. Water condition of the bottom layer was less supportable for fish life due to low dissolved oxygen content. Trophic state index (TSI values, either measured by temporal and spatial ways, had TSI with an average of 61.75. From these index, the lake is classified as a lake at the high productivity level (eutrophic. Annual fish production was an average of 307 kg/ha/year. By taking account the average of fish production and the total area of lake of around 4,200 ha, the potential fish production of Kerinci Lake is estimated about ± 1,287 tons/year.

  7. [Food hygiene aspects in the production of food fish in fishing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörmansdorfer, S; Brand, U; Stein, H; Bauer, J

    1997-03-01

    The development of the aerob-mesophilic bacteria on epidermis and peritoneum of 68 barbels was determined at 0, 4 and 8 hours after slaughtering. Therefore, one group of 34 animals was stored at 15.3 degrees C, an other equal one at 21.6 degrees C. A change in germ counts per cm2 could be seen in none of the groups during the first 4 hours. However, unrefrigerated carcasses showed an increase of bacteria up to 5-fold between the 4th and 8th hour, whereas in the refrigerated group no change occurred during that time, too. Rinsing the fish after slaughtering resulted in a decrease of the initial bacterial counts by up to 65.4% and so in significantly lower germ loads at the end of the storage time. These results were confirmed by contaminating 24 rainbow trout with Salmonella Infantis artificially. The frequency of detection did not change in refrigerated fish over 8 hours, while nearly doubling in unrefrigerated ones. Moreover, it could be shown that a Salmonella-concentration of only 30 CFU per 100 ml water was sufficient for contaminating fish in detectable grades. The study leads to the conclusion that the storage of instantly slaughtered fish in a common thermobox with freezing elements is suited for preserving its microbiological status for at least 8 hours. The caging of living fish after capture, which must be regarded critically under the aspect of treating animals in a humane way, seems therefore unnecessary.

  8. Elasticities of resource- use in fish production: a case study of Oyo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined the elasticities of resource use in fish production in Oyo agricultural zone, Oyo state. The data used is from a primary source. The instruments of data collection were structured questionnaire and in-depth interview. Multi-stage sampling technique was employed to sample 120 fish farmers. However ...

  9. Agricultural production - Phase 2. Indonesia. Rice - azolla - fish culture - use of nuclear technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Iwao.

    1991-01-01

    The primary aim of the expert mission was to provide advice on the use of nuclear techniques to study rice-azolla-fish culture. Results of the work performed so far show that basal application of azolla gives similar or better yields of rice than basal application of urea. Fish productivity was also found to be significantly higher when azolla is present. 2 tabs

  10. 76 FR 10556 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Fish and Fishery Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-25

    ... Amendment to the Standard for Quick Frozen Fish Sticks. Proposed Food Additive Provisions in Standards for... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food Safety and Inspection Service [Docket No. FSIS-2010-0036] Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Fish and Fishery Products AGENCY: Office of the...

  11. Production of Imitated fish and Keeping their Quality by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, H.E.S.

    2004-01-01

    this investigation aims to the possibility of utilizing the bolti fish which obtained from high dam lake specially large size and under utilized for manufacturing imitated shellfish product and compared with natural shell fish and also, aims to study the possibility of gamma irradiation at doses 1,3,and 5 kGy for keeping the quality of imitated fish product during cold storage. therefore whole fish bolti were obtained from Misr Aswan company. the whole fish were dressed and minced. the obtained minced fish was washed three times with sodium bicarbonate (0.2%), distilled water and sodium chloride solution (0.15%). the cryoprotectant ingredient (sorbitol, sucrose and tripoli phosphate) was added to washed minced fish for producing intermediate product (surimi). the final product (imitated fish) was manufactured by adding egg white, starch, corn oil, natural color and flavor of shrimp and crab according to special formula for shrimp and crab. the imitated shrimp sample were irradiated at doses 1,3 and 5 kGy and sold stored

  12. FRESHWATER FISH FARMING CONDITIONS IN 1999 AND THE PRODUCTION PLAN FOR 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatko Homen

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the activities of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Fishery and Mediterranean Agriculture Directorate, i. e. Fishery Directorate to be more specific, is the monitoring of conditions in freshwater fish farming. The objective of this work is to show conditions in freshwater fish farming during 1999. and to provide a production plan for 2000. It will also provide detailed insight into the present conditions in freshwater fish farming and into the production trends of this field. Regarding this issue, the »Questionnaire for the Monitoring of Conditions in Freshwater Fish Farming«, was sent to fish farmers aroud the country data was processed from 22 cap ponds and 13 trout ponds. Roughe estimates of conditions were conducted for 2 fish farms, since they haven’t yet returned the mandatoruy questionnaire, i. e. the necessary data. This work features data on the number of employees in fish farms, as well as their qualifications, on the actual production and distribution of farmed freshwater fish, on the areas where production was conducted and on the overall yield. Fish food, raw materials, used tools and incentive funds paid were also taken into consideration. The difficulties faced in this branch of the economy are also inicated. Compared to 1998, a slight decrease in the number of employees of freshwater fish farms has been recorded. The total number of employees in 1999 was 655, of which 555 were on carp ponds and 100 on trout ponds. Data on the qualifications of employees for 1999 show that most of them were unskilled workers, while highly skilled workers make up a minority in this work force. The total production of freshwater in 1999. amoounted to 6.185,51 tons. Of this amount 5.592,52 tons were warm-water fish specied and 592,99 tons were cold-water fish species. Compared to 1998, production decreased by 4,89 percent. Production for 2000 has been planned to increase by 22,15 percent, i. e. the production quantity is projected

  13. Species selection in secondary wood products: implications for product design and promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew S. Bumgardner; Scott A. Bowe; Scott A. Bowe

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the perceptions that people have of several commercially important wood species and determined if word-based and specimen-based evaluations differed. Such knowledge can help secondary wood manufacturers better understand their products and develop more effective design concepts and promotional messages. A sample of more than 250 undergraduate...

  14. Ammonia production, excretion, toxicity, and defense in fish: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Y K Ip

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Many fishes are ammonotelic but some species can detoxify ammonia to glutamine or urea. Certain fish species can accumulate high levels of ammonia in the brain or defense against ammonia toxicity by enhancing the effectiveness of ammonia excretion through active NH4+ transport, manipulation of ambient pH, or reduction in ammonia permeability through the branchial and cutaneous epithelia. Recent reports on ammonia toxicity in mammalian brain reveal the importance of permeation of ammonia through the blood-brain barrier and passages of ammonia and water through transporters in the plasmalemma of brain cells. Additionally, brain ammonia toxicity could be related to the passage of glutamine through the mitochondrial membranes into the mitochondrial matrix. On the other hand, recent reports on ammonia excretion in fish confirm the involvement of Rhesus glycoproteins in the branchial and cutaneous epithelia. Therefore, this review focuses on both the earlier literature and the up-to-date information on the problems and mechanisms concerning the permeation of ammonia, as NH3, NH4+ or proton-neutral nitrogenous compounds, across mitochondrial membranes, the blood-brain barrier, the plasmalemma of neurons, and the branchial and cutaneous epithelia of fish. It also addresses how certain fishes with high ammonia tolerance defend against ammonia toxicity through the regulation of the permeation of ammonia and related nitrogenous compounds through various types of membranes. It is hoped that this review would revive the interests in investigations on the passage of ammonia through the mitochondrial membranes and the blood-brain barrier of ammonotelic fishes and fishes with high brain ammonia-tolerance, respectively.

  15. Microbial and sponge loops modify fish production in phase-shifting coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Cynthia B; Silva-Lima, Arthur W; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B; Marques, Jomar S M; Almeida, Marcelo G; Thompson, Cristiane C; Rezende, Carlos E; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Moura, Rodrigo L; Salomon, Paulo S; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2015-10-01

    Shifts from coral to algae dominance of corals reefs have been correlated to fish biomass loss and increased microbial metabolism. Here we investigated reef benthic and planktonic primary production, benthic dissolved organic carbon (DOC) release and bacterial growth efficiency in the Abrolhos Bank, South Atlantic. Benthic DOC release rates are higher while water column bacterial growth efficiency is lower at impacted reefs. A trophic model based on the benthic and planktonic primary production was able to predict the observed relative fish biomass in healthy reefs. In contrast, in impacted reefs, the observed omnivorous fish biomass is higher, while that of the herbivorous/coralivorous fish is lower than predicted by the primary production-based model. Incorporating recycling of benthic-derived carbon in the model through microbial and sponge loops explains the difference and predicts the relative fish biomass in both reef types. Increased benthic carbon release rates and bacterial carbon metabolism, but decreased bacterial growth efficiency could lead to carbon losses through respiration and account for the uncoupling of benthic and fish production in phase-shifting reefs. Carbon recycling by microbial and sponge loops seems to promote an increase of small-bodied fish productivity in phase-shifting coral reefs. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Production and propagation of secondary particles near the earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derome, L.

    2008-01-01

    A few years ago the AMS01 embarked experiment showed a particular high component of the cosmic particle flux detected below the geo-magnetic cut which was surprising because this cut represents the minimal energy that is required for cosmic radiation to reach the earth and any cosmic ray below the cut is pushed away by the earth's magnetic field. This work is based on Monte-Carlo simulations involving the generation of primary cosmic particles, their propagation in the earth magnetic field, their interaction with earth's atmosphere and the production of secondary particles. These simulations have shown that the particles below the cut are in fact particles generated in the upper part of the atmosphere, escaping from it and being trapped by the earth's magnetic field. These Monte-Carlo simulations have also been used to assess the composition of below-the-cut flux in terms of protons, electrons, positrons and light nuclei, to check the production of anti-matter in the atmosphere, and to estimate the flux of atmospheric neutrinos. (A.C.)

  17. Impact of Monsoon to Aquatic Productivity and Fish Landing at Pesawaran Regency Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunarso; Zainuri, Muhammad; Ario, Raden; Munandar, Bayu; Prayogi, Harmon

    2018-02-01

    Monsoon variability influences the productivity processes in the ocean and has different responses in each waters. Furthermore, variability of marine productivity affects to the fisheries resources fluctuation. This research has conducted using descriptive method to investigate the consequences of monsoon variability to aquatic productivity, sea surface temperature (SST), fish catches, and fish season periods at Pesawaran Regency waters, Lampung. Variability of aquatic productivity was determined based on chlorophyll-a indicator from MODIS satellite images. Monsoon variability was governed based on wind parameters and fish catches from fish landing data of Pesawaran fish market. The result showed that monsoon variability had affected to aquatic productivity, SST, and fish catches at Pesawaran Regency waters. Maximum wind speed and lowest SST occurred twice in a year, December to March and August to October, which the peaks were on January (2.55 m/s of wind speed and 29.66°C of SST) and September (2.44 m/s of wind speed and 29.06°C of SST). Also, Maximum aquatic productivity happened on January to March and July to September, which it was arisen simultaneously with maximum wind speed and the peaks was 0.74 mg/m3 and 0.78 mg/m3, on February and August respectively. The data showed that fish catches decreased along with strong wind speed and low SST. However, when weak wind speed and high SST occurred, fish catches increased. The correlation between Catch per Unit Effort (CPUE) with SST, wind speed, and chlorophyll-a was at value 0.76, -0.67, and -0.70, respectively. The high rate fish catches in Pesawaran emerged on March-May and September-December.

  18. Resource partitioning within major bottom fish species in a highly productive upwelling ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellaoui, Souad; El Halouani, Hassan; Tai, Imane; Masski, Hicham

    2017-09-01

    The Saharan Bank (21-26°N) is a wide subtropical continental shelf and a highly productive upwelling ecosystem. The bottom communities are dominated by octopus and sparid fish, which are the main targets of bottom-trawl fishing fleets. To investigate resource partitioning within the bottom fish community, adult fish from 14 of the most abundant species were investigated for stomach content analysis. Samples were collected during two periods: October 2003 and May 2007. The diet of the analysed species showed more variation between periods than between size classes, suggesting that temporal or spatial variability in prey availability appears to play a significant role in their diet. Multivariate analysis and subsequent clustering led to a grouping of the species within five trophic guilds. Two species were fish feeders, and the others mainly fed on benthic invertebrates, where epibenthic crustaceans, lamellibranchs and fish were the most important groups in defining trophic guilds. We found that the studied species had a high rate of overlapping spatial distributions and overlapping trophic niches. In this highly productive upwelling ecosystem, where food resources may not be a limiting factor, inter-specific competition did not appear to be an important factor in structuring bottom fish communities. For the species that showed differences in the proportions of prey categories in comparison with other ecosystems, the rise of the proportion of epibenthic crustaceans in their diet was a common feature; a possible consequence of the benthic productivity of this highly productive upwelling ecosystem.

  19. Utilization of fish meal and fish oil for production of Cryptococcus sp. MTCC 5455 lipase and hydrolysis of polyurethane thereof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirunavukarasu, K; Purushothaman, S; Gowthaman, M K; Nakajima-Kambe, T; Rose, C; Kamini, N R

    2015-09-01

    Fish meal has been used as an additional nitrogen source and fish oil as inducer for the growth and production of lipase from Cryptococcus sp. MTCC 5455. A response surface design illustrated that the optimum factors influencing lipase production were fish meal, 1.5 %, w/v, Na2HPO4, 0.2 %, w/v, yeast extract, 0.25 %, w/v and sardine oil, 2.0 %, w/v with an activity of 71.23 U/mL at 96 h and 25 °C, which was 48.39 % higher than the conventional one-factor-at-a-time method. The crude concentrated enzyme hydrolyzed polyurethane (PUR) efficiently and hydrolysis was 94 % at 30 °C and 96 h. The products, diethylene glycol and adipic acid were quantified by HPLC and scanning electron microscopic studies of the degraded polymer showed significant increase in size of the holes from 24 to 72 h of incubation. Hydrolysis of PUR within 96 h makes the lipase novel for disposal of PUR and provides an innovative solution to the problems created by plastic wastes.

  20. Microbial and nutritional aspects on the production of live feeds in a fish farming industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Donno, A; Lugoli, F; Bagordo, F; Vilella, S; Campa, A; Grassi, T; Guido, M

    2010-03-01

    Aquaculture is an enterprise in constant development, in particular relating to its effect on the environment and also the quality of its products. It represents a valid alternative to traditional fishing, facing the increasing demand for fish products. To guarantee to the consumer a product of high nutritional, organoleptic and hygienic quality, it is fundamental to monitor every phase of the fish farming industry, isolating the potential risk points. For this reason there has been a rapid evolution of productive technique, particularly in the technology, artificial reproduction and feed sectors. The aim of this research has been the monitoring of the evolution of certain microbial and nutritional quality indexes (total microbial counts and lipid analysis on suspensions of Rotifers and Artemia, used as live feed) in the larval phase of the productive cycle of the farm raised fish, in an intensive system. The study has shown an increment in the total microbial counts in the fish farming industry within the production of Rotifers and Artemia, more evident in the suspensions of Rotifers. In addition the study has demonstrated that the maintenance phase, in the enrichment protocol, can reduce the EPA and DHA content. The results confirm the importance of microbial and nutritional control of the live feeds before they get supplied to fish larvae.

  1. A Global Analysis of the Relationship between Farmed Seaweed Production and Herbivorous Fish Catch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E James Hehre

    Full Text Available Globally, farmed seaweed production is expanding rapidly in shallow marine habitats. While seaweed farming provides vital income to millions of artisanal farmers, it can negatively impact shallow coral reef and seagrass habitats. However, seaweed farming may also potentially provide food subsidies for herbivorous reef fish such as the Siganidae, a valuable target family, resulting in increased catch. Comparisons of reef fish landings across the central Philippines revealed that the catch of siganids was positively correlated to farmed seaweed production whilst negatively correlated to total reef fish catch over the same period of time. We tested the generality of this pattern by analysing seaweed production, siganid catch, and reef fish catch for six major seaweed-producing countries in the tropics. We hypothesized that increased seaweed production would correspond with increased catch of siganids but not other reef fish species. Analysis of the global data showed a positive correlation between farmed seaweeds and siganids in Southeast Asia (Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines but not Africa (Tanzania and Zanzibar, or the Western Pacific (Fiji. In Southeast Asia, siganid catch increased disproportionately faster with seaweed production than did reef fish catch. Low continuity, sporadic production and smaller volumes of seaweed farming may explain the differences.

  2. A Global Analysis of the Relationship between Farmed Seaweed Production and Herbivorous Fish Catch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehre, E James; Meeuwig, Jessica J

    2016-01-01

    Globally, farmed seaweed production is expanding rapidly in shallow marine habitats. While seaweed farming provides vital income to millions of artisanal farmers, it can negatively impact shallow coral reef and seagrass habitats. However, seaweed farming may also potentially provide food subsidies for herbivorous reef fish such as the Siganidae, a valuable target family, resulting in increased catch. Comparisons of reef fish landings across the central Philippines revealed that the catch of siganids was positively correlated to farmed seaweed production whilst negatively correlated to total reef fish catch over the same period of time. We tested the generality of this pattern by analysing seaweed production, siganid catch, and reef fish catch for six major seaweed-producing countries in the tropics. We hypothesized that increased seaweed production would correspond with increased catch of siganids but not other reef fish species. Analysis of the global data showed a positive correlation between farmed seaweeds and siganids in Southeast Asia (Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines) but not Africa (Tanzania and Zanzibar), or the Western Pacific (Fiji). In Southeast Asia, siganid catch increased disproportionately faster with seaweed production than did reef fish catch. Low continuity, sporadic production and smaller volumes of seaweed farming may explain the differences.

  3. Discovery and characterization of natural products that act as pheromones in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Buchinger, Tyler J; Li, Weiming

    2018-06-20

    Covering: up to 2018 Fish use a diverse collection of molecules to communicate with conspecifics. Since Karlson and Lüscher termed these molecules 'pheromones', chemists and biologists have joined efforts to characterize their structures and functions. In particular, the understanding of insect pheromones developed at a rapid pace, set, in part, by the use of bioassay-guided fractionation and natural product chemistry. Research on vertebrate pheromones, however, has progressed more slowly. Initially, biologists characterized fish pheromones by screening commercially available compounds suspected to act as pheromones based upon their physiological function. Such biology-driven screening has proven a productive approach to studying pheromones in fish. However, the many functions of fish pheromones and diverse metabolites that fish release make predicting pheromone identity difficult and necessitate approaches led by chemistry. Indeed, the few cases in which pheromone identification was led by natural product chemistry indicated novel or otherwise unpredicted compounds act as pheromones. Here, we provide a brief review of the approaches to identifying pheromones, placing particular emphasis on the promise of using natural product chemistry together with assays of biological activity. Several case studies illustrate bioassay-guided fractionation as an approach to pheromone identification in fish and the unexpected diversity of pheromone structures discovered by natural product chemistry. With recent advances in natural product chemistry, bioassay-guided fractionation is likely to unveil an even broader collection of pheromone structures and enable research that spans across disciplines.

  4. Secondary production at the Polar Front, Barents Sea, August 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basedow, Sünnje L.; Zhou, Meng; Tande, Kurt S.

    2014-02-01

    To investigate spatial patterns of secondary production we sampled four core hydrographical regions of the Polar Front in the Barents Sea (Arctic Water, ArW; Polar Front Water, PFW; Atlantic Water, AtW; and Melt Water, MW) by towing an undulating instrument platform along a transect crossing the front from August 8-9, 2007. Sensors mounted on the platform provided data on the hydrography (CTD), fluorescence (Fluorometer, F) and zooplankton abundance in the size range between 0.1 and 30 mm (Laser Optical Plankton Counter, LOPC). These continuous, biophysical data with high-spatial resolution were supplemented by discrete water and zooplankton net samples at stations for sensor calibrations. After in depth quality assessments of the biophysical data, estimates were made of the vital rates based on biovolume spectrum theory. Five size groups were distinguished from the LOPC data: small (S), mainly Oithona spp. and the appendicularian Fritillaria sp.; medium (M), mainly Pseudocalanus spp. and Calanus spp. CI-CIII; large (L), mainly Calanus spp. CIV-CV; and extra large (XL and 2XL), juvenile and adult euphausids. Size groups were further divided based on transparency of organisms. Vital rates based on the biophysical in situ data in combination with biovolume spectrum theories agreed generally well with data from empirical and numerical models in the literature. ArW was characterised by subsurface maxima of chlorophyll a (chl a), and an estimated population growth of ca. 13 mg C m- 3 d- 1 for CI-CIII Calanus spp. and some older Pseudocalanus within the chl a maxima. Frontal waters were characterised by low chl a concentrations, but high abundances and production (around 1 g C m- 3 d- 1) of small copepods (Oithona spp.) and appendicularians (Fritillaria sp.). The estimated production of small-size zooplankton was an order of magnitude higher than the production of all other size groups combined, including large copepods. The high loss rates (- 166 to - 271 mg C m- 3 d- 1

  5. Possible applications of modern fish larviculture technology to ornamental fish production

    OpenAIRE

    Dhert, P.; Lim, L.C.; Candreva, P.; Van Duffel, H.; Sorgeloos, P.

    1997-01-01

    There has been rapid development in the marine foodfish larviculture technology in Europe since the early eighties, especially in the flat fish, turbot and halibut, and the bass and bream species. The most significant improvements in the eighties were the introduction of light control, artificial reproduction techniques, appropriate water treatment and the use of rotifers and Artemia nauplii of specific sizes and in the late eighties and early nineties the quality enhancement of live food org...

  6. Phytoplankton productivity in newly dug fish ponds within Lake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The declining Lake Victoria fisheries resource led to a growing recognition of aquaculture as a source of livelihood to riparian communities. Finger ponds speculated to naturally stock fish during flooding and retain them during dry seasons were introduced within the lake's wetlands. In order to develop a

  7. Recurrent Upper Quadrant Pain: A Fish Bone Secondary to Gastric Perforation and Liver Abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Liang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A 60-year-old male patient was admitted to our hospital for recurrent upper quadrant pain for 1 month. He had a past history of coronary artery disease. After admission, he repeatedly suffered from high-grade fever, chills and upper quadrant pain. Computed tomography (CT showed a round hypodense mass in the left lobe of the liver, approximately 2.7 × 2.2 cm in size, and a fish bone was confirmed by surgery in the left lobe of liver. The patient was cured completely after surgical removal of the fish bone and liver abscess. CT scan 1 month after discharge showed that the liver abscess had disappeared completely.

  8. Impact of School Staff Health on Work Productivity in Secondary Schools in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alker, Heather J.; Wang, Monica L.; Pbert, Lori; Thorsen, Nancy; Lemon, Stephenie C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Healthy, productive employees are an integral part of school health programs. There have been few assessments of work productivity among secondary school staff. This study describes the frequency of 3 common health risk factors--obesity, depressive symptoms, and smoking--and their impact on work productivity in secondary school…

  9. SUSTAINABLE TILAPIA PRODUCTION IN A BACKYARD SYSTEM FOR RURAL AREAS USING FISH BY-PRODUCTS IN FORMULATED DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servando Rueda Lopez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the feasibility of producing Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticuss, L. with formulated diets containing acid fish silage made with Hancock (Pterigoplichthys multiradiatus by-products in substitution of fishmeal. Thus four treatments containing increasing levels (0, 5, 10 and 15% of acid fish silage to substitute fishmeal were used to feed tilapia juveniles in triplicate groups (average 1.5±0.7 g and 4.3±1.0 cm.  Fish silage was prepared by adding citric and phosphoric acids at 2.6% each resulting in a liquefaction of the chop by-product mixture. After two weeks, the diets were prepared to contain 32-35% protein content. After 50 days of experimental period a total growth increase up to 827% was observed without significant differences among treatments. A specific growth rate from 3.70 to 4.10 and a survival rate from 96 to 99% was observed.  The cost analysis shows a saving on production cost up to 23.87% using the highest incorporation level of fish silage. The use of Aquaculture Recirculation System made with components normally found in a hardware store in rural or semi urban areas is discussed. It is concluded that fish offal shows a promising activity that favors the increase in fish protein production to resolve the demand of cheap protein.

  10. Design of Fishing Boat for Pelabuhanratu Fishermen as One of Effort to Increase Production of Capture Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur, Iswadi; Joko Suranto, Purwo

    2018-02-01

    Design of fishing boat for Pelabuhanratu fisherman as one of effort to increase production of capture fisheries. The fishing boat should be proper for the characteristic of its service area, as; capacity of fishing boat up to 60 GT, the fishing boat has minimum 6 fish holds and location of fish hold in the middle body, the fishing boat hull has the bilge keel plate, and the material of hull fishing boat to be made of wooden, steel, aluminium, or fiberglass. Main dimesion of fishing boat is Length Over All = 25.436 m, Breadth = 4.55 m, Draft = 1.6 m, Speed = 12.5 knots. The research had been known every thing that will be supporting the production of capture fisheries like ; amount of fish production = 25.030 ton per day, the fishing port capacity approximately 268.957GT per day, the area of fishing port industry had not completed, therefore all data research result less than standard of Oceanic Fising Port. So Pelabuhanratu National Fishing Port can not be changed to Oceanic Fishing Port.

  11. Metabolic engineering with systems biology tools to optimize production of prokaryotic secondary metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Hyun Uk; Charusanti, Pep; Lee, Sang Yup

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic engineering using systems biology tools is increasingly applied to overproduce secondary metabolites for their potential industrial production. In this Highlight, recent relevant metabolic engineering studies are analyzed with emphasis on host selection and engineering approaches...... for the optimal production of various prokaryotic secondary metabolites: native versus heterologous hosts (e.g., Escherichia coli) and rational versus random approaches. This comparative analysis is followed by discussions on systems biology tools deployed in optimizing the production of secondary metabolites....... The potential contributions of additional systems biology tools are also discussed in the context of current challenges encountered during optimization of secondary metabolite production....

  12. Deterioration and shelf-life extension of fish and fishery products by modified atmosphere packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payap Masniyom

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Fish and fishery products have been recognized as a nutrition source due to their high protein content. Moreover, theycontain considerable amount of unsaturated fatty acids, especially omega-3 fatty acids, which are regarded as preventivecompounds. However, shelf-life of seafood is limited by biochemical and microbiological changes. Modified atmospherepackaging (MAP is widely used for minimally processed fishery products including fresh meat for retarding microbial growthand enzymatic spoilage. CO2, O2, and N2 are most often used in MAP. CO2 enriched atmosphere inhibits the autolyticdegradation of fish muscle during storage. However, high levels of CO2 negatively affect product quality, especially by increasingdrip loss and altering texture. Development of satisfactory methods for shelf-life extension that ensure qualitymaintenance of products with minimum loss has drawn the attention of food technologists. The application of MAP andcombination process in seafood is a promising preservation method to extend the shelf-life of fish and fishery products.

  13. Fish production and some traits of meat quality in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss farmed in different production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    St. Stoyanova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, an important species in Bulgarian aquaculture, is farmed in different production systems as raceways, net cages etc. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of two different rearing systems on fish production, survival rate, meat chemical, mineral composition and farming economic efficiency of culticated rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss. The information from a survey on fish production and economic efficiency traits was collected from two national rainbow trout farms using the two commonest fish farming systems: in raceways, Happy Fish Ltd fish farm and in net cages, Forest Group Ltd fish farm. The average individual weight gain (g, total weight gain (kg, feed conversion ratio, production costs of 1 kg fish and the economic efficiency coefficients were determined for the two studied fish farms. The final live weight of rainbow trout in net cages was 0.30 kg vs 0.35 kg in raceways. The average individual weight gain was higher in raceways farming system (0.30 kg than in net cages farm (0.26 kg. The mortality rate of fish in raceways was considerably lower: only 1% as compared to that in net cages (4%. The feed conversion ratio at the end of the experiment showed identical values for trout in both farms 1.01. The meat water content of fish reared in raceways and net cages was 77.46±0.65% and 74.52±0.52% respectively (P≤0.01.The protein content of fish meat was higher in fish farmed in net cages 18.84±0.29% as compared to fish cultivated in raceways 17.60±0.49% (P 0.05. Meat fat content of rainbow trout, reared in the net cage system was also considerably higher (5.26±0.30% than the respective parameter in fish farmed in ponds (3.60±0.15% (P≤0.001. The content of Ca and P was higher in rainbow trouts reared in raceways (138.96±1.12 mg.kg and 2844.32±39.31 mg.kg 1 -1 -1 compared with the values of these parameters of fish in net cages (134.46±1.96 mg.kg and 2690.31±42

  14. The Potential of Biodiesel Production derived from Fish Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzana Samat, Amira; Amirah Safiah Muhamad, Nor; Rasib, Nur Aziera Abd; Hassan, Siti Aminah Mohd; Sohaimi, Khairunissa Syairah Ahmad; Izzati Iberahim, Nur

    2018-03-01

    Petroleum based diesel is one of the largest greenhouse emitters in the worlds based on its contribution to more likely of all carbon, methane and other greenhouse emissions. Besides, the depletion of fossil fuel that indirectly increased its price has force the global oil industry not to be so dependent on the fossil fuel but instead start focusing on alternative sources. Biodiesel is recognized as a clean alternative fuel or as a fuel additive to reduce pollutant from combustion equipment. In this study, the discarded parts of mixed marine fish species were used as the raw material to produce biodiesel. Marine fish oil was extracted from the discarded part of fish and if refined through a series of pretreatment process. The refined marine fish oil undergoes esterification process to reduce the amount of free fatty acid. The oil was then transesterified with methanol and sodium hydroxide as an alkaline catalyst that will speed up the conversion of oil to methyl ester. The three process parameters considered for this study were reaction time, reaction temperature and methanol to oil molar ratio. Biodiesel obtained was then analyzed using gas chromatography (GC). Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS software. The data obtained was analyzed by using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) repeated measure. The results obtained showed that the conversion of FAME yield is the highest at reaction time 180 minutes, reaction temperature 60°C and methanol to oil molar ratio at 15:1 with FAME yield 80.16%, 80.03% and 80.39%. Thus, it can be concluded that the conversion of biodiesel increased as the reaction time, temperature and

  15. Mackerel biodiesel production from the wastewater containing fish oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y.P.; Huang, H.M.; Lin, Y.F.; Huang, W.D.; Huang, Y.J.

    2014-01-01

    Marine fish such as mackerel are important for coastal fisheries in Taiwan. Nearly 60,000 tons of mackerel are produced in Suao, I-lan, Taiwan every year. In this study, oil from the discarded parts of mackerel fish contained in wastewater stream were used as the raw material to produce biodiesel through transesterification reaction. The major fuel properties of MB (mackerel biodiesel), including the iodine value, dynamic viscosity, flash point, and heat value, were determined and compared with sunflower seed oil methyl ester (SFM), JCB (Jatropha curcas biodiesel), and premium diesel (D). MB had a higher iodine value, dynamic viscosity, density, and flash point, but a lower heat value, than did D. MB was also used as fuel in a regular diesel engine to verify its emission characteristics. The MB fuel used for exhaust emission test included pure MB (MB100) and a 20% MB blend with premium diesel (MB20). The exhaust emission of MB was also compared with the exhaust emissions of D and JCB. The results showed that MB20 provided a significant reduction in NO, NO x , and SO 2 emissions under varied engine loads, and required no engine modification. - Highlights: • Biodiesel was produced from wastewater containing mackerel fish oil. • Mackerel biodiesel is compared with Jatropha biodiesel and sunflower seed biodiesel. • MBE (mackerel biodiesel) was found to contain higher amount of unsaturated fatty acids. • Mackerel biodiesel, diesel, and Jatropha biodiesel emissions are compared

  16. Alternative fish feed production from waste chicken feathers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Jumini

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this This devotion has been done to provide education and training of the utilization of waste chicken manure, making flour chicken feathers as a fish feed alternative, that can overcome some of the problems that waste chicken feathers from the center cutting broiler chickens in the village Krasak enough, it causes pollution, and not used optimally; Low public awareness of awareness of environmental pollution; the lack of public knowledge about the utilization of waste chicken feathers, and processing technology, as well as to address the needs of fish feed more expensive, need alternative feed ingredients. This service program has provided insight to the public about waste chicken feathers so that it can be used as a new entrepreneurial startups. To achieve these objectives have been done of activity as follows: 1 Provide counseling and understanding of the community will be a negative impact on the environment of waste chicken feathers. 2 Provide counseling utilization of waste chicken feathers for people in nearby farms. 3 Make a chicken feather meal of chicken feather waste as an alternative fish feed to improve digestibility of chicken feathers. 3 The formation of the group for increasing the economic income of the family. This service activities program runs quite well with demonstrated some activity, namely: 1 Change Behavior Society (knowledge transfer; 2 Chicken Feather Extension Waste Utilization; 3 Making Unit Waste Chicken Feathers; 4 Establishment of New Business of Diversified Waste Chicken Feathers.

  17. STARCH/PULP-FIBER BASED PACKAGING FOAMS AND CAST FILMS CONTAINING ALASKAN FISH BY-PRODUCTS (WASTE)

    OpenAIRE

    Syed H. Imam; Bor-Sen Chiou; Delilah Woods; Justin Shey; Gregory M. Glenn; William J. Orts; Rajnesh Narayan; Robert J. Avena-Bustillos; Tara H. McHugh; Alberto Pantoja; Peter J. Bechtel

    2008-01-01

    Baked starch/pulp foams were prepared from formulations containing zero to 25 weight percent of processed Alaskan fish by-products that consisted mostly of salmon heads, pollock heads, and pollock frames (bones and associated remains produced in the filleting operation). Fish by-products thermoformed well along with starch and pulp fiber, and the foam product (panels) exhibited useful mechanical properties. Foams with all three fish by-products, ranging between 10 and 15 wt%, showed the highe...

  18. A DNA Mini-Barcoding System for Authentication of Processed Fish Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokralla, Shadi; Hellberg, Rosalee S; Handy, Sara M; King, Ian; Hajibabaei, Mehrdad

    2015-10-30

    Species substitution is a form of seafood fraud for the purpose of economic gain. DNA barcoding utilizes species-specific DNA sequence information for specimen identification. Previous work has established the usability of short DNA sequences-mini-barcodes-for identification of specimens harboring degraded DNA. This study aims at establishing a DNA mini-barcoding system for all fish species commonly used in processed fish products in North America. Six mini-barcode primer pairs targeting short (127-314 bp) fragments of the cytochrome c oxidase I (CO1) DNA barcode region were developed by examining over 8,000 DNA barcodes from species in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Seafood List. The mini-barcode primer pairs were then tested against 44 processed fish products representing a range of species and product types. Of the 44 products, 41 (93.2%) could be identified at the species or genus level. The greatest mini-barcoding success rate found with an individual primer pair was 88.6% compared to 20.5% success rate achieved by the full-length DNA barcode primers. Overall, this study presents a mini-barcoding system that can be used to identify a wide range of fish species in commercial products and may be utilized in high throughput DNA sequencing for authentication of heavily processed fish products.

  19. Product-service system method to measure sustainability level of traditional smoked fish processing industries

    OpenAIRE

    Purwaningsih Ratna; Cahyantari Anggaina Elfandora; Ariyani Zulfaida; Susanty Aries; Arvianto Ary; Santoso Haryo

    2018-01-01

    Small Medium Enterprise’s (SME) of traditional fish processing at Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia still focus their business on gain more profits. Sustainability aspect has not received enough attention yet. This study aims to review the sustainability level of SME smoked fish Semarang using product service system (PSS) method. PSS consists of three dimensions (1) Environment, (2) Socio-cultural and (3) Economic. Each dimension consists of 6 criteria's. PSS not only assess the level of sust...

  20. Changes in fish production effectivity in eutrophic fishponds of zooplankton structure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Potužák, J.; Hůda, J.; Pechar, Libor

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 15, - (2007), s. 201-210 ISSN 0967-6120 R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SM/640/18/03; GA MŽP(CZ) SL/1/6/04 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : fishponds * zooplankton * eutrophication * fish management * primary production Subject RIV: GL - Fishing Impact factor: 0.828, year: 2007

  1. The economic impact of diseases and parasitic problems in freshwater fish production

    OpenAIRE

    Okaeme, A.N.; Obiekezie, A.I.; Ogbondeminu, F.S.

    1987-01-01

    Diseases and parasitic problems could constitute significant economic losses in fish production if not controlled, thus the need to continue monitoring its prevalence. Based on field studies on feral and intensively raised fish at the Kainji Lake Research Institute Nigeria, some diseases and parasitic problems have been identified. These include; helminthiasis; fungal disease; protozoa which include Myxosoma sp., Myxobolus spp., Henneguya sp., Trichodina sp., Ichthopthrius sp. bacterial mainl...

  2. In vitro organic matter digestibility and gas production of fish-meal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, an in vitro rumen gas production technique was utilized to evaluate fish-meal coated with different types and levels of fats for total gas production, Metabolizable energy (ME) and organic matter digestibility (OMD) contents. Approximately 200 mg of sample was weighed and inserted in glass syringes, then ...

  3. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) in Danish Smoked Fish and Meat Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; White, S.; Binderup, Mona-Lise

    2006-01-01

    Twenty seven PAH were detected in 45 selected smoked food samples produced in Denmark, including mackerel, herring, trout, small sausages, salami, and bacon. The sum of PAH in smoked meat products ranged from 24 mu g/kg for salami to 64 mu g/kg in bacon, while those in fish products ranged from 2...

  4. Prediction of enthalpy and thermal conductivity of frozen meat and fish products from composition data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sman, van der R.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present models predicting thermophysical properties of frozen meat products purely using their composition data. Based on our previous model, predicting the water activity of (frozen) meat and fish products, while taking into account the non-ideality of the unfrozen solution, we can

  5. 77 FR 54875 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Fish and Fishery Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... final product requirements) Proposed Food Additive Provisions in Standards for Fish and Fishery Products... (held at Step 7) Section 4 Food Additives Draft Standard for Quick Frozen Scallop Adductor Muscle Meat... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food Safety and Inspection Service [Docket No. FSIS-2012-0035] Codex...

  6. Comparison of Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species Production of Ectothermic and Endothermic Fish Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Wiens

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently we demonstrated that the capacity of isolated muscle mitochondria to produce reactive oxygen species, measured as H2O2 efflux, is temperature-sensitive in isolated muscle mitochondria of ectothermic fish and the rat, a representative endothermic mammal. However, at physiological temperatures (15° and 37°C for the fish and rat, respectively, the fraction of total mitochondrial electron flux that generated H2O2, the fractional electron leak (FEL, was far lower in the rat than in fish. Those results suggested that the elevated body temperatures associated with endothermy may lead to a compensatory decrease in mitochondrial ROS production relative to respiratory capacity. To test this hypothesis we compare slow twitch (red muscle mitochondria from the endothermic Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis with mitochondria from three ectothermic fishes [rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, common carp (Cyprinus carpio, and the lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens] and the rat. At a common assay temperature (25°C rates of mitochondrial respiration and H2O2 efflux were similar in tuna and the other fishes. The thermal sensitivity of fish mitochondria was similar irrespective of ectothermy or endothermy. Comparing tuna to the rat at a common temperature, respiration rates were similar, or lower depending on mitochondrial substrates. FEL was not different across fish species at a common assay temperature (25°C but was markedly higher in fishes than in rat. Overall, endothermy and warming of Pacific Bluefin tuna red muscle may increase the potential for ROS production by muscle mitochondria but the evolution of endothermy in this species is not necessarily associated with a compensatory reduction of ROS production relative to the respiratory capacity of mitochondria.

  7. 77 FR 16987 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Secondary Aluminum Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Secondary Aluminum Production AGENCY... for secondary aluminum production (77 FR 8576). The EPA is extending the deadline for written comments... from the Aluminum Association. The Aluminum Association has requested the extension in order to allow...

  8. The Articulation of Secondary and Post-Secondary Vocational Education Programs. Workshop Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene State Coll., NH.

    As a result of the cooperative efforts in articulation by secondary/postsecondary instructor teams, six packages representing the occupational areas of child care, culinary arts, electronics, health occupations, power mechanics, and industrial welding were developed. Each package contains the following three components: a series of job titles…

  9. Seasonality of reproduction and production in farm fishes, birds and mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemineau, P; Malpaux, B; Brillard, J P; Fostier, A

    2007-03-01

    A very large majority of farm animals express seasonal variations in their production traits, thus inducing seasonal availability of fresh derived animal products (meat, milk, cheese and eggs). This pattern is in part the consequence of the farmer's objective to market his products in the most economically favourable period. It may also be imposed by the season-dependent access to feed resources, as in ruminants, or by the specific requirements derived from adaptation to environmental conditions such as water temperature in fish. But seasonal variations in animal products are also the consequence of constraints resulting from the occurrence of a more or less marked seasonal reproductive season in most farm animal species including fish, poultry and mammals. Like their wild counterparts, at mid and high latitudes, most farm animals normally give birth at the end of winter-early spring, the most favourable period for the progeny to survive and thus promote the next generation. As a consequence, most species show seasonal variations in their ovulation frequency (mammals and fish: presence or absence of ovulation; birds: variations or suppression of laying rates), spermatogenic activity (from moderate to complete absence of sperm production), gamete quality (variations in fertilisation rates and embryo survival), and also sexual behaviour. Among species of interest for animal production, fishes and birds are generally considered as more directly sensitive to external factors (mainly temperature in fish, photoperiod in birds). In all species, it is therefore advisable that artificial photoperiodic treatments consisting of extra-light during natural short days (in chickens, turkeys, guinea fowl, sheep and goats) or melatonin during long days (in goats, sheep) be extensively used to either adjust the breeding season to animal producer needs and/or to completely overcome seasonal variations of sperm production in artificial insemination centres (mammals) and breeder flock

  10. THE STUDY OF FISH SUPPLEMENT AND BUTTERFAT SUBSTITUTE EFFECT ON EXPIRY DATE OF PROCESSED CHEESE PRODUCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NATALIYA LOTYSH

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The sector of functional products has top-priority meaning – it is the most convenient and natural form of introduction and enrichment of the human organism with vitamins, mineral substances, microelements and other components. Attraction into the branch of raw materials of non-milk origin – fish supplements and substitutes of butterfat – served the basis of technology development of processed cheese products of combined content, which in accordance with acting terminology are called processed cheese products. The technology of processed cheese products allows easily regulating their content by introduction of corresponding supplement that facilitates obtainment of product with set properties and content. Inclusion of meat and fish as the raw materials in the processed cheese content results in enrichment of the product with macro- and microelements, unsaturated fatty acids, except for regulation of fatty acid content of cheese products is executed by substitution of butterfat by butterfat substitute.

  11. Fish by-product meal in diets for commercial laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Ferreira Silva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the increasing levels (0, 1, 2, 3 e 4% of fish by-product meal in diets for laying hens on performance, egg quality and economic analysis. A total of 160 Dekalb White hens with 52-wk old were distributed in a completely randomized design with five treatments and four replicates of eight birds each. The experiment lasted 84 days divided into four periods of 21 days. Estimates of fish by-product meal levels were determined by polynomial regression. Differences (p < 0.05 were detected for all variables of performance, in egg weight, yolk and albumen percentage, yolk and albumen height, feed cost and production cost, in which the inclusion of fish by-product meal in the diets showed better results. It can be concluded that fish by-product meal can be used in diets for hens as alternative feed, with better results in egg production, feed conversion, egg weight, yolk-albumen ratio and a reduction in feed cost and production cost.

  12. Method of determining of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in fish and fish products by the method of liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.N. Timofeeva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to develop a methodology for determining of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE in fish and fish products for the control of impurities content in the food and environmental objects in general. The conditions of chromatography (temperature conditions, the impact of the speed and magnitude of dividing of the gas-carrier stream using a HP-1 capillary columns, the DB-5, HP-50 +, DB-1; and lipids destructive and non-destructive cleaning methods of extract during the determination of PBDEs. The method of determination of 2,2,4,4-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47, 2,2,4,4,5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99 and decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209 in fish and fish products by the liquid chromatography with electron detector was suggested. The method of PBDE is based on the extraction of samples with hexane-acetone (3:1, purification of the extract with concentrated sulfuric acid (phase ratio hexane-sulfuric acid – 5:1. The second purification step is carried out by using solid phase extraction cartridges «SiOH-H2SO4/SA» and hexane as the eluent. Gas chromatographic analysis of the determination of BDE-47 and BDE-99 is carried out on low-polar capillary column DB-5 (30 m x0.25 mm x0.25 mum with the programming of the column temperature. In determining the BDE-209 a DB-1 nonpolar capillary column was used (15 m x 0.25 mm x 0.1 mum with the column temperature programming. Calculation of the content of BDE-47 and BDE-99 is carried out with the internal standard (2,2, 3,4,4-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-85, BDE-209 by absolute calibration. In determining the BDE-209 the calibration matrix was used. The range of concentrations of the calibration solutions for the determination of BDE-47 and BDE-99 is 0.005–0.05 g/cm 3 , for BDE-209 0.05–0.3 g/cm 3 . The technique allows the measurement of BDE-47 and BDE-99 in the range of 0.0002–0.05 mg/kg of the product concerned; BDE-209 – in the range of 0.002–0.3 mg/kg. The metrological

  13. Secondary Market Products in the Mortgage System and Global Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan Eroğlu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In general terms, the mortgage market has two faces, the primary and the secondary markets. The primary market covers housing mortgage loans. On the other side of the mechanism, these loans are securitized and issued in financial markets with different form of securities in secondary markets. The common name of these instruments is “mortgage backed securities - MBS”. A mortgage backed security is a financial instrument issued in capital markets for investors, derived from either backed by the cash flow of the housing loan repayments (which is called pay-through or backed by directly selling the mortgage pools to the MBS issuers (which is called passthrough. The most trading secondary mortgage market instruments and world practices are explained in this article.

  14. Production of secondary Deuterium in the atmosphere at various latitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papini, P. [Florence Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Florence (Italy); Grimani, C. [Perugia Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Perugia (Italy); Stephens, S.A. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bombay (International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements)

    1995-09-01

    Secondary deuterium in the atmosphere are produced in interactions by primary cosmic rays. The shape of their energy spectrum depends on the primary cosmic ray spectrum incident at the top of the atmosphere. At high energies, the spectral shape depends on the primary spectrum of helium and heavy nuclei. However, at very low energies, specially below the geomagnetic cut-off, the spectral shape depends on the evaporation and recoil processes and hence almost independent of the spectral shape of the primary radiation. It is undertaken a calculation of the secondary deuterium spectrum at small atmospheric depths at various latitudes and the results will be presented.

  15. From microbes to fish the next revolution in food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Córdova, Luis Rafael; Martínez-Porchas, Marcel; Emerenciano, Maurício Gustavo Coelho; Miranda-Baeza, Anselmo; Gollas-Galván, Teresa

    2017-05-01

    Increasing global population and the consequent increase in demand for food are not a new story. Agroindustrial activities such as livestock help meet this demand. Aquaculture arose decades ago and revolutionized the agroindustrial activity as a significant food generator. However, like livestock, aquaculture is based on finite resources and has been accused of being unsustainable. Abandoning aquaculture is not an option considering the food, foreign exchange, and employment it generates, and therefore must be reinvented. Among the many alternatives suggested to make aquaculture more sustainable, microorganisms have been highlighted as a direct food source for cultured fish and crustaceans, a strategy that promises to revolutionize aquaculture by eliminating waste. Considering waste, as part of a cycle, it can increase stock densities and reduce emissions of contaminants and operational costs.

  16. The impact of processing meat and fish products on phosphorus intake in chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou-Arnal, Luis M; Caverni-Muñoz, Alberto; Arnaudas-Casanova, Laura; Vercet-Tormo, Antonio; Gimeno-Orna, José A; Sanz-París, Alejandro; Caramelo-Gutiérrez, Rocío; Alvarez-Lipe, Rafael; Sahdalá-Santana, Laura; Gracia-García, Olga; Luzón-Alonso, Marta

    2013-11-13

    The use of phosphate additives in meat and fish processing leads to a phosphorus overload that we cannot quantify through labelling or food composition tables. We analysed this increase by measuring phosphorus content in these products by spectrophotometry. We determined the phosphorus/protein ratio in fresh meat and fish products with varying degrees of processing by spectrophotometry (phosphorus) and the Kjeldahl method (proteins). We contrasted these results with those reflected in the food composition tables. The phosphorus/protein ratio was higher in processed meat products (15.83 mg/g) than in battered (11.04 mg/g) and frozen meat products (10.5mg/g), and was lower in fresh (8.41 mg/g) and refrigerated meat products (8.78 mg/g). Fresh white fish had a phosphorus/protein ratio of 8.58mg/g, while it increased by 22% (10.3mg/g) in frozen white fish and by 46% (12.54 mg/g) in battered fish. The information in the tables was poor and confusing, and no reference is made to the brands tested. Processing meat and fish products poses a serious obstacle to the reduction of phosphorus intake. The current regulatory framework does not assist us in the objective of reducing phosphorus additives, since it considers them safe for public consumption. Overcoming these barriers requires a coordinated effort to demonstrate that a high intake of these additives may be harmful to the general population and it should be more closely examined by regulators.

  17. Incremental benefits from the increasing in the production of koi fish Cyprinus carpio var. koi culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iis Diatin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT  Koi fish is one of the species included in the intensification program of ornamental fish production. Production of koi has only reached 82.04% of total national production target thus making it potential for development. The objective of the study was to assess additional financial benefit of production increment through stocking pattern modification. Present research was performed using case study method on Pokdakan PBC Fish Farm (PPFF, koi fish farmers in Sukabumi. Financial analysis consisted of business analysis, investment criteria, and sensitivity. Stocking pattern management could increase ornamental fish production and its benefit margin up to 1.5 times higher. That investment criteria has shown NPV at value of IDR3,824 million, net BCR 4.96, IRR 86.0%, and PP 1.7 years. Koi fish farming was sensitive to a decline in survival rate and insensitive to the rise of formulated feed price. Keywords: business analysis, koi, investment criteria, production pattern, sensitivity  ABSTRAK  Ikan koi merupakan salah satu ikan yang termasuk dalam program penguatan produksi ikan hias Indonesia. Capaian dari target produksi ikan koi yang ditetapkan pemerintah hanya mencapai 82,04 %, sehingga budidaya ikan koi potensial untuk dikembangkan dan ditingkatkan produksinya. Metode yang digunakan adalah studi kasus pada kelompok pembudidaya ikan hias koi PPFF di Sukabumi. Analisis finansial yang digunakan meliputi analisis usaha, kriteria investasi dan sensitivitas. Pengaturan pola tebar dapat meningkatkan jumlah produksi ikan hias dan marjin keuntungan hingga 1,5 kali. Analisis kriteria investasi menghasilkan nilai NPV sebesar Rp3.824 juta, net B/C 4,94, IRR 86,0% dan PP 1,7 tahun. Budidaya ikan koi sensitif terhadap penurunan kelangsungan hidup dan tidak sensitif terhadap peningkatan harga pakan buatan. Kata kunci: analisis usaha, koi, kriteria investasi, pola tebar, produksi

  18. Towards systems metabolic engineering of streptomycetes for secondary metabolites production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertsen, Helene Lunde; Weber, Tilmann; Kim, Hyun Uk

    2017-01-01

    Streptomycetes are known for their inherent ability to produce pharmaceutically relevant secondary metabolites. Discovery of medically useful, yet novel compounds has become a great challenge due to frequent rediscovery of known compounds and a consequent decline in the number of relevant clinical...

