WorldWideScience

Sample records for fish salminus brasiliensis

  1. Ontogenic events and swimming behavior of larvae of the characid fish Salminus brasiliensis (Cuvier (Characiformes, Characidae under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Enemir dos Santos

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The larval ontogeny and swimming behavior of the characid fish Salminus brasiliensis (Cuvier, 1816 were studied under experimental laboratory conditions, from hatching to yolk absorption. At day 1, the larvae were transparent, with sparse dendrite chromatophores and a well-developed adhesive organ on the head. The retinal epithelial cells were initiating pigmentation. The branchial arches were at the initial phase of differentiation. The larvae were able to perform only vertical displacements and, when resting on the tank bottom, remained in lateral decumbency, in groups of 3 to 15 larvae. On day 2, the mouth was open, with conical teeth, and the digestive tube presented lumen and folded mucosa. The gaseous bladder and pectoral fins also were in differentiation. The larvae performed vertical and horizontal movements, adhered to the water surface by means of the adhesive organ or formed groups of three to six on the tank bottom. On day 3, the adhesive organ turned dorsal, the retina was pigmented, the digestive tube mucosa showed goblet cells, and the yolk sac exhausted. The larvae were now scattering in the water column forming no groups on the bottom.

  2. A model based on spectrofluorimetry to study the interaction between glyphosate and serum albumin of Salminus brasiliensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Marta Araujo Cyrino; Cortez, Celia Martins; Silva, Dilson; Neto, Jayme da Cunha Bastos

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this work is to initiate an investigation on the albumin of Salminus brasiliensis (gold fish) as a biomarker of environmental actions of glyphosate. We started using a mathematical-computational model based on spectrofluorimetric measurements to study the interaction of glyphosate with gold fish albumin and human serum albumin. Salminus brasiliensis is a migratory freshwater fish species found in southern and central-western Brazil, mainly in the Prata river basin, where most of soybean plantations are set. Glyphosate is a very used herbicide in this type of crop. Differently from the organophosphorate methyl parathion, glyphosate does not form complex with HSA, and the quenching constants estimated for its binding with gold fish albumin at 20 °C and 25 °C is 1.3(± 0.3) × 104 / M e 2.5 (± 0.3) × 104 / M, respectively.

  3. Anatomy of the bucco-pharyngeal cavity of Salminus brasiliensis (Cuvier, 1817 (Pisces, Characidae, Salmininae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Menin

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The bucco-pharyngeal cavity of Salminus brasiliensis, an ichthyophagous species of fresh water, is anatomically adapted to predation. The wide buccal rift, the oral-aboral enlargement of the buccal cavity and the reduced thickness of the pharyngeal mastigatory apparatus favor the capture and deglutition of larger prey. In function of the oral and pharyngeal dentition type, pre-digestive food preparation does not occur. The pointed and curved teeth, together with the tongue which is relatively mobile, prevent the prey’s escape from the buccopharyngeal cavity. The passage of the food is facilitated by the absence of pronounced folds in the mucous membrane of this cavity and by the disposition of the oral and pharyngeal teeth. The characteristics of flat and thin lips, developed oral dentition, relatively mobile tongue, mucous membrane without folds, pharynx with denticules disposed in dentigerous areas and plates, and short and sharp gill-rackers are anatomical adaptations which are shared by S. brasiliensis and other ichthyophagous Characiformes species such as Salminus maxillosus, Salminus hilarii, Hoplias malabaricus, Hoplias lacerdae, Acestrorhynchus lacustris and Acestrorhynchus britskii. However, different to the mentioned species, except other Salmininae, S. brasiliensis possesses oral teeth of an unique type, present only in the jawbones and distributed in two series.

  4. Genetic Pattern and Demographic History of Salminus brasiliensis: Population Expansion in the Pantanal Region during the Pleistocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia A. de Carvalho Mondin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pleistocene climate changes were major historical events that impacted South American biodiversity. Although the effects of such changes are well-documented for several biomes, it is poorly known how these climate shifts affected the biodiversity of the Pantanal floodplain. Fish are one of the most diverse groups in the Pantanal floodplains and can be taken as a suitable biological model for reconstructing paleoenvironmental scenarios. To identify the effects of Pleistocene climate changes on Pantanal’s ichthyofauna, we used genetic data from multiple populations of a top-predator long-distance migratory fish, Salminus brasiliensis. We specifically investigated whether Pleistocene climate changes affected the demography of this species. If this was the case, we expected to find changes in population size over time. Thus, we assessed the genetic diversity of S. brasiliensis to trace the demographic history of nine populations from the Upper Paraguay basin, which includes the Pantanal floodplain, that form a single genetic group, employing approximate Bayesian computation (ABC to test five scenarios: constant population, old expansion, old decline, old bottleneck following by recent expansion, and old expansion following by recent decline. Based on two mitochondrial DNA markers, our inferences from ABC analysis, the results of Bayesian skyline plot, the implications of star-like networks, and the patterns of genetic diversity (high haplotype diversity and low-to-moderate nucleotide diversity indicated a sudden population expansion. ABC allowed us to make strong quantitative inferences about the demographic history of S. brasiliensis. We estimated a small ancestral population size that underwent a drastic fivefold expansion, probably associated with the colonization of newly formed habitats. The estimated time of this expansion was consistent with a humid and warm phase as inferred by speleothem growth phases and travertine records during

  5. Juveniles of the piscivorous dourado Salminus brasiliensis mimic the piraputanga Brycon hilarii as an alternative predation tactic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Bessa

    Full Text Available In the district of Bom Jardim, in Nobres, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, there are clear water streams originating on karstic terrain. The dourado, Salminus brasiliensis, is an apex stalking predator in these streams. In clear waters, where visually oriented prey may perceive predator in advance, surprise is needed for successful attacks. These streams are cohabited by other Characiformes, like the frugivorous piraputanga Brycon hilarii, which lives in schools and exhibits body colour and shape similar to the dourados. Here we describe an alternative predatory tactic for juvenile dourado occurring in headwater streams of the Paraguay River basin, in which they act as an aggressive mimic of the piraputanga. Based on 43 h of observations in Bom Jardim, and on additional 11 h in the Bodoquena Plateau Rivers of Mato Grosso do Sul State, we quantified the number of rushes by dourados when they were among piraputangas or foraging alone, and observed the proportion of piraputangas per dourado in multispecific schools. Dourados of up to 30 cm total length (TL stayed among the piraputangas of similar size hiding within the school and going to the periphery of the school before rushing against prey. The dourados exhibited colours similar to the piraputangas. They not only stayed longer among piraputangas (78% of the observation time, but also rushed against prey more often than when foraging alone (53 rushes/h against 14 rushes/h, respectively.

  6. Juveniles of the piscivorous dourado Salminus brasiliensis mimic the piraputanga Brycon hilarii as an alternative predation tactic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Bessa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the district of Bom Jardim, in Nobres, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, there are clear water streams originating on karstic terrain. The dourado, Salminus brasiliensis, is an apex stalking predator in these streams. In clear waters, where visually oriented prey may perceive predator in advance, surprise is needed for successful attacks. These streams are cohabited by other Characiformes, like the frugivorous piraputanga Brycon hilarii, which lives in schools and exhibits body colour and shape similar to the dourados. Here we describe an alternative predatory tactic for juvenile dourado occurring in headwater streams of the Paraguay River basin, in which they act as an aggressive mimic of the piraputanga. Based on 43 h of observations in Bom Jardim, and on additional 11 h in the Bodoquena Plateau Rivers of Mato Grosso do Sul State, we quantified the number of rushes by dourados when they were among piraputangas or foraging alone, and observed the proportion of piraputangas per dourado in multispecific schools. Dourados of up to 30 cm total length (TL stayed among the piraputangas of similar size hiding within the school and going to the periphery of the school before rushing against prey. The dourados exhibited colours similar to the piraputangas. They not only stayed longer among piraputangas (78% of the observation time, but also rushed against prey more often than when foraging alone (53 rushes/h against 14 rushes/h, respectively.No distrito de Bom Jardim, Nobres, Mato Grosso, Brasil, existem rios de águas claras que se originam sobre terreno cárstico. O dourado, Salminus brasiliensis, é um predador perseguidor de topo de cadeia nestes rios. Em águas, onde presas visualmente orientadas são capazes de perceber antecipadamente o predador, o fator surpresa é necessário para ataques bem sucedidos. Estes córregos são coabitados por outros Characiformes, como a frugívora piraputanga, Brycon hilarii, a qual vive em cardumes e exibe colora

  7. Metabolic effects of exercise in the golden fish Salminus maxillosus "dourado" (Valenciennes, 1849

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Moraes

    Full Text Available Strenuous exercise in fish is usually a consequence of migration, reproduction, and spawning. Varying among fishes, this kind of stress is associated with blood glucose and lactate increase, in relation to which two major groups are distinguishable: the "lactate releasers" and "non-lactate releasers". Unlike strenuous exercise, sustained swimming imposes a variety of effort that results in distinct kinetic types of blood lactate and glucose. Compared to Platichthys stellatus and Oncorhynchus mikyiss, blood lactate of Salminus maxillosus (dourado was lower after exercise, whereas recovery time was greater. Great demands were made of white muscle, and dourado is not a lactate releaser. Two different metabolic tendencies were observed in sustained and intense swimming. Gluconeogenesis was observed during recovery, as well as the alanine cycle which recomposes the lactate tissue pattern. Full recovery after intensive exertion required more than 24 hours.

  8. Parâmetros populacionais e simulação do rendimento por recruta de Salminus brasiliensis (Cuvier, 1816 do alto rio Paraná - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i3.1593 Population parameters and simulation of the yield per recruit of Salminus brasiliensis (Cuvier, 1816 from the upper Paraná River - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i3.1593

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Antonio Agostinho

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O dourado Salminus brasiliensis é uma espécie explorada por todos os tipos de pesca na bacia do rio Paraná e sua captura tem sido diminuída nos últimos anos. Nesse contexto, o presente trabalho tem por objetivo simular o rendimento por recruta de S. brasiliensis partindo da necessidade de rever a regulamentação de pesca, na tentativa de conservar os estoques da espécie. Para realizar o trabalho, foram usados os dados de captura junto aos pescadores profissionais do município de Porto Rico, Estado do Paraná, no período de outubro de 1986 a setembro de 1988, amostrados com redes de espera, com linha e anzol, com espinhéis e com anzóis de galho. A simulação do rendimento por recruta foi realizada considerando diversos cenários de mortalidade por pesca e comprimentos mínimos de captura, a partir do modelo de rendimento de equilíbrio de Beverton e Holt, modificado por Jones. A simulação mostrou um incremento no rendimento por recruta para os comprimentos mínimos de 60 e de 65cm, sugerindo que mudanças na legislação em vigor devem ser consideradas. Além disso, sugerimos mudanças nos procedimentos operacionais das barragens, na época de reprodução da espécie, e proteção da pesca nos locais de desova e nos criadouros naturaisThe “dourado” Salminus brasiliensis (Characidae is caught in all types of fisheries conducted in the upper Paraná River. However, a decline has been observed in the quantity of S. brasiliensis harvested in recent years. In this paper, we deal with simulation of yield per recruit, in order to evaluate ongoing fishery regulation. We expect to generate information that guides the conservation of this species. Data from the artisanal fishery were gathered from October 1986 to September 1988, in the city of Porto Rico. In that region, to catch the “dourado”, fishers use gillnets, hook and line, long lines and branch hooks. Simulations of yield per recruit were performed under diverse scenarios of

  9. Genetic characterization of fin fish species from the Warri River at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-07-02

    Jul 2, 2014 ... Genetic characterization of fin fish species from the. Warri River at Ubeji, Niger Delta, Nigeria. Asagbra ..... Prochilodus lineatus, Salminus brasiliensis and Steindachneridion scripta) from Uruguay River basin. Brazilian Archives Biol. Tech. 49(4):589-598. Saad YM, Shaden-Hanafi M, Essa MA, Guerges AA ...

  10. Wide reproductive period of a long-distance migratory fish in a subtropical river, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evoy Zaniboni-Filho

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Salminus brasiliensis is a potamodromous fish species that occurs in southern South American rivers. In spite of its ecological and economic relevance, information regarding the reproductive biology of S. brasiliensis is still scarce. This study used data from 18 years of continuous sampling in the Upper Uruguay River Basin, analyzing 718 adult fish (307 males, 243 females, 168 undefined captured at different months of the year. The results showed that the reproductive timing for S. brasiliensis is wide in the Upper Uruguay River, with the occurrence of mature fish between the month of August and March and spawned individuals between July and May of the next year. These results were sustained by the increase of gonadal somatic relationship (GSR from August. The reproductive timing of S. brasiliensis in the Upper Uruguay River may start between the middle winter and early spring (from late July to late September, and may extend until the late summer and middle fall (from the middle February to early May. These findings contribute to information on the general biology of S. brasiliensis and provide valuable knowledge to management programs and to conservation efforts of this fisheries resource.

  11. Abundance, feeding and reproduction of Salminus sp. (Pisces: Characidae from mountain streams of the Andean piedmont in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Rodríguez-Olarte

    Full Text Available To obtain basic information for management, aspects of the ecology of Salminus sp. (Pisces: Characidae, were studied in piedmont rivers of the southwestern flank of the Andes in Venezuela. Collections were made with seines of various lengths and mesh sizes, and both underwater and terrestrial observations were recorded to estimate abundance and feeding events. Interviews with local fishermen and inhabitants were made to obtain data on use. The species is present along the entire length of the Andean piedmont in Venezuela, although in some rivers it is now scarce. Small individuals form mixed schools with Brycon whitei, but larger Salminus sp. usually only school with others of the same species. Average abundance was greater in larger rivers, and didn't vary appreciably with season for any of the rivers studied. Size and weight ranged from 15.1 to 40.5 cm SL and 47.7 to 1,210 g, respectively. Females had maximum ovary maturity at the beginning of the rainy season, with an average fecundity of 35,834 eggs, and spawning occurred during spates of high water. Feeding was crepuscular, with most events recorded during the first and last hours of sunlight. In smaller fish up to 20 cm SL, the diet was varied, but above that size fish were the principal food item. Salminus sp. has little commercial importance in this region but forms an important part of the local subsistence fishery, and occasionally it is targeted for sport fishing. The minimum legal size of capture for the species should be raised, since the current limit permits the capture of many sexually immature individuals.

  12. Spawning of migratory fish species between two reservoirs of the upper Uruguay River, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Reynalte-Tataje

    Full Text Available This study investigated the migratory fish spawning within the reservoirs of the Machadinho and Itá dams (upper Uruguay River, Brazil and its relationship to environmental variables. Sampling was conducted in the lotic region of the river in two sites between the dams' reservoirs: Uruguay (main river and Ligeiro (tributary. Sampling included nine consecutive reproductive periods (RP spanning the period from 2001 to 2010 and was conducted at night on the water surface using cylindrical-conical plankton nets (0.5 mm mesh; environmental variables were also recorded. The spawning of the migratory species Salminus brasiliensis, Prochilodus lineatus, and Steindachneridion scriptum was registered: S. brasiliensis and P. lineatus spawned in the tributary river at the end of spring/beginning of summer, during flooding and during periods of high water temperature. Steindachneridion scriptum spawned in the main river at the beginning of spring. The study showed that S. brasiliensis, P. lineatus, and S. scriptum are able to spawn in small lotic river stretches within two reservoirs, but only under very specific and not common environmental conditions.

  13. Fishes of the Taquari-Antas river basin (Patos Lagoon basin, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FG. Becker

    Full Text Available The aquatic habitats of the Taquari-Antas river basin (in the Patos Lagoon basin, southern Brazil are under marked environmental transformation because of river damming for hydropower production. In order to provide an information baseline on the fish fauna of the Taquari-Antas basin, we provide a comprehensive survey of fish species based on primary and secondary data. We found 5,299 valid records of fish species in the basin, representing 119 species and 519 sampling sites. There are 13 non-native species, six of which are native to other Neotropical river basins. About 24% of the total native species are still lacking a taxonomic description at the species level. Three native long-distance migratory species were recorded (Leporinus obtusidens, Prochilodus lineatus, Salminus brasiliensis, as well as two potential mid-distance migrators (Parapimelodus nigribarbis and Pimelodus pintado. Although there is only one officially endangered species in the basin (S. brasiliensis, restricted range species (21.7% of total species should be considered in conservation efforts.

  14. Larvae of migratory fish (Teleostei: Ostariophysi in the lotic remnant of the Paraná River in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Barzotto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Fish larvae and adults are morphologically distinct from each other and have different ecological requirements. Research on the dynamics of ichthyoplankton provides valuable information about the early stages of the life cycle of fish. This study analyzed the temporal and spatial distribution of the larval stages of three migratory species - Salminus brasiliensis (Cuvier, 1816, Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes, 1836 and Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Agassiz, 1829 - to identify possible spawning areas in the last lotic remnant of the upper Paraná River, in the Brazilian territory. A total of 26 points were sampled monthly from October 2003 to November 2004. The PERMANOVA detected significant differences between the months only for S. brasiliensis (Pseudo-F = 3.88, p = 0.0021 and P. corruscans (Pseudo-F = 3.35, p = 0.004. Among the environmental variables, temperature was the most important and the Mantel test detected a significant correlation between temperature and the densities, only for P. lineatus (r = 0.09, p = 0.03. The species in our data chose for spawning tributaries that are not dammed, of which most are outside conservation areas. Therefore, recruitment, maintenance and possible actions aiming to recover the stocks of these species are dependent on the conservation of tributaries and floodplain lakes in the region, in addition to monitoring to prevent fishing during the reproductive period.

  15. Neotropical Monogenoidea. 24. Rhinoxenus bulbovaginatus n. sp. (Dactylogyridae, Ancyrocephalinae from the nasal cavity of Salminus maxillosus (Osteichthyes, Characidae from the Rio Paraná, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter A. Boeger

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Rhinoxenus bulbovaginatus n. sp. is described from the nose of Salminus maxillosus (Characidae collected in the basin of the rio Paraná, near the city of Porto Rico, state of Paraná, Brazil. The new species can be differentiated from the other three species in the genus by the morphology of the copulatory complex, vagina, and ventral anchor. The sister group relationship of the known species of Rhinoxenus was determined using techniques of Phylogenetic Systematics (Cladism. The resulting cladogram (C.I.=100% indicates that the new species is most closely related to R. piranhus Kritsky, Boeger and Thatcher, 1988. The other two species of the genus, R. arietinus Kritsky, Boeger and Thatcher, 1988 and R. nyttus Kritsky, Boeger and Thatcher, 1988, both parasites of Anostomidae fishes, have a paraphyletic position in the cladogram, suggesting that the origin of at least one of them can not be associated to cospeciation.

  16. Spawning and nursery habitats of neotropical fish species in the tributaries of a regulated river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makrakis, Maristela Cavicchioli; da Silva, Patrícia S.; Makrakis, Sergio; de Lima, Ariane F.; de Assumpção, Lucileine; de Paula, Salete; Miranda, Leandro E.; Dias, João Henrique Pinheiro

    2012-01-01

    This chapter provides information on ontogenetic patterns of neotropical fish species distribution in tributaries (Verde, Pardo, Anhanduí, and Aguapeí rivers) of the Porto Primavera Reservoir, in the heavily dammed Paraná River, Brazil, identifying key spawning and nursery habitats. Samplings were conducted monthly in the main channel of rivers and in marginal lagoons from October through March during three consecutive spawning seasons in 2007-2010. Most species spawn in December especially in Verde River. Main river channels are spawning habitats and marginal lagoons are nursery areas for most fish, mainly for migratory species. The tributaries have high diversity of larvae species: a total of 56 taxa representing 21 families, dominated by Characidae. Sedentary species without parental care are more abundant (45.7%), and many long-distance migratory fish species are present (17.4%). Migrators included Prochilodus lineatus, Rhaphiodon vulpinus, Hemisorubim platyrhynchos, Pimelodus maculatus, Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, Sorubim lima, two threatened migratory species: Salminus brasiliensis and Zungaro jahu, and one endangered migratory species: Brycon orbignyanus. Most of these migratory species are vital to commercial and recreational fishing, and their stocks have decreased drastically in the last decades, attributed to habitat alteration, especially impoundments. The fish ladder at Porto Primavera Dam appears to be playing an important role in re-establishing longitudinal connectivity among critical habitats, allowing ascent to migratory fish species, and thus access to upstream reaches and tributaries. Establishment of Permanent Conservation Units in tributaries can help preserve habitats identified as essential spawning and nursery areas, and can be key to the maintenance and conservation of the fish species in the Paraná River basin.

  17. Estudo dos vestígios de peixes dos sítios arqueológicos da área de influência da Usina Hidrelétrica Machadinho, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil A study of fish traces taken from the archaeological sites of the areas surrounding the Machadinho Hydroelectric power station, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Ricken

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the material obtained in the rescue of archaeological sites in the area surrounding the Hydroelectric Plant of Machadinho, Rio Grande do Sul, revealed that a considerable amount of bones and fish scales incorporated in the alimentary remains. Using an osteological collection as reference, we identified remains of Salminus brasiliensis (Cuvier, 1816 (Characidae, Brycon orbignyanus (Valenciennes, 1849 (Characidae, Pogonopoma obscurum Quevedo & Reis, 2002 (Loricariidae, Hemiancistrus fuliginosus Cardoso & Malabarba, 1999, Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes, 1836 (Prochilodontidae, Schizodon sp. (Anostomidae, Leporinus sp. (Anostomidae, Hoplias sp. (Erythrinidae, Hypostomus sp. (Loricariidae and Crenicichla sp. (Cichlidae. Based on specimens from fish collections, regressions were obtained comparing the size of the pre-maxillary bone in Crenicichla spp. and the length of the pectoral fin spine of Hemiancistrus fuliginosus, Pogonopoma obscurum and Hypostomus spp, with the standard length and weight of corresponding specimens. The estimated size and weight of the specimens obtained from fish remains in the archaeological sites varied between 79.7-153.9 mm and 13.5-33.9 g for Hemiancistrus fuliginosus, 158.2-151.0 mm and 179.5-194.3 g for Pogonopoma obscurum, 117.1-166.2 mm and 86.6-93.1 g for Crenicichla spp., and 62.2-397.2 mm and 34-20.3 g for Hypostomus spp. Therefore using these estimates of standard lengths and weights it was possible to formulate a hypotheses on the fishing technology used by the inhabitants of these sites.

  18. Fish mercury development in relation to abiotic characteristics and carbon sources in a six-year-old, Brazilian reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuomola, Leena; Niklasson, Terese [Evolutionary Biology Centre and Department of Limnology, Uppsala University, Norbyvaegen 20, S-752 36 Uppsala (Sweden); Castro e Silva, Edinaldo de [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Av. Fernando C. Costa/sn, 78 090-900 Cuiaba-MT (Brazil); Hylander, Lars D. [Department of Earth Sciences, Air, Water and Landscape Science, Uppsala University, Villavaegen 16, S-752 36 Uppsala (Sweden)], E-mail: Lars.Hylander@hyd.uu.se

    2008-02-01

    Time series on fish mercury (Hg) development are rare for hydroelectric reservoirs in the tropics. In the central-western part of Brazil, a hydroelectric reservoir, called Lago Manso, was completed in 1999 after that background levels of fish Hg concentrations had been determined. The development for the first 3 years was studied in 2002. The objective of the present study was to determine development of fish Hg concentrations for a second three-year period after flooding. The bioaccumulation factor and certain abiotic and biotic factors, possibly affecting the availability and accumulation of Hg, were also examined. The results show that Hg levels in fish from Lago Manso have increased more than five times compared to the background levels observed before construction of the reservoir. At the same time, dissolved organic carbon has increased while dissolved oxygen has decreased indicating enhanced bioavailability of Hg. In the reservoir, Salminus brasiliensis had in average a Hg content of 1.1 {mu}g g{sup -1} f.w., Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum 1.2, Serrasalmus marginatus/spilopleura 0.9, and Brycon hilarii 0.6 {mu}g g{sup -1} f.w. The average fish Hg contents were higher downstream, except for B. hilarii. In the reservoir, the average Hg content of each species was in 2005 always over the consumption limit (0.55 {mu}g total Hg g{sup -1} f.w.) recommended by WHO. Therefore, the people living around Lago Manso should be informed of the health effects of Hg, and fish consumption recommendations should be carried out. The accumulation of Hg varies widely between species as shown by the bioaccumulation factor which ranges between 5.08 and 5.59 log units. The observed variation is explained by differences in diet and trophic position with piscivorous fish exhibiting the highest mean Hg concentration, followed by carnivorous and omnivorous species. Carbon isotope analyses imply that trophic position is not the only cause of the observed differences in Hg levels between

  19. Importance of dam-free stretches for fish reproduction: the last remnant in the Upper Paraná River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jislaine Cristina Silva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim: This study uses the abundance of fish eggs and larvae to evaluate the importance of the main channel of the Paraná River and the adjacent areas of the floodplain, in the last dam-free stretch in the Brazilian territory, for the spawning and development of fish of different reproductive guilds, in order to obtain subsidies to assist in the management and conservation policies of this area, focusing on the maintenance of dam-free areas. Methods Data were taken quarterly from August 2013 to May 2015, in 25 sites, grouped into three biotopes: main channel, tributaries and lagoons. Possible spatial variations in fish spawning and development as well as composition and structure of larvae were evaluated. Results Higher densities of eggs were found in tributaries (Paracaí and Amambai rivers and greater densities of larvae were observed in lagoons (Saraiva. Significant differences in composition and structure of larvae were detected only between sampling stations. As for taxonomic composition, 29 taxa were recorded, mostly non-migratory. However, long-distance migratory were also widely distributed, such as Brycon orbignyanus, Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, Prochilodus lineatus, Piaractus mesopotamicus and Rhaphiodon vulpinus, as well as invasive species Platanichthys platana and Hemiodus orthonops. In turn, Salminus brasiliensis presented low occurrence. Conclusions This study evidenced that different species spawn in the region, mainly in tributaries, and their eggs and larvae are transported to the main channel of the Paraná River and adjacent lagoons, to complete their early development. The capture of larvae of important migratory species suggests that this environment still exhibits suitable conditions for their reproduction, mainly due to the presence of dam-free tributaries. Also, they emphasize the importance of the integrity of these environments for the maintenance of the regional fish fauna, and it is extremely important the

  20. Fishes of the Taquari-Antas river basin (Patos Lagoon basin, southern Brazil Peixes da bacia do rio Taquari-Antas (sistema da Laguna dos Patos, sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FG. Becker

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aquatic habitats of the Taquari-Antas river basin (in the Patos Lagoon basin, southern Brazil are under marked environmental transformation because of river damming for hydropower production. In order to provide an information baseline on the fish fauna of the Taquari-Antas basin, we provide a comprehensive survey of fish species based on primary and secondary data. We found 5,299 valid records of fish species in the basin, representing 119 species and 519 sampling sites. There are 13 non-native species, six of which are native to other Neotropical river basins. About 24% of the total native species are still lacking a taxonomic description at the species level. Three native long-distance migratory species were recorded (Leporinus obtusidens, Prochilodus lineatus, Salminus brasiliensis, as well as two potential mid-distance migrators (Parapimelodus nigribarbis and Pimelodus pintado. Although there is only one officially endangered species in the basin (S. brasiliensis, restricted range species (21.7% of total species should be considered in conservation efforts.Os ambientes aquáticos da Bacia do rio Taquari-Antas (Bacia da Laguna dos Patos, sul do Brasil vêm sofrendo considerável transformação, principalmente em razão da implantação de barragens para geração de energia elétrica. Com o objetivo de estabelecer um diagnóstico amplo da ictiofauna da Bacia do Taquari-Antas, realizou-se um inventário das espécies dessa bacia a partir de dados primários e secundários. Foram obtidos 5.299 registros válidos de espécies de peixe na bacia, representando 119 espécies e 519 localidades amostradas. Ocorrem, na bacia, 13 espécies não nativas, seis das quais são oriundas de outras bacias neotropicais. Cerca de 24% de todas as espécies carecem de descrição taxonômica no nível específico. Foram registradas três espécies nativas migradoras de longa distância (Leporinus obtusidens, Prochilodus lineatus e Salminus brasiliensis e

  1. Alterações histopatológicas em fígado de dourado Salminus maxillosus Valenciennes, 1840 (Osteichthyes, Characidae causadas por Neocucullanus neocucullanus Travassos, Artigas & Pereira 1828 (Nematoda “Dourado”, Salminus maxillosus Valenciennes, 1840 (Osteichthyes, Characidae liver histopatologic alterations caused by Neocucullanus neocucullanus Travassos, Artigas & Pereira 1828 (Nematoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antenor Aguiar Santos

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Foram capturados 293 exemplares de Salminus maxillosus Valenciennes, 1840, (Osteichthyes, Characidae no rio Mogi-Guaçu, Cachoeira de Emas, de agosto de 1996 a dezembro de 1997. Amostras de fígado de 45 exemplares que apresentaram parasitos, Neocucullanus neocullanus Travassos, Artigas e Pereira, 1928 (prevalência de 15,35%, foram fixadas em Bouin e processadas para inclusão em parafina. Cortes de 5 µm foram corados por HE, Tricrômico de Mallory e submetidos ao PAS contracorados com Hematoxilina. Macroscopicamente nos fígados que se apresentavam parasitados, havia infecção nas regiões centrais e periféricas, algumas vezes com perfuração do estroma do órgão, permitindo visão do cisto externamente. Microscopicamente e circunscrito à região da instalação do parasito, encontrou-se desorganização intensa do tecido, com células típicas de processo inflamatório ativo e de uma discreta deposição de fibrina ao redor do foco inflamatório. Justaposto ao parasito há a cápsula delgada constituída por fibroblastos e fibras colágenas. A presença de leucócitos e o encapsulamento do parasito demonstram um processo inflamatório agudo.From August 1996 to December 1997, 293 specimens of Salminus maxillosus were captured in the Mogi-Guaçu river, at Cachoeira de Emas, municipality of Pirassununga, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The livers of 45 fishes were parasitized by Neocucullanus neocucullanus Travassos, Artigas and Pereira, 1928 (15.35% prevalence. Liver samples were fixed in Bouin and processed for paraffin inclusion. 5µm-sections were stained with ME, Mallory trichromic and submitted to Hematoxilin-contrasted PAS. Macroscopically, the parasitized livers had central and peripheral infection, sometimes perforating the stroma, allowing the cyst to be seen externally. Microscopically, and only surrounding the parasite, intense tissue disorganization, with typical active inflammatory process cells, and discrete fibrin deposition

  2. La pesca artesanal en la Cuenca del Plata (Argentina y sus implicancias en la conservación de la biodiversidad Artisanal fish at del Plata basin (Argentina and its implications for the biodiversity conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Miguel Iwaszkiw

    2011-06-01

    de la pesquería sobre conservación de la biodiversidad de peces de la cuenca.The aim of this contribution is to consider different issues derived from fish captures from artisanal-commercial fisheries in the Paraná Basin in Argentina. We identify certain impacts related to fishing practices on the involved natural populations and its compromises in ichtiofaunal biodiversity conservation. We consider 17 years of information based on data of fisheries exports for different inland species between 1994-2010. These data includes valuable commercial big sized native fishes like sábalo (Prochilodus lineatus, boga (Leporinus obtusidens, tararira (Hoplias malabaricus, surubí (Pseudoplatystoma spp., dorado (Salminus brasiliensis and patí (Luciopimelodus pati, together with several catfish species and minor species as silversides. Freshwater fish exports show a major rise resulting in 331517 ton for these years. The target species is sábalo (88.77 %, other accompanying species are tararira (4.16 %, boga (3.7 % and Patí (1.35 % whereas the remainig catches belong to other species. There is a strong rise in the catches of these other species in certain years while there is not a clear legislation for these fish species that allow implementing a proper fishery management along the basin. The importing countries are Brazil, Colombia, Bolivia and Nigeria among others. Since 2003 Colombia buy an average of 50% of inland fisheries exports from Argentina. The analysis historical data (1994-2010 reveals the need to implement measures to control and management of fisheries and its effects on fish biodiversity conservation in the basin.

  3. Patterns of oocyte development in natural habitat and captive Salminus hilarii Valenciennes, 1850 (Teleostei: Characidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honji, R M; Narcizo, A M; Borella, M I; Romagosa, E; Moreira, R G

    2009-03-01

    Fecundity and oocyte development in Salminus hilarii female brood stock were analyzed with the aim of investigating the impact of migration impediment on oogenesis. Histological analyses of the ovaries were performed in adult females caught in two different environments--the Tietê River (natural) and captivity--and the gonadossomatic index, oocyte diameter and fecundity determined. Five germ cell development stages (oogonium, perinucleolar, cortical alveoli, vitellogenic, ripe) and two other structures (postovulatory follicles and atretic oocytes) were observed in females caught in the river. Captive animals lacked the ripe oocytes and postovulatory follicles and had a relatively higher number of atretic oocytes. Females in captivity are known to produce larger oocytes, and they release fewer eggs in each spawn (absolute fecundity) when compared with animals that are able to migrate. Our results suggest that the Tietê River is undergoing alterations which are being reflected in the reproductive performance of S. hilarii, mainly due to the presence of atretic oocytes in females caught in the river. The lack of postovulatory follicles and ripe oocytes in captive animals reveals that migratory impediment negatively impacts final oocyte maturation. However, the stage of maturation reached is adequate for ovulation induction with hormone manipulation.

  4. Aspectos biológicos e pesqueiros de Paralonchurus brasiliensis Steindachner, (Pisces, Sciaenidae, na Armação do Itapocoroy, Penha, Santa Catarina, Brasil Biological and fishing aspects of Paralonchurus brasiliensis Steindachner, (Pisces, Sciaenidae, in the Armação do Itapocoroy, Penha, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim O. Branco

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Apesar da abundância de Paralonchurus brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1875 na ictiofauna acompanhante do camarão sete-barbas, apresenta baixo valor comercial sendo freqüentemente descartada. Esse trabalho tem como objetivo apresentar informações básicas sobre a biologia e pesca de P. brasiliensis na Armação do Itapocoroy, Penha, Santa Catarina. As coletas foram realizadas mensalmente durante o período de agosto 1996 a julho 2003, em três áreas tradicionais de atuação da pesca artesanal. A espécie apresentou crescimento alométrico positivo, com uma razão sexual de 1:2,1 entre machos e fêmeas, e tamanho de primeira maturação em 14,8 cm e 15,0 cm. P. brasiliensis apresentou amplo espectro trófico composto por 27 itens, sendo que, a partir da primavera ocorreu um incremento gradual na ingestão de alimento até o verão, seguido de queda abrupta no outono e de pequena recuperação no inverno. Apesar das flutuações sazonais ao longo dos sete anos, essa espécie ocupou a segunda posição em número e biomassa entre as integrantes da ictiofauna acompanhante.Due to abundance of P. brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1875 in ictiofauna of the sea-bob-shrimp's bycatch, it presents low commercial value and frequently being discarded. This work aims to present basic information on biology and fisheries of P. brasiliensis in the Armação do Itapocoroy, Penha, Santa Catarina. The collections were carried out monthly during the period of August 1996 to July 2003, in three traditional areas of performance of artisan fisheries. The species presented positive alometric growth, with a sexual ratio of 1:2,1 between males and females, and the size of first maturation in 14,8 cm and 15,0 cm. P. brasiliensis presented a great trophy specter composed by 27 items, being that, from the spring a gradual increment in the food ingestion occurred until the summer, followed of abrupt fall in the autumn and small recovery in the winter. Despite of the seasonal

  5. Influence of spawning procedure on gametes fertilization success in Salminus hilarii Valenciennes, 1850 (Teleostei: Characidae: Implications for the conservation of this species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato M. Honji

    Full Text Available Artificial reproduction and gamete fertilization were evaluated in Salminus hilarii wild and domesticated broodstocks. Wild and domesticated broodstocks were artificially induced to reproduction using a carp pituitary treatment. Four groups were considered: Group 1 (G1, fish caught in the wild maintained for three years in the same conditions as the domesticated broodstocks and spawned naturally; Group 2 (G2, broodstock born and raised in captivity and spawned naturally; Group 3 (G3, wild broodstocks, which were manually stripped for gamete collection and dry fertilization; and Group 4 (G4, domesticated males and females, also manually stripped. Oocytes, eggs, and larvae were sampled at different time intervals throughout embryonic development. Yolk sac absorption occurred approximately 24-29 h after hatching. Twenty-six h after hatching, the larvae mouths opened. Cannibalism was identified just 28-30 h after hatching. There was no morphological difference in embryonic development among all groups. The number of released eggs per gram of female was: G1: 83.3 ± 24.5 and G2: 103.8 ± 37.4; however, the fertilization success was lower in G2 (42.0 ± 6.37 % compared with G1 (54.7 ± 3.02% (P = 0.011. Hand-stripping of oocytes was not successful and the fertilization rate was zero. The reproduction of this species in captivity is viable, but it is necessary to improve broodstock management to enhance fertilization rates and obtain better fingerling production for restocking programs.

  6. Mycetoma caused by Nocardia brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar P

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available One case of actinomycetoma caused by Nocardia brasiliensis presented with a swelling on the right ankle with multiple sinuses discharging sero-sanguinous material without any granules. He was treated successfully with dapsone followed by surgical excision of the swelling and skin graft.

  7. Primary Nocardia brasiliensis of the eyelid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannan, Paul A; Kersten, Robert C; Hudak, Donald T; Anderson, Heidi K; Kulwin, Dwight R

    2004-09-01

    To report a rare case of lymphocutaneous Nocardia brasiliensis originating in the eyelid. Observational case report. The clinical presentation, workup, and treatment of a case of lymphocutaneous Nocardia brasiliensis originating in the eyelid are presented. The patient presented with a preseptal cellulitis from an abrasion of the eyelid that progressed to submandibular lymph node suppuration. Culture was performed, and a diagnosis of lymphocutaneous Nocardia brasiliensis was made. Nocardia brasiliensis may cause a lymphocutaneous infection of the face and must be considered in the differential diagnosis of preseptal cellulitis.

  8. Estimativa da concentração espermática do sêmen de peixe pelo método de espermatócrito Sperm concentration estimate of fish semen using spermatocrit method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Antônio Sanches

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de estimar a concentração espermática das espécies dourado (Salminus brasiliensis, curimba (Prochilodus lineatus, jundiá (Rhamdia quelen, cascudo-preto (Rhinelepis aspera e tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus pelo método de espermatócrito. Utilizaram-se 19, 58, 51, 43 e 85 reprodutores de dourado, curimba, jundiá, cascudo-preto e tilápia-do-nilo, respectivamente. Com exceção da tilápia-do-nilo, os reprodutores foram submetidos ao processo de indução hormonal e posteriormente submetidos a coleta de sêmen. Foram comparadas as técnicas de mensuração da concentração espermática do sêmen por contagem em câmara hematimétrica de Neubauer e por espermatócrito. Os resultados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de regressão a 5% de probabilidade. As concentrações espermáticas mensuradas por ambas as técnicas apresentaram relação linear, para curimbas, jundiás e tilápias-do-nilo, com equações y = 6,6624 × 10(9 + 3,68553 × 10(8x; y = 2,153 × 10(9 + 4,426 × 10(8x e y = -9,0897 × 10(8 + 6,0167 × 10(8, respectivamente. O método de espermatócrito pode ser utilizado para estimar a concentração espermática do sêmen de curimbas, jundiás e tilápias-do-nilo.The objective of this experiment was estimate sperm concentration of "dourado" (Salminus brasiliensis, "curimba" (Prochilodus lineatus, "jundiá" (Rhamdia quelen, "cascudo-preto" (Rhinelepis aspera and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus by the method of spermatocrit. It was used 19, 58, 51, 43 and 85 brood fish of "dourado", "curimba", "jundia", "cascudo-preto" and Nile tilapia, respectively. Except for the Nile tilapia, the fishes were subjected to the hormonal induction process and then submitted to the semen collection. The measurement techniques of the sperm concentration by sperm count in Neubauer chamber (CSPZ and by spermatocrit (ESPMT were compared. The results were submitted to the regression analysis at 5

  9. Mercury bioaccumulation and elimination by Xenomelanires brasiliensis - radioactive tracers technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malagrino, Waldir; Mesquita, Carlos Henrique de; Sousa, Eduinetty Ceci P.M. de

    2002-01-01

    The present work has as main objective to emphasized the importance of using radioactive tracers as well as to establish a methodology for the utilization of 203 Hg in the bioaccumulation study of mercury by X enomelanires brasiliensis. The exposure time was 168 hours. The bioaccumulation of mercury from the water as well as the elimination of the metal previously absorbed were determined by measuring the activity of 203 Hg, which was added to the water in the beginning of the experiments. The technique chosen is suitable to study the behavior of the stable mercury since the radioisotope used is an isotope of the same element and therefore presents the same chemical properties. The results obtained show that the absorption and elimination of mercury by Xenomelanires brasiliensis is slow, 168 hours being necessary for the elimination of 38 % of the previously absorbed mercury. The results are of main concern if it is considered that the literature about bioaccumulation of mercury by the Brazilian ichthyofauna is scarce. Furthermore the species Xenomelanires brasiliensis is part of the food chain and the results can be used in the evaluation of the potential risk of the mercury bioaccumulation by fishes of higher trophic levels and by men who are the final link of the food chain. (author)

  10. Influence of spawning procedure on gametes fertilization success in Salminus hilarii Valenciennes, 1850 (Teleostei: Characidae: Implications for the conservation of this species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato M. Honji

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Artificial reproduction and gamete fertilization were evaluated in Salminus hilarii wild and domesticated broodstocks. Wild and domesticated broodstocks were artificially induced to reproduction using a carp pituitary treatment. Four groups were considered: Group 1 (G1, fish caught in the wild maintained for three years in the same conditions as the domesticated broodstocks and spawned naturally; Group 2 (G2, broodstock born and raised in captivity and spawned naturally; Group 3 (G3, wild broodstocks, which were manually stripped for gamete collection and dry fertilization; and Group 4 (G4, domesticated males and females, also manually stripped. Oocytes, eggs, and larvae were sampled at different time intervals throughout embryonic development. Yolk sac absorption occurred approximately 24-29 h after hatching. Twenty-six h after hatching, the larvae mouths opened. Cannibalism was identified just 28-30 h after hatching. There was no morphological difference in embryonic development among all groups. The number of released eggs per gram of female was: G1: 83.3 ± 24.5 and G2: 103.8 ± 37.4; however, the fertilization success was lower in G2 (42.0 ± 6.37 % compared with G1 (54.7 ± 3.02% (P = 0.011. Hand-stripping of oocytes was not successful and the fertilization rate was zero. The reproduction of this species in captivity is viable, but it is necessary to improve broodstock management to enhance fertilization rates and obtain better fingerling production for restocking programs.A reprodução artificial e fertilização dos gametas foram avaliados em reprodutores selvagens e de cativeiro de Salminus hilarii. Reprodutores selvagens e de cativeiro foram induzidos artificialmente à reprodução utilizando hipófise de carpa. Quatros grupos foram considerados: Grupo 1 (G1, peixes capturados na natureza, mantidos por três anos nas mesmas condições de reprodutores de cativeiro e desovados naturalmente; Grupo 2 (G2, reprodutores nascidos e criados

  11. Lymphocutaneous nocardiosis due to Nocardia brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraki, Sofia; Scoulica, Efstathia; Alpantaki, Kalliopi; Dialynas, Michael; Tselentis, Yannis

    2003-09-01

    Nocardia species are Gram-positive bacteria responsible for systemic or cutaneous infections in humans. Nocardia brasiliensis is the most common infective agent in the cutaneous form of nocardiosis. We describe a case of a previously healthy man, who presented with lymphocutaneous Nocardia brasiliensis infection, and was successfully treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The identification of the isolate was confirmed by nucleotide sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene.

  12. Identification of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis by gold nanoprobes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Jaciara F. S.; Castilho, Maiara L.; Cardoso, Maria A. G.; Carreiro, Andrea P.; Martin, Airton A.; Raniero, Leandro

    2012-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (P. brasiliensis) is a thermal dimorphic fungus and causal agent of paracoccidioidomycosis. Epidemiological data shows that it is mainly concentrated in Central and South America countries, with most registered cases in Colombia, Brazil, and Venezuela. The histopathological similarity with others fungal infection makes the diagnosis of P. brasiliensis more complicated. Therefore, the aim of this work was to find a positive and negative test for P. brasiliensis using gold nanoprobes as a new tool for P. brasiliensis detection. Gold nanoparticles were synthesized by reduction of gold chloride with sodium citrate. The results of this procedure is a wine-red solution with a maximum absorption in the range of ~520-530nm. A specific P. brasiliensis sequence of oligonucleotide was bonded to the nanoparticles, which maintained the wine-red color. The color changes from red to blue for negative diagnostic and is unchanged for a positive test. The H-bond interaction of DNA with the complementary DNA keeps strands together and forms double helical structure, maintaining the colloid stability. However, for non-complimentary DNA sequence the nanoprobes merge into a cluster, changing the light absorption.

  13. Tempo de indução e de recuperação de dourados Salminus brasiliensis (Cuvier, 1816, submetidos a diferentes concentrações de óleo de cravo Eugenia sp. = Induction and recovery time for dourados Salminus brasiliensis (Cuvier, 1816 submitted to different concentrations of clove oil Eugenia sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo avaliou o óleo de cravo como anestésico para juvenis de dourado em cinco diferentes concentrações (20, 30, 40, 50 e 60 mg L-1, utilizando como critério para determinação da concentração ideal os tempos de indução e de recuperação ao efeito do anestésico. Em relação aos tempos de indução, verificou-se diferença significativa (p The present study evaluated five different concentrations (20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 mg L-1 of clove oil as an anesthetic for dourado juveniles, using induction and recovery time to determine the ideal concentration. Significant difference (p < 0.05 was observed among 20, 30, 40 and 60 mg L-1 levels of clove oil. However, 50 mg L-1 concentrati on did not show significant difference in comparison to 40 and 60 mg L-1. Regarding recovery time, the shortest time was verified in the concentration of 20 mg L-1. Clove oil is effective and safe as an anesthetic for dourado juveniles in levels between 40 and 60 mg L-1.

  14. Do different degrees of human activity affect the diet of Brazilian silverside Atherinella brasiliensis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, V E N; Patrício, J; Dolbeth, M; Pessanha, A; Palma, A R T; Dantas, E W; Vendel, A L

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to test whether different degrees of human activity affect the diet of the Brazilian silverside Atherinella brasiliensis in two tropical estuaries. Fish were collected along the salinity gradient of two Brazilian estuaries, the heavily impacted Paraiba Estuary and the less impacted Mamanguape Estuary, in the dry and wet seasons. The findings confirm that A. brasiliensis has generalist feeding habits and is able to change its diet under different environmental conditions. The results indicate clear spatial (i.e. along the estuarine gradient) changes in diet composition in both estuaries, but diet was also influenced by the degree of anthropogenic disturbance. During the wet season in the nutrient enriched Paraiba Estuary, when human activity was higher, the diet of A. brasiliensis was poorer and dominated by few dietary items, reflecting the potential impoverishment of prey items in this heavily disturbed system. The specimens collected in the most affected estuary also had a greater frequency of micro-plastics and parasites in their stomachs, reflecting the greater degree of human disturbance in the estuary. The present findings suggest that the diet of A. brasiliensis could be a useful indicator of changes in the ecological quality of these and other tropical estuaries of the western Atlantic Ocean. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  15. Nocardia brasiliensis vertebral osteomyelitis and epidural abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Philip; Ammar, Hussam

    2013-04-11

    Nocardia species exist in the environment as a saprophyte; it is found worldwide in soil and decaying plant matter. They often infect patients with underlying immune compromise, pulmonary disease or history of trauma or surgery. The diagnosis of nocardiosis can be easily missed as it mimics many other granulomatous and neoplastic disease. We report a 69-year-old man who presented with chronic back pain and paraparesis. He was found to have Nocardial brasiliensis vertebral osteomyelitis and epidural abscess. Laminectomy and epidural wash out was performed but with no neurological recovery. This is the second reported case of N brasiliensis vertebral osteomyelitis in the literature.

  16. A fatal pulmonary infection by Nocardia brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwa, V; Rai, S; Kharbanda, P; Kabra, S; Gur, R; Sharma, V K

    2006-01-01

    The reported case is of primary pulmonary nocardiosis, caused by Nocardia brasiliensis, in a immunocompromised patient, which ended fatally despite appropriate treatment. The partially acid fast filamentous bacterium was predominant on direct examination of the sputum. It was cultured on blood agar, MacConkey agar and by paraffin baiting technique. The bacterium was resistant to cotrimoxazole, the drug of choice for nocardiosis.

  17. DESCRIPCIÓN MORFOLÓGICA DEL TUBO DIGESTIVO DE JUVENILES DE RUBIO Salminus affinis (PISCES: CHARACIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VJ Atencio

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue la descripción del tubo digestivo de juveniles de Rubio Salminus affinis. Se analizaron cinco juveniles con 23,6±2,6 cm de longitud total y 142,8±62,5 g de peso. Se realizó descripción topográfica y morfológica de los órganos y cortes histológicos con tinción H-E. El esófago es un órgano tubular corto de pared gruesa que representa el 7,8% de la longitud total del tubo digestivo, presenta pliegues internos que ofrecen gran capacidad de distensión permitiendo el paso de presas de gran tamaño. El estómago es una bolsa asimétrica en forma de “Y”, grande y musculosa, amplio en la porción anterior y estrecho hacia el fondo; el número de ciegos pilóricos varió entre 13 y 23 pudiendo ser monotubulares y ramificados. El intestino, con tres asas, se extiende desde el esfínter pilórico hasta el ano. Histológicamente el tubo digestivo está formado por cuatro capas: mucosa, submucosa, muscular y serosa; el epitelio de revestimiento del esófago es estratificado plano no queratinizado con células caliciformes, cambiando a simple cilíndrico mucosecretor llegando al estómago; en el estómago se encuentra epitelio simple cilíndrico mucosecretor y los ciegos pilóricos e intestino son revestidos por epitelio simple cilíndrico con células caliciformes. Tanto el valor promedio del coeficiente intestinal (0,58, como la pared distensible del estómago sugieren que el Rubio tiene un tubo digestivo propio de carnívoro y sus características histológicas presentan similitud con la mayoría de vertebrados superiores.

  18. Micetoma por Nocardia brasiliensis: reporte de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Guevara R

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de un paciente peruano, agricultor, con una infección cutánea de origen traumático causada por Nocardia brasiliensis, que evolucionó hacia la amputación del miembro inferior afectado. El diagnóstico se realizó por examen directo y cultivo del espécimen.

  19. Nocardia brasiliensis Infection Complicating Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Alison M; Sluzevich, Jason C; Mira-Avendano, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary nocardiosis is a severe and uncommon opportunistic infection caused by Nocardia species. We present a patient with cryptogenic organizing pneumonia who was receiving long-term immunosuppressive therapy, whose treatment course was complicated by cutaneous and pulmonary nocardiosis. Tissue cultures confirmed Nocardia brasiliensis . Nocardiosis should be a diagnostic consideration for patients treated with long-term immunosuppression who have worsening pulmonary symptoms and relapsing pustular skin lesions.

  20. A fatal pulmonary infection by Nocardia brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadhwa V

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The reported case is of primary pulmonary nocardiosis, caused by Nocardia brasiliensis , in a immunocompromised patient, which ended fatally despite appropriate treatment. The partially acid fast filamentous bacterium was predominant on direct examination of the sputum. It was cultured on blood agar, MacConkey agar and by paraffin baiting technique. The bacterium was resistant to cotrimoxazole, the drug of choice for nocardiosis.

  1. Nocardia brasiliensis Infection Complicating Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Alison M.; Sluzevich, Jason C.; Mira-Avendano, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary nocardiosis is a severe and uncommon opportunistic infection caused by Nocardia species. We present a patient with cryptogenic organizing pneumonia who was receiving long-term immunosuppressive therapy, whose treatment course was complicated by cutaneous and pulmonary nocardiosis. Tissue cultures confirmed Nocardia brasiliensis. Nocardiosis should be a diagnostic consideration for patients treated with long-term immunosuppression who have worsening pulmonary symptoms and relapsing p...

  2. Nocardia brasiliensis Infection Complicating Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M. Fernandes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary nocardiosis is a severe and uncommon opportunistic infection caused by Nocardia species. We present a patient with cryptogenic organizing pneumonia who was receiving long-term immunosuppressive therapy, whose treatment course was complicated by cutaneous and pulmonary nocardiosis. Tissue cultures confirmed Nocardia brasiliensis. Nocardiosis should be a diagnostic consideration for patients treated with long-term immunosuppression who have worsening pulmonary symptoms and relapsing pustular skin lesions.

  3. Nocardia brasiliensis-associated femorotibial osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanegas, Samuel; Franco-Cendejas, Rafael; Cicero, Antonio; López-Jácome, Esaú; Colin, Claudia; Hernández, Melissa

    2014-03-01

    We report a case of femorotibial osteomyelitis due to Nocardia brasiliensis. Nocardia spp are a rare cause of bone infections, and the majority of such cases are associated with the spine. This type of osteomyelitis is uncommon, and in the immunocompetent host, is more often related to a chronic evolution following direct inoculation of the microorganism. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Inactivation of rifampin by Nocardia brasiliensis.

    OpenAIRE

    Yazawa, K; Mikami, Y; Maeda, A; Akao, M; Morisaki, N; Iwasaki, S

    1993-01-01

    Rifampin was glycosylated by a pathogenic species of Nocardia, i.e., Nocardia brasiliensis. The structures of two glycosylated compounds (RIP-1 and RIP-2) isolated from the culture broth of the bacterium were determined to be 3-formyl-23-(O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl])rifamycin SV and 23-(O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl])rifampin, respectively. Both compounds lacked antimicrobial activity against other gram-positive bacteria as well as the Nocardia species.

  5. Genetic Diversity of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis Isolated in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hwan Lee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The plant pathogenic bacterial genus Pectobacteirum consists of heterogeneous strains. The P. carotovorum species is a complex strain showing divergent characteristics, and a new subspecies named P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis has been identified recently. In this paper, we re-identified the P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis isolates from those classified under the subspecies carotovorum and newly isolated P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis strains. All isolates were able to produce plant cell-wall degrading enzymes such as pectate lyase, polygalacturonase, cellulase and protease. We used genetic and biochemical methods to examine the diversity of P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis isolates, and found genetic diversity within the brasiliensis subsp. isolates in Korea. The restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis based on the recA gene revealed a unique pattern for the brasiliensis subspecies. The Korean brasiliensis subsp. isolates were divided into four clades based on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. However, correlations between clades and isolated hosts or year could not be found, suggesting that diverse brasiliensis subsp. isolates existed.

  6. Complete genome sequence of Nocardia brasiliensis HUJEG-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Ortiz-Lopez, Rocio; Elizondo-Gonzalez, Ramiro; Perez-Maya, Antonio Ali; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge

    2012-05-01

    In Mexico, actinomycetoma is mainly caused by Nocardia brasiliensis, which is a soil inhabitant actinobacterium. Here, we report for the first time the draft genome of a strain isolated from a human case that has largely been found in in vitro and experimental models of actinomycetoma, N. brasiliensis HUJEG-1.

  7. Temporal and spatial patterns on serra, Scomberomorus brasiliensis (Teleostei, Scombridae, catches from the fisheries on the Maranhão coast, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BATISTA V. da

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The displacement pattern of the serra, Scomberomorus brasiliensis, in North-eastern Brazil was analyzed from landing data recorded from the fleet fishing serra. Serra fishery has two seasons: from September to February (demersal species plus serra, and from March to August (almost only large amounts of serra. S. brasiliensis relative abundance increases similarly along the coast from March, but decreases first on the West coast from June. Records indicate that serra is near the coast at least until September/October in Eastern grounds. From October to March (strongest spawning season there is no record of shoals on the coast. We concluded that the Maranhão coast is just a part of the migration circuit of S. brasiliensis that may exceed 300 nautical miles.

  8. Triterpenoid saponins from Tocoyena brasiliensis Mart. (Rubiaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamerski, Lidilhone; Carbomezi, Carlos Alberto; Cavalheiro, Alberto Jose; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva; Young, Maria Claudia Marx

    2005-01-01

    The present communication reports the isolation and identification of four triterpenoid saponins from the chloroform extract of the leaves of Tocoyena brasiliensis: 3-O-β-D quinovopyranosyl quinovic acid, 3-O-β-D-quinovopyranosyl cincholic acid, 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl quinovic acid and the 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester derivative of quinovic acid as binary mixtures, respectively. From the ethanol extract a flavonoid identified as ramnazin-3-O-rutinoside was obtained. The structures of these compounds were assigned by data analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectrometry and comparison with data recorded in the literature for these compounds. (author)

  9. PREVALENCIA Y ABUNDANCIA DE Contracaecum sp. EN RUBIO Salminus affinis EN EL RÍO SINÚ Y SAN JORGE: DESCRIPCIÓN MORFOLÓGICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Pardo C

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar la presencia de endoparásitos del género Anisakidae en rubioSalminus affinis en el medio natural. Materiales y métodos. Por medio de diseccióne inspección de las vísceras y la cavidad abdominal fueron analizados 45 ejemplarescapturados en los ríos Sinú (n=34 y San Jorge (n=11 (Córdoba, Colombia.Resultados. Larvas terciarias (L3 de nemátodos del género Contracaecum(Nematoda: Anisakidae fueron halladas en la cavidad visceral de rubio capturadosen ambos ríos. La prevalencia de este nemátodo en los dos ríos estudiados fuemayor de 95%. El grado de infestación fue leve en 94.1% de los rubios del río Sinú yel restante 5.9% tuvieron una infestación moderada; mientras que el 100% de loscasos del río San Jorge tuvieron un grado de infestación leve. Conclusiones. Losresultados permiten concluir que el rubio de los ríos Sinú y San Jorge se encuentrancon un grado de infestación leve del anisákido Contracaecum sp; el cual se encuentraalojado en el tracto digestivo y grasa mesentérica en estado larval terciario (L3.

  10. Nocardia brasiliensis in Italy: a nine-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Claudio; Andrini, Laura; Bruno, Gianfranco; Sarti, Mario; Tripodi, Marie Françoise; Utili, Riccardo; Boiron, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    In the past, no case reports concerning N. brasiliensis infections were published from Italy. We now report 4 cases observed during 1998-2006 in 4 Italian patients, 1 immunosuppressed and 3 immunocompetent.

  11. Mammalia, Rodentia, Sigmodontinae, Holochilus brasiliensis (Desmarest, 1819: Distribution extention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Formoso, A. E.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the southernmost record for the marsh rats Holochilus brasiliensis 20 km S of Pedro Luro on Hwy3, province of Buenos Aires, Argentina (39°41’31.13”S, 62°40’23.5”W extending the range of the species ca. 110 km S.This represents the first contemporaneous record of H. brasiliensis in Patagonia, and also the only species of sigmodontinerodent with amphibious habits reported in Patagonia.

  12. Monoclonal antibodies to Nocardia asteroides and Nocardia brasiliensis antigens.

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez, T; Díaz, A M; Zlotnik, H

    1990-01-01

    Nocardia asteroides and Nocardia brasiliensis whole-cell extracts were used as antigens to generate monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Six stable hybrid cell lines secreting anti-Nocardia spp. MAbs were obtained. These were characterized by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blot (immunoblot), and immunofluorescence assay. Although all the MAbs exhibited different degrees of cross-reactivity with N. asteroides and N. brasiliensis antigens as well as with culture-filtrate antigens from Myco...

  13. Aspectos operacionais do controle do Triatoma brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diotaiuti Liléia

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O controle de triatomíneos é dificultado pela capacidade de reinvasão das casas por exemplares silvestres. Entre agosto/96 e dezembro/97 realizou-se, no Ceará, um estudo a respeito da reinfestação das casas após borrifação. Das 277 Unidades Domiciliares ­ UD ­ pesquisadas, 40,8% estavam infestadas (21,7% dos intradomicílios e 35,4% dos peridomicílios. Dos 433 triatomíneos capturados, 207 eram Triatoma brasiliensis (48,8% no intradomicílio, média de 1,8 insetos/casa e 226 Triatoma pseudomaculata (97,3% no peridomicílio. Ocorre um único ciclo anual do T. brasiliensis, e dois ciclos anuais do T. pseudomaculata. Quatro meses após a borrifação, 9,7% das unidades domiciliares permaneciam positivas, principalmente no peridomicílio; 10,3% das UD foram positivas em todas as avaliações. O teste de suscetibilidade biológica à deltametrina revelou a persistência do inseticida no intradomicílio até nove meses após a borrifação. A prevalência global da infecção humana foi de 5,7%, tendo sido positivas cinco crianças menores de dez anos. Considerando-se a alta pressão de recolonização a partir de exemplares silvestres, propõe-se, como metodologia de controle, um sistema misto da avaliação tradicional e a vigilância epidemiológica.

  14. Pentacyclic triterpenoids from the leaves of Terminalia brasiliensis; Triterpenoides pentaciclicos das folhas de Terminalia brasiliensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Delton Servulo; Chaves, Mariana H. [Universidade Federal do Piaui, Teresina, PI (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: mariana@ufpi.br

    2005-11-15

    Eleven oleanane, ursane and lupane-type triterpenes were isolated from the leaves of Terminalia brasiliensis Camb, daturadiol (3{beta},6{beta}-dihydroxy-olean-12-ene), 3{beta}-hydroxy-30-norlupan-20-one, lupenone, {beta}-amyrenone, {alpha}-amyrenone, lupeol, {beta}-amyrin, {alpha}-amyrin, betulin, erythrodiol and uvaol, in addition to squalene, sitosterol and {alpha}-tocopherol. The structures of these compounds were identified by {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectral analysis and comparison with literature data. (author)

  15. Triterpenoid saponins from Tocoyena brasiliensis Mart. (Rubiaceae); Saponinas triterpenicas de Tocoyena brasiliensis Mart. (Rubiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamerski, Lidilhone; Carbomezi, Carlos Alberto; Cavalheiro, Alberto Jose; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: bolzaniv@iq.unesp.br; Young, Maria Claudia Marx [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Fisiologia e Bioquimica de Plantas

    2005-07-15

    The present communication reports the isolation and identification of four triterpenoid saponins from the chloroform extract of the leaves of Tocoyena brasiliensis: 3-O-{beta}-D quinovopyranosyl quinovic acid, 3-O-{beta}-D-quinovopyranosyl cincholic acid, 3-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranosyl quinovic acid and the 28-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranosyl ester derivative of quinovic acid as binary mixtures, respectively. From the ethanol extract a flavonoid identified as ramnazin-3-O-rutinoside was obtained. The structures of these compounds were assigned by data analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectrometry and comparison with data recorded in the literature for these compounds. (author)

  16. Saponinas triterpênicas de Tocoyena brasiliensis Mart. (Rubiaceae Triterpenoid saponins from Tocoyena brasiliensis Mart. (Rubiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidilhone Hamerski

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The present communication reports the isolation and identification of four triterpenoid saponins from the chloroform extract of the leaves of Tocoyena brasiliensis: 3-O-beta-D-quinovopyranosyl quinovic acid, 3-O-beta-D-quinovopyranosyl cincholic acid, 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl quinovic acid and the 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester derivative of quinovic acid as binary mixtures, respectively. From the ethanol extract a flavonoid identified as ramnazin-3-O-rutinoside was obtained. The structures of these compounds were assigned by data analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectrometry and comparison with data recorded in the literature for these compounds.

  17. Morfoanatomia vegetativa de Opuntia brasiliensis (Willd Haw / Vegetative morphology and anatomy of Opuntia brasiliensis (Willd Haw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Firmino de Azevedo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Opuntia brasiliensis (Willd Haw. é uma Cactaceae nativa do Brasil utilizada como ornamental, que apresenta caracteres morfológicos semelhantes a outras espécies do gênero, o que dificulta sua identificação. Dessa forma, foi realizado uma descrição morfoanatômica de O. brasiliensis com o objetivo de ampliar o conhecimento sobre a organização estrutural do gênero e fornecer subsídios para a identificação da espécie, bem como observar caracteres importantes na adaptação a ambientes xerófilos. Foram feitas secções transversais e paradérmicas da raiz, caule principal e cladódios com espécimes coletados na zona rural da cidade de Serra Branca (PB, localizada na região do cariri ocidental. O. brasiliensis apresenta raiz ramificada e caule clorofilado formando um eixo principal de onde partem inúmeros cladódios delgados. Observamse pelos e epiderme unisseriada irregular na raiz, que possui córtex formado por parênquima, seguido de endoderme multisseriada e periciclo. No cilindro central da raiz, ocorrem tecidos vasculares formando cinco pólos seguidos de medula. O caule e o cladódio apresentam epiderme com paredes sinuosas, em que encontram-se estômatos paralelocíticos que apresentam câmara subestomática; e na camada subsequente, hipoderme com grande quantidade de drusas de oxalato de cálcio. O córtex é formado por parênquimas clorofiliano e aquífero, onde observam-se feixes vasculares, com raios de floema voltados para o lado externo, seguido de xilema helicoidal. Porém, nos cladódios, o parênquima clorofiliano é bem mais denso e os feixes vasculares são dispostos irregularmente, enquanto no caule estão distribuídos no sentido radial. O. brasiliensis apresenta várias características importantes na sua identificação, bem como adaptações estruturais a ambientes xerófilos

  18. Desarrollo embrionariolarval y tiempo de metamorfosis del pez tropical Xenomelaniris brasiliensis (Pisces: Atherinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica del Río

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el desarrollo embrionario y larval hasta la metamorfosis de Xenomelaniris brasiliensi. Un total de 29 ejemplares sexualmente maduros, 16 hembras (10.86 ± 1.01 cm y 7.63 ± 2.62 g y 13 machos (10.43 ± 0.57 cm y 6.54 ± 1.44 g, liberaron sus productos sexuales mediante masaje abdominal. Los huevos fértiles fueron esféricos de 1.18 ± 0.44 mm de diámetro, verdosos, translúcidos, bentónicos, ricos en vitelo, corion rugoso y estriado, con numerosos filamentos coriónicos, distribuidos aleatoriamente por toda la superficie externa y numerosas gotas lipídicas con un diámetro de 0.11 ± 0.07 mm. El desarrollo embrionario se realizó a 26.36 ± 2.03 ºC, 39.67 ± 0.58 PSU y pH 8.30 ± 0.10 eclosionando larvas de 4.56 ± 0.97 mm a las 143 hrs: 19 min, con vestigios del saco vitelino y una gota lipídica interna. Las larvas fueron alimentadas diariamente con Brachionus plicatilis e Isochrysis galbana, a partir de la segunda semana se incorporó nauplios de Artemia, manteniendo la adición diaria de I. galbana. A los 13 días después de la eclosión de larvas (6.10 ± 1.54 mm se inició la flexión, completándose a los 32 días (11.25 ± 1.87 mm con un complejo hipural completamente desarrollado. Se concluye que X. brasiliensis presentó desarrollo larval directo, iniciándose la metamorfosis de larva (13.08 ± 2.07 a juvenil a los 40 días de edad.Development of the tropical fish Xenomelaniris brasiliensis (Pisces: Atherinidae from embryo to larva and time to metamorphosis. Embryoniclarval development, and metamorphosis larval time, were studied in the tropical fish Xenomelaniris brasiliensis. Twenty nine sexually mature specimens were used, 16 females (10.86 ± 1.01 cm and 7.63 ± 2.62 g and 13 males (10.43 ± 0.57 cm and 6.54 ± 1.44 g which produced gametes through abdominal massage. Fertilized eggs were spherical (1.18 ± 0.44 mm diameter, greenish, transparent, benthonic and vitelusrich; rugose striated chorion with numerous

  19. Feeding habits of giant otters Pteronura brasiliensis (Carnivora: Mustelidae in the Balbina hydroelectric reservoir, Central Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia M. M. Cabral

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the diet of giant otters, Pteronura brasiliensis (Zimmermann, 1780 in the Balbina reservoir (01º55'S, 59º29'W, to compare it with literature data on the diet of giant otters from non-dammed areas, and to verify the effects of the seasonal changes in water levels on the feeding habits of Balbina otters. A total of 254 feces samples were collected and identified according to the lowest possible taxonomic level. Teleostei fish were present in 100% of the samples; two samples also presented monkey fur (n = 1 and sloth fur (n = 1, suggesting that the diet of P. brasiliensis, in the reservoir, is almost exclusively based on fish. Ten fish families were identified in our samples, six of which were exclusive to the Balbina Lake (not present in the diet of giant otters from non-dammed areas. These six fish families, however, were present in less than 3% of the samples. The fish families with highest representation in the diet of giant otters from non-dammed areas also appeared with higher frequencies in the Balbina Lake, suggesting that the otters have not changed their diet substantially after the implementation of the reservoir. During the high-water period, when the fish are dispersed into the flooded forest and are not very easy to catch, the otters seem to have an opportunistic feeding habit. By contrast, during the low-water period, when prey items are widely available and easier to catch in the reservoir, their feeding habits are more selective.

  20. Actinomycetoma Due To Nocardia Brasiliensis in Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V V Pankajalakshmi

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of actinomycetoma caused by Nocardia Brasiliensis in Tamilians are reported. Both presented with multiple sinuses discharging serosanguinous material without any granules. In the first case, the lesion was located in the thigh and leg and the specific diagnosis was made by histopathology and isolation of N. brasiliensis. In the other, in addition to thigh and leg, the foot was also affected and the causative agent was isolated in pure culture. The geographic distribution of the organism and its incidence and prevalence are discussed.

  1. In Vitro Activities of New Antimicrobials against Nocardia brasiliensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Gonzalez, Eva; Choi, Sung H.; Welsh, Oliverio

    2004-01-01

    The in vitro sensitivities of 30 strains of Nocardia brasiliensis to DA-7867, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, and BMS-284756 (garenoxacin) were determined using the broth microdilution method. All N. brasiliensis strains were sensitive to these antimicrobials. The most active drug in vitro was DA-7867, with a MIC at which 90% of the isolates tested were inhibited of 0.03 μg/ml and a MIC at which 50% of the isolates tested were inhibited of 0.06 μg/ml. PMID:14742215

  2. Kalanchosine dimalate, an anti-inflammatory salt from Kalanchoe brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Sônia Soares; de Souza, Maria de Lourdes Mendes; Ibrahim, Tereza; de Melo, Giany Oliveira; de Almeida, Ana Paula; Guette, Catherine; Férézou, Jean-Pierre; Koatz, Vera Lucia G

    2006-05-01

    This report describes the isolation and characterization of kalanchosine dimalate (KMC), an anti-inflammatory salt from the fresh juice of the aerial parts of Kalanchoe brasiliensis. KMC comprises the new metabolite kalanchosine (1) and malic acid (2) in a 1:2 stoichiometric ratio. Kalanchosine (1), 3,6-diamino-4,5-dihydroxyoctanedioic acid, is the first naturally occurring dimeric bis(gamma-hydroxy-beta-amino acid) and is at least partially responsible for the anti-inflammatory properties of K. brasiliensis.

  3. Inmunoglobulinas en pacientes con actinomicetoma por Nocardia brasiliensis Immunoglobulins in patients with Nocardia brasiliensis actinomycetoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. J. Méndez-Tovar

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Considerando que algunos autores han reportado un aumento en la cantidad de algunas inmunoglobulinas en los pacientes con actinomicetoma, en este trabajo nos propusimos determinar diferencias en la producción de IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4 e IgM en 25 pacientes con actinomicetoma por Nocardia brasiliensis y 25 personas sanas provenientes de una zona endémica de micetoma. La determinación de inmunoglobulinas se realizó por medio de la técnica de ELISA. Para sensibilizar las placas se emplearon 6 antígenos de N. brasiliensis: un antígeno crudo denominado NB y cinco derivados del mismo (NB2, NB4, NB6, NB8 y NB10 separados por punto isoeléctrico. Los niveles de las cuatro subclases de IgG fueron mayores en los sueros de los pacientes que en el suero de los controles, con una diferencia máxima en IgG3 e IgG4; para esta última subclase, los seis antígenos fueron altamente reactivos. La concentración de IgM fue igual en ambos grupos. Es probable que como ocurre en otras infecciones, en la fisiopatogenia del actinomicetoma influya no sólo el aumento o deficiencia de una clase de inmunoglobulina, sino la relación que existe entre las diferentes subclases.Considering that some authors have reported an increasing of some immunoglobulins in actinomycetoma patients, in this study we propose to determine differential production of IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4 and IgGM in 25 patients with actinomycetoma and 25 healthy individuals from a mycetoma endemic area. Immunoglobulins were determined by ELISA technique. To sensibilize the plates, six Nocardia brasiliensis antigens were used: a crude antigen denominated NB and five derivatives (NB2, NB4, NB6, NB8 and NB10 obtained by their isoelectric point. Results showed that all IgG subclasses were higher in the patients’ sera than in control sera, with a maximal difference to IgG3 and IgG4. To the latter subclass, six antigens were highly reactives. IgM levels were similar in both groups. As it occurs in other

  4. Liver damages and nuclear abnormalities in erythrocytes of Atherinella brasiliensis (Actynopterigii, Atherinopsidade from two beaches in Southeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welingtom S. Fernandez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available There are few environmental studies using biomarkers for the species Atherinella brasiliensis in Brazil. In the present work, the presence of hepatic histopathological lesions and nuclear abnormalities in erythrocytes were investigated in A. brasiliensis from Lamberto, a beach under influence of domestic wastes and marine activities. For comparison, fish were also sampled in Puruba, a non-polluted beach, located in the northeastern of São Paulo State. The frequency of lesions found in liver was in higher numbers in individuals from Lamberto than Puruba beach. The most critical injuries observed in A. brasiliensis were the presence of necrotic areas, leucocytes infiltration and piknotic nucleus. A high occurrence of cells with vacuolization was also observed. The hepatic lesion index of the fish from Lamberto beach showed significant high values (Iorg=13 when compared with fish from Puruba beach (Iorg=7 suggesting the influence of the several human activities in the studied site. Notched and blebed nucleous were observed in this study, and significant differences were found between the studied sites. However, these differences did not reflect the total nuclear alterations.Existem poucos estudos no Brasil usando biomarcadores em Atherinella brasiliensis. No presente trabalho foram investigadas a presença de lesões histopatológicas hepáticas e as alterações nucleares em eritrócitos de A. brasiliensis amostrados na praia do Lamberto, local submetido à influência de resíduos domésticos e atividades humanas. Para comparação, indivíduos da espécie foram também amostrados na praia de Puruba, local não impactado, localizado no noroeste do estado de São Paulo. Peixes provenientes da praia do Lamberto apresentaram lesões hepáticas em número maior do que aqueles da praia de Puruba. Áreas necróticas, infiltração de leucócitos e núcleos picnóticos foram os danos de maior importância observados em A. brasiliensis, apesar de uma

  5. Glyoxalase I expression pattern in Hevea brasiliensis seedlings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny t

    2016-03-16

    Mar 16, 2016 ... developing tolerance to drought stress in Hevea brasiliensis. In the present study, a partial .... First strand cDNA was synthesized from total RNA by reverse transcription with oligo (dT) ..... Genetic engineering of the glyoxalase ...

  6. Glyoxalase I expression pattern in Hevea brasiliensis seedlings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glyoxalase I expression pattern in Hevea brasiliensis seedlings under varied stress conditions. MVP Siraj, A Thulaseedharan, Anu Augustine. Abstract. Drought is one of the most important stress factors which adversely affect plants' growth and productivity. Global climate change may make this situation more serious in the ...

  7. An overview of the potentials of natural rubber (Hevea brasiliensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-29

    Dec 29, 2009 ... brasiliensis) engineering for the production of valuable proteins ... years gestation period and economic life of about 25 years. ... reactors) involve processes well entrenched in industry. ... plant (low cost of maintenance, simple clonal propaga- .... such as industrial enzymes or proteins used in personal.

  8. Gamma irradiation induced ultrastructural changes in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demicheli, Marina C.; Andrade, Antero S.R.; Goes, Alfredo Miranda

    2007-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a thermally dimorphic fungus agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, a deep-seated systemic infection of humans with high prevalence in Latin America. Up to the moment no vaccine has still been reported. Ionizing radiation can be used to attenuate pathogens for vaccine development and we have successfully attenuated yeast cells of P. brasiliensis by gamma irradiation. The aim of the present study was to examine at ultrastructural level the effects of gamma irradiation attenuation on the morphology of P. brasiliensis yeast cells. P. brasiliensis (strain Pb-18) cultures were irradiated with a dose of 6.5 kGy. The irradiated cells were examined by scanning and also transmission electron microscopy. When examined two hours after the irradiation by scanning electron microscopy the 6.5 kGy irradiated cells presented deep folds or were collapsed. These lesions were reversible since examined 48 hours after irradiation the yeast have recovered the usual morphology. The transmission electron microscopy showed that the irradiated cells plasma membrane and cell wall were intact and preserved. Remarkable changes were found in the nucleus that was frequently in a very electrodense form. A extensive DNA fragmentation was produced by the gamma irradiation treatment. (author)

  9. Removal of trace element by isolates of Aspergillus brasiliensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coffee beans processing generates a large volume of wastewater composed of trace elements which can be detrimental to human health. The present study aimed at evaluating the capacity of strains of Aspergillus brasiliensis and Penicillium citrinum in tolerating and removing trace elements namely: Cu, Mn and Zn from ...

  10. Metacercárias de Neascus sp. em Geophagus brasiliensis (Perciformes: Cichlidae do rio do Peixe, Juiz de Fora, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i3.493 Neascus-type metacercariae in Geophagus brasiliensis (Perciformes: Cichlidae of Peixe river, Juiz de Fora, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i3.493

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Luque

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A metacercária de Neascus sp., causadora da doença dos pontos pretos, é descrita em espécimes de Geophagus brasiliensis coletados no Brasil. Entre março e maio de 2006, foram capturados 33 espécimes de G. brasiliensis, coletados com o auxílio de vara e anzol no Rio do Peixe, Monte Verde, município de Juiz de Fora, Estado de Minas Gerias. Dos 33 espécimes examinados, 30 (90,9% apresentaram-se parasitados por metacercárias causadoras dos pontos pretos, com intensidade média de infecção de 15,6 ± 16,1 (1 – 75. Foi observada correlação significativa entre o comprimento total de G. brasiliensis e a abundância parasitária (r = 0,459; P Neascus-type metacercariae, which cause the black spot disease, are described in specimens collected from 33 samples of Geophagus brasiliensis from the Peixe river, in Monte Verde, Juiz de Fora, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, during March and May 2006. The main morphological features of these metacercariae are: genital primordia composed of three cell masses located in the hind body, and a median dorsal vessel of the reserve bladder around the acetabulum. Thirty fish specimens (90.9% were parasitized by metacercariae, with mean infection intensity of 15.6 ± 16.1 (1-75. Also, a positive correlation was detected between G. brasiliensis total length and the parasite abundance (r = 0.459; p < 0.01.

  11. Habitat use by Atherinella brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825 in intertidal zones of a subtropical estuary, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Maichak De Carvalho

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Habitat use is different along the ontogenetic development of some species and may be influenced by environmental parameters. This study described the interaction of Atherinella brasiliensis caught in intertidal areas of the Paranaguá Estuarine Complex with environmental parameters (salinity, chlorophyll, pH and water temperature. Collections were conducted between August 2010 and July 2011, at 17 sites in the north-south axis of the Paranaguá Estuarine Complex, Brazil. CTD profiling was carried out every month to measure the environmental parameters. At each month and sampling site, a paralel trawling 30 m long was carried out using a beach seine net 5 m long, 2 m high and 2.5 mm between opposite knots. After collection, fish were identified, measured for total length, weighed and the ages were estimated according von Bertalanffy. We caught 10024 individuals with total mean length of 44.32 mm (SD ± 25.37 mm, variation range between 12 and 142 mm, and weight between 0.01 and 73 g, averaging 1.35 g (SD ± 2.66 g and ages estimated between < 1 and 22 months. Significant differences were detected between sectors and periods for number of individuals and weight at capture, with higher mean values in the mean sector during the rainy period. The spatial and temporal distribution of ages was statistically different, individuals between < 1 and 3 months were more abundant in the sector 2 during the rainy period, and individuals older than 7 months were evenly distributed throughout the sampling area, and with higher mean abundance at the beginning and end of the dry period. Our results evidenced that all age classes of A. brasiliensis are present in shallow areas. This species shows different habitat use between age classes, which is caused by changes in feeding habits and higher availability of favorable environments, besides specific characteristics.

  12. Use of otolith strontium:calcium and zinc:calcium ratios as an indicator of the habitat of Percophis brasiliensis Quoy & Gaimard, 1825 in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Avigliano

    Full Text Available We evaluate the simultaneous use of Sr: Ca and Zn: Ca ratios of the sagitta otolith as a potential indicator of the habitat of Percophis brasiliensis along a latitudinal gradient in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean (34-42ºS and 51-67ºW, in order to reliably identify fish stocks. Fish were collected in three sampling sites: Argentine-Uruguayan Common Fishing Zone (AUCFZ, El Rincón (ER and San Matías Gulf (SMG. The otolith Sr:Ca and Zn:Ca ratios were determined by ICP-OES and EDTA volumetric method. The otolith Sr:Ca ratio was similar in the three sampling sites, while the Zn:Ca ratio was significantly higher in AUCFZ than in ER and SMG for all age groups. The discriminant analysis showed an association between the otolith Sr:Ca and Zn:Ca ratios from ER and SMG. Present results suggest the potential occurrence of two fish stocks of P. brasiliensis in the study area.

  13. Brasilien Vervain (Verbena brasiliensis Vell. in Colkheti flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sh. Mikeladze

    2017-06-01

    In this work the current condition, invasive indicators, bio morphological characteristics and growth-development properties of new invasive species, South American origin Verbena Brasiliensis spread in Colkheti flora (Western Georgia's seaside part is given. In Colkheti it is mainly spread in the seaside, along the roads, along the railroad, on the ruderal places, near channels and rivers, deserted building sites, landfills, non-agricultural lands. Verbena Brasiliensis is a perennial, erect, branched, 50–210 cm height. The plant starts flowering in April–May and lasts till November. It is distinguished with high reproductivity. Fully grown plant in the second year develops about 90000–100000 seeds. Consequently the area of plant spread is gradually growing.

  14. Heavy metals phytoremediation potential of Hevea brasiliensis in Bentong, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, Muhammad Jefri Mohd; Latif, Mohd Talip; Yusoff, Siti Fairus Mohd

    2018-04-01

    Biomonitoring uses living organisms to assess environmental quality and being preferred over conventional methods that use fully or semi-automatic gauges for its lower cost and practicality. Recently, higher plants are widely used for biomonitoring purposes by means of their species identification simplicity, larger availability of biological substantial, and easy to sample. In this study, samples of Hevea brasiliensis (i.e leaves, barks, and latex as well as surrounding soils) from outskirts of Pelangai, Bentong were tested for heavy metals by using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Enrichment factor of soils indicated that some metals (B, Ca, Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn, As and Na) were anthropogenic which most likely originated from traffic emissions. In addition, leaves trapped the most heavy metals compared to barks and latex. The accumulation of pollutants in those samples has identified biomonitoring abilities of Hevea brasiliensis.

  15. Bombus brasiliensis Lepeletier (Hymenoptera, Apidae infected with Nosema ceranae (Microsporidia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Plischuk

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Heavy infections caused by a microsporidium were detected in midgut epithelium cells of two adult workers of the bumble bee Bombus brasiliensis Lepeletier collected near Puerto Iguazú, Misiones province, Argentina. Microsporidium rRNA (16S small subunit was amplified by 218MITOC primers and produced amplicons indicating presence of Nosema ceranae Fries et al., a virulent pathogen of more than 20 bee species, possibly involved in Apis mellifera L. Colony Collapse Disorder. Campaigns in search of B. brasiliensis between 2008 and 2015 have revealed a possible narrower range in the southeastern area of its known distribution. Effects of N. ceranae infections could be modulating their populations and should not be overlooked. In addition, the wide host range of this microsporidium makes it a potential threat to several endemic bees such as stingless (Meliponini and orchid bees (Euglossini.

  16. Draft genome sequence of the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Ahmad Yamin Abdul

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hevea brasiliensis, a member of the Euphorbiaceae family, is the major commercial source of natural rubber (NR. NR is a latex polymer with high elasticity, flexibility, and resilience that has played a critical role in the world economy since 1876. Results Here, we report the draft genome sequence of H. brasiliensis. The assembly spans ~1.1 Gb of the estimated 2.15 Gb haploid genome. Overall, ~78% of the genome was identified as repetitive DNA. Gene prediction shows 68,955 gene models, of which 12.7% are unique to Hevea. Most of the key genes associated with rubber biosynthesis, rubberwood formation, disease resistance, and allergenicity have been identified. Conclusions The knowledge gained from this genome sequence will aid in the future development of high-yielding clones to keep up with the ever increasing need for natural rubber.

  17. ESTUDIO PRELIMINAR DE LA FITOHEMOAGLUTININA DE LA CANAVALIA BRASILIENSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Perez Gómez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Se establecio la presencia de una lectina en semillas de Canavalia brasiliensis. Esta proteina que es una globulina, presenta una alta actividad aglutinante respecto a eritrocitos equinos y caninos; esta aglutinacion es inhibida considerable mente por melezitosa (7mg/ml y en menor grado por sacarosa, fructosa y glucosa. Los ensayos realizados con eritrocitos humanos, bovinos o de carnero, demuestra que la lectina es capaz de aglutinarlos solo despues de una tripsinizacion.

  18. Matrix metalloproteinases with gelatinolytic activity induced by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikaku, Angela Satie; Ribeiro, Luciana Cristina; Molina, Raphael Fagnani Sanchez; Albe, Bernardo Paulo; Cunha, Cláudia da Silva; Burger, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) modulate extracellular matrix turnover, inflammation and immunity. We studied MMP-9 and MMP-2 in experimental paracoccidioidomycosis. At 15 and 120 days after infection (DAI) with virulent Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, MMP-9 was positive by immunohistochemistry in multinucleated giant cells, in mononuclear cells with macrophage and lymphocyte morphologies and also in fungal cells in the lesions of susceptible and resistant mice. Using gelatin zymography, pro- and active MMP-9 and active MMP-2 were detected in all infected mice, but not in controls. Gelatinolytic activity was not observed in P. brasiliensis extracts. Semiquantitative analysis of gelatinolytic activities revealed weak or absent MMP-2 and strong MMP-9 activity in both mouse strains at 15 DAI, declining at 120 DAI. Avirulent P. brasiliensis-infected mice had residual lesions with MMP-9-positive pseudoxantomatous macrophages, but no gelatinase activity at 120 DAI. Our findings demonstrate the induction of MMPs, particularly MMP-9, in experimental paracoccidioidomycosis, suggesting a possible influence in the pattern of granulomas and in fungal dissemination. PMID:19765107

  19. Immunomodulatory effect of diethylcarbamazine in mice infected with Nocardia brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hernández, M; Castro-Corona, M A; Segoviano-Ramírez, J C; Brattig, N W; Medina-De la Garza, C E

    2014-11-01

    We tested whether diethylcarbamazine (DEC) or ivermectin (IVM), both antiparasitic drugs with reported immunomodulatory properties, were able to affect the immune system to potentiate host defense mechanisms and protect against actinomycetoma in a mouse model. Male BALB/c mice of 10-12 weeks of age were injected with either Nocardia brasiliensis or saline solution. Recorded were the effects of a treatment by DEC (6 mg/kg per os daily for one week) or IVM (200 μg/kg subcutaneously on days 1 and 3) on (i) the development of mycetoma lesion, (ii) the expression of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) by phagocytes, (iii) the proliferation index of lymphocytes and (iv) antibody production of IgG and IgM. After an initial lesion in all mice, DEC inhibited a full development and progression of actinomycetoma resulting in a reduced lesion size (p brasiliensis antigens and concanavalin A in DEC-treated group was higher than in non-treated group at day 21 and 28 postinfection (p brasiliensis leading to retrogression of the mycetoma and increasing cellular immune responses. Our findings may indicate a potential use of DEC as a putative adjuvant in infectious disease or vaccination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Plasticidade anatômica das folhas de Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel (Annonaceae Leaf anatomical plasticity of Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel (Annonaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Filomena Justo

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A anatomia foliar do gênero Xylopia ainda é pouco explorada. A espécie Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel, vulgarmente conhecida como pindaíba, ocorre tanto em mata primária como em vegetação modificada num amplo espectro de condições ambientais. O presente estudo descreve algumas características anatômicas da folha de X. brasiliensis e avalia quantitativamente o limbo foliar em função das diferenças ambientais, sazonais e de estatura das plantas. Verificou-se que a espécie apresenta plasticidade anatômica.Leaf anatomy of Xylopia is still poorly explored. The species Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel, commonly known as pindaíba occurs in primary forest and in modified vegetation in a wide range of environmental conditions. The present study describes some leaf anatomical characteristics of this species and quantitatively evaluates them in function of environmental, seasonal and plant height differences. This species has anatomical plasticity.

  1. Ecotopes, Natural Infection and Trophic Resources of Triatoma brasiliensis (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Costa

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma brasiliensis is considered as one of the most important Chagas disease vectors in the northeastern Brazil. This species presents chromatic variations which led to descriptions of subspecies, synonymized by Lent and Wygodzinsky (1979. In order to broaden bionomic knowledge of these distinct colour patterns of T. brasiliensis, captures were performed at different sites, where the chromatic patterns were described: Caicó, Rio Grande do Norte (T. brasiliensis brasiliensis Neiva, 1911, it will be called the "brasiliensis population"; Espinosa, Minas Gerais (T. brasiliensis melanica Neiva & Lent 1941, the "melanica population" and Petrolina, Pernambuco (T. brasiliensis macromelasoma, Galvão 1956, the "macromelasoma population". A fourth chromatic pattern was collected in Juazeiro, Bahia the darker one in overall cuticle coloration, the "Juazeiro population". At the sites of Caicó, Petrolina and Juazeiro, specimens were captured in peridomiciliar ecotopes and in wilderness. In Espinosa the specimens were collected only in wilderness, even though several exhaustive captures have been performed in peridomicile at different sites of this municipality. A total of 298 specimens were captured. The average registered infection rate was 15% for "brasiliensis population" and of 6.6% for "melanica population". Specimens of "macromelasoma" and of "Juazeiro populations" did not present natural infection. Concerning trophic resources, evaluated by the precipitin test, feeding eclecticism for the different colour patterns studied was observed, with dominance of goat blood in household surroundings as well as in wilderness

  2. Revalidation and redescription of Triatoma brasiliensis macromelasoma Galvão, 1956 and an identification key for the Triatoma brasiliensis complex (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Costa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma brasiliensis macromelasoma is revalidated based on the results of previous multidisciplinary studies on the Triatoma brasiliensis complex, consisting of crossing experiments and morphological, biological, ecological and molecular analyses. These taxonomic tools showed the closest relationship between T. b. macromelasoma and Triatoma brasiliensis brasiliensis. T. b. macromelasoma is redescribed based on specimens collected in the type locality and specimens from a F1 colony. The complex now comprises T. b. brasiliensis, T. b. macromelasoma, Triatoma melanica, Triatoma juazeirensis and Triatoma sherlocki. An identification key for all members of the complex is presented. This detailed comparative study of the morphological features of T. b. macromelasoma and the remaining members of the complex corroborates results from multidisciplinary analyses, suggesting that the subspecific status is applicable. This subspecies can be distinguished by the following combination of features: a pronotum with 1+1 narrow brownish-yellow stripes on the submedian carinae, not attaining its apex, hemelytra with membrane cells darkened on the central portion and legs with an incomplete brownish-yellow ring on the apical half of the femora. Because the T. brasiliensis complex is of distinct epidemiological importance throughout its geographic distribution, a precise identification of its five members is important for monitoring and controlling actions against Chagas disease transmission.

  3. [Nocardia brasiliensis leg ulcer and nodular lymphangitis in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, M; Friedel, J; Siré, C; Semon, J

    2005-01-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis is a very rarely reported cause of chronic phagedenic ulcerations. We report the case of an elderly woman who developed such an infection after falling on her right leg on the road in the Bresse country (an essentially agricultural and bovine-cattle breading region) and developed a chronic phagedenic ulcer secondarily complicated by nodular lymphangitis of the thigh. A 75 year-old woman fell on her right leg on the side of the main road outside her hamlet in the Bresse country and secondarily developed a chronique phagedenic ulceration. We first considered her as suffering from pyoderma gangrenosum. A complete scanning only revealed an autoimmune thyroiditis and a rapidly healing gastric ulceration, and none of the treatments, either local or systemic, helped the skin condition to heal. After 3 weeks of application of a local corticoid ointment, the patient developed fever, general malaise, an exacerbation of her wound and an infiltration of the skin round her knee, together with nodular lymphangitic dissemination. A supplementary bacterial swab disclosed massive proliferation of a slow-growing Gram-positive bacillus, which proved to be Nocardia brasiliensis, together with a methicillino-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. The treatment with sulfamethoxazole-trimetoprim gave a rash after 12 hours and was changed to amoxicillin and clavulanic acid, which rapidly proved to be permanently effective. The revelation of this particular slow-growing bacteria is difficult and requires bacterial swabs. Nocardia brasiliensis is relatively rare in primary skin ulcerations and we discuss the reasons why an elderly women should find this bacteria on the road outside her hamlet in the French countryside. This particular infectious condition requires general scanning, to make sure that the primary skin condition does not extend to other organs. We review the therapeutical options for patients who exhibit allergic reactions to the classically effective

  4. Metazoan parasites of Geophagus brasiliensis (Perciformes: Cichlidae in Patos lagoon, extreme south of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Lopes Rassier

    Full Text Available Abstract This study has evaluated the parasitic fauna of 79 pearl cichlids (Geophagus brasiliensis from the estuary of Patos Lagoon (31° 57' S and 52° 06' W, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, during the months of May and June in 2011 and 2012. All the hosts analyzed were infected with at least one species of parasite. A total of eleven metazoa were identified in 459 specimens collected. The trematode Austrodiplostomum compactum (34.2% and ergasilids Ergasilus lizae (32.9% and Gauchergasilus lizae (32.9% were the most prevalent species. The trematodes Thometrema overstreeti and Posthodiplostomum sp. had significantly higher prevalence in fish longer than 20 cm. The sex of the host had no effect on parasite prevalence and abundance. Pearl cichlids are registered as a new host for the trematodes Lobatostoma sp., Homalometron pseudopallidum and Thometrema overstreeti, for the ergasilids Ergasilus lizae and Gauchergasilus euripedesi and for the argulid Argulus spinolosus. The crustacean E. lizae is recorded in Rio Grande do Sul for the first time.

  5. Exploring virulence and immunogenicity in the emerging pathogen Sporothrix brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Terra, Paula Portella; Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; Fernandes, Geisa Ferreira; Nishikaku, Angela Satie; Burger, Eva; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires

    2017-08-01

    Sporotrichosis is a polymorphic chronic infection of humans and animals classically acquired after traumatic inoculation with soil and plant material contaminated with Sporothrix spp. propagules. An alternative and successful route of transmission is bites and scratches from diseased cats, through which Sporothrix yeasts are inoculated into mammalian tissue. The development of a murine model of subcutaneous sporotrichosis mimicking the alternative route of transmission is essential to understanding disease pathogenesis and the development of novel therapeutic strategies. To explore the impact of horizontal transmission in animals (e.g., cat-cat) and zoonotic transmission on Sporothrix fitness, the left hind footpads of BALB/c mice were inoculated with 5×106 yeasts (n = 11 S. brasiliensis, n = 2 S. schenckii, or n = 1 S. globosa). Twenty days post-infection, our model reproduced both the pathophysiology and symptomology of sporotrichosis with suppurating subcutaneous nodules that progressed proximally along lymphatic channels. Across the main pathogenic members of the S. schenckii clade, S. brasiliensis was usually more virulent than S. schenckii and S. globosa. However, the virulence in S. brasiliensis was strain-dependent, and we demonstrated that highly virulent isolates disseminate from the left hind footpad to the liver, spleen, kidneys, lungs, heart, and brain of infected animals, inducing significant and chronic weight loss (losing up to 15% of their body weight). The weight loss correlated with host death between 2 and 16 weeks post-infection. Histopathological features included necrosis, suppurative inflammation, and polymorphonuclear and mononuclear inflammatory infiltrates. Immunoblot using specific antisera and homologous exoantigen investigated the humoral response. Antigenic profiles were isolate-specific, supporting the hypothesis that different Sporothrix species can elicit a heterogeneous humoral response over time, but cross reaction was observed

  6. Pentacyclic triterpenoids from the leaves of Terminalia brasiliensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Delton Servulo; Chaves, Mariana H.

    2005-01-01

    Eleven oleanane, ursane and lupane-type triterpenes were isolated from the leaves of Terminalia brasiliensis Camb, daturadiol (3β,6β-dihydroxy-olean-12-ene), 3β-hydroxy-30-norlupan-20-one, lupenone, β-amyrenone, α-amyrenone, lupeol, β-amyrin, α-amyrin, betulin, erythrodiol and uvaol, in addition to squalene, sitosterol and α-tocopherol. The structures of these compounds were identified by 1 H and 13 C NMR spectral analysis and comparison with literature data. (author)

  7. Attenuation of yeast form of Paracoccidioides Brasiliensis by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demicheli, Marina Cortez

    2006-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, the most prevalent mycosis in Latin America, and currently there is no effective vaccine. The aim of this work was to attenuate the yeast form of P. brasiliensis by gamma irradiation for further studies on vaccine research. P. brasiliensis (strain Pb-18) cultures were irradiated at doses between 0.5 and 8.0 kGy. After each dose the fungal cells were plated and after 10 days the colony forming units (CFU) counted. The viability of the irradiated cells was measured using the dyes Janus green and methylene blue, and protein synthesis by incorporation of L 35 S methionine. The comparison between the antigenic profile of irradiated and control yeast was made by Western blot and the virulence evaluated by the inoculation in C 57 Bl/J6 and Balb/c mice. Morphological changes in irradiated yeast were evaluated by electronic microscopy and DNA integrity by electrophoresis in agarose gel. At 6.5 kGy the yeast lost the reproductive capacity. The viability and the incorporation of L- 35 S methionine were the same in control and up to 6.5 kGy irradiated cells, but 6.5 kGy irradiated yeast secreted 40% less proteins. The Western blot profile was clearly similar in control and 6.5 kGy irradiated yeast. No CFU could be recovered from the tissues of the mice infected with the radio attenuated yeast. At the dose of 6.5 kGy the DNA was degraded and this damage was not repaired. The transmission electronic microscopy showed significant alterations in the nucleus of the irradiated cells. The scanning electronic microscopy showed that two hours after the irradiation the cells were collapsed or presented deep folds in the surface, however these injury were reversible. We concluded that for P. brasiliensis yeast cells it was possible to find a dose in which the pathogen loses its reproductive ability and virulence, while retaining its viability, metabolic activity and the antigenic profile. (author)

  8. Diallel analysis of fruit set in Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth O. Omokhafe

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The clonal and inter-clonal combining ability of fruit set in a Hevea brasiliensis four-parent diallel mating was evaluated using a randomized complete block experimental design with three replicates. Twelve main and reciprocal crosses were hand pollinated and percentage fruit set was recorded. The raw data were subjected to an arc-sine transformation for analysis of variance, and general and specific combining ability. There was significant variation of each of fruit set for the various crosses, general combining ability and reciprocal effect. The breeding implications of these results are also discussed.

  9. Taxonomic and Functional Microbial Signatures of the Endemic Marine Sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade-Silva, Amaro E.; Rua, Cintia; Silva, Genivaldo G. Z.; Dutilh, Bas E.; Moreira, Ana Paula B.; Edwards, Robert A.; Hajdu, Eduardo; Lobo-Hajdu, Gisele; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza; Berlinck, Roberto G. S.; Thompson, Fabiano L.

    2012-01-01

    The endemic marine sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis (Porifera, Demospongiae, Haplosclerida) is a known source of secondary metabolites such as arenosclerins A-C. In the present study, we established the composition of the A. brasiliensis microbiome and the metabolic pathways associated with this community. We used 454 shotgun pyrosequencing to generate approximately 640,000 high-quality sponge-derived sequences (∼150 Mb). Clustering analysis including sponge, seawater and twenty-three other metagenomes derived from marine animal microbiomes shows that A. brasiliensis contains a specific microbiome. Fourteen bacterial phyla (including Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Cloroflexi) were consistently found in the A. brasiliensis metagenomes. The A. brasiliensis microbiome is enriched for Betaproteobacteria (e.g., Burkholderia) and Gammaproteobacteria (e.g., Pseudomonas and Alteromonas) compared with the surrounding planktonic microbial communities. Functional analysis based on Rapid Annotation using Subsystem Technology (RAST) indicated that the A. brasiliensis microbiome is enriched for sequences associated with membrane transport and one-carbon metabolism. In addition, there was an overrepresentation of sequences associated with aerobic and anaerobic metabolism as well as the synthesis and degradation of secondary metabolites. This study represents the first analysis of sponge-associated microbial communities via shotgun pyrosequencing, a strategy commonly applied in similar analyses in other marine invertebrate hosts, such as corals and algae. We demonstrate that A. brasiliensis has a unique microbiome that is distinct from that of the surrounding planktonic microbes and from other marine organisms, indicating a species-specific microbiome. PMID:22768320

  10. Attenuation of yeast form of Paracoccidioides Brasiliensis by gamma irradiation; Atenuacao da forma leveduriforme do Paraccocidioides Brasiliensis por irradicao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demicheli, Marina Cortez

    2006-07-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, the most prevalent mycosis in Latin America, and currently there is no effective vaccine. The aim of this work was to attenuate the yeast form of P. brasiliensis by gamma irradiation for further studies on vaccine research. P. brasiliensis (strain Pb-18) cultures were irradiated at doses between 0.5 and 8.0 kGy. After each dose the fungal cells were plated and after 10 days the colony forming units (CFU) counted. The viability of the irradiated cells was measured using the dyes Janus green and methylene blue, and protein synthesis by incorporation of L {sup 35}S methionine. The comparison between the antigenic profile of irradiated and control yeast was made by Western blot and the virulence evaluated by the inoculation in C{sub 57}Bl/J6 and Balb/c mice. Morphological changes in irradiated yeast were evaluated by electronic microscopy and DNA integrity by electrophoresis in agarose gel. At 6.5 kGy the yeast lost the reproductive capacity. The viability and the incorporation of L- {sup 35}S methionine were the same in control and up to 6.5 kGy irradiated cells, but 6.5 kGy irradiated yeast secreted 40% less proteins. The Western blot profile was clearly similar in control and 6.5 kGy irradiated yeast. No CFU could be recovered from the tissues of the mice infected with the radio attenuated yeast. At the dose of 6.5 kGy the DNA was degraded and this damage was not repaired. The transmission electronic microscopy showed significant alterations in the nucleus of the irradiated cells. The scanning electronic microscopy showed that two hours after the irradiation the cells were collapsed or presented deep folds in the surface, however these injury were reversible. We concluded that for P. brasiliensis yeast cells it was possible to find a dose in which the pathogen loses its reproductive ability and virulence, while retaining its viability, metabolic activity and the antigenic profile. (author)

  11. Blood parameter analysis and morphological alterations as biomarkers on the health of Hoplias malabaricus and Geophagus brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Romão

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the influence of the environment on fish health. Samples of Hoplias malabaricus and Geophagus brasiliensis, were collected from three different environments: area I was urban and areas II and III were rural. Analyses of red blood cell count, microhematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, white blood cell count and differential white cell count in blood smear were carried out. Mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were calculated. To analyze morphological alterations, gills, liver, kidney and gonads were submitted to routine histological processing. Individuals collected from area III had slightly lower blood indices than collected from area I . Severe kidney changes, degeneration of and crystallization within kidney tubules were observed. In area I, crystallization was observed in 92% of the specimens of G. brasiliensis. These results suggested that such alterations were related with poor water circulation in the place.Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a influência do ambiente sobre a higidez dos peixes. Animais, das espécies Hoplias malabaricus e Geophagus brasiliensis foram coletados em três ambientes distintos, sendo ambiente I região urbana e ambientes II e III em região rural. Foram realizadas análises do número total de eritrócitos por microlitro de sangue, microhematócrito, taxa de hemoglobina, porcentagem de leucócito e contagem diferencial de leucócitos em extensão sanguínea. Calcularam-se os índices hematimétricos absolutos: volume corpuscular médio e concentração de hemoglobina corpuscular média. Para análises das alterações morfológicas, brânquias, fígado, gônadas e rim seguiram processamento histológico de rotina. Foram observados índices hematológicos ligeiramente menores em indivíduos coletados no ambiente III em relação aos animais coletados no ambiente I. As análises histológicas de brânquias, fígado e gônadas das espécies G

  12. Feeding habits of the congeneric species Stellifer rastrifer and Stellifer brasiliensis (Acanthopterygii: Sciaenidae co-occurring in the coast of the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LM. Sabinson

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the feeding habits allowing the occurrence of the congeneric species Stellifer rastrifer and Stellifer brasiensis, collected on a seasonal basis, in the operating area of the artisanal seabob-shrimp trawl fishery in Porto Belo, an important fishing area on the southern Brazilian coast. Fish were collected seasonally from November 2009 to August 2010, in isobaths of 10, 20 and 30m. Of the 450 stomachs analyzed, 194 belongd to Stellifer rastrifer and 242 to Stellifer brasiliensis. From the totality of analyzed stomachs 33.49% were empty and 66.52% had some content. Crustacea were the predominant food category in the diet of S. rastrifer and S. brasiliensis, and the shrimp Acetes americanus was the most frequent crustacean in stomachs of both studied species. The overlapping in the diet of the species was high, however when analyzing the overlap in each season it was found that it occurred only during spring and winter. Although the most important items in the diet of these species are the same, the intake of each alternates in time, suggesting a difference in predation pressure, which leads to less direct competition in a given time.

  13. Feeding habits of the congeneric species Stellifer rastrifer and Stellifer brasiliensis (Acanthopterygii: Sciaenidae) co-occurring in the coast of the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabinson, L M; Rodrigues-Filho, J L; Peret, A C; Branco, J O; Verani, J R

    2015-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the feeding habits allowing the occurrence of the congeneric species Stellifer rastrifer and Stellifer brasiensis, collected on a seasonal basis, in the operating area of the artisanal seabob-shrimp trawl fishery in Porto Belo, an important fishing area on the southern Brazilian coast. Fish were collected seasonally from November 2009 to August 2010, in isobaths of 10, 20 and 30 m. Of the 450 stomachs analyzed, 194 belonged to Stellifer rastrifer and 242 to Stellifer brasiliensis. From the totality of analyzed stomachs 33.49% were empty and 66.52% had some content. Crustacea were the predominant food category in the diet of S. rastrifer and S. brasiliensis, and the shrimp Acetes americanus was the most frequent crustacean in stomachs of both studied species. The overlapping in the diet of the species was high, however when analyzing the overlap in each season it was found that it occurred only during spring and winter. Although the most important items in the diet of these species are the same, the intake of each alternates in time, suggesting a difference in predation pressure, which leads to less direct competition in a given time.

  14. Immunoglobulins and C3 in the P. brasiliensis granuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian M. V. Biagioni

    1987-04-01

    Full Text Available The experimental model of paracoccidioidomycosis induced in mice by the intravenous injection of yeast-forms of P. brasiliensis (Bt2 strain; 1 x 10(6 viable fungi/animal was used to evaluate sequentially 2, 4, 8, 16 and 20 weeks after inoculation: 1. The presence of immunoglobulins and C3 in the pulmonary granuloma-ta, by direct immunofluorescence; 2. The humoral (immunodiffusion test and the cellular (footpad sweeling test immune response; 3. The histopathology of lesions. The cell-immune response was positive since week 2, showing a transitory depression at week 16. Specific antibodies were first detected at week 4 and peaked at week 16. At histology, epithelioid granulomas with numerous fungi and polymorphonuclear agreggates were seen. The lungs showed progressive involvement up to week 16, with little decrease at week 20. From week 2 on, there were deposits of IgG and C3 around fungal walls within the granulomas and IgG stained cells among the mononuclear cell peripheral halo. Interstitital immunoglobulins and C3 deposits in the granulomas were not letected. IgG and C3 seen to play an early an important role in. the host defenses against P. brasiliensis by possibly cooperating in the killing of parasites and blocking the antigenic diffusion.

  15. CDNA library from the Latex of Hevea brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilaiwan Chotigeat

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Latex from Hevea brasiliensis contains 30-50% (w/w of natural rubber (cis-1,4-polyisoprene, the important rawmaterial for many rubber industries. We have constructed a cDNA library from the latex of H. brasiliensis to investigate theexpressed genes and molecular events in the latex. We analyzed 412 expressed sequence tags (ESTs. More than 90% of theEST clones showed homology to previously described sequences in public databases. Functional classification of the ESTsshowed that the largest category were proteins of unknown function (30.1%, 11.4% of ESTs encoded for rubber synthesisrelatedproteins (RS and 8.5% for defense or stress related proteins (DS. Those with no significant homology to knownsequences (NSH accounted for 8.7%, primary metabolism (PM and gene expression and RNA metabolism were 7.8% and6.6%, respectively. Other categories included, protein synthesis-related proteins (6.6%, chromatin and DNA metabolism(CDM 3.9%, energy metabolism (EM 3.4%, cellular transport (CT 3.2%, cell structure (CS 3.2%, signal transduction (ST2.2%, secondary metabolism (SM 1.7%, protein fate (PF 2.2%, and reproductive proteins (RP 0.7%.

  16. Preparation of nanocellulose from Imperata brasiliensis grass using Taguchi method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benini, Kelly Cristina Coelho de Carvalho; Voorwald, Herman Jacobus Cornelis; Cioffi, Maria Odila Hilário; Rezende, Mirabel Cerqueira; Arantes, Valdeir

    2018-07-15

    Cellulose nanoparticles (CNs) were prepared by acid hydrolysis of the cellulose pulp extracted from the Brazilian satintail (Imperata Brasiliensis) plant using a conventional and a total chlorine free method. Initially, a statistical design of experiment was carried out using Taguchi orthogonal array to study the hydrolysis parameters, and the main properties (crystallinity, thermal stability, morphology, and sizes) of the nanocellulose. X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta potential and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were carried out to characterize the physical-chemical properties of the CNs obtained. Cellulose nanoparticles with diameter ranging from 10 to 60 nm and length between 150 and 250 nm were successfully obtained at sulfuric acid concentration of 64% (m/m), temperature 35 °C, reaction time 75 min, and a 1:20 (g/mL) pulp-to-solution ratio. Under this condition, the Imperata Brasiliensis CNs showed good stability in suspension, crystallinity index of 65%, and a cellulose degradation temperature of about 117 °C. Considering that these properties are similar to those of nanocelluloses from other lignocellulosics feedstocks, Imperata grass seems also to be a suitable source for nanocellulose production. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Distribution of Po-210 in two species of predatory marine fish from the Brazilian coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mársico, E.T.; Ferreira, M.S.; São Clemente, S.C.; Gouvea, R.C.S.; Jesus, E.F.O.; Conti, C.C.; Conte Junior, C.A.; Kelecom, A.G.A.C.

    2014-01-01

    Polonium-210 ( 210 Po) concentration was quantified in the muscle tissue and organs of two predatory marine fishes (Genypterus brasiliensis and Cynoscion microlepidotus) from Cabo Frio, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The species C. microlepidotus, a benthic carnivore, registered higher 210 Po in its tissue. The organs associated with digestion displayed the maximum radionuclide compared with other organs. The average activity was 2 mBq kg −1 for G. brasiliensis and it was 6 mBq kg −1 for C. microlepidotus. The activity concentrations varied significantly between the species and among organs. -- Highlights: • We analyzed the distribution of 210 Po in two species of predator marine fish. • 210 Po tends to accumulate in some organs, which make this radionuclide radiotoxic. • The consumption of small quantities of fish can represent high potential of 210 Po exposure. • Data about 210 Po bioaccumulation in tropical predator marine fish are limited

  18. Identification of thermostable β-xylosidase activities produced by Aspergillus brasiliensis and Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads; Lauritzen, Henrik Klitgaard; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2007-01-01

    Twenty Aspergillus strains were evaluated for production of extracellular cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities. Aspergillus brasiliensis, A. niger and A. japonicus produced the highest xylanase activities with the A. brasiliensis and A. niger strains producing thermostable beta......-xylosidases. The beta-xylosidase activities of the A. brasiliensis and A. niger strains had similar temperature and pH optima at 75 degrees C and pH 5 and retained 62% and 99%, respectively, of these activities over 1 h at 60 degrees C. At 75 degrees C, these values were 38 and 44%, respectively. Whereas A. niger...

  19. Cutaneous Type of Nocardiosis Caused by Nocardia brasiliensis in an Elderly Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Yi Su

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Acute soft tissue infection with Nocardia brasiliensis is an uncommon manifestation in the elderly. A case of cellulitis and an abscess on the foot due to N. brasiliensis in a 77-year-old man with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is reported. N. brasiliensis was isolated from fluid from the bulla. Treatment with trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole for 6 months led to complete resolution and no evidence of recurrence was noted. Nocardia infection must be considered in the differential diagnosis for elderly patients with soft tissue infection, especially in those with severe underlying diseases, and we suggest that trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole is an effective and safe treatment.

  20. Nocardia brasiliensis endophthalmitis in a patient with an exposed Ahmed glaucoma drainage implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Michael W; Bolling, James P; Bendel, Rick E

    2013-01-01

    To report a case of endophthalmitis due to Nocardia brasiliensis in an eye with an exposed, infected Ahmed glaucoma drainage implant (GDI). Retrospective case report. A patient with an exposed GDI experienced recurrent episodes of endophthalmitis despite repeated intravitreal injections of antibiotics and steroids. The tube was initially repositioned and finally removed. Whereas repeated cultures from the anterior chamber and vitreous were negative, cultures from the removed tube grew Nocardia brasiliensis. Despite oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and intravitreal amikacin the eye became phthisical and lost light perception. An exposed GDI may lead to endophthalmitis due to Nocardia brasiliensis and may require explantation to establish a diagnosis.

  1. In vitro activities of DA-7157 and DA-7218 against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Nocardia brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Gonzalez, Eva; Rendon, Adrian; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Welsh, Oliverio; Velazquez-Moreno, Victor M; Choi, Sung Hak; Molina-Torres, Carmen

    2006-09-01

    The in vitro activities of DA-7157, a novel oxazolidinone, against clinical isolates of Nocardia brasiliensis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis were determined. Equal MIC(50)s and MIC(90)s (0.25 and 0.5 microg/ml, respectively) were found for susceptible and multidrug-resistant isolates of M. tuberculosis. The N. brasiliensis isolates showed an MIC(90) of 1 microg/ml and an MIC(50) of 1 microg/ml. The DA-7157 prodrug, DA-7218, exhibited similar MICs for M. tuberculosis but fivefold-higher MICs for N. brasiliensis.

  2. Diet and trophic organization of the fish assemblage from the Mamanguape River Estuary, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Medeiros, Aline Paiva Morais de; Xavier, Josias Henrique de Amorim; Rosa, Ierecê Maria de Lucena

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The present work aims to characterize a fish assemblage from a northeastern Brazilian estuary according to its diet and trophic organization along the estuarine-reef gradient. Sampling was performed at the Mamanguape Estuary, and fishes were collected using three types of nets at seventeen sites, grouped into four regions according to salinity range: reefs and the lower, middle, and upper estuary. The most abundant species were Atherinella brasiliensis, Mugil curema, and Sphoeroides ...

  3. Desarrollo embrionario-larval del pez tropical Hemirhamphus brasiliensis (Beloniformes: Hemirhamphidae a partir de huevos recolectados del medio natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Rosas

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la formación del embrión y el desarrollo larval del pez Hemirhamphus brasiliensis Linnaeus, 1758, a partir de huevos en estado de mórula, recolectados en el alga parda Sargassum sp. Los huevos eran esféricos con un diámetro de 1923.54 ±72.35 µm, con numerosos filamentos coriónicos y estrías en su superficie. Durante las primeras 48 h, el embrión desarrolló la vesícula cefálica, los miomeros y el corazón, el cual se ubicó en el exterior de cuerpo impulsando sangre incolora, la cual se pigmentó de rojo posteriormente. Antes de la eclosión se desarrollaron el riñón, estómago, hígado y la vesícula biliar, las aletas pectorales, cuatro pares de arcos branquiales y la boca. Las larvas eclosionaron a la 114 h, presentando el cuerpo robusto en forma de torpedo, verde-amarillo con melanoforos dendriformes. Al nacer ingirieron metanauplios de Artemia. A las 72 h después de la eclosión se observó el esbozo de la aleta pélvica y a las 240 h se completó la metamorfosis.Embrionary-larval development of the tropical fish Hemirhamphus brasiliensis (Beloniformes: Hemirhamphidae from eggs collected in the wild. The embryo formation and larval development of Hemirhamphus brasiliensis Linnaeus, 1758 (Pisces: Hemirhamphidae is described from morula stage eggs collected on Sargassum sp. Thalii in the field (10°50’55.2" N y 64°09’467" W. The eggs were spherical, 1 923.54 ±72.35 µm diameter with several corionic filaments, and are striated. During the first 48 h the embryo developed cephalic vesicle, miomers, and a heart located on the external body surface, beating strongly and circulating colorless blood which became pigmented red later. Before hatching, the larva developed kidney, gut tract, liver and biliar vesicle, pectoral fins, four pairs of gill arches and the mouth. The larva hatched at 114 h, the body was torpedo-shaped, yellow-green, with several dendriform melanophores; the pelvic fin was observed 72 h post

  4. Uso do manguezal de Guaratiba, Baía de Sepetiba, Rio de Janeiro, pelo peixe-rei Atherinella brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard (Atheriniformes, Atherinopsidae The use of the Guaratiba magrove, Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, by the silverside Atherinella brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard (Atheriniformes, Atherinopsidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo M. Neves

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Coletas padronizadas de peixes e tomadas de variáveis ambientais foram realizadas em uma região de mangue na Baía de Sepetiba visando avaliar o papel deste sistema no ciclo de vida do peixe-rei Atherinella brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824. Um programa de amostragens mensais de arrastos de praia foi realizado, em cinco locais em uma área de mangue, entre agosto de 2002 e julho de 2003 nos períodos diurno e noturno, com variáveis ambientais tendo sido tomadas em cada local. As maiores abundâncias numéricas foram registradas no local da zona intermediária do canal principal, e as menores no local mais interno. As maiores contribuições em peso ocorreram no local mais externo e próximo da conexão com o mar. A abundância numérica foi diretamente correlacionada com a temperatura e salinidade, e o peso, com a salinidade e oxigênio dissolvido (p Fish and environmental variables were sampled in a mangrove area from Sepetiba bay to assess the role of this system in life cycle of the silverside Atherinella brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824. Standardized monthly sampling using beach seines were conducted at five sites, between August, 2002 and July, 2003 in daily (day/night basis, with environmental variables being taken at each site. The highest numerical abundance was recorded in the intermediate sample area in the mangrove channel and the lowest in the innermost site. The highest weight occurred in the outermost site near to the sea connection. Numerical abundance was directly correlated with temperature and salinity, and weight with salinity and dissolved oxygen (p < 0.05. Size ranged from 10 to 160 mm TL, with modes of 40-50 mm TL occurring all over the year in all sites. Recruitment occurred all year round but peaks (TL = 30 mm in October-December, 2002 and July, 2003 were recorded afterwards the records of larger fishes (September, 2002 and June, 2003 mainly in the outermost site. The largest fishes concentrated in the sandy

  5. The effect of Agaricus brasiliensis extract supplementation on honey bee colonies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JEVROSIMA STEVANOVIC

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was done to discover any beneficial effect of a medicinal mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis extract on the honey bee. Firstly, a laboratory experiment was conducted on 640 bees reared in 32 single-use plastic rearing cups. A. brasiliensis extract proved safe in all doses tested (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg/day irrespective of feeding mode (sugar syrup or candy. Secondly, a three-year field experiment was conducted on 26 colonies treated with a single dose of A. brasiliensis extract (100 mg/kg/day added to syrup. Each year the colonies were treated once in autumn and twice in spring. The treatments significantly increased colony strength parameters: brood rearing improvement and adult population growth were noticed more often than the increase in honey production and pollen reserves. These positive effects were mainly observed in April. In conclusion, A. brasiliensis extract is safe for the bees and helps maintaining strong colonies, especially in spring.

  6. The effect of Agaricus brasiliensis extract supplementation on honey bee colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanovic, Jevrosima; Stanimirovic, Zoran; Simeunovic, Predrag; Lakic, Nada; Radovic, Ivica; Sokovic, Marina; Griensven, Leo J L D VAN

    2018-01-01

    This study was done to discover any beneficial effect of a medicinal mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis extract on the honey bee. Firstly, a laboratory experiment was conducted on 640 bees reared in 32 single-use plastic rearing cups. A. brasiliensis extract proved safe in all doses tested (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg/day) irrespective of feeding mode (sugar syrup or candy). Secondly, a three-year field experiment was conducted on 26 colonies treated with a single dose of A. brasiliensis extract (100 mg/kg/day) added to syrup. Each year the colonies were treated once in autumn and twice in spring. The treatments significantly increased colony strength parameters: brood rearing improvement and adult population growth were noticed more often than the increase in honey production and pollen reserves. These positive effects were mainly observed in April. In conclusion, A. brasiliensis extract is safe for the bees and helps maintaining strong colonies, especially in spring.

  7. Magnesium affects rubber biosynthesis and particle stability in Ficus elastica, Hevea brasiliensis and Parthenium argentatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural rubber biosynthesis occurs in laticifers of Ficus elastica and Hevea brasiliensis, and in parenchyma cells of Parthenium argentatum. Natural rubber is synthesized by rubber transferase using allylic pyrophosphates as initiators, isopentenyl pyrophosphate as monomeric substrate and magnesium ...

  8. Construction of a Nocardia brasiliensis fluorescent plasmid to study Actinomycetoma pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Carmona, Mario C; Rocha-Pizaña, María R

    2011-01-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis, is a bacteria that lives as saprophyte in soil and causes a disease called actinomycetoma in both human and animals. Nocardia brasiliensis is an intracellular, facultative bacterium that replicates and survives within host macrophages. The mechanisms involved in the evasion of the microbicidal actions of macrophages remain unclear. The filamentous growth of N. brasiliensis is resistant to unicellular preparations, leading to inaccurate quantification of bacterial numbers by means of colony forming units (CFU). As successful survival studies with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing bacterial strains have been reported, we constructed a recombinant GFP-expressing strain of N. brasiliensis. The virulence of the modified strain is maintained because it induces mycetoma in BALB/c mice. This new strain can be used for bacterial survival assays using cytometry and to elucidate the pathogenicity mechanisms in Actinomycetoma infection. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Non-Coding RNAs are Differentially Expressed by Nocardia brasiliensis in Vitro and in Experimental Actinomycetoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Rabadán, Josué S; Miranda-Ríos, Juan; Espín-Ocampo, Guadalupe; Méndez-Tovar, Luis J; Maya-Pineda, Héctor Rubén; Hernández-Hernández, Francisca

    2017-01-01

    Nocardia spp. are common soil-inhabiting bacteria that frequently infect humans through traumatic injuries or inhalation routes and cause infections, such as actinomycetoma and nocardiosis, respectively. Nocardia brasiliensis is the main aetiological agent of actinomycetoma in various countries. Many bacterial non-coding RNAs are regulators of genes associated with virulence factors. The aim of this work was to identify non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) expressed during infection conditions and in free-living form ( in vitro ) in Nocardia brasiliensis . The N. brasiliensis transcriptome (predominately brasiliensis infection compared with the in vitro conditions. The results of this work suggest a possible role for these transcripts in the regulation of virulence genes in actinomycetoma pathogenesis.

  10. Nocardia brasiliensis induces an immunosuppressive microenvironment that favors chronic infection in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Taraco, Adrian G; Perez-Liñan, Amira R; Bocanegra-Ibarias, Paola; Perez-Rivera, Luz I; Salinas-Carmona, Mario C

    2012-07-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis is an intracellular microorganism and the most common etiologic agent of actinomycetoma in the Americas. Several intracellular pathogens induce an immunosuppressive microenvironment through increases in CD4+ Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg), thus downregulating other T-cell subpopulations and assuring survival in the host. In this study, we determined whether N. brasiliensis modulates T-lymphocyte responses and their related cytokine profiles in a murine experimental model. We also examined the relationship between N. brasiliensis immunomodulation and pathogenesis and bacterial survival. In early infection, Th17/Tc17 cells were increased at day 3 (P 1 log) was also observed (P brasiliensis modulates the immune system to induce an immunosuppressive microenvironment that benefits its survival during the chronic stage of infection.

  11. An optimized one-tube, semi-nested PCR assay for Paracoccidioides brasiliensis detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda de Faveri Pitz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Herein, we report a one-tube, semi-nested-polymerase chain reaction (OTsn-PCR assay for the detection of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Methods We developed the OTsn-PCR assay for the detection of P. brasiliensis in clinical specimens and compared it with other PCR methods. Results The OTsn-PCR assay was positive for all clinical samples, and the detection limit was better or equivalent to the other nested or semi-nested PCR methods for P. brasiliensis detection. Conclusions The OTsn-PCR assay described in this paper has a detection limit similar to other reactions for the molecular detection of P. brasiliensis, but this approach is faster and less prone to contamination than other conventional nested or semi-nested PCR assays.

  12. An optimized one-tube, semi-nested PCR assay for Paracoccidioides brasiliensis detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitz, Amanda de Faveri; Koishi, Andrea Cristine; Tavares, Eliandro Reis; Andrade, Fábio Goulart de; Loth, Eduardo Alexandre; Gandra, Rinaldo Ferreira; Venancio, Emerson José

    2013-01-01

    Herein, we report a one-tube, semi-nested-polymerase chain reaction (OTsn-PCR) assay for the detection of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. We developed the OTsn-PCR assay for the detection of P. brasiliensis in clinical specimens and compared it with other PCR methods. The OTsn-PCR assay was positive for all clinical samples, and the detection limit was better or equivalent to the other nested or semi-nested PCR methods for P. brasiliensis detection. The OTsn-PCR assay described in this paper has a detection limit similar to other reactions for the molecular detection of P. brasiliensis, but this approach is faster and less prone to contamination than other conventional nested or semi-nested PCR assays.

  13. Phylogenetic analysis reveals a high prevalence of Sporothrix brasiliensis in feline sporotrichosis outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; de Melo Teixeira, Marcus; de Hoog, G Sybren; Schubach, Tânia Maria Pacheco; Pereira, Sandro Antonio; Fernandes, Geisa Ferreira; Bezerra, Leila Maria Lopes; Felipe, Maria Sueli; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires

    2013-01-01

    Sporothrix schenckii, previously assumed to be the sole agent of human and animal sporotrichosis, is in fact a species complex. Recently recognized taxa include S. brasiliensis, S. globosa, S. mexicana, and S. luriei, in addition to S. schenckii sensu stricto. Over the last decades, large epidemics of sporotrichosis occurred in Brazil due to zoonotic transmission, and cats were pointed out as key susceptible hosts. In order to understand the eco-epidemiology of feline sporotrichosis and its role in human sporotrichosis a survey was conducted among symptomatic cats. Prevalence and phylogenetic relationships among feline Sporothrix species were investigated by reconstructing their phylogenetic origin using the calmodulin (CAL) and the translation elongation factor-1 alpha (EF1α) loci in strains originated from Rio de Janeiro (RJ, n = 15), Rio Grande do Sul (RS, n = 10), Paraná (PR, n = 4), São Paulo (SP, n =3) and Minas Gerais (MG, n = 1). Our results showed that S. brasiliensis is highly prevalent among cats (96.9%) with sporotrichosis, while S. schenckii was identified only once. The genotype of Sporothrix from cats was found identical to S. brasiliensis from human sources confirming that the disease is transmitted by cats. Sporothrix brasiliensis presented low genetic diversity compared to its sister taxon S. schenckii. No evidence of recombination in S. brasiliensis was found by split decomposition or PHI-test analysis, suggesting that S. brasiliensis is a clonal species. Strains recovered in states SP, MG and PR share the genotype of the RJ outbreak, different from the RS clone. The occurrence of separate genotypes among strains indicated that the Brazilian S. brasiliensis epidemic has at least two distinct sources. We suggest that cats represent a major host and the main source of cat and human S. brasiliensis infections in Brazil.

  14. Agaricus brasiliensis (sun mushroom) affects the expression of genes related to cholesterol homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miranda, Aline Mayrink; Rossoni Júnior, Joamyr Victor; Souza E Silva, Lorena; Dos Santos, Rinaldo Cardoso; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Pedrosa, Maria Lúcia

    2017-06-01

    The sun mushroom (Agaricus brasiliensis) is considered a major source of bioactive compounds with potential health benefits. Mushrooms typically act as lipid-lowering agents; however, little is known about the mechanisms of action of A. brasiliensis in biological systems. This study aimed to determine the underlying mechanism involved in the cholesterol-lowering effect of A. brasiliensis through the assessment of fecal and serum lipid profiles in addition to gene expression analysis of specific transcription factors, enzymes, and transporters involved in cholesterol homeostasis. Twenty-four albino Fischer rats approximately 90 days old, with an average weight of 205 g, were divided into four groups of 6 each and fed a standard AIN-93 M diet (C), hypercholesterolemic diet (H), hypercholesterolemic diet +1 % A. brasiliensis (HAb), or hypercholesterolemic diet +0.008 % simvastatin (HS) for 6 weeks. Simvastatin was used as a positive control, as it is a typical drug prescribed for lipid disorders. Subsequently, blood, liver, and feces samples were collected for lipid profile and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction gene expression analyses. Diet supplementation with A. brasiliensis significantly improved serum lipid profiles, comparable to the effect observed for simvastatin. In addition, A. brasiliensis dietary supplementation markedly promoted fecal cholesterol excretion. Increased expression of 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), ATP-binding cassette subfamily G-transporters (ABCG5/G8), and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) was observed following A. brasiliensis administration. Our results suggest that consumption of A. brasiliensis improves the serum lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic rats by modulating the expression of key genes involved in hepatic cholesterol metabolism.

  15. Actinomycetoma in arm disseminated to lung with grains of Nocardia brasiliensis with peripheral filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Hernández, Bertha; Noyola, María Cecilia; Palma-Cortés, Gabriel; Rosete, Dora Patricia; Galván, Miguel Angel; Manjarrez, María Eugenia

    2009-07-01

    Actinomycetomas represent 97.8% of mycetomas in Mexico, where 86.6% are produced by Nocardia brasiliensis. We report a case of actinomycetoma in the arm by Nocardia brasiliensis disseminated to lung. Uncommon grains were observed which present outside peripheral filaments and also numerous filaments loosing the grains. These characteristics of the grains are due probably because for the long treatment with antibiotics of the patient. In situ antibiotic action against the microcolonies is discussed.

  16. In vitro activities of the new antitubercular agents PA-824 and BTZ043 against Nocardia brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Campos-Rivera, Mayra Paola; Gonzalez-Martinez, Norma Alejandra; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Cole, Stewart T

    2012-07-01

    The in vitro activity of PA-824 and BTZ043 against 30 Nocardia brasiliensis isolates was tested. The MIC(50) and MIC(90) values for PA-824 were both >64 μg/ml. The same values for BTZ043 were 0.125 and 0.250 μg/ml. Given the MIC values for benzothiazinone (BTZ) compounds, we consider them good candidates to be tested in vivo against N. brasiliensis.

  17. Reptilia, Serpentes, Dipsadidae, Gomesophis brasiliensis (Gomes, 1918: Distribution extension in state of Santa Catarina, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fortes, V. B.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian burrowing snake, Gomesophis brasiliensis, occurs in aquatic habitats such as swamps, from MinasGerais and Distrito Federal until Rio Grande do Sul. In spite of this wide distribution, the species’ geographic range stillremains unclear. This note reports the occurrence of G. brasiliensis in the municipality of Vargem Bonita, state of SantaCatarina, south Brazil, extending the species’ range ca. 80 km to the west in this state.

  18. [Primary cutaneous Nocardia brasiliensis cellulitis in immunocompetent child].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shachor-Meyouhas, Yael; Ravid, Sarit; Suhair, Hanna; Kassis, Imad

    2012-08-01

    Primary cutaneous nocardiosis is an infrequent infection among children, generally affecting immunocompromised hosts. It is caused by Gram positive bacteria, partially alcohol and acid resistant which are saprophytes of the soil, water and organic matter. In most cases the causal agent enters through inhalation, and hematogenous dissemination may occur mainly among the immune compromised patients. Direct cutaneous inoculation is less frequent, especially among children. We report an 8-year old female who lives in an urban house with a small garden, who presented with an ulcer on her right shin accompanied by surrounding cellulitis, pain, swelling and fever. The patient's medical history was unremarkable, with no exposure to animals or travelling, except for rafting on the Jordan River the previous week. Culture from the ulcer grew Nocardia brasiliensis, and she recovered after 8 weeks of therapy with trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole.

  19. Actinomycetoma by Nocardia brasiliensis in a girl with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Martha; Bonifaz, Alexandro; Valencia, Adriana; Araiza, Javier; Mejia, Silvia Anett; Mena-Cedillos, Carlos

    2008-08-15

    We describe the case of a 14-year-old girl with Down syndrome and a large cutaneous plaque localized to the right neck and shoulder that had enlarged over five years after a minor traumatic injury. The plaque was characterized by numerous inflammatory nodules and fistulae that secreted purulent discharge. Nocardia grains were identified and Nocardia brasiliensis was identified by culture. Histopathology examination showed a chronic inflammatory infiltrate with granuloma development. The treatment scheme was with Diaminodiphenylsulfone 50/mg/d and Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole 800/160 mg BID. Therapy was continued over 1(1/2) years, with a tapering dose. After 2(1/2) years of continuous treatment, clinical and microbiological healing was achieved.

  20. Clotrimazole is highly effective in vitro against feline Sporothrix brasiliensis isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagini, Thalita; Borba-Santos, Luana Pereira; Messias Rodrigues, Anderson; Pires de Camargo, Zoilo; Rozental, Sonia

    2017-11-01

    Sporothrix brasiliensis, the most virulent species in the Sporothrix schenckii complex, is responsible for the ongoing epidemics of human and animal sporotrichosis in Brazil. Feline outbreaks are usually driven by S. brasiliensis and followed by extensive transmission to humans. Itraconazole is the first-line treatment for both feline and human sporotrichosis; however, reduced sensitivity is an emerging issue. Thus, we investigated the effect of the widely used antifungal clotrimazole - alone or in combination with itraconazole - against the pathogenic (yeast) form of feline and human S. brasiliensis isolates, in vitro. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) values were determined for treatment with clotrimazole and itraconazole, as monotherapy or in combination. In addition, the effect of the drugs on neutral lipid levels and the yeast ultrastructure were evaluated by flow cytometry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. The MIC and MFC values show that clotrimazole was more effective than itraconazole against feline S. brasiliensis isolates, while human isolates were more sensitive to itraconazole. Similarly to itraconazole, treatment with clotrimazole induced statistically significant neutral lipid accumulation in S. brasiliensis yeasts, and treated yeasts displayed irregularities in the cell membrane and a thicker cell wall when observed by TEM. Clotrimazole increased the antifungal activity of itraconazole in combination assays, with a synergistic effect for two feline isolates. The strong activity of clotrimazole against feline S. brasiliensis isolates suggests that this drug is potentially a new alternative for the treatment of feline sporotrichosis, alone or in combination with itraconazole.

  1. Fish Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cause Blog Vision Awards Common Allergens Fish Allergy Fish Allergy Learn about fish allergy, how to read ... that you must avoid both. Allergic Reactions to Fish Finned fish can cause severe and potentially life- ...

  2. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, nova amostra isolada de fezes de um pinguim (Pygoscelis adeliae Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, a new strain isolated from a fecal matter of a penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilma Maciel Garcia

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Os Autores apresentam os resultados obtidos com a amostra "pinguim" de Paracoccidioides, isolada por GEZUELE et al. (1989 na Antártica uruguaia. Das fezes de um desses animais, foi isolado um fungo considerado, recentemente, como nova espécie de Paracoccididoides - P. antarclicus. Os exames micológico e imunoquímico demonstraram tratar-se de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, inclusive com a verificação da presença da glicoproteína 43 kDa pelos métodos de imunodifusão dupla, SDS-PAGE e imunoeletroforese. A possibilidade de se tratar de uma variedade do Paracoccididoides brasiliensis somente poderá ser confirmada através de outros estudos baseados na chamada taxonomía molecular, incluindo cariotipagem. Os Autores registram o significado epidemiológico deste achado, sugerindo uma revisão nos conhecimentos do nicho ecológico do P. brasiliensis.The Authors show lhe results obtained through the study of a Paracoccidioides strain isolated from a penguin in the Uruguaian An-lartide by GEZUELE et al. (1989. From the fecal matter it was isolated a fungus which was recently considered as a new species of the genus Paracoccidioides - P. antarcticus. However, the mycological and immunochemical studies including the demonstration of the 43 kDa glycoprotein by immunodiffusion test, SDS-PAGE and immunoelectrophoresis disclosed that such strain is similar to P. brasiliensis. Other studies, based on molecular taxonomy, including karyotyping, are the only tools to confirm Lhe possibility of such strain to be a variant of P. brasiliensis. The Authors report the epidemiological significance of that finding and suggest a review in the knowledge of the ecological "niche" of P. brasiliensis.

  3. Distribution pattern of juveniles of the pink shrimps Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis (Latreille, 1817 and F. paulensis (Pérez-Farfante, 1967 on the southeastern Brazilian coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Caetano da Costa

    Full Text Available Abstract The spatio-temporal distribution of juveniles of the pink shrimps Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis (Latreille, 1817 and Farfantepenaeus paulensis (Pérez-Farfante, 1967 in the Ubatuba region (SP was investigated. Sampling was performed in the bays of Ubatumirim (UBM, Ubatuba (UBA and Mar Virado (MV. A total of 2,018 F. brasiliensis and F. paulensis were collected. The largest catch of juveniles of both species occurred in UBA (N = 867, followed by UBM (N = 729 and MV (N= 422. The bottom sediment in MV had the highest silt and clay content, which explains the negative correlation of the substrate with the abundance of both species. Temperature was positively correlated with the abundance of both species. Juveniles were highly abundant in shallower areas in the summer of 1998. The high rainfall in this El Niño period may have lowered the salinity in estuarine waters and led the shrimps to move to coastal areas in search of higher salinities such as in bays. With this unusually early reduction in salinity, individuals migrated to the bay before the closed season began and thus became more exposed to fishing. We confirmed that monitoring environmental variations, especially in El Niño years, is essential for understanding the distribution patterns of juveniles of both species.

  4. Ecologia da comunidade de metazoários parasitos da Maria-Luiza, Paralonchurus brasiliensis (Osteichthyes: Sciaenidae do litoral do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i2.2009 Community ecology of the metazoan parasites of Banded Croaker, Paralonchurus brasiliensis (Osteichthyes: Sciaenidae, from the coastal zone of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil- DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i2.2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata da Silva Ribeiro

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram examinados 93 espécimes de Paralonchurus brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1875, provenientes da Pedra de Guaratiba (23º01’S, 43º38’W litoral do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. No período de setembro de 2001 até março de 2002, sendo necropsiados para estudo da sua comunidade de metazoários parasitos. Quinze espécies de parasitos foram coletadas. Paralonchurus brasiliensis é um novo registro de hospedeiro para 13 espécies de parasitos. Contracaecum sp. foi a espécie dominante, com os maiores índices de prevalência e abundância parasitária. Os componentes da comunidade parasitária de P. brasiliensis apresentaram o típico padrão de distribuição superdispersa. A abundância e a prevalência de Procamallanus (Spirocamallus pereirai apresentaram correlação positiva com o comprimento total do hospedeiro. A abundância de Contracaecum sp. apresentou correlação positiva com o comprimento total do hospedeiro. Um par de endoparasitos adultos (Aponurus laguncula - Procamallanus (S. pereirai apresentou covariação negativa e um par de estágios larvais de endoparasitos apresentou covariação positiva entres as abundâncias. Paralonchurus brasiliensis apresentou uma comunidade de metazoários parasitos composta de espécies generalistas, pouco ordenadas e com poucas evidências de associações interespecíficas. Este padrão está em concordância com os estudos realizados com comunidades parasitárias de siaenídeos da região neotropicalNinety-three specimens of banded croaker, Paralonchurus brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1875, collected from Pedra de Guaratiba (23º01’S, 43º38’W, coastal zone, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between September 2001 and March 2002, were necropsied to study their infracommunities of metazoan parasites. Fifteen species of metazoan parasites were collected. Paralonchurus brasiliensis is a new host record for 13 parasite species. The majority of fishes were parasitized by one or more metazoan

  5. Antagonistic Activity of Nocardia brasiliensis PTCC 1422 Against Isolated Enterobacteriaceae from Urinary Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Hossnieh Kafshdar; Salamatzadeh, Abdolreza; Jalali, Arezou Kafshdar; Kashani, Hamed Haddad; Asbchin, Salman Ahmadi; Issazadeh, Khosro

    2016-03-01

    The main drawback of current antibiotic therapies is the emergence and rapid increase in antibiotic resistance. Nocardiae are aerobic, Gram-positive, catalase-positive, non-motile actinomycetes. Nocardia brasiliensis was reported as antibiotic producer. The purpose of the study was to determine antibacterial activity of N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 against isolated Enterobacteriaceae from urinary tract infections (UTIs). The common bacteria from UTIs were isolated from hospital samples. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed for the isolated pathogens using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method according to clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guideline. Antagonistic activity of N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 was examined with well diffusion methods. Supernatant of N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 by submerged culture was analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Isolated strains included Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens and Proteus mirabilis. The most common pathogen isolated was E. coli (72.5%). Bacterial isolates revealed the presence of high levels of antimicrobial resistances to ceftriaxone and low levels of resistance to cephalexin. Supernatant of N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 showed antibacterial activity against all of the isolated microorganisms in well diffusion method. The antibiotic resistance among the uropathogens is an evolving process, so a routine surveillance to monitor the etiologic agents of UTI and the resistance pattern should be carried out timely to choose the most effective empirical treatment by the physicians. Our present investigation indicates that the substances present in the N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 could be used to inhibit the growth of human pathogen. Antibacterial resistance among bacterial uropathogen is an evolving process. Therefore, in the field on the need of re-evaluation of empirical treatment of UTIs, our present. The study has demonstrated that N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 has a high potential

  6. Detection of Anti-Paracoccidioides brasiliensis antibodies in suspected tuberculosis patients = Detecção de anticorpos anti-Paracoccidioides brasiliensis em pacientes suspeitos de tuberculose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Dias Fraga Peron

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM is an important systemic mycosis in LatinAmerica that occurs as active disease in 1-2% of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infected people. Like PCM, tuberculosis (TB affects mainly the lungs and the clinical and radiological aspects do notalways allow differentiation between them. The aim of this study was to carry out serological investigation for detecting anti-P. brasiliensis antibodies, by three serological methods, in patientswith symptoms suggestive of pulmonary TB. From August 2005 to September 2006, 76 patients with pulmonary symptoms suspected for TB were attended at the Regional Specialties Center Laboratory in the city of Paranavaí, Paraná, Brazil and submitted to microbiological TB research, ELISA, immunodiffusion and immunoblotting for PCM. Of all the individuals, 21 (27.63% were reactive to P. brasiliensis by ELISA and 11 (14.47% showed a laboratory diagnosis of pulmonary TB. Of all the individuals serologically reactive to P. brasiliensis, by ELISA, none had positive results by immunodiffusion and one reacted with antigen 43 kDa when Immunobloting was carried out. Our results lead us to reflect a necessity to obtain a more specific serologic test for diagnosis of PCM disease in patients with respiratory symptoms considering the high number of individuals reactive to P. brasiliensis especially in endemic areas.Paracoccidioidomicose (PCM é importante micose sistêmica na América Latina, que ocorre como doença ativa em 1-2% dos indivíduos infectados com Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Assim como a PCM, a tuberculose (TB afeta principalmente os pulmões, porém os aspectos clínicos e radiológicos nem sempre permitem a diferenciação entreessas doenças. O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar um inquérito sorológico para a detecção de anticorpos anti-P. brasiliensis, utilizando três métodos sorológicos, em pacientes com sintomassugestivos de tuberculose pulmonar. De agosto de 2005 a setembro de

  7. Geographic variation in ectoparasitic mites diversity in Tadarida Brasiliensis (Chiroptera, Molossidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana C. Pesenti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tadarida brasiliensis (Geoffroy, 1824, the Brazilian free-tailed bat, is an insectivorous bat that occurs from southern United States of America to southern South America. In this study we present the first data on diversity of ectoparasitic mites of T. brasiliensis in Brazil. A compilation and analysis of the studies of mite diversity conducted in different points the geographic distribution this bat species are provided. The mites were collected from March 2010 to November 2011 on 160 T. brasiliensis adult bats captured in southern Brazil. Four species of mites have been found: Chiroptonyssus robustipes (Ewing, 1925, Ewingana longa (Ewing, 1938, Ewingana inaequalis (Radford, 1948, and specimens of Cheyletidae. Chiroptonyssus robustipes was the most prevalent species (100%, followed by E. longa (20%, E. inaequalis (10%, and specimens of Cheyletidae (1.25%. The data currently available show that C. robustipes parasitizes T. brasiliensis throughout its region of occurrence, and this mite is highly prevalent and abundant. The two species of Ewingana accompany the geographical distribution of T. brasiliensis, but with much lower prevalence and abundance.