  19. The scope and structure of the production and catch of fish in Serbia in the period from 2006. to 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish represents a significant source of animal proteins in the diet of people in a large part of the world. The market in Serbia is supplied from its own production (carp and trout fish ponds and catch from open waters. However, the largest part of the fish on the market is imported. Average area under carp fish ponds from 2006. to 2012. was 8,417 hektars, and under trout fish ponds was 49,900 square meters. Average annual production of carp fish species in this period was 7,228 tons, and of trout was 923 tons. In open waters of Serbia, the catch (from both professional and sport fishing is averagely 3,745 tons of fish. The biggest catch of fish in open waters refers to goldfish, then carp and bream, while lower catch refers to white bighead. The objective of this investigation was to determine the scope and structure of fish catch and production in Serbia from 2006. to 2012. The data on fish catch and production were taken from Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31011

  20. JUSTIFICATION OF MODES THERMAL PROCESSING OF THE SEMIFINISHED THORNY SKATE TO PRODUCTION OF FISH CULINARY PRODUCTS OF FUNCTIONAL PURPOSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Shchetinskii

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Raja radiatd, the non-conventional object of commercial fishing in North-East Atlantic region which is not under fishing quota should be declared as a cost-effective full bio raw material for the broad line food production enriched with chondroitin sulfate (a valuable biological component with proved anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor acting. The main obstacle for the industrial food processing of the Raja radiatd is a high level of urea in the muscle tissue. The patented technical solution to this problem is being proposed. Justified modes of preliminary and final heat treatment for a wide range of fish culinary products of functional purpose of the Raja radiatd. Assessed by calculation of indicators of the biological value of the protein ready culinary products of the pitch with regard to experimentally established weight loss, protein and fat at all stages of the thermal treatment of the material. The high level of chondroitin sulfate in the culinary finished product is experimentally confirmed. The outcome of the research was the development of formulations and manufacturing fish culinary products functionality of a wide range based on the use of Raja radiatd meat. Complex physico-chemical analysis of raw materials, semi-finished and finished products allowed to develop standards of waste, loss, and output of finished products, to optimize the formulation of products and technological conditions of its production. Experimentally determine some parameters of the nutritional value of new products, comprehensive assessment of its quality, which confirmed its improved handling compared to the same fishery products provided to the consumer market in Murmansk.

  1. Associations between cyanobacteria and indices of secondary production in the western basin of Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, James H.; Evans, Mary Anne; Kennedy, Robert J.; Bailey, Sean; Loftin, Keith A.; Laughrey, Zachary; Femmer, Robin; Schaeffer, Jeff; Richardson, William B.; Wynne, Timothy; Nelson, J. C.; Duris, Joseph W.

    2018-01-01

    Large lakes provide a variety of ecological services to surrounding cities and communities. Many of these services are supported by ecological processes that are threatened by the increasing prevalence of cyanobacterial blooms which occur as aquatic ecosystems experience cultural eutrophication. Over the past 10 yr, Lake Erie experienced cyanobacterial blooms of increasing severity and frequency, which have resulted in impaired drinking water for the surrounding communities. Cyanobacterial blooms may impact ecological processes that support other services, but many of these impacts have not been documented. Secondary production (production of primary consumers) is an important process that supports economically important higher trophic levels. Cyanobacterial blooms may influence secondary production because cyanobacteria are a poor‐quality food resource and cyanotoxins may be harmful to consumers. Over 3 yr at 34 sites across the western basin of Lake Erie, we measured three indices of secondary production that focus on the dominant bivalve taxa: (1) growth of a native unionid mussel, (2) the size of young‐of‐year dreissenid mussels, and (3) the mass of colonizing animals on a Hester‐Dendy sampler. Associations between these indices and cyanobacterial data were estimated to assess whether cyanobacteria are associated with variation in secondary production in the western basin of Lake Erie. The results suggest cyanobacterial abundance alone is only weakly associated with secondary production, but that cyanotoxins have a larger effect on secondary production. Given recurring late‐summer cyanobacterial blooms, this impact on secondary production has the potential to undermine Lake Erie's ability to sustain important ecosystem services.

  2. Utilization possibilites of waste products from fishing and hunting to biogas and bio-oil production in Uummannaq County

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsdottir, Ragnhildur; Jørgensen, Marianne Willemoes

    2008-01-01

    In spring 2007 a project was carried out at the Arctic Technology Centre in which research of various possibilities of utilizing waste products from fishing and hunting generated in Uummannaq County was performed. Numerous alternatives were identified in the project, which were weighed against...... the specific conditions that apply in Uummannaq County. The best alternatives were evaluated to be biogas production and utilization of fat from the fish waste to produce bio-oil. The results showed that with the price of energy in Greenland in 2009 of 3,71 DKR per kWh, the waste in Uummannaq County would...... amount to approximately 6 million DKR when using biogas production and 5,7 million DKR when using bio-oil. Compared with the energy used in Uummannaq County today, the biogas production would be able to supply 17 percent of the energy and bio-oil production would cover approximately 16 percent....

  3. Effects of fish density and river fertilization on algal standing stocks, invertebrates communities, and fish production in an Arctic River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, Linda A.; Peterson, B.J.; Golden, H.; McIvor, C.C.; Miller, M.C.

    1997-01-01

    This study examined the relative importance of bottom-up and top-down controls of an arctic stream food web by simultaneous manipulation of the top predator and nutrient availability. We created a two-step trophic system (algae to insects) by removal of the top predator (Arctic grayling, Thymallus arcticus) in fertilized and control stream reaches. Fish abundance was also increased 10 times to examine the effect of high fish density on stream ecosystem dynamics and fish. We measured the response of epilithic algae, benthic and drifting insects, and fish to nutrient enrichment and to changes in fish density. Insect grazers had little effect on algae and fish had little effect on insects. In both the control and fertilized reaches, fish growth, energy storage, and reproductive response of females declined with increased fish density. Fish growth and energy storage were more closely correlated with per capita insect availability than with per capita algal standing stock

  4. Planning for Production of Freshwater Fish Fry in a Variable Climate in Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppanunchai, Anuwat; Apirumanekul, Chusit; Lebel, Louis

    2015-10-01

    Provision of adequate numbers of quality fish fry is often a key constraint on aquaculture development. The management of climate-related risks in hatchery and nursery management operations has not received much attention, but is likely to be a key element of successful adaptation to climate change in the aquaculture sector. This study explored the sensitivities and vulnerability of freshwater fish fry production in 15 government hatcheries across Northern Thailand to climate variability and evaluated the robustness of the proposed adaptation measures. This study found that hatcheries have to consider several factors when planning production, including: taking into account farmer demand; production capacity of the hatchery; availability of water resources; local climate and other area factors; and, individual species requirements. Nile tilapia is the most commonly cultured species of freshwater fish. Most fry production is done in the wet season, as cold spells and drought conditions disrupt hatchery production and reduce fish farm demand in the dry season. In the wet season, some hatcheries are impacted by floods. Using a set of scenarios to capture major uncertainties and variability in climate, this study suggests a couple of strategies that should help make hatchery operations more climate change resilient, in particular: improving hatchery operations and management to deal better with risks under current climate variability; improving monitoring and information systems so that emerging climate-related risks are known sooner and understood better; and, research and development on alternative species, breeding programs, improving water management and other features of hatchery operations.

  5. Evaluation of process parameters in the industrial scale production of fish nuggets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriane da Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the use of experimental design for the assessment of the effects of process parameters on the production of fish nuggets in an industrial scale environment. The effect of independent factors on the physicochemical and microbiological parameters was investigated through a full 24 experimental design. The studied factors included the temperature of fish fillet and pulp in the mixer, the temperature of the added fat, the temperature of water and the ratio of protein extraction time to emulsion time. The physicochemical analyses showed that the higher temperature of the pulp and fillet of fish, the lower the protein in the final product. Microbiological analyses revealed that the counting of Staphylococcus coagulase positive, total and thermo-tolerant coliforms were in accordance with the current legislation.

  6. Habitat Quality and Anadromous Fish Production on the Warm Springs Reservation. Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritsch, Mark A.

    1995-06-01

    The number of anadromous fish returning to the Columbia River and its tributaries has declined sharply in recent years. Changes in their freshwater, estuarine, and ocean environments and harvest have all contributed to declining runs of anadromous fish. Restoration of aquatic resources is of paramount importance to the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs (CTWS) Reservation of Oregon. Watersheds on the Warm Springs Reservation provide spawning and rearing habitat for several indigenous species of resident and anadromous fish. These streams are the only ones in the Deschutes River basin that still sustain runs of wild spring chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus, tshawytscha. Historically, reservation streams supplied over 169 km of anadromous fish habitat. Because of changes in flows, there are now only 128 km of habitat that can be used on the reservation. In 1981, the CTWS began a long-range, 3-phase study of existing and potential fish resources on the reservation. The project, consistent with the Northwest Power Planning Council`s Fish and Wildlife Program, was designed to increase the natural production of anadromous salmonids on the reservation.

  7. Farmed fish welfare-suffering assessment and impact on product quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Maria Poli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish welfare, suffering and the perception of pain were debated, together with several factors reducing infra vitam welfare of farmed fish (genetic, environment, density, malnutrition, starvation, cataracts, deformities, vaccination side effects, transport, handling, confinement, crowding, harvesting, killing method. Behavioural and physiological stress responses were considered as indicators of welfare reduction. The effects of pre-slaughter management practices, and the most commonly used stunning/slaughtering methods on welfare and quality reduction of farmed fish were discussed. A number of indicators can be used to assess fish welfare-suffering, both in a scientific and practical context, such as behavioural, haematic, cellular, tissue post mortem fish stress and quality indicators, but none of them are optimal. The best strategy for a reliable assessment of fish welfare/suffering and their impact on product quality is a multidisciplinary approach that takes into account animal behaviour and the different biochemical and physiological ante mortem and post mortem processes involved: several components, all influenced in a similar way by the same condition, suggest real welfare and quality reduction.

  8. Habitat quality and anadromous fish production on the Warm Springs Reservation. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsch, M.A.

    1995-06-01

    The number of anadromous fish returning to the Columbia River and its tributaries has declined sharply in recent years. Changes in their freshwater, estuarine, and ocean environments and harvest have all contributed to declining runs of anadromous fish. Restoration of aquatic resources is of paramount importance to the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs (CTWS) Reservation of Oregon. Watersheds on the Warm Springs Reservation provide spawning and rearing habitat for several indigenous species of resident and anadromous fish. These streams are the only ones in the Deschutes River basin that still sustain runs of wild spring chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus, tshawytscha. Historically, reservation streams supplied over 169 km of anadromous fish habitat. Because of changes in flows, there are now only 128 km of habitat that can be used on the reservation. In 1981, the CTWS began a long-range, 3-phase study of existing and potential fish resources on the reservation. The project, consistent with the Northwest Power Planning Council's Fish and Wildlife Program, was designed to increase the natural production of anadromous salmonids on the reservation

  9. Modified Atmosphere Systems and Shelf Life Extension of Fish and Fishery Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Christina A. Mireles; Oliveira, Alexandra C.M.

    2016-01-01

    This review aims at summarizing the findings of studies published over the past 15 years on the application of modified atmosphere (MA) systems for shelf life extension of fish and fishery products. This review highlights the importance of CO2 in the preservation of seafood products, and underscores the benefits of combining MA technology with product storage in the superchilled temperature range. It is generally accepted that MA technology cannot improve product quality and should not be utilized as a substitute for good sanitation and strict temperature control. Benefits derived from application of MA, however, can significantly impact preservation of product quality and it subsequent shelf-life. For this reason, this review is the first of its kind to propose detailed handling and quality guidelines for fresh fish to realize the maximum benefit of MA technology. PMID:28231143

  10. Women's independent access to productive resources: fish ponds in the Oxbow Lakes Project, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, D; Apu, N A

    1998-01-01

    This article analyzes the experiences of women in acquiring user rights to fish ponds on government owned lands in the Oxbow Lakes Project in Bangladesh. The analysis describes the significance, functioning, and problems of women in fish farming. The field reports were based on the authors' involvement in implementation of the extension of fishing rights to women during 6 weeks/year over 4 years. Analysis was based on observations and discussions during project implementation and on a survey conducted in March 1997. The project involved land reforms that transferred rights to a group of poor people. Most of the lakes had been overfished. The poor fishers were organized into Lake Fishing Teams (LFTs) with the right to culture and harvest fish in lakes that were under common property management. In late 1994, at least 50% of the women were included in the Fish Farming Groups (FFGs) to manage fish culture in ponds constructed in shallow areas of the lake shore. The proportion of women was increased to 75% in 1994-95 and favored women-headed households. By March 1997, there were 510 members of FFGs, of whom 84% were single, poor women. Women had low participation in fish sales and netting and guarding the harvest. Women in mixed gender groups complained that men dominated the key decision-making and financial areas. Production averaged 1500 kg/hectare in 1995-96. FFGs had higher expenses for feed and fertilizer than LFTs. This endeavor earned higher per capita income than poultry raising. All women groups performed better than mixed groups. These groups increased assertiveness and self-confidence.

  11. SEABIOPLAS project Seaweed co-products as micro-additives in fish feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria João Dias Peixoto

    2014-05-01

    The role of the CIIMAR team in the project is to study the use of seaweeds and their extracts in fish nutrition. Several variables, such as zootecnical parameters, metabolic and digestive enzymes, as well as stress and immune response parameters will be used as indicators of growth performance, fish health and welfare conditions. To do so, several feeding trials will be carried out under controlled rearing conditions, where biotic and abiotic factors will be used as stressors to determine the protective effects of seaweed supplementation in fish diets. Juvenile European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax, will be used as the fish model, in a fast growing stage (IBW: 15-50 g. Each dietary treatment (control diet vs. experimental diets will be fed in triplicate groups for approximately 90 days, twice a day to apparent satiety. Fish will be individually marked with Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT tag prior to the beginning of the trials for monitoring individual fish performance. During the trials, samplings will be carried out at different times for determination the effects of treatment duration on the results. Growth performance will be determined by means of growth rate (% body weight/day; feed conversion ratio (FCR; voluntary fed intake (VFI, % body weight/day; protein efficiency ratio (PER; nutrient retention efficiency (%. To evaluate fish health and welfare condition, several stress biomarkers will be determine, such as glutathione-S-transferase (GST, catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, lipid peroxidation (LP, oxidized protein (POx; Acetylcholinesterase (AChE, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx. In addition, gross morphometric indices: such as the condition factor (K and hepato-somatic index (HSI will be calculated as auxiliary indicators of health status and liver condition of fish. For immune parameters, plasma for humoral analyses parameters will be used (peroxidase, lysozyme activity, alternative complement activity and superoxide anion production.

  12. Development of a ready to eat fish based product using seafood industry byproducts: FisHam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Raimundo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the last years, there has been an increased demand from consumers for safe, nutritionally balanced and convenient food products. These trends are contributing towards an increasing demand for fishery products which affects fishery resources worldwide, compromising stocks of many fish species. The technological enhancement of the byproducts of fish industries or fish species of low commercial value, transforming these materials in products with high nutritional potential will simultaneously contribute towards fulfill present consumer trends and to a more sustainable marine resources management. The present work develops the product concept and prototype formulation of a ready to eat omega 3 enriched product using raw material trimmings of fish of low commercial value. The product developed, FisHam is a ham-like refrigerated product, which can be slice and added to sandwiches or diced and added to salads. Product concept was validated with a questionnaire, in which it was obtained a positive global acceptance by 86% of the inquired people. Sensory analysis of the product revealed its good acceptability, with an average global appreciation of “enjoyed moderately” and with 58% of the pannel stating the intention of buying the product. Fish oil addition had no impact on sensory acceptance. Regarding the physicochemical analysis, the selected formulation showed a content of protein of 7,08%, low lipid content of 3,74%, medium content of humidity of 61% and low caloric value of 164 calories per 100 grams. The color, textural attributes, humidity content and microbiological parameters were monitored during 10 days of refrigerated storage at 5ºC. On the microbiological level, the product showed the absence of enterobacteries and psychrotrophics in compliance with legal microbiological criteria set for ready to eat products. It can be concluded that this new product can be considered an alternative product to meat ham and other meat products in

  13. Preparation of an extruded fish snack using twin screw extruder and the storage characteristics of the product

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, S.K.; Basu, S.

    2003-01-01

    A value-added extruded fish product was prepared with corn flour (80%) and fish (sciaenid) powder (20%), using a twin-screw extruder. The effect of different parameters like moisture, temperature, fish powder concentration, speed of the extruder and die-diameter on expansion ratio and crisp texture were studied. The storage characteristics of the final product were studied using three different types of packaging under nitrogen flushing. The study revealed that aluminum foil is the best packa...

  14. Seaweed utilization for integrated bioenergy and fish feed production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seghetta, Michele

    2016-01-01

    and processing of seaweed compared to other energies and protein production technologies. Optimization of cultivation design could reduce externalities generated by the materials use. Optimization of storage methods, e.g. drying, is necessary to reduce the total energy consumption. Improvement......Linear production systems are not environmentally sustainable since they produce waste at a higher rate than nature is able to absorb. Creation of closed-loop production processes aiming at generating zero-waste is the foundation for a circular economy. Offshore seaweed cultivation can play a key...... role to transform linear production systems into biobased circular flows. Seaweed can absorb manmade emissions to water, while producing valuable compounds that can re-enter the economic system. In the thesis, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology is used to analyze the environmental performance...

  15. Product-service system method to measure sustainability level of traditional smoked fish processing industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purwaningsih Ratna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Small Medium Enterprise’s (SME of traditional fish processing at Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia still focus their business on gain more profits. Sustainability aspect has not received enough attention yet. This study aims to review the sustainability level of SME smoked fish Semarang using product service system (PSS method. PSS consists of three dimensions (1 Environment, (2 Socio-cultural and (3 Economic. Each dimension consists of 6 criteria's. PSS not only assess the level of sustainability but also formulated the recommendation to increase the industries sustainability level. Sustainability assessment and recommendations formulation is guided by a check-list form. Then, the portfolio diagram used to select these recommendations according to its feasibility to be implemented and its importance for the industries. The result of sustainability assessment for traditional fish processing is 0.44, categorized as medium level. The recommendations for the environmental dimension are (1 use of liquid smoke on fish processing and (2 use of wastewater treatment with anaerobic ponds Recommendation for the socio-cultural dimension is use personal protective tool to reduce worker risk on safety and health. Recommendation for the economic dimension is used social media for product marketing and increasing the economic value of fish lung wastes. Recommendations are then illustrated in a diagram in the form of radar sustainability.

  16. The environmental suitability of industrial secondary products used as covering materials in landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laine-Ylijoki, J.; Wahlstroem, M.; Maekelae, E.

    2001-01-01

    The industrial secondary products and landmasses polluted in a minor way can be used as coverings and sealing materials and also restricted in the ground construction of landfills. By using suitable secondary products, natural materials can be reduced. Substitutes are needed due to the fact that the availability of natural materials is poor in many areas. The presented project is a part of the Streams technology programme financed by Tekes. It includes the development of the measuring methods to study the environmental suitability of industrial secondary products, which will be used as covering materials of landfills. Based on the results, a handbook addressing the environmental suitability procedure will be compiled

  17. Valorisation of fish by-products against waste management treatments--Comparison of environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Carla; Antelo, Luis T; Franco-Uría, Amaya; Alonso, Antonio A; Pérez-Martín, Ricardo

    2015-12-01

    Reuse and valorisation of fish by-products is a key process for marine resources conservation. Usually, fishmeal and oil processing factories collect the by-products generated by fishing port and industry processing activities, producing an economical benefit to both parts. In the same way, different added-value products can be recovered by the valorisation industries whereas fishing companies save the costs associated with the management of those wastes. However, it is important to estimate the advantages of valorisation processes not only in terms of economic income, but also considering the environmental impacts. This would help to know if the valorisation of a residue provokes higher impact than other waste management options, which means that its advantages are probably not enough for guarantying a sustainable waste reuse. To that purpose, there are several methodologies to evaluate the environmental impacts of processes, including those of waste management, providing different indicators which give information on relevant environmental aspects. In the current study, a comparative environmental assessment between a valorisation process (fishmeal and oil production) and different waste management scenarios (composting, incineration and landfilling) was developed. This comparison is a necessary step for the development and industrial implementation of these processes as the best alternative treatment for fish by-products. The obtained results showed that both valorisation process and waste management treatments presented similar impacts. However, a significant benefit can be achieved through valorisation of fish by-products. Additionally, the implications of the possible presence of pollutants were discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterization of anti-listerial lactic acid bacteria isolated from Thai fermented fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Anya; Embarek, Peter Karim Ben; Wedell-Neergaard, C.

    1998-01-01

    Thai fermented fish products were screened for lactic acid bacteria capable of inhibiting Listeria sp. (Listeria innocua). Of 4150 assumed lactic acid bacteria colonies from MRS agar plates that were screened by an agar-overlay method 58 (1.4%) were positive. Forty four of these strains were...

  19. Media and growth conditions for induction of secondary metabolite production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2012-01-01

    -defined media are suited for biochemical studies, but in order to get chemical diversity expressed in filamentous fungi, sources rich in amino acids, vitamins, and trace metals have to be added, such as yeast extract and oatmeal. A battery of solid agar media is recommended for exploration of chemical diversity...... as agar plug samples are easily analyzed to get an optimal representation of the qualitative secondary metabolome. Standard incubation for a week at 25°C in darkness is recommended, but optimal conditions have to be modified depending on the ecology and physiology of different filamentous fungi....

  20. Effects of artificial feeds on growth and production of fishes in Polyculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Hosen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A study on the effects of artificial feeds on growth and production of fishes along with some limnological conditions were conducted in polyculture system. Species of Indian major carp (Cirrhinus mrigala and exotic fishes (Hypophthalmicthys molitrix and Oreochromis niloticus were stocked in six ponds under two treatments, each with three replications. Stocking rate in both treatments was 100 fish per decimal at the ratio of silver carp: tilapia: mrigal = 2: 2: 1. Fertilization and artificial feeds were given in Ttreatment 1 (T1 and only fertilization was done in Treatment 2 (T2. Wheat bran, rice bran and soybean meal were given daily as artificial feed in T1 in the ratio of wheat bran: rice bran: soybean meal = 2: 2: 1 (by wt. Urea, T.S.P and cow dung were applied fortnightly at the rate of 60 g deci-1, 90 g deci-1 and 2 kg deci-1 respectively. Water temperature, transparency, pH, dissolved oxygen, free CO2, total alkalinity, PO4-P and NO3-N were determined fortnightly and phytoplankton and zooplankton were studied fortnightly. These limnological conditions were more or less similar in the ponds under two treatments and were within suitable ranges. Calculated gross and net yields of fish were 16.56 and 12.48 ton ha-1 respectively in case of fertilization and artificial feeding application (T1 and 9.99 and 5.91 ton ha-1 respectively in case of only fertilization (T2. Application of artificial feed in T1 significantly increased the growth and production of fish more than two times which indicates that artificial feeding in polyculture is very useful for increasing fish production.

  1. Linking Forests and Fish: The Relationship Between Productivities of Salmonids and Forest Stands in Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilzbach, P.; Frazey, S.

    2005-05-01

    Productivities of resident salmonid populations, upland, and riparian areas in 25 small watersheds of coastal northern California were estimated and compared to determine if: 1) upland site productivity predicted riparian site productivity; 2) either upland or riparian site productivity predicted salmonid productivity; and 3) other parameters explained more of the variance in salmonid productivity than upland or riparian site productivity. Salmonid productivity was indexed by total salmonid biomass, length of age 1 fish, and percent habitat saturation. Upland and riparian site productivities were estimated using site indices for redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) and red alder (Alnus rubra), respectively. Upland and riparian site indices were correlated, but neither factor contributed to the best approximating models of salmonid biomass or fish length at age one. Salmonid biomass was best described by a positive relationship with drainage area, and length at age was best described by a positive relationship with percent of riparian hardwoods. Percent habitat saturation was not well described by any of the models constructed. Lack of a relationship between upland conifer and salmonid productivity suggests that management of land for timber productivity and component streams for salmonid production in these sites will require separate, albeit integrated, strategies.

  2. Economic Analysis of Small Scale Fish Pond Production in Oguta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    What are the costs and returns of small-scale fishpond enterprises? What problems hinder the development of small-scale fishpond production? Data were collected with the aid of structured questionnaires and interviews. Descriptive statistics, gross margin and likert scale were employed in data analysis. Gross margin ...

  3. Bee products prevent agrichemical-induced oxidative damage in fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Ferreira

    Full Text Available In southern South America and other parts of the world, aquaculture is an activity that complements agriculture. Small amounts of agrichemicals can reach aquaculture ponds, which results in numerous problems caused by oxidative stress in non-target organisms. Substances that can prevent or reverse agrichemical-induced oxidative damage may be used to combat these effects. This study includes four experiments. In each experiment, 96 mixed-sex, 6-month-old Rhamdia quelen (118±15 g were distributed into eight experimental groups: a control group that was not exposed to contaminated water, three groups that were exposed to various concentrations of bee products, three groups that were exposed to various concentrations of bee products plus tebuconazole (TEB; Folicur 200 CE™ and a group that was exposed to 0.88 mg L(-1 of TEB alone (corresponding to 16.6% of the 96-h LC50. We show that waterborne bee products, including royal jelly (RJ, honey (H, bee pollen (BP and propolis (P, reversed the oxidative damage caused by exposure to TEB. These effects were likely caused by the high polyphenol contents of these bee-derived compounds. The most likely mechanism of action for the protective effects of bee products against tissue oxidation and the resultant damage is that the enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and glutathione-S-transferase (GST are increased.

  4. Bee products prevent agrichemical-induced oxidative damage in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Daiane; Rocha, Helio Carlos; Kreutz, Luiz Carlos; Loro, Vania Lucia; Marqueze, Alessandra; Koakoski, Gessi; da Rosa, João Gabriel Santos; Gusso, Darlan; Oliveira, Thiago Acosta; de Abreu, Murilo Sander; Barcellos, Leonardo José Gil

    2013-01-01

    In southern South America and other parts of the world, aquaculture is an activity that complements agriculture. Small amounts of agrichemicals can reach aquaculture ponds, which results in numerous problems caused by oxidative stress in non-target organisms. Substances that can prevent or reverse agrichemical-induced oxidative damage may be used to combat these effects. This study includes four experiments. In each experiment, 96 mixed-sex, 6-month-old Rhamdia quelen (118±15 g) were distributed into eight experimental groups: a control group that was not exposed to contaminated water, three groups that were exposed to various concentrations of bee products, three groups that were exposed to various concentrations of bee products plus tebuconazole (TEB; Folicur 200 CE™) and a group that was exposed to 0.88 mg L(-1) of TEB alone (corresponding to 16.6% of the 96-h LC50). We show that waterborne bee products, including royal jelly (RJ), honey (H), bee pollen (BP) and propolis (P), reversed the oxidative damage caused by exposure to TEB. These effects were likely caused by the high polyphenol contents of these bee-derived compounds. The most likely mechanism of action for the protective effects of bee products against tissue oxidation and the resultant damage is that the enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) are increased.

  5. Oxidative stability during storage of fish oil from filleting by-products of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is largely independent of the processing and production temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honold, Philipp; Nouard, Marie-Louise; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is the main fish species produced in Danish fresh water farming. Large amounts of fileting by-products like heads, bones, tails (HBT), and intestines are produced when rainbow trout is processed to smoked rainbow trout filets. The filleting by-products can...... be used to produce high quality fish oil. In this study, the oxidative stability of fish oil produced from filleting by-products was evaluated. The oil was produced from conventional or organic fish (low and high omega-3 fatty acid content) at different temperatures (70 and 90°C). The oxidative stability...

  6. Prospects for the Elimination of Clostridium Botulinum from Fish and Fishery Products by Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, G. [Torry Research Station, Ministry of Technology, Aberdeen, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    1968-07-15

    The paper first discusses the occurrence of Clostridium botulinum in fish and fishery products and their resistance to irradiation, and then considers the different possible irradiation treatments such as radappertization, radurization and combined processes. For Great Britain it is suggested that sea- frozen fish should be thawed, filleted, packaged and irradiated at 0.3 Mrads. This irradiation treatment would give a sufficient extension of the market life. To eliminate the botulism hazard a temperature of less than 5 Degree-Sign C for storage and distribution is recommended. (author)

  7. Deterioration and shelf-life extension of fish and fishery products by modified atmosphere packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Payap Masniyom

    2011-01-01

    Fish and fishery products have been recognized as a nutrition source due to their high protein content. Moreover, theycontain considerable amount of unsaturated fatty acids, especially omega-3 fatty acids, which are regarded as preventivecompounds. However, shelf-life of seafood is limited by biochemical and microbiological changes. Modified atmospherepackaging (MAP) is widely used for minimally processed fishery products including fresh meat for retarding microbial growthand enzymatic spoila...

  8. Response of secondary production and its components to multiple stressors in nematode field populations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doroszuk, A.; Brake, te E.; Crespo-Gonzalez, D.; Kammenga, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Realistic measures of the impact of individual or multiple stressors are important for ecological risk assessment. Although multiple anthropogenic stressors are common in human-dominated environments, knowledge of their influence on functional population parameters such as secondary production (P)

  9. Potential and costs of electrolytical hydrogen production by secondary energy in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, S. N. M. de; Silva, E. P. da

    1998-01-01

    This paper makes a description of the availability supply secondary hydroelectric power (secondary energy) in the Brazilian interconnected hydroelectric systems, then with the data attained it is made an estimation of electrolytical hydrogen that can be produced by means of Brazilian secondary hydroelectric power. Also are determined the costs of electrolytical hydrogen production, by way of utilisation of the secondary hydroelectric power availability in the hydroelectric system of the South and Southeastern regions, with the variation of hydrogen plant capacity that allow identify the cases where hydrogen can be produced at a lower costs. (author)

  10. PARTICULARITIES AND MANAGEMENT OF THE DISTRIBUTION CHAIN FOR FISH AND FISHERY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Georgeta NICOLAE

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The total quality principles implementation contributes to the improving in meeting the consumer needs, essential reduction of costs and increasing sales. The total quality is a concept that assures the total satisfaction of clients on the entire distribution chain, including all the actors in this chain. The aquaculture and fisheries are very diverse sectors which use different breeding and fishing technologies and provide a wide variety of specific products. This induces a real complexity of the supply and distribution chain for fish and fishery products, including the links from the production point (fishery or farm to the final consumer. The components of the distribution chain differ with the geographic areas, type of farms, transportation, information on the fishery market and management systems. Implementing the total food quality system for fishery products involves the quality specification in all marketing stages for all products, along the entire distribution chain. The present work was focused on identifying the distribution chain for fish and fishery products with the identification of the specificity of this type of chain form farm to end consumer, which is the first step in the implementation of total quality concept in aquaculture, with all the benefits that come with it.

  11. Data on volatile compounds in fermented materials used for salmon fish sauce production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Mitsutoshi; Sagane, Yoshimasa; Koizumi, Ryosuke; Nakazawa, Yozo; Yamazaki, Masao; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Takano, Katsumi; Sato, Hiroaki

    2018-02-01

    This article describes the analysis of volatile compounds in fermented materials used for salmon fish sauce production via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Ten types of fish sauces were produced from raw salmon materials, including various proportions of flesh, viscera, inedible portion (heads, fins, and backbones), and soft roe, by mixing them with salt and allowing them to ferment for up to three months. The volatile compounds were captured by a solid-phase microextraction method and then applied to GC/MS for separation and identification of the compounds in the fish sauce products. The number of volatile compounds identified in the starting materials varied from 15 to 29 depending on the ingredients. The number of compounds in the final fish sauce products was reduced by 3.4-94.7% of that in the original material. The retention times and names of the identified compounds, as well as their relative peak areas, are provided in a Microsoft Excel Worksheet.

  12. Effects of changes in stock productivity and mixing on sustainable fishing and economic viability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastardie, Francois; Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Eero, Margit

    2017-01-01

    Within the new FMSY European paradigm, this paper shows how a combination of changes in fish stock mixing, non-stationarity in productivity, and constraints on unit stock concepts undermine the effective management of fisheries, especially when management reference points are not adjusted...... accordingly. Recent changes in stock structures, conditions and stock mixing between eastern and western Baltic cod can jeopardize the reliability of stock assessments and of the fishery economy. We modelled how different management, individual vessel decision-making, and stock growth and mixing scenarios...... have induced alternative individual vessel spatial effort allocation and economic performance by affecting fishing costs and by changing the relative stock abundance and size distribution. Stock mixing heavily influences profit and stock abundance for stocks that have experienced increased fishing...

  13. Classification of photobacteria associated with spoilage of fish products by numerical taxanomy and pyrolysis mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Paw; Manfio, G.P.; Goodfellow, M.

    1997-01-01

    , from spoiled products and by using a specific detection method. The data were analysed using the similarity coefficient and the unweighted pair-group with arithmetic averages algorithm. In addition twenty-six of the fish isolates and five reference strains were analysed by Curie-point pyrolysis mass...... sub-groups. One sub-group of psychrotolerant P. phosphoreum strains, which was selected in modified atmosphere packed fish stored at low temperature, was also highlighted using each of the methods. The importance of classifying food spoilage bacteria has been shown and a simple key generated......Forty strains of luminous and non-luminous Photobacterium phosphoreum isolates from cod (Gadus morhua) and seven reference strains of psychrotolerant and mesophilic photobacteria were examined for 156 unit characters in a numerical taxonomic study. The fish strains were isolated from the intestines...

  14. Studies on geo-morphology, ecology and fish production of the 92 rivers of Rajshahi Division, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, M.K.; Akhter, J.N.; Nima, A.; Ahmed, S.U.; Mazid, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Geo-morphology, ecology and fish production of the 92 rivers of Rajshahi division have been presented in this paper. Fifteen rivers are dead and 11 rivers have severe erosion problem. Siltation has increased in 66 rivers and depth has decreased in 11 rivers. Sixty nine rivers are suffering from low flow conditions. Fish diversity has decreased in 20 rivers while fish production has declined in 75 rivers. A total of 31 fish species have extinct, 25 species are under threat of extinction and 43...

  15. Aquaponics: integrating fish feeding rates and ion waste production for strawberry hydroponics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villarroel, M.; Alvarino, J. M. R.; Duran, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Aquaponics is the science of integrating intensive fish aquaculture with plant production in recirculating water systems. Although ion waste production by f ish cannot satisfy all plant requirements, less is known about the relationship between total feed provided for f ish and the production of milliequivalents (mEq) of different macronutrients for plants, especially for nutrient flow hydroponics used for strawberry production in Spain. That knowledge is essential to consider the amount of macronutrients available in aquaculture systems so that farmers can estimate how much nutrient needs to be supplemented in the waste water from fish, to produce viable plant growth. In the present experiment, tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) were grown in a small-scale recirculating system at two different densities while growth and feed consumption were noted every week for five weeks. At the same time points, water samples were taken to measure pH, EC 2 5, HCO3 - , Cl - , NH + 4 , NO 2 - , NO 3 - , H 2 PO 4 - , SO 4 2 -, Na + , K + , Ca 2 + and Mg 2 + build up. The total increase in mEq of each ion per kg of feed provided to the fish was highest for NO 3 - , followed, in decreasing order, by Ca 2 +, H 2 PO 4 - , K + , Mg 2 + and SO 4 2 -. The total amount of feed required per mEq ranged from 1.61- 13.1 kg for the four most abundant ions (NO 3 - , Ca 2 +, H 2 PO 4 - and K + ) at a density of 2 kg fish m3, suggesting that it would be rather easy to maintain small populations of fish to reduce the cost of hydroponic solution supplementation for strawberries. (Author) 16 refs.

  16. FISH AND SHELLFISH PRODUCTS DISTRIBUTED BY "ETHNIC" MINI-MARKET: CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT TO CURRENT LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Giorgi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to conduct an assessment on the quality and methods for marketing of fish products sold by ethnic minimarket. Has been inspected 20 supermarkets and buyed 60 fish and shellfish samples. The neatness of the rooms were evaluated during the shopping in the markets. Products purchased in the supermarket (about three samples for each shop were brought in Ichthypathology laboratory of State Veterinary Institute of Piedmont, Liguria and Aosta Valley, in Turin. Were conducted in the laboratory the readings of the labels. The conditions of hygiene were poor, especially in supermarket freezers. Only 16 samples were labelled in accordance with current legislation. According to the results obtained, the products 'ethnic' distributed in the supermarkets visited, may be considered a potential risk to human health.

  17. Discovery and characterization of novel bioactive peptides from marine secondary products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkenberg, Susan Skanderup

    antioxidative, antihypertensive, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, anticancer and diabetes 2 effects among others. However, majority of the research has been focusing on the peptides derived from hydrolysis with commercial industrial enzymes and the usefulness of these hydrolysates.It could be interesting...... whether digestion of fish secondary tissue with gastrointestinal proteases generates peptides, which also have these health promoting properties either in relation to gastrointestinal digestion or as an alternative to the use of industrial proteases. Furthermore, as a bioactive defense system against...... the bacterial load in the water, fish is expected to possess bio-components as small peptides. It could therefore be relevant whether these naturally occurring peptides exhibit other functional and health promoting bioactive properties.On this background the overall goal of the present PhD research...

  18. Current problems of raw fish material processing while manufacturing dried products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashonkov A. A.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The substantiation for using techniques of fish raw material canning has been presented, raw fish being caught or farmed in aquaculture. The main problems in raw fish canning have been reviewed, including significant reduction in thermolabile vitamins in the ultimate product as compared with the raw material due to the thermal processing. Promising canning technique – vacuum drying – has been proposed. This technique makes possible to reduce the temperature of thermal processing down to 50…55 °С and significantly enlarge preservation of thermolabile vitamins from the raw fish. Sampling of raw materials, semi-finished products, finished products, including preparation for analysis has been conducted by standard methods. Disadvantages of this way have been found, it is low energy efficiency of the process. The way to intensify the vacuum drying of aquatic organisms has been proposed based on the method of preliminary pore-forming due to augmenting the area of moisture evaporation. The design of the pilot plant has been proposed in order to research the process of pore forming and vacuum drying. Target species for processing have been suggested. They are as follows: Azov goby (fillet for food products and Black Sea sprat for feeds. The recipes of the feed mixture for granulated floating food for trout have been developed. The results of the first series of the pilot research have been provided. The experiments have proved that preliminary pore forming immediately before vacuum drying makes possible to enlarge the surface area of moisture evaporation by 15…25 %. By processing photomicrographs of sections by means of a special software the authors have got the results demonstrating that when manufacturing dried products by pore forming and drying under pressure 10 kPa the pore take 35...38 % of the inner volume of the product and with drying under pressure 10 kPa – only 18...21 %, and when drying under the atmospheric pressure – 11...13 %.

  19. Aquaponics: integrating fish feeding rates and ion waste production for strawberry hydroponics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villarroel, M; Alvarino, J M. R.; Duran, J M

    2011-07-01

    Aquaponics is the science of integrating intensive fish aquaculture with plant production in recirculating water systems. Although ion waste production by fish cannot satisfy all plant requirements, less is known about the relationship between total feed provided for fish and the production of milliequivalents (mEq) of different macronutrients for plants, especially for nutrient flow hydroponics used for strawberry production in Spain. That knowledge is essential to consider the amount of macronutrients available in aquaculture systems so that farmers can estimate how much nutrient needs to be supplemented in the waste water from fish, to produce viable plant growth. In the present experiment, tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) were grown in a small-scale recirculating system at two different densities while growth and feed consumption were noted every week for five weeks. At the same time points, water samples were taken to measure pH, EC25, HCO3{sup -}, Cl{sup -}, NH{sup +}{sub 4}, NO{sub 2}{sup -}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2}-, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Ca{sup 2}+ and Mg{sup 2}+ build up. The total increase in mEq of each ion per kg of feed provided to the fish was highest for NO{sub 3}{sup -}, followed, in decreasing order, by Ca{sup 2}+, H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup -}, K{sup +}, Mg{sup 2}+ and SO{sub 4}{sup 2}-. The total amount of feed required per mEq ranged from 1.61 - 13.1 kg for the four most abundant ions (NO{sub 3}{sup -}, Ca{sup 2}+, H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup -} and K{sup +}) at a density of 2 kg fish m{sup -3}, suggesting that it would be rather easy to maintain small populations of fish to reduce the cost of hydroponic solution supplementation for strawberries. (Author) 16 refs.

  20. Seasonal variation in the production of secondary metabolites and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thiago

    2013-02-20

    Feb 20, 2013 ... INTRODUCTION. The demand for natural products with antibacterial activity ... cultural identity of the local population, the use of these species, in ..... Sustentável e Conservação dos Recursos Florestais da Caatinga. Brasília: ...

  1. The production of high energy neutrons by secondary reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieschmidt, E.B.; Roney, T.J.; Staples, D.R.; Harmon, J.F.; Burkhart, J.H.

    1994-01-01

    The potential of using binary reactions in targets containing Be is discussed. Data are presented from the use of Be and BeF 2 targets bombarded with 1.5, 1.7, 1.8 and 1.9 MeV protons. Neutron production is enhanced by the presence of the F by factors of ∼4

  2. Production of L-carnitine by secondary metabolism of bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iborra José L

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The increasing commercial demand for L-carnitine has led to a multiplication of efforts to improve its production with bacteria. The use of different cell environments, such as growing, resting, permeabilized, dried, osmotically stressed, freely suspended and immobilized cells, to maintain enzymes sufficiently active for L-carnitine production is discussed in the text. The different cell states of enterobacteria, such as Escherichia coli and Proteus sp., which can be used to produce L-carnitine from crotonobetaine or D-carnitine as substrate, are analyzed. Moreover, the combined application of both bioprocess and metabolic engineering has allowed a deeper understanding of the main factors controlling the production process, such as energy depletion and the alteration of the acetyl-CoA/CoA ratio which are coupled to the end of the biotransformation. Furthermore, the profiles of key central metabolic activities such as the TCA cycle, the glyoxylate shunt and the acetate metabolism are seen to be closely interrelated and affect the biotransformation efficiency. Although genetically modified strains have been obtained, new strain improvement strategies are still needed, especially in Escherichia coli as a model organism for molecular biology studies. This review aims to summarize and update the state of the art in L-carnitine production using E. coli and Proteus sp, emphasizing the importance of proper reactor design and operation strategies, together with metabolic engineering aspects and the need for feed-back between wet and in silico work to optimize this biotransformation.

  3. Heterologous production of fungal secondary metabolites in Aspergilli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anyaogu, Diana Chinyere; Mortensen, Uffe Hasbro

    2015-01-01

    Fungal natural products comprise a wide range of compounds. Some are medically attractive as drugs and drug leads, some are used as food additives, while others are harmful mycotoxins. In recent years the genome sequence of several fungi has become available providing genetic information of a lar...

  4. Production of Bioactive Secondary Metabolites by Marine Vibrionaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lone Gram

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria belonging to the Vibrionaceae family are widespread in the marine environment. Today, 128 species of vibrios are known. Several of them are infamous for their pathogenicity or symbiotic relationships. Despite their ability to interact with eukaryotes, the vibrios are greatly underexplored for their ability to produce bioactive secondary metabolites and studies have been limited to only a few species. Most of the compounds isolated from vibrios so far are non-ribosomal peptides or hybrids thereof, with examples of N-containing compounds produced independent of nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS. Though covering a limited chemical space, vibrios produce compounds with attractive biological activities, including antibacterial, anticancer, and antivirulence activities. This review highlights some of the most interesting structures from this group of bacteria. Many compounds found in vibrios have also been isolated from other distantly related bacteria. This cosmopolitan occurrence of metabolites indicates a high incidence of horizontal gene transfer, which raises interesting questions concerning the ecological function of some of these molecules. This account underlines the pending potential for exploring new bacterial sources of bioactive compounds and the challenges related to their investigation.

  5. Fish preservation by combined treatment of curing and radiation. Part of a coordinated programme on radiation preservation of Asian fish and fishery products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maha, M.

    1979-10-01

    The combined treatment of potassium sorbate and irradiation to improve the keeping quality of traditional cured fish, e.g. salted fish, boiled fish and smoked fish packaged in polyethylene bags was studied. Low-dose irradiation for insect disinfestation of dried fish was also investigated. Irradiation treatment alone with doses up to 0.3 Mrad was not sufficient to prevent mold growth on semi-dried salted mackerel which contains approximately 6-11% of salt and 45-60% of moisture. Combined treatment of potassium sorbate and irradiation (200 r 400krad) was found to be effective in extending shelf-life of boiled and semi-dehydrated mackerel up to 5 weeks at ambient conditions. The shelf-life of comparable control samples was 2.5 weeks and for commercial boiled and semi-dried fish 3-7 days under the same conditions. The shelf-life of smoked milkfish, packaged in polyethylene bags and irradiated with 200 or 400krad was found to be 15 and 20 days respectively at ambient conditions as compared to 5 days for control samples. Dermestes maculatus was found to be the predominant pest infesting dried, smoked fish followed by Necrobia rufipes. A dose of 25krad was found to be sufficient to disinfest these insect species in the product

  6. Waste products of oilsands mine inhibit sex steroids in exposed fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lister, A.; Van Der Kraak, G.J.; Nero, V.; Farwell, A.J.; Dixon, D.G.

    2002-01-01

    Mature fine tailings (MFT) and tailing pond water (TPW) are two of the wastes generated by oil sand mining operations at Syncrude Canada Ltd. in northern Alberta. A study was conducted to determine the impact of these wastes on reproductive steroid production in sexually mature goldfish. MFT is a toxic aqueous suspension consisting of organic acids, bitumen and metals. TPW is a saline solution consisting of both organic and inorganic contaminants. Goldfish were examined for 19 days in 3 of Syncrude's specially designed experimental ponds which were lined with or without MFT and capped with or without TPW. The study showed that plasma levels of testosterone and 17 β-estradiol in male and female fish in ponds with MFT but no TPW and ponds with both MFT and TPW were much lower compared to fish in a control pond with neither MFT nor TPW. The study also involved in vitro testis and ovarian incubations on the fish to determine potential differences in basal steroid production levels and how they react to gonadotropin. Results showed that gonadal tissues of fish from all ponds behaved similarly to the gonadotropin, thereby suggesting that under normal conditions, the oilsands wastes do not affect the ability of gonads to produce steroids. Compared to the control pond, both male and female fish from the pond with both MFT and TPW had significantly lower basal levels of testosterone, suggesting that the steroid inhibition could be caused at a site within the gonad. It was concluded that waste products of oilsands mining disrupt the reproductive endocrine system in goldfish

  7. Waste products of oilsands mine inhibit sex steroids in exposed fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lister, A.; Van Der Kraak, G.J. [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada); Nero, V.; Farwell, A.J.; Dixon, D.G. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology

    2002-07-01

    Mature fine tailings (MFT) and tailing pond water (TPW) are two of the wastes generated by oil sand mining operations at Syncrude Canada Ltd. in northern Alberta. A study was conducted to determine the impact of these wastes on reproductive steroid production in sexually mature goldfish. MFT is a toxic aqueous suspension consisting of organic acids, bitumen and metals. TPW is a saline solution consisting of both organic and inorganic contaminants. Goldfish were examined for 19 days in 3 of Syncrude's specially designed experimental ponds which were lined with or without MFT and capped with or without TPW. The study showed that plasma levels of testosterone and 17 {beta}-estradiol in male and female fish in ponds with MFT but no TPW and ponds with both MFT and TPW were much lower compared to fish in a control pond with neither MFT nor TPW. The study also involved in vitro testis and ovarian incubations on the fish to determine potential differences in basal steroid production levels and how they react to gonadotropin. Results showed that gonadal tissues of fish from all ponds behaved similarly to the gonadotropin, thereby suggesting that under normal conditions, the oilsands wastes do not affect the ability of gonads to produce steroids. Compared to the control pond, both male and female fish from the pond with both MFT and TPW had significantly lower basal levels of testosterone, suggesting that the steroid inhibition could be caused at a site within the gonad. It was concluded that waste products of oilsands mining disrupt the reproductive endocrine system in goldfish.

  8. Biomarkers in natural fish populations indicate adverse biological effects of offshore oil production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennart Balk

    Full Text Available Despite the growing awareness of the necessity of a sustainable development, the global economy continues to depend largely on the consumption of non-renewable energy resources. One such energy resource is fossil oil extracted from the seabed at offshore oil platforms. This type of oil production causes continuous environmental pollution from drilling waste, discharge of large amounts of produced water, and accidental spills.Samples from natural populations of haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua in two North Sea areas with extensive oil production were investigated. Exposure to and uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were demonstrated, and biomarker analyses revealed adverse biological effects, including induction of biotransformation enzymes, oxidative stress, altered fatty acid composition, and genotoxicity. Genotoxicity was reflected by a hepatic DNA adduct pattern typical for exposure to a mixture of PAHs. Control material was collected from a North Sea area without oil production and from remote Icelandic waters. The difference between the two control areas indicates significant background pollution in the North Sea.It is most remarkable to obtain biomarker responses in natural fish populations in the open sea that are similar to the biomarker responses in fish from highly polluted areas close to a point source. Risk assessment of various threats to the marine fish populations in the North Sea, such as overfishing, global warming, and eutrophication, should also take into account the ecologically relevant impact of offshore oil production.