  8. Development of Myrmeleon brasiliensis (Navas) (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae), in laboratory, with different natural diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Missirian, Giani L.B. [Centro Universitario da Grande Dourados, MS (Brazil). Curso de Ciencias Biologicas; Uchoa-Fernandes, Manoel A. [Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados, MS (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Biologicas e Ambientais]. E-mail: uchoa.fernandes@ufgd.edu.br; Fischer, Erich [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia

    2006-07-01

    Antlions larvae are sit-and-wait predators that capture arthropod prey in conical sand pits. The aim of this paper were to determine the effect of different natural diets [leaf-cutting ants (Atta spp.), fruit fly larvae (Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata) and mixed diet (Atta spp. plus fruit fly larvae)] on the development of larvae and pupae of M. brasiliensis (Navas, 1914) and to estimate the number and size of prey caught in each instar and on each kind of diet. The average duration (days) of the second and third instars of M. brasiliensis was longer when larvae of antlion were fed with leaf-cutting ants. The diets did not affect the duration of the pupal stage nor the pupae size. The different diets did not affect the mean width of head capsule (mm), the mean weight (mg) or the mean body size (mm) in the different instars of M. brasiliensis. In the second and third instars, the larvae of M. brasiliensis fed with leaf-cutting ants consumed more prey than larvae kept on other diets. Adults whose larvae were fed fruit fly larvae were larger than adults on other diets. Although Myrmeleontidae are few studied in Brazil, these results contribute to knowledge of M. brasiliensis biology, but also suggest the need of studies about the development of larvae and pupae in natural environments. (author)

  9. Sporotrichosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Sporothrix brasiliensis is associated with atypical clinical presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; de Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista; Freitas, Dayvison Francis Saraiva; do Valle, Antônio Carlos Francesconi; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria; Gutierrez-Galhardo, Maria Clara

    2014-09-01

    There have been several recent changes in the taxonomy of Sporothrix schenckii as well as new observations regarding the clinical aspects of sporotrichosis. In this study, we determined the identification of the Sporothrix species associated with both classic and unusual clinical aspects of sporotrichosis observed in the endemic area of sporotrichosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. To verify whether S. brasiliensis is associated with clinical manifestations of sporotrichosis, a cross-sectional study was performed in which Sporothrix isolates from 50 patients with different clinical manifestations were analyzed and their isolates were studied by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Data from these patients revealed a distinct clinical picture and therapeutic response in infections caused by Sporothrix brasiliensis (n = 45) compared to patients with S. schenckii sensu stricto (n = 5). S. brasiliensis was associated with disseminated cutaneous infection without underlying disease, hypersensitivity reactions, and mucosal infection, whereas patients with S. schenckii presented with less severe and more often localized disease, similar to the majority of previously described sporotrichosis cases. Interestingly, S. brasiliensis-infected patients overall required shorter durations of itraconazole (median 16 weeks) compared to the individuals with S. schenckii (median 24 weeks). These findings suggest that Sporothrix species are linked to different clinical manifestations of sporotrichosis and that S. brasiliensis is effectively treated with oral itraconazole.

  10. Keratitis caused by the recently described new species Aspergillus brasiliensis: two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vágvölgyi Csaba

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Human infections caused by Aspergillus brasiliensis have not yet been reported. We describe the first two known cases of fungal keratitis caused by Aspergillus brasiliensis. Case presentations A 49-year-old Indian Tamil woman agricultural worker came with pain and defective vision in the right eye for one month. Meanwhile, a 35-year-old Indian Tamil woman presented with a history of a corneal ulcer involving the left eye for 15 days. The fungal strains isolated from these two cases were originally suspected to belong to Aspergillus section Nigri based on macro- and micromorphological characteristics. Molecular identification revealed that both isolates represent A. brasiliensis. Conclusion The two A. brasiliensis strains examined in this study were part of six keratitis isolates from Aspergillus section Nigri, suggesting that this recently described species may be responsible for a significant proportion of corneal infections caused by black Aspergilli. The presented cases also indicate that significant differences may occur between the severities of keratitis caused by individual isolates of A. brasiliensis.

  11. Evidence for positive selection in putative virulence factors within the Paracoccidioides brasiliensis species complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R Matute

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a dimorphic fungus that is the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, the most important prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America. Recently, the existence of three genetically isolated groups in P. brasiliensis was demonstrated, enabling comparative studies of molecular evolution among P. brasiliensis lineages. Thirty-two gene sequences coding for putative virulence factors were analyzed to determine whether they were under positive selection. Our maximum likelihood-based approach yielded evidence for selection in 12 genes that are involved in different cellular processes. An in-depth analysis of four of these genes showed them to be either antigenic or involved in pathogenesis. Here, we present evidence indicating that several replacement mutations in gp43 are under positive balancing selection. The other three genes (fks, cdc42 and p27 show very little variation among the P. brasiliensis lineages and appear to be under positive directional selection. Our results are consistent with the more general observations that selective constraints are variable across the genome, and that even in the genes under positive selection, only a few sites are altered. We present our results within an evolutionary framework that may be applicable for studying adaptation and pathogenesis in P. brasiliensis and other pathogenic fungi.

  12. No significant transfer of N and P from Pueraria Phaseoloides to Hevea Brasiliensis via Hyphal links of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ikram, A.; Jensen, E.S.; Jakobsen, I.

    1994-01-01

    The possible role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the transfer of nitrogen and phosphorus from Pueraria phaseoloides (donor) to Hevea brasiliensis (receiver) was examined. P. phaseoloides is used as a cover crop in rubber tree (H. brasiliensis) plantations. Roots of donor and receiver plants...

  13. Bacteriocinogenic effect of Lactobacillus sakei 2a on microbiological quality of fermented Sardinella brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton L. P. Espírito Santo

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus sakei 2a is a bacteriocin producer strain and, in this work, it's effects as a starter culture in the fermentation process of sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis fillets were observed at different concentrations of NaCl (2, 4 and 6% and glucose (2 and 4%, to determine it's ability to produce organic acids and consequent pH reduction. Experiments were carried out independently, with only one parameter (NaCl or glucose varying at a time. After 21 days of fermentation the deteriorative bacteria concentration reached 9.7 Log10 CFU. g-1 corresponding to 6% NaCl and 4% glucose. Little differences were observed in lactic acid production when 2 and 4% glucose were added, since total acidity was 1.32 and 1.34% respectively, the experiments with 6% NaCl presented the best results. Initial pH of sardine fillets was 6 and after 21 days pH values were 3.8, 3.9 and 4 for the experiments with 2, 4 and 6% NaCl. This may have been due to the inhibitory properties of NaCl over the deteriorative bacteria. After 21 days of the fermentation process lactic acid bacteria concentrations were 14.5 Log10 CFU.g-1. The ratio protein nitrogen and total soluble nitrogen was typical of a cured fish.Lactobacillus sakei é comprovadamente uma cepa produtora de bacteriocinas e, neste trabalho procurou-se observar seus efeitos como cultivo iniciador, na fermentação de filés de sardinha-verdadeira (Sardinella brasiliensis em diferentes concentrações de NaCl (2, 4 e 6% e glicose (2 e 4%, observando-se sua capacidade para produzir ácidos orgânicos e conseqüente redução do pH e microrganismos deterioradores. Os tratamentos foram desenvolvidos de forma independente, variando apenas um dos parâmetros operacionais (NaCl ou glicose. Ao término de 21 dias de fermentação, a concentração de microrganismos deterioradores atingiu 9,7 Log10 UFC.g-1, correspondente a 6% de NaCl e 4% de glicose. Poucas diferenças foram observadas na produção de ácido lático quando

  14. Drimys brasiliensis essential oil as a source of drimenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciele Milani Zem

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Drimys brasiliensis Miers is a native plant species to the Atlantic Forest, commonly known as cataia, and used as a stimulant, anti-diahrreal, antipyretic, among other properties. Dried and fresh leaves of cataia were collected in autumn/2012, submitted to hydrodistillation in a Clevenger graduated apparatus over a period of 4 hours after reaching the boiling point, then essential oil was collected. In oil from green leaves, 49 compounds were identified, being 65.0% sesquiterpenes, 12.0% monoterpenes and 23.0% other substances. In oil from dry leaves, 40 compounds were identified, being 76.1% sesquiterpenes, 2.0% monoterpenes and 21.9% other compounds. The main constituents in green leaves were germacrene D (8.9%, bicyclegermacrene (5.3%, epi-alpha-cadinol (5.1%, alpha-cadinol (6.0%, and drimenol (9.3%. In dry leaves the main constituents were germacrene D (6.3%, (E-nerodidol (5.4%, spathulenol (9.5%, epi-alpha-cadinol (5.5%, alpha-cadinol (6.7%, and drimenol (11.6% Due to its composition, antibacterial, antimycotic, insectifuge and molluscicide activities are proven, together with the pharmacological properties that this species may present.

  15. Sporothrix brasiliensis outbreaks and the rapid emergence of feline sporotrichosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchotene, Karine Ortiz; Madrid, Isabel Martins; Klafke, Gabriel Baracy; Bergamashi, Mariana; Della Terra, Paula Portella; Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires; Xavier, Melissa Orzechowski

    2015-11-01

    Sporotrichosis is the main subcutaneous mycosis in Brazil, and is caused by Sporothrix schenckii and allied species. Sporothrix propagules present on soil and plant debris may be traumatically inoculated into the cutaneous/ subcutaneous tissues of the warm-blooded host. An alternative route involves direct animal-animal and animal-human transmissions through deep scratches and bites of diseased cats. Sporotrichosis is much more common than previously appreciated with several cases emerging over the years especially in South and Southeast Brazil. We conducted an epidemiological surveillance in endemic areas of feline sporotrichosis in the southern region of Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. Over the last 5-year period the number of feline sporotrichosis in Rio Grande increased from 0.75 new cases per month in 2010 to 3.33 cases per month in 2014. The wide geographic distribution of diagnosed cases highlights the dynamics of Sporothrix transmission across urban areas with high population density. Molecular identification down to species level by PCR-RFLP of cat-transmitted Sporothrix revealed the emergence of the clonal offshoot S. brasiliensis during feline outbreaks; this scenario is similar to the epidemics taking place in the metropolitan areas of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. Controlling and preventing sporotrichosis outbreaks are essential steps to managing the disease among humans and animals. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Activation of the Na+,K+-ATPase in Narcine brasiliensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, H.; Nioka, Shoko; Johnson, R.G. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The in vivo activation and turnover rates of the sodium pump (Na + ,K + -ATPase) were investigated in the electrocytes of the electric organ of the elasmobranch Narcine brasiliensis. The Narcine electric organ appears to be an excellent model for the study of sodium pump activation in an excitable tissue. The sodium transmembrane gradient and high-energy phosphagens were concurrently measured by 23 Na and 31 P NMR spectroscopy. The resting electric organ, which depends primarily on anaerobic metabolism displays a high concentration of phosphocreatin (PCr). It has an intracellular sodium concentration ([Na + ] i ) of 20±10 milliequivalents/liter as estimated by NMR. Electrical stimulation of the nerves innervating the electric organ results in an increase in [Na + ] i in the electrolyte and rapid depletion of PCr. Ouabain causes an 85% decrease in utilization of high-energy phosphagens, indicating that rapid PCr turnover in this tissue is mainly due to Na + ,K + -ATPase activity. From these data the authors can determine that the rate of sodium pump turnover increases by >3 orders of magnitude within several hundred milliseconds. The authors conclude that cholinergic stimulation of the electric organ causes a rapid and extremely large increase in sodium pump turnover, which is regulated predominantly by factors other than [Na + ] i

  17. Monitoring the sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis fermentation process to obtain anchovies Monitoramento do processo de fermentação da sardinha, Sardinella brasiliensis, para obtenção de anchovas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Oetterer

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Anchovies are traditional fish preserves, prepared from fermented fish of the engraulidae family, mainly in European countries. In Brazil, sardines (Sardinella brasiliensis are an alternative fish for preparing these types of preserves, provided that the preservation process results in a high quality product. In this research, sardines were prepared for preservation and physicochemical, microbiological and sensory analyses were carried out during the preservation process. Whole or eviscerated sardines, with or without condiments/preservatives and with 20% of salt (w/w were used. Sardines were analyzed fresh, and at 1, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days along the preservation process. The use of whole sardines, with or without condiments/preservatives, presented best results, with increased non-proteic nitrogen in the dry matter, higher levels of total volatile bases and higher contents of lactic acid and sodium chloride. The higher acidity observed in the whole sardine treatments resulted in better control of halophylic mesophilic microorganisms, which were kept under 1.4 x 10³ CFU g-1 in both treatments. Total coliforms and Staphylococcus aureus reached 21 and 3.0 x 10² CFU g-1, respectively. Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp were not present in the fresh sardines or in any of the four treatments, indicating that the concentration of salt used was appropriate to maintain the product under adequate microbiological control. Both whole or eviscerated sardines under the conditions of this experiment were appropriate in terms of the microbiological safety of the preserves. Treatments using whole fish, either with or without condiments/preservatives, also presented better sensorial properties such as color, flavor, taste and texture, as compared to the eviscerated fish treatments. Whole sardines produced good quality, anchovy-type preserves, which can be used for consumption and marketing purposes.As sardinhas brasileiras podem ser utilizadas para o preparo

  18. Diversity and antimicrobial potential of culturable heterotrophic bacteria associated with the endemic marine sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia P.J. Rua

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine sponges are the oldest Metazoa, very often presenting a complex microbial consortium. Such is the case of the marine sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis, endemic to Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. In this investigation we characterized the diversity of some of the culturable heterotrophic bacteria living in association with A. brasiliensis and determined their antimicrobial activity. The genera Endozoicomonas (N = 32, Bacillus (N = 26, Shewanella (N = 17, Pseudovibrio (N = 12, and Ruegeria (N = 8 were dominant among the recovered isolates, corresponding to 97% of all isolates. Approximately one third of the isolates living in association with A. brasiliensis produced antibiotics that inhibited the growth of Bacillus subtilis, suggesting that bacteria associated with this sponge play a role in its health.

  19. Increase in virulence of Sporothrix brasiliensis over five years in a patient with chronic disseminated sporotrichosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Dayvison F S; Santos, Suelen S; Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; de Oliveira, Manoel M E; do Valle, Antonio C F; Gutierrez-Galhardo, Maria Clara; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely M; Nosanchuk, Joshua D

    2015-01-01

    The metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro is hyperendemic for cat-associated sporotrichosis. This study aimed to assess the virulence of serial Sporothrix isolates from a 61-year-old male patient with chronic, destructive disseminated sporotrichosis. Five Sporothrix isolates were cultured from skin exudates and bone samples over a 5-year period, and all were molecularly identified as Sporothrix brasiliensis. The final isolate was significantly more virulent in Galleria mellonella larvae compared to earlier isolates. We conclude that S. brasiliensis has the capacity to increase in virulence in vivo. This finding is significant to clinicians caring for individuals with S. brasiliensis disease and it suggests that further studies are needed to identify the mechanisms underlying pathogenicity enhancement during chronic disease.

  20. Chromosome homogeneity in populations of Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva 1911 (Hemiptera - Reduviidae - Triatominae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panzera Francisco

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma brasiliensis is the most important vector of Chagas disease in the semiarid zone of the Northeast of Brazil. Several authors have reported the occurrence of four chromatic patterns with morphological, ecological, and genetic differences. In order to determine the existence of cytogenetic differentiation between these chromatic forms, we analyzed their karyotypes and the chromosome behavior during the male meiotic process. Triatoma brasiliensis shows distinct and specific chromosome characteristics, which differ from those observed in all other triatomine species. However, no cytogenetic differences were observed between the four chromatic forms of T. brasiliensis. The lack of chromosome differentiation among them could indicate that the populations of this species are in a process of differentiation that does not involve their chromosomal organization.

  1. Proteomic analysis reveals that iron availability alters the metabolic status of the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana F A Parente

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a thermodimorphic fungus and the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM. The ability of P. brasiliensis to uptake nutrients is fundamental for growth, but a reduction in the availability of iron and other nutrients is a host defense mechanism many pathogenic fungi must overcome. Thus, fungal mechanisms that scavenge iron from host may contribute to P. brasiliensis virulence. In order to better understand how P. brasiliensis adapts to iron starvation in the host we compared the two-dimensional (2D gel protein profile of yeast cells during iron starvation to that of iron rich condition. Protein spots were selected for comparative analysis based on the protein staining intensity as determined by image analysis. A total of 1752 protein spots were selected for comparison, and a total of 274 out of the 1752 protein spots were determined to have changed significantly in abundance due to iron depletion. Ninety six of the 274 proteins were grouped into the following functional categories; energy, metabolism, cell rescue, virulence, cell cycle, protein synthesis, protein fate, transcription, cellular communication, and cell fate. A correlation between protein and transcript levels was also discovered using quantitative RT-PCR analysis from RNA obtained from P. brasiliensis under iron restricting conditions and from yeast cells isolated from infected mouse spleens. In addition, western blot analysis and enzyme activity assays validated the differential regulation of proteins identified by 2-D gel analysis. We observed an increase in glycolytic pathway protein regulation while tricarboxylic acid cycle, glyoxylate and methylcitrate cycles, and electron transport chain proteins decreased in abundance under iron limiting conditions. These data suggest a remodeling of P. brasiliensis metabolism by prioritizing iron independent pathways.

  2. Detection of antibodies against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis melanin in in vitro and in vivo studies during infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urán, Martha E; Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Restrepo, Angela; Hamilton, Andrew J; Gómez, Beatriz L; Cano, Luz E

    2011-10-01

    Several cell wall constituents, including melanins or melanin-like compounds, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of microbial diseases caused by diverse species of pathogenic bacteria, fungi, and helminthes. Among these microorganisms, the dimorphic fungal pathogen Paracoccidioides brasiliensis produces melanin in its conidial and yeast forms. In the present study, melanin particles from P. brasiliensis were injected into BALB/c mice in order to produce monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). We identified five immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) κ-chain and four IgM melanin-binding MAbs. The five IgG1 κ-chain isotypes are the first melanin-binding IgG MAbs ever reported. The nine MAbs labeled P. brasiliensis conidia and yeast cells both in vitro and in pulmonary tissues. The MAbs cross-reacted with melanin-like purified particles from other fungi and also with commercial melanins, such as synthetic and Sepia officinalis melanin. Melanization during paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) was also further supported by the detection of IgG antibodies reactive to melanin from P. brasiliensis conidia and yeast in sera and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids from P. brasiliensis-infected mice, as well as in sera from human patients with PCM. Serum specimens from patients with other mycoses were also tested for melanin-binding antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and cross-reactivities were detected for melanin particles from different fungal sources. These results suggest that melanin from P. brasiliensis is an immunologically active fungal structure that activates a strong IgG humoral response in humans and mice.

  3. Temperature and pH conditions for mycelial growth of Agaricus brasiliensis on axenic cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Colauto, Nelson Barros; Universidade Paranaense; Aizono, Patrícia Midori; Universidade Paranaense; Carvalho, Lis Ribeiro Magalhães de; Universidade Paranaense; Paccola-Meirelles, Luzia Doretto; Universidade Estadual de Londrina; Linde, Giani Andrea; Universidade Paranaense

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have been done to determine Agaricus brasiliensis Wasser et al. (A. blazei; A. subrufescens) basic mycelial growth characteristics on axenic cultivation. This study aimed to determine the optimal temperature and initial pH for mycelial growth of A. brasiliensis on malt extract agar medium to develop axenic cultivation techniques. Studied initial pH values for mycelial growth were adjusted to 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 5.5, with HCl, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, with NaOH, and again 7.0 and 8.0, with CaCO3....

  4. In Vitro Activity of PNU-100766 (Linezolid), a New Oxazolidinone Antimicrobial, against Nocardia brasiliensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Gómez-Flores, Alejandra; Escalante-Fuentes, Wendy G.; Welsh, Oliverio

    2001-01-01

    The in vitro activity of a novel oxazolidinone, linezolid, was studied by comparing the activity of linezolid with those of amikacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid against 25 strains of Nocardia brasiliensis isolated from patients with mycetoma. All N. brasiliensis strains tested were sensitive to linezolid (MIC at which 90% of strains are inhibited [MIC90], 2 μg/ml; MIC50, 1 μg/ml). This antimicrobial might constitute a good alternative for treatment of actinomycetoma. PMID:11709356

  5. Cutaneous Nocardia brasiliensis infection in an immunocompetent host after ovarian cystectomy: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manideepa SenGupta

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Nocardia brasiliensis is a rare human pathogen that is usually associated with localised cutaneous infections. We report a case of primary cutaneous Nocardia brasiliensis infection causing delayed wound healing that developed after ovarian cystectomy in an otherwise healthy 32-year-old woman. The patient was initially treated with cotrimoxazole, however due to intolerance intravenous amikacin was given and gradually the wound healed. The diagnosis was confirmed by demonstrating the causative organism in exudates, and cultures. Early diagnosis as well as early institution of chemotherapy is effective in most patients, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the isolate should be performed to identify the best treatment options.

  6. Cutaneous Nocardia brasiliensis infection in an immunocompetent host after ovarian cystectomy: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soma, Sarkar; Saha, Puranjay; Sengupta, Manideepa

    2011-01-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis is a rare human pathogen that is usually associated with localised cutaneous infections. We report a case of primary cutaneous Nocardia brasiliensis infection causing delayed wound healing that developed after ovarian cystectomy in an otherwise healthy 32-year-old woman. The patient was initially treated with cotrimoxazole, however due to intolerance intravenous amikacin was given and gradually the wound healed. The diagnosis was confirmed by demonstrating the causative organism in exudates, and cultures. Early diagnosis as well as early institution of chemotherapy is effective in most patients, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the isolate should be performed to identify the best treatment options.

  7. Fungal Colitis by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos José Galeazzi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis (PBM is an infection caused by a dimorphic fungus called Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. It occurs in Latin America, with incidence of 1 to 3 per 100,000 inhabitants in endemic areas. The digestive tract is usually not affected, but when it occurs, it may lead to events similar to colorectal neoplasm and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. This is a case report of a 68-year-old female patient, with diarrhea without blood or mucus for 6 months, weight loss of 8 kg over the period. Abdominal ultrasonography showed some mass in the right colon, suggestive of cancer and liver perihilar lymph node. Colonoscopy showed lesions suggestive of Crohn's disease. Biopsy showed chronic granulomatous colitis of fungal etiology: Paracoccidioidomycosis. The patient did not tolerate oral treatment with itraconazole and subsequently sulfadiazine, requiring hospital admission for the treatment with amphotericin B. The presence of Paracoccidioidomycosis in the digestive tract may be associated with bloody diarrhea, mucus, rectal hemorrhage, abdominal pain, malabsorption syndrome. Histopathological studies show the fungus and a chronic inflammatory infiltrate and granulation tissue. The differential diagnoses are tuberculosis, colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. The treatment is oral antifungal (itraconazole, sulfadiazine or intravenous (amphotericin B based. The case has caused diagnostic confusion between colon cancer (clinical and US and Crohn's disease (colonoscopy.Paracoccidioidomicose (PBM é uma infecção causada por um fungo dimórfico: Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Ocorre na América Latina, com incidência de 1 a 3 por 100.000 habitantes em áreas endêmicas. O acometimento do trato digestivo é infrequente, sendo que pode levar a manifestações semelhantes à neoplasia colorretal e doença inflamatória intestinal (DII. Relatamos o caso da paciente feminina, 68 anos, com diarreia sem sangue ou muco há seis meses, com

  8. Diet and food consumption of the pearl cichlid Geophagus brasiliensis (Teleostei: Cichlidae: relationships with gender and sexual maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo F. Bastos

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of the pearl cichlid Geophagus brasiliensis for the aquarium fish trade worldwide and its wide distribution, many aspects of its biology, such as the relationships between its feeding ecology and reproductive behavior, are not fully understood in natural conditions on its native habitat. In this paper, we investigated its diet focusing on how differences in diet and food consumption are related to differences in gender and sexual maturity. The digestive tract of each individual was dissected and had its content analyzed, whereas each gonad was microscopically analyzed to determine gender (male/female and sexual maturity (immature/mature. A total of 28 females and 31 males were analyzed. Mature individuals were more common than immature specimens both for males (64.50% and females (64.30%. The analysis of 52 individuals with non-empty digestive tracts revealed a diet comprised of 27 items. According to the Index of Alimentary importance (%IAi, the most important food items in the diet were Gastropoda (37.30%, fragments of vascular plants (15.16%, detritus (10.14%, Amphipoda (9.24%, and fish scales (6.29%. Mature males had more empty stomachs (65.00% when compared to immature males (27.27% and immature (55.56% and mature females (40.00%. Also, mature females seemed to have more food consumption (greater mean values of total volume in their digestive tracts than mature males. Some hypotheses are proposed in order to distinguish if this gender-based difference in food consumption in mature individuals of the pearl cichlid could be associated with the development of primary and secondary sexual characteristics or with asymmetrical time invested in parental care activities.

  9. National Plant Diagnostic Network, Taxonomic training videos: Aphids under the microscope - Cerataphis brasiliensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Training is a critical part of aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) identification. This video provides provides training to identify the palm aphid, Cerataphis brasiliensis, using a compound microscope and an electronic identification key called “LUCID.” The video demonstrates key morphological structures...

  10. Crystallization of Hevamine, an Enzyme with Lysozyme/Chitinase Activity from Hevea brasiliensis Latex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ROZEBOOM, HJ; BUDIANI, A; BEINTEMA, JJ

    1990-01-01

    Hevamine, an enzyme with both lysozyme and chitinase activity, was isolated and purified from Hevea brasiliensis (rubber tree) latex. The enzyme (molecular weight 29,000) is homologous to certain “pathogenesis-related” proteins from plants, but not to hen egg-white or phage T4 lysozyme. To

  11. Black thread disease, control measures and yield stimulation in Hevea brasiliensis in Liberia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, J.

    1972-01-01

    Described are investigations, carried out in 1963 to 1971 in Hevea brasiliensis at the Firestone Plantation at Harbel in Liberia. Studied was the tapping panel disease, black thread, caused by the fungus Phytophthora palmivora. The emphasis of the

  12. Anorexia in rats infected with the nematode, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis: experimental manipulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, J G; Mitchell, P I; Moar, K M; Bissett, A; Geissler, S; Bruce, K; Chappell, L H

    2000-06-01

    Nippostrongylus brasiliensis induces a biphasic anorexia in laboratory rats, the first phase coincident with lung invasion (ca day 2) and the second when the worms mature in the intestine (ca day 8). Using the anthelminthic, mebendazole (MBZ), N. brasiliensis infections of the rat were eliminated between the first and second anorexic episodes. This intervention prevented the expression of the second phase of anorexia. Rats exposed to a second infection with N. brasiliensis, 3 weeks after the primary infection, exhibited only a first phase anorexic response which was not influenced by MBZ termination of the primary infection. The lower cumulative food intake and weight gain of all infected rats after 8 days of infection were accompanied by elevated plasma insulin and, in some individuals, by elevated plasma leptin, compared with uninfected controls and previously-infected MBZ-treated rats. Messenger RNA levels for neuropeptide Y were higher in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus of 8-day infected rats than in recovering MBZ-treated animals. Inoculation of rats with heat-killed N. brasiliensis larvae failed to induce anorexia and did not alter the severity of biphasic anorexia on subsequent injection of viable larvae. The first anorexic episode is therefore dependent upon viable migrating larvae. The second phase of anorexia clearly requires the continuing presence of the parasite beyond the lung phase. Viable migrating larvae are also required to confer 'resistance' to reinfection.

  13. Phylogenetic analysis reveals a high prevalence of Sporothrix brasiliensis in Feline sporotrichosis outbreaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, A.M.; de Melo Teixeira, M.; de Hoog, G.S.; Pacheco Schubach, T.M.; Pereira, S.A.; Ferreira Fernandes, G.; Lopes Bezerra, L.M.; Felipe, M.S.; Pires de Camargo, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Sporothrix schenckii, previously assumed to be the sole agent of human and animal sporotrichosis, is in fact a species complex. Recently recognized taxa include S. brasiliensis, S. globosa, S. mexicana, and S. luriei, in addition to S. schenckii sensu stricto. Over the last decades, large epidemics

  14. Phylogenetic analysis reveals a high prevalence of Sporothrix brasiliensis in feline sporotrichosis outbreaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, A.M.; Teixeira, M.; de Hoog, G.S.; Schubach, T.M.P.; Pereira, S.A.; Fernandes, G.F.; Bezerra, L.M.; Felipe, M.S.; Camargo, Z.P.

    2013-01-01

    Sporothrix schenckii, previously assumed to be the sole agent of human and animal sporotrichosis, is in fact a species complex. Recently recognized taxa include S. brasiliensis, S. globosa, S. mexicana, and S. luriei, in addition to S. schenckii sensu stricto. Over the last decades, large epidemics

  15. Minimal inhibitory concentration distributions and epidemiological cutoff values of five antifungal agents against Sporothrix brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Almeida-Paes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Sporothrix brasiliensis is the most virulent sporotrichosis agent. This species usually responds to antifungal drugs, but therapeutic failure can occur in some patients. Antifungal susceptibility tests have been performed on this species, but no clinical breakpoints (CBPs are available. In this situation, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC distributions and epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs support the detection of identification of resistant strains. OBJECTIVES To study the MIC distributions of five antifungal drugs against S. brasiliensis and to propose tentative ECVs. METHODS MICs of amphotericin B (AMB, itraconazole (ITR, ketoconazole (KET, posaconazole (POS, and terbinafine (TRB against 335 S. brasiliensis strains were determined by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute broth microdilution method. FINDINGS The proposed ECV, in µg/mL, for AMB, ITR, KET, POS, and TRB were 4.0, 2.0, 1.0, 2.0, and 0.25, respectively. Percentages of wild-type strains in our population for the above antifungal drugs were 98.48, 95.22, 95.33, 100, and 97.67%, respectively. MAIN CONCLUSIONS These ECVs will be useful to detect strains with resistance, to define CBPs, and to elaborate specific therapeutic guidelines for S. brasiliensis. Rational use of antifungals is strongly recommended to avoid the emergence of resistant strains and ensure the therapeutic effectiveness of sporotrichosis.

  16. Comparative genomics of the major agents of human and animal Sporotrichosis: Sporothrix schenckii and Sporothrix brasiliensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teixeira, M.M.; de Almeida, L.G.P.; Kubitschek-Barreira, P.; Alves, F.L.; Kioshima, E.S.; Abadio, A.K.R.; Fernandes, L.; Derengowski, L.S.; Ferreira, K.S.; Souza, R.C.; Ruiz, J.C.; de Andrade, N.C.; Paes, H.C.; Nicola, A.M.; Albuquerque, P.; Gerber, A.L.; Martins, V.P.; Peconick, L.D.F.; Neto, A.V.; Chaucanez, C.B.; Silva, P.A.; cunha, O.L.; de Oliveira, F.F.M.; dos Santos, T.C.; Barros, A.L.N.; Soares, M.A.; de Oliveira, L.M.; Marini, M.M.; Villalobos-Duno, H.; Cunha, M.M.L.; de Hoog, S.; da Silveira, J.F.; Henrissat, B.; Niño-Vega, G.A.; Cisalpino, P.S.; Mora-Montes, H.M.; Almeida, S.R.; Stajich, J.E.; Lopes-Bezerra, L.M.; Vasconcelos, A.T.R.; Felipe, M.S.S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The fungal genus Sporothrix includes at least four human pathogenic species. One of these species, S. brasiliensis, is the causal agent of a major ongoing zoonotic outbreak of sporotrichosis in Brazil. Elsewhere, sapronoses are caused by S. schenckii and S. globosa. The major aims on

  17. Aspergillus brasiliensis sp. nov., a biseriate black Aspergillus species with world-wide distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varga, János; Kocsubé, Sándor; Tóth, Beáta

    2007-01-01

    to produce ochratoxin A, kotanins, funalenone or pyranonigrins. The novel species was most closely related to A. niger, and was isolated from soil from Brazil, Australia, USA and The Netherlands, and from grape berries from Portugal. The type strain of Aspergillus brasiliensis sp. nov. is CBS 101740(T) (=IM...

  18. Importance of xenarthrans in the eco-epidemiology of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richini-Pereira, Virgínia B; Bosco, Sandra M G; Theodoro, Raquel C; Barrozo, Lígia; Pedrini, Silvia C B; Rosa, Patrícia S; Bagagli, Eduardo

    2009-11-17

    Several pathogens that cause important zoonotic diseases have been frequently associated with armadillos and other xenarthrans. This mammal group typically has evolved on the South American continent and many of its extant species are seriously threatened with extinction. Natural infection of armadillos with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in hyperendemic areas has provided a valuable opportunity for understanding the role of this mammal in the eco-epidemiology of Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), one of the most important systemic mycoses in Latin America. This study aimed to detect P. brasiliensis in different xenarthran species (Dasypus novemcinctus, Cabassous spp., Euphractus sexcinctus, Tamandua tetradactyla and Myrmecophaga tridactyla), by molecular and mycological approaches, in samples obtained by one of the following strategies: i) from road-killed animals (n = 6); ii) from naturally dead animals (n = 8); iii) from animals that died in captivity (n = 9); and iv) from living animals captured from the wild (n = 2). Specific P. brasiliensis DNA was detected in several organs among 7/20 nine-banded armadillos (D. novemcinctus) and in 2/2 anteaters (M. tridactyla). The fungus was also cultured in tissue samples from one of two armadillos captured from the wild. Members of the Xenarthra Order, especially armadillos, have some characteristics, including a weak cellular immune response and low body temperature, which make them suitable models for studying host-pathogen interaction. P. brasiliensis infection in wild animals, from PCM endemic areas, may be more common than initially postulated and reinforces the use of these animals as sentinels for the pathogen in the environment.

  19. THE PRIMARY STRUCTURE OF HEVAMINE, AN ENZYME WITH LYSOZYME CHITINASE ACTIVITY FROM HEVEA-BRASILIENSIS LATEX

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JEKEL, PA; HARTMANN, JBH; BEINTEMA, JJ

    1991-01-01

    The primary structure of hevamine, an enzyme with lysozyme/chitinase activity from Hevea brasiliensis latex, has been determined predominantly with conventional non-automatic methods. The positions of three disulfide bridges have been determined. The sequence has about 60% identity with that of a

  20. Enzyme kinetics of hevamine, a chitinase from the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokma, Evert; Barends, Thomas; Terwisscha van Scheltinga, Anke C.; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Beintema, Jaap J.

    2000-01-01

    The enzyme kinetics of hevamine, a chitinase from the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis, were studied in detail with a new enzyme assay. In this assay, the enzyme reaction products were derivatized by reductive coupling to a chromophore, Products mere separated by HPLC and the amount of product was

  1. IL-4Rα-associated antigen processing by B cells promotes immunity in Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William G C Horsnell

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, B cell function in protective T(H2 immunity against N. brasiliensis infection was investigated. Protection against secondary infection depended on IL-4Rα and IL-13; but not IL-4. Protection did not associate with parasite specific antibody responses. Re-infection of B cell-specific IL-4Rα⁻/⁻ mice resulted in increased worm burdens compared to control mice, despite their equivalent capacity to control primary infection. Impaired protection correlated with reduced lymphocyte IL-13 production and B cell MHC class II and CD86 surface expression. Adoptive transfer of in vivo N. brasiliensis primed IL-4Rα expressing B cells into naïve BALB/c mice, but not IL-4Rα or IL-13 deficient B cells, conferred protection against primary N. brasiliensis infection. This protection required MHC class II compatibility on B cells suggesting cognate interactions by B cells with CD4⁺ T cells were important to co-ordinate immunity. Furthermore, the rapid nature of these protective effects by B cells suggested non-BCR mediated mechanisms, such as via Toll Like Receptors, was involved, and this was supported by transfer experiments using antigen pulsed Myd88⁻/⁻ B cells. These data suggest TLR dependent antigen processing by IL-4Rα-responsive B cells producing IL-13 contribute significantly to CD4⁺ T cell-mediated protective immunity against N. brasiliensis infection.

  2. In vivo therapeutic effect of gatifloxacin on BALB/c mice infected with Nocardia brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daw-Garza, Alejandra; Welsh, Oliverio; Said-Fernández, Salvador; Lozano-Garza, Hector Gerardo; Waksman de Torres, Noemi; Rocha, Norma Cavazos; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio

    2008-04-01

    In the present work, we evaluated the effect of gatifloxacin on the evolution of experimental murine infection with Nocardia brasiliensis using linezolid as a control. Gatifloxacin was injected subcutaneously at 100 mg/kg body weight every 8 h for 4 weeks. This compound was equally as efficient as linezolid in reducing the production of lesions.

  3. Nocardia brasiliensis primary pulmonary nocardiosis with subcutaneous involvement in an immunocompetent patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatya, R; Koirala, R; Khanal, B; Dhakal, S S

    2011-01-01

    This is a report of an unusual case of Nocardia brasiliensis causing primary pulmonary nocardiosis with disseminated subcutaneous lesions in an immunocompetent patient. This case highlights the importance of considering nocardiosis as a differential diagnosis in patients with pulmonary and cutaneous lesions and the need for vigorous management for complete cure.

  4. Expression of Nocardia brasiliensis superoxide dismutase during the early infection of murine peritoneal macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revol, Agnès; Espinoza-Ruiz, Marisol; Medina-Villanueva, Igor; Salinas-Carmona, Mario Cesar

    2006-12-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis is the main agent of actinomycetoma in Mexico, but little is known about its virulence and molecular pathogenic pathways. These facultative intracellular bacteria are able to survive and divide within the host phagocytic cells, in part by neutralizing the reactive oxygen intermediates. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) participates in the intracellular survival of several bacterial species and, in particular, constitutes one of Nocardia asteroides virulence factors. To clarify SOD participation in the N. brasiliensis early infective process, we report its isolation and the consequent comparison of its transcript level. A 630 bp polymerase chain reaction fragment that included most of the coding sequence of N. brasiliensis sodA was cloned. A competitive assay was developed, allowing comparison of bacterial sod expression in exponential culture and 1 h after infecting peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice. At that time, there were viable bacteria in the macrophages. The intracellular bacteria presented a clear decrease in their sod transcript amount, although their 16S rRNA (used as an internal control) and hsp levels were maintained or slightly increased, respectively. These results indicate that sodA transcription is not maintained within the SOS bacterial response induced by phagosomal conditions. Further kinetics will be necessary to precisely define sod transcriptional regulation during N. brasiliensis intra-macrophage growth.

  5. A life-threatening case of disseminated nocardiosis due to Nocardia brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramythiotou, Elisabeth; Papadomichelakis, Evangelos; Vrioni, Georgia; Pappas, Georgios; Pantelaki, Maria; Kontos, Fanourios; Zerva, Loukia; Armaganidis, Apostolos

    2012-10-01

    Nocardiosis is a rare disease caused by infection with Nocardia species, aerobic actinomycetes with a worldwide distribution. A rare life-threatening disseminated Nocardia brasiliensis infection is described in an elderly, immunocompromised patient. Microorganism was recovered from bronchial secretions and dermal lesions, and was identified using molecular assays. Prompt, timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment ensured a favorable outcome.

  6. Nocardia brasiliensis primary pulmonary nocardiosis with subcutaneous involvement in an immunocompetent patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Amatya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a report of an unusual case of Nocardia brasiliensis causing primary pulmonary nocardiosis with disseminated subcutaneous lesions in an immunocompetent patient. This case highlights the importance of considering nocardiosis as a differential diagnosis in patients with pulmonary and cutaneous lesions and the need for vigorous management for complete cure.

  7. Development of CD4 T cell dependent immunity against N. brasiliensis infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina eHarvie

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Of all the microbial infections relevant to mammals the relationship between parasitic worms and what constitutes and regulates a host protective immune response is perhaps the most complex and evolved. Nippostrongylus brasiliensis is a tissue migrating parasitic roundworm of rodents that exemplifies many of the salient features of parasitic worm infection, including parasite development through sequential larval stages as it migrates through specific tissue sites. Immune competent hosts respond to infection by N. brasiliensis with a rapid and selective development of a profound Th2 immune response that appears able to confer life long protective immunity against reinfection. This review details how the lung can be the site of migrating nematode immune killing and the gut a site of rapid immune mediated clearance of worms. Furthermore it appears that N. brasiliensis induced responses in the lung are sufficient for conferring immunity in lung and gut while infection of the gut only confers immunity in the gut. This review also covers the role of IL-4, STAT6 and the innate cytokines IL-25, IL-33 and TSLP in the generation of CD4-mediated immunity against N. brasiliensis reinfection and discusses what cytokines might be involved in mediated killing or expulsion of helminth parasites.

  8. Neofusicoccum ribis Associated with Leaf Blight on Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis in Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. C. Nyaka Ngobisa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Hevea brasiliensis is a natural source of rubber and an important plantation tree species in Malaysia. Leaf blight disease caused by Fusicoccum substantially reduces the growth and performance of H. brasiliensis. The aim of this study was to use a combination of both morphological characteristics and molecular data to clarify the taxonomic position of the fungus associated with leaf blight disease. Fusicoccum species were isolated from infected leaves collected from plantations at 3 widely separated locations – Selangor, Perak, and Johor states – in Peninsular Malaysia in 2010. All the isolates were identified according to their conidial patterns and DNA sequences generated from internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2, the 5.8S rRNA, and an unknown locus (BotF15 containing microsatellite repeats. Based on taxonomic and sequence data, Neofusicoccum ribis was identified as the main cause of leaf blight disease in H. brasiliensis in commercial plantations in Malaysia. A pathogenicity trial on detached leaves further confirmed that N. ribis causes leaf blight disease. N. ribis is an important leaf pathogen, and its detection in Malaysia has important implications for future planting of H. brasiliensis.

  9. Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto and Sporothrix brasiliensis Are Differentially Recognized by Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Martínez-Álvarez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto and S. brasiliensis are usually associated to sporotrichosis, a subcutaneous mycosis worldwide distributed. Comparative analyses between these two species indicate they contain genetic and physiological differences that are likely to impact the interaction with host cells. Here, we study the composition of the cell wall from conidia, yeast-like cells and germlings of both species and found they contained the same sugar composition. The carbohydrate proportion in the S. schenckii sensu stricto wall was similar across the three cell morphologies, with exception in the chitin content, which was significantly different in the three morphologies. The cell wall from germlings showed lower rhamnose content and higher glucose levels than other cell morphologies. In S. brasiliensis, the wall sugars were constant in the three morphologies, but glucose was lower in yeast-like cells. In S. schenckii sensu stricto cells most of chitin and β1,3-glucan were underneath wall components, but in S. brasiliensis germlings, chitin was exposed at the cell surface, and β1,3-glucan was found in the outer part of the conidia wall. We also compared the ability of these cells to stimulate cytokine production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The three S. schenckii sensu stricto morphologies stimulated increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, when compared to S. brasiliensis cells; while the latter, with exception of conidia, stimulated higher IL-10 levels. Dectin-1 was a key receptor for cytokine production during stimulation with the three morphologies of S. schenckii sensu stricto, but dispensable for cytokine production stimulated by S. brasiliensis germlings. TLR2 and TLR4 were also involved in the sensing of Sporothrix cells, with a major role for the former during cytokine stimulation. Mannose receptor had a minor contribution during cytokine stimulation by S. schenckii sensu stricto yeast-like cells and

  10. In vitro susceptibility of antifungal drugs against Sporothrix brasiliensis recovered from cats with sporotrichosis in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha; Pereira, Sandro Antonio; Gremião, Isabella Dib Ferreira; Schubach, Tânia Maria Pacheco; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires

    2016-03-01

    Sporotrichosis is an important subcutaneous mycosis of humans and animals. Classically, the disease is acquired upon traumatic inoculation of Sporothrix propagules from contaminated soil and plant debris. In addition, the direct horizontal transmission of Sporothrix among animals and the resulting zoonotic infection in humans highlight an alternative and efficient rout of transmission through biting and scratching. Sporothrix brasiliensis is the most virulent species of the Sporothrix schenckii complex and is responsible for the long-lasting outbreak of feline sporotrichosis in Brazil. However, antifungal susceptibility data of animal-borne isolates is scarce. Therefore, this study evaluated the in vitro activity of amphotericin B, caspofungin, itraconazole, voriconazole, fluconazole, and ketoconazole against animal-borne isolates of S. brasiliensis. The susceptibility tests were performed through broth microdilution (M38-A2). The results show the relevant activity of itraconazole, amphotericin B, and ketoconazole against S. brasiliensis, with the following MIC ranges: 0.125-2, 0.125-4 and 0.0312-2 μg/ml, respectively. Caspofungin was moderately effective, displaying higher variation in MIC values (0.25-64 μg/ml). Voriconazole (2-64 μg/ml) and fluconazole (62.5-500 μg/ml) showed low activity against S. brasiliensis strains. This study contributed to the characterization of the in vitro antifungal susceptibility of strains of S. brasiliensis recovered from cats with sporotrichosis, which have recently been considered the main source of human infections. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Characterization of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis by FT-IR spectroscopy and nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Isabelle; Ferreira-Strixino, Juliana; Castilho, Maiara L.; Campos, Claudia B. L.; Tellez, Claudio; Raniero, Leandro

    2016-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, the etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, is a dimorphic fungus existing as mycelia in the environment (or at 25 °C in vitro) and as yeast cells in the human host (or at 37 °C in vitro). Because mycological examination of lesions in patients frequently is unable to show the presence of the fungus and serological tests can misdiagnose the disease with other mycosis, the development of new approach's for molecular identification of P. brasiliensis spurges is needed. This study describes the use of a gold nanoprobe of a known gene sequence of P. brasiliensis as a molecular tool to identify P. brasiliensis by regular polymerase chain reaction (PCR) associated with a colorimetric methods. This approach is suitable for testing in remote areas because it does not require any further step than gene amplification, being safer and cheaper than electrophoresis methods. The proposed test showed a color change of the PCR reaction mixture from red to blue in negative samples, whereas the solution remains red in positive samples. We also performed a Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy analysis to characterize and compare the chemical composition between yeast and mycelia forms, which revealed biochemical differences between these two forms. The analysis of the spectra showed that differences were distributed in chemical bonds of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. The most prominent difference between both forms was vibration modes related to 1,3-β-glucan usually found in mycelia and 1,3-α-glucan found in yeasts and also chitin forms. In this work, we introduce FT-IR as a new method suitable to reveal overall differences that biochemically distinguish each form of P. brasiliensis that could be additionally used to discriminate biochemical differences among a single form under distinct environmental conditions.

  12. Humoral immunity through immunoglobulin M protects mice from an experimental actinomycetoma infection by Nocardia brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Carmona, Mario C; Pérez-Rivera, Isabel

    2004-10-01

    An experimental model of infection with Nocardia brasiliensis, used as an example of a facultative intracellular pathogen, was tested. N. brasiliensis was injected into the rear foot pads of BALB/c mice to establish an infection. Within 30 days, infected animals developed a chronic actinomycetoma infection. Batch cultures of N. brasiliensis were used to purify P61, P38, and P24 antigens; P61 is a catalase, and P38 is a protease with strong caseinolytic activity. Active and passive immunizations of BALB/c mice with these three purified soluble antigens were studied. Protection was demonstrated for actively immunized mice. However, immunity lasted only 30 days. Other groups of immunized mice were bled at different times, and their sera were passively transferred to naive recipients that were then infected with N. brasiliensis. Sera collected 5, 6, and 7 days after donor immunization conferred complete, long-lasting protection. The protective effect of passive immunity decreased when sera were collected 2 weeks after donor immunization. However, neither the early sera (1-, 2-, and 3-day sera) nor the later sera (30- or 45-day sera) prevented the infection. Hyperimmune sera with the highest levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) to N. brasiliensis antigens did not protect at all. The antigens tested induced two IgM peaks. The first peak was present 3 days after immunization but was not antigen specific and did not transfer protection. The second peak was evident 7 days after immunization, was an IgM response, was antigen specific, and conferred protection. This results clearly demonstrate that IgM antibodies protect the host against a facultative intracellular bacterium.

  13. Chronic genetic damages in Geophagus brasiliensis exposed to anthropic impact in estuarine lakes at Santa Catarina coast--southern of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benincá, Cristiane; Ramsdorf, Wanessa; Vicari, Taynah; de Oliveira Ribeiro, Ciro A; de Almeida, Marina I; Silva de Assis, Helena C; Cestari, Marta Margarete

    2012-04-01

    Biological monitoring through animals exposed to pollutants using biomarkers provides a promising tool for the identification of pollutants that may cause damage to human health and/or to sustainability of ecosystems. The effects of pollutants in fish tissues are important tools to understand the impact of human activities in natural ecosystems. The aim of this work was to study the water quality of two estuarine lakes in Santa Catarina, Brazil (Camacho Lake and Santa Marta Lake). Geophagus brasiliensis is a species widely distributed in Brazil and was used in this work. Comet assays in peripheral red blood and kidney cells, micronucleus tests in peripheral red blood cells, measurements of acetylcholinesterase activity in axial muscle and histopathological analysis of liver were used as biomarkers. Three sampling campaigns were undertaken in November 2004, June 2005 and November 2005. Thirty adult animals were sampled from each of three different sites (P1--Santa Marta Lake, P2 and P3--Camacho Lake). A negative control was sampled in a non-polluted site at Costa Ecological Park, Paraná. The positive control for genotoxicity was obtained by treating animals with copper sulphate. The results showed that both studied lakes are impacted by potential genotoxic substances. Severe lesions in liver of G. brasiliensis were also observed. The inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity suggests the presence of pesticides or metals in the studied sites. This work shows that the water quality of Santa Marta and Camacho Lakes have been compromised and further control source of pollutants into these ecosystems is required.

  14. Detection of Antibodies against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Melanin in In Vitro and In Vivo Studies during Infection ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Urán, Martha E.; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Restrepo, Angela; Hamilton, Andrew J.; Gómez, Beatriz L.; Cano, Luz E.

    2011-01-01

    Several cell wall constituents, including melanins or melanin-like compounds, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of microbial diseases caused by diverse species of pathogenic bacteria, fungi, and helminthes. Among these microorganisms, the dimorphic fungal pathogen Paracoccidioides brasiliensis produces melanin in its conidial and yeast forms. In the present study, melanin particles from P. brasiliensis were injected into BALB/c mice in order to produce monoclonal anti...

  15. Extratos de Curcuma longa L. e Kalanchoe brasiliensis Camb. no tratamento local do envenenamento por Bothrops alternatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. V. Fonseca

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo a utilização dos extratos aquosos das plantas Curcuma longa e Kalanchoe brasiliensis na terapêutica tópica complementar do envenenamento botrópico experimental em camundongos, visando a antagonização dos efeitos locais (edema, hemorragia e necrose provocados pelo veneno. O experimento mostrou que os melhores resultados foram obtidos com o extrato de Kalanchoe brasiliensis.

  16. Fish Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Fish Allergy KidsHealth / For Parents / Fish Allergy What's in this ... Print en español Alergia al pescado About Fish Allergy A fish allergy is not exactly the same ...

  17. Teste de especificidade hospedeira de Phaedon confinis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, um potencial agente de biocontrole de Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianne Milléo

    2011-07-01

    Abstract. Senecio brasiliensis (Spreng. Less when ingested by cattle and horses, the plant causes seneciosis, a serious poisoning. Due to the great financial losses to cattle ranchers, controlling the plant using insects has become attractive. Systematic survey efforts have revealed that Phaedon confinis Klug causes serious damage to the plant, and may be a great biocontrol agent. The object was to extend the tests of host specificity to 52 plants using 1st larval instar and adult chrysomelid bettles. The insects were submitted to “no-choice” and “multiple-choice” tests. The following results were obtained: “NO-CHOICE” L1 – 52 plants tested: null 90.39%; negligible damage 5.77%; light 1.92%; and normal in only S. brasiliensis 1.92%, where 31.67% of larvae obtained an adult phase. “NO-CHOICE” ADULTS – 46 plants. Null damage was recorded in 82.60%; 13.04% showed negligible damage; 2.17% light; 2.17% normal in S. brasiliensis. The chysomelids oviposited during observation days only on S. brasiliensis leaves. 615 eggs were oviposited with 73.01% viability. “MULTIPLE CHOICE” LARVAE – nine plants tested. 66.67% null; 11.11% weak; 11.11% negligible damage; and 11.11% normal in S. brasiliensis. The results indicate that the normal diet, oviposition, survival and development of P. confinis is restricted to S. brasiliensis and corroborates its potential as a biocontrol agent.

  18. Macrophage Interaction with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Yeast Cells Modulates Fungal Metabolism and Generates a Response to Oxidative Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Alves Parente-Rocha

    Full Text Available Macrophages are key players during Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection. However, the relative contribution of the fungal response to counteracting macrophage activity remains poorly understood. In this work, we evaluated the P. brasiliensis proteomic response to macrophage internalization. A total of 308 differentially expressed proteins were detected in P. brasiliensis during infection. The positively regulated proteins included those involved in alternative carbon metabolism, such as enzymes involved in gluconeogenesis, beta-oxidation of fatty acids and amino acids catabolism. The down-regulated proteins during P. brasiliensis internalization in macrophages included those related to glycolysis and protein synthesis. Proteins involved in the oxidative stress response in P. brasiliensis yeast cells were also up-regulated during macrophage infection, including superoxide dismutases (SOD, thioredoxins (THX and cytochrome c peroxidase (CCP. Antisense knockdown mutants evaluated the importance of CCP during macrophage infection. The results suggested that CCP is involved in a complex system of protection against oxidative stress and that gene silencing of this component of the antioxidant system diminished the survival of P. brasiliensis in macrophages and in a murine model of infection.

  19. Interação de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis com células endoteliais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J.S. Mendes-Giannini

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    A paracoccidioidomicose apresenta um amplo espectro de manifestações clínicas e Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, seu agente etiológico, pode atingir vários tecidos com ênfase ao pulmão. A migração de fungos patogênicos através da camada de células endoteliais é considerada pré-requisito para a invasão de múltiplos órgãos e sua disseminação. No presente estudo verificou-se a adesão de P. brasiliensis às células endoteliais in vitro e se esta adesão poderia representar um mecanismo para a disseminação do fungo. Para tanto, além da técnica convencional de microscopia ótica, uma outra metodologia foi desenvolvida, emblocando os cordões umbilicais em parafina, no intuito de detectar o fungo presente no material (in vivo. Experimento de migração de P. brasiliensis através da monocamada de células endoteliais também foi realizado, e nos poços sem células, a migração de células leveduriformes foi maior em menor período de tempo. Os fungos conseguiram passar através da monocamada, quando comparados com o controle sem as células, mas com redução em torno de 30%. Isso mostra que a monocamada foi parcialmente impediente para o fungo, mas que este foi capaz de migrar através dessas células. Em nossos experimentos com estas células, houve grande dificuldade de se encontrar P. brasiliensis aderido ao tapete celular nos períodos de tempo padronizados. Sugere-se com esses resultados que o fungo atravessa as células endoteliais de uma maneira muito rápida, que não pode ser detectada através do cultivo in vitro. Portanto, P. brasiliensis teria capacidade de atravessar rapidamente as células endoteliais e provavelmente alcançar tecidos mais profundos. Palavras-chave: Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, células endoteliais, migração.

  20. Identification and Evaluation of Clinically Significant Nocardia brasiliensis, Nocardia farcinica and Nocardia otitidiscaviarum Strains Using Pyrolysis Mass Spectrometry (PyMS)

    OpenAIRE

    IŞIK, Kamil; KARİPTAŞ, Ergin; ŞAHİN, Nevzat

    2001-01-01

    Out of a total of thirty-nine Nocardia strains, eight species of N. brasiliensis, seventeen species of N. farcinica and fourteen species of N. otitidiscaviarum were identified using Pyrolysis mass spectrometry. N428, N477 N. brasiliensis; N669, N233 N. farcinica; and N231, N232 N. otitidiscaviarum duplicated strains were clustered in their own groups. Strains belonging to Nocardia brasiliensis, Nocardia farcinica and Nocardia otitidiscaviarum formed distinct pyrogroups corresponding to cluste...

  1. Age and growth of the southeastern Brazilian sardine, Sardinella brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Anita Saccardo

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian sardine datawere collected between September 1981 and August 1982 from the southeastern Brazilian waters. Otoliths were read using reflected ligth on the surface of the whole structure. Three methods were used to determine the time of ring formation, being the mean length per ring the best one. There are two annual rings clearly visible, one laid down in November/December, and the other one laid down in March/April. A method of age determination is described, being the maximum age 3 years.A idade da sardinha Sardinella brasiliensis foi determinada pelo exame de otólitos de exemplares provenientes de desembarques da pesca comercial e artesanal, na área compreendida entre 22ºS (Cabo Frio, RJ e 28ºS (Cabo de Santa Marta, Grande, SC, durante o período 1981-83. Este estudo e parte de um programa mais amplo de nominado "Programa Integrado de Estu dos Biológicos sobre Sardinha", desenvolvido na região sudeste do Brasil desde 1981, objetivando conhecer as variações dos parâmetros biológicos da espécie, e fornecer subsídios a avaliação pesqueira do recurso. Foram contados os anéis translúcidos dos otolitos, colocados inteiros em recipientes de fundo preto, imersos em álcool 70% e iluminados com luz incidente sob estereomicroscópio binocular. Além das contagens, foram efetuadas medidas das distancias do núcleo do otolito ao bordo, e do núcleo a cada anél translúcido, bem como observações da natureza do bordo. Foram utilizados três métodos para determinar a época e periodicidade de formação dos anéis. Os parâmetros de crescimento L, K e t0 foram estimados, e as curvas ajustadas usando-se a equação de von Bertalanffy. Os resultados mostraram que os otolitos possuem de 0 a 7 anéis, sendo formados dois anéis por ano: um entre novembro-dezembro, e outro entre março-abril. Estas épocas estão intimamente ligadas ao período de reprodução. Descreveu-se um método para a determinação da idade de sardinha, tendo

  2. Lymphocutaneous type of nocardiosis caused by Nocardia brasiliensis: a case report and review of primary cutaneous nocardiosis caused by N. brasiliensis reported in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Hidetsugu; Saotome, Atsuko; Usami, Nao; Urushibata, Osamu; Mukai, Hideki

    2008-06-01

    Nocardiosis is a mixed suppurative and granulomatous inflammatory disease caused by infection with Nocardia organisms, a group of aerobic actinomycetes. We recently encountered a 25-year-old woman with posttraumatic nocardiosis of the lower extremities. The clinical symptoms noted during her first visit included erythematous swelling of the right knee accompanied by white maceration of the center of the knee and erosions, shallow ulcers and satellite pustules. In addition, multiple erythematous areas (up to the size of the tip of the thumb) were linearly distributed on the right thigh. These lesions were painful, and right inguinal lymphadenopathy was also noted. No lesion was found in internal organs such as the lungs. Histopathologically, signs of nonspecific granulomatous inflammation were observed, as well as several filamentous branching bacilli positive on Grocott stain. The organisms isolated from culture of pus were acid-fast, Gram-positive long rods. The isolated strain was finally identified as Nocardia brasiliensis. The patient was therefore diagnosed with lymphocutaneous type of primary cutaneous nocardiosis caused by N. brasiliensis. Drip infusion of flomoxef sodium was initially performed to treat her condition. Because of exacerbation of erythematous swelling of the right knee and an increase in number of pustules, treatment was switched to oral minocycline hydrochloride therapy. The disease healed 9 weeks after the start of oral minocycline hydrochloride therapy. Our patient was free of systemic immunosuppression and was neither under 10 nor over 65 years of age. She may therefore be considered a rare case of lymphocutaneous type of nocardiosis. We present this case and discuss reported cases of primary cutaneous nocardiosis due to N. brasiliensis in Japan.

  3. Fish allergy and fish allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuehn, A; Hilger, Christiane; Ollert, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Fish is one of the main elicitors for food allergies. For a long time, the clinical picture of fish allergy was reduced to the following features. First, fish-allergic patients suffer from a high IgE cross-reactivity among fishes so that they have to avoid all species. Second, clinically relevant...... symptoms are linked to the presence of IgE-antibodies recognizing parvalbumin, the fish panallergen. This view was challenged by results from recent studies as follows. 1. Allergic reactions which are limited to single or several fish species (mono-or oligosensitisations) apply not only to single cases...... but patients with this phenotype constitute an important sub-group among fish-allergic individuals. 2. Newly identified fish allergens, enolases, aldolases, and fish gelatin, are of high relevance as the majority of the fish-allergic individuals seem to develop specific IgE against these proteins. The present...

  4. Assessment of trophic transfer of benzo(a)pyrene genotoxicity from the post-larval pink shrimp F. brasiliensis to the juvenile Florida pompano T. carolinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Arthur José da Silva; Santos, Thaís Cruz Alves; Gomes, Vicente; Bícego, Márcia Caruso; Barbosa, Ana Cecília Rizzatti de Albergaria; Passos, Maria José de Arruda Campos Rocha; Hasue, Fabio Matsu; Van Ngan, Phan

    2012-11-01

    In the present study, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) genotoxicity was investigated in a one-step predator-prey relationship with the trophic-related marine species. Florida pompanos were fed for 5 and 10 days with pink shrimp post larvae previously exposed to benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) concentrations. Parent BaP body burden was measured in samples of Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis. BaP metabolites were determined in bile samples of Trachinotus carolinus and DNA damage was assessed through the comet and erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities (ENAs) assays in fish erythrocytes. BaP body burden increased significantly with the PAH concentration in pink shrimp PLs as well as the fish bile BaP metabolites. Both, comet and ENAs assays indicated significant increase on erythrocyte DNA damage of Florida pompanos fed with BaP-exposed pink shrimp on both feeding periods. The trophic route of BaP genotoxicity is discussed as well as the PAH biotransformation as the inducing mechanism for the DNA damages observed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. PCR with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis specific primers: potential use in ecological studies PCR com «primers» específicos de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: uso potencial em estudos ecológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. DÍEZ

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available The precise microenvironment of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis has not yet been discovered perhaps because the methods used are not sensitive enough. We applied to this purpose the polymerase chain reaction (PCR using three sets of specific primers corresponding to two P. brasiliensis genes. This fungus as well as several other fungi, were grown and their DNA obtained by mechanical disruption and a phenol chloroform isoamylalcohol-based purification method. The DNA served for a PCR reaction that employed specific primers from two P. brasiliensis genes that codify for antigenic proteins, namely, the 27 kDa and the 43 kDa. The lowest detection range for the 27 kDa gene was 3 pg. The amplification for both genes was positive only with DNA from P. brasiliensis; additionally, the mRNA for the 27 kDa gene was present only in P. brasiliensis, as indicated by the Northern analysis. The standardization of PCR technology permitted the amplification of P. brasiliensis DNA in artificially contaminated soils and in tissues of armadillos naturally infected with the fungus. These results indicate that PCR technology could play an important role in the search for P. brasiliensis’ habitat and could also be used in other ecological studies.O microambiente adequado do Paracoccidioides brasiliensis não foi ainda bem esclarecido, talvez porque os métodos utilizados não sejam suficientemente sensíveis. Aplicamos com este propósito, a reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR usando três jogos de primers específicos do P. brasiliensis, correspondendo a dois dos genes do P. brasiliensis. Este fungo, assim como outros fungos, foram cultivados e seus DNAs obtidos por ruptura mecânica e purificados com mistura de fenol-clorofórmio com álcool isoamílico. Os DNAs serviram para a reação de PCR utilizando-se primers específicos para dois dos genes do P. brasiliensis que codificam para as proteínas antigênicas, denominadas, 27 kDa e 43 kDa. O limite mínimo de

  6. Adherencia de levaduras de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis a proteínas de matriz extracelular: resultados preliminares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Elena Cano

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available La adhesión de los microorganismos a células del hospedero o a proteínas de matriz extracelular (PMEC, representa el primer paso
    para establecer un proceso infeccioso (1. Así, se ha determinado que
    propágulas de hongos de importancia clínica se unen a diferentes
    PMEC. Recientemente se ha demostrado que conidias y micelios de
    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis se unen a PMEC tales como laminina,
    fibrinógeno y fibronectina (2. Hasta el momento no se conoce cuál
    es la interacción entre levaduras de P. brasiliensis y PMEC.

  7. Microsatellites for Carpotroche brasiliensis (Flacourtiaceae), a useful species for agroforestry and ecosystem conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, Flora; Alves, Jackeline S; Gaiotto, Fernanda A

    2015-12-01

    We developed microsatellite markers for Carpotroche brasiliensis (Flacourtiaceae), a dioecious tree that is used as a food resource by midsize animals of the Brazilian fauna. We designed 30 primer pairs using next-generation sequencing and classified 25 pairs as polymorphic. Observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.5 to 1.0, and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.418 to 0.907. The combined probability of exclusion was greater than 0.999 and the combined probability of identity was less than 0.001, indicating that these microsatellites are appropriate for investigations of genetic structure, individual identification, and paternity testing. The developed molecular tools may contribute to future studies of population genetics, answering ecological and evolutionary questions regarding efficient conservation strategies for C. brasiliensis.

  8. In Vitro Comparison of Activities of Terbinafine and Itraconazole against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, R. C.; Fontes, C. J. F.; Batista, R. D.; Hamdan, J. S.

    2002-01-01

    In vitro, terbinafine is highly active against a broad spectrum of pathogenic fungi. We evaluated the activities of terbinafine and itraconazole against 31 isolates of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. The tests were conducted by using a broth macrodilution procedure. MICs, in micrograms per milliliter, were as follows: terbinafine, 0.015 to 1.0 (geometric mean, 0.1188); itraconazole, 0.007 to 0.5 (geometric mean, 0.03165). The usual therapy for paracoccidioidomycosis is sulfonamides, amphotericin B, and azole derivatives (ketoconazole, itraconazole, and fluconazole). In comparison to amphotericin B, azole derivatives allow shorter treatment courses, can be administered orally, and are equally effective. Itraconazole has as high efficacy as ketoconazole, but with superior tolerance. It is the current drug of choice for treatment of paracoccidioidomycosis. The data obtained in this study indicate that terbinafine is active against P. brasiliensis in vitro and suggest that this allylamine can be considered a new option as drug therapy for paracoccidioidomycosis. PMID:12149337

  9. Studies in the genus Hevea. VIII. Notes on Infraspecific variants of Hevea brasiliensis (Euphorbiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultes, R.E.

    Supplying 98% of the world's natural rubber, Hevea brasiliensis has transformed life around the world in only a century. This species - one of 10 in its genus - gives the best natural rubber, but much more remains to be studied concerning the numerous localized strains of the species. The British introduced to the orient seeds from the lower Amazon - representatives of a not superior ecotype of the species but, at that time a century ago, the only available germ plasm. The time for study of the intraspecific variants of H. brasiliensis and their use in programs of genetic manipulation of the genus is long overdue. But basic to this desired program is a clear taxonomic understanding of infraspecific variants, still awaiting evaluation. Although numerous taxonomic treatments of subspecific variants have been offered, there is little available to give genetic programs concrete information.

  10. Metal pollution assessment in a Brazilian hydroelectric reservoir: Geophagus brasiliensis as a suitable bioindicator organism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Binde Doria

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Vossoroca is a reservoir in the Brazilian state of Paraná. Although it is located near big cities and can be used as a human water supply, it has remained unstudied. Concentrations of toxic metals and arsenic in sediments, water, liver, gills, and muscle of Geophagus brasiliensis from the reservoir were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry. Histological analyses were performed on the gills and the livers using scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy, respectively. The results showed that Vossoroca sediments were moderately polluted by copper, chromium, nickel and arsenic. Cadmium was above legal limits in the water. Histopathological assessment revealed epithelial alterations in the secondary lamella to be the most common abnormality observed in the gills and necrosis, melanomacrophage centers in the livers. In conclusion, although the reservoir is located in an Environmental Protection Area, it is negatively affected by human activity. Further, Geophagus brasiliensis was a suitable bioindicator for metal pollution studies.

  11. Activity of novel oxazolidinones against Nocardia brasiliensis growing within THP-1 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Espinoza-González, Nelly A; Welsh, Oliverio; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Castro-Garza, Jorge

    2009-11-01

    Nocardia are organisms that can escape the effects of both immune response and antimicrobial agents, due to their potential capacity to grow intracellularly. In previous studies, we found that experimental oxazolidinones, DA-7157 and DA-7218, are active both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we compare the ability of linezolid, DA-7157 and DA-7218 to inhibit intracellular growth of Nocardia brasiliensis within the human monocyte cell line THP-1. The addition of oxazolidinones to the infected macrophage monolayer at concentrations 0.25x, 1x, 4x and 16x the MIC for N. brasiliensis resulted in an inhibitory effect on bacterial growth as follows DA-7157 > or = DA-7218 > linezolid. The excellent intracellular antimicrobial activity detected suggests that these compounds could be effective in the treatment of actinomycetoma. However, more studies are needed both in vitro and in vivo, including clinical trials, to confirm this issue.

  12. In Vitro and In Vivo Activities of Antimicrobials against Nocardia brasiliensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Flores, Alejandra; Welsh, Oliverio; Said-Fernández, Salvador; Lozano-Garza, Gerardo; Tavarez-Alejandro, Roman Erick; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio

    2004-01-01

    In Mexico mycetomas are mostly produced by Nocardia brasiliensis, which can be isolated from about 86% of cases. In the present work, we determined the sensitivities of 30 N. brasiliensis strains isolated from patients with mycetoma to several groups of antimicrobials. As a first screening step we carried out disk diffusion assays with 44 antimicrobials, including aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, penicillins, quinolones, macrolides, and some others. In these assays we observed that some antimicrobials have an effect on more than 66% of the strains: linezolid, amikacin, gentamicin, isepamicin, netilmicin, tobramycin, minocycline, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, piperacillin-tazobactam, nitroxolin, and spiramycin. Drug activity was confirmed quantitatively by the broth microdilution method. Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, linezolid, and amikacin, which have been used to treat patients, were tested in an experimental model of mycetoma in BALB/c mice in order to validate the in vitro results. Linezolid showed the highest activity in vivo, followed by the combination amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and amikacin. PMID:14982772

  13. Phytotoxic potential of Drimys brasiliensis Miers for use in weed control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simoni Anese

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the phytotoxicity potential of leaf and root extracts of Drimys brasiliensis on the germination and seedling growth of Panicum maximum and Euphorbia heterophylla and its influence on metaxylem cell size in the seedling roots of the latter specie. The leaf and root extracts were fractionated by partition chromatography, and the hexane and ethyl acetate fractions obtained from each organ were evaluated at different concentrations for phytotoxic activity in several bioassays. In seedling growth tests, we compared the effects of these fractions with the herbicide oxyfluorfen. The hexane fraction of the root extracts showed a higher inhibitory potential on the germination and growth of weeds and reduced the average size of the metaxylem cells of E. heterophylla roots by more than 50%.The inhibitory effects of the root hexane fraction on seedling growth was similar to the herbicide, indicating that D. brasiliensis is a possible alternative form of control for the weed species examined.

  14. Feline sporotrichosis due to Sporothrix brasiliensis: an emerging animal infection in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, Hildebrando; Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; Dias, Maria Adelaide Galvão; da Silva, Elisabete Aparecida; Bernardi, Fernanda; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires

    2014-11-19

    Sporotrichosis is a mycotic infectious disease that is generally acquired by traumatic inoculation of contaminated materials especially from plant debris or through bites and scratches from diseased animals, such as domestic cats. It affects the skin, lymphatic system, and other organs in the warm-blooded host. Etiological agents are embedded in the plant-associated order Ophiostomatales. With essential differences between possible outbreak sources and ecological niche, host-environment interactions are classic determinants of risk factors for disease acquisition. Sporotrichosis outbreaks with zoonotic transmission, such as those that are ongoing in southern and southeastern Brazil, have highlighted the threat of cross-species pathogen transmission. Sporothrix brasiliensis has emerged as a human threat owing to the intimate contact pattern between diseased cats and humans in endemic areas. We describe the recent emergence of feline sporotrichosis in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil, with an overwhelming occurrence of S. brasiliensis as the etiological agent. A phylogenetic and a haplotype approach were used to investigate the origin of this epidemic and the impact of feline transmission on genetic diversity. During the last 3-year period, 163 cases of feline sporotrichosis were reported in São Paulo with proven S. brasiliensis culture. The haplotype diversity of feline S. brasiliensis isolates revealed the expansion of a clonal population with low genetic diversity. Haplotype analysis confirmed that isolates from São Paulo shared the haplotype originated in the long-lasting outbreak of cat-transmitted sporotrichosis in Rio de Janeiro, which differed from the haplotype circulating in the Rio Grande do Sul epidemic. The fast spread of sporotrichosis in a short period of time highlights the potential for outbreaks and suggests that the mycosis may affect an urban population with a high concentration of susceptible felines. The feline sporotrichosis

  15. Cathepsin L of Triatoma brasiliensis (Reduviidae, Triatominae): sequence characterization, expression pattern and zymography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waniek, Peter J; Pacheco Costa, Juliana E; Jansen, Ana M; Costa, Jane; Araújo, Catarina A C

    2012-01-01

    Triatoma brasiliensis is considered one of the main vectors of Chagas disease commonly found in semi-arid areas of northeastern Brazil. These insects use proteases, such as carboxypeptidase B, aminopeptidases and different cathepsins for blood digestion. In the present study, two genes encoding cathepsin L from the midgut of T. brasiliensis were identified and characterized. Mature T. brasiliensis cathepsin L-like proteinases (TBCATL-1, TBCATL-2) showed a high level of identity to the cathepsin L-like proteinases of other insects, with highest similarity to Rhodnius prolixus. Both cathepsin L transcripts were highly abundant in the posterior midgut region, the main region of the blood digestion. Determination of the pH in the whole intestine of unfed T. brasiliensis revealed alkaline conditions in the anterior midgut region (stomach) and acidic conditions in the posterior midgut region (small intestine). Gelatine in-gel zymography showed the activity of at least four distinct proteinases in the small intestine and the cysteine proteinase inhibitors transepoxysuccinyl-l-leucylamido-(4-guanidino)butane (E-64) and cathepsin B inhibitor and N-(l-3-trans-propylcarbamoyl-oxirane-2-carbonyl)-l-isoleucyl-l-proline (CA-074) were employed to characterize enzymatic activity. E-64 fully inhibited cysteine proteinase activity, whereas in the samples treated with CA-074 residual proteinase activity was detectable. Thus, proteolytic activity could at least partially be ascribed to cathepsin L. Western blot analysis using specific anti cathepsin L antibodies confirmed the presence of cathepsin L in the lumen of the small intestine of the insects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Importance of xenarthrans in the eco-epidemiology of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedrini Silvia CB

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several pathogens that cause important zoonotic diseases have been frequently associated with armadillos and other xenarthrans. This mammal group typically has evolved on the South American continent and many of its extant species are seriously threatened with extinction. Natural infection of armadillos with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in hyperendemic areas has provided a valuable opportunity for understanding the role of this mammal in the eco-epidemiology of Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM, one of the most important systemic mycoses in Latin America. Findings This study aimed to detect P. brasiliensis in different xenarthran species (Dasypus novemcinctus, Cabassous spp., Euphractus sexcinctus, Tamandua tetradactyla and Myrmecophaga tridactyla, by molecular and mycological approaches, in samples obtained by one of the following strategies: i from road-killed animals (n = 6; ii from naturally dead animals (n = 8; iii from animals that died in captivity (n = 9; and iv from living animals captured from the wild (n = 2. Specific P. brasiliensis DNA was detected in several organs among 7/20 nine-banded armadillos (D. novemcinctus and in 2/2 anteaters (M. tridactyla. The fungus was also cultured in tissue samples from one of two armadillos captured from the wild. Conclusion Members of the Xenarthra Order, especially armadillos, have some characteristics, including a weak cellular immune response and low body temperature, which make them suitable models for studying host-pathogen interaction. P. brasiliensis infection in wild animals, from PCM endemic areas, may be more common than initially postulated and reinforces the use of these animals as sentinels for the pathogen in the environment.

  17. Radiometric detection of metabolic activity of Paracoccidiodes brasiliensis and its susceptibility to amphotericin B and Diethylstilbestrol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, E.E.; Sato, M.K.; Del Negro, G.M.B.; Lacaz, C.S.

    1987-01-01

    A radiometric assay system has been applied to study the metabolic activity and the effect of drugs (amphotericin B and diethylstilbestrol) on the fungus Paracoccidiodes brasiliensis ''in vitro''. The Y form of the yeast, grown in liquid Sabouraud medium was inoculated into sterile reaction vials containing the 6B aerobic medium along with 2.0μCi of 14 C-substrates. (M.A.C.) [pt

  18. Preserving and Maintaining Culinary-Medicinal Royal Sun Mushroom, Agaricus brasiliensis (Agaricomycetes), in Sterile Distilled Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Del-Rlo, L M; Montoya, Sandra; Sepulveda-Arias, J C

    2017-01-01

    Strains of Agaricus brasiliensis require special procedures for conservation. Thus, the objective of this research was to establish conservation and maintenance procedures A. brasiliensis strain PSWC838 from the University of Pennsylvania (ABWC838) and an A. brasiliensis strain from the Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University (ABC). The medium in which mycelia grew the quickest for both strains was selected using a multifactorial design with 2 strains, 4 culture media, and incubation for 5 different times; the growth rate (mm/day) was the response variable. Analysis of variance showed that the potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium and potato extract did not display a significantly different growth rate, and PDA was selected for safety reasons. We also evaluated the viability of the strains grown on PDA and 0.2% activated carbon after 3 months of storage in sterile distilled water. A factorial design was applied with 2 factors, the strain and incubation for 10 different times. The Tukey post hoc test indicated that ABC showed quicker and more homogeneous growth than ABWC838. Finally, the results showed that pieces of mycelium of ABC and ABWC838 strains inoculated on the PDA medium with 0.2% activated carbon and preserved in sterile distilled water at 18 ± 1°C showed 100% viability after 3 months of storage. Moreover, the results of semiquantitative biochemical tests confirmed that the production of laccases and amylases was preserved in these strains after storage in sterile water, enhancing their ability to degrade substrates containing lignin and starchy waste.

  19. Royal Sun Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom, Agaricus brasiliensis (Agaricomycetes), Supplement in Training Capacity Improvement Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Flávio F; de Oliveira, Guilherme A C; Costa, Hugo C Martins; Regis, Wiliam C B

    2017-01-01

    People seek a greater quality of life and healthy aging that culminates in improved self-esteem and vitality in the performance of daily activities; this is generating a growing number of people enrolled in gyms in search of quick results. However, this training can result in physical and metabolic damage. During physical exercise, under conditions of oxidative stress, changes take place that lead to the onset of fatigue. The Agaricus brasiliensis mushroom is native to Brazil and has therapeutic potential, with widely studied antioxidant and immunomodulatory capabilities. However, little is known about its potential benefits regarding muscular strength. Therefore, this study evaluated the possible effects of supplementation with this mushroom with respect to strength performance before and after a resistance training session. A blinded randomized trial was performed with male volunteers (n = 5) randomly divided into 2 groups (placebo and treatment with A. brasiliensis). Perceptions of muscle soreness and performance were assessed before and after high-intensity resistance training sessions. The study was executed over a 24-day period. Promising results were found related to intrasession rapid strength, most likely a result of antioxidant action and redox balance. The bioactive compounds in A. brasiliensis revealed the potential to improve conditions of muscle fatigue without altering other parameters. Thus, this mushroom has become a target of great expectations in the fields of fitness and athletics.

  20. Morphometry, bite-force, and paleobiology of the late miocene caiman Purussaurus brasiliensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tito Aureliano

    Full Text Available Purussaurus brasiliensis thrived in the northwestern portion of South America during the Late Miocene. Although substantial material has been recovered since its early discovery, this fossil crocodilian can still be considered as very poorly understood. In the present work, we used regression equations based on modern crocodilians to present novel details about the morphometry, bite-force and paleobiology of this species. According to our results, an adult Purussaurus brasiliensis was estimated to reach around 12.5 m in length, weighing around 8.4 metric tons, with a mean daily food intake of 40.6 kg. It was capable of generating sustained bite forces of 69,000 N (around 7 metric tons-force. The extreme size and strength reached by this animal seems to have allowed it to include a wide range of prey in its diet, making it a top predator in its ecosystem. As an adult, it would have preyed upon large to very large vertebrates, and, being unmatched by any other carnivore, it avoided competition. The evolution of a large body size granted P. brasiliensis many advantages, but it may also have led to its vulnerability. The constantly changing environment on a large geological scale may have reduced its long-term survival, favoring smaller species more resilient to ecological shifts.

  1. Ecotope effect in Triatoma brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) suggests phenotypic plasticity rather than adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, V S P; Fernandes, F A; Cordeiro-Estrela, P; Sarquis, O; Lima, M M

    2013-09-01

    Triatoma brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) is an important vector of Chagas' disease in both sylvatic and peridomestic ecotopes. Discriminating between these populations of Triatominae has been proposed as a means of investigating re-infestation rates of human dwellings. Geometric morphometrics have been widely applied in the study of Triatominae polymorphisms at species and population levels. This study characterizes morphometric differences between sylvatic and peridomestic populations, as well as between sexes in T. brasiliensis specimens from Jaguaruana, Ceará, in northeastern Brazil. No differences in either the shape or size of the cephalic capsule were apparent between sexes or ecotopes. However, the wings showed differentiation in shape and size. Sexual dimorphism was detected, with females presenting significantly higher values and conformations. Size differentiation was also evident, with sylvatic specimens being generally larger than peridomestic examples. These results indicate that differences in the wings of T. brasiliensis may be related to the existence of phenotypic plasticity, and variations in size and shape may be associated with different ecotopes, possibly as a result of conditions in each micro-habitat, such as temperature, relative humidity, food supply and density. © 2012 The Royal Entomological Society.

  2. Dendritic Cells Primed with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Peptide P10 Are Therapeutic in Immunosuppressed Mice with Paracoccidioidomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro B. R. Silva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM is an endemic systemic mycosis in Latin America, with the highest prevalence in Brazil, Colombia, and Venezuela. Fungi of the Paracoccidioides genus are etiologic agents of the disease. The 15 amino acid peptide P10 is derived from gp43, the main diagnostic antigen of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. We previously reported that P10-pulsed dendritic cells (DCs induce a protective response against P. brasiliensis. Presently, dexamethasone-treated BALB/c mice were intratracheally infected with P. brasiliensis Pb18 to establish the therapeutic efficacy of P10-pulsed DCs. Immunosuppressed and infected animals that received DCs had a reduction in their fungal burden, and this result was most pronounced in mice receiving DCs primed with P10. The efficacy of therapeutic DCs was significantly augmented by concomitant treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Additionally, primed-DCs with or without the antifungal drug induced a beneficial Th1-biased immune response and significantly reduced tissue damage. In conclusion, these studies with immunocompromised mice demonstrate that P10-pulsed DCs with or without concomitant antifungal drugs are potently effective in combating invasive PCM. These findings support further translational studies to validate the use of P10-primed DCs for PCM in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed hosts.

  3. Exploring potential virulence regulators in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolates of varying virulence through quantitative proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilho, Daniele G; Chaves, Alison F A; Xander, Patricia; Zelanis, André; Kitano, Eduardo S; Serrano, Solange M T; Tashima, Alexandre K; Batista, Wagner L

    2014-10-03

    Few virulence factors have been identified for Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis. In this study, we quantitatively evaluated the protein composition of P. brasiliensis in the yeast phase using minimal and rich media to obtain a better understanding of its virulence and to gain new insights into pathogen adaptation strategies. This analysis was performed on two isolates of the Pb18 strain showing distinct infection profiles in B10.A mice. Using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis, we identified and quantified 316 proteins in minimal medium, 29 of which were overexpressed in virulent Pb18. In rich medium, 29 out of 295 proteins were overexpressed in the virulent fungus. Three proteins were found to be up-regulated in both media, suggesting the potential roles of these proteins in virulence regulation in P. brasiliensis. Moreover, genes up-regulated in virulent Pb18 showed an increase in its expression after the recovery of virulence of attenuated Pb18. Proteins up-regulated in both isolates were grouped according to their functional categories. Virulent Pb18 undergoes metabolic reorganization and increased expression of proteins involved in fermentative respiration. This approach allowed us to identify potential virulence regulators and provided a foundation for achieving a molecular understanding of how Paracoccidioides modulates the host-pathogen interaction to its advantage.

  4. Nocardia brasiliensis induces formation of foamy macrophages and dendritic cells in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Meester

    Full Text Available Foamy cells have been described in various infectious diseases, for example in actinomycetoma induced by Nocardia brasiliensis. These cells are generally considered to be macrophages, although they present dendritic cell (DC-specific surface markers. In this study, we determined and confirmed the lineage of possible precursors of foamy cells in vitro and in vivo using an experimental actinomycetoma model in BALB/c mice. Bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM or DC (BMDC were infected in vitro with N. brasiliensis or labeled with carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE. Both, macrophages and DC, differentiated into foamy cells after in vitro infection. CFSE-labeled BMDM or BMDC were tested for phagocytosis and CD11c/CD11b receptors markers expression before being transferred into the actinomycetoma lesion site of infected mice. In vivo studies showed that BMDM and BMDC were traced at the site where foamy cells are present in the experimental actinomycetoma. Interestingly, many of the transferred BMDM and BMDC were stained with the lipid-droplet fluorophore Nile Red. In conclusion, macrophages and DC cells can be differentiated into foamy cells in vitro and in vivo during N. brasiliensis infection.

  5. Immune response to Nocardia brasiliensis extracellular antigens in patients with mycetoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Matteotti, Bárbara; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Rendón, Adrián; Salinas-Carmona, Mario C; Welsh, Oliverio

    2008-03-01

    The ability of culture-filtrate proteins to induce a cellular immune response in infected mice and humans was investigated. A crude extract culture filtrate of Nocardia brasiliensis (CFA) and five semi-purified CFA fractions (P1, P2, P3, P4, P5) were used to stimulate BALB/c mice spleen-cell cultures. The animals were divided into three groups: the first group was infected with 1 x 10(7) CFU of N. brasiliensis in the footpad, the second group was immunized with heat-killed bacteria, and the third was injected with sterile saline. IFN-gamma, IL-1alpha, and IL-4 concentrations were determined in culture supernatants. Protein fractions eliciting IFN-gamma production in mice, as well as the CFA, were used to stimulate IFN-gamma production and in vitro cell proliferation assays with peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with actinomycetoma by N. brasiliensis, individuals with pulmonary tuberculosis, and healthy controls. In mice, CFA and three of the protein fractions (P3, P4 and P5) induced significant IFN-gamma production in the infected group. In humans, only the CFA-induced IFN-gamma production and cell proliferation in the group of patients with actinomycetoma. There was no stimulation in tuberculosis patients nor healthy controls. These results suggest that some culture-filtrate antigens are recognized by patients with active actinomycetoma and do not cross-react with M. tuberculosis antigens, being therefore potential candidates to develop a diagnostic test.

  6. Decrease of virulence for BALB/c mice produced by continuous subculturing of Nocardia brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaguer-Chávez, Janeth A; Welsh, Oliverio; Lozano-Garza, Hector G; Said-Fernández, Salvador; Romero-Díaz, Víktor J; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio

    2011-10-26

    Subculturing has been extensively used to attenuate human pathogens. In this work we studied the effect of continuous subculturing of Nocardia brasiliensis HUJEG-1 on virulence in a murine model. Nocardia brasiliensis HUJEG-1 was subcultured up to 130 times on brain heart infusion over four years. BALB/c mice were inoculated in the right foot pad with the bacteria subcultured 0, 40, 80, 100 and 130 times (T0, T40, T80 T100 and T130). The induction of resistance was tested by using T130 to inoculate a group of mice followed by challenge with T0 12 weeks later. Biopsies were taken from the newly infected foot-pad and immunostained with antibodies against CD4, CD8 and CD14 in order to analyze the in situ immunological changes. When using T40, T80 T100 and T130 as inoculums we observed lesions in 10, 5, 0 and 0 percent of the animals, respectively, at the end of 12 weeks. In contrast, their controls produced mycetoma in 80, 80, 70 and 60% of the inoculated animals. When studying the protection of T130, we observed a partial resistance to the infection. Immunostaining revealed an intense CD4+ lymphocytic and macrophage infiltrate in healing lesions. After 130 in vitro passages of N. brasiliensis HUJEG-1 a severe decrease in its virulence was observed. Immunization of BALB/c mice, with these attenuated cells, produced a state of partial resistance to infection with the non-subcultured isolate.

  7. Nocardia brasiliensis induces formation of foamy macrophages and dendritic cells in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meester, Irene; Rosas-Taraco, Adrian Geovanni; Salinas-Carmona, Mario Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Foamy cells have been described in various infectious diseases, for example in actinomycetoma induced by Nocardia brasiliensis. These cells are generally considered to be macrophages, although they present dendritic cell (DC)-specific surface markers. In this study, we determined and confirmed the lineage of possible precursors of foamy cells in vitro and in vivo using an experimental actinomycetoma model in BALB/c mice. Bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) or DC (BMDC) were infected in vitro with N. brasiliensis or labeled with carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE). Both, macrophages and DC, differentiated into foamy cells after in vitro infection. CFSE-labeled BMDM or BMDC were tested for phagocytosis and CD11c/CD11b receptors markers expression before being transferred into the actinomycetoma lesion site of infected mice. In vivo studies showed that BMDM and BMDC were traced at the site where foamy cells are present in the experimental actinomycetoma. Interestingly, many of the transferred BMDM and BMDC were stained with the lipid-droplet fluorophore Nile Red. In conclusion, macrophages and DC cells can be differentiated into foamy cells in vitro and in vivo during N. brasiliensis infection.

  8. Morphometry, Bite-Force, and Paleobiology of the Late Miocene Caiman Purussaurus brasiliensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aureliano, Tito; Ghilardi, Aline M.; Guilherme, Edson; Souza-Filho, Jonas P.; Cavalcanti, Mauro; Riff, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Purussaurus brasiliensis thrived in the northwestern portion of South America during the Late Miocene. Although substantial material has been recovered since its early discovery, this fossil crocodilian can still be considered as very poorly understood. In the present work, we used regression equations based on modern crocodilians to present novel details about the morphometry, bite-force and paleobiology of this species. According to our results, an adult Purussaurus brasiliensis was estimated to reach around 12.5 m in length, weighing around 8.4 metric tons, with a mean daily food intake of 40.6 kg. It was capable of generating sustained bite forces of 69,000 N (around 7 metric tons-force). The extreme size and strength reached by this animal seems to have allowed it to include a wide range of prey in its diet, making it a top predator in its ecosystem. As an adult, it would have preyed upon large to very large vertebrates, and, being unmatched by any other carnivore, it avoided competition. The evolution of a large body size granted P. brasiliensis many advantages, but it may also have led to its vulnerability. The constantly changing environment on a large geological scale may have reduced its long-term survival, favoring smaller species more resilient to ecological shifts. PMID:25689140

  9. Nocardia brasiliensis cell wall lipids modulate macrophage and dendritic responses that favor development of experimental actinomycetoma in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino-Villarreal, J Humberto; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Valero-Guillén, Pedro L; Salinas-Carmona, Mario C

    2012-10-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis is a Gram-positive facultative intracellular bacterium frequently isolated from human actinomycetoma. However, the pathogenesis of this infection remains unknown. Here, we used a model of bacterial delipidation with benzine to investigate the role of N. brasiliensis cell wall-associated lipids in experimental actinomycetoma. Delipidation of N. brasiliensis with benzine resulted in complete abolition of actinomycetoma without affecting bacterial viability. Chemical analyses revealed that trehalose dimycolate and an unidentified hydrophobic compound were the principal compounds extracted from N. brasiliensis with benzine. By electron microscopy, the extracted lipids were found to be located in the outermost membrane layer of the N. brasiliensis cell wall. They also appeared to confer acid-fastness. In vitro, the extractable lipids from the N. brasiliensis cell wall induced the production of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and CCL-2 in macrophages. The N. brasiliensis cell wall extractable lipids inhibited important macrophage microbicidal effects, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and nitric oxide (NO) production, phagocytosis, bacterial killing, and major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) expression in response to gamma interferon (IFN-γ). In dendritic cells (DCs), N. brasiliensis cell wall-associated extractable lipids suppressed MHC-II, CD80, and CD40 expression while inducing tumor growth factor β (TGF-β) production. Immunization with delipidated N. brasiliensis induced partial protection preventing actinomycetoma. These findings suggest that N. brasiliensis cell wall-associated lipids are important for actinomycetoma development by inducing inflammation and modulating the responses of macrophages and DCs to N. brasiliensis.

  10. Proteins Potentially Involved in Immune Evasion Strategies in Sporothrix brasiliensis Elucidated by Ultra-High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossato, Luana; Moreno, Leandro Ferreira; Jamalian, Azadeh; Stielow, Benjamin; de Almeida, Sandro Rogério; de Hoog, Sybren; Freeke, Joanna

    2018-06-27

    Sporothrix brasiliensis is the prevalent agent of a large zoonotic outbreak in Brazil. With the involvement of several thousands of cases, this is the largest cohort of human and animal sporotrichosis on record in the world. Infections are characterized by local cutaneous dissemination in humans without underlying disease. S. brasiliensis has shown a high degree of virulence in a mouse model compared to the remaining Sporothrix species, including the ancestral species, Sporothrix schenckii The present paper investigates a genomic and expressed-proteome comparison of S. brasiliensis to S. schenckii Using bottom-up proteomics, we found 60 proteins exclusively expressed in S. brasiliensis No significant genomic differences were found among the genes coding for this protein set. A comparison with literature data identified nine proteins that are known to be involved in virulence and immune evasion in other species, several of which had not yet been reported for the Sporothrix species analyzed. IMPORTANCE Sporotrichosis is an important disease in Brazil that is caused by fungi of the genus Sporothrix and affects cats and humans. Our work investigated the proteins differentially expressed by S. brasiliensis in order to find out why this species is more virulent and pathogenic than S. schenckii We verified a set of proteins that may be related to immune escape and that can explain the high virulence. Copyright © 2018 Rossato et al.

  11. The malate synthase of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a linked surface protein that behaves as an anchorless adhesin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Maristela

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM. This is a pulmonary mycosis acquired by inhalation of fungal airborne propagules that can disseminate to several organs and tissues leading to a severe form of the disease. Adhesion and invasion to host cells are essential steps involved in the internalization and dissemination of pathogens. Inside the host, P. brasiliensis may use the glyoxylate cycle for intracellular survival. Results Here, we provide evidence that the malate synthase of P. brasiliensis (PbMLS is located on the fungal cell surface, and is secreted. PbMLS was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and polyclonal antibody was obtained against this protein. By using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, PbMLS was detected in the cytoplasm and in the cell wall of the mother, but mainly of budding cells of the P. brasiliensis yeast phase. PbMLSr and its respective polyclonal antibody produced against this protein inhibited the interaction of P. brasiliensis with in vitro cultured epithelial cells A549. Conclusion These observations indicated that cell wall-associated PbMLS could be mediating the binding of fungal cells to the host, thus contributing to the adhesion of fungus to host tissues and to the dissemination of infection, behaving as an anchorless adhesin.

  12. Oenothein B inhibits the expression of PbFKS1 transcript and induces morphological changes in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Glaciane D; Ferri, Pedro H; Santos, Suzana C; Bao, Sônia N; Soares, Célia M A; Pereira, Maristela

    2007-11-01

    The fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), the most prevalent human systemic mycosis in Latin America. Drug toxicity and the appearance of resistant strains have created the need to search for new therapeutic approaches. Plants with reputed antimicrobial properties represent a rich screening source of potential antifungal compounds. In this work, the growth of P. brasiliensis yeast cells was evaluated in the presence of oenothein B extracted from Eugenia uniflora. The oenothein B dosage that most effectively inhibited the development (74%) of P. brasiliensis yeast cells in vitro was 500 microg/ml. To verify if oenothein B interferes with cell morphology, we observed oenothein B-treated yeast cells by electron microscopy. The micrographs showed characteristic cell changes noted with glucan synthesis inhibition, including squashing, rough surface, cell wall rupture and cell membrane recess. The expression of P. brasiliensis genes was evaluated in order to investigate the action of oenothein B. Here we report that oenothein B inhibits 1,3-beta-glucan synthase (PbFKS1) transcript accumulation. The results indicate that oenothein B interferes with the cell morphology of P. brasiliensis, probably by inhibiting the transcription of 1,3-beta-glucan synthase gene, which is involved in the cell wall synthesis.

  13. Nocardia brasiliensis Modulates IFN-gamma, IL-10, and IL-12 cytokine production by macrophages from BALB/c Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Carmona, Mario C; Zúñiga, Juan M; Pérez-Rivera, Luz I; Segoviano-Ramírez, Juan C; Vázquez-Marmolejo, Anna V

    2009-05-01

    Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) is a critical cytokine involved in control of different infections. Actinomycetoma is a chronic infectious disease mainly caused by the bacterium Nocardia brasiliensis, which destroys subcutaneous tissue, including bone. Currently, the mechanism of pathogenesis in N. brasiliensis infection is not known. Here, we demonstrate that N. brasiliensis induced an IFN-gamma response in serum after 24 h of infection, while, in infected tissue, positive cells to IFN-gamma appeared in 2 early peaks: the first was present only 3 h after infection, then transiently decreased; and the second peak appeared 12 h after infection and was independent of interleukin-10. Resident macrophages produced an immediate IFN-gamma response 1 h after in vitro infection, and spleen-positive cells began later. The phase of growth of N. brasiliensis affected cytokine production, and exposure of macrophages to Nocardia opsonized with either polyclonal anti-Nocardia antibodies or anti-P61 monoclonal antibody led to a suppression of cytokine production. Our report provides evidence that N. brasiliensis as an intracellular bacterium modulates macrophage cytokine production, which helps survival of the pathogen. Modulation of these cytokines may contribute to pathogenesis once this bacterium is inside the macrophage.

  14. Toxicological profile of deltamethrin in Triatoma brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in State of Ceará, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, Grasielle Caldas D'Ávila; Trevizani, Nathália Abreu Borges; Dias, Letícia Sena; Bezerra, Claudia Mendonça de; Melo, Bernardino Vaz de; Diotaiut, Liléia

    2015-01-01

    Triatoma brasiliensis is the species of greatest epidemiological relevance in the semi-arid region of Brazil. This species is predominantly found in domestic environments, and it has the ability to build large colonies with high levels of natural infection via Trypanosoma cruzi. Thus, T. brasiliensis is one of the most efficient transmitters of Chagas disease (CD) to humans. Despite household spraying with residual insecticides, many areas report persistent reinfestations for reasons that remain poorly understood. Therefore, this study sought to characterize the toxicological profile of deltamethrin in T. brasiliensis from areas with persistent reinfestation in State of Ceará, Brazil. The susceptibility reference lineage (SRL) was derived from Umari. Serial dilutions of deltamethrin were prepared and applied to the dorsal abdomen of first instar nymphs. The control group received only pure acetone. Mortality was evaluated after 72h. Qualitative tests assessed mortality in response to a diagnostic dose of 1xLD99 (0.851 nanograms of active ingredient per treated nymph) of the SRL. The susceptibility profile characterization of the T. brasiliensis populations revealed 50% resistance ratios (RR50) that ranged from 0.32 to 1.21. The percentage of mortality in response to the diagnostic dose was 100%. We demonstrated that T. brasiliensis was highly susceptible to deltamethrin. The control difficulties found might be related to the recolonization of the triatomines originating from neighboring environments and the possible operational failures related to the process of spraying that enabled specimens less susceptible to deltamethrin to survive.

  15. Efficacy of ciprofloxacin and moxifloxacin against Nocardia brasiliensis in vitro and in an experimental model of actinomycetoma in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon-Moreno, Brenda Edith; Welsh, Oliverio; Cavazos-Rocha, Norma; de la Luz Salazar-Cavazos, Maria; Garza-Lozano, Hector Gerardo; Said-Fernandez, Salvador; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio

    2009-01-01

    The efficacy of ciprofloxacin and moxifloxacin against Nocardia brasiliensis was evaluated by applying 25 mg of each drug/kg subcutaneously every 8 h in BALB/c mice infected with N. brasiliensis. A statistically significant difference was observed only with moxifloxacin. A moxifloxacin-trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole combination was as active as when each compound was used alone.

  16. Evaluation of the antigenotoxic effects of the royal sun mushroom, agaricus brasiliensis (Higher basidiomycetes) in human lymphocytes treated with thymol in the comet assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radaković, Milena; Stevanović, Jevrosima; Soković, Marina; Radović, Dejan; Griensven, Van Leo J.L.D.; Stanimirović, Zoran

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the possible protective activity of Agaricus brasiliensis (=A. blazei sensu Murrill) ethanol extract against thymol-induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes. Before we studied the possible interaction of thymol and A. brasiliensis extract, each

  17. Acúmulo de massa seca e macronutrientes por plantas de Glycine max e Richardia brasiliensis Accumulation of biomass and macronutrients by Glycine max and Richardia brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F.F. Pedrinho Júnior

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados dois experimentos, em condições de casa de vegetação, no Departamento de Biologia Aplicada à Agropecuária da FCAV-UNESP de Jaboticabal, objetivando-se determinar o acúmulo de massa seca, assim como a distribuição e o acúmulo de macronutrientes durante os ciclos de vida de plantas de soja cultivar BR16, no período de outubro de 2000 a fevereiro de 2001, e de Richardia brasiliensis (poaia-branca, uma planta daninha de elevada importância para esta cultura no Brasil, especialmente em áreas de plantio direto, no período de outubro de 1998 a fevereiro de 1999. Os estudos foram realizados em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Quatro plantas cresceram em vasos com capacidade de sete litros, preenchidos com areia de rio lavada, peneirada e irrigada diariamente com solução nutritiva. Os tratamentos foram representados pelas épocas de amostragem, realizadas a intervalos de 14 dias, a saber: 22, 36, 50, 64, 78, 92, 106, 120, 134, 148, 162 e 176 dias após a emergência (DAE das plantas de R. brasiliensis; e 21, 35, 49, 63, 77, 91, 105 e 119 DAE das plantas de soja cv. BR-16 (precoce. Em ambas as plantas, as folhas tiveram a maior partição de biomassa durante sete semanas. Para este dado, a partição foi maior para as estruturas reprodutivas em soja e nos caules para a poaia-branca. O ponto de máximo acúmulo teórico de massa seca deu-se aos 104 DAE para a soja (36,6 g por planta e aos 146 DAE para a poaia-branca (16,4 g por planta. Da emergência até aos 50 DAE as folhas apresentaram maior participação no acúmulo de massa seca, nas duas espécies. Após 50 DAE notou-se, em ambas as espécies, uma inversão na representatividade das folhas por caules, para a espécie daninha, e por caules e posteriormente por estruturas reprodutivas, para a cultura. A taxa de absorção diária dos macronutrientes atingiu maiores valores entre 69 e 87 DAE para a soja e entre 106 a 111 DAE

  18. Índice mitótico em células epiteliais da brânquia de Guaru (Poecilia vivipara tratados com frações da casca do caule e da folha de pequi (Caryocar brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. S. Motter

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Many wild plants of the Cerrado bioma are used as medicinal plants. The pequi (Caryocar brasiliensis is representative of those equipped with molluscicidal action against schistosomiasis. This paper sets out to verify the toxic action of pequi fractions in other aquatic animals before they are used in rivers or lakes. Analysis were made of the alterations to the mitotic index of epithelia cells in the gills of guppy (Poecilia vivipara exposed to ethyl-acetate fraction of leaf pequi and bark. Animals exposed to ethyl-acetate fraction (leaf, no significant change was observed in the mitotic index when compared with the control group, whereas in fish exposed to ethyl-acetate fraction (bark we detected an increase in mitotic index of the epithelia cells in two regions of the branchial filaments. Thus, ethyl-acetate fractions (leaf could be used against schistosomiasis, given their high efficacy and low action as piscicide.

  19. Fish Rhabdoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurath, G.; Winton, J.

    2008-01-01

    Many important viral pathogens of fish are members of the family Rhabdoviridae. The viruses in this large group cause significant losses in populations of wild fish as well as among fish reared in aquaculture. Fish rhabdoviruses often have a wide host and geographic range, and infect aquatic animals in both freshwater and seawater. The fish rhabdoviruses comprise a diverse collection of isolates that can be placed in one of two quite different groups: isolates that are members of the established genusNovirhabdovirus, and those that are most similar to members of the genus Vesiculovirus. Because the diseases caused by fish rhabdoviruses are important to aquaculture, diagnostic methods for their detection and identification are well established. In addition to regulations designed to reduce the spread of fish viruses, a significant body of research has addressed methods for the control or prevention of diseases caused by fish rhabdoviruses, including vaccination. The number of reported fish rhabdoviruses continues to grow as a result of the expansion of aquaculture, the increase in global trade, the development of improved diagnostic methods, and heightened surveillance activities. Fish rhabdoviruses serve as useful components of model systems to study vertebrate virus disease, epidemiology, and immunology.

  20. Antibodies against glycolipids enhance antifungal activity of macrophages and reduce fungal burden after infection with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Amelia eBueno

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis is a fungal disease endemic in Latin America. Polyclonal antibodies to acidic glycosphingolipids (GSLs from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis opsonized yeast forms in vitro increasing phagocytosis and reduced the fungal burden of infected animals. Antibodies to GSL were active in both prophylactic and therapeutic protocols using a murine intratracheal infection model. Pathological examination of the lungs of animals treated with antibodies to GSL showed well-organized granulomas and minimally damaged parenchyma compared to the untreated control. Murine peritoneal macrophages activated by IFN-γ and incubated with antibodies against acidic GSLs more effectively phagocytosed and killed P. brasiliensis yeast cells as well as produced more nitric oxide compared to controls. The present work discloses a novel target of protective antibodies against P. brasiliensis adding to other well-studied mediators of the immune response to this fungus.

  1. Differences in cell morphometry, cell wall topography and gp70 expression correlate with the virulence of Sporothrix brasiliensis clinical isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela A Castro

    Full Text Available Sporotrichosis is a chronic infectious disease affecting both humans and animals. For many years, this subcutaneous mycosis had been attributed to a single etiological agent; however, it is now known that this taxon consists of a complex of at least four pathogenic species, including Sporothrix schenckii and Sporothrix brasiliensis. Gp70 was previously shown to be an important antigen and adhesin expressed on the fungal cell surface and may have a key role in immunomodulation and host response. The aim of this work was to study the virulence, morphometry, cell surface topology and gp70 expression of clinical isolates of S. brasiliensis compared with two reference strains of S. schenckii. Several clinical isolates related to severe human cases or associated with the Brazilian zoonotic outbreak of sporotrichosis were genotyped and clustered as S. brasiliensis. Interestingly, in a murine subcutaneous model of sporotrichosis, these isolates showed a higher virulence profile compared with S. schenckii. A single S. brasiliensis isolate from an HIV-positive patient not only showed lower virulence but also presented differences in cell morphometry, cell wall topography and abundant gp70 expression compared with the virulent isolates. In contrast, the highly virulent S. brasiliensis isolates showed reduced levels of cell wall gp70. These observations were confirmed by the topographical location of the gp70 antigen using immunoelectromicroscopy in both species. In addition, the gp70 molecule was sequenced and identified using mass spectrometry, and the sequenced peptides were aligned into predicted proteins using Blastp with the S. schenckii and S. brasiliensis genomes.

  2. Detection of Antibodies against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Melanin in In Vitro and In Vivo Studies during Infection ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urán, Martha E.; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Restrepo, Angela; Hamilton, Andrew J.; Gómez, Beatriz L.; Cano, Luz E.

    2011-01-01

    Several cell wall constituents, including melanins or melanin-like compounds, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of microbial diseases caused by diverse species of pathogenic bacteria, fungi, and helminthes. Among these microorganisms, the dimorphic fungal pathogen Paracoccidioides brasiliensis produces melanin in its conidial and yeast forms. In the present study, melanin particles from P. brasiliensis were injected into BALB/c mice in order to produce monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). We identified five immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) κ-chain and four IgM melanin-binding MAbs. The five IgG1 κ-chain isotypes are the first melanin-binding IgG MAbs ever reported. The nine MAbs labeled P. brasiliensis conidia and yeast cells both in vitro and in pulmonary tissues. The MAbs cross-reacted with melanin-like purified particles from other fungi and also with commercial melanins, such as synthetic and Sepia officinalis melanin. Melanization during paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) was also further supported by the detection of IgG antibodies reactive to melanin from P. brasiliensis conidia and yeast in sera and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids from P. brasiliensis-infected mice, as well as in sera from human patients with PCM. Serum specimens from patients with other mycoses were also tested for melanin-binding antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and cross-reactivities were detected for melanin particles from different fungal sources. These results suggest that melanin from P. brasiliensis is an immunologically active fungal structure that activates a strong IgG humoral response in humans and mice. PMID:21813659

  3. Decomposition of the Rubber Tree Hevea brasiliensis Litter at Two Depths Descomposición del Mantillo del Árbol del Caucho Hevea brasiliensis en Dos Profundidades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Claudino Gréggio

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The decomposition of soil litter contributes to maintaining agricultural sustainability, since the nutrients released by microbial activity are determinants of the net productivity of the agroecosystem. The decomposition of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis [Willd. ex A. Juss.] Müll. Arg. leaves located on the surface and buried in at 10 cm depth in Forest and Savannah (Cerradão soils (Oxisols was studied, with emphasis on the production of CO2 and the monthly variation of the remaining amounts of litter mass, soluble substances, cellulose and lignin. To evaluate CO2 production, H. brasiliensis leaves were incubated for 30 days in soils from the 0-2 cm and 10-12 cm layers. CO2 production increased in the 0-2 cm layer in comparison to the 10-12 cm layer. Litter mass and soluble substance loss was of 62 and 72% at the end of nine months of incubation, and of 38 and 65%, respectively, in the first three months, being greater in the deeper (71-74% than in surface layer (48-55%. Forest soil stimulated more litter mass loss and cellulose decomposition (only in the surface layer than Savannah soil. The cellulose (25% content decreased and lignin (30% increased in the initial months of incubation, however, at the end of the period of this study the same content (29% was found.La descomposición del mantillo del suelo contribuye a mantener la sostenibilidad agrícola, puesto que los nutrientes liberados por la actividad microbiana son determinantes para la productividad del ecosistema. La descomposición de hojas del árbol del caucho (Hevea brasiliensis [Willd. ex A. Juss.] Müll. Arg. colocadas en la superficie y enterradas en la profundidad de 10 cm en los suelos de Bosque y Cerradão (Oxisols se estudió con énfasis en la producción de CO2 y la variación mensual de las cantidades remanentes de masa foliar (MF, substancias solubles (SS, celulosa y lignina. Para evaluar la producción de CO2, se incubaron hojas del H. brasiliensis por 30 días en

  4. Development of a low commercial value fish-sausage from the fish trawling “mix” category

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana de Lima Brandão GUIMARÃES

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The decreasing stock of the main species consumed in Brazil has stimulated studies regarding the use and development of products using low commercial value species. The shrimp trawling modality produces a large volume of a “mix” category comprising low commercial value fish. However, it is necessary to develop products with greater practicality to meet the current demands of the Brazilian consumer. The aim of the present study was to develop a sausage using a low commercial value fish, the Brazilian flathead (Percophis brasiliensis , caught in the fish trawling “mix” category landed in Niterói/RJ, and perform physico-chemical, microbiological, toxicological and sensorial analyses. The centesimal composition of the analyzed fish were as follows: humidity 73.78%, proteins 16.17%, carbohydrates 3.75%, total lipids 4.41% and ash 1.78%. The microbiological and toxicological results were within the legislation standards. Twenty varieties of fatty acids (AG were detected, with the most frequent being palmitic acid (22.81%. Among the omega-3 series, the most frequent were eicosapentaenoic acid (5.36% and docosahexaenoic acid (15.95%. Regarding minerals, the most noteworthy were sodium, calcium and iron (1114.24 mg, 112.32 mg and 1.73 mg respectively. The sausage showed 87.30% acceptability. The results demonstrate that the low commercial value fish Brazilian flathead resulted in a viable product for use in fish technology, with excellent nutritional results.

  5. Sinopse das espécies neotropicais do grupo brasiliensis do gênero Apenesia (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae Synopsis of neotropical species of brasiliensis group genus Apenesia (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magno S Ramos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available São descritas e ilustradas Apenesia longa sp. nov., A. peccata sp. nov., A. magna sp. nov., A. permaxima sp. nov., A. perconcava sp. nov. e A. recta sp. nov. da região Neotropical. São adicionados dados novos de variações estruturais e distribuição geográfica de A. transversa Evans, 1963, A. spinipes Evans, 1969, A. tlahuicana Evans, 1963, A. triangula Azevedo & Batista, 2002, A. megaventris Azevedo & Batista, 2002, A. venezuelana Evans, 1963, A. acia Lanes & Azevedo, 2004 e A. ventosa Azevedo & Batista, 2002. Duas sinonímias novas são propostas: A. peruana Evans, 1963 como sinônimo junior de A. brasiliensis (Kieffer, 1910; A. subangulata Azevedo & Batista, 2002 como sinônimo junior de A. fulvicollis (Westwood, 1874, esta ultima considerada dentro ao grupo nitida. É fornecida uma chave de identificação para as espécies do grupo, baseada em machos.Apenesia longa sp. nov., A. peccata sp. nov., A. magna sp. nov., A. permaxima sp. nov., A. perconcava sp. nov., and A. recta sp. nov., from Neotropical region are described and illustrated. Additional material of A. transversa Evans, 1963, A. spinipes Evans, 1969, A. tlahuicana Evans, 1963, A. triangula Azevedo & Batista, 2002, A. megaventris Azevedo & Batista, 2002, A. venezuelana Evans, 1963, A. acia Lanes & Azevedo, 2004 and A. ventosa Azevedo & Batista, 2002 had their structural variations and known distribution broadened. Two new synonyms are proposed: A. peruana Evans, 1963 as junior synonym of A. brasiliensis (Kieffer, 1910; A. subangulata Azevedo & Batista, 2002 as junior synonym of A. fulvicollis (Westwood, 1874, and the latter considered in the nitida group. An identification key to species of the group based on males is provided.

  6. ADUBAÇÃO NPK E PRODUÇÃO DE BORRACHA SECA PELA SERINGUEIRA (Hevea brasiliensis NPK FERTILIZATION AND DRY RUBBER PRODUCTION BY Hevea brasiliensis TREES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Roberto Murbach

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Instalou-se um experimento, na região de Garça, SP, em um solo Latossolo Vermelho escuro, A moderado, textura arenosa, com o objetivo de se avaliar a influência da adubação NPK sobre a produtividade de borracha seca da seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis clone "PB 235", com 13 anos de idade. O experimento foi instalado em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial fracionário (1/443, totalizando 16 tratamentos e 4 repetições, onde se utilizaram 4 níveis de N (0, 80, 160, 320 kg ha-1, 4 de K2O (0, 80, 160, 320 kg ha-1 e 4 de P2O5 (0, 40, 80, 160 kg ha-1. A produção foi avaliada entre os mêses de outubro de 1995 a junho de 1996. Conclui-se que a adubação potássica aumentou a produtividade de borracha seca, o mesmo não ocorrendo com a adubação nitrogenada e fosfatada.An experiment was carried out to study the effects of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizations on dry rubber yield of Hevea brasiliensis Muell Arg., clone PB 235 growing on a Dark Red-Yellow Latosol, in Garça-SP, Brazil. The experiment consisted of a (1/443 fractional factorial of randomized block design, with 16 treatments and 4 replicates, utilizing 4 levels of N (0, 80, 160 and 320 kg ha-1, 4 of P2O5 (0, 40, 80 and 160 kg ha-1 and 4 of K (0, 80, 160 and 320 kg ha-1. The rubber yield was evaluated monthly from October 1995 to June 1996. Results showed that potassium fertilization increased dry rubber yield, which was not affected by nitrogen and phosphate fertilizations.

  7. Purification of an Immunoadjuvant Saponin Fraction from Quillaja brasiliensis Leaves by Reversed-Phase Silica Gel Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yendo, Anna C A; de Costa, Fernanda; Kauffmann, Carla; Fleck, Juliane D; Gosmann, Grace; Fett-Neto, Arthur G

    2017-01-01

    Saponins include a large variety of molecules that find several applications in pharmacology. The use of Quillaja saponaria saponins as immunological adjuvants in vaccines is of interest due to their capacity to stimulate both humoral and cellular responses. The congener species Q. brasiliensis has saponins with chemical similarities and adjuvant activity comparable to that of Q. saponaria fraction Quil-A ® , with additional advantages of showing lower toxicity and reduced hemolytic activity. Here we describe in detail the methods for preparing the aqueous extract from Q. brasiliensis leaves, as well as the purification of the bioactive saponin fraction QB-90 using silica reversed-phase chromatography.

  8. Resposta imune humoral a antígenos de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis e P. Lutzii na paracoccidioidomicose humana

    OpenAIRE

    Adriane Lenhard-Vidal

    2013-01-01

    A paracoccidioidomicose (PCM) é uma micose sistêmica causada pelo fungo termodimórfico Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (espécies filogenéticas S1, PS2 e PS3), sendo conhecida uma nova espécie, P. lutzii. Considerando-se que a diversidade genética do Paracoccidioides sp. possivelmente gera diferenças na resposta imune do hospedeiro, esta pesquisa objetivou determinar e correlacionar níveis de anticorpos IgG a antígenos de P. brasiliensis (S1, PS2) e P. lutzii em pacientes com PCM. Foram obtidos ...

  9. First record of Megaselia scalaris (Loew) (Diptera: Phoridae) infesting laboratory colonies of Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva (Hemiptera: Reduviidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Jane; Almeida, Carlos E.; Esperanca, Gleidson M.; Morales, Ninive; Mallet, Jacenir R. dos S.; Goncalves, Teresa C.M.; Prado, Angelo P. do

    2007-01-01

    Megaselia scalaris (Loew) is a cosmopolitan and synanthropic scuttle fly, eclectic in its feeding habits and acts as detritivore, parasite, facultative parasite, and parasitoid. Here we report for the first time M. scalaris infesting laboratory colonies of Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva, the most important Chagas disease vector in semiarid areas of Brazil. M. scalaris larvae were found feeding inside bugs; pupae were found in the esophagus and intestinal regions of T. brasiliensis through dissection. Other relevant information about this finding is also described in this note, including some preventive measures to avoid laboratory colonies infestations. (author)

  10. First record of Megaselia scalaris (Loew) (Diptera: Phoridae) infesting laboratory colonies of Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva (Hemiptera: Reduviidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Jane; Almeida, Carlos E.; Esperanca, Gleidson M.; Morales, Ninive [Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept.de Entomologia. Lab. da Colecao Entomologica; Mallet, Jacenir R. dos S.; Goncalves, Teresa C.M. [Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. Transmissores de Leishmanioses. Nucleo de Ultraestrutura; Prado, Angelo P. do [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Parasitologia

    2007-11-15

    Megaselia scalaris (Loew) is a cosmopolitan and synanthropic scuttle fly, eclectic in its feeding habits and acts as detritivore, parasite, facultative parasite, and parasitoid. Here we report for the first time M. scalaris infesting laboratory colonies of Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva, the most important Chagas disease vector in semiarid areas of Brazil. M. scalaris larvae were found feeding inside bugs; pupae were found in the esophagus and intestinal regions of T. brasiliensis through dissection. Other relevant information about this finding is also described in this note, including some preventive measures to avoid laboratory colonies infestations. (author)

  11. In Vivo Activity of the Benzothiazinones PBTZ169 and BTZ043 against Nocardia brasiliensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Alejandra González-Martínez

    Full Text Available Mycetoma is a neglected, chronic, and deforming infectious disease caused by fungi and actinomycetes. In Mexico, N. brasiliensis is the predominant etiologic agent. Therapeutic alternatives are necessary because the current drug regimens have several disadvantages. Benzothiazinones (BTZ are a new class of candidate drugs that inhibit decaprenyl-phosphoribose-epimerase (DprE1, an essential enzyme involved in the cell wall biosynthesis of Corynebacterineae.In this study, the in vitro activity of the next generation BTZ, PBTZ169, was tested against thirty Nocardia brasiliensis isolates. The MIC50 and MIC90 values for PBTZ169 were 0.0075 and 0.03 μg/mL, respectively. Because Nocardia is a potential intracellular bacterium, a THP-1 macrophage monolayer was infected with N. brasiliensis HUJEG-1 and then treated with PBTZ169, resulting in a decrease in the number of colony-forming units (CFUs at a concentration of 0.25X the in vitro value. The in vivo activity was evaluated after infecting female BALB/c mice in the right hind food-pad. After 6 weeks, treatment was initiated with PBTZ169 and its activity was compared with the first generation compound, BTZ043. Both BTZ compounds were administered at 100 mg/kg twice daily by gavage, and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (SXT, at 100 mg/kg sulfamethoxazole, was used as a positive control. After 22 weeks of therapy, only PBTZ169 and SXT displayed statistically significant activity.These results indicate that DprE1 inhibitors may be useful for treating infections of Nocardia and may therefore be active against other actinomycetoma agents. We must test combinations of these compounds with other antimicrobial agents, such as linezolid, tedizolid or SXT, that have good to excellent in vivo activity, as well as new DprE1 inhibitors that can achieve higher plasma levels.

  12. Refractory sporotrichosis due to Sporothrix brasiliensis in humans appears to be unrelated to in vivo resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista; Freitas, Dayvison Francis Saraiva; Valle, Antônio Carlos Francesconi do; Gutierrez-Galhardo, Maria Clara; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria

    2017-07-01

    Sporotrichosis is a subacute to chronic infection caused by members of the Sporothrix schenckii complex. Itraconazole is the first choice antifungal drug for treating this infection, with terbinafine and potassium iodide as alternatives and amphotericin B used in cases of severe infections. Correlation of antifungal susceptibility data with the clinical outcome of the patients is scarce. The aim of this study was to correlate clinical and mycological data in patients with refractory sporotrichosis. In this work, antifungal susceptibilities, determined according to the reference M38-A2 CLSI protocol, of 25 Sporothrix strains, isolated from seven human cases of sporotrichosis with adversities in the treatment, are presented. Tested drugs included itraconazole, ketoconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole, terbinafine, and amphotericin B. Fungi were identified using the T3B PCR fingerprinting. This method identified all strains as Sporothrix brasiliensis and also demonstrated a high degree of similarity between the strains. In general, voriconazole was ineffective against all strains, and elevated minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were observed for amphotericin B. High itraconazole and terbinafine MICs were not observed in S. brasiliensis isolates from patients of this study. Moreover, a significant increase in itraconazole and terbinafine MIC values from strains isolated from the same patient in different periods was not observed. The results suggest that the antifungal susceptibility to terbinafine and itraconazole determined by the reference method does not play an important role in therapeutic failure of sporotrichosis and that acquisition of resistance during prolonged antifungal treatment is not likely to occur in S. brasiliensis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Assembly and Analysis of Differential Transcriptome Responses of Hevea brasiliensis on Interaction with Microcyclus ulei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uriel Alonso Hurtado Páez

    Full Text Available Natural rubber (Hevea brasiliensis is a tropical tree used commercially for the production of latex, from which 40,000 products are generated. The fungus Microcyclus ulei infects this tree, causing South American leaf blight (SALB disease. This disease causes developmental delays and significant crop losses, thereby decreasing the production of latex. Currently several groups are working on obtaining clones of rubber tree with durable resistance to SALB through the use of extensive molecular biology techniques. In this study, we used a secondary clone that was resistant to M. ulei isolate GCL012. This clone, FX 3864 was obtained by crossing between clones PB 86 and B 38 (H. brasiliensis x H. brasiliensis. RNA-Seq high-throughput sequencing technology was used to analyze the differential expression of the FX 3864 clone transcriptome at 0 and 48 h post infection (hpi with the M. ulei isolate GCL012. A total of 158,134,220 reads were assembled using the de novo assembly strategy to generate 90,775 contigs with an N50 of 1672. Using a reference-based assembly, 76,278 contigs were generated with an N50 of 1324. We identified 86 differentially expressed genes associated with the defense response of FX 3864 to GCL012. Seven putative genes members of the AP2/ERF ethylene (ET-dependent superfamily were found to be down-regulated. An increase in salicylic acid (SA was associated with the up-regulation of three genes involved in cell wall synthesis and remodeling, as well as in the down-regulation of the putative gene CPR5. The defense response of FX 3864 against the GCL012 isolate was associated with the antagonistic SA, ET and jasmonic acid (JA pathways. These responses are characteristic of plant resistance to biotrophic pathogens.

  14. In Vivo Activity of the Benzothiazinones PBTZ169 and BTZ043 against Nocardia brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Martínez, Norma Alejandra; Lozano-Garza, Hector Gerardo; Castro-Garza, Jorge; De Osio-Cortez, Alexandra; Vargas-Villarreal, Javier; Cavazos-Rocha, Norma; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Makarov, Vadim; Cole, Stewart T; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio

    2015-01-01

    Mycetoma is a neglected, chronic, and deforming infectious disease caused by fungi and actinomycetes. In Mexico, N. brasiliensis is the predominant etiologic agent. Therapeutic alternatives are necessary because the current drug regimens have several disadvantages. Benzothiazinones (BTZ) are a new class of candidate drugs that inhibit decaprenyl-phosphoribose-epimerase (DprE1), an essential enzyme involved in the cell wall biosynthesis of Corynebacterineae. In this study, the in vitro activity of the next generation BTZ, PBTZ169, was tested against thirty Nocardia brasiliensis isolates. The MIC50 and MIC90 values for PBTZ169 were 0.0075 and 0.03 μg/mL, respectively. Because Nocardia is a potential intracellular bacterium, a THP-1 macrophage monolayer was infected with N. brasiliensis HUJEG-1 and then treated with PBTZ169, resulting in a decrease in the number of colony-forming units (CFUs) at a concentration of 0.25X the in vitro value. The in vivo activity was evaluated after infecting female BALB/c mice in the right hind food-pad. After 6 weeks, treatment was initiated with PBTZ169 and its activity was compared with the first generation compound, BTZ043. Both BTZ compounds were administered at 100 mg/kg twice daily by gavage, and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (SXT), at 100 mg/kg sulfamethoxazole, was used as a positive control. After 22 weeks of therapy, only PBTZ169 and SXT displayed statistically significant activity. These results indicate that DprE1 inhibitors may be useful for treating infections of Nocardia and may therefore be active against other actinomycetoma agents. We must test combinations of these compounds with other antimicrobial agents, such as linezolid, tedizolid or SXT, that have good to excellent in vivo activity, as well as new DprE1 inhibitors that can achieve higher plasma levels.

  15. Decrease of virulence for BALB/c mice produced by continuous subculturing of Nocardia brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ocampo-Candiani Jorge

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subculturing has been extensively used to attenuate human pathogens. In this work we studied the effect of continuous subculturing of Nocardia brasiliensis HUJEG-1 on virulence in a murine model. Methods Nocardia brasiliensis HUJEG-1 was subcultured up to 130 times on brain heart infusion over four years. BALB/c mice were inoculated in the right foot pad with the bacteria subcultured 0, 40, 80, 100 and 130 times (T0, T40, T80 T100 and T130. The induction of resistance was tested by using T130 to inoculate a group of mice followed by challenge with T0 12 weeks later. Biopsies were taken from the newly infected foot-pad and immunostained with antibodies against CD4, CD8 and CD14 in order to analyze the in situ immunological changes. Results When using T40, T80 T100 and T130 as inoculums we observed lesions in 10, 5, 0 and 0 percent of the animals, respectively, at the end of 12 weeks. In contrast, their controls produced mycetoma in 80, 80, 70 and 60% of the inoculated animals. When studying the protection of T130, we observed a partial resistance to the infection. Immunostaining revealed an intense CD4+ lymphocytic and macrophage infiltrate in healing lesions. Conclusions After 130 in vitro passages of N. brasiliensis HUJEG-1 a severe decrease in its virulence was observed. Immunization of BALB/c mice, with these attenuated cells, produced a state of partial resistance to infection with the non-subcultured isolate.

  16. In-depth proteome analysis of the rubber particle of Hevea brasiliensis (para rubber tree).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Longjun; Kang, Guijuan; Li, Yu; Nie, Zhiyi; Duan, Cuifang; Zeng, Rizhong

    2013-05-01

    The rubber particle is a special organelle in which natural rubber is synthesised and stored in the laticifers of Hevea brasiliensis. To better understand the biological functions of rubber particles and to identify the candidate rubber biosynthesis-related proteins, a comprehensive proteome analysis was performed on H. brasiliensis rubber particles using shotgun tandem mass spectrometry profiling approaches-resulting in a thorough report on the rubber particle proteins. A total of 186 rubber particle proteins were identified, with a range in relative molecular mass of 3.9-194.2 kDa and in isoelectric point values of 4.0-11.2. The rubber particle proteins were analysed for gene ontology and could be categorised into eight major groups according to their functions: including rubber biosynthesis, stress- or defence-related responses, protein processing and folding, signal transduction and cellular transport. In addition to well-known rubber biosynthesis-related proteins such as rubber elongation factor (REF), small rubber particle protein (SRPP) and cis-prenyl transferase (CPT), many proteins were firstly identified to be on the rubber particles, including cyclophilin, phospholipase D, cytochrome P450, small GTP-binding protein, clathrin, eukaryotic translation initiation factor, annexin, ABC transporter, translationally controlled tumour protein, ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, and several homologues of REF, SRPP and CPT. A procedure of multiple reaction monitoring was established for further protein validation. This comprehensive proteome data of rubber particles would facilitate investigation into molecular mechanisms of biogenesis, self-homeostasis and rubber biosynthesis of the rubber particle, and might serve as valuable biomarkers in molecular breeding studies of H. brasiliensis and other alternative rubber-producing species.

  17. Immunogenic evaluation of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis radioattenuated yeast cells in murine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Estefania M.N.; Andrade, Antero S.R.; Fernandes, Viviane Cristina; Morais, Elis Araujo; Goes, Alfredo M.; Resende, Maria Aparecida de

    2011-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), a chronic systemic disease prevalent in Latin American, which is characterized by the formation of granulomatous lesions. To date, there is no effective vaccine to PCM or to any systemic mycosis. In an attempt to induce an efficient response to such agent in an animal model, gamma radiation attenuated P. brasiliensis yeast cells (LevRad) were developed at the Radiobiology Laboratory from CDTN/CNEN. A gamma radiation dose was defined in which the pathogen loses its ability to multiply, while retaining its viability, metabolic activity and antigenic profile. The prophylactic potential of LevRad was assessed after its intravenous administration in male Balb/C mice, challenged 45 days after immunization with intratracheal administration of 3x105 cells of a highly virulent non-radiated P.brasiliensis isolate. At 30 and 90 days post challenge (dpc), lungs, spleen and liver were collected to analyse CFU (colony forming units) recovery, histology, cell proliferation, cytokine (IFN-gamma, IL-4, IL-10, TNF-alpha and TGF-beta) and iNOS production. The sera were used to evaluate the immunization efficacy, and to assess IgG isotypes (IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b, IgG3) and total IgG levels. The present data show that there was no significant decrease in the CFU counts of the lungs of immunized animals 30 dpc. Nevertheless, no CFU or histopathological alterations were visualized at the organs of immunized animals at 90 dpc. During the same period, IgG2a, IgG2b, IFN-alpha and iNOS levels raised while IL-10, TNF-alpha, TGF-beta and IL-4 maintained low levels, suggesting the prevalence of Th1 response profile. Our results confirmed the protective (author)

  18. ESTUDIO EPIDEMIOLÓGICO DEL CONEJO SILVESTRE Sylvilagus brasiliensis EN EL PARQUE NACIONAL NATURAL LOS NEVADOS

    OpenAIRE

    Insuasty Osorio, Julián Alejandro; Ramírez Benavides, Ginés Fernando; Mejía Morales, Luis Miguel

    2008-01-01

    Este estudio epidemiológico se realizó con el objeto de identificar los agentes etiológicos responsables de las afecciones presentes en las poblaciones de conejo silvestre Sylvilagus brasiliensis, en la zona amortiguadora del Parque Nacional Natural Los Nevados. Con un enfoque en Medicina de la Conservación, bajo el concepto "Triada Ecológica de la Enfermedad" y por medio del análisis multivariado "Análisis Factorial de Correspondencias Múltiples" con el programa "SPAD-WIN"; se determinó y an...

  19. Etude de la sensibilité des clones d' Hevea brasiliensis (Muell. Arg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chez Hevea brasiliensis, la production de latex est affectée par l'encoche sèche qui se manifeste par l'arrêt de l'écoulement de latex après la saignée. La sensibilité clonale à cette maladie est mal connue. La présente étude a pour objectif d'établir une classification des clones les plus plantés en Côte d'Ivoire selon leur ...

  20. Propagation and molecular characterisation of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg) in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antwi-wiredu, A.

    2015-07-01

    The study was aimed at the propagation and molecular characterisation of some introduced clones of Hevea brasiliensis in Ghana. Propagation of H. brasiliensis by stem cuttings and in vitro techniques was used to study alternative procedures for mass production of rubber planting materials. Brown and green stem cuttings of Clone I and Clone II were soaked for 6 hours in 0.0-22.5g/L NAA followed by propagation in a nursery bag filled with nutrient-rich soil. Only the brown stem cuttings of H. brasiliensis survived. The % survival, length of shoots, number of roots as well as length of roots of Clone II was significantly (P<0.05) higher than Clone I. Stem cuttings treated with 15.0g/L NAA significantly (P<0.05) developed higher shoots (83.33%), number of roots (6.167), length of shoots (15.38cm) and length of roots (6.00cm) than the remaining treatments. There was significant (P<0.05) effects of NAA and Clone II in sprouting and rooting growth of the brown stem cuttings. The addition of 5.0mg/L kinetin in the MS culture medium significantly (P<0.05) enhanced higher shoot development (84.00%), number of shoots (3.60) and leaves (23.40) of the shoot-tip explants compared to other treatments. In nodal explants cultured on a medium without kinetin developed higher shoots (94.00%), height of shoot (4.80cm), number of leaves (19.20), number of shoots (6.00) and number of roots (7.00) than those with kinetin treatments. However, 7.5mg/L kinetin of the nodal culture also performed significantly after the controls. A dendrogram derived from the UPGMA distinguished the rubber clones from four areas of Ghana into two clusters. The five SSR markers showed high degree of relatedness among the rubber clones which suggested high genetic similarity (IRCA317-5, IRCA41-2, IRCA331-6, IRCA230-4, IRCA109-3, B8-23) and some degree of diversity/variation (K2-18,IRCA840-7, PB217-8, PB217-10, IRCA317-16) among the clones. Thus, clones of interest could be selected for future breeding and

  1. Parasitism of Harmonia axyridis (Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae by Strongygaster brasiliensis (Towsend (Diptera: Tachinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Castro-Guedes

    2018-04-01

    Resumo. Harmonia axyridis (Pallas é uma espécie de Coccinellidae originária do Nordeste da Ásia e utilizada como agente de controle biológico de afídeos. Como é uma espécie invasora é muito importante conhecer seus inimigos naturais. Dessa forma, este trabalho fornece o primeiro registro de Strongygaster brasiliensis (Towsend(Diptera: Tachinidae parasitando H. axyridis no sul do Brasil.

  2. Data in support of quantitative proteomics to identify potential virulence regulators in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Keiji Tashima

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioides genus are the etiologic agents of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM, a systemic mycosis endemic in Latin America. Few virulence factors have been identified in these fungi. This paper describes support data from the quantitative proteomics of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis attenuated and virulent isolates [1]. The protein compositions of two isolates of the Pb18 strain showing distinct infection profiles were quantitatively assessed by stable isotopic dimethyl labeling and proteomic analysis. The mass spectrometry and the analysis dataset have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE partner repository with identifier PXD000804.

  3. L-lactic acid production by Aspergillus brasiliensis overexpressing the heterologous ldha gene from Rhizopus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaud, Nadège; Rosso, Marie-Noëlle; Fabre, Nicolas; Crapart, Sylvaine; Herpoël-Gimbert, Isabelle; Sigoillot, Jean-Claude; Raouche, Sana; Levasseur, Anthony

    2015-05-03

    Lactic acid is the building block of poly-lactic acid (PLA), a biopolymer that could be set to replace petroleum-based plastics. To make lactic acid production cost-effective, the production process should be carried out at low pH, in low-nutrient media, and with a low-cost carbon source. Yeasts have been engineered to produce high levels of lactic acid at low pH from glucose but not from carbohydrate polymers (e.g. cellulose, hemicellulose, starch). Aspergilli are versatile microbial cell factories able to naturally produce large amounts of organic acids at low pH and to metabolize cheap abundant carbon sources such as plant biomass. However, they have never been used for lactic acid production. To investigate the feasibility of lactic acid production with Aspergillus, the NAD-dependent lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) responsible for lactic acid production by Rhizopus oryzae was produced in Aspergillus brasiliensis BRFM103. Among transformants, the best lactic acid producer, A. brasiliensis BRFM1877, integrated 6 ldhA gene copies, and intracellular LDH activity was 9.2 × 10(-2) U/mg. At a final pH of 1.6, lactic acid titer reached 13.1 g/L (conversion yield: 26%, w/w) at 138 h in glucose-ammonium medium. This extreme pH drop was subsequently prevented by switching nitrogen source from ammonium sulfate to Na-nitrate, leading to a final pH of 3 and a lactic acid titer of 17.7 g/L (conversion yield: 47%, w/w) at 90 h of culture. Final titer was further improved to 32.2 g/L of lactic acid (conversion yield: 44%, w/w) by adding 20 g/L glucose to the culture medium at 96 h. This strain was ultimately able to produce lactic acid from xylose, arabinose, starch and xylan. We obtained the first Aspergillus strains able to produce large amounts of lactic acid by inserting recombinant ldhA genes from R. oryzae into a wild-type A. brasiliensis strain. pH regulation failed to significantly increase lactic acid production, but switching nitrogen source and changing culture feed

  4. Karakteristik Pembakaran Biobriket Kulit dan Cangkang Karet (Hevea Brasiliensis) dengan Perekat Glyserin

    OpenAIRE

    I Wayan Wawan Mariki; Slamet Wahyudi; Denny Widhiyanuriyawan

    2017-01-01

    Some studies have been done on utilizing biomass from agriculture such as the leather and shell of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) were not used optimally in Indonesia as an alternative energy which developed by making biobriquet to achieved the higher energy that could be used in the combustion process. In this study, the biobriquet was made of the leather and the shell of rubber by comparisson of the leather and shell were: 0%: 91%; 45.5%: 45.5%; 55%: 36%; 64%: 27%; 91%: 0%.Glyserin 9% for each...

  5. Karakteristik Pembakaran Biobriket Kulit Dan Cangkang Karet (Hevea Brasiliensis) Dengan Perekat Glyserin

    OpenAIRE

    Mariki, I Wayan Wawan; Wahyudi, Slamet; Widhiyanuriyawan, Denny

    2017-01-01

    Some studies have been done on utilizing biomass from agriculture such as the leather and shell of rubber (Hevea Brasiliensis) were not used optimally in Indonesia as an alternative energy which developed by making biobriquet to achieved the higher energy that could be used in the combustion process. In this study, the biobriquet was made of the leather and the shell of rubber by comparisson of the leather and shell were: 0%: 91%; 45.5%: 45.5%; 55%: 36%; 64%: 27%; 91%: 0%.Glyserin 9% for each...

  6. Ecology of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidaein a focus of Leishmania (Viannia brasiliensis in northeastern Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Alexander

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available The phlebotomine sand fly fauna of two coffee plantations in a Leishmania-endemic area of Norte de Santander, Colombia was studied. Regular insect collections using a variety of methods were made for three and a half years. Information was obtained on diurnal resting sites, host range and seasonal abundance for 17 species, of wich five (Lutzomyia spinicrassa, Lu. serrana,Lu. shannoni, Lu. ovallesi and Lu. gomezi were far more numerous than the others, anthropophilic and present throughout the year. The behaviour of these and the remaining 12 species is discussed in relation to their potential role in transmission of Leishmania (Viannia brasiliensis in the area.

  7. Fish health and fish quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Hans-Christian

    Aquaculture is an expanding worldwide industry producing an increasing amount of fish every year. The quality of the fish meat is dependent upon many biological and non-biological factors. Infectious diseases are known to cause bleedings and damage of the muscle tissue that may lead to scarring...... are poorly described in fish. The present work in this thesis focused on: 1) examination of potential changes in the quality regarding texture of the muscle tissue in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after previous infection with the bacterial pathogens Yersinia ruckeri and Vibrio anguillarum; 2...... of these studies showed that previous infections by Yersinia ruckeri and Vibrio anguillarum gave rise to subsequent changes regarding textural quality parameters in fresh fish meat, while no differences were seen for cold-smoked meat from the same fish. The texture in previous infected fish was less flaky and less...

  8. Fish pelleting

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    fish meal pelletizing machine utilized 4kg of ingredients to produce 3.77kg pellets at an effi- ciency of .... Design and fabrication of fish meal pellet processing machine ... 53 ... horsepower for effective torque application on .... two edges were tacked with a spot weld to hold ... then welded on to the shaft making sure that the.

  9. Fish parasites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book contains 22 chapters on some of the most important parasitic diseases in wild and farmed fish. International experts give updated reviews and provide solutions to the problems......This book contains 22 chapters on some of the most important parasitic diseases in wild and farmed fish. International experts give updated reviews and provide solutions to the problems...

  10. Fish reproduction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rocha, Maria João; Arukwe, Augustine; Kapoor, B. G

    2008-01-01

    ... of reproductive systems is essential for such studies. Fishes comprise over 28,000 species, with a remarkable variability in morphology, physiology and environmental adaptation. Knowledge on fish reproduction is scattered across numerous sources that shows a dynamic research field. The Editors believe it to be an opportune moment for a...

  11. Fish assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarvey, Daniel J.; Falke, Jeffrey A.; Li, Hiram W.; Li, Judith; Hauer, F. Richard; Lamberti, G.A.

    2017-01-01

    Methods to sample fishes in stream ecosystems and to analyze the raw data, focusing primarily on assemblage-level (all fish species combined) analyses, are presented in this chapter. We begin with guidance on sample site selection, permitting for fish collection, and information-gathering steps to be completed prior to conducting fieldwork. Basic sampling methods (visual surveying, electrofishing, and seining) are presented with specific instructions for estimating population sizes via visual, capture-recapture, and depletion surveys, in addition to new guidance on environmental DNA (eDNA) methods. Steps to process fish specimens in the field including the use of anesthesia and preservation of whole specimens or tissue samples (for genetic or stable isotope analysis) are also presented. Data analysis methods include characterization of size-structure within populations, estimation of species richness and diversity, and application of fish functional traits. We conclude with three advanced topics in assemblage-level analysis: multidimensional scaling (MDS), ecological networks, and loop analysis.

  12. Sequence and expression analyses of ethylene response factors highly expressed in latex cells from Hevea brasiliensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyanuch Piyatrakul

    Full Text Available The AP2/ERF superfamily encodes transcription factors that play a key role in plant development and responses to abiotic and biotic stress. In Hevea brasiliensis, ERF genes have been identified by RNA sequencing. This study set out to validate the number of HbERF genes, and identify ERF genes involved in the regulation of latex cell metabolism. A comprehensive Hevea transcriptome was improved using additional RNA reads from reproductive tissues. Newly assembled contigs were annotated in the Gene Ontology database and were assigned to 3 main categories. The AP2/ERF superfamily is the third most represented compared with other transcription factor families. A comparison with genomic scaffolds led to an estimation of 114 AP2/ERF genes and 1 soloist in Hevea brasiliensis. Based on a phylogenetic analysis, functions were predicted for 26 HbERF genes. A relative transcript abundance analysis was performed by real-time RT-PCR in various tissues. Transcripts of ERFs from group I and VIII were very abundant in all tissues while those of group VII were highly accumulated in latex cells. Seven of the thirty-five ERF expression marker genes were highly expressed in latex. Subcellular localization and transactivation analyses suggested that HbERF-VII candidate genes encoded functional transcription factors.

  13. Desarrollo de un sistema de transformación genética en Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Corredor

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available

    La transformación genética es una alternativa para el conocimiento de genes involucrados en la patogenicidad de los hongos. A la fecha se han transformado algunos hongos utilizando técnicas como luz ultravioleta para obtener mutantes auxotróficas. Así mismo, se ha empleado la transformación basada en la introducción de plásmidos que confieren resistencia a antibióticos bien sea por medio de electroporación o imitando un evento que se presenta naturalmente entre plantas y el bacilo gram negativo Agrobacterium tumefaciens y que consiste en la transferencia del T-DNA del plásmido Ti bacteriano a la célula vegetal, con la consecuente aparición de un tumor en el tallo de
    la planta. Este mecanismo se ha reproducido con éxito en hongos
    filamentosos y en levaduras. En el caso de Paraco ccidioides brasiliensis aún no se dispone de un modelo de transformación. Considerando esta carencia y la necesidad de conocer los genes involucrados en la patogenicidad de este microorganismo, pretendemos desarrollar un sistema de transformación genética para P. brasiliensis utilizando A. tumefaciens.

     

     

  14. Production of Particleboards from Hevea brasiliensis Clones and Castor Oil-based Polyurethane Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela Gava

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The economic exploitation of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis usage is primarily directed toward latex extraction. After the productive life of the rubber tree forest, the managed area is harvested for planting reformulation. The harvested wood is most often used for energy generation purposes. The aim of this work was to study the feasibility of using rubberwood waste and castor oil-based polyurethane resin in the production of particleboards. Homogeneous and heterogeneous panels were made with nominal dimensions of 500 x 500 mm and thicknesses of 10 mm using particles from GT1 and RRIM600 clones of the rubber tree and 12% castor oil-based polyurethane adhesive. The panels were pressed at 140 °C for 12 min with 40 kgf/cm2 specific pressure. Density, moisture content, thickness swelling, water absorption for 2 and 24 h, static bending, and internal bonding determinations were performed according to the Brazilian Standard (NBR 14810-3 (2006 for the physical-mechanical panel characterization. The results show that using Hevea brasiliensis in particleboard production is viable. However, multilayer boards exhibited better results.

  15. Reproductive phenology and pollination biology of Canavalia brasiliensis Mart. ex Benth (Fabaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Sales Guedes

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the phenology and biology of the pollination of C. brasiliensis in an area of its natural occurrence (Pocinhos – PB. Fifteen plants were marked and observed every two weeks for the study of phenology. For the study of floral biology and morphology, flowers and inflorescences were marked and observed until fruit appeared. Visitors to flowers were observed throughout the experiment, and the frequency, time and behavior of their visits was registered. Canavalia brasiliensis demonstrated a pattern of annual flowering which was continuous, of long duration, with periods of greater flowering activity in the dry season. The inflorescence is of the paniculatum type, with flowers whose attributes are related to the syndrome of melittophily. Anthesis occurs during the day, beginning at 05h00. Nectar is produced from the phase of pre-anthesis, with a concentration of sugars around 44-60%. Visits by bees (Xylocopa frontalis, X. suspecta and X. sp., Apis mellifera and Centris similis and birds (Phaethornis ruber, Chlorostilbon aureoventris, Eupetomena macroura and Coereba flaveola were observed. Xylocopa frontalis acted as an effective pollinator.

  16. Secretomic Insight into Glucose Metabolism of Aspergillus brasiliensis in Solid-State Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volke-Sepulveda, Tania; Salgado-Bautista, Daniel; Bergmann, Carl; Wells, Lance; Gutierrez-Sanchez, Gerardo; Favela-Torres, Ernesto

    2016-10-07

    The genus Aspergillus is ubiquitous in nature and includes various species extensively exploited industrially due to their ability to produce and secrete a variety of enzymes and metabolites. Most processes are performed in submerged fermentation (SmF); however, solid-state fermentation (SSF) offers several advantages, including lower catabolite repression and substrate inhibition and higher productivity and stability of the enzymes produced. This study aimed to explain the improved metabolic behavior of A. brasiliensis ATCC9642 in SSF at high glucose concentrations through a proteomic approach. Online respirometric analysis provided reproducible samples for secretomic studies when the maximum CO 2 production rate occurred, ensuring consistent physiological states. Extracellular extracts from SSF cultures were treated by SDS-PAGE, digested with trypsin, and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Of 531 sequences identified, 207 proteins were analyzed. Twenty-five were identified as the most abundant unregulated proteins; 87 were found to be up-regulated and 95 were down-regulated with increasing glucose concentration. Of the regulated proteins, 120 were enzymes, most involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates (51), amino acids (23), and nucleotides (9). This study shows the high protein secretory activity of A. brasiliensis under SSF conditions. High glucose concentration favors catabolic activities, while some stress-related proteins and those involved in proteolysis are down-regulated.