  9. Analysis of integrated animal-fish production system under subtropical hill agro ecosystem in India: growth performance of animals, total biomass production and monetary benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaresan, A; Pathak, K A; Bujarbaruah, K M; Vinod, K

    2009-03-01

    The present study assessed the benefits of integration of animals with fish production in optimizing the bio mass production from unit land in subtropical hill agro ecosystem. Hampshire pigs and Khaki Campbell ducks were integrated with composite fish culture. The pig and duck excreta were directly allowed into the pond and no supplementary feed was given to fish during the period of study. The average levels of N, P and K in dried pig and duck manure were 0.9, 0.7 and 0.6 per cent and 1.3, 0.6 and 0.5 per cent, respectively. The average body weight of pig and duck at 11 months age was 90 and 1.74 kg with an average daily weight gain of 333.33 and 6.44 g, respectively. The fish production in pig-fish and duck-fish systems were 2209 and 2964 kg/ha, respectively while the fish productivity in control pond was only 820 kg/ha. The total biomass (animal and fish) production was higher (pfeeding system compared to the traditional system, however the input/output ratio was 1:1.2 and 1:1.55 for commercial and traditional systems, respectively. It was inferred that the total biomass production per unit land was high (pfish were integrated together.

  10. Fish production and diversity in the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum—Increased production but no novel faunas during a "Future Earth" analog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczik, D. W.; Norris, R. D.; Gaskell, D. E.

    2014-12-01

    A partial analog for future global change is the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum—a transient episode of warming, acidification, and biogeographic change at ~55.5 Ma. The PETM is known to have triggered extinction in some deep sea biotas, extensive biogeographic range shifts, and the common occurrence of 'excursion biotas'—non-analog occurrences of species that are typically rare in the open ocean before or after the PETM. Here we report on the impact of the PETM on fish production and biodiversity. Our data include the mass accumulation rate of fish teeth and denticles as well as an analysis of tooth morphotypes for three PETM sites: ODP 1220 and 1209 in the Pacific, and ODP 1260 in the equatorial Atlantic. Tooth morphotypes hardly change through the PETM and consist of abundant midwater species (angler fish and flashlight fish) in addition to sharks and epipelagic fish. There is no evidence for a non-analog 'excursion biota' during the PETM, suggesting that fish experienced fewer geographic range shifts than the calcareous and organic-walled plankton where excursion biotas are commonplace. Fish mass accumulation rates are also relatively stable before and after the PETM although all sites show a transient rise in fish production at the onset of the PETM or within the later part of the "PETM Core". These results broadly match published estimates of PETM export production from biogenic barium fluxes. Our findings run counter to "Future Earth" models that use climate forecasts for the next century to predict the impact of global change on fish stocks. These models suggest that future warming and ocean stratification will decrease most tropical and subtropical ocean fish production, accentuate fish production in the boundary currents and generally shift production toward higher latitudes. A resolution of "Future Earth" models and PETM data may reflect the different timescales of observation and stages of ecological response to severe global change.

  11. Valuing multiple eelgrass ecosystem services in Sweden: fish production and uptake of carbon and nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Glenn Cole

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Valuing nature’s benefits in monetary terms is necessary for policy-makers facing trade-offs in how to spend limited financial resources on environmental protection. We provide information to assess trade-offs associated with the management of seagrass beds, which provide a number of ecosystem services, but are presently impacted by many stressors. We develop an interdisciplinary framework for valuing multiple ecosystem services and apply it to the case of eelgrass (Zostera marina, a dominant seagrass species in the northern hemisphere. We identify and quantify links between three eelgrass functions (habitat for fish, carbon and nitrogen uptake and economic goods in Sweden, quantify these using ecological endpoints, estimate the marginal average value of the impact of losing one hectare of eelgrass along the Swedish northwest coast on welfare in monetary terms, and aggregate these values while considering double-counting. Over a 20 to 50 year period we find that compared to unvegetated habitats, a hectare of eelgrass, including the organic material accumulated in the sediment, produces an additional 626 kg cod fishes and 7,535 wrasse individuals and sequesters 98.6 ton carbon and 466 kg nitrogen. We value the flow of future benefits associated with commercial fishing, avoided climate change damages, and reduced eutrophication at 170,000 SEK in 2014 (20,700 US$ or 11,000 SEK (1,300 US$ annualized at 4%. Fish production, which is the most commonly valued ecosystem service in the seagrass literature, only represented 25% of the total value whereas a conservative estimate of nitrogen regulation constituted 46%, suggesting that most seagrass beds are undervalued. Comparing these values with historic losses of eelgrass we show that the Swedish northwest coast has suffered a substantial reduction in fish production and mineral regulation. Future work should improve the understanding of the geographic scale of eelgrass functions, how local variables

  12. Replacement of fish meal protein by surimi by-product protein in the diet of blue gourami Trichogaster trichopterus fingerlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanta, K N; Subramanian, S; Korikanthimath, V S

    2013-02-01

    Based on the nutrient requirement of Trichogaster trichopterus, a fish meal-based basal diet with 350 g/kg diet crude protein and 16.7 MJ/kg energy was formulated, in which the fish meal protein was replaced by surimi by-product protein at 0.0 (control), 12.5, 25, 50, 75 and 100% levels. The formulated diets were fed ad libitum to T. trichopterus fingerlings (4.80 ± 0.03 g) in triplicate groups for 45 days in a closed water system. Eighteen fibre-reinforced plastic tanks with 200 l of water were used for rearing the fish. Weight gain, specific growth rate, feed/gain ratio, protein efficiency ratio, nutrient retention and digestibility (protein and energy) of fish were not affected (p > 0.05) up to 50% fish meal protein replacement level by surimi by-product protein. While whole-body protein content of fish was marginally decreased, the lipid content was increased with increase in surumi by-product incorporation level in the diet. The study results suggest that the fish meal protein, which is scarce and costly nowadays, could be replaced up to 50% by surimi by-product protein in the diet of blue gourami without hampering the growth and nutrient utilization of fish. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Seasonal variations in secondary production of the Mandovi-Zuari estuarine system of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Selvakumar, R.A.; Nair, V.R.; Madhupratap, M.

    . In general, the saline period was more productive (12.9 mg dry wt/m3/day) compared to the low saline period (11 mg dry wt/m3/day). The average secondary production in the estuarine system was 21.4 mg dry wt/m3/day or 1078 tonnes carbon/yr. The coefficient...

  14. Methods to assess secondary volatile lipid oxidation products in complex food matrices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Yesiltas, Betül

    A range of different methods are available to determine secondary volatile lipid oxidation products. These methods include e.g. spectrophotometric determination of anisidine values and TBARS as well as GC based methods for determination of specific volatile oxidation products such as pentanal...... headspace methods on the same food matrices will be presented....

  15. INVESTIGATION OF THE POSSIBILITY OF OBTAINING DRY BASES FROM PROCESSED FISH PRODUCTS OF LITTLE VALUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Dvoryaninova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Competitive advantages of this direction of researches are in justification of actions and offers on a technical provision of production of a dry fish basis from meat- and bone residue of pond fishes that will allow to produce fast foods of high quality and biological value (broths, soups, sauces, to expand the assortment taking into account market demand, to introduce the new forms of food convenient in storage and use at home and outside as well as for special food. The first courses on dry fish broth are easily digestible, with the high contents of micro and macro elements in the quantity of them they surpass meat broths. Their other advantage is the content of the polynonsaturated fatty acids neutralizing negative impact of substances, destroying tendons, ligaments and cartilage in the human body, thereby eliminating joint pains that is especially important for the determined groups of the population, for example, the military personnel, sportsmen, etc. In addition, this technology includes sparing modes of processing of raw materials, keeping thereby native properties of useful substances (protein, fat as much as possible. Researches on selection of an optimum ratio of the heads and the bones providing high organoleptic rates of broths on their basis were carried out to produce dry fish bases. Conditions and parameters of convective drying of little value products of cutting of silver carp and cod are determined. The results allow to draw a preliminary conclusion on the possibility of creation a new technology of powdery products for broths fast preparation. The developed technology is of great importance in the creation of waste-free and low-waste production at the enterprises of fishery industry of the Russian Federation.

  16. INCREASING FISH PRODUCTIVITY OF POND ECOSYSTEMS BY FERTILIZING THEM WITH DISTILLER'S GRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Tson’

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study fish culture parameters of young-of-the-year carp in the conditions of industrial fish-growing ponds when applying experimental repeated fertilization with distiller’s grain. Methodology. The study was conducted in industrial fish-growing ponds. The wastes of alcohol industry – the distiller’s grain as organic fertilizer was gradually introduced into ponds at following amounts: first application – 1,0 t/ha, second application in 10 days – 0,5 t/ha, third application in 12 days – 0,5 t/ha. The control ponds were fertilized with humus (2 t/ha. Young-of-the-year carp (Cyprinus carpio were grown in monoculture at stocking density of 30 000 fish/ha. In addition, 100 kg/ha of lime were applied during the culture season in the experiment and control. Fertilization with humus and application of lime in ponds, hydrochemical studies, sampling and processing of hydrobiological samples, fish culturing and statistical studies were carried out according to standard methods. Findings. Gradual fertilizing with distiller’s grain (to the total 2 t/ha gave the possibility to create favorable hydrochemical and hydrobiological regimes. An average daily growth in the experimental fish groups of 0,44 ± 0,09 g/day that was similar to in the control (0,45 ± 0,11 g/day with positive significant correlation between them (r = 0,97; p <0,001 was achieved. The performed measures gave a possibility to obtain fish productivity in the experimental variant 10.7% more than in the control. An economic effect of 14.3% cost reduction for fertilizing ponds was achieved. Originality. For the first time we presented the results of fish culture and biological parameters of young-of-the-year carp in industrial ponds when applying 3-time fertilization with distiller’s grain. Practical Value. The obtained results are the basis for the broad use of non-traditional organic fertilizer – distiller’s grain in industrial ponds, when growing young

  17. Bibliographic review of works accomplished about irradiated chicken, fish and fish products , spices and condiments; Levantamento bibliografico de trabalhos realizados sobre aves, peixes e produtos de peixe, especiarias e condimentos irradiados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardes, B; Dias Filho, M

    1983-07-01

    Table of foods that can be irradiated and its respective nominal doses are shown. Bibliographic reviews of works performed about irradiated chicken, fish and fish products, spices and condiments are shown. The irradiation purpose in chicken were to increase the shelf-life and to eliminate the pathogenic microorganism in chicken stored below 10{sup 0} C; in fish and fish products the purposes were to control the insect infestation in dry-fish during the storage and the sell exposure to reduce the macrobian charge in packed and non packed fish and in fish products. To reduce pathogenic microorganism in packing and unpacking fish; in spices and condiments to control the insect infestation, to reduce the microbial contamination. (L.M.J.).

  18. Global analysis of biosynthetic gene clusters reveals vast potential of secondary metabolite production in Penicillium species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Christian; Grijseels, Sietske; Prigent, Sylvain

    2017-01-01

    Filamentous fungi produce a wide range of bioactive compounds with important pharmaceutical applications, such as antibiotic penicillins and cholesterol-lowering statins. However, less attention has been paid to fungal secondary metabolites compared to those from bacteria. In this study, we...... sequenced the genomes of 9 Penicillium species and, together with 15 published genomes, we investigated the secondary metabolism of Penicillium and identified an immense, unexploited potential for producing secondary metabolites by this genus. A total of 1,317 putative biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) were......-referenced the predicted pathways with published data on the production of secondary metabolites and experimentally validated the production of antibiotic yanuthones in Penicillia and identified a previously undescribed compound from the yanuthone pathway. This study is the first genus-wide analysis of the genomic...

  19. Clustering of commercial fish sauce products based on an e-panel technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsutoshi Nakano

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Fish sauce is a brownish liquid seasoning with a characteristic flavor that is produced in Asian countries and limited areas of Europe. The types of fish and shellfish and fermentation process used in its production depend on the region from which it derives. Variations in ingredients and fermentation procedures yield end products with different smells, tastes, and colors. For this data article, we employed an electronic panel (e-panel technique including an electronic nose (e-nose, electronic tongue (e-tongue, and electronic eye (e-eye, in which smell, taste, and color are evaluated by sensors instead of the human nose, tongue, and eye to avoid subjective error. The presented data comprise clustering of 46 commercially available fish sauce products based separate e-nose, e-tongue, and e-eye test results. Sensory intensity data from the e-nose, e-tongue, and e-eye were separately classified by cluster analysis and are shown in dendrograms. The hierarchical cluster analysis indicates major three groups on e-nose and e-tongue data, and major four groups on e-eye data.

  20. Secondary proton production at small atmospheric depths as a function of the geomagnetic cut-off

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papini, P. [Florence Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Florence (Italy); Grimani, C. [Perugia Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Perugia (Italy); Stephens, S.A. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bombay (International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements)

    1995-09-01

    A detailed calculation of the energy spectrum of secondary protons in the atmosphere is being carried out in the energy range 20 MeV - 40 GeV. In this calculation, it is taken into account all processes leading to the production of secondary protons as a function of the atmospheric depth has been calculated using all relevant energy loss processes. In this paper, it is examine the effect of the geomagnetic cut-off on the spectral shape of secondary protons specially at energies below the geomagnetic cut-off for small atmospheric depths.

  1. Secondary proton production at small atmospheric depths as a function of the geomagnetic cut-off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papini, P.; Grimani, C.; Stephens, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    A detailed calculation of the energy spectrum of secondary protons in the atmosphere is being carried out in the energy range 20 MeV - 40 GeV. In this calculation, it is taken into account all processes leading to the production of secondary protons as a function of the atmospheric depth has been calculated using all relevant energy loss processes. In this paper, it is examine the effect of the geomagnetic cut-off on the spectral shape of secondary protons specially at energies below the geomagnetic cut-off for small atmospheric depths

  2. The Importance of Phytoplankton Biomolecule Availability for Secondary Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina T. Peltomaa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The growth and reproduction of animals is affected by their access to resources. In aquatic ecosystems, the availability of essential biomolecules for filter-feeding zooplankton depends greatly on phytoplankton. Here, we analyzed the biochemical composition, i.e., the fatty acid, sterol and amino acid profiles and concentrations as well as protein, carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus content of 17 phytoplankton monocultures representing the seven most abundant phytoplankton classes in boreal and sub-arctic lakes. To examine how the differences in the biochemical composition between phytoplankton classes affect their nutritional quality for consumers, we assessed the performance of Daphnia, on these diets. Furthermore, we defined the most important biomolecules regulating the somatic growth and reproduction of Daphnia, expecting that higher concentrations of certain biomolecules are needed for reproduction than for growth. Finally, we combined these results with phytoplankton field data from over 900 boreal and sub-arctic lakes in order to estimate whether the somatic growth of Daphnia is sterol-limited when the natural phytoplankton communities are cyanobacteria-dominated. Our analysis shows that Daphnia grows best with phytoplankton rich in sterols, ω-3 fatty acids, protein, and amino acids. Their reproduction follows food sterol and ω-3 concentration as well as C:P-ratio being two times higher in Daphnia feeding on cryptophytes than any other diet. Interestingly, we found that a high dietary ω-6 fatty acid concentration decreases both somatic growth and reproduction of Daphnia. When combined with phytoplankton community composition field data, our results indicate that zooplankton is constantly limited by sterols in lakes dominated by cyanobacteria (≥40% of total phytoplankton biomass, and that the absence of cryptophytes can severely hinder zooplankton production in nature.

  3. Microbiological assessment along the fish production chain of the Norwegian pelagic fisheries sector--Results from a spot sampling programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svanevik, Cecilie Smith; Roiha, Irja Sunde; Levsen, Arne; Lunestad, Bjørn Tore

    2015-10-01

    Microbes play an important role in the degradation of fish products, thus better knowledge of the microbiological conditions throughout the fish production chain may help to optimise product quality and resource utilisation. This paper presents the results of a ten-year spot sampling programme (2005-2014) of the commercially most important pelagic fish species harvested in Norway. Fish-, surface-, and storage water samples were collected from fishing vessels and processing factories. Totally 1,181 samples were assessed with respect to microbiological quality, hygiene and food safety. We introduce a quality and safety assessment scheme for fresh pelagic fish recommending limits for heterotrophic plate counts (HPC), thermos tolerant coliforms, enterococci and Listeria monocytogenes. According to the scheme, in 25 of 41 samplings, sub-optimal conditions were found with respect to quality, whereas in 21 and 9 samplings, samples were not in compliance concerning hygiene and food safety, respectively. The present study has revealed that the quality of pelagic fish can be optimised by improving the hygiene conditions at some critical points at an early phase of the production chain. Thus, the proposed assessment scheme may provide a useful tool for the industry to optimise quality and maintain consumer safety of pelagic fishery products. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Natural Food Additives and Preservatives for Fish-Paste Products: A Review of the Past, Present, and Future States of Research

    OpenAIRE

    Bashir, Khawaja Muhammad Imran; Kim, Jin-Soo; An, Jeong Hyeon; Sohn, Jae Hak; Choi, Jae-Suk

    2017-01-01

    Fish-paste products, also known as fish cakes or surimi-based products, are worldwide favorites. Surimi, a wet protein concentrate of fish muscle, is used as an intermediate raw material to produce surimi seafood. The flavor, texture, taste, shelf-life, and market value of surimi-based products depend on the source of the fish meat, type of applied heat treatment, and additives used to prepare the surimi. While preparing surimi with chemical additives, several problems have been observed, suc...

  5. Combination of potassium sorbate and irradiation treatments to extend the shelf-life cured fish products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maha, M.; Sudarman, H.; Chosdu, R.; Siagian, E.G.; Nasran, S.

    1981-01-01

    Studies on shelf-life extension of three kinds of cured fish product, i.e. salted chub mackerel (Rastrelliger neglectus), boiled chub mackerel (Rastrelliger neglectus) and smoked milkfish (Chanos chanos) have been done using a combined potassium sorbate and irradiation treatment. An integrated process for the preparation of each cured product provided with the combined treatment is described. Total bacterial count, total volatile base nitrogen, content of volatile reducing substances and mould growth were used as objective indices of quality in comparison with sensory evaluation to determine the shelf-life of the products held at ambient conditions. It was found that potassium sorbate residue of 0.1% level followed by irradiation up to 4 kGy could retard mould growth on the products and extend the shelf-life considerably in comparison with the commercially prepared products. (author)

  6. Combination of potassium sorbate and irradiation treatments to extend the shelf life of cured fish products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maha, M.; Sudarman, H.; Chosdu, R.; Siagian, E.G.

    1989-01-01

    Studies on shelf life extension of three kinds of cured fish products, i.e. salted chub mackeral (Rastrelliger neglectus), boiled chub mackerel (Rastrelliger neglectus) and smoked milkfish (Chanos chanos) have been made using a combined potassium sorbate and irradiation treatment. An integrated process for the preparation of each cured product provided with the combination treatment is described. Total bacterial count, total volatile base nitrogen, volatile reducing substances, and mould growth were used as objective indices of quality in comparison with sensory evaluation to determine the shelf life of the products held at ambient conditions. It was found that 0.1% potassium sorbate followed by irradiation up to 4 kGy retards mould growth on the products and extends the shelf life to a considerable length of time in comparison with the commercially prepared products. (author). 14 refs, 3 figs, 5 tabs

  7. Fish and fishery products trade in Brazil, 2005 to 2015: A review of available data and trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Simões Coelho Barone

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Along the last ten years fish and fishery product trade in Brazil has been on a downward trajectory turning a profit of US$ 98.6 million in 2005 into a loss of US$ 1.25 billion by 2014. On the other hand, the country is a leading producer of grains and has the third largest animal feed industry in the world, which has added 5.5 million hectares of freshwater reservoirs and 3.5 million km2 of an exclusive marine economic zone in the same period, a sizable potential for development of the aquaculture industry. This study aims at unveiling strategies for the reduction of the deficit in the Brazilian seafood trade balance, based on critical analysis of the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of imported fishery products. The fish and fishery product trade in Brazil, from 2005 to 2015, was studied considering import and export data mined from the Brazilian Ministry of Development, Industry and Commerce databases through the Aliceweb system, and clustered as follows: processing; product species; origin; conservation; and group. The main imported products were gutted fresh fish, highest price (salmon; salted dried fish, higher price (cod; frozen fish fillets, lowest price (fish and hake. The replacement of fish imports by domestic production is not enough to enable consumers to identify the equivalence between products (technical, qualitative or organoleptic. Developing strategies for the production of fish and fishery products at competitive prices and quantities that meet consumer demand is an immediate need, and the development of the aquaculture industry a rational strategy.

  8. Enzymatic interesterification of vegetable oil/ fish oil blend for margarine production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Nuzul Amri Bin; Xu, Xuebing

    the desired properties. In this study, palm stearin (PS), palm kernel oil (PKO) and fish oil (FO) are blended and modified by enzymatic interesterification. PS functioned as the hard stock, PKO as the soft oil and FO as a source for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/ docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The purpose...... cause the product to be susceptible to oxidation due to the presence of high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Furthermore, FO could also influence the melting properties of the product. Therefore, in addition to determining the fatty acid position on the glycerol backbone, it is also pertinent...

  9. Determining potential adverse effects in marine fish exposed to pharmaceuticals and personal care products with the fish plasma model and whole-body tissue concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meador, James P.; Yeh, Andrew; Gallagher, Evan P.

    2017-01-01

    The Fish Plasma Model (FPM) was applied to water exposure and tissue concentrations in fish collected from two wastewater treatment plant impacted estuarine sites. In this study we compared predicted fish plasma concentrations to Cmax values for humans, which represents the maximum plasma concentration for the minimum therapeutic dose. The results of this study show that predictions of plasma concentrations for a variety of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) from effluent concentrations resulted in 37 compounds (54%) exceeding the response ratio (RR = Fish [Plasma]/1%Cmax total ) of 1 compared to 3 compounds (14%) detected with values generated with estuarine receiving water concentrations. When plasma concentrations were modeled from observed whole-body tissue residues, 16 compounds out of 24 detected for Chinook (67%) and 7 of 14 (50%) for sculpin resulted in an RR tissue value greater than 1, which highlights the importance of this dose metric over that using estuarine water. Because the tissue residue approach resulted in a high percentage of compounds with calculated response ratios exceeding a value of unity, we believe this is a more accurate representation for exposure in the field. Predicting plasma concentrations from tissue residues improves our ability to assess the potential for adverse effects in fish because exposure from all sources is captured. Tissue residues are also more likely to represent steady-state conditions compared to those from water exposure because of the inherent reduction in variability usually observed for field data and the time course for bioaccumulation. We also examined the RR in a toxic unit approach to highlight the importance of considering multiple compounds exhibiting a similar mechanism of action. - Highlights: • Fish Plasma Model (FPM) to assess risk based on water and fish tissue concentrations. • Plasma levels predicted with receiving water concentrations underestimate exposure for feral fish.

  10. Effect of competition on the production and activity of secondary metabolites in Aspergillus species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Losada, L.; Ajayi, O.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2009-01-01

    and in the presence of other fungal species. However, it is not known whether secreted secondary metabolites provide a competitive advantage over other fungal species, or whether competition has any effect on the production of those metabolites. Here, we have performed co-cultivation competition assays among......Secondary metabolites are of intense interest to humans due to their pharmaceutical and/or toxic properties. Also, these metabolites are clinically relevant because of their importance in fungal pathogenesis. Aspergillus species secrete secondary metabolites when grown individually...... different species of Aspergillus to determine relative species fitness in culture, and to analyze the presence of possible antifungal activity of secondary metabolites in extracts. The results show that, for the most part, at 30C only one species is able to survive direct competition with a second species...

  11. Consumer purchasing behaviour towards fish and seafood products. Patterns and insights from a sample of international studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlucci, Domenico; Nocella, Giuseppe; De Devitiis, Biagia; Viscecchia, Rosaria; Bimbo, Francesco; Nardone, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    The present systematic review was performed to assess consumer purchasing behaviour towards fish and seafood products in the wide context of developed countries. Web of Science, Scopus, ScienceDirect and Google Scholar engines were used to search the existing literature and a total of 49 studies were identified for inclusion. These studies investigated consumer purchasing behaviour towards a variety of fish and seafood products, in different countries and by means of different methodological approaches. In particular, the review identifies and discusses the main drivers and barriers of fish consumption as well as consumers' preferences about the most relevant attributes of fish and seafood products providing useful insights for both practitioners and policy makers. Finally, main gaps of the existing literature and possible trajectories for future research are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Secondary metabolites from Penicillium roqueforti, a starter for the production of Gorgonzola cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Vallone

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of mold in food, although necessary for production, can involve the presence of secondary metabolites, which are sometimes toxic. Penicillium roqueforti is a common saprophytic fungus but it is also the essential fungus used in the production of Roquefort cheese and other varieties of blue cheese containing internal mold. The study was conducted on industrial batches of Penicillium roqueforti starters used in the production of the Gorgonzola cheese, with the aim to verify the production of secondary metabolites. Nine Penicillium roqueforti strains were tested. The presence of roquefortine C, PR toxin and mycophenolic acid was tested first in vitro, then on bread-like substrate and lastly in vivo in nine cheese samples produced with the same starters and ready to market. In vitro, only Penicillium out of nine produced roquefortine C, four starters showed mycophenolic acid production, while no significant amounts of PR toxin were detected. In the samples grown on bread-like substrate, Penicillium did not produce secondary metabolites, likewise with each cheese samples tested. To protect consumers’ health and safety, the presence of mycotoxins needs to be verified in food which is widely consumed, above all for products protected by the protected denomination of origin (DOP label (i.e. a certificate guaranteeing the geographic origin of the product, such as Gorgonzola cheese.

  13. Impact of school staff health on work productivity in secondary schools in Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alker, Heather J; Wang, Monica L; Pbert, Lori; Thorsen, Nancy; Lemon, Stephenie C

    2015-06-01

    Healthy, productive employees are an integral part of school health programs. There have been few assessments of work productivity among secondary school staff. This study describes the frequency of 3 common health risk factors--obesity, depressive symptoms, and smoking--and their impact on work productivity in secondary school employees. Employees of secondary schools in Massachusetts (N = 630) participated in a longitudinal weight gain prevention intervention study. Assessment completed at baseline, 1-year and 2-year follow-up included survey assessments of health risk factors as well as measurements for height, weight, and body mass index (BMI). The survey also included a depression inventory and Work Limitations Questionnaire. Data analysis included multivariate mixed effect models to identify productivity differences in relation to BMI, depressive symptoms, and smoking in this population stratified by position type (teacher and other school staff). The sample included 361 teachers and 269 other school staff. Obesity, depressive symptoms, and smoking were significantly associated with work productivity, including workdays missed because of health concerns (absenteeism) and decreases in on-the-job productivity because of health concerns (presenteeism). Three common health conditions, namely obesity, depressive symptoms, and smoking, adversely affect the productivity of high school employees. © 2015, American School Health Association.

  14. Performance and lipid profiles of native chickens fed diet containing skipjack fish oil as by-product of fish canning factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leke, J. R.; Mandey, J. S.; Laihad, J. T.; Tinangon, R. M.; Tangkau, L.; Junus, C.

    2018-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the use of fish oil as by-product of fish canning factory in diet on the performance and lipid profiles of native chickens. The experiment used 100 native chicken with an average initial body weight of 48,9 gram (sd + 9.9), was used in this study for 8 weeks experiment. These were arranged by a completely randomized design with 5 treatments, 5 replications and 4 hens in replication each. The diets were: R0 = 100% Based Diet (BD) + 0% Fish Oil (FO); R1 = 98.5% BD + 1.5% FO; R2 = 98% BD + 2% FO; R3 = 97.5% BD + 2.5% FO; R4 = 97 % BD + 3% FO. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. Variables were performance parameters and lipid profiles. Results showed that fish oil inclusion in diets were significantly increased feed intake, body weight gain, carcass percentage, liver, breast and thigh weight, and decreased blood cholesterol, carbohydrate and meat cholesterol, and also tended to decrease abdominal fat. However, there were no affected on feed conversion, water, protein, fat and ash of breast meat. It can be concluded that the use of fish oil in diet up to 3% could improved performance parameters of native chickens.

  15. Evaluation and identification of histamine-forming bacteria on fish products of middle Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Mancusi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Regulation EU 2073/2005 sets maximum concentration for histamine in fish and products thereof. To meet these criteria, manufacturers have to define performance objectives, such as the maximum allowed prevalence and number/activity of histamine-producing bacteria at relevant stage of production. In order to assess the presence and decarboxylase activity of contaminant bacteria we examined 51 samples of blue fish caught and processed in Emilia Romagna region. We collected 50 gr of fish (skin and gills or the entire product from 10 sample units from every lot. Analytical samples were cultured in Trypticase Soy Broth supplemented with histidine and pyridoxal HCl. Histamine was measured with an electrochemical biosensor after incubation at both 37°C for 24 h and 18-22°C for 48 h. Enrichments that showed relevant enzymatic activity were seeded on Niven agar to isolate suspected colonies and DNA extracts from these bacteria were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR for detecting specific sequences of the gene encoding pyridoxaldependent histidine decarboxylase (HDC. Overall, 29.4% samples showed relevant production of histamine in broth cultures (above a cut-off value set at 250 ng/mL and 53.3% of them (8 out of 15 samples allowed detection of HDC positive strains. All of them were typed as Morganella, which appears to be the most common of fish caught in middle Adriatic sea. Ten out of the twelve positive samples with enrichment cultures incubated at both 37 and 18-22°C (83% showed higher decarboxylase activity at room temperature, suggesting the presence of psychrotolerant strains. In addition, the prevalence of histamine-producing bacteria was higher at retail than at production level, probably as a consequence of manipulations and cross-contamination. The risk correlated to development of histamine-producing psychrotolerans bacteria cannot be controlled only with storage temperature: it is necessary for the food business operators to

  16. Extraction by Dry Rendering Methode and Characterization Fish Oil of Catfish (Pangasius hypopthalmus Viscera Fat by Product of Smooked Fish Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamini Kamini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The catfish viscera fat, is cathfish processing by-products, has potential to be used as a source ofraw material for production of fish oil. This study aimed to analyze the value of proximate, heavy metalcontent and fatty acid profile of catfish viscera fat (Pangasius hypopthalmus and characterized fish oilextracted by dry rendering in various temperature and time than compared it to fish oil extracted by stoveheating to obtain the best treatment. Proximate, heavy metal residue, and the fatty acid profile analysiswere conducted for characterizing catfish viscera fat. Fish oil extraction was conducted by dry renderingin various temperatures of 50, 60, 70, 80 °C for 1, 2, and 3 hours. Fish oil quality was determined by thechemical characteristics i.e. PV, FFA, anisidin and TOTOX. The results of the study showed that fat contentof catfish fat viscera was 88.19 %, the heavy metals content was below SNI standart to be consumed, and fattyacid profile composition was SFA>MUFA>PUFA. The highest fatty acid content was oleic acid. The best fishoil quality was resulted on temperature extraction of 50°C for 2 hours with yield value, PV, FFA, anisidin,and TOTOX were 45.17 %, 2.77 meq/kg, 0.83 %, 2.86 meq/kg, 8.39 meq/kg respectively. This result was notsignificantly different with fish oil extracted by the stove heating expect for yield and PV were 80.11% and6.52 meq/kg, respectively.

  17. Limiting Size of Fish Fillets at the Center of the Plate Improves the Sustainability of Aquaculture Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen F. Cross

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available North American dining customers like to have a singular large piece of protein in the center of the plate. When fish is the protein of choice, the portion size from many species is limited by the overall size of the fish. Therefore, for these species, the means to achieve a singular larger portion of “center of the plate” protein is to grow a larger animal. However, fish become less efficient in converting feed to protein as they age. A second option would be to provide two smaller fillets originating from younger, more efficient fish. Here, the sustainability ramifications of these two protein provisioning strategies (single large or two small fillets are considered for three species of fish produced in aquaculture. Growth data for channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus produced in ponds, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss in raceways, and sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria in marine net pens, were modeled to assess the total biomass and overall food conversion ratio for the production of small, medium or large fish. The production of small fish added an additional 50% or more biomass per year for trout, catfish, and sablefish compared to the production of large fish. Feed conversion ratios were also improved by nearly 10% for the smaller compared to larger fish of each species. Thus, even though all of these species tend to be considered aquaculture species of low environmental impact (and hence “green” or sustainable options, the product form requested by retailers and served by chefs can further increase the sustainability of these species.

  18. In vitro culture of lavenders (Lavandula spp.) and the production of secondary metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Sandra; Romano, Anabela

    2013-01-01

    Lavenders (Lavandula spp., Lamiaceae) are aromatic ornamental plants that are used widely in the food, perfume and pharmaceutical industries. The large-scale production of lavenders requires efficient in vitro propagation techniques to avoid the overexploitation of natural populations and to allow the application of biotechnology-based approaches for plant improvement and the production of valuable secondary metabolites. In this review we discuss micropropagation methods that have been developed in several lavender species, mainly based on meristem proliferation and organogenesis. Specific requirements during stages of micropropagation (establishment, shoot multiplication, root induction and acclimatization) and requisites for plant regeneration trough organogenesis, as an important step for the implementation of plant improvement programs, were revised. We also discuss different methods for the in vitro production of valuable secondary metabolites, focusing on the prospects for highly scalable cultures to meet the market demand for lavender-derived products. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Production optimization of flying fish roe analogs using calcium alginate hydrogel beads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bom-Bi Ha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Due to decreased supplies of marine resources and byproducts, new processing technologies for the development of analogs for natural fishery products are becoming increasingly important in the fishing industry. In the present study, we investigated the optimal processing conditions for flying fish roe analogs based on alginate hydrogels. Optimized processing of these analogs was performed by response surface methodology. The optimal processing conditions for the flying fish roe analogs (based on sphericity were at a sodium alginate concentration of 2.41 %, calcium chloride solution curing time of 40.65 min, calcium chloride concentration of 1.51 %, and a reactor stir speed of 254×g. When the experiment was performed under these optimized conditions, the size (mm, sphericity (%, and rupture strength (kPa of the analogs were 2.2 ± 0.12, 98.2 ± 0.2, and 762 ± 24.68, respectively, indicating physical properties similar to their natural counterparts.

  20. Methylmercury determination in fish and seafood products and estimated daily intake for the Spanish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahuquillo, I; Lagarda, M J; Silvestre, M D; Farré, R

    2007-08-01

    The mercury content of 25 samples of fish and seafood products most frequently consumed in Spain was determined. A simple method comprising cold vapour and atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine separately inorganic and organic mercury. In all samples inorganic mercury content was below 50 microg kg(-1). There was wide variability, among not only the mercury levels of different fish species, but also for different samples of the same species - with the methylmercury content ranging from below 54 to 662 microg kg(-1). The highest mean methylmercury content was found in fresh tuna. Based on an average total fish consumption of 363 g/person week(-1), the methylmercury intake was estimated to be 46.2 microg/person week(-1). Therefore, the mercury intake of Spanish people with a body weight Food Additives (JECFA) provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of 1.6 microg kg(-1) body weight, but exceeds the US National Research Council (NRC) limit of 0.7 microg kg(-1) body weight week(-1) based on a benchmark dose.

  1. Storage stability and improved quality of fish products by enzyme suppression and gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninjoor, V.; Doke, S.N.; Nadkarni, G.B.

    1981-01-01

    The occurrence and distribution of lysosomal hydrolases in the skeletal muscle and skin of a variety of fish species have been demonstrated. As compared with the skeletal muscle, the skin contained two to ten times more activity of hydrolytic enzymes. In the case of Bombay duck (Harpodon nehereus), the drip represented a rich source of lysosomal enzymes. The involvement of these hydrolases in accentuating fish spoilage was examined by measuring the release of cathepsin D and accumulated hydrolytic end-products during progressive autolysis. The data showed that the shelf-life of fresh-water fish Tilapia mossambica could be extended by removing the skin, while that of Bombay duck by eliminating drip. Sodium tripolyphosphate (NaTPP) dip treatment was shown to inhibit the activity of lysosomal hydrolases of Bombay duck. Combination treatment consisting of NaTPP dip and irradiation (100 krad) resulted in a two-week extension in the shelf-life of Bombay duck fillets when stored at 0-4 0 C. (author)

  2. The role of metabolic engineering in the production of secondary metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bredal

    1998-01-01

    In the production of secondary metabolites yield and productivity are the most important design parameters. The focus is therefore to direct the carbon fluxes towards the product of interest, and this can be obtained through metabolic engineering whereby directed genetic changes are introduced...... into the production strain. In this process it is, however, important to analyze the metabolic network through measurement of the intracellular metabolites and the flux distributions. Besides playing an important role in the optimization of existing processes, metabolic engineering also offers the possibility...

  3. Physiological and ecological effects of increasing temperature on fish production in lakes of Arctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Michael P.; Zimmerman, Christian E.

    2014-01-01

    Lake ecosystems in the Arctic are changing rapidly due to climate warming. Lakes are sensitive integrators of climate-induced changes and prominent features across the Arctic landscape, especially in lowland permafrost regions such as the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska. Despite many studies on the implications of climate warming, how fish populations will respond to lake changes is uncertain for Arctic ecosystems. Least Cisco (Coregonus sardinella) is a bellwether for Arctic lakes as an important consumer and prey resource. To explore the consequences of climate warming, we used a bioenergetics model to simulate changes in Least Cisco production under future climate scenarios for lakes on the Arctic Coastal Plain. First, we used current temperatures to fit Least Cisco consumption to observed annual growth. We then estimated growth, holding food availability, and then feeding rate constant, for future projections of temperature. Projected warmer water temperatures resulted in reduced Least Cisco production, especially for larger size classes, when food availability was held constant. While holding feeding rate constant, production of Least Cisco increased under all future scenarios with progressively more growth in warmer temperatures. Higher variability occurred with longer projections of time mirroring the expanding uncertainty in climate predictions further into the future. In addition to direct temperature effects on Least Cisco growth, we also considered changes in lake ice phenology and prey resources for Least Cisco. A shorter period of ice cover resulted in increased production, similar to warming temperatures. Altering prey quality had a larger effect on fish production in summer than winter and increased relative growth of younger rather than older age classes of Least Cisco. Overall, we predicted increased production of Least Cisco due to climate warming in lakes of Arctic Alaska. Understanding the implications of increased production of Least Cisco to

  4. Estimating consumer willingness to pay a price premium for Alaska secondary wood products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey H. Donovan; David L. Nicholls

    2003-01-01

    Dichotomous choice contingent valuation survey techniques were used to estimate mean willingness to pay (WTP) a price premium for made-in-Alaska secondary wood products. Respondents were asked to compare two superficially identical end tables, one made in China and one made in Alaska. The surveys were administered at home shows in Anchorage, Fairbanks, and Sitka in...

  5. Productive Activity in the Curriculum: Changing the Literate Bias of Secondary Schools in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Murray

    1982-01-01

    Analyzes Tanzania's efforts to modify the secondary curriculum by unifying academics and productive work. Teachers have not adopted the new approach. The author suggests that teachers' reactions are affected by the relationship between schools and the division of labor, difficulties of specifying what unity means, and problems of school…

  6. Toxin production by Clostridium Botulinum type B (proteolitic) in radurized raw fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhadi, F.

    1978-01-01

    The earliest toxin production by three proteolytic strains of Cl. botulinum type B was determined in irradiated and unirradiated raw fish (Rastrelliger sp., Euthynnus sp., and Scomberomorus sp.) under the storage temperatures of 20, 10, and 5degC. The estimation of maximum storage life was evaluated by an untrained panel on uninoculated fish samples and in parellel the total bacterial counts were also determined. Percentage data of the toxic samples were analyzed according to a fully randomized design involving factorial treatments. In unirradiated samples with inoculum levels of 10 2 -10 6 spores per gram and stored at 20degC, the earliest toxin production was detected after the samples were spoiled. While in irradiated samples toxin were detected before the end of the storage life or after the samples were spoiled, depending on the levels of inoculum. In general, both in unirradiated and irradiated samples inoculated with 10 2 -10 6 spores per gram and stored at 10degC, the earlieast toxin production was detected after the samples were spoiled. While the samples were stored at 5degC, no toxic samples were found up to 30 days of storage when the experiment were terminated. The percentage of toxic samples was shown highly effected by type B strains, fish species, inoculum levels and storage time, when the storage temperature is 20degC. But no significant difference was found after treatment with irradiation doses. In general the interaction effects between those treatments on the percentage of toxic samples showed no significant difference. (author)

  7. Studies on qualitative and quantitative chemical changes in gamma irradiated fish and fishery products in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, C.; Rao, B.Y.K.

    1981-01-01

    Studies on qualitative and quantitative changes in lipids and allied constituents of fresh as well as salted dehydrated Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) during storage after gamma-irradiation have been carried out. The samples were evaluated subjectively as well by determining various physico-chemical parameters such as moisture content, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN), trimethyl amine nitrogen (TMAN), lipid content, iodine value (IV), peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value, glyceride and free fatty acid (FFA) content. Shelf life extension of radurized fresh (150 Krad) as well as salted dehydrated (200 Krad) Indian mackerel during ice-temperature (0-2 0 C) and ambient temperature (25-30 0 C) storage, respectively, was observed without detectable rancidity and off-flavours. However, the extended storage life was dependent upon storage temperature in the case of fresh fish and upon moisture content in the case of salted dehydrated fish. Besides a suppression in TVBN and TMAN values, the changes in the physico-chemical parameters including the lipid composition of the irradiated samples in both cases were parallel to those in the unirradiated controls. No new compounds were detected in any of the lipid samples of the irradiated fish by thin-layer gas-liquid chromatography. Pasteurization dose of irradiation (200 Krad) did not influence the yield or the composition of the total volatiles of salted dehydrated fish. The commercial sun-dried products gave rise to two-fold increases in the yield of total volatiles, which showed composition comparable to that of the laboratory processed irradiated samples

  8. Connectedness of land use, nutrients, primary production, and fish assemblages in oxbow lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Andrews, Caroline S.; Kroger, Robert

    2013-01-01

    We explored the strength of connectedness among hierarchical system components associated with oxbow lakes in the alluvial valley of the Lower Mississippi River. Specifically, we examined the degree of canonical correlation between land use (agriculture and forests), lake morphometry (depth and size), nutrients (total nitrogen and total phosphorus), primary production (chlorophyll-a), and various fish assemblage descriptors. Watershed (p < 0.01) and riparian (p = 0.02) land use, and lake depth (p = 0.05) but not size (p = 0.28), were associated with nutrient concentrations. In turn, nutrients were associated with primary production (p < 0.01), and primary production was associated with sunfish (Centrarchidae) assemblages (p < 0.01) and fish biodiversity (p = 0.08), but not with those of other taxa and functional guilds. Multiple chemical and biological components of oxbow lake ecosystems are connected to landscape characteristics such as land use and lake depth. Therefore, a top-down hierarchical approach can be useful in developing management and conservation plans for oxbow lakes in a region impacted by widespread landscape changes due to agriculture.

  9. Flavour components of some processed. fish and fishery products of Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Mansur, M.A.; Hossain, M.I.; Takamuro, H.; Matoba, T.

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the flavour components of some processed fish and fishery products of Japan by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In brief the method was to absorb the headspace volatiles at 70°C into the fused silica fibre of needle of the solid phase micro extraction fibre. The absorbed components were injected to the GC-MS. The components were identified by computer matching with library database as well as by authentic standard components. In gen...

  10. Exploring plant tissue culture in Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal: in vitro propagation and secondary metabolite production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shasmita; Rai, Manoj K; Naik, Soumendra K

    2017-12-26

    Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (family: Solanaceae), commonly known as "Indian Ginseng", is a medicinally and industrially important plant of the Indian subcontinent and other warmer parts of the world. The plant has multi-use medicinal potential and has been listed among 36 important cultivated medicinal plants of India that are in high demand for trade due to its pharmaceutical uses. The medicinal importance of this plant is mainly due to the presence of different types of steroidal lactones- withanolides in the roots and leaves. Owing to low seed viability and poor germination, the conventional propagation of W. somnifera falls short to cater its commercial demands particularly for secondary metabolite production. Therefore, there is a great need to develop different biotechnological approaches through tissue and organ culture for seasonal independent production of plants in large scale which will provide sufficient raw materials of uniform quality for pharmaceutical purposes. During past years, a number of in vitro plant regeneration protocols via organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis and in vitro conservation through synthetic seed based encapsulation technology have been developed for W. somnifera. Several attempts have also been made to standardize the protocol of secondary metabolite production via tissue/organ cultures, cell suspension cultures, and Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformed hairy root cultures. Employment of plant tissue culture based techniques would provide means for rapid propagation and conservation of this plant species and also provide scope for enhanced production of different bioactive secondary metabolites. The present review provides a comprehensive report on research activities conducted in the area of tissue culture and secondary metabolite production in W. somnifera during the past years. It also discusses the unexplored areas which might be taken into consideration for future research so that the medicinal properties and

  11. Effect of ammonia on ozone-initiated formation of indoor secondary products with emissions from cleaning products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu; Lee, Shun Cheng; Ho, Kin Fai; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Cao, Nanying; Cheng, Yan; Gao, Yuan

    2012-11-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted from cleaning products and air fresheners indoors are prone to oxidation resulting in the formation of secondary pollutants that can pose health risks on residents. Ammonia (NH3) is ubiquitous in ambient and indoor environments. In this study, we investigated the effect of ammonia (NH3) on secondary pollutants formation from the ozonolysis of BVOCs emitted from cleaning products including floor cleaner (FC), kitchen cleaner (KC) and dishwashing detergent (DD) in a large environmental chamber. Our results demonstrated that the presence of NH3 (maximum concentration is 240 ppb) could significantly enhance secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) formation from the ozonolysis of all the three categories of cleaning products. For example, for the FC sample, the maximum total particle concentration was up to 2.0 × 104 # cm-3 in the presence of NH3, while it was 1.3 × 104 # cm-3 which was 35% lower without NH3. However, it was found that the extent of NH3 effect on SOAs formation from the ozonolysis of BVOCs emissions was component-dependent. The presence of NH3 in the reaction systems could increase the consumptions of d-limonene that is the dominant BVOC species as identified in cleaning products. The percent yields (%) of secondary carbonyl compounds generated from the ozonolysis of BVOCs emitted from three categories of cleaning products were identified in the presence and absence of NH3, respectively. The increase in SOAs particle number concentration can be attributed to the formation of condensable salts from reactions between NH3 and organic compounds generated from the BVOCs ozonolysis processes. By investigating the NH3 effect on the ozonolysis of BVOCs mixtures in contrast to the chemistry of individual compounds, a better assessment can be made of the overall impact cleaning products have on real indoor environments.

  12. Uptake and Tissue Distribution of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in Wild Fish from Treated-Wastewater-Impacted Streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanoue, Rumi; Nomiyama, Kei; Nakamura, Haruna; Kim, Joon-Woo; Isobe, Tomohiko; Shinohara, Ryota; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2015-10-06

    A fish plasma model (FPM) has been proposed as a screening technique to prioritize potential hazardous pharmaceuticals to wild fish. However, this approach does not account for inter- or intraspecies variability of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters. The present study elucidated the uptake potency (from ambient water), tissue distribution, and biological risk of 20 pharmaceutical and personal care product (PPCP) residues in wild cyprinoid fish inhabiting treated-wastewater-impacted streams. In order to clarify the uncertainty of the FPM for PPCPs, we compared the plasma bioaccumulation factor in the field (BAFplasma = measured fish plasma/ambient water concentration ratio) with the predicted plasma bioconcentration factor (BCFplasma = fish plasma predicted by use of theoretical partition coefficients/ambient water concentration ratio) in the actual environment. As a result, the measured maximum BAFplasma of inflammatory agents was up to 17 times higher than theoretical BCFplasma values, leading to possible underestimation of toxicological risk on wild fish. When the tissue-blood partition coefficients (tissue/blood concentration ratios) of PPCPs were estimated, higher transportability into tissues, especially the brain, was found for psychotropic agents, but brain/plasma ratios widely varied among individual fish (up to 28-fold). In the present study, we provide a valuable data set on the intraspecies variability of PPCP pharmacokinetics, and our results emphasize the importance of determining PPCP concentrations in possible target organs as well as in the blood to assess the risk of PPCPs on wild fish.

  13. Turbulence production due to secondary vortex cutting in a turbine rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, A.

    1985-10-01

    Measurements of the unsteady flow field near and within a turbine rotor were made by means of a Laser-2-Focus velocimeter. The testing was performed in a single-stage cold-air turbine at part-load and near-design conditions. Random unsteadiness and flow angle results indicate that the secondary vortices of the stator break down after being cut and deformed by the rotor blades. A quantitative comparison shows that some of the energy contained in these secondary vortices is thereby converted into turbulence energy in the front part of the rotor. An attempt is made to explain this turbulence energy production as caused by the vortex breakdown.

  14. Mixture toxicity of wood preservative products in the fish embryo toxicity test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coors, Anja; Dobrick, Jan; Möder, Monika; Kehrer, Anja

    2012-06-01

    Wood preservative products are used globally to protect wood from fungal decay and insects. We investigated the aquatic toxicity of five commercial wood preservative products, the biocidal active substances and some formulation additives contained therein, as well as six generic binary mixtures of the active substances in the fish embryo toxicity test (FET). Median lethal concentrations (LC50) of the single substances, the mixtures, and the products were estimated from concentration-response curves and corrected for concentrations measured in the test medium. The comparison of the experimentally observed mixture toxicity with the toxicity predicted by the concept of concentration addition (CA) showed less than twofold deviation for all binary mixtures of the active substances and for three of the biocidal products. A more than 60-fold underestimation of the toxicity of the fourth product by the CA prediction was detected and could be explained fully by the toxicity of one formulation additive, which had been labeled as a hazardous substance. The reason for the 4.6-fold underestimation of toxicity of the fifth product could not be explained unambiguously. Overall, the FET was found to be a suitable screening tool to verify whether the toxicity of formulated wood preservatives can reliably be predicted by CA. Applied as a quick and simple nonanimal screening test, the FET may support approaches of applying component-based mixture toxicity predictions within the environmental risk assessment of biocidal products, which is required according to European regulations. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  15. Surrogate production of eggs and sperm by intrapapillary transplantation of germ cells in cytoablated adult fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sullip Kumar Majhi

    Full Text Available Germ cell transplantation (GCT is a promising assisted reproductive technology for the conservation and propagation of endangered and valuable genetic resources. In teleost fish, GCT in adult gonads has been achieved only in male recipients, limiting greatly the usefulness of this technique in situations where both sexes need equal and timely attention for conservation and/or propagation. Here we describe a simplified GCT approach that ultimately leads to production of donor-derived eggs and sperm in considerably short time. Donor germ cells isolated from young pejerrey Odontesthes bonariensis (Atherinopsidae were transplanted non-surgically through the genital papilla into the sexually mature gonads of Patagonian pejerrey O. hatcheri recipients whose gonads have been depleted of endogenous GCs by heat (26°C and chemical treatment (four doses of Busulfan at 30 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg for females and males, respectively. Transplanted spermatogonial and oogonial cells were able to recolonize the recipients' gonads and produce functional donor origin eggs and sperm within 7 months from the GCT. We confirmed the presence of donor-derived gametes by PCR in 17% and 5% of the surrogate O. hatcheri fathers and mothers, respectively. The crosses between surrogate fathers and O. bonariensis mothers yielded 12.6-39.7% pure O. bonariensis and that between a surrogate mother and an O. bonariensis father yielded 52.2% pure O. bonariensis offspring. Our findings confirm that transplantation of germ cells into sexually competent adult fish by non-surgical methods allows the production of functional donor-derived eggs and sperm in a considerably short time. The methods described here could play a vital role in conservation and rapid propagation of endangered fish genetic resources.