  17. Nocardia brasiliensis infection mimicking juvenile idiopathic arthritis in a 4-year-old girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, Nitin; Adib, Navid; Grimwood, Keith

    2013-11-01

    Nocardia are ubiquitous environmental saprophytes that cause pneumonia and disseminated disease in immunocompromised patients. They can also cause localized cutaneous and soft tissue infections in healthy people after direct percutaneous inoculation. Nocardia arthritis is rare in both forms of the disease. Here we present the first published case of a child with septic arthritis caused by N brasiliensis. Importantly, this otherwise well 4-year-old girl had no known history of trauma but presented with transient cutaneous lesions and a 6-week history of arthritis involving the right fourth digit proximal interphalangeal joint without accompanying fever or raised systemic inflammatory markers. She received a diagnosis of juvenile idiopathic arthritis and underwent antiinflammatory and immunosuppressant therapy. After 2 months she developed frank septic arthritis, which necessitated a surgical joint washout, from which an intraoperative swab grew N brasiliensis. The patient received 6 months of high-dose trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and remains well more than 4 years after treatment. This unusual case highlights the importance of considering an indolent infection from slow-growing organisms, including Nocardia, when diagnosing the oligoarthritis subtype of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. This is especially relevant when a single joint is involved and response to antiinflammatory therapy is suboptimal because antiinflammatory agents may mask evolving signs of infection.

  18. Cytokine production and lymphocyte proliferation in patients with Nocardia brasiliensis actinomycetoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Tovar, Luis J; Mondragón-González, Rafael; Vega-López, Francisco; Dockrell, Hazel M; Hay, Roderick; López-Martínez, Rubén; Manzano-Gayosso, Patricia; Hernández-Hernández, Francisca; Padilla-Desgarennes, Carmen; Bonifaz, Alexandro

    2004-11-01

    IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-4, IL-10 and IL-12 concentrations in the supernatant of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures and the in vitro proliferation of PBMC were studied in 25 patients with actinomycetoma caused by Nocardia brasiliensis and in 10 healthy controls from endemic zones. Cell cultures were stimulated by a N. brasiliensis crude cytoplasmic antigen (NB) and five semi-purified protein fractions (NB2, NB4, NB6, NB8, and NB10) separated by isoelectric. Phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and purified protein derivative (PPD) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were used as control antigens. Skin tests were performed by injecting 0.1 ml of candidin and PPD intradermally (ID). Patients showed a poor response to tuberculin, while their response to candidin was more than two fold greater than that observed in the controls. Cell proliferation showed no statistically significant differences in either group. IFN-gamma production was higher in the healthy controls than in the patients, whereas TNF-alpha secretion was slightly higher in the patients' cultures. IL-4 was detected in the patients' cultures but not in the controls. IL-10 and IL-12 were present at low concentrations in both groups. These results suggest that patients with actinomycetoma show normal antigen recognition, but with low IFN-gamma production, and higher concentrations of IL-4, IL-10 and TNF-alpha in the patients' PBMC cultures, indicating that they probably have a Th2 type of immune response.

  19. Systemic increased immune response to Nocardia brasiliensis co-exists with local immunosuppressive microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Carmona, Mario Cesar; Rosas-Taraco, Adrian Geovanni; Welsh, Oliverio

    2012-10-01

    Human diseases produced by pathogenic actinomycetes are increasing because they may be present as opportunistic infections. Some of these microbes cause systemic infections associated with immunosuppressive conditions, such as chemotherapy for cancer, immunosuppressive therapy for transplant, autoimmune conditions, and AIDS; while others usually cause localized infection in immunocompetent individuals. Other factors related to this increase in incidence are: antibiotic resistance, not well defined taxonomy, and a delay in isolation and identification of the offending microbe. Examples of these infections are systemic disease and brain abscesses produced by Nocardia asteroides or the located disease by Nocardia brasiliensis, named actinomycetoma. During the Pathogenic Actinomycetes Symposium of the 16th International Symposium on Biology of Actinomycetes (ISBA), held in Puerto Vallarta, Mexico, several authors presented recent research on the mechanisms by which N. brasiliensis modulates the immune system to survive in the host and advances in medical treatment of human actinomycetoma. Antibiotics and antimicrobials that are effective against severe actinomycetoma infections with an excellent therapeutic outcome and experimental studies of drugs that show promising bacterial inhibition in vivo and in vitro were presented. Here we demonstrate a systemic strong acquired immune response in humans and experimental mice at the same time of a local dominance of anti inflammatory cytokines environment. The pathogenic mechanisms of some actinomycetes include generation of an immunosuppressive micro environment to evade the protective immune response. This information will be helpful in understanding pathogenesis and to design new drugs for treatment of actinomycetoma.

  20. Green synthesis of colloidal silver nanoparticles using natural rubber latex extracted from Hevea brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidelli, Eder José; Ramos, Ana Paula; Zaniquelli, Maria Elisabete D; Baffa, Oswaldo

    2011-11-01

    Colloidal silver nanoparticles were synthesized by an easy green method using thermal treatment of aqueous solutions of silver nitrate and natural rubber latex (NRL) extracted from Hevea brasiliensis. The UV-Vis spectra detected the characteristic surface plasmonic absorption band around 435 nm. Both NRL and AgNO(3) contents in the reaction medium have influence in the Ag nanoparticles formation. Lower AgNO(3) concentration led to decreased particle size. The silver nanoparticles presented diameters ranging from 2 nm to 100 nm and had spherical shape. The selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns indicated that the silver nanoparticles have face centered cubic (fcc) crystalline structure. FTIR spectra suggest that reduction of the silver ions are facilitated by their interaction with the amine groups from ammonia, which is used for conservation of the NRL, whereas the stability of the particles results from cis-isoprene binding onto the surface of nanoparticles. Therefore natural rubber latex extracted from H. brasiliensis can be employed in the preparation of stable aqueous dispersions of silver nanoparticles acting as a dispersing and/or capping agent. Moreover, this work provides a new method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles that is simple, easy to perform, pollutant free and inexpensive. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. In Vivo and In Vitro Toxicity Evaluation of Hydroethanolic Extract of Kalanchoe brasiliensis (Crassulaceae) Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Aldilane Gonçalves; Ribeiro Dantas, Luzia Leiros Sena Fernandes; Fernandes, Júlia Morais; Zucolotto, Silvana Maria; Lima, Adley Antoninni Neves; Soares, Luiz Alberto Lira; Rocha, Hugo Alexandre Oliveira; Lemos, Telma Maria Araújo Moura

    2018-01-01

    The species Kalanchoe brasiliensis , known as "Saião , " has anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antihistamine activities. It also has the quercetin and kaempferol flavonoids, which exert their therapeutic activities. With extensive popular use besides the defined therapeutical properties, the study of possible side effects is indispensable. The objective of this study is to evaluate the toxicity in vitro and in vivo from the hydroethanolic extract of the leaves of K. brasiliensis . The action of the extract (concentrations from 0.1 to 1000 uL/100 uL) in normal and tumor cells was evaluated using the MTT method. Acute toxicity and subchronic toxicity were evaluated in mice with doses of 250 to 1000 mg/kg orally, following recognized protocols. The in vitro results indicated cytotoxic activity for 3T3 cell line (normal) and 786-0 (kidney carcinoma), showing the activity to be concentration-dependent, reaching 92.23% cell inhibition. In vivo , the extract showed no significant toxicity; only liver changes related to acute toxicity and some signs of liver damage, combining biochemical and histological data. In general, the extract showed low or no toxicity, introducing itself as safe for use with promising therapeutic potential.

  2. In Vivo and In Vitro Toxicity Evaluation of Hydroethanolic Extract of Kalanchoe brasiliensis (Crassulaceae Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldilane Gonçalves Fonseca

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The species Kalanchoe brasiliensis, known as “Saião,” has anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antihistamine activities. It also has the quercetin and kaempferol flavonoids, which exert their therapeutic activities. With extensive popular use besides the defined therapeutical properties, the study of possible side effects is indispensable. The objective of this study is to evaluate the toxicity in vitro and in vivo from the hydroethanolic extract of the leaves of K. brasiliensis. The action of the extract (concentrations from 0.1 to 1000 uL/100 uL in normal and tumor cells was evaluated using the MTT method. Acute toxicity and subchronic toxicity were evaluated in mice with doses of 250 to 1000 mg/kg orally, following recognized protocols. The in vitro results indicated cytotoxic activity for 3T3 cell line (normal and 786-0 (kidney carcinoma, showing the activity to be concentration-dependent, reaching 92.23% cell inhibition. In vivo, the extract showed no significant toxicity; only liver changes related to acute toxicity and some signs of liver damage, combining biochemical and histological data. In general, the extract showed low or no toxicity, introducing itself as safe for use with promising therapeutic potential.

  3. Estudio sobre las relaciones filogenéticas entre diversos aislamientos del hongo Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan McEwen

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Aunque es poco lo que se conoce acerca de la biología evolutiva
    del hongo P. brasiliensis, varios estudios moleculares han demostrado que existen variaciones en secuencias de ADN entre sus aislamientos, las que se correlacionan con el origen geográfico de las mismas y con diferencias en su virulencia para modelos murinos (1,2. Se desconoce si estas variaciones son el resultado final de un proceso de especiación alopátrica que daría origen a especies aisladas genéticamente provistas de características fenotípicas (patogenicidad, inmunogenicidad y genotípicas diferentes, las que podrían ser usadas como una alternativa para mejorar e innovar los métodos actuales de diagnóstico. Por lo tanto, proponemos como objetivo general estudiar un aspecto fundamental de la biología evolutiva del hongo patógeno humano P. brasiliensis como es la especiación.

  4. An immunoproteomic approach revealing peptides from Sporothrix brasiliensis that induce a cellular immune response in subcutaneous sporotrichosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, José Roberto Fogaça; Jannuzzi, Grasielle Pereira; Kaihami, Gilberto Hideo; Breda, Leandro Carvalho Dantas; Ferreira, Karen Spadari; de Almeida, Sandro Rogério

    2018-03-08

    Sporothrix brasiliensis is the most virulent fungus of the Sporothrix complex and is the main species recovered in the sporotrichosis zoonotic hyperendemic area in Rio de Janeiro. A vaccine against S. brasiliensis could improve the current sporotrichosis situation. Here, we show 3 peptides from S. brasiliensis immunogenic proteins that have a higher likelihood for engaging MHC-class II molecules. We investigated the efficiency of the peptides as vaccines for preventing subcutaneous sporotrichosis. In this study, we observed a decrease in lesion diameters in peptide-immunized mice, showing that the peptides could induce a protective immune response against subcutaneous sporotrichosis. ZR8 peptide is from the GP70 protein, the main antigen of the Sporothrix complex, and was the best potential vaccine candidate by increasing CD4 + T cells and higher levels of IFN-γ, IL-17A and IL-1β characterizing a strong cellular immune response. This immune environment induced a higher number of neutrophils in lesions that are associated with fungus clearance. These results indicated that the ZR8 peptide induces a protective immune response against subcutaneous sporotrichosis and is a vaccine candidate against S. brasiliensis infection.

  5. Determination of cDNA and genomic DNA sequences of hevamine, a chitinase from the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokma, E; Spiering, M; Chow, KS; Mulder, PPMFA; Subroto, T; Beintema, JJ

    Hevamine is a chitinase from the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis and belongs to the family 18 glycosyl hydrolases. This paper describes the cloning of hevamine DNA and cDNA sequences. Hevamine contains a signal peptide at the N-terminus and a putative vacuolar targeting sequence at the C-terminus

  6. Expression and characterization of active site mutants of hevamine, a chitinase from the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokma, Evert; Rozeboom, Henriëtte J.; Sibbald, Mark; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Beintema, Jaap J.

    Hevamine is a chitinase from the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis. Its active site contains Asp125, Glu127, and Tyr183, which interact with the -1 sugar residue of the substrate. To investigate their role in catalysis, we have successfully expressed wild-type enzyme and mutants of these residues as

  7. Enzymic and structural studies on processed proteins from the vacuolar (lutoid-body) fraction of latex of Hevea brasiliensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subroto, T; de Vries, H; Schuringa, JJ; Soedjanaatmadja, UMS; Hofsteenge, J; Jekel, PA; Beintema, JJ

    2001-01-01

    The lutoid-body (bottom) fraction of latex from the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) contains a limited number of major proteins. These are the chitin-binding protein hevein, its precursor and C-terminal fragment of the precursor, a basic chitinase/lysozyme, and a beta-1,3-glucanase. The content and

  8. Chemical and agronomic development of Kalanchoe brasiliensis Camb. and Kalanchoe pinnata Pers under light and temperature levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Bruna P; Chedier, Luciana M; Fabri, Rodrigo L; Pimenta, Daniel S

    2011-12-01

    This study compares the development of Kalanchoe brasiliensis and Kalanchoe pinnata, which are medicinal species known as "saião" and "folha da fortuna" that are used interchangeably by the population for medicinal purposes. The experiment consisted of 20 plots/species planted in plastic bags with homogeneous substrate in a randomized design, which grown under light levels (25%, 50%, 70%, full sunlight) at environment temperature, and a treatment under a plastic with greater temperature range than the external environment. It was obtained for K. pinnata a greater plant height, total length of sprouts, stems, production and dry matter content of leaves than that obtained for K. brasiliensis, which achieved higher averages only for the length of lateral branches. The species showed increases in height, which varied in inverse proportion to the light, and it was observed the influence of temperature in K. pinnata. The production and dry matter content of leaves were proportional to the luminosity; the same occurred in the thickness of leaves for K. brasiliensis. In the swelling index and Brix degree, K. brasiliensis showed higher averages than K. pinnata. In relation to the total content of flavonoids it was not observed significant differences for both species. The analyzed parameters showed the main differences in the agronomic development of the two species.

  9. Antioxidative and immunomodulating activities of polysaccharide extracts of the medicinal mushrooms Agaricus bisporus, Agaricus brasiliensis, Ganoderma lucidum and Phellinus linteus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kozarski, M.; Klaus, A.; Niksic, M.; Jakovljevic, D.; Helsper, J.P.F.G.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2011-01-01

    Partially purified polysaccharides were obtained from four medicinal mushroom species, Agaricus bisporus, Agaricus brasiliensis, Phellinus linteus and Ganoderma lucidum by hot water extraction, followed by ethanol precipitation. The four samples contained varying amounts of both a- and ß-glucans as

  10. Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae poisoning in Murrah buffaloes in Rio Grande do Sul Intoxicação natural por Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae em bubalinos no Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André M.R. Corrêa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen (14.4% out of 90 Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis became ill after con-sumption of Senecio brasiliensis, and 11 (12.2% of them died. The buffaloes were kept in a highly Senecio brasiliensis infested area. The poisoning occurred in June-August 2006 on a farm in the county of Nova Prata, Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Clinical signs included weakness, apathy, progressive weight loss, permanent decubitus, and diarrhea. Necropsy was performed in 2 of the 11 buffaloes that died. The pathological findings were typical of poisoning by pyrrolizidine alkaloids. High infestation of pastures with S. brasiliensis, severe drought, and consequent starvation were the main epidemiological factors associated with the poisoning here described.Descreve-se a ocorrência de um surto de intoxicação espontânea por Senecio brasiliensis em búfalos Murrah (Bubalus bubalis em uma propriedade localizada no município de Nova Prata, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, no período de junho a agosto de 2006. De um total de 90 búfalos, 13 adoeceram e 11 morreram. Os animais eram mantidos em áreas de pastoreio altamente infestadas por S. brasiliensis. Os principais sinais clínicos relatados foram letargia, apatia, emagrecimento progressivo, diarréia e decúbito permanente. Necropsia foi feita em dois dos 11 animais mortos. As lesões foram características de intoxicações por alcalóides pirrolizidínicos. A grande quantidade da planta, forte estiagem e desnutrição conseqüente foram os principais achados epidemiológicos associados com a mortalidade.

  11. Sporothrix brasiliensis produces the highest levels of oxidative stress in a murine model among the species of the Sporothrix schenckii complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Nunes Mario

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: We compared indicators of oxidative stress in the tissue of mice infected with strains from Sporothrix schenckii complex. METHODS: Mice were inoculated with Sporothrix brasiliensis, Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto, Sporothrix globosa, Sporothrix mexicana or Sporothrix albicans. The activity of catalase and glutathione were accessed in the liver and spleen. RESULTS: Animals infected with S. brasiliensis exhibited splenomegaly and significant decrease in catalase activity, and protein and non-protein thiol content compared to animals infected with the other species. CONCLUSIONS: Sporothrix brasiliensis exhibits higher pathogenicity compared to other species of the Sporothrix schenckii complex by increasing oxidative stress in animal tissue.

  12. Comparative genomics of the major fungal agents of human and animal Sporotrichosis: Sporothrix schenckii and Sporothrix brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Marcus M; de Almeida, Luiz G P; Kubitschek-Barreira, Paula; Alves, Fernanda L; Kioshima, Erika S; Abadio, Ana K R; Fernandes, Larissa; Derengowski, Lorena S; Ferreira, Karen S; Souza, Rangel C; Ruiz, Jeronimo C; de Andrade, Nathalia C; Paes, Hugo C; Nicola, André M; Albuquerque, Patrícia; Gerber, Alexandra L; Martins, Vicente P; Peconick, Luisa D F; Neto, Alan Viggiano; Chaucanez, Claudia B; Silva, Patrícia A; Cunha, Oberdan L; de Oliveira, Fabiana F M; dos Santos, Tayná C; Barros, Amanda L N; Soares, Marco A; de Oliveira, Luciana M; Marini, Marjorie M; Villalobos-Duno, Héctor; Cunha, Marcel M L; de Hoog, Sybren; da Silveira, José F; Henrissat, Bernard; Niño-Vega, Gustavo A; Cisalpino, Patrícia S; Mora-Montes, Héctor M; Almeida, Sandro R; Stajich, Jason E; Lopes-Bezerra, Leila M; Vasconcelos, Ana T R; Felipe, Maria S S

    2014-10-29

    The fungal genus Sporothrix includes at least four human pathogenic species. One of these species, S. brasiliensis, is the causal agent of a major ongoing zoonotic outbreak of sporotrichosis in Brazil. Elsewhere, sapronoses are caused by S. schenckii and S. globosa. The major aims on this comparative genomic study are: 1) to explore the presence of virulence factors in S. schenckii and S. brasiliensis; 2) to compare S. brasiliensis, which is cat-transmitted and infects both humans and cats with S. schenckii, mainly a human pathogen; 3) to compare these two species to other human pathogens (Onygenales) with similar thermo-dimorphic behavior and to other plant-associated Sordariomycetes. The genomes of S. schenckii and S. brasiliensis were pyrosequenced to 17x and 20x coverage comprising a total of 32.3 Mb and 33.2 Mb, respectively. Pair-wise genome alignments revealed that the two species are highly syntenic showing 97.5% average sequence identity. Phylogenomic analysis reveals that both species diverged about 3.8-4.9 MYA suggesting a recent event of speciation. Transposable elements comprise respectively 0.34% and 0.62% of the S. schenckii and S. brasiliensis genomes and expansions of Gypsy-like elements was observed reflecting the accumulation of repetitive elements in the S. brasiliensis genome. Mitochondrial genomic comparisons showed the presence of group-I intron encoding homing endonucleases (HE's) exclusively in S. brasiliensis. Analysis of protein family expansions and contractions in the Sporothrix lineage revealed expansion of LysM domain-containing proteins, small GTPases, PKS type1 and leucin-rich proteins. In contrast, a lack of polysaccharide lyase genes that are associated with decay of plants was observed when compared to other Sordariomycetes and dimorphic fungal pathogens, suggesting evolutionary adaptations from a plant pathogenic or saprobic to an animal pathogenic life style. Comparative genomic data suggest a unique ecological shift in the

  13. One Fish, Two Fish, Redfish, You Fish!

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Katherine; Timmons, Maryellen; Medders, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The recreational fishing activity presented in this article provides a hands-on, problem-based experience for students; it unites biology, math, economics, environmental policy, and population dynamics concepts. In addition, the activity allows students to shape environmental policy in a realistic setting and evaluate their peers' work. By…

  14. Amphotericin B, alone or followed by itraconazole therapy, is effective in the control of experimental disseminated sporotrichosis by Sporothrix brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Kelly; de Castro, Rafaela Alves; Borba Dos Santos, Luana Pereira; Quintella, Leonardo Pereira; Lopes-Bezerra, Leila M; Rozental, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Sporothrix brasiliensis is a highly virulent member of the S. schenckii complex, which is responsible for the emergence of the epidemic sporotrichosis in southeastern Brazil over the last two decades. There are no in vivo studies on the sensitivity of S. brasiliensis to the therapeutic regimens used to treat sporotrichosis. Here, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of antifungal treatments against S. brasiliensis using a murine model of disseminated sporotrichosis. In vitro, S. brasiliensis yeasts were sensitive to low concentrations of amphotericin B-deoxycholate (AMB-d) and itraconazole (ITZ), the latter having greater selectivity toward the fungus. The following treatment regimens were tested in vivo: intravenous AMB-d for 7 days post-infection (p.i.), oral ITZ for up to 30 days p.i., and AMB-d followed by ITZ (AMB-d/ITZ). AMB-d and AMB-d/ITZ led to 100% survival of infected mice at the end of the 45-day experimental period. Although all treatments extended mice survival, only AMB-d and AMB-d/ITZ significantly reduced fungal load in all organs, but AMB-d/ITZ led to a more consistent decrease in overall fungal burden. No treatment increased the levels of serum toxicity biomarkers. Taken together, our results indicate that AMB-d/ITZ is the best therapeutic option for controlling disseminated sporotrichosis caused by S. brasiliensis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Morphological Studies on the Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva, 1911 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae Genital Structures and Eggs of Different Chromatic Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Costa

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma brasiliensis is considered one of the most important Chagas disease vectors being a widespread species in semiarid areas of northeastern Brazil. The species displays distinct chromatic patterns of the cuticle in different localities. Four populations were analyzed in this study: 1-Caicó, Rio Grande do Norte, it will be called the brasiliensis population; 2-Espinosa, Minas Gerais, the melanica population; 3-Petrolina, Pernambuco, the macromelasoma population, and 4-Juazeiro, Bahia, the darker one in overall cuticle coloration, the Juazeiro population. In order to differentiate the four populations of T. brasiliensis, a comparative morphological analysis of external genital structures and of eggs were carried out. The analysis of the male genital structures evidenced minor individual structural variations that did not correlate with chromatic differences or the geographical origins, emphasizing the importance of examining sufficiently large and representative samples before using minor genital variations for taxonomic diagnosis. By scanning electron microscopy of the egg exochorion, each chromatic population presented a distinct ornamentation pattern. The melanica population differed mainly from the other populations studied since it had about 40.6%, 69.6% and 76.6% more perforations, on each cell exochorion, than the brasiliensis, the Juazeiro and the macromelasoma populations respectively. In the melanica population the perforation layout is also peculiar, with densely distributed perforations over all the egg surface. Morphometric measures of the eggs showed statistically significant differences: the macromelasoma population presented the longest length (2.43 mm while the shortest was recorded in the brasiliensis population (2.29 mm.

  16. Genomic Changes Associated with the Loss of Nocardia brasiliensis Virulence in Mice after 200 In Vitro Passages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Carrillo, Carolina; Millan-Sauceda, Cassandra; Lozano-Garza, Hector Gerardo; Ortiz-Lopez, Rocio; Elizondo-Gonzalez, Ramiro; Welsh, Oliverio; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio

    2016-09-01

    Nocardia species, particularly Nocardia brasiliensis, are etiologic agents of mycetoma, a chronic subcutaneous infection. Until now, little has been known about the pathogenic mechanisms involved in nocardial infection. Traditionally, subculture in rich media has been a simple way to induce attenuation. In this work, we report the changes in virulence toward mice and in genomic constitution of N. brasiliensis produced after 200 continuous subcultures in brain heart infusion (BHI) medium (P-200 strain). The ability of the N. brasiliensis P-200 strain to produce experimental infection was tested using BALB/c mice. P-200 was also used to immunize mice to determine whether it could induce resistance against a challenge with a nonsubcultured isolate (P-0). Comparative proteomic analysis between N. brasiliensis P-0 and P-200 was performed by two-dimensional (2-D) electrophoresis, and the genome sequence was obtained through Roche 454 sequence analysis. Virulence in BALB/c mice was completely lost, and BALB/c mice immunized with P-200 bacterial cells were resistant to mycetoma production by the nonsubcultured strain. Whole-genome sequence analysis revealed that P-200 lost a total of 262,913 bp distributed in 19 deleted regions, involving a total of 213 open reading frames (ORFs). The deleted genes included those encoding bacterial virulence factors, e.g., catalase, nitrate reductase enzymes, and a group of mammalian cell entry (MCE) family proteins, which may explain the loss of virulence of the isolate. Thus, completely attenuated N. brasiliensis was obtained after 200 passages in BHI medium, and putative Nocardia virulence genes were identified for the first time. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Toxicological profile of deltamethrin in Triatoma brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae in State of Ceará, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grasielle Caldas D'Ávila Pessoa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Triatoma brasiliensis is the species of greatest epidemiological relevance in the semi-arid region of Brazil. This species is predominantly found in domestic environments, and it has the ability to build large colonies with high levels of natural infection via Trypanosoma cruzi. Thus, T. brasiliensis is one of the most efficient transmitters of Chagas disease (CD to humans. Despite household spraying with residual insecticides, many areas report persistent reinfestations for reasons that remain poorly understood. Therefore, this study sought to characterize the toxicological profile of deltamethrin in T. brasiliensis from areas with persistent reinfestation in State of Ceará, Brazil. METHODS: The susceptibility reference lineage (SRL was derived from Umari. Serial dilutions of deltamethrin were prepared and applied to the dorsal abdomen of first instar nymphs. The control group received only pure acetone. Mortality was evaluated after 72h. Qualitative tests assessed mortality in response to a diagnostic dose of 1xLD99 (0.851 nanograms of active ingredient per treated nymph of the SRL. RESULTS: The susceptibility profile characterization of the T. brasiliensis populations revealed 50% resistance ratios (RR50 that ranged from 0.32 to 1.21. The percentage of mortality in response to the diagnostic dose was 100%. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that T. brasiliensis was highly susceptible to deltamethrin. The control difficulties found might be related to the recolonization of the triatomines originating from neighboring environments and the possible operational failures related to the process of spraying that enabled specimens less susceptible to deltamethrin to survive.

  18. Domestic, peridomestic and wild hosts in the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in the Caatinga area colonised by Triatoma brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Mendonça Bezerra

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The role played by different mammal species in the maintenance of Trypanosoma cruzi is not constant and varies in time and place. This study aimed to characterise the importance of domestic, wild and peridomestic hosts in the transmission of T. cruzi in Tauá, state of Ceará, Caatinga area, Brazil, with an emphasis on those environments colonised by Triatoma brasiliensis. Direct parasitological examinations were performed on insects and mammals, serologic tests were performed on household and outdoor mammals and multiplex polymerase chain reaction was used on wild mammals. Cytochrome b was used as a food source for wild insects. The serum prevalence in dogs was 38% (20/53, while in pigs it was 6% (2/34. The percentages of the most abundantly infected wild animals were as follows: Thrichomys laurentius 74% (83/112 and Kerodon rupestris 10% (11/112. Of the 749 triatomines collected in the household research, 49.3% (369/749 were positive for T. brasiliensis, while 6.8% were infected with T. cruzi (25/369. In captured animals, T. brasiliensis shares a natural environment with T. laurentius, K. rupestris, Didelphis albiventris, Monodelphis domestica, Galea spixii, Wiedomys pyrrhorhinos, Conepatus semistriatus and Mus musculus. In animals identified via their food source, T. brasiliensis shares a natural environment with G. spixii, K. rupestris, Capra hircus, Gallus gallus, Tropidurus oreadicus and Tupinambis merianae. The high prevalence of T. cruzi in household and peridomiciliar animals reinforces the narrow relationship between the enzootic cycle and humans in environments with T. brasiliensis and characterises it as ubiquitous.

  19. In vitro susceptibility of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeast form to antifungal agents Susceptibilidad in vitro de la forma levaduriforme de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis a los agentes antifungicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Restrepo

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the susceptibility of P. brasiliensis yeast form to amphotericin B (A, ketoconazole (K, 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC and rifampin (R. The three isolates tested produced minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs (mcg/ml in the following range: A: 0.09-0.18; K: 0.001-0.007; 5-FC: 62.5-250 and R: 40-80. The minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFC were several times higher than the corresponding MICs. Precise MFC for 5-FC were not obtained (> 500 mcg/ml. Combination of K plus A proved synergic, with the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC indices revealing synergy when the drugs were combined at the 1 to 1 and 1 to 5 MIC ratios. R (40 mcg/ml appeared to antagonize K. These results indicate promise for the combined use of K plus A as a therapeutical regimen.Se realizó un estudio con el objeto de determinar la susceptibilidad de la fase levaduri-forme del P. brasiliensis a la Anfotericina B (A, el Ketoconazol (K, la 5-fluorocitosina (5-FC y la rifampicina. Las 3 cepas estudiadas tuvieron las siguientes concentraciones inhibitorias mínimas (MIC (mcg/ml A: 0.09-0.18; K: 0.001-0.007; 5-FC: 62.5-250 y R: 40-80. Las concentraciones fungicidas mínimas (MFC resultaron más altas que las MICs correspondientes. En el caso de la 5-FC no se obtuvo una cifra MFC precisa (> 500 mcg/ml. La combinación de K más A mostró ser sinérgica al combinarse las drogas en relación 1:1 y 1:5 de los MICs respectivos. R (40 mcg/ml se mostró antagonista del K. Los resultados indican que la combinación A + K pudiera constituir un adecuado régimen terapéutico en ciertos pacientes.

  20. Chapa aglomerada de cimento-madeira de Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg. Cement-bonded particleboard of Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmeralda Yoshico Arakaki Okino

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Chapas de partículas de cimento-madeira foram confeccionadas com a madeira de quatro clones de Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg. (seringueira: IAN 717, IAN 873, GT 711 e AVROS 1301. Confeccionaram-se as chapas na proporção de 1:4:1 (madeira:cimento:água por peso e nas dimensões de 450 x 450 x 13 mm e densidade nominal de 1,4 g/cm³, com a adição de 4% de cloreto de cálcio di-hidratado (CaCl2.2H2O como acelerador. Foram testadas partículas fervidas e não-fervidas dos quatro clones, totalizando oito tratamentos, sendo em cada um destes, com quatro repetições, avaliadas as propriedades mecânicas e físicas das chapas, segundo a norma ASTM D 1037 - 96a. De forma geral, os melhores resultados de propriedades físicas e mecânicas foram obtidos nas chapas com partículas do clone AVROS 1301. No teste de hidratação do cimento, a madeira de seringueira in natura foi classificada como de "inibição extrema", porém com a adição de CaCl2 o foi como de "baixa inibição". Essa madeira se mostrou tecnicamente viável à produção de chapas de cimento-madeira, independentemente do clone.Cement-bonded particleboards of rubberwood were manufactured with four clones of Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg. (rubberwood: IAN 717, IAN 873, GT 711 and AVROS 1301. Boards of 450 x 450 x 13 mm were manufactured in a ratio of 1:4:1 (wood/cement/water, weight basis, with 1.4 g/cm³ density and 4% calcium chloride dihydrated - CaCl2.2H2O as accelerator. The particles of four clones were tested in treated and untreated conditions, totaling eight treatments. In each treatment with four replicates, the physical and mechanical properties were evaluated according to ASTM D 1037 - 96a standard. Overall, the best mechanical and physical results were obtained with the cement-bonded particleboard made with particles from clone AVROS 1301. Rubberwood has shown to be "highly inhibitory" in the hydration test, however when CaCl2 was added the inhibition index decreased and

  1. Development of Myrmeleon brasiliensis (Navás (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae, in laboratory, with different natural diets Desenvolvimento de Myrmeleon brasiliensis (Navás (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae, em laboratório, com diferentes dietas naturais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giani L. B. Missirian

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Antlions larvae are sit-and-wait predators that capture arthropod prey in conical sand pits. The aim of this paper were to determine the effect of different natural diets [leaf-cutting ants (Atta spp., fruit fly larvae (Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata and mixed diet (Atta spp. plus fruit fly larvae] on the development of larvae and pupae of M. brasiliensis (Navás, 1914 and to estimate the number and size of prey caught in each instar and on each kind of diet. The average duration (days of the second and third instars of M. brasiliensis was longer when larvae of antlion were fed with leaf-cutting ants. The diets did not affect the duration of the pupal stage nor the pupae size. The different diets did not affect the mean width of head capsule (mm, the mean weight (mg or the mean body size (mm in the different instars of M. brasiliensis. In the second and third instars, the larvae of M. brasiliensis fed with leaf-cutting ants consumed more prey than larvae kept on other diets. Adults whose larvae were fed fruit fly larvae were larger than adults on other diets. Although Myrmeleontidae are few studied in Brazil, these results contribute to knowledge of M. brasiliensis biology, but also suggest the need of studies about the development of larvae and pupae in natural environments.Larvas de formiga-leão são conhecidas por suas armadilhas ("funis" que constroem em solo arenoso, sob as quais esperam por suas presas. Este trabalho teve como objetivos verificar o efeito de diferentes dietas naturais [formigas-cortadeiras (Atta spp., larvas de moscas-das-frutas (Anastrepha spp. e Ceratitis capitata e dieta mista (Atta spp. e larvas de moscas-das-frutas] sobre o desenvolvimento larval e pupal de M. brasiliensis (Navás, 1914 e estimar o número e tamanho de presas capturadas, por instar larval, em cada dieta. No segundo e terceiro instares, as larvas de M. brasiliensis alimentadas com formigas-cortadeiras consumiram um número maior de presas e a

  2. Biologia floral e visitantes de Gaylussacia brasiliensis (Spr. Meissner (Ericaceae - uma espécie com anteras poricidas polinizada por beija-flores Floral biology and visitors of Gaylussacia brasiliensis (Spr. Meissner (Ericaceae - a poricidal anther species pollinated by hummingbirds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francielle Paulina de Araújo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A biologia floral de Gaylussacia brasiliensis (Spr. Meissner (Ericaceae foi estudada na borda de uma mata de galeria na reserva ecológica do Clube de Caça e Pesca Itororó de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. G. brasiliensis é um arbusto que pode alcançar de 0,3 a 3,0 m de altura e ocorre de forma isolada ou agregada. Apresenta floração contínua e possui inflorescências racemosas, axilares com flores pendentes. As flores são hermafroditas, vermelhas, de corola urceolada, apresentam antese diurna e ausência odor. O néctar apresentou volume de cerca de 3,0 μL e concentração de açúcares por volta de 13%. G. brasiliensis é autocompatível, não apresenta autopolinização espontânea e nem apomixia. Os polinizadores foram os beijaflores: Chlorostlibon lucidus (Shaw, Amazilia fimbirata (Gmelin, Hylocharis chrysura (Shaw (Throchilinae e Phaethornis pretrei (Lesson & DeLattre (Phaethornithinae. G. brasiliensis apresenta anteras poricidas com poros amplos e os beija-flores, quando adejam com o bico inserido nas flores em busca de néctar, fornecem a vibração necessária para a liberação dos grãos de pólen. Apesar de apresentar volume e concentração de açúcar no néctar relativamente pequenos, os agrupamentos de indivíduos com muitas flores parecem atrair beija-flores com comportamento territorial.The floral biology of Gaylussacia brasiliensis (Spr. Meissner (Ericaceae was studied on swampy edges of a gallery forest in Uberlandia, Minas Gerais. Gaylussacia brasiliensis is a shrub 0.3 to 3.0 m tall that occurs isolated or aggregated and has continuous flowering. The axillary racemose inflorescences produce four to dozens of pendulous flowers. The flowers are hermaphroditic, red, urceolate, odorless and have diurnal anthesis. Concentration of sugars in nectar was c. 13% and volume c. 3.0 μL. G. brasiliensis is a self-compatible, non apomictic species, which does not present spontaneous self-pollination. The pollinators of G

  3. A study of the life history of brazilian sardine, Sardinella brasiliensis.: III. development of sardine larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasunobu Matsuura

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available Larvae and juveniles of S. brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1879, ranging from 6.4 mm to 35.5 mm, were identified from plankton samples taken in waters off the southern Brazilian coast from 1969 through 1971. Changes in the pattern of pigmentation, body proportions and formation of fin rays are described. During transformation stage a considerable advancement of the dorsal and anal fins was observed. Changes in body proportions are pronounced at the size of 19 mm. Complete ossification of all fin rays is attained at the size of 20 mm, but ossification of the ventral scutes is delayed and completed only at the size of 30 mm. Ossification of the vertebral column was completed at the size of about 16 mm.O presente trabalho é parte do projeto SOL e tem por objetivo descrever a morfologia das larvas da sardinha verdadeira, Sardinella brasiliensis (=S. aurita, com o intuito de determinar um padrão que possibilite a identificação das mesmas. São feitas considerações sobre a morfologia das larvas de outros clupeídeos existentes na região e ressaltadas as diferenças com relação as larvas de S. brasiliensis. Os resultados, posteriormente, serão usados como base para o estudo quantitativo da abundância de larvas de sardinha. O material foi coletado na costa sul do Brasil de 1969 a 1971, com uma rede de plâncton do tipo cônico-cilíndrico. Durante o desenvolvimento das larvas, foi observado um considerável deslocamento das bases das nadadeiras dorsal e anal, para uma posição mais anterior. Com o tamanho de 19 mm (comprimento padrão, ocorre uma mudança geral, considerável, nas proporções corporais. A ossificação de todos os raios das nadadeiras completa-se quando a larva atinge 20 mm, mas a ossificação dos escudos ventrais só se completa quando ela atinge 30 mm de comprimento. A ossificação das vertebras completa-se a 16 mm de comprimento. O tamanho de 19 mm foi considerado como o fim do estagio larval, e, apos este comprimento

  4. Cultivated strains of Agaricus bisporus and A. brasiliensis: chemical characterization and evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial properties for the final healthy product--natural preservatives in yoghurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojković, Dejan; Reis, Filipa S; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Ćirić, Ana; Barros, Lillian; Van Griensven, Leo J L D; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Soković, Marina

    2014-07-25

    Agaricus bisporus (J. E. Lange) Emil J. Imbach and Agaricus brasiliensis Wasser, M. Didukh, Amazonas & Stamets are edible mushrooms. We chemically characterized these mushrooms for nutritional value, hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanolic and ethanolic extracts were assessed. Hepatotoxicity was also evaluated. The ethanolic extract of both species was tested for inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes growth in yoghurt. Both species proved to be a good source of bioactive compounds. A. brasiliensis was richer in polyunsaturated fatty acids and revealed the highest concentration of phenolic acids, and tocopherols. A. bisporus showed the highest monounsaturated fatty acids and ergosterol contents. A. brasiliensis revealed the highest antioxidant potential, and its ethanolic extract displayed the highest antibacterial potential; the methanolic extract of A. bisporus revealed the highest antifungal activity. A. brasiliensis possessed better preserving properties in yoghurt.

  5. Cultivated strains of Agaricus bisporus and A.brasiliensis: chemical characterization and evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial properties for the final healthy product – natural preservatives in yoghurt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stojkovic, D.S.; Reis, F.S.; Glamoclija, J.; Ciric, A.; Barros, L.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.; Ferreira, I.C.F.R.; Sokovic, M.

    2014-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus (J. E. Lange) Emil J. Imbach and Agaricus brasiliensis Wasser, M. Didukh, Amazonas & Stamets are edible mushrooms. We chemically characterized these mushrooms for nutritional value, hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanolic

  6. Alabama ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, and freshwater fish species in Alabama. Vector polygons in this data set represent...

  7. Maryland ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species in Maryland. Vector polygons in this data...

  8. Hawaii ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for reef, marine, estuarine, and native stream fish species in coastal Hawaii. Vector polygons in this data...

  9. Virginia ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and brackishwater fish species in Virginia. Vector polygons in this data...

  10. Louisiana ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for freshwater (inland) fish species in coastal Louisiana. Vector polygons represent water-bodies and other...

  11. Tratamentos térmicos do calxisto para uso como camada de cobertura no cultivo de Agaricus brasiliensis Thermal treatments on lime schist casing layer for Agaricus brasiliensis cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Barros Colauto

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A escolha da camada de cobertura é uma das mais importantes etapas do cultivo de Agaricus brasiliensis. Apesar dessa importância, poucos estudos relatam o uso de diferentes tratamentos térmicos para o controle da microbiota em camadas de cobertura alternativas. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da pasteurização e da autoclavagem do material alternativo calxisto para utilização como camada de cobertura no cultivo de A. brasiliensis. O fungo foi inicialmente crescido em grãos de trigo e transferido para meio de cultivo previamente compostado. Após a completa colonização, a camada de cobertura (calxisto pasteurizada ou autoclavada foi adicionada. Avaliaram-se a eficiência biológica, o número e a biomassa de cogumelos produzidos e o fluxo de produção. Concluiu-se que a camada de cobertura com calxisto autoclavado reduzem o tempo de produção, a eficiência biológica e o número e a biomassa de cogumelos cultivados. Entretanto, a camada de cobertura com o calxisto pasteurizado é a mais eficiente para o cultivo de A. brasiliensis.Casing layer choice is one of the most important phases on Agaricus brasiliensis cultivation. Besides the importance of it few studies report the use of different heat treatments to control the microbiota in alternative casing layers. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of pasteurized or autoclaved lime schist as an alternative casing layer on A. brasiliensis cultivation. The fungus was previously grown on wheat grains and transferred to a substratum previously composted. After substratum mycelium colonization a pasteurized or autoclaved lime schist casing layer was added on. It was evaluated the biological efficiency, the number and mass of produced mushroom and the production flush along cultivation. It was concluded that autoclaved lime schist casing layer decreases period of production, biological efficiency, number and mass of cultivated mushrooms. However

  12. Tourism values for Mexican free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana) viewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Widerholdt, Ruscena

    2013-01-01

    Migratory species provide diverse ecosystem services to people, but these values have seldom been estimated rangewide for a single species. In this article, we summarize visitation and consumer surplus for recreational visitors to viewing sites for the Mexican free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana) throughout the Southwestern United States. Public bat viewing opportunities are available at 17 of 25 major roosts across six states; on an annual basis, we estimate that over 242,000 visitors view bats, gaining over $6.5 million in consumer surplus. A better understanding of spatial mismatches between the areas where bats provide value to people and areas most critical for maintaining migratory populations can better inform conservation planning, including economic incentive systems for conservation.

  13. Water level influences on body condition of Geophagus brasiliensis (Perciformes: Cichlidae in a Brazilian oligotrophic reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Filippo Gonzalez Neves dos Santos

    Full Text Available Effects of water level fluctuations on body condition of Geophagus brasiliensis were studied in a 30 km² Brazilian oligotrophic reservoir. Physiological condition (K and gonadosomatic index (GSI were compared according to water level (low and high. Females' best conditions were associated to higher resources availability during high water, since gonad development did not change between low and high water. Males' condition did not change between water levels, while the highest gonad development occurred in low water. Females presented higher reproductive investment than males, which allocated most of energy for somatic development. This strategy could be a mechanism to undergo the stress caused by oligotrophic characteristics of the reservoir enhanced during low water level.

  14. A case of an immunocompetent young man obtaining community-acquired disseminated Nocardia brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinna; Cao, Jie; Wu, Yueqing; Wan, Nansheng; Pan, Li; Chen, Yuanbao

    2014-01-01

    Nocardiosis is a rare but severe pyogenic or granulomatous disease and caused by Nocardia that mainly infects immunocompromised patients. We report here a case of an immunocompetent 24-year-old male student with community-acquired pneumonia with asymptomatic disseminated cerebral abscess by Brasiliensis nocardiosis. The patient was fully recovered after receiving optimized antimicrobial therapy without relapse. This case suggests the health professionals such as the physicians of pulmonary, infection, neurology department and et al should always think about unusual cause of community acquired pneumonia, even in immunocompetent patients and when having pulmonary nocardiosis we should do a radiological neurological work up, even with the absence of neurological finding or symptom. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Emergence of co-trimoxazole resistant Nocardia brasiliensis causing fatal pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Vineeta; Gupta, Prashant; Himanshu, D; Kumar, Deepak

    2013-04-17

    An 85-year-old man was admitted to the medical intensive care unit with a 10-day history of severe breathlessness, fever and cough. The patient was known to have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and had been receiving corticosteroids in the preceding 18 months. He had been treated for tuberculosis 2.5 years previously. On examination he was febrile, tachycardic with a respiratory rate of 46/min. Auscultation revealed bilateral crepitation's and wheeze. Chest radiograph revealed patchy infiltrates on right lung. The patient developed respiratory depression and was mechanically ventilated. His sputum and endotracheal aspirates revealed Nocardia brasiliensis on culture which was found to be co-trimoxazole resistant. Once this became known imipenem was substituted for co-trimoxazole but unfortunately condition of the patient did not improve and he died following a cardiac arrest.

  16. Primary cutaneous nocardiosis caused by Nocardia brasiliensis following a wasp sting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, L; Xu, X; Ran, Y

    2017-04-10

    We report a case of an 87-year-old woman who presented with painful erythema of her right forearm 10 days after she had been stung by a wasp on her right hand. The lesion had rapidly deteriorated during the week before presentation, and treatment with antibiotics and glucocorticoids did not improve the condition. After careful evaluation, we performed cultures from the lesion aspiration, and morphological and genetic analysis of bacteria cultures confirmed a bacterial infection with Nocardia brasiliensis. The patient recovered after 3 weeks. Primary cutaneous nocardiosis due to Nocardia spp. is relatively uncommon in clinics, but it was the distance of the lesions from the affected area of the wasp sting that has made this an even rarer case and of interest to report. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  17. Primary cutaneous Nocardia brasiliensis infection isolated in an immunosuppressed patient: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Kimberly W; Brodell, Lindsey A; Lambert, Emily; Menegus, Marilyn; Scott, Glynis A; Tu, John H

    2012-02-01

    Cutaneous nocardiosis is a rare infection that may manifest as a superficial skin lesion, lymphocutaneous infection, mycetoma, or diffuse cutaneous infection from a disseminated systemic infection. We report a case of a 65-year-old immunocompromised man with persistent primary cutaneous Nocardia brasiliensis infection following a motor vehicle collision. A high degree of suspicion is needed to diagnose Nocardia infection because of its resemblance to other bacterial infections. Nocardiosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of chronic cutaneous infections, especially when the response to antibiotics is inadequate or when the patient is immunocompromised. Because Nocardia may take several weeks to grow in standard bacterial culture media, laboratories should be notified of the suspicion so that culture plates are held for longer time periods. Long-term therapy, usually with sulfonamides, often is necessary.

  18. Chapa aglomerada de cimento-madeira de Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg.

    OpenAIRE

    Okino,Esmeralda Yoshico Arakaki; Souza,Mário Rabelo de; Santana,Marcos Antonio Eduardo; Sousa,Maria Eliete de; Teixeira,Divino Eterno

    2004-01-01

    Chapas de partículas de cimento-madeira foram confeccionadas com a madeira de quatro clones de Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg. (seringueira): IAN 717, IAN 873, GT 711 e AVROS 1301. Confeccionaram-se as chapas na proporção de 1:4:1 (madeira:cimento:água) por peso e nas dimensões de 450 x 450 x 13 mm e densidade nominal de 1,4 g/cm³, com a adição de 4% de cloreto de cálcio di-hidratado (CaCl2.2H2O) como acelerador. Foram testadas partículas fervidas e não-fervidas dos quatro clones, totaliza...

  19. Fishing Access Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Vermont Fish & Wildlife Department maintains developed fishing access areas. These sites provide public access to waters in Vermont for shore fishing...

  20. New species of Moravecia (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea) from body cavity of marine perciform fish Percophis brasiliensis in Argentina

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Braicovich, P.; Moravec, František; Timi, J. A.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 2 (2007), s. 353-356 ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/06/0170; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Moravecia * Percophis * Argentina Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.129, year: 2007

  1. Effect of ArtinM on Human Blood Cells During Infection With Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana P. Ruas

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Infections caused by fungi are prominent in our environment and can be potentially fatal. paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM, caused by fungi of the Paracoccidioides genus, is the most frequent systemic mycosis in Brazil and the main cause of death among immunocompetent individuals. The antifungal therapy for PCM is usually effective but side effects and relapses are often reported. The latter could be avoided with alternative or complementary therapies aimed at boosting the immune response to combat this pathogen. Recent reports have pointed at the importance of an effective cellular immune response, with the participation of Th1 cells, in the resistance to and control of Paracoccidioides infection. The ArtinM lectin, extracted from jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus seeds, exhibits immunomodulatory activity against several intracellular pathogens, including Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, by promoting the development of a Th1 immune response. The aim of this work was to characterize the effect of ArtinM on peripheral blood cells of patients with PCM and on those of control individuals infected with fungal yeasts cells in vitro. Our results demonstrate that ArtinM activates human neutrophils in vitro, leading to an increase in cytokine production and CD54 expression. ArtinM activated P. brasiliensis-infected neutrophils from both healthy individuals and patients with PCM. This activation was not dependent on the dectin-1 receptor, because pre-incubation with laminarin, a dectin-1 receptor blocker, did not reverse the activated state of the cells. ArtinM also stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells to secrete pro-inflammatory Th1-related cytokines, which are protective against Paracoccidioides infection. These data support the immunostimulatory action of ArtinM and encourage new studies using the lectin for the immunotherapy of PCM.

  2. Effect of ArtinM on Human Blood Cells During Infection With Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruas, Luciana P; Genaro, Livia M; Justo-Junior, Amauri S; Coser, Lilian O; de Castro, Lívia F; Trabasso, Plinio; Mamoni, Ronei L; Roque-Barreira, Maria-Cristina; Blotta, Maria-Heloisa S L

    2018-01-01

    Infections caused by fungi are prominent in our environment and can be potentially fatal. paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), caused by fungi of the Paracoccidioides genus, is the most frequent systemic mycosis in Brazil and the main cause of death among immunocompetent individuals. The antifungal therapy for PCM is usually effective but side effects and relapses are often reported. The latter could be avoided with alternative or complementary therapies aimed at boosting the immune response to combat this pathogen. Recent reports have pointed at the importance of an effective cellular immune response, with the participation of Th1 cells, in the resistance to and control of Paracoccidioides infection. The ArtinM lectin, extracted from jackfruit ( Artocarpus heterophyllus ) seeds, exhibits immunomodulatory activity against several intracellular pathogens, including Paracoccidioides brasiliensis , by promoting the development of a Th1 immune response. The aim of this work was to characterize the effect of ArtinM on peripheral blood cells of patients with PCM and on those of control individuals infected with fungal yeasts cells in vitro . Our results demonstrate that ArtinM activates human neutrophils in vitro , leading to an increase in cytokine production and CD54 expression. ArtinM activated P. brasiliensis -infected neutrophils from both healthy individuals and patients with PCM. This activation was not dependent on the dectin-1 receptor, because pre-incubation with laminarin, a dectin-1 receptor blocker, did not reverse the activated state of the cells. ArtinM also stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells to secrete pro-inflammatory Th1-related cytokines, which are protective against Paracoccidioides infection. These data support the immunostimulatory action of ArtinM and encourage new studies using the lectin for the immunotherapy of PCM.

  3. Population growth of Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana predates human agricultural activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cox Murray P

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human activities, such as agriculture, hunting, and habitat modification, exert a significant effect on native species. Although many species have suffered population declines, increased population fragmentation, or even extinction in connection with these human impacts, others seem to have benefitted from human modification of their habitat. Here we examine whether population growth in an insectivorous bat (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana can be attributed to the widespread expansion of agriculture in North America following European settlement. Colonies of T. b. mexicana are extremely large (~106 individuals and, in the modern era, major agricultural insect pests form an important component of their food resource. It is thus hypothesized that the growth of these insectivorous bat populations was coupled to the expansion of agricultural land use in North America over the last few centuries. Results We sequenced one haploid and one autosomal locus to determine the rate and time of onset of population growth in T. b. mexicana. Using an approximate Maximum Likelihood method, we have determined that T. b. mexicana populations began to grow ~220 kya from a relatively small ancestral effective population size before reaching the large effective population size observed today. Conclusions Our analyses reject the hypothesis that T. b. mexicana populations grew in connection with the expansion of human agriculture in North America, and instead suggest that this growth commenced long before the arrival of humans. As T. brasiliensis is a subtropical species, we hypothesize that the observed signals of population growth may instead reflect range expansions of ancestral bat populations from southern glacial refugia during the tail end of the Pleistocene.

  4. Hermaphroditism in the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss. Muell. Arg. - II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Marina Cuco

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Flowers of three Hevea brasiliensis clones, RRIM 527, RRIM 600 and GT 1, were analyzed under stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscope, aiming to observe hermaphroditism rates. Results showed 71.49% hermaphrodite flowers, 29.83% of which exhibited incompletely developed, residual anthers. The scanning electron microscope analysis did not detect differences in anther epidermis of male and bisexual flowers of RRIM 600 and RRIM 527. In GT 1 clone (sterile male, the anther epidermis was already weak at the beginning of floral development and completely wrinkled at the end of maturation. Consequently, the anthers were empty by this stage.Flores de três clones de Hevea brasiliensis, RRIM 527, RRIM 600 e GT 1, foram analisadas, sob lupa e microscopia eletrônica de varredura, a fim de se observar as taxas de ocorrência de hermafroditismo. Os resultados mostraram um total de 71,49% de flores hermafroditas, sendo que destas 29,83% apresentaram anteras residuais, não completamente desenvolvidas. As análises ao microscópio de varredura não mostraram diferença ao nível de epiderme de anteras em flores masculinas e hermafroditas de RRIM 527 e RRIM 600. No clone GT 1 (macho estéril a epiderme das anteras mostrou-se frouxa já no início do desenvolvimento floral e completamente enrugada ao final da maturação, demonstrando que as anteras estão vazias neste estádio.

  5. In situ detection and distribution of inflammatory cytokines during the course of infection with Nocardia brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis-Soto, J M; Quintanilla-Rodriguez, L E; Meester, I; Segoviano-Ramirez, J C; Vazquez-Juarez, J L; Salinas Carmona, M C

    2008-05-01

    Actinomycetoma, caused by the intracellular bacterium Nocardia brasiliensis, is characterized by an infiltration of several inflammatory cell populations. To explore aspects of the immune response in the pathogenesis of these bacteria we injected 10(6) CFU in footpads of BALB/c mice. After 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 30 and 90 days immunohistochemistry was performed to compare presence and distribution of the inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, IFN-gamma, IL-4, IL-10, and TGF-beta. Analysis of serial paraffin tissue sections showed strong participation and differences in distribution of cytokine-producing cells during the course of infection. Several TNF-alpha immunoreactive lymphocytes of the dermis were present during the course of the infection, but absent in the site of inflammation. During the first 4 days, IL-1 beta immunoreactivity was observed in dendritic epidermal cells and in cells surrounding the neutrophils around the grain. In later stages of infection, immunoreactive cells to this cytokine were mainly in the periphery of the microabscesses. Strong immunoreactivity was observed with IL-6 during the course of infection. Some cells in the epidermis and dermis, as well as muscle cells and several cells at the periphery of the microabscesses, showed strong IL-6 immunoreactivity. Cells immunoreactive to IL-4, IL-10, IFN-gamma and TGF-beta were present at the site of infection and, in later stages, in cells at the periphery of the microabscesses. In conclusion a mix of proinflammatory and antiinflammatory cytokines are produced at the same time by host cells. According to their distribution, inflammatory cytokines seems to have different functions during the course of infection with the intracellular bacterium N. brasiliensis.

  6. Neorickettsia risticii, Rickettsia sp. and Bartonella sp. in Tadarida brasiliensis bats from Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicuttin, Gabriel L; De Salvo, María N; La Rosa, Isabel; Dohmen, Federico E Gury

    2017-06-01

    Bats are potential reservoirs of many vector-borne bacterial pathogens. The aim of the present study was to detect species of Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Neorickettsia, Rickettsia, Borrelia and Bartonella in Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis, Molossidae) from Buenos Aires city, Argentina. Between 2012 and 2013, 61 T. brasiliensis from urban areas of Buenos Aires city were studied. The samples were molecularly screened by PCR and sequencing. Five bats (8.2%) were positive to Neorickettsia risticii, one (1.6%) was positive to Rickettsia sp. and three bats (4.9%) to Bartonella sp. For molecular characterization, the positive samples were subjected to amplification and sequencing of a fragment of p51 gene for N. risticii, a fragment of citrate synthase gene (gltA) for Rickettsia genus and a fragment of gltA for Bartonella genus. Phylogenetic tree was constructed using the maximum-likelihood method. Phylogenetic analysis of N. risticii detect in our study revealed that it relates to findings in the USA West Coast; Rickettsia sp. detected is phylogenetically within R. bellii group, which also includes many other Rickettsia endosymbionts of insects; and Bartonella sp. found is related to various Bartonella spp. described in Vespertilionidae bats, which are phylogenetically related to Molossidae. Our results are in accordance to previous findings, which demonstrate that insectivorous bats could be infected with vector-borne bacteria representing a potential risk to public health. Future research is necessary to clarify the circulation of these pathogens in bats from Buenos Aires. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Do bacteria, not fish, produce 'fish kairomone'?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ringelberg, J.; Van Gool, E.

    1998-01-01

    Fish-associated chemicals enhance phototactic downward swimming in Daphnia. If perch were treated with the antibiotic ampicillin, this enhancement was significantly decreased. Therefore, not fish, but bacteria associated with fish, seem to produce this kairomone. [KEYWORDS: Diel vertical migration;

  8. Microsporogênese em clones normais e tetraplóides de Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg Microsporo genesis in normal and tetraploid Hevea brasiliensis (Muell.-Arg.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cândida H. T. M. Conagin

    1971-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisas sôbre o efeito da colquicina em Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg. realizadas anteriormente levaram à obtenção de clones com número duplicado de cromossomos; tais clones, atualmente em fase de amplas e detalhadas observações (6, floresceram em 1969, pela primeira vez. Foi então realizado um estudo citológico comparativo da microsporo-gènese de duas plantas, uma pertencente ao clone normal n.° 3064, com 2n = 36 cromossomos, e outra pertencente ao clone duplicado n.° 3065, com 2n=72 cromossomos. Ambos são considerados clones gêmeos, porque foram obtidos de uma mesma semente, por técnica especial (7. Na planta com 2n = 36 cromossomos, o processo meiótico é normal, dando tétrades perfeitas e grãos de pólen aparentemente funcionais. A planta 3065, com 2n=72 cromossomos, apresenta, além de células-mães de pólen que se dividem normalmente, outras que no final da meiose produzem tétrades anormais, com micrócitos excedentes e grãos de pólen vazios. Caracteriza-se também por grãos de pólen que não passam pelas divisões mitóticas, isto é, apresentam sempre um núcleo só, que não se divide. Em virtude destas primeiras observações pode-se formular uma hipótese de esterilidade masculina para o clone em estudo.Previous works on Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg. produced several pairs of twin clones, one member having the normal chromosome number and the other the duplicated set after colchicine treatment. Plants of normal clone 3064 are fertile and have 32 chromosomes. Microsporogenesis is normal, producing only normal tetrads of four microsporocytes. The resulting pollen grains have three germinal pores. Grains in different stages of development could be noticed, from one-nucleated cytoplasm to the two-nucleated reproductive cell, which undoubtedly means normal game to genesis. On the other hand plants of the duplicated twin clone 3065, blossomed during the year of 1969 for the first time. Microsporogenesis studied

  9. Similaridade genética entre clones de seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis, por meio de marcadores RAPD Genetic similarity among rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis clones using RAPD markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Cristina Bicalho

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A seringueira [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex. Adr. de Juss Muell.-Arg.] é uma espécie nativa da região amazônica e compreende a maior fonte produtora de borracha natural do mundo. Na busca de condições mais favoráveis ao cultivo, além da busca pela auto-suficiência na produção de borracha natural, o cultivo da seringueira migrou para outras regiões do país. Objetivou-se, com o presente trabalho, estimar a similaridade genética de genótipos de seringueira, provenientes de regiões distintas do país, Lavras-MG (UFLA e Campinas-SP (IAC, por meio de marcadores moleculares RAPD. A análise foi efetuada em 41 indivíduos, representados por 17 genótipos diferentes, com base em 19 primers, que geraram 121 fragmentos polimórficos. Os dados foram analisados utilizando o software NTSYS-pc - 2.1, por meio do coeficiente de Dice e pelo método das médias (UPGMA. A similaridade genética entre o material analisado variou de 0,56 a 1,00. Na análise do dendrograma, foram observados 18 grupos. Os clones (RRIM600, GT1, PB235, PL PIM e FX2261, utilizados em diferentes repetições, foram idênticos, quando comparados entre si, entretanto o mesmo não foi observado para os clones identificados como RRIM 701. Os resultados obtidos sugerem que o material avaliado na UFLA é o mesmo implantado no IAC, exceto o RRIM 701, mostrando uma ampla variabilidade genética, disponível para estudos e propagação da cultura.The rubber tree [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex. Adr. de Juss Muell.-Arg.] is a native species from Amazon region, and represents the biggest source of natural rubber in the world.. However, the rubber tree culture has had an expansion to other brazilian regions, in search of more favorable conditions for its cultivation and self-sufficiency in natural rubber. The aim of this work was to estimate genetic similarity among rubber tree clones, from different Brazilian regions, Lavras (UFLA and Campinas (IAC, by using RAPD molecular markers

  10. Microbiological, physico-chemical, and sensorial modifications during the useful life of the shrimps (Penaeus brasiliensis e Penaeus Paulensis) submitted to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, Mariana Del Ben

    2000-01-01

    During the last years, there has been an increase in the consumption of seafood and freshwater fish as a healthier diet option. Shrimps are the most important product in the international trade market. This kind of food easily deteriorates due to autolysis, oxidation and microbial action. This research was carried out in order to study the effectiveness of radiation in preserving shrimps. Samples of shrimps (Penaeus brasiliensis and P. paulensi) were submitted to gamma radiation doses of O kGy, 1 kGy, 2 kGy, 2.5 kGy, 3 kGy and 3.5 kGy and stored under refrigeration. The microbiological analysis was performed on days O, 2, 4, 7 10 and 14 post processing. Simultaneously, the pH and total, volatile bases (TVBN) were determined. The psychotropic population varied from <2.0 log to 8.08 log CFU/g while the mesophilic ranged from <1.0 109 to 6.03 log CFU/g; pH varied from 7.52 to 8.33 and TVBN from 28.47 to 56.00 mg N/100g, according to the radiation dose and the day of analysis. Black spots, changes in the characteristic odour and TVBN levels showed the beginning of a chemical deterioration as of the 4 th day of analysis. Doses of 3 kGy and 3.5 kGy presented the best results. Pseudomonas spp. showed the highest sensitivity to radiation. Due to the lapse of time between capturing shrimps and returning to land together with inadequate manipulation and storage in the boat, the quality of raw material is prejudiced which makes the radiation process unfeasible. (author)

  11. Chemical and agronomic development of Kalanchoe brasiliensis Camb. and Kalanchoe pinnata (Lamk. Pers under light and temperature levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna P. Cruz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the development of Kalanchoe brasiliensis and Kalanchoe pinnata, which are medicinal species known as "saião" and "folha da fortuna" that are used interchangeably by the population for medicinal purposes. The experiment consisted of 20 plots/species planted in plastic bags with homogeneous substrate in a randomized design, which grown under light levels (25%, 50%, 70%, full sunlight at environment temperature, and a treatment under a plastic with greater temperature range than the external environment. It was obtained for K. pinnata a greater plant height, total length of sprouts, stems, production and dry matter content of leaves than that obtained for K. brasiliensis, which achieved higher averages only for the length of lateral branches. The species showed increases in height, which varied in inverse proportion to the light, and it was observed the influence of temperature in K. pinnata. The production and dry matter content of leaves were proportional to the luminosity; the same occurred in the thickness of leaves for K. brasiliensis. In the swelling index and Brix degree, K. brasiliensis showed higher averages than K. pinnata. In relation to the total content of flavonoids it was not observed significant differences for both species. The analyzed parameters showed the main differences in the agronomic development of the two species.Este estudo compara o desenvolvimento de Kalanchoe brasiliensis e Kalanchoe pinnata, espécies medicinais conhecidas como "saião" e "folha da fortuna" que são utilizadas indiferenciadamente pela população para fins medicinais. O experimento consistiu em 20 parcelas/espécie plantadas em sacos plásticos com substrato homogêneo, em delineamento ao acaso, cultivadas sob níveis de luminosidade (25%, 50%, 70%, luz plena em temperatura ambiente, e um tratamento sob plástico com maior amplitude térmica que o meio externo. Obteve-se para K. pinnata maiores alturas de plantas, comprimentos

  12. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Latex Reveals Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Increased Rubber Yield in Hevea brasiliensis Self-Rooting Juvenile Clones

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Hui-Liang; Guo, Dong; Zhu, Jia-Hong; Wang, Ying; Chen, Xiong-Ting; Peng, Shi-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) self-rooting juvenile clones (JCs) are promising planting materials for rubber production. In a comparative trial between self-rooting JCs and donor clones (DCs), self-rooting JCs exhibited better performance in rubber yield. To study the molecular mechanism associated with higher rubber yield in self-rooting JCs, we sequenced and comparatively analyzed the latex of rubber tree self-rooting JCs and DCs at the transcriptome level. Total raw reads of 34,632,012 ...

  13. Distribution of a Nocardia brasiliensis Catalase Gene Fragment in Members of the Genera Nocardia, Gordona, and Rhodococcus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Johnson, Wendy M.; Welsh, Oliverio; Resendiz-Uresti, Francisco L.; Salinas-Carmona, Mario C.

    1999-01-01

    An immunodominant protein from Nocardia brasiliensis, P61, was subjected to amino-terminal and internal sequence analysis. Three sequences of 22, 17, and 38 residues, respectively, were obtained and compared with the protein database from GenBank by using the BLAST system. The sequences showed homology to some eukaryotic catalases and to a bromoperoxidase-catalase from Streptomyces violaceus. Its identity as a catalase was confirmed by analysis of its enzymatic activity on H2O2 and by a double-staining method on a nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel with 3,3′-diaminobenzidine and ferricyanide; the result showed only catalase activity, but no peroxidase. By using one of the internal amino acid sequences and a consensus catalase motif (VGNNTP), we were able to design a PCR assay that generated a 500-bp PCR product. The amplicon was analyzed, and the nucleotide sequence was compared to the GenBank database with the observation of high homology to other bacterial and eukaryotic catalases. A PCR assay based on this target sequence was performed with primers NB10 and NB11 to confirm the presence of the NB10-NB11 gene fragment in several N. brasiliensis strains isolated from mycetoma. The same assay was used to determine whether there were homologous sequences in several type strains from the genera Nocardia, Rhodococcus, Gordona, and Streptomyces. All of the N. brasiliensis strains presented a positive result but only some of the actinomycetes species tested were positive in the PCR assay. In order to confirm these findings, genomic DNA was subjected to Southern blot analysis. A 1.7-kbp band was observed in the N. brasiliensis strains, and bands of different molecular weight were observed in cross-reacting actinomycetes. Sequence analysis of the amplicons of selected actinomycetes showed high homology in this catalase fragment, thus demonstrating that this protein is highly conserved in this group of bacteria. PMID:10325357

  14. Fish irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, J.; Tengumnuay, C.; Juangbhanich, C.

    1970-01-01

    Chub-mackerel was chosen for the study because they are the most common fish in Thailand. Preliminary investigations were conducted to determine the maximum radiation dose of gamma-rays by organoleptic tests. The samples were subjected to radiation at various doses up to 4 Mrad. Many experiments were conducted using other kinds of fish. The results showed that 1 Mrad would be the maximum acceptable dose for fish. Later, the influence of the radiation dose from 0.1-1 Mrad was studied in order to find the optimum acceptable dose for preservation of fish without off-flavour. For this purpose, the Hedonic scale was used. It was found that 0.2 and 0.5 Mrad gave the best result on Chub mackerel. The determinations of optimum dose, organoleptic, microbiological and trimethylamine content changes were done. The results showed that Chub mackerel irradiated at 0.2, 0.5 and 1 Mrad stored at 3 0 C for 71 days were still acceptable, on the contrary the untreated samples were found unacceptable at 14 days. The trimethylamine increment was significantly higher in the untreated samples. At 15 days storage, trimethylamine in the non-irradiated Chub-mackerel was about 10 times higher than the irradiated ones. At 51 and 79 days storage, about 13 times higher in the control samples than the irradiated samples except 0.1 Mrad. Only 2 times higher was found for the 0.1 Mrad. The microbiological results showed that the irradiation above 0.2 Mrad gave favorable extension of shelf-life of fish

  15. Foliar uptake of fog water and transport belowground alleviates drought effects in the cloud forest tree species, Drimys brasiliensis (Winteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eller, Cleiton B; Lima, Aline L; Oliveira, Rafael S

    2013-07-01

    Foliar water uptake (FWU) is a common water acquisition mechanism for plants inhabiting temperate fog-affected ecosystems, but the prevalence and consequences of this process for the water and carbon balance of tropical cloud forest species are unknown. We performed a series of experiments under field and glasshouse conditions using a combination of methods (sap flow, fluorescent apoplastic tracers and stable isotopes) to trace fog water movement from foliage to belowground components of Drimys brasiliensis. In addition, we measured leaf water potential, leaf gas exchange, leaf water repellency and growth of plants under contrasting soil water availabilities and fog exposure in glasshouse experiments to evaluate FWU effects on the water and carbon balance of D. brasiliensis saplings. Fog water diffused directly through leaf cuticles and contributed up to 42% of total foliar water content. FWU caused reversals in sap flow in stems and roots of up to 26% of daily maximum transpiration. Fog water transported through the xylem reached belowground pools and enhanced leaf water potential, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and growth relative to plants sheltered from fog. Foliar uptake of fog water is an important water acquisition mechanism that can mitigate the deleterious effects of soil water deficits for D. brasiliensis. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Antifungal activity of schinol and a new biphenyl compound isolated from Schinus terebinthifolius against the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johann, Susana; Sá, Nívea P; Lima, Luciana A R S; Cisalpino, Patricia S; Cota, Betania B; Alves, Tânia M A; Siqueira, Ezequias P; Zani, Carlos L

    2010-10-12

    The aim of this study was to isolate and identify the antifungal compounds from the extracts of Schinus terebinthifolius (Anacardiaceae) against clinical isolates of the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. The hexane and dichlomethane fractions from leaves and stems of S. terebinthifolius were fractionated using several chromatography techniques to afford four compounds. The compounds isolated from S. terebinthifolius were identified as schinol (1), a new biphenyl compound, namely, 4'-ethyl-4-methyl-2,2',6,6'-tetrahydroxy[1,1'-biphenyl]-4,4'-dicarboxylate (2), quercetin (3), and kaempferol (4). Compounds 1 and 2 were active against different strains of P. brasiliensis, showing a minimal inhibitory concentration value against the isolate Pb B339 of 15.6 μg/ml. The isolate Pb 1578 was more sensitive to compound 1 with a MIC value of 7.5 μg/ml. Schinol presented synergistic effect only when combined with itraconazole. The compounds isolated from S. terebinthifolius were not able to inhibit cell wall synthesis or assembly using the sorbitol assay. This work reveals for the first time the occurrence of compound 2 and discloses activity of compounds 1 and 2 against several clinical isolates of P. brasiliensis. These results justify further studies to clarify the mechanisms of action of these compounds.

  17. Population genetic structure of Brazilian shrimp species (Farfantepenaeus sp., F. brasiliensis, F. paulensis and Litopenaeus schmitti: Decapoda: Penaeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Gusmão

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Penaeid shrimps are important resources for worldwide fisheries and aquaculture. In the Southwest Atlantic, Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis, F. paulensis, F. subtilis, Farfantepenaeus sp. and Litopenaeus schmitti are among the most important commercially exploited species. Despite their high commercial value, there is little information available on the different aspects of their biology or genetics and almost no data on their stock structure. We used allozymes to estimate variability levels and population genetic structure of F. brasiliensis, F. paulensis, L. schmitti and the recently detected species Farfantepenaeus sp. along as much as 4,000 km of Brazilian coastline. No population heterogeneity was detected in F. brasiliensis or L. schmitti along the studied area. In contrast, F ST values found for Farfantepenaeus sp. and F. paulensis indicate that the populations of those two species are genetically structured, comprising different fishery stocks. The largest genetic differences in F. paulensis were found between Lagoa dos Patos (South and the two populations from Southeast Brazil. In Farfantepenaeus sp., significant differences were detected between the population from Recife and those from Fortaleza and Ilhéus.

  18. Microbiological spoilage of fish and fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Lone; Huss, Hans Henrik

    1996-01-01

    Spoilage of fresh and lightly preserved fish products is caused by microbial action. This paper reviews the current knowledge in terms of the microbiology of fish and fish products with particular emphasis on identification of specific spoilage bacteria and the qualitative and quantitative...... biochemical indicators of spoilage. Shewanzella putrefaciens and Pseudomonas spp. are the specific spoilage bacteria of iced fresh fish regardless of the origin of the fish. Modified atmosphere stored marine fish from temperate waters are spoiled by the CO2 resistant Photobacterium phosphoreum whereas Gram......- positive bacteria are likely spoilers of CO2 packed fish from fresh or tropical waters. Fish products with high salt contents may spoil due to growth of halophilic bacteria (salted fish) or growth of anaerobic bacteria and yeasts (barrel salted fish). Whilst the spoilage of fresh and highly salted fish...

  19. Intoxicação natural por Senecio brasiliensis em equinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welden Panziera

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Intoxicações por plantas do gênero Senecio representam uma importante causa de morte em animais de produção, sendo Senecio brasiliensis a espécie mais envolvida nos casos de intoxicação espontânea. Nesse trabalho, são descritos os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e anatomopatológicos de um surto de intoxicação natural por Senecio brasiliensis em equinos. Dois equinos, de um total de dezoito, foram afetados. Os casos ocorreram em uma propriedade rural no município de São Martinho da Serra, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Grande quantidade de exemplares de Senecio brasiliensis em estágio de brotação foi encontrada na área onde os equinos estavam. Os animais eram da raça Crioula, sendo uma égua com quatro anos e um potro com cinco meses. A égua apresentou evolução aguda da doença com duração de três dias e o potro evolução crônica de dois meses. As principais manifestações clínicas observadas em ambos os equinos incluíam apatia, anorexia, emagrecimento, desidratação e sinais neurológicos. Além disso, havia moderado edema subcutâneo na região ventral do abdômen e marcada icterícia nas mucosas ocular, oral e vulvar da égua e palidez das mucosas no potro. Na avaliação bioquímica do potro, havia acentuado aumento da atividade sérica da gamaglutamil transferase (119 U/L, aumento da fosfatase alcalina (434 U/L e hipoalbuminemia (2,1g/dL. No hemograma do mesmo, observou-se leve anemia normocítica e normocrômica (30% de hematócrito; VCM: 39,5 fL; HCM: 15,3pg. As alterações presentes em ambas as necropsias foram observadas principalmente no fígado, que estava difusamente aumentado de tamanho, escuro e firme. Na superfície de corte, observaram-se acentuação do padrão lobular e hemorragia. Histologicamente, no fígado dos equinos, havia graus variados de necrose coagulativa, hemorragia, fibrose, proliferação de ductos biliares, hepatomegalocitose e bilestase. Nas diferentes seções analisadas

  20. Therapeutic effect of a novel oxazolidinone, DA-7867, in BALB/c mice infected with Nocardia brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Daw-Garza, Alejandra; Said-Fernández, Salvador; Lozano-Garza, Hector Gerardo; de Torres, Noemi Waksman; Rocha, Norma Cavazos; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Choi, Sung-Hak; Welsh, Oliverio

    2008-09-10

    Mycetoma is a chronic infectious disease of tropical and subtropical countries. It is produced by true fungi and actinobacteria. In México, Nocardia brasiliensis is the main causative agent of mycetoma, producing about 86% of the cases; the gold standard for the therapy of mycetoma by N. brasiliensis is the use of sulfonamides which give a 70% cure rate. The addition of amikacin to this regime increases to 95% the cure rate; however, the patients have to be monitored for creatinine clearance and audiometry studies because of the potential development of side effects. Because of that it is important to search for new active compounds. In the present work, we evaluated the in vivo effect of DA-7867, an experimental oxazolidinone, on the development of experimental mycetomas by N. brasiliensis in BALB/c mice. In order to determine the optimal dose utilized to apply to the animals, we first determined by HPLC the plasma levels using several concentrations of the compounds. Based on these results, we used 10 and 25 mg/kg subcutaneously every 24 hr; DA-7867 was also supplied in the drinking water at a calculated dose of 25 mg/kg. As a control we utilized linezolid at 25 mg/kg, a compound active in murine and human infections, three times a day. The mice were infected in the right footpad with a young culture of N. brasiliensis HUJEG-1, and one week later we started the application of the antimicrobials for six more weeks. After that we compared the development of lesions in the groups injected with saline solution or with the antimicrobials; the results were analyzed by the variance ANOVA test. DA-7867 was able to reduce the production of lesions at 25 mg/kg, when given either subcutaneously or in the drinking water. The experimental oxazolidinone DA-7867 is active in vivo against N. brasiliensis, which opens the possibility of using this drug once it is accepted for human application. Since oxazolidinones seem to be active against a wide spectrum of actinobacteria, it

  1. Therapeutic effect of a novel oxazolidinone, DA-7867, in BALB/c mice infected with Nocardia brasiliensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Vera-Cabrera

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mycetoma is a chronic infectious disease of tropical and subtropical countries. It is produced by true fungi and actinobacteria. In México, Nocardia brasiliensis is the main causative agent of mycetoma, producing about 86% of the cases; the gold standard for the therapy of mycetoma by N. brasiliensis is the use of sulfonamides which give a 70% cure rate. The addition of amikacin to this regime increases to 95% the cure rate; however, the patients have to be monitored for creatinine clearance and audiometry studies because of the potential development of side effects. Because of that it is important to search for new active compounds. In the present work, we evaluated the in vivo effect of DA-7867, an experimental oxazolidinone, on the development of experimental mycetomas by N. brasiliensis in BALB/c mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In order to determine the optimal dose utilized to apply to the animals, we first determined by HPLC the plasma levels using several concentrations of the compounds. Based on these results, we used 10 and 25 mg/kg subcutaneously every 24 hr; DA-7867 was also supplied in the drinking water at a calculated dose of 25 mg/kg. As a control we utilized linezolid at 25 mg/kg, a compound active in murine and human infections, three times a day. The mice were infected in the right footpad with a young culture of N. brasiliensis HUJEG-1, and one week later we started the application of the antimicrobials for six more weeks. After that we compared the development of lesions in the groups injected with saline solution or with the antimicrobials; the results were analyzed by the variance ANOVA test. DA-7867 was able to reduce the production of lesions at 25 mg/kg, when given either subcutaneously or in the drinking water. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The experimental oxazolidinone DA-7867 is active in vivo against N. brasiliensis, which opens the possibility of using this drug once it is accepted for human

  2. Fish gelatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boran, Gokhan; Regenstein, Joe M

    2010-01-01

    Gelatin is a multifunctional ingredient used in foods, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and photographic films as a gelling agent, stabilizer, thickener, emulsifier, and film former. As a thermoreversible hydrocolloid with a narrower gap between its melting and gelling temperatures, both of which are below human body temperature, gelatin provides unique advantages over carbohydrate-based gelling agents. Gelatin is mostly produced from pig skin, and cattle hides and bones. Some alternative raw materials have recently gained attention from both researchers and the industry not just because they overcome religious concerns shared by Jews and Muslims but also because they provide, in some cases, technological advantages over mammalian gelatins. Fish skins from a number of fish species are among the other sources that have been comprehensively studied as sources for gelatin production. Fish skins have a significant potential for the production of high-quality gelatin with different melting and gelling temperatures over a much wider range than mammalian gelatins, yet still have a sufficiently high gel strength and viscosity. Gelatin quality is industrially determined by gel strength, viscosity, melting or gelling temperatures, the water content, and microbiological safety. For gelatin manufacturers, yield from a particular raw material is also important. Recent experimental studies have shown that these quality parameters vary greatly depending on the biochemical characteristics of the raw materials, the manufacturing processes applied, and the experimental settings used for quality control tests. In this review, the gelatin quality achieved from different fish species is reviewed along with the experimental procedures used to determine gelatin quality. In addition, the chemical structure of collagen and gelatin, the collagen-gelatin conversion, the gelation process, and the gelatin market are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Fish Immunoglobulins

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Mashoof; Michael F. Criscitiello

    2016-01-01

    The B cell receptor and secreted antibody are at the nexus of humoral adaptive immunity. In this review, we summarize what is known of the immunoglobulin genes of jawed cartilaginous and bony fishes. We focus on what has been learned from genomic or cDNA sequence data, but where appropriate draw upon protein, immunization, affinity and structural studies. Work from major aquatic model organisms and less studied comparative species are both included to define what is the rule for an immunoglob...

  4. Fish cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Bshary, Redouan; Brown, Culum

    2017-01-01

    The central nervous system, and the brain in particular, is one of the most remarkable products of evolution. This system allows an individual to acquire, process, store and act on information gathered from the environment. The resulting flexibility in behavior beyond genetically coded strategies is a prime adaptation in animals. The field of animal cognition examines the underlying processes and mechanisms. Fishes are a particularly interesting group of vertebrates to study cognition for two...

  5. Fish hemoglobins

    OpenAIRE

    Souza,P.C. de; Bonilla-Rodriguez,G.O.

    2007-01-01

    Vertebrate hemoglobin, contained in erythrocytes, is a globular protein with a quaternary structure composed of 4 globin chains (2 alpha and 2 beta) and a prosthetic group named heme bound to each one. Having myoglobin as an ancestor, hemoglobin acquired the capacity to respond to chemical stimuli that modulate its function according to tissue requirements for oxygen. Fish are generally submitted to spatial and temporal O2 variations and have developed anatomical, physiological and biochemica...

  6. Fish hemoglobins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. de Souza

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrate hemoglobin, contained in erythrocytes, is a globular protein with a quaternary structure composed of 4 globin chains (2 alpha and 2 beta and a prosthetic group named heme bound to each one. Having myoglobin as an ancestor, hemoglobin acquired the capacity to respond to chemical stimuli that modulate its function according to tissue requirements for oxygen. Fish are generally submitted to spatial and temporal O2 variations and have developed anatomical, physiological and biochemical strategies to adapt to the changing environmental gas availability. Structurally, most fish hemoglobins are tetrameric; however, those from some species such as lamprey and hagfish dissociate, being monomeric when oxygenated and oligomeric when deoxygenated. Fish blood frequently possesses several hemoglobins; the primary origin of this finding lies in the polymorphism that occurs in the globin loci, an aspect that may occasionally confer advantages to its carriers or even be a harmless evolutionary remnant. On the other hand, the functional properties exhibit different behaviors, ranging from a total absence of responses to allosteric regulation to drastic ones, such as the Root effect.

  7. Behavior and demography in an urban colony of Tadarida brasiliensis (Chiroptera: Molossidae in Rosario, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo C Romano

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Bat colonies were sampled in the city of Rosario to increase the understanding of bat ecology in urban areas of the southern cone of South America. Seven species were recorded, of which three are new records for Rosario. One representative colony was chosen for intensive ecological study. Approximately 64 000 Tadarida brasiliensis formed a maternity colony in the attic of an old building. Most of the bats were pregnant or lactating females and their young.. Adults arrive in the colony in mid-September and leave in February, no bats were present at this site from the beginning of March to mid-September. Births occur between mid-November and mid-December. Pups roosted in compact clusters in the nursery areas, spatially segregated from adults. Densities of these aggregations were 643 + 76 bats/m2 (p Con el objetivo de incrementar el conocimiento de la ecología de los murciélagos en áreas urbanas, se muestrearon colonias en la ciudad de Rosario. Fueron registradas siete especies, de las cuales tres son nuevos registros. Se seleccionó una colonia que se consideró más representativa, para realizar un intensivo estudio ecológico. Se realizaron conteos poblacionales, que arrojaron aproximadamente 64 000 Tadarida brasiliensis formando una colonia maternal en el ático de un antigüo edificio. Se hicieron registros de comportamiento (fechas de arribo y partida, patrones diarios de actividad, pariciones, etc.. Los adultos arrivan al refugio a mediados de septiembre y lo abandonan en febrero. Las pariciones ocurren entre mediados de noviembre y mediados de diciembre. Las crías se ubicaron en grupos compactos en áreas separadas de los adultos, siendo su densidad de 643 + 76 /m2 (p < 0.20. y la de los adultos de 161 + 21 /m2 (p < 0.20. 182 animales capturados fueron identificados, sexados y pesados. Los registros incluyeron patrones diarios de actividad.. Se detectó predación por "lechuza de campanario" (Tyto alba y gatos domésticos. La b

  8. Involvement of monoaminergic systems in the antidepressant-like effect of Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. (Myrtaceae) in the tail suspension test in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colla, André R S; Machado, Daniele G; Bettio, Luis E B; Colla, Guilherme; Magina, Michele D A; Brighente, Inês M C; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S

    2012-09-28

    Several species of Eugenia L. are used in folk medicine for the treatment of various diseases. Eugenia brasiliensis is used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, whereas Eugenia. uniflora is used for the treatment of symptoms related to depression and mood disorders, and is used in Brazil by the Guarani Indians as a tonic stimulant. To investigate the antidepressant-like effect of hydroalcoholic extracts of different plant species of genus Eugenia and to characterize the participation of the monoaminergic systems in the mechanism of action of the specie that afforded the most prominent antidepressant-like efficacy. In the first set of experiments, the effects of hydroalcoholic extracts of Eugenia beaurepaireana, Eugenia brasiliensis, Eugenia catharinae, Eugenia umbelliflora and Eugenia uniflora and the antidepressant fluoxetine (positive control) administered acutely by p.o. route were evaluated in the tail suspension test (TST) and locomotor activity was assessed in the open-field test in mice. In the second set of experiments, the involvement of the monoaminergic systems in the antidepressant-like activity of Eugenia brasiliensis was evaluated by treating mice with several pharmacological agonists and antagonists. The effects of the combined administration of sub-effective doses of Eugenia brasiliensis and the antidepressants fluoxetine, imipramine and bupropion were also evaluated. The administration of the extracts from Eugenia brasiliensis, Eugenia catharinae and Eugenia umbelliflora, but not Eugenia beaurepaireana and Eugenia uniflora, exerted a significant antidepressant-like effect, without altering locomotor activity. The behavioral profile was similar to fluoxetine. Pre-treatment of mice with ketanserin, haloperidol, SCH23390, sulpiride, prazosin and yohimbine prevented the reduction of immobility time induced by Eugenia brasiliensis. Treatment with sub-effective doses of WAY100635, SKF38393, apomorphine, phenylephrine, but not clonidine, combined

  9. Surf zone fish diet as an indicator of environmental and anthropogenic influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Leonardo Lopes; Zalmon, Ilana Rosental

    2017-10-01

    Changes in species' abundance have been used as indicators of environmental and anthropogenic disturbances. However, sublethal, e.g., diet, changes should be detected before some alterations in the composition and structure of fish assemblages occur as a result of ecological negative impacts. The objective of the present study was to assess possible changes in surf zone fish diet in response to environmental and anthropogenic disturbances. Surf zone fish were sampled and their stomach contents were analyzed on two sandy beaches under different levels of human pressure in Southeastern Brazil. Habitat variables related to seasonality, food availability, anthropogenic disturbance, upwelling and river influence were measured as follows: (1) wave height; (2) water temperature; (3) intertidal macroinvertebrates abundance; (4) solid waste amount; (5) salinity; (6) particulate organic carbon (POC) and (7) chlorophyll a (Chl a). Our results showed the influence of seasonality, prey abundance and hydrodynamics in prey selection, and diet overlap between typical surf zone residents. A literature search was also performed and it shows that insects and Emerita brasiliensis eggs, which were the main food item consumed by some surf zone fish at urbanized Brazilian beaches, are unusual worldwide. Furthermore, solid waste was related to high consumption of insects by pompanos fish in urbanized areas, suggesting that this fish diet could be a sublethal indicator of human impact on sandy beaches.

  10. Evolutionary history and identification of conservation units in the giant otter, Pteronura brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickles, R S A; Groombridge, J J; Zambrana Rojas, V D; Van Damme, P; Gottelli, D; Kundu, S; Bodmer, R; Ariani, C V; Iyengar, A; Jordan, W C

    2011-12-01

    The giant otter, Pteronura brasiliensis, occupies a range including the major drainage basins of South America, yet the degree of structure that exists within and among populations inhabiting these drainages is unknown. We sequenced portions of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b (612bp) and control region (383 bp) genes in order to determine patterns of genetic variation within the species. We found high levels of mtDNA haplotype diversity (h = 0.93 overall) and support for subdivision into four distinct groups of populations, representing important centers of genetic diversity and useful units for prioritizing conservation within the giant otter. We tested these results against the predictions of three hypotheses of Amazonian diversification (Pleistocene Refugia, Paleogeography, and Hydrogeology). While the phylogeographic pattern conformed to the predictions of the Refugia Hypothesis, molecular dating using a relaxed clock revealed the phylogroups diverged from one another between 1.69 and 0.84 Ma, ruling out the influence of Late Pleistocene glacial refugia. However, the role of Plio-Pleistocene climate change could not be rejected. While the molecular dating also makes the influence of geological arches according to the Paleogeography Hypothesis extremely unlikely, the recent Pliocene formation of the Fitzcarrald Arch and its effect of subsequently altering drainage pattern could not be rejected. The data presented here support the interactions of both climatic and hydrological changes resulting from geological activity in the Plio-Pleistocene, in shaping the phylogeographic structure of the giant otter. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis seed oil toxicity effect and Linamarin compound analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salimon Jumat

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lipid fraction of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis (kunth. Muell seed was extracted and analyzed for toxicological effect. The toxicological compound such as linamarin in rubber seed oil (RSO extracted using different solvents, such as hexane (RSOh, mixture of chloroform + methanol (RSOchl+mth and ethanol (RSOeth were also studied. Various methods analysis such as Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and colorimetric methods were carried out to determine the present of such compounds. Results FTIR spectrum of RSO did not show any presence of cyanide peak. The determination of cyanide by using colorimetric method was demonstrated no response of the cyanide in RSO and didn’t show any colored comparing with commercial cyanide which observed blue color. The results showed that no functional groups such as cyanide (C ≡ N associated with linamarin were observed. Toxicological test using rats was also conducted to further confirm the absence of such compounds. RSO did not show any toxic potential to the rats. Bioassay experiments using shrimps had been used as test organisms to evaluate the toxicity of linamarin extract from RSOh, RSOchl+mth and RSOeth and LC50 were found to be (211.70 %, 139.40 %, and 117.41 %, respectively. Conclusions This can be attributed no hazardous linamarin were found in RSO.

  12. Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) seed oil toxicity effect and Linamarin compound analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimon, Jumat; Abdullah, Bashar Mudhaffar; Salih, Nadia

    2012-06-13

    The lipid fraction of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis (kunth. Muell)) seed was extracted and analyzed for toxicological effect. The toxicological compound such as linamarin in rubber seed oil (RSO) extracted using different solvents, such as hexane (RSOh), mixture of chloroform + methanol (RSOchl+mth) and ethanol (RSOeth) were also studied. Various methods analysis such as Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and colorimetric methods were carried out to determine the present of such compounds. FTIR spectrum of RSO did not show any presence of cyanide peak. The determination of cyanide by using colorimetric method was demonstrated no response of the cyanide in RSO and didn't show any colored comparing with commercial cyanide which observed blue color. The results showed that no functional groups such as cyanide (C ≡ N) associated with linamarin were observed. Toxicological test using rats was also conducted to further confirm the absence of such compounds. RSO did not show any toxic potential to the rats. Bioassay experiments using shrimps had been used as test organisms to evaluate the toxicity of linamarin extract from RSO(h,) RSO(chl+mth) and RSO(eth) and LC50 were found to be (211.70 %, 139.40 %, and 117.41 %, respectively). This can be attributed no hazardous linamarin were found in RSO.

  13. Estudo comparativo da imuno-antigenicidade de 8 amostras de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. V. Biagioni

    1986-10-01

    Full Text Available Para se detectar diferenças imuno-antigênicas entre 8 amostras de P. brasiliensis isoladas de diferentes áreas endêmicas (Botucatu: Pb 1, 2 e 3; São Paulo: Pb: 18, 192 e 265; Venezuela: Pb 9 e 73, esutdaram-se: 1. A reatividade antigênica de cada amostra nas reações de imunofluorescência indireta (II e de imunodifusão dupla em gel de agar (ID contra painel de 20 soros controles positivos para paracoccidioidomicose; 2. A capacidade de induzir resposta imune humoral (medida por imunodifusão e celular (medida pelo teste de coxim plantar em camundongos imunizados com an-tígenos de cada amostra. Observamos: 1. As amostras Pb 265 e Pb 9 mostraram-se mais reativas na II; 2. Os antígenos das amostras Pb 192 e Pb 73 foram significativamente mais reativas na ID; 3. Estes dados demonstram diferenças de antigenicidade entre estas amostras; 4. A amostra Pb 18 mostrou baixo poder indutor de resposta imune celular e alta capacidade de indução de resposta imune humoral em camundongos imunizados, revelando dissociação de sua imunogenicidade. Estas diferenças podem indicar a existência de cepas distintas do fungo ou refletir modificações do parasita no hospedeiro ou du rante seu cultivo.

  14. Effects of DDE on experimentally poisoned free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis): Lethal brain concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.R.; Kroll, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    Adult female free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) were collected at Bracken Cave, Texas, and shipped to the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. Treated mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) containing 107 ppm DDE were fed to 17 bats; five other bats were fed untreated mealworms. After 40 days on dosage, during which one dosed bat was killed accidentally, four dosed bats were frozen and the remaining 17 were starved to death. The objective was to elevate brain levels of DDE to lethality and measure these concentrations. After the feeding period, dosed bats weighed less than controls. After starvation, the body condition of dosed bats was poorer than that of controls even though there was no difference in the amounts of carcass fat. During starvation, dosed bats lost weight faster than controls. Also, four dosed bats exhibited the prolonged tremoring that characterizes DDE poisoning. DDE increased in brains of starving bats as fat was metabolized. The estimated mean brain concentration of DDE diagnostic of death was 519 ppm with a range of 458-564 ppm. These values resemble diagnostic levels known for two species of passerine birds, but they exceed published levels for two free-tailed bats from Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico.

  15. Involvement of Ethylene in the Latex Metabolism and Tapping Panel Dryness of Hevea brasiliensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putranto, Riza-Arief; Herlinawati, Eva; Rio, Maryannick; Leclercq, Julie; Piyatrakul, Piyanuch; Gohet, Eric; Sanier, Christine; Oktavia, Fetrina; Pirrello, Julien; Kuswanhadi; Montoro, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Ethephon, an ethylene releaser, is used to stimulate latex production in Hevea brasiliensis. Ethylene induces many functions in latex cells including the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The accumulation of ROS is responsible for the coagulation of rubber particles in latex cells, resulting in the partial or complete stoppage of latex flow. This study set out to assess biochemical and histological changes as well as changes in gene expression in latex and phloem tissues from trees grown under various harvesting systems. The Tapping Panel Dryness (TPD) susceptibility of Hevea clones was found to be related to some biochemical parameters, such as low sucrose and high inorganic phosphorus contents. A high tapping frequency and ethephon stimulation induced early TPD occurrence in a high latex metabolism clone and late occurrence in a low latex metabolism clone. TPD-affected trees had smaller number of laticifer vessels compared to healthy trees, suggesting a modification of cambial activity. The differential transcript abundance was observed for twenty-seven candidate genes related to TPD occurrence in latex and phloem tissues for ROS-scavenging, ethylene biosynthesis and signalling genes. The predicted function for some Ethylene Response Factor genes suggested that these candidate genes should play an important role in regulating susceptibility to TPD. PMID:26247941

  16. Melanins Protect Sporothrix brasiliensis and Sporothrix schenckii from the Antifungal Effects of Terbinafine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Almeida-Paes

    Full Text Available Terbinafine is a recommended therapeutic alternative for patients with sporotrichosis who cannot use itraconazole due to drug interactions or side effects. Melanins are involved in resistance to antifungal drugs and Sporothrix species produce three different types of melanin. Therefore, in this study we evaluated whether Sporothrix melanins impact the efficacy of antifungal drugs. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFC of two Sporothrix brasiliensis and four Sporothrix schenckii strains grown in the presence of the melanin precursors L-DOPA and L-tyrosine were similar to the MIC determined by the CLSI standard protocol for S. schenckii susceptibility to amphotericin B, ketoconazole, itraconazole or terbinafine. When MICs were determined in the presence of inhibitors to three pathways of melanin synthesis, we observed, in four strains, an increase in terbinafine susceptibility in the presence of tricyclazole, a DHN-melanin inhibitor. In addition, one S. schenckii strain grown in the presence of L-DOPA had a higher MFC value when compared to the control. Growth curves in presence of 2×MIC concentrations of terbinafine showed that pyomelanin and, to a lesser extent, eumelanin were able to protect the fungi against the fungicidal effect of this antifungal drug. Our results suggest that melanin protects the major pathogenic species of the Sporothrix complex from the effects of terbinafine and that the development of new antifungal drugs targeting melanin synthesis may improve sporotrichosis therapies.

  17. Melanins Protect Sporothrix brasiliensis and Sporothrix schenckii from the Antifungal Effects of Terbinafine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; Figueiredo-Carvalho, Maria Helena Galdino; Brito-Santos, Fábio; Almeida-Silva, Fernando; Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria

    2016-01-01

    Terbinafine is a recommended therapeutic alternative for patients with sporotrichosis who cannot use itraconazole due to drug interactions or side effects. Melanins are involved in resistance to antifungal drugs and Sporothrix species produce three different types of melanin. Therefore, in this study we evaluated whether Sporothrix melanins impact the efficacy of antifungal drugs. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFC) of two Sporothrix brasiliensis and four Sporothrix schenckii strains grown in the presence of the melanin precursors L-DOPA and L-tyrosine were similar to the MIC determined by the CLSI standard protocol for S. schenckii susceptibility to amphotericin B, ketoconazole, itraconazole or terbinafine. When MICs were determined in the presence of inhibitors to three pathways of melanin synthesis, we observed, in four strains, an increase in terbinafine susceptibility in the presence of tricyclazole, a DHN-melanin inhibitor. In addition, one S. schenckii strain grown in the presence of L-DOPA had a higher MFC value when compared to the control. Growth curves in presence of 2×MIC concentrations of terbinafine showed that pyomelanin and, to a lesser extent, eumelanin were able to protect the fungi against the fungicidal effect of this antifungal drug. Our results suggest that melanin protects the major pathogenic species of the Sporothrix complex from the effects of terbinafine and that the development of new antifungal drugs targeting melanin synthesis may improve sporotrichosis therapies. PMID:27031728

  18. Inhibitory effect of verbascoside isolated from Buddleja brasiliensis Jacq. ex Spreng on prolyl oligopeptidase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, Augusto G; Morel, Ademir F; Adolpho, Luciana; Ilha, Vinícius; Giralt, Ernest; Tarragó, Teresa; Dalcol, Ionara I

    2012-10-01

    The phenylpropanoid glycoside verbascoside [2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenylethyl)-1-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-D-(4-O-caffeyl)-glucopyranoside] (1) has been isolated as the main constituent of the crude extract of Buddleja brasiliensis Jacq. ex Spreng from Southern Brazil. The crude extract, main fractions and the compound 1 were evaluated for inhibition of the enzymes acetylcholinesterase (AChE), dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) and prolyl oligopeptidase (POP). Compound 1 showed weak activity against DPP-IV with an IC(50) > 150 µM and was inactive against AChE, with a pMIQ determined by bioautography of 9.6. In contrast, 1 displayed significant inhibition of POP in a dose-dependent manner with an IC(50) value of 1.3 ± 0.2 µM, similar to the positive control, baicalin, with a POP IC(50) of 12 ± 3 µM. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Microwave-Assisted Extraction and Physicochemical Evaluation of Oil from Hevea brasiliensis Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn C. Creencia

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis is exploited mainly for latex in view of its economic importance. However, one of its auxiliary products, the rubber seed, does not find any major applications, and hence, even the natural production of seeds itself remains underutilized. In this study, microwave-assisted Soxhlet extraction is used as a green alternative to extract the oil from seeds at a reaction time of 90 min and microwave power of 300 W. The objective of the study is to evaluate the effects of the processing conditions, including drying time, temperature, solid–solvent ratio, and extraction solvent, on the yield of rubber seed oil. Moreover, the microwave-assisted aqueous extraction (MAAE under acidic conditions is also investigated. Based on the results, n-hexane gave the best yield at an optimized 1:20 seed–hexane ratio at 72 °C compared with the conventional Soxhlet method and the acidic MAAE. Furthermore, the chemical characteristics of the oil showed a high value of free fatty acids (% FFA (1.15–7.61% and an iodine value (IV that ranges from 100–150. As a semi-drying oil, rubber seed oil (RSO can be used as an ingredient for surface coating and in the formulation of products where the presence of unsaturation is important.

  20. Dicer-like Proteins Regulate the Growth, Conidiation, and Pathogenicity of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides from Hevea brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiannan Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Colletotrichum gloeosporioides from Hevea brasiliensis is the hemibiotrophic fungi which could cause anthracnose in rubber trees. Dicer like proteins (DCL were the core enzymes for generation of small RNAs. In the present study, the knocking-out mutants of two dicer like proteins encoding genes of C. gloeosporioides were constructed; and functions of two proteins were investigated. The results showed that DCL play important roles in regulating the growth, conidiation and pathogenicity of C. gloeosporioides; and there is a functional redundancy between DCL1 and DCL2. Microscopy analysis and DAB staining revealed that loss of penetration ability into the host cells, instead of the decreased growth rate, was the main cause for the impaired pathogenicity of the ΔDcl1ΔDcl2 double mutant. Proteomics analysis suggested that DCL proteins affected the expression of functional proteins to regulating multiple biological processes of C. gloeosporioides. These data lead to a better understanding of the functions of DCL proteins in regulating the development and pathogenesis of C. gloeosporioides.

  1. Habitat use by Atherinella brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825 in intertidal zones of a subtropical estuary, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Maichak de Carvalho

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Habitat use is different along the ontogenetic development of some species and may be influenced by environmental parameters. This study described the interaction of Atherinella brasiliensis caught in intertidal areas of the Paranaguá Estuarine Complex with environmental parameters. We caught 10024 individuals between August 2010 and July 2011, with total mean length of 44.32 mm (SD ± 25.37 mm, variation range between 12 and 142 mm, and weight between 0.01 and 73 g, averaging 1.35 g (SD ± 2.66 g and ages estimated between < 1 and 22 months. Significant differences were detected between sectors and periods for number of individuals and weight at capture, with higher mean values in the mean sector during the rainy period. The spatial and temporal distribution of ages was statistically different, individuals between < 1 and 3 months were more abundant in the sector 2 during the rainy period, and individuals older than 7 months were evenly distributed throughout the sampling area, and with higher mean abundance at the beginning and end of the dry period. Environmental variables that most influenced the distribution of age classes were temperature and salinity.

  2. Anticancer activity of 7-epiclusianone, a benzophenone from Garcinia brasiliensis, in glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Leilane; Pezuk, Julia Alejandra; Borges, Kleiton Silva; Brassesco, María Sol; Scrideli, Carlos Alberto; Tone, Luiz Gonzaga; dos Santos, Marcelo Henrique; Ionta, Marisa; de Oliveira, Jaqueline Carvalho

    2015-10-30

    Glioblastoma is the most common tumor of the central nervous system and one of the hardest tumors to treat. Consequently, the search for novel therapeutic options is imperative. 7-epiclusianone, a tetraprenylated benzophenone isolated from the epicarp of the native plant Garcinia brasiliensis, exhibits a range of biological activities but its prospect anticancer activity is underexplored. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of 7-epiclusianone on proliferation, clonogenic capacity, cell cycle progression and induction of apoptosis in two glioblastoma cell lines (U251MG and U138MG). Cell viability was measured by the MTS assay; for the clonogenic assay, colonies were stained with Giemsa and counted by direct visual inspection; For cell cycle analysis, cells were stained with propidium iodide and analyzed by cytometry; Cyclin A expression was determined by immunoblotting; Apoptotic cell death was determined by annexin V fluorescein isothiocyanate labeling and Caspase-3 activity in living cells. Viability of both cell lines was drastically inhibited; moreover, the colony formation capacity was significantly reduced, demonstrating long-term effects even after removal of the drug. 7-epiclusianone treatment at low concentrations also altered cell cycle progression, decreased the S and G2/M populations and at higher concentrations increased the number of cells at sub-G1, in concordance with the increase of apoptotic cells. The present study demonstrates for the first time the anticancer potential of 7-epiclusianone against glioblastoma cells, thus meriting its further investigation as a potential therapeutic agent.

  3. Melanins Protect Sporothrix brasiliensis and Sporothrix schenckii from the Antifungal Effects of Terbinafine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; Figueiredo-Carvalho, Maria Helena Galdino; Brito-Santos, Fábio; Almeida-Silva, Fernando; Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria

    2016-01-01

    Terbinafine is a recommended therapeutic alternative for patients with sporotrichosis who cannot use itraconazole due to drug interactions or side effects. Melanins are involved in resistance to antifungal drugs and Sporothrix species produce three different types of melanin. Therefore, in this study we evaluated whether Sporothrix melanins impact the efficacy of antifungal drugs. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFC) of two Sporothrix brasiliensis and four Sporothrix schenckii strains grown in the presence of the melanin precursors L-DOPA and L-tyrosine were similar to the MIC determined by the CLSI standard protocol for S. schenckii susceptibility to amphotericin B, ketoconazole, itraconazole or terbinafine. When MICs were determined in the presence of inhibitors to three pathways of melanin synthesis, we observed, in four strains, an increase in terbinafine susceptibility in the presence of tricyclazole, a DHN-melanin inhibitor. In addition, one S. schenckii strain grown in the presence of L-DOPA had a higher MFC value when compared to the control. Growth curves in presence of 2×MIC concentrations of terbinafine showed that pyomelanin and, to a lesser extent, eumelanin were able to protect the fungi against the fungicidal effect of this antifungal drug. Our results suggest that melanin protects the major pathogenic species of the Sporothrix complex from the effects of terbinafine and that the development of new antifungal drugs targeting melanin synthesis may improve sporotrichosis therapies.

  4. Natural membranes of Hevea brasiliensis latex as delivery system for Casearia sylvestris leaf components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio A. Carvalho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Natural latex from Hevea brasiliensis (Wild. ex A.Juss Müll.Arg., Euphorbiaceae, showed angiogenic action and Casearia sylvestris Sw., Salicaceae, leaf derivatives presented anti-inflammatory and wound healing activities. Therefore, an association of these effects was interesting for wound healing applications. The aims of this study were the development of membranes of natural latex incorporated with C. sylvestris leaf derivatives (ethanolic extract, diterpene concentrated fraction and casearin J, their chemical and physical characterization, and the evaluation of in vitro skin permeation and retention of C. sylvestris bioactive secondary metabolites (diterpenes and phenolic compounds. The membranes were developed mixing hydroethanolic solutions of C. sylvestris derivatives with latex and drying them in a desiccator. They were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, water vapor permeability and mechanical resistance assays, demonstrating that all membranes were permeable, resistant and homogeneous in surfaces. The permeation and retention assays demonstrated dermal penetration of phenolic compounds for ethanolic extract membrane and of casearin-like clerodane diterpenes for all membranes, indicating that these membranes have great potential for therapeutical application as a topical system for C. sylvestris components releasing.

  5. Clonal stability of latex yield in eleven clones of Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.O. Omokhafe

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Eleven Hevea brasiliensis clones were evaluated for clonal stability of latex yield. A randomized complete block design was used with four replicates, two locations, seven years and three periods per year. Stability analysis was based on clone x year and clone x year x location interactions. Five stability parameters viz environmental variance, shukla's stability variance, regression of clonal latex yield on environmental index, variance due to regression and variance due to deviation from regression were applied. There was significant clone x environment effect at the two levels of interaction. Among the eleven clones, C 162 was outstanding for clonal stability and it can serve as donor parent for stability alleles. Three clones (C 76, C 150 and C 154 were also stable. The four stable clones (C 76, C 150, C 154 and C 162 are suitable for broad-spectrum recommendation for latex yield. Five clones (C 83, C 143, C 163, C 202 and RRIM 600 will require environment-specific recommendation because of their unstable phenotype. The stability feature of two clones (C 145 and C 159 was not clear and this will be investigated in subsequent studies.

  6. Efectividad de siete productos antimancha contra ceratocystis sp. en madera de hevea brasiliensis muell arg. (hule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fuentes Salinas

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se realizó con el objeto de conocer la eficacia de siete productos antimancha que se comercializan en México, contra el hongo manchador Ceratocystis sp. en madera aserrada de Hevea brasiliensis (hule, mediante el método de los discos, conjuntamente con la norma ASTM D 4445-91. Los productos están elaborados a partir de pentaclorofenato de sodio, tres de ellos, siendo Osmotox, Pentatox y Biotox; tres más están hechos a base de metil bistiocianato y 2-tiocianometiltio benzotiazol y son Busan 1009, Busan 1450 y Busan 1071, y el séptimo solamente contiene 2-tiocianometiltio benzotiazol, siendo el Busan 1118. La concentración mínima observada para evitar el manchado de la madera (crecimiento cero en un tiempo de 4 semanas, para cada uno de los productos ensayados se obtuvo para Osmotox de 4.68 %, para Pentatox de 2.82 %, para Biotox de 3.24 %, para Busan 1118 de 2.00 % y para Busan 1009, Busan 1450 y Busan 1071 una concentración menor a 0.25%. Tomando en cuenta los precios comerciales de cada producto y de acuerdo con las concentraciones mínimas efectivas para crecimiento cero obtenidas, el tratamiento con Busan 1071 es el más económico y más efectivo.

  7. Cryopreservation of nucellar cells of navel orange (Citrus sinensis Osb. var. brasiliensis Tanaka) by vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, A; Kobayashi, S; Oiyama, I

    1990-06-01

    The nucellar cells of navel orange(Citrus sinensis Osb. var. brasiliensis Tanaka) were successfully cryopreserved by vitrification. In this method, cells were sufficiently dehydrated with highly concentrated cryoprotective solution(PVS2) prior to direct plunge in liquid nitrogen. The PVS2 contains(w/v) 30% glycerol, 15% ethylene glycol and 15% DMSO in Murashige-Tucker medium(MT) containing 0.15 M sucrose. Cells were treated with 60% PVS2 at 25°C for 5 min and then chilled PVS2 at 0°C for 3 min. The cell suspension of about 0.1 ml was loaded in a 0.5 ml transparent plastic straw and directly plunged in liquid nitrogen for 30 min. After rapid warming, the cell suspension was expelled in 2 ml of MT medium containing 1.2 M sucrose. The average rate of survival was about 80%. The vitrified cells regenerated plantlets. This method is very simple and the time required for cryopreservation is only about 10 min.

  8. Rubber elongation factor (REF, a major allergen component in Hevea brasiliensis latex has amyloid properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Berthelot

    Full Text Available REF (Hevb1 and SRPP (Hevb3 are two major components of Hevea brasiliensis latex, well known for their allergenic properties. They are obviously taking part in the biosynthesis of natural rubber, but their exact function is still unclear. They could be involved in defense/stress mechanisms after tapping or directly acting on the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway. The structure of these two proteins is still not described. In this work, it was discovered that REF has amyloid properties, contrary to SRPP. We investigated their structure by CD, TEM, ATR-FTIR and WAXS and neatly showed the presence of β-sheet organized aggregates for REF, whereas SRPP mainly fold as a helical protein. Both proteins are highly hydrophobic but differ in their interaction with lipid monolayers used to mimic the monomembrane surrounding the rubber particles. Ellipsometry experiments showed that REF seems to penetrate deeply into the monolayer and SRPP only binds to the lipid surface. These results could therefore clarify the role of these two paralogous proteins in latex production, either in the coagulation of natural rubber or in stress-related responses. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an amyloid formed from a plant protein. This suggests also the presence of functional amyloid in the plant kingdom.

  9. Activation of the Na sup + ,K sup + -ATPase in Narcine brasiliensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, H.; Nioka, Shoko; Johnson, R.G. Jr. (Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia (USA))

    1990-02-01

    The in vivo activation and turnover rates of the sodium pump (Na{sup +},K{sup +}-ATPase) were investigated in the electrocytes of the electric organ of the elasmobranch Narcine brasiliensis. The Narcine electric organ appears to be an excellent model for the study of sodium pump activation in an excitable tissue. The sodium transmembrane gradient and high-energy phosphagens were concurrently measured by {sup 23}Na and {sup 31}P NMR spectroscopy. The resting electric organ, which depends primarily on anaerobic metabolism displays a high concentration of phosphocreatin (PCr). It has an intracellular sodium concentration ((Na{sup +}){sub i}) of 20{plus minus}10 milliequivalents/liter as estimated by NMR. Electrical stimulation of the nerves innervating the electric organ results in an increase in (Na{sup +}){sub i} in the electrolyte and rapid depletion of PCr. Ouabain causes an 85% decrease in utilization of high-energy phosphagens, indicating that rapid PCr turnover in this tissue is mainly due to Na{sup +},K{sup +}-ATPase activity. From these data the authors can determine that the rate of sodium pump turnover increases by >3 orders of magnitude within several hundred milliseconds. The authors conclude that cholinergic stimulation of the electric organ causes a rapid and extremely large increase in sodium pump turnover, which is regulated predominantly by factors other than (Na{sup +}){sub i}.

  10. Karakteristik Pembakaran Biobriket Kulit dan Cangkang Karet (Hevea Brasiliensis dengan Perekat Glyserin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Wawan Mariki

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Some studies have been done on utilizing biomass from agriculture such as the leather and shell of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis were not used optimally in Indonesia as an alternative energy which developed by making biobriquet to achieved the higher energy that could be used in the combustion process. In this study, the biobriquet was made of the leather and the shell of rubber by comparisson of the leather and shell were: 0%: 91%; 45.5%: 45.5%; 55%: 36%; 64%: 27%; 91%: 0%.Glyserin 9% for each percentage of biobriquet was used as adhesive material and the drying temperature of 110 C. This study aims to investigate the characteristics of biobriquet combustion which made of the leather and shell of rubber. The results shows that the biobriquet combustion process which made of 64% rubber leather and 27% rubber shell has a calorific value of 5313,923 Kal/gr. In 20 seconds of initial ignition, the combustion process shows the improvement such as increased concentrations of the flammable leather, bluish red fire.

  11. Genomic validation of PB 260 clone of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) at Cikumpay Plantation by SSR marker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royani, J. I.; Safarrida, A.; Rachmawati, I.; Khairiyah, H.; Mustika, I. P.; Suyono, A.; Rudiyana, Y.; Kubil; Nurjaya; Arianto, A.

    2017-05-01

    Rubber from Hevea brasiliensis is the only commercial natural rubber in the world. Propagation of rubber trees usually done by grafting and seed germination. BPPT had been producing rubber tree by in vitro technique with embryo somatic methods. Validation of mother plant for in vitro propagation is important to compare between mother plant and propagated plants. The aim for this research was to validation of PB 260 clone that planted at Cikumpay Plantation by SSR marker. Sampling of 10 rubber leaves were done at Cikumpay Plantation based on GPS position from the area of PB 260 clone. Rubber leaves were isolated with CTAB modification method to obtained DNA. Four of SSR primers from rubber, i.e.: hmac 4, hmac 5, hmct 1, and hmct 5, were used as primers to amplification of rubber DNA. The result showed that no band that different from 10 rubber of PB 260 clone at Cikumpay Plantation. This research will continue to compare genomic validation between mother plant and propagated plants that had been produced from BPPT.

  12. Fish Tales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLerran, L.

    2010-01-01

    This talk is about fishing and the friendships that have resulted in its pursuit. It is also about theoretical physics, and the relationship of imagination and fantasy to the establishment of ideas about nature. Fishermen, like theoretical physicists, are well known for their inventive imaginations. Perhaps neither are as clever as sailors, who conceived of the mermaid. If one doubts the power of this fantasy, one should remember the ghosts of the many sailors who drowned pursuing these young nymphs. An extraordinary painting by J. Waterhouse is shown as Fig. 1. The enchantment of a mermaid must reflect an extraordinary excess of imagination on the part of the sailor, perhaps together with an impractical turn of mind. A consummated relationship with a mermaid is after all, by its very nature a fantasy incapable of realization. To a theoretical physicist, she is symbolic of many ideas we develop. There are many truths known to fisherman in which one might also find parallels to the goals of scientists: (1) A fish is the only animal that keeps growing after its death; (2) Nothing makes a fish bigger than almost being caught; (3) ''...of all the liars among mankind, the fisherman is the most trustworthy.'' (William Sherwood Fox, in Silken Lines and Silver Hooks); and (4) Men and fish are alike. They both get into trouble when they open their mouths. These quotes may be interpreted as reflecting skepticism regarding the honesty of fisherman, and probably do not reflect adequate admiration for a creative imagination. Is it fair to criticize a person for believing a falsehood that he or she sincerely believes to be true? The fisherman simultaneously invents the lie, and believes in it himself. The parallel with theoretical physics is perhaps only approximate, although we physicists may invent stories that we come to believe, on some rare occasions our ideas actually correspond to a more or less true descriptions of nature. These minor philosophical differences are not

  13. Fish Tales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLerran, L.

    2010-07-06

    This talk is about fishing and the friendships that have resulted in its pursuit. It is also about theoretical physics, and the relationship of imagination and fantasy to the establishment of ideas about nature. Fishermen, like theoretical physicists, are well known for their inventive imaginations. Perhaps neither are as clever as sailors, who conceived of the mermaid. If one doubts the power of this fantasy, one should remember the ghosts of the many sailors who drowned pursuing these young nymphs. An extraordinary painting by J. Waterhouse is shown as Fig. 1. The enchantment of a mermaid must reflect an extraordinary excess of imagination on the part of the sailor, perhaps together with an impractical turn of mind. A consummated relationship with a mermaid is after all, by its very nature a fantasy incapable of realization. To a theoretical physicist, she is symbolic of many ideas we develop. There are many truths known to fisherman in which one might also find parallels to the goals of scientists: (1) A fish is the only animal that keeps growing after its death; (2) Nothing makes a fish bigger than almost being caught; (3) ''...of all the liars among mankind, the fisherman is the most trustworthy.'' (William Sherwood Fox, in Silken Lines and Silver Hooks); and (4) Men and fish are alike. They both get into trouble when they open their mouths. These quotes may be interpreted as reflecting skepticism regarding the honesty of fisherman, and probably do not reflect adequate admiration for a creative imagination. Is it fair to criticize a person for believing a falsehood that he or she sincerely believes to be true? The fisherman simultaneously invents the lie, and believes in it himself. The parallel with theoretical physics is perhaps only approximate, although we physicists may invent stories that we come to believe, on some rare occasions our ideas actually correspond to a more or less true descriptions of nature. These minor philosophical

  14. Temperature and pH conditions for mycelial growth of Agaricus brasiliensis on axenic cultivation/ Condições de temperatura e pH para o crescimento micelial de Agaricus brasiliensis em cultivo axênico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzia Doretto Paccola-Meirelles

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have been done to determine Agaricus brasiliensis Wasser et al. (A. blazei; A. subrufescens basic mycelial growth characteristics on axenic cultivation. This study aimed to determine the optimal temperature and initial pH for mycelial growth of A. brasiliensis on malt extract agar medium to develop axenic cultivation techniques. Studied initial pH values for mycelial growth were adjusted to 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 5.5, with HCl, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, with NaOH, and again 7.0 and 8.0, with CaCO3. Studied temperatures for mycelial growth were 22 ºC, 25 ºC, 28 ºC, 31 ºC and 34 ºC. It was concluded that A. brasiliensis can grow in axenic cultivation at temperature range from 22 oC to 34 ºC, with optimal temperature range from 28 oC to 31 ºC and optimal temperature value of 30.5 ºC ± 0.3 ºC. It also grows in initial pH range from 4.0 to 7.0, adjusted with HCl or NaOH but not CaCO3, with optimal initial pH range from 5.5 to 6.0 and optimal initial pH value of 5.56 ± 0.05. Mycelial growth is inhibited with pH of 3.0 or lower, 8.0 or higher, or when CaCO3 is used to adjust pH in the substratum to 7.0 or higher.Poucos estudos foram desenvolvidos para determinar as condições básicas de crescimento micelial do fungo Agaricus brasiliensis Wasser et al. (A. blazei, A. subrufescens. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a faixa ótima de temperatura e pH para o crescimento micelial, em agar-extrato-de-malte, de A. brasiliensis, visando o desenvolvimento de técnicas de cultivo axênica. Os valores de pH estudados foram 3,0, 4,0, 5,0 e 5,5, ajustados com HCl, 6,0, 7,0 e 8,0, ajustados com NaOH, e 7,0 e 8,0, ajustados com CaCO3. As temperaturas de crescimento estudadas foram 22 ºC; 25 ºC; 28 ºC; 31 ºC e 34 oC. Concluiu-se que A. brasiliensis cresce em uma faixa de temperatura ótima de 28 oC a 31 ºC, com valor ótimo de temperatura de 30,5 ºC ± 0,3 ºC. A faixa de pH inicial ótimo no substrato é de 5,5 a 6,0 e o valor de pH inicial

  15. Palinotaxonomia de Albertinia brasiliensis Spreng., Eremanthus bicolor (DC. Baker e Vanillosmopsis erythropappa (DC. Sch. Bip. (Compositae-Vernonieae Palynotaxonomy of Albertinia brasiliensis Spreng., Eremanthus bicolor (DC. Baker and Vanillosmopsis erythropappa (DC. Sch. Bip. (Compositae-Vernonieae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliny Férras Peçanha

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Vanillosmopsis Sch. Bip. tem sido, tradicionalmente, aceito como sinônimo de Eremanthus Less. e o gênero Albertinia Spreng. foi estabelecido para abrigar Albertinia brasiliensis Spreng. O presente trabalho propõe a caracterização polínica de Albertinia brasiliensis, Vanillosmopsis erythropappa e Eremanthus bicolor e fornece subsídios para futuros estudos taxonômicos. Foram utilizados grãos de pólen de espécimens coletados em diferentes herbários. As duas primeiras espécies são encontradas no Rio de Janeiro enquanto Eremanthus Less. não. Assim, optou-se por utilizar a espécie-tipo do gênero na análise polínica. Os grãos de pólen foram acetolisados, medidos, descritos e ilustrados usando microscopia de luz. Grãos de pólen não acetolisados foram usados para análise em microscopia eletrônica de varredura. O resultado do estudo polínico mostrou que as espécies podem ser separadas utilizandose, principalmente, as características das aberturas e da ornamentação da exina e revelou uma gradação evolutiva interespecífica dos caracteres polínicos. Com relação à taxonomia das espécies estudadas, os dados palinológicos comprovam a posição taxonômica de Albertinia brasiliensis, porém não reforça a sinonimização de Vanillosmopsis em Eremanthus.Vanillosmopsis Sch. Bip. has been traditionally accepted as a synonym of Eremanthus Less., and Albertinia Spreng. was established to include Albertinia brasiliensis Spreng. This paper characterizes the pollen of Albertinia brasiliensis, Vanillosmopsis erythropappa and Eremanthus bicolor and provides information for future taxonomic studies. Pollen grains of specimens collected in different herbaria were used in this study. The two first species are found in Rio de Janeiro, but Eremanthus is not found in this state. For this reason, the type species of this genus was used for pollen analysis. Pollen grains were acetolysed, measured, described and illustrated using optical

  16. Carbon-to-nitrogen ratios for Agaricus brasiliensis on the axenic method = Relação carbono/nitrogênio do substrato pelo método de cultivo axênico para Agaricus brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lienine Luiz Zaghi Junior

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation techniques for Agaricus brasiliensis (composting method and substratum formulations are the same ones used for Agaricus bisporus. Most of the carbon-tonitrogen (C:N ratios reported for A. brasiliensis are similar to those used for A. bisporus on the composting method and there are few studies about the variation of C:N ratios for A. brasilienses on the axenic method. The objective of this study was to verify the mycelial growth of A. brasiliensis on different C:N ratios using regional by-products as substrate formulation on the axenic method. Studied C:N ratios of substrate (mixture of soybean and cassava fibers ranged from 11:1 to 248:1, with nitrogen content ranging from 4.25 to 0.20%, respectively. It was concluded that substrate with only soybean fiber generates higher mycelial growth than any formulation with cassava fiber; the highest mycelial growth on substrate is with C:N ratio of 11:1 (N = 4.25%; the intermediate growth is with C:N ratio range from 15:1 to 50:1 (N from 3.31 to 0.98%; and the lowest growth is with C:N ratio of 100:1 or higher (N ≤ 0.50%. As técnicas de cultivo do Agaricus brasiliensis (método de compostagem e formulação de substrato são as mesmas utilizadas para o Agaricus bisporus. A maioria das relações carbono/nitrogênio (C/N relatadas para A. brasiliensis são similares às usadas para A. bisporus no método de compostagem. Há poucos estudos sobre a variação da relação C/N para A. brasilienses para o método axênico. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o efeito de diferentes relações C/N no crescimento micelial de Agaricus brasiliensis utilizando subprodutos regionais como substrato pelo método axênico. As relações C/N no substrato (misturas de fibra de soja e de mandioca estudadas variaram de 11 a 248 com consequentes concentrações de nitrogênio de 4,25 a 0,20%, respectivamente. Concluiu-se que os substratos somente com fibra de soja propiciam maior crescimento micelial que

  17. Microbiological, physico-chemical, and sensorial modifications during the useful life of the shrimps (Penaeus brasiliensis e Penaeus Paulensis) submitted to gamma radiation.; Alteracoes microbiologicas, fisico-quimicas e sensoriais durante a vida util do camarao-rosa (Penaeus brasiliensis e Penaeus Paulensis) submetido a radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, Mariana Del Ben

    2000-07-01

    During the last years, there has been an increase in the consumption of seafood and freshwater fish as a healthier diet option. Shrimps are the most important product in the international trade market. This kind of food easily deteriorates due to autolysis, oxidation and microbial action. This research was carried out in order to study the effectiveness of radiation in preserving shrimps. Samples of shrimps (Penaeus brasiliensis and P. paulensi) were submitted to gamma radiation doses of O kGy, 1 kGy, 2 kGy, 2.5 kGy, 3 kGy and 3.5 kGy and stored under refrigeration. The microbiological analysis was performed on days O, 2, 4, 7 10 and 14 post processing. Simultaneously, the pH and total, volatile bases (TVBN) were determined. The psychotropic population varied from <2.0 log to 8.08 log CFU/g while the mesophilic ranged from <1.0 109 to 6.03 log CFU/g; pH varied from 7.52 to 8.33 and TVBN from 28.47 to 56.00 mg N/100g, according to the radiation dose and the day of analysis. Black spots, changes in the characteristic odour and TVBN levels showed the beginning of a chemical deterioration as of the 4 th day of analysis. Doses of 3 kGy and 3.5 kGy presented the best results. Pseudomonas spp. showed the highest sensitivity to radiation. Due to the lapse of time between capturing shrimps and returning to land together with inadequate manipulation and storage in the boat, the quality of raw material is prejudiced which makes the radiation process unfeasible. (author)

  18. Fishing activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Ferdinand; Puig, Pere; Martin, Jacobo; Micallef, Aaron; Krastel, Sebastian; Savini, Alessandra

    2018-01-01

    Unlike the major anthropogenic changes that terrestrial and coastal habitats underwent during the last centuries such as deforestation, river engineering, agricultural practices or urbanism, those occurring underwater are veiled from our eyes and have continued nearly unnoticed. Only recent advances in remote sensing and deep marine sampling technologies have revealed the extent and magnitude of the anthropogenic impacts to the seafloor. In particular, bottom trawling, a fishing technique consisting of dragging a net and fishing gear over the seafloor to capture bottom-dwelling living resources has gained attention among the scientific community, policy makers and the general public due to its destructive effects on the seabed. Trawling gear produces acute impacts on biota and the physical substratum of the seafloor by disrupting the sediment column structure, overturning boulders, resuspending sediments and imprinting deep scars on muddy bottoms. Also, the repetitive passage of trawling gear over the same areas creates long-lasting, cumulative impacts that modify the cohesiveness and texture of sediments. It can be asserted nowadays that due to its recurrence, mobility and wide geographical extent, industrial trawling has become a major force driving seafloor change and affecting not only its physical integrity on short spatial scales but also imprinting measurable modifications to the geomorphology of entire continental margins.

  19. Chemical constituents and evaluation of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of roots of Sabicea brasiliensis Wernh (Rubiaceae); Constituintes quimicos e avaliavao das atividades antioxidante e anti-inflamatoria das raizes de Sabicea brasiliensis Wernh (Rubiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Jucilene Cavalini; Santin, Silvana Maria de Oliveira; Schuquel, Ivania T. Albrecht; Silva, Cleuza Conceicao da, E-mail: ccsilva@uem.br [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Arruda, Laura Licia Milani de; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Departamento de Farmacologia e Terapeutica; Oliveira, Cecilia Maria Alves de; Kato, Lucilia; Ferreira, Heleno Dias [Universidade Federal de Goais (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The phytochemical investigation of Sabicea brasiliensis roots led to the isolation of 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,5- and 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinics acids, scopoletin, ursolic acid, a mixture of β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol, daucosterol and saccharose. The structures of the isolated compounds were assigned on the basis of one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic methods and by comparison with literature data. The anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of the crude methanolic extract and its fractions were analyzed. (author)

  20. Fish tapeworm infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish tapeworm infection is an intestinal infection with a parasite found in fish. ... The fish tapeworm ( Diphyllobothrium latum ) is the largest parasite that infects humans. Humans become infected when they eat raw ...

  1. First documented record of Holochilus brasiliensis (Desmarest, 1819 and Calomys laucha (G. Fischer, 1814 in the state of Santa Catarina, south Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Bortolotto Peters

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the richness of small mammals in the Brazilian South Region are recent and point out the need for using varied methods. This way, this paper contributes to knowledge on the fauna of small sigmodontinae rodents in Santa Catarina, including Holochilus brasiliensis and Calomys laucha in the list of species with confirmed occurrence in this state. The records of H. brasiliensis refer to Laguna (n = 2 and Timbe do Sul (n = 1. In turn, C. laucha presents 23 records from Capinzal. The entire material is represented by skull fragments from owl pellets samples collected from nests and feeding perches of the Tyto alba.

  2. In vitro antifungal activity of fatty acid methyl esters of the seeds of Annona cornifolia A.St.-Hil. (Annonaceae) against pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Luciana Alves Rodrigues dos Santos; Johann, Susana; Cisalpino, Patrícia Silva; Pimenta, Lúcia Pinheiro Santos; Boaventura, Maria Amélia Diamantino

    2011-01-01

    Fatty acids are abundant in vegetable oils. They are known to have antibacterial and antifungal properties. Antifungal susceptibility was evaluated by broth microdilution assay following CLSI (formerly the NCCLS) guidelines against 16 fungal strains of clinical interest. In this work, fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) was able to inhibit 12 clinical strains of the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and were also active in the bioautographic assay against Cladosporium sphaerospermum. FAME was a more potent antifungal than trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole against P. brasiliensis under the experimental conditions tested.

  3. In-silico gene co-expression network analysis in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis with reference to haloacid dehalogenase superfamily hydrolase gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghunath Satpathy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, a dimorphic fungus is the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, a disease globally affecting millions of people. The haloacid dehalogenase (HAD superfamily hydrolases enzyme in the fungi, in particular, is known to be responsible in the pathogenesis by adhering to the tissue. Hence, identification of novel drug targets is essential. Aims: In-silico based identification of co-expressed genes along with HAD superfamily hydrolase in P. brasiliensis during the morphogenesis from mycelium to yeast to identify possible genes as drug targets. Materials and Methods: In total, four datasets were retrieved from the NCBI-gene expression omnibus (GEO database, each containing 4340 genes, followed by gene filtration expression of the data set. Further co-expression (CE study was performed individually and then a combination these genes were visualized in the Cytoscape 2. 8.3. Statistical Analysis Used: Mean and standard deviation value of the HAD superfamily hydrolase gene was obtained from the expression data and this value was subsequently used for the CE calculation purpose by selecting specific correlation power and filtering threshold. Results: The 23 genes that were thus obtained are common with respect to the HAD superfamily hydrolase gene. A significant network was selected from the Cytoscape network visualization that contains total 7 genes out of which 5 genes, which do not have significant protein hits, obtained from gene annotation of the expressed sequence tags by BLAST X. For all the protein PSI-BLAST was performed against human genome to find the homology. Conclusions: The gene co-expression network was obtained with respect to HAD superfamily dehalogenase gene in P. Brasiliensis.

  4. Efficacy of a poly-aggregated formulation of amphotericin B in treating systemic sporotrichosis caused by Sporothrix brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Kelly; Castro, Rafaela Alves; Torrado, Juan J; Serrano, Dolores Remedios; Borba-Santos, Luana Pereira; Quintella, Leonardo Pereira; de Souza, Wanderley; Rozental, Sonia; Lopes-Bezerra, Leila M

    2018-04-01

    In severe cases of sporotrichosis, it is recommended to use amphotericin B deoxycholate (D-AMB) or its lipid formulations and/or in association with itraconazole (ITC). Our aim was to evaluate the antifungal efficacy of a poly-aggregated amphotericin B (P-AMB), a nonlipid formulation, compared with D-AMB on systemic sporotrichosis caused by Sporothrix brasiliensis. In vitro assays showed that Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto and S. brasiliensis yeast clinical isolates were susceptible to low concentrations of P-AMB and D-AMB. Although P-AMB presented a higher minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) compared to D-AMB, its cytotoxic effect on renal cells and erythrocytes was lower. For the in vivo assays, male BALB/c mice were intravenously infected with S. brasiliensis yeasts, and P-AMB or D-AMB was administered 3 days post-infection. The efficacy of five therapeutic regimens was tested: intravenous monotherapy with P-AMB or D-AMB, intravenous pulsed-therapy with P-AMB or D-AMB, and intravenous therapy with P-AMB, followed by oral ITC. These treatments increased murine survival and controlled the fungal burden in the liver, spleen, lungs, and kidneys. However, only D-AMB monotherapy or the pulsed-therapies with D-AMB or P-AMB led to 100% survival of the mice 45 days post-infection; only pulsed administration of D-AMB was able to control the fungal load in all organs 45 days post-infection. Accordingly, the histopathological findings showed reductions in the fungal burden and inflammatory reactions in these treatment regimens. Together, our results suggest that the P-AMB formulation could be considered as an alternative drug to D-AMB for treating disseminated sporotrichosis.

  5. Fish welfare: Fish capacity to experience pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Marijana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Teleost fish possess similar nociceptive processing systems to those found in terrestrial vertebrates. It means that they react to potential painful stimuli in a similar manner as mammals and birds. However, the welfare of fish has been the focus of less research than that of higher vertebrates. Humans may affect the welfare of fish through fisheries, aquaculture and a number of other activities. There is scientific evidence to support the assumption that fish have the capacity to experience pain because they possess functional nociceptors, endogenous opioids and opioid receptors, brain structures involved in pain processing and pathways leading from nociceptors to higher brain structures. Also, it is well documented that some anaesthetics and analgesics may reduce nociceptive responses in fish. Behavioural indicators in fish such as lip-rubbing and rocking behaviours are the best proof that fish react to potential painful stimuli. This paper is an overview of some scientific evidence on fish capacity to experience pain.

  6. Thyrotoxicosis followed by Hypothyroidism due to Suppurative Thyroiditis Caused by Nocardia brasiliensis in a Patient with Advanced Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teckie, G2; Bhana, S A; Tsitsi, J M L; Shires, R

    2014-03-01

    Acute thyroiditis is an extremely rare complication of nocardiosis. We report a patient with hyperthyroidism due to suppurative thyroiditis caused by Nocardia brasiliensis. A 38-year-old Black male presented with features of thyrotoxicosis, sepsis and airway obstruction. He had no evidence of underlying thyroid disease, but was severely immunocompromised as a result of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. He had previously been diagnosed with pulmonary nocardiosis and also had nocardial abscesses on his anterior chest wall. Investigations revealed thyrotoxicosis, with a FT4 of 43.2 pmol/l and a suppressed TSH Nocardia.

  7. Fish for Feed vs Fish for Food

    OpenAIRE

    Allan, Geoff L.

    2004-01-01

    Aquaculture is the fastest-growing food producing industry sector in the world. Demand for feed ingredients, particularly for preferred protein sources such as fishmeal, fish oil and ‘trash fish’, has also increased, raising questions about sustainability and uses of fish for aquaculture feeds or directly as human food. Approximately 30 million metric tonnes (MMT) of fish from capture fisheries are used each year to produce fishmeal and fish oil. The species used are not usually consumed dire...

  8. Microbiological spoilage of fish and fish products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gram, L; Huss, H H

    1996-11-01

    Spoilage of fresh and lightly preserved fish products is caused by microbial action. This paper reviews the current knowledge in terms of the microbiology of fish and fish products with particular emphasis on identification of specific spoilage bacteria and the qualitative and quantitative biochemical indicators of spoilage. Shewanella putrefaciens and Pseudomonas spp. are the specific spoilage bacteria of iced fresh fish regardless of the origin of the fish. Modified atmosphere stored marine fish from temperate waters are spoiled by the CO2 resistant Photobacterium phosphoreum whereas Gram-positive bacteria are likely spoilers of CO2 packed fish from fresh or tropical waters. Fish products with high salt contents may spoil due to growth of halophilic bacteria (salted fish) or growth of anaerobic bacteria and yeasts (barrel salted fish). Whilst the spoilage of fresh and highly salted fish is well understood, much less is known about spoilage of lightly preserved fish products. It is concluded that the spoilage is probably caused by lactic acid bacteria, certain psychotrophic Enterobacteriaceae and/or Photobacterium phosphoreum. However, more work is needed in this area.

  9. Fishing Fish Stem Cells and Nuclear Transplants

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Yunhan

    2011-01-01

    Fish has been the subject of various research fields, ranging from ecology, evolution, physiology and toxicology to aquaculture. In the past decades fish has attracted considerable attention for functional genomics, cancer biology and developmental genetics, in particular nuclear transfer for understanding of cytoplasmic-nuclear relationship. This special issue reports on recent progress made in fish stem cells and nuclear transfer.

  10. Brazilian sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis spawning in the southeast Brazilian Bight over the period 1976-1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasunobu Matsuura

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on sampling over the period 1976-1993 in the southeast Brazilian Bight, the distribution of spawning of the Brazilian sardine (Sardinella brasi/iensis is described in relation to environmental conditions. The area of intense spawning occurs in the southern part of the bight where coastal upwelling was less /Tequent. Spawning intensity showed high interannllal variation and the egg abundance in the survey area ranged /Tom 99 billion eggs in the January 1988 cruise to 4669 billion eggs in the January 1981 cruise. Peak spawning takes place one hour after midnight and eggs hatch . out within 19 hours with a water temperature of 24 °e.Baseado nos dados coletados durante nove cruzeiros oceanográficos realizados na região sudeste, as áreas de desova da sardinha-verdadeira (Sardinella brasiliensis foram apresentadas c discutidas em relação às condições oceanográficas. As áreas de desova intensiva foram localizadas na parte sul da área de investigação, onde a ressurgência costeira foi menos freqüente. A intensidade de desova demonstrou uma variação anual relativamente grande. A produção total de ovos da sardinha- ­verdadeira variou de 99 bilhões de ovos durante o cruzeiro de janeiro de 1988 para 4669 bilhões de ovos em janeiro de 1981. O pico de desova ocorre na camada de mistura de superfície uma hora após a meia noite e os ovos eclodem em 19 horas com a temperatura de água 24 °e.

  11. Kinetic Study on Catalytic Cracking of Rubber Seed (Hevea brasiliensis Oil to Liquid Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wara Dyah Pita Rengga

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Reaction kinetics of catalytic cracking of rubber seed oil to liquid fuels has been investigated. The reac-tion was performed with sulfuric acid as catalyst at temperatures of 350-450 oC and the ratio of oil-catalyst of 0-2 wt.% for 30-90 minutes. Kinetics was studied using the model of 6-lump parameters. The parameters were rubber seed oil, gasoline, kerosene, diesel, gas, and coke. Analysis of experimen-tal data using regression models to obtain reaction rate constants. Activation energies and pre-exponential factors were then calculated based on the Arrhenius equation. The simulation result illus-trated that the six-lump kinetic model can well predict the product yields of rubber seed oil catalytic cracking. The product has high selectivity for gasoline fraction as liquid fuel and the smallest amount of coke. The constant indicates that secondary reactions occurred in diesel products compared to gaso-line and kerosene. The predicted results indicate that catalytic cracking of rubber seed oil had better be conducted at 450 oC for 90 minutes using 0.5 wt.% catalyst. © 2015 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 3rd December 2013; Revised: 5th December 2014; Accepted: 7th December 2014How to Cite: Rengga, W.D.P., Handayani, P.A., Kadarwati, S., Feinnudin, A.(2015. Kinetic Study on Catalytic Cracking of Rubber Seed (Hevea brasiliensis Oil  to Liquid Fuels. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 10 (1: 50-60. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.10.1.5852.50-60Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.10.1.5852.50-60

  12. Gas exchange and hydraulics in seedlings of Hevea brasiliensis during water stress and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun-Wen; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Xiao-Shuang; Cao, Kun-Fang

    2010-07-01

    The response of plants to drought has received significant attention, but far less attention has been given to the dynamic response of plants during recovery from drought. Photosynthetic performance and hydraulic capacity were monitored in seedlings of Hevea brasiliensis under water stress and during recovery following rewatering. Leaf water relation, gas exchange rate and hydraulic conductivity decreased gradually after water stress fell below a threshold, whereas instantaneous water use efficiency and osmolytes increased significantly. After 5 days of rewatering, leaf water relation, maximum stomatal conductance (g(s-max)) and plant hydraulic conductivity had recovered to the control levels except for sapwood area-specific hydraulic conductivity, photosynthetic assimilation rate and osmolytes. During the phase of water stress, stomata were almost completely closed before water transport efficiency decreased substantially, and moreover, the leaf hydraulic pathway was more vulnerable to water stress-induced embolism than the stem hydraulic pathway. Meanwhile, g(s-max) was linearly correlated with hydraulic capacity when water stress exceeded a threshold. In addition, a positive relationship was shown to occur between the recovery of g(s-max) and of hydraulic capacity during the phase of rewatering. Our results suggest (i) that stomatal closure effectively reduces the risk of xylem dysfunction in water-stressed plants at the cost of gas exchange, (ii) that the leaf functions as a safety valve to protect the hydraulic pathway from water stress-induced dysfunction to a larger extent than does the stem and (iii) that the full drought recovery of gas exchange is restricted by not only hydraulic factors but also non-hydraulic factors.

  13. Deterrent effect evaluation of vegetal extracts on Papilio thoas brasiliensis (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae Rothschild & Jordan, 1906

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cupertino de Souza Débora María

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A crescente preocupação mundial tem motivado pesquisadores a buscarem alternativas consideradas saudáveis e que controlem insetos-praga e doenças. Dentre estas alternativas, destaca-se a utilização de aleloquímicos extraídos de plantas (Jacobson 1989, pois são produtos naturais que reduzem os efeitos negativos ocasionados pela aplicação descontrolada de inseticidas organossintéticos (Medeiros et al 2005, reduzindo o desenvolvimento de populações resistentes do inseto, e o aparecimento de novas pragas ou a ressurgência de outras (Souza 2004. O uso de extratos de plantas medicinais faz com que determinados componentes ativos presentes nos vegetais, quando utilizados de forma concentrada, atuem no controle de insetos, inibindo sua alimentação ou prejudicando-os após a ingestão (Costa et al 2004. Muitas apresentam sobre os insetos efeito tóxico, inibição de crescimento, redução de fecundidade, fertilidade e repelência dado os compostos metabólicos secundários que apresentam como alcalóides, terpenos, flavonóides e esteróides com propriedades medicinais comprovadas (Di Stasi 1996, se justificado, portanto, o uso delas no controle de pragas. Assim, a presente pesquisa teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito deterrente de extratos de espécies medicinais de Atropa belladonna L. (belladona; Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (nim; Mikania glomerata Spreng. (guaco; Symphytum officinale L. (confrei; Ruta graveolens L. (arruda; sobre Papilio thoas brasiliensis (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae. Na presente pesquisa o destaque deve ser dado ao confrei e nim pelo efeito deterrente apresentado. No presente estudo foi possível determinar que houve deterrência, mas não há como informar se outros efeitos ocorreram somados a esse.

  14. PROBLEMATIC IN THE PROCESSES OF PRODUCTION IN RUBBER PLANTATIONS (Hevea brasiliensis Muell Arg. IN TABASCO, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyra Izquierdo-Bautista

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify some of the basic problems presented in the production process in rubber plantations Hevea brasiliensis Muell Arg. in Tabasco, Mexico. The applied diagnosis technique was the randomized survey for 68 producers in plantations under rubber production. ANOVA and Duncan analyses were done (P< 0.05. Plantations under production were between 7 to 46 years old. The 24% of these are considered as young plantations (7 to 18 years old, 34% mature (19 to 30 years old, and 12% old growth (31 to 46 years old, according to the level of latex production. Latex collection is realized by 85% men and 15% women. An important detected problem is the incidence of insects and diseases over the 82% of the plantations. In Tabasco State, two types of raw material are generated: clot (solid and latex (liquid. The tapping systems are ½ S d/1 6d/7 (one cuts in an average spiral with daily tapping over the 49% of the plantations, and the system ½ S d/2 6d/7, cuts in semi-spirals with alternating tapping over 51% of the plantations. The producers that practiced daily tapped obtained yields of 1.588 kg per ha/yr of dry rubber, in the other hand, those that tapped every other day obtained a yield of 1.647 kg per ha/year of dry rubber. The yield in daily tapping was 3.54% lower than the system with alternating tapping. The income obtained by the producers of fresh rubber varied from $8.750, 00 (810, 2 USD ha/year to $27.870, 00 (2.580 USD ha/year in 2006 and the production of latex from $5.955, 00 (551, 4 USD to 16.568,00 (1.534 USD per ha/year.