  16. Surrogate production of eggs and sperm by intrapapillary transplantation of germ cells in cytoablated adult fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majhi, Sullip Kumar; Hattori, Ricardo Shohei; Rahman, Sheikh Mustafizur; Strüssmann, Carlos Augusto

    2014-01-01

    Germ cell transplantation (GCT) is a promising assisted reproductive technology for the conservation and propagation of endangered and valuable genetic resources. In teleost fish, GCT in adult gonads has been achieved only in male recipients, limiting greatly the usefulness of this technique in situations where both sexes need equal and timely attention for conservation and/or propagation. Here we describe a simplified GCT approach that ultimately leads to production of donor-derived eggs and sperm in considerably short time. Donor germ cells isolated from young pejerrey Odontesthes bonariensis (Atherinopsidae) were transplanted non-surgically through the genital papilla into the sexually mature gonads of Patagonian pejerrey O. hatcheri recipients whose gonads have been depleted of endogenous GCs by heat (26°C) and chemical treatment (four doses of Busulfan at 30 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg for females and males, respectively). Transplanted spermatogonial and oogonial cells were able to recolonize the recipients' gonads and produce functional donor origin eggs and sperm within 7 months from the GCT. We confirmed the presence of donor-derived gametes by PCR in 17% and 5% of the surrogate O. hatcheri fathers and mothers, respectively. The crosses between surrogate fathers and O. bonariensis mothers yielded 12.6-39.7% pure O. bonariensis and that between a surrogate mother and an O. bonariensis father yielded 52.2% pure O. bonariensis offspring. Our findings confirm that transplantation of germ cells into sexually competent adult fish by non-surgical methods allows the production of functional donor-derived eggs and sperm in a considerably short time. The methods described here could play a vital role in conservation and rapid propagation of endangered fish genetic resources.

  17. The application of autochthonous potential of probiotic lactobacillus plantarum 564 in fish oil fortified yoghurt production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radulović Zorica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the survival of autochthonous, potentially probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum 564, and the influence of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid omega-3 (omega-3 PUFA fish oil fortification on the sensory quality of yoghurt. Three variants of yoghurt were produced using starter cultures of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus (Chr. Hansen, Denmark, and the potentially probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum 564 (Culture Collection of the Department for Industrial Microbiology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Belgrade as follows: (1 without omega-3 PUFA; (2 with 100 mg/l omega-3 PUFA; and (3 with 200mg/l omega-3 PUFA. The survival of potential probiotic Lb. plantarum 564, the changes of starter bacteria counts, changes of pH values, as well as sensory evaluation, were examined during 3 weeks of yoghurt storage. Cells of Lb. plantarum 564 were maintained at >108 cfug−1. Starter bacteria counts were >107 cfug−1 for streptococci and >106 cfug−1 for lactobacilli. The changes of pH were within normal pH of fermented milks. Sensory evaluation showed that all variants of yoghurt produced with Lb. plantarum 564 and 2 concentrations of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids had a high sensory quality (above 90% of maximal quality, and which did not change significantly throughout the examined storage period. Although the sensory quality of the control sample was evaluated as better, the experimental samples fortified with fish oil were also characterized with very acceptable sensory properties. Results of high viability of potential probiotic Lb. plantarum 564, as well as very acceptable yoghurt sensory properties, indicate that this strain can be successfully used in the production of yoghurt fortified with PUFA omega-3 fish oil as a new functional dairy product. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 046010 i br. 046009

  18. INTRODUCTION OF THE PRINCIPLES OF A SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PRODUCTION OF BIODEGRADABLE PACKING FROM SECONDARY MATERIAL RESOURCES OF FOOD PRODUCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Antipov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. For increase of profitability of the food enterprises, decrease in an ecological trace from technogenic activity of the food industry the concept of development of low-waste and waste-free productions considered on the example of technology of receiving a biodegradable packing material from secondary material resources of food productions is offered: beer pellet, beet press, spirit bards, Pancake week press and bone glue. The technology of receiving biodegradable material from secondary material resources of food productions includes itself the following main stages: dehydration, crushing, mixing, leveling, formation, glazing. Advantage of the offered product consists of: - low cost of packing due to use of secondary material resources and full naturalness (now the raw materials for biodegradable packing specially are grown up on technical fields with use of GMO; - full decomposition in nature less than in 6 months according to GOST R 54533-2011 (EN 13432:2000 "Resource-saving. Packing. Requirements, criteria and the scheme of utilization of packing by means of a composting and biological decomposition"; - presence at the compost received at decomposition, the elements promoting increase of fertility of the soil. Application of technology allows reach at the same time three effects of a positive orientation: economic, ecological and social.

  19. The impact of product experience, product involvement and verbal processing style on consumers' cognitive structure with regard to fresh fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Elin; Grunert, Klaus G.; Nielsen, Niels Asger

    1996-01-01

    central cognitive categories like values. A means-end chain consists of concrete product attributes, abstract product attributes, functional consequences, psychosocial consequences, instrumental values, a terminal values. 2) The most common method of measuring means-end chains has been the laddering...... interview technique. Laddering is a semi-qualitative technique which is open for the respondent's own answers without flooding the interviewer with data, as do other qualitative techniques. The results from the laddering interviews are coded and usually presented in a so-called hierarchical value map. 3...... were interviewed. Respondents were asked to rank four meat types, ie, (1) a fresh, whole, gutted plaice, (2) a package of frozen fish fillets, (3) a whole, frozen chicken, and (4) a package of fresh pork chops, according to how likely it would be that they would use them for a hot meal on a work...

  20. Cytoplasmic Acidification and Secondary Metabolite Production in Different Plant Cell Suspensions (A Comparative Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagendoorn, MJM.; Wagner, A. M.; Segers, G.; Van Der Plas, LHW.; Oostdam, A.; Van Walraven, H. S.

    1994-10-01

    In this study, a correlation is described between low cytoplasmic pH, measured with the fluorescent probes 2[prime],7[prime]-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein (acetoxymethyl ester) and bis- [3-propyl-5-oxoisoxazol-4-yl]pentamethine oxonol, and the production of secondary metabolites for several plant cell-suspension systems. Anthraquinone production in Morinda citrifolia suspensions is negligible in the presence of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), whereas with naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) a significant accumulation is realized. NAA-grown cells showed a lower cytoplasmic pH than did 2,4-D-grown cells. Addition of 2,4-D or parachlorophenoxy acetic acid to NAA-grown cells resulted in an inhibition of anthraquinone production and an increase of the cytoplasmic pH, whereas addition of parachlorophenyl acetic acid had no effect on either parameter. Lignin production in Petunia hybrida cells could be induced by subculturing them in a medium without iron. These cells showed a lower cytoplasmic pH than control cells. Addition of Fe3+ led to a decreased lignin content and an increased cytoplasmic pH. Two cell lines of Linum flavum showed a different level of coniferin and lignin concentration in their cells. Cells that accumulated coniferin and lignin had a lower cytoplasmic pH than cells that did not accumulate these secondary metabolites. Apparently, in different species and after different kinds of treatment there is a correlation between acidification of the cytoplasm and the production of different secondary metabolites. The possible role of this acidification in secondary metabolite production is discussed.

  1. Modeling of corrosion product migration in the secondary circuit of nuclear power plants with WWER-1200

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritskii, V. G.; Berezina, I. G.; Gavrilov, A. V.; Motkova, E. A.; Zelenina, E. V.; Prokhorov, N. A.; Gorbatenko, S. P.; Tsitser, A. A.

    2016-04-01

    Models of corrosion and mass transfer of corrosion products in the pipes of the condensate-feeding and steam paths of the secondary circuit of NPPs with WWER-1200 are presented. The mass transfer and distribution of corrosion products over the currents of the working medium of the secondary circuit were calculated using the physicochemical model of mass transfer of corrosion products in which the secondary circuit is regarded as a cyclic system consisting of a number of interrelated elements. The circuit was divided into calculated regions in which the change in the parameters (flow rate, temperature, and pressure) was traced and the rates of corrosion and corrosion products entrainment, high-temperature pH, and iron concentration were calculated. The models were verified according to the results of chemical analyses at Kalinin NPP and iron corrosion product concentrations in the feed water at different NPPs depending on pH at 25°C (pH25) for service times τ ≥ 5000 h. The calculated pH values at a coolant temperature t (pH t ) in the secondary circuit of NPPs with WWER-1200 were presented. The calculation of the distribution of pH t and ethanolamine and ammonia concentrations over the condensate feed (CFC) and steam circuits is given. The models are designed for developing the calculation codes. The project solutions of ATOMPROEKT satisfy the safety and reliability requirements for power plants with WWER-1200. The calculated corrosion and corrosion product mass transfer parameters showed that the model allows the designer to choose between the increase of the correcting reagent concentration, the use of steel with higher chromium contents, and intermittent washing of the steam generator from sediments as the best solution for definite regions of the circuit.

  2. Evaluation of water quality conditions near proposed fish production sites associated with the Yakima Fisheries Project. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauble, D.d.; Mueller, R.P.; Martinson, G.A.

    1994-05-01

    In 1991, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) began studying water quality at several sites in the Yakima River Basin for the Bonneville Power Administration. These sites were being proposed as locations for fish culture facilities as part of the Yakima Fisheries Project (YFP). Surface water quality parameters near the proposed fish culture facilities are currently suitable for fish production. Water quality conditions in the mainstream Yakima River and its tributaries are generally excellent in the upper part of the watershed (i.e., near Cle Elum), but they are only fair to poor for the river downstream of Union Gap (river mile 107). Water quality of the Naches River near Oak Flats is also suitable for fish production. Groundwater supplies near the proposed fish production facilities typically have elevated concentrations of metals and dissolved gases. These conditions can be mitigated using best engineering practices such as precipitation and degasification. Additionally, mixing with surface water may improve these conditions. Depending on the location and depth of the well, groundwater temperatures may be warmer than optimum for acclimating and holding juvenile and adult fish. Water quality parameters measured in the Yakima River and tributaries sometimes exceed the range of values described as acceptable for culture of salmonids and for the protection of other aquatic life. However, constituent concentrations are within ranges that exist in many northwest fish hatcheries. Additionally, site-specific tests conducted by PNL (i.e., live box exposures and egg incubation studies) indicate that fish can be successfully reared in surface and well water near the proposed facility sites. Thus, there appear to be no constraints to artificial production for the YFP

  3. Control strategy for viral diseases of salmonid fish, flounders and shrimp at hatchery and seed production facility in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshimizu, Mamoru

    2009-01-01

    Salmonid fish are important species for hatchery reared and released fish. Flounders and shrimp are also important species for seed production and sea-farming in Japan. Viral disease is one of the limitations of successful propagation of these species. Methods currently used to control viral diseases are 1) hygiene and sanitation in facilities, 2) disinfection of rearing and waste water using U. V. irradiation, ozonization and electrolyzation, 3) selection of pathogen-free brood stock by cell...

  4. [Effective productions of plant secondary metabolites having antitumor activity by plant cell and tissue cultures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Shoko

    2005-06-01

    Methods for the effective production of plant secondary metabolites with antitumor activity using plant cell and tissue cultures were developed. The factors in tannin productivity were investigated using culture strains producing different types of hydrolyzable tannins, i.e., gallotannins (mixture of galloylglucoses), ellagi-, and dehydroellagitannins. Production of ellagi- and dehydroellagitannins was affected by the concentrations and ratio of nitrogen sources in the medium. The formation of oligomeric ellagitannins in shoots of Oenothera tetraptera was correlated with the differentiation of tissues. Cultured cells of Eriobotrya japonica producing ursane- and oleanane-type triterpenes with antitumor activities were also established.

  5. Toward fish and seafood traceability: anchovy species determination in fish products by molecular markers and support through a public domain database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jérôme, Marc; Martinsohn, Jann Thorsten; Ortega, Delphine; Carreau, Philippe; Verrez-Bagnis, Véronique; Mouchel, Olivier

    2008-05-28

    Traceability in the fish food sector plays an increasingly important role for consumer protection and confidence building. This is reflected by the introduction of legislation and rules covering traceability on national and international levels. Although traceability through labeling is well established and supported by respective regulations, monitoring and enforcement of these rules are still hampered by the lack of efficient diagnostic tools. We describe protocols using a direct sequencing method based on 212-274-bp diagnostic sequences derived from species-specific mitochondria DNA cytochrome b, 16S rRNA, and cytochrome oxidase subunit I sequences which can efficiently be applied to unambiguously determine even closely related fish species in processed food products labeled "anchovy". Traceability of anchovy-labeled products is supported by the public online database AnchovyID ( http://anchovyid.jrc.ec.europa.eu), which provided data obtained during our study and tools for analytical purposes.

  6. Liquid by-products from fish canning industry as sustainable sources of ω3 lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Ana; Paquincha, Diogo; Martins, Florinda; Queirós, Rui P; Saraiva, Jorge A; Švarc-Gajić, Jaroslava; Nastić, Nataša; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Carvalho, Ana P

    2018-08-01

    Fish canning industry generates large amounts of liquid wastes, which are discarded, after proper treatment to remove the organic load. However, alternative treatment processes may also be designed in order to target the recovery of valuable compounds; with this procedure, these wastewaters are converted into liquid by-products, becoming an additional source of revenue for the company. This study evaluated green and economically sustainable methodologies for the extraction of ω3 lipids from fish canning liquid by-products. Lipids were extracted by processes combining physical and chemical parameters (conventional and pressurized extraction processes), as well as chemical and biological parameters. Furthermore, LCA was applied to evaluate the environmental performance and costs indicators for each process. Results indicated that extraction with high hydrostatic pressure provides the highest amounts of ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (3331,5 mg L -1 effluent), apart from presenting the lowest environmental impact and costs. The studied procedures allow to obtain alternative, sustainable and traceable sources of ω3 lipids for further applications in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Additionally, such approach contributes towards the organic depuration of canning liquid effluents, therefore reducing the overall waste treatment costs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Optimization of the marinating conditions of cassava fish (Pseudotolithus sp.) fillet for Lanhouin production through application of Doehlert experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindossi, Janvier Mêlégnonfan; Anihouvi, Victor Bienvenu; Vieira-Dalodé, Générose; Akissoé, Noël Houédougbé; Hounhouigan, Djidjoho Joseph

    2016-03-01

    Lanhouin is a traditional fermented salted fish made from the spontaneous and uncontrolled fermentation of whole salted cassava fish (Pseudotolithus senegalensis) mainly produced in the coastal regions of West Africa. The combined effects of NaCl, citric acid concentration, and marination time on the physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of the fish fillet used for Lanhouin production were studied using a Doehlert experimental design with the objective of preserving its quality and safety. The marination time has significant effects on total viable and lactic acid bacteria counts, and NaCl content of the marinated fish fillet while the pH was significantly affected by citric acid concentration and marination duration with high regression coefficient R (2) of 0.83. The experiment showed that the best conditions for marination process of fish fillet were salt ratio 10 g/100 g, acid citric concentration 2.5 g/100 g, and marination time 6 h. These optimum marinating conditions obtained present the best quality of marinated flesh fish leading to the safety of the final fermented product. This pretreatment is necessary in Lanhouin production processes to ensure its safety quality.

  8. Decontamination of fish and seafood products by irradiation; Descontaminacion por irradiacion de pescado y productos del mar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna C, P C

    1992-05-15

    An alternative to prolong the useful shelf life of the fish and of the sea products is the use of the ionizing radiation. The radiation process in combination with other conservation methods like the refrigeration or freezing, assures the hygienic quality of the marine products, eliminating bacteria that cause decomposition as well as of others that produce illnesses and that they are transmitted through these, like is the case of Vibrio Cholera, Salmonella, Shigella Yersinia etc. In this document the technical feasibility of the irradiation applied to the fish and the sea products, in fresh, refrigerated and frozen form will be analyzed. (Author)

  9. Gamma irradiation of medicinally important plants and the enhancement of secondary metabolite production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardhan, P Vivek; Shukla, Lata I

    2017-09-01

    The profitable production of some important plant-based secondary metabolites (ginsenosides, saponins, camptothecin, shikonins etc.) in vitro by gamma irradiation is a current area of interest. We reviewed different types of secondary metabolites, their mode of synthesis and effect of γ-radiation on their yield for different plants, organs and in vitro cultures (callus, suspension, hairy root). Special effort has been made to review the biochemical mechanisms underlying the increase in secondary metabolites. A comparison of yield improvement with biotic and abiotic stresses was made. Phenolic compounds increase with γ-irradiation in whole plants/plant parts; psoralen content in the common herb babchi (Psoralea corylifolia) was increased as high as 32-fold with γ-irradiation of seeds at 20 kGy. The capsaicinoids, a phenolic compound increased about 10% with 10 kGy in paprika (Capsicum annum L.). The in vitro studies show all the three types of secondary metabolites are reported to increase with γ-irradiation. Stevioside, total phenolic and flavonoids content were slightly increased in 15 Gy-treated callus cultures of stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bert.). In terpenoids, total saponin and ginsenosides content were increased 1.4- and 1.8-fold, respectively, with 100 Gy for wild ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) hairy root cultures. In alkaloids, camptothecin yield increased as high as 20-fold with 20 Gy in callus cultures of ghanera (Nothapodytes foetida). Shikonins increased up to 4-fold with 16 Gy in suspension cultures of purple gromwell (Lithospermum erythrorhizon S.). The enzymes associated with secondary metabolite production were increased with γ-irradiation of 20 Gy; namely, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) for phenolics, chalcone synthase (CHS) for flavonoids, squalene synthase (SS), squalene epoxidase (SE) and oxidosqualene cyclases (OSC) for ginsenosides and PHB (p-hydroxylbenzoic acid) geranyl transferase for shikonins. An increase in secondary

  10. Diatom production in the marine environment : implications for larval fish growth and condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    St. John, Michael; Clemmesen, C.; Lund, T.

    2001-01-01

    To test the effects of diatom production on larval fish growth and condition. laboratory experiments were performed with larval North Sea cod reared on different algal food chains. These food chains were based on cultures of (a) the diatoms Skeletonema costatum and Thalassiosira weissflogii: (b....../omega6 fatty acids in the algal source had no significant effect. The highest and lowest growth rates were observed in food chains based on H. triquetra and T. weissflogii. respectively (means for days 14-16 of 4.0 and - 4.7). The mixed diatom/dinoflagellate diet resulted in inter- mediate growth rates...... and condition. Regressions of growth rates against EPA and DHA content indicated no inhibitory effect of diatom production on growth in larval cod...

  11. Enzymatic production of single-molecule FISH and RNA capture probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Imre; Wippich, Frank; Ephrussi, Anne

    2017-10-01

    Arrays of singly labeled short oligonucleotides that hybridize to a specific target revolutionized RNA biology, enabling quantitative, single-molecule microscopy analysis and high-efficiency RNA/RNP capture. Here, we describe a simple and efficient method that allows flexible functionalization of inexpensive DNA oligonucleotides by different fluorescent dyes or biotin using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase and custom-made functional group conjugated dideoxy-UTP. We show that (i) all steps of the oligonucleotide labeling-including conjugation, enzymatic synthesis, and product purification-can be performed in a standard biology laboratory, (ii) the process yields >90%, often >95% labeled product with minimal carryover of impurities, and (iii) the oligonucleotides can be labeled with different dyes or biotin, allowing single-molecule FISH, RNA affinity purification, and Northern blot analysis to be performed. © 2017 Gaspar et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  12. New capabilities for Monte Carlo simulation of deuteron transport and secondary products generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauvan, P.; Sanz, J.; Ogando, F.

    2010-01-01

    Several important research programs are dedicated to the development of facilities based on deuteron accelerators. In designing these facilities, the definition of a validated computational approach able to simulate deuteron transport and evaluate deuteron interactions and production of secondary particles with acceptable precision is a very important issue. Current Monte Carlo codes, such as MCNPX or PHITS, when applied for deuteron transport calculations use built-in semi-analytical models to describe deuteron interactions. These models are found unreliable in predicting neutron and photon generated by low energy deuterons, typically present in those facilities. We present a new computational tool, resulting from an extension of the MCNPX code, which improve significantly the treatment of problems where any secondary product (neutrons, photons, tritons, etc.) generated by low energy deuterons reactions could play a major role. Firstly, it handles deuteron evaluated data libraries, which allow describing better low deuteron energy interactions. Secondly, it includes a reduction variance technique for production of secondary particles by charged particle-induced nuclear interactions, which allow reducing drastically the computing time needed in transport and nuclear response calculations. Verification of the computational tool is successfully achieved. This tool can be very helpful in addressing design issues such as selection of the dedicated neutron production target and accelerator radioprotection analysis. It can be also helpful to test the deuteron cross-sections under development in the frame of different international nuclear data programs.

  13. Benthic macrofaunal structure and secondary production in tropical estuaries on the Eastern Marine Ecoregion of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissoli, Lorena B; Bernardino, Angelo F

    2018-01-01

    Tropical estuaries are highly productive and support diverse benthic assemblages within mangroves and tidal flats habitats. Determining differences and similarities of benthic assemblages within estuarine habitats and between regional ecosystems may provide scientific support for management of those ecosystems. Here we studied three tropical estuaries in the Eastern Marine Ecoregion of Brazil to assess the spatial variability of benthic assemblages from vegetated (mangroves) and unvegetated (tidal flats) habitats. A nested sampling design was used to determine spatial scales of variability in benthic macrofaunal density, biomass and secondary production. Habitat differences in benthic assemblage composition were evident, with mangrove forests being dominated by annelids (Oligochaeta and Capitellidae) whereas peracarid crustaceans were also abundant on tidal flats. Macrofaunal biomass, density and secondary production also differed between habitats and among estuaries. Those differences were related both to the composition of benthic assemblages and to random spatial variability, underscoring the importance of hierarchical sampling in estuarine ecological studies. Given variable levels of human impacts and predicted climate change effects on tropical estuarine assemblages in Eastern Brazil, our data support the use of benthic secondary production to address long-term changes and improved management of estuaries in Eastern Brazil.

  14. Impacts of cooking technique on polychlorinated biphenyl and polychlorinated dioxins/furan concentrations in fish and fish products with intake estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawn, Dorothea F K; Breakell, Kenneth; Verigin, Victor; Tittlemier, Sheryl A; Del Gobbo, Liana; Diamond, Miriam; Vanderlinden, Loren; Sit, Daniel

    2013-01-30

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and dibenzofuran (PCDF) concentrations were determined in composites of 18 different fish products and were prepared as raw, baked, boiled, and fried. ∑PCB concentrations were found to range from 0.12 ng·g(-1) whole weight (ww) in raw octopus to 33 ng·g(-1) ww in baked mackerel. Boiled monkfish was found to have the lowest ∑PCDD/F concentrations (0.41 pg·g(-1) ww), while maximum concentrations were observed in fried catfish (59 pg·g(-1) ww). PCB and PCDD/F concentrations in fish were generally reduced during cooking, although differences were small. The average PCB reduction in finfish was 7.9%, while an increase in PCB mass was observed in non-finfish (2.9%). PCDD/F losses, on average, were observed in both the finfish (3.6%) and non-finfish products (25%). Maximum ∑PCB, ∑PCDD/F, and TEQ(PCDD/F+DL-PCB) (toxic equivalency) intakes, based on 150 g serving size, were determined to be 3300 ng (mackerel), 6600 pg (catfish), and 270 pg (catfish), respectively. PCB and PCDD/F changes associated with cooking generally were small (fish products (e.g., catfish).

  15. Secondary production and zooplankton abundance in the coastal waters from Vengurla to Malpe, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Goswami, S.C.

    Secondary production and zooplankton abundance in surface and vertical hauls at different stations along 7 transects from Vengurla to Malpe, Maharashtra, India were studied. Zooplankton production varied with the depth of sampling station and type...

  16. Hydropower Production and Fish Habitat Suitability: Impact and Effectiveness of Environmental Flow Prescriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellarin, A.; Galeati, G.; Ceola, S.; Pugliese, A.; Ventura, M.; Montanari, A.

    2017-12-01

    The anthropogenic alteration of the natural flow regime of a river for hydropower production can significantly modify the processes and functions associated with fluvial ecosystems. In order to preserve the fluvial habitat downstream of dams and diversion structures, environmental flows are commonly defined. Such environmental flows are generally computed from empirical methodologies, which are seldom based on site-specific studies, and may not be representative of local ecological and hydraulic conditions. Here we present the results of a quantitative analysis on the effectiveness of two alternative environmental flow scenarios prescribed in Central Italy (time-invariant experimental and empirically-based flow release versus time-variant hydrogeomorphologically-based flow release) and their impact on hydropower production and fish habitat suitability. The latter is examined by means of several models of habitat suitability curve, which is a well-known approach capable of analysing fluvial species preferences as a function of key eco-hydraulic features, such as water depth, flow velocity and river substrate. The results show an evident loss of hydropower production moving from the time-invariant experimental flow release to the hydrogeomorphological one (nearly 20% at the annual scale). Concerning the effects in terms of fish habitat suitability, our outcomes are less obvious, since they are species- and life stage-specific. The proposed analysis, which can be easily adapted to different riparian habitats and hydrological contexts, is a useful tool to guide the derivation of optimal water resource management strategies in order to ensure both hydropower production and fluvial ecosystem protection.

  17. Development of a real-time PCR method coupled with a selective pre-enrichment step for quantification of Morganella morganii and Morganella psychrotolerans in fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podeur, Gaetan; Dalgaard, Paw; Leroi, Francoise

    2015-01-01

    Histamine fish poisoning is common and due to toxic concentrations of histamine often produced by Gram-negative bacteria in fin-fish products with a high content of the free amino acid histidine. The genus Morganella includes two species previously reported to cause incidents of histamine fish po...

  18. Antimicrobial properties and the influence of temperature on secondary metabolite production in cold environment soil fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogabaanu, U.; Weber, Jean-Frederic Faizal; Convey, Peter; Rizman-Idid, Mohammed; Alias, Siti Aisyah

    2017-12-01

    The Arctic and Antarctic share environmental extremes. To survive in such environments, microbes such as soil fungi need to compete with or protect themselves effectively from other soil microbiota and to obtain the often scarce nutrients available, and many use secondary metabolites to facilitate this. We therefore (i) screened for antimicrobial properties of cold-environment Arctic and Antarctic soil fungi, and (ii) identified changes in the secreted secondary metabolite profiles of a subset of these strains in response to temperature variation. A total of 40 polar soil fungal strains from King George Island, maritime Antarctic and Hornsund, Svalbard, High Arctic, were obtained from the Malaysian National Antarctic Research Centre culture collections. The plug assay technique was used to screen for antimicrobial potential against Gram-positive and Gram-negative human pathogenic bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli). About 45% of the tested fungal strains showed antimicrobial activity against at least one tested microorganism. Three fungal isolates showed good bioactivity and were subjected to secondary metabolite profiling at different temperatures (4, 10, 15 and 28 °C). We observed a range of responses in fungal metabolite production when incubated at varying temperatures, confirming an influence of environmental conditions such as temperature on the production of secondary metabolites.

  19. The secondary drying and the fate of organic solvents for spray dried dispersion drug product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Daniel S; Yue, Hongfei; Nicholson, Sarah J; Roberts, Daniel; Schild, Richard; Gamble, John F; Lindrud, Mark

    2015-05-01

    To understand the mechanisms of secondary drying of spray-dried dispersion (SDD) drug product and establish a model to describe the fate of organic solvents in such a product. The experimental approach includes characterization of the SDD particles, drying studies of SDD using an integrated weighing balance and mass spectrometer, and the subsequent generation of the drying curve. The theoretical approach includes the establishment of a Fickian diffusion model. The kinetics of solvent removal during secondary drying from the lab scale to a bench scale follows Fickian diffusion model. Excellent agreement is obtained between the experimental data and the prediction from the modeling. The diffusion process is dependent upon temperature. The key to a successful scale up of the secondary drying is to control the drying temperature. The fate of primary solvents including methanol and acetone, and their potential impurity such as benzene can be described by the Fickian diffusion model. A mathematical relationship based upon the ratio of diffusion coefficient was established to predict the benzene concentration from the fate of the primary solvent during the secondary drying process.

  20. Factors Affecting Fish Production and Fishing Quality in New Reservoirs, with Guidance on Timber Clearing, Basin Preparation, and Filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    filling and site preparation exist. Knowledge of what the controlling factors are, how they function, and whether they can be manipulated is essential...protection from water- skiers and speedboaters (Jenkins 1970c). Fish food organisms 55. Submerged structures in the littoral zone of reservoirs often are...tolerance 78. Knowledge of the tolerance of terrestrial vegetation to inun- dation is essential to management of "green-tree reservoirs"--i.e., reservoirs

  1. Modelling ramp-up curves to reflect learning: improving capacity planning in secondary pharmaceutical production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Reinholdt Nyhuus; Grunow, Martin

    2015-01-01

    availability at market launch is ensured. Our MILP model is applied to a real industry case study using three empirically observed ramp-up curves to demonstrate its value as decision support tool. We demonstrate the superiority of our volume-dependent method over the traditional time-dependent ramp......The experience gained during production ramp-up leads to an increase of the effective production capacity over time. However, full utilisation of production capacity is not always possible during ramp-up. In such cases, the experience gained and hence the available effective capacity...... are overestimated. We develop a new method, which captures ramp-up as a function of the cumulative production volume to better reflect the experience gained while producing the new product. The use of the more accurate and computationally effective approach is demonstrated for the case of secondary pharmaceutical...

  2. Cleaning products and air fresheners: exposure to primary and secondary air pollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazaroff, W.; Weschler, Charles J.

    2004-01-01

    Building occupants, including cleaning personnel, are exposed to a wide variety of airborne chemicals when cleaning agents and air fresheners are used in buildings. Certain of these chemicals are listed by the state of California as toxic air contaminants (TACs) and a subset of these are regulated...... by the US federal government as hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). California's Proposition 65 list of species recognized as carcinogens or reproductive toxicants also includes constituents of certain cleaning products and air fresheners. In addition, many cleaning agents and air fresheners contain chemicals...... that can react with other air contaminants to yield potentially harmful secondary products. For example, terpenes can react rapidly with ozone in indoor air generating many secondary pollutants, including TACs such as formaldehyde. Furthermore, ozone-terpene reactions produce the hydroxyl radical, which...

  3. INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF FOOD ADDITIVES FROM PUMPKIN PROCESSING SECONDARY RESOURCES

    OpenAIRE

    Kupin G. A.; Kornen N. N.; Matvienko A. N.; Shahray T. A.; Pershakova T. V.

    2016-01-01

    The article presents data characterizing the composition of macro and micronutrients from secondary resources of pumpkin processing – pumpkin pomace. We have found that extracts of pumpkin are valuable raw materials for the production of food additives, as they contain proteins, dietary fiber, including pectin and protopectin, minerals, as well as such biologically active substances as vitamin C, β- carotene and P-active substances using nuclear magnetic relaxation, it is shown that pretreatm...

  4. Secondary Plant Products Causing Photosensitization in Grazing Herbivores: Their Structure, Activity and Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane C. Quinn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Photosensitivity in animals is defined as a severe dermatitis that results from a heightened reactivity of skin cells and associated dermal tissues upon their exposure to sunlight, following ingestion or contact with UV reactive secondary plant products. Photosensitivity occurs in animal cells as a reaction that is mediated by a light absorbing molecule, specifically in this case a plant-produced metabolite that is heterocyclic or polyphenolic. In sensitive animals, this reaction is most severe in non-pigmented skin which has the least protection from UV or visible light exposure. Photosensitization in a biological system such as the epidermis is an oxidative or other chemical change in a molecule in response to light-induced excitation of endogenous or exogenously-delivered molecules within the tissue. Photo-oxidation can also occur in the plant itself, resulting in the generation of reactive oxygen species, free radical damage and eventual DNA degradation. Similar cellular changes occur in affected herbivores and are associated with an accumulation of photodynamic molecules in the affected dermal tissues or circulatory system of the herbivore. Recent advances in our ability to identify and detect secondary products at trace levels in the plant and surrounding environment, or in organisms that ingest plants, have provided additional evidence for the role of secondary metabolites in photosensitization of grazing herbivores. This review outlines the role of unique secondary products produced by higher plants in the animal photosensitization process, describes their chemistry and localization in the plant as well as impacts of the environment upon their production, discusses their direct and indirect effects on associated animal systems and presents several examples of well-characterized plant photosensitization in animal systems.

  5. Primary and secondary metabolites production in signal grass around the year under nitrogen fertilizer

    OpenAIRE

    Syeda Maryam Hussain

    2016-01-01

    Plants produce a number of substances and products and primary and secondary metabolites (SM) are amongst them with many benefits but limitation as well. Usually, the fodder are not considered toxic to animals or as a source having higher SM. The Brachiaria decumbens has a considerable nutritional value, but it is considered as a toxic grass for causing photosensitization in animals, if the grass is not harvested for more than 30 days or solely. The absence of detailed information in the lite...

  6. Production of F1 interspecies hybrid offspring with cryopreserved sperm from a live-bearing fish, the swordtail Xiphophorus helleri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huiping; Hazlewood, Leona; Heater, Sheila J; Guerrero, Paula A; Walter, Ronald B; Tiersch, Terrence R

    2007-03-01

    Despite study of sperm cryopreservation in more than 200 fish species, production of broods from cryopreserved sperm in live-bearing fish has not been demonstrated. This has not been due to a lack of effort, but instead is a result of the unique morphology, biology, and biochemistry of reproduction in viviparous fishes. For example, sperm of Xiphophorus helleri have a cylindrical nucleus, can swim for days after being activated, have glycolytic capabilities, and can reside in the female reproduction tract for months before fertilization. These traits are not found in fishes with external fertilization. The long-standing research use of the genus Xiphophorus has led to development of over 60 pedigreed lines among the 26 species maintained around the world. These species and lines serve as contemporary models in medical research, although they must be maintained as live populations. Previous attempts at establishing sperm cryopreservation protocols for Xiphophorus have not produced live young. To address this we have been studying the parameters surrounding cryobiology of Xiphophorus sperm and applying this information to an improved understanding of internal fertilization and reproduction. Here we report the first successful fertilization and offspring production by cryopreserved sperm in any live-bearing fish. This claim is supported by our use of artificial insemination between two species that yield distinct hybrid offspring to verify paternity via cryopreserved sperm. We provide a practical approach for preservation of valuable genetic resources from live-bearing fish species, a group that is rapidly being lost due to destruction of native habitats.

  7. Validation of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method for quantitative analysis of histamine in fish and fishery products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.K.K.K. Jinadasa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A high-performance liquid chromatography method is described for quantitative determination and validation of histamine in fish and fishery product samples. Histamine is extracted from fish/fishery products by homogenizing with tri-chloro acetic acid, separated with Amberlite CG-50 resin and C18-ODS Hypersil reversed phase column at ambient temperature (25°C. Linear standard curves with high correlation coefficients were obtained. An isocratic elution program was used; the total elution time was 10 min. The method was validated by assessing the following aspects; specificity, repeatability, reproducibility, linearity, recovery, limits of detection, limit of quantification and uncertainty. The validated parameters are in good agreement with method and it is a useful tool for determining histamine in fish and fishery products.

  8. Impact of Alternative Environmental Flow Prescriptions on Hydropower Production and Fish Habitat Suitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellarin, A.; Ceola, S.; Pugliese, A.; Galeati, G. A.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic activities along streams and rivers are increasingly recognized to be a major concern for fluvial ecosystems. The management of water resources, by means of e.g. flow diversions and dams, for industrial, agricultural, water-supply, hydropower production and flood protection purposes induces significant changes to the natural streamflow regime of a river. Indeed, the river flow regime is known to be a major abiotic factor influencing fluvial ecosystems. An established approach aimed at preserving the behaviour and distribution of fluvial species relies on the definition of minimum streamflow requirements (i.e., environmental flows) downstream of dams and diversion structures. Such environmental flows are normally identified through methodologies that have an empirical nature and may not be representative of local ecological and hydraulic conditions. While the effect of imposing a minimum discharge release is easily predictable in terms of e.g. loss of hydropower production, the advantages in terms of species preferences are often poorly understood and seldom assessed. To analyze the interactions between flow releases and the behaviour and distribution of fluvial species (i.e., from periphyton, to benthic invertebrate and fish), one may use a habitat suitability curve, which is a fundamental tool capable of describing species preferences influenced by any generic environmental variable. The outcomes of a real case study applied to several Italian rivers, located in the Marche administrative district in Central Italy (∽10000km2), in which we quantitatively assess the effects of alternative environmental flow scenarios on the existing hydropower network and on two fish species that are quite abundant in the study area (i.e., Leuciscus cephalus cabeda and Barbus barbus plebejus), will be presented and discussed. The proposed analysis, which can be easily adapted to different riparian habitats and hydrological contexts, is a useful tool to guide the

  9. Determining potential adverse effects in marine fish exposed to pharmaceuticals and personal care products with the fish plasma model and whole-body tissue concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, James P; Yeh, Andrew; Gallagher, Evan P

    2017-11-01

    The Fish Plasma Model (FPM) was applied to water exposure and tissue concentrations in fish collected from two wastewater treatment plant impacted estuarine sites. In this study we compared predicted fish plasma concentrations to Cmax values for humans, which represents the maximum plasma concentration for the minimum therapeutic dose. The results of this study show that predictions of plasma concentrations for a variety of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) from effluent concentrations resulted in 37 compounds (54%) exceeding the response ratio (RR = Fish [Plasma]/1%Cmax total ) of 1 compared to 3 compounds (14%) detected with values generated with estuarine receiving water concentrations. When plasma concentrations were modeled from observed whole-body tissue residues, 16 compounds out of 24 detected for Chinook (67%) and 7 of 14 (50%) for sculpin resulted in an RR tissue value greater than 1, which highlights the importance of this dose metric over that using estuarine water. Because the tissue residue approach resulted in a high percentage of compounds with calculated response ratios exceeding a value of unity, we believe this is a more accurate representation for exposure in the field. Predicting plasma concentrations from tissue residues improves our ability to assess the potential for adverse effects in fish because exposure from all sources is captured. Tissue residues are also more likely to represent steady-state conditions compared to those from water exposure because of the inherent reduction in variability usually observed for field data and the time course for bioaccumulation. We also examined the RR in a toxic unit approach to highlight the importance of considering multiple compounds exhibiting a similar mechanism of action. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Production and quality assessment of fish burger from the grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella (Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1844

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monjurul Haq

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fish burger was produced from grass carp (Ctenophygodon idella to assess the feasibility of value addition to this low priced fish in Bangladesh. Different food additives (25% mashed potato, 2% NaCl, 2% soybean oil, 2% spices and 0.6% sugar were used to enhance the consumer’s acceptance of the fishery product. Consumers' acceptance of the fish burger was determined by sensory evaluation based on its color, flavor, softness or firmness (S/F, chewy/ rubbery (C/R using 10 point scoring system by a group of 10 untrained judges (20-50 years old. The results were found as follows: color (7.25±1.15, flavor (6.67±1.17, S/F (8.47±1.20 and C/R (7.83±1.23. Evaluation of proximate composition showed that the moisture and protein contents in grass carp mince were 79.15 ± 1.16 % and 18.01±0.44 % respectively which were higher than that of fish burger, 69.46 ± 0.89 % and 16.42 ± 0.57 %, respectively. Lipid (6.64±0.15 % and ash (2.98±0.09 % contents in fish burger were also higher than fish mince. The pH of fish mince and fish burger was 6.8±0.11 and 6.6±0.05 respectively. Therefore, from simple cost-profit analysis, it can be assumed that business of fish burger in Bangladesh has a very good prospect and it would be profitable.

  11. CRYOPRESERVATION OF REPRODUCTIVE PRODUCTS AS AN EFFECTIVE METHOD FOR PRESERVING THE BIODIVERSITY OF STURGEON FISH SPECIES (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kononenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In recent years, cryopreservation of reproductive products has widely been used as one of the accessible and in some cases the only ways of preserving and supporting the number of endangered fish species including sturgeon fish species. Currently, the method of cryopreservation is represented by various techniques and ways using individual and species approaches. Numerous publications on the issue of fish sperm cryopreservation mostly contain inconsistent results and ambiguous data. Thus, the analysis of the existing information about principles and methods of fish sperm cryopreservation is an important issue for further studies. Moreover, summarizing the existing information will enable us to plan the experiment more efficiently and reasonably and to get the desired outcomes with higher reliability. Findings. The study presents main principles of widely used methods of fish sperm cryopreservation, the analysis of main factors of influence on outcomes of freezing or unfreezing as well as the analysis of results received when using various ways and methods of cryopreservation. Besides, the paper shows the importance of forming and full functioning of fish sperm cryobanks. Originality. The paper summarizes the existing information on the issue of fish sperm low temperature cryopreservation. The information is given in the form of successive presentation of the research outcomes received at each point of freezing or unfreezing when using different techniques as well as results of different factors influence on it. Moreover, a review of achievements in the field of cryopreservation and main principles of forming fish sperm cryobanks are given. Practical value. The presented review of traditional and modern literature data in the issue of cryopreservation can be used when planning, redesigning and experimenting fish sperm freezing or unfreezing.

  12. Validation of rapid dioxin screening by GC-FID in fish products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassompierre, M.; Munck, L.; Bro, R.; Tomasi, G.; Engelsen, S.B. [Royal Veterinary and Agricultural Univ., Copenhagen (Denmark). Food Technology, Institute of Food Science, Centre for Advanced Food Studies

    2004-09-15

    A novel, cost- and time-effective dioxin screening method was developed and validated for fish product. The method is based on multivariate covariance between fatty acid composition monitored by GC-FID and dioxin content as teq WHO pg/ g fat. A dioxin range varying from 1.1 to 47.1 pg TEQ-WHO/ g fat using 65 fish meal samples was accessible for model calibration. An optimal multivariate dioxin prediction model was developed based on automatic peak integration, thereby enabling extraction of the area of 140 peaks from the gas chromatogramms. Models were produced employing partial least squares regression (PLS) based upon the duplicate GC-FID run and 46 specific peaks, selected after variable selection from the 140 investigated. The best results were yielded by local pls modelling employing three latent variables based upon the 12 nearest neighbors. For each prediction sample, the neighbors, yielding the 12 smallest sum of squares of differences to the test sample using the 140 peaks, were extracted from the whole calibration set and a local model built using these 12 chromatograms and related dioxin content. Prediction performance was thereafter validated for 10 fully independent samples. The performance of this model, yielded a correlation of 0.85 (r{sup 2}) and a root mean square error of prediction of 2.3 pg PCDD/F TEQWHO/ g fat.

  13. Glycerin purification using asymmetric nano-structured ceramic membranes from production of waste fish oil biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghami, M.; Sadrameli, S. M.; Shamloo, M.

    2018-02-01

    Biodiesel is an environmental friendly alternative liquid transportation fuel that can be used in diesel engines without major modifications. The scope of this research work is to produce biodiesel from waste fish oil and its purification from the byproducts using a ceramic membrane. Transesterification of waste fish oil was applied for the biodiesel production using methanol in the presence of KOH as a catalyst. Effect of catalyst weight percent, temperature and methanol to oil molar ratio (MR) on the biodiesel yield have been studied and the results show that highest methyl ester yield of 79.2% has been obtained at 60 °C, MR: 6 and 1% KOH. The produced biodiesel purified by a ceramic membrane. Membrane flux and glycerin removal at different operating conditions such as temperature, trans-membrane pressures and cross flow velocities have been measured. Glycerin purity by membrane method is 99.97% by weight at the optimum condition. The highest membrane flux occurred at 50 °C temperature, 1 bar pressure and 3 m/s velocity.

  14. Development of technology for washed minced fish production from low-profit objects of fishing in the Volga-Caspian Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukatova M. D.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objects of the study are as follows: rudd and goldfish, samples of food minced made of them without washing, after single and double washings. To study the organoleptic and physico-chemical parameters the conventional methods of the fishing industry have been used. At the LLC "Astrakhan fisheries" two experimental batches of minced rudd and goldfish with double washing by water using a food additive "Omfresh plus" have been made in the amount of 1.0 % by weight of the meat. The yield of washed minced food from rudd is 41.4 %, from silver carp – 41.0 %. Some decrease in water content, water-holding capacity and formalin-titratable nitrogen in minced fish after each washing step has been established. Studying the organoleptic characteristics has shown that the frozen minced briquettes are cuboids, have clean surface with the presence of minor irregularities, colour – light gray, dense texture. On physical and chemical parameters the food washed mince correspond to GOST R 55505–2013 "Frozen food fish forcemeat. Specifications". Water content is 79–82 %, sodium chloride – 0,17–0,35 %, and water-holding capacity – at over 50 %. The proven technology of manufacturing washed minced from goldfish and rudd can be put into production for the purpose of deep processing of unprofitable species of the Volga-Caspian Basin and getting washed minced food and culinary products based on it.

  15. Reestimation of the production spectra of cosmic ray secondary positrons and electrons in the ISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, C. M.; Ng, L. K.

    1985-01-01

    A detailed calculation of the production spectra of charged hadrons produced by interactions of cosmic rays in the interstellar medium is presented along with a thorough treatment of pion and muon decays. Newly parameterized inclusive cross sections of hadrons were used and exact kinematic limitations were taken into account. Single parametrized expressions for the production spectra of both secondary positrons and electrons in the energy range .1 to 100 GeV are presented. The results are compared with other authors' predictions. Equilibrium spectra using various models are also presented.

  16. Indoor secondary pollutants from cleaning product and air freshener use in the presence of ozone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singer, B.C.; Coleman, B.K.; Destaillats, H.

    2006-01-01

    introduction. In the absence of reactive chemicals, the chamber ozone level was approximately 60 ppb. Ozone was substantially consumed following cleaning product use, mainly by homogeneous reaction. For the AFR, ozone consumption was weaker and heterogeneous reaction with sorbed AFR-constituent VOCs...... than 100 mu g m(-3)) in some experiments. Ozone consumption and elevated hydroxyl radical concentrations persisted for 10-12 h following brief cleaning events, indicating that secondary pollutant production can persist for extended periods. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  17. Spatial distribution and secondary production of Copepoda in a tropical reservoir: Barra Bonita, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ. Santos-Wisniewski

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to describe the spatial distribution of zooplankton copepods, their biomass and instantaneous secondary production, in Barra Bonita, a large eutrophic, polymitic reservoir (22° 29' S and 48° 34' W on the Tietê River, of the Paraná basin. Sampling was carried out during two seasons: dry winter and rainy summer. Species composition, age structure and numerical density of each copepod species population were analyzed at 25 sampling stations. Secondary production was calculated for Copepoda, the dominant group in zooplankton communities, taking Calanoida and Cyclopoida separately. Copepoda represented the largest portion of the total zooplankton biomass, the dominant species being Notodiaptomus iheringi among the Calanoida and Mesocyclops ogunnus and Thermocyclops decipiens among the Cyclopoida. The production of Copepoda was higher during the rainy summer (23.61 mgDW.m-3.d-1 in January 1995 than during the dry winter season (14 mgDW.m-3.d-1 in August 1995, following the general pattern of abundance for the whole zooplankton community. Among the copepods, Cyclopoida production was higher than that of Calanoida, a pattern commonly observed for tropical lakes and reservoirs. Barra Bonita copepods are very productive, but there was a great degree of spatial heterogeneity, related to the physical and chemical conditions, particularly the level of nutrients and also to phytoplankton biomass.

  18. Fortification of Sardine Fish Oil from By-product of Canning Processing into Beef Meatball and Chicken Nugget

    OpenAIRE

    Teti Estiasih; Endang Trowulan; Widya Dwi Rukmi

    2017-01-01

    One source of ω-3 fatty acids is a by-product of lemuru canning processing that can be used for fortification.  Generally, fortification uses fish oil microcapsule but it is more expensive than direct fortification.  In this study, fish oil from a by-product of lemuru canning processing was directly fortified into beef meatball and chicken nugget at concentration of 0, 2, 4, and 6% (w/w).  Oxidation level, free fatty acid content, colour, lightness, texture, and sensory acceptance by triangle...

  19. Copepod egg production, moulting and growth rates and secondary production in the Skagerrak in August 1988

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, W.T.; Tiselius, P.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of hydrography, chlorophyll, moulting rates of juvenile copepods and egg production rates of adult female copepods were made at eight stations along a transect across the Skagerrak. The goals of the study were to determine (i) if there were correlations between spatial variations...... in hydrography, phytoplankton and copepod production rates, (ii) if copepod egg production rates were correlated with juvenile growth rates, and (iii) if there was evidence of food-niche separation among co-occurring female copepods. The 200 km wide Skagerrak had a stratified water column in the center...... is similar to maximum rates known from laboratory studies, thus were probably not food-limited. Egg production rates were food-limited with the degree of limitation varying among species: 75% of maximum for Centropages typicus, 50% for Calanus finmarchicus, 30% for Paracalanus parvus and 15% for Acartia...

  20. Effect of fish and oil nature on frying process and nutritional product quality

    OpenAIRE

    Ansorena, D. (Diana); Guembe, A. (Ainhoa); Mendizabal, T. (Tatiana); Astiasarán, I. (Iciar)

    2010-01-01

    The modifications on a lean fish (cod-Gadus morhua) and a fatty fish (farmed salmon-Salmo salar) after the application of pan-frying using 2 types of oil with different lipid profile (extra virgin olive oil and sunflower oil) was the aim of this study. Fat content and total energetic value increased significantly after the frying process only in the lean fish, without relevant changes in the fatty fish. Extra virgin olive oil led to a higher fat absorption rate than sunflower oil in both fish...

  1. Secondary Neutron Production from Space Radiation Interactions: Advances in Model and Experimental Data Base Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilbronn, Lawrence H.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Braley, G. Scott; Iwata, Yoshiyuki; Iwase, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Takashi; Ronningen, Reginald M.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2003-01-01

    For humans engaged in long-duration missions in deep space or near-Earth orbit, the risk from exposure to galactic and solar cosmic rays is an important factor in the design of spacecraft, spacesuits, and planetary bases. As cosmic rays are transported through shielding materials and human tissue components, a secondary radiation field is produced. Neutrons are an important component of that secondary field, especially in thickly-shielded environments. Calculations predict that 50% of the dose-equivalent in a lunar or Martian base comes from neutrons, and a recent workshop held at the Johnson Space Center concluded that as much as 30% of the dose in the International Space Station may come from secondary neutrons. Accelerator facilities provide a means for measuring the effectiveness of various materials in their ability to limit neutron production, using beams and energies that are present in cosmic radiation. The nearly limitless range of beams, energies, and target materials that are present in space, however, means that accelerator-based experiments will not provide a complete database of cross sections and thick-target yields that are necessary to plan and design long-duration missions. As such, accurate nuclear models of neutron production are needed, as well as data sets that can be used to compare with, and verify, the predictions from such models. Improvements in a model of secondary neutron production from heavy-ion interactions are presented here, along with the results from recent accelerator-based measurements of neutron-production cross sections. An analytical knockout-ablation model capable of predicting neutron production from high-energy hadron-hadron interactions (both nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions) has been previously developed. In the knockout stage, the collision between two nuclei result in the emission of one or more nucleons from the projectile and/or target. The resulting projectile and target remnants, referred to as

  2. Oxygen isotopic distribution along the otolith growth axis by secondary ion mass spectrometry: Applications for studying ontogenetic change in the depth inhabited by deep-sea fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiao, Jen-Chieh; Itoh, Shoichi; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi; Iizuka, Yoshiyuki; Liao, Yun-Chih

    2014-02-01

    This study using tuna otoliths as working standards established a high lateral resolution and precision analysis to measure δ18Ootolith by secondary ion mass spectrometry. This analytical approach of the ion probe was applied to deep-sea fishes to reconstruct the likely depths inhabited by the fishes at different life history stages based on the measured δ18Ootolith values as a proxy of water temperature. Dramatic increases up to 5-6‰ in δ18Ootolith, representing a temperature decrease of approximately 20 °C, were detected in a blind cusk eel (Barathronus maculatus) otolith and in the otoliths of Synaphobranchus kaupii during leptocephalus metamorphosis to glass eel, inferred from the drop of otolith Sr/Ca ratios and increase of otolith growth increment width. δ18Ootolith profiles clearly divided the fish's life history into a planktonic stage in the mixed layer of the ocean and a benthic stage on the deep-sea ocean bottom. The habitat shift signal was recorded within a 150 μm width of otolith growth zone, which was too narrow to be clearly detected by mechanical drilling and conventional isotopic ratio mass spectrometry. However, variations down to -7‰ were found in δ18Ootolith profiles as the result of Cs2+ beam sputter in the core and larval portions of the otoliths. Carbon mapping by electron probe microanalyzer and staining by toluidine blue suggested abundant proteins existed in the areas with anomaly negative δ18Ootolith values, which cannot be interpreted as a habitat change but due to the isotopic fractionation by O emission from the proteins. These results implied that careful design and understanding of the chemical composition of the analytical areas or tracks on the heterogeneous otolith was essential for highly accurate and precise analysis.

  3. Successful treatment of an acute infective endocarditis secondary to fish bone penetrating into left atrium caused by Granulicatella adiacens and Candida albicans: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Ya Ling; Qu, Ting Ting; Xu, Jia; Chen, Nai Yun; Yang, Mei Fang

    2017-12-01

    Infective endocarditis caused by a foreign body of the upper digestive tract is rare. We report a rare case of Granulicatella adiacens and Candida albicans coinfection acute endocarditis combined with systematic embolization caused by a fish bone from the esophagus penetrating into the left atrium. A 42-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of fever, abdominal pain, headache, and right limb weakness. Clinical examination indicated endocarditis and systemic embolisms secondary to a fish bone from the esophagus penetrating into the left atrium. The emergency surgery confirmed the diagnosis. Cultures of blood and vegetation show G adiacens and C albicans. Antimicrobial therapy lasted 6 weeks after surgery. The patient was discharged with excellent condition7 weeks after hospitalization and was well when followed 6 months later. The successful treatment of this patient combines quick diagnosis, timely surgery, and effective antimicrobial regimen. This rare possibility should be kept up in mind in acute infective endocarditis cases. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of the rearing tank residue of fish farms on the production of passion fruit tree seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. O. R. Silva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the initial growth of seedlings and biomass production of blue and yellow passion fruit trees (round cultivar produced from residue of the rearing tanks of fish farms. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse using residue obtained from fish farming tanks. Ravine soil (RS, fish tank residue (FR and Tropstrato (TR were used as substrate. The treatments were: T1 = control consisting of Tropstrato substrate; T2 = 25% FR + 75% RS; T3 = 50% FR + 50% RS; T4 = 25% RS + 75% FR; T5 = 100% FR. A completely randomized block design consisting of 5 treatments, 4 replicates and 11 plants per plot was used. Treatment T5 (100% fish farming residue resulted in the largest average number of leaves, highest dry matter production of the aerial part, and highest dry matter accumulation in the root (P<0.05. The worst results were obtained for the treatment using 25% FR (T2, which resulted in less uniformity of the variables studied. Stem height of the passion fruit tree was greater for the treatments that included FR, with the greatest mean height being observed for T5. In conclusion, the treatment using the residue of fish farming tanks was found to be beneficial to produce yellow passion fruit seedlings (round cultivar, representing a good alternative for the reutilization of this residue.

  5. Climate warming reduces fish production and benthic habitat in Lake Tanganyika, one of the most biodiverse freshwater ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Andrew S.; Gergurich, Elizabeth L.; Kraemer, Benjamin M.; McGlue, Michael M.; McIntyre, Peter B.; Russell, James M.; Simmons, Jack D.; Swarzenski, Peter W.

    2016-01-01

    Warming climates are rapidly transforming lake ecosystems worldwide, but the breadth of changes in tropical lakes is poorly documented. Sustainable management of freshwater fisheries and biodiversity requires accounting for historical and ongoing stressors such as climate change and harvest intensity. This is problematic in tropical Africa, where records of ecosystem change are limited and local populations rely heavily on lakes for nutrition. Here, using a ∼1,500-y paleoecological record, we show that declines in fishery species and endemic molluscs began well before commercial fishing in Lake Tanganyika, Africa’s deepest and oldest lake. Paleoclimate and instrumental records demonstrate sustained warming in this lake during the last ∼150 y, which affects biota by strengthening and shallowing stratification of the water column. Reductions in lake mixing have depressed algal production and shrunk the oxygenated benthic habitat by 38% in our study areas, yielding fish and mollusc declines. Late-20th century fish fossil abundances at two of three sites were lower than at any other time in the last millennium and fell in concert with reduced diatom abundance and warming water. A negative correlation between lake temperature and fish and mollusc fossils over the last ∼500 y indicates that climate warming and intensifying stratification have almost certainly reduced potential fishery production, helping to explain ongoing declines in fish catches. Long-term declines of both benthic and pelagic species underscore the urgency of strategic efforts to sustain Lake Tanganyika’s extraordinary biodiversity and ecosystem services.

  6. Innovation on Street Food Products (Instant Porridge and Cookies Based on Fortified Patin Fish Protein Concentrate with Red Palm Oil and Encaptulated Oil Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewita Dewita

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to establish innovation on street food (instant porridge and cookiesfrom Patin Fish Protein Concentrate fortified by blending red palm oil and encaptulated patinfish’s oil. The Encaptulation was conducted by blending of red palm oil and patin fish’s oil usingspray dryer. The blending was consisted of three combinations namely 50 : 50 (A1, 40 : 60 (A2and 60 : 40 (A3 for ratio between red palm oil and patin fish’s oil. The best combination’s resultswas fortified into street food (instant porridge and cookies. The blending was tested by measureyield, fat and fatty acid profile. Moreover, organoleptics and proximate tests were carrie out for thebest treatment of blending in instant porridge and cookies. The results show that encaptulatedyield reached 55 % that rise from A1 treatment as the best treatment with fat content of 17.26%.Profile of unsaturated fatty acid especially fatty acid omega 9 from blending fish oil and palm oilwas 59.29%. The number of fatty acid omega 9 was higher than saturated fatty acid which was18.56%. Furthermore, based on organoleptic tests of instant porridge and cookies using under fiveyear children respondents, it was proven that 93% of children was like the products. Proximate analysis of instant porridge revealed that protein content was 11.04 %, water content was 5.03%,fat content was 1.92 % and ash was 0.64 %. However, proximate analysis showed that cookiesowned protein of 9.11%, fat of 17.03% , water content was 3.93% and ash of 1.38%.Keywords : Encaptulated fish, street food, patin fish protein concentrate, palm oil

  7. Plasma phospholipid pentadecanoic acid, EPA, and DHA, and the frequency of dairy and fish product intake in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund-Blix, Nicolai A; Rønningen, Kjersti S; Bøås, Håkon; Tapia, German; Andersen, Lene F

    2016-01-01

    There is a lack of studies comparing dietary assessment methods with the biomarkers of fatty acids in children. The objective was to evaluate the suitability of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to rank young children according to their intake of dairy and fish products by comparing food frequency estimates to the plasma phospholipid fatty acids pentadecanoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Cross-sectional data for the present study were derived from the prospective cohort 'Environmental Triggers of Type 1 Diabetes Study'. Infants were recruited from the Norwegian general population during 2001-2007. One hundred and ten (age 3-10 years) children had sufficient volumes of plasma and FFQ filled in within 2 months from blood sampling and were included in this evaluation study. The quantitative determination of plasma phospholipid fatty acids was done by fatty acid methyl ester analysis. The association between the frequency of dairy and fish product intake and the plasma phospholipid fatty acids was assessed by a Spearman correlation analysis and by investigating whether participants were classified into the same quartiles of distribution. Significant correlations were found between pentadecanoic acid and the intake frequency of total dairy products (r=0.29), total fat dairy products (r=0.39), and cheese products (r=0.36). EPA and DHA were significantly correlated with the intake frequency of oily fish (r=0.26 and 0.37, respectively) and cod liver/fish oil supplements (r=0.47 for EPA and r=0.50 DHA). To a large extent, the FFQ was able to classify individuals into the same quartile as the relevant fatty acid biomarker. The present study suggests that, when using the plasma phospholipid fatty acids pentadecanoic acid, EPA, and DHA as biomarkers, the FFQ used in young children showed a moderate capability to rank the intake frequency of dairy products with a high-fat content and cod liver/fish oil supplements.

  8. Fish silage as feed ingredient for fish and livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rurangwa, E.; Vuuren, van A.M.; Poelman, M.

    2014-01-01

    The present report analyses through a literature review the potential of fish silage to valorise fish processing by-products into economically relevant protein sources for fish and livestock feed production in East Africa.

  9. Partial and total fish meal replacement by agricultural products in the diets improve sperm quality in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyina-wamwiza, L.; Milla, S.; Pierrard, M.A.; Rurangwa, E.; Mandiki, S.N.M.; Look, van K.J.W.; Kestemont, P.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the long-term effects of total and partial replacement of dietary fish meal (FM) by a mixture of agricultural products on sperm quality of African catfish Clarias gariepinus. Four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated containing graded levels of either 50% FM

  10. Evaluation of partial water reuse systems used for Atlantic salmon smolt production at the White River National Fish Hatchery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eight of the existing 9.1 m (30 ft) diameter circular culture tanks at the White River National Fish Hatchery in Bethel, Vermont, were retrofitted and plumbed into two 8,000 L/min partial water reuse systems to help meet the region's need for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolt production. The part...

  11. Optimized Jasmonic Acid Production by Lasiodiplodia theobromae Reveals Formation of Valuable Plant Secondary Metabolites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Eng

    Full Text Available Jasmonic acid is a plant hormone that can be produced by the fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae via submerged fermentation. From a biotechnological perspective jasmonic acid is a valuable feedstock as its derivatives serve as important ingredients in different cosmetic products and in the future it may be used for pharmaceutical applications. The objective of this work was to improve the production of jasmonic acid by L. theobromae strain 2334. We observed that jasmonic acid formation is dependent on the culture volume. Moreover, cultures grown in medium containing potassium nitrate as nitrogen source produced higher amounts of jasmonic acid than analogous cultures supplemented with ammonium nitrate. When cultivated under optimal conditions for jasmonic acid production, L. theobromae secreted several secondary metabolites known from plants into the medium. Among those we found 3-oxo-2-(pent-2-enyl-cyclopentane-1-butanoic acid (OPC-4 and hydroxy-jasmonic acid derivatives, respectively, suggesting that fungal jasmonate metabolism may involve similar reaction steps as that of plants. To characterize fungal growth and jasmonic acid-formation, we established a mathematical model describing both processes. This model may form the basis of industrial upscaling attempts. Importantly, it showed that jasmonic acid-formation is not associated to fungal growth. Therefore, this finding suggests that jasmonic acid, despite its enormous amount being produced upon fungal development, serves merely as secondary metabolite.

  12. Protection by fungal starters against growth and secondary metabolite production of fungal spoilers of cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, M S; Frisvad, J C; Nielsen, P V

    1998-06-30

    The influence of fungal starter cultures on growth and secondary metabolite production of fungal contaminants associated with cheese was studied on laboratory media and Camembert cheese. Isolates of the species Penicillium nalgiovense, P. camemberti, P. roqueforti and Geotrichum candidum were used as fungal starters. The species P. commune, P. caseifulvum, P. verrucosum, P. discolor, P. solitum, P. coprophilum and Aspergillus versicolor were selected as contaminants. The fungal starters showed different competitive ability on laboratory media and Camembert cheese. The presence of the Penicillium species, especially P. nalgiovense, showed an inhibitory effect on the growth of the fungal contaminants on laboratory media. G. candidum caused a significant inhibition of the fungal contaminants on Camembert cheese. The results indicate that G. candidum plays an important role in competition with undesirable microorganisms in mould fermented cheeses. Among the starters, P. nalgiovense caused the largest reduction in secondary metabolite production of the fungal contaminants on the laboratory medium. On Camembert cheese no significant changes in metabolite production of the fungal contaminants was observed in the presence of the starters.

  13. Species-specific impacts of a small marine reserve on reef fish production and fishing productivity in the Turks and Caicos Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tupper, M.H.; Rudd, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Marine reserves are widely considered to potentially benefit reef fisheries through emigration, yet the empirical basis for predicting the extent of this for small reserves is weak. The effects of fishing pressure and habitat on biomass and catch per unit effort (CPUE) of three species of exploited

  14. Free ammonia pre-treatment of secondary sludge significantly increases anaerobic methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Zhou, Xu; Wang, Dongbo; Sun, Jing; Wang, Qilin

    2017-07-01

    Energy recovery in the form of methane from sludge/wastewater is restricted by the poor and slow biodegradability of secondary sludge. An innovative pre-treatment technology using free ammonia (FA, i.e. NH 3 ) was proposed in this study to increase anaerobic methane production. The solubilisation of secondary sludge was significantly increased after FA pre-treatment at up to 680 mg NH 3 -N/L for 1 day, under which the solubilisation (i.e. 0.4 mg SCOD/mg VS; SCOD: soluble chemical oxygen demand; VS: volatile solids) was >10 times higher than that without FA pre-treatment (i.e. 0.03 mg SCOD/mg VS). Biochemical methane potential assays showed that FA pre-treatment at above 250 mg NH 3 -N/L is effective in improving anaerobic methane production. The highest improvement in biochemical methane potential (B 0 ) and hydrolysis rate (k) was achieved at FA concentrations of 420-680 mg NH 3 -N/L, and was determined as approximately 22% (from 160 to 195 L CH 4 /kg VS added) and 140% (from 0.22 to 0.53 d -1 ) compared to the secondary sludge without pre-treatment. More analysis revealed that the FA induced improvement in B 0 and k could be attributed to the rapidly biodegradable substances rather than the slowly biodegradable substances. Economic and environmental analyses showed that the FA-based technology is economically favourable and environmentally friendly. Since this FA technology aims to use the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) waste (i.e. anaerobic digestion liquor) to enhance methane production from the WWTPs, it will set an example for the paradigm shift of the WWTPs from 'linear economy' to 'circular economy'. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Production of Secondary Metabolites with Flavour Potential during Brewing and Distilling Wort Fermentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham G. Stewart

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol, carbon dioxide and glycerol are the major products produced by yeast during wort fermentation but they have little impact on beer and spirit flavour. It is the type and concentration of secondary metabolites that can determine overall beer flavour. These compounds are (but not only primarily: higher alcohols, esters, carbonyls and sulphur compounds—inorganic and organic. There are a number of factors that can modify the balance of these compounds most of which are discussed in this review paper.

  16. Improving the productivity of imported dairy cattle on small-holder farms in Morocco through supplementation with fish silage blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerouali, A.

    1999-01-01

    The present study was designed to identify problems that lower the productivity of imported dairy cattle in Morocco. For this purpose, a comprehensive survey was carried out on 8 small-holder farms over a period of two years. Analysis of the data collected indicated that in most of the herds reproductive performance was adequate (calving intervals ranging from 338 ± 11 to 420 ± 31 and services to conception ranging from 1.14 ± 0.13 to 1.91 ± 0.3), but the animals had difficulty in meeting the nutrient requirements for milk production. Although some farmers provided supplements to their animals they were either expensive or not available at the required time. One possible way of alleviating the problem was the introduction of a fish by-product into the dairy cattle ration. Two experiments were conducted, one at the Institute experimental farm and the other at a private farm selected for the survey. In both experiments, fish silage blocks were incorporated into the ration of dairy cattle in replacement of an equal amount of the most commonly used supplements. The introduction of fish silage blocks in the ration did not affect their intake or body condition. In addition, the yield and quality of the milk were maintained. This substitution allowed the farmer to utilize by-products from the fish industry which are readily available and less costly than most conventional supplementary feeds. It is concluded, that the proposed utilization of fish silage blocks will reduce the production costs and improve the economic efficiency of the small-holder farms. (author)

  17. Secondary Organic Aerosol Production over Seoul, South Korea, during KORUS-AQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nault, B.; Campuzano Jost, P.; Day, D. A.; Schroder, J. C.; Blake, D. R.; Brune, W. H.; Choi, Y.; DiGangi, J. P.; Fried, A.; Huey, L. G.; Knote, C. J.; Montzka, D. D.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Jimenez, J. L.; Armin, W.

    2017-12-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is rapidly produced over and downwind of urban areas, causing important effects on health, visibility, and climate. However, multiple studies over different cities have shown that the production of SOA over urban areas cannot be accounted for when only using traditional volatile compounds (e.g., aromatics). Non-traditional anthropogenic volatile compounds—semi- and intermediate-volatile organic compounds (S/IVOC) are needed to account the observed urban SOA production. At this time, only a few megacities have been well characterized for urban SOA production; however, urban SOA production has not been well characterized in a megacity embedded in a region of rapid economic growth and energy consumption. In this study, we utilize observations from the NASA DC-8 over Seoul, South Korea, during the NASA/NIER 2016 KORean United States-Air Quality (KORUS-AQ) study to investigate the influence of transported OA and SOA precursors to Seoul versus the influence of local emissions of SOA precursors on the observed SOA production. We utilize the ambient gas-phase and OA observations over Seoul and the Western Sea along with Oxidation Flow Reactor (OFR) observations and FLEXPART tracer analysis to investigate the influence of transport versus local emissions. We find that the contribution of transported OA and SOA precursors to Seoul, during the campaign, was minor and had a small impact on the observed SOA production. Using the observed traditional volatile compounds, along with estimates of S/IVOC, brought near closure for the observed SOA production. We found that greater than 90% of the SOA production can be accounted for by reactive organic compounds with OH lifetimes less than 1 day, consistent with several previous megacity studies, further suggesting that local SOA precursor emissions are dominant. Our study highlights the need to further investigate and account for speciated S/IVOC measurements, as these represented an estimated 60

  18. Spatially explicit measures of production of young alewives in Lake Michigan: Linkage between essential fish habitat and recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Tomas O.; Rutherford, Edward S.; Brines, Shannon J.; Mason, Doran M.; Schwab, David J.; McCormick, Michael; Desorcie, Timothy J.

    2003-01-01

    The identification and protection of essential habitats for early life stages of fishes are necessary to sustain fish stocks. Essential fish habitat for early life stages may be defined as areas where fish densities, growth, survival, or production rates are relatively high. To identify critical habitats for young-of-year (YOY) alewives (Alosa pseud oharengus) in Lake Michigan, we integrated bioenergetics models with GIS (Geographic Information Systems) to generate spatially explicit estimates of potential population production (an index of habitat quality). These estimates were based upon YOY alewife bioenergetic growth rate potential and their salmonine predators’ consumptive demand. We compared estimates of potential population production to YOY alewife yield (an index of habitat importance). Our analysis suggested that during 1994–1995, YOY alewife habitat quality and yield varied widely throughout Lake Michigan. Spatial patterns of alewife yield were not significantly correlated to habitat quality. Various mechanisms (e.g., predator migrations, lake circulation patterns, alternative strategies) may preclude YOY alewives from concentrating in areas of high habitat quality in Lake Michigan.

  19. Development of a yeast cell factory for production of aromatic secondary metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez Prado, Edith Angelica

    Aromatic secondary metabolites are compounds mainly synthesized by plants and fungi as a response to predators and environmental stresses. These compounds have a broad range of natural properties such as reduction of oxidative damage in cells, antibacterial effects and UV protection. Many...... of these properties can be useful for the treatment of different diseases and development of pharmaceutical products. The low abundance of these compounds in natural sources together with technical challenges for the extraction of these compounds from plants, open up the possibility for synthesizing aromatic....... The systems biology analysis of the platform strain suggests that the strain has transcriptional downregulations in genes involved in the transport of amino acids and sugars, which could be a response to the stress triggered by the production of p-coumaric acid. The platform strain was capable of synthesizing...

  20. Productivity in using school's resources: A case study of secondary school in Dumai, Riau Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozamuri, Arif Murti; Suradi, Nur Riza Mohd

    2015-09-01

    Definition of good school's differs for every individual. The performance of the school's has always been an interesting discussion topic. This situation requires parents to be more selective for choosing the best school's for their child, especially in the efficient management of resources. This study evaluated changes in total productivity, technology, technical efficiency, and scale efficiency among 12 school of Dumai City in Riau Indonesia using DEA Malmquist Index. The inputs include number of teacher's, number of students, and number of classrooms while output is the number of students that passed the national examination. The results show that average efficiency of secondary school in Dumai City from 2011 to 2013 recorded good changes in terms of technical efficiency, pure technical efficiency and scale efficiency. However, technological and total factor productivity change do not show a positive change.

  1. Neutron secondary-particle production cross sections and their incorporation into Monte-Carlo transport codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, D.J.; Prael, R.E.; Little, R.C.

    1987-01-01

    Realistic simulations of the passage of fast neutrons through tissue require a large quantity of cross-sectional data. What are needed are differential (in particle type, energy and angle) cross sections. A computer code is described which produces such spectra for neutrons above ∼14 MeV incident on light nuclei such as carbon and oxygen. Comparisons have been made with experimental measurements of double-differential secondary charged-particle production on carbon and oxygen at energies from 27 to 60 MeV; they indicate that the model is adequate in this energy range. In order to utilize fully the results of these calculations, they should be incorporated into a neutron transport code. This requires defining a generalized format for describing charged-particle production, putting the calculated results in this format, interfacing the neutron transport code with these data, and charged-particle transport. The design and development of such a program is described. 13 refs., 3 figs

  2. Production of Secondary Metabolites in Extreme Environments: Food- and Airborne Wallemia spp. Produce Toxic Metabolites at Hypersaline Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jančič, Sašo; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Kocev, Dragi

    2016-01-01

    the genome data analysis of W. mellicola (previously W. sebi sensu lato) and W. ichthyophaga revealed a low number of secondary metabolites clusters, a substantial number of secondary metabolites were detected at different conditions. Machine learning analysis of the obtained dataset showed that NaCl has...... of salt or sugar. In relation to food safety, the effect of high salt and sugar concentrations on the production of secondary metabolites by this toxigenic fungus was investigated. The secondary metabolite profiles of 30 strains of the listed species were examined using general growth media, known...... to support the production of secondary metabolites, supplemented with different concentrations of NaCl, glucose and MgCl2. In more than two hundred extracts approximately one hundred different compounds were detected using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). Although...

  3. Simulating mechanisms for dispersal, production and stranding of small forage fish in temporary wetland habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurek, Simeon; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Trexler, Joel C.; Jopp, Fred; Donalson, Douglas D.

    2013-01-01

    Movement strategies of small forage fish (wetland habitats affect their overall population growth and biomass concentrations, i.e., availability to predators. These fish are often the key energy link between primary producers and top predators, such as wading birds, which require high concentrations of stranded fish in accessible depths. Expansion and contraction of seasonal wetlands induce a sequential alternation between rapid biomass growth and concentration, creating the conditions for local stranding of small fish as they move in response to varying water levels. To better understand how landscape topography, hydrology, and fish behavior interact to create high densities of stranded fish, we first simulated population dynamics of small fish, within a dynamic food web, with different traits for movement strategy and growth rate, across an artificial, spatially explicit, heterogeneous, two-dimensional marsh slough landscape, using hydrologic variability as the driver for movement. Model output showed that fish with the highest tendency to invade newly flooded marsh areas built up the largest populations over long time periods with stable hydrologic patterns. A higher probability to become stranded had negative effects on long-term population size, and offset the contribution of that species to stranded biomass. The model was next applied to the topography of a 10 km × 10 km area of Everglades landscape. The details of the topography were highly important in channeling fish movements and creating spatiotemporal patterns of fish movement and stranding. This output provides data that can be compared in the future with observed locations of fish biomass concentrations, or such surrogates as phosphorus ‘hotspots’ in the marsh.

  4. USING OF SECONDARY PRODUCTS OF RAPESEED PROCESSING IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Raksha-Slusareva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available When oil and biodiesel are extracted from rapeseed, secondary derived products are formed, which are not used effectively at the moment. The article deals with the problems of possible their use in food industry. During food product preparation for special dietary consumption we used electrophysical (processing by hydroelectropulse and physical (drying, grinding, steam treatment processing of raw materials. Through the developed technology for rapeseed cake processing, we received raw materials suitable for use in food industry. On the basis of these raw materials, the «Nutrition product for special dietary consumption “Ripakovyi”» was developed. It is a part of rape seed meal obtained from the seeds with low content of glucosinolates and erucic acid processed by hydroelectropulse dried in the cabinet oven or in the convective dryer, crushed and disinfected based on a developed soft technology for biologically active substances conservation. The production of this product solves the problem of rational utilization of rapeseed meal and diversification of foods for special dietary consumption.

  5. X-rays diffraction characterization of corrosion products transported by secondary side of a CANDU NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinu, A.; Tunaru, M.; Velciu, L.

    2016-01-01

    To verify the chemistry of secondary side of CANDU steam generators, Millipore filters are used to sampling from condensing extraction pump, from feed water header and blow down of steam generator. These filters retain the corrosion products as very fine particles and are used as samples in chemistry water control. X-Ray diffraction technique is the able to distinguish the different crystallographic compounds present in oxide films deposited on the Millipore filters and gives information referring to the nature of corrosion products transported in secondary side. The XRD analysis has identified the following substance in deposited layer: magnetite (Fe_3O_4), hematite (Fe_2O_3), and iron oxide hydroxide (FeOOH). By optical microscopy it was observed a brown-reddish background specific to hematite and iron oxide hydroxide, especially for filters extracted from condensing extraction pump. The black colour of crud present on filters extracted from feed water header and blow down of steam generator shows the presence of magnetite. (authors)

  6. Production of secondary metabolites trimethyl xanthina by Camellia sinensis L suspension culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutini, Sodiq, Mochamad; Muslihatin, Wirdhatul; Indra, Mochamad Rasjad

    2017-06-01

    Bioactive trimethyl xanthina can be obtained from the plant Camellia sinensis L. To obtain bioactive plant of which there are several hurdles for instance to wait up to five years to be harvested, also it needs land at a certain height from the sea level. Therefore, the production of secondary metabolites trimethyl xanthina need to be developed with suspense culture techniques. The purpose of this study obtained the production of bioactive trimethyl xanthina way culturally suspense in large scale with a relatively short time, potentially as anti-oxidants. Research methods include: (1) initiation of callus from pieces of leaves, shoots the youngest of the plant Camellia sinensis L in the media MS with the optimization of the addition of growth regulators, (2) the subculture of callus on media and plant growth regulator that is equal to the stage of initiation, (3) initiation of suspension culture using explants of callus Camellia sinensis L, (4) Analysis of secondary metabolites trimethyl xanthina growth in suspension culture, (5) the isolation and identification of trimethyl xanthina qualitatively and quantitatively using thin layer chromatography/high performance chromatography column. The results of the study suspension cultures containing bioactive trimethyl xanthina candidates that can be used as an antioxidant.

  7. Investigation of Secondary Neutron Production in Large Space Vehicles for Deep Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojdev, Kristina; Koontz, Steve; Reddell, Brandon; Atwell, William; Boeder, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Future NASA missions will focus on deep space and Mars surface operations with large structures necessary for transportation of crew and cargo. In addition to the challenges of manufacturing these large structures, there are added challenges from the space radiation environment and its impacts on the crew, electronics, and vehicle materials. Primary radiation from the sun (solar particle events) and from outside the solar system (galactic cosmic rays) interact with materials of the vehicle and the elements inside the vehicle. These interactions lead to the primary radiation being absorbed or producing secondary radiation (primarily neutrons). With all vehicles, the high-energy primary radiation is of most concern. However, with larger vehicles, there is more opportunity for secondary radiation production, which can be significant enough to cause concern. In a previous paper, we embarked upon our first steps toward studying neutron production from large vehicles by validating our radiation transport codes for neutron environments against flight data. The following paper will extend the previous work to focus on the deep space environment and the resulting neutron flux from large vehicles in this deep space environment.

  8. Optimization of adventitious root culture for production of biomass and secondary metabolites in Prunella vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazal, Hina; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Ahmad, Nisar

    2014-11-01

    Adventitious root cultures of Prunella vulgaris L. were established in shaking flask system for the production of biomass and secondary metabolites. Adventitious root cultures were induced from callus cultures obtained from leaf explants on solid Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing combination of 6-benzyladenine (BA; 1.0 mg l(-1)) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA; 1.5 mg l(-1)). Thereafter, 0.49 g inoculum was transferred to liquid MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of NAA (0.5-2.0 mg l(-1)). Growth kinetics of adventitious roots was recorded with an interval of 7 days for 49 days period. Highest biomass accumulation (2.13 g/l) was observed in liquid medium containing 1.0 mg l(-1) NAA after 21 days of inoculation. However, other concentrations of NAA also showed similar accumulation pattern but the biomass gradually decreases after 49 days of inoculation. Adventitious roots were collected and dried for investigation of total phenolics (TP), total flavonoids (TF), and antioxidant activities. Higher TPC (0.995 GAE mg/g-DRB) and TFC (6.615 RE mg/g-DRB) were observed in 0.5 mg l(-1) NAA treated cultures. In contrast, higher antioxidant activity (83.53 %) was observed 1.5 mg l(-1) NAA treated cultures. These results are helpful in up scaling of root cultures into bioreactor for secondary metabolites production.

  9. A latex agglutination test for the field determination of abnormal vitellogenin production in male fishes contaminated by estrogen mimics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magalhaes, Ilizabete; Pihan, Jean-Claude; Falla, Jairo

    2004-01-01

    Estrogen mimics are pollutants present in the aquatic environment. These compounds induce abnormalities in the reproductive system of male fishes, which lead to a total or partial male feminization, or to their demasculinization. Ultimately, these alterations could lead to a disappearance of the total contaminated fish population. Moreover, these toxic substances possess the capacity to mimic endogenous estrogens and to induce the abnormal production of vitellogenin (VTG) in male and immature fishes. The purpose of this research was to develop an easy, specific, cheap and fast method for diagnosing the contamination of male fishes by estrogen mimics, using VTG as biomarker. The selected method is based on a reverse latex agglutination test (rLAT), developed with monoclonal antibodies specific of this biomarker. The development of this VTG-rLAT has involved, firstly, the purification of carp VTG to produce monoclonal antibodies, specifics of this protein. One of these antibodies was selected to recover latex particles (diameter: 1 μm). Finally, the immunoreactivity of the VTG-rLAT was verified with different fish plasma samples from males treated with 17β-estradiol and non-treated males or females in vitellogenesis

  10. Coupled Ecosystem/Supply Chain Modelling of Fish Products from Sea to Shelf: The Peruvian Anchoveta Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avadí, Angel; Fréon, Pierre; Tam, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Sustainability assessment of food supply chains is relevant for global sustainable development. A framework is proposed for analysing fishfood (fish products for direct human consumption) supply chains with local or international scopes. It combines a material flow model (including an ecosystem dimension) of the supply chains, calculation of sustainability indicators (environmental, socio-economic, nutritional), and finally multi-criteria comparison of alternative supply chains (e.g. fates of landed fish) and future exploitation scenarios. The Peruvian anchoveta fishery is the starting point for various local and global supply chains, especially via reduction of anchoveta into fishmeal and oil, used worldwide as a key input in livestock and fish feeds. The Peruvian anchoveta supply chains are described, and the proposed methodology is used to model them. Three scenarios were explored: status quo of fish exploitation (Scenario 1), increase in anchoveta landings for food (Scenario 2), and radical decrease in total anchoveta landings to allow other fish stocks to prosper (Scenario 3). It was found that Scenario 2 provided the best balance of sustainability improvements among the three scenarios, but further refinement of the assessment is recommended. In the long term, the best opportunities for improving the environmental and socio-economic performance of Peruvian fisheries are related to sustainability-improving management and policy changes affecting the reduction industry. Our approach provides the tools and quantitative results to identify these best improvement opportunities. PMID:25003196

  11. Coupled ecosystem/supply chain modelling of fish products from sea to shelf: the Peruvian anchoveta case.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Avadí

    Full Text Available Sustainability assessment of food supply chains is relevant for global sustainable development. A framework is proposed for analysing fishfood (fish products for direct human consumption supply chains with local or international scopes. It combines a material flow model (including an ecosystem dimension of the supply chains, calculation of sustainability indicators (environmental, socio-economic, nutritional, and finally multi-criteria comparison of alternative supply chains (e.g. fates of landed fish and future exploitation scenarios. The Peruvian anchoveta fishery is the starting point for various local and global supply chains, especially via reduction of anchoveta into fishmeal and oil, used worldwide as a key input in livestock and fish feeds. The Peruvian anchoveta supply chains are described, and the proposed methodology is used to model them. Three scenarios were explored: status quo of fish exploitation (Scenario 1, increase in anchoveta landings for food (Scenario 2, and radical decrease in total anchoveta landings to allow other fish stocks to prosper (Scenario 3. It was found that Scenario 2 provided the best balance of sustainability improvements among the three scenarios, but further refinement of the assessment is recommended. In the long term, the best opportunities for improving the environmental and socio-economic performance of Peruvian fisheries are related to sustainability-improving management and policy changes affecting the reduction industry. Our approach provides the tools and quantitative results to identify these best improvement opportunities.

  12. Coupled ecosystem/supply chain modelling of fish products from sea to shelf: the Peruvian anchoveta case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avadí, Angel; Fréon, Pierre; Tam, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Sustainability assessment of food supply chains is relevant for global sustainable development. A framework is proposed for analysing fishfood (fish products for direct human consumption) supply chains with local or international scopes. It combines a material flow model (including an ecosystem dimension) of the supply chains, calculation of sustainability indicators (environmental, socio-economic, nutritional), and finally multi-criteria comparison of alternative supply chains (e.g. fates of landed fish) and future exploitation scenarios. The Peruvian anchoveta fishery is the starting point for various local and global supply chains, especially via reduction of anchoveta into fishmeal and oil, used worldwide as a key input in livestock and fish feeds. The Peruvian anchoveta supply chains are described, and the proposed methodology is used to model them. Three scenarios were explored: status quo of fish exploitation (Scenario 1), increase in anchoveta landings for food (Scenario 2), and radical decrease in total anchoveta landings to allow other fish stocks to prosper (Scenario 3). It was found that Scenario 2 provided the best balance of sustainability improvements among the three scenarios, but further refinement of the assessment is recommended. In the long term, the best opportunities for improving the environmental and socio-economic performance of Peruvian fisheries are related to sustainability-improving management and policy changes affecting the reduction industry. Our approach provides the tools and quantitative results to identify these best improvement opportunities.

  13. Evaluation of factors controlling global secondary organic aerosol production from cloud processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. He

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Secondary organic aerosols (SOA exert a significant influence on ambient air quality and regional climate. Recent field, laboratorial and modeling studies have confirmed that in-cloud processes contribute to a large fraction of SOA production with large space-time heterogeneity. This study evaluates the key factors that govern the production of cloud-process SOA (SOAcld on a global scale based on the GFDL coupled chemistry-climate model AM3 in which full cloud chemistry is employed. The association between SOAcld production rate and six factors (i.e., liquid water content (LWC, total carbon chemical loss rate (TCloss, temperature, VOC/NOx, OH, and O3 is examined. We find that LWC alone determines the spatial pattern of SOAcld production, particularly over the tropical, subtropical and temperate forest regions, and is strongly correlated with SOAcld production. TCloss ranks the second and mainly represents the seasonal variability of vegetation growth. Other individual factors are essentially uncorrelated spatiotemporally to SOAcld production. We find that the rate of SOAcld production is simultaneously determined by both LWC and TCloss, but responds linearly to LWC and nonlinearly (or concavely to TCloss. A parameterization based on LWC and TCloss can capture well the spatial and temporal variability of the process-based SOAcld formation (R2 = 0.5 and can be easily applied to global three dimensional models to represent the SOA production from cloud processes.

  14. Effect of production quotas on economic and environmental values of growth rate and feed efficiency in sea cage fish farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, M; de Boer, I J M; Vandeputte, M; van Arendonk, J A M; Quillet, E; Komen, H; Aubin, J

    2017-01-01

    In sea cage fish farming, production quotas aim to constrain the impact of fish farming on the surrounding ecosystem. It is unknown how these quotas affect economic profitability and environmental impact of genetic improvement. We combined bioeconomic modelling with life cycle assessment (LCA) to calculate the economic (EV) and environmental (ENV) values of thermal growth coefficient (TGC) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of sea bass reared in sea cages, given four types of quota commonly used in Europe: annual production (Qprod), annual feed distributed (Qannual_feed), standing stock (Qstock), and daily feed distributed (Qdaily_feed). ENV were calculated for LCA impact categories climate change, eutrophication and acidification. ENV were expressed per ton of fish produced per year (ENV(fish)) and per farm per year (ENV(farm)). Results show that irrespective of quota used, EV of FCR as well as ENV(fish) and ENV(farm) were always positive, meaning that improving FCR increased profit and decreased environmental impacts. However, the EV and the ENV(fish) of TGC were positive only when quota was Qstock or Qdaily_feed. Moreover, the ENV(farm) of TGC was negative in Qstock and Qdaily_feed quotas, meaning that improving TGC increased the environmental impact of the farm. We conclude that Qstock quota and Qdaily_feed quota are economically favorable to a genetic improvement of TGC, a major trait for farmers. However, improving TGC increases the environmental impact of the farm. Improving FCR represents a good opportunity to balance out this increase but more information on its genetic background is needed to develop breeding programs improving FCR.

  15. Effect of production quotas on economic and environmental values of growth rate and feed efficiency in sea cage fish farming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Besson

    Full Text Available In sea cage fish farming, production quotas aim to constrain the impact of fish farming on the surrounding ecosystem. It is unknown how these quotas affect economic profitability and environmental impact of genetic improvement. We combined bioeconomic modelling with life cycle assessment (LCA to calculate the economic (EV and environmental (ENV values of thermal growth coefficient (TGC and feed conversion ratio (FCR of sea bass reared in sea cages, given four types of quota commonly used in Europe: annual production (Qprod, annual feed distributed (Qannual_feed, standing stock (Qstock, and daily feed distributed (Qdaily_feed. ENV were calculated for LCA impact categories climate change, eutrophication and acidification. ENV were expressed per ton of fish produced per year (ENV(fish and per farm per year (ENV(farm. Results show that irrespective of quota used, EV of FCR as well as ENV(fish and ENV(farm were always positive, meaning that improving FCR increased profit and decreased environmental impacts. However, the EV and the ENV(fish of TGC were positive only when quota was Qstock or Qdaily_feed. Moreover, the ENV(farm of TGC was negative in Qstock and Qdaily_feed quotas, meaning that improving TGC increased the environmental impact of the farm. We conclude that Qstock quota and Qdaily_feed quota are economically favorable to a genetic improvement of TGC, a major trait for farmers. However, improving TGC increases the environmental impact of the farm. Improving FCR represents a good opportunity to balance out this increase but more information on its genetic background is needed to develop breeding programs improving FCR.

  16. Production of secondary metabolites by some terverticillate penicillia on carbohydrate-rich and meat substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Félix; Westphal, Carmen D; Bermúdez, Elena; Asensio, Miguel A

    2007-12-01

    Most terverticillate penicillia isolated from dry-cured meat products are toxigenic, but their ability to produce hazardous metabolites on meat-based substrates is not well known. The production of extrolites by selected terverticillate penicillia isolated from dry-cured ham has been studied on carbohydrate-rich media (malt extract agar, Czapek yeast autolysate agar, rice extract agar, and rice), meat extract triolein salt agar, and ham slices. Chloroform extracts from the selected strains grown on malt extract agar were toxic for the brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae and VERO cells at a concentration of 2 mg/ml, but 0.02 mg/ml produced no toxic effect. Analysis by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with photodiode array detection (DAD) or with mass spectrometry (MS) and an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) source revealed different biologically active metabolites: cyclopiazonic acid and rugulovasine A from Penicillium commune; verrucosidin, anacine, puberuline, verrucofortine, and viridicatols from Penicillium polonicum; arisugacin and viridicatols from Penicillium echinulatum; and compactin and viridicatols from Penicillium solitum. Most of these metabolites, including the amino acid-derived compounds, were produced in the media containing high levels of carbohydrates. High concentrations of nitrogen compounds in the medium does not imply a greater production of the metabolites studied, not even those derived from the amino acids. However, molds growing on dry-cured ham are able to synthesize limited amounts of some secondary metabolites, a fact not previously reported. The combination of HPLC coupled with DAD and MS-APCI was useful for identification of closely related terverticillate Penicillium species from dry-cured ham. These techniques could be used to characterize the risk associated with the potential production of secondary metabolites in cured meats.

  17. Natural Food Additives and Preservatives for Fish-Paste Products: A Review of the Past, Present, and Future States of Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khawaja Muhammad Imran Bashir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish-paste products, also known as fish cakes or surimi-based products, are worldwide favorites. Surimi, a wet protein concentrate of fish muscle, is used as an intermediate raw material to produce surimi seafood. The flavor, texture, taste, shelf-life, and market value of surimi-based products depend on the source of the fish meat, type of applied heat treatment, and additives used to prepare the surimi. While preparing surimi with chemical additives, several problems have been observed, such as a lack of unique characteristics, inferior acceptability, and poor functionality. Various types of fish-paste products have been developed by using different ingredients (e.g., vegetables, seafood, herbs and oriental medicines, grains and roots including carrots, and functional food materials. However, a systematic review of fish-paste products prepared using natural food additives has not yet been performed. Therefore, the quality characteristics of fish-paste products and their functionalities were elucidated in this study. With the increasing demand for surimi seafood products, the functional properties, physiochemical properties, and shelf-life of surimi-based products need to be improved. This review will aid the preparation of new value-added products in the surimi industry.

  18. Optimizing headspace sampling temperature and time for analysis of volatile oxidation products in fish oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørbæk, Karen; Jensen, Benny

    1997-01-01

    Headspace-gas chromatography (HS-GC), based on adsorption to Tenax GR(R), thermal desorption and GC, has been used for analysis of volatiles in fish oil. To optimize sam sampling conditions, the effect of heating the fish oil at various temperatures and times was evaluated from anisidine values (AV...

  19. Experimental whole-lake dissolved organic carbon increase alters fish diet and density but not growth or productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Shuntaro; Craig, Nicola; Zwart, Jacob A.; Kelly, Patrick T.; Ziegler, Jacob P.; Weidel, Brian C.; Jones, Stuart E.; Solomon, Christopher T.

    2018-01-01

    Negative relationships between dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration and fish productivity have been reported from correlative studies across lakes, but to date there have not been experimental tests of these relationships. We increased the DOC concentration in a lake by 3.4 mg L-1, using a before-after control-impact (BACI) design, to quantify the effects on the productivity and population structure of Largemouth Bass (Micropterus salmoides). Greater DOC reduced the volume of the epilimnion, the preferred habitat of Largemouth Bass, resulting in increased bass density. The likelihood that adult bass had empty diets decreased despite this increase in bass density; diet composition also changed. There was no apparent change in bass growth or condition. Overall, there was no net change in Largemouth Bass productivity. However, changes in YOY and juvenile recruitment and feeding success suggest the possibility that future effects could occur. Our results are the first to examine the effects of an increase in DOC on fish productivity through a five-year temporal lens, which demonstrates that the relationship between DOC and fish productivity is multi-dimensional and complex.

  20. Rewiring a secondary metabolite pathway towards itaconic acid production in Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Abeer H; Li, An; Brickwedde, Anja; Wilms, Lars; Caspers, Martien; Overkamp, Karin; Punt, Peter J

    2016-07-28

    The industrially relevant filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is widely used in industry for its secretion capabilities of enzymes and organic acids. Biotechnologically produced organic acids promise to be an attractive alternative for the chemical industry to replace petrochemicals. Itaconic acid (IA) has been identified as one of the top twelve building block chemicals which have high potential to be produced by biotechnological means. The IA biosynthesis cluster (cadA, mttA and mfsA) has been elucidated in its natural producer Aspergillus terreus and transferred to A. niger to enable IA production. Here we report the rewiring of a secondary metabolite pathway towards further improved IA production through the overexpression of a putative cytosolic citrate synthase citB in a A. niger strain carrying the IA biosynthesis cluster. We have previously shown that expression of cadA from A. terreus results in itaconic acid production in A. niger AB1.13, albeit at low levels. This low-level production is boosted fivefold by the overexpression of mttA and mfsA in itaconic acid producing AB1.13 CAD background strains. Controlled batch cultivations with AB1.13 CAD + MFS + MTT strains showed increased production of itaconic acid compared with AB1.13 CAD strain. Moreover, preliminary RNA-Seq analysis of an itaconic acid producing AB1.13 CAD strain has led to the identification of the putative cytosolic citrate synthase citB which was induced in an IA producing strain. We have overexpressed citB in a AB1.13 CAD + MFS + MTT strain and by doing so hypothesize to have targeted itaconic acid production to the cytosolic compartment. By overexpressing citB in AB1.13 CAD + MFS + MTT strains in controlled batch cultivations we have achieved highly increased titers of up to 26.2 g/L IA with a productivity of 0.35 g/L/h while no CA was produced. Expression of the IA biosynthesis cluster in Aspergillus niger AB1.13 strain enables IA production. Moreover, in the AB1.13 CAD

  1. Humus layer is the main locus of secondary SO4 production in boreal forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Daniel; Marty, Charles; Duchesne, Louis; Gagnon, Christian

    2014-02-01

    Identifying the sources of S exported from catchments and the reactivity of the large soil organic S pool is crucial to understand the mid- or long-term response of forested catchments to decreasing atmospheric S deposition and global warming. Sulfur fluxes as well as S and O isotopes of SO4 were measured in precipitation, throughfall, soil solutions and streams at two boreal forest catchments respectively dominated by black spruce (BS) and balsam fir (BF) in Quebec, Canada. Overall, δ34S-SO4 signature showed relatively small variations among various solution types. However, at both sites, δ18O-SO4 in precipitation (averages of 10.5-11.1‰) was decreased by 3.5-3.6‰ in throughfall because of the production of secondary SO4 through oxidation of SO2 deposited on the canopy. Throughfall δ18O-SO4 was decreased by a further 5.4-6.6‰ in the solution leaving the humus layer which was attributed to the production of secondary SO4 under the action of soil microorganisms through the oxidation of organic S during which the S atom acquired O from water and gaseous O2 present in the soil. A mixing equation based on known isotopic signature of each source suggested that ˜67-81% of the S-SO4 leaving the catchments had interacted with the canopy and the humus layer. The stability of δ18O-SO4 in the mineral soil solution and in the stream of both sites, suggests that SO4 does not undergo reduction-oxidation cycles after its passage through the humus layer. Despite its huge size, the organic S reservoir within the mineral soil would be largely inert. Given the chemical nature of SO4 transformation in the canopy, the humus layer would be responsible for nearly 100% of the biological production of secondary SO4 in the whole watershed at both sites. Taking into account the substantial production of dissolved organic S in the humus layer further emphasizes the crucial importance of the latter in the S cycling of boreal forests.

  2. Fish under exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palstra, A.P.; Planas, J.V.

    2011-01-01

    Improved knowledge on the swimming physiology of fish and its application to fisheries science and aquaculture (i.e., farming a fitter fish) is currently needed in the face of global environmental changes, high fishing pressures, increased aquaculture production as well as increased concern on fish

  3. Impact of cooking and handling conditions on furanic compounds in breaded fish products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Palacios, T; Petisca, C; Henriques, R; Ferreira, I M P L V O

    2013-05-01

    This study evaluates the influence of cooking and handling conditions on the quantity of furanic compounds (furan, 2-furfural, furfuryl alcohol, 2-pentylfuran, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural) in breaded fish products. Oven-baking and reheating in the microwave lead to low furanic compounds formation in comparison with deep-frying. The use of olive oil for deep-frying promoted higher levels of furanic compounds than sunflower oil. The amounts of these compounds diminished as the temperature and time of deep-frying decreased as well as after a delay after deep-frying. Thus, the generation of furanic compounds can be minimized by adjusting the cooking method and conditions, such as using an electric oven, deep-frying in sunflower oil at 160°C during 4min, or waiting 10min after cooking. However, these conditions that reduce furanic compounds levels also reduce the content of volatile compounds related to the aroma and flavour of fried foods. In this sense, new efforts should be done to reduce the formation of furanic compounds without being detrimental to the volatile profile. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Biodiesel Production from Spent Fish Frying Oil Through Acid-Base Catalyzed Transesterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalrahman B. Fadhil

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel fuels were prepared from a special type of frying oil namely spent fish frying oil through two step transesterification viz. acid-base catalyzed transesterification. Hydrochloric acid and potassium hydroxide with methanol were used for this purpose. The oil was pre-treated with (1.0 wt% HCl and methanol to reduce free fatty acids content of the oil. Then, conditions of the base catalyzed step such as base concentration, reaction temperature, methanol to oil molar ratio and reaction time were optimized. The study raveled that, 0.50% KOH w/w of oil; a 6:1 methanol to oil molar ratio; a reaction temperature of 60°C and a duration of 1h were the optimal conditions because they resulted in high biodiesel yield. Fuel properties of the products were assessed and found better than those of the parent oil. Furthermore, they met the specified limits according to the ASTM standards. Thin layer chromatography was used as a simple technique to monitor the transesterification of the oil. Blending of the optimal biodiesel sample with petro diesel using specified volume percentages was done as well. The results indicated that biodiesel had slight effect on the values of the assessed properties.

  5. Mesophilic anaerobic treatment of sludge from saline fish farm effluents with biogas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebauer, R. [Finnmark University College, Alta (Norway). Dept. of Aquaculture and Natural Sciences

    2004-06-01

    The mesophilic anaerobic treatment of sludge from saline fish farm effluents (total solids (TS): 8.2-10.2 wt%, chemical oxygen demand (COD): 60-74 g/l, sodium (Na): 10-10.5 g/l) was carried out in continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) at 35 {sup o}C. COD stabilization between 36% and 55% and methane yields between 0.114 and 0.184 l/g COD added were achieved. However, the process was strongly inhibited, presumably by sodium, and unstable, with propionic acid being the main compound of the volatile fatty acids (VFA). When diluting the sludge 1:1 with tap water (Na: 5.3 g/l), the inhibition could be overcome and a stable process with low VFA concentrations was achieved. The results of the study are used to make recommendations for the configuration of full-scale treatment plants for the collected sludge from one salmon farming licence and to estimate the energy production from these plants. (Author)

  6. Yield improvement strategies for the production of secondary metabolites in plant tissue culture: silymarin from Silybum marianum tissue culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbouZid, S

    2014-01-01

    Plant cell culture can be a potential source for the production of important secondary metabolites. This technology bears many advantages over conventional agricultural methods. The main problem to arrive at a cost-effective process is the low productivity. This is mainly due to lack of differentiation in the cultured cells. Many approaches have been used to maximise the yield of secondary metabolites produced by cultured plant cells. Among these approaches: choosing a plant with a high biosynthetic capacity, obtaining efficient cell line for growth and production of metabolite of interest, manipulating culture conditions, elicitation, metabolic engineering and organ culture. This article gives an overview of the various approaches used to maximise the production of pharmaceutically important secondary metabolites in plant cell cultures. Examples of using these different approaches are shown for the production of silymarin from Silybum marianum tissue culture.

  7. The histamine content of dried flying fish products in Taiwan and the isolation of halotolerant histamine-forming bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Hsien-Feng; Huang, Chun-Yung; Lin, Chia-Min; Liaw, Lon-Hsiu; Lee, Yi-Chen; Tsai, Yung-Hsiang

    2015-06-01

    Thirty dried flying fish products were purchased from fishing village stores in Taiwan and tested to detect the presence of histamine and histamine-forming bacteria. Except for histamine and cadaverine, the average content of various biogenic amines in the tested samples was less than 3.5 mg/100 g. Eight (26.6%) dried flying fish samples had histamine levels greater than the United States Food and Drug Administration guideline of 5 mg/100 g for scombroid fish and/or scombroid products, whereas four (13.3%) samples contained more than the hazard action level of 50 mg/100 g. One histamine-producing bacterial isolate was identified as Staphylococcus xylosus by 16S rDNA sequencing with polymerase chain reaction amplification. This isolate was capable of producing 507.8 ppm of histamine in trypticase soy broth supplemented with 1.0% l-histidine (TSBH). The S. xylosus isolate was a halotolerant bacterium that had a consistent ability to produce more than 300 ppm of histamine at 3% sodium chloride concentration in TSBH medium after 72 hours. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. The histamine content of dried flying fish products in Taiwan and the isolation of halotolerant histamine-forming bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien-Feng Kung

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Thirty dried flying fish products were purchased from fishing village stores in Taiwan and tested to detect the presence of histamine and histamine-forming bacteria. Except for histamine and cadaverine, the average content of various biogenic amines in the tested samples was less than 3.5 mg/100 g. Eight (26.6% dried flying fish samples had histamine levels greater than the United States Food and Drug Administration guideline of 5 mg/100 g for scombroid fish and/or scombroid products, whereas four (13.3% samples contained more than the hazard action level of 50 mg/100 g. One histamine-producing bacterial isolate was identified as Staphylococcus xylosus by 16S rDNA sequencing with polymerase chain reaction amplification. This isolate was capable of producing 507.8 ppm of histamine in trypticase soy broth supplemented with 1.0% l-histidine (TSBH. The S. xylosus isolate was a halotolerant bacterium that had a consistent ability to produce more than 300 ppm of histamine at 3% sodium chloride concentration in TSBH medium after 72 hours.

  9. The community composition and production of phytoplankton in fish pens of Cape Bolinao, Pangasinan: a field study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yap, Leni G.; Azanza, Rhodora V.; Talaue-McManus, Liana

    2004-01-01

    From 1995 up to the present, fish pens proliferated in the municipal waters of Bolinao, northern Philippines. Since then, fish kills and phytoplankton blooms have been recurrent. Have fishpens altered the phytoplankton community composition and production of these waters? The phytoplankton community in Cape Bolinao, Lingayen Gulf is typical of a tropical coastal area where diatoms alternate with dinoflagellates during the dry and wet seasons. In the nutrient-rich fish pens, phytoplankton in this study showed a lower diatom/dinoflagellate ratio and unusually high phytoplankton counts of 10 4 cells/l and even as high as 10 5 cells/l. Correlations between physico-chemical parameters, phytoplankton production and community composition were made in 2001. This paper tried to explain the occurrence of a Cylindrotheca closterium bloom (10 5 cells/l), during the dry season of the same year and a Prorocentrum minimum bloom (4.7 x 10 5 cells/l), which accompanied a massive fish kill during January 2002

  10. Authentication of Closely Related Fish and Derived Fish Products Using Tandem Mass Spectrometry and Spectral Library Matching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nessen, Merel A.; Zwaan, van der Dennis J.; Grevers, Sander; Dalebout, Hans; Staats, Martijn; Kok, Esther; Palmblad, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    Proteomics methodology has seen increased application in food authentication, including tandem mass spectrometry of targeted species-specific peptides in raw, processed, or mixed food products. We have previously described an alternative principle that uses untargeted data acquisition and

  11. Effects of magnetization on fusion product trapping and secondary neutron spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, P. F.; Schmit, P. F.; Hansen, S. B.; Gomez, M. R.; Hahn, K. D.; Sinars, D. B.; Peterson, K. J.; Slutz, S. A.; Sefkow, A. B.; Awe, T. J.; Harding, E.; Jennings, C. A.; Desjarlais, M. P.; Chandler, G. A.; Cooper, G. W.; Cuneo, M. E.; Geissel, M.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Porter, J. L.; Rochau, G. A.

    2015-01-01

    By magnetizing the fusion fuel in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) systems, the required stagnation pressure and density can be relaxed dramatically. This happens because the magnetic field insulates the hot fuel from the cold pusher and traps the charged fusion burn products. This trapping allows the burn products to deposit their energy in the fuel, facilitating plasma self-heating. Here, we report on a comprehensive theory of this trapping in a cylindrical DD plasma magnetized with a purely axial magnetic field. Using this theory, we are able to show that the secondary fusion reactions can be used to infer the magnetic field-radius product, BR, during fusion burn. This parameter, not ρR, is the primary confinement parameter in magnetized ICF. Using this method, we analyze data from recent Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion experiments conducted on the Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories. We show that in these experiments BR ≈ 0.34(+0.14/−0.06) MG · cm, a ∼ 14× increase in BR from the initial value, and confirming that the DD-fusion tritons are magnetized at stagnation. This is the first experimental verification of charged burn product magnetization facilitated by compression of an initial seed magnetic flux

  12. Effects of Plant Secondary Metabolites on Methane Production and Fermentation Parameters in In vitro Ruminal Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Giuburunca

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Enteric fermentation process is of concern worldwide for its contribution to global warming. It is known that ruminant animals, due to natural fermentation process contribute substantially to the increase in methane production. Methanogenesis process represents besides its contribution to greenhouse gases emissions an energy loss to the animal. To reduce ruminal methane productions in an ecologically and sustainable way, many attempts have been initiated, such as: uses of chemicals additives or ionophore antibiotics, defaunation process or immunization against ruminal methanogenesis. In the last years, a new strategy has been evaluated whether plant secondary metabolites can be used as natural additives to reduce ruminal methane emissions. The present study has been conducted to investigate the effects of trans-cinnamic, caffeic, p-coumaric acids and catechin hydrate, four plant secondary metabolites (PSMs on methane production and fermentation in in vitro ruminal cultures. The four PSMs were added anaerobically in a 6 mM concentration to 100 ml serum bottles containing 500 mg grass hay as a substrate, 10 ml rumen fluid collected from a fistulated sheep before morning feeding and 40 ml 141 DSM culture medium. The bottles were incubated at 39 ̊C. After 24 h, the following variables were measured: total gas volume, pH, methane and volatile fatty acids (VFAs production. The results showed that caffeic (p = 0.058 and p-coumaric (p = 0.052 acids tended to decrease methane production in comparison to control but the decrease was not statistic significantly at α= 0.05. The other two PSMs had no significant effect on methane production. Addition of PSMs did not affected the total gas volume, the pH and VFAs profile (P>0.05 in relation to the control (no PSM added. In conclusion, caffeic and p-coumaric acids in 6 mM concentration showed some promising effects for decreasing ruminal methane emissions without affecting ruminal fermentation parameters but

  13. Secondary organic aerosol production from pinanediol, a semi-volatile surrogate for first-generation oxidation products of monoterpenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Penglin; Zhao, Yunliang; Chuang, Wayne K.; Robinson, Allen L.; Donahue, Neil M.

    2018-05-01

    We have investigated the production of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from pinanediol (PD), a precursor chosen as a semi-volatile surrogate for first-generation oxidation products of monoterpenes. Observations at the CLOUD facility at CERN have shown that oxidation of organic compounds such as PD can be an important contributor to new-particle formation. Here we focus on SOA mass yields and chemical composition from PD photo-oxidation in the CMU smog chamber. To determine the SOA mass yields from this semi-volatile precursor, we had to address partitioning of both the PD and its oxidation products to the chamber walls. After correcting for these losses, we found OA loading dependent SOA mass yields from PD oxidation that ranged between 0.1 and 0.9 for SOA concentrations between 0.02 and 20 µg m-3, these mass yields are 2-3 times larger than typical of much more volatile monoterpenes. The average carbon oxidation state measured with an aerosol mass spectrometer was around -0.7. We modeled the chamber data using a dynamical two-dimensional volatility basis set and found that a significant fraction of the SOA comprises low-volatility organic compounds that could drive new-particle formation and growth, which is consistent with the CLOUD observations.

  14. Secondary Aroma Compounds in Fresh Grape Marc Distillates as a Result of Variety and Corresponding Production Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Borislav Miličević; Mara Banović; Srećko Tomas; Sanja Radeka; Đordano Peršurić; Igor Lukić

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate the composition of secondary aroma compounds of fresh grape marc distillates as a result of variety and production technology, 30 samples (6 varieties×5 samples) were analysed. White grape marc samples from Malvazija istarska, Chardonnay and Muscat Blanc were obtained as by-products in standard white wine production, while red grape marc samples from Teran and Cabernet Sauvignon were obtained after standard red wine production procedures. Marc from red grape variety Mu...

  15. Antimicrobial Effect of Filipendula ulmaria Plant Extract Against Selected Foodborne Pathogenic and Spoilage Bacteria in Laboratory Media, Fish Flesh and Fish Roe Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalampos Proestos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Water-methanol extract from Filipendula ulmaria contains a variety of phenolic compounds, such as caffeic, p-coumaric and vanillic acid, myricetin, etc, which demonstrate antibacterial activity. Monitoring this activity in the broth using absorbance measurements showed that species of the Enterobacteriaceae family were more resistant than other Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria tested. Acidic environment enhanced the antibacterial activity of Filipendula ulmaria extract when it was tested against Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 and Listeria monocytogenes Scott A. The efficacy of Filipendula ulmaria extract against selected foodborne psychrotrophic bacteria was also tested using solid laboratory media and low incubation temperatures for better simulation of food preservation conditions. Higher concentrations of the extract, compared to minimum inhibitory concentration determined in the broth, were needed for satisfactory inhibition of spoilage bacteria. Potential use of Filipendula ulmaria extract as natural food preservative was also examined against natural spoilage flora and inoculated pathogenic bacteria on fish flesh and fish roe product (tarama salad. No significant differences of viable populations of spoilage or pathogenic bacteria were found between the treated samples and controls. Further trials of Filipendula ulmaria extract should be carried out in acidic foods with low fat and protein content, supplemented with additional adjuncts, in order to explore its potential as effective natural food antimicrobial agent.

  16. Relating the variation of secondary structure of gelatin at fish oil-water interface to adsorption kinetics, dynamic interfacial tension and emulsion stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huihua; Wang, Bo; Barrow, Colin J; Adhikari, Benu

    2014-01-15

    The objectives of this study were to quantify the relationship between secondary structure of gelatin and its adsorption at the fish-oil/water interface and to quantify the implication of the adsorption on the dynamic interfacial tension (DST) and emulsion stability. The surface hydrophobicity of the gelatin solutions decreased when the pH increased from 4.0 to 6.0, while opposite tend was observed in the viscosity of the solution. The DST values decreased as the pH increased from 4.0 to 6.0, indicating that higher positive charges (measured trough zeta potential) in the gelatin solution tended to result in higher DST values. The adsorption kinetics of the gelatin solution was examined through the calculated diffusion coefficients (Deff). The addition of acid promoted the random coil and β-turn structures at the expense of α-helical structure. The addition of NaOH decreased the β-turn and increased the α-helix and random coil. The decrease in the random coil and triple helix structures in the gelatin solution resulted into increased Deff values. The highest diffusion coefficients, the highest emulsion stability and the lowest amount of random coil and triple helix structures were observed at pH=4.8. The lowest amount of random coil and triple helix structures in the interfacial protein layer correlated with the highest stability of the emulsion (highest ESI value). The lower amount of random coil and triple helix structures allowed higher coverage of the oil-water interface by relatively highly ordered secondary structure of gelatin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. UV light selectively coinduces supply pathways from primary metabolism and flavonoid secondary product formation in parsley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logemann, Elke; Tavernaro, Annette; Schulz, Wolfgang; Somssich, Imre E.; Hahlbrock, Klaus

    2000-01-01

    The UV light-induced synthesis of UV-protective flavonoids diverts substantial amounts of substrates from primary metabolism into secondary product formation and thus causes major perturbations of the cellular homeostasis. Results from this study show that the mRNAs encoding representative enzymes from various supply pathways are coinduced in UV-irradiated parsley cells (Petroselinum crispum) with two mRNAs of flavonoid glycoside biosynthesis, encoding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and chalcone synthase. Strong induction was observed for mRNAs encoding glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (carbohydrate metabolism, providing substrates for the shikimate pathway), 3-deoxyarabinoheptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase (shikimate pathway, yielding phenylalanine), and acyl-CoA oxidase (fatty acid degradation, yielding acetyl-CoA), and moderate induction for an mRNA encoding S-adenosyl-homocysteine hydrolase (activated methyl cycle, yielding S-adenosyl-methionine for B-ring methylation). Ten arbitrarily selected mRNAs representing various unrelated metabolic activities remained unaffected. Comparative analysis of acyl-CoA oxidase and chalcone synthase with respect to mRNA expression modes and gene promoter structure and function revealed close similarities. These results indicate a fine-tuned regulatory network integrating those functionally related pathways of primary and secondary metabolism that are specifically required for protective adaptation to UV irradiation. Although the response of parsley cells to UV light is considerably broader than previously assumed, it contrasts greatly with the extensive metabolic reprogramming observed previously in elicitor-treated or fungus-infected cells. PMID:10677554

  18. Restructured fish product from white croacker (Micropogonias furnieri mince using microbial transglutaminas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Augusto Gonçalves

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at determining the influence of three concentrations of commercial transglutaminase enzyme in restructured fillet of minced fish from white croacker (Micropogonias furnieri, one of the four marine species with notability in Brazil. The restructured fillet developed had advantages when compared to traditional fillet, such as absence of spine and less flavour intensity (washes cycles. Washing process for white croacker mince was compared with five clarification agents: water (control, phosphoric acid (H3PO4, sodium chloride (NaCl, calcium carbonate (CaCO3 and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3. The higher quality product (whiteness was obtained with calcium carbonate washes. Three concentrations (1.5, 1.0 and 0.5% of microbial transglutaminase MGTase (Active TG-B %v/v and Active TG-BP %w/w were compared, in order to produce fish restructured product (boneless fillet. The concentration of 1.5% (both enzymes, produced better results. The restructured products were compared by sensory analysis and showed better sensory parameters (appearance, odour, flavour and texture samples treated with Active TG-B (solution form.Este estudo teve como objetivo determinar a influência de três concentrações de enzima transglutaminase comercial em filés reestruturado a partir de polpa de corvina (Micropogonias furnieri, uma das quatro espécies marinhas notáveis no Brasil. O filé reestruturado desenvolvido tem vantagens quando comparado aos filés tradicionais, tais como, a ausência da espinhas e sabor menos intenso (ciclos de lavagens. O processo de lavagem da polpa de corvina foi comparado com cinco agentes clarificantes: água (controle, ácido fosfórico (H3PO4, cloreto de sódio (NaCl, carbonato de cálcio (CaCO3 e bicarbonato de sódio (NaHCO3. O produto de qualidade superior (mais branco foi obtido com a lavagem com carbonato de cálcio. Três concentrações (1,5%, 1,0% e 0,5% de transglutaminase microbiana (Activa TG-B % v/v e Activa TG

  19. Consumer attitudes on buying fish in Banja Luka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostojić Aleksandar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of research presented in the paper is to determine the basic parameters affecting the purchase, supply and consumption of fish in the market of the city of Banja Luka (Bosnia and Herzegovina. The survey was conducted on a random sample of 100 respondents. The data were analyzed by univariante (frequency and distribution and two-variant statistical methods and cross-tabulation. The conclusions are that for the purchase of fish, freshness is a primary factor, which is to be expected given the type of product as well as the origin, and price and type of fish. Out of all respondents, 41% said they were not informed enough about the fish as a food, while the remaining 59% said they got information through different media channels. It was found that consumers are generally informed about the importance of fish as a foodstuff through secondary promotion channels, i.e. 'word of mouth'. Consumers in Banja Luka prefer fresh fish, and the most consumed is freshwater fish. As a place of buying fish, both hypermarket and fish shops are equally represented. Factors of purchase may have a major role in creating consumer attitude towards fish and therefore, producers and sellers of fish are recommended too take into account the results of this and similar studies, in order to segment their markets and develop better marketing tools/strategies and thus make better approach of fish consumers to defined market segments.

  20. Genes Linked to Production of Secondary Metabolites in Talaromyces atroroseus Revealed Using CRISPR-Cas9

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Maria Lund; Petersen, Thomas Isbrandt; Rasmussen, Kasper Bøwig

    2017-01-01

    The full potential of fungal secondary metabolism has until recently been impeded by the lack of universal genetic tools for most species. However, the emergence of several CRISPR-Cas9-based genome editing systems adapted for several genera of filamentous fungi have now opened the doors for future...... efforts in discovery of novel natural products and elucidation and engineering of their biosynthetic pathways in fungi where no genetic tools are in place. So far, most studies have focused on demonstrating the performance of CRISPR-Cas9 in various fungal model species, and recently we presented...... a versatile CRISPR-Cas9 system that can be successfully applied in several diverse Aspergillus species. Here we take it one step further and show that our system can be used also in a phylogenetically distinct and largely unexplored species from the genus of Talaromyces. Specifically, we exploit CRISPR-Cas9...

  1. Indoor Secondary Pollutants from Household Product Emissions inthe Presence of Ozone: A Bench-Scale Chamber Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Destaillats, Hugo; Lunden, Melissa M.; Singer, Brett C.; Coleman,Beverly K.; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Weschler, Charles J.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2005-10-01

    Ozone-driven chemistry is a major source of indoor secondary pollutants of health concern. This study investigates secondary air pollutants formed from reactions between constituents of household products and ozone. Gas-phase product emissions were introduced along with ozone at constant rates into a 198-L Teflon-lined reaction chamber. Gas-phase concentrations of reactive terpenoids and oxidation products were measured. Formaldehyde was a predominant oxidation byproduct for the three studied products, with yields under most conditions of 20-30% with respect to ozone consumed. Acetaldehyde, acetone, glycolaldehyde, formic acid and acetic acid were each also detected for two or three of the products. Immediately upon mixing of reactants, a scanning mobility particle sizer detected particle nucleation events that were followed by a significant degree of ultrafine particle growth. The production of secondary gaseous pollutants and particles depended primarily on the ozone level and was influenced by other parameters such as the air-exchange rate. Hydroxyl radical concentrations in the range 0.04-200 x 10{sup 5} molecules cm{sup -3} were measured. OH concentrations were observed to vary strongly with residual ozone level in the chamber, which was in the range 1-25 ppb, as is consistent with expectations from a simplified kinetic model. In a separate test, we exposed the dry residue of two products to ozone in the chamber and observed the formation of gas-phase and particle-phase secondary oxidation products.

  2. Is a Schools' Performance Related to Technical Change?--A Study on the Relationship between Innovations and Secondary School Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haelermans, Carla; Blank, Jos L. T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the relation between innovations and productivity in Dutch secondary schools. Innovation clusters are directly included in the production model. In order to correct for differences between schools, we add school type, region and year controls. The results indicate that process innovations, teacher professionalization…

  3. Secondary organic aerosol from ozone-initiated reactions with terpene-rich household products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, Beverly; Coleman, Beverly K.; Lunden, Melissa M.; Destaillats, Hugo; Nazaroff, William W.

    2008-01-01

    We analyzed secondary organic aerosol (SOA) data from a series of small-chamber experiments in which terpene-rich vapors from household products were combined with ozone under conditions analogous to product use indoors. Reagents were introduced into a continuously ventilated 198 L chamber at steady rates. Consistently, at the time of ozone introduction, nucleation occurred exhibiting behavior similar to atmospheric events. The initial nucleation burst and growth was followed by a period in which approximately stable particle levels were established reflecting a balance between new particle formation, condensational growth, and removal by ventilation. Airborne particles were measured with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS, 10 to 400 nm) in every experiment and with an optical particle counter (OPC, 0.1 to 2.0 ?m) in a subset. Parameters for a three-mode lognormal fit to the size distribution at steady state were determined for each experiment. Increasing the supply ozone level increased the steady-state mass concentration and yield of SOA from each product tested. Decreasing the air-exchange rate increased the yield. The steady-state fine-particle mass concentration (PM1.1) ranged from 10 to> 300 mu g m-3 and yields ranged from 5percent to 37percent. Steady-state nucleation rates and SOA mass formation rates were on the order of 10 cm-3 s-1 and 10 mu g m-3 min-1, respectively.

  4. Production of Magnesium and Aluminum-Magnesium Alloys from Recycled Secondary Aluminum Scrap Melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesing, Adam J.; Das, Subodh K.; Loutfy, Raouf O.

    2016-02-01

    An experimental proof of concept was demonstrated for a patent-pending and trademark-pending RE12™ process for extracting a desired amount of Mg from recycled scrap secondary Al melts. Mg was extracted by electrorefining, producing a Mg product suitable as a Mg alloying hardener additive to primary-grade Al alloys. This efficient electrorefining process operates at high current efficiency, high Mg recovery and low energy consumption. The Mg electrorefining product can meet all the impurity specifications with subsequent melt treatment for removing alkali contaminants. All technical results obtained in the RE12™ project indicate that the electrorefining process for extraction of Mg from Al melt is technically feasible. A techno-economic analysis indicates high potential profitability for applications in Al foundry alloys as well as beverage—can and automotive—sheet alloys. The combination of technical feasibility and potential market profitability completes a successful proof of concept. This economical, environmentally-friendly and chlorine-free RE12™ process could be disruptive and transformational for the Mg production industry by enabling the recycling of 30,000 tonnes of primary-quality Mg annually.

  5. An ecological model of the habitat mosaic in estuarine nursery areas: Part II – Projecting effects of sea level rise on fish production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the response of fish populations to habitat change mediated by sea level rise (SLR) is a key component of ecosystem-based management. Yet, no direct link has been established between habitat change due to SLR and fish population production. Here we take a coupled ...

  6. Production of microscale particles from fish bone by gas flow assisted laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutinguiza, M.; Lusquinos, F.; Comesana, R.; Riveiro, A.; Quintero, F.; Pou, J.

    2007-01-01

    Recycled wastes from fish and seafood can constitute a source of precursor material for different applications in the biomedical field such as bone fillers or precursor material for bioceramic coatings to improve the osteointegration of metallic implants. In this work, fish bones have been used directly as target in a laser ablation system. A pulsed Nd:YAG laser was used to ablate the fish bone material and a transverse air flow was used to extract the ablated material out of the interaction zone. The particles collected at a filter were in the micro and nanoscale range. The morphology as well as the composition of the obtained particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results reveal that the composition of the analyzed particles is similar to that of the inorganic part of the fish bone

  7. Production of microscale particles from fish bone by gas flow assisted laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutinguiza, M.; Lusquiños, F.; Comesaña, R.; Riveiro, A.; Quintero, F.; Pou, J.

    2007-12-01

    Recycled wastes from fish and seafood can constitute a source of precursor material for different applications in the biomedical field such as bone fillers or precursor material for bioceramic coatings to improve the osteointegration of metallic implants. In this work, fish bones have been used directly as target in a laser ablation system. A pulsed Nd:YAG laser was used to ablate the fish bone material and a transverse air flow was used to extract the ablated material out of the interaction zone. The particles collected at a filter were in the micro and nanoscale range. The morphology as well as the composition of the obtained particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results reveal that the composition of the analyzed particles is similar to that of the inorganic part of the fish bone.

  8. Suppressed hepatic bile acid signalling despite elevated production of primary and secondary bile acids in NAFLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Na; Baker, Susan S; Chapa-Rodriguez, Adrian; Liu, Wensheng; Nugent, Colleen A; Tsompana, Maria; Mastrandrea, Lucy; Buck, Michael J; Baker, Robert D; Genco, Robert J; Zhu, Ruixin; Zhu, Lixin

    2017-08-03

    Bile acids are regulators of lipid and glucose metabolism, and modulate inflammation in the liver and other tissues. Primary bile acids such as cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) are produced in the liver, and converted into secondary bile acids such as deoxycholic acid (DCA) and lithocholic acid by gut microbiota. Here we investigated the possible roles of bile acids in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) pathogenesis and the impact of the gut microbiome on bile acid signalling in NAFLD. Serum bile acid levels and fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19), liver gene expression profiles and gut microbiome compositions were determined in patients with NAFLD, high-fat diet-fed rats and their controls. Serum concentrations of primary and secondary bile acids were increased in patients with NAFLD. In per cent, the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) antagonistic DCA was increased, while the agonistic CDCA was decreased in NAFLD. Increased mRNA expression for cytochrome P450 7A1, Na + -taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide and paraoxonase 1, no change in mRNA expression for small heterodimer partner and bile salt export pump, and reduced serum FGF19 were evidence of impaired FXR and fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4)-mediated signalling in NAFLD. Taurine and glycine metabolising bacteria were increased in the gut of patients with NAFLD, reflecting increased secondary bile acid production. Similar changes in liver gene expression and the gut microbiome were observed in high-fat diet-fed rats. The serum bile acid profile, the hepatic gene expression pattern and the gut microbiome composition consistently support an elevated bile acid production in NAFLD. The increased proportion of FXR antagonistic bile acid explains, at least in part, the suppression of hepatic FXR-mediated and FGFR4-mediated signalling. Our study suggests that future NAFLD intervention may target the components of FXR signalling, including the bile acid converting gut microbiome. © Article

  9. Authentication of Closely Related Fish and Derived Fish Products Using Tandem Mass Spectrometry and Spectral Library Matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessen, Merel A; van der Zwaan, Dennis J; Grevers, Sander; Dalebout, Hans; Staats, Martijn; Kok, Esther; Palmblad, Magnus

    2016-05-11

    Proteomics methodology has seen increased application in food authentication, including tandem mass spectrometry of targeted species-specific peptides in raw, processed, or mixed food products. We have previously described an alternative principle that uses untargeted data acquisition and spectral library matching, essentially spectral counting, to compare and identify samples without the need for genomic sequence information in food species populations. Here, we present an interlaboratory comparison demonstrating how a method based on this principle performs in a realistic context. We also increasingly challenge the method by using data from different types of mass spectrometers, by trying to distinguish closely related and commercially important flatfish, and by analyzing heavily contaminated samples. The method was found to be robust in different laboratories, and 94-97% of the analyzed samples were correctly identified, including all processed and contaminated samples.

  10. Discrimination of in vitro and in vivo digestion products of meat proteins from pork, beef, chicken, and fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Siying; Zhou, Guanghong; Song, Shangxin; Xu, Xinglian; Voglmeir, Josef; Liu, Li; Zhao, Fan; Li, Mengjie; Li, Li; Yu, Xiaobo; Bai, Yun; Li, Chunbao

    2015-11-01

    In vitro digestion products of proteins were compared among beef, pork, chicken, and fish. Gastric and jejunal contents from the rats fed these meat proteins were also compared. Cooked pork, beef, chicken, and fish were homogenized and incubated with pepsin alone or followed by trypsin. The digestion products with molecular weights of less than 3000 Da were identified with MALDI-TOF-MS and nano-LC-MS/MS. Gastric and jejunal contents obtained from the rats fed the four meat proteins for 7 days were also analyzed. After pepsin digestion, pork, and beef samples had a greater number of fragments in similarity than chicken and fish samples, but the in vitro digestibility was the greatest (p 0.05). A total of 822 and 659 peptides were identified from the in vitro and in vivo digestion products, respectively. Our results could interpret for the differences in physiological functions after the ingestion of different species of meat. © 2015 The Authors. PROTEOMICS Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Production and propagation of secondary particles near the earth; Production et propagation de particules secondaires au voisinage de la Terre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derome, L

    2008-01-15

    A few years ago the AMS01 embarked experiment showed a particular high component of the cosmic particle flux detected below the geo-magnetic cut which was surprising because this cut represents the minimal energy that is required for cosmic radiation to reach the earth and any cosmic ray below the cut is pushed away by the earth's magnetic field. This work is based on Monte-Carlo simulations involving the generation of primary cosmic particles, their propagation in the earth magnetic field, their interaction with earth's atmosphere and the production of secondary particles. These simulations have shown that the particles below the cut are in fact particles generated in the upper part of the atmosphere, escaping from it and being trapped by the earth's magnetic field. These Monte-Carlo simulations have also been used to assess the composition of below-the-cut flux in terms of protons, electrons, positrons and light nuclei, to check the production of anti-matter in the atmosphere, and to estimate the flux of atmospheric neutrinos. (A.C.)

  12. Application of Response Surface Methodology to study the effect of different calcium sources in fish muscle-alginate restructured products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena María Moreno

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Sodium alginate needs the presence of calcium ions to gelify. For this reason, the contribution of the calcium source in a fish muscle mince added by sodium alginate, makes gelification possible, resulting a restructured fish product. The three different calcium sources considered were: Calcium Chloride (CC; Calcium Caseinate (CCa; and Calcium lactate (CLa. Several physical properties were analyzed, including mechanical properties, colour and cooking loss. Response Surface Methodology (RSM was used to determine the contribution of different calcium sources to a restructured fish muscle. The calcium source that modifies the system the most is CC. A combination of CC and sodium alginate weakened mechanical properties as reflected in the negative linear contribution of sodium alginate. Moreover, CC by itself increased lightness and cooking loss. The mechanical properties of restructured fish muscle elaborated were enhanced by using CCa and sodium alginate, as reflected in the negative linear contribution of sodium alginate. Also, CCa increased cooking loss. The role of CLa combined with sodium alginate was not so pronounced in the system discussed here.

  13. Importance of benthic production to fish populations in Lake Mead prior to the establishment of quagga mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umek, John; Chandra, Sudeep; Rosen, Michael; Wittmann, Marion; Sullivan, Joe; Orsak, Erik

    2010-01-01

    Limnologists recently have developed an interest in quantifying benthic resource contributions to higher-level consumers. Much of this research focuses on natural lakes with very little research in reservoirs. In this study, we provide a contemporary snapshot of the food web structure of Lake Mead to evaluate the contribution of benthic resources to fish consumers. In addition, we document the available food to fishes on soft sediments and changes to the invertebrate community over 2 time periods. Benthic invertebrate food availability for fishes is greater in Las Vegas Bay than Overton Arm. Las Vegas Bay is dominated by oligochaetes, whose biomass increased with depth, while Overton Arm is dominated by chironomids, whose biomass did not change with depth. Diet and isotopic measurements indicate the fish community largely relies on benthic resources regardless of basin (Las Vegas Bay >80%; Overton Arm >92%); however, the threadfin shad likely contribute more to largemouth and striped bass production in Overton Arm versus Las Vegas Bay. A 2-time period analysis, pre and post quagga mussel establishment and during lake level declines, suggests there is no change in the density of benthic invertebrates in Boulder Basin, but there were greater abundances of select taxa in this basin by season and depth than in other basins. Given the potential of alterations as a result of the expansion of quagga mussel and the reliance of the fishery on benthic resources, future investigation of basin specific, benthic processes is recommended.

  14. Using sound to modify fish behavior at power-production and water-control facilities: A workshop. Phase 2: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, T.J.; Popper, A.N.

    1997-06-01

    A workshop on ''''Use of Sound for Fish Protection at Power-Production and Water-Control Facilities'''' was held in Portland, Oregon on December 12--13, 1995. This workshop convened a 22-member panel of international experts from universities, industry, and government to share knowledge, questions, and ideas about using sound for fish guidance. Discussions involved in a broad range of indigenous migratory and resident fish species and fish-protection issues in river systems, with particular focus on the Columbia River Basin. Because the use of sound behavioral barriers for fish is very much in its infancy, the workshop was designed to address the many questions being asked by fishery managers and researchers about the feasibility and potential benefits of using sound to augment physical barriers for fish protection in the Columbia River system

  15. Using Sound to Modify Fish Behavior at Power-Production and Water-Control Facilities: A Workshop December 12-13, 1995. Phase II: Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Thomas J. [ed.] [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Popper, Arthur N. [ed.] [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    1997-06-01

    A workshop on ``Use of Sound for Fish Protection at Power-Production and Water-Control Facilities`` was held in Portland, Oregon on December 12--13, 1995. This workshop convened a 22-member panel of international experts from universities, industry, and government to share knowledge, questions, and ideas about using sound for fish guidance. Discussions involved in a broad range of indigenous migratory and resident fish species and fish-protection issues in river systems, with particular focus on the Columbia River Basin. Because the use of sound behavioral barriers for fish is very much in its infancy, the workshop was designed to address the many questions being asked by fishery managers and researchers about the feasibility and potential benefits of using sound to augment physical barriers for fish protection in the Columbia River system.

  16. Plasma phospholipid pentadecanoic acid, EPA, and DHA, and the frequency of dairy and fish product intake in young children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolai A. Lund-Blix

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a lack of studies comparing dietary assessment methods with the biomarkers of fatty acids in children. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the suitability of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ to rank young children according to their intake of dairy and fish products by comparing food frequency estimates to the plasma phospholipid fatty acids pentadecanoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. Design: Cross-sectional data for the present study were derived from the prospective cohort ‘Environmental Triggers of Type 1 Diabetes Study’. Infants were recruited from the Norwegian general population during 2001–2007. One hundred and ten (age 3–10 years children had sufficient volumes of plasma and FFQ filled in within 2 months from blood sampling and were included in this evaluation study. The quantitative determination of plasma phospholipid fatty acids was done by fatty acid methyl ester analysis. The association between the frequency of dairy and fish product intake and the plasma phospholipid fatty acids was assessed by a Spearman correlation analysis and by investigating whether participants were classified into the same quartiles of distribution. Results: Significant correlations were found between pentadecanoic acid and the intake frequency of total dairy products (r=0.29, total fat dairy products (r=0.39, and cheese products (r=0.36. EPA and DHA were significantly correlated with the intake frequency of oily fish (r=0.26 and 0.37, respectively and cod liver/fish oil supplements (r=0.47 for EPA and r=0.50 DHA. To a large extent, the FFQ was able to classify individuals into the same quartile as the relevant fatty acid biomarker. Conclusions: The present study suggests that, when using the plasma phospholipid fatty acids pentadecanoic acid, EPA, and DHA as biomarkers, the FFQ used in young children showed a moderate capability to rank the intake frequency of dairy products with a

  17. Understanding chemistry behind secondary aerosol production from nitrogen and sulfur compounds from agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural emissions impact particulate mass concentrations through both primary and secondary processes. Evidence from laboratory and field work suggest that not only does ammonia produce secondary particulate matter, but nitrogen and sulfur containing volatile organic compounds also contribute. ...

  18. Production of soybean isoflavone genistein in non-legume plants via genetically modified secondary metabolism pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rongrong; Hu, Yuanlei; Li, Jialin; Lin, Zhongping

    2007-01-01

    Genetic modification of secondary metabolic pathways to produce desirable natural products is an attractive approach in plant biotechnology. In our study, we attempted to produce a typical soybean isoflavone genistein, a well-known health-promoting metabolite, in non-legume plants via genetic engineering. Both overexpression and antisense suppression strategies were used to manipulate the expression of several genes encoding key enzymes in the flavonoids/isoflavonoids pathway in transgenic tobacco, lettuce, and petunia. Introducing soybean isoflavone synthase (IFS) into these plants, which naturally do not produce isoflavonoids due to a lack of this leguminous enzyme, resulted in genistein biosynthesis in tobacco petals, petunia leaves and petals, and lettuce leaves. In tobacco, when flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H) expression was suppressed by its antisense gene while soybean IFS was overexpressed at the same time, genistein yield increased prominently. In addition, overexpression of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) also led to an enhanced genistein production in tobacco petals and lettuce leaves in the presence of IFS than in the plants that overexpressed only IFS.

  19. Production of secondary radioactive beams from 44 MeV/u Ar projectiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bimbot, R.; Della Negra, S.; Aguer, P.; Bastin, G.; Anne, R.; Delagrange, H.; Hubert, F.

    1985-01-01

    Secondary beams have been produced through interaction of a 1760 MeV Ar beam with a 99 mg/cm 2 Be target. An achromatic spectrometer is used to select the magnetic rigidity corresponding to a given beam, and to transport this beam over a distance of about 18 m. The beam purity is studied using a solid state ΔE-E telescope. Beams of 38 S and 39 Cl are produced with a purity of about 80% and production rates of 1.5 10 -6 Isub(o) and 5.10 -5 Isub(o) respectively. Here Isub(o) denotes the primary beam intensity. Beams of 38 Ar, 39 Ar and 41 Kr are produced with about the same abundances as 39 Cl but with lower purities. It is shown that, by setting properly the experimental parameters, the beam production can be improved by a factor 2 to 5. This could lead to intensities of about 2.10 6 pps for 38 S and of 10 7 to 10 8 pps for the four other beams. The possibility of purifying these beams by placing a degrader between the two dipoles of the spectrometer is shown experimentally

  20. Reduced ex Vivo Interleukin-6 Production by Dietary Fish Oil Is Not Modified by Linoleic Acid Intake in Healthy Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, C. T.; Lauritzen, L.; Calder, P. C.

    2009-01-01

    production from cultures of whole blood, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), and monocytes in healthy men. The study was a double-blinded, controlled, 2 X 2 factorial 8-wk intervention. Sixty-four healthy men were randomized to 5 mL/d FO or olive oil (00) provided in capsules and to spreads and oils......Fish oil (FO) is considered antiinflammatory, but evidence regarding its effect on human cytokine production is conflicting. High linoleic acid (LA) intake may impair any effects of FO. The aim of this study was to investigate how FO combined with high or low LA intake affected ex vivo cytokine...

  1. Parasites and diseases in marine copepods: Challenges for future mass-production of live feed for fish larva production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Alf

    Copepods are the natural food for many marine fish larvae, and the use of cultured copepods as life feed is, therefore, becoming increasingly important as more marine fish species are being produced in aquaculture. Large-scale cultivation of copepods may be challenged by diseases and parasites....... In nature, marine copepods are hosts for parasitic organisms of many different taxonomic groups, including e.g. dinoflagellates, ciliates, paramyxans, nematodes and even other crustaceans. In addition, several parasites of copepods have yet not been investigated in relation to their taxonomic affiliation...

  2. Comparison of nutritional quality in fish maw product of croaker Protonibea diacanthus and perch Lates niloticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jing; Zeng, Ling; Chen, Ziming; Xu, Youhou

    2016-08-01

    Fish maw (the dried swimbladders of fish) is ranked in the list of the four sea treasures in Chinese cuisine. Fish maw is mainly produced from croaker, which is the most highly priced. However, some of the fish maw being sold as croaker maw are in fact not from croaker, but from the Nile perch Lates niloticus. The present work determined and compared the proximate composition, amino acid and fatty acid composition of croaker Protonibea diacanthus maw and perch L. niloticus maw. The results indicated that both maws were high protein sources and low in fat content. The dominant amino acids in both maws were glycine, proline, glutamic acid, alanine and arginine. These amino acids constituted 66.2% and 66.4% of the total amino acids in P. diacanthus and L. niloticus, respectively. The ratio of FAA: TAA (functional amino acids: total amino acids) in both maws were 0.69. This is a good explanation for why fish maws have been widely utilized as a traditional tonic and remedy in Asia. Except valine and histidine, all the essential amino acid contents in P. diacanthus were higher than in L. niloticus. Moreover, croaker P. diacanthus maw contained more AA and DHA than perch L. niloticus maw, showing a higher ratio of n-3 / n-6, which is more desirable.

  3. An Overview of Herbal Products and Secondary Metabolites Used for Management of Type Two Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Ajda; Ulrih, Nataša P

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a common effect of uncontrolled high blood sugar and it is associated with long-term damage, dysfunction, and failure of various organs. In the adult population, the global prevalence of diabetes has nearly doubled since 1980. Without effective prevention and management programs, the continuing significant rise in diabetes will have grave consequences on the health and lifespan of the world population, and also on the world economy. Supplements can be used to correct nutritional deficiencies or to maintain an adequate intake of certain nutrients. These are often used as treatments for diabetes, sometimes because they have lower costs, or are more accessible or "natural" compared to prescribed medications. Several vitamins, minerals, botanicals, and secondary metabolites have been reported to elicit beneficial effects in hypoglycemic actions in vivo and in vitro ; however, the data remain conflicting. Many pharmaceuticals commonly used today are structurally derived from natural compounds from traditional medicinal plants. Botanicals that are most frequently used to help manage blood glucose include: bitter melon ( Momordica charantia ), fenugreek ( Trigonella foenum graecum ), gurmar ( Gymnema sylvestre ), ivy gourd ( Coccinia indica ), nopal ( Opuntia spp.), ginseng, Russian tarragon ( Artemisia dracunculus ), cinnamon ( Cinnamomum cassia ), psyllium ( Plantago ovata ), and garlic ( Allium sativum ). In majority of the herbal products and secondary metabolites used in treating diabetes, the mechanisms of action involve regulation of insulin signaling pathways, translocation of GLUT-4 receptor and/or activation the PPARγ. Several flavonoids inhibit glucose absorption by inhibiting intestinal α-amylase and α-glucosidase. In-depth studies to validate the efficacies and safeties of extracts of these traditional medicinal plants are needed, and large, well designed, clinical studies need to be carried out before the use of such preparations can

  4. Fish products and their trade in Tauric Chersonesos/Byzantine Cherson: the development of a traditional craft from Antiquity to the Middle Ages

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čechová, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 1 (2014), s. 229-236. ISBN 978-2-87772-579-8. ISSN 2101-2849 Institutional support: RVO:68378017 Keywords : Tauric Chersonesos * fish products Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  5. Fortification of Sardine Fish Oil from By-product of Canning Processing into Beef Meatball and Chicken Nugget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teti Estiasih

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available One source of ω-3 fatty acids is a by-product of lemuru canning processing that can be used for fortification.  Generally, fortification uses fish oil microcapsule but it is more expensive than direct fortification.  In this study, fish oil from a by-product of lemuru canning processing was directly fortified into beef meatball and chicken nugget at concentration of 0, 2, 4, and 6% (w/w.  Oxidation level, free fatty acid content, colour, lightness, texture, and sensory acceptance by triangle difference test were analyzed. The results showed that oxidation level of nugget was higher than meatball.  Free fatty acid content increased in nugget by increasing fortification level, but it was decrease in meatball. Texture of both was relatively unchanged, with a tendency to increase in nugget and decrease in meatball. Lightness (L of meatball surface was higher than nugget surface. Lightness did not significantly change by increasing fortification level. Redness (+a and yellowness (+b of meatball and nugget changed significantly by fortification. Difference test showed that fortification level of 2% was the highest level of fortification that taste and odor could not be distinguished with control by panelists. Best level of fish oil fortification was 2%. At 2% fortification, EPA was 2.85% for meatball, and 2.22% for nugget.  Sharp decline was occured in EPA and the decrease washigher in nugget than meatball.

  6. Baseline levels of melamine in food items sold in Canada. II. Egg, soy, vegetable, fish and shrimp products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittlemier, Sheryl A; Lau, Benjamin P-Y; Ménard, Cathie; Corrigan, Catherine; Sparling, Melissa; Gaertner, Dean; Cao, Xu-Liang; Dabeka, Bob; Hilts, Carla

    2010-01-01

    A variety of egg-containing, soy-based, fish, shrimp and vegetable products sold in Canada were analysed for melamine (MEL) using a sensitive solid-phase extraction LC-MS/MS analytical method. MEL was detected above the method quantification limit of 0.004 mg/kg in 98 of the 378 samples analysed. Concentrations in the various food product groups ranged 0.00507-0.247 mg/kg (egg-containing items), 0.00408-0.0479 mg/kg (soy-based meat substitutes), 0.00409-1.10 mg/kg (fish and shrimp products), and 0.00464-0.688 mg/kg (vegetable products). MEL was detected less frequently in egg- and soy-containing products. The presence of MEL in most of the Canadian Total Diet Study shrimp composites collected after 2001 suggested the residues in shrimp were caused by a relatively recent exposure to MEL. All concentrations of MEL reported were lower than the 2.5 mg/kg interim standard established for MEL in items containing milk and milk-derived ingredients and the respective maximum residue limits for cyromazine and its metabolite, melamine, in vegetables set by the Canadian Government (2009; http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/securit/chem-chim/melamine/qa-melamine-qr-eng.php#8 ). The consumption of foods containing these low levels of MEL does not constitute a health risk for consumers.

  7. Occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in fish: results of a national pilot study in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Alejandro J; Brain, Richard A; Usenko, Sascha; Mottaleb, Mohammad A; O'Donnell, John G; Stahl, Leanne L; Wathen, John B; Snyder, Blaine D; Pitt, Jennifer L; Perez-Hurtado, Pilar; Dobbins, Laura L; Brooks, Bryan W; Chambliss, C Kevin

    2009-12-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products are being increasingly reported in a variety of biological matrices, including fish tissue; however, screening studies have presently not encompassed broad geographical areas. A national pilot study was initiated in the United States to assess the accumulation of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in fish sampled from five effluent-dominated rivers that receive direct discharge from wastewater treatment facilities in Chicago, Illinois; Dallas, Texas; Orlando, Florida; Phoenix, Arizona; and West Chester, Pennsylvania, USA. Fish were also collected from the Gila River, New Mexico, USA, as a reference condition expected to be minimally impacted by anthropogenic influence. High performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of pharmaceuticals revealed the presence of norfluoxetine, sertraline, diphenhydramine, diltiazem, and carbamazepine at nanogram-per-gram concentrations in fillet composites from effluent-dominated sampling locations; the additional presence of fluoxetine and gemfibrozil was confirmed in liver tissue. Sertraline was detected at concentrations as high as 19 and 545 ng/g in fillet and liver tissue, respectively. Gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of personal care products in fillet composites revealed the presence of galaxolide and tonalide at maximum concentrations of 2,100 and 290 ng/g, respectively, and trace levels of triclosan. In general, more pharmaceuticals were detected at higher concentrations and with greater frequency in liver than in fillet tissues. Higher lipid content in liver tissue could not account for this discrepancy as no significant positive correlations were found between accumulated pharmaceutical concentrations and lipid content for either tissue type from any sampling site. In contrast, accumulation of the personal care products galaxolide and tonalide was significantly related to lipid content. Results suggest that the detection of

  8. Innovation on Street Food Products (Instant Porridge and Cookies Based on Fortified Patin Fish Protein Concentrate with Red Palm Oil and Encaptulated Oil Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewita

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to establish innovation on street food (instant porridge and cookies from Patin Fish Protein Concentrate fortified by blending red palm oil and encaptulated patin fish’s oil. The Encaptulation was conducted by blending of red palm oil and patin fish’s oil using spray dryer. The blending was consisted of three combinations namely 50 : 50 (A1, 40 : 60 (A2 and 60 : 40 (A3 for ratio between red palm oil and patin fish’s oil. The best combination’s results was fortified into street food (instant porridge and cookies. The blending was tested by measure yield, fat and fatty acid profile. Moreover, organoleptics and proximate tests were carrie out for the best treatment of blending in instant porridge and cookies. The results show that encaptulated yield reached 55 % that rise from A1 treatment as the best treatment with fat content of 17.26%. Profile of unsaturated fatty acid especially fatty acid omega 9 from blending fish oil and palm oil was 59.29%. The number of fatty acid omega 9 was higher than saturated fatty acid which was 18.56%. Furthermore, based on organoleptic tests of instant porridge and cookies using under five year children respondents, it was proven that 93% of children was like the products. Proximateanalysis of instant porridge revealed that protein content was 11.04 %, water content was 5.03%, fat content was 1.92 % and ash was 0.64 %. However, proximate analysis showed that cookies owned protein of 9.11%, fat of 17.03% , water content was 3.93% and ash of 1.38%.

  9. Optimization of diacylglycerol production by glycerolysis of fish oil catalyzed by Lipozyme TL IM with Tween 65.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monte Blanco, S F M; Santos, J S; Feltes, M M C; Dors, G; Licodiedoff, S; Lerin, L A; de Oliveira, D; Ninow, J L; Furigo, A

    2015-12-01

    The diacylglycerols (DAG) are emulsifiers with high added value used as functional additives in food, medicine, and cosmetic industries. In glycerolysis of oils for the production of DAG, the immiscibility between the substrates (glycerol and oil phases) has to be overcome, for example, by the addition of a food grade surfactant like Tween 65. The main objective of this work was to optimize the process conditions for obtaining diacylglycerols rich in the omega-3 eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids, through the enzymatic glycerolysis of fish oil, in systems with Tween 65 and without this surfactant, using Lipozyme TL(®) IM as biocatalyst. The experiments were performed according to predetermined conditions varying the temperature, enzyme load, the oil to glycerol molar ratio and, when added, the surfactant load. After 6 h of reaction, it was possible to produce up to 20.76 and 13.76% of diacylglycerols from fish oil in the reactions with and without Tween 65, respectively.

  10. Laminaria digitata as potential carbon source in heterotrophic microalgae cultivation for the production of fish feed supplement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Este, Martina; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Angelidaki, Irini

    2017-01-01

    A novel concept using the macroalgae Laminaria digitata as substrate to grow heterotrophically microalgae species to be used as fish feed supplement is investigated in the present study. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the macroalgae was performed to release the sugars present in the biomass. The hydroly......A novel concept using the macroalgae Laminaria digitata as substrate to grow heterotrophically microalgae species to be used as fish feed supplement is investigated in the present study. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the macroalgae was performed to release the sugars present in the biomass...... was selected for further cultivation in batch reactors and its protein content and amino acid composition were measured. At the end of the process the biomass production reached 10.68 ± 1.33 g L− 1with a total protein accumulation of 41.77 ± 1.82% (dry weight basis) and a protein yield of 0.17 ± 0.06. Moreover...

  11. Effect of the partial replacement of fish meal and oil by vegetable products on performance and quality traits of juvenile shi drum (Umbrina cirrosa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A four-month growth trial was carried out in order to evaluate performance and quality traits of juvenile shi drum fedwith two isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets having different amounts of vegetable products (Vegetable diet vs. Controldiet. Compared to the Control diet, the Vegetable diet was formulated by increasing the replacement of fish meal (14%with soybean and cereal products, and fish oil (12% with a mixture of vegetable oil. On June, 4 groups of 225 fish (2replicates per dietary treatment were sorted according to live weight and reared in fibreglass tanks over a four- monthlong experimental period. Fish were hand fed to apparent satiety. Offered feed, growth parameters and feed efficiencywere recorded as productive performance. At the end of the trial (October biometric, chemical and reological traits wereexamined to assess fish quality. The dietary treatments showed similar productive performance. The relatively high inclusionof vegetable sources led to a significant modification of body shape, mesenteric fat and viscera weight. Among qualitytraits, Vegetable diet-fed fish demonstrated a significantly lower whole body and fillet crude protein content.Yellowness value of the cooked fillet was significantly lower in the Control diet-fed fish, whereas fillet texture was similar.The results of this research showed that shi drum is a suitable candidate for Mediterranean marine aquaculture andits dietary formulation might include at least the amount of vegetable sources used in this trial.

  12. Secondary formation of disinfection by-products by UV treatment of swimming pool water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini [Water ApS, Farum Gydevej 64, 3520 Farum (Denmark); Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljøvej, Building 113, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Hansen, Kamilla M.S., E-mail: kmsh@env.dtu.dk [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljøvej, Building 113, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Andersen, Henrik R. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljøvej, Building 113, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

    2015-07-01

    Formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) during experimental UV treatment of pool water has previously been reported with little concurrence between laboratory studies, field studies and research groups. In the current study, changes in concentration of seven out of eleven investigated volatile DBPs were observed in experiments using medium pressure UV treatment, with and without chlorine and after post-UV chlorination. Results showed that post-UV chlorine consumption increased, dose-dependently, with UV treatment dose. A clear absence of trihalomethane formation by UV and UV with chlorine was observed, while small yet statistically significant increases in dichloroacetonitrile and dichloropropanone concentrations were detected. Results indicate that post-UV chlorination clearly induced secondary formation of several DBPs. However, the formation of total trihalomethanes was no greater than what could be replicated by performing the DBP formation assay with higher chlorine concentrations to simulate extended chlorination. Post-UV chlorination of water from a swimming pool that continuously uses UV treatment to control combined chlorine could not induce secondary formation for most DBPs. Concurrence for induction of trihalomethanes was identified between post-UV chlorination treatments and simulated extended chlorination time treatment. Trihalomethanes could not be induced by UV treatment of water from a continuously UV treated pool. This indicates that literature reports of experimentally induced trihalomethane formation by UV may be a result of kinetic increase in formation by UV. However, this does not imply that higher trihalomethane concentrations would occur in pools that apply continuous UV treatment. The bromine fraction of halogens in formed trihalomethanes increased with UV dose. This indicates that UV removes bromine atoms from larger molecules that participate in trihalomethane production during post-UV chlorination. Additionally, no significant

  13. Secondary formation of disinfection by-products by UV treatment of swimming pool water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini; Hansen, Kamilla M.S.; Andersen, Henrik R.

    2015-01-01

    Formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) during experimental UV treatment of pool water has previously been reported with little concurrence between laboratory studies, field studies and research groups. In the current study, changes in concentration of seven out of eleven investigated volatile DBPs were observed in experiments using medium pressure UV treatment, with and without chlorine and after post-UV chlorination. Results showed that post-UV chlorine consumption increased, dose-dependently, with UV treatment dose. A clear absence of trihalomethane formation by UV and UV with chlorine was observed, while small yet statistically significant increases in dichloroacetonitrile and dichloropropanone concentrations were detected. Results indicate that post-UV chlorination clearly induced secondary formation of several DBPs. However, the formation of total trihalomethanes was no greater than what could be replicated by performing the DBP formation assay with higher chlorine concentrations to simulate extended chlorination. Post-UV chlorination of water from a swimming pool that continuously uses UV treatment to control combined chlorine could not induce secondary formation for most DBPs. Concurrence for induction of trihalomethanes was identified between post-UV chlorination treatments and simulated extended chlorination time treatment. Trihalomethanes could not be induced by UV treatment of water from a continuously UV treated pool. This indicates that literature reports of experimentally induced trihalomethane formation by UV may be a result of kinetic increase in formation by UV. However, this does not imply that higher trihalomethane concentrations would occur in pools that apply continuous UV treatment. The bromine fraction of halogens in formed trihalomethanes increased with UV dose. This indicates that UV removes bromine atoms from larger molecules that participate in trihalomethane production during post-UV chlorination. Additionally, no significant

  14. THE EFFECT OF F/M RATIO TO THE ANAEROBIC DECOMPOSITION OF BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM FISH OFFAL WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Hadiyarto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogas is a gas produced from the anaerobic decomposition of organic compounds. In the production of biogas from anaerobic digestion, value of F/M ratio shows a ratio between the mass of food available in the waste substrate with a mass of microorganisms that act as decomposers. F/M ratio is too small causing microbes could not metabolize perfectly and vice versa on the value of the ratio F / M overload resulting metabolic imbalance. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of F/M ratio to optimal production of biogas from fish offal waste. The process of anaerobic digestion is conducted in the biodigester with four-liter volume and batch system operated at ambient temperature for 38 days. As a raw material, fish offal and microbial sludge obtained from the curing of fish and river mud discharges in the region of Bandarharjo, Semarang, Central Java. F/M ratio is set at 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 are derived from sewage sludge VSS weight ratio of fish offal with sludge containing microbes. The addition of micronutrients supplied with a concentration of 0.4 mg/liter. Yield maximum methane gas obtained was 164,7 l/kg CODMn when the ratio F/M was 0.2. Based on the results of the study, found that the ratio F/M affect the amount of biogas produced. Meanwhile, the retention time (HRT is only influenced by the ratio F/M.

  15. Disinfestation studies on dried fish of Bangladesh. Part of a coordinated programme on radiation preservation of Asian fish and fishery products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.

    1978-07-01

    A survey of major fish drying areas, storage facilities and dried fish markets in Bangladesh showed that blow fly, house fly and fruit flies are destructive insects infesting fish during the process of drying. Dermestes maculatus, Necrobia rupifes and earwigs were the most predominant insects infesting dried fish during storage. The effect of irradiation on different developmental stages of D. maculatus was investigated. Results on radiation disinfestation of D. maculatus, the most serious pest during storage, showed that a dose of 30 krad and above would be sufficient to control infestation of dried fish. No changes on organoleptic properties of dried mackerel irradiated with doses up to 400 krad could be detected. Polyethylene bags with a thickness of 0.075 mm and above appeared to be suitable for packaging of dried fish

  16. Coeur d'Alene Tribe Fish, Water and Wildlife Program : Coeur d'Alene Tribe Trout Production Facility Master Plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Ronald L.; Woodward-Lilengreen, Kelly L.; Vitale, Angelo J.

    1999-09-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) receives and reviews proposals to mitigate for fish and wildlife losses and refers approved measures to Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for funding. The Northwest Power Act (Act) calls on the Council to include measures in its Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (Program) to address system-wide fish and wildlife losses. The Act further states that the Council may include in its Program measures that provide off-site mitigation--mitigation physically removed from the hydro project(s) that caused the need to mitigate. The Program includes a goal ''to recover and preserve the health of native resident fish injured by the hydropower system, where feasible, and, where appropriate, to use resident fish to mitigate for anadromous fish losses in the system.'' Among those recommended measures are off-site mitigation for losses of anadromous fisheries including the measure under analysis in this Coeur d'Alene Tribe Trout Production Facility Master Plan, proposed by the Coeur d'Alene Tribe. To meet the need for off-site mitigation for anadromous fish losses in the Columbia River Basin in a manner consistent with the objectives of the Council's Fish and Wildlife Program, the Coeur d'Alene Tribe is proposing that the BPA fund the design, construction, operations and maintenance of a trout production facility on the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation. Measures for establishing a Coeur d'Alene fish production facility have been a part of the Council's Program since 1987. The Coeur d'Alene Tribe Trout Production Facility is intended to rear and release westslope cutthroat trout into rivers and streams with the express purpose of increasing the numbers of fish spawning, incubating and rearing in the natural environment. It will use the modern technology that hatcheries offer to overcome the mortality resulting from habitat degradation in lakes, rivers, and

  17. Conductance method for quantitative determination of Photobacterium phosphoreum in fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Paw; Mejlholm, Ole; Huss, Hans Henrik

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a sensitive and selective conductance method for quantitative determination of Photobacterium phosphoreum in fresh fish. A calibration curve with a correlation coefficient of -0.981 was established from conductance detection times (DT) for estimation of cell...

  18. Influence of environmental factors on fish production in Ogun-State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated environmental factors influencing fish farming in Ijebu - Ode Local Government Area (LGA) of Ogun-state, Nigeria. Data were obtained from 50 respondents selected from 10 ponds in the area of study. Respondents were selected for the study using random sampling technique while the ponds ...

  19. Influence of Vitamins on Secondary Reactive Oxygen Species Production in Sera of Patients with Resectable NSCLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Patrice

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Singlet oxygen (1O2 oxidizes targets through the production of secondary reactive oxygen species (SOS. Cancers induce oxidative stress changing with progression, the resulting antioxidant status differing from one patient to the other. The aim of this study was to determine the oxidative status of patients with resectable Non-Small cell lung cancers (NSCLC and the potential influence of antioxidants, compared to sera from healthy donors. Materials and Methods: Serum samples from 10 women and 28 men, 19 adenocarcinomas (ADK, 15 patients N1 or M1 were submitted to a photoreaction producing 1O2. Then, samples were supplemented with vitamins (Vit C, Vit E, or glutathione (GSH. Results: Squamous cell carcinomas (SCC and metastatic SCCs induced a lower SOS rate. While Vit C increased SOS in controls as in patients with metastases, Vit E or the combination of Vit E and C strongly reduced SOS. GSH alone lightly decreased SOS in controls but had no effect in patients either alone or combined with Vit C. Conclusion: In “early” lung cancers, SOS are comparable or lower than for healthy persons. The role of Vitamins varies with gender, cancer type, and metastases. This suggests that an eventual supplementation should be performed on a per-patient basis to evidence any effect.

  20. Old meets new: using interspecies interactions to detect secondary metabolite production in actinomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedsayamdost, Mohammad R; Traxler, Matthew F; Clardy, Jon; Kolter, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Actinomycetes, a group of filamentous, Gram-positive bacteria, have long been a remarkable source of useful therapeutics. Recent genome sequencing and transcriptomic studies have shown that these bacteria, responsible for half of the clinically used antibiotics, also harbor a large reservoir of gene clusters, which have the potential to produce novel secreted small molecules. Yet, many of these clusters are not expressed under common culture conditions. One reason why these clusters have not been linked to a secreted small molecule lies in the way that actinomycetes have typically been studied: as pure cultures in nutrient-rich media that do not mimic the complex environments in which these bacteria evolved. New methods based on multispecies culture conditions provide an alternative approach to investigating the products of these gene clusters. We have recently implemented binary interspecies interaction assays to mine for new secondary metabolites and to study the underlying biology of interactinomycete interactions. Here, we describe the detailed biological and chemical methods comprising these studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Production of fungal and bacterial growth modulating secondary metabolites is widespread among mycorrhiza-associated streptomycetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies on mycorrhiza associated bacteria suggest that bacterial-fungal interactions play important roles during mycorrhiza formation and affect plant health. We surveyed Streptomyces Actinobacteria, known as antibiotic producers and antagonists of fungi, from Norway spruce mycorrhizas with predominantly Piloderma species as the fungal partner. Results Fifteen Streptomyces isolates exhibited substantial variation in inhibition of tested mycorrhizal and plant pathogenic fungi (Amanita muscaria, Fusarium oxysporum, Hebeloma cylindrosporum, Heterobasidion abietinum, Heterobasidion annosum, Laccaria bicolor, Piloderma croceum). The growth of the mycorrhiza-forming fungus Laccaria bicolor was stimulated by some of the streptomycetes, and Piloderma croceum was only moderately affected. Bacteria responded to the streptomycetes differently than the fungi. For instance the strain Streptomyces sp. AcM11, which inhibited most tested fungi, was less inhibitory to bacteria than other tested streptomycetes. The determined patterns of Streptomyces-microbe interactions were associated with distinct patterns of secondary metabolite production. Notably, potentially novel metabolites were produced by strains that were less antagonistic to fungi. Most of the identified metabolites were antibiotics (e.g. cycloheximide, actiphenol) and siderophores (e.g. ferulic acid, desferroxiamines). Plant disease resistance was activated by a single streptomycete strain only. Conclusions Mycorrhiza associated streptomycetes appear to have an important role in inhibiting the growth of fungi and bacteria. Additionally, our study indicates that the Streptomyces strains, which are not general antagonists of fungi, may produce still un-described metabolites. PMID:22852578

  2. Production of fungal and bacterial growth modulating secondary metabolites is widespread among mycorrhiza-associated streptomycetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schrey Silvia D

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on mycorrhiza associated bacteria suggest that bacterial-fungal interactions play important roles during mycorrhiza formation and affect plant health. We surveyed Streptomyces Actinobacteria, known as antibiotic producers and antagonists of fungi, from Norway spruce mycorrhizas with predominantly Piloderma species as the fungal partner. Results Fifteen Streptomyces isolates exhibited substantial variation in inhibition of tested mycorrhizal and plant pathogenic fungi (Amanita muscaria, Fusarium oxysporum, Hebeloma cylindrosporum, Heterobasidion abietinum, Heterobasidion annosum, Laccaria bicolor, Piloderma croceum. The growth of the mycorrhiza-forming fungus Laccaria bicolor was stimulated by some of the streptomycetes, and Piloderma croceum was only moderately affected. Bacteria responded to the streptomycetes differently than the fungi. For instance the strain Streptomyces sp. AcM11, which inhibited most tested fungi, was less inhibitory to bacteria than other tested streptomycetes. The determined patterns of Streptomyces-microbe interactions were associated with distinct patterns of secondary metabolite production. Notably, potentially novel metabolites were produced by strains that were less antagonistic to fungi. Most of the identified metabolites were antibiotics (e.g. cycloheximide, actiphenol and siderophores (e.g. ferulic acid, desferroxiamines. Plant disease resistance was activated by a single streptomycete strain only. Conclusions Mycorrhiza associated streptomycetes appear to have an important role in inhibiting the growth of fungi and bacteria. Additionally, our study indicates that the Streptomyces strains, which are not general antagonists of fungi, may produce still un-described metabolites.

  3. Secondary indium production from end-of-life liquid crystal displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amato, Alessia; Rocchetti, Laura; Fonti, Viviana; Ruello, Maria Letizia; Beolchini, Francesca [Universita Politecnica of Marche, DISVA, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy)

    2016-12-15

    In 2014, the European Union identified 20 raw materials critical for economic importance and high supply risk. Indium, used in several innovative technologies, is among such critical raw materials. Generally, it is mined as a by-product of zinc from a mineral named sphalerite, with a concentration between 1 and 100 ppm. Currently, the largest producer of indium is China and about 84% of the worldwide indium consumption is used for liquid crystal display (LCD) production, in particular to form an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) film with transparent conductor properties. The fast evolution of LCD technologies caused a double effect: the growth of indium demand and an increase of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). Considering these two factors, the aim of this study is to make the end-of-life LCDs a secondary indium resource. With this purpose, an indium recovery process was developed carrying out an acidic leaching, followed by a zinc cementation. The first step allowed a complete indium extraction using 2M sulfuric acid at 80 C for 10 min. The problem of low indium concentration in the scraps (around 150 ppm) was overcome using a cross-current configuration in the leaching phase that allowed an increase of metal concentration and a decrease of reagents consumption. An indium recovery higher than 90% was obtained in the final cementation step, using 5 g/L of zinc powder at pH 3 and 55 C for 10 min. Considering its high efficiency, this process is promising in a context of circular economy, where a waste becomes a resource. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Reactive oxidation products promote secondary organic aerosol formation from green leaf volatiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Hamilton

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Green leaf volatiles (GLVs are an important group of chemicals released by vegetation which have emission fluxes that can be significantly increased when plants are damaged or stressed. A series of simulation chamber experiments has been conducted at the European Photoreactor in Valencia, Spain, to investigate secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation from the atmospheric oxidation of the major GLVs cis-3-hexenylacetate and cis-3-hexen-1-ol. Liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry was used to identify chemical species present in the SOA. Cis-3-hexen-1-ol proved to be a more efficient SOA precursor due to the high reactivity of its first generation oxidation product, 3-hydroxypropanal, which can hydrate and undergo further reactions with other aldehydes resulting in SOA dominated by higher molecular weight oligomers. The lower SOA yields produced from cis-3-hexenylacetate are attributed to the acetate functionality, which inhibits oligomer formation in the particle phase. Based on observed SOA yields and best estimates of global emissions, these compounds may be calculated to be a substantial unidentified global source of SOA, contributing 1–5 TgC yr−1, equivalent to around a third of that predicted from isoprene. Molecular characterization of the SOA, combined with organic mechanistic information, has provided evidence that the formation of organic aerosols from GLVs is closely related to the reactivity of their first generation atmospheric oxidation products, and indicates that this may be a simple parameter that could be used in assessing the aerosol formation potential for other unstudied organic compounds in the atmosphere.

  5. Effects of human pharmaceuticals on cytotoxicity, EROD activity and ROS production in fish hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laville, N.; Aiet-Aiessa, S.; Gomez, E.; Casellas, C.; Porcher, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals are found in the aquatic environment but their potential effects on non-target species like fish remain unknown. This in vitro study is a first approach in the toxicity assessment of human drugs on fish. Nine pharmaceuticals were tested on two fish hepatocyte models: primary cultures of rainbow trout hepatocytes (PRTH) and PLHC-1 fish cell line. Cell viability, interaction with cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) enzyme and oxidative stress were assessed by using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrasodium bromide tetrazolium (MTT), 7-ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (EROD) and dichlorofluorescein (DCFH-DA) assays, respectively. The tested drugs were clofibrate (CF), fenofibrate (FF), carbamazepine (CBZ), fluoxetine (FX), diclofenac (DiCF), propranolol (POH), sulfamethoxazole (SFX), amoxicillin (AMX) and gadolinium chloride (GdCl 3 ). All substances were cytotoxic, except AMX at concentration up to 500 μM. The calculated MTT EC 50 values ranged from 2 μM (CF) to 651 μM (CBZ) in PLHC-1, and from 53 μM (FF) to 962 μM (GdCl 3 ) in PRTH. CF, FF, and FX were the most cytotoxic drugs and induced oxidative stress before being cytotoxic. Compared to hepatocytes from human and dog, fish hepatocytes seemed to be more susceptible to the peroxisome proliferators (PPs) CF and FF. In PLHC-1 cells none of the tested drugs induced the EROD activity whereas POH appeared as a weak EROD inducer in PRTH. Moreover, in PRTH, SFX, DiCF, CBZ and to a lesser extend, FF and CF inhibited the basal EROD activity at clearly sublethal concentrations which may be of concern at the biological and chemical levels in a multipollution context

  6. Probabilistic risk assessment of exposure to leucomalachite green residues from fish products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yung-Lin; Chimeddulam, Dalaijamts; Sheen, Lee-Yan; Wu, Kuen-Yuh

    2013-12-01

    To assess the potential risk of human exposure to carcinogenic leucomalachite green (LMG) due to fish consumption, the probabilistic risk assessment was conducted for adolescent, adult and senior adult consumers in Taiwan. The residues of LMG with the mean concentration of 13.378±20.56 μg kg(-1) (BFDA, 2009) in fish was converted into dose, considering fish intake reported for three consumer groups by NAHSIT (1993-1996) and body weight of an average individual of the group. The lifetime average and high 95th percentile dietary intakes of LMG from fish consumption for Taiwanese consumers were estimated at up to 0.0135 and 0.0451 μg kg-bw(-1) day(-1), respectively. Human equivalent dose (HED) of 2.875 mg kg-bw(-1) day(-1) obtained from a lower-bound benchmark dose (BMDL10) in mice by interspecies extrapolation was linearly extrapolated to oral cancer slope factor (CSF) of 0.035 (mgkg-bw(-1)day(-1))(-1) for humans. Although, the assumptions and methods are different, the results of lifetime cancer risk varying from 3×10(-7) to 1.6×10(-6) were comparable to those of margin of exposures (MOEs) varying from 410,000 to 4,800,000. In conclusions, Taiwanese fish consumers with the 95th percentile LADD of LMG have greater risk of liver cancer and need to an action of risk management in Taiwan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Work Element B: 157. Sampling in Fish-Bearing Reaches [Variation in Productivity in Headwater Reaches of the Wenatchee Subbasin], Final Report for PNW Research Station.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polivka, Karl; Bennett, Rita L. [USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Wenatchee, WA

    2009-03-31

    We studied variation in productivity in headwater reaches of the Wenatchee subbasin for multiple field seasons with the objective that we could develop methods for monitoring headwater stream conditions at the subcatchment and stream levels, assign a landscape-scale context via the effects of geoclimatic parameters on biological productivity (macroinvertebrates and fish) and use this information to identify how variability in productivity measured in fishless headwaters is transmitted to fish communities in downstream habitats. In 2008, we addressed this final objective. In collaboration with the University of Alaska Fairbanks we found some broad differences in the production of aquatic macroinvertebrates and in fish abundance across categories that combine the effects of climate and management intensity within the subbasin (ecoregions). From a monitoring standpoint, production of benthic macroinvertebrates was not a good predictor of drifting macroinvertebrates and therefore might be a poor predictor of food resources available to fish. Indeed, there is occasionally a correlation between drifting macroinvertebrate abundance and fish abundance which suggests that headwater-derived resources are important. However, fish in the headwaters appeared to be strongly food-limited and there was no evidence that fishless headwaters provided a consistent subsidy to fish in reaches downstream. Fish abundance and population dynamics in first order headwaters may be linked with similar metrics further down the watershed. The relative strength of local dynamics and inputs into productivity may be constrained or augmented by large-scale biogeoclimatic control. Headwater streams are nested within watersheds, which are in turn nested within ecological subregions; thus, we hypothesized that local effects would not necessarily be mutually exclusive from large-scale influence. To test this we examined the density of primarily salmonid fishes at several spatial and temporal scales

  8. Rapid analysis of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in fish plasma micro-aliquots using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fangfang; Gong, Zhiyuan; Kelly, Barry C

    2015-02-27

    A sensitive analytical method based on liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed for rapid analysis of 11 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in fish plasma micro-aliquots (∼20μL). Target PPCPs included, bisphenol A, carbamazepine, diclofenac, fluoxetine, gemfibrozil, ibuprofen, naproxen, risperidone, sertraline, simvastatin and triclosan. A relatively quicker and cheaper LLE procedure exhibited comparable analyte recoveries with solid-phase extraction. Rapid separation and analysis of target compounds in fish plasma extracts was achieved by employing a high efficiency C-18 HPLC column (Agilent Poroshell 120 SB-C18, 2.1mm×50mm, 2.7μm) and fast polarity switching, enabling effective monitoring of positive and negative ions in a single 9min run. With the exception of bisphenol A, which exhibited relatively high background contamination, method detection limits of individual PPCPs ranged between 0.15 and 0.69pg/μL, while method quantification limits were between 0.05 and 2.3pg/μL. Mean matrix effect (ME) values ranged between 65 and 156% for the various target analytes. Isotope dilution quantification using isotopically labelled internal surrogates was utilized to correct for signal suppression or enhancement and analyte losses during sample preparation. The method was evaluated by analysis of 20μL plasma micro-aliquots collected from zebrafish (Danio rerio) from a laboratory bioaccumulation study, which included control group fish (no exposure), as well as fish exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of PPCPs. Using the developed LC-MS/MS based method, concentrations of the studied PPCPs were consistently detected in the low pg/μL (ppb) range. The method may be useful for investigations requiring fast, reliable concentration measurements of PPCPs in fish plasma. In particular, the method may be applicable for in situ contaminant biomonitoring, as well as

  9. Lumber attributes, characteristics, and species preferences as indicated by secondary wood products firms in the continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Nicholls; Joseph. Roos

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate selected lumber attributes, species preferences, and lumber use properties among secondary wood manufacturers in the United States. Our sample included producers of kitchen cabinets, furniture, doors, windows, and molded products who attended regional and national wood manufacturing events. More than 51% of respondents had...

  10. [Secondary productivity of macrobenthos in mangrove and salt marsh in Gaoqiao of Zhanjiang, Guangdong Province of South China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Li-Zhe; Xu, Peng; Fu, Su-Jing; Peng, Xin; Cao, Jing; Chen, Xin-Wei; Wu, Chen; Liu, Sha

    2012-04-01

    In order to understand the secondary productivity of macrobenthos in different botanic habitats in intertidal zone in Gaoqiao of Zhanjiang, the Brey's empirical formula was applied to calculate the secondary productivity based on the investigations in the habitats of Sonneratia apetala, Aegiceras corniculatum, Sporobolus virginicus, and Bruguiera conjugate in four seasons, 2010. The secondary productivity of the macrobenthos in the habitats in four seasons was averagely 11.77 g AFDM x m(-2) x a(-1), being the highest in S. apetala habitat (18.16 g AFDM x m(-2) x a(-1)), followed by in A. corniculatum habitat (17.67 g AFDM x m(-2) x a(-1)), S. virginicus habitat (8.34 g AFDM x m(-2) x a(-1)), and B. conjugate habitat (2.92 g AFDM x m(-2) x a(-1)). The P/B ratio of the macrobenthos was the highest in B. conjugate habitat (2.38), followed by in S. virginicus, S. virginicus, and A. corniculatum habitats, with the values of 1.23, 0.99, and 0.48, respectively. The differences in the secondary productivity and P/B ratio of the macrobenthos among the four botanic habitats were mainly related to the sediment total organic carbon, food type, and macrobenthos individual size.

  11. Measurement of secondary gamma-ray production cross sections of vanadium induced by D-T neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Tetsuo; Murata, Isao; Takahashi, Akito

    1999-01-01

    The secondary gamma-ray production cross sections of vanadium induced by D-T neutrons have been measured. The experimental values were compared with the theoretical calculation results by SINCROS-II and the evaluation result based on experimental data compiled by Simakov. The calculation results supported our data, while Simakov's evaluation did not agree with the present result very well. (author)

  12. Transcriptome of Aspergillus flavus aswA (AFLA_085170) deletion strain related to sclerotial development and production of secondary metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspergillus flavus produces many secondary metabolites including aflatoxins. Besides conidia, the fungus uses sclerotia as another type of propagule. We obtained transcriptomes from four growth conditions of the aswA mutant, a strain impaired in sclerotial development and production of sclerotium-sp...

  13. Limits on production of anomalous secondaries in deuteron-deuteron collisions at 7.9 GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, R.L.; Hardy, J.E.; Hemingway, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    A search has been made in bubble-chamber film of 7.9-GeV/c deuteron-deuteron interactions for anomalous behavior of the collision fragments. No positive effect is seen in the distribution of secondary mean free paths, although stringent limits are placed on the primary production rate

  14. Preliminary Analysis of the (Process and Product) Quality of Physical Education in Flemish Secondary Schools: Implementation of IKLO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huts, K.; Van Hoecke, J.; De Knop, P.; Theeboom, M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was twofold, namely implementing a multifunctional (self-) evaluation instrument for physical education in a sample of Flemish secondary schools (N=100), while simultaneously obtaining a preliminary picture of the subjects' product and process quality. Descriptive statistics revealed that P. E. teachers' engagement…

  15. An Overview of Herbal Products and Secondary Metabolites Used for Management of Type Two Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajda Ota

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a common effect of uncontrolled high blood sugar and it is associated with long-term damage, dysfunction, and failure of various organs. In the adult population, the global prevalence of diabetes has nearly doubled since 1980. Without effective prevention and management programs, the continuing significant rise in diabetes will have grave consequences on the health and lifespan of the world population, and also on the world economy. Supplements can be used to correct nutritional deficiencies or to maintain an adequate intake of certain nutrients. These are often used as treatments for diabetes, sometimes because they have lower costs, or are more accessible or “natural” compared to prescribed medications. Several vitamins, minerals, botanicals, and secondary metabolites have been reported to elicit beneficial effects in hypoglycemic actions in vivo and in vitro; however, the data remain conflicting. Many pharmaceuticals commonly used today are structurally derived from natural compounds from traditional medicinal plants. Botanicals that are most frequently used to help manage blood glucose include: bitter melon (Momordica charantia, fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum, gurmar (Gymnema sylvestre, ivy gourd (Coccinia indica, nopal (Opuntia spp., ginseng, Russian tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus, cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia, psyllium (Plantago ovata, and garlic (Allium sativum. In majority of the herbal products and secondary metabolites used in treating diabetes, the mechanisms of action involve regulation of insulin signaling pathways, translocation of GLUT-4 receptor and/or activation the PPARγ. Several flavonoids inhibit glucose absorption by inhibiting intestinal α-amylase and α-glucosidase. In-depth studies to validate the efficacies and safeties of extracts of these traditional medicinal plants are needed, and large, well designed, clinical studies need to be carried out before the use of such preparations can be

  16. Effects from offshore oil production: chronic exposure of fish to produced water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holth, Tor Fredrik

    2009-07-01

    The results of this study demonstrated that environmentally relevant levels of components of produced water may affect condition factor, maturation, biochemical processes and gene expression in fish. The usefulness of bile PAH and AP metabolite measurements to evaluate exposure was demonstrated in two fish species. The development of bio marker responses was shown to depend on exposure regime as well as exposure period. Lysosomal stability (LMS) in cod kidney was related to dose, the effects were observed early (within two weeks) and remained at a stable level throughout the exposure period in fish receiving both continuous and pulsed exposure. Thus, LMS appeared to be a useful marker for effects in Atlantic cod. Formation of DNA adducts in female cod liver was also related to dose, but in contrast to LMS, more than 16 weeks was required for formation of significant levels. This parameter may therefore be underestimated following short-term exposures, such as most offshore fish caging studies (often 4-6 weeks). Although a time-dependent increase was observed, it also required a continuous exposure regime, which is not often observed in the environment. Other bio markers were demonstrated either to adapt or appeared to be insensitive to the exposures. CYP1A activity (EROD) in female cod was responsive on occasion, but a reduction of activity over time was observed. Protein levels of vitellogenin and hepatic CYP1A in zebra fish, as well as AOX in cod kidneys, were not affected in the current study. Gene transcription of several distinct cellular mechanisms was clearly affected in both species, and a predominance of differentially expressed genes in zebra fish was down regulated. This indicated that down-regulation of responsive pathways may be as important or more important than up-regulation. As both presence and absence of effects following pulsed exposure were apparent (DNA adduct formation; oocyte maturation; condition factor), the effects of exposure regime on

  17. Sperm cryopreservation in live-bearing Xiphophorus fishes: offspring production from Xiphophorus variatus and strategies for establishment of sperm repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huiping; Cuevas-Uribe, Rafael; Savage, Markita G; Walter, Ronald B; Tiersch, Terrence R

    2012-09-01

    Cryopreservation of sperm from Xiphophorus fishes has produced live young in three species: X. hellerii, X. couchianus, and X. maculatus. In this study, the goal was to establish protocols for sperm cryopreservation and artificial insemination to produce live young in X. variatus, and to identify needs for repository development. The objectives were to: 1) collect basic biological characteristics of males; 2) cryopreserve sperm from X. variatus, 3) harvest live young from cryopreserved sperm, and 4) discuss the requirements for establishment of sperm repositories. The 35 males used in this study had a body weight of 0.298±0.096 g (mean±SD), body length of 2.5±0.2 cm, and testis weight of 6.4±3.4 mg. The sperm production per gram of testis was 2.33±1.32×10(9) cells. After freezing, the post-thaw motility decreased significantly to 37%±17% (ranging from 5% to 70%) (p=0.000) from 57%±14% (40%-80%) of fresh sperm (N=20). Artificial insemination of post-thaw sperm produced confirmed offspring from females of X. hellerii and X. variatus. This research, taken together with previous studies, provides a foundation for development of strategies for sperm repositories of Xiphophorus fishes. This includes: 1) the need for breeding strategies for regeneration of target populations, 2) identification of minimum fertilization capacity of frozen samples, 3) identification of fish numbers necessary for sampling and their genetic relationships, 4) selection of packaging containers for labeling and biosecurity, 5) assurance of quality control and standardization of procedures, 6) information systems that can manage the data associated with cryopreserved samples, including the genetic data, 7) biological data of sampled fish, 8) inventory data associated with frozen samples, and 9) data linking germplasm samples with other related materials such as body tissues or cells saved for DNA and RNA analyses.

  18. The most important structures utilizing primary and secondary hydroenergetic potential for electric energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacharovsky, M.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper the construction, technological parameters and operation of Gabcikovo (primary hydro energy power) and Cierny Vah (secondary hydro energy power) are described. Construction of the hydroelectric power plant (HPP) Gabcikovo started in 1978 as a part of a system of hydro power projects Gabcikovo-Nagymaros. Basic technical data are: installed capacity 8 x 90 MW, production in an average aqueous year 2.650 GWh, number of hydroelectric generating sets (HGS) 8, turbine flow 8 x 413-636 m 3 /s, head 12.9-24 m.The Gabcikovo plant produced 9.163 GWh of electricity from the beginning of its operation till the end of 1966. The construction of the pumped storage plant (PSP) Cierny Vah started in 1976 and it was put into operation at the end of 1980. The main goal of the PSP Cierny Vah is to meet the control functions of an electrification system of the Slovak Republic, a substitute function in the cases of unexpected power outages and a planned electricity production from re-pumping. Technological parts are: six re-pumping vertical HGS in a three machine arrangement - a motor-generator, a turbine, a pump - are located in three double-blocks. Basic technical data: installed capacity 6 x 122.4 MW + 0.768 MW, yearly production 1,281 GWh, number of HGS 6, number of domestic hydroelectric generating sets 1, turbine flow 3 x 30 m / s, pump flow 6 x 22 m 3 /s, upper reservoir volume 3.7 mil. m 3 , max. head 434 m, peak time 5.71 hour, pumping time 7.78 hour, re-pumping cycle efficiency 74.36%. From putting the PSP into operation till the end of 1996, the HGS in operation 145,269 hours in total, including 53,332 hours in a turbine mode of operation, 70,293 hours in a pumping mode operation and 21,644 hours in a compensation mode operation. Whereas they supplied 5,346 GWh in the mains and the consumed 6,933 GWh of electricity for pumping. Hydroenergetic potential is a primary source of energy which is recyclable, i.e. unexhaustible and also ecologically the most tolerable

  19. The most important structures utilizing primary and secondary hydroenergetic potential for electric energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacharovsky, M [Slovenske elektrarne, a.s., Vodne elektrarne Trencin (Slovakia)

    1997-12-01

    In this paper the construction, technological parameters and operation of Gabcikovo (primary hydro energy power) and Cierny Vah (secondary hydro energy power) are described. Construction of the hydroelectric power plant (HPP) Gabcikovo started in 1978 as a part of a system of hydro power projects Gabcikovo-Nagymaros. Basic technical data are: installed capacity 8 x 90 MW, production in an average aqueous year 2.650 GWh, number of hydroelectric generating sets (HGS) 8, turbine flow 8 x 413-636 m{sup 3}/s, head 12.9-24 m.The Gabcikovo plant produced 9.163 GWh of electricity from the beginning of its operation till the end of 1966. The construction of the pumped storage plant (PSP) Cierny Vah started in 1976 and it was put into operation at the end of 1980. The main goal of the PSP Cierny Vah is to meet the control functions of an electrification system of the Slovak Republic, a substitute function in the cases of unexpected power outages and a planned electricity production from re-pumping. Technological parts are: six re-pumping vertical HGS in a three machine arrangement - a motor-generator, a turbine, a pump - are located in three double-blocks. Basic technical data: installed capacity 6 x 122.4 MW + 0.768 MW, yearly production 1,281 GWh, number of HGS 6, number of domestic hydroelectric generating sets 1, turbine flow 3 x 30 m{sup /}s, pump flow 6 x 22 m{sup 3}/s, upper reservoir volume 3.7 mil. m{sup 3}, max. head 434 m, peak time 5.71 hour, pumping time 7.78 hour, re-pumping cycle efficiency 74.36%. From putting the PSP into operation till the end of 1996, the HGS in operation 145,269 hours in total, including 53,332 hours in a turbine mode of operation, 70,293 hours in a pumping mode operation and 21,644 hours in a compensation mode operation. Whereas they supplied 5,346 GWh in the mains and the consumed 6,933 GWh of electricity for pumping. Hydroenergetic potential is a primary source of energy which is recyclable, i.e. unexhaustible and also ecologically the

  20. Fish Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cause Blog Vision Awards Common Allergens Fish Allergy Fish Allergy Learn about fish allergy, how to read ... that you must avoid both. Allergic Reactions to Fish Finned fish can cause severe and potentially life- ...

  1. Measuring spatial variation in secondary production and food quality using a common consumer approach in Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, James H.; Richardson, William B.; Evans, Mary Anne; Schaeffer, Jeff; Wynne, Timothy; Bartsch, Michelle; Bartsch, Lynn; Nelson, J. C.; Vallazza, Jon M.

    2016-01-01

    Lake Erie is a large lake straddling the border of the U.S. and Canada that has become increasingly eutrophic in recent years. Eutrophication is particularly focused in the shallow western basin. The western basin of Lake Erie is hydrodynamically similar to a large estuary, with riverine inputs from the Detroit and Maumee Rivers mixing together and creating gradients in chemical and physical conditions. This study was driven by two questions: How does secondary production and food quality for consumers vary across this large mixing zone? and Are there correlations between cyanobacterial abundance and secondary production or food quality for consumers? Measuring spatial and temporal variation in secondary production and food quality is difficult for a variety of logistical reasons, so here a common consumer approach was used. In a common consumer approach, individuals of a single species are raised under similar conditions until placed in the field across environmental gradients of interest. After some period of exposure, the response of that common consumer is measured to provide an index of spatial variation in conditions. Here, a freshwater mussel (Lampsilis siliquoidea) was deployed at 32 locations that spanned habitat types and a gradient in cyanobacterial abundance in the western basin of Lake Erie to measure spatial variation in growth (an index of secondary production) and fatty acid (FA) content (an index of food quality). We found secondary production was highest within the Maumee rivermouth and lowest in the open waters of the lake. Mussel tissues in the Maumee rivermouth also included more eicosapentaenoic and docosapentaenoic fatty acids (EPA and DPA, respectively), but fewer bacterial FAs, suggesting more algae at the base of the food web in the Maumee rivermouth compared to open lake sites. The satellite-derived estimate of cyanobacterial abundance was not correlated to secondary production, but was positively related to EPA and DPA content in the

  2. Comparison and Validation of FLUKA and HZETRN as Tools for Investigating the Secondary Neutron Production in Large Space Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojdev, Kristina; Koontz, Steve; Reddell, Brandon; Atwell, William; Boeder, Paul

    2015-01-01

    NASA's exploration goals are focused on deep space travel and Mars surface operations. To accomplish these goals, large structures will be necessary to transport crew and logistics in the initial stages, and NASA will need to keep the crew and the vehicle safe during transport and any surface activities. One of the major challenges of deep space travel is the space radiation environment and its impacts on the crew, the electronics, and the vehicle materials. The primary radiation from the sun (solar particle events) and from outside the solar system (galactic cosmic rays) interact with materials of the vehicle. These interactions lead to some of the primary radiation being absorbed, being modified, or producing secondary radiation (primarily neutrons). With all vehicles, the high energy primary radiation is of most concern. However, with larger vehicles that have large shielding masses, there is more opportunity for secondary radiation production, and this secondary radiation can be significant enough to cause concern. When considering surface operations, there is also a secondary radiation source from the surface of the planet, known as albedo, with neutrons being one of the most significant species. Given new vehicle designs for deep space and Mars missions, the secondary radiation environment and the implications of that environment is currently not well understood. Thus, several studies are necessary to fill the knowledge gaps of this secondary radiation environment. In this paper, we put forth the initial steps to increasing our understanding of neutron production from large vehicles by comparing the neutron production resulting from our radiation transport codes and providing a preliminary validation of our results against flight data. This paper will review the details of these results and discuss the finer points of the analysis.

  3. Design as a vehicle for using waste of fishing nets and ropes to create new products

    OpenAIRE

    Bárbara Rangel; Daniela Monteiro; Jorge Lino Alves; António Teixeira

    2016-01-01

    The world's oceans are full of discarded debris thatdegrades and sinks or drifts ashore. In 1997, the NationalAcademy of Science, estimated that, per year, about 6.4 million ofdebris are dumped in the oceans. The debris in the oceans havevarious origins: sewages, industries, dumpsters and trash left bypeople on beaches - about 80% of the trash found in the ocean wasoriginated on earth and only 20% derives from marine activitiessuch as fishing. One of the phenomena leading to the entrapmentand...

  4. Arsenic Speciation in Fish Products and Seafood as a Prerequisite for Proper Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orletti, Roberta; Chessa, Giannina; Carloni, Cristiano; Griffoni, Francesco; Palombo, Paolo; Velieri, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The Boi Cerbus lagoon, facing a mining and industrial site in Sardinia (Italy), is an important fishing area for the local population. Previous studies showed high concentrations of total arsenic (Astot) in fish, molluscs and crustaceans sampled in the lagoon, and a possible exceeding of the provisional tolerable weekly intake set by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives by some local consumer groups. However, the percentage of inorganic As (Asinorg) should be known for a correct assessment of potential risk, as its toxicity is much higher than that of the organic forms. Eighty samples of 14 different species of fish, molluscs and crustaceans, sampled in the Boi Cerbus lagoon in 3 different seasons (winter, spring and summer), were analysed for Astot by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and Asinorg by high performance liquid chromatography-ICP-MS. All the data obtained from the analysis were statistically processed to evaluate significant differences based on season, taxon and habitat, in preparation for a subsequent risk assessment. PMID:27800381

  5. Arsenic speciation in fish products and seafood as a prerequisite for proper risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Piras

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Boi Cerbus lagoon, facing a mining and industrial site in Sardinia (Italy, is an important fishing area for the local population. Previous studies showed high concentrations of total arsenic (Astot in fish, molluscs and crustaceans sampled in the lagoon, and a possible exceeding of the provisional tolerable weekly intake set by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives by some local consumer groups. However, the percentage of inorganic As (Asinorg should be known for a correct assessment of potential risk, as its toxicity is much higher than that of the organic forms. Eighty samples of 14 different species of fish, molluscs and crustaceans, sampled in the Boi Cerbus lagoon in 3 different seasons (winter, spring and summer, were analysed for Astot by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS and Asinorg by high performance liquid chromatography-ICP-MS. All the data obtained from the analysis were statistically processed to evaluate significant differences based on season, taxon and habitat, in preparation for a subsequent risk assessment.

  6. Gas phase emissions from cooking processes and their secondary aerosol production potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Felix; Platt, Stephen; Bruns, Emily; Termime-roussel, Brice; Detournay, Anais; Mohr, Claudia; Crippa, Monica; Slowik, Jay; Marchand, Nicolas; Baltensperger, Urs; Prevot, Andre; El Haddad, Imad

    2014-05-01

    Long before the industrial evolution and the era of fossil fuels, high concentrations of aerosol particles were alluded to in heavily populated areas, including ancient Rome and medieval London. Recent radiocarbon measurements (14C) conducted in modern megacities came as a surprise: carbonaceous aerosol (mainly organic aerosol, OA), a predominant fraction of particulate matter (PM), remains overwhelmingly non-fossil despite extensive fossil fuel combustion. Such particles are directly emitted (primary OA, POA) or formed in-situ in the atmosphere (secondary OA, SOA) via photochemical reactions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Urban levels of non-fossil OA greatly exceed the levels measured in pristine environments strongly impacted by biogenic emissions, suggesting a contribution from unidentified anthropogenic non-fossil sources to urban OA. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) techniques applied to ambient aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS, Aerodyne) data identify primary cooking emissions (COA) as one of the main sources of primary non-fossil OA in major cities like London (Allan et al., 2010), New York (Sun et al., 2011) and Beijing (Huang et al., 2010). Cooking processes can also emit VOCs that can act as SOA precursors, potentially explaining in part the high levels of oxygenated OA (OOA) identified by the AMS in urban areas. However, at present, the chemical nature of these VOCs and their secondary aerosol production potential (SAPP) remain virtually unknown. The approach adopted here involves laboratory quantification of PM and VOC emission factors from the main primary COA emitting processes and their SAPP. Primary emissions from deep-fat frying, vegetable boiling, vegetable frying and meat cooking for different oils, meats and vegetables were analysed under controlled conditions after ~100 times dilution. A high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and a high resolution proton transfer time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR

  7. Impact of metal stress on the production of secondary metabolites in Pteris vittata L. and associated rhizosphere bacterial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Hoang Nam; Michalet, Serge; Bodillis, Josselin; Nguyen, Tien Dat; Nguyen, Thi Kieu Oanh; Le, Thi Phuong Quynh; Haddad, Mohamed; Nazaret, Sylvie; Dijoux-Franca, Marie-Geneviève

    2017-07-01

    Plants adapt to metal stress by modifying their metabolism including the production of secondary metabolites in plant tissues. Such changes may impact the diversity and functions of plant associated microbial communities. Our study aimed to evaluate the influence of metals on the secondary metabolism of plants and the indirect impact on rhizosphere bacterial communities. We then compared the secondary metabolites of the hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L. collected from a contaminated mining site to a non-contaminated site in Vietnam and identified the discriminant metabolites. Our data showed a significant increase in chlorogenic acid derivatives and A-type procyanidin in plant roots at the contaminated site. We hypothesized that the intensive production of these compounds could be part of the antioxidant defense mechanism in response to metals. In parallel, the structure and diversity of bulk soil and rhizosphere communities was studied using high-throughput sequencing. The results showed strong differences in bacterial composition, characterized by the dominance of Proteobacteria and Nitrospira in the contaminated bulk soil, and the enrichment of some potential human pathogens, i.e., Acinetobacter, Mycobacterium, and Cupriavidus in P. vittata's rhizosphere at the mining site. Overall, metal pollution modified the production of P. vittata secondary metabolites and altered the diversity and structure of bacterial communities. Further investigations are needed to understand whether the plant recruits specific bacteria to adapt to metal stress.

  8. Measurement of secondary gamma-ray production cross sections of structural materials for fusion reactor. Extraction of discrete and continuum components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Tetsuo; Morotomi, Ryutaro; Nishio, Takashi; Murata, Isao; Takahashi, Akito

    2000-01-01

    A new method to deal with measured spectrum of secondary gamma-rays induced by D-T neutrons with Ge detector is proposed. Subtracting background components and discrete peaks from the raw secondary gamma-ray spectrum, the continuum component of secondary gamma-ray was successfully extracted. By using unfolding process, the continuum component of the secondary gamma-ray production cross section was derived. The measured cross section data obtained by this method are very useful for precise evaluation of secondary gamma-ray production cross sections. (author)

  9. Introduction to metabolic genetic engineering for the production of valuable secondary metabolites in in vivo and in vitro plant systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedito, Vagner A; Modolo, Luzia V

    2014-01-01

    Plants are capable of producing a myriad of chemical compounds. While these compounds serve specific functions in the plant, many have surprising effects on the human body, often with positive action against diseases. These compounds are often difficult to synthesize ex vivo and require the coordinated and compartmentalized action of enzymes in living organisms. However, the amounts produced in whole plants are often small and restricted to single tissues of the plant or even cellular organelles, making their extraction an expensive process. Since most natural products used in therapeutics are specialized, secondary plant metabolites, we provide here an overview of the classification of the main classes of these compounds, with its biochemical pathways and how this information can be used to create efficient in and ex planta production pipelines to generate highly valuable compounds. Metabolic genetic engineering is introduced in light of physiological and genetic methods to enhance production of high-value plant secondary metabolites.

  10. Gas-phase products and secondary organic aerosol formation from the ozonolysis and photooxidation of myrcene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böge, Olaf; Mutzel, Anke; Iinuma, Yoshiteru; Yli-Pirilä, Pasi; Kahnt, Ariane; Joutsensaari, Jorma; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2013-11-01

    In this study, the ozone and OH-radical reactions of myrcene were investigated in an aerosol chamber (at 292-295 K and 50% relative humidity) to examine the gas-phase oxidation products and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. The ozone reaction studies were performed in the presence and absence of CO, which serves as an OH radical scavenger. In the photooxidation experiments OH radicals were generated by photolysis of methyl nitrite. The ozonolysis of myrcene in the presence of CO resulted in a substantial yield of 4-vinyl-4-pentenal (55.3%), measured as m/z 111 plus m/z 93 using proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and confirmed unambiguously as C7H10O by denuder measurements and HPLC/ESI-TOFMS analysis of its 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) derivative. Additionally, the formation of two different organic dicarbonyls with m/z 113 and a molecular formula of C6H8O2 were observed (2.1%). The yields of these dicarbonyls were higher in the ozonolysis experiments without an OH scavenger (5.4%) and even higher (13.8%) in the myrcene OH radical reaction. The formation of hydroxyacetone as a direct product of the myrcene reaction with ozone with a molar yield of 17.6% was also observed. The particle size distribution and volume concentrations were monitored and facilitated the calculation of SOA yields, which ranged from 0 to 0.01 (ozonolysis in the presence of CO) to 0.39 (myrcene OH radical reaction). Terpenylic acid was found in the SOA samples collected from the ozonolysis of myrcene in the absence of an OH scavenger and the OH radical-initiated reaction of myrcene but not in samples collected from the ozonolysis in the presence of CO as an OH radical scavenger, suggesting that terpenylic acid formation involves the reaction of myrcene with an OH radical. A reaction mechanism describing the formation of terpenylic acid is proposed.

  11. Human exposure to lead, cadmium and mercury through fish and seafood product consumption in Italy: a pilot evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorelli, A A; Baldini, M; Stacchini, P; Baldini, G; Morelli, S; Sagratella, E; Zaza, S; Ciardullo, S

    2012-01-01

    The presence of selected toxic heavy metals, such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg), was investigated in fish and seafood products, namely, blue mussel, carpet shell clam, European squid, veined squid, deep-water rose shrimp, red mullet, European seabass, gilthead seabream, Atlantic cod, European hake, Atlantic bluefin tuna and swordfish so as to assess their human exposure through diet. Metals were detected by quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (Q-ICP-MS) and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (Hg-AAS). Measurements of Cd, Pb and Hg were performed by means of analytical methods validated in compliance with UNI CEI EN ISO/IEC 17025 [2005. General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories. Milano (Italy): UNI Ente Nazionale Italiano di Unificazione]. The exposure assessment was undertaken matching the levels of Cd, Pb and total Hg with consumption data related to fish and seafood products selected for this purpose. In order to establish human health implications, the estimated weekly intakes (EWIs) for Cd, Pb and Hg were compared with the standard tolerable weekly intakes (TWI) for Cd and provisional tolerable weekly intakes (PTWIs) for Pb and Hg stipulated by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The found metal concentrations were largely below the maximum levels (MLs) established at the European Union level with the exception of Cd. This metal exceeded the MLs in squid, red mullet, European hake and Atlantic cod. Squid and blue mussel showed the highest Pb concentrations which accounted for 60% and 10% of the MLs, respectively. Highest Hg levels were found in predatory fish. The concentrations of Hg in swordfish, Atlantic bluefin tuna and red mullet accounted for 50%, 30% and 30% of the MLs, respectively. The EWIs for Cd, Pb and Hg related to the consumption

  12. Oxidative stability of fish oil enriched drinking yoghurt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Debnath, D.; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    The oxidative stability of fish oil enriched drinking yoghurt as well as the antioxidative effect of citric acid ester, vitamin K and disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) were investigated by measuring peroxide value and volatile secondary oxidation products and by sensory analysis....... No oxidation was observed in yoghurt stored at 2 [degree sign]C for up to 19 days, with or without addition of citric acid ester. Fish oil enriched yoghurt was also very stable even when compared to yoghurt with added rapeseed oil or a mixture of rapeseed oil and fish oil stored for up to 29 days. The addition...

  13. Evaluation of Water Quality Conditions Near Proposed Fish Production Sites Associated with the Yakima Fisheries Project, 1991-1993 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauble, Dennis D.

    1994-05-01

    In 1991, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) began studying water quality at several sites in the Yakima River Basin for the Bonneville Power Administration. These sites were being proposed as locations for fish culture facilities as part of the Yakima Fisheries Project (YFP). Surface water quality parameters near the proposed fish culture facilities are currently suitable for fish production. Water quality conditions in the mainstream Yakima River and its tributaries are generally excellent in the upper part of the watershed (i.e., near Cle Elum), but they are only fair to poor for the river downstream of Union Gap (river mile 107). Water quality of the Naches River near Oak Flats is also suitable for fish production. Groundwater supplies near the proposed fish production facilities typically have elevated concentrations of metals and dissolved gases. These conditions can be mitigated using best engineering practices such as precipitation and degasification. Additionally, mixing with surface water may improve these conditions. Depending on the location and depth of the well, groundwater temperatures may be warmer than optimum for acclimating and holding juvenile and adult fish. Water quality parameters measured in the Yakima River and tributaries sometimes exceed the range of values described as acceptable for culture of salmonids and for the protection of other aquatic life. However, constituent concentrations are within ranges that exist in many northwest fish hatcheries. Additionally, site-specific tests conducted by PNL (i.e., live box exposures and egg incubation studies) indicate that fish can be successfully reared in surface and well water near the proposed facility sites. Thus, there appear to be no constraints to artificial production for the YFP.

  14. Production of and studies with secondary radioactive ion beams at Lise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, A.C.

    1990-01-01

    The doubly achromatic spectrometer LISE, installed at GANIL has delivered secondary radioactive beams for the past 6 years. Essentially, it consists of by two dipole magnets selecting (in A/Z) and refocusing (achromatically) the projectile-like fragment-beams emitted at 0 0 . Important features of LISE and selected experimental results will be discussed. LISE was substantially upgraded, recently, by adding a Wien-filter, providing secondary radioactive beams of still increased intensity and isotopic purity. (6 figs)

  15. Systems biology and biotechnology of Streptomyces species for the production of secondary metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hwang, Kyu-Sang; Kim, Hyun Uk; Charusanti, Pep

    2014-01-01

    Streptomyces species continue to attract attention as a source of novel medicinal compounds. Despite a long history of studies on these microorganisms, they still have many biochemical mysteries to be elucidated. Investigations of novel secondary metabolites and their biosynthetic gene clusters...... collected in the form of databases and knowledgebases, providing predictive information and enabling one to explore experimentally unrecognized biological spaces of secondary metabolism. Herein, we review recent trends in the systems biology and biotechnology of Streptomyces species....

  16. Growth of a deep-water, predatory fish is influenced by the productivity of a boundary current system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoang Minh; Rountrey, Adam N; Meeuwig, Jessica J; Coulson, Peter G; Feng, Ming; Newman, Stephen J; Waite, Anya M; Wakefield, Corey B; Meekan, Mark G

    2015-03-12

    The effects of climate change on predatory fishes in deep shelf areas are difficult to predict because complex processes may govern food availability and temperature at depth. We characterised the net impact of recent environmental changes on hapuku (Polyprion oxygeneios), an apex predator found in continental slope habitats (>200 m depth) by using dendrochronology techniques to develop a multi-decadal record of growth from otoliths. Fish were sampled off temperate south-western Australia, a region strongly influenced by the Leeuwin Current, a poleward-flowing, eastern boundary current. The common variance among individual growth records was relatively low (3.4%), but the otolith chronology was positively correlated (r = 0.61, p < 0.02) with sea level at Fremantle, a proxy for the strength of the Leeuwin Current. The Leeuwin Current influences the primary productivity of shelf ecosystems, with a strong current favouring growth in hapuku. Leeuwin Current strength is predicted to decline under climate change models and this study provides evidence that associated productivity changes may flow through to higher trophic levels even in deep water habitats.

  17. Lactobacillus genus identification isolated from gastrointestinal tract of chickens after bee products application using FISH and RTQ PCR methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Kačániová

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The general objective of this study was to examine the effect of bee products on the lactobacilli colonization of chickens. Bee products were administered to both feed mixtures in various amounts in addition to the control group. First experimental group was with propolis in feed mixture with the addition of 400 mg propolis per 1 kg of compound and second group was with pollen in feed mixture with the addition of 450 mg pollen per 1 kg of compound. In this experiment, quantitative counts of lactobacilli in ceca of 49-day-old chicken (Ross 308 using classical and FISH method were investigated. Counts of lactobacilli on MRS agar were monitored. To check the reliability of traditional methods of cultivation samples were evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. Lactobacillus cells, isolated from gastrointestinal tract, were detected after hybridization of fluorescently labeled probe with bacterial cells. Counts of CFU of lactobacilli were compared in experimental and control treatments, respectively. The lowest count was detected in the control experimental group. The highest count was detected in the third experimental group where was 450 mg of pollen added to 1 kg of feed mixture. Using Real-time PCR method, we identified the species range of the genera Lactobacillus in the intestinal tract of broiler. Detected species from the genus Lactobacillus were L. crispatus, L. salivarius and L. acidophilus.

  18. Secondary Aroma Compounds in Fresh Grape Marc Distillates as a Result of Variety and Corresponding Production Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borislav Miličević

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the composition of secondary aroma compounds of fresh grape marc distillates as a result of variety and production technology, 30 samples (6 varieties×5 samples were analysed. White grape marc samples from Malvazija istarska, Chardonnay and Muscat Blanc were obtained as by-products in standard white wine production, while red grape marc samples from Teran and Cabernet Sauvignon were obtained after standard red wine production procedures. Marc from red grape variety Muškat ruža porečki was obtained during the production of rosé wines. All fermented marc samples were distilled using a traditional copper alembic. The obtained distillates were subjected to GC/MS and GC/FID analyses. Malvazija istarska distillates exhibited exceptionally high methanol content. Distillates from white grape varieties were found to be characterized by higher C6 alcohol and 1-propanol concentrations, while red grape distillates contained higher amounts of the majority of alcohols, acids, and esters. In Muškat ruža distillates intermediate concentrations of many important aroma compounds were found. It was concluded that differences in the production technology parameters, depending on the variety, resulted in differences in secondary aroma profiles, most evident between distillates from white and red varieties. These findings were confirmed applying stepwise linear discriminant analysis (SLDA, which resulted in 100 % correct classification of distillates according to the variety and corresponding production technology.

  19. Health and adult productivity: the relation between adult nutrition, helminths, and agricultural, hunting, and fishing yields in the Bolivian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, S; Rosinger, A; Leonard, W R; Reyes-García, V

    2013-01-01

    Infectious disease and nutritional stress have both been associated with reductions in adult work productivity and work capacity in the context of wage labor, but less research has investigated their effects among groups relying on more traditional subsistence practices of horticulture and foraging. In this article, we examine the relations among measures of adult nutritional status (BMI, skinfold measurements, and fat-free mass) and infection (presence of soil transmitted helminth infections) and measures of adult work productivity. As part of a larger panel study among Tsimane', a foraging-horticulturalist group in the Bolivian Amazon, health surveys, anthropometric information, and the quantity of products (both crops and game) brought into the household were collected for 320 Tsimane' adults over a four-month period in 2003. In addition, a single fecal sample was collected for a sub-sample of 86 adults. Our analysis shows mixed associations between either BMI or the presence of parasitism and reported adult productivity. Muscularity was not clearly related to adult productivity. In contrast, body fatness (Skinfold z-score) was inversely associated with the average quantity of fish and game brought into the household, especially for men. These findings suggest that the effects of adult infection and nutritional stress may be less clearly identified outside of the context of wage labor. Further research linking adult physical activity levels and metabolic rates to productivity in diverse contexts is needed. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Productive organization of ocean artisan fishing in Sao Joao da Barra, RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcimar das Chagas Ribeiro

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the economic relations found in artisan fishing in the municipality of São João da Barra, RJ, based on the conceptual structure of supply chains, in order to understand the levels of interaction among the different actors, and how this reflects in their competitiveness. The qualitative and exploratory survey was carried by using the action research methodology aiming at the identification of the real problems that weakens the activity and, more specifically, possible regulation alternatives. Such effort is justified by the historical and economic importance of such activity which, in recent years, has suffered a severe depression.

  1. Fish oil extracted from fish-fillet by-products is weakly linked to the extraction temperatures but strongly linked to the omega-3 content of the raw material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honold, Philipp; Nouard, Marie-Louise; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is the mainspecies produced in Danish fresh water farming. Therefore, a large amount of fileting by-products like heads, bones, and tails (HBT) and intestines are available and can be used to produce high quality fish oil. The main aim in this study was to inve......Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is the mainspecies produced in Danish fresh water farming. Therefore, a large amount of fileting by-products like heads, bones, and tails (HBT) and intestines are available and can be used to produce high quality fish oil. The main aim in this study...... products, % free fatty acids as well as content of omega-3 PUFA. Furthermore, an experiment was carried out to elucidate the effect of extraction temperature on oil produced from raw materials with a different content of omega-3 fatty acids. For this purpose filleting by-products from conventional (low...

  2. Production of secondary particles and nuclei in cosmic rays collisions with the interstellar gas using the FLUKA code

    CERN Document Server

    Mazziotta, M N; Ferrari, A; Gaggero, D; Loparco, F; Sala, P R

    2016-01-01

    The measured fluxes of secondary particles produced by the interactions of Cosmic Rays (CRs) with the astronomical environment play a crucial role in understanding the physics of CR transport. In this work we present a comprehensive calculation of the secondary hadron, lepton, gamma-ray and neutrino yields produced by the inelastic interactions between several species of stable or long-lived cosmic rays projectiles (p, D, T, 3He, 4He, 6Li, 7Li, 9Be, 10Be, 10B, 11B, 12C, 13C, 14C, 14N, 15N, 16O, 17O, 18O, 20Ne, 24Mg and 28Si) and different target gas nuclei (p, 4He, 12C, 14N, 16O, 20Ne, 24Mg, 28Si and 40Ar). The yields are calculated using FLUKA, a simulation package designed to compute the energy distributions of secondary products with large accuracy in a wide energy range. The present results provide, for the first time, a complete and self-consistent set of all the relevant inclusive cross sections regarding the whole spectrum of secondary products in nuclear collisions. We cover, for the projectiles, a ki...

  3. Effects of a gradually increased load of fish waste silage in co-digestion with cow manure on methane production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solli, Linn; Bergersen, Ove; Sørheim, Roald; Briseid, Tormod

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • New results from continuous anaerobic co-digestion of fish waste silage (FWS) and cow manure (CM). • Co-digestion of FWS and CM has a high biogas potential. • Optimal mixing ratio of FWS/CM is 13–16/87–84 volume%. • High input of FWS leads to accumulation of NH4+ and VFAs and process failure. - Abstract: This study examined the effects of an increased load of nitrogen-rich organic material on anaerobic digestion and methane production. Co-digestion of fish waste silage (FWS) and cow manure (CM) was studied in two parallel laboratory-scale (8 L effective volume) semi-continuous stirred tank reactors (designated R1 and R2). A reactor fed with CM only (R0) was used as control. The reactors were operated in the mesophilic range (37 °C) with a hydraulic retention time of 30 days, and the entire experiment lasted for 450 days. The rate of organic loading was raised by increasing the content of FWS in the feed stock. During the experiment, the amount (volume%) of FWS was increased stepwise in the following order: 3% – 6% – 13% – 16%, and 19%. Measurements of methane production, and analysis of volatile fatty acids, ammonium and pH in the effluents were carried out. The highest methane production from co-digestion of FWS and CM was 0.400 L CH4 gVS −1 , obtained during the period with loading of 16% FWS in R2. Compared to anaerobic digestion of CM only, the methane production was increased by 100% at most, when FWS was added to the feed stock. The biogas processes failed in R1 and R2 during the periods, with loadings of 16% and 19% FWS, respectively. In both reactors, the biogas processes failed due to overloading and accumulation of ammonia and volatile fatty acids

  4. Effects of a gradually increased load of fish waste silage in co-digestion with cow manure on methane production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solli, Linn, E-mail: linn.solli@bioforsk.no; Bergersen, Ove; Sørheim, Roald; Briseid, Tormod

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • New results from continuous anaerobic co-digestion of fish waste silage (FWS) and cow manure (CM). • Co-digestion of FWS and CM has a high biogas potential. • Optimal mixing ratio of FWS/CM is 13–16/87–84 volume%. • High input of FWS leads to accumulation of NH4+ and VFAs and process failure. - Abstract: This study examined the effects of an increased load of nitrogen-rich organic material on anaerobic digestion and methane production. Co-digestion of fish waste silage (FWS) and cow manure (CM) was studied in two parallel laboratory-scale (8 L effective volume) semi-continuous stirred tank reactors (designated R1 and R2). A reactor fed with CM only (R0) was used as control. The reactors were operated in the mesophilic range (37 °C) with a hydraulic retention time of 30 days, and the entire experiment lasted for 450 days. The rate of organic loading was raised by increasing the content of FWS in the feed stock. During the experiment, the amount (volume%) of FWS was increased stepwise in the following order: 3% – 6% – 13% – 16%, and 19%. Measurements of methane production, and analysis of volatile fatty acids, ammonium and pH in the effluents were carried out. The highest methane production from co-digestion of FWS and CM was 0.400 L CH4 gVS{sup −1}, obtained during the period with loading of 16% FWS in R2. Compared to anaerobic digestion of CM only, the methane production was increased by 100% at most, when FWS was added to the feed stock. The biogas processes failed in R1 and R2 during the periods, with loadings of 16% and 19% FWS, respectively. In both reactors, the biogas processes failed due to overloading and accumulation of ammonia and volatile fatty acids.

  5. Metabolomics and bioanalysis of terpenoid derived secondary metabolites : Analysis of Cannabis sativa L. metabolite production and prenylases for cannabinoid production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muntendam, Remco

    2015-01-01

    Cannabinoid research has gained a renenewed interest by both the public and scientist. Focus is mainly directed to the medicinal activities, as reported for various cannabinoid structures. This thesis focusses on prenyl-derived secondary metabolites with main focus on cannabinoids. Firstly the

  6. Measurement of secondary particle production induced by particle therapy ion beams impinging on a PMMA target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toppi M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Particle therapy is a technique that uses accelerated charged ions for cancer treatment and combines a high irradiation precision with a high biological effectiveness in killing tumor cells [1]. Informations about the secondary particles emitted in the interaction of an ion beam with the patient during a treatment can be of great interest in order to monitor the dose deposition. For this purpose an experiment at the HIT (Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center beam facility has been performed in order to measure fluxes and emission profiles of secondary particles produced in the interaction of therapeutic beams with a PMMA target. In this contribution some preliminary results about the emission profiles and the energy spectra of the detected secondaries will be presented.

  7. A time series of prokaryote secondary production in the oxygen minimum zone of the Humboldt current system, off central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levipan, H. A.; Quiñones, R. A.; Urrutia, H.

    2007-11-01

    Because the marine picoplanktonic communities are made up of phylogenetically different microbial groups, the re-evaluation of key processes such as bacterial secondary production (BSP) has become an important contemporary issue. The difficulty of differentiating the metabolic processes of Bacteria from the rest of the microorganisms in the water column (i.e., Archaea and Eukarya) has made it difficult to estimate in situ BSP. This work presents the seasonal variability of the prokaryote secondary production (PSP) measured by the incorporation of 14C-leucine in the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) off central-southern Chile. The BSP and potential archaeal secondary production (PASP) were determined through the combined use of 14C-leucine and N1-guanyl-1, 7-diaminoheptane (GC 7), an efficient inhibitor of archaeal and eukaryote cell growth. BSP accounted for the majority of the PSP (total average, 59 ± 7.5%); maximum values were ∼600 μg C m -3 h -1 and, on several dates, BSP represented 100% of the PSP. Similarly, PASP was also an important fraction of the PSP (total average, 42.4 ± 8.5%), although with levels that ranged from not detectable (on given dates) to levels that represented up to ∼97% of PSP (winter 2003). Our results showed that both Bacteria and Archaea accounted for almost equal portions of the prokaryote heterotrophic metabolism in the OMZ, and that PASP is notoriously enhanced through temporal pulses of heterotrophy. This indicates that, at least in marine systems with high abundance of Archaea (e.g., mesopelagic realm), the secondary production obtained through methods measuring the uptake of radiolabeled substrates should be considered as PSP and not as BSP. If the latter is the target measurement, then the use of an inhibitor of both archaeal and eukaryote cell growth such as GC 7 is recommended.

  8. To Stretch the Boundary of Secondary Metabolite Production in Plant Cell-Based Bioprocessing: Anthocyanin as a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant cells and tissue cultures hold great promise for controlled production of a myriad of useful secondary metabolites on demand. The current yield and productivity cannot fulfill the commercial goal of a plant cell-based bioprocess for the production of most secondary metabolites. In order to stretch the boundary, recent advances, new directions and opportunities in plant cell-based bioprocessing, have been critically examined for the 10 years from 1992 to 2002. A review of the literature indicated that most of the R&D work was devoted predominantly to studies at an empirical level. A rational approach to molecular plant cell bioprocessing based on the fundamental understanding of metabolic pathways and their regulations is urgently required to stimulate further advances; however, the strategies and technical framework are still being developed. It is the aim of this review to take a step forward in framing workable strategies and technologies for molecular plant cell-based bioprocessing. Using anthocyanin biosynthesis as a case study, an integrated postgenomic approach has been proposed. This combines the functional analysis of metabolic pathways for biosynthesis of a particular metabolite from profiling of gene expression and protein expression to metabolic profiling. A global correlation not only can thus be established at the three molecular levels, but also places emphasis on the interactions between primary metabolism and secondary metabolism; between competing and/or complimentary pathways; and between biosynthetic and post-biosynthetic events.

  9. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in fish by-products is inactivated with inorganic acid (pH 1) and base (pH 12).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrmel, M; Modahl, I; Nygaard, H; Lie, K M

    2014-04-01

    The aquaculture industry needs a simple, inexpensive and safe method for the treatment of fish waste without heat. Microbial inactivation by inorganic acid (HCl) or base (KOH) was determined using infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) as a model organism for fish pathogens. Salmonella and spores of Clostridium perfringens were general hygiene indicators in supplementary examinations. IPNV, which is considered to be among the most chemical- and heat-resistant fish pathogens, was reduced by more than 3 log in 4 h at pH 1.0 and pH 12.0. Salmonella was rapidly inactivated by the same treatment, whereas spores of C. perfringens were hardly affected. The results indicate that low and high pH treatment could be particularly suitable for fish waste destined for biogas production. pH treatment at aquaculture production sites could reduce the spread of fish pathogens during storage and transportation without disturbing the anaerobic digestion process. The treatment could also be an alternative to the current energy-intensive steam pressure sterilization of fish waste to be used by the bioenergy, fertilizer and soil improver industries. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Effects of similar intakes of marine n-3 fatty acids from enriched food products and fish oil on cardiovascular risk markers in healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkhus, Bente; Lamglait, Amandine; Eilertsen, Karl-Erik; Falch, Eva; Haider, Trond; Vik, Hogne; Hoem, Nils; Hagve, Tor-Arne; Basu, Samar; Olsen, Elisabeth; Seljeflot, Ingebjørg; Nyberg, Lena; Elind, Elisabeth; Ulven, Stine M

    2012-05-01

    There is convincing evidence that consumption of fish and fish oil rich in long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFA (n-3 LCPUFA), EPA (20 : 5n-3) and DHA (22 : 6n-3) reduce the risk of CHD. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether n-3 LCPUFA-enriched food products provide similar beneficial effects as fish oil with regard to incorporation into plasma lipids and effects on cardiovascular risk markers. A parallel 7-week intervention trial was performed where 159 healthy men and women were randomised to consume either 34 g fish pâté (n 44), 500 ml fruit juice (n 38) or three capsules of concentrated fish oil (n 40), all contributing to a daily intake of approximately 1 g EPA and DHA. A fourth group did not receive any supplementation or food product and served as controls (n 37). Plasma fatty acid composition, serum lipids, and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress were measured. Compared with the control group, plasma n-3 LCPUFA and EPA:arachidonic acid ratio increased equally in all intervention groups. However, no significant changes in blood lipids and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress were observed. In conclusion, enriched fish pâté and fruit juice represent suitable delivery systems for n-3 LCPUFA. However, although the dose given is known to reduce the risk of CVD, no significant changes were observed on cardiovascular risk markers in this healthy population.

  11. Biochemical and physicochemical analysis of fish protein isolate recovered from red snapper (Lutjanus sp.) by-product using isoelectric solubilization/precipitation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramono, H.; Pujiastuti, D. Y.; Sahidu, A. M.

    2018-04-01

    The effect of acid- and alkali-process on biochemical and physicochemical characteristics of fish protein isolate from red snapper (Lutjanus sp) by-product was evaluated. Protein recovered by alkali process (16.79%) was higher compared to acid process (13.75%). Reduction of lipid content and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) exhibited in both treatments indicated both process improved fish protein isolate recovered from red snapper by-product. In addition, the increasing of water holding capacity and oil binding capacity were observed. However, high peroxide value of fish protein isolate was showed in both treatment. This finding indicated that acid and alkali process can be used as a useful method to recover proteins from red snapper by-product. Alkali process gave a protein isolate with better overall quality compared to acid process.

  12. Characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from a Thai low-salt fermented fish product and the role of garlic as substrate for fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paludan-Müller, Christine; Huss, Hans Henrik; Gram, Lone

    1999-01-01

    associated with fish fillet and minced fish, Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei with boiled rice and Weisella confusa with garlic mix and banana leaves. In addition, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus and Pediococcus pentosaceus were isolated from raw materials. A succession of aciduric......Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from raw materials (fish, rice, garlic and banana leaves) and processed som-fak (a Thai low-salt fermented fish product) were characterized by API 50- CH and other phenotypic criteria. Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Leuconostoc citreum were specifically....... paracasei, or garlic fermenting Lb. plantarum and Pd. pentosaceus, or a combination of these strains were inoculated into laboratory prepared som-fak with or without garlic. In som-fak without garlic, pH was above 4.8 after three days, irrespective of addition of mixed LAB cultures. The starch fermenting...

  13. Fermentation and microflora of plaa-som, a Thai fermented fish product prepared with different salt concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paludan-Müller, Christine; Madsen, M.; Sophanodora, P.

    2002-01-01

    % salt (w/w) as well as two high-salt batches, containing 9% and 11% salt. pH decreased rapidly from 6 to 4.5 in low-salt batches, whereas in high-salt batches, a slow or no decrease in pH was found. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts were isolated as the dominant microorganisms during fermentation....... LAB counts increased to 108-109 cfu g-1 and yeast counts to 107-5 x 107 cfu g-1 in all batches, except in the 11% salt batch, where counts were 1-2 log lower. Phenotypic tests, ITS-PCR, carbohydrate fermentations and 16S rRNA gene sequencing identified LAB isolates as Pediococcus pentosaceus......Plaa-som is a Thai fermented fish product prepared from snakehead fish, salt, palm syrup and sometimes roasted rice. We studied the effects of different salt concentrations on decrease in pH and on microflora composition during fermentation. Two low-salt batches were prepared, containing 6% and 7...

  14. Ensiling of fish industry waste for biogas production: a lab scale evaluation of biochemical methane potential (BMP) and kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafle, Gopi Krishna; Kim, Sang Hun; Sung, Kyung Ill

    2013-01-01

    Fish waste (FW) obtained from a fish processor was ensiled for biogas production. The FW silages were prepared by mixing FW with bread waste (BW) and brewery grain waste (BGW), and the quality of the prepared silages were evaluated. The biogas potentials of BW, BGW, three different types of FW, and FW silages were measured. A first-order kinetic model and the modified Gompertz model were also used to predict methane yield. The biogas and methane yield for FW silages after 96 days was calculated to be 671-763 mL/g VS and 441-482 mL/g VS, respectively. There were smaller differences between measured and predicted methane yield for FW silages when using a modified Gompertz model (1.1-4.3%) than when using a first-order kinetic model (22.5-32.4%). The critical HRTs and technical digestion times (T(80-90)) for the FW silages were calculated to be 21.0-23.8 days and 40.5-52.8 days, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Improved physicochemical properties and hepatic protection of Maillard reaction products derived from fish protein hydrolysates and ribose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sung-Yong; Lee, Sanghoon; Pyo, Min Cheol; Jeon, Hyeonjin; Kim, Yoonsook; Lee, Kwang-Won

    2017-04-15

    High amounts of waste products generated from fish-processing need to be disposed of despite their potential nutritional value. A variety of methods, such as enzymatic hydrolysis, have been developed for these byproducts. In the current study, we investigated the physicochemical, biological and antioxidative properties of fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) conjugated with ribose through the Maillard reaction. These glycated conjugates of FPH (GFPH) had more viscous rheological properties than FPH and exhibited higher heat, emulsification and foaming stability. They also protected liver HepG2 cells against t-BHP-induced oxidative stress with enhanced glutathione synthesis in vitro. Furthermore, it was shown that GFPH induced upregulation of phase II enzyme expression, such as that of HO-1 and γ-GCL, via nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and phosphorylation of ERK. Taken together, these results demonstrate the potential of GFPH for use as a functional food ingredient with improved rheological and antioxidative properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Detection of irradiated meat, fish and their products by measuring 2-alkylcyclobutanones levels after frozen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obana, H.; Furuta, M.; Tanaka, Y.

    2007-01-01

    2-Alkylcyclobutanones, such as 2-dodecylcyclobutanone and 2-tetradecylcyclobutanone, were analyzed to assess the irradiation history of irradiated meats or fish, and cooked foods with irradiated ingredients, which had been stored frozen for up to one year. The purpose of the study was to show that irradiated meats could be detected even after having been stored in the distribution system. 2-Alkylcyclobutanones showed a small decrease in irradiated raw meats that had been stored frozen for one year. Cooked foods, such as pancake and fried chicken made with irradiated eggs and chicken, respectively, contained detectable levels of 2-alkylcyclobutanones after storage frozen for one year. The 2-alkylcyclobutanones became undetectable in highly dried samples, such as feed for lab animals, during the same period

  17. UTILIZATION OF SECONDARY COMBUSTIBLE POWER RESOURCES FOR PRODUCTION OF MUNICIPAL AND HOUSEHOLD FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Berezovsky

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows an advantage to utilize secondary power resources (lignin, wastes of fine coal with its dressing, sawdust in mixture with local types of fuel (peat in order to fulfill power supply purpose, namely: obtaining hot water in boilers of small capacity and obtaining household fuel.

  18. Mineral phases and metals in baghouse dust from secondary aluminum production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghouse dust (BHD) is a solid waste generated by air pollution control systems during secondary aluminum processing (SAP). Management and disposal of BHD can be challenging in the U.S. and elsewhere. In this study, the mineral phases, metal content and metal leachability of 78...

  19. Augmented fish health monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michak, P.; Rogers, R.; Amos, K.

    1991-05-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) initiated the Augmented Fish Health Monitoring project in 1986. This project was a five year interagency project involving fish rearing agencies in the Columbia Basin. Historically, all agencies involved with fish health in the Columbia Basin were conducting various levels of fish health monitoring, pathogen screening and collection. The goals of this project were; to identify, develop and implement a standardized level of fish health methodologies, develop a common data collection and reporting format in the area of artificial production, evaluate and monitor water quality, improve communications between agencies and provide annual evaluation of fish health information for production of healthier smolts. This completion report will contain a project evaluation, review of the goals of the project, evaluation of the specific fish health analyses, an overview of highlights of the project and concluding remarks. 8 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  20. Secondary production of the fiddler crab Uca rapax from mangrove areas under anthropogenic eutrophication in the Western Atlantic, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Tarso de M M; Soares-Gomes, Abilio

    2015-12-30

    Fiddler crabs Uca rapax were analyzed in three mangrove areas located in both a lagoon and estuarine system in order to study the influence of eutrophication on their population dynamics and production. Populations at the three sites showed a biased sex ratio. Densities were similar at the three sites, but biomass was higher at the lagoon system. Despite biomass being higher at the most eutrophic site, this site exhibited the lowest production. Regarding age structure, the population inhabiting the less eutrophic site mainly comprised younger crabs. The lower production and smaller P/B ratio found in the more eutrophic site were most likely consequences of a high mortality rate and an aged population. Our study evidences the high plasticity of the fiddler crab U. rapax, and confirms secondary production and P/B ratio estimates as useful tools to assess the effects of environmental change. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Dietary phosphorus restriction in dialysis patients: potential impact of processed meat, poultry, and fish products as protein sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Richard A; Mehta, Ojas

    2009-07-01

    Dietary intake of phosphorus is derived largely from protein sources and is a critical determinant of phosphorus balance in patients with chronic kidney disease. Information about the phosphorus content of prepared foods generally is unavailable, but it is believed to contribute significantly to the phosphorus burden of patients with chronic kidney disease. Analysis of dietary components. We measured the phosphorus content of 44 food products, including 30 refrigerated or frozen precooked meat, poultry, and fish items, generally national brands. Measured and reported phosphorus content of foods. Phosphorus by using Association of Analytical Communities official method 984.27; protein by using Association of Analytical Communities official method 990.03. We found that the ratio of phosphorus to protein content in these items ranged from 6.1 to 21.5 mg of phosphorus per 1 g of protein. The mean ratio in the 19 food products with a label listing phosphorus as an additive was 14.6 mg/g compared with 9.0 mg/g in the 11 items without listed phosphorus. The phosphorus content of only 1 precooked food product was available in a widely used dietary database. Results cannot be extrapolated to other products. Manufacturers also may alter the phosphorus content of foods at any time. Protein content was not directly measured for all foods. Better reporting of phosphorus content of foods by manufacturers could result in improved dietary phosphorus control without risk of protein malnutrition.

  2. Effects of inoculum to substrate ratio and co-digestion with bagasse on biogas production of fish waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie; Mustafa, Ahmed M; Sheng, Kuichuan

    2017-10-01

    To overcome the biogas inhibition in anaerobic digestion of fish waste (FW), effects of inoculum to substrate ratio (I/S, based on VS) and co-digestion with bagasse on biogas production of FW were studied in batch reactors. I/S value was from 0.95 to 2.55, bagasse content in co-digestion (based on VS) was 25%, 50% and 75%. The highest biogas yield (433.4 mL/gVS) with 73.34% methane content was obtained at an I/S value of 2.19 in mono-digestion of FW; the biogas production was inhibited and the methane content was below 70% when I/S was below 1.5. Co-digestion of FW and bagasse could improve the stability and biogas potential, also reducing the time required to obtain 70% of the total biogas production, although the total biogas yield and methane content decreased with the increase in bagasse content in co-digestion. Biogas yield of 409.5 mL/gVS was obtained in co-digestion of 75% FW and 25% bagasse; simultaneously 78.46% of the total biogas production was achieved after 10 days of digestion.

  3. Culture-independent bacterial community analysis of the salty-fermented fish paste products of Thailand and Laos

    Science.gov (United States)

    MARUI, Junichiro; BOULOM, Sayvisene; PANTHAVEE, Wanchai; MOMMA, Mari; KUSUMOTO, Ken-Ichi; NAKAHARA, Kazuhiko; SAITO, Masayoshi

    2015-01-01

    A bacterial community analysis, using a culture-independent method (polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis), detected 17 species of bacteria including species of the genera Tetragenococcus, Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Weissella Halanaerobium, Clostridium, and Sphingomonas in a traditional salty-fermented fish paste known as pla-ra or pa-daek in Thailand and Laos, which is used as a storage-stable multi-purpose seasoning. The representative genus of lactic acid bacteria seemed to vary in the 10 products collected from Thailand and Laos. Tetragenococci were common in products from central Thailand and Vientiane in Laos which had salinities of not less than 11% and pH values ranging from 5.6 to 6.1. However, lactobacilli were common in products from northern Thailand which had the lowest salinities (8.3–8.6%) and pH values (4.5–4.8) of all the samples examined. Two Lactobacillus and one Tetragenococcus species were detected in one product from northeastern Thailand containing 10% salt. These results suggest that salinity in pla-ra/pa-daek is an important determinant of the representative genus of lactic acid bacteria such as, Tetragenococcus or Lactobacillus. Additionally, differences in the acidity between these two groups seemed to be related to the production of d-/l-lactic acid in the lactic acid bacteria in each product. This is the first study to report a correlation between bacterial community structure and taste components in pla-ra/pa-daek products from various regions. This scientific work on a traditional fermented food will be useful in helping local producers meet differing consumer preferences in various regions. PMID:25918672

  4. Valorization of Proteins from Co- and By-Products from the Fish and Meat Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspevik, Tone; Oterhals, Åge; Rønning, Sissel Beate; Altintzoglou, Themistoklis; Wubshet, Sileshi Gizachew; Gildberg, Asbjørn; Afseth, Nils Kristian; Whitaker, Ragnhild Dragøy; Lindberg, Diana

    2017-06-01

    Large volumes of protein-rich residual raw materials, such as heads, bones, carcasses, blood, skin, viscera, hooves and feathers, are created as a result of processing of animals from fisheries, aquaculture, livestock and poultry sectors. These residuals contain proteins and other essential nutrients with potentially bioactive properties, eligible for recycling and upgrading for higher-value products, e.g. for human, pet food and feed purposes. Here, we aim to cover all the important aspects of achieving optimal utilization of proteins in such residual raw materials, identifying those eligible for human consumption as co-products and for feed applications as by-products. Strict legislation regulates the utilization of various animal-based co- and by-products, representing a major hurdle if not addressed properly. Thorough understanding and optimization of all parts of the production chain, including conservation and processing, are important prerequisites for successful upgrading and industrial implementation of such products. This review includes industrially applied technologies such as freezing/cooling, acid preservation, salting, rendering and protein hydrolysis. In this regard, it is important to achieve stable production and quality through all the steps in the manufacturing chain, preferably supported by at- or online quality control points in the actual processing step. If aiming for the human market, knowledge of consumer trends and awareness are important for production and successful introduction of new products and ingredients.

  5. Effect of irradiation on quality, shelf life and consumer acceptance of traditional Nigerian meat and fish products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aworh, O.C.; Okparanta, R.N.; Oyedokun, E.O

    2002-01-01

    The effect of low dose irradiation, up to 6 kGy, on quality, shelf life and consumer acceptance of three traditional Nigerian meat and fish products was investigated. Irradiation inhibited microbial growth in 'suya' and 'kilishi' with substantial reduction in total aerobic counts, yeasts and molds and Staphylococcus aureus. Nonirradiated smoked-dried catfish (Clarias gariepinus) had a shelf life of less than one week at tropical ambient temperature (21-31 deg. C) due to insect infestation. Irradiated 'kilishi' and smoked dried catfish packed in sealed polyethylene bags (0.04 mm thick) were shelf stable for a period of 4-6 months and remained free from moldiness, infestation and were considered acceptable in sensory quality by a consumer panel of 32 assessors. There was a slight increase in TBA values of irradiated 'kilishi' stored for 4 months relative to non-irradiated controls. (author)

  6. Molasses as C source for heterotrophic bacteria production on solid fish waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, O.; Sereti, V.; Eding, E.H.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2006-01-01

    The drumfilter effluent from a recirculation aquaculture system (RAS) can be used as substrate for heterotrophic bacteria production. These bacteria can be reused as aquatic feed. In RAS drumfilter effluents are organic carbon deficient for bacteria production. This is due to nitrogen accumulation

  7. Patulin and secondary metabolite production by marine-derived Penicillium strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vansteelandt, Marieke; Kerzaon, Isabelle; Blanchet, Elodie

    2012-01-01

    )–mass spectrometry (MS)/MS. Each strain was grown on six different culture media to enhance the number of observable metabolites.Thirty-two secondary metabolites were detected in crude extracts with twenty first observations for studied species. Patulin, a major mycotoxin, was classically detected in extracts...... of these fungi in shellfish farming areas.Patulin induced acute neurotoxicity on Diptera larvae, indicating the interest of this bioassay as an additional tool for detection of this major mycotoxin in crude extracts....

  8. Fish cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Bshary, Redouan; Brown, Culum

    2017-01-01

    The central nervous system, and the brain in particular, is one of the most remarkable products of evolution. This system allows an individual to acquire, process, store and act on information gathered from the environment. The resulting flexibility in behavior beyond genetically coded strategies is a prime adaptation in animals. The field of animal cognition examines the underlying processes and mechanisms. Fishes are a particularly interesting group of vertebrates to study cognition for two...

  9. Management and Feasibility Analysis of Smoked Fish Business in Ambon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanlohy, Hellen; Apituley, Yolanda M. T. N.; Tapotubun, Alfonsina M.; Reiuwpassa, Frederik; Matrutty, Theodora E. A. A.

    2017-10-01

    This research aims to examine management and feasibility aspects of smoked fish business in Ambon. By using survey, this research focused on smoked fish business in Negeri Hative Kecil and Silale, known as dried fish producer villages.Primary and secondary data collected by using interview, observation, and recording. Analysis methods used are qualitative descriptive analysis and business feasibility analysis covers NPV, Payback Period (PP), and Break Even Point (BEP). The result shows that most of the smoked fish businessmen do not apply the proper management in their business. Two to three people do all the works (from production to marketing) without a clear job description. Feasibility analysis for smoked fish business in Negeri Hative Kecil shows that NPV is 21.501.053,- PP is 58 days, and Benefit Cost Ratio (B/C) is 1,06. BEP Production is 1,455 kg, and BEP Price is IDR 19,941, while the feasibility analysis for smoked fish business in Desa Silale shows that NPV is 30.745.837,-, PP is 24 days and Benefit Cost Ratio (B/C) is 1,41. BEP Production is 988 kg, and BEP Price is IDR 7,966. Based on the result, the two smoked fish business in Ambon is feasible to be developed. However, good management with clear job description should be applied to improve the business.

  10. Preliminary Overview of a Helium Cooling System for the Secondary Helium Loop in VHTR-based SI Hydrogen Production Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Youngjoon; Cho, Mintaek; Kim, Dahee; Lee, Taehoon; Lee, Kiyoung; Kim, Yongwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Nuclear hydrogen production facilities consist of a very high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor (VHTR) system, intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) system, and a sulfur-iodine (SI) thermochemical process. This study focuses on the coupling system between the IHX system and SI thermochemical process. To prevent the propagation of the thermal disturbance owing to the abnormal operation of the SI process components from the IHX system to the VHTR system, a helium cooling system for the secondary helium of the IHX is required. In this paper, the helium cooling system has been studied. The temperature fluctuation of the secondary helium owing to the abnormal operation of the SI process was then calculated based on the proposed coupling system model. Finally, the preliminary conceptual design of the helium cooling system with a steam generator and forced-draft air-cooled heat exchanger to mitigate the thermal disturbance has been carried out. A conceptual flow diagram of a helium cooling system between the IHX and SI thermochemical processes in VHTR-based SI hydrogen production facilities has been proposed. A helium cooling system for the secondary helium of the IHX in this flow diagram prevents the propagation of the thermal disturbance from the IHX system to the VHTR system, owing to the abnormal operation of the SI process components. As a result of a dynamic simulation to anticipate the fluctuations of the secondary helium temperature owing to the abnormal operation of the SI process components with a hydrogen production rate of 60 mol·H{sub 2}/s, it is recommended that the maximum helium cooling capacity to recover the normal operation temperature of 450 .deg. C is 31,933.4 kJ/s. To satisfy this helium cooling capacity, a U-type steam generator, which has a heat transfer area of 12 m{sup 2}, and a forced-draft air-cooled condenser, which has a heat transfer area of 12,388.67 m{sup 2}, are required for the secondary helium cooling system.

  11. The use of genetic engineering techniques to improve the lipid composition in meat, milk and fish products: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świątkiewicz, S; Świątkiewicz, M; Arczewska-Włosek, A; Józefiak, D

    2015-04-01

    The health-promoting properties of dietary long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFAs) for humans are well-known. Products of animal-origin enriched with n-3 LCPUFAs can be a good example of functional food, that is food that besides traditionally understood nutritional value may have a beneficial influence on the metabolism and health of consumers, thus reducing the risk of various lifestyle diseases such as atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease. The traditional method of enriching meat, milk or eggs with n-3 LCPUFA is the manipulation of the composition of animal diets. Huge progress in the development of genetic engineering techniques, for example transgenesis, has enabled the generation of many kinds of genetically modified animals. In recent years, one of the aims of animal transgenesis has been the modification of the lipid composition of meat and milk in order to improve the dietetic value of animal-origin products. This article reviews and discusses the data in the literature concerning studies where techniques of genetic engineering were used to create animal-origin products modified to contain health-promoting lipids. These studies are still at the laboratory stage, but their results have demonstrated that the transgenesis of pigs, cows, goats and fishes can be used in the future as efficient methods of production of healthy animal-origin food of high dietetic value. However, due to high costs and a low level of public acceptance, the introduction of this technology to commercial animal production and markets seems to be a distant prospect.

  12. Community structure, life histories and secondary production of stoneflies in two small mountain streams with different degree of forest cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Beracko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Our study examines community structure and nymphal biology (life cycles and secondary production of stoneflies in two adjacent mountain streams with different degree of forest cover in the Prosiečanka River Basin (Chočské Vrchy Mts., West Carpathians. One of the streams has non-forested catchment, converted to meadows and pastures, while the other one has catchment with 60% covered by spruce forest. Differences in forest cover and in thermal regime of the streams were reflected by the difference of stonefly communities at their structural and functional level. Species Nemoura cinerea and Leuctra aurita created stonefly assemblage in non-forested stream, whereas Nemoura cinerea also occurred in naturally forested stream together with species Leuctra armata, Leuctra nigra, Leuctra prima, Siphonoperla neglecta and Arcynopteryx dichroa. All examined species had maximally annual life cycle and in eudominant species Nemoura cinerea one month shift was found in nymphal hatching and adult emergence between streams. Total secondary production of stoneflies in undisturbed stream (126.46 mg DW m-2 y-1 was more than two times higher than the production in non-forested stream (47.39 mg DW m-2 y-1. 

  13. Transcriptomic changes underlie altered egg protein production and reduced fecundity in an estuarine model fish exposed to bifenthrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brander, Susanne M; Jeffries, Ken M; Cole, Bryan J; DeCourten, Bethany M; White, J Wilson; Hasenbein, Simone; Fangue, Nann A; Connon, Richard E

    2016-05-01

    Pyrethroid pesticides are a class of insecticides found to have endocrine disrupting properties in vertebrates such as fishes and in human cell lines. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are environmental contaminants that mimic or alter the process of hormone signaling. In particular, EDCs that alter estrogen and androgen signaling pathways are of major concern for fishes because these EDCs may alter reproductive physiology, behavior, and ultimately sex ratio. Bifenthrin, a pyrethroid with escalating usage, is confirmed to disrupt estrogen signaling in several species of fish, including Menidia beryllina (inland silverside), an Atherinid recently established as a euryhaline model. Our main objective was to broadly assess the molecular and physiological responses of M. beryllina to the ng/L concentrations of bifenthrin typically found in the environment, with a focus on endocrine-related effects, and to discern links between different tiers of the biological hierarchy. As such, we evaluated the response of juvenile Menidia to bifenthrin using a Menidia-specific microarray, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) on specific endocrine-related genes of interest, and a Menidia-specific ELISA to the egg-coat protein choriogenin, to evaluate a multitude of molecular-level responses that would inform mechanisms of toxicity and any underlying causes of change at higher biological levels of organization. The sublethal nominal concentrations tested (0.5, 5 and 50ng/L) were chosen to represent the range of concentrations observed in the environment and to provide coverage of a variety of potential responses. We then employed a 21-day reproductive assay to evaluate reproductive responses to bifenthrin (at 0.5ng/L) in a separate group of adult M. beryllina. The microarray analysis indicated that bifenthrin influences a diverse suite of molecular pathways, from baseline metabolic processes to carcinogenesis. A more targeted examination of gene expression via q

  14. Effect of the fast pyrolysis temperature on the primary and secondary products of lignin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Shuai; Garcia-Perez, Manuel; Pecha, Brennan; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; McDonald, Armando G.; Westerhof, Roel Johannes Maria

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents results on the primary pyrolysis products of organosolv lignin at temperatures between 360 and 700 °C. To study the primary products, a vacuum screen heater (heating rate of 8000 °C/s, deep vacuum of 0.7 mbar, and very fast cooling at the wall temperature of −100 °C) was used.

  15. Fish consumption and track to a fish feed formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai-Juan, Soong; Ramli, Razamin; Rahman, Rosshairy Abdul

    2015-12-01

    Strategically located in the equator, Malaysia is blessed with plenty of fish supply. The high demand in fish consumption has helped the development in the fishery industry and provided numerous jobs in the secondary sector, contributing significantly to the nation's income. A survey was conducted to understand the trend of current demands for fish for the purpose of designing a feed formulation, which is still limited in this area of study. Results showed that grouper fish in restaurants commanded a very high price compared to other species of fish. Tiger grouper gained the highest demand in most restaurants, while giant grouper had the highest price in restaurants. Due to the demand and challenges to culture this type of fish, a framework for fish feed formulation is proposed. The formulation framework when materialized could be an alternative to the use of trash fish as the feed for grouper.

  16. Authentication of Fish Products by Large-Scale Comparison of Tandem Mass Spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Tune; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht; Deelder, André M.

    2013-01-01

    Authentication of food is a major concern worldwide to ensure that food products are correctly labeled in terms of which animals are actually processed for consumption. Normally authentication is based on species recognition by comparison of selected sequences of DNA or protein. We here present...... a new robust, proteome-wide tandem mass spectrometry method for species recognition and food product authentication. The method does not use or require any genome sequences or selection of tandem mass spectra but uses all acquired data. The experimental steps were performed in a simple, standardized...

  17. Utilization of waste waters in fish production: preliminary results from fish culture studies in floating cages in a sewage pond, New Bussa, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Otubusin, S.O.; Olatunde, A.A.

    1993-01-01

    The utilization of waste waters in aquaculture were briefly reviewed. At the National Institute for Freshwater Fisheries Research (NIFFR), stocking density (20 to 160 fish/m super(3)) experiments using Sarotherodon galilaeus (without supplementary feeding) in floating cages were carried out in a sewage pond (0.4ha surface area). Cage culture of S. galilaeus was observed to have potentials in waste waters aquaculture. Recommendations were made on the execution of an intergrated waste water ...

  18. Where do egg production methods for estimating fish biomass go from here?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickey-Collas, M.; Somarakis, S.; Witthames, P.R.; Damme, van C.J.G.; Uriarte, A.R.; Lo, N.C.H.; Bernal, M.

    2012-01-01

    The special theme volume of Fisheries Research is intended to synthesise the current understanding of the methods and applicability of egg production methods (EPM). It originates from a workshop in Athens which also focused on the future challenges to both the science and logistics of carrying out

  19. Fishing for Nature's Hits: Establishment of the Zebrafi