  15. Characterization of Sugar Contents and Sucrose Metabolizing Enzymes in Developing Leaves of Hevea brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinheng Zhu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sucrose-metabolizing enzymes in plant leaves have hitherto been investigated mainly in temperate plants, and rarely conducted in tandem with gene expression and sugar analysis. Here, we investigated the sugar content, gene expression, and the activity of sucrose-metabolizing enzymes in the leaves of Hevea brasiliensis, a tropical tree widely cultivated for natural rubber. Sucrose, fructose and glucose were the major sugars detected in Hevea leaves at four developmental stages (I to IV, with starch and quebrachitol as minor saccharides. Fructose and glucose contents increased until stage III, but decreased strongly at stage IV (mature leaves. On the other hand, sucrose increased continuously throughout leaf development. Activities of all sucrose-cleaving enzymes decreased markedly at maturation, consistent with transcript decline for most of their encoding genes. Activity of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS was low in spite of its high transcript levels at maturation. Hence, the high sucrose content in mature leaves was not due to increased sucrose-synthesizing activity, but more to the decline in sucrose cleavage. Gene expression and activities of sucrose-metabolizing enzymes in Hevea leaves showed striking differences compared with other plants. Unlike in most other species where vacuolar invertase predominates in sucrose cleavage in developing leaves, cytoplasmic invertase and sucrose synthase (cleavage direction also featured prominently in Hevea. Whereas SPS is normally responsible for sucrose synthesis in plant leaves, sucrose synthase (synthesis direction was comparable or higher than that of SPS in Hevea leaves. Mature Hevea leaves had an unusually high sucrose:starch ratio of about 11, the highest reported to date in plants.

  16. Evapotranspiration of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) cultivated at two plantation sites in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giambelluca, Thomas W.; Mudd, Ryan G.; Liu, Wen; Ziegler, Alan D.; Kobayashi, Nakako; Kumagai, Tomo'omi; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Lim, Tiva Khan; Huang, Maoyi; Fox, Jefferson; Yin, Song; Mak, Sophea Veasna; Kasemsap, Poonpipope

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the effects of expanding rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) cultivation on water cycling in Mainland Southeast Asia (MSEA), evapotranspiration (ET) was measured within rubber plantations at Bueng Kan, Thailand, and Kampong Cham, Cambodia. After energy closure adjustment, mean annual rubber ET was 1211 and 1459 mm yr-1 at the Thailand and Cambodia sites, respectively, higher than that of other tree-dominated land covers in the region, including tropical seasonal forest (812-1140 mm yr-1), and savanna (538-1060 mm yr-1). The mean proportion of net radiation used for ET by rubber (0.725) is similar to that of tropical rainforest (0.729) and much higher than that of tropical seasonal forest (0.595) and savanna (0.548). Plant area index (varies with leaf area changes), explains 88.2% and 73.1% of the variance in the ratio of latent energy flux (energy equivalent of ET) to potential latent energy flux (LE/LEpot) for midday rain-free periods at the Thailand and Cambodia sites, respectively. High annual rubber ET results from high late dry season water use, associated with rapid refoliation by this brevideciduous species, facilitated by tapping of deep soil water, and by very high wet season ET, a characteristic of deciduous trees. Spatially, mean annual rubber ET increases strongly with increasing net radiation (Rn) across the three available rubber plantation observation sites, unlike nonrubber tropical ecosystems, which reduce canopy conductance at high Rn sites. High water use by rubber raises concerns about potential effects of continued expansion of tree plantations on water and food security in MSEA.

  17. Observações sobre stomatopoda Squilla brasiliensis calman, 1917 na plataforma continental do Rio Grande do Sul Observation on the Stamatopoda Squilla brasiliensis Calman, 1917 on the continental shelf of the Rio Grande do Sul State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Roberto Tommasi

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available O Stomatopoda Squilla brasiliensis ocorreu em 60 estações na plataforma continental do Rio Grande do Sul. É aparentemente, bastante freqüente entre 19 e 285 m de profundidade, mas especialmente entre 100 e 150 m, temperatura da água de fundo de 12,22 a 24,45ºC, salinidade de 30,20 a 36,16º/.., fundo de areia fina e lodo com baixo teor de calcario (0-20% na fração menor do que 44µ. Ocorreu especialmente em fundos sob influencia da massa de água Subtropical. As maiores abundancias ocorreram entre 30º e 31ºS e entre 49º e 50ºW. Vários exemplares, tanto machos como fêmeas, apresentaram telso com bordos entumescidos, o que sugere não ser essa uma característica ligada ao sexo nesta espécie .The distribution of Squilla brasiliensis Caiman, 1917 (Crustacea Stomatopoda is by the first time discussed in the continental plataform in the region of Rio Grande do Sul State, in relationship with depth, temperature and salinity. Apparently the distribution of that species is more related to salinity than to depth and temperature, and specially to the water mass of Subtropical origin. The largest densities were found between 84 and 128 m depth.

  18. Mesotrione herbicide promotes biochemical changes and DNA damage in two fish species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.D.S. Piancini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesotrione is one of the new herbicides that have emerged as an alternative after the ban of atrazine in the European Union. To our knowledge, any work using genetic or biochemical biomarkers was performed in any kind of fish evaluating the toxicity of this compound. The impact of acute (96 h exposure to environmentally relevant mesotrione concentrations (1.8, 7, 30, 115 e 460 μg L−1 were evaluated on the liver of Oreochorimis niloticus and Geophagus brasiliensis by assessing the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and glutathione-S- transferase (GST, the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH, carbonyl assays (PCO and lipid peroxide (LPO as well as the DNA damage to erithrocytes, liver and gills through the comet assay. We observed an increase in the concentration of GSH and the GPx activity in O. niloticus, and the GST and SOD activity in G. brasiliensis. We found significant increase in DNA damage in all tissues in both species. The results indicated that the acute exposure to mesotrione can induce oxidative stress and DNA damage in both species.

  19. Fish under exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palstra, A.P.; Planas, J.V.

    2011-01-01

    Improved knowledge on the swimming physiology of fish and its application to fisheries science and aquaculture (i.e., farming a fitter fish) is currently needed in the face of global environmental changes, high fishing pressures, increased aquaculture production as well as increased concern on fish

  20. DNA barcoding identifies Argentine fishes from marine and brackish waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel Mabragaña

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: DNA barcoding has been advanced as a promising tool to aid species identification and discovery through the use of short, standardized gene targets. Despite extensive taxonomic studies, for a variety of reasons the identification of fishes can be problematic, even for experts. DNA barcoding is proving to be a useful tool in this context. However, its broad application is impeded by the need to construct a comprehensive reference sequence library for all fish species. Here, we make a regional contribution to this grand challenge by calibrating the species discrimination efficiency of barcoding among 125 Argentine fish species, representing nearly one third of the known fauna, and examine the utility of these data to address several key taxonomic uncertainties pertaining to species in this region. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Specimens were collected and morphologically identified during crusies conducted between 2005 and 2008. The standard BARCODE fragment of COI was amplified and bi-directionally sequenced from 577 specimens (mean of 5 specimens/species, and all specimens and sequence data were archived and interrogated using analytical tools available on the Barcode of Life Data System (BOLD; www.barcodinglife.org. Nearly all species exhibited discrete clusters of closely related haplogroups which permitted the discrimination of 95% of the species (i.e. 119/125 examined while cases of shared haplotypes were detected among just three species-pairs. Notably, barcoding aided the identification of a new species of skate, Dipturus argentinensis, permitted the recognition of Genypterus brasiliensis as a valid species and questions the generic assignment of Paralichthys isosceles. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study constitutes a significant contribution to the global barcode reference sequence library for fishes and demonstrates the utility of barcoding for regional species identification. As an independent assessment of alpha

  1. Alterations in Aspergillus brasiliensis (niger) ATCC 9642 membranes associated to metabolism modifications during application of low-intensity electric current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco-Alvarez, Nancy; Gutiérrez-Rojas, Mariano; González, Ignacio

    2017-12-01

    The effects of electric current on membranes associated with metabolism modifications in Aspergillus brasiliensis (niger) ATCC 9642 were studied. A 450-mL electrochemical cell with titanium ruthenium-oxide coated electrodes and packed with 15g of perlite, as inert support, was inoculated with A. brasiliensis spores and incubated in a solid inert-substrate culture (12 d; 30°C). Then, 4.5days after starting the culture, a current of 0.42mAcm -2 was applied for 24h. The application of low-intensity electric current increased the molecular oxygen consumption rate in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, resulting in high concentrations of reactive oxygen species, promoting high lipoperoxidation levels, according to measured malondialdehyde, and consequent alterations in membrane permeability explained the high n-hexadecane (HXD) degradation rates observed here (4.7-fold higher than cultures without current). Finally, cell differentiation and spore production were strongly stimulated. The study contributes to the understanding of the effect of current on the cell membrane and its association with HXD metabolism. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Clinical features, fungal load, coinfections, histological skin changes, and itraconazole treatment response of cats with sporotrichosis caused by Sporothrix brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Elaine Waite; Borba, Cintia de Moraes; Pereira, Sandro Antonio; Gremião, Isabella Dib Ferreira; Langohr, Ingeborg Maria; Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista; de Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes; da Cunha, Camila Rocha; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria; de Miranda, Luisa Helena Monteiro; Menezes, Rodrigo Caldas

    2018-06-13

    Zoonotic sporotrichosis caused by the fungus Sporothrix brasiliensis is usually severe in cats. This study investigated the associations between clinical features, fungal load, coinfections, histological skin changes, and response to itraconazole in cats with sporotrichosis caused by S. brasiliensis. Fifty-two cats with skin lesions and a definitive diagnosis of sporotrichosis were treated with itraconazole for a maximum period of 36 weeks. The animals were submitted to clinical examination and two subsequent collections of samples from the same skin lesion for fungal diagnosis and histopathology, as well as serology for feline immunodeficiency (FIV) and leukaemia (FeLV) viruses. Thirty-seven (71%) cats were clinically cured. Nasal mucosa lesions and respiratory signs were associated with treatment failure. Cats coinfected with FIV/FeLV (n = 12) had a lower neutrophil count in the lesion. A high fungal load in skin lesions was linked to young age and treatment failure, as well as to a longer time of wound healing, poorly formed granulomas and fewer neutrophils, macrophages and lymphocytes in these lesions. These results indicate that itraconazole is effective, but nasal mucosal involvement, respiratory signs and high fungal loads in skin lesions are predictors of treatment failure that will assist in the development of better treatment protocols for cats.

  3. Effect of the addition of nitrogen sources to cassava fiber and carbon-to-nitrogen ratios on Agaricus brasiliensis growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, T R D; Linde, G A; Colauto, N B

    2007-01-01

    The same substratum formulation to grow Agaricus bisporus has been used to grow Agaricus brasiliensis since its culture started in Brazil. Despite being different species, many of the same rules have been used for composting or axenic cultivation when it comes to nitrogen content and source in the substrate. The aim of this study was to verify the mycelial growth of A. brasiliensis in different ammonium sulfate and (or) urea concentrations added to cassava fiber and different carbon-to-nitrogen (C:N) ratios to increase the efficiency of axenic cultivation. Two nitrogen sources (urea and (or) ammonium sulfate) added to cassava fiber were tested for the in vitro mycelial growth in different C:N ratios (ranging from 2.5:l to 50:l) in the dark at 28 degrees C. The radial mycelial growth was measured after 8 days of growth and recorded photographically at the end of the experiment. Nitrogen from urea enhanced fungal growth better than ammonium sulfate or any mixture of nitrogen. The best C:N ratios for fungal growth were from 10:l to 50:l; C:N ratios below 10:l inhibited fungal growth.

  4. Chemical composition and anti-inflammatory evaluation of essential oils from leaves and stem barks from Drimys brasiliensis Miers (Winteraceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lago, Joao Henrique G., E-mail: joao.lago@unifesp.b [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), Diadema, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra; Carvalho, Larissa A.C.; Silva, Flavia S. da; Romoff, Paulete [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias e Humanidades; Toyama, Daniela de O.; Favero, Oriana A. [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas e da Saude

    2010-07-01

    The essential oils from leaves and stem barks from Drimys brasiliensis Miers (Winteraceae) were individually obtained by hydrodistillation and their compounds characterized by use of GC/FID and GC/MS. The main identified derivatives were monoterpenes (leaves 4.31% and stem barks 90.02%) and sesquiterpenes (leaves 52.31% and stem barks 6.35%). Additionally, the sesquiterpene polygodial was isolated from hexane extract from stem barks of D. brasiliensis after chromatographic steps and characterized by spectroscopic means, mainly NMR. Aiming the evaluation of anti-inflammatory potential, the crude essential oils and the sesquiterpene polygodial were subjected to bioassays to evaluate the acute toxicity of these compounds as well as the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities induced by carrageenan and formalin in mice. Ours results showed that essential oil obtained from the stem barks significantly reduced the oedema induced by carrageenan. The anti-inflammatory effect induced by stem barks oil (at 200 mg kg{sup -1}) was similar to observed for indomethacin (at 10 mg kg{sup -1}) and superior for polygodial (at 200 mg kg{sup -1}) in 30 and 60 min after the administration of essential oils. The inflammatory response induced by formalin was effective to the stem barks oil (62.5%) in comparison to polygodial (50.0%). (author)

  5. Behavioural evidence of male volatile pheromones in the sex-role reversed wolf spiders Allocosa brasiliensis and Allocosa alticeps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisenberg, Anita; Baruffaldi, Luciana; González, Macarena

    2010-01-01

    The use of chemical signals in a sexual context is widespread in the animal kingdom. Most studies in spiders report the use of female pheromones that attract potential sexual partners. Allocosa brasiliensis and Allocosa alticeps are two burrowing wolf spiders that show sex-role reversal. Females locate male burrows and initiate courtship before males perform any detectable visual or vibratory signal. So, females of these species would be detecting chemical or mechanical cues left by males. Our objective was to explore the potential for male pheromones to play a role in mate detection in A. brasiliensis and A. alticeps. We designed two experiments. In Experiment 1, we tested the occurrence of male contact pheromones by evaluating female courtship when exposed to empty burrows constructed by males or females (control). In Experiment 2, we tested the existence of male volatile pheromones by evaluating female behaviour when exposed to artificial burrows connected to tubes containing males, females or empty tubes (control). Our results suggest the occurrence of male volatile pheromones that trigger female courtship in both Allocosa species. The sex-role reversal postulated for these wolf spiders could be driving the consequent reversal in typical pheromone-emitter and detector roles expected for spiders.

  6. Communication during copulation in the sex-role reversed wolf spider Allocosa brasiliensis: Female shakes for soliciting new ejaculations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Diaz, Virginia; Aisenberg, Anita; Peretti, Alfredo V

    2015-07-01

    Traditional studies on sexual communication have focused on the exchange of signals during courtship. However, communication between the sexes can also occur during or after copulation. Allocosa brasiliensis is a wolf spider that shows a reversal in typical sex roles and of the usual sexual size dimorphism expected for spiders. Females are smaller than males and they are the roving sex that initiates courtship. Occasional previous observations suggested that females performed body shaking behaviors during copulation. Our objective was to analyze if female body shaking is associated with male copulatory behavior in A. brasiliensis, and determine if this female behavior has a communicatory function in this species. For that purpose, we performed fine-scaled analysis of fifteen copulations under laboratory conditions. We video-recorded all the trials and looked for associations between female and male copulatory behaviors. The significant difference between the time before and after female shaking, in favor of the subsequent ejaculation is analyzed. We discuss if shaking could be acting as a signal to accelerate and motivate palpal insertion and ejaculation, and/or inhibiting male cannibalistic tendencies in this species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Chemical composition and anti-inflammatory evaluation of essential oils from leaves and stem barks from Drimys brasiliensis Miers (Winteraceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lago, Joao Henrique G.; Carvalho, Larissa A.C.; Silva, Flavia S. da; Romoff, Paulete; Toyama, Daniela de O.; Favero, Oriana A.

    2010-01-01

    The essential oils from leaves and stem barks from Drimys brasiliensis Miers (Winteraceae) were individually obtained by hydrodistillation and their compounds characterized by use of GC/FID and GC/MS. The main identified derivatives were monoterpenes (leaves 4.31% and stem barks 90.02%) and sesquiterpenes (leaves 52.31% and stem barks 6.35%). Additionally, the sesquiterpene polygodial was isolated from hexane extract from stem barks of D. brasiliensis after chromatographic steps and characterized by spectroscopic means, mainly NMR. Aiming the evaluation of anti-inflammatory potential, the crude essential oils and the sesquiterpene polygodial were subjected to bioassays to evaluate the acute toxicity of these compounds as well as the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities induced by carrageenan and formalin in mice. Ours results showed that essential oil obtained from the stem barks significantly reduced the oedema induced by carrageenan. The anti-inflammatory effect induced by stem barks oil (at 200 mg kg -1 ) was similar to observed for indomethacin (at 10 mg kg -1 ) and superior for polygodial (at 200 mg kg -1 ) in 30 and 60 min after the administration of essential oils. The inflammatory response induced by formalin was effective to the stem barks oil (62.5%) in comparison to polygodial (50.0%). (author)

  8. Efficacy of DA-7218, a new oxazolidinone prodrug, in the treatment of experimental actinomycetoma produced by Nocardia brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza-González, Nelly Alejandra; Welsh, Oliverio; de Torres, Noemi Waksman; Cavazos-Rocha, Norma; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Said-Fernandez, Salvador; Lozano-Garza, Gerardo; Choi, Sung-Hak; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio

    2008-01-11

    Two recently synthesized oxazolidinones: (R)-3-(4-(2-(2-methyltetrazol-5-yl)-pyridin-5-yl)-3-fluorophenyl)-5-hydroxymethyloxazolidin-2-one (DA-7157) and its corresponding pro-drug (R)-3-(4-(2-(2-methyltetrazol-5-yl)-pyridin-5-yl)-3-fluorophenyl)-2-oxo-5-oxazolidinyl) methyl disodium phosphate (DA-7218), have shown very good activity against several Gram positive bacteria, including Nocardia and Mycobacterium. In the present work we evaluated the therapeutic in vivo effects of DA-7218 on Nocardia brasiliensis. We first determined the plasma concentration of the prodrug in BALB/c mice using several doses and then tested its activity in an in vivo experimental actinomycetoma murine model. At the end of treatment, there was a statistically significant difference between the three drug receiving groups (25, 12.5 and 5 mg/kg) and the control group(saline solution) (p=0.001), proving that DA-7218 is effective for the treatment of experimental murine actinomycetoma. This compound could be a potential option for patients affected with mycetoma by Nocardia brasiliensis.

  9. In situ TLR2 and TLR4 expression in a murine model of mycetoma caused by Nocardia brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán-Chiu, Blanca Edith; Hernández-Hernández, Francisca; Pérez-Torres, Armando; Méndez-Tovar, Luis Javier; López-Martínez, Rubén

    2011-04-01

    Actinomycetoma caused by Nocardia brasiliensis is a common disease in tropical regions. This ailment is characterized by a localized chronic inflammation that mainly affects the lower limbs. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns, inducing the production of proinflammatory mediators. The role of TLRs in the immune response against N. brasiliensis is unknown. The aim of this work was to locate and quantify in a murine model the expression of TLR2 and TLR4 in the infection site using reverse transcription-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The results showed that TLR2 expression increased in the infected tissue, whereas TLR4 expression decreased. The presence of TLR2 and TLR4 was demonstrated in different cell populations throughout the chronic infectious process. In the early stages of this process, TLR2 was expressed in neutrophils and macrophages in direct contact with the inoculum, whereas TLR4 was observed in mast cells. In the advanced stages of the infection, TLR2 was expressed in foam cells and fibroblasts and was likely associated with bacterial containment, while TLR4 was downregulated, probably resulting in an imbalance between the host immune response and the bacterial load that favoured chronic disease. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. ASPECTOS DA BIOLOGIA REPRODUTIVA DE Drimys brasiliensis Miers (WINTERACEAE EM FLORESTA OMBRÓFILA MISTA, SUL DO BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Mariot

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Drimys brasiliensis Miers, locally known as “cataia” or “casca-de-anta”, is a native tree of “Floresta Ombrófila Mista”, in Brazil. Its bark has been used for medicine, through the exploitation of plants of natural populations. The present work aimed to study aspects of reproductive biology of Drimys brasiliensis in order to establish strategies for sustainable management and conservation, in order to generate alternative income from the exploitation of this non-timber forest product. Studies about reproductive phenology (296 plants during 2 years and a half, pollination and dispersal ecology, and floral biology were realized. The flowering season occurred the summer, with its peak in January. There are unripe fruits throughout the year, becoming ripe fruits as the temperature increases. There is a superposition of unripe and ripe fruit phenology from different flowering seasons. Ripe fruits are then, available for animals throughout the year. Hymenopteras are flower visitors with major potential for gene flow via pollen, but their frequency is low, like others flowers visitors, despite the high flowers production and pollen viability. Therefore, the highest fruit production which was seen comes from self-fecundation. The primary fruit dispersers are rare, birdsbeing observed. However, the secondary dispersal of seeds that reach the ground by barocory is high.

  11. Effects of light intensity on the distribution of anthocyanins in Kalanchoe brasiliensis Camb. and Kalanchoe pinnata (Lamk.) Pers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Bruna P; Chedier, Luciana M; Peixoto, Paulo H P; Fabri, Rodrigo L; Pimenta, Daniel S

    2012-03-01

    This paper compares two medicinal species of Kalanchoe, which are often used interchangeably by the population, regarding the distribution of anthocyanins under the influence of four luminosity levels for 6 months. For the morphoanatomical analysis, the 6th stem node of each plant was sectioned. Usual histochemical tests revealed the presence of anthocyanins by cross sections of the stems, petioles and leaf blades. The petioles and leaf blades were submitted to the extraction with acidified methanol, and the anthocyanins were quantified by spectrophotometric readings. At the macroscopic level, it was noticed for both species a higher presence of anthocyanins in stems and petioles of plants under full sunlight. The microscopy of K. brasiliensis stems evidenced the deposition of anthocyanins in the subjacent tissue to the epidermis and cortex, which increased with light intensity. In K. pinnata a subepidermal collenchyma was observed, which interfered in the visualization of anthocyanins. In petioles and leaf blades of K. brasiliensis the deposition of anthocyanins was peripheral, and in K. pinnata it was also throughout the cortex. The quantification of anthocyanins in petioles showed in 70% of light higher averages than in 25%, but in leaf blades there were no significant results. This study contributes to the pharmacognosy of Kalanchoe and it is sustained by the description of flavonoids as biological markers of the genus.

  12. Survey of pathogens in threatened wild red-tailed Amazon parrot (Amazona brasiliensis) nestlings in Rasa Island, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Frederico Fontanelli; Serafini, Patrícia Pereira; Locatelli-Dittrich, Rosangela; Meurer, Rafael; Durigon, Edison Luiz; de Araújo, Jansen; Thomazelli, Luciano Matsumiya; Ometto, Tatiana; Sipinski, Elenise Angelotti Bastos; Sezerban, Rafael Meirelles; Abbud, Maria Cecília; Raso, Tânia Freitas

    The red-tailed Amazon parrot (Amazona brasiliensis) is a threatened species of psittacine bird that inhabit coastal regions of Brazil. In view of the threat of this species, the aim of this study was to perform a health evaluation in wild nestlings in Rasa Island, determining the prevalence of enterobacteria and infectious agents according to type of nest. Blood samples were collected from 64 birds and evaluated for antibodies of Chlamydia psittaci by commercial dot-blot ELISA. Cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs samples were collected from 23 birds from artificial wooden nests, 15 birds from PVC nests and 2 birds from natural nests for microbiological analysis. Swab samples were collected from 58 parrots for C. psittaci detection by PCR and from 50 nestlings for Avian Influenza, Newcastle Disease and West Nile viruses' detection analysis by real-time RT-PCR. Ten bacterial genera and 17 species were identified, and the most prevalent were Escherichia coli and Klebsiella oxytoca. There was no influence of the type of nest in the nestlings' microbiota. All samples tested by ELISA and PCR were negative. There is currently insufficient information available about the health of A. brasiliensis and data of this study provide a reference point for future evaluations and aid in conservation plans. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Meet the surrogate fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Bob; Neitzel, Duane; Moxon, Suzanne

    1999-01-01

    This article gives details of the US Department of Energy's innovative research into the development of a sensor system that will work as a surrogate fish to provide information to aid the design of fish-friendly turbines for hydroelectric power plants. The selection of the dams for the testing of sensor fish, the release and recovery of the sensor fish, the recording of the physical forces exerted on fish as they pass through the turbines, and use of the information gathered to build more sensor fish are discussed. Fish investigations conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory are briefly described. (UK)

  14. Plastic fish

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness.   Artwork by Wolfgang Trettnak. Packaging materials, consumer goods (shoes, kids’ toys, etc.), leftovers from fishing and aquaculture activities… our oceans and beaches are full of plastic litter. Most of the debris from beaches is plastic bottles. “PET bottles have high durability and stability,” explains Wolfgang Trettnak, a chemist by education and artist from Austria, who gave a lecture on this topic organised by the Staff Association at CERN on 26 May. “PET degrades very slowly and the estimated lifetime of a bottle is 450 years.” In addition to the beach litter accumulated from human use, rivers bring several ki...

  15. Three Kinds of Fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    2012-01-01

    There are three kinds of fish. Fish you were given, fish you bought and fish you lease. This might sound a bit odd, but it is nevertheless the basis for the activities of Danish commercial fishers since the introduction of transferable fishing concessions (TFCs) in 2007. In the current 2012 reform...... of market based systems are wild speculation, concentration and monopolization of fishing access and subsequent leasing with fishing communities and new entrants very likely being worse off (see for example the chapter “From fishing rights to financial derivatives” is this volume or Olson 2011; Sumaila 2010...... will examine five Danish fishing operations and discuss how they have reacted in different ways to the newly introduced system of transferable fishing concessions. By introducing TFCs as a solution to fleet overcapacity, the EU Commission will also be introducing a system where buying, selling and leasing...

  16. Distribution of fish assemblages in Lajes Reservoir, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. G. ARAÚJO

    Full Text Available Spatial distribution of fish assemblages in Lajes Reservoir, a 30 km² impoundment in Rio de Janeiro State (Lat. 22º42'-22º50'S; Long. 43º53'-44º05'W was assessed to detect patterns of available habitat use by the fish. A standardized monthly sampling program was carried out from January to December 1994 at three zones of the reservoir (upper, near tributary mouths; middle; and lower, near the dam. Fishes were caught by gillnets, (50 m long, 3 m height, with mesh ranging having from 25 to 45 mm between knots, submerged during 12 hours. A total of 5,089 fishes were collected comprising 15 species, 14 genera and 9 families. Loricariichthys spixii, Astyanax bimaculatus, Parauchenipterus striatulus, Astyanax fasciatus parahybae, Oligosarchus hepsetus, Rhamdia parahybae, Hypostomus affinis, and Geophagus brasiliensis were the most abundant species, each contributing above 1% of the total number. Loricariichthys spixii was the dominant species, contributing over 80% of total number and biomass. Fish abundance, number of species, and biomass were higher in the upper zone, but differences from this overall pattern were shown by some species. Loricariichthys spixii and Rhamdia parahybae were more abundant in the upper zone, while all other species showed no differences in their abundance among the zones. Seasonal environmental variables of temperature, pH, transparency, and water level did not show a clear association with fish occurrence. Most fish used the different zones of the reservoir with no clear sign of spatial separation. High dominance of L. spixii, reduced abundance of reolific species Leporinus copelandii and Cyphocharax gilberti, and presence of introduced species such as Cichla monoculus and Tilapia rendalli are indications of antropic effects in the fish community.

  17. The epidemiologic importance of Triatoma brasiliensis as a Chagas disease vector in Brazil: a revision of domiciliary captures during 1993-1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Jane

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available To clarify the epidemiologic importance of Triatoma brasiliensis, the most important Chagas disease vector in the Northeastern of Brazil, capture data related to this species, its distribution, capture index, and percentages of natural infection by Trypanosoma cruzi were examined in 12 different Brazilian states. The Brazilian National Health Foundation collected these data from 1993 to 1999, a period during which a total of 1,591,280 triatomines (21 species were captured in domiciles within the geographic range of T. brasiliensis. Of this total, 422,965 (26.6% were T. brasiliensis, 99.8% of which were collected in six states, and 54% in only one state (Ceará. The percentage of bugs infected with T. cruzi varied significantly among states, ranging from 0% (Goiás, Maranhão, Sergipe, and Tocantins to more than 3% (Alagoas, Minas Gerais, and Rio Grande do Norte with an average of 1.3%. This latter value represents a dramatic reduction in the natural infection percentages since 1983 (6.7% suggesting that, despite the impossibility of eradicating this native species, the control measures have significantly reduced the risk of transmission. However, the wide geographic distribution of T. brasiliensis, its high incidence observed in some states, and its variable percentages of natural infection by T. cruzi indicate the need for sustained entomological surveillance and continuous control measures against this vector.

  18. Comparison of the Sequences of the Internal Transcribed Spacer Regions and PbGP43 Genes of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis from Patients and Armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebeler-Barbosa, Flavia; Morais, Flavia V.; Montenegro, Mario R.; Kuramae, Eiko E.; Montes, Beatriz; McEwen, Juan G.; Bagagli, Eduardo; Puccia, Rosana

    2003-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolates from 10 nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) were comparable with 19 clinical isolates by sequence analysis of the PbGP43 gene and ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and ITS2 and by random amplified polymorphic DNA. In this original ITS study, eight isolates differed by one or three sites among five total substitution sites. PMID:14662970

  19. Whole-transcriptome survey of the putative ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family genes in the latex-producing laticifers of Hevea brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiyi, Nie; Guijuan, Kang; Yu, Li; Longjun, Dai; Rizhong, Zeng

    2015-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins or transporters constitute a large protein family in plants and are involved in many different cellular functions and processes, including solute transportation, channel regulation and molecular switches, etc. Through transcriptome sequencing, a transcriptome-wide survey and expression analysis of the ABC protein genes were carried out using the laticiferous latex from Hevea brasiliensis (rubber tree). A total of 46 putative ABC family proteins were identified in the H. brasiliensis latex. These consisted of 12 'full-size', 21 'half-size' and 13 other putative ABC proteins, and all of them showed strong conservation with their Arabidopsis thaliana counterparts. This study indicated that all eight plant ABC protein paralog subfamilies were identified in the H. brasiliensis latex, of which ABCB, ABCG and ABCI were the most abundant. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays demonstrated that gene expression of several latex ABC proteins was regulated by ethylene, jasmonic acid or bark tapping (a wound stress) stimulation, and that HbABCB15, HbABCB19, HbABCD1 and HbABCG21 responded most significantly of all to the abiotic stresses. The identification and expression analysis of the latex ABC family proteins could facilitate further investigation into their physiological involvement in latex metabolism and rubber biosynthesis by H. brasiliensis.

  20. IgM but not IgG monoclonal anti-Nocardia brasiliensis antibodies confer protection against experimental actinomycetoma in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Suarez, Maria L; Salinas-Carmona, Mario C; Pérez-Rivera, Isabel

    2009-10-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis is a facultative intracellular microorganism that produces a human chronic infection known as actinomycetoma. Human and mouse anti-N. brasiliensis antibody response identify P24, P26 and P61 immunodominant antigens. In this work, we generated immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific to immunodominant P61 antigen. The monoclonal IgM (NbM1) and IgG2a (NbG1) antibodies were assessed for their in vitro bactericidal activity, in vivo protective effect and ability to block catalase activity. These mAbs specifically recognized P61, but they did not inhibit its enzyme activity. The in vitro bactericidal effect of NbG1 was higher than the killing ability of the IgM mAb. In vivo experiments with a murine model of experimental infection with N. brasiliensis injected into rear footpads was used to test the effect of NbM1 and NbG1. The negative untreated group developed a chronic actinomycetoma within 4 weeks. IgM mAbs conferred protection to BALB/c mice infected with N. brasiliensis. IgG mAb lacked this protective effect. IgM mAb showed a dose-response correlation between antibody concentration and lesion size. These results demonstrate that humoral immune response mediated by antigen-specific IgM antibody protects against an intracellular bacterial infection.

  1. The effect of royal sun agaricus, agaricus brasiliensis S. Wasser et al., Extract on methyl Methanesulfonate caused genotoxicity in Drosophila melanogaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savic, T.; Patenkovic, A.; Sokovic, M.; Glamoclija, J.; Andjelkovic, M.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of culinary-medicinal Royal Sun Agaricus (Agaricus brasiliensis) hot water extract on methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) induced mutagenicity/genotoxity in Drosophila melanogaster was studied using a quick and broadly applicable in vivo assay, i.e., the wing somatic mutation and recombination

  2. The effect of royal sun agaricus, Agaricus brasiliensis S. Wasser et al., extract on methyl methanesulfonate caused genotoxicity in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savić, Tatjana; Patenković, Aleksandra; Soković, Marina; Glamoclija, Jasmina; Andjelković, Marko; van Griensven, Leo J L D

    2011-01-01

    The effect of culinary-medicinal Royal Sun Agaricus (Agaricus brasiliensis) hot water extract on methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) induced mutagenicity/genotoxity in Drosophila melanogaster was studied using a quick and broadly applicable in vivo assay, i.e., the wing somatic mutation and recombination test. We used 2nd instar larvae, trans-heterozygous for the third chromosome recessive markers, i.e., multiple wing hairs (mvh) and flare-3 [flr (3)], and fed them for 24 h with the aqueous extract of A. brasiliensis. For antigenotoxicity studies a 24-h pretreatment with the extract was done, followed by a 48-h treatment of the then 3rd instar larvae with MMS. The frequency of mutations of the wing blade changes (i.e., of the number of wing spots of different sizes) induced in somatic cells was determined as a parameter of genetic changes of the wing imaginal discs. The results showed that A. brasiliensis extract did not cause any genotoxic or mutagenic effects. No antigenotoxic and/or protective effect against the induction of mutations by MMS was observed. Instead, a possible enhanced mitotic recombination frequency by MMS was seen after pretreatment of the larvae with A. brasiliensis extract. Possible mechanisms of action are discussed.

  3. Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 December 2010-31 January 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agata, Kiyokazu; Alasaad, Samer; Almeida-Val, Vera Maria Fonseca; Alvarez-Dios, J A; Barbisan, F; Beadell, Jon S; Beltrán, J F; Benítez, M; Bino, G; Bleay, Colin; Bloor, P; Bohlmann, Jörg; Booth, Warren; Boscari, E; Caccone, Adalgisa; Campos, Tatiana; Carvalho, B M; Climaco, Gisele Torres; Clobert, Jean; Congiu, L; Cowger, Christina; Dias, G; Doadrio, I; Farias, Izeni Pires; Ferrand, N; Freitas, Patrícia D; Fusco, G; Galetti, Pedro M; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian; Gaunt, Michael W; Ocampo, Zaneli Gomez; Gonçalves, H; Gonzalez, E G; Haye, Pilar; Honnay, O; Hyseni, Chaz; Jacquemyn, H; Jowers, Michael J; Kakezawa, Akihiro; Kawaguchi, Eri; Keeling, Christopher I; Kwan, Ye-Seul; La Spina, Michelangelo; Lee, Wan-Ok; Leśniewska, M; Li, Yang; Liu, Haixia; Liu, Xiaolin; Lopes, S; Martínez, P; Meeus, S; Murray, Brent W; Nunes, Aline G; Okedi, Loyce M; Ouma, Johnson O; Pardo, B G; Parks, Ryan; Paula-Silva, Maria Nazaré; Pedraza-Lara, C; Perera, Omaththage P; Pino-Querido, A; Richard, Murielle; Rossini, Bruno C; Samarasekera, N Gayathri; Sánchez, Antonio; Sanchez, Juan A; Santos, Carlos Henrique Dos Anjos; Shinohara, Wataru; Soriguer, Ramón C; Sousa, Adna Cristina Barbosa; Sousa, Carolina Fernandes Da Silva; Stevens, Virginie M; Tejedo, M; Valenzuela-Bustamante, Myriam; Van de Vliet, M S; Vandepitte, K; Vera, M; Wandeler, Peter; Wang, Weimin; Won, Yong-Jin; Yamashiro, A; Yamashiro, T; Zhu, Changcheng

    2011-05-01

    This article documents the addition of 238 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Alytes dickhilleni, Arapaima gigas, Austropotamobius italicus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, Cobitis lutheri, Dendroctonus ponderosae, Glossina morsitans morsitans, Haplophilus subterraneus, Kirengeshoma palmata, Lysimachia japonica, Macrolophus pygmaeus, Microtus cabrerae, Mytilus galloprovincialis, Pallisentis (Neosentis) celatus, Pulmonaria officinalis, Salminus franciscanus, Thais chocolata and Zootoca vivipara. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Acanthina monodon, Alytes cisternasii, Alytes maurus, Alytes muletensis, Alytes obstetricans almogavarii, Alytes obstetricans boscai, Alytes obstetricans obstetricans, Alytes obstetricans pertinax, Cambarellus montezumae, Cambarellus zempoalensis, Chorus giganteus, Cobitis tetralineata, Glossina fuscipes fuscipes, Glossina pallidipes, Lysimachia japonica var. japonica, Lysimachia japonica var. minutissima, Orconectes virilis, Pacifastacus leniusculus, Procambarus clarkii, Salminus brasiliensis and Salminus hilarii. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. A rabies vaccine adjuvanted with saponins from leaves of the soap tree (Quillaja brasiliensis) induces specific immune responses and protects against lethal challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yendo, Anna Carolina A; de Costa, Fernanda; Cibulski, Samuel P; Teixeira, Thais F; Colling, Luana C; Mastrogiovanni, Mauricio; Soulé, Silvia; Roehe, Paulo M; Gosmann, Grace; Ferreira, Fernando A; Fett-Neto, Arthur G

    2016-04-29

    Quillaja brasiliensis (Quillajaceae) is a saponin producing species native from southern Brazil and Uruguay. Its saponins are remarkably similar to those of Q. saponaria, which provides most of the saponins used as immunoadjuvants in vaccines. The immunostimulating capacities of aqueous extract (AE) and purified saponin fraction (QB-90) obtained from leaves of Q. brasiliensis were favorably comparable to those of a commercial saponin-based adjuvant preparation (Quil-A) in experimental vaccines against bovine herpesvirus type 1 and 5, poliovirus and bovine viral diarrhea virus in mice model. Herein, the immunogenicity and protection efficacy of rabies vaccines adjuvanted with Q. brasiliensis AE and its saponin fractions were compared with vaccines adjuvanted with either commercial Quil-A or Alum. Mice were vaccinated with one or two doses (on days 0 and 14) of one of the different vaccines and serum levels of total IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a were quantified over time. A challenge experiment with a lethal dose of rabies virus was carried out with the formulations. Viral RNA detection in the brain of mice was performed by qPCR, and RNA copy-numbers were quantified using a standard curve of in vitro transcribed RNA. All Q. brasiliensis saponin-adjuvanted vaccines significantly enhanced levels of specific IgG isotypes when compared with the no adjuvant group (P ≤ 0.05). Overall, one or two doses of saponin-based vaccine were efficient to protect against the lethal rabies exposure. Both AE and saponin fractions from Q. brasiliensis leaves proved potent immunological adjuvants in vaccines against a lethal challenge with a major livestock pathogen, hence confirming their value as competitive or complementary sustainable alternatives to saponins of Q. saponaria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cell walls of the dimorphic fungal pathogens Sporothrix schenckii and Sporothrix brasiliensis exhibit bilaminate structures and sloughing of extensive and intact layers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila M Lopes-Bezerra

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous mycosis caused by pathogenic species of the Sporothrix genus. A new emerging species, Sporothrix brasiliensis, is related to cat-transmitted sporotrichosis and has severe clinical manifestations. The cell wall of pathogenic fungi is a unique structure and impacts directly on the host immune response. We reveal and compare the cell wall structures of Sporothrix schenckii and S. brasiliensis using high-pressure freezing electron microscopy to study the cell wall organization of both species. To analyze the components of the cell wall, we also used infrared and 13C and 1H NMR spectroscopy and the sugar composition was determined by quantitative high-performance anion-exchange chromatography. Our ultrastructural data revealed a bi-layered cell wall structure for both species, including an external microfibrillar layer and an inner electron-dense layer. The inner and outer layers of the S. brasiliensis cell wall were thicker than those of S. schenckii, correlating with an increase in the chitin and rhamnose contents. Moreover, the outer microfibrillar layer of the S. brasiliensis cell wall had longer microfibrils interconnecting yeast cells. Distinct from those of other dimorphic fungi, the cell wall of Sporothrix spp. lacked α-glucan component. Interestingly, glycogen α-particles were identified in the cytoplasm close to the cell wall and the plasma membrane. The cell wall structure as well as the presence of glycogen α-particles varied over time during cell culture. The structural differences observed in the cell wall of these Sporothrix species seemed to impact its uptake by monocyte-derived human macrophages. The data presented here show a unique cell wall structure of S. brasiliensis and S. schenckii during the yeast parasitic phase. A new cell wall model for Sporothrix spp. is therefore proposed that suggests that these fungi molt sheets of intact cell wall layers. This observation may have significant

  6. Cell walls of the dimorphic fungal pathogens Sporothrix schenckii and Sporothrix brasiliensis exhibit bilaminate structures and sloughing of extensive and intact layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Louise A.; Niño-Vega, Gustavo; Mora-Montes, Héctor M.; Neves, Gabriela W. P.; Villalobos-Duno, Hector; Barreto, Laura; Garcia, Karina; Franco, Bernardo; Martínez-Álvarez, José A.; Munro, Carol A.; Gow, Neil A. R.

    2018-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous mycosis caused by pathogenic species of the Sporothrix genus. A new emerging species, Sporothrix brasiliensis, is related to cat-transmitted sporotrichosis and has severe clinical manifestations. The cell wall of pathogenic fungi is a unique structure and impacts directly on the host immune response. We reveal and compare the cell wall structures of Sporothrix schenckii and S. brasiliensis using high-pressure freezing electron microscopy to study the cell wall organization of both species. To analyze the components of the cell wall, we also used infrared and 13C and 1H NMR spectroscopy and the sugar composition was determined by quantitative high-performance anion-exchange chromatography. Our ultrastructural data revealed a bi-layered cell wall structure for both species, including an external microfibrillar layer and an inner electron-dense layer. The inner and outer layers of the S. brasiliensis cell wall were thicker than those of S. schenckii, correlating with an increase in the chitin and rhamnose contents. Moreover, the outer microfibrillar layer of the S. brasiliensis cell wall had longer microfibrils interconnecting yeast cells. Distinct from those of other dimorphic fungi, the cell wall of Sporothrix spp. lacked α-glucan component. Interestingly, glycogen α-particles were identified in the cytoplasm close to the cell wall and the plasma membrane. The cell wall structure as well as the presence of glycogen α-particles varied over time during cell culture. The structural differences observed in the cell wall of these Sporothrix species seemed to impact its uptake by monocyte-derived human macrophages. The data presented here show a unique cell wall structure of S. brasiliensis and S. schenckii during the yeast parasitic phase. A new cell wall model for Sporothrix spp. is therefore proposed that suggests that these fungi molt sheets of intact cell wall layers. This observation may have significant effects on localized and

  7. Fluctuations in the spawning stock biomass and recruitment of the brazilian sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis 1977-1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Cergole

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the southeastern coast of Brazil, catches of the Brazilian sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis have been decreasing from more than 200 thousand tons/year in the early '70s to about 32 thousand tons in 1990. From 1994 to 1997, catches recovered slightly (118 thousand tons, dropping then to about 20 thousand tons in 1999-2000. Extensive investigations on biology and stock assessment of Brazilian sardine have been developed in the '80s, providing stock biomass and recruitment estimates based on commercial fishing data obtained from 1977-1992. The present paper aims to update biological and stock assessment parameters from sardine data obtained during two acoustic surveys carried out in 1995 and commercial catches from the 1993-1997 period. Results from both cruises showed the weight-length relationship Wt=0.0000019. Lt3,26 (90-240 mm total length and four age classes (mostly class II+. In the commercial catches, sardines belonged to ages 0+ and 3+ years old (mostly older than 1-year old with 90-250 mm total length. Annual growth parameters were: Li=275 mm, K= 0.55 (1996, and Li=273 mm, K=0.50 (1997. Total mortality (Z and natural mortality (M coefficients were: Z= 3.8; M= 0.7 -1.2 (1996, and Z= 3.6; M= 0.6 - 1.1 (1997. The variation amplitude of M is due to the application of several different methods. Considering the historical series of 21 years of data (1977-1997, results showed that the stock went through two favorable periods (1980-84, 1989-94 and one unfavorable period (1985-89. 1997 seems to have been the beginning of a new unfavorable period, revealing recruitment cycles likewise other stocks from California and Japan.Na costa sudeste do Brasil, as capturas da sardinha-verdadeira {Sardinella brasliensis decresceram de mais de 200 mil t/ano no início dos anos 70 para cerca de 32 mil t em 1990. De 1994 a 1997, as capturas se recuperaram alcançando 118 mil t, caindo então para cerca de 20 mil t em 1999-2000. Estudos abrangentes sobre a

  8. Description, microhabitat selection and infection patterns of sealworm larvae (Pseudoterranova decipiens species complex, nematoda: ascaridoidea) in fishes from Patagonia, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Third-stage larvae of the Pseudoterranova decipiens species complex (also known as sealworms) have been reported in at least 40 marine fish species belonging to 21 families and 10 orders along the South American coast. Sealworms are a cause for concern because they can infect humans who consume raw or undercooked fish. However, despite their economic and zoonotic importance, morphological and molecular characterization of species of Pseudoterranova in South America is still scarce. Methods A total of 542 individual fish from 20 species from the Patagonian coast of Argentina were examined for sealworms. The body cavity, the muscles, internal organs, and the mesenteries were examined to detect nematodes. Sealworm larvae were removed from their capsules and fixed in 70% ethanol. For molecular identification, partial fragments of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1) were amplified for 10 isolates from 4 fish species. Morphological and morphometric data of sealworms were also obtained. Results A total of 635 larvae were collected from 12 fish species. The most infected fish was Prionotus nudigula, followed by Percophis brasiliensis, Acanthistius patachonicus, Paralichthys isosceles, and Pseudopercis semifasciata. Sequences obtained for the cox1 of sealworms from A. patachonicus, P. isosceles, P. brasiliensis and P. nudigula formed a reciprocally monophyletic lineage with published sequences of adult specimens of Pseudoterranova cattani from the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens, and distinct from the remaining 5 species of Pseudoterranova. A morphological description, including drawings and scanning electron microscopy photomicrographs of these larvae is provided. Sealworms collected from Argentinean fishes did not differ in their diagnostic traits from the previously described larvae of P. cattani. However a discriminant analysis suggests that specimens from P. nudigula were significantly larger than those from other fishes

  9. Description, microhabitat selection and infection patterns of sealworm larvae (Pseudoterranova decipiens species complex, nematoda: ascaridoidea) in fishes from Patagonia, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Orts, Jesús S; Aznar, Francisco J; Blasco-Costa, Isabel; García, Néstor A; Víllora-Montero, María; Crespo, Enrique A; Raga, Juan A; Montero, Francisco E

    2013-08-29

    Third-stage larvae of the Pseudoterranova decipiens species complex (also known as sealworms) have been reported in at least 40 marine fish species belonging to 21 families and 10 orders along the South American coast. Sealworms are a cause for concern because they can infect humans who consume raw or undercooked fish. However, despite their economic and zoonotic importance, morphological and molecular characterization of species of Pseudoterranova in South America is still scarce. A total of 542 individual fish from 20 species from the Patagonian coast of Argentina were examined for sealworms. The body cavity, the muscles, internal organs, and the mesenteries were examined to detect nematodes. Sealworm larvae were removed from their capsules and fixed in 70% ethanol. For molecular identification, partial fragments of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1) were amplified for 10 isolates from 4 fish species. Morphological and morphometric data of sealworms were also obtained. A total of 635 larvae were collected from 12 fish species. The most infected fish was Prionotus nudigula, followed by Percophis brasiliensis, Acanthistius patachonicus, Paralichthys isosceles, and Pseudopercis semifasciata. Sequences obtained for the cox1 of sealworms from A. patachonicus, P. isosceles, P. brasiliensis and P. nudigula formed a reciprocally monophyletic lineage with published sequences of adult specimens of Pseudoterranova cattani from the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens, and distinct from the remaining 5 species of Pseudoterranova. A morphological description, including drawings and scanning electron microscopy photomicrographs of these larvae is provided. Sealworms collected from Argentinean fishes did not differ in their diagnostic traits from the previously described larvae of P. cattani. However a discriminant analysis suggests that specimens from P. nudigula were significantly larger than those from other fishes. Most of the sealworms were

  10. Estaquia caulinar herbácea e semilenhosa de Drimys brasiliensis1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciele Milani Zem

    Full Text Available Drimys brasiliensis conhecida como cataia, é uma espécie arbórea nativa da Mata Atlântica. Tem importância fitoquímica, fitoterapêutica, aromática e econômica, utilizada na fabricação de licores, condimentos, dentre outros. É considerada uma espécie de difícil multiplicação via sementes, apresentando dormência por imaturidade embrionária. Assim, objetivou-se estudar a propagação vegetativa por meio da indução do enraizamento de estacas herbáceas e semilenhosas submetidas a diferentes concentrações de ácido indolbutírico (IBA, coletadas em duas épocas do ano (junho/2011 e dezembro/2011. Foram utilizados os tratamentos: testemunha (100% água, 0 (50% água e 50% álcool; 1.500; 3.000 e 6.000 mg L-1IBA (em solução hidroalcoólica 50% para o inverno e, no verão, os mesmos tratamentos, exceto 0 mg L-1IBA. Foi conduzido um experimento em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial de 5 concentrações x 2 tipos de estacas em junho/2011; e outro experimento com 4 concentrações x 2 épocas de coleta (estacas de junho/2011 e estacas de dezembro/2011 Após 120 dias em casa de vegetação, avaliou-se a porcentagem de estacas enraizadas, número de raízes/estaca, comprimento médio de raízes/estaca, porcentagem estacas vivas, com calos, mortas, com novas brotações e que mantiveram as folhas iniciais. A aplicação de IBA não influenciou nenhuma das variáveis estudadas. Estacas herbáceas apresentaram melhor enraizamento (46,75% quando comparadas às semilenhosas (34,44%. A coleta realizada em dezembro/2011 apresentou maior número de raízes/estaca (5,47 porém maior mortalidade (29,05% que em junho/2011 (4,25 e 12,19%, respectivamente. Sendo assim, para o enraizamento de cataia é indicada a utilização de estacas caulinares herbáceas, coletadas em épocas frias.

  11. Natural and vaccine-mediated immunity to Salmonella Typhimurium is impaired by the helminth Nippostrongylus brasiliensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeeda Bobat

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of exposure to multiple pathogens concurrently or consecutively on immune function is unclear. Here, immune responses induced by combinations of the bacterium Salmonella Typhimurium (STm and the helminth Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (Nb, which causes a murine hookworm infection and an experimental porin protein vaccine against STm, were examined.Mice infected with both STm and Nb induced similar numbers of Th1 and Th2 lymphocytes compared with singly infected mice, as determined by flow cytometry, although lower levels of secreted Th2, but not Th1 cytokines were detected by ELISA after re-stimulation of splenocytes. Furthermore, the density of FoxP3+ T cells in the T zone of co-infected mice was lower compared to mice that only received Nb, but was greater than those that received STm. This reflected the intermediate levels of IL-10 detected from splenocytes. Co-infection compromised clearance of both pathogens, with worms still detectable in mice weeks after they were cleared in the control group. Despite altered control of bacterial and helminth colonization in co-infected mice, robust extrafollicular Th1 and Th2-reflecting immunoglobulin-switching profiles were detected, with IgG2a, IgG1 and IgE plasma cells all detected in parallel. Whilst extrafollicular antibody responses were maintained in the first weeks after co-infection, the GC response was less than that in mice infected with Nb only. Nb infection resulted in some abrogation of the longer-term development of anti-STm IgG responses. This suggested that prior Nb infection may modulate the induction of protective antibody responses to vaccination. To assess this we immunized mice with porins, which confer protection in an antibody-dependent manner, before challenging with STm. Mice that had resolved a Nb infection prior to immunization induced less anti-porin IgG and had compromised protection against infection.These findings demonstrate that co-infection can radically alter

  12. Variação temporal e espacial de ovos e de larvas das espécies de interesse para a pesca na sub-bacia do rio Miranda, Pantanal, Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i3.1314 Temporal and spatial variation of fish eggs and larvae of the main exploited species in the sub-basin of Miranda River, Pantanal wetland, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i3.1314

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshyiu Nakatani

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi analisada a variação temporal de ovos e de larvas das principais espécies exploradas no Pantanal: Piaractus mesopotamicus; Prochilodus lineatus; Salminus maxillosus; Leporinus macrocephalus e Pseudoplatystoma spp., no rio Miranda. As coletas foram realizadas nos meses de outubro a março, quinzenalmente, de 1996 a 1999. O rio foi dividido em trecho superior, médio e inferior, com 15 pontos de coleta. Foram utilizadas rede de plâncton cônico-cilindrica, com fluxômetro, e as amostras fixadas em formol 4%. Para a identificação, utilizaram-se características morfológicas e merísticas, grau de flexão da notocorda e elementos da nadadeira caudal. No primeiro período, foram capturadas 5.979 larvas e 1.075 ovos; no segundo, 108.912 larvas e 1.836 ovos; no terceiro, 13.465 larvas e 1.855 ovos. A ANOVA, entre os anos e trechos do rio, foi significativa (F= 6.5, p >0,05 no trecho médio, indicando que a reprodução ocorre do trecho médio para o superior, nos meses de novembro a janeiroThe aim of this study was to analyze temporal variation of fish eggs and larvae of the main exploited species in Miranda river, Pantanal wetland (Piaractus mesopotamicus, Prochilodus lineatus, Salminus maxillosus, Leporinus macrocephalus, and Pseudoplatystoma spp., which were collected from October to March, biweekly, from 1996 to 1999. The river was divided into superior, medium and inferior sections, of 15 collection sites. Conical-cylindrical plankton net with a fluxometer and samples fixed in formol 4% were utilized. Morphological and meristic characteristics, notochord flexion degree and caudal fin elements were utilized for identification. A total of 5,979 larvae and 1,075 eggs were collected in the first period; 108,912 larvae and 1,836 eggs in the second; 13,465 larvae and 1,855 eggs in the third. Results showed that ANOVA, between the years and the river stretches, was significant (F = 6.5, p >0.05 in the medium section, which indicates that the

  13. EPR study of sagitta otoliths of Sciaenidae fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beneditto, Ana Paula Madeira di; Franco, Roberto Weider de Assis

    2011-01-01

    Full text. Otoliths are crystalline structures of calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) located in the inner ear of bone fish that are responsible for balance maintenance in the water column and sense of direction. The bio mineralization of these structures occurs during the fish development; when the otolith growth layers are formed. In this work, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy is applied to study the sagitta otoliths via manganese (Mn 2+ ) spectra, since in calcium carbonates the Mn 2+ ion is a natural substitutional impurity at Ca 2+ sites. The sagitta otoliths of the Sciaenidae fish Paralonchurus brasiliensis, commonly known as cabeca dura (47 samples), and Stellifer rastrifer, known as cangoa (22 samples), were obtained from specimens captured in coastal areas of Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil: Atafona (21 deg 37'S), Farol de Sao Tome (22 deg 05'S) and Rio das Ostras (22 deg 30'S). EPR spectra of sagitta otoliths were obtained in X-band (9GHz) at room temperature. The EPR spectra are typical of Mn 2+ in aragonite powder, associated to an occupation of Ca 2+ site with nine nearest neighbor oxygen atoms. It is well established in the literature that the otolith core is constituted by calcite, which is covered by aragonite during the fish growth. However, otoliths of younger fishes showed similar EPR spectra when compared to the older ones, indicating that aragonite is the main bio mineral structure in both maturity stages. In a previous work, these two Sciaenidae species presented significant differences in sagitta otoliths shape, which were related to environmental differences (e.g. water temperature, nutrients, depth) among the sampling sites (Atafona, Farol de Sao Tome and Rio das Ostras). Meanwhile, we do not observed differences in the EPR spectra, indicating that the aragonite crystallization process and the occupation of manganese are not related with the environment where these fish species are living. Then, we can infer that the

  14. EPR study of sagitta otoliths of Sciaenidae fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beneditto, Ana Paula Madeira di; Franco, Roberto Weider de Assis [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text. Otoliths are crystalline structures of calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) located in the inner ear of bone fish that are responsible for balance maintenance in the water column and sense of direction. The bio mineralization of these structures occurs during the fish development; when the otolith growth layers are formed. In this work, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy is applied to study the sagitta otoliths via manganese (Mn{sup 2+}) spectra, since in calcium carbonates the Mn{sup 2+} ion is a natural substitutional impurity at Ca{sup 2+} sites. The sagitta otoliths of the Sciaenidae fish Paralonchurus brasiliensis, commonly known as cabeca dura (47 samples), and Stellifer rastrifer, known as cangoa (22 samples), were obtained from specimens captured in coastal areas of Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil: Atafona (21 deg 37'S), Farol de Sao Tome (22 deg 05'S) and Rio das Ostras (22 deg 30'S). EPR spectra of sagitta otoliths were obtained in X-band (9GHz) at room temperature. The EPR spectra are typical of Mn{sup 2+} in aragonite powder, associated to an occupation of Ca{sup 2+} site with nine nearest neighbor oxygen atoms. It is well established in the literature that the otolith core is constituted by calcite, which is covered by aragonite during the fish growth. However, otoliths of younger fishes showed similar EPR spectra when compared to the older ones, indicating that aragonite is the main bio mineral structure in both maturity stages. In a previous work, these two Sciaenidae species presented significant differences in sagitta otoliths shape, which were related to environmental differences (e.g. water temperature, nutrients, depth) among the sampling sites (Atafona, Farol de Sao Tome and Rio das Ostras). Meanwhile, we do not observed differences in the EPR spectra, indicating that the aragonite crystallization process and the occupation of manganese are not related with the environment where these fish species

  15. Heavy metals levels in muscle, gonads and gills of Brazilian fishes using SRTXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calza, Cristiane; Pereira, Marcelo O.; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu; Anjos, Marcelino Jose dos; Araujo, Francisco Gerson

    2005-01-01

    This work evaluated heavy metals levels in selected tissues of G. brasiliensis, O. hepsetus, H. luetkeni and H. affinis collected at the Paraiba do Sul River, Brazil. The muscle analysis was performed to evaluate the possible transfer of heavy metals to human beings through fish consumption; gonads were used to study the possible transfer and/or influence of metals, through the reproductive processes, to later generations of fishes; and gills are considered the primary action site for most metals, which are absorbed through fish breathing and/or ionic exchanges. The digestion procedure of samples was performed with HNO 3 65% in Teflon bombs, with heating at about 120 deg C. The analysis, using Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence with Synchrotron Radiation (SRTXRF), was performed at the LNLS (Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory) using white beam and a Si(Li) detector with resolution of 165 eV. The elements identified were: Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Ba and Pb. Fe and Zn exhibited the highest concentrations in the four species investigated. Comparing the results with the Brazilian Food Legislation Cr, Cu, Zn and Pb exceeded the maximum permissible limits in fish tissues. (author)

  16. Heavy metals levels in muscle, gonads and gills of Brazilian fishes using SRTXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calza, Cristiane; Pereira, Marcelo O.; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: ccalza@lin.ufrj.br; ricardo@lin.ufrj.br; Anjos, Marcelino Jose dos [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica]. E-mail: marcelin@lin.ufrj.br; Araujo, Francisco Gerson [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Ecologia de Peixes]. E-mail: gerson@uffrj.br

    2005-07-01

    This work evaluated heavy metals levels in selected tissues of G. brasiliensis, O. hepsetus, H. luetkeni and H. affinis collected at the Paraiba do Sul River, Brazil. The muscle analysis was performed to evaluate the possible transfer of heavy metals to human beings through fish consumption; gonads were used to study the possible transfer and/or influence of metals, through the reproductive processes, to later generations of fishes; and gills are considered the primary action site for most metals, which are absorbed through fish breathing and/or ionic exchanges. The digestion procedure of samples was performed with HNO{sub 3} 65% in Teflon bombs, with heating at about 120 deg C. The analysis, using Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence with Synchrotron Radiation (SRTXRF), was performed at the LNLS (Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory) using white beam and a Si(Li) detector with resolution of 165 eV. The elements identified were: Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Ba and Pb. Fe and Zn exhibited the highest concentrations in the four species investigated. Comparing the results with the Brazilian Food Legislation Cr, Cu, Zn and Pb exceeded the maximum permissible limits in fish tissues. (author)

  17. Production of mRNA cytokines in BALB/c mice infected with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and analyses of the results by image processing; Producao de interleucinas RNAm em camundongos BALB/c infectados por Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, com analises dos resultados atraves de processamento de imagens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Januario, Adriana; Pietro, Rosemeire C.L. Rodrigues; Silva, Celio L. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Parasitologia, Microbiologia e Imunologia; Rodrigues, Evandro L.L.; Franca, Celso A. de [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica

    1996-12-31

    The production of mRNA cytokines in BALB/c mice infected with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is studied. It is reported that in the beginning of the disease with P. brasiliensis stimulated mice showed an analogous production between IL-2 and IL-10 mRNA, however, there is a predominance of IL-2 mRNA in the lung and of IL-10 mRNA in the liver cells. In this model, there is a dynamic change in the levels of IL-2 and IL-10 mRNA, suggesting the presence of both CD4+ T helper cells 7 refs., 6 figs.

  18. Food and feeding ecology of Brazilian sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis larvae from the southeastern Brazilian Bight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico W. Kurtz

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Results from depth integrated and vertically stratified plankton samples collected in the southeastern Brazilian Bight were used to study the feeding behavior of Brazilian sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis larvae. Sampling of the ichthyoplankton was carried out with 60 cm Bongo nets in the Bight during the spawning seasons of 1991/92 and 1992/93. The sampling of microzooplankton was carried out in the coastal region off Ubatuba, using the closing-type plankton net, in December 1995. The feeding study was based on a total of 901 captured larvae. Gut content analysis of the sardine larvae showed a diurnal pattern of food intake. Copepod nauplii dominated the diet of the preflexion and flexion larvae, but they were the second in abundance for the postflexion larvae which fed preferentially on copepodites and adults of Oncaea spp. Averaged feeding incidence of the 901 larvae was 37.6%, but it increased to 58.5% for day-caught larvae. Seventy percent of the food particles were found in the mid-gut and food eaten showed a natural increase in digestion from fore-gut to hind-gut. Vertical distribution of microzooplankton revealed that copepod nauplii were present in densities of 10-20 ind. L-1, mainly in the upper mixed layer (0-20 m depth, but higher densities of copepodite and adult of Oncaea, Oithona and Paracalamis were found within and beneath the thermocline. These results show that Brazilian sardine larvae can successfully adapt their diet, feeding on the most abundant food particles in the upper mixed layer of the survey area.Plâncton amostrado na região sudeste do Brasil, em coletas integradas verticalmente e estratificadas, foi utilizado no estudo do comportamento alimentar das larvas de sardinha-verdadeira (Sardinella brasiliensis. As coletas de ictioplâncton foram realizadas com rede tipo Bongo de 60 cm de diâmetro durante os períodos de desova de 1991/92 e 1992/93. Microzooplâncton foi amostrado na região costeira ao largo de Ubatuba

  19. ∆24-sterol methyltransferase plays an important role in the growth and development of Sporothrix schenckii and Sporothrix brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Pereira Borba-Santos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Inhibition of ∆24-sterol methyltransferase (24-SMT in Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto and Sporothrix brasiliensis was investigated in vitro. The effects on fungal growth and sterol composition of the 24-SMT inhibitor 22-hydrazone-imidazolin-2-yl-chol-5-ene-3-ol (H3 were compared to those of itraconazole. MIC and MFC analysis showed that H3 was more effective than itraconazole against both species in both their filamentous and yeast forms. H3 showed fungistatic activity in a time-kill assay, with inhibitory activity stronger than that of itraconazole. GC analysis of cell sterol composition showed that sterols present in control cells (ergosterol and precursors were completely replaced by 14-methylated sterols after H3 exposure. Itraconazole only partially inhibited ergosterol synthesis but completely arrested synthesis of other sterols found in control cells, promoting accumulation of nine 14-methyl sterols. Based on these results, we propose a schematic model of sterol biosynthesis pathways in S. schenckii and S. brasiliensis. Effects on cell morphology due to 24-SMT inhibition by H3 as analyzed by SEM and TEM included irregular cell shape, reduced cytoplasmic electron-density, and reduced thickness of the microfibrillar cell wall layer. Moreover, 24-SMT inhibition by H3 promoted mitochondrial disturbance, as demonstrated by alterations in MitoTracker® Red CMXRos fluorescence intensity evaluated by flow cytometry. When used in conjunction with itraconazole, H3 enhanced the effectiveness of itraconazole against all tested strains, reducing at least half (or more the MIC values of itraconazole. In addition, cytotoxicity assays revealed that H3 was more selective towards these fungi than was itraconazole. Thus, 24-SMT inhibition by H3 was an effective antifungal strategy against S. schenckii and S. brasiliensis. Inhibition of the methylation reaction catalyzed by 24-SMT has a strong antiproliferative effect via disruption of

  20. Δ(24)-Sterol Methyltransferase Plays an Important Role in the Growth and Development of Sporothrix schenckii and Sporothrix brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borba-Santos, Luana P; Visbal, Gonzalo; Gagini, Thalita; Rodrigues, Anderson M; de Camargo, Zoilo P; Lopes-Bezerra, Leila M; Ishida, Kelly; de Souza, Wanderley; Rozental, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of Δ(24)-sterol methyltransferase (24-SMT) in Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto and Sporothrix brasiliensis was investigated in vitro. The effects on fungal growth and sterol composition of the 24-SMT inhibitor 22-hydrazone-imidazolin-2-yl-chol-5-ene-3β-ol (H3) were compared to those of itraconazole. MIC and MFC analysis showed that H3 was more effective than itraconazole against both species in both their filamentous and yeast forms. H3 showed fungistatic activity in a time-kill assay, with inhibitory activity stronger than that of itraconazole. GC analysis of cell sterol composition showed that sterols present in control cells (ergosterol and precursors) were completely replaced by 14α-methylated sterols after H3 exposure. Itraconazole only partially inhibited ergosterol synthesis but completely arrested synthesis of other sterols found in control cells, promoting accumulation of nine 14α-methyl sterols. Based on these results, we propose a schematic model of sterol biosynthesis pathways in S. schenckii and S. brasiliensis. Effects on cell morphology due to 24-SMT inhibition by H3 as analyzed by SEM and TEM included irregular cell shape, reduced cytoplasmic electron-density, and reduced thickness of the microfibrillar cell wall layer. Moreover, 24-SMT inhibition by H3 promoted mitochondrial disturbance, as demonstrated by alterations in MitoTracker(®) Red CMXRos fluorescence intensity evaluated by flow cytometry. When used in conjunction with itraconazole, H3 enhanced the effectiveness of itraconazole against all tested strains, reducing at least half (or more) the MIC values of itraconazole. In addition, cytotoxicity assays revealed that H3 was more selective toward these fungi than was itraconazole. Thus, 24-SMT inhibition by H3 was an effective antifungal strategy against S. schenckii and S. brasiliensis. Inhibition of the methylation reaction catalyzed by 24-SMT has a strong antiproliferative effect via disruption of ergosterol homeostasis

  1. Δ24-Sterol Methyltransferase Plays an Important Role in the Growth and Development of Sporothrix schenckii and Sporothrix brasiliensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borba-Santos, Luana P.; Visbal, Gonzalo; Gagini, Thalita; Rodrigues, Anderson M.; de Camargo, Zoilo P.; Lopes-Bezerra, Leila M.; Ishida, Kelly; de Souza, Wanderley; Rozental, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of Δ24-sterol methyltransferase (24-SMT) in Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto and Sporothrix brasiliensis was investigated in vitro. The effects on fungal growth and sterol composition of the 24-SMT inhibitor 22-hydrazone-imidazolin-2-yl-chol-5-ene-3β-ol (H3) were compared to those of itraconazole. MIC and MFC analysis showed that H3 was more effective than itraconazole against both species in both their filamentous and yeast forms. H3 showed fungistatic activity in a time-kill assay, with inhibitory activity stronger than that of itraconazole. GC analysis of cell sterol composition showed that sterols present in control cells (ergosterol and precursors) were completely replaced by 14α-methylated sterols after H3 exposure. Itraconazole only partially inhibited ergosterol synthesis but completely arrested synthesis of other sterols found in control cells, promoting accumulation of nine 14α-methyl sterols. Based on these results, we propose a schematic model of sterol biosynthesis pathways in S. schenckii and S. brasiliensis. Effects on cell morphology due to 24-SMT inhibition by H3 as analyzed by SEM and TEM included irregular cell shape, reduced cytoplasmic electron-density, and reduced thickness of the microfibrillar cell wall layer. Moreover, 24-SMT inhibition by H3 promoted mitochondrial disturbance, as demonstrated by alterations in MitoTracker® Red CMXRos fluorescence intensity evaluated by flow cytometry. When used in conjunction with itraconazole, H3 enhanced the effectiveness of itraconazole against all tested strains, reducing at least half (or more) the MIC values of itraconazole. In addition, cytotoxicity assays revealed that H3 was more selective toward these fungi than was itraconazole. Thus, 24-SMT inhibition by H3 was an effective antifungal strategy against S. schenckii and S. brasiliensis. Inhibition of the methylation reaction catalyzed by 24-SMT has a strong antiproliferative effect via disruption of ergosterol homeostasis

  2. Seletividade de produtos fitossanitários sobre o ácaro predador Agistemus brasiliensis Matioli, Ueckermann & Oliveira (Acari: Stigmaeidae Selectivity ofthe pesticides tothe predaceous mite Agistemus brasiliensis Matioli,, Ueckermann & Oliveira (Acari: Stigmaeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Zatti da Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Os ácaros predadores das famílias Phytoseiidae e Stigmaeidae constituem-se nos principais inimigos naturais de Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes em citros. Este ácaro-praga causa sérios prejuízos na produção, devido à transmissão do vírus da leprose dos citros (CiLV. Apesar do grande volume de informações sobre a sensibilidade de ácaros Phytoseiidae a agrotóxicos, praticamente não existem informações sobre o efeito desses compostos em ácaros Stigmaeidae no Brasil. Sendo assim, o trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito dos principais agrotóxicos utilizados em citros sobre o ácaro predador Agistemus brasiliensis Matioli, Ueckermann & Oliveira (Acari: Stigmaeidae, em condições de laboratório. Arenas de folhas de citros da variedade Pera, contendo 25 fêmeas adultas de A. brasiliensis, foram pulverizadas em torre de Potter. Avaliaram-se as mortalidades dos ácaros 72 horas após a aplicação. O efeito dos produtos na reprodução do acarino e a viabilidade dos ovos também foram avaliados. Quanto à seletividade, conforme proposta da "Organização Internacional para o Controle Biológico" (IOBC, os produtos foram classificados como: classe 1 - inócuo (E99%, calda sulfocálcica, cyhexatin, flufenoxuron, hexythiazox, óxido de fenbutatin, propargite, pyridaben e spirodiclofen. Estudos conduzidos em condições de campo ainda são necessários para se compreender melhor o efeito desses agrotóxicos sobre o ácaro predador.The predaceous mites of the families Phytoseiidae and Stigmaeidae are the most important natural enemies of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes on citrus. This mite causes serious damages to the yield due to the transmission of Citrus leprosis virus (CiLV. Despite the considerable amount of information on susceptibility of phytoseiids to pesticides, the effect of these compounds is not very known for stigmaeid mites in Brazil. This work was carried out to evaluate the effect of the main pesticides used in

  3. Essential oil composition of fruit colour varieties of Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. Composição dos óleos essenciais de variedades de coloração de frutos de Eugenia brasiliensis Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto H. Moreno

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. is a variable species concerning fruit colour, with three recognized varieties. However, the definition of varieties is not easy for Myrtaceae species and not widely accepted. Two fruit colour varieties (purple and yellow of E. brasiliensis had their essential oil composition analysed in order to give support to the existence of varieties for this species. Although, the major components in the leaf oil are the same monoterpenes for both varieties, alpha-pinene, beta-pinene and 1,8-cineol, the purple fruit variety accumulates more oxygenated sesquiterpenes (33.9% than the one with yellow fruits (3.8%. The major differences occurred in purple fruits that present as major components caryophyllene oxide (22.2% and alpha-cadinol (10.4%, not found in the leaf oil, and the yellow fruit oil presented a similar composition as observed for the leaves. These fruit colour varieties of E. brasilensis can be considered as two distinct chemotypes, since the sesquiterpene pathway is more operant in the purple variety than in the yellow one, in which monoterpenes are mainly accumulated.A espécie Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. apresenta a coloração dos frutos variável, sendo reconhecidas três variedades. Entretanto, a definição de variedades não é fácil para espécies de Myrtaceae e também não é amplamente aceita. Duas variedades de Eugenia brasiliensis, baseado na cor dos frutos (roxos e amarelos, tiveram a composição de seus óleos essenciais analisadas com a finalidade de obter indícios de variedade botânica para esta espécie. Embora, os componentes principais nos óleos das folhas fossem os mesmos monoterpenos para ambas as variedades, alfa-pineno, beta-pineno e 1,8-cineol, a variedade com frutos roxos acumulou maior quantidade de sesquiterpenos oxigenados (33,9% do que aquela com frutos amarelos (3,8%. As diferenças principais ocorreram nos frutos roxos que apresentaram como componente principal o óxido de cariofileno

  4. A semi-nested PCR assay for molecular detection of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in tissue samples Semi-nested PCR para a detecção molecular de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis em amostras de tecido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cristine Koishi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic infection caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. METHODS: In this study, a semi-nested PCR for paracoccidioidomycosis diagnosis was developed. The primers ITS1 and ITS4 were used in the first reaction, while the primers MJ03 and ITS1 primer were used in the second reaction. The semi-nested PCR was used to investigate biopsies of five patients with oral lesions that resembled paracoccidioidomycosis. RESULTS: The semi-nested PCR was positive for four samples and negative for a sample from a patient later diagnosed with leishmaniasis. CONCLUSIONS: The new semi-nested PCR describe is useful for paracoccidioidomycosis diagnosis.INTRODUÇÃO: A paracoccidioidomicose é uma infecção sistêmica causada pelo Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. MÉTODOS: Neste estudo, uma semi-nested PCR foi desenvolvida para o diagnóstico da paracoccidioidomicose. Os oligonucleotídeos iniciadores ITS1 e ITS4 foram usados na primeira reação, enquanto os oligonucleotídeos iniciadores MJ03 e ITS1 foram usados na segunda reação. A semi-nested PCR foi usada para investigar biopsias de cinco pacientes com lesões orais que se assemelhavam a paracoccidioidomicose. RESULTADOS: A semi-nested PCR foi positiva para quatro amostras e negativa para a amostra de um paciente, posteriormente diagnosticado com leishmaniose. CONCLUSÕES: A semi-nested PCR descrita aqui é útil para o diagnóstico da paracoccidioidomicose.

  5. Technological properties of latex and natural rubber of Hevea brasiliensis clones Propriedades tecnológicas do látex e da borracha natural de clones de Hevea brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Manoel Biagi Moreno

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Rubber industry has increased the requirements for quality and uniformity of natural rubber produced in Brazil. Technological properties of latex and natural rubber of clones GT 1, PB 235, IAN 873 and RRIM 600 [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. Former Adr. de Juss. Muell.- Arg] were evaluated by standard methods of the dry rubber content (DRC%, percentage of nitrogen (N% and percentage of ashes (ASH% in two consecutive years; data were correlated with temperature and precipitation. Properties of latex and natural rubber varied (P A indústria da borracha está cada vez mais exigente em relação à qualidade e a uniformidade da borracha natural produzida no Brasil. Neste trabalho as propriedades tecnológicas do látex e da borracha natural dos clones de seringueira GT 1, PB 235, IAN 873 e RRIM 600 [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss. Muell.-.Arg] foram avaliadas pelos ensaios padrões do conteúdo de borracha seca (DRC%, porcentagem de nitrogênio (N% e porcentagem de cinzas (CNZ% por dois anos consecutivos; os dados obtidos foram correlacionados com dados de temperatura e precipitação. As propriedades do látex e da borracha natural variaram (P < 0.01 em função do tipo de clone e entre coletas. O DRC% diminuiu no início da estação seca (maio a junho, enquanto N% e CNZ% aumentaram. O período de abril a junho revelou ser crítico, pois os valores da N% oscilaram acima 0,60%, fora dos padrões estabelecidos pela norma técnica brasileira ABNT/NBR. O clone RRIM 600 foi menos suscetível às variações climáticas.

  6. Holochilus brasiliensis nanus Thomas, 1897: sugestão de modelo experimental para filariose, leishmaniose e esquistossomose Holochilus brasiliensis nanus Thomas, 1897: as an experimental model for filariasis, leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othon de Carvalho Bastos

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Roedores silvestres, classificados como Holochilus brasiliensis nanus Thomas,1897, foram capturados na cidade de São Bento, pertencente à Região da Baixada, do Estado do Maranhão, Brasil, naturalmente infectados com formas adultas de filaria, na cavidade peritoneal, e microfilárias sangüíneas, assim como, com esquistossoma mansoni (vermes adultos e granulomas peri-ovulares hepáticos; intestinais; pulmonares; esplênicos e pancreáticos. Animais nascidos em Biotério, descendentes de Holochilus da Região da Baixada, foram infectados experimentalmente com Leishmania m. amazonensis e Schistosoma mansoni. Em observações semanais, foram encontradas lesões teciduais, semelhantes às que se desenvolvem em hamsters infectados com Leishmania, e hipergamaglobulinemia. Nos esquistossomóticos, foram constatadas hipergamaglobulinemia e reações granulomatosas similares às encontradas nos animais infectados naturalmente. Foram observadas, também, lesões hepática graves, semelhantes às encontradas na esquistossomose humana. Estes achados sugerem a utilização do Holochilus b. nanus como modelo experimental destas três doenças tropicais.Wild rodents classified as Holochilus brasiliensis nanus THOMAS, 1897, were captured in Lowland Region of State of Maranhão-Brazil. Natural infection by schistosome and filaria was detected in the most of these animals. Rodents born in the Animal House of the University of Maranhão were experimentally infected with Leishmania mexicana amazonensis or Schistosoma mansoni. Pathological aspects of leishmaniasis in these animals were found similar to that found in hamsters infected with Leishmania. Severe hepatic lesions were found in the animals infected with schistosome similar to that seen in human infection. These findings suggest the utilization of this animal as an experimental model of filariasis, leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis.

  7. Hawaiian Fish Distributors Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is proprietary sales data from one Kona-based fish dealer for August 1986 to Decemeber 1988. Fishing was generally around Kona. This is Dealer Data and is...

  8. Pittsburgh Fish Fry Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Lenten Fish Fry records for the Greater Pittsburgh region. Data is collected before and during the Lenten fish fry season each year by Code for Pittsburgh. Data is...

  9. Fishing fleet profiling methodology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ferraris, Jocelyne

    2002-01-01

    A fishing fleet profile aims tho assist in understanding the complexity and structure of fisheries from a technical and socio-economic point of view, or from the point of view of fishing strategies...

  10. Poisoning - fish and shellfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish poisoning; Dinoflagellate poisoning; Seafood contamination; Paralytic shellfish poisoning; Ciguatera poisoning ... algae and algae-like organisms called dinoflagellates. Small fish that eat the algae become contaminated. If larger ...

  11. Scorpion fish sting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002849.htm Scorpion fish sting To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Scorpion fish are members of the family Scorpaenidae, which includes ...

  12. Fish population dynamics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gulland, J. A

    1977-01-01

    This book describes how the dynamics of fish populations can be analysed in terms of the factors affecting their rates of growth, mortality and reproduction, with particular emphasis on the effects of fishing...

  13. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-emulsifier protein produced by Aspergillus brasiliensis (niger) in an airlift bioreactor following an electrochemical pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Vázquez, Victor; Shirai, Keiko; González, Ignacio; Gutiérrez-Rojas, Mariano

    2018-05-01

    An emulsifier protein (EP) was produced and easily separated from oil-contaminated water as an economical substrate when Aspergillus brasiliensis, pretreated in a solid state culture with a controlled electric field, was used in an airlift bioreactor. The hydrocarbon-EP comprised 19.5% of the total protein, its purification enhanced the specific emulsifying activity (EA) seven times. The influence of operational conditions (pH and salt concentration) on the EA were assessed to characterise the emulsion stability. The EA was increased by 19% in alkaline environments (pH 7-11), but it was not affected by the presence of salt (0-35 g L -1 ). On the other hand, preheating the EP samples (60 °C) enhanced the EA by 2.5 times. Based on analysis of its EA, this EP can be applied as a bioremediation enhancer in contaminated soils. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of the role of natural killer cells (CD56+ cells) in the immunological response against paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection

    OpenAIRE

    Larissa Nara Alegrini Longhi

    2010-01-01

    Resumo: Tradicionalmente o papel das células NK na resposta imunológica tem sido associado com a resistência à infecção viral e tumores, porém estudos recentes apontam para a participação destas células na resposta imunológica contra outras doenças infecciosas. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a possível participação de células NK (CD56+CD3-) na resposta imunológica ao fungo Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Foram utilizadas células CD56+ isoladas por meio imunomagnético provenientes de pacie...

  15. Immunization with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis radioattenuated yeast cells induces Th1 immune response in Balb/C mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Estefania M.N.; Andrade, Antero S.R.; Resende, Maria Aparecida de; Reis, Bernardo S.; Goes, Alfredo M.

    2009-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, the most prevalent mycosis in Latin America. To date, there is no effective vaccine. In our laboratory yeast cells of P. brasiliensis were attenuated by gamma irradiation. We defined an absorbed dose in which the pathogen loses the reproductive ability, while retaining the morphology, the synthesis and secretion of proteins and the oxidative metabolism. The immunization with these cells was able to confer protection in BALB/c mice. The aim of the present work was evaluate the immune response pathway activated in mice immunized with P. brasiliensis radioattenuated yeast cells. The protector effect was evaluated in BALB/c mice groups immunized once or twice, respectively. Each group was divided in three sub groups that were challenge 30, 45 or 60 days after the immunization. These groups were called G1A, G1B and G1C in the group immunized once and G2A, G2B and G2C in the group immunized twice. Recovery of CFUs and cytokines determination (IFN - γ, IL - 10 and IL IV 4) were performed three months post challenge. Quantitative RT-PCR was the method of choice used to quantify the expression of cytokines. The sera were collected weekly to evaluate the IgG antibody titers and the IgG1 and IgG2a pattern in the course of infection. A significant reduction in CFUs recovery was verified 90 days post challenge in mice submitted to one immunization: 73.0%, 96.0% and 76.3% for sub-groups G1A, G1B and G1C, respectively. In the group submitted to two immunizations, a remarkable increase in the protection was obtained. No CFUs was recovered from sub-groups G2B and G2C and very few CFUs (reduction of 98.6%) were recovered from the lungs of sub group G2A. In mice submitted to one immunization, Th1 and Th2 cytokines were simultaneously produced. In the group submitted to two immunizations, levels of IL-10 and IL-4 were very low, while IFN-γ production was maintained indicating that a Th1 pattern was dominant. For

  16. Immunization with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis radioattenuated yeast cells induces Th1 immune response in Balb/C mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Estefania M.N.; Andrade, Antero S.R. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN-CNEN/MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: estefaniabio@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: antero@cdtn.br; Resende, Maria Aparecida de [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Microbiologia], e-mail: maresend@mono.icb.ufmg.br; Reis, Bernardo S.; Goes, Alfredo M. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica e Imunologia], e-mail: goes@mono.icb.ufmg.br, e-mail: brsgarbi@mono.icb.ufmg.br

    2009-07-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, the most prevalent mycosis in Latin America. To date, there is no effective vaccine. In our laboratory yeast cells of P. brasiliensis were attenuated by gamma irradiation. We defined an absorbed dose in which the pathogen loses the reproductive ability, while retaining the morphology, the synthesis and secretion of proteins and the oxidative metabolism. The immunization with these cells was able to confer protection in BALB/c mice. The aim of the present work was evaluate the immune response pathway activated in mice immunized with P. brasiliensis radioattenuated yeast cells. The protector effect was evaluated in BALB/c mice groups immunized once or twice, respectively. Each group was divided in three sub groups that were challenge 30, 45 or 60 days after the immunization. These groups were called G1A, G1B and G1C in the group immunized once and G2A, G2B and G2C in the group immunized twice. Recovery of CFUs and cytokines determination (IFN - {gamma}, IL - 10 and IL IV 4) were performed three months post challenge. Quantitative RT-PCR was the method of choice used to quantify the expression of cytokines. The sera were collected weekly to evaluate the IgG antibody titers and the IgG1 and IgG2a pattern in the course of infection. A significant reduction in CFUs recovery was verified 90 days post challenge in mice submitted to one immunization: 73.0%, 96.0% and 76.3% for sub-groups G1A, G1B and G1C, respectively. In the group submitted to two immunizations, a remarkable increase in the protection was obtained. No CFUs was recovered from sub-groups G2B and G2C and very few CFUs (reduction of 98.6%) were recovered from the lungs of sub group G2A. In mice submitted to one immunization, Th1 and Th2 cytokines were simultaneously produced. In the group submitted to two immunizations, levels of IL-10 and IL-4 were very low, while IFN-{gamma} production was maintained indicating that a Th1 pattern was

  17. Effect of rootstock on the scion of Hevea brasiliensis through metabolic analysis of latex samples by 1H NMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Sanches Pereira do Nascimento

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of rootstock on grafting through metabolomic analysis of latex (Hevea brasiliensis samples was verified by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and multivariate data analysis. Sixteen metabolites present in the latex cytosol were characterized by NMR. PCA analysis showed that the latex samples of the RR and GR groups can be differentiated. The GR group samples present a metabolic profile similar to the RR group samples, while the RG group is in an intermediate position between RR and GG groups. Sucrose and formate contributed greatly to the separation obtained by PCA, presenting a good correlation between the results. 1H NMR was an efficient technique to differentiate latex samples from different types of rootstocks and grafting and in the future could be used to predict rubber production by latex analysis.

  18. Evaluation of the protection induced by the immunization with radioiodinated yeast cells of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in animal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Estefania Mara do Nascimento

    2007-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is fungus agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), a chronic systemic disease prevalent in Latin American. To date, there is no effective vaccine. The potential of gamma radiation for pathogens attenuation and vaccine development was explored in this work. In our laboratory were developed yeast cells of P. brasiliensis attenuated by gamma radiation, which lose the reproductive ability, while retaining the morphology, the synthesis and secretion of proteins, the oxidative metabolism and the expression of the antigens present in the native yeast. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the protection elicited by the immunization with this cells in animal model. The virulence attenuated was evaluated in BALB/c and Nude-Nude mice. The protector effect was evaluated in BALB/c mice groups immunized once or twice. Each group was divided in three sub groups that were challenge 30, 45 or 60 days after the immunization. The mice were sacrificed 30 and 90 days after challenge. The removed organs were used for colony forming units (CFU's) recover, histopathological analysis and cytokine determination. The sera were collected weekly to evaluate the IgG antibody titers and the IgG1 and IgG2a pattern in the course of infection. To evaluate the type of elicited immune response the cytokines IFN - γ, TNF - α, IL - 10 and IL - 5 were determined by real time PCR. The radio attenuated yeast loses its virulence since fails in producing infection in BALB/c and Nude-Nude mice. No CFU's were recovered neither histological changes observed in the mice infected with the radio attenuated cells. The mice infected with the not irradiated P. brasiliensis showed a high level of antibody production while the infection with the radio attenuated yeast did not significantly change the antibody level. The mice infected with the radio attenuated yeast presented an increase in the IFN - γ and TNF - α production and an inhibition of the IL-10 synthesis, indicating a

  19. Morphology-Property relationship of high density Polyethylene/Hevea Brasiliensis Leaves/Imperata cylindrica hybrid composite: Impact strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, A. R.; Muhammad, A.; Roslan, A.

    2017-09-01

    This research studies about the Hevea Brasiliensis Leaves and Imperata Cylindrica that was used as filler in High Density Polyethylene (HDPE). The fillers content were varied in the composite by 5 wt%, 15 wt% and 25 wt% respectively. This polymer composite are being studied by using Impact Test and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The analysis show that the impact strength value increased when the percent of bio filler used is low. The result between pure HDPE and the composites shows an outcome of significant changes in impact energy values, while the values between different composite change slightly. A composite that contained 5 wt% of fillers is the better energy absorber than 15 wt% and 25 wt% according to impact testing. In addition, the morphology studies on the composite sample show that the bio-filler was successfully embedded. Overall, these finding suggest that HBL and IC can be an alternative filler to be incorporated in polymer matrix.

  20. Effects of light intensity on the distribution of anthocyanins in Kalanchoe brasiliensis Camb. and Kalanchoe pinnata (Lamk. Pers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna P. Cruz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares two medicinal species of Kalanchoe, which are often used interchangeably by the population, regarding the distribution of anthocyanins under the influence of four luminosity levels for 6 months. For the morphoanatomical analysis, the 6th stem node of each plant was sectioned. Usual histochemical tests revealed the presence of anthocyanins by cross sections of the stems, petioles and leaf blades. The petioles and leaf blades were submitted to the extraction with acidified methanol, and the anthocyanins were quantified by spectrophotometric readings. At the macroscopic level, it was noticed for both species a higher presence of anthocyanins in stems and petioles of plants under full sunlight. The microscopy of K. brasiliensis stems evidenced the deposition of anthocyanins in the subjacent tissue to the epidermis and cortex, which increased with light intensity. In K. pinnata a subepidermal collenchyma was observed, which interfered in the visualization of anthocyanins. In petioles and leaf blades of K. brasiliensis the deposition of anthocyanins was peripheral, and in K. pinnata it was also throughout the cortex. The quantification of anthocyanins in petioles showed in 70% of light higher averages than in 25%, but in leaf blades there were no significant results. This study contributes to the pharmacognosy of Kalanchoe and it is sustained by the description of flavonoids as biological markers of the genus.Este trabalho compara duas espécies medicinais de Kalanchoe utilizadas muitas vezes de forma indiferenciada pela população, quanto à distribuição de antocianinas sob influência de quatro níveis de luminosidade por 6 meses. Para a análise morfoanatômica foi seccionado o 6 º nó do caule de cada planta. Testes histoquímicos clássicos evidenciaram a presença de antocianinas em cortes transversais dos caules, pecíolos e lâminas foliares. Os pecíolos e lâminas foliares foram submetidos à extração com metanol

  1. Production of an antimicrobial substance against Cryptococcus neoformans by Paenibacillus brasilensis Sa3 isolated from the rhizosphere of Kalanchoe brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Tiago Oliveira; Alviano, Daniela Sales; Tupinambá, Gleiser; Padrón, Thaís Souto; Antoniolli, Angelo Roberto; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Seldin, Lucy

    2008-01-01

    An antifungal substance produced by Paenibacillus brasilensis strain Sa3 was preliminary characterized and showed to be stable after treatment with different enzymes and organic solvents and at a wide range of pH, and presented a molecular weight between 3 and 10 kDa. In vitro antagonism of this strain towards Cryptococcus neoformans was investigated by optical and electronic microscopic analyses and a fungicidal effect on C. neoformans was observed. Ultrastructural analysis showed intense changes on the fungus when it was paired cultured with strain Sa3, mainly the detachment of the capsule from the cell wall and the presence of altered organelles in the cytoplasm. This novel antifungal substance produced by P. brasilensis Sa3 may represent a new insight in antifungal therapy mainly against emergent fungi. Also, prospective studies on rhizobacteria of plants as Kalanchoe brasiliensis may offer a potential source for the discovery of bioactive compounds with medical value.

  2. Nippostronglylus brasiliensis infection in the rat: effect of iron and protein deficiency and dexamethasone on the efficacy of benzimidazole anthelmintics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncombe, V M; Bolin, T D; Davis, A E; Kelly, J D

    1977-01-01

    Malnutrition, anaemia, and gut parasites are commonly interrelated. Using the Nippostrongylus brasiliensis-rat model, the effect of iron and protein deficiency on the efficacy of benzimidazole anthelmintics was studied. It was demonstrated that the anthelmintics mebendazole and fenbendazole were significantly less effective in eradicating parasites when animals were deficient in iron and protein. This decreased efficacy of anthelmintics in iron and protein deficiency could not be overcome by intraperitoneal administration of the drug. Since nutritional deficiencies may act via impairment of the immune response, anthelmintic efficacy was determined in adequately nourished rats treated with the immunosuppressive drug dexamethasone. A similar decrease in efficacy of mebendazole was shown when these animals were treated with dexamethasone. Thus it is possible that lowered anthelmintic efficacy in iron and protein deficient animals is mediated by immune deficiency. These findings may be relevant to anthelmintic programmes in malnourished communities. PMID:590849

  3. Hepatic retinoid levels in seven fish species (teleosts) from a tropical coastal lagoon receiving effluents from iron-ore mining and processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Adriana A; van Hattum, Bert; Brouwer, Abraham

    2012-02-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the possible effects of Fe and trace element exposure on hepatic levels of retinoids in seven fish species. Concentrations of retinoids were measured in fish collected from a coastal lagoon in Brazil that receives effluents from an iron-ore mining and processing plant. Fish from nearby coastal lagoons were also included to assess possible differences related to chemical exposure. Results indicated considerable differences in hepatic retinoid composition among the various species investigated. The most striking differences were in retinol and derivative-specific profiles and in didehydro retinol and derivative-specific profiles. The Perciformes species Geophagus brasiliensis, Tilapia rendalli, Mugil liza, and Cichla ocellaris and the Characiforme Hoplias malabaricus were characterized as retinol and derivative-specific, while the Siluriformes species Hoplosternum littorale and Rhamdia quelen were didehydro retinol and derivative-specific fish species. A negative association was observed between Al, Pb, As, and Cd and hepatic didehydro retinoid levels. Fish with higher levels of hepatic Fe, Cu, and Zn showed unexpectedly significant positive correlations with increased hepatic retinol levels. This finding, associated with the positive relationships between retinol and retinyl palmitate with lipid peroxidation, may suggest that vitamin A is mobilized from other tissues to increase hepatic antioxidant levels for protection against oxidative damage. These data show significant but dissimilar associations between trace element exposure and hepatic retinoid levels in fish species exposed to iron-ore mining and processing effluents, without apparent major impacts on fish health and condition. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  4. The correlation between subordinate fish eye colour and received attacks: a negative social feedback mechanism for the reduction of aggression during the formation of dominance hierarchies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyai, Caio A; Carretero Sanches, Fábio H; Costa, Tânia M; Colpo, Karine Delevati; Volpato, Gilson L; Barreto, Rodrigo E

    2011-12-01

    Eye darkening has been linked to social status in fish. The subordinate's eyes darken, while the eyes of the dominant fish become pale. Although this phenomenon has been described in salmonid fishes and in the African cichlid Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, it is unclear whether eye darkening correlates with a reduction in aggressive behaviour. Thus, we evaluated the link between social status and eye darkening. We evaluated whether the eye colours of subordinate fish correlate with the frequency of received attacks in a neotropical fish, the pearl cichlid Geophagus brasiliensis. We paired pearl cichlids and quantified both the aggressive behaviour and the eye darkening of each fish. As has been described for Nile tilapia and Atlantic salmon, a clear-cut hierarchical relationship formed, where dominance and subordination were associated with pale and dark eye colours, respectively. Initially, eye colour darkening was positively correlated with the frequency of received attacks; however, a negative association occurred following eye darkening, in which the intensity of aggressive interactions decreased. Thus, fish that initially received a high number of attacks signalled subordination more rapidly and intensely (rapid and dramatic eye darkening), thereby inducing a negative social feedback mechanism that led to reduced aggression. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Immunity to Fish Rhabdoviruses

    OpenAIRE

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Laing, Kerry J.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Members of the family Rhabdoviridae are single-stranded RNA viruses and globally important pathogens of wild and cultured fish and thus relatively well studied in their respective hosts or other model systems. Here, we review the protective immune mechanisms that fish mount in response to rhabdovirus infections. Teleost fish possess the principal components of innate and adaptive immunity found in other vertebrates. Neutralizing antibodies are critical for long-term protection from fish rhabd...

  6. New developments of RNAi in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: prospects for high-throughput, genome-wide, functional genomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tercio Goes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Fungal Genome Initiative of the Broad Institute, in partnership with the Paracoccidioides research community, has recently sequenced the genome of representative isolates of this human-pathogen dimorphic fungus: Pb18 (S1, Pb03 (PS2 and Pb01. The accomplishment of future high-throughput, genome-wide, functional genomics will rely upon appropriate molecular tools and straightforward techniques to streamline the generation of stable loss-of-function phenotypes. In the past decades, RNAi has emerged as the most robust genetic technique to modulate or to suppress gene expression in diverse eukaryotes, including fungi. These molecular tools and techniques, adapted for RNAi, were up until now unavailable for P. brasiliensis.In this paper, we report Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation of yeast cells for high-throughput applications with which higher transformation frequencies of 150±24 yeast cell transformants per 1×106 viable yeast cells were obtained. Our approach is based on a bifunctional selective marker fusion protein consisted of the Streptoalloteichus hindustanus bleomycin-resistance gene (Shble and the intrinsically fluorescent monomeric protein mCherry which was codon-optimized for heterologous expression in P. brasiliensis. We also report successful GP43 gene knock-down through the expression of intron-containing hairpin RNA (ihpRNA from a Gateway-adapted cassette (cALf which was purpose-built for gene silencing in a high-throughput manner. Gp43 transcript levels were reduced by 73.1±22.9% with this approach.We have a firm conviction that the genetic transformation technique and the molecular tools herein described will have a relevant contribution in future Paracoccidioides spp. functional genomics research.

  7. Gas exchange in young Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. Ex A. Juss. Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae plants in Antioquia (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar de Jesús Cordoba Gaona

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the behavior of Hevea brasiliensis from a study of photosynthetic performance in the environmental conditions of the rubber regions in northeast and lower Cauca of the department of Antioquia (Colombia as a baseline for future studies of clonal performance between different environments. Photosynthetic parameters were recorded by an infrared gas analysis, and for each of the photosynthetic parameters was estimated the area under the curve (AUC from 7 Hevea genotypes (clones. The maximum value of photosynthetic rates was reached at 8 hours in San Roque (10.97 µmol [CO2] m-2s-1 and 9 hours in Caucasia (7.84 µmol [CO2] m-2s-1. The maximum transpiration rates was 3.55 mmol [H2O] m-2s-1, in San Roque, and 5.16 mmol [H2O] m-2s-1 in Caucasia, while the maximum stomatal conductance was 0.18 mol [H2O] m-2s-1 y 0.16 mol [H2O] m-2s-1 in San Roque, and Caucasia respectively. The Caucasia-based rubber plants had higher cumulative net assimilation rates 271,934 µmol [CO2] m-2day-1, being higher than San Roque 226,287 µmol [CO2] m-2day-1. The mean carbon accumulation was obtained in San Roque (697,638 µmol [CO2] µmol photon-1day1. Hevea brasiliensis showed greater environmental adaptation with respect to gas exchange and the use of light energy in San Roque.

  8. PERFIL SOROLÓGICO EM EQUINOS INTOXICADOS EXPERIMENTALMENTE POR SENECIO BRASILIENSIS COMPOSITAE: PARTE II BILIRRUBINAS, ALBUMINAS E PROTEÍNAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Terezinha dos Anjos Lopes

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO As parte aéreas dessecadas de senecio brasiliensis, colhidas no período de brotação, foram administradas a 14 equinos de raça mista, com idade de 4 a 22 anos e pesos de 230 a 475kg. A planta era misturada à ração dada aos animais ou moída, misturada em água e administrada por sonda nasoesofágica. Foram realizadas colheitas de sangue periodicamente nos 14 equinos para avaliação dos níveis séricos de bilirrubina, albumina e proteína. Oito cavalos desenvolveram a intoxicação, três morreram por causas outras e três sobreviveram sem apresentar quaisquer sinais clínicos durante o período em que foram observados. Nos animais que desenvolveram a doença os sinais clínicos tiveram evolução de um a seis dias e caracterizaram-se por anorexia, icterícia e distúrbios neurológicos. A bilirrubina total e indireta apresentam-se elevadas na fase terminal da intoxicação e a albumina e proteína mostram níveis abaixo dos valores de referência num equino que desenvolveu a forma crônica da enfermidade. Conclui-se que dentre as provas laboratoriais usadas, a bilirrubina indireta apresenta melhor indicação da alteração hepática causada por intoxicação pelo senecio brasiliensis.

  9. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Latex Reveals Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Increased Rubber Yield in Hevea brasiliensis Self-Rooting Juvenile Clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-Liang; Guo, Dong; Zhu, Jia-Hong; Wang, Ying; Chen, Xiong-Ting; Peng, Shi-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) self-rooting juvenile clones (JCs) are promising planting materials for rubber production. In a comparative trial between self-rooting JCs and donor clones (DCs), self-rooting JCs exhibited better performance in rubber yield. To study the molecular mechanism associated with higher rubber yield in self-rooting JCs, we sequenced and comparatively analyzed the latex of rubber tree self-rooting JCs and DCs at the transcriptome level. Total raw reads of 34,632,012 and 35,913,020 bp were obtained from the library of self-rooting JCs and DCs, respectively, by using Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing technology. De novo assemblies yielded 54689 unigenes from the library of self-rooting JCs and DCs. Among 54689 genes, 1716 genes were identified as differentially expressed between self-rooting JCs and DCs via comparative transcript profiling. Functional analysis showed that the genes related to the mass of categories were differentially enriched between the two clones. Several genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, hormone metabolism and reactive oxygen species scavenging were up-regulated in self-rooting JCs, suggesting that the self-rooting JCs provide sufficient molecular basis for the increased rubber yielding, especially in the aspects of improved latex metabolisms and latex flow. Some genes encoding epigenetic modification enzymes were also differentially expressed between self-rooting JCs and DCs. Epigenetic modifications may lead to gene differential expression between self-rooting JCs and DCs. These data will provide new cues to understand the molecular mechanism underlying the improved rubber yield of H. brasiliensis self-rooting clones.

  10. Fenologia reprodutiva e biologia da polinização de Canavalia brasiliensis Mart. ex Benth (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Sales Guedes

    2009-08-01

    trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a fenologia e biologia da polinização de C. brasiliensis. Quinze indivíduos foram marcados e acompanhados quinzenalmente para as observações dos estudos fenológicos. Para o estudo da morfologia e biologia florais, flores e inflorescências foram marcadas e acompanhadas até a formação dos frutos. Os visitantes florais foram observados ao longo do período do experimento, anotando-se freqüência, horário e comportamento de suas visitas. Canavalia brasiliensis demonstrou padrão de floração anual, contínua, de longa duração com períodos de maior atividade fenológica de floração na estação seca. As inflorescências são do tipo paniculada, com flores cujos atributos florais estão relacionados à síndrome da melitofilia. A antese é diurna, com início às 05h00. Há néctar desde a fase de pré-antese, com concentração de açúcares em torno de 44-60%. Os visitantes florais observados foram abelhas (Xylocopa frontalis, X. suspecta e X. sp. Apis mellifera e Centris similis e pássaros (Phaethornis ruber, Chlorostilbon aureoventris, Eupetomena macroura e Coereba flaveola. Xylocopa frontalis atuou como polinizadora efetiva, enquanto que os pássaros restringem-se a pilhar o néctar.

  11. Biochemical characterization of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis α-1,3-glucanase Agn1p, and its functionality by heterologous Expression in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Villalobos-Duno

    Full Text Available α-1,3-Glucan is present as the outermost layer of the cell wall in the pathogenic yeastlike (Y form of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Based on experimental evidence, this polysaccharide has been proposed as a fungal virulence factor. To degrade α-1,3-glucan and allow remodeling of the cell wall, α-1,3-glucanase is required. Therefore, the study of this enzyme, its encoding gene, and regulatory mechanisms, might be of interest to understand the morphogenesis and virulence process in this fungus. A single gene, orthologous to other fungal α-1,3-glucanase genes, was identified in the Paracoccidioides genome, and labeled AGN1. Transcriptional levels of AGN1 and AGS1 (α-1,3-glucan synthase-encoding gene increased sharply when the pathogenic Y phase was cultured in the presence of 5% horse serum, a reported booster for cell wall α-1,3-glucan synthesis in this fungus. To study the biochemical properties of P. brasiliensis Agn1p, the enzyme was heterologously overexpressed, purified, and its activity profile determined by means of the degradation of carboxymethyl α-1,3-glucan (SCMG, chemically modified from P. brasiliensis α-1,3-glucan, used as a soluble substrate for the enzymatic reaction. Inhibition assays, thin layer chromatography and enzymatic reactions with alternative substrates (dextran, starch, chitin, laminarin and cellulose, showed that Agn1p displays an endolytic cut pattern and high specificity for SCMG. Complementation of a Schizosaccharomyces pombe agn1Δ strain with the P. brasiliensis AGN1 gene restored the wild type phenotype, indicating functionality of the gene, suggesting a possible role of Agn1p in the remodeling of P. brasiliensis Y phase cell wall. Based on amino acid sequence, P. brasiliensis Agn1p, groups within the family 71 of fungal glycoside hydrolases (GH-71, showing similar biochemical characteristics to other members of this family. Also based on amino acid sequence alignments, we propose a subdivision of fungal

  12. Fish eye optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudec, R.; Michalova, S.

    2017-07-01

    We report on small student (high—school) project of the Czech Academy of Sciences dealing with animal (fish) eyes and possible application in science and technology. Albeit most fishes have refractive eyes, the recent discoveries confirm that some fishes have reflective eyes with strange arrangements as well.

  13. Induced cytochrome P450 1A activity in cichlid fishes from Guandu River and Jacarepagua Lake, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parente, Thiago E.M.; Oliveira, Ana C.A.X. de; Paumgartten, Francisco J.R.

    2008-01-01

    The induction of cytochrome P4501A-mediated activity (e.g. ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylation, EROD) has been used as a biomarker for monitoring fish exposure to AhR-receptor ligands such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs). In this study we found that hepatic EROD is induced in fish ('Nile tilapia', Oreochromis niloticus and 'acara', Geophagus brasiliensis) from the Guandu River (7-17-fold) and Jacarepagua Lake (7-fold), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Since both cichlid fish are consumed by the local population and the Guandu River is the main source of the drinking water supply for the greater Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area, pollution by cytochrome P4501A-inducing chemicals is a cause for concern and should be further investigated in sediments, water and biota. We additionally showed that EROD activity in the fish liver post-mitochondrial supernatant-simpler, cheaper and less time consuming to prepare than the microsomal fraction-is sufficiently sensitive for monitoring purposes. - Increased EROD activity in the liver of cichlid fishes indicated that Guandu River, the source of drinking water supply for Rio de Janeiro is polluted by CYP1A-inducing chemicals

  14. Induced cytochrome P450 1A activity in cichlid fishes from Guandu River and Jacarepagua Lake, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parente, Thiago E.M.; Oliveira, Ana C.A.X. de [Laboratorio de Toxicologia Ambiental, Escola Nacional de Saude Publica - FIOCRUZ, Av Brasil 4036, Predio de Expansao do Campus, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21041-361 (Brazil); Paumgartten, Francisco J.R. [Laboratorio de Toxicologia Ambiental, Escola Nacional de Saude Publica - FIOCRUZ, Av Brasil 4036, Predio de Expansao do Campus, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21041-361 (Brazil)], E-mail: paum@ensp.fiocruz.br

    2008-03-15

    The induction of cytochrome P4501A-mediated activity (e.g. ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylation, EROD) has been used as a biomarker for monitoring fish exposure to AhR-receptor ligands such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs). In this study we found that hepatic EROD is induced in fish ('Nile tilapia', Oreochromis niloticus and 'acara', Geophagus brasiliensis) from the Guandu River (7-17-fold) and Jacarepagua Lake (7-fold), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Since both cichlid fish are consumed by the local population and the Guandu River is the main source of the drinking water supply for the greater Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area, pollution by cytochrome P4501A-inducing chemicals is a cause for concern and should be further investigated in sediments, water and biota. We additionally showed that EROD activity in the fish liver post-mitochondrial supernatant-simpler, cheaper and less time consuming to prepare than the microsomal fraction-is sufficiently sensitive for monitoring purposes. - Increased EROD activity in the liver of cichlid fishes indicated that Guandu River, the source of drinking water supply for Rio de Janeiro is polluted by CYP1A-inducing chemicals.

  15. Segundo registro de Sterrastrolepis brasiliensis Volkmer-Ribeiro & De Rosa-Barbosa (Demospongiae, Potamolepidae com descrição do habitat e de assembléia, Bacia do Rio Paraná, Brasil Second register of Sterrastrolepis brasiliensis Volkmer-Ribeiro & De Rosa-Barbosa (Demospongiae, Potamolepidae with description of the habitat and of assembly, Paraná Basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Volkmer-Ribeiro

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A descoberta recente, no fundo rochoso do Rio Piquiri, Bacia do Paraná, Brasil, de Sterrastrolepis brasiliensis Volkmer-Ribeiro & De Rosa-Barbosa, 1978, uma espécie de esponja continental ameaçada, possibilitou o registro fotográfico de espécimes vivos, o aperfeiçoamento das ilustrações ao MEV e da descrição de algumas características, a descrição do habitat e o registro de uma assembléia de esponjas composta por S. brasiliensis, Oncosclera navicella (Carter, 1881 e Oncosclera tonolli (Bonetto & Ezcurra de Drago, 1968. Oncosclera tonolli tem seu primeiro registro para águas brasileiras e para a Bacia do Paraná. Gêmulas de O. navicella são tambem ilustradas ao MEV.The recent discovery of Sterrastrolepis brasiliensis Volkmer-Ribeiro & De Rosa-Barbosa, 1978, a brazilian endangered freshwater sponge, at the rocky bottom of River Piquiri, Paraná Basin, Brazil, enhanced the photographing of living specimens, the improving of SEM illustration and description for some characteristics, the description of the habitat and the register of an sponge assembly composed by S. brasiliensis, Oncosclera navicella (Carter, l881 and Oncosclera tonolli (Bonetto & Ezcurra de Drago, 1968. Oncosclera tonolli has its first register for Brazilian waters and for the Parana Basin. Gemmules of O. navicella are also SEM illustrated.

  16. Turbine related fish mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eicher, G.J.

    1993-01-01

    A literature review was conducted to assess the factors affecting turbine-related fish mortality. The mechanics of fish passage through a turbine is outlined, and various turbine related stresses are described, including pressure and shear effects, hydraulic head, turbine efficiency, and tailwater level. The methodologies used in determining the effects of fish passage are evaluated. The necessity of adequate controls in each test is noted. It is concluded that mortality is the result of several factors such as hardiness of study fish, fish size, concentrations of dissolved gases, and amounts of cavitation. Comparisons between Francis and Kaplan turbines indicate little difference in percent mortality. 27 refs., 5 figs

  17. Fish allergy: in review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Michael F; Lopata, Andreas L

    2014-06-01

    Globally, the rising consumption of fish and its derivatives, due to its nutritional value and divergence of international cuisines, has led to an increase in reports of adverse reactions to fish. Reactions to fish are not only mediated by the immune system causing allergies, but are often caused by various toxins and parasites including ciguatera and Anisakis. Allergic reactions to fish can be serious and life threatening and children usually do not outgrow this type of food allergy. The route of exposure is not only restricted to ingestion but include manual handling and inhalation of cooking vapors in the domestic and occupational environment. Prevalence rates of self-reported fish allergy range from 0.2 to 2.29 % in the general population, but can reach up to 8 % among fish processing workers. Fish allergy seems to vary with geographical eating habits, type of fish processing, and fish species exposure. The major fish allergen characterized is parvalbumin in addition to several less well-known allergens. This contemporary review discusses interesting and new findings in the area of fish allergy including demographics, novel allergens identified, immunological mechanisms of sensitization, and innovative approaches in diagnosing and managing this life-long disease.

  18. Do Fish Resist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Joseph Wadiwel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There have been a number of scientific studies on the question of whether fish feel pain. Some have suggested that some fish indeed do feel pain and that this has significant welfare implications (2003. Others have argued that fish do not have the brain development necessary to feel pain. In terms of number of animals killed, the slaughter of sea animals for human consumption significantly exceeds that of any land animals that we use for food, and sea animal slaughter practices frequently lack any basic welfare protections. If fish can be shown to feel pain—or more importantly, if humans can agree that fish feel pain—then this would place a significant question mark over many contemporary fishing practices.  This article substitutes the question 'Do Fish Feel Pain?' with an alternative: 'Do Fish Resist?' It explores the conceptual problems of understanding fish resistance, and the politics of epistemology that surrounds and seeks to develop a conceptual framework for understanding fish resistance to human capture by exploring the development of fishing technologies - the hook, the net and contemporary aquaculture.

  19. Augmented fish health monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michak, P.; Rogers, R.; Amos, K.

    1991-05-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) initiated the Augmented Fish Health Monitoring project in 1986. This project was a five year interagency project involving fish rearing agencies in the Columbia Basin. Historically, all agencies involved with fish health in the Columbia Basin were conducting various levels of fish health monitoring, pathogen screening and collection. The goals of this project were; to identify, develop and implement a standardized level of fish health methodologies, develop a common data collection and reporting format in the area of artificial production, evaluate and monitor water quality, improve communications between agencies and provide annual evaluation of fish health information for production of healthier smolts. This completion report will contain a project evaluation, review of the goals of the project, evaluation of the specific fish health analyses, an overview of highlights of the project and concluding remarks. 8 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  20. Caracterização da enolase de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis e identificação proteômica de novas moléculas

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos, Caroline Maria [UNESP

    2011-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis é um importante patógeno humano que causa a paracoccidioidomicose (PCM), uma micose sistêmica com ampla distribuição na América Latina. A adesão e invasão de células são eventos cruciais envolvidos na infecção e disseminação do patógeno. Além disso, patógenos utilizam suas moléculas de superfície para se ligar aos componentes da matriz extracelular para estabelecer a infecção. Uma proteína antigênica de P. brasiliensis foi isolada de géis de eletroforese bidimens...

  1. Immunogenicity is unrelated to protective immunity when induced by soluble and particulate antigens from Nocardia brasiliensis in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Carmona, Mario C; Ramos, Alma I; Pérez-Rivera, Isabel

    2006-08-01

    Cell-mediated immunity plays a major role in protection against intracellular microbes. Nocardia brasiliensis is a facultative intracellular pathogen that causes chronic actinomycetoma. In this work, we injected BALB/c mice with soluble P24 and particulate antigens from N. brasiliensis. A higher antibody titer and lymphocyte proliferation was induced by the particulate antigen than by the soluble antigen. However, five months after antigen injection, antibody concentration and lymphocyte proliferation were similar. An increase in CD45R and CD4 T cells was unrelated to protective immunity. Active immunization with soluble or particulate antigens induced complete protection during the primary immune response. This protective response was IgM mediated. The higher immunogenicity was not related to protective immunity since the particulate antigen induced protection similar to the soluble antigen. Using particulate antigens for vaccination guarantees a stronger immune response, local and systemic side effects, but not necessarily protection.

  2. Cultivated strains of Agaricus bisporus and A. brasiliensis: chemical characterization and evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial properties for final healthy product - natural preservatives in yoghurt

    OpenAIRE

    Stojković, Dejan; Reis, Filipa S.; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Ćirić, Ana; Barros, Lillian; Van Griensven, Leo J.L.D.; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.; Soković, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus (J. E. Lange) Emil J. Imbach and Agaricus brasiliensis Wasser, M. Didukh, Amazonas & Stamets are edible mushrooms. We chemically characterized these mushrooms for nutritional value, hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanolic and ethanolic extracts were assessed. Hepatotoxicity was also evaluated. The ethanolic extract of both species was tested for inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes growth in yoghurt. Both s...

  3. Avaliaçao do efeito do extrato de casca de cajueiro-branco (Anacardium occidentale L. Sobre A infecção por Leishmania (Viannia brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio França

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta uma avaliação do efeito terapêutico do extrato hidroalcólico da casca de Anacardium occidentale L sobre a Leishmania (Viannia brasiliensis. No modelo in vitro o extrato vegetal mostrou-se ativo contra promastigotas do parasita, contrastando com o modelo in vivo, onde não se observou qualquer atividade curativa.

  4. North Slope, Alaska ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species for the North Slope of Alaska. Vector...

  5. Columbia River ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species in Columbia River. Vector polygons in this...

  6. Western Alaska ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, and anadromous fish species in Western Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set...

  7. Health effects of fish and fish oils

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chandra, Ranjit Kumar

    1989-01-01

    .... Based on epidemiologic data, it has been suggested that a fish-containing diet is beneficial in the prevention and management of a variety of disorders including coronary heart disease, hypertension, and psoriasis...

  8. Southeast Alaska ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for estuarine, benthic, and pelagic fish in Southeast Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent locations of...

  9. Cutaneous manifestations of Nocardia brasiliensis infection in Taiwan during 2002-2012-clinical studies and molecular typing of pathogen by gyrB and 16S gene sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuo-Wei; Lu, Chun-Wei; Huang, Ting-Chi; Lu, Chin-Fang; Liau, Yea-Ling; Lin, Jeng-Fong; Li, Shu-Ying

    2013-09-01

    To observe the clinicopathologic and resistance profiles of the Nocardia brasiliensis causing cutaneous nocardiosis in Taiwan, 12 N. brasiliensis isolates were prospectively collected from patients with cutaneous nocardiosis in a hospital during 2002-2012. Clinicopathologic data were obtained, and isolates were identified by biochemical methods and 16S rRNA sequencing. Susceptibilities to 14 antimicrobial compounds were tested. Isolates were further genotyped by sequencing of 16S rRNA, secA1, hsp65, and gyrB genes. The nodulopustular pyoderma associated with sporotrichoid spreading was the most common skin presentations caused by N. brasiliensis. All of the isolates were susceptible to amikacin, gentamicin, tobramycin, piperacillin/tazobactam, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and resistant to kanamycin, erythromycin, and oxacillin, while susceptibilities to imipenem, vancomycin, penicillin-G, tetracycline, clindamycin, and ciprofloxacin varied among the 12 isolates. GyrB genotyping delineated the 12 isolates into 2 major groups, which was coincident with different single nucleotide substitutions at position 160 (G versus T) of 16S rRNA, different levels of imipenem minimum inhibition concentration (4-32 versus 0.25-0.75 mg/L), and prevalence of lymphadenitis (66.7 versus 16.7%). We have noted that tiny pustular lesions can be the first sign of cutaneous nocardiosis, which we believe has not been previously emphasized. No resistance to trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole was found; therefore, sulphonamide drugs remain effective for treatment of cutaneous nocardiosis in Taiwan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Fish elevator and method of elevating fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truebe, J.; Drooker, M.S.

    1984-02-14

    A means and method are disclosed for transporting fish from a lower body of water to a higher body of water. The means comprise a tubular lock with a gated entrance below the level of the lower body of water through which fish may enter the lock and a discharge passage above the level of the upper body of water. The fish raising means in the lock is a crowder pulled upward by a surface float as water from the upper body of water gravitationally flows into the closed lock filling it to the level of the upper body. Water is then pumped into the lock to raise the level to the discharge passage. The crowder is then caused to float upward the remaining distance through the water to the level of the discharge passage by the introduction of air into a pocket on the underside of the crowder. The fish are then automatically discharged from the lock into the discharge passage by the out of water position of the crowder. The movement of the fish into the discharge passage is aided by the continuous overflow of water still being pumped into the lock. A pipe may be connected to the discharge passage to deliver the fish to a selected location in the upper body of water. 6 figs.

  11. Fish elevator and method of elevating fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truebe, Jonathan; Drooker, Michael S.

    1984-01-01

    A means and method for transporting fish from a lower body of water to a higher body of water. The means comprises a tubular lock with a gated entrance below the level of the lower body of water through which fish may enter the lock and a discharge passage above the level of the upper body of water. The fish raising means in the lock is a crowder pulled upward by a surface float as water from the upper body of water gravitationally flows into the closed lock filling it to the level of the upper body. Water is then pumped into the lock to raise the level to the discharge passage. The crowder is then caused to float upward the remaining distance through the water to the level of the discharge passage by the introduction of air into a pocket on the underside of the crowder. The fish are then automatically discharged from the lock into the discharge passage by the out of water position of the crowder. The movement of the fish into the discharge passage is aided by the continuous overflow of water still being pumped into the lock. A pipe may be connected to the discharge passage to deliver the fish to a selected location in the upper body of water.

  12. Neutron activation analysis characterization procedures for fish consumed at São Paulo City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tappiz, Bruno; Moreira, Edson G.

    2017-01-01

    The characterization of edible tissues of fishes consumed by humans is very important for determination of several toxic and potentially toxic elements, ensuring the food safety. The Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) comparative method allows the determination of several of these elements, as well as others, for example of nutritional character. This study is part of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) technical cooperation project of Latin America and Caribbean countries to ensure the quality of food and biomonitoring of contaminants in molluscs and fishes. Ten specimens of 5 of the most consumed fish in São Paulo city: white mouth croaker (Micropogonias Furnieri), smooth weakfish (Cynoscion learchus), common snook (Centropomus undecimalis), Brazilian sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis) and bluefish (Pomatomus Saltatrix) were analyzed. Complete procedures for analysis, which includes purchase in the largest warehouse in Latin America, transport to the laboratory, storage, freeze-drying, milling, weighting and others preparations of the subsamples, and the short irradiation parameters for the determination of Br, Cl, K, Mn and Na are reported. Results obtained for macro and microelements are presented and are in agreement with analysis of oyster tissue and mussel tissue certified reference materials under the same irradiation conditions, with z-score values ranging from -3.0 to 2.2. (author)

  13. Neutron activation analysis characterization procedures for fish consumed at São Paulo City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tappiz, Bruno; Moreira, Edson G., E-mail: brunotappiz2@gmail.com, E-mail: emoreira@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The characterization of edible tissues of fishes consumed by humans is very important for determination of several toxic and potentially toxic elements, ensuring the food safety. The Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) comparative method allows the determination of several of these elements, as well as others, for example of nutritional character. This study is part of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) technical cooperation project of Latin America and Caribbean countries to ensure the quality of food and biomonitoring of contaminants in molluscs and fishes. Ten specimens of 5 of the most consumed fish in São Paulo city: white mouth croaker (Micropogonias Furnieri), smooth weakfish (Cynoscion learchus), common snook (Centropomus undecimalis), Brazilian sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis) and bluefish (Pomatomus Saltatrix) were analyzed. Complete procedures for analysis, which includes purchase in the largest warehouse in Latin America, transport to the laboratory, storage, freeze-drying, milling, weighting and others preparations of the subsamples, and the short irradiation parameters for the determination of Br, Cl, K, Mn and Na are reported. Results obtained for macro and microelements are presented and are in agreement with analysis of oyster tissue and mussel tissue certified reference materials under the same irradiation conditions, with z-score values ranging from -3.0 to 2.2. (author)

  14. Perfil de proteases de lesões cutâneas experimentais em camundongos tratadas com a lectina isolada das sementes de Canavalia brasiliensis Proteases profile of skin wounds treated with lectin from Canavalia brasiliensis seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio de Oliveira Silva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o perfil de proteases em lesões cutâneas experimentais tratadas com a lectina isolada das sementes da Canavalia brasiliensis (ConBr livre e conjugada com o seu açúcar específico. Lesões cirúrgicas foram produzidas assepticamente na região dorsal de camundongos (n=120, divididos de acordo com o tratamento empregado: Grupo NaCl (NaCl 150mM, Grupo manose (manose 100mM, Grupo ConBr (ConBr 100µg mL-1 e Grupo ConBr/manose (solução contendo ConBr 100µg mL-1 preparada em manose 100mM. Amostras da área lesada foram coletadas para determinação do perfil de proteases e atividade colagenolítica no 2°, no 7° e no 12° dia de pós-operatório. O perfil das proteínas realizado através de eletroforese SDS-PAGE demonstrou a presença de proteínas com massa molecular de 67kDa em todos os grupos. O Grupo ConBr/manose apresentou a maior atividade colagenolítica no 12° dia de pós-operatório. A lectina isolada das sementes da Canavalia brasiliensis influenciou a expressão de proteases com atividade colagenolítica podendo assim interferir no processo cicatricial das lesões cutâneas em camundongos.The objective of the present study was determining the proteases profile of cutaneous healings treated with free and conjugated lectin of Canavalia brasiliensis (ConBr and their specific sugar. An aseptic wound was produced in the thoracic area of the mice (n=120, divided according to the employed treatment: NaCl Group (150mM NaCl, manose Group (100mM manose, ConBr Group (100µg mL-1 ConBr and ConBr/manose Group (solution containing 100µg mL-1 ConBr prepared in 100mM manose. Samples of the injured area were collected for determination of proteases profile and collagenolytic activity on 2nd, 7th e 12th days after the surgery. Electrophoresis SDS-PAGE demonstrated proteins with molecular mass of 67kDa in all groups. Group IV presented the highest collagenolytic activity on the 12th day post surgery. Con

  15. Adoption Of Improved Fish Technologies Among Fish Farmers In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A shortfall exists between fish supply and fish demand in the country despite the introduction of improved technology to fish farmers. This led to huge wage bill on the importation of fish to meet the protein need of the ever increasing population. This prompted this study with focus on adoption of improved fish technologies ...

  16. Immunostimulants in fish diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannam, A.L.; Schrock, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    Various immunostimulants and their methods of application in fish culture are examined in this review. Important variables such as life stage and innate disease resistance of the fish; immunostimulant used, its structure and mode of action; and the fish's environment are discussed. Conflicting results have been published about the efficacy of immunostimulants in fish diets. Some researchers have had positive responses demonstrated as increased fish survival, others have not. Generally, immunostimulants enhance individual components of the non-specific immune response but that does not always translate into increased fish survival. In addition, immunostimulants fed at too high a dose or for too long can be immunosuppressive. [Article copies available for a fee from The Haworth Document Delivery Service: 1-800-342-9678. E-mail address: getinfo@haworthpressinc.com ].

  17. Vaccination in Fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Jiwan Kumar

    vaccines have reduced the need for usage of antibiotics with more than 99 % since the 1980s. Fish can be vaccinated by three different administration routes: injection, immersion and oral vaccination. Injection vaccination (intraperitoneal injection of vaccine) is the most time consuming and labor...... intensive method, which however, provides the best protection of the fish. Immersion vaccination is used for immunization of a high number of small fish is cost-efficient and fast (30 sec immersion into vaccine). Oral vaccination (vaccine in feed) is the least efficient. As in higher vertebrates fish...... respond to vaccination by increasing the specific antibody titer and by activating the cellular responses. My talk will cover vaccination methods in fish, immune responses and some adverse effect of oil-adjuvanted vaccines in fish with reference to our work in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss....

  18. Levels of polonium-210 in highly consumed sea foods from a fish market of the city of Niteroi, RJ-Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsico, Eliane T.; Sao Clemente, Sergio C. de; Kelecom, Alphonse; Gouvea, Rita de Cassia S.

    2007-01-01

    Polonium-210 ( 210 Po), a short-lived member from the uranium series, is broadly distributed in Nature being among all alpha-emitters the major contributor to the internal dose in man. Studies of diets have shown that marine foods are important sources of this radionuclide. The levels of 210 Po have been determined in three highly consumed marine species, the fishes Sardinella brasiliensis (sardine) and Thunnus atlanticus (tuna), and the shrimp Litopenaeus brasiliensis, purchased from the Niteroi (RJ, Brazil) fish market, and caught along the coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro. Doses of 210 Po were determined for the entire organisms and for some tissues and organs, such as eyes, heart, gills, muscle, stomach liver, intestine and pyloric caecal (fishes) or eyes, head content, exoskeleton, muscle, hepatopancreas and pleopods. 210 Po is not uniformly distributed within these species, the highest levels being observed for sardine in the intestine (1634.6 mBq g-1), tuna in pyloric caecal (4656.1 mBq g-1) and shrimp in the hepatopancreas (1460.5 mBq g-1). The 210 Po activities in sardine, tuna and shrimp, calculated on a mean whole-organism basis, were 64.6, 34.5 and 39.5 Bq kg-1 (dry weight) respectively, with corresponding concentration factors of 7.2 x104, 3.8 x104 and 4.4 x104. Considering body distribution, almost 60% of the total activity is concentrated in the pyloric caecal of both fishes and in the hepatopancreas of the shrimp. In turn, the edible parts concentrate much less activity. (author)

  19. Levels of polonium-210 in highly consumed sea foods from a fish market of the city of Niteroi, RJ-Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsico, Eliane T.; Sao Clemente, Sergio C. de [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Veterinaria. Dept. de Tecnologia de Alimentos; Kelecom, Alphonse; Gouvea, Rita de Cassia S. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Geral. Lab. de Radiobiologia e Radiometria Pedro Lopes dos Santos - LARARA

    2007-07-01

    Polonium-210 ({sup 210}Po), a short-lived member from the uranium series, is broadly distributed in Nature being among all alpha-emitters the major contributor to the internal dose in man. Studies of diets have shown that marine foods are important sources of this radionuclide. The levels of {sup 210}Po have been determined in three highly consumed marine species, the fishes Sardinella brasiliensis (sardine) and Thunnus atlanticus (tuna), and the shrimp Litopenaeus brasiliensis, purchased from the Niteroi (RJ, Brazil) fish market, and caught along the coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro. Doses of {sup 210}Po were determined for the entire organisms and for some tissues and organs, such as eyes, heart, gills, muscle, stomach liver, intestine and pyloric caecal (fishes) or eyes, head content, exoskeleton, muscle, hepatopancreas and pleopods. {sup 210}Po is not uniformly distributed within these species, the highest levels being observed for sardine in the intestine (1634.6 mBq g-1), tuna in pyloric caecal (4656.1 mBq g-1) and shrimp in the hepatopancreas (1460.5 mBq g-1). The {sup 210}Po activities in sardine, tuna and shrimp, calculated on a mean whole-organism basis, were 64.6, 34.5 and 39.5 Bq kg-1 (dry weight) respectively, with corresponding concentration factors of 7.2 x104, 3.8 x104 and 4.4 x104. Considering body distribution, almost 60% of the total activity is concentrated in the pyloric caecal of both fishes and in the hepatopancreas of the shrimp. In turn, the edible parts concentrate much less activity. (author)

  20. Fish and wildlife surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, T.M.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the monitoring of radioactive contaminants in fish and wildlife species that inhabit the Colombia River and Hanford Site. Wildlife have access to areas of the Site containing radioactive contamination, and fish can be exposed to contamination in spring water entering the river along the shoreline. Therefore, samples are collected at various locations annually, generally during the hunting or fishing season, for selected species.

  1. Fish and wildlife surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poston, T.M.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the monitoring of radioactive contaminants in fish and wildlife species that inhabit the Colombia River and Hanford Site. Wildlife have access to areas of the Site containing radioactive contamination, and fish can be exposed to contamination in spring water entering the river along the shoreline. Therefore, samples are collected at various locations annually, generally during the hunting or fishing season, for selected species

  2. Ciclo Vital de Schistosoma mansoni através do Holochilus brasiliensis (Desmarest, 1818 em ambiente semi-natural (Trematoda, Shistosomatidae; Rodentia, Cricetidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar dos Santos Carvalho

    1976-10-01

    Full Text Available Junto ao Lago da Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, MG, foram capturados (julho/72-novembro/73 28 exemplares de Holochilus brasiliensis, dos quais 11 (39,3% eliminavam nas fezes ovos viáveis de S. mansoni. Miracídios da cepa mencionada ("H" infectaram Biomphalaria glabrata e as cercárias obtidas também infectaram camundongos albinos, recuperando-se, ao final do experimento, 35,3% de vermes adultos. Por outro lado, cercárias de cepa humana ("LE" de S. mansoni infectaram sete exemplares de H. brasiliensis, nascidos em laboratório, recuperando-se no fim de 60 dias, 30,5% de vermes adultos. Estudos anatomapatológicos de H. brasiliensis demonstraram infecção generalizada, encontrando-se granuloma no esôfago, estômago, intestino (delgado e grosso, fígado, baço, pâncreas e linfonodos abdominais. Espessamentos fibrosos da íntima da veia porta, granulomas em espaços porta e fibrose incipiente dos espaços porta e interlobular foram lesões decorrentes da presença de ovos de S. mansoni encontrados no fígado. Em ambiente semi-natural, foi possível fechar o ciclo do S. mansoni sem direta participação humana, utilizando-se B. glabrata experimentalmente infectadas com trematódeos da cepa "LE", H. brasiliensis nascidos em laboratório e B. glabrata nascida no ambiente semi-natural estabelecido. Verificou-se que ambas as cepas ("H" e "LE" comportaram-se de maneira análoga, não sendo verificadas, também, diferenças morfológicas entre os ovos e vermes adultos de ambas. As observações, realizadas no campo e no laboratório demonstraram que o Holochilus brasiliensis é bom hospedeiro de Schistosoma mansoni. Assim, em determinadas áreas e sob certas condições ecológicas, o cricetídeo em questão poderá, efetivamente, integrar-se ao ciclo do trematódeo na natureza, independente ou paralelamente à presença do homem. Assinala-se, finalmente, que o presente trabalho relata o segundo fechamento do ciclo biológico de S. mansoni em condi

  3. Larval development of Notolopas brasiliensis Miers, 1886 (Brachyura: Majoidea: Pisidae described from laboratory reared material and a reappraisal of the characters of Pisidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Santana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The complete larval stages of Notolopas brasiliensis are described from laboratory reared material, with emphasis on the external morphological features of Majoidea, and compare the morphology of N. brasiliensis with other genera of Pisidae. Larval development of N. brasiliensis consists of two zoeal stages and one megalopa. The duration mean of each zoeal stage was 4.2 ± 1.0 days for Zoea I and 3.8 ± 0.7 days for Zoea II, the megalopa instar appearing 8.1 ± 0.4 days after hatching. The characters previously used to define larval forms of Pisidae are either symplesiomorphic or potentially highly homoplastic. As well, was observed that there are no common sets of larval characters that would define Pisidae nowadays. However, was showed that only a combination of characters could differentiate Notolopas from other pisid genera.O completo desenvolvimento larval de Notolopas brasiliensis é descrito, a partir de material criado em laboratório, com ênfase na morfologia externa de Majoidea e comparado aos demais gêneros de Pisidae. O desenvolvimento larval de N. brasiliensis consiste em dois estágios de zoea e um de megalopa. A duração media de cada estágio foi de 4.2 ± 1.0 dias para a Zoea I e 3.8 ± 0.7 dias para a Zoea II, a megalopa aparece entre 8.1 ± 0.4 dias após a eclosão. Os caracteres previamente utilizados para definir as formas larvais de Pisidae ou são simplesiomórficos ou altamente homoplásticos. Foi observado que não existe um conjunto de caracteres capazes de definir Pisidae até o presente.Contudo foi mostrado que uma combinação de caracteres pode ser utilizada para diferenciar Notolopas dos demais gêneros da família.

  4. Fish and hydroelectricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorpette, G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the problems that hydroelectric plants have regarding fish populations. The utilities that operate these plants are finding that accommodating migrating fish presents unique engineering challenges, not the least of which involves designing and building systems to protect fish species whose migratory behavior remains something of a mystery. Where such systems cannot be built, the status of hydroelectric dams may be in doubt, as is now the case with several dams in the United States. A further twist in some regions in the possibility that certain migratory fish will be declared threatened or endangered-a development that could wreak havoc on the hydroelectric energy supply in those regions

  5. Of Fish and Micrornas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bela-Ong, Dennis; Schyth, Brian Dall; Lorenzen, Niels

    Fish is an important small vertebrate multidisciplinary model for investigating various aspects of reproduction, development, disease (immunology, toxicology, carcinogenesis), and aging. It is also an important model for comparative and evolutionary studies because it represents the lower...... to the mechanisms of control of gene expression, impacting a broad range of biological processes. Thus far, >25, 000 miRNA sequences have been identified in 193 species, including fish. In fish, the interest on miRNAs started with the analysis of their expression and function during embryonic development. In our...... selection markers to identify disease-resistant fish....

  6. Intelligent Fish Freshness Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Gholam Hosseini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish species identification and automated fish freshness assessment play important roles in fishery industry applications. This paper describes a method based on support vector machines (SVMs to improve the performance of fish identification systems. The result is used for the assessment of fish freshness using artificial neural network (ANN. Identification of the fish species involves processing of the images of fish. The most efficient features were extracted and combined with the down-sampled version of the images to create a 1D input vector. Max-Win algorithm applied to the SVM-based classifiers has enhanced the reliability of sorting to 96.46%. The realisation of Cyranose 320 Electronic nose (E-nose, in order to evaluate the fish freshness in real-time, is experimented. Intelligent processing of the sensor patterns involves the use of a dedicated ANN for each species under study. The best estimation of freshness was provided by the most sensitive sensors. Data was collected from four selected species of fishes over a period of ten days. It was concluded that the performance can be increased using individual trained ANN for each specie. The proposed system has been successful in identifying the number of days after catching the fish with an accuracy of up to 91%.

  7. CARACTERIZAÇÃO QUÍMICA E ACEITABILIDADE DA SARDINHA (SARDINELLA BRASILIENSIS EM CONSERVA ADICIONADA DE MOLHO COM TOMATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janise Pedroso COLEMBERGUE

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O pescado é um alimento rico em proteínas, minerais, vitaminas e possui fácil digestão. A procura por alimentos prontos para o consumo, como pescado em conserva, ainda é uma opção interessante para o consumidor, devido ao tempo reduzido de preparação. As características sensoriais estão entre os principais determinantes na aquisição, consumo, aceitação e preferência dos produtos alimentícios por diferentes faixas etárias. A aceitabilidade da sardinha (Sardinella brasiliensis em conserva de molho de tomate foi avaliada por 50 provadores não treinados em ambiente laboratorial através de uma fi cha com escala hedônica de nove pontos. Além disso, a determinação da composição química foi realizada e comparada com os valores declarados no rótulo do produto. A aceitação obtida para este tipo de conserva foi de 84% e a média de pontuação de 7.56, sendo esta caracterizada entre “gostei” e “gostei muito”, observou-se ainda que 54% dos julgadores possuíam hábitos de consumir pescado em conserva. A composição química da sardinha em conserva obtida foi de 62,44±0,33% de umidade, 2,7±0,22% de resíduo mineral fi xo, 19,35±1,05% de proteínas e 15,11±0,6% de lipídios totais, apresentando-se de acordo com a rotulagem, exceto para o teor de lipídio. Este estudo permitiu observar a grande aceitabilidade da sardinha (Sardinella brasiliensis em conserva de molho com tomate, mesmo entre os julgadores que não possuíam o hábito de consumi-lo.

  8. Optimization of oil yield from Hevea brasiliensis seeds through ultrasonic-assisted solvent extraction via response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Val Irvin F. Mabayo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The demand for oil has been increasing vastly over time, and the source of this has slowly been diminishing. The use of non-food feedstock is seen as a promising alternative source for the production of bio-based fuel. In this study, rubber (Hevea brasiliensis seeds were utilized as biomass in bio-oil production considering that these are non-edible and considered wastes in rubber tree plantations. In the oil extraction process, the rubber seed kernels were oven dried at 100 °C for 24 h, powdered and then dried further at 105 °C for 4 h. After characterization, optimization study was done using Design Expert 7.0 software through central composite design of the response surface methodology. Ultrasonication technology was employed in the oil extraction process which significantly reduced the reaction time needed for extraction to 15 min compared the conventional extraction method of at least 8 h. An optimum rubber seed oil (RSO yield of 30.3 ± 0.3% was obtained using 15 g biomass, 5:1 n-hexane to biomass (mL g−1 ratio, 50 μm resonance amplitude and 60 ± 5 °C temperature at 15 min reaction time. The oil yield at optimum condition was found to have 0.89 g mL−1 density at room temperature, 26.7 cSt kinematic viscosity at 40 °C and high heating value of 39.2 MJ kg−1. The Fourier Transform Infrared Radiation spectroscopy analysis of the RSO, at optimum condition, showed the presence of carboxylic acid and ester carbonyl functional groups which are good indicators as a potential source of biodiesel. Keywords: Hevea brasiliensis, Oil extraction, Optimization, Response surface methodology, Rubber seed oil, Ultrasonic-assisted solvent extraction

  9. ASPECTOS DA BIOLOGIA REPRODUTIVA DE Drimys brasiliensis Miers (WINTERACEAE EM FLORESTA OMBRÓFILA MISTA, SUL DO BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Mariot

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Drimys brasiliensis Miers, conhecida como cataia ou casca-de-anta, é uma árvore nativa da Floresta Ombrófila Mista. Sua casca tem sido utilizada medicinalmente a partir da exploração de árvores em populações naturais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi a realização de estudos de biologia reprodutiva de Drimys brasiliensis visando fundamentar estratégias de exploração sustentável e conservação, possibilitando a geração de renda a partir da exploração deste recurso florestal não madeireiro. Foram realizados estudos de fenologia reprodutiva (296 árvores acompanhadas por 30 meses, ecologia de polinização e dispersão de sementes, e biologia floral. O período de florescimento ocorre durante o verão, com pico em janeiro. Frutos verdes estão presentes o ano inteiro, amadurecendo com o aumento das temperaturas. Ocorre uma sobreposição das fenofases fruto verde e fruto maduro oriundas de florescimentos de anos diferentes. Com isso, frutos maduros estão disponíveis o ano inteiro para a fauna. Os himenópteros são os visitantes florais com maior potencial de fluxo gênico via pólen, porém, a sua frequência é baixa, assim como a dos demais visitantes, apesar da alta produção de flores e da alta viabilidade dos grãos de pólen. Com isso, a alta produção de frutos observada é possivelmente decorrente da autofecundação. Os dispersores primários de frutos são raros, tendo sido observados pássaros. Entretanto, a dispersão secundária das sementes que chegam ao solo por barocoria é alta.

  10. Distribution and abundance of the Lesser electric ray Narcine brasiliensis (Olfers, 1831 (Elasmobranchii: Narcinidae in southern Brazil in relation to environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Maciel de Souza Vianna

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and abundance of the lesser electric ray, Narcine brasiliensis, was assessed based on bottom-trawl survey data collected off the coast of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Between 1980 and 1984 and in 2005, 416 bottom trawl hauls were carried out at depths of 10-100 m. Narcine brasiliensis occurred mainly in waters with bottom temperature between 20 and 25ºC. Density of the species was higher between the depths of 10 and 20 m, during the summer and autumn. The seasonal pattern of N. brasiliensis in the shallow coastal water of Rio Grande do Sul reflects a southward migration in summer. This is conditioned by the southward advance of warmer and high-salinity Tropical Water of the Brazil Current In winter, the return or northward migration is a response to seasonal cooling of the coastal waters and to the northward advance of cold Coastal Water of lower salinity. The latitudinal gradient in density of N. brasiliensis was related to the latitudinal gradient in salinity of the bottom waters. This was caused by the freshwater runoff from the Patos Lagoon establishing a physical barrier to the occurrence of the species farther south than the city of Rio Grande.A distribuição e abundância da raia elétrica Narcine brasiliensis foi analisada com base em 416 lances de arrasto de fundo realizados entre as profundidades de 10- 100 m ao longo da costa do Rio Grande do Sul, em 1980-1984 e 2005. A espécie ocorreu prioritariamente em águas com temperatura de fundo entre 20 e 25ºC. A densidade de N. brasiliensis foi maior durante o verão e outono e entre as profundidades de 10 e 20 m. O padrão sazonal de densidade da espécie nas águas costeiras rasas do Rio Grande do Sul reflete uma migração no sentido norte-sul condicionada pelo avanço das águas quentes e de alta salinidade da Água Tropical da Corrente do Brasil em direção ao sul durante o verão. A redução sazonal da temperatura da água e o avanço da Água Costeira, de

  11. Fish silage as feed ingredient for fish and livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rurangwa, E.; Vuuren, van A.M.; Poelman, M.

    2014-01-01

    The present report analyses through a literature review the potential of fish silage to valorise fish processing by-products into economically relevant protein sources for fish and livestock feed production in East Africa.

  12. Fish-allergic patients may be able to eat fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, Ahmad A; Bahna, Sami L

    2015-03-01

    Reported fish allergy prevalence varies widely, with an estimated prevalence of 0.2% in the general population. Sensitization to fish can occur by ingestion, skin contact or inhalation. The manifestations can be IgE or non-IgE mediated. Several fish allergens have been identified, with parvalbumins being the major allergen in various species. Allergenicity varies among fish species and is affected by processing or preparation methods. Adverse reactions after eating fish are often claimed to be 'allergy' but could be a reaction to hidden food allergen, fish parasite, fish toxins or histamine in spoiled fish. Identifying such causes would allow free consumption of fish. Correct diagnosis of fish allergy, including the specific species, might provide the patient with safe alternatives. Patients have been generally advised for strict universal avoidance of fish. However, testing with various fish species or preparations might identify one or more forms that can be tolerated.

  13. Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) Areas Protected From Fishing

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Designated Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) areas where fishing or the use of fishing gears has been restricted or modified in order to minimize the adverse effects of...

  14. Preliminary study of rubber seed Hevea brasiliensis oil utilization for tilapia diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Komariyah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This research was conducted as a preliminary study on utilization of RBO for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis sp. diet by also evaluating its effect on growth the performance. This research used SULTANA strain at average initial body weights of 8.33±0.07 g/ind. Experimental design was set in completely randomized design. Each treatment was done in triplicates. The treatments were various additions of RBO to replace corn oil in the diet, which were 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%. Feeding rate, feed efficiency, protein retention, fat retention, specific growth rate, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL (high-density lipoprotein, and hematology were used as evaluating parameters. The results showed that the growth performance, blood chemistry and hematology of fish decreased as the increasing of RBO level in the diet. These are caused by feed intake decreased significantly, which were 583.5 g to 145.6 g of treatments 0% to 100% RBO. Blood glucose, haemoglobin and specific growth of fish in the treatment of 0–100% RBO were 48.7–22.2 mg/dL, 7.6–5.4%, and 3.5–0.8%, respectively. The lowest survival was observed in fish fed 100% RBO (66.7%. Fish growth performance of 0% RBO was the best, so RBO could not be utilized yet as a source of fatty acid or corn oil replacement in tilapia diet. Keywords: free radical, HCN, Oreochromis sp., rubber seed oil  ABSTRAK Penelitian ini dilakukan sebagai studi awal pemanfaatan minyak biji karet (MBK untuk pakan ikan nila dan mengevaluasi pengaruhnya terhadap pertumbuhan ikan nila. Ikan uji yang digunakan adalah ikan nila strain SULTANA dengan bobot awal rata-rata 8,33±0,07 g/ind. Penelitian didesain dalam rancangan acak lengkap (RAL dengan lima perlakuan dan tiga ulangan. Perlakuan yang diuji berbagai sumbangan MBK untuk mengganti minyak jagung dalam pakan, yaitu 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, dan 100%. Selama pemeliharaan, beberapa parameter yang diukur adalah jumlah konsumsi pakan, efisiensi pakan, retensi

  15. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218... Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in Column (7) of the HMT in § 172.101 of this subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized for...

  16. Anadromous fish behaviour important